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´╗┐Title: Mission Furniture - How to Make It, Part 2
Author: Windsor, H. H. (Henry Haven), 1859-1924
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Mission Furniture - How to Make It, Part 2" ***

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MISSION FURNITURE

How To Make It

PART TWO

Popular Mechanics Handbooks



Chicago
Popular Mechanics Company

Copyrighted, 1910
by H. H. Windsor



This book is one of the series of handbooks on industrial subjects being
published by the Popular Mechanics Co. Like the magazine, these books
are "written so you can understand it," and are intended to furnish
information on mechanical subjects at a price within the reach of all.

The texts and illustrations have been prepared expressly for this
Handbook Series, by experts; are up-to-date, and have been revised by
the editor of Popular Mechanics.

The dimensions given in the stock list contained in the description of
each piece of furniture illustrated in this book call for material
mill-planed, sanded and cut to length. If the workman desires to have a
complete home-made article, allowance must be made in the dimensions for
planing and squaring the pieces. S-4-S and S-2-S are abbreviations for
surface four sides and surface two sides.



Contents

   AN OAK BUFFET,   5

   OAK STAIN,  9

   A PLAIN OAK HALL CLOCK,  10

   A ROCKING CHAIR,  14

   A CURVED BACK ARM CHAIR,  18

   A PLATE RACK,  21

   TOOL FOR MARKING DOWEL HOLES,  23

   A MAGAZINE TABLE,  24

   A WASTE PAPER BASKET,  27

   AN OAK WRITING DESK,  29

   AN OAK COUCH WITH CUSHIONS,   33

   ELECTRIC SHADE FOR THE DINING ROOM,  37

   HOW TO BEND WOOD,  40

   A SMOKING STAND,  43

   A CHINA CLOSET,  47

   A LEATHER-COVERED FOOTSTOOL,  50

   ARTS-CRAFTS MANTEL CLOCK, 52

   A MUSIC STAND,  55

   MAKING SCREWS HOLD IN THE END,  58

   GRAIN OF WOOD,  58

   A WALL CASE WITH A MIRROR DOOR,  59

   A SIDE CHAIR,  62

   AN ARM CHAIR,  66

   A BOOKCASE,  70

   A LAMP STAND,  73

   AN EXTENSION DINING TABLE,  77

   AN OAK-BOUND CEDAR CHEST,  79

   A TOOL FOR MAKING MORTISES,  84

   A DRESSER FOR CHILD'S PLAYROOM,  85

   CUTTING TENONS WITH A HAND-SAW,  90

   ARTS AND CRAFTS OIL LAMP,  91

   ANOTHER CHINA CLOSET,  94

   AN OAK BEDSTEAD,  99

   AN OAK FOOTSTOOL,  101

   A LIBRARY SET IN PYRO-CARVING,  105

   A GRILLE WITH PEDESTALS TO MATCH,  107

   A LADY'S WRITING DESK,  108

   A TELEPHONE STAND AND STOOL,  112

   HOW TO MAKE A DOWEL-CUTTING TOOL,  115

   A MEDICINE CABINET,  116



List of Illustrations

   Finished Buffet,  5

   Details of Buffet,  5

   Hall Clock Complete, 11

   Details of Hall Clock, 11

   Rocking Chair Complete,  15

   Details of Rocking Chair, 15

   Arm Chair Having Bent-Wood Back, 19

   Details of Curved Back Arm Chair,  19

   Parts Held Together by Keys, 22

   Details of Plate Rack, 23

   Marking Bore Holes for Dowels, 24

   Table Complete, 25

   Details of Magazine Table, 27

   Illustration,  27

   Illustration, 29

   Detail of Writing Desk, 29

   Writing Desk Complete, 31

   Couch Complete, 34

   Details of Mission Couch, 35

   Details of Shade,  38

   Electric Shade Complete, 39

   Steaming Box, 41

   Hose Attached to Teakettle, 41

   Form Blocks, 41

   Smoking Stand Details, 43

   Finished Smoking Stand, 43

   Details of China Closet, 47

   China Closet Complete, 49

   Footstool Leather Covered,  51

   Details of Footstool, 52

   Mantel Clock with Wood and Copper Front, 53

   Details of Mantel Clock, 54

   Details of Music Stand, 55

   Music Stand Complete, 55

   Illustration, 58

   Wall Case Details, 60

   Case with Mirror Door, 61

   Side Chair Complete, 63

   Details of Side Chair, 64

   Arm Chair Complete, 67

   Details of Chair, 68

   Completed Bookcase, 70

   Details of Bookcase, 70

   Details of Lamp Stand, 74

   Electric Lamp Stand Complete, 75

   Extension Dining Table Complete, 77

   Details of Dining Table, 77

   Details of Cedar Chest, 79

   Cedar Chest Complete, 83

   Boring Holes for Tenons, 84

   Details of Dresser, 85

   Dresser Complete, 88

   Drawer Construction, 89

   Sawing Tenons, 91

   Artistic Mission Style Oil Lamp, 91

   Bronze Shade Holder, 91

   China Closet with Latticework Doors and Sides, 96

   Details of China Closet, 96

   Oak Bedstead Complete, 99

   Details of Oak Bedstead, 101

   Details of Footstool, 103

   Footstool Complete, 103

   Table and Seat Decorated in Pyro-Carving, 105

   Grille for an Arch, 107

   Details of Writing Desk, 109

   Desk Complete, 110

   Stand and Stool Complete,  112

   Details of Stand and Stool, 112

   Easy Way to Make Dowels, 116

   Medicine Cabinet Complete, 116

   Details of Medicine Cabinet,  117



AN OAK BUFFET


[Illustration: Finished Buffet]

[Illustration: Details of Buffet]

The accompanying sketch and detail drawing show a design of a buffet
wherein refinement of outline and harmony of details are conspicuously
regarded. Quarter-sawed oak is the most suitable wood for this handsome
piece of mission furniture. The material should be ordered from the mill
ready cut to length, squared and sanded. Following is a list of the
stock needed:

  2 back posts, 2 by 2 by 47-3/4 in.
  2 front posts, 2 by 2 by 45-1/2 in.
  4 rails, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 50-1/2 in.
  2 end rails, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 18-1/2 in.
  4 end rails, 3/4 by 4 by 18-1/2 in.
  4 pieces for end panel, 3/4 by 3-1/2 by 21 in.
  2 panels, 3/8 by 12 by 21 in.
  1 top board, 3/4 by 17-1/2 by 47-1/4 in.
  1 back board, 3/4 by 11-1/2 by 47-1/4 in.
  1 shelf board, 3/4 by 2 by 46 in.
  2 brackets, 1 by 2 by 7-3/4 in.
  4 pieces for doors, 3/4 by 4 by 11 in.
  2 panels, 3/8 by 11 by 17-1/2 in.
  1 piece for drawer, 3/4 by 8 by 22-1/2 in.
  1 piece for drawer, 3/4 by 7-1/2 by 22-1/2 in.
  1 piece for drawer, 3/4 by 7 by 22-1/2 in.
  2 pieces, 1/2 by 8 by 19-1/4 in.; soft wood.
  2 pieces, 1/2 by 7-1/2 by 19-1/4 in.; soft wood.
  2 pieces, 1/2 by 7 by 19-1/4 in.; soft wood.
  1 piece, 1/2 by 8 by 19-1/4 in.; soft wood.
  1 piece, 1/2 by 7-1/2 by 19-1/4 in.; soft wood.
  1 piece, 1/2 by 7 by 19-1/4 in.; soft wood.
  1 bottom board, 3/4 by 17-1/2 by 47-1/4 in.; soft wood.
  2 partitions (several pieces), 3/4 by 20 by 24-3/4 in.
  2 front pieces, 3/4 by 2 by 23 in.
  2 back pieces. 3/4 by 2 by 23 in.; soft wood.
  2 side pieces, 3/4 by 2 by 21-1/2 in.; soft wood.
  1 back (several pieces), 3/8 by 25 by 46 in.
  1 mirror frame (to suit mirror).
  X/

Start to work on the four posts by squaring them up to the proper length
in pairs and beveling the tops as shown. Clamp all four pieces on a flat
surface with the bottom ends even, then lay out the mortises for the
rails and panels on all four pieces at once with a try-square. This
insures getting the mortises all the same height. The back posts also
have a mortise cut in them at the top for the back board as shown. Lay
out the tenons on the ends of the front and back rails in the same
manner. Cut them to fit the mortises in the posts, also rabbet the back
rails for the backing. Cut tenons on the end rails and rabbet them and
the side pieces for the panels.

Lay out the top and bottom boards to the proper size and notch the
corners to fit about the posts. These boards are fastened to the
1-1/2-in. square rails with dowels and glue. They can now be glued
together and set away to dry. The top board is of oak, and be sure to
get the best side up, while the bottom one can be made of soft wood if
desired.

The partitions are made of several boards glued together. Be careful to
get an oak board on the outer edge. The drawer slides are set into the
partitions as shown and are fastened in place with screws from the
inside.

The top back board has a tenon on each end that fits into the mortises
in the back posts and is rounded at the top as shown. The shelf is also
rounded at the ends and is fastened to the back with screws.

A plate glass mirror should be provided for the back. This is fitted to
the back board as shown, then the brackets put up at the ends of the
mirror frame.

The main parts are now ready to be assembled and glued together. Before
applying any glue, see that all the joints fit together perfectly. The
end rails and the panels are glued together first and allowed to dry. Be
very careful to get the parts clamped together perfectly square and
straight, else you will have trouble later on. When these ends are dry
slip them on the tenons on the front and back rails which are already
fastened to the top and bottom boards.

The back board and the partitions must be in place when this is done.
Pin and glue the joints and clamp the whole together square and leave to
dry.

The doors are now made by mortising the top and bottom pieces to take
the 3/8-in. panel which is glued in place. The drawers are made as shown
in the sketch. The front board should be oak, but the remainder can be
made of soft wood. The joints are nailed and glued. Suitable hinges for
the doors and handles for the drawers should be provided. Antique copper
trimmings look very well with this style of furniture and can be secured
at most any hardware store.

The back is made of soft wood and is put on in the usual manner. Scrape
all surplus glue from about the joints, as stain will not take where
there is any glue. Finish smooth with fine sandpaper, then apply the
stain you like best. This can be any one of the many mission stains
supplied by the trade for this purpose.



OAK STAIN


An easy and at the same time a good way to stain oak in imitation of the
fumed effect, is to boil catechu in the proportion of 1/4 lb. to 6 lb.
of water, after which cool and strain. Apply this to the wood, and when
dry treat with a solution of bichromate of potash in the same proportion
as with the catechu. Bichromate of potash alone in water will give a
good stain. A solution of 2 oz. of pearl ash and 2 oz. of potash mixed
in a quart of water makes a good stain. Potash solution darkens the
wood, and when applied very strong will produce an almost ebon hue, due
to what we might describe as the burning of the wood fiber.



A PLAIN OAK HALL CLOCK


The hall clock shown in the illustration should be made of plain oak.
The following pieces will be needed to make it:

   2 back posts, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 81 in., S-4-S.
   2 front posts, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 21 in., S-4-S.
   2 front posts, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 44 in., S-4-S.
  10 front and back horizontals, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 15 in., S-4-S.
  10 side horizontals, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 11 in., S-4-S.
   1 face, 3/8 by 14 by 14 in., S-4-S.

FRONT DOORS

  4 rails, 3/4 by 1-1/2 by 18 in., S-4-S.
  4 stiles, 3/4 by 1-1/2 by 12 in., S-4-S.
  4 horizontal mullions, 3/16 by 3/4 by 11 in., S-4-S.
  4 horizontal mullions, 3/16 by 5/8 by 11 in., S-4-S.
  4 vertical mullions, 3/16 by 3/4 by 15 in., S-4-S.
  2 vertical mullions, 3/16 by 5/8 by 15 in., S-4-S.

BACK

  1 piece, 3/8 by 14 by 21 in., S-4-S.
  2 pieces, 3/8 by 14 by 18 in., S-4-S.
  4 horizontal mullions, 3/16 by 5/8 by 14 in., S-4-S.
  4 vertical mullions, 3/16 by 5/8 by 20 in., S-4-S.

TOP SIDE PANELS

  2 pieces, 3/8 by 9-1/2 by 14 in., S-4-S.
  8 horizontal mullions, 3/16 by 5/8 by 9-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  6 vertical mullions, 3/16 by 5/8 by 14 in., S-4-S.
  2 middle side panels, 3/4 by 9-1/2 by 20 in., S-2-S.

LOWER SIDE PANELS

  8 vertical mullions, 3/16 by 3/4 by 18 in., S-4-S.
  8 vertical mullions, 3/16 by 5/8 by 18 in., S-4-S.
  8 horizontal mullions, 3/16 by 3/4 by 9-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  8 horizontal mullions, 3/16 by 5/8 by 9-1/2 in., S-4-S.

If the worker will take the trouble to combine the different lengths of
pieces having like thicknesses and widths into pieces of standard
lengths, he will be able to save himself some expense at the mill with
no more work for himself.

Begin work by shaping the ends of the posts as indicated in the drawing.
Lay out and cut the mortises for the tenons of the horizontals or rails.
These mortises need not be deep if the joints are to be reinforced later
with lag screws as is the clock shown. They may be what are known as
stub tenons and mortises. The tenons are not more than 1/2 in. long,
just enough to keep the rail from turning about.

Next lay out and cut the tenons on the rails. Bore the holes for the lag
screws, being careful to bore on adjacent surfaces so that the holes
will miss each other. Use a 3/8 by 3-in. lag screw, boring the hole in
the tenon with a 1/4-in. bit the full depth the screw is to enter.

The side panels should be fitted into grooves in the rails, and before
the frame is put together these panels should be squared up and the
grooves cut in the rails and posts at the proper places.

[Illustration: Hall Clock Complete]

[Illustration: Details of Hall Clock]

The mullions of the lower side panels, it will be noted, are specified
5/8 and 3/4 in. wide. The 5/8-in. pieces are for the central parts of
the frame and the others for the outside. The frame is to be made 1/8
in. larger all around than the distance between the posts and between
the rails so that it may be set in grooves cut in the posts and the
rails to a similar depth, 1/8 in. This is true, also, of the mullions of
the front doors. Square up the shelves so that they may be set into
grooves in the adjacent rails. The middle shelf is to have an overhang
and will rest upon the rails.

The mullions of the top side panels are all of the same width, and it is
not intended or necessary to set their frame into grooves in the posts.
The wood panel back of them gives ample strength.

It is a good plan not to groove the panel upon which the figures are
placed, and which becomes the face of the clock. It is better to fit
this piece in and fasten metal or wood buttons on the back side so that
it can be readily taken off to get at the clock movement from the front.

Make the doors, tenoning the rails into the stiles and grooving both to
receive the mullioned framework of 3/16-in. stuff.

Put the whole frame together, using good hot glue for the joints. When
the glue has dried sufficiently to allow the clamps to be taken off, fit
the doors and hinge them. Butterfly surface hinges look well and are the
easiest to apply.

Thoroughly scrape all the surplus glue off and sandpaper the parts
preparatory to applying the finish.

To finish, apply one coat of mission oak water stain. When dry,
sandpaper lightly, using No. 00 paper. Apply a second coat, diluted with
an equal amount of water. Sand this lightly and put on a very thin coat
of shellac to keep the filler color, which follows, from discoloring the
high lights. When the shellac has had time to harden, sand lightly and
put on a coat of paste filler. Use light filler, colored with umber and
Venetian red in the proportion of 12 oz, of umber, and 4 oz. of red to
20 lb. of filler. The directions for applying the filler will be found
on the can labels. On the hardened filler apply a thin coat of shellac.
Sand the shellac lightly and put on several coats of some good floor
wax, polishing well according to the directions on the can. This is what
is known as a mission oak finish and is quite popular for this type of
furniture design.

The metal figures for the dial come with the clock movement. Some of the
movements come already set in boxes of wood so that all one needs to do
is to shape the projecting ends of the wood containing boxes and fasten
them to the frame with screws from the back. A clock with dial figures,
eight-day movement, striking the hours and half hours, with cathedral
gong can be bought for $4, possibly less.



A ROCKING CHAIR


In furniture construction such as this, nothing is gained by trying to
plane up the stock out of the rough. This is mere drudgery and can be
more cheaply and easily done at the planing mill by machinery. There
will be plenty to do to cut and fit all the different parts. Order the
pieces mill-planed and sandpapered to the sizes specified below.

Plain sawed red oak takes a mission finish nicely and is appropriate.
Some people like quartered white oak better, however. The cost is about
the same.

The stock for the chair is as follows: Widths and thicknesses are
specified exact except for the rear posts and the rockers; but to the
lengths enough surplus stock has been added to allow for squaring the
ends.

  2 front posts, 1-5/8 by 2-1/4 by 22-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  2 back posts, 1-5/8 by 11 by 40 in., S-2-S.
  1 front horizontal, 3/4 by 3-1/2 by 22 in., S-4-S.
  1 back horizontal, 3/4 by 3-1/2 by 20 in., S-4-S.
  2 back horizontals, 3/4 by 3-1/2 by 20 in., S-4-S.
  2 side horizontals, 3/4 by 3-1/2 by 20 in., S-4-S.
  2 back slats, 5/16 by 3-1/2 by 20 in., S-4-S.
  2 arms, 1 by 4-1/2 by 25 in., S-2-S.
  1 rocker, 2-1/4 by 6 by 33 in., S-2-S.
  5 bottom slats, 3/4 by 2-1/2 by 19-1/2 in., S-4-S.

[Illustration: Rocking Chair Complete]

[Illustration: Details of Rocking Chair]

Begin work on the posts first. The front posts should have one end of
each squared, after which they can be cut to the exact length. The
rear posts, according to the stock bill, are specified for the exact
thickness. By exercising forethought, both may be got from the piece
ordered. The tops and bottoms of the posts should have their edges
slightly chamfered to prevent their slivering.

The shape of the arm is a little out of the ordinary, but the drawing
indicates quite clearly how it is cut. The arm is fastened to the posts
by means of dowels and glue after the other parts of the chair have been
put together.

Now prepare the curved parts of the back. These parts are worked to
size, after which they are thoroughly steamed and bent in the forms
described on another page. These forms should have a surface curve whose
radius is 22 in. While the parts are drying out, go ahead with the
cutting of the mortises and tenons of post and rail.

Inasmuch as the width of the front of the chair exceeds that of the back
by 2 in., allowance must be made for slant either in the tenons of the
side rails or in the mortises. This will necessitate the use of the
bevel in laying off the shoulders of the tenons.

The slats for the bottom are made long enough so that their ends may be
"let into" the front and back rails, a 3/4-in. groove being plowed to
receive them.

Assemble the back, then the front; and when the glue on them has dried,
put the side rails in place, then the arms. The chair should now be
scraped and sandpapered preparatory to applying the finish.

The cushion shown in the picture is made of Spanish roan skin leather
and is filled with elastic felt. Such cushions can be purchased at the
upholsterer's or they can be made by the craftsman himself. Frequently
the two parts of the cushion are laced together by means of leather
thongs.



A CURVED BACK ARM CHAIR


The arm chair, the picture and drawing of which is given herewith is a
companion piece to the rocker described on another page.

With the exception of the back-legs the stock bill which follows gives
the thicknesses and widths exact. To the length, however, enough has
been added to allow squaring up the ends.

Plain sawed white or red oak will be suitable for a design such as this.

  Front posts, 2 pieces, 1-5/8 by 2-1/4 by 26 in., S-4-S.
  Back posts, 1 piece, 1-5/8 by 8 by 45 in., S-2-S.
  Front horizontals, 2 pieces, 3/4 by 3-1/2 by 21-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  Rear horizontals, 4 pieces, 3/4 by 3-1/2 by 19-1/4 in., S-4-S.
  Side horizontals, 4 pieces, 3/4 by 3-1/2 by 19-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  Back slats, 2 pieces, 5/16 by 3-1/2 by 19-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  Arms, 2 pieces, 1-1/8 by 4 by 24 in., S-4-S.
  Seat slats, 5 pieces, 1/2 by 2-1/4 by 20 in., S-4-S.

Begin work by squaring up the ends of the front posts and shaping the
rear ones Chamfer the ends of the tops and bottoms slightly so that they
shall not splinter through usage. Next lay out the mortises and tenons.

The curved horizontals for the back should now be prepared and steamed
as described on another page. The curved form to which the steamed piece
is to be clamped to give shape to it should be curved slightly more than
is wanted in the piece, as the piece when released will tend to
straighten a little.

The arms of the chair may be shaped while these pieces are drying on the
forms. The rails of the front and back may be tenoned, too. It should
be noted that the front of the chair is wider than the back. This will
necessitate care in mortising and tenoning the side rails so as to get
good fits for the shoulders The bevel square will be needed in laying
out the shoulders of the tenons.

[Illustration: Arm Chair Having Bent-Wood Back]

[Illustration: Details of Curved Back Arm Chair]

Assemble the back, then the front. When the glue has hardened on these
parts so that the clamps may be removed, put in the side rails or
horizontals and again adjust the clamps. The arms are to be fastened
to the posts with dowels and glue.

The seat, it will be seen from the drawing, is to be a loose leather
cushion to rest upon slats. These seat slats may be fastened to cleats
which have been previously fastened to the inside of the front and back
seat rails or they may be "let in" to these rails by grooving their
inner surfaces before the rails have been put in place. The latter
method is more workmanlike, but more difficult.

A cushion such as is shown can be purchased ready made up, or it may be
made by the amateur by lacing together two pieces of Spanish leather cut
to size and punched along the edges so as to allow a lacing of leather
thong. It may be filled with hair or elastic felt such as upholsterers
use.

Probably the simplest finish that can be used is weathered oak. Put on a
coat of weather oak oil stain, sandpaper lightly when dry and then put
on a very thin coat of shellac. Sand this lightly and follow with two or
more coats of floor wax put on in very thin coatings and polished well.



A PLATE RACK


The plate rack shown in the accompanying illustration is designed for
use in a room furnished in mission style. The dimensions may be changed
to suit the wall space. The parts are held together entirely by keys.
The bar across the front is for keeping the plates from falling out, but
this may be left out if the plates are allowed to lean against the wall.

The following list of material will be needed, and, if the builder does
not care to do the rough work, the stock can be ordered planed, sanded
and cut to the exact size of the dimensions given.

  2 ends, 7/8 by 5 by 20 in.
  1 top, 7/8 by 6 by 36 in.
  1 shelf, 7/8 by 5 by 36 in.
  1 bar, 7/8 in. square by 36 in.
  4 keys. Scrap pieces will do.

Lay out and cut the mortises on the end pieces for the tenons of the
shelf, also the tenons on the top ends and the diamond shaped openings.
In laying these out, work from the back edge of the pieces. Cut the
tenons on the ends of the shelf to fit the mortises in the end pieces,
numbering each one so the parts can be put together with the tenons in
the proper mortises. Mark out and cut the mortises in the top to receive
the tenons on the end pieces.

[Illustration: Parts Held Together by Keys]

In laying out the mortises for the keys allow a little extra on the side
toward the shoulder so the ends and tops may be drawn up tightly when
the keys are driven in the mortises. All the mortises and diamond
shaped openings should be marked and cut with a chisel from both sides
of the board.

If the bar is used, it may be attached with a flat side or edge out as
shown.

[Illustration: Details of Plate Rack]

Finish the pieces separately with any weathered or fumed oak stain. When
thoroughly dry, apply a very thin coat of shellac. Finish with two coats
of wax. The rack can be attached to the wall by two mirror plates
fastened on the back edges of the end pieces.



TOOL FOR MARKING DOWEL HOLES


On some work it is quite difficult to locate the exact point for a
dowel, but with the tool illustrated placed between the joint to be made
and the parts gently pressed together you have the exact point for the
dowel in each piece. The tool is made from a piece of sheet steel about
1/2 in. square with a pin having a point on both ends driven in the
center, as shown in Fig. 1. The tool is placed between the pieces that
are to be joined, as shown in Fig. 2. The small pin will mark the point
for the bit in both pieces exactly opposite.

[Illustration: Marking Bore Holes for Dowels]



A MAGAZINE TABLE


This little magazine table will be found a very useful piece of
furniture for the den or library. Its small size permits it to be set
anywhere in a room without being in the way. Quarter-sawed oak should be
used in its construction, and the following pieces will be needed:

  4 legs, 2 by 2 by 29 in., S-4-S.
  4 end slats, 1/2 by 2 by 10 in., S-4-S.
  1 shelf, 1 by 16 by 30 in., S-1-S.
  1 top board, 1 by 18 by 36 in., S-1-S.

If you are convenient to a planing mill you can secure these pieces
ready cut to length, squared and sanded. This will save you considerable
labor.

The four legs are finished on all sides and chamfered at the bottom to
prevent the corners from splitting. The mortises for the shelf should
be cut 9 in. from the top of each leg, as shown in the sketch. Care
should be taken to make these a perfect fit.

[Illustration: Table Complete]

The shelf should be finished on the top side and the four edges, and the
corners cut out to fit the mortises in the table legs. An enlarged view
of this joint is shown in the sketch.

The top board may have to be made of two 9-in. boards, dove-tailed and
glued together. It should be finished on the top side and the edges. The
edges can be beveled if desired. The board is fastened to the legs by
means of screws through four small brass angles. These angles can be
made or they can be purchased at any hardware store.

[Illustration: Details of Magazine Table]

The top board and the shelf should be mortised at each end for the 1/2
by 2-in. slats. These slats should be finished on all sides.

The table is now ready to be assembled and glued together. The glue
should dry at least 24 hours before the clamps are removed.

After the glue is dry, carefully go over the entire table with fine
sandpaper and remove all surplus glue and rough spots. It can now be
finished in any one of the mission stains which are supplied by the
trade for this purpose.



A WASTE PAPER BASKET


A waste paper basket of pleasing design, and very easy to construct, is
shown in the accompanying sketch. Quarter-sawed oak is the best wood to
use, and it is also the easiest to obtain. The following pieces will be
needed:

   1 bottom piece, 3/4 by 9 in. square.
   4 corner pieces, 3/4 in. square by 15-1/2 in.
   4 top rails, 3/4 in. square by 7-1/2 in.
  12 slats, 1/4 by 3/4 by 16-1/4 in.
   4 blocks, 1 in. square.
   4 F.H. screws, 2-1/2 in. long.
  24 R.H. screws, 3/4 in. long.

[Illustration: A WASTE PAPER BASKET]

If the pieces are ordered from the mill cut to length, squared and
sanded, much labor will be saved. First bevel the ends of the corner
posts and the slats, as shown, and finish them with sandpaper. Bore the
holes in the posts and the railing for the dowel pins. These pins should
be about 3/8 in. in diameter and 3/4 in. long. When this is done the
parts can be glued together and laid aside to dry. The four blocks 1 in.
square are for the feet. Bore holes through these blocks and the corners
of the bottom board for the large screws to go through. Fasten them
together by running the screws through the blocks, and the board into
the ends of the corner posts as shown in the sketch. The 1/4-in. slats
can now be fastened on with the small round-headed screws. They should
be evenly spaced on the four sides. This completes the basket except for
the finish. This can be any one of the many finishes supplied by the
trade for this purpose.

[Illustration: DETAILS OF WASTE PAPER BASKET]



AN OAK WRITING DESK


For the writing desk shown in the accompanying picture the following
stock will be needed. The thicknesses of all the pieces are specified.
On the legs the widths, too, are specified. Quarter-sawed white oak is
the best wood to use, and it should be well seasoned and clear of shakes
and other imperfections.

STOCK BILL

  2 front posts, 1-5/8 by 1-5/8 by 34 in., S-4-S., oak.
  2 back posts, 1-5/8 by 1-5/8 by 42 in., S-4-S., oak.
  2 lower side rails, 3/4 by 3-1/4 by 15 in., S-2-S., oak.
  1 lower back rail, 3/4 by 3-1/4 by 27 in., S-2-S., oak.
  2 sides, 3/4 by 9 by 14 in., S-2-S., oak.
  2 sides, 3/4 by 10-1/2 by 14 in., S-2-S., oak.
  1 back, 3/4 by 9 by 26 in., S-2-S., oak.
  1 back, 3/4 by 10-1/2 by 26 in., S-2-S., oak.
  1 top, 3/4 by 6 by 30-in., S-2-S., oak.
  1 lid, 3/4 by 15 by 28 in., S-2-S., oak.
  2 side shelves, 3/4 by 5 by 16 in., S-2-S., oak.
  4 braces, 3/4 by 1-1/4 by 9 in., S-2-S., oak.
  1 bottom of case, 3/4 by 16 by 28 in., S-2-S., oak.

INTERIOR

  1 piece, 3/4 by 16 by 27 in., S-2-S., oak.
  4 drawer and case bottom supports, 3/4 by 2-1/2 by 28 in., S-2-S., oak.
  6 drawer and case bottom supports, 3/4 by 2-1/2 by 16 in., S-2-S., oak.
  4 drawer guides, 3/4 by 3/4 by 16 in., S-2-S., oak.

DRAWERS

  2 front pieces, 3/4 by 7-1/2 by 13 in., S-2-S., oak.
  4 side pieces, 3/8 by 7-1/2 by 16 in., S-2-S., poplar.
  2 back pieces, 3/8 by 7 by 12 in., S-2-S., poplar.
  2 bottom pieces, 3/8 by 16 by 12 in., S-2-S., poplar.

PIGEON HOLES

  1 bottom, 3/16 by 7-1/4 by 27 in., S-2-S., poplar.
  1 top, 3/16 by 4-1/2 by 27 in., S-2-S., poplar.
  4 verticals, 3/16 by 7-1/4 by 10 in., S-2-S., poplar.
  1 vertical, 3/16 by 4-1/2 by 4 in., S-2-S., poplar.
  5 horizontals, 3/16 by 7-1/2 by 9 in., S-2-S., poplar.
  2 horizontals, 4-1/2 by 9 in., S-2-S., poplar.

DRAWERS IN PIGEON HOLES

  2 front, 3/8 by 2-1/4 by 9 in., S-2-S., poplar.
  4 sides, 3/16 by 2-1/4 by 7-1/4 in., S-2-S., poplar.
  2 backs, 3/16 by 2-1/4 by 9 in., S-2-S., poplar.
  2 bottoms, 3/16 by 7-1/4 by 9 in., S-2-S., poplar.

[Illustration: Detail of Writing Desk]

Begin work by cutting the posts to length and shape. Having done this,
lay out the tenons on the lower rails so as to have the required
distances between the shoulders, and then cut them. Now cut the parts
to be worked into the frames that support the drawer and bottom of the
case, and glue them properly. While this is drying, the other parts of
the case may be laid out and shaped. It is intended that the sides of
the case shall splice on the edge of the bottom of the pigeon hole case.
In this manner the side shelves will cover the joint on either end. The
back may be made up into one solid piece. Make the side pieces of the
case long enough to be housed into the posts about 3/8 in. at each end.

[Illustration: Writing Desk Complete]

The shelves at the ends of the desk should be fastened after the frame
is put together and before the bottom of the case for the pigeon holes
is fitted and fastened. In so doing the shelves may be fastened from the
inside of the case. The angles of the braces are 30-60 deg. It will be
noted that the edges of the lid are rabbeted. Another way is to have the
lid large enough to fit entirely over the sides of the case and change
the slope to correspond.

The drawers may be made next. The fronts should be of oak, but the other
parts of yellow poplar. An examination of an ordinary drawer will show
the manner of construction.

Make the frame of the pigeon holes of 3/16-in. yellow poplar. The
drawing shows an arrangement entirely independent of the sides of the
desk so that the frame can be made and slipped in place after the finish
has been put on. Two drawers are shown. These are faced front and back
alike so as to secure as much room in the drawer as possible.

In the finishing, the poplar wood should be finished with white shellac
in the natural light color of the wood. For the oak parts the following
is appropriate for this design: Apply one coat of green Flemish water
stain. When this has dried, sandpaper lightly until the raised grain has
been removed, and apply another coat of stain diluted one-half with
water. When dry, sand lightly and apply a very thin coat of shellac.
Sand lightly and apply a coat of dark filler, natural filler colored
with lamp-black, according to the somberness of the finish desired. Upon
this put a coat of orange shellac. After this, put on two coats of a
good rubbing varnish. Rub the first coats with curled hair or haircloth
and the last with pulverized pumice stone and raw linseed oil or crude
oil.



AN OAK COUCH WITH CUSHIONS


This beautiful piece of mission furniture can be made at a very moderate
cost, if the material used for the cushions is of good imitation
leather. These substitutes for leather last fully as long and the
difference can only be detected by an expert. White oak will give the
best results except for the frames or slats on which the cushions rest
and these may be made of poplar or pine. If a mill or woodworking shop
of any kind is handy, the hardest part of the work can be saved by
securing the following list of material, cut, planed, sanded and squared
up to the exact sizes given:

  2 posts, 3 in. square by 17 in.
  2 posts, 3 in. square by 26 in.
  2 rails, 7/8 by 8 by 82 in.
  1 rail, 7/8 by 8 by 25 in.
  1 end, 7/8 by 18 by 25 in.
  1 piece, 7/8 by 9 by 24-1/2 in.

The last piece on the list when sawed diagonal makes the two slanting
pieces at the head of the couch. The corner braces are made from two
pieces of straight-grained oak, 2 by 4-1/2 by 4-1/2 in., sawed on the
diagonal, and cut as shown in the enlarged plan section to make the four
pieces.

First be sure the legs are perfectly square, the two short ones and the
two long ones of equal length respectively. Either chamfer or round the
upper ends as desired, chisel and plane the taper on the lower ends. Lay
out and cut all the tenons on the rails--1 in. is the amount allowed at
each end in the stock dimensions given. Arrange the posts and rails in
the positions they are to occupy in the finished couch. Number each
tenon and the place its corresponding mortise is to be cut in the post.
Mark each mortise directly from the tenon which is to fit into it,
taking care to have all the rails an equal distance from the floor. Bore
and chisel out all mortises and see that all the rails fit perfectly,
before proceeding with the work.

[Illustration: Couch Complete]

The next step will be to fit in the slanting side pieces at the head of
the couch. These must be let into the long posts 1/2 in. and held also
by a dowel in the side rail. In order to get these pieces into place,
the mortise in the long post must be made 1/2 in. longer than the tenon
on the sloping side piece so the tenon may be first pushed into the
mortise and then the side clamped down on the rail over the dowel. The
whole couch should fit together perfectly before gluing any of the
parts.

Glue the end parts together first. Hot glue will hold best if the room
and lumber are warm; if these cannot be had, use cold glue. After the
ends have set for at least 24 hours, glue in place the side rails and
slanting head pieces. Screw in place the corner braces. Be sure when
making these braces to have the grain running diagonally across the
corner, or the brace will be weak, also, be sure the sides are square
with the ends; this may be determined by measuring the diagonals to find
if they are equal.

If it is decided to use frames for the cushions, then the following
material will be necessary:

  2 pieces, 7/8 by 2 by 56 in.
  2 pieces, 7/8 by 2 by 25 in.
  4 pieces 7/8 by 2 by 21 in.

This material may be of pine or poplar. These pieces are made into two
frames as shown in the drawing and held together with long screws or
nails. Fasten with glue and screw short blocks on the inside of the
couch rails for holding the two frames in place. Tack pieces of cheap
burlap across the frame and cover with ordinary black cambric. This will
give a strong, springy rest for the cushions.

Should slats be used instead of frames for holding the cushions, then
the following list of material should be substituted for the frame
material list:

  2 cleats, 7/8 by 2 by 56 in.
  2 cleats, 7/8 by 2 by 25 in.
  12 slats, 3/4 by 5 by 25 in.

[Illustration: Details of Mission Couch]

The materials listed may be of soft wood the same as for the frame. The
cleats are fastened to the inside of the rails of the couch with
screws, so the top edge will be 2 in. lower than the top edge of the
rails. The slats are spaced evenly on these cleats.

After the glue is all set, remove the clamps and scrape off any glue
that may be on the wood. If this glue is not removed it will keep the
stain from entering the wood, which will show up when finished in white
spots.

This couch may be stained in any of the shades of brown or dark to
harmonize with its lines of construction. A water stain will penetrate
the wood best and after this is applied and thoroughly dried the surface
should be well sanded to remove the roughness of the raised grain. Apply
one coat of thin shellac and when this is dry, put on two coats of wax.

In making up the cushions, use either hair or elastic felt for the
filling.



ELECTRIC SHADE FOR THE DINING ROOM


The dining shade shown is constructed of wood and glass. There will be
needed the following:

  8 pieces, 3/4 by 3/4 by 24 in., S-4-S, oak.
  4 pieces, 3/4 by 3/4 by 4 in., S-4-S, oak.
  4 pieces, 3/4 by 3/4 by 10-1/2 in., S-4-S, oak.
  4 pieces, 3/8 by 3/4 by 23 in., S-4-S, oak.
  8 pieces, 3/8 by 3/4 by 10 in., S-4-S, oak.
  4 pieces, 3/8 by 3/4 by 9 in., S-4-S, oak.
  1 piece, 3/4 by 8 by 8 in., S-4-S, oak.

Begin work by shaping the ends of the longest pieces as shown in the
drawing. All the angles are 45 deg. Next lay out the cross-lap joints at
the corners so that two sets of horizontal frames shall be formed 23 by
23 in. Cut four pieces to a length of 3 in. each. Also shape up the
"false" extensions of these pieces which are to be fastened below the
lower frame at the corners. Since these are to be cut from the pieces
just specified, the easiest way is to shape the end of each to the
required angle and then crosscut. Rabbet these pieces sufficient to
allow the art glass to set in on the back sides and be fastened--about
1/4 in. will do--and put them together with glue and brads.

[Illustration: Details of Shade]

Now make the top square in a similar manner, except the rabbets. In this
top square is to be fitted the 3/4-in. board which is to hold the lights
and to which the chains are to be fastened.

The sloping sides are next to be made. The sides are to be built up
separately, the corners being lapped and glued after rabbeting the under
arrises sufficient to let the glass in. The four sides are mitered
together at their edges and reinforced by covering the joint with
copper.

These sides are next mitered to the top and bottom frames and made fast
on the under sides with copper strips, glue being used on the edges of
the wood.

The shade shown had a mottled glass in which greens predominated. The
sizes and shapes of these pieces of glass would better be determined
after the woodwork is finished.

[Illustration: Electric Shade Complete]

One manner of fastening the chains is clearly shown in the photograph.
Such a combination will call for an extra piece of oak, 3/4 by 3-1/4 by
3-1/4 in. finished stock.

A good finish for this shade is obtained as follows: Put on a coat of
silver gray water stain. When this has dried, sand lightly with No. 00
sandpaper and apply a coat of golden oak oil stain. Allow this to dry
after wiping the surplus off with a cloth. Put on a coat of black paste
filler and allow to harden over night. When dry, sand lightly and put on
a coat of very thin shellac. Sand this lightly when hard and put on a
coat of wax. This is a very dark finish relieved by high lights of
lighter brown and is known as Antwerp oak.



HOW TO BEND WOOD


The process for making bent wood for furniture parts is the same as for
any other kind of bent-wood work. The pieces should be made close to the
size, with only enough material left on them for "cleaning up" after the
bending has been done. The pieces used for the bent work should be good,
clean, "live" lumber. Lumber dried on the stump will not bend.

A box must be made in which to steam the pieces of wood to be bent. A
design of a steaming box is shown in the illustration. Such a box is
made by nailing four boards together into a square or rectangular form,
the boards having a length sufficient to take in the length of the
furniture parts to be bent. Both ends of the finished box are squared up
and closed with a board cut to the size, using felt or gunny sack in the
joint to make it as tight as possible. These ends can be nailed on, but
it is best to hold them with a bar of metal set against each one.
Nailing the ends a few times would spoil the box for further use in
steaming.

[Illustration: STEAMING BOX]

[Illustration: HOSE ATTACHED TO TEAKETTLE.]

[Illustration: FORM BLOCKS]

A good teakettle will serve the purpose for a steam generator. A hose is
attached to the spout of the teakettle, as shown in the illustration,
and to the steaming box in a like manner. The steaming box should be
provided with a short piece of gas pipe turned into a hole bored into
one of the sides used for the top on which to attach the hose. A small
hole should be bored into one side of one end of the steaming box, and
this end should be arranged a trifle lower than the other end. The hole
will permit the water of condensation to escape. Steam should not escape
from the box when a charge of wood is being softened. Steam which
escapes from the box in the form of vapor has done no work whatever, and
is just so much waste of fuel. In order to give up its heat to the wood,
the steam must condense and come away from the box as water. Therefore,
in steaming a charge of pieces in the box, never crowd the teakettle so
hard that the steam escapes around the heads of the box or through any
other joints. The steam should be supplied to the box just as fast as it
condenses, and no faster. When the pieces are placed in the box they
should be so arranged that the steam can find ready access to all sides
of each piece.

The curve or bend of the piece to be made must be marked out on a wide
board or on the floor. Nail down several blocks of wood or pieces cut
out like brackets on the board or floor against the drawing, as shown in
the illustration. The wood is sprung between these blocks or forms after
it has been softened by steam. When taking the steamed pieces from the
box do not lose any time in securing them to the forms. Do not take out
more than one piece at a time, as it must be bent to the forms
immediately after taking it from the hot steam. The time of the steaming
will vary with the size of the pieces. Small strips may be steamed in 15
or 20 minutes, while large ones may require several hours to become soft
enough to bend. The pieces must be left in the forms until they are
thoroughly dry.



A SMOKING STAND


When making the smoking stand shown in the accompanying photograph, use
quarter-sawed oak, if possible, as this wood is the most suitable for
finishing in the different mission stains. This little piece of
furniture is very attractive, easy to construct, and is an article that
a smoker would appreciate.

If the stock is purchased finished and sandpapered, it will save much of
the hard work. The material needed is as follows:

  One piece, 7/8 by 12 in. by 9 ft. long, for the legs.
  One piece, 7/8 by 10 in. by 4 ft. long, for the top.
  One piece, 7/8 by 8 in. by 1 ft. long, for the shelves.
  One piece, 1/2 by 2 in. by 6 ft. long, for the pipe rack.

The legs can be made first. Cut four pieces off the 12-in. board, each
exactly 25 in. long, and lay each one out with a pair of compasses as
shown in the detail drawing at Fig. 1. With a circle or keyhole saw cut
out the piece, then shave out the saw marks and sandpaper smooth.

[Illustration: Smoking Stand Details]

[Illustration: Finished Smoking Stand]

Next take the 8-in. board and make the shelves. Set a bevel protractor
at a 45-deg. angle, lay out the pieces as shown in Fig. 5, and cut them
out with a saw. Eight pieces are cut out as shown in Fig. 4. These
pieces can be cut out of the scraps left from cutting the legs and
shelves. Cut them so that the grain runs the long way. Place two of
these braces on the bench with the beveled ends toward each other, but
with a piece of 7/8-in. stock between them, and the other two beveled
ends resting against a straightedge. Fasten them to the bench with a
couple of nails, leaving the heads sticking up so that you can pull them
later with a claw hammer. Remove the straightedge and slide the piece
that is between the braces along until it projects 4 or 5 in. from the
side formed by the straightedge. Then place two more braces in the
corners formed by this piece, put two 7/8-in. pieces between the two
braces that are fastened, and the two that are loose, so that each brace
will be in its proper place. Fasten the last two the same as the first
pair. Then remove all the pieces from between the braces and place the
tops of the legs in their stead. These should be fastened to the braces
with 1-in. screws of small diameter, put in at an angle. Bore a hole in
straight for about 1/4-in. with a 1/4-in. bit for each screw, and then
run a gimlet at an angle into the leg. After you have the legs fastened
to the first set of braces, measure up from the bench 10 in. and put in
another set, being careful to get them all the same distance from the
bench, as the inner corners of the shelves rest on these braces. Now
pull out the nails and set the stand on its feet.

Next put in the shelves. Place the inner corner of one on one of the
braces, and fasten it there with a screw put through the brace from the
bottom. Now fasten a clamp on each leg at the ends of the shelf in such
a manner as to form a support on the top side of the shelf. Then put
four screws through the shelf from the bottom into the legs. Repeat the
operation on each shelf, being careful to get them all the same height.
Four pieces like Fig. 3 should now be made. These pieces will have to be
fitted in place as they should slant outward so that it will be easy to
put articles through the holes. The holes should be about 5/8-in.
diameter.

The top can be made by cutting off two pieces from the 10-in. board,
each 20 in. long, and fastening them together with dowels. Smooth the
ends and be sure that the boards match evenly. It makes a better job to
glue the top together, in addition to the dowels, and, if you do this,
it would be better to make the top first. Then it will have time to dry
before you are ready to use it. In putting on the top, care should be
taken to get each of the corners an equal distance from the legs. Then a
screw may be put up through each one of the braces and two or three
through each leg into the top. Now smooth all rough and uneven places
with fine sandpaper and apply the finish. Secure some metal matchsafes
and scratchers, fasten on as shown in the photograph, and the stand is
complete.



A CHINA CLOSET


This beautiful piece of mission furniture can be made by anyone who has
a few good tools and knows how to use them. The cost is very moderate
and if you are convenient to a mill a great amount of labor can be saved
by ordering the pieces ready cut to length, squared, and sanded.
Quarter-sawed oak should be used and the material needed will be as
follows:

  4 posts, 2 by 2 by 54 in., S-4-S.
  2 top and bottom boards, 3/4 by 15-3/4 by 39-1/2 in., S-1-S.
  2 shelves, 3/4 by 15-1/2 by 38 in., S-2-S.
  2 lower end braces, 3/4 by 5 by 15 in., S-2-S.
  2 upper end braces, 3/4 by 4-1/4 by 15 in., S-2-S.
  1 lower front board, 3/4 by 3 by 40 in., S-1-S.
  1 upper front board, 3/4 by 2-1/4 by 40 in., S-1-S.
  4 door frames, 3/4 by 1-3/4 by 43-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  4 door frames, 3/4 by 2 by 19 in., S-2-S.
  4 upright end pieces, 3/4 by 1-1/2 by 39-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  5 back pieces, 1/2 by 8 by 46-1/2 in., S-1-S.
  2 cleats, 1 by 1 by 37-3/4 in., soft wood.
  4 cleats, 1 by 1 by 12-3/4 in., soft wood.
  4 blocks, 1/2 by 1 by 1-1/2 in.

First be sure the posts are perfectly square and of equal length. Either
chamfer or round the upper ends as desired. The mortises can be laid out
and cut, or they can be left until the tenons are all made and then
marked and cut directly from each tenon.

The top and bottom boards should have the corners cut to clear the posts
as shown in the drawing. The top board should be finished on both sides
and the bottom one on the upper side only and be sure to get the best
side up.

[Illustration: Details of China Closet]

Cut the tenons on the front boards back 1/4 in. from the face as shown
in the end view. The boards should be finished on the outside sides and
edges. The end pieces are fitted and finished in a similar manner except
that the inside edge is rabbeted for the glass as shown. The side
pieces are also rabbeted for the glass and the posts have grooves 1/2
in. deep cut in them to hold these side pieces. They are glued in place
and this can be done after the frame is put together.

[Illustration: China Closet Complete]

The two shelves are finished on both sides and the front edges. The
doors are fitted in the usual manner by a tenon and mortise joint at the
ends. They are rabbeted on the inside for the glass and are finished on
all sides.

Before gluing any of the parts together, see that they all fit and go
together perfectly square. The posts, side, and front pieces should be
glued and assembled, then the top and bottom boards put in place to hold
the frame square when the clamps are put on. Leave dry for about 24
hours, then scrape all the surplus glue from about the joints as the
finish will not take when there is any glue. Fasten the top and bottom
boards to the frame by means of screws through cleats as shown in the
drawing. The backing is put on and finished on the front side. A mirror
can be put in the back without much trouble, if it is desired. The
shelves should be put in place and held at the back by screws through
the backing and at the front by two small blocks on the posts as shown.

After the closet is all assembled it should be thoroughly gone over with
fine sandpaper before any finish is applied. It can be finished in any
one of the many mission stains which are supplied by the trade for this
purpose.



A LEATHER-COVERED FOOTSTOOL


The illustration shows a very handy footstool in mission style. The
following list of materials will be needed:

  4 oak posts, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 12 in., S-4-S.
  2 sides, 3/4 by 3 by 12 in., soft wood.
  2 ends, 3/4 by 3 by 8 in., soft wood.
  1 bottom, 3/4 by 8 by 12 in., soft wood.
  1 small box of 8 oz. tacks
  2-1/2 doz. ornamental head nails.
  1 piece of dark leather, 16 by 20 in.
  1/2 lb. hair and a small portion of mission stain.

The posts are the only parts made of quarter-sawed oak, the other
parts, being covered with leather, can be made of any kind of soft wood.
Chamfer the top end of each post, and taper the lower ends as shown in
detail. When this is done the mortises can be cut for the sides as shown
in the post detail. When cutting the mortises and tenons take care to
make them fit perfectly, as there is nothing to brace the legs at the
bottom. The strength of the stool depends upon the joints. Make the
surface of the posts smooth by first using No. 1 sandpaper, then
finishing with No. 00.

[Illustration: Footstool Leather Covered]

The parts are now assembled. First clamp the ends together, using plenty
of glue on the joints, and drive some small nails on the inside of the
posts through the tenon ends. When the glue has set, the remaining sides
can be put together the same as the ends. Fit the bottom on the inside
about 1 in. from the top. This can be made fast by driving nails
through the sides and ends of the board. The finishing is done by
putting on the mission stain as the directions state on the can, then
wax the surface to get a dull gloss.

[Illustration: Details of Footstool]

The leather is now put on. Notch out the corners to fit around the
posts, but do not cut the ends off. Lap them under the cover. Before
nailing on the cover fix the hair evenly over the top, about 6 in. deep.
Draw the leather over the hair and fasten the edges with the 8-oz.
tacks. The ornamental nails are driven in last, as shown in the drawing,
to make a good appearance.



ARTS-CRAFTS MANTEL CLOCK


The clock shown in the illustration was designed especially for rooms
furnished in mission style. The clock, however, may be made of mahogany
or other wood to match the furniture in any room where it is to be
placed. If the mission effect is desired, an oxidized or copper sash
should be used. Movements can be bought at the salesroom of a clock
company. A movement should be selected that is wide enough from the
front to the back to allow the clock case to be made sufficiently deep
for standing without being easily upset.

[Illustration: Mantel Clock with Wood and Copper Front]

Quarter-sawed white oak is the best material for this clock, but any
other wood which works easily and takes a stain well may be used. Two
pieces, 3/8 in. thick, 6-1/2 in. wide, and 8-1/2 in. long, will be
needed for the front and back. One piece, 5 in. wide, 6 in. long, and
with a thickness sufficient for the clock movement, is needed for the
middle part. The thickness of this piece depends on the movement
secured.

After the front and back pieces are finished, and a piece of hammered
copper screwed on the front as shown in the drawing, the middle piece
must be made just thick enough to make the whole distance from the front
of the copper to the back of the clock equal to the depth of the
movement. Plane one edge on both front and back pieces. Lay out the
design and the centers for the circular holes from this planed edge.
Use a plane and chisel to cut the outside design. The hole can be bored
out with an expansive bit, or sawed out with a scroll saw, and filed
perfectly round with a half-round wood file. The bit will give the best
results. If the bit is used, bore holes in a piece of scrap wood until
the exact size is found.

[Illustration: Details of Mantel Clock]

The outside design of the piece of copper is made to correspond to the
design of the clock. The circular hole in the copper can be cut with the
expansive bit by first punching a hole in the center to receive the spur
of the bit, placing on a block of wood and boring through a little way.
The spur on the cutter will cut out the copper. Fasten the copper to the
front with copper nails or round-headed screws.

If good glue can be had, the three pieces of wood may be glued together.
If the glue cannot be relied upon, put in two flat-headed screws from
the back.

The clock can be finished with a dark stain and waxed, or, as it is
small, it can be easily fumed. If stain is used, stain and wax the
pieces before putting them together. The fuming process is more easily
done after the clock is assembled. Secure a bucket, a peck measure, or
any receptacle large enough, when inverted, to put over the clock. Pour
about 2 oz. of strong ammonia into a saucer or small pan. Support the
clock above the saucer and cover both with the inverted bucket. Allow it
to stand for three or four days--the longer it stands the darker the
fumed finish will be. Finish with two coats of bleached wax. Do not use
ordinary uncolored wax, as it will show in the unfilled pores of the
wood. The works of the clock should not be in the frame while fuming.



A MUSIC STAND


The attractive and useful piece of mission furniture shown in the
accompanying illustration is made of quarter-sawed oak. Considerable
labor can be saved in its construction if the stock is ordered from the
mill ready cut to length, squared and sanded. The stock list consists of
the following pieces:

  1 top, 3/4 by 16 by 20 in., S-2-S.
  1 shelf, 3/4 by 11-1/2 by 15 in., S-2-S.
  1 shelf, 3/4 by 12 by 15 in., S-2-S.
  1 shelf, 3/4 by 14-1/2 by 15 in., S-2-S.
  1 shelf, 3/4 by 16 by 15 in., S-1-S.
  4 legs, 3/4 by 5 by 41 in., S-2-S.
  2 lower crosspieces, 3/4 by 3 by 9 in., S-2-S.
  2 upper crosspieces, 3/4 by 2 by 9 in., S-2-S.
  4 end slats, 5/8 by 2 by 34 in., S-2-S.
  20 R.H. screws, 2 in. long.

The four shelves and the top are so wide that it will be necessary to
make them from two or more pieces glued together. The top should have a
1/4-in. bevel cut around the upper edge as shown in the drawing.

[Illustration: Details of Music Stand]

[Illustration: Music Stand Complete]

The curve of the legs can be cut with a bracket saw or a drawknife,
care being taken to get the edges square and smooth. The four
crosspieces are fastened to the legs by means of tenons and mortises.
The end slats are joined to the crosspieces in the same manner. The legs
can be assembled in pairs with the slats and crosspieces in place. They
can be glued in this position, and when dry they should be carefully
gone over with fine sandpaper to remove all rough spots. The shelves
can now be put in place. They should be fastened to the legs with
round-headed screws. The top is also fastened on with screws. When
applying the finish, remove the top board and the shelves and finish
them separately. The stand can be finished in any one of the many
mission stains supplied by the trade for this purpose.

This handsome piece of furniture can be used as a magazine stand as well
as a music stand, if desired, and, if it is made and finished well, it
will prove an ornament to any home.



MAKING SCREWS HOLD IN THE END GRAIN OF WOOD


[Illustration: MAKING SCREWS HOLD IN END GRAIN]

It is often necessary to fasten one piece of wood to the end of another
by means of screws. Wood being a fibrous material, it can be readily
understood that when a screw having sharp threads is put in the end
grain parallel to these fibers the threads cut them in such a way that,
when an extra strain is put upon the parts, the screw pulls out,
bringing with it the severed fibers. The accompanying sketch shows how
this difficulty may be overcome, and at the same time make the screw
hold firmly. A hole is bored and a dowel, preferably of hardwood, glued
in it, the grain at right angles to that of the piece.

The size of the dowel, and its location, can be determined by the
diameter and the length of the screw. The dowel need not extend all the
way through the piece, but should be put in from the surface where the
grain of the dowel will be least objectionable.

When putting screws in hard wood much labor will be saved by applying
soap to the threads.



A WALL CASE WITH A MIRROR DOOR


The wall case shown in the accompanying picture will serve well as a
medicine case. Having a paneled door in which is set a mirror, it serves
equally well as a shaving case. It is best made of some hard wood,
though a soft wood such as pine or yellow poplar will work up easier and
look well finished with three or four coats of white enamel paint.

There will be needed the following pieces:

  2 sides, 5/8 by 6 by 32-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  1 top and 1 bottom, 5/8 by 6 by 18 in., S-4-S.
  1 top of back, 1/2 by 4 by 16-1/4 in., S-2-S.
  1 bottom of back, 1/2 by 3 by 16-1/4 in., S-4-S.
  1 shelf, 5/8 by 5 by 16 in., S-4-S.
  1 back, 1/4 by 16 by 21 in., S-2-S.

DOOR

  2 stiles, 5/8 by 3 by 20-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  1 top rail, 5/8 by 2 by 11 in., S-4-S.
  1 bottom rail, 5/8 by 4 by 11 in., S-4-S.
  1 backing for door, 3/16 by 10 by 15 in., S-2-S.

First shape the ends of the two side pieces as shown in the drawing.
Next square the top and bottom pieces of the case to size, and lay out
and cut the tenons on the ends. Lay out and cut the mortises in the
side pieces, also the groove for the shelf, having first squared the
shelf to size. Cut and shape the top and bottom pieces of the back as
shown. Cut the rebates in the side pieces into which these pieces are to
rest their ends. Cut the rebate for the back. Thoroughly scrape and
sandpaper these parts and assemble them. Cut and fit the back in place.

[Illustration: Wall Case Details]

The door is to be made next. Plan the different parts of the door so
that the edges may be planed to fit the opening; that is, make the door
a good quarter larger at top and bottom than the opening. In cutting the
rebate the easiest way is to use a rabbeting plane and cut the full
length of the pieces. By using a tenon on the rails in which one
shoulder is as much longer than the other as the rebate is deep there is
no resulting groove showing at the corner.

[Illustration: Case with Mirror Door]

The wood should be finished before the glass is set, at least, it should
be filled, if of hard wood, and one coat of paint put on, if of soft
wood which is to be enameled.

In setting the glass, place a thin cushion of putty between the rebate
and the glass and another thin cushion between the glass and the fillet
of wood or the backing which is to protect the back of the glass.

Fit the door, and then put on the hinges and lock. If desired, the
tenons may be made keyed as shown in the photograph instead of through
as shown in the drawing.

To finish the case, if of oak, apply a coat of light paste filler, the
directions being on the filler can. Next put on a coat of white shellac.
When this has hardened apply two coats of some good varnish. Allow time
for each coat to harden and rub the first coats with haircloth or curled
hair, and the last with pulverized pumice and raw linseed oil or crude
oil.

If the wood is soft and an enamel white is desired, the enamel is
applied not unlike paint. The directions will be found on the cans in
which the paint is purchased.



A SIDE CHAIR


A side chair of simple design and construction is here given. The great
difficulty with most chair designs is that the back is generally
designed narrower than the front, thus necessitating the rails entering
the posts or legs at angles. To the amateur this is quite confusing. The
chair illustrated is the same in width, both back and front, so that the
shoulders of all the rails are at right angles to the sides. The back of
the chair is straight, thus simplifying the design still more.

[Illustration: Side Chair Complete]

Another thing which is confusing to the beginner in his efforts to lay
out the mortises is the irregular placing of the rails. It will be noted
that in this design the rails of side, front and back are on the same
level.

Plain sawed red oak will be appropriate for this piece. Have the pieces
mill-planed and sandpapered on four sides to size, allowing 1/2 in.
extra to the lengths for squaring up the ends.

[Illustration: Details of Side Chair]

There will be needed the following:

  4 rails, 7/8 by 2 by 17-1/2 in.
  4 rails, 3/4 by 2 by 17-1/2 in.
  2 front posts, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 19 in.
  2 rear posts, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 37-1/2 in.
  1 back, 3/4 by 9-3/4 by 17-1/2 in.
  2 cleats, 3/8 by 1 by 16 in.
  4 slats, 3/8 by 2 by 16-1/2 in.

Begin work by cutting the posts to the lengths indicated in the drawing.
The lower ends should be chamfered slightly to prevent their splintering
from usage. The top ends are cut to an angle of 45 deg., the slope
beginning 1/2 in. below the top. Lay out and cut the mortises. To do
this, lay off the measurements on one of the posts, then place all four
side by side on the bench, with the face marks up. Even the ends with
the try-square and then carry the measurements just made across all of
them, using the try-square. The rails ought to be shouldered on all four
sides. Three-eighths inch is a good thickness for the tenons. The width
may be 1-1/4 in. and the length 1 in.

Place the rails side by side on the bench with the joint-edges up and
the ends evened. Measure off the desired length on one of them and carry
the lines across all of them to indicate the location of the shoulder
lines. Separate the pieces and square these lines entirely around all of
the sides of each piece. With the tenon saw rip and cross cut to these
lines.

The back, it will be noted, is set on a slant to add comfort. Thoroughly
clean all the parts and assemble them, using good hot glue. Put the back
together first, then the front. After these have dried, put the side
rails in place.

Cut and fit the two cleats--one to the front rail and one to the rear
rail. Keep them even with the lower edge of the rail so as to form a
slight recess at the top when the slats are in place. This is to keep
the cushion from sliding off. The slats need not be "let into" the
cleats but merely fastened to their top edges. The cushion may be made
of Spanish roan skin and should be filled with elastic felt.

In the chair shown, the joints are reinforced by the addition of lag
screws. If the glue is good and the joints well fitted, these are not
necessary.



AN ARM CHAIR


The arm chair here described and illustrated is intended to be one of
the set of diners made after the design of the side chair described on
another page. The same general directions for making the side chair
apply equally to the arm chair.

The stock given in the following list should be purchased surfaced on
four sides and well sandpapered:

  2 rear posts, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 38 in.
  2 front posts, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 26-1/2 in.
  9 rails, 7/8 by 2 by 19-1/2 in.
  1 rail, 7/8 by 1-1/2 by 19-1/2 in.
  3 slats, 1/2 by 2 by 12-1/2 in.
  2 arms, 7/8 by 4-1/2 by 20-1/2 in.
  2 brackets, 7/8 by 2-1/4 by 2-1/2 in.
  2 cleats, 3/8 by 1 by 19 in.
  4 slats, 3/8 by 2 by 19 in.

Prepare the posts first by cutting them to the lengths shown in the
drawing. In the photograph the front posts have their tops cut off
square and the arms fastened to them by means of lag screws. A better
way from a mechanical point of view would be to shoulder the top ends on
the four sides, cut through-mortises in the arms and insert these
tenoned posts into these mortises, pinning the arm to the post by means
of small dowels in the edge of the post and through the tenon.

The brackets under the arms are to be fastened to the posts and arms by
means of concealed dowels and glue of good quality.

All of the rails should be tenoned into the posts thoroughly, even if
the lag screw fastenings are used. If the lag screws are used, the
tenons may be what are known as stubb tenons--tenons of short length.
Good hot glue should be used in either case.

The shape of the arms is indicated in the drawing. They are fastened to
the rear posts by means of dowels and glue.

[Illustration: Arm Chair Complete]

The slats, or verticals, of the back should not have their ends tenoned
but should have the mortises in the rails cut sufficiently large to "let
in" the whole end of each. This is much easier and more likely to result
in a satisfactory fit than to shoulder them. Any unevenness in the
lengths of the respective slats will not affect the fitting of the
joints by this latter method.

The tops of the rear posts in this chair, as in the side chair, are cut
to angles of 45 deg., beginning the slope at lines marked 1/2 in. from
the tops.

[Illustration: Details of Chair]

The bottom is made up of 2-in. slats fitted between the front and back
rails and fastened to cleats which have been previously fastened to the
insides of the front and back rails. Keep these cleats low enough on the
rails so that the top surfaces of the slats shall rest somewhat below
the top edges of the rails. Cushions, such as the one shown, can be
purchased ready made or they can be easily made by the amateur.

A good finish for this chair and its mates is obtained as follows: Apply
one coat of brown Flemish water stain. This stain in the original
package is very dark in tone and unless an almost black finish is
wanted, it should be lightened by the addition of one-half or two-thirds
water. Apply with a brush or sponge and allow to dry over night. When
dry, sandpaper lightly with fine or worn sandpaper to remove the raised
grain caused by the water of the stain. Put on a very thin coat of
shellac. This is to prevent the "high lights" in close-grained woods
from being discolored by the stain in the filler which is to follow. The
shellac being very thin does not fill the pores of the wood perceptibly.
Next, sand the shellac coat lightly when it has hardened. Apply a coat
of paste filler colored considerably darker than the stain to the tone
desired for the open grain. If the filler is well stirred and properly
applied, one coat ought to be sufficient. If it does not fill the pores
satisfactorily, apply another coat when the first has had time to
harden. Vandyke brown is used to color the filler, if none but natural
color is to be had. On the hardened filler apply a thin coat of shellac.
On this apply several coats of wax. The directions for waxing will be
found upon the cans in which the wax comes.



A BOOKCASE


This beautiful piece of mission furniture can be made at a very moderate
cost by anyone who has a slight knowledge of tools. Considerable labor
can be saved by ordering the material from the mill ready cut to size,
dressed and sanded. Quarter-sawed oak is the best wood to use and it is
comparatively easy to obtain. Plain-sawed oak looks well, but is more
liable to warp than the quarter-sawed and this is quite an element in
pieces as wide as the ones used. For the complete bookcase the following
material will be needed:

  1 top, 3/4 by 15 by 31-1/4 in., hard wood, S-1-S.
  1 top back board, 3/4 by 4 by 30-1/4 in., hard wood, S-1-S.
  2 sides, 3/4 by 14 by 50 in., hard wood, S-1-S.
  1 bottom, 3/4 by 14 by 28-3/4 in., hard wood, S-1-S.
  1 bottom rail, 3/4 by 4 by 28-3/4 in., hard wood, S-1-S.
  1 center piece, 3/4 by 2 by 45-3/4 in., hard wood, S-2-S.
  4 door sides, 3/4 by 1-1/2 by 45-1/4 in., hard wood, S-2-S.
  4 door ends, 3/4 by 1-1/2 by 14 in., hard wood, S-2-S.
  4 pieces door lattice, 1/2 by 1/2 by 12-1/2 in., hard wood.
  4 pieces door lattice, 1/2 by 1/2 by 7 in., hard wood.
  2 bottom cleats, 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 by 13 in., soft wood.
  2 top cleats, 1 by 1 by 12-1/2 in., soft wood.
  3 shelves, 1/2 by 12 by 28-1/2 in., soft wood.
 12 pieces backing, 3/8 by 4 by 29-3/4 in., soft wood.
  4 hinges.
  2 door handles.

Begin with the sides by cutting them so they will pair up all right. The
front edges are rounded while the back edges are rabbeted on the inside
as deep as the backing to be used. The bottoms are cut as shown in the
sketch. Holes about 1/2 in. deep should be bored on the inside at the
proper places for the wooden pegs which hold up the shelves.

[Illustration: Completed Bookcase.]

[Illustration: Details of Bookcase]

The top and bottom boards should have the front edges rounded and sanded
the same as the sides. The top board is sanded on one side only and
care should be taken to get the best side up.

Now cut and fit the top back board. This is fastened to the top by means
of screws. Screw two cleats to each of the sides as shown and by running
screws through these into the top and bottom boards the frame is
completed.

The backing which can be made of some cheap lumber is now put on. Next
put in the center upright piece between the doors by means of a tenon
and mortise at the top and nail at the bottom. The front edge should be
rounded and the edge and sides sanded. Cut and fit the bottom rail as
shown. It is fastened to the frame by means of cleats on the back side.

The doors are put together by means of a tenon and mortise. They should
be rabbeted for the lattice work and the glass. This lattice work can be
omitted and leaded glass put in its place which is very becoming to this
kind of work.

When the case is completed it must be carefully gone over with sandpaper
before any finish is applied.

A mission stain is suitable for work of this kind, but it can also be
finished in "golden oak" which is done in the following manner: First
put on a golden oak stain and after it has dried for about 2 hours,
apply the filler. Let this dry about 10 minutes then rub off with an old
rag. Then go over the case again with some very fine sandpaper and after
seeing that all parts are free from dust and dirt the varnish can be
applied. Three coats of varnish will give a beautiful glossy finish.



A LAMP STAND


A mission table lamp stand for those who use electric lights is shown in
the accompanying illustration. It is suitable for either the office or
the home and is very simple in design and construction. The stock should
be quarter-sawed oak and it can be ordered from the mill ready cut to
length, squared and sanded. The following pieces will be needed:

  1 post, 1-1/2 in. sq. by 23 in.
  1 arm, 1-/8 by 3/4 by 13-1/2 in.
  1 block, 3/4 in. thick by 6 in. square.
  1 block, 1 in. thick by 9 in. square.

[Illustration: Details of Lamp Stand]

Square up the base blocks and fasten them together with screws as shown
in the detail sketch. A mortise, 1 in. square, is cut in the center of
the blocks for the center post.. Lead weights, covered with felt,
should be attached to the bottom, as shown. The post has a tenon cut on
one end to fit the base, and a mortise cut in the other for the arm.
Holes are bored in the arm from the ends for the wires. They can be
plugged after the wires are in place. A hole is also bored in the top of
the center post to connect with the holes in the arm for the lead wire.

[Illustration: Electric Lamp Stand Complete]

It is best to glue the joints together, although this is not necessary
if the joints are a tight fit. Sandpaper the parts thoroughly, then
stain to match the other furniture.

[Illustration: Extension Dining Table Complete]



AN EXTENSION DINING TABLE


The accompanying sketch and photograph show a simple design of an
extension dining table of the mission style. It is very easy to
construct and can be built at home by anyone who is at all handy with
tools. It should be made of quarter-sawed oak, which can be secured at
the mill ready cut to length, squared and sanded. Order the following
pieces:

  2 top pieces, 1 by 23 by 46 in.
  2 extra leaves, 1 by 12 by 46 in.
  2 rails, 3/4 by 3 by 44 in.
  4 rails, 3/4 by 3 by 22 in.
  2 pieces for posts, 3/4 by 8 by 24 in.
  2 pieces for posts, 3/4 by 6 by 24 in.
  4 pieces for feet, 3 by 3 by 14 in.
  4 pieces for feet, 3 by 3 by 5 in.
  4 pieces for feet, 1 by 4 by 4 in.
  4 pieces moulding, 1 by 1 by 10 in.
  1 piece, 1 by 12 by 27 in., birchwood.
  2 brackets, 3/4 by 3 by 32 in., birchwood.
  2 pieces for slide, 1-3/4 by 3 by 36 in., birchwood.
  4 pieces for slide, 1 by 3 by 36 in., birchwood.
 12 pieces for slide, 3/4 by 1-1/2 by 36 in., birchwood.

The feet can be made first by squaring up one end of each and beveling
the other as shown in the drawing. The short pieces are fastened to the
long ones by means of long screws and glue. The four square pieces
should be nailed to the outer ends and holes bored in them for the
casters. Prepare the pieces for the posts, and before nailing them
together fasten the feet to them with long screws. Be careful to get
them on square, else the table will not set level when complete. Now
nail and glue the pieces forming the table together and fasten the
moulding at the bottom. This moulding should have mitered corners as
shown in the bottom view. Also fasten the rest piece to the top of the
post, using long screws and glue.

[Illustration: Details of Dining Table]

The slides can be made next. The pieces are made and fastened together
with screws as shown in the enlarged detail view. This slide, if made
with care, is a good one. The center piece should be firmly fastened to
the post rest with long screws. The screws that fasten into the top
should be inserted from below through counter-bored holes as shown.

Miter the rails at the corners and glue them to the top. Blocks can be
used on the inside if desired, which will make a much stronger
construction. Screw the two brackets to the top as shown. These help to
support the table when it is extended.

When complete the table should be carefully gone over with fine
sandpaper, and all glue and rough spots removed. Apply stain of the
desired color. This can be any one of the many mission stains supplied
by the trade for this purpose.



AN OAK-BOUND CEDAR CHEST


This cedar chest for storing unused bedding or furs is not a difficult
thing to make and when made, the hard oak binding takes the wear and
protects the softer cedar so that the chest ought to serve several
generations. Order the stock as follows:

CEDAR

  2 top and bottom pieces, 7/8 by 16-1/2 by 34-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  2 sides, 7/8 by 18-7/8 by 34-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  2 ends, 7/8 by 18-7/8 by 14-3/4 in., S-2-S.

OAK

  2 overhanging top pieces, 1 by 1 by 36-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  2 overhanging top pieces, 1 by 1 by 18-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  2 lock and hinge rails, 1 by 2-1/2 by 36-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  2 lock and hinge rails, 1 by 2-1/2 by 18-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  2 base pieces, 1 by 3-1/4 by 36-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  2 base pieces, 1 by 3-1/4 by 18-1/2 in., S-2-S.

[Illustration: Details of Cedar Chest]

Specify thoroughly seasoned Tennessee red cedar and plain sawed white
oak and have the different pieces mill-planed and sandpapered as
indicated in the stock-bill. This bill allows 1/2 in. extra on the
length and the width of each piece for "squaring up" of all pieces
except those marked to be surfaced on four sides.

Begin by squaring the sides and ends to size. Probably the best joint
for the corners is the dovetail. If the worker is not experienced in
woodworking, some of the more simple joints will do. It will be noted
that the drawing and stock-bill call for the simplest form of joint,
that in which the sides of the chest lap over the end. For the dovetail
joint it will be necessary to add 2 in. more to the length of the end
pieces, making them 16-3/4 in. each in the rough.

Having got the sides and ends ready, fasten them together. The
perspective shows the sides fastened to the ends with ornamental headed
nails. Common nails are first used, being equally spaced, and the
ornamental heads are afterwards placed so as to cover their heads.

Next square the bottom and nail it to the parts just assembled. Square
the top to the same size.

The base stuff is squared on one edge only. The second edge--the upper
one--is to be beveled or sloped 1/8 in. to facilitate dusting and for
appearance sake. Fit these base pieces to place, mitering the joints.
Before fastening the parts to the chest proper, gauge a line 3/4 in.
from the lower edge and to a point 4-1/2 in. from each end, cut out to
this line and shape the base as shown in the drawing. Use finishing
nails for fastening the base to the chest. The heads should be "set" so
they may be covered later with a putty colored to match the finish.

In a similar manner plane up, cut and fit the back and hinge rails.
These rails should be kept a "scant" 1/8 in. below the top edges of the
chest proper. The overhang of the lid fits down over in such a way as to
form a dust-proof joint between lid and chest proper.

The overhang of the lid of 1 in. by 1-in. stock may next be mitered,
fitted and nailed to the lid. Thoroughly sandpaper all parts not so
treated and finish as follows: Put on all the oak pieces, two coats of
natural paste filler. This is best done before they are fastened in
place. Directions will be found on the cans in which the filler is kept.

The red of the cedar may be heightened by applying a mahogany stain made
of Bismark brown aniline and boiling water, in the proportion of 3 qt.
of water to 1 oz. of aniline. If applied hot the stain will enter the
wood better. When dry, sandpaper lightly with No. 00 paper, both this
and the oak-filled pieces.

Fasten the oak pieces in place and give the whole exterior a very thin
coat of shellac. After this has hardened, apply two coats of wax. Wax
comes in paste form and is to be applied with a cloth very sparingly.
Allow it to stand five or ten minutes then rub briskly with a soft dry
cloth to polish. The first coat is allowed to stand 24 hours before the
second is applied in a similar manner.

Another finish, known as an egg-shell gloss shellac finish, is obtained
by omitting the wax and instead applying from two to five more coats of
shellac. Allow each coat 24 hours in which to harden, and rub each
hardened coat to a smooth finish, using curled hair, or fine steel
wool, or fine oiled sandpaper, before applying the next.

[Illustration: Cedar Chest Complete]

The metal reinforcements for the corners can be bought at a hardware
store, as can the lock, hinges, and handles. These parts are applied in
the usual manner--butt hinges being used.

If well made, the chest is practically airtight. The interior is all of
red cedar, while the effect of the exterior in combining the light oak
and the red cedar is striking.



A TOOL FOR MAKING MORTISES


In the construction of mission furniture where mortise joints are mostly
used, those who cannot have access to a mortising machine will find the
following method of great assistance in obtaining a true mortise, which
is necessary in work of this kind.

[Illustration: Boring Holes for Tenons]

Take a block of wood, A, the exact thickness of the piece B to be
mortised, and with an auger bore a hole, the same size as the width of
the mortise to be made, exactly parallel to the sides of the block. This
can best be done on a drill press or a wood boring machine. If no
machine is available, great care should be taken in boring by hand, to
get the hole as nearly true as possible. Then nail a cleat, C, on the
side of the block, A, and let it extend down on piece B. Use a clamp to
hold the block in place while boring out the mortise. By changing the
position of the block and boring a number of holes, any length of
mortise can be made. The holes should afterwards be squared up with a
chisel.



A DRESSER FOR CHILD'S PLAYROOM


This dresser can be made of two kinds of wood as marked on the drawing
or it can be made all of one kind. The original dresser was made of oak
and walnut and was finished natural, the contrast between the light and
dark woods adding much to the value of the piece in the eyes of the
little ones. Have all surfaces that will show well sandpapered at the
mill. The following is a list of the material wanted:

  4 oak posts, 1-1/2 in. square by 19-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  3 walnut drawer fronts, 3/4 by 5 by 17 in., S-2-S.
  6 yellow poplar drawer sides, 3/8 by 5 by 12 in., S-2-S.
  3 yellow poplar backs, 3/8 by 4-1/2 by 16-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  3 yellow poplar bottoms, 3/8 by 12 by 16-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  4 oak front stretchers, 7/8 by 1-3/4 by 17-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  4 oak side rails, 7/8 by 2 by 12 in., S-4-S.
  2 walnut side panels, 1/4 by 11 by 14-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  8 oak drawer slides, 7/8 by 2 by 10-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  6 oak drawer guides, 1/2 by 3/4 by 10-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  4 oak back stretchers, 7/8 by 2 by 17-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  1 oak top, 5/8 by 14 by 20-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  3 sq. ft. of 3/8 in. matched yellow pine ceiling for back.

MIRROR SUPPORT

  1 walnut piece, 7/8 by 1-3/4 by 20-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  1 walnut piece, 7/8 by 1-1/2 by 18 in., S-2-S.
  1 oak piece, 3/4 by 1-1/4 by 10-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  2 oak pieces, 7/8 by 1-1/2 by 11 in., S-2-S.
  1 walnut bracket piece, 7/8 by 1-1/4 by 5 in., S-2-S.

MIRROR FRAME PARTS

  2 walnut pieces, 7/8 by 1-1/2 by 12-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  2 walnut pieces, 7/8 by 1-1/2 by 10-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  2 oak pieces, 1/4 by 3/8 by 10 in., S-4-S.
  2 oak pieces, 1/4 by 3/8 by 8 in., S-4-S.
  1 back, 3/16 by 8 by 10 in., soft wood.
  2 cleats, 3/8 by 1-1/4 by 8 in.
  1 plain mirror glass, 7-1/2 by 9-1/2 in.

[Illustration: Details of Dresser]

Begin by planing the four posts to length. The lower ends should be
slightly beveled to prevent their slivering. Cut the mortises for the
tenons that are on the ends of the side rails. These rails are to be 7/8
by 2 in. and the tenons should be 3/8 by 1-1/4 in. wide by 3/4 in. long.
The posts should be rabbeted down to their middles to a depth of 3/8
in. so as to receive the 1/4-in. end panels. The end rails should be cut
to length and their tenons worked after one edge of each has been
rabbeted as were the posts.

[Illustration: Dresser Complete]

Having squared the panels to size, put the two ends of the dresser
together with glue. Next make the four frames which are to carry the
drawers. They should measure from outside to outside, in length 17-1/2
in.; in width, 12-1/2 in. It is intended that the short pieces shall be
tenoned into the long ones. When these frames are ready, cut out each
corner as indicated in the cross section drawing. Reduce to size the
drawer guides and fasten them in place. Dowel the frames to the ends of
the dresser in the places indicated on the drawing. Put on the back,
nailing into frames to the ends of the dresser in the places indicated
and fasten the top in place, putting screws into it from the under side.

The mirror frame and support should next be made. The drawing shows
quite clearly the parts and their relation to each other. All the slopes
are of 45 deg. Instead of rabbeting the mirror frame, a 1/4 by 3/8-in.
fillet of oak is nailed around to form the recess, the walnut frame and
oak fillet making a pretty contrast. All nail holes are to be filled
with putty colored to match the finish. Wooden pins or round-head screws
are to be used to fasten the mirror frame to its support and should be
placed above center an inch or so.

The drawers are to be constructed in the usual manner. It is a good plan
to make the grooves 1/16 in. narrower than the stock is thick to insure
a fit, chamfering the under or back sides of the bottom and back if
necessary. Make the sides of the drawers of such a length that when the
drawer has been pushed in as far as it will go, the front will be
recessed about 1/4 in. behind the front crosspieces. Groove the inside
of the drawer front 3/16 in. to receive the bottom. The mirror should
not be placed until the wood has been finished.

[Illustration: DRAWER CONSTRUCTION]

Finish the wood natural, apply three coats of varnish. Rub the first two
with haircloth or curled hair and the last with pulverized pumice stone
and crude oil or raw linseed oil. This gives an egg-shell gloss. For a
dull finish, rub the varnish after it has become bone dry with
pulverized pumice stone and water, using a piece of rubbing felt. Rub
until the surface is smooth and even, and clean with a wet sponge or
chamois skin. If a polished finish is desired, rub first with pulverized
pumice stone and water, then with rotten stone and water. Finish with a
mixture of oil and a little pulverized rotten stone.



CUTTING TENONS WITH A HAND-SAW


This home-made tool will be a great help in the construction of mission
furniture. With its use, tenons may be entirely cut with a saw,
discarding the use of a chisel and mallet. The device consists of a
convenient length of straight board, A, Fig. 1, wide enough to cover the
widest piece to be tenoned. A piece of board, B, is fastened to A with
brads or small screws. This board should have a thickness equal to the
piece to be cut from the side of the tenon. The piece C is fastened to A
and B with small cleats at their upper ends. The space between B and C
should be wide enough for the blade of a saw to run through easily, and
also long enough to take in the widest part of the saw blade. The tool
and piece to be tenoned are placed in a vise as shown in Fig. 2. The
width of the piece removed for the tenon may be varied by putting in
pieces of cardboard between the work, E, and the piece A, Fig. 1.

[Illustration: Sawing Tenons]



ARTS AND CRAFTS OIL LAMP


Electricity and gas are not always accessible in suburban or country
homes and the regular type of a mission lamp would be of little use. The
illustration shows an ordinary round wick kerosene lamp fitted out in
mission style.

[Illustration: Artistic Mission Style Oil Lamp]

[Illustration: Bronze Shade Holder]

A few modifications were made in the design of an expensive lamp to
simplify the construction. The lamp should have a tall chimney. The
dimensions given in the drawings, and the photograph, will explain
themselves. Many of the details can be worked up by the maker.

The body of the lamp is made of 1/2-in. oak and is provided with
openings as shown. The interior receptacle is very handy for holding a
match box, smoking articles, etc.

A piece of copper band, 1 in. wide, is fastened to the body with large
upholsterers' tacks, to give it a finished appearance. The base is 7/8
in. thick and in order to prevent tilting is provided with four square
feet, 1/4 in. thick. The top piece of the body is 1/2-in. oak, which is
provided with a hole large enough to receive the bowl of the lamp. If
such a lamp is not at hand, one can be purchased at a very reasonable
price.

The shade is made of oak frames set in with clouded art glass panels.
The different sections of the frames are fastened together with brass
screws and the glass is held in place by triangular cleats of oak. Be
sure and fit the shade with cardboard panels before ordering the glass.
The cardboard can be used as a pattern in cutting the glass, and the
glass will then fit without recutting, which is quite difficult.

The glass beaded fringe should be of suitable color to harmonize with
the finished lamp.

The shade is supported by four brackets cast in bronze from a wood
pattern (dimensions given) and finished by filing, buffing and
lacquering.



ANOTHER CHINA CLOSET


The china closet shown in the accompanying illustration is well
proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any one of
the several furniture woods in common use, but quarter-sawed oak will be
found to give the most pleasing effect. The stock should be ordered from
the mill ready sawed to length, squared and sanded. In this way much
hard labor will be saved. The following pieces will be needed:

  1 top, 1 by 19 by 38 in., S-1-S.
  4 posts, 3/4 by 3 by 59 in., S-2-S.
  4 side rails, 3/4 by 3 by 31 in., S-1-S.
  4 end uprights, 1 by 2 by 48-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  4 end rails, 1 by 3 by 16 in., S-2-S.
  2 lattice rails, 1 by 2 by 13 in., S-2-S.
  1 top board, 3/4 by 3 by 36 in., S-1-S.
  4 side door rails, 3/4 by 2 by 47 in., S-2-S.
  6 cross rails, 3/4 by 2 by 12 in., S-2-S.
  4 slats, 1/2 by 3/4 by 16-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  4 slats, 1/2 by 3/4 by 13-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  8 slats, 1/2 by 3/4 by 12-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  4 shelves, 5/8 by 16 by 32 in., S-1-S., poplar.
  4 cleats, 1 in. sq. by 55 in., soft wood.
  4 cleats, 1 in. sq. by 28 in., soft wood.
  4 cleats, 1 in. sq. by 14 in., soft wood.

[Illustration: China Closet with Latticework Doors and Sides]

[Illustration: Details of China Closet]

Having this material on hand, start with the four posts, as they are all
alike. Clamp them together, being careful to have them of the right
length, and the ends square. Trim the bottom, as shown in the detail
drawing, and then lay out the mortises for the front and back rails.
These rails can now be laid out and the tenons cut to fit the mortises
in the posts. The back rails should, in addition, be rabbeted for the
back board as shown. The end rails are fastened to the posts by means of
screws through 1-in. square cleats, fastened on the inside of the posts
as shown in the section A-A. In all cases the screws should be run
through the cleats into the framing so the heads will not show. The end
rails should be rabbeted on the inside for the latticework and the
glass.

The back board should have the corners rounded as shown and be fastened
to the top board with screws through from the bottom side. The top board
is then fastened to the top rail cleats in the same manner.

The doors are put together by means of tenons and mortises. The frames
should be rabbeted on the inside for the latticework and the glass.
Leaded glass can be used in place of this latticework, if it is desired.
Suitable hinges and a catch should be supplied. These can be purchased
at any hardware store.

The shelves should be cut out at the corners to fit around the cleats.
They rest on small blocks which are fastened to the cleats, or if
desired, small holes can be drilled and pins used instead.

The back is put on in the usual manner. A mirror can be put in without
much trouble if it is desired.

When putting the frame together, glue should be used on the joints, as
it makes them much stiffer. Be careful to get the frame together
perfectly square, or it will be hard to fit the doors and the glass.
When it is complete, go over the whole carefully with fine sandpaper and
remove all rough spots. Scrape all the surplus glue from about the
joints, as stain will not take when there is any glue. The closet can be
finished in any one of the many mission stains supplied by the trade for
this purpose.

[Illustration: Oak Bedstead Complete]



AN OAK BEDSTEAD


The accompanying sketches show an artistic design for a mission bed, so
simple in construction and design that most any one that has a few tools
and a knowledge of their use can make it. It is best made of
quarter-sawed oak, as this wood is the easiest to procure and work up
and looks well with any finish. If the stock is ordered from the mill
ready cut to length, squared and sanded, much of the hard labor will be
saved.

The following is a list of the material needed:

  2 posts, 2-1/2 by 2-1/2 by 50 in.
  2 posts, 2-1/2 by 2-1/2 by 44 in.
  2 end rails, 1 by 6 by 56 in.
  2 side rails, 1 by 6 by 78 in.
  5 end rails, 1 by 4 by 56 in.
  3 end rails, 1 by 2 by 56 in.
  8 vertical slats, 3/8 by 6 by 11-1/2 in.
 10 vertical slats, 3/8 by 2 by 11-1/2 in.
  2 cleats, 1 by 1 by 78 in.
  5 slats, 3/4 by 3 by 55-1/2 in.
 20 blocks, 1 by 1 by 3 in.

Square up the four posts in pairs and lay out the mortises as per
drawing. To do this, lay them side by side on a flat surface with the
ends square and mark them with a try-square. The tenons on the end rails
are laid out in the same manner as the posts. Four of the end rails
should be marked and mortises cut for the upright slats as shown in the
detail drawing. The tenons on the end rails are about 1 in. long, while
those on the slats can be 3/4 in. long. Fit all the parts together
before gluing to see that they fit square and tight. After the glue has
been applied clamp them together perfectly square and set them away to
dry. They should dry at least twenty-four hours before the clamps are
removed.

[Illustration: Details of Oak Bedstead]

While the ends are drying, the side rails can be made. These have a
1-in. square cleat screwed to the inner side for the slats to rest upon.
If springs are used, five slats will be sufficient. They can be placed
where the springs will rest upon them. After the position of the slats
has been located, nail small blocks at their sides to hold them in
place. For fastening the side rails to the posts, patent devices can be
purchased at a local hardware store. The posts will have to be mortised
to receive these, and care should be exercised to get them in the right
place.

When the bed is complete go over it carefully and scrape all the surplus
glue from about the joints, as the finish will not take where there is
any glue. Remove all rough spots with fine sandpaper; then apply the
stain you like best, which may be any of the many mission stains
supplied by the trade for this purpose. If this bed is well made and
finished, it will be an ornament to any home.



AN OAK FOOTSTOOL


The footstool shown in the illustration can be made from any kind of
wood, but when it is intended to be finished in mission style,
quarter-sawed oak will produce the best effect. The material needed will
be as follows:

 1 top, 1 by 9-1/2 by 12 in., S-1-S.
 2 legs, 3/4 by 8 by 12 in., S-2-S.
 1 brace, 3/4 by 7 by 9 in., S-1-S.

Order these pieces cut to length, squared and sanded. A full-sized
layout of the front view should be made to get the correct bevels for
the legs and brace. The design of the legs can be varied to suit the
fancy of the maker. For such a design as shown draw one-half of it on
paper; fold on the center line and with scissors cut both sides of the
outline by following the lines drawn. Trace around this pattern on the
wood, and saw out with a compass or keyhole saw. The sawed edges should
be smoothed and sandpapered.

[Illustration: Details of Footstool]

The perforation in the top board is made by first boring holes, then
trimming out the edges with a sharp chisel. Be sure to get the best side
of the board up.

[Illustration: Footstool Complete]

The legs are fastened to the top and to the braces with 1-3/4-in. wood
screws as shown in the detail drawing. After the stool is assembled, go
over it carefully with fine sandpaper and remove all rough spots before
applying the finish. This finish can be any one of the many different
kinds supplied by the trade for this purpose. If this stool is well made
and finished, it will be a useful and attractive article.

[Illustration: Table and Seat Decorated in Pyro-Carving]



A LIBRARY SET IN PYRO-CARVING


The multitude of indifferently executed small articles which followed
the introduction of pyrography is beginning to disappear, people are
considering the art more seriously and applying it to more dignified
uses. Pyro-carving is one of the new methods of decorating furniture
which is both beautiful and practical, two qualities which do not always
go together.

The library set illustrated consists of a table, 30 by 50 in., with two
benches, 14 in. wide of the same length. The supports are made of
selected white pine, which must be absolutely free from pitch. The pine
is soft enough to work easily with the point and stands wear much better
than basswood. The tops and braces are made of curly fir, all of the
material must be 2-in. lumber, which dresses to about an inch and a
half. All surfaces, except the faces of the supports, are given a
well-rubbed coat of oil with a little burnt umber, the stain to be
applied directly to the wood without a filler.

On the outside of the supports the design is drawn in with pencil, the
background is then cut out smoothly with a chisel to the depth of an
eighth of an inch, leaving the decoration in relief. It is then burned
deeply, the background in straight flat strokes, the outlines having the
effect of a sloping, dark edge. The shadows are burned in as deeply as
possible and the shading is put in with the flat of the point.

A wax or egg-shell oil varnish finish is most suitable for this set.

[Illustration: Grille for an Arch]



A GRILLE WITH PEDESTALS TO MATCH


The accompanying sketch shows something unique in a grille that adds to
the appearance of a home furnished in mission style. When it is stained
and finished to match the furniture, it gives a consummate tone that
would be difficult to obtain by any other means.

To get the best results it should be made to blend with the furniture
and the arch in which it is to fit, in both weight and style. This will
depend very much upon one's preference, and for this reason full
dimensions are not given. No difficulty will be experienced, however, by
anyone handy with tools, in making it.

The material should be quarter-sawed oak, which can be secured planed
and sanded at the mill. For the grille order 1 by 1-1/2-in. and 1/2 by
1-1/2-in. stock. The method of making the bars is shown in the detailed
sketch. The two end bars should be made of solid pieces, 3/4 by 1-1/2
in., with two rectangular slots mortised in each to receive the
supports. The supports should be just the right length to go in the
arch. To erect, slip the end bars on the supports, hold the grille in
place and fasten the bars to the sides of the arch with screws.

The size of the pedestals and the connecting pieces will depend upon the
size of the arch. These connecting pieces should be well mortised into
the post, and if you own your own home and intend the pedestals to
become a fixture, they should also be mortised into the sides of the
arch. If not, they may be fastened to the arch with blind screws. The
amount of material required will depend upon the size of the arch.



A LADY'S WRITING DESK


This desk of mission style is a little more complicated than some of the
other pieces of mission furniture that have been described, but anyone
who has a fair knowledge of tools will not have much trouble in
constructing it in the home workshop if the plans are carefully
followed. Quarter-sawed oak is the best wood to use, as it is easy to
work and looks best when finished. Order the stock from the mill ready
cut to length, squared and sanded. Following is a list of the stock
needed:

  2 front posts, 2 by 2 by 30 in.
  2 back posts, 2 by 2 by 50 in.
  1 bottom rail, 3/4 by 3 by 31 in.
  2 end rails, 3/4 by 3 by 18 in.
  1 stretcher, 3/4 by 8 by 33-1/2 in.
  2 end slats, 3/8 by 8 by 15 in.
  1 back slat, 3/8 by 8 by 15-1/2 in.
  2 back slats, 3/8 by 3 by 15-1/2 in.
  1 front drawer rail, 3/4 by 1-1/4 by 31-1/4 in.
  2 side drawer rails, 3/4 by 3 by 18-1/4 in.
  1 drawer front, 3/4 by 6 by 30 in.
  1 desk lid, 3/4 by 18 by 31-1/4 in.
  1 desk board, 3/4 by 19-1/4 by 31-1/4 in.
  2 end boards, 3/4 by 19 by 21-1/4 in.
  1 top board, 3/4 by 10 by 34 in.
  1 top back board, 3/4 by 5 by 31-1/4 in.
  1 back board, 3/4 by 30 by 22 in.
  2 drawer sides, 1/2 by 6 by 19-1/2 in., S.W.
  1 drawer end, 1/2 by 6 by 29 in., S.W.
  1 drawer bottom, 1/2 by 18 by 29 in., S.W.
  2 pieces for pigeon holes, 3/8 by 7 by 23 in., S.W.
  8 pieces for pigeon holes, 3/8 by 4 by 6-3/4 in., S.W.

Start with the back posts, being sure they are square and of the right
length; place them side by side and lay out the mortises for the lower
rails, the desk rails and the top back boards, as shown in the
accompanying detail drawing. Lay out the front posts in the same manner.
Cut the tenons on the ends of the rails to fit the mortises in the
posts. Also cut mortises in the rails for the back and end slats. The
end rails have a mortise in them for the tenons on the ends of the foot
boards. Clamp the ends of the desk together, with the end rails in
place; then fit the side boards. Bore holes through the posts into the
side boards for dowels as shown. After the dowels are in place the holes
can be plugged.

[Illustration: Details of Writing Desk]

Cut and fit the top back board, the bottom rail, the back board and the
stretcher. Cut the top and desk boards at the back corners to clear the
posts. The top board is to be fastened to the side boards with blind
screws. The back board is fastened to the posts with dowels as shown.

[Illustration: Desk Complete]

When all the parts fit square and tight they can be glued together. The
ends of the desk should be glued up first and left to dry, then the
other parts put in place and glued. When clamping the parts together see
that they fit perfectly square and tight. While the glue is drying the
drawer can be made. The front board is made of oak, but the other parts
may be made of some soft wood. The side pieces are mortised and glued to
the front board, The end and bottom boards can be nailed together.

The drop lid of the desk is made as shown. Two or more boards may have
to be glued together for the lid, the desk bottom and the back board.
The lid is fastened to the desk board with two hinges, and it should be
so arranged that when closed it will be even with the sides. Brackets or
chains are fastened to the inside to hold it in the proper position when
it is open. Small blocks of wood fastened to the inner edge of the side
boards will prevent it from closing too far. A lock, if desired, can be
purchased at a hardware store and fitted in place. Suitable handles for
the drawer should also be provided.

When the desk is complete go over it with fine sandpaper and remove all
rough spots. Scrape all glue from about the joints, as the finish will
not take where there is any glue.

The pigeonholes are made from 3/8-in. stock. They may be tacked in place
after the desk is finished.

The finish can be any one of the many mission stains supplied by the
trade for this purpose. If the desk is well made and finished, it will
have a very neat and attractive appearance.



A TELEPHONE STAND AND STOOL


The stand shown in the accompanying illustration is for use with a desk
telephone. The stool when not in use, slides on two runners under the
stand. A shelf is provided for the telephone directory, paper, pencil,
etc.

[Illustration: Stand and Stool Complete]

[Illustration: Details of Stand and Stool]

The joints may be made with dowels, or the mortise and tenon may be
used, as desired. If the latter is decided upon, allowance must be made
on the length of the rails for the tenons. The list given is for the
dowel-made joints. The following stock list gives the amount of material
needed which should be ordered planed and sanded. This work can be done
by hand if the builder has the time and desires to have an entire
home-made article. However, the list is given for the mill-planed
material.

STAND

  4 posts, 1-1/2 in. square by 29 in.
  2 rails, 7/8 by 5 by 11 in.
  1 rail, 7/8 by 1-1/2 by 13 in.
  1 rail, 7/8 by 5 by 13 in.
  2 runners, 7/8 by 1-1/2 by 14 in.
  1 top, 7/8 by 18 by 20 in.
  1 shelf, 7/8 by 12-7/8 by 13-3/4 in.

STOOL

  4 posts, 1-1/2 in. square by 17 in.
  4 rails, 7/8 by 4 by 6-1/2 in.
  4 rails, 7/8 by 2 by 6-1/2 in.
  1 stretcher, 7/8 by 4 by 7-1/4 in.
  1 top, 7/8 by 12-1/2 in. square.

The exact lengths for the posts are given in the list. Should the
builder desire to square them up, allowance must be made for this when
ordering stock.

Arrange all the pieces in the position they are to occupy in the
finished stand and stool and number all the joints. Locate the centers
and bore holes for all the dowels. Assemble the two sides of the table
first. Notch the runners and fasten them to the posts with flat-head
screws. Use hot glue on the dowel joints if possible.

Cut the corners out of the shelf to fit the legs and assemble the frame
of the table. Use round-head screws through the rails to hold the shelf.
The top may be fastened in two ways, with screws through cleats on the
inside of the rails and under the top, or with screws slanting through
the upper part of the rails and into the top as shown. The stool, is
assembled in the same manner as the stand.

The stand and stool should be finished to harmonize with the furniture
and woodwork of the room in which they are to be used.



HOW TO MAKE A DOWEL-CUTTING TOOL


Secure a piece of steel about 1/4 in. thick, 1-3/4 in. wide and 8 in.
long. Drill various sized holes through the steel as shown in Fig. 1,
leaving the edge of each hole as sharp as the drill will make them. Cut
off a block of wood the length necessary for the dowels and split it up
into pieces about the size for the particular dowel to be used. Lay the
steel on something flat, over a hole of some kind, then start one of the
pieces of wood in the proper size hole for the dowel and drive it
through with a hammer, as shown in Fig. 2. The sharp edges on the steel
will cut the dowel as smooth and round as if it were turned in a lathe.

[Illustration: Easy Way to Make Dowels]



A MEDICINE CABINET


This cabinet is best made of quarter-sawed oak, as this wood is the most
easily procured and looks well when finished. Order the stock from the
mill ready cut to length, squared and sanded. The following pieces will
be needed:

  4 posts, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 28 in.
  4 side rails, 3/4 by 2 by 16 in.
  4 end rails, 3/4 by 2 by 7 in.
  2 door rails, 3/4 by 2 by 15 in.
  2 door rails, 3/4 by 2 by 22-3/4 in.
  1 door panel, 1/4 by 11-1/2 by 19-1/4 in.
  1 back panel, 1/4 by 15-1/2 by 23-1/4 in.
  2 end panels, 1/4 by 6-1/2 by 23-1/4 in.
  2 pieces for top and bottom, 1/2 by 6-3/4 by 15-3/4 in.

[Illustration: Medicine Cabinet Complete]

Square the four posts and bevel the tops as shown.

[Illustration: Details of Medicine Cabinet]

Cut grooves in them with a plow plane to receive the 1/4-in. panels. The
tenons on the rails are cut 1/4 in. wide and fit into the grooves in the
posts the same as the panels. The rails have grooves cut at the inside
edges for the panels. The front posts do not have grooves on the inside
but have two mortises, one at each end for the top and bottom rails. The
back has a panel fitted in the same as the ends. See that the pieces
fit together perfectly square and tight, then glue them together and
give it time to dry.

The top and bottom boards are next put in place. The top is placed in
the center of the top rails while the bottom is put even with the lower
edge of the bottom rails, as shown in the detail drawing. The door frame
is mitered at the corners and rabbeted on the inner edge to take the
panel. A mirror can be used in place of the panel if desired. Suitable
hinges and a catch, which can be purchased at a hardware store, should
be supplied for the door.

The shelves are of soft wood and are to be arranged to suit the maker.
Before applying a finish, go over the cabinet with fine sandpaper and
remove all the surplus glue about the joints and the rough spots, else
the finish will not take evenly. The finish can be any one of the many
different kinds supplied by the trade for this purpose.



CONTENTS


Arm Chair      66

Arm Chair, Curved Back      18


Basket, Waste Paper      27

Bedstead, Oak      99

Bend Wood, How to      40

Bookcase      70

Buffet, Oak      5


Cabinet, Medicine      116

Cedar Chest, Oak-Bound      79

Chair, Arm      66

Chair, Curved Back Arm      18

Chair, Rocking      14

Chair, Side      62

Chest, Oak-Bound Cedar      79

China Closet      47

China Closet, Another      94

Clock, Arts-Crafts Mantel      52

Clock, Plain Oak Hall      10

Couch, Oak, with Cushions      33


Desk, Lady's Writing      108

Desk, Oak Writing      29

Dining Table, Extension      77

Dowel-Cutting Tool, How to Make      115

Dowel Holes, Tool for Marking      23

Dresser for Child's Playroom      85


Electric Shade for Dining Room      37


Footstool, Leather-Covered      50

Footstool, Oak      101


Grille with Pedestals to Match      107

Hall Clock, Plain Oak      10


Lamp, Arts and Crafts Oil      91

Lamp Stand      73

Library Set in Pyro-Carving      105


Magazine Table      24

Mantel Clock, Arts-Crafts      52

Medicine Cabinet              116

Mortises, Tool for Making      84

Music Stand      55


Oak Stain      9


Plate Rack      21

Pyro-Carving, Library Set in      105


Rocking Chair      14


Screws, Making Hold in End Grain of Wood      58

Shade, Electric for Dining Room      37

Side Chair      62

Smoking Stand      43

Stain, Oak      9

Stand and Stool, Telephone      112

Stand, Lamp      73

Stand, Music      55

Stand, Smoking      43

Stool, Telephone Stand and      112


Table, Extension Dining      77

Table--Library Set in Pyro-Carving      105

Table, Magazine      24

Telephone Stand and Stool      112

Tenons, Cutting with a Hand-Saw      90

Tool, Dowel-Cutting, How to Make      115

Tool for Marking Dowel Holes      23

Tool for Making Mortises      84


Wall Case with a Mirror Door      59

Waste Paper Basket      27

Wood, How to Bend      40



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's Notes:

   The Table of Contents was added for the reader's convenience.

   Folio 118: "perfectly" was "perfecly".

   Folio 4 and 81 "mill-planed" was "millplaned".

   Added captions for clarity:

      Folio 27: "A WASTE PAPER BASKET".

      Folio 28: "DETAILS OF WASTE PAPER BASKET".

      Folio 58: "MAKING SCREWS HOLD IN END GRAIN".





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