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´╗┐Title: A Glossary of Provincial Words & Phrases in use in Somersetshire
Author: Williams, Wadham Pigott, 1822?-
Language: English
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Transcribed from the 1873 Longmans, Green, Reader & Dyer edition by David
Price, email ccx074@pglaf.org


                      WADHAM PIGOTT WILLIAMS, M.A.,
                        _VICAR OF BISHOP'S HULL_,

                               AND THE LATE
                    WILLIAM ARTHUR JONES, M.A., F.G.S.

                             AN INTRODUCTION
                         BY R. C. A. PRIOR, M.D.

  [Picture: Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society emblem]

                      TAUNTON: F. MAY, HIGH STREET.


It is now nearly six years ago that the Committee of the Somersetshire
Archaeological Society asked me to compile a Glossary of the Dialect or
archaic language of the County, and put into my hands a valuable
collection of words by the late Mr. Edward Norris, surgeon, of South
Petherton.  I have completed this task to the best of my ability, with
the kind co-operation of our late excellent Secretary, WM. ARTHUR JONES;
and the result is before the public.  We freely made use of Norris,
Jennings, Halliwell, or any other collector of words that we could find,
omitting mere peculiarities of pronunciation, and I venture to hope it
will prove that we have not overlooked much that is left of that
interesting old language, which those great innovators, the Printing
Press, the Railroad, and the Schoolmaster, are fast driving out of the

                                                   WADHAM PIGOTT WILLIAMS.

Bishop's Hull, Taunton,
      7th September, 1873.


The following paper from the pen of Dr. Prior was read at a Conversazione
of the Society at Taunton, in the winter of 1871, and as it treats the
subject from a more general point of view than is usually taken of it, we
print it with his permission as an introduction to our vocabulary:--

On the Somerset Dialects.

The two gentlemen who have undertaken to compile a glossary of the
Somerset dialect, the Rev. W. P. Williams and Mr. W. A. Jones, have done
me the honour to lend me the manuscript of their work; and the following
remarks which have occurred to me upon the perusal of it I venture to lay
before the Society, with the hope that they may be suggestive of further

Some years ago, while on a visit at Mr. Capel's, at Bulland Lodge, near
Wiveliscombe, I was struck with the noble countenance of an old man who
was working upon the road.  Mr. Capel told me that it was not unusual to
find among the people of those hills a very refined cast of features and
extremely beautiful children, and expressed a belief that they were the
descendants of the ancient inhabitants of the country, who had been
dispossessed of their land in more fertile districts by conquerors of
coarser breed.  A study of the two dialects spoken in the county (for two
there certainly are) tend, I think, to corroborate the truth of this

It will be urged that during the many centuries that have elapsed since
the West Saxons took possession of this part of England the inhabitants
must have been so mixed up together that all distinctive marks of race
must long since have been obliterated.  But that best of teachers,
experience, shows that where a conquered nation remains in greatly
superior numbers to its conqueror, and there is no artificial bar to
intermarriages, the latter, the conqueror, will surely be absorbed into
the conquered.  This has been seen in our own day in Mexico, where the
Spaniards, who have occupied and ruled the country nearly four hundred
years, are rapidly approaching extinction.  Nay, we find that even in a
country like Italy, where the religion, language, and manners are the
same, the original difference of races is observable in different parts
of the peninsula after many centuries that they have been living side by

It seems to be a law of population that nations composed of different
stocks or types can only be fused into a homogeneous whole by the
absorption of one into the other--of the smaller into the greater, or of
the town-dwellers into the country stock.  The result of this law is,
that mixed nations will tend with the progress of time to revert to their
original types, and either fall apart into petty groups and provincial
distinctions, as in Spain, or will eliminate the weaker or less numerous
race, the old or the new, as the one or the other predominates.  The
political character of our English nation has changed from that which it
was in the time of the Plantagenets by discharging from it the Norman
blood; and our unceasing trouble with the Irish is a proof that we have
not yet made Englishmen of them, as perhaps we never shall.  A very keen
observer, M. Erckman, in conversation with the _Times_ correspondent, of
the 21st December, 1870, made a remark upon the state of France which is
so illustrative of this position, as regards that country, that I cannot
forbear to give it in his own words.  The correspondent had expressed his
fear that, if the war were prolonged, France would lapse into anarchy.
"It is not that," said M. Erckman, "which fills me with apprehension.  It
is rather the gulf which I begin to fear is widening between the two
great races of France.  The world is not cognisant of this; but I have
watched it with foreboding."  "Define me the two types."  "They shade
into each other; but I will take, as perhaps extremes, the Gascon, and
the Breton."  "He proceeded," says the correspondent, "to sketch the
characteristics of the people of Provence, Languedoc, and Gascony, and to
contrast them with those of Brittany, middle, and north France, their
idiosyncrasies of race, feeling, religion, manners--their diverse
aspirations, their antagonisms.  For sufficient reasons I pass over his
remarks."  A still more striking case of the kind is that of Egypt, a
country that for more than 2,000 years has been subject to foreign
conquerors, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Turks, and Mamelukes, and
the annual influx of many thousand negro slaves, and where,
notwithstanding all this, the peasantry, as far as can be judged by a
careful examination of the skull, is identical with the population of the
Pharaonic period.

This, then, being assumed, that a turbid mixture of different races has a
tendency to separate after a time into its constituent elements, and
certain originally distinct types to re-appear with their characteristic
features, how does this law of population apply to Somersetshire?

It is clear from the repeated allusions to the Welsh in the laws of Ina,
King of the West Saxons, that in his kingdom the ancient inhabitants of
the country were not exterminated, but reduced to the condition of serfs.
Some appear to have been landowners; but in general they must have been
the servants of their Saxon lords, for we find the race, as in the case
of the negroes in the West Indies, to have been synonymous with the
servile class, so that a groom was called a _hors-wealh_, or horse
Welshman, and a maid-servant a _wylen_, or Welsh-woman.  As long as
slavery was allowed by the law of the land--that is, during the
Anglo-Saxon period, and for two centuries at least after the
Conquest--there was probably no very intimate mixture of the two races.
The Normans, as, in comparison with the old inhabitants of the country,
they were few in number, cannot have very materially affected them.  We
have, therefore, to consider what has become of them since--the Saxon
master and the Welsh slave.  In the Eastern Counties the invaders seem to
have overwhelmed the natives, and destroyed or driven them further
inland.  Here, in Somerset, their language continued to be spoken in the
time of Asser, the latter part of the 9th century; for he tells his
readers what Selwood and other places with Saxon names were called by the
Britons.  We may infer from this mention of them that they were still
dispersed over these counties, and undoubtedly they still live in our
peasantry, and are traceable in the dialect.  Now, is there any
peculiarity in this which we may seize as diagnostic of British descent?
I submit that we have in the West of Somerset and in Devonshire in the
pronunciation of the vowels; a much more trustworthy criterion than a
mere vocabulary.  The British natives learnt the language that their
masters spoke, and this is nearly the same as in Wilts, Dorset,
Gloucester, Berks, and Hampshire, and seems to have formerly extended
into Kent.  But they learnt it as the Spaniards learnt Latin: they picked
up the words, but pronounced them as they did their own.  The accent
differs so widely in the West of Somerset and in Devonshire from that of
the counties east of them that it is extremely difficult for a native of
these latter to understand what our people are talking about, when they
are conversing with one another and unconscious of the presence of a

The river Parret is usually considered to be the boundary of the two
dialects, and history records the reason of it.  We learn from the
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A.D. 658, that "Cenwealh in this year fought
against the Welsh at Pen, and put them to flight as far as the Parret."
"Her Kenwealh gefeaht aet Peonnum with Wealas, and hie geflymde oth
Pedridan."  Upon this passage Lappenberg in his "England under the
Anglo-Saxon kings" remarks: "The reign of Cenwealh is important on
account of the aggrandisement of Wessex.  He defeated in several battles
the Britons of Dyvnaint and Cernau [Devon and Cornwall] who had
endeavoured to throw off the Saxon yoke, first at Wirtgeornesburh,
afterwards, with more important results, at Bradenford [Bradford] on the
Avon in Wiltshire, and again at Peonna [the hill of Pen in
Somersetshire], where the power of the Britons melted like snow before
the sun, and the race of Brut received an incurable wound, when he drove
them as far as the Pedrede [the Parret] in A.D. 658."

The same author in another passage says (vol. i. p. 120): "In the
south-west we meet with the powerful territory of Damnonia, the kingdom
of Arthur, which bore also the name of 'West-Wales.'  Damnonia at a later
period was limited to Dyvnaint, or Devonshire, by the separation of
Cernau or Cornwall.  The districts called by the Saxons those of the
Sumorsaetas, of the Thornsaetas [Dorset], and the Wiltsaetas were lost to
the kings of Dyvnaint at an early period; though _for centuries
afterwards a large British population maintained itself in those parts_
among the Saxon settlers, as well as among the Defnsaetas, long after the
Saxon conquest of Dyvnaint, who for a considerable time preserved to the
natives of that shire the appellation of the _Welsh kind_."

In corroboration of Lappenberg's opinion, one in which every antiquary
will concur, I may notice in passing that many a farm in West Somerset
retains to the present day an old name that can only be explained from
the Cornish language.  Thus, "Plud farm," near Stringston, is "Clay
farm," or "Mud farm," from_ plud_, mire.  In a word, the peasantry of
West Somerset are Saxonized Britons.  Their ancestors submitted to the
conquering race, or left their country and emigrated to Brittany, but
were not destroyed; and in them and their kinsmen of Cornouailles in
France we see the living representatives of the ancient Britons as truly
as in Devonshire and Cornwall, in Cumberland, or Wales.

The characteristic feature of their dialect, and the remark applies of
course equally to the Devonian which is identical with it, is the sound
of the French _u_ or the German _u_ given to the _oo_ and _ou_, a sound
that only after long practice can be imitated by natives of the more
eastern counties.  Thus a "roof" is a _ruf_, "through" _is thru_, and
"would" is _wud_.  The county might consequently be divided into a
"Langue d'oo" and a "Langue d'u."

An initial _w_ is pronounced _oo_.  "Where is Locke?"  "Gone t' Ools, yer
honour."  "What is he gone there for?"  "Gone zootniss, yer honour."  The
man was gone to Wells assizes as a witness in some case.  In a
public-house row brought before the magistrates they were told that
"Oolter he com in and drug un out."  ("Walter came in and dragged him
out.")  _Ooll_ for "will" is simply _ooill_.  An _owl doommun_ is an old
oooman.  This usage seems to be in accordance with the Welsh
pronunciation of _w_ in _cwm_.

There are other peculiarities that seem to be more or less common to all
the Western Counties, and to have descended to them from that Wessex
language that is commonly called Anglo-Saxon--a language in which we have
a more extensive and varied literature than exists in any other Germanic
idiom of so early a date, itself the purest of all German idioms.  It is
a mistake to suppose that it is the parent of modern English.  This has
been formed upon the dialect of Mercia, that of the Midland Counties; and
it cannot be too strongly impressed upon strangers who may be inclined to
scoff at West Country expressions as inaccurate and vulgar, that before
the Norman Conquest our language was that of the Court, and but for the
seat of Government having been fixed in London might be so still; that it
was highly cultivated, while the Midland Counties contributed nothing to
literature, and the Northern were devastated with war; and that the
dialect adopted, so far from being a better, is a more corrupt one.

The peculiarities to which I allude as common to all the Southern
Counties are these: The transposition of the letter _r_ with another
consonant in the same syllable, so that _Prin_ for _Prince_ becomes
_Purn_, _fresh fursh_, _red ribbons urd urbans_--a change that certainly
is more general and more uniformly carried out in the Langue d'u district
than in the Langue d'oo, but cannot be quite exclusively appropriated by
the former.

Under the same category will fall the transposition of _s_ with _p_, as
in _waps_ for _wasp_, _curps_ for _crisp_; with _k_, as in _ax_ for
_ask_; with _l_, as in _halse_ for _hazel_.

A hard consonant at the beginning of a word is replaced with a soft one,
_f_ for _v_, as in _vire_ for _fire_; _s_ with _z_, as in _zur_ for
_sir_; _th_ with _d_, as in "What's _dee_ doing here _dis_ time o'night?"
_k_ with _g_, as in _gix_, the hollow stalk of umbelliferous plants, for
_keeks_.  To be "as dry as a gix" is to be as dry as one of these
stalks--a strong appeal for a cup of cider.

Of another peculiarity which our Western district has in common with
Norway, I am uncertain whether it extends further eastward, or not; I
mean the replacing an initial _h_ with _y_, as in _yeffer_ for _heifer_,
_Yeffeld_ for _Heathfield_.  One it has in common with Latin as compared
with Greek--the replacing an initial hard _th_ with _f_, as in _fatch_
for _thatch_, like L. _fores_ for [Greek text].  A singularly capricious
alteration of the vowels, so as to make long ones short, and short ones
long, is, as far as I am aware, confined to our Langue d'u district.  For
instance, a _pool_-reed is called a _pull_-reed, a _bull_ a _bul_, a
_nail_ a _nal_, _paint pant_; and bills are sent in by country
tradespeople with the words so spelt.  Again, a _mill_ is called a
_meel_, and a _fist_ a _feest_, _pebble_ becomes _popple_, and _Webber_
(a surname) _Wobber_.  This looks like one of those dialectic
peculiarities for which there is no means of accounting.

In the selection of words for their vocabulary I trust that these
gentlemen will follow the example of Mr. Cecil Smith in his admirable
work on "The Birds of Somersetshire"--not to admit one of which he had
not positive proof that it had been shot in this county.  Every one
should be taken down from the lips of a native, and such as cannot be
identified should be sternly rejected.  The task that they have
undertaken is a laborious one; but there is no county in England that
affords such materials for tracing the influence of a subordinate upon a
conquering race--of a Celtic language upon one that was purely German.

I cannot conclude these remarks without adverting to a rich and hitherto
quite unexplored mine of antiquities--the names of our fields.  There is
reason to believe that our country roads were traced out, and the
boundaries and names of our fields assigned to them, when these were
first reclaimed from the primeval forest, and that they are replete with
notices of ancient men and manners that deserve and will well repay our
careful study.

                                * * * * *

Since the above has been in type I have had the satisfaction of learning
from Mr. G. P. R. Pulman, of the Hermitage, Crewkerne, that at Axminster,
the river Axe, the ancient British and Saxon boundary line, divides the
dialect spoken to the east of it (the Dorset, to judge from a specimen of
it that he has enclosed) from the Devon.  He goes on to say: "On the
opposite, the west side of the river, as at Kilmington, Whitford, and
Colyton, for instance, a very different dialect is spoken, the general
south or rather east Devon.  The difference between the two within so
short a distance (for you never hear a Devonshire sound from a native
Axminster man) is very striking."  That after a period of 1,200 years the
exact limit of the two races should still be distinguishable in the
accent of their descendants, is an interesting confirmation of the view
that I have taken of the origin of these dialects, and at the same time a
remarkable proof of the tenacity of old habits in a rural population; the
more so that the boundary line of the dialects does not coincide with
that of the two counties.


A, _pron._  He, ex. a did'nt zai zo did a?

A, adverbial prefix, ex. afore, anigh, athin

A, for "have"

A, participal prefix, corresponding with the Anglo-Saxon _ge_ and _y_,
ex. atwist, alost, afeard, avroze, avriz'd

Abeare _v._  bear, endure, ex. for anything that the Court of this Manor
will abeare.  _Customs of Taunton Deane_

Abbey _s._  great white poplar.  Abbey-lug, a branch or piece of timber
of the same (D. _Abeel_)

Abbey-lubber _s._  a lazy idle fellow, _i.e._ worthless as abbey wood

Addice, Attis _s._  an adze

Addle _s._  a fester (A S _adl_ disease)

After, along side

Agallied, _past part_, frightened

Agin _pr._  against.  Auverginst, over-against, up to, in preparation
for, as Agin Milemas

Agon, _past part._  gone by.  Also _adv._

Ail _s._  ailment, a disease in the hind-quarter of animals, ex.

Aine _v._  to throw stones at (A S _haenan_ to stone)

Aines, just as.  Al-aines, all the same, or all one

Al-on-een, on tip toe, eager

Aller, (A S _alr_) alder tree.  Allern made of alder

Amper, Hamper _s._  a pimple.  Ampery, pimply

An _prep._  If

An-dog, Handog _s._  andiron

Angle-dog, or Angle-twitch _s._  a large earth-worm (A S _Angel-twicce_),
_Angle_ a fish-hook

Anpassey, Anpussey, the sign of &, _i.e. and per se_

Anty, empty

Appropo, (Fr. _Apropos_) but used as one of a small group of Norman
French words which have got into popular use

Apse, Apsen-tree, (A S _aeps_) the aspen tree

Ar-a-one, ever-a-one.  Nar-a-one, never-a-one

Arry, any.  N'urry, none

Asew, drained of her milk: applied to a cow at the season of calving.
From _sew_ to drain, hence _sewer_

Aslun, Aslue, Aslope, _adv._  indicate oblique movements in different
directions and levels

Asplew _adv._  extended awkwardly

Astroddle _adj._  astride

Auverlook _v._  to bewitch

Ax _v._  to waddle

Axe, (A S _ascan_) _v._  to ask, always used in Wiclif's Bible

Axen, (A S _ahse. aexse_) _s._  ashes, ex. Here maaid, teeak showl and
d'up axen

Axpeddlar _s._  dealer in ashes

Backlet _s._  the back part of the premises

Back-stick, Backsword _s._  single-stick, a favourite game in Wedmore

Backsunded _adj._  with a northern aspect

Bal-rib _s._  spare-rib

Bally-rag _v._  to use abusive language

Ban _v._  to shut out, stop, ex. I ban he from gwain there

Bane _s._  liver disease in sheep, east of the Parret; west of the river
the term Coed  or Coathed is used, ex. I count they be beund

Bannin _s._  That which is used for shutting out, or stopping

Bannut _s._  Walnut

    A woman, a spaunel, and a bannut tree,
    The mooar you bate 'em the better they be

Barrener _s._  a cow not in calf

Barrow _s._  a child's pilch or flannel clout

Barrow-pig _s._  a gelt-pig

Barton _s._  a farm-yard, the Barn-town

Bastick _s._  basket

Bat, But, the root end of a tree after it has been thrown, also spade of
cards, the stump of a post

Batch, a sand bank, or patch of ground, or hillock, "a hill," as
Churchill-batch, Chelvey-batch, (lying within, or contiguous to, a
river); emmet-batches, ant-hills.  Duck-batches, land trodden by cattle
in wet weather

Bats _s._  corners of ploughed fields: low-laced boots

Bawker: Bawker-stone _s._  a stone for whetting scythes

Be, indic. ex. I be, thou bist, he be

Bear-hond _v._  to help

Bear-nan, Bear-in-hond, Bean-hond _v._  to intend, purpose, think,
suspect, conjecture, ex. I do beanhond et'l rain zoon

Beat the streets, to run about idly

Beeastle, Beezle _v._  to make nasty

Bee-bird _s._  the White-throat

Bee-but, Bee-lippen, a bee-hive (_lepe_, a basket, Wiclif Acts ix, 25)

Beetel, Bittle, or Bitle _s._  a bron-bitle, or brand-bitle, a heavy
mallet for cleaving wood.  Shaks. Hen. IV. "fillip me with a three man
beetle."  Bitle-head _s._  a blockhead

Becal _v._  to abuse, to rail at

Bedfly _s._  a flea

Bed-lier _s._  a bed-ridden person

Beever _s._  a hedge-side encumbered with brambles

Begaur, Begaurz, Begumm, Begummers, words of asseveration and exclamation

Begrumpled _adj._  soured, displeased

Begurg _v._  begrudge

Behither _adv._  on this side

Belge, or Belve _v._  to bellow

Belk, or Bulk, _v._  to belch

Bell flower, Bell-rose, a Daffodil

Belsh _v._  to clean the tails of sheep

Benet, Bents _s._  Bennetty _adj._  long coarse grass, and plantain

Benge _v._  to continue tippling, to booze

Benns, or Bends, ridges of grass lands

Bepity _v.a._  to pity

Beskummer _v._  to besmear, abuse, reproach

Bethink _v._  to grudge, ex. He bethink'd I but everything

Betwattled _v.n._  to be in a distressed state of mind, also _v.a._

Betwit, to rake up old grievances

Bevorne, before

Bibble _v._  to tipple.  Bibbler _s._

Biddy _s._  a chick.  Chick-a-Biddy, a term of endearment

Biddy's eyes _s._  pansy

Bide _v._  to live or lodge in.  Bidin _s._  a place where a man lives

Big, Beg, Begotty _adj._  grand, consequential, ex. Too big for his

Billid _adj._  distracted, mad

Billy _s._  a bundle of straw, or reed, one-third part of a sheaf

Bim-boms _s._  anything hanging as a bell, icicles, or tags of a woman's
bonnet, or dress

Bin, Bin'swhy _conj._  because, seeing that, prob. "being," provided that

Binnic, or Bannisticle _s._  stickle-back

Bird-battin _v._  taking birds at night with a net attached to two poles.
Shaks. bat-fowling

Bird's-meat, Bird's-pears _s._  hips and haws

Bisgee, (g hard), (Fr. _besaigue_.  Lat _bis-acuta_) _s._  a mooting or
rooting axe, sharp at both ends and cutting different ways

Bis't _v._  Art thou? (Germ. _bist du_)

Bit _s._  the lower end of a poker _v._  to put a new end to a poker

Bivver _v._  to shake or tremble, ex. They'll make he bivver, (A S
_bifian_, to tremble)

Blackhead _s._  a boil, a pinswil

Black-pot _s._  black-pudding

Blacky-moor's-beauty _s._  Sweet scabious

Blake _v._  to faint (A S _blaecan_, to grow pale)

Blanker, Vlanker, Flanker _s._  a spark of fire

Blanscue _s._  an unforeseen accident

Blather _s._  Bladder _v._  to talk in a windy manner, to vapour

Bleachy _adj._  brackish

Blicant _adj._  bright, shining (A S _blican_, to shine)

Blid _s._  applied in compassion, as poor old blid--blade

Blowth _s._  bloom, blossom, ex. A good blowth on the apple trees

Blunt _s._  a storm of snow or rain, snow-blunt

Boarden _adj._  made of board

Bobsnarl _s._  a tangle as of a skein of twine

Booc _s._  a wash of clothes, (A S _buc_ water vessel)

Bodkins _s._  swingle-bars.  Weys and Bodkins, portions of plough-harness

Body-horse _s._  the second horse in a team, that which draws from the
end of the shafts

Boming _adj._  hanging down, like a woman's long hair

Boneshave _s._  hip-rheumatism

Bore, the tidal wave in the river Parrett

Borrid _adj._  applied to a sow when seeking the boar

Bos, Bus _s._  a yearling calf, a milk sop (Lat. _bos_)

Bottle _s._  a bubble, a small cask for cider _v._  to bubble

Boughten _past part._  of to buy

Bow _s._  a culvert, arched bridge, arch, as Castle-bow, Taunton

Bowerly _adj._  portly, tall, well-made, quy. _buirdly_

Bowsin _s._  fore part of a cattle stall

Brandis _s._  an iron frame to support a pan or kettle over a hearth-fire
(A S _brand-isen_)

Brash _s._  a row, tumult, crash (A S _brastl_ a noise)

Brave _adj._  in good health

Brazed _past part._  cramped with cold

Br'd, or Bard, Breaze _v._  to bruize, to indent, as on an apple

Breath _s._  a scent, a smell

Breeze _v._  to braize or solder a kettle

Brickle, Burtle _adj._  brittle

Brineded _adj._  brindled

Bring-gwain _v._  to get rid of, to spend, to accompany a person some way
on a journey, bring-going

Brit, Burt, to leave a dent or impression

Brize, Prize _v.a._  to press down

Broom-squires _s._  Quantock broom-makers

Brock _s._  a piece of turf for fuel (Du. _brocke_, a morass)

Broller, Brawler _s._  a bundle of straw

Brow-square, an infant's head cloth

Bruckley, Brode _adj._  as applied to stock given to break fence, to
cheese that breaks into fragments

Brummle, Brimmel (A S _brimel_) _s._  bramble

Bucked _adj._  having a strong hircine taste, applied to cheese

Buckle _v.n._  to bend, to warp

Buckle _s._  a dispute _v._  to quarrel.

Buddle _v._  to suffocate in mud

Bug _s._  beetle, as water-bug, may-bug, cockchafer

Bullen _s._  large black sloes; bullace-plum

Bullworks, Bullocking _adj._  rude, romping

Bumtowel _s._  long-tailed tit

Bungee, (g hard), _adj._  short and squat

Burcott _s._  a load

Burge _s._  bridge

Burr _s._  a sweet-bread

Bursh _s._  brush

Busket _s._  a bush or brake

But _s._  a basket for catching salmon; also a bee-hive.  But, for Put, a
heavy cart

Butter and Eggs _s._  toad-flax, _linaria vulgaris_

Button stockings _s._  gaiters

Butty _s._  a partner

Buzzies _s._  flies

Byes _s._  furrows

By-now, a short time ago

Caddle _s._  bustle, ex. We'rn jussy caddle to-day

Cadock _s._  a bludgeon, a short thick club

Cag _v._  to annoy, vex

Cag _v._  to irritate

Callenge _s._ and _v.a._  challenge

Cal-home, or Cal-over _v._  to publish or call the banns of marriage for
the last time

Callyvan' or Carryvan, also Clevant and Vant, a pyramidal trap for
catching birds, quy. _colly fang_, (A S _fangen_, to take)

Cannel, Cannal _s._  the faucet of a barrel--tap-and-canal

Car _v._  to carry, ex. Cassn't car'n?

Carry-merry _s._  a kind of sledge used in conveying goods

Carvy-seeds _s._  carraway seeds, (_carvi sem_:)

Cauk _v._  to turn down the ends of shoes for a horse to stand on ice

Caxon _s._  a sorry wig

Chaccle _v._  to caccle as a hen

Chaity _adj._  careful, nice, delicate

Chaine _s._  a weaver's warp

'Ch'am, (A S _ic eom_: Germ. _Ich bin_) I am.  'Ch'ave, I have.  'Ch'ad,
I had.  'Ch'ool, I would.  Uch'll go, I will go.  "Chill not let go, zir,
without vurther 'casion."  Shaks. Lear, iv, 6.  This form occurs chiefly
in the neighbourhood of Merriott.

Cham _v._  To chew

Charm _s._  confused noise as of birds

Cheaymer, Chimmer _s._  a bed-room

Cheese-stean _s._  a wring or press for cheese

Chibbole _s._  (Sp. _cepolla_, Fr. _ciboule_) a young onion, before the
bulb is fully formed

Chilbladder _s._  a chilblain

Chilver, (A S _cilfer-lamb_), an ewe lamb.  Pur, the male lamb

Chilver-hog and Pur-hog, sheep under one year old

Chine _s._  that part of a cask which is formed by the projection of the
staves beyond the head.  Chine-hoops top-hoops

Chissom, Chism _v._  to bud, to shoot out; also, _s._  a bud

Chowr _v._  to grumble, to mutter (A S _ceorian_, to murmur)

Clam _v._  to handle in a slovenly manner

Clamper _s._  a difficulty, ex. I zined once and a got meself in jissey
clamper I never w'ont zine nothing no more

Claps _v._  clasp

Clathers _s._  clothes or rags

Clavy, a shelf.  Clavel-tack, a mantel-piece, a place where keys
(_claves_) are kept, a shelf for keys.  Holmen-clavel, an inn on Blagdon
hill, so called from having a large _holm-beam_ supporting the

Cleve-pink, or Cliff-pink, a species of pink growing wild in the Cheddar
cliffs, _dianthus deltoides_

Clim, Climmer, Climber _v._  to climb.  Clammer _s._  a worn footpath up
a steep bank

Clinkers _s._  hoof marks.  Clinker-bells, icicles

Clint, or Clent _v._  to clench

Clit _v._  Clitty _adj._  applied to bread not properly kneaded

Clittersome _adj._  troublesome

Clivver-and-shiver _adv._  completely, totally

Clize, Clice _s._  a swinging door, or valve of a dike or rhine, (A S

Cloam, Cloamen, coarse earthen ware

Clothen _adj._  made of cloth

Clotting, Clatting _s._  fishing for eels with a knot or clot of worms,
which is also called reballing

Clout _s._ and _v._  a blow in the face or head, to beat about the head

Clumber _s._  a clump, or large piece

Cly, Cliver, Clider, or Clidden _s._  goose-grass

Coathe, or Coe _v.a._  to bane, applied to sheep, rabbits, and hares

Cock-and-mwile _s._  a jail

Cock-lawt, Cock-lart _s._  a garret or cock-loft

Cock-squailing _s._  an old Shrove Tuesday sport--(in Somerset, Shaff
Tuesday), flinging sticks at a cock tied by the leg, one penny per throw,
whoever kills him takes him away

Cob-wall _s._  made of mud and straw, mud-and-stud, or wattle-and-dab

College _s._  an assemblage of small tenements, having a common entrance
from the street, and only one

Colley  blackbird; Water-colley  water-ouzel; Mountain-colley  ring-ouzel

Colt  a person entering on a new employment; Colting, Colt-ale  a fine on
entering; footing; also, a thrashing

Comb-broach _s._  tooth of a wool-combe, a spit, knitting-needle (Fr.

Commandement _s._  (Four syllables as in Chaucer and Wiclif), command

Conk, or Skonk _s._  a collection of people (Lat. _concio_)

Connifle _v._  to embezzle, to sponge

Cop-bone _s._  knee-pan, patella

Count _v._  to think, to esteem

Couples, Cooples _s._  an ewe with her lambs; Double-couples _s._  an ewe
with twins

Coy _v._  to decoy; Cway Pool _s._  a decoy

Cowerd Milk _s._  milk not skimmed

Cow-babby _s._  a great childish fellow

Crab-lantern _s._  a cross froward child

Crap  a bunch or cluster (Fr. _grappe_)

Crap, Crappy _v._  to snap, to crack

Craze _v.a._  to crack

Crease _s._  crest of a horse's neck, a crestaline of a roof

Creem _s._ and _v._  a cold shivering, to shiver; to creemy _adj._
subject to shivers

Creem _v._  to crush or squeeze severely the limbs of a person

Crewel _s._  a cowslip

Creeze _adj._  squeamish, dainty

Crip _v._  to clip--as the hair

Cripner, Kr'pner _s._  crupper strap

Crips, or Curps _adj._  crisp

Criss-cross-lain the alphabet, because in the Horn-book it was preceded
by a X (Fr. _croissette_)

Crope _pret. of creep_ crept, ex. A craup'd in

Cross-axe _s._  an axe with two broad and sharp ends, one cutting
breadth-wise, the other length-wise, called also grub-axe and twibill

Crowdy, Crowdy-kit (Celtic _crwth_) _s._  small fiddle; to crowd _v._  to
grate as the two ends of a broken bone, to make a flat creaking; Crowder
_s._  a fiddler (W. _crwthwr_)

Crown _v._  Crowner's quest _s._  Coroner's Inquest.  To be crowned, to
have an inquest held over a dead body by the direction of the coroner

Crub, Croost _s._  a crust of bread

Cruel _adv._  intensive, as cruel-kind, very kind

Cry _s._  to challenge, bar, or object to

Cubby-hole _s._  a snug comfortable situation for a child, such as
between a person's knees when sitting before the fire

Cuckold _s._  the plant Burdock; cuckold-buttons, the burs, (A S
_coccel_, darnel, tares)

Cue _s._  the shoe on an ox's hoof, or tip on a man's boot

Curdle _v.a._  to curl, also, _v.n._; Curdles _s._  curls

Cut _s._  a door hatch

Curse _s._  cress

Cuss _v._  to curse; Cussin Sarvice  the Commination

Custin _s._  a kind of small wild plum

Cutty _adj._  small, as cutty-pipe, cutty-wren; Cutty-bye, a cradle, a

Daddick _s._  rotten-wood; Daddicky _adj._  perished like rotten-wood,
applied metaphorically to the old and feeble

Dag-end _s._  applied to a sheaf of reed

Daggers _s._  sword-grass, a kind of sedge

Dame _s._  never applied to the upper ranks of society, nor to the very
lowest, but to such as farmer's wives, or the schoolmistress: rarely if
ever applied to a young woman

Dandy _adj._  distracted

Dap _v._  to hop as a ball

Dap _s._  the hop, or turn of a ball; also habits and peculiarities of a
person, ex. I know all the daps on'm

Dor, Dare _v._ and _s._  to frighten, stupify: ex. Put a dor on'n

Dare-up _v._  to wake or rouse up a person that is dying or asleep

Dave _v._  to thaw

Davver, or Daver _v._  to fade, to droop; Davered  drooping

Dawzin _s._  a conjuring device to discover minerals by the twisting of a

Devil-screech, Devil-swift, or Devilling _s._  the Swift

Devil's Cow _s._  a kind of beetle

Dew-bit _s._  an early morsel before breakfast

Diddlecum _adj._  distracted, mad

Diff _adj._  deaf

Dilly _adj._  cranky, queer

Dir'd _s._  thread, ex. Whaur's my d'r'd and niddel?

Dish-wash, or Dippity-washty _s._  a water-wagtail

Dirsh, Drush, or Drasher _s._  a thrush

Dirt _s._  earth generally, as mould in a garden

Dirten _adj._  miry, dirty, or made of dirt

Dock _s._  the crupper of a saddle

Dockery-stick _s._  phosphorescent wood

Donnins _s._  dress, clothes

Double-spronged  when potatoes lying in the ground throw out fresh tubers

Dough-fig _s._  a Turkey-fig

Douse, or Touse _s._  a smart blow, particularly on the face, ex. A douse
on the chaps

Down-arg _v._  to contradict, ex. He 'ood downarg I

Down-daggered _adj._  disconsolate, cast-down

Draen, Drean _v._  to drawl (Fr. _trainer_)

Draffit _s._  a tub for pigs'-wash (_draught-vat_)

Drail _s._  the piece of leather connecting the flail with its handle

Drang _s._  a narrow path or lane

Drang-way  a drove or gate-way

Drapper _s._  a small tub

Drash _v._  to thrash; Drashel, or Thrashle _s._  a flail (A S

Drashold, or Dreshol _s._  a threshold

Drawl, Drail _s._  the forepart of the sull of a plough; in West
Somerset, weng (A S _wang_ or _weng_ a cheek)

Drift _s._  a lask, or looseness

Drimmeling _adj._  slow, continuous pain

Dring _v._  (_pret._ Drang) to throng, crowd, _s._  Dringet, a crowd
(Dutch, _dringen_, to press)

Drink _s._  small beer, or cider

Droot _v._  to drivel

Dro _v._  (_part._ Dro'd) to throw, ex. The tree wur dro'd

Drow, or Drowy _v._  to dry, ex. It do drowy terble now, as applied to
grass; Muck-adrowd, or Muck-adrowy _s._  dust

Drub, Drubby _v._  to throb

Druck _v._  to cram or thrust down

Druck-pieces _s._  pieces of wood let into a wall to support the pipe of
a pump

Drug _v._  to drag, also _pret._ of drag; ex. He drug un out of the pond;
Drugs _s._  harrows or drags

Dub, Dubby, Dubbid _adj._  blunt, squat

Dubbin _s._  suet or fat for greasing leather

Duck _v._  to carry a person under the arms in a suspended state

Dudder _v._  to confound with noise

Duds _s._  foul linen

Dumbledore, Dumbledory _s._  a humble bee, stupid fellow

Dummic, Dunnic _s._  a hedge-sparrow

Dumps _s._  the twilight, ex. Dumps of the yavening; Dumpsy towards

Dunch _adj._  deaf

Dunder-daisy _s._  large field daisy

Dungmixen _s._  a dung-heap

Durgin (g hard) _s._  a great stupid fellow

Durns _s._  side-posts of a door, (? _doorings_)

Ear-burs _s._  a swelling behind the ear

Ear-grass, or Hay-grass _s._  grass after mowing, from A S _erian_, to
till; the grass of tilled land

Ear-keckers _s._  the tonsils of the throat

Eave, Heave _v.n._  to give out moisture, as flagstones in wet weather

E'en-to, Ee'nsto _adv._  up to, all but, ex. There were ten e'ensto one
or two

Element _s._  the sky, used in this sense by Shakespeare in Twelfth-night

Elem'n, or Elm'n _adj._  made of elm

Eldern _adj._  made of the elder

Elt-pig _s._  a young sow

Elver, Eelver, or Yelver _s._  the young eel

Emmers _s._  pl. embers

Emp, or Empt _v._  to empty

En, or Un _pron._  Him, ex. A zid'n: he saw him (A S _hine_)

Er _pron._  He, ex. Er ziden: he saw him

Errish, Arrish, or Herrish _s._  stubble

Evet _s._  eft, or newt

Ex _s._  an axle

Eye _s._  the cavity beneath the arch of a bridge

Fadge _v._  to fare, to be in good condition.  "How will this fadge?"
Shaks. Twelfth-night

Fags _interj._  truly! indeed!

Fairy, Fare, Vare _s._  a weasel (old Fr. _vair_, ermine)

False _adj._  forsworn, perjured

Falsing _adj._  coaxing

Fardel _s._  a small bundle, Shaks. Hamlet

Faut (faat) _v._  to find fault

Fauty (faaty) _adj._  given to find fault

Fauth, Foth, Voth _s._  the turning place of the plough at the side of a

Featy _adj._  pretty, neat

Feaze _v._  to harass, or ferret

Feaver-largin (g hard), _s._  a fit of indolence

Fell _v._  to sew down a hem

Fend _v._ to forbid (Fr. _defendre_)

Fess _adj._  gay, smart, ex. A fess fellow

Few, Veo _adj._  little, as a few broth

Fie _s._  to succeed, ex. Che-ating pl'y'll never fie

Fig _s._  raisin: figgety-pudden, figgy-cake, rich with raisins

Fildefare, Veelvare _s._  a fieldfare: varewell veelvare, farewell winter

Filtry _s._  rubbish

Fitch, Fitchet _s._  a pole cat, ex. As cross as a fitchet

Fitten _s._  an idle fancy, whim

Flap-jack _s._  small pancake, fritter

Flanker, Vlanker _s._  a spark of fire

Flannin, Vlannen _s._  a flannel

Fleet _s._  the windward side of a hedge

Fleet _v._  to float

Flick _s._  the inside fat of animals; also flitch of bacon

Flittermouse _s._  a bat (Ger. _Fledermaus_)

Flook _s._  a flounder; also a parasite in the liver of sheep

Flush _adj._  fledged, in full feather _adv._  even with

Foase _v._  to wheedle, to deceive _adj._  false

Fob _s._  froth, slaver _v._  to put off with a pretence

Fog _s._  old, withered or spoilt grass

Fog-earth _s._  bog-earth, peat

Foggy _adj._  fat, corpulent

Fooase, or Vooase _v._  to force, to oblige

Footer _s._  a worthless shabby fellow _adj._  footy

Fore-spur, or Vore-spur _s._  the fore-leg of pork

Fore-right, Vore-right _adj._  rash, head-long, head-strong

Forrel _s._  the cover of a book, the selvage of a handkerchief

Forware, or Verware _v._  to indemnify

Forweend _adj._  hard to please, wayward, spoilt in nursing

Frame _v._  to form, fashion the speech, ex. If I wur axed I could'nt
frame to spake it so

Frange _s._  fringe (Fr. _frange_)

Free-bore _adj._  free, free-born

French-nut _s._  walnut

Fret _v._  to eat, as the lower animals (G _fressen_, A S _fretan_, as
opposed to G _essen_, A S _etan_, applied to man): ex. The moth fretteth
the garment; a use of the word retained in the West, and usually applied
to the browsing of cattle

Furcum, or Vurcum _s._  the whole, even to the bottom

Furr, or Vurr _v._  to cast a stone far

Fump _s._  the whole of a business

Fuz, Fuzzen, Furze _s._  gorse, prov.

    When fuz is out o' blossom
    Kissing's out o' fashin

Fuz-pig _s._  hedge hog

Gad _s._  a fagot-stick; Spar-gad a twisted stick picked at both ends to
spar (Ger. _sperren_) or fasten down thatch.  Near Bath, spick-gad

Gain _adj._  handy; Gainer  more handy

Gale _s._  an old bull castrated

Gall _s._  a wet place, abounding in springs

Gally, Gallow _v._  to frighten; Gallied  frightened Shak. K. Lear, iii,
2, "Skies gallow the wanderer"

Gally-baggur _s._  bug-bear, a trace of the time when gallows were a more
common sight

Gamble _s._  a leg, (Ital. _gamba_)

Gambril _s._  a crooked stick used by butchers to suspend a carcase

Gammets, Gamoting _s._  whims, tricks, pranks

Ganny-cock _s._  a turkey-cock

Ganny-cock's nob _s._  the appendage to a turkey-cock's beak

Gapes-nest _s._  an idle spectacle

Gare _s._  gear; Ire-gare _s._  plough-gear, iron-work

Garn, or Gearn, Gearden _s._  a garden

Gatchel _s._  the mouth

Gate-shord, or sheard _s._  a gate-way, a place for a gate

Gatfer _s._  an old man (good father)

G'auf  to go off; G'auver  to go over; G'in  to go in; G'on  to go on;
G'out  to go out; Go'vorn  go before him or them; G'under  to go under;
G'up  to go up: ex. Thear I wur', d' knaw, carnared (in a corner); coud'n
g'auver, g'under, g'in, nor g'out

Gawcum, Gawcumin _s._  a simpleton, a gawkey

Gee-wi' (g soft), _v._  to agree; Gee  (g hard), to give, ex. To gee
out--to thaw

Gib, or Gibby (g hard), _s._  a pet lamb

Gibby-heels (g hard), _s._  kibed-heels

Giffin (g hard), _s._  a trifle, a small portion of time

Gilawfer, Gillifer, Gilliflower  (g soft), stocks; Whitsun Gilawfer,
carnation, also the wallflower

Giltin-cup (g hard), _s._  butter-cup

Gimmace (g hard), _s._  a hinge

Gimmaces (g hard) _s._  a criminal is said to be hung in gimmaces, when
he is hung in chains

Glare _v._  to glaze earthenware.  Also _s._  ex. The roads are all a
glare of ice

Glassen _adj._  made of glass

Glou, Glouie _v._  to stare

Glou-beason _s._  a glow-worm, a bold impudent fellow

Glutch, Glutchy _v._  to swallow _s._  the act of swallowing, Glutcher
_s._  the throat

Gold _s._  sweet willow; _Myrica gale_, abundant in the moors of
Somerset, in the herbalists called _Gaule_

Go-lie _v._  spoken of corn falling after rain; applied to wind, to

Gool-french a gold-finch, a proud tailor

Gollop _s._  a large morsel

Gommer _s._  an old woman (good mother)

Good-hussy _s._  a thread-case

Goody _v._  to appear good, to prosper

Goose-cap _s._  a giddy, silly person

Goose-herd, or Goosier _s._  one who breeds or looks after geese

Gore-in, Gore-with _v._  to believe in, to trust

Gossips _s._  sponsors; Gossiping  the festivities of the christening

Gout _s._  a drain, a gutter

Gowder _s._  a higgler of fruit

Grainded, Grainted _adj._  ingrained, dirty

Granfer, Grammer _s._  grandfather, grandmother

Granfer griggles _s._  wild orchis

Gribble _s._  a young apple tree raised from seed

Grig _v._ and _s._  to pinch, a pinch

Griddle, Girdle _s._  a gridiron

Gripe, or Grip _s._  a small drain or ditch _v._  to cut into gripes

Grizzle _v._  to laugh or grin

Gronin _s._  labour, childbirth; Gronin-chair  nursing chair; Gronin-malt
provision for the event

Ground _s._  a field, a piece of land enclosed for agricultural purposes

Grozens, Groves _s._  duck-weed

Gruff, Gruff-hole _s._  a trench or groove excavated for ore

Gruffer, Gruffler _s._  a miner, one who works in a gruff or groove

Gumpy _adj._  abounding in protuberances

Gurds _s._  eructations; Fits and Gurds  fits and starts

Gurl, or Gurdle _v._  to growl

Gush _v._  to put the blood in quicker motion by fright or surprise, ex.
A' gied I sich a gush

Guss _v._ and _s._  to gird, a girth

Gurt _adj._  great

Hack _s._  the place where bricks newly-made are arranged to dry

Hack, Hacket, Hick, Heck _v._  to hop on one leg, to play hackety oyster,
hopscotch, or hack-shell

Hacker _v._  to chatter with the cold, to stammer

Hackle _s._  a good job

Hag-mal _s._  a slattern, a titmouse

Hag-rided _adj._  subject to night-mare

Hag-ropes  traveller's joy, wild clematis (A S _Hage_, a hedge)

Hain _v._  to let up grass for mowing

Halfen-deal _s._  moiety _adj._  composed of different materials

Half-strain _adj._  mongrel, half-witted

Halipalmer _s._  the palmer-worm, (holy-palmer)

Hallantide _s._  All Saints' Day, (hallow-een-tide)

Halse _s._  hazel; halse coppice

Halsen, Hawseny, Noseny, Osney _v._  to divine, predict, forebode (A S
_halsen_, from the hazel divining rod)

Halve, or Helve _v._  to turn over, to turn upside down

Ham _s._  an open field, usually near a river: on Mendip, old calamine

Hame _v._  "rem habere" (A S _haeman_)

Hames, Heamsies _s._  parts of harness

Hang-fair, Hanging-vayer _s._  an execution

Hanch _v._  to gore as a bull

Hangles, (a pair of hangles) _s._  a pot or kettle-rack suspended over
the fire

Hank _s._  dealings with

Happer _v._  to crackle, rattle like hail

Hard _adj._  full grown, as hard stock, or sheep; a Hardboy a boy of
about 13 years old

Harr _s._  the part of a gate which holds the hinges, ex. Heads and harrs

Hart _s._  haft, or handle as of knives, awls

Hat, or Het _pret._ of _v._  to hit

Hathe _s._  to be in hathe, _i.e._, to be thickly covered with pustules,
to be closely matted together

Haydigees, (g hard and soft) _s._  high spirits

Hay-sucker _s._  the white-throat

Hayty-tayty  seesaw, also _interj._  what's here!

Hay-ward _s._  pound-keeper, a keeper of hedges or hays (A S

Hedge-bore _s._  a rough workman

Heel, Hell _v._  to pour out or in, hence Heel-taps

Heel _v._  to hide, to cover (A S _helan_)

Heeler _s._  one who hides or covers.  Proverb: The heeler is as bad as
the stealer

Heft _s._ and _v._  weight, to lift up, from _v._  to heave

Hegler, or Higler _s._  an egg or fowl collector and dealer

Hellier _s._  a tiler, one who covers

Hel'm _s._  haulm of wheat, beans, peas, potatoes (A S _healm_)

Hem _pron._  he or him, ex. If hem had hat hem as hem hat hem, hem 'oud a
kill'd hem or hem 'oud a kill'd hem

Hen _v._  to throw, see Aine

Hen-hussey _s._  a meddling officious person, a woman who looks after

Hent, or Hint _v._  to wither or dry up

Hern, His'n _pron._  her's, his

Herret _s._  a pitiful little wretch

Hevel-twine _s._  a fine sort of twine

Hike off _v._  to steal away slily, to skulk off

Hirddick, Ruddick _s._  robin, ruddock

Hird-in, Hird-out _v._  to remove one's goods.  Transp. for rid

Hirn, Hurn, Hirnd _v._  _pret._ and _part._  to run (A S _yrnan_)

Hive, or Heave  _v._ to urge in vomiting

Hizy-prizy _s._  Nisi-prius

Hoak _v._  to goar as an ox

Hob _v._  to laugh loudly _s._  a clown

Hob _s._  a cheek of a grate

Hod _s._  a sheath, a cover

Hoddy _adj._  hearty

Hog, Hogget _s._  a sheep or horse one-year old

Hogo _s._  strong savour or smell (Fr. _haut gout_)

Holders _s._  fangs of a dog

Holmen _adj._  made of holm or holly, as Holmen Clavel a holly mantle

Holme-screech _s._  the missel-thrush, from its eating the berries of the
holly or holme tree

Homany _s._  a noise, disturbance

Home-to _adv._  up to

Honey-suck _s._  red clover

Hoop _s._  a bullfinch, ex. Cock-hoop, hen-hoop

Hoppet _v._  to hop

Hornen, Harnin _adj._  made of horn

Horse-godmother _s._  a masculine woman

Houzen _s._  houses

Hove _v._ and _s._  to hoe, ex. To hove banes, hove turmits with an auld

How _v._  to long for

Huck-muck _s._  strainer over the faucet

Hud _s._  as of gooseberry, the skin, hull, husk

Huf-cap _s._  a weed commonly found in fields

Hug _s._  the itch

Hulden _v._  to conceal, harbour

Hulley, or Holley _s._  a basket-trap for eels

Hull _v._  to hurl

Hum-drum _s._  a three-wheeled cart

Humacks _s._  wild-briar stocks on which to graff roses

Ich (soft), _pron._  I  'Cham  I am; 'Ch'ool  I will; 'Ch'ood  I would,

Idleton _s._  an idle fellow

Infaring _adj._  lying within, as an infaring tithing, _i.e._, a tithing
within a borough

Insense _v._  to inform

Ire _s._  iron, "ire or mire" said of stiff clay soil

Ire-gaer _s._  iron work or gear

Ize _pr._ I, ex. Ize warrant you wunt

Jib _s._  the wooden stand for a barrel

Jigger _s._  a vessel of potter's ware used in toasting cheese

Jitch, Jitchy, Jissy _adj._  such, ex. Jitch placen, such places

Joan-in-the-wad _s._  will-of-the-wisp

Jonnick _adv._  fair, straight-forward

Jot _v._  to disturb in writing, to strike the elbow

Junket _s._  curds and cream with spices and sugar, &c., from Ital.
_giuncata_, cased in rushes; from _giunco_, a rush; a name given in Italy
to a kind of cream-cheese

Kamics, Kramics _s._  rest-harrow

Keamy _adj._  covered with a thin white mould; applied to cider

Kecker, Kyecker-pipe, Kyecker, Kyeck-horn, the wind-pipe, a pervious
pipe, from _kike_ to look through

Keeve, or Kive _s._  a large tub used in brewing or cider making _v._  to
put the wort or cider in a keeve to ferment

Keep _s._  a large basket

Keffel _s._  a bad, worn-out horse (Welsh, _Keffyl_)

Kern _v._  to coagulate as milk; also applied to fruit and wheat becoming
visible after the blossoming

Kex, Kexy _s._  dry, pervious stalks, as of cow-parsley and hemlock
Kexies, see Kecker

Kid _s._  a pod To Kiddy _v._  ex. They do kiddy, but they don't villy

Kilter _s._  money

Kircher _s._  caul, used by butchers

Kittle, or Kettle-Smock _s._  a carter's frock

Knap _s._  a rising ground

Knee-sick _adj._  applied to corn when the stalk is not strong enough to
bear the ear

Knottle _v._  to entangle with knots

Knottlins _s._  the intestines of a pig prepared for food

Knot _s._  flower-bed

Knot-Sheep _s._  sheep without horns

Kowetop _s._  the barm which rises above the rim of the tub

Kurpy, Kerp _v._  to speak affectedly; scold (Lat. _increpare_)

Labber _v._  to loll out the tongue

Lades, or Ladeshrides _s._  the sides of a waggon which project over the

Ladies-smock _s._  bindweed _Convolvulus sepium_, _Cardamine pratensis_

Lady-Cow _s._  lady-bird _Coccinella septempunctata_,

Laiter _s._  the whole number of eggs laid by a hen before she becomes
broody, ex. She 've laaid out her laiter

Lamiger _s._  lame, a cripple

Lar _s._  bar of a gate

Larks-lees, Leers _v._  neglected lands

Lart, Lawt _s._  a loft, as cock-lart, hay-lart, apple-lart

Lary, Leary, Lear _adj._  empty, thin _s._  flank; Lear-quills, small

Las-chargeable _interj._  be quiet! _i.e._, he who last speaks or strikes
in contention is most to blame

Lat, or Lart _s._  a lath, ex. Lartin nails

Lat _s._  shelf

Latitat _s._  a noise or scolding

Lattin-sheet _s._  iron-tinned; also as _adj._  made of tin, as a Lattin

Lave _v._  to throw water from one place to another; to gutter, as a

Lay-field _s._  a piece laid down to grass

Lea, Leaze, Leers _s._  an open pasture field

Leapy, Lippary _s._  wet, rainy weather

Learn, Larn _v._  to teach, ex. Who larned 'e thay tricks

Leathern-bird, Leather-wing _s._  the bat

Ledge _v._  lay hands on; to lay eggs

Lent-lilies _s._  daffodils

Lescious  ex. She is lescious of a place, _i,e._, knows of it and thinks
it may suit

Levers _s._  a species of rush or sedge

Levvy _s._  a level (Fr. _levee_)

Lew, Lewth, Lewthy  shelter, sheltered, lee-side

Libbets _s._  tatters; _little-bits_

Lidden _s._  a story, a song (Ger. _lied_)

Lief, Leaf _v._  leave; ex. I would as lief

Ligget _s._  a rag

Lijon _s._  the main beam of a ceiling

Lip, or Lippen _s._  applied to certain vessels, as Ley-lip, Seed-lip,
Bee-lippen  bee-hive (Wiclif's Test.: Leten hym doun in a _lepe_ be the
wall Acts ix. 25)

Limmers, Limbers _s._  the shafts of a waggon or cart

Linch _v._  a ledge, hence "linch-pin" (A S _hlinc_)

Linney, Linhay _s._  an open shed

Lirp _v._  to limp

Lirripy _adj._  slouching

Lissom _a._ lithesome, active, supple

Lissum, or Lism _s._  a narrow slip of anything

Locking-bone _s._  the hip joint

Long-tailed Capon _s._  the long-tailed titmouse

Lug _s._  a pole; a measure of land, perch or rod

Lug-lain _s._  full measure

Lumper-scrump _s._  cow-parsnip _Heracleum sphondylium_

Lurdin _s._  a sluggard (Fr. _lourd_)

Lizzom _s._  a shade of colour in heavy bread, or in a mow

Mace _s._  pl. acorns, mast

Macky-moon _s._  a man who plays the fool

Maethe (th soft)  sweet as meathe (Welsh _Medd_, mead)

Maggems, Maay-geams _s._  May games, larking

Magne _adj._  great

Make-wise _v._  to pretend

Manchet _s._  a kind of cake eaten hot

Mandy _adj._ and _v._  haughty, domineering Commandy

Mang _v._  to mix

Mang-hangle _adj._ and _s._  mixed-up in a confused mass

Math _s._  a litter of pigs

Maules _s._  measles

May-bug _s._  cockchafer

Mawkin (maaking)  an oven swab; scare-crow; a bundle of rags

Mawn _s._  a basket (A S _mand_)

Maze-house _s._  madhouse

Mazy _adj._  mad, ex. I be mooast maazed; a mazy ould vool

Mear, Mear-stone  boundary (A S _meare_)

Meat-weer _adj._  applied to land capable of producing food that is good,
fit to eat; applied to peas, beans, &c.

Meg _s._  the mark at which boys play pitch and toss

Meg's, or Maggotts Diversions _s._  rattling or wanton fun

Meg-with-the-wad _s._  will o' the wisp

Melander _s._  a row (Fr. _melee_)

Me'll _v.a._  to meddle, touch; ex. I'll neither mell nor make; I ont
mell o't, _i.e._, I will not touch it

Mesh _s._  moss; lichen on apple-trees

Mesh _s._  a hare's creep or run _v._  to run through the same

Mess, Messy _v._  to serve cattle with hay _s._  Messin

Mid, Med _v._  might, ex. Nor zed a mid; midst, medst, ex. Thou medst if

Midgerim _s._  mesentery

Mid'n  might not, ex. I mid or I mid'n

Mig  in the same sense

Milemas _s._  Michaelmas

Mind _v._  to remember

Misky  form of misty

Miz-maze _s._  confusion

Mog _v._  to decamp, march off

Mooch _v._  to stroke down gently

Mood _s._  the mother of vinegar

Mole _s._  higher part of the back of the neck

Mommacks _s._  pl. fragments, scraps

Mommick, Mommet _s._  a scarecrow (Wiclif's N.  Test.: "a sacrifice to
the _mawmet_" Act vii. 41)

Moocher, Mooching, Meecher _s._  one who skulks; absents himself from

Moor-coot _s._  a moor-hen

More _s._  a root

Moot _v._  to root up _s._  Mooting-axe

Moot _s._  that portion of a tree left in the ground after it has been

Mop _s._  tuft of grass

More, Morey _v.n._  to take root; applied to trees

Mother, Mothering _s._  white mould in beer or cider

Mothering-Sunday _s._  midlent Sunday, probably from the custom of
visiting the mother-churches during that season

Mought  for might  _aux. verb_

Mouse-snap _s._  a mouse-trap

Mouster _v._  to stir, to be moving

Mow-staddle _s._  a conical stone with a flat circular cap, used for the
support of a mow or stack of corn

Muddy-want _s._  a mole

Mullin _s._  metheglin

Mumper, Mump, Mumping  a beggar, to beg

Nacker _s._  a nag

Nagging _adj._  applied to continued aching pain, as toothache; also,
teasing with reproaches

Nammet, or Nummet _s._  luncheon; a short meal between breakfast and
dinner.  Noon-meat

Nan, Anan _interj._  Eh! what? (Shakes.)

Nap _s._  a small rising, a hillock

Na-poast _s._  gnaw-post, a fool.

Narn, or Norn _pron._  neither, ex. Narn on's

Nasten _v.a._  to render nasty

Nathely _adv._  nearly, as a baby is nathely pining away

Naunt _s._  aunt

Nawl _s._  navel; Nawl-cut  a term used by butchers

Neel, Neeld _s._  a needle (Shaks. Mid. N. Dr. iii. 2)

Nesh, Naish _adj._  tender, delicate (A S _hnesc_)

Nestle-tripe _s._  the poorest bird in the nest; weakest pig in the
litter; puny child

Never-the-near  to no purpose

Newelty _s._  novelty

Nickle _v.n._  to move hastily along in an awkward manner _adj._  beaten
down, applied to corn

Nicky, Nicky-wad _s._  a small fagot of thorns

Niddick _s._  the nape of the neck

Nif _conj._  if and if

'Nighst, Noist _prep._  nigh, near

Ninny-watch _s._  a longing desire

Nippigang, Nimpingang _s._  a whitlow

Nitch _s._  a burden, a fagot of wood

Nix _v._  to impose on, to nick

Northern, Northering _adj._  incoherent, foolish

Nosset _s._  a dainty dish such as is fit for a sick person

'Nottamy _s._  applied to a man become very thin (anatomy)

Nug _s._  unshapen piece of timber, a block

Nug-head _s._  a blockhead

Nuncle _s._  uncle _v.a._  to cheat

Nurt, or Nort  nothing (w. of Parret)

Nuthen _s._  a great stupid fellow

Oak-web (wuck-ub) _s._  cock-chafer, may-bug

Oak-wuck _s._  the club at cards

Oaves _s._  the eaves of a house

Odments _s. pl._  odd things, offals

Oh _v._  to long greatly

Old-man's-Beard _s._  clematis

Old-rot _s._  cow-parsnip (_heracleum_)

Onlight _v.n._  to alight from on horse-back

Ool  will; o'ot  wilt o'ot'n't  wilt not

Ope _s._  an opening

Open-erse _s._  a medler (A S _open-oers_), a fruit used medicinally

Ordain _v._  to purpose

Orloge _s._  a clock (horologe)

Or'n _pron._  either, ex. O'rm o'm, either of them

Ort _pron._  aught, anything

Orts _s._  scraps, leavings

Oseny, or Osening _v._  to forbode, predict (A S _wisian_)

Ourn  ours

Out-ax'd _part._  to have the bands fully published

Out-faring _s._  lying outside the borough

Over-get _v.a._  to overtake

Over-look _v.a._  to bewitch

Over-right (auver-right) _adv._  opposite

Ovvers _s. pl._  over-hanging bank of rivers, edge of rivers (A S _ofer_)

Pair-of-Stairs _s._  a staircase with two landings

Pallee _adj._  broad, as pallee-foot, pallee-paw

Palme _s._  catkins of the willow (_salix caprea_)

Pame _s._  the mantle thrown over an infant who is going to be Christened

Panchard-night _s._  Shrove-Tuesday night

Pank _v._  to pant

Papern _adj._  made of paper

Parget _v.a._  to plaster the inside of a chimney with mortar made of
cow-dung and lime

Parrick _s._  a paddock

Paumish _adj._  handling awkwardly

Pautch, Pontch _v._  to tread in mire

Payze, 'Pryze _v._  to upraise with a lever (Fr. _peser_)

Peart _adj._  brisk

Pease _v._  to run out in globules

Peasen _s. pl._  of pea _adj._  made of peas, ex. Peasen-pudding

Peazer _s._  a lever

Peek, Peeky, Peekid _adj._  pinched in face by indisposition

Peel _s._  a pillow

Pen, Penning, Pine, Cow-pine _s._  an enclosed place in which cattle are

Pen _s._  a spigot

Pick, Peckis _s._  pick-axe

Pick, Peek _s._  hay-fork

Pigs _s._  pixies, fairies, as in the common saying, "Please God and the

Pig's-hales _s._  hawes

Pig's-looze _s._  pig's-sty

Pilch, Pilcher _s._  a baby's woollen clout

Pill _s._  a pool in a river

Pill-coal _s._  peat from a great depth

Pillow-tie, Pillow-beer _s._  pillow-case

Pilm, Pillum _s._  dust

Pin, Pin-bone _s._  the hip

Pind, Pindy _adj._  fusty, as corn or flour

Pin'd _adj._  applied to a saw which has lost its pliancy

Pine, Pwine, Pwining-end, and Pwointing-end _s._  the gable-end of a

Pinions _s. p._  the refuse wool after combing (Fr. _peigner_)

Pink-twink _s._  chaffinch

Pinswheal, Pinswil, Pensil _s._  a boil with a black head

Pirl, Pirdle _v._  to spin as a top

Pix, Pex, or Pixy _v._  to pick up fruit, as apples or walnuts, after the
main crop is taken in

Pixy _s._  a fairy Pixy-stool _s._  toad-stool

Planch _s._  Planchant _adj._  a wood floor (Fr. _planche_)

Plazen _s. pl._  places

Plim, Plum _v.n._  to swell, to increase in bulk, as soaked peas or rice

Plough _s._  a team of horses; also a waggon and horses, or a waggon and

Plough-path _s._  bridle-path

Plud _s._  the swamp surface of a wet ploughed field

Pock-fretten, Pock-fredden _adj._  marked with small-pox

Pog _v._  to push, to thrust with a fist

Pomice, Pummice, Pummy, or Pumy-Squat _s._  apples pounded for making
cider (Fr. _pomme_)

Pomple _adj._  responsible, trustworthy

Pompster, or Pounster _v._  to tamper with a wound, or disease, without
knowledge or skill in medicine

Ponted _adj._  bruised, particularly applied to fruit, as a ponted apple

Pooch _v._  to pout

Pook _s._  the stomach, a vell

Pook _s._  a cock of hay

Popple _s._  a pebble

Porr _v._  to stuff or cram with food

Pot-waller _s._  one whose right to vote for a member of Parliament is
based on his having a fire-place whereon to boil his own pot, as at

Pound-house _s._  house for cider-making

Prey _v._  to drive the cattle into one herd in a moor, which is done
twice a year (_i.e._, at Lady-day and at Michaelmas), with a view to
ascertain whether any person has put stock there without a right to do it

Proud-tailor _s._  gold-finch

Pulk, or Pulker _s._  a small pool of water

Pumple, or Pumple-foot _s._  club-foot

Pur, or Pur-hog _s._  a one-year-old male sheep

Purt _v._  to pout, to be sullen

Puskey _adj._  short-breathed, wheezing

Putt _s._  a manure cart with two or three broad wheels

Puxy _s._  a slough, a muddy place

Pyer _s._  a hand-rail across a wooden bridge (Fr. _s'apuyer_)

Quar _v._  to coagulate--applied to milk in the breast

Quarrel, Quarrey _s._  a pane of glass

Quat _adj._  full, satisfied

Queane _s._  a little girl, a term of endearment

Queest, Quisty _s._  a wood-pigeon or blue-rock.  A quarish queest _s._
a queer fellow

Quilled, or Queeled _adj._  withered, as grass

Quine _s._  a corner (Fr. _coin_)

Quirk, Quirky _v._  to complain, to groan, grunt

Quat, or Aquat _adj._  sitting flat, like a bird on its eggs to quat
_v.n._  to squat (It. _quatto_)

Qwerk _s._  the clock of a stocking

Rade, or Rede _s._  part of the tripe or stomach of a bullock, the maw

Raening _adj._  thin, applied to cloth

Raft-up _v._  to disturb from sleep

Rain-pie _s._  woodpecker, yuckle

Rake _v.n._  to rouse up

Rally _v._  to scold

Ram _v._  to lose, by throwing a thing beyond reach

Rammel _adj._  (raw milk), applied to cheese made of unskimmed milk

Rams-claws _s. p._  crow's foot

Rampsing _adj._  tall

Range _s._  a sieve

Rangle _v._  to twine, move in a sinuous manner

Rangling Plants _s._  such as entwine round other plants, as hops,

Rap _v._  to exchange

Rape _v._  to scratch

Rare _adj._  raw, or red, as meat

Rasty, Rusty _adj._  rancid, gross, obscene

Ratch _v._  to stretch

Rathe, Rather  early, soon  Milton: "the rathe primrose"

Rathe-ripe _s._  an early kind of apple; also a male or female that
arrives at full maturity before the usual age

Raught _part._ and _past tense_  reached, ex. E' raught down his gun

Rawn _v.a._  to devour greedily

Rawning-knife _s._  the large knife with which butchers clear their meat;

Rawny _adj._  thin, meagre

'Ray _v.a._  to dress.  Unray to undress

Read, Reed _v._  to strip the fat from the intestines

Readship, or Retchup, Rechip, Rightship _s._  truth, dependence,

Ream _v.a._  to widen, to open, to stretch _s._  an instrument or tool
for widening a hole (generally used for metals) _v.n._  to bear
stretching.  Reamy _adj._

Reams, Rames _s. pl._  the dead stalks of potatoes, &c.; skeleton (Query

Re-balling _s._  the catching of ells with earthworms (yeasses) attached
to a ball of lead

Reed _s._  wheat-straw prepared for thatching (w. of Parret)

Reen, or Rhine _s._  watercourse, or dyke; an open drain

Reeve _v.n._  to shrivel up, to contract into wrinkles

Remlet _s._  a remnant

Reneeg _v._  to withdraw from an engagement (Lat. _renegare_)  (Shaksp.
Ant. and Cleop. i. 5)

Rere-Mouse _s._  a bat (A S _hrere-mus_)

Revel-twine _s._  same as Hevel-twine

Revesse _s._  the burden of a song, from _vessey_, _v._  to make verses

Rew _s._  row _v._  to put grass in rows

Rexen _s. p._  rushes (A S _rixe_)

Rip _v._  to rate or chide

Riscous  applied to bread imperfectly baked

Robin-riddick, or Ruddock _s._  redbreast

Roddicks, Roddocks _s._  ex. Off the roddocks, as a cart off the grooves
of the axle

Rode _v.n._  to go out to shoot wild fowl which pass over head on the
wing early at night or in the morning; also applied to the passage of the
birds themselves, ex. The woodcocks' rode

Roe-briar _s._  the large dog-rose briar

Roller, Rawler, Brawler _s._  a bundle of reed, ex. As weak as a rawler

Rompstal _s._  a rude girl

Ronge _v._  to gnaw, to devour (Fr. _ronger_)

Room, Rhume _s._  scurf of the scalp

Root-chains _s._  main plough chains

Roozement _s._  a slip or falling-in of earth

Ropy _adj._  wine or other liquor is ropy when it becomes thick and
coagulated; also bread when a kind of second fermentation takes place in
warm weather

Rose _v.n._  to drop out from the pod or other seed-vessel when the seeds
are over ripe

Rose, Rooze-in _v._  to fall in, as the upper part of a quarry, or well

Round-dock _s._  the common mallow

Rouse-about _adj._  big, unwieldly

Rout _v._  to snore

Rowless _adj._  roofless.  A Rowless Tenement  an estate without a house

Rowsse _v._  to rush out with a great noise

Rozzim, Rozzums _s._  quaint sayings, low proverb

Ruck _v._  to couch down

    "What is mankind more unto you yhold
    Than is the shepe that rouketh in the fold."

                                                  (Chaucer, Knight's Tale)

Rudderish _adj._  rude, hasty

Ruge _v.n._  to hang in folds, to wrinkle (Lat. _rugae_)

Rungs, Rongs _s. pl._  the rounds of a ladder, also of a chair

Rushen _adj._  made of rushes

Sand-tot _s._  sand-hill

Sape _s._  sap of trees, juice of fruit.  Sapey _adj._  as fruit-tart

Sar, Sarve _v._  to earn wages

Scad _s._  a sudden and brief shower

Scamblin _s._  irregular meal

Scarry-whiff _adv._  askew

Scorse, Squoace, Squiss _v._  to exchange, barter

    "And there another, that would needsly scorse
    A costly jewel for a hobby-horse"

                                                     (Drayton's Moon Calf)

Scottle _v._  to cut into pieces wastefully

Scourge-mettle _s._  the instrument with which a boy whips his top

Scovin, Scubbin _s._  the neck and breast of lamb

Scrambed, Shrambed _adj._  deprived of the use of some limb by a nervous
contraction of the muscles; benumbed with cold

Scrint _v._  to scorch, singe; also to shrink a good deal in burning, as
leather, silk, &c.

Scun _v._  to reproach with the view of exposing to contempt or shame (A
S _scunian_, to shun, avoid)

Scurrick, Scurrig _s._  any small coin, a mere atom; ex. I havn't a
scurrick left

Scute _s._  a sum of money, a gratuity, the impress on ancient money,
from _scutem_, a shield.  So _ecu_, Fr., a crown; shilling, from A S
_scild_, a shield.  Chaucer uses _shildes_ for ecus, _i.e._, crowns

Seam _s._  a horse-load (A S _seam_)

Seed-lip _s._  a sower's seed basket

Seem, Zim _v._  to think, to be of opinion; ex. I do zim, or zim t' I

Seltimes _adv._  seldom

Sense _v._  to understand

Seven-sleeper _s._  dormouse

Shab _s._  itch or mange in brutes _adj._  Shabby

Shaff-Tuesday _s._  Shrove-Tuesday

Shalder _s._  rush, sedge growing in ditches

Sham _s._  a horse-hoe

Share, Sheare _s._  the quantity of grass cut at one harvest, a crop

Sharps _s._  shafts of a cart

Shaul _v._  to shell, to shed the first teeth

Shaw _v._  to scold sharply

Sheen _adj._  bright, shining

Sheer _s._  a sheath, ex. Scissis-sheer

Shelving-stone _s._  a blue tile or slate for covering the roofs of

Shod _part. of v. to shed_  ex. No use crying for shod milk

Showl _s._  for shovel

Shrig _v.a._  to shroud or trim a tree

Shrowd, Shride _s._  loppings of trees

Shuckning _adj._  shuffling

Shut _v._  to weld iron

Shuttles, Shittles _s._  floodgates

Sife, Sithe _v._ and _s._  to sigh

Sig _s._  urine (Dutch _v. zeycken_)

Silch, Sulch _v._  to soil, daub

Silker _s._  a court card

'Sim t' I  it seems to me

Simlin _s._  a kind of fine cake intended for toasts

Sin, Sine _conj._  since, because

Sinegar _s._  the plant stocks

Singlegus _s._  the orchis

Skag _s._  a rent, tear, wound

Skenter, Skinter _adj._  relaxed, as applied to oxen

Skiff-handed _adj._  awkward

Skiffle _s._  as to make a skiffle, to make a mess of any business

Skiffling _s._  the act of whittling a stick

Skilly _s._  oatmeal porridge

Skimps _s._  the scales and refuse of flax

Skimmerton-riding _s._  the effigy of a man or woman unfaithful to
marriage vows carried about on a pole accompanied by rough music from
cows'-horns and frying-pans.  Formerly it consisted of two persons riding
on a horse back to back, with _ladles_ and _marrow-bones_ in hand, and
was intended to ridicule a hen-pecked husband

Skir _v._  skim, mow lightly, as thistles

Skir-devil _s._  a black martin, swift

Skirrings _s._  hay made in pasture lands from the long grass left by the

Skitty _s._  a water-rail

Skitty-vamps _s._  laced half boots

Skred, Skride _v._  to stride

Slat, Slate _v._  to split, crack, crumble

Slate _s._  a sheep-run.  Slated _adj._  accustomed to, contented

Slerib _s._  a spare rib of pork

Sley  for "as lief," ex. I would sley do it as not

Sliden, Slidder, Slither _v._  to slide

Sliver _s._  a thin slice

Slock _v._  to encourage the servants of other people to pilfer

Slooen _adj._  of sloe, ex. A slooen tree

Slop _adj._  loose (Dutch _slap_)

Slope _v.n._  to decay, rot, as pears and potatoes

Srnitch, Smit, Smeech _s._  smut, or fine dust

Snag _s._  a tooth standing alone; a small sloe

Snag-blowth _s._  the blossom of the black-thorn

Snake-leaves _s._  ferns

Snap-jack _s._  stitch-wort (stellaria holostea)

Snare _s._  the gut or string stretched tightly across the lower head of
a drum

Snell, or Snull _s._  a short thick stick about 4 inches long, called a
"cat," used in the game called cat and dog

Sneyd _s._  the crooked handle of a scythe

Snicker, Snigger _v._  to laugh in an insulting way

Snoach _v._  to snuffle, to speak through the nose

Snoffer _s._  a sweetheart (Dutch _snoffen_, to sigh)

Snool _v._  to smear anything by rubbing the nose and mouth over it
(Dutch _snavel_, a snout)

Snop _s._  a sharp blow

Soce, Zuez _s. pl. voc._  friends (Query _socii_)

Sog, or Sug _s._  a morass.  Soggy _adj._  boggy; also as a verb, to be
sugged-out by the wet

Sowle _v._  to handle rudely, to hale or pull

    "He'll go, he says, and sowle the porter of Rome gates by the ears"

                                                    (Shaks. Coriol. iv. 5)

Spane _s._  the prong of a fork

Sparcled, Sparked, Spicotty _adj._  speckled

Spar-gad _s._  sticks split to be used for thatching

Sparrables, Spurbles _s._  shoemaker's nails, ex. Sparrable boots

Spars _s._  twisted hazel or willow for thatching

Spawl _v._  to scale away _s._  a scale broken off from the surface of a

Speard _s._  spade

Spine _s._  the sward or surface of the ground; the fat on the surface of
a joint of meat

Spinnick _s._  Spinnicking _adj._  a person every way diminutive

Spittle _v._  to dig lightly between crops

Splat _s._  a row of pins as sold in paper

Sprack, Spree, Spry _adj._  nimble, alert, active

Sprackles _s. pl._  spectacles

Sprank _v._  to sprinkle with water.  Spranker, Sprenker _s._  a

Spreathed _adj._  said of skin harsh and dry with cold, but not chapped

Spried, Spreed _adj._  chapped with cold

Spounce _v._  to spatter with water

Spuddle _v._  to be uselessly or triflingly busy

Spur _v._  to spread abroad or scatter, as manure over a field (Lat.

Squail _v._  to throw a short stick at anything.  Squailer _s._  the
stick used in squirrel hunting

Squails _s._  nine-pins

Squap _v._  to sit down without any employment

Squatch _s._  a chink or narrow clift

Squelstring _adj._  sultry

Squinny _v._  to squint "Dost thou squinny at me?"  (Shak. King Lear)

Squittee _v._  to squirt

Squoace, or Squss _v._  to truck or exchange

Staddle _s._  foundation of a rick of hay or corn, a mark left by a
haycock, or anything allowed to remain too long in one place

Stag _s._  a castrated bull

Stagnated _adj._  astonished

Stang _s._  a long pole

Stap _v._  for to stop

Stare-basin, Glow-basin _s._  glow-worm

Stean _v._  to stone a road.  Steaned  _part. s._  a large stone pitcher
(Dutch _steen_)

    "Upon an huge great earthpot stean he stood"

                                                   (Spenser, Faery Queene)

Steanin _s._  a stone-pitched ford

Steeve _v._  to dry, to stiffen (Dutch _styven_)

Stickle _s._  shallow rapids in a stream.  Steep _adj._  steep as a hill

Stitch _s._  a shock of corn, ten sheaves

Stive _v._  to keep close and warm

Stiver _s._  a bristling of the hair

Stocky _adj._  short, stumpy

Stodge _s._  thick slimy mud _adj._  miry; ex. "Pendummer, where the
Devil was stodged in the midst of zummer"

Stodged _adj._  stuffed with eating

Stool _s._  the stock of a tree cut for underwood

Stoor, Storr _v._  to stir, move actively (Dutch _stooren_)

Stomachy _adj._  proud, haughty

Stout _s._  a gnat-fly

Strablet _s._  a long, narrow strip

Strame _s._  a streak, mark, trace _v._  to trace (Dutch _stram_)

Straw-mote _s._  a bit of straw

Strickle _adj._  steep as the roof of a house

Strod _s._  a leathern buskin worn by peasants

Strout _v._  to strut, stand out stiff

    "Crowk was his hair, and as gold it shon
    And strouted as a fan large and brode"

                                                  (Chaucer, Miller's Tale)

Stub-shot _s._  the portion of the trunk of a tree which remains when the
tree is not sawn through

Stun-pole _s._  a stupid fellow

Stwon _s._  stone Stwonen _adj._

Suant _adj._  even, regular, applied to rows of beans or corn; grave as
applied to the countenance (Fr. _suivant_)

Sull _s._  plough-share (A S _sul_)

Suma _s._  a small cup made of blue and white stoneware

Surge _v._ and _s._  to bear heavily on, impetuous force

Swallow-pears _s._  service-pears, sorb-apples

Swather, or Swother _v._  to faint (A S _sweothrian_)

Sweem _v._  to swoon.  Sweemy, Sweemish _adj._  faint (Dutch _swiim_)

Sweet-harty _v._  to court.  Sweet-harting _s._  courtship

Swile _s._  soil, also Swoil-heap

Swill, Swell, Zwell _v._  to swallow

Tack _s._  a shelf, bacon-rack.  Clavy-tack chimney-piece

Taffety _adj._  nice in eating

Tallet _s._  the space next the roof in out-houses (Welsh _tavlod_)

Tame _v._  to cut, to have the first cut (Fr. _entamer_)

Tanbase _s._  unruly behaviour

Tan-day _s._  the second day of a fair

Tang _s._  to tie; that part of a knife which passes into the haft

Tave _v._  to throw the hands about wildly

Tavering _adj._  restless in illness

Tawl-down _v._  to strike or smooth down a cat's back

Teak _s._  a whitlow

Teap _s._  a point, peak

Teart _adj._  sharp, sour, painful

Ted _v._  to turn hay or flax to dry.  Ted-pole the pole used for the

Teg _s._  a last year's lamb not sheared

Teem _v._  to pour out

Terrible _adv._  intensitive, ex. Terrible good

Thic, Thicky, Thicky-there, Thickumy, Thickumy-there _pron._  that
(Chaucer _thilk_)

Thiller _s._  the shaft horse

Thill-harness  opposed to trace harness

Tho _adv._  then, ex. I couldn't go tho, but I went afterwards

Thong _v._  to stretch out into viscous threads or filaments

Thongy _adj._  viscid, ropy

Thornen _adj._  made of thorns

Thurt _v._  to thwart, to plough crossways

Thurt-handled _adj._  thwart-handled

Thurt-saw _s._  a thwart-saw, a cross-cut saw

Tilty _adj._  irritable, _i.e._, easily tilt or lifted up

Timmern _adj._  wooden

Timmersom _adj._  timorous

Tine _v._  to light, ex. Tine the candle (root of tinder) _v._  a tooth
as of rake or spear (A S _tine_)

Tine-in _v._  to shut, to enclose.  Tinings _s._  enclosures (A S

Tip-and-tail  heels over head

Titty-todger _s._  a wren

To  appended to adverbs, as where-to, to-home, to-year, to-week, as

Toak _v._  to soak

Toggers _s._  the handle-pieces of the scythe

Toke _v._  to glean apples

Toll _v._  to decoy, entice, ex. A bit o' cheese to toll down the bread

Toll-bird _s._  a decoy bird

Tongue, or Tonguey _v._  to talk immoderately

Tossity _adj._  drunken ('tossicated)

Tranter _s._  a carrier.  Coal-tranter a beggar

Trapes _s.v._  a slattern, to walk in the dirt

Trendle _s._  a brewer's cooler of an oval form

Trig _v._  to prop up _adj._  sound, firm, well in health, neat, tidy

Trig-to _v._  to open, set open, as a door

Trill _v._  to twirl

Trop intj.  used by riders to excite a dull horse

Tuck _v._  to touch

Tucker _s._  a fuller, also Tucking-mill

Tun _s._  upper part of the chimney

Tunnegar _s._  a wooden funnel

Tup _s._  a ram

Turmets, Turmits _s._  turnips

Turve _s._  turf

Tut _s._  a hassock

Tutty _s._  flower.  Tutty-more flower-root

Tut-work, Tuck-work _s._  piece-work

'T'war  it was

Twibill _s._  a sort of axe with bill of two forms

Twily _adj._  restless

Twink, or Pink _s._  a chaffinch

Twi-ripe, Twi-ripy _adj._  unequally ripe

Twistle, Twizzle _s._  that part of a tree where the branches divide from
the stock

Under-creepin _adj._  sneaking

Ungain (from gain)  unhandy

Unkit _et. id. adj._  lonely, dismal (A S _cwyde_, speech; _uncwyde_,
solitary, having no one to speak to)

Unray _v._  to undress, ex. I do ston to ray, and I do ston to unray

Untang _v._  to untie

Up, Uppy _v._  to arise, to get up

Uppin-stock, Lighting-stock _s._  a horse-block

Uppings _s._  perquisites

Upsighted _s._  a defect of vision rendering a person unable to look down

Ur, Hur _pron._  he, she, or it

Urn, Hurn _v._  to run (A S _yrnan_)

Utchy _pron._  I (Ger. _ich_)

Vage, Vaze _v._  to move about or run in such a way as to agitate the air

Valch _v._  to thrust with the elbow or fist

Vang _v._  to take or catch, to receive as well as earn wages; ex. To
vang a fire, to vang money; also to stand sponsor (A S _fangen_)

Vare _s._  weasel or stoat.  Vair ermine

Vare _v._  to bring forth young, applied to pigs (from farrow)

Varmint _s._  a vermin

Vaught _part._  fetched, hence the proverb

    vur vaught
    dear a-bought

Vawth _s._  a bank of dung or earth prepared for manure; litter of pigs

Vay, or Vie _v._  to go, to succeed, to turn out well (Fr. _va'tail_) ex.
How doe't vay wi'ye?

Veelvare, Veldevere _s._  field-fare

Vell _s._  a part of the stomach of a calf used for making cheese;

Vent, Vent-hole _s._  the wrist of a shirt, the button-hole

Verdi, Verdit _s._  opinion, ex. Thats my verdit therefor I zay 't

Vester _s._  a pin used to point out the letters to children learning to

Vier _s._  fire

Vig _v._  to rub gently by a quick motion of the finger forward and
backward (Dutch _ficken_)

Vinnid, Vinny _adj._  mouldy, as bread; humoursome, as a spoiled child;

Vitten, Vitty _adj._  fitly, featly, properly applied _s._  a whim or

Vleer _s._  flea

Vlother _s._  incoherent talk, nonsense

Voccating _adj._  going about chattering in an idle manner

Vore-right _adj._  blunt, rude, impertinent

Voss, Voth _s._  a side furrow

Vouce _adj._  strong, nervous

Vug _v._  to strike with the elbow _s._  a blow with the elbow

Vyer _s._  the fair, ex. Guaine to vyer?

W an initial W is often pronounced as in Welsh _oo_, ex. Walter, oolter;
witness, ootness; Wells, ools

Wallet _s._  brushwood, bramble-wood

Wamble, Wammel _v.n._  to move in an awkward manner, applied chiefly to

Want, Wont _s._  a mole

Want-wriggle _s._  mole-track

War _v. pret. of the verb_ "_to be_"  I war, he war, we war, &c.

Wash-dish _s._  the wag-tail

Wassail _v._  drinking success to the apple crop

Way-zaltin _s._  a play in which two persons standing back to back
interlace each others arms, and by bending forward alternately raise each
other from the ground

Weepy _adj._  moist, abounding in springs

Welch-nut _s._  walnut (Ger. _welsche-nuss_)

Well _s._  a running spring, a source (Ger. _quelle_, as distintinguished
from a wenk or wink)

Weng _s._  the front rack of the sull

Wevet _s._  a spider's web

Whippences _s._  bodkins or swingle-bars of a plough

Whipper-snapper _s._  a little, active, nimble fellow

Whipswhiles _s._  a short interval, as between the strokes of a whip

Whister-twister _s._  a smart blow on the side of the head

Whiver _v._  to hover, to flutter.  Whiver-minded _adj._  wavering

Widow-man _s._  a widower

Wim _v._  to winnow.  Wim-sheet, Wimmin-sheet, Wimmindust _s._

Windle, Windle-thrush _s._  red-wing

Wink _s._  an excavated or sunken well (Query supplied with a Winch?)

Wipes _s._  faggots for draining or fencing

Wisht _adj._  sad, untoward

Without  unless, except

Woek, Wuk _s._  oak

Woeks _s._  clubs on playing cards, from their shape

Wont-heeave, Want-snap _s._  a mole-hill, mole-trap

Wood-quist _s._  wood-pigeon, cushat

Wood-wall _s._  woodpecker

Worra _s._  part of the centre of the old spinning-wheel

Wosberd, Whisbird, Whosbird _s._  a term of reproach.

Wrede _v._  to spread abroad, as wheat is said to wrede when several
stalks shoot out of the ground from a single grain.

Wrick _v.s._  strain

Wride _v.n._  to stretch, to expand

Wring _s._  press, ex. A cider-wring

Writh-hurdles _s._  plated hurdles

Wrizzled, Wrizzly _adj._  shrivelled up, wrinkled

Yails _s._  the uprights in hurdles

Yal, Yalhouse, Yarm, Yel, &c. _s._  ale, alehouse, arm, eel, &c.

Yap _v._  to yelp like a cur

Yappingale, Yaffler, Yuckle _s._  woodpecker

Yeass _s._  an earthworm _pl._  yeasses

Yeo _s._  main drain of a level

Yeth _s._  hearth.  Yeth-stone  hearth-stone

Yoak _s._  the grease in wool

Yoaky _adj._  greasy, applied to wool as it comes from the sheep

Yokes _s._  hiccups

Yourn  yours

Yow _v._  to cut the stubble short, to cut with a hook

Zam _v.a._  to heat for some time over a fire, but not to boil

Zam-sod, Zam-sodden  half baked

Zand-tot _s._  sand hill

Zate _adj._  soft

Zatenfare _s._  softish, a foolish fellow

Zead _v._  for has seen

Zead _s._  seed.  Zead-lip  seed-lip

Zenvy _s._  wild mustard

Zinney _s._  sinews

Zwail _v._  to move about the arms extended, and up and down

Zwell _v._  to swallow

Zwodder _s._  a drowsy and stupid state of body and mind

Zwound _v._  to swoon

                  F. MAY, PRINTER, HIGH STREET, TAUNTON.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Glossary of Provincial Words & Phrases in use in Somersetshire" ***

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