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Title: The Cathedral Church of Canterbury [2nd ed.].
Author: Withers, Hartley, 1867-1950
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Cathedral Church of Canterbury [2nd ed.]." ***

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[Illustration: CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL FROM THE SOUTH.]



                       THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF
                              CANTERBURY

                      A DESCRIPTION OF ITS FABRIC
                      AND A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE
                          ARCHIEPISCOPAL SEE

                       BY HARTLEY WITHERS, B.A.

                 [Illustration: Arms of Canterbury.]

                   LONDON GEORGE BELL & SONS 1897


                   _First Edition December, 1896._
_Second Edition, Revised, with many Additional Illustrations, May, 1897._

       *       *       *       *       *



GENERAL PREFACE.


This series of monographs has been planned to supply visitors to the great
English Cathedrals with accurate and well illustrated guide books at a
popular price. The aim of each writer has been to produce a work compiled
with sufficient knowledge and scholarship to be of value to the student of
archæology and history, and yet not too technical in language for the use
of an ordinary visitor or tourist.

To specify all the authorities which have been made use of in each case
would be difficult and tedious in this place. But amongst the general
sources of information which have been almost invariably found useful
are:--firstly, the great county histories, the value of which, especially
in questions of genealogy and local records, is generally recognized;
secondly, the numerous papers by experts which appear from time to time in
the transactions of the antiquarian and archæological societies; thirdly,
the important documents made accessible in the series issued by the Master
of the Rolls; fourthly, the well-known works of Britton and Willis on the
English Cathedrals; and, lastly, the very excellent series of Handbooks to
the Cathedrals, originated by the late Mr. John Murray, to which the
reader may in most cases be referred for fuller detail, especially in
reference to the histories of the respective sees.

                                         GLEESON WHITE.
                                         E.F. STRANGE.
                                           _Editors of the Series._

       *       *       *       *       *



PREFACE.


Among authorities consulted in the preparation of this volume, the author
desires to name specially Prof. Willis's "Architectural History of
Canterbury Cathedral" (1845), Dean Stanley's "Historical Memorials of
Canterbury" (Murray, 1855, and fifth edition, 1868), "Canterbury," by the
Rev. R.C. Jenkins (1880), and the excellent section devoted to Canterbury
in Murray's "Handbooks to the English Cathedrals, Southern Division,"
wherein Mr. Richard John King brought together so much valuable matter,
to which reference has been made too often to be acknowledged in each
instance. For permission to use this the publishers have to thank Mr. John
Murray.

For the reproduction of the drawings of the various parts of the
Cathedral, and the arms on the title page, by Mr. Walter Tallent Owen,
the editors are greatly indebted to the artist, from whose volume, "Bits
of Canterbury Cathedral," published by W.T. Comstock, New York, 1891, they
have been taken. Others are taken from Charles Wild's "Specimens of
Mediæval Architecture," and from Carter's "Ancient Sculpture and
Paintings."

The illustrations from photographs in this volume have been reproduced
from the originals by Messrs. Carl Norman and Co.

                                                         H.W.

       *       *       *       *       *



CONTENTS.


                                                          PAGE
CHAPTER I.--History of the Building                          3

CHAPTER II.--Exterior and Precincts:
  The Angel or Bell Tower                                   24
  The Monastery                                             32
  Christchurch Gate                                         35
  Ruins of the Infirmary                                    38
  The Treasury                                              38
  The Lavatory Tower                                        40
  The Chapter House                                         42
  The Library                                               44
  The Deanery                                               44
  The Green Court                                           48

CHAPTER III.--Interior:
  The Nave                                                  52
  The Central Tower                                         55
  The Western Screen                                        56
  The Choir                                                 57
  The Altar                                                 61
  The Choir                                                 64
  The Choir Stalls                                          65
  South-East Transept                                       67
  South-West Choir Aisle                                    69
  St. Anselm's Tower and Chapel                             69
  The Watching Chamber                                      72
  Trinity Chapel                                            72
  Tomb of the Black Prince                                  75
  Becket's Crown                                            88
  St. Andrew's Tower                                        90
  North-East Transept                                       90
  Chapel of the Martyrdom                                   92
  The Dean's Chapel                                         94
  South-West Transept                                       95
  St. Michael's Chapel                                      95
  The Main Crypt                                            96
  The Eastern Crypt                                        101

CHAPTER IV.--The History of the See                        103



ILLUSTRATIONS.


                                                          PAGE
The Cathedral from the South                    _Frontispiece_
Arms of Canterbury                                     _Title_
The Cathedral from the North                                 1
Plan of Canterbury Cathedral (_Circa 1165_)                  4
The Cloisters                                               19
View on the Stour                                           22
The Central Tower, "Bell Harry"                             25
Detail of St. Anselm's Tower                                32
The Christchurch Gate                                       33
The South-West Porch of the Cathedral                       36
Cloisters of the Monks' Infirmary                           37
Ruins of the Monks' Infirmary                               38
The Baptistery Tower                                        39
Turret of South-West Transept                               41
The Cloisters                                               43
Norman Staircase in the Close                               45
Details of the Norman Staircase in the Close                46
Details of Ornament                                         47
Old Painting, "The Murder of St. Thomas à Becket"           51
The Shrine of St. Thomas à Becket (from the Cottonian MS.)  52
Capitals of Columns in the Eastern Apse                     54
The Choir--looking East                                     59
   Do.     before Restoration                               62
A Miserere in the Choir                                     65
Some Mosaics from the Floor of Trinity Chapel               73
The Black Prince's Tomb                                     77
Shield, Coat, etc., of the Black Prince                     80
West Gate                                                   81
Trinity Chapel, looking into Corona, "Becket's Crown"       88
Chair of St. Augustine                                      89
Transept of "The Martyrdom"                                 92
Part of South-Western Transept                              94
The Crypt                                                   97
   Do.    St. Gabriel's Chapel                             100
   Do.    Cardinal Morton's Monument                       101
Plans of Cathedral at three periods                        130

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: THE CATHEDRAL FROM THE NORTH
(FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY CARL NORMAN AND CO.).]



CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL.



CHAPTER I.

THE HISTORY OF THE BUILDING.


More than four hundred years passed by between the beginning of the
building of this cathedral by Archbishop Lanfranc (1070-1089) and its
completion, by the addition of the great central tower, at the end of the
fifteenth century. But before tracing the history of the construction of
the present well-known fabric, a few words will not be out of place
concerning the church which preceded it on the same site. A British or
Roman church, said to have been built by a certain mythical King Lucius,
was given to St. Augustine by Ethelbert in A.D. 597. It was designed,
broadly speaking, on the plan of the old Basilica of St. Peter at Rome,
but as to the latest date of any alterations, which may or may not have
been made by Augustine and his immediate successors, we have no accurate
information. It is, however, definitely stated that Archbishop Odo, who
held the see from A.D. 942-959, raised the walls and rebuilt the roof. In
the course of these alterations the church was roofless for three years,
and we are told that no rain fell within the precincts during this time.
In A.D. 1011 Canterbury was pillaged by the Danes, who carried off
Archbishop Alphege to Greenwich, butchered the monks, and did much damage
to the church. The building was, however, restored by Canute, who made
further atonement by hanging up his crown within its walls, and bringing
back the body of Alphege, who had been martyred by the Danes. In the year
1067 the storms of the Norman Conquest overwhelmed St. Augustine's church,
which was completely destroyed by fire, together with many royal deeds of
privilege and papal bulls, and other valuable documents.

A description of the church thus destroyed is given by Prof. Willis, who
quotes all the ancient writers who mention it. The chief authority is
Eadmer, who was a boy at the monastery school when the Saxon church was
pulled down, and was afterwards a monk and "singer" in the cathedral. It
is he who tells us that it was arranged in some parts in imitation of the
church of St. Peter at Rome. Odo had translated the body of Wilfrid,
Archbishop of York, from Ripon to Canterbury, and had "worthily placed it
in a more lofty receptacle, to use his own words, that is to say, in the
great Altar which was constructed of rough stones and mortar, close to the
wall at the eastern part of the presbytery. Afterwards another altar was
placed at a convenient distance before the aforesaid altar.... In this
altar the blessed Elphege had solemnly deposited the head of St. Swithin
... and also many relics of other saints. To reach these altars, a certain
crypt which the Romans call a Confessionary had to be ascended by means of
several steps from the choir of the singers. This crypt was fabricated
beneath in the likeness of the confessionary of St. Peter, the vault of
which was raised so high that the part above could only be reached by many
steps." The resting-place of St. Dunstan was separated from the crypt
itself by a strong wall, for that most holy father was interred before the
aforesaid steps at a great depth in the ground, and at the head of the
saint stood the matutinal altar. Thence the choir of the singers was
extended westward into the body of the church.... In the next place,
beyond the middle of the length of the body there were two towers which
projected beyond the aisles of the church. The south tower had an altar in
the midst of it, which was dedicated in honour of the blessed Pope
Gregory.... Opposite to this tower and on the north, the other tower was
built in honour of the blessed Martin, and had about it cloisters for the
use of the monks.... The extremity of the church was adorned by the
oratory of Mary.... At its eastern part, there was an altar consecrated to
the worship of that Lady.... When the priest performed the Divine
mysteries at this altar he had his face turned to the east.... Behind him,
to the west, was the pontifical chair constructed with handsome
workmanship, and of large stones and cement, and far removed from the
Lord's table, being contiguous to the wall of the church which embraced
the entire area of the building.

Lanfranc, the first Norman archbishop, was granted the see in 1070. He
quickly set about the task of building himself a cathedral. Making no
attempt to restore the old fabric, he even destroyed what was left of
the monastic building, and built up an entirely new church and monastery.
Seven years sufficed to complete his cathedral, which stood on the same
ground as the earlier fane. His work, however, was not long left
undisturbed. It had not stood for twenty years before the east end of the
church was pulled down during the Archiepiscopate of Anselm, and rebuilt
in a much more splendid style by Ernulph, the prior of the monastery.
Conrad, who succeeded Ernulph as prior, finished the choir, decorating it
with great magnificence, and, in the course of his reconstruction, nearly
doubling the area of the building. Thus completed anew, the cathedral was
dedicated by Archbishop William in A.D. 1130. At this notable ceremony the
kings of England and Scotland both assisted, as well as all the English
bishops. Forty years later this church was the scene of Thomas à Becket's
murder (A.D. 1170), and it was in Conrad's choir that the monks watched
over his body during the night after his death.

Eadmer also gives some description of the church raised by Lanfranc. The
new archbishop, "filled with consternation" when he found that "the church
of the Saviour which he undertakes to rule was reduced to almost nothing
by fire and ruin," proceeded to "set about to destroy it utterly, and
erect a more noble one. And in the space of seven years he raised this new
church from the very foundations and rendered it nearly perfect....
Archbishop Anselm, who succeeded Lanfranc, appointed Ernulf to be
prior.... Having taken down the eastern part of the church which Lanfranc
had built, he erected it so much more magnificently, that nothing like it
could be seen in England, either for the brilliancy of its glass windows,
the beauty of its marble pavement, or the many coloured pictures which led
the wondering eyes to the very summit of the ceiling." It was this part of
the church, however, that was completed by Ernulf's successor, Conrad, and
afterwards known as Conrad's choir. It appears that Anselm "allowed the
monks to manage their own affairs, and gave them for priors Ernulf, and
then Conrad, both monks of their own monastery. And thus it happened that,
in addition to the general prosperity and good order of their property,
which resulted from this freedom, they were enabled to enlarge their
church by all that part which stretches from the great tower to the east;
which work Anselm himself provided for," having "granted to the said
church the revenues of his town of Peckham, for seven years, the whole of
which were expended upon the new work." Prof. Willis, unable to account
for the haste with which the east end of Lanfranc's church was pulled
down, assumes that the monks "did not think their church large enough for
the importance of their monastery," and moreover wanted shrine-room for
the display of relics. The main body of Lanfranc's church was left
standing, and is described as follows by Gervase. "The tower, raised upon
great pillars, is placed in the midst of the church, like the centre in
the middle of a circle. It had on its apex a gilt cherub. On the west of
the tower is the nave of the church, supported on either side upon eight
pillars. Two lofty towers with gilded pinnacles terminate this nave or
aula. A gilded _corona_ hangs in the midst of the church. A screen with a
loft (_pulpitum_) separated in a manner the aforesaid tower from the nave,
and had in the middle and on the side towards the nave, the altar of the
holy cross. Above the _pulpitum_ and placed across the church, was the
beam, which sustained a great cross, two cherubim, and the images of St.
Mary and St. John the Apostle.... The great tower had a cross from each
side, to wit, a south cross and a north cross, each of which had in the
midst a strong pillar; this pillar sustained a vault which proceeded from
the walls on three of its sides," etc. Prof. Willis considers that as far
as these parts of the building are concerned, the present fabric stands
exactly on the site of Lanfranc's. "In the existing building," he says,
"it happens that the nave and transepts have been transformed into the
Perpendicular style of the fourteenth century, and the central tower
carried up to about double its original altitude in the same style.
Nevertheless indications may be detected that these changed parts stand
upon the old foundations of Lanfranc."

The building, however, was not destined to remain long intact. In A.D.
1174 the whole of Conrad's choir was destroyed by a fire, which was
described fully by Gervase, a monk who witnessed it. He gives an
extraordinary account of the rage and grief of the people at the sight of
the burning cathedral. The work of rebuilding was immediately set on foot.
In September, 1174, one William of Sens, undertook the task, and wrought
thereat until 1178, when he was disabled by an unfortunate fall from a
scaffolding, and had to give up his charge and return to France. Another
William, an Englishman this time, took up the direction of the work,
and under his supervision the choir and eastern portion of the church
were finished in A.D. 1184. Further alterations were made under Prior
Chillenden at the end of the fourteenth century. Lanfranc's nave was
pulled down, and a new nave and transepts were constructed, leaving but
little of the original building set up by the first Norman archbishop.
Finally, about A.D. 1495, the cathedral was completed by the addition of
the great central tower.

[Illustration: PLAN OF CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL, ABOUT A.D. 1165.

From a Norman drawing inserted in the Great Psalter of Eadwin, in the
Library of Trinity College, Cambridge. First published in _Vetusta
Monumenta_ (Society of Antiquaries, 1755). For full description and a
plan of the waterworks see _Archæologia Cantiana_, Vol. VII., 1868.]

During the four centuries which passed during the construction and
reconstruction of the fabric, considerable changes had manifested
themselves in the science and art of architecture. Hence it is that
Canterbury Cathedral is a history, written in solid stone, of
architectural progress, illustrating in itself almost all the various
kinds of the style commonly called Pointed. Of these the earliest form of
Gothic and Perpendicular chiefly predominate. The shape and arrangement of
the building was doubtless largely influenced by the extraordinary number
of precious relics which it contained, and which had to be properly
displayed and fittingly enshrined. Augustine's church had possessed the
bodies of St. Blaize and St. Wilfrid, brought respectively from Rome and
from Ripon; of St. Dunstan, St. Alphege, and St. Ouen, as well as the
heads of St. Swithin and St. Furseus, and the arm of St. Bartholomew.
These were all carefully removed and placed, each in separate altars and
chapels, in Lanfranc's new cathedral. Here their number was added to by
the acquisition of new relics and sacred treasures as time went on, and
finally Canterbury enshrined its chiefest glory, the hallowed body of St.
Thomas à Becket, who was martyred within its walls.

Since, owing to an almost incredible act of royal vindictiveness in A.D.
1538, Becket's glorious shrine belongs only to the history of the past,
some account of its splendours will not be out of place in this part of
our account of the cathedral. It stood on the site of the ancient chapel
of the Trinity, which was burnt down along with Conrad's choir in the
destructive fire of A.D. 1174. It was in this chapel that Thomas à Becket
had first solemnized mass after becoming archbishop. For this reason, as
we may fairly suppose, this position was chosen to enshrine the martyr's
bones, after the rebuilding of the injured portion of the fabric. Though
the shrine itself has been ruthlessly destroyed, a mosaic pavement,
similar to that which may be seen round the tomb of Edward the Confessor
in Westminster Abbey, marks the exact spot on which it stood. The mosaic
is of the kind with which the floors of the Roman basilicas were generally
adorned, and contains signs of the zodiacs and emblems of virtues and
vices. This pavement was directly in front of the west side of the shrine.
On each side of the site is a deep mark in the pavement running towards
the east. This indentation was certainly worn in the soft, pinkish marble
by the knees of generations of pilgrims, who prostrated themselves here
while the treasures were displayed to their gaze. In the roof above there
is fixed a crescent carved out of some foreign wood, which has proved
deeply puzzling to antiquaries. A suggestion, which hardly seems very
plausible, connects this mysterious crescent with the fact that Becket was
closely related, as patron, with the Hospital of St. John at Acre. It was
believed that his prayers had once repulsed the Saracens from the walls of
the fortress, and he received the title of St. Thomas Acrensis. Near this
crescent a number of iron staples were to be seen at one time, and it is
likely that a trophy of some sort depended from them. The Watching Tower
was set high upon the Tower of St. Anselm, on the south side of the
shrine. It contained a fireplace, so that the watchman might keep himself
warm during the winter nights, and from a gallery between the pillars he
commanded a view of the sacred spot and its treasures. A troop of fierce
ban-dogs shared the task of guarding the shrine from theft. How necessary
such precautions were is shown by the fact that such a spot had to be
guarded not only from common robbers in search of rich booty, but also
from holy men, who were quite unscrupulous in their desire to possess
themselves and their own churches of sacred relics. Within the first six
years after Becket's death we read of two striking instances of the
lengths to which distinguished churchmen were carried by what Dean Stanley
calls "the first frenzy of desire for the relics of St. Thomas." Benedict,
a monk of Christ Church, and "probably the most distinguished of his
body," was created Abbot of Peterburgh in A.D. 1176. Disappointed to find
that his cathedral was very poor in the matter of relics he returned to
Canterbury, "took away with him the flagstones immediately surrounding the
sacred spot, with which he formed two altars in the conventual church of
his new appointment, besides two vases of blood and parts of Becket's
clothing." Still more striking and characteristic of the prevalent passion
for relics is the story of Roger, who was keeper of the "Altars of the
Martyrdom," or "Custos Martyrii." The brothers of St. Augustine's Abbey
were so eager to obtain a share in the glory which their great rival, the
neighbouring cathedral, had won from the circumstances of Becket's
martyrdom within its walls, that they actually offered Roger no less a
reward than the position of abbot in their own institution, on condition
that he should purloin for them some part of the remains of the martyr's
skull. And not only did Roger, though he had been specially selected from
amongst the monks of Christ Church to watch over this very treasure, agree
to their conditions, and after duly carrying out this piece of
sacrilegious burglary become Abbot of St. Augustine's; but the chroniclers
of the abbey were not ashamed to boast of this transaction as an instance
of cleverness and well-applied zeal.

The translation of Becket's remains from the tomb to his shrine took place
A.D. 1220, fifty years after his martyrdom. The young Henry III., who had
just laid the foundation of the new abbey at Westminster, assisted at the
ceremony. The primate then ruling at Canterbury was the great Stephen
Langton, who had won renown both as a scholar and a statesman. He had
carried out the division of the Bible into chapters, as it is now
arranged, and had won a decisive victory for English liberty by forcing
King John to sign the Great Charter. He was now advanced in years, and had
recently assisted at the coronation of King Henry at Westminster.

The translation was carried out with imposing ceremony. The scene must
have been one of surpassing splendour; never had such an assemblage been
gathered together in England. Robert of Gloucester relates that not only
Canterbury but the surrounding countryside was full to overflowing:

    "Of bishops and abbots, priors and parsons,
    Of earls, and of barons, and of many knights thereto;
    Of serjeants, and of squires, and of husbandmen enow,
    And of simple men eke of the land--so thick thither drew."

The archbishop had given notice two years before, proclaiming the day of
the solemnity throughout Europe as well as England: the episcopal manors
had been bidden to furnish provisions for the huge concourse, not only in
the cathedral city, but along all the roads by which it was approached.
Hay and provisions were given to all who asked it between London and
Canterbury; at the gates of the city and in the four licensed cellars tuns
of wine were set up, that all who thirsted might drink freely, and wine
ran in the street channels on the day of the festival. During the night
before the ceremony the primate, together with the Bishop of Salisbury and
all the members of the brotherhood, who were headed by Walter the Prior,
solemnly, with psalms and hymns, entered the crypt in which the martyr's
body lay, and removed the stones which covered the tomb. Four priests,
specially conspicuous for their piety, were selected to take out the
relics, which were then placed in a strong coffer studded with iron nails
and fastened with iron hasps.

Next day a procession was formed, headed by the young king, Henry III.
After him came Pandulf, the Italian Bishop of Norwich and Papal Nuncio,
and Langton the archbishop, with whom was the Archbishop of Rheims,
Primate of France. The great Hubert de Burgh, Lord High Justiciary,
together with four other barons, completed the company, which was selected
to bear the chest to its resting-place. When this had been duly deposited,
a solemn mass was celebrated by the French archbishop. The anniversary of
this great festival was commemorated as the Feast of the Translation of
the Blessed St. Thomas, until it was suppressed by a royal injunction of
Henry VIII. in 1536.

A picture of the shrine itself is preserved among the Cottonian MSS., and
a representation of it also exists in one of the stained windows of the
cathedral. At the end of it the altar of the Saint had its place; the
lower part of its walls were of stone, and against them the lame and
diseased pilgrims used to rub their bodies, hoping to be cured of their
afflictions. The shrine itself was supported on marble arches, and
remained concealed under a wooden covering, doubtless intended to enhance
the effect produced by the sudden revelation of the glories beneath it;
for when the pilgrims were duly assembled on their knees round the shrine,
the cover was suddenly raised at a given signal, and though such a device
may appear slightly theatrical in these days, it is easy to imagine how
the devotees of the middle ages must have been thrilled at the sight of
this hallowed tomb, and all the bravery of gold and precious stones which
the piety of that day had heaped upon it. The beauties of the shrine were
pointed out by the prior, who named the giver of the several jewels. Many
of these were of enormous value, especially a huge carbuncle, as large as
an egg, which had been offered to the memory of St. Thomas by Louis VII.
of France, who visited the shrine in A.D. 1179, after having thrice seen
the Saint in a vision. A curious legend, thoroughly in keeping with the
mystic halo of miraculous power which surrounds the martyred archbishop's
fame, relates that the French king could not make up his mind to part with
this invaluable gem, which was called the "Regale of France;" but when he
visited the tomb, the stone, so runs the story, leapt forth from the ring
in which it was set, and fixed itself of its own will firmly in the wall
of the shrine, thus baffling the unwilling monarch's half-heartedness.
Louis also presented a gold cup, and gave the monks a hundred measures,
medii, of wine, to be delivered annually at Poissy, also ordaining that
they should be exempt from "toll, tax, and tallage" when journeying in his
realm. He himself was made a member of the brotherhood, after duly
spending a night in prayer at the tomb. It is said that, "because he was
very fearful of the water," the French king received a promise from the
Saint that neither he nor any other that crossed over from Dover to
Whitsand, should suffer any manner of loss or shipwreck. We are told that
Louis's piety was afterwards rewarded by the miraculous recovery, through
St. Thomas's intercession, of his son from a dangerous illness. Louis was
the first of a series of royal pilgrims to the shrine. Richard the Lion
Heart, set free from durance in Austria, walked thither from Sandwich to
return thanks to God and St. Thomas. After him all the English kings and
all the Continental potentates who visited the shores of Britain, paid due
homage, and doubtless made due offering, at the shrine of the sainted
archbishop. The crown of Scotland was presented in A.D. 1299 by Edward
Longshanks, and Henry V. gave thanks here after his victory over the
French at Agincourt. Emperors, both of the east and west, humbled
themselves before the relics of the famous English martyr. Henry VIII. and
the Emperor Charles V. came together at Whitsuntide, A.D. 1520, in more
than royal splendour, and with a great retinue of English and Spanish
noblemen, and worshipped at the shrine which had then reached the zenith
of its glory.

But though the stately stories of these royal progresses to the tomb of
the martyred archbishop strike the imagination vividly, yet the picture
presented by Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales" is in reality much more
impressive. For we find there all ranks of society alike making the
pilgrimage--the knight, the yeoman, the prioress, the monk, the friar, the
merchant, the scholar from Oxford, the lawyer, the squire, the tradesman,
the cook, the shipman, the physician, the clothier from Bath, the priest,
the miller, the reeve, the manciple, the seller of indulgences, and,
lastly, the poet himself--all these various sorts and conditions of men
and women we find journeying down to Canterbury in a sort of motley
caravan. Foreign pilgrims also came to the sacred shrine in great numbers.
A curious record, preserved in a Latin translation, of the journey of a
Bohemian noble, Leo von Rotzmital, who visited England in 1446, gives a
quaint description of Canterbury and its approaches. "Sailing up the
Channel," the narrator writes, "as we drew near to England we saw lofty
mountains full of chalk. These mountains seem from a distance to be clad
with snows. On them lies a citadel, built by devils, '_a Cacodæmonibus
extructa_,' so stoutly fortified that its peer could not be found in any
province of Christendom. Passing by these mountains and citadel we put in
at the city of Sandwich (_Sandvicum_).... But at nothing did I marvel more
greatly than at the sailors climbing up the masts and foretelling the
distance, and approach of the winds, and which sails should be set and
which furled. Among them I saw one sailor so nimble that scarce could any
man be compared with him." Journeying on to Canterbury, our pilgrim
proceeds: "There we saw the tomb and head of the martyr. The tomb is of
pure gold, and embellished with jewels, and so enriched with splendid
offerings that I know not its peer. Among other precious things upon it is
beholden the carbuncle jewel, which is wont to shine by night, half a
hen's egg in size. For that tomb has been lavishly enriched by many kings,
princes, wealthy traders, and other righteous men."

Such was Canterbury Cathedral in the middle ages, the resort of emperors,
kings, and all classes of humble folk, English and foreign. It was in the
spring chiefly, as Chaucer tells us, that

    "Whanne that April with his showres sote
    The droughte of March hath perced to the rote,
    And bathed every veine in swiche licour,
    Of whiche vertue engendred is the flour;
    When Zephyrus eke with his sote brethe
    Enspired hath in every holt and hethe
    The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne
    Hath in the Ram his halfe cours yronne,
    And smale foules maken melodie
    That slepen alle night with open eye,
    So priketh hem nature in hir corages;
    Than longen folk to gon on pilgrimages
    And palmeres for to seken strange strondes
    To serve hauves couthe in sondry londes;
    And specially from every shires ende
    Of Englelonde, to Canterbury they wende
    The holy blissful martyr for to seke,
    That hem hath holpen when that they were seke."

The miracles performed by the bones of the blessed martyr are stated by
contemporary writers to have been extraordinarily numerous. We have it on
the authority of Gervase that two volumes full of these marvels were
preserved at Canterbury, and in those days a volume meant a tome of
formidable dimensions; but scarcely any record of these most interesting
occurrences has been preserved. At the time of Henry VIII.'s quarrel with
the dead archbishop--of which more anon--the name of St. Thomas and all
account of his deeds was erased from every book that the strictest
investigation could lay hands on. So thoroughly was this spiteful edict
carried out that the records of the greatest of English saints are
astonishingly meagre. A letter, however, has been preserved, written about
A.D. 1390 by Richard II. to congratulate the then archbishop, William
Courtenay, on a fresh miracle performed by St. Thomas: "_Litera domini
Regis graciosa missa domino archiepiscopo, regraciando sibi de novo
miraculo Sancti Thome Martiris sibi denunciato._" The letter refers, in
its quaint Norman-French, to the good influence that will be exercised by
such a manifestation, as a practical argument against the "various enemies
of our faith and belief"--_noz foie et creaunce ount plousours enemys_.
These were the Lollards, and the pious king says that he hopes and
believes that they will be brought back to the right path by the effect
of this miracle, which seems to have been worked to heal a distinguished
foreigner--_en une persone estraunge_.

Another document (dated A.D. 1455) preserves the story of the miraculous
cure of a young Scotsman, from Aberdeen, _Allexander Stephani filius in
Scocia, de Aberdyn oppido natus_. Alexander was lame, _pedibus contractus_,
from his birth, we are told that after twenty-four years of pain and
discomfort--_vigintiquatuor annis penaliter laborabat_--he made a
pilgrimage to Canterbury, and there "the sainted Thomas, the divine
clemency aiding him, on the second day of the month of May did straightway
restore his legs and feet, _bases et plantas_, to the same Alexander."

Other miracles performed by the saint are pictured in the painted windows
of Trinity Chapel, of which we shall treat fully later on. The fame of the
martyr spread through the whole of Christendom. Stanley tells us that
"there is probably no country in Europe which does not exhibit traces of
Becket. A tooth of his is preserved in the church of San Thomaso
Cantuariense at Verona, part of an arm in a convent at Florence, and
another part in the church of St. Waldetrude at Mons; in Fuller's time
both arms were displayed in the English convent at Lisbon; while Bourbourg
preserves his chalice, Douay his hair shirt, and St. Omer his mitre. The
cathedral of Sens contains his vestments and an ancient altar at which he
said mass. His story is pictured in the painted windows at Chartres, and
Sens, and St. Omer, and his figure is to be seen in the church of Monreale
at Palermo."

In England almost every county contained a church or convent dedicated to
St. Thomas. Most notable of these was the abbey of Aberbrothock, raised,
within seven years after the martyrdom, to the memory of the saint by
William the Lion, king of Scotland. William had been defeated by the
English forces on the very day on which Henry II. had done penance at the
tomb, and made his peace with the saint, and attributing his misfortunes
to the miraculous influence of St. Thomas, endeavoured to propitiate him
by the dedication of this magnificent abbey. A mutilated image of the
saint has been preserved among the ruins of the monastery. This is perhaps
the most notable of the gifts to St. Thomas. The volume of the offerings
which were poured into the Canterbury coffers by grateful invalids who
had been cured of their ailments, and by others who, like the Scotch king,
were anxious to propitiate the power of the saint, must have been
enormous. We know that at the beginning of the sixteenth century the
yearly offerings, though their sums had already greatly diminished, were
worth about £4,000, according to the present value of money.

The story of the fall of the shrine and the overthrow of the power of the
martyr is so remarkable and was so implicitly believed at the time, that
it cannot be passed over in spite of the doubts which modern criticism
casts on its authenticity. It is said that in April, A.D. 1538, a writ of
summons was issued in the name of King Henry VIII. against Thomas Becket,
sometime Archbishop of Canterbury, accusing him of treason, contumacy, and
rebellion. This document was read before the martyr's tomb, and thirty
days were allowed for his answer to the summons. As the defendant did not
appear, the suit was formally tried at Westminster. The Attorney General
held a brief for Henry II., and the deceased defendant was represented by
an advocate named by Henry VIII. Needless to relate, judgment was given in
favour of Henry II., and the condemned Archbishop was ordered to have his
bones burnt and all his gorgeous offerings escheated to the Crown. The
first part of the sentence was remitted and Becket's body was buried, but
he was deprived of the title of Saint, his images were destroyed
throughout the kingdom, and his name was erased from all books. The shrine
was destroyed, and the gold and jewels thereof were taken away in
twenty-six carts. Henry VIII. himself wore the Regale of France in a ring
on his thumb. Improbable as the story of Becket's trial may seem, such a
procedure was strictly in accordance with the forms of the Roman Catholic
Church, of which Henry still at that time professed himself a member:
moreover it is not without authentic parallels in history: exactly the
same measures of reprisal had been taken against Wycliffe at Lutterworth;
and Queen Mary shortly afterwards acted in a similar manner towards Bucer
and Fagius at Cambridge.

The last recorded pilgrim to the shrine of St. Thomas was Madame de
Montreuil, a great French dame who had been waiting on Mary of Guise, in
Scotland. She visited Canterbury in August, A.D. 1538, and we are told
that she was taken to see the wonders of the place and marvelled at all
the riches thereof, and said "that if she had not seen it, all the men in
the world could never 'a made her believe it." Though she would not kiss
the head of St. Thomas, the Prior "did send her a present of coneys,
capons, chickens, with divers fruits--plenty--insomuch that she said,
'What shall we do with so many capons? Let the Lord Prior come, and eat,
and help us to eat them tomorrow at dinner' and so thanked him heartily
for the said present."

Such was the history of Becket's shrine. We have dwelt on it at some
length because it is no exaggeration to say that in the Middle Ages
Canterbury Cathedral owed its European fame and enormous riches to the
fact that it contained the shrine within its walls, and because the story
of the influence of the Saint and the miracles that he worked, and the
millions of pilgrims who flocked from the whole civilized world to do
homage to him, throws a brighter and more vivid light on the lives and
thoughts and beliefs of mediæval men than many volumes stuffed with
historical research. No visitor to Canterbury can appreciate what he sees,
unless he realizes to some extent the glamour which overhung the resting
place of St. Thomas in the days of Geoffrey Chaucer. We have no certain
knowledge as to whether the other shrines and relics which enriched the
cathedral were destroyed along with those of St. Thomas. Dunstan and
Elphege at least can hardly have escaped, and it is probable that most of
the monuments and relics perished at the time of the Reformation. We know
that in A.D. 1541, Cranmer deplored the slight effect which had been
wrought by the royal orders for the destruction of the bones and images
of supposed saints. And that he forthwith received letters from the king,
enjoining him to cause "due search to be made in his cathedral churches,
and if any shrine, covering of shrine, table, monument of miracles, or
other pilgrimage, do there continue, to cause it to be taken away, so as
there remain no memory of it." This order probably brought about the
destruction of the tombs and monuments of the early archbishops, most
of whom had been officially canonised, or been at least enrolled in the
popular calendar, and were accordingly doomed to have their resting-places
desecrated. We know that about this time the tomb of Winchelsey was
destroyed, because he was adored by the people as a reputed saint.

Any monuments that may have escaped royal vandalism at the Reformation
period, fell before the even more effective fanaticism of the Puritans,
who seem to have exercised their iconoclastic energies with especial zeal
and vigour at Canterbury. Just before their time Archbishop Laud spent a
good deal of trouble and money on the adornment of the high altar. A
letter to him from the Dean, dated July 8th, A.D. 1634, is quoted by
Prynne, "We have obeyed your Grace's direction in pulling down the
exorbitant seates within our Quire whereby the church is very much
beautified.... Lastly wee most humbly beseech your Grace to take notice
that many and most necessary have beene the occasions of extraordinary
expences this yeare for ornaments, etc." And another Puritan scribe tells
us that "At the east end of the cathedral they have placed an Altar as
they call it dressed after the Romish fashion, for which altar they have
lately provided a most idolatrous costly glory cloth or back cloth."

These embellishments were not destined to remain long undisturbed. In A.D.
1642, the Puritan troopers hewed the altar-rails to pieces and then "threw
the Altar over and over down the three Altar steps, and left it lying with
the heels upwards." This was only the beginning: we read that during the
time of the Great Rebellion, "the newly erected font was pulled down, the
inscriptions, figures, and coats of arms, engraven upon brass, were torn
off from the ancient monuments, and whatsoever there was of beauty or
decency in the holy place, was despoiled."

A manuscript, compiled in 1662, and preserved in the Chapter library,
gives a more minute account of this work of destruction. "The windows
were generally battered and broken down; the whole roof, with that of the
steeples, the chapter-house and cloister, externally impaired and ruined
both in timber-work and lead; water-tanks, pipes, and much other lead cut
off; the choir stripped and robbed of her fair and goodly hangings; the
organ and organ-loft, communion-table, and the best and chiefest of the
furniture, with the rail before it, and the screen of tabernacle work
richly overlaid with gold behind it; goodly monuments shamefully abused,
defaced, and rifled of brasses, iron grates, and bars."

The ringleader in this work of destruction was a fanatic named Richard
Culmer, commonly known as Blue Dick. A paper preserved in the Chapter
library, in the writing of Somner, the great antiquarian scholar,
describes the state in which the fabric of the cathedral was left, at the
time of the Restoration of King Charles II., in 1660. "So little," says
this document, "had the fury of the late reformers left remaining of it
besides the bare walles and roofe, and these, partly through neglect, and
partly by the daily assaults and batteries of the disaffected, so
shattered, ruinated, and defaced, as it was not more unserviceable in the
way of a cathedral than justly scandalous to all who delight to serve God
in the beauty of Holines." Most of the windows had been broken, "the
church's guardians, her faire and strong gates, turned off the hooks and
burned." The buildings and houses of the clergy had been pulled down or
greatly damaged; and lastly, "the goodly oaks in our common gardens, of
good value in themselves, and in their time very beneficial to our church
by their shelter, quite eradicated and _set to sale_." This last touch is
interesting, as showing that the reforming zeal of the Puritans was not
always altogether disinterested.

After the Restoration some attempt was made to render the cathedral once
more a fitting place of worship, and the sum of £10,000 was devoted to
repairs and other public and pious uses. A screen was put up in the same
position as the former one, and the altar was placed in front. But, in
A.D. 1729, this screen no longer suited the taste of the period, and a
sum of £500, bequeathed by one of the prebendaries, was devoted to the
erection of a screen in the Corinthian style, designed by a certain Mr.
Burrough, afterwards Master of Caius College, Cambridge. A little before
this time the old stalls, which had survived the Puritan period were
replaced: a writer describes them, in the early half of the seventeenth
century, as standing in two rows, an upper and lower, on each side, with
the archbishop's wood throne above them on the south side. This chair he
mentions as "sometime richly guilt, and otherwise well set forth, but now
nothing specious through age and late neglect. It is a close seat, made
after the old fashion of such stalls, called thence _faldistoria_; only in
this they differ, that they were moveable, this is fixt."

Thus wrote Somner in A.D. 1640: the dilapidated throne of which he speaks
was replaced, in A.D. 1704, by a splendid throne with a tall Corinthian
canopy, and decorated with carving by Grinling Gibbons, the gift of
Archbishop Tenison, who also set up new stalls. At the same time Queen
Mary the Second presented new and magnificent furniture for the altar,
throne, stalls of the chief clergy, and pulpit. Since then many alterations
have been made. The old altar and screen have been removed, and a new
reredos set up, copied from the screen work of the Lady Chapel in the
crypt; and Archbishop Tenison's throne has given place to a lofty stone
canopy. In 1834 owing to its tottering condition the north-west tower of
the nave had to be pulled down. It was rebuilt on an entirely different
plan by Mr. George Austin, who, with his son, also conducted a good deal
of repairing and other work in the cathedral and the buildings connected
with it. A good deal of the external stonework had to be renewed, but the
work was carried out judiciously, and only where it was absolutely
necessary. On the west side of the south transept a turret has been pulled
down and set up again stone by stone. The crypt has been cleared out and
restored, and its windows have been reopened. The least satisfactory
evidences of the modern hand are the stained glass windows, which have been
put up in the nave and transepts of the cathedral. The Puritan trooper had
wrought havoc in the ancient glass, smashing it wherever a pike-thrust
could reach; and modern piety has been almost as ruthless in erecting
windows which are quite incredibly hideous.

In September, 1872, Canterbury was once more damaged by fire, just about
seven hundred years after the memorable conflagration described by
Gervase. On this occasion, however, the damage did not go beyond the outer
roof of the Trinity Chapel. The fire broke out at about half-past ten in
the morning, and was luckily discovered before it had made much progress,
by two plumbers who were at work in the south gutter. According to the
"Builder" of that month, "a peculiar whirring noise" caused them to look
inside the roof, and they found three of the main roof-timbers blazing. "The
best conjecture seems to be that the dry twigs, straw, and similar
_débris_, carried into the roof by birds, and which it has been the custom
to clear at intervals out of the vault pockets, had caught fire from a
spark that had in some way passed through the roof covering, perhaps under
a sheet raised a little at the bottom by the wind." Assistance was quickly
summoned, and "by half-past twelve the whole was seen to be extinguished.
At four o'clock the authorities held the evening service, so as not to
break a continuity of custom extending over centuries; and in the
smoke-filled choir, the whole of the Chapter in residence, in the proper
Psalm (xviii.), found expression for the sense of victory over a conquered
enemy."

Thus little harm was done, but it must have been an exciting crisis while
it lasted. "The bosses [of the vaulting], pierced with cradle-holes,
happened to be well-placed for the passage of the liquid lead dripping on
the back of the vault from the blazing roof," which poured down on to the
pavement below, on the very spot which Becket's shrine had once occupied.
"Through the holes further westward water came, sufficient to float over
the surfaces of the polished Purbeck marble floor and the steps of the
altar, and alarmed the well-intentioned assistants into removing the
altar, tearing up the altar-rails, etc., etc. The relics of the Black
Prince, attached to a beam (over his tomb) at the level of the caps of the
piers on the south side of Trinity Chapel, were all taken down and placed
away in safety. The eastern end of the church is said to have been filled
with steam from water rushing through with, and falling on, the molten
lead on the floor; and, in time, by every opening, wood-smoke reached the
inside of the building, filling all down to the west of the nave with a
blue haze." The scene in the building is said to have been one of
extraordinary beauty, but most lovers of architecture would probably
prefer to view the fabric with its own loveliness, unenhanced by numerous
streams of molten lead pouring down from the roof.

Since that date Canterbury Cathedral has been happy in the possession of
no history, and we pass on, therefore, to the examination in detail of its
exterior.

[Illustration: THE CLOISTERS.]



CHAPTER II.

EXTERIOR AND PRECINCTS--THE MONASTERY.


The external beauties of Canterbury Cathedral can best be viewed in their
entirety from a distance. The old town has nestled in close under the
walls of the church that dominates it, preventing anything like a complete
view of the building from the immediate precincts. But Canterbury is girt
with a ring of hills, from which we may enjoy a strikingly beautiful view
of the ancient city, lying asleep in the rich, peaceful valley of the
Stour, and the mighty cathedral towering over the red-tiled roofs of the
town, and looking, as a rustic remarked as he gazed down upon it "like a
hen brooding over her chickens." Erasmus must have been struck by some
such aspect of the cathedral, for he says, "It rears its crest (_erigit
se_) with so great majesty to the sky, that it inspires a feeling of awe
even in those who look at it from afar." Such a view may well be got from
the hills of Harbledown, a village about two miles from Canterbury,
containing in itself many objects of antiquarian and æsthetic interest.
It stands on the road by which Chaucer's pilgrims wended their way to the
shrine of St. Thomas, and it is almost certainly referred to in the lines
in which the poet speaks of

                         "A little town
    Which that yeleped is Bob Up and Down
    Under the Blee in Canterbury way."

The name Harbledown is derived by local philologists from Bob up and Down,
and the hilly nature of the country fully justifies the title. Here stands
Lanfranc's Lazar-house, "so picturesque even now in its decay, and in
spite of modern alterations which have swept away all but the ivy-clad
chapel of Lanfranc." In this hospital a shoe of St. Thomas was preserved
which pilgrims were expected to kiss as they passed by; and in an old
chest the modern visitor may still behold a rude money-box with a slit in
the lid, into which the great Erasmus is said to have dropped a coin when
he visited Canterbury at the time when St. Thomas's glory was just
beginning to wane. Behind the hospital is an ancient well called "the
Black Prince's Well." The Black Prince, as is well known, passed through
Canterbury on his way from Sandwich to London, whither he was escorting
his royal prisoner, King John of France, whom he had captured at the
battle of Poitiers, A.D. 1357. We need not doubt that he halted at
Harbledown to salute the martyr's shoe, and he may have washed in the
water of the well, which was henceforward called by his name. Another
tradition relates that he had water brought to him from this well when
he lay sick, ten years later, in the archbishop's palace at Canterbury.

[Illustration: VIEW ON THE STOUR.]

Another good view may be had from the crest on which stands St. Martin's
Church, which was formerly believed to be the oldest in England, so
ancient that its origin was connected with the mythical King Lucius.
Modern research has decided that it is of later date, but there is no
doubt that on the spot on which it now stands, Bertha, the wife of
Ethelbert--who was ruling when Augustine landed with his monks--had a
little chapel, as Bede relates, "in the east of the city," where she
worshipped, before her husband's conversion, with her chaplain, Luidhard,
a French priest. Dean Stanley has described this view in a fine passage:

"Let any one sit on the hill of the little church of St. Martin, and look
on the view which is there spread before his eyes. Immediately below are
the towers of the great abbey of St. Augustine, where Christian learning
and civilization first struck root in the Anglo-Saxon race; and within
which, now, after a lapse of many centuries, a new institution has arisen,
intended to carry far and wide to countries of which Gregory and Augustine
never heard, the blessings which they gave to us. Carry your view on--and
there rises high above all the magnificent pile of our cathedral, equal in
splendour and state to any, the noblest temple or church, that Augustine
could have seen in ancient Rome, rising on the very ground which derives
its consecration from him. And still more than the grandeur of the outward
building that rose from the little church of Augustine, and the little
palace of Ethelbert, have been the institutions of all kinds, of which
these were the earliest cradle. From the first English Christian
city--from Kent, the first English Christian kingdom--has, by degrees,
arisen the whole constitution of Church and State in England which now
binds together the whole British Empire. And from the Christianity here
established in England has flowed, by direct consequence, first, the
Christianity of Germany--then after a long interval, of North America, and
lastly, we may trust in time, of all India and all Australasia. The view
from St. Martin's Church is, indeed, one of the most inspiriting that can
be found in the world; there is none to which I would more willingly take
any one who doubted whether a small beginning could lead to a great and
lasting good--none which carries us more vividly back into the past, or
more hopefully forward to the future."

In the town itself, the best point of vantage from which the visitor can
get a good view of the cathedral is the summit of the Dane John, a lofty
mound crowned by an obelisk; from this height we look across at the roof
and towers of the cathedral rising above thickly clustering trees: from
here also there is a fine view over the beautiful valley of the Stour in
the direction of Thanington and Chartham.

In the immediate precincts, a delightful picture is presented from the
Green Court, which was once the main outer court of the monastery. Here
are noble trees and beautifully kept turf, at once in perfect harmony and
agreeable contrast with the rugged walls of the weather-beaten cathedral:
the quiet soft colouring of the ancient buildings and that look of
cloistered seclusion only to be found in the peaceful nooks of cathedral
cities are seen here at their very best.

[Illustration: "BELL HARRY," THE CENTRAL TOWER.]

The chief glory of the exterior of Canterbury Cathedral is the central
#Angel or Bell Tower#. This is one of the most perfect structures that
Gothic architecture, inspired by the loftiest purpose that ever stimulated
the work of any art, has produced. It was completed by Prior Selling, who
held office in 1472, and has been variously called the Bell Harry Tower
from the mighty Dunstan bell, weighing three tons and three hundredweight,
and the Angel Tower from the gilded figure of an angel poised on one of
the pinnacles, which has long ago disappeared. The tower itself is of two
stages, with two two-light windows in each stage; the windows are
transomed in each face, and the lower tier is canopied; each angle is
rounded off with an octagonal turret and the whole structure is a
marvellous example of architectural harmony, and in every way a work of
transcendent beauty. The two buttressing arches and the ornamental braces
which support it were added at the end of the fifteenth century by Prior
Goldstone, to whom the building of the whole tower is apparently
attributed in the following quaint passage from a mediæval authority: "He
by the influence and help of those honourable men, Cardinal John Morton
and Prior William Sellyng, erected and magnificently completed that lofty
tower commonly called Angyll Stepyll in the midst of the church, between
the choir and the nave--vaulted with a most beautiful vault, and with
excellent and artistic workmanship in every part sculptured and gilt, with
ample windows glazed and ironed. He also with great care and industry
annexed to the columns which support the same tower two arches or
vaults of stone work, curiously carved, and four smaller ones, to assist
in sustaining the said tower" ("Ang. Sac." i. 147, translated by Professor
Willis). The western front of the cathedral is flanked by two towers of
great beauty; a point in which Mediæval architecture has risen above that
of all other ages is the skill which it displays in the use of towers of
different heights, breaking the dull straight line of the roof and
carrying the eye gradually up to the loftiest point of the building.
Canterbury presents an excellent example of the beauty of this
subordination of lower towers to the chief; we invite the visitor, when
looking at the exterior, to compare it mentally, on the one hand, with the
dull severity of the roof line of a Greek temple, and on the other, to
take a fair example of modern so-called Gothic, with the ugly straight
line of the Houses of Parliament, as seen from the Lambeth Embankment,
broken only by the two stark and stiff erections at each end. The two
towers at the west end of Canterbury were not always uniform. At the
northern corner an old Norman tower formerly uplifted a leaden spire one
hundred feet high. This rather anomalous arrangement must have had a
decidedly lopsided effect, and it is probable that the appearance of the
cathedral was changed very much for the better when the spire, which had
been taken down in 1705, was replaced by Mr. Austin in 1840, by a tower
uniform with the southernmost tower, called the Chicele or Oxford steeple:
this tower was completed by Prior Goldstone, who, during his tenure of
office from 1449-68, also built the Lady Chapel. On its south side stands
the porch, with a remarkable central niche, which formerly contained a
representation of Becket's martyrdom. The figures of the Archbishop's
assassins now no longer remain; but their place has been filled up with
figures of various worthies who have lived under the shadow of the
cathedral. Dean Alford suggested, about 1863, that the many vacant niches
should be peopled in this manner, and since then the work has proceeded
steadily. The western towers are built each of six stages: each of the two
upper tiers contains two two-light windows, while below there is a large
four-light window uniform with the windows of the aisles. The base tier is
ornamented with rich panelling. The parapet is battlemented and the angles
are finished with fine double pinnacles. At the west end there is a large
window of seven lights, with three transoms. The gable contains a window
of very curious shape, filled with intricate tracery. The space above the
aisle windows is ornamented with quatrefoiled squares, and the clerestory
is pierced by windows of three lights. In the main transept there is a
fine perpendicular window of eight lights; the choir, or south-east
transept, has a Norman front, with arcades, and a large round window; also
an arcaded west turret surmounted by a short spire. Beyond this, the line
is again broken by the projection of St. Anselm's so-called Tower; this
chapel hardly merits such a title, unless we adopt the theory that it, and
the corresponding building on the north side, were at one time a good deal
more lofty, but lost their upper portions at the time of the great fire.
The end of the cathedral has a rather untidy appearance, owing to the fact
that the exterior of the corona was never completed. On the northern side
the building is so closely interwoven with the cloister and monastic
buildings that it can only be considered in conjunction with them. The
length of the cathedral is 514 feet, the height of the central tower 235
feet, and that of the western towers 130 feet.

The chief interest of ancient buildings to the ordinary observer, as apart
from the architectural specialist, is the fact that they are after all the
most authentic documents in our possession from which we can gain any
insight into the lives and modes of thought of our ancestors. To tell us
how ordinary men lived and busied themselves is beneath the dignity of
history. As Carlyle says: "The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists,
and Court Calendars, and Parliamentary Registers, but the _Life of Man_ in
England: what men did, thought, suffered, enjoyed; ... Mournful, in truth,
is it to behold what the business 'called History' in these so enlightened
and illuminated times, still continues to be. Can you gather from it, read
till your eyes go out, any dimmest shadow of an answer to that great
question: How men lived and had their being; were it but economically, as,
what wages they got, and what they bought with these? Unhappily they
cannot.... History, as it stands all bound up in gilt volumes, is but a
shade more instructive than the wooden volumes of a backgammon-board."
Most of us have felt, at one time or another, the truth of these words,
though it is only fair to add that the fault lies not so much at the door
of the modern historian as of our ancestors themselves, who were too busy
with fighting and revelling to leave any but the most meagre account of
their own lives behind them; so that "Redbook Lists and Parliamentary
Registers" are all that the veracious chronicler, who will not let his
imagination run riot, can find to put before us. But happily, in the
wildest days of the Middle Ages, there were found some peace-loving souls
who preferred to drone away their lives in quiet meditation behind the
walls of the great monasteries, undisturbed by the clash of swords. Some
outlet had to be found for their innate energies and their intense
religious enthusiasm; missionary zeal had not yet been invented, and the
writing of books would have seemed to them a waste of good parchment, for
in their eyes the Scriptures and the Aristotelian writings supplied all
the food that the most voracious intellect could crave for. So they
applied all their genius--and it is probable that the flower of the
European race, as far as intelligence and culture are concerned, was
gathered in those days into the Church--and all the ecstatic fervour of
their religious devotion, the strength of which men of these latter days
can hardly realize, to the construction of beautiful buildings for the
worship of God. They have written a history in stone, from which a
thoughtful student can supply much that is left out by the dry-as-dust
annalists, for it is not only the history, but the actual result and
expression, of the lives of the most gifted men of the Middle Ages.

If we would read this history aright it is necessary that we should look
at it as far as possible, as it was originally published. If the old
binding has been torn off, and the volume hedged in by a crowd of modern
literature, we must try to put these aside and consider the book as it was
first issued; in other words, to drop metaphor altogether, in considering
a building like Canterbury Cathedral, we must forget the busy little
country town, with its crowded streets and noisy railway stations, though,
from one point of view, the contrast that they present is agreeable and
valuable, and try to conceive the church as it once stood, the centre of a
harmonious group of monastic buildings.

The founder of the monastic system in the West was the famous Benedict of
Nursia, who had adapted the strict code of St. Basil, mitigating its
severity, and making it more in accordance with the climate, manners,
and general circumstances of Western peoples. His code was described by
Gregory the Great as "excellent in its discretion, lucid in its
expression"--_discretione præcipuam sermone luculentam_. He founded the
monasteries of Montecassino and Subiaco in the beginning of the sixth
century. In the ninth and tenth centuries--the worst period of the Dark
Ages--corruption and laxity pervaded society in general, and the
Benedictine monasteries especially. At the end of this deplorable epoch
many efforts were made in the direction of reform. Gregory the Great
himself was a member of the Benedictine brotherhood; so also was
Augustine, who founded the great monastery of Christ Church. The venerable
Bede relates that "when Augustine, the first Archbishop of Canterbury,
assumed the episcopal throne in that royal city, he recovered therein,
by the king's assistance, a church which, as he was told, had been
constructed by the original labour of Roman believers. This church he
consecrated in the name of the Saviour, our God and Lord Jesus Christ, and
there he established an habitation for himself and all his successors."
This was the Basilica-Church, mentioned in an earlier part of this work,
an imitation of the original Basilica of St. Peter at Rome. Augustine's
monastery was handsomely endowed. A large stretch of country was given to
the monks, and they were the first who brought the soil into cultivation,
and built churches and preached in them. "The monks," says Bede, "were the
principal of those who came to the work of preaching." In the city itself
there were thirty-two "mansuræ" or mansions, held by the clergy, rendering
35_s._ a year, and a mill worth 5_s._ per annum. Augustine's monastery
lived and prospered--though, as we shall see, it did not escape the
general corruption of the eighth and ninth centuries--until the time of
the Norman invasion. In 1067 a fire destroyed the Saxon cathedral and the
greater part of the monastic buildings. But the year 1070 marks an epoch
in the history of the monastery, for it was then that William the
Conqueror having deposed Stigand, the Saxon Primate, invited Lanfranc, the
Abbot of Caen, to accept the vacant see. He "being overcome by the will of
God as much as by the apostolic authority, passed over into England, and,
not forgetful of the object for which he had come, directed all his
endeavours to the correction of the manners of his people, and settling
the state of the Church. And first he laboured to renew the church of
Canterbury ... and built also necessary offices for the use of the monks;
and (which is very remarkable) he caused to be brought over the sea in
swift sailing vessels squared stones from Caen in order to build with. He
also built a house for his own dwelling near the church, and surrounded
all these buildings with a vast and lofty wall." Also "he duly arranged
all that was necessary for the table and clothing of the monks," and "many
lands which had been taken away he brought back into the property of the
Church and restored to it twenty-five manors." He also added one hundred
to the original number of the monks, and drew up a new system of
discipline to correct the laxity which was rife when he entered on the
primacy. He tells Anselm in a letter that "the land in which he is, is
daily shaken with so many and so great tribulations, is stained with so
many adulteries and other impurities, that no order of men consults for
the benefit of his soul, or even desires to hear the salutary doctrine of
God for his increase in holiness." Perhaps the most interesting feature of
his reconstruction of the "regula," or rule for the monks' discipline, was
his enactment with regard to the library and the studies of the brethren.
In the first week in Lent, the monks had to bring back and place in the
Chapter House the books which had been provided for their instruction
during the previous year. Those who had not duly performed the yearly
portion of reading prostrated themselves, confessing their fault and
asking pardon. A fresh distribution was then made, and the brethren
retired, each furnished with a year's literary task. Apparently no
examination was held, no test applied to discover whether the last year's
instruction had been digested and assimilated. It was assumed that
anything like a perfunctory performance of the allotted task was out
of the question.

Another important alteration introduced by Lanfranc was his inauguration
of the system under which the monastery was in immediate charge, no longer
of the archbishop, but of a prior. Henceforward the primate stood forth as
the head of the Church, rather than as merely the chief of her most
ancient foundation.

We have dwelt at some length on the subject of the monastery at
Canterbury, because, as we have said, it is impossible to learn the
lesson of the cathedral truly, unless we regard the fabric in its original
setting, surrounded by monastic buildings; and it is impossible to
interest ourselves in the monastic buildings without knowing something of
the institution which they housed.

[Illustration: DETAIL OF ST. ANSELM'S TOWER.]

The buildings which contained a great #monastery# like that of Canterbury
were necessarily very extensive. Chief among them was the chapter house,
which generally adjoined the principal cloister, bounded by the nave of
the church and one of the transepts. Then there were the buildings
necessary for the actual housing and daily living of the monks--the
dormitory, refectory, kitchen, buttery, and other indispensable offices.
Another highly important building, usually standing eastward of the
church, was the infirmary or hospital for sick brethren, with its chapel
duly attached. Further, the rules of Benedictine monasteries always
enjoined the strict observance of the duty of hospitality, and some part
of the buildings was invariably set aside for the due entertainment of
strangers of various ranks. Visitors of distinction were entertained in
special rooms which generally were attached to the house of the prior or
abbot: guests of a lower order were lodged hard by the hall of the
cellarer; while poor pilgrims and chance wanderers who craved a night's
shelter were bestowed, as a rule, near the main gate of the monastery.
Lastly, it must not be forgotten that a well-endowed monastery was always
the steward of a great estate, so that many storehouses and
farm-buildings--barns, granaries, bakehouse, etc.--were a necessary part
of the institution. Extensive stabling was also required to shelter the
horses of illustrious visitors and their suites. Moreover, the clergy
themselves were often greatly addicted to the chase, and we know that the
pious St. Thomas found time to cultivate a taste for horseflesh, which was
remarkable even in those days when all men who wanted to move at all were
bound to ride. The knights who murdered him thought it worth while to
pillage his stable after accomplishing their errand.

[Illustration: THE CHRISTCHURCH GATE
(FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY CARL NORMAN AND CO).]

The centre round which all these manifold buildings and offices were
ranged was, of course, the cathedral. Wherever available space and the
nature of the ground permitted it, the cloister and chief buildings were
placed under the shelter of the church on its southern side, as may be
seen, for instance, at Westminster, where the cloisters, chapter house,
deanery, refectory (now the College Hall), etc., are all gathered on the
south side of the Abbey. At Canterbury, however, the builders were not
able to follow the usual practice, owing to the fact that they were hemmed
in closely by the houses of the city on the south side, so that we find
that the space between the north side of the cathedral and the city wall,
all of which belonged to the monks, was the site of the monastic
buildings. The whole group formed by the cathedral and the subsidiary
buildings was girt by a massive wall, which was restored and made more
effective as a defence by Lanfranc. It is probable that some of the
remains of this wall, which still survive, may be considered as dating
from his time. The chief gate, both in ancient and modern days, is Prior
Goldstone's Gate, usually known as #Christ Church Gate#, an exceedingly
good example of the later Perpendicular style. A contemporary inscription
tells us that it was built in 1517. It stands at the end of Mercery Lane,
a lofty building with towers at its corners, and two storeys above the
archway. In front there is a central niche, in which an image of our
Saviour originally stood, while below a row of shields, much battered and
weather-beaten, display armorial bearings, doubtless those of pious
contributors to the cost of the building. An early work of Turner's has
preserved the corner pinnacles which once decorated the top of the gate;
these were removed some thirty years ago.

[Illustration: THE SOUTH-WEST PORCH OF THE CATHEDRAL.]

[Illustration: CLOISTERS OF THE MONKS' INFIRMARY.]

Entering the precincts through this gateway we find ourselves in what was
the _outer_ cemetery, in which members of the laity were allowed to be
buried. The _inner_ cemetery, reserved as a resting-place for the brethren
themselves, was formerly divided from the outer by a wall which extended
from St. Anselm's chapel. A Norman door, which was at one time part of
this wall, has now been put into a wall at the east end of the monks'
burying ground. This space is now called "The Oaks." A bell tower,
_campanile_, doubtless used for tolling the passing bell, once stood on a
mound in the cemetery, close to the dividing wall. The houses on the south
side of this space are of no great antiquity or interest, and the site on
which they stand did not become part of the monastery grounds before a
comparatively late period. But if we skirt the east end of the cathedral
we come to the space formerly known as the "Homors," a word supposed to be
a corruption of _Ormeaux_, a French word, meaning elms.[1] Here stood the
building in which guests of rank and distinction were entertained; and the
great hall, with its kitchen and offices, is still preserved in a house in
the north-east corner of the inclosure, now the residence of one of the
prebendaries. The original building was one of great importance in a
monastery like Canterbury, which was so often visited, as has already been
shown, by royal pilgrims. It is said to have been rebuilt from top to
bottom by Prior Chillenden, and the nature of the architecture, as far as
it can be traced, is not in any way at variance with this statement. The
hall, as it originally stood, was pierced with oriel windows rising to the
roof, and at its western end a walled-off portion was divided into two
storeys, the lower one containing the kitchens, while the upper one was
either a distinct room separated from the hall, or it may have been a
gallery opening upon it.

  [1] Though it is also derived from one Dr. Omerus, who lived on the spot
  in the thirteenth century.

To the west of this house we find the #ruins of the Infirmary#, which
contained a long hall with aisles, and a chapel at the east end. The hall
was used as the hospital, and the aisles were sometimes divided into
separate compartments; the chapel was really part of the hall, with only a
screen intervening, so that the sick brethren could take part in the
services. This infirmary survived until the Reformation period, but not
without undergoing alterations. Before the fifteenth century the south
aisle was devoted to the use of the sub-prior, and the chancel at the east
end of the chapel was partially restored about the middle of the
fourteenth century. A large east window was put in with three-light
windows on each side. In the north wall there is a curious opening,
through which, perhaps, sufferers from infectious diseases were allowed to
assist at the services. On the southern side, the whole row of the pillars
and arches of the chapel, and some traces of a clerestory, still remain.
On the wall are some traces of paintings, which are too faded to be
deciphered. Such of the pillars and arches of the hall as still survive
are strongly coloured by the great fire of 1174, in which Prior Conrad's
choir was destroyed.

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE MONKS' INFIRMARY.]

[Illustration: THE BAPTISTERY TOWER.]

Westward of the infirmary, and connected with St. Andrew's tower, stands a
strikingly beautiful building, which was once #the Vestiarium, or
Treasury#: it consists of two storeys, of which the lower is open on the
east and west, while the upper contained the treasury chamber, a finely
proportioned room, decorated with an arcade of intersecting arches.

An archway leads us from the infirmary into what is called the Dark Entry,
whence a passage leads to the Prior's Gate and onward into the Prior's
Court, more commonly known as the Green Court: this passage was the
eastern boundary of the infirmary cloister. Over it Prior de Estria
raised the _scaccarium_, or checker-building, the counting-house of
the monastery.

Turning back towards the infirmary entrance we come to #the Lavatory
Tower#, which stands out from the west end of the substructure of the
Prior's Chapel. The chapel itself was pulled down at the close of the
seventeenth century, and a brick-built library was erected on its site.
The lavatory tower is now more commonly called the baptistery, but this
name gives a false impression, and only came into use because the building
now contains a font, given to the cathedral by Bishop Warner. The lower
part of the tower is late Norman in style, and was built in the latter half
of the twelfth century, when the monastery was supplied with a system of
works by which water was drawn from some distant springs, which still
supply the cathedral and precincts. The water was distributed from this
tower to the various buildings. The original designs of the engineer are
preserved at Trinity College, Cambridge. The upper part of the tower was
rebuilt by Prior Chillenden.

From the lavatory tower a covered passage leads into the great cloister,
which can also be approached from a door in the north-west transept. The
cloister, though it stands upon the space covered by that built by
Lanfranc, is largely the work of the indefatigable Prior Chillenden. It
shows traces of many architectural periods. The east walk contains a door,
leading into the transept, embellished with a triple arcade of early
English; under the central arch of the arcade is the doorway itself, a
later addition in Perpendicular. There is also a Norman doorway which once
communicated with the monks' dormitory: after the Reformation it was
walled up, but in 1813 the plaster which concealed it was taken away, and
since then it has been carefully restored. The rest of the work in this
part of the cloister is chiefly Perpendicular. The north walk is adorned
with an Early English arcade, against which the shafts which support
Chillenden's vaulting work are placed with rather unsatisfactory effect.
Towards the western end of this walk is the door of the refectory.

[Illustration: TURRET OF SOUTH-WEST TRANSEPT.]

The cellarer's quarters were outside the west walk, and they were
connected with the cloister by a doorway at the north-west corner:
opposite this entrance was a door leading to the archbishop's palace, and
through this Becket made his way towards the cathedral when his murderers
were in pursuit of him.

The great dormitory of the monks was built along the east walk of the
cloister, extending some way beyond it. It was pulled down in 1547, but
the substructure was left standing, and some private houses were erected
upon it. These were removed in the middle of the last century, and a good
deal of the substructure remained until 1867, when the vaulting which
survived was pulled down to make way for the new library, which was
erected on the dormitory site. Some of the pillars on which the vault of
the substructure rested are preserved in a garden in the precincts; and a
fragment of the upper part of the dormitory building, which escaped the
demolition in 1547, may be seen in the gable of the new library. The
substructure was a fine building, 148 feet by 78 feet; the vaulting was,
as described by Professor Willis, "of the earliest kind; constructed of
light tufa, having no transverse ribs, and retaining the impressions of
the rough, boarded centring upon which they had been formed." A second
minor dormitory ran eastward from the larger one, while outside this was
the third dormitory, fronting the Green Court. Some portion of the vaults
of this building is still preserved in the garden before the lavatory
tower.

#The Chapter House# lies eastward of the wall of the cloister, on the site
of the original Norman building, which was rather less extensive. The
present structure is oblong in shape, measuring 90 feet by 35 feet. The
roof consists of a "barrel vault" and was built by Prior Chillenden, along
with the whole of the upper storey at the end of the fourteenth century.
The windows, high and four-lighted, are also his work; those at the east
and west ends exceed in size all those of the cathedral, having seven
lights. The lower storey was built by Prior de Estria about a century
before the work was completed by Chillenden. De Estria also erected the
choir-screen in the cathedral, which will be described in its proper
place. The walls of the chapter house are embellished with an arcade of
trefoiled arches, surmounted by a cornice. At the east end stands a throne
with a splendid canopy. This building was at one time, after the
Reformation, used as a sermon house, but the inconvenience caused by
moving the congregation from the choir, where service was held, across to
the chapter house to hear the discourse, was so great that the practice
was not long continued. It has been restored, and its opening by H.R.H.
the Prince of Wales, May 29th, 1897, is announced just as this edition
goes to press.

[Illustration: THE CLOISTERS.]

#The Library# covers a portion of the site of the monks' dormitory. Stored
within it is a fine collection of books, some of which are exceedingly
rare. The most valuable specimens--among which are some highly interesting
bibles and prayer-books--are jealously guarded in a separate apartment
called the study. The most interesting document in the collection of
charters and other papers connected with the foundation is the charter of
Edred, probably written by Dunstan _propriis digitorum articulis_; this
room also contains an ancient picture of Queen Edgiva painted on wood,
with an inscription below enlarging on the beauties of her character and
her munificence towards the monastery.

In the garden before the lavatory tower, to the west of the prior's
gateway, two columns are preserved which once were part of the ancient
church at Reculver--formerly Regulbium, whither Ethelbert retired after
making over his palace in Canterbury to Augustine. These columns were
brought to Canterbury after the destruction, nearly a hundred years ago,
of the church to which they belonged. After lying neglected for some time
they were placed in their present position by Mr. Sheppard, who bestowed
so much care on all the "antiquities" connected with the cathedral. These
columns are believed by experts to be undoubted relics of Roman work: they
are of circular form with Ionic capitals. A curious ropework decoration on
the bases is said to be characteristically Roman, occurs on a monument
outside the Porta Maggiore at Rome.

#The Deanery# is a very much revised version of what once was the "New
Lodging," a building set up for the entertainment of strangers by Prior
Goldstone at the beginning of the sixteenth century. Nicholas Wotton, the
first Dean, chose this mansion for his abode, but since his day the
building has been very materially altered.

[Illustration: NORMAN STAIRCASE IN THE CLOSE
(FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY CARL NORMAN AND CO.).]

[Illustration: DETAILS OF THE NORMAN STAIRCASE IN THE CLOSE.]

The main gate of the #Green Court# is noticeable as a choice specimen of
Norman work; on its northern side formerly stood the Aula Nova which was
built in the twelfth century; the modern buildings which house the King's
School have supplanted the hall itself, but the splendid staircase, a
perfect example of Norman style and quite unrivalled in England, is
luckily preserved, and ranks among the chief glories of Canterbury.

The site of the archbishop's palace is commemorated by the name of the
street--Palace Street--in which a ruined archway, all that remains of the
building, may still be seen. This mansion, in which so many royal and
imperial guests had been entertained with "solemne dauncing" and other
good cheer, was pillaged and destroyed by the Puritans; since then the
archbishops have had no official house in their cathedral city.

[Illustration: DETAILS OF ORNAMENT.]



CHAPTER III.

INTERIOR.


Dean Stanley tells us that in the days of our Saxon forefathers and for
some time after, "all disputes throughout the whole kingdom that could not
be legally referred to the king's court or to the hundreds of counties"
were heard and judged on in the south porch of Canterbury Cathedral. This
was always the principal entrance, and was known in early days as the
"Suthdure" by which name it is often mentioned in "the law books of the
ancient kings." Through this door we enter the nave of the cathedral; this
part of the building was erected towards the end of the fourteenth
century; Lanfranc's nave seems to have fallen into an unsafe and ruinous
state, so much so that in December, 1378, Sudbury, who was then
archbishop, "issued a mandate addressed to all ecclesiastical persons in
his diocese enjoining them to solicit subscriptions for rebuilding the
nave of the church, '_propter ipsius notoriam et evidentem ruinam_' and
granting forty days' indulgence to all contributors." Archbishop Courtenay
gave a thousand marks and more for the building fund, and Archbishop
Arundell gave a similar contribution, as well as the five bells which were
known as the "Arundell ryng." We are told also that "King Henry the 4th
helped to build up a good part of the Body of the Chirch." The immediate
direction of the work was in the hands of Prior Chillenden, already
frequently mentioned; his epitaph, quoted by Professor Willis, states that
"Here lieth Thomas Chyllindene formerly Prior of this Church, _Decretorum
Doctor egregius_, who caused the nave of this Church and divers other
buildings to be made anew. Who after nobly ruling as prior of this Church
for twenty years twenty five weeks and five days, at length on the day of
the assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary closed his last day. In the
year of the Lord 1411." It is not certain that Chillenden actually
designed the buildings which were erected under his care, with which his
name is connected. For we know that work which was conceived and executed
by humble monks was ascribed as a matter of course to the head of the
monastery, under whose auspices and sanction it was carried out. Matthew
Paris records that a new oaken roof, well covered with lead, was built for
the aisles and tower of St. Alban's by Michael of Thydenhanger, monk and
_camerarius_; but he adds that "these works must be ascribed to the abbot,
out of respect for his office, for he who sanctions the performance of a
thing by his authority, is really the person who does the thing." Prior
Chillenden became prior in 1390, and seems at any rate to have devoted a
considerable amount of zeal to the work of renovating the ruined portions
of the church.

[Illustration: THE MURDER OF ST. THOMAS À BECKET.

(Restoration, by T. Carter, of a painting on board hung on a column near
the tomb of Henry IV.).]

[Illustration: THE SHRINE OF ST. THOMAS À BECKET.

(Specially reproduced from a drawing among the Cottonian MSS. Brit. Mus.)]

The new #Nave# replaced the original building of Lanfranc. Professor Willis
says: "The whole of Lanfranc's piers, and all that rested on them, appear
to have been utterly demolished, nothing remaining but the plinth of the
side-aisle walls.... The style [of Chillenden's new work] is a light
Perpendicular, and the arrangement of the parts has a considerable
resemblance to that of the nave of Winchester, although the latter is of a
much bolder character. Winchester nave was going on at the same time with
Canterbury nave, and a similar uncertainty exists about the exact
commencement. In both, a Norman nave was to be transformed; but at
Winchester the original piers were either clothed with new ashlaring, or
the old ashlaring was wrought into new forms and mouldings where possible;
while in Canterbury the piers were altogether rebuilt. Hence the piers of
Winchester are much more massive. The side-aisles of Canterbury are higher
in proportion, the tracery of the side windows different, but those of the
clerestory are almost identical in pattern, although they differ in the
management of the mouldings. Both have 'lierne' vaults [_i.e._, vaults in
which short transverse ribs or 'liernes' are mixed with the ribs that
branch from the vaulting capitals], and in both the triforium is obtained
by prolonging the clerestory windows downward, and making panels of the
lower lights, which panels have a plain opening cut through them, by which
the triforium space communicates with the passage over the roof of the
side-aisles." Chillenden, then, setting to work with the thoroughness
that marks his handiwork throughout, rebuilt the nave from top to bottom,
leaving nothing of Lanfranc's original structure save the "plinth of the
side-aisle walls," which still remains. The resemblance between the naves
of Canterbury and Winchester, pointed out by Professor Willis, will at
once strike a close observer, though the greater boldness of character
shown in the Winchester architecture is by no means the only point of
difference. The most obvious feature in the Canterbury nave--a point which
renders its arrangement unique among the cathedrals both of England and
the Continent--is the curious manner in which the choir is raised aloft
above the level of the floor; this is owing to the fact that it stands
immediately above the crypt; the flight of steps which is therefore
necessarily placed between the choir and the nave adds considerably to the
general effect of our first view of the interior. On the other hand, the
raising of the choir is probably to some extent responsible for the great
height of the nave in comparison with its length, a point which spoils its
effectiveness when we view it from end to end. Stanley, in describing the
entrance of the pilgrims into the cathedral, points out how different a
scene must have met their eyes. "The external aspect of the cathedral
itself," he says, "with the exception of the numerous statues which then
filled its now vacant niches, must have been much what it is now. Not so
its interior. Bright colours on the roof, on the windows, on the
monuments; hangings suspended from the rods which may still be seen
running from pillar to pillar; chapels, and altars, and chantries
intercepting the view, where now all is clear, must have rendered it so
different, that at first we should hardly recognize it to be the same
building." The pilgrims on entering were met by a monk, who sprinkled
their heads with holy water from a "sprengel," and, owing to the crowd of
devout visitors, they generally had to wait some time before they could
proceed towards a view of the shrine. Chaucer relates that the "pardoner,
and the miller, and other lewd sots," whiled away the time with staring at
the painted windows which then adorned the nave, and wondering what they
were supposed to represent:

    "'He beareth a ball-staff,' quoth the one, 'and also a rake's end;'
    'Thou failest,' quoth the miller, 'thou hast not well thy mind;
    It is a spear, if thou canst see, with a prick set before,
    To push adown his enemy, and through the shoulder bore.'"

[Illustration: CAPITALS OF COLUMNS IN THE EASTERN APSE.]

None of these windows now remain entire, though the west window has been
put together out of fragments of the ancient glass. The latter-day
pilgrims will do well to look as little as possible at the hideous glass
which the Philistinism of modern piety has inserted, during the last
half-century, in the windows of the clerestory and the nave. Its obtrusive
unpleasantness make one wish that "Blue Dick" and his Puritan troopers
might once more be let loose, under judicious direction, for half an hour
on the cathedral. When Erasmus visited Canterbury, the nave contained
nothing but some books chained to the pillars, among them the "Gospel of
Nicodemus"--printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1509--and the "tomb of some
person unknown." The last words must refer either to the chapel in the
south wall, which was built by Lady Joan Brenchley in 1447, and removed in
1787, or to the monument of Archbishop William Wittlesey, who died in
1374, and was interred in the south side of the nave in a marble tomb with
a brass, now destroyed. At present the south aisle contains a monument, in
alabaster, to Dr. Broughton, sometime Bishop of Sydney, who was educated
in the King's School, under the shadow of the cathedral. The figure is
recumbent, and the base of the monument, which is by Lough, is decorated
with the arms of the six Australian sees. In the north aisle we find
monuments to Orlando Gibbons, Charles I.'s organist; Adrian Saravia,
prebendary of Canterbury, and the friend of Hooker, the author of the
"Ecclesiastical Polity;" Sir John Boys, who founded a hospital for the
poor outside the north gate of the town, and died in 1614; Dean Lyall, who
died in 1857; and Archbishop Sumner, who died in 1862. These last two
monuments are by Phillips and H. Weekes, R.A., respectively.

#The Central Tower.#--In the nave the whole of Lanfranc's work was
destroyed, but in the central tower, which we will next examine, the
original supporting piers were left standing, though they were covered
over by Prior Chillenden with work more in keeping with the style in which
he had renewed the nave. "Of the tower piers," says Willis, "the western
are probably mere casings of the original, and the eastern certainly
appendages to the original.... Of course I have no evidence to show how
much of Lanfranc's piers was allowed to remain in the heart of the work.
The interior faces of the tower walls appear to have been brought forward
by a lining so as to increase their thickness and the strength of the
piers, with a view to the erection of a lofty tower, which however was not
carried above the roof until another century had nearly elapsed." It was
Prior Goldstone the second who, about 1500, carried upward the central
tower, which Chillenden seems to have left level with the roof of the
cathedral. "With the countenance and help of Cardinal John Morton and
Prior William Sellyng he magnificently completed that lofty tower
commonly called Angyll Stepyll in the middle of the church. The vaulting
of the tower is his work--_testudine pulcherrimâ concameratam
consummavit_--and he also added the buttressing arches--with great care
and industry he annexed to the columns which support the same tower two
arches or vaults of stonework, curiously carved, and four smaller ones, to
assist in sustaining the said tower." The addition of these buttressing
arches, not altogether happy in its artistic effect, was probably rendered
necessary by some signs of weakness shown by the piers of the tower, for
the north-west pier, which was not so substantially reinforced as the
others, now shows a considerable bend in an eastward direction. The "two
arches or vaults of stonework" were inserted under the western and
southern tower arches. "The eastern arch having stronger piers did not
require this precaution, and the northern, which opened upon the
'Martyrium,' seems to have been left free, out of reverence to the altar
of the martyrdom, and accordingly to have suffered the dislocation just
mentioned." The four smaller arches connected the two western tower-piers
with the nearest nave-pier and the wall of the transept. The buttressing
arches are strongly built, and are adorned with curious bands of
reticulated work. The central western arch occupies the place of the
rood-loft, and it is probable that until the Reformation the great rood
was placed over it. The rebus of Prior Thomas Goldstone--a shield with
three gold stones--is carved upon these arches.

#The Western Screen#, which separates the nave from the choir, is now more
commonly known as the organ-screen: it is a highly elaborate and beautiful
piece of work, and the carvings which decorate it are well worthy of
examination. In the lower niches there are six crowned figures: one
holding a church is believed to be Ethelbert, while it has been assumed
that the figure on the extreme right represents Richard II.: probably
Henry IV., who, as has been already mentioned, "helped to build a good
part of the body of the Church" has a place of honour here, but no
certainty on this matter is possible. The thirteen mitred niches which
encircle the arch once contained figures of Christ and the twelve
Apostles, but these were destroyed by the Puritans. The exact date of this
outward screen is uncertain, but it was set up at some time during the
fifteenth century. "A little examination," says Willis, "of its central
archway will detect the junction of this new work with the stone enclosure
of the choir." In fact, this archway is considerably higher than that of
De Estria which still remains behind it. The apex of this arch reaches but
a little above the capitals of the new arch, and the flat space, or
tympanum, thus left between the two, is filled with Perpendicular tracery.

#The Choir.#--"In the year of grace one thousand one hundred and
seventy-four, by the just but occult judgment of God, the Church of Christ
at Canterbury was consumed by fire, in the forty-fourth year from its
dedication, that glorious choir, to wit, which had been so magnificently
completed by the care and industry of Prior Conrad" ("Gervase," translated
by Willis). The work of rebuilding was immediately begun by William, the
architect of Sens. At the beginning of the fifth year of his work, he was,
by a fall from the height of the capitals of the upper vault, "rendered
helpless alike to himself and for the work, but no other person than
himself was in the least injured. Against the master only was the
vengeance of God or spite of the devil directed." He was succeeded in his
charge by one "William by name, English by nation, small in body, but in
workmanship of many kinds acute and honest." Now in the sixth year from
the fire, we read that the monks were "seized with a violent longing to
prepare the choir, so that they might enter it at the coming Easter. And
the master, perceiving their desires, set himself manfully to work, to
satisfy the wishes of the convent. He constructed, with all diligence, the
wall which encloses the choir and presbytery. He carefully prepared a
resting-place for St. Dunstan and St. Elfege. The choir thus hardly
completed even with the greatest labour and diligence, the monks were
resolved to enter on Easter Eve with the 'new fire,'" that is, the
paschal candle which was lit on Easter Eve and burnt until Ascension Day.
The kindling of this light was carried out in a very ceremonious manner as
enjoined in Lanfranc's statutes. A fire was made in the cloister and duly
consecrated, and the monks, having lit a taper at this fire carried it on
the end of a staff in solemn procession, singing psalms and hymns and
burning incense, and lit the paschal candle in the choir with it.

Thus was the new choir completed, in the sixth year after the burning of
Conrad's. This part of the cathedral will be peculiarly interesting to the
architectural student, owing to the curious mixture of styles, which
enables him to compare the Norman and Early English characteristics side
by side. A striking feature in the aspect of the building, as seen from
the choir, is the remarkable inward bend with which the walls turn towards
one another at the end of the cathedral. The choir itself is peculiar in
the matter of length (180 feet--the longest in any English church), and
the lowness of the vaulting. The pillars, with their pier-arches and the
clerestory wall above are said by Willis to be without doubt the work of
William of Sens: but the whole question as to where the French William
left off and his English namesake began is extremely uncertain, as there
can be no doubt that William of Sens had fully planned out the work which
he was destined never to complete, and it is more than probable that his
successor worked largely upon his plans. We are on safer ground when we
assert that the new choir was altogether different from the building which
it replaced. The style was much more ornate and considerably lighter: the
characteristics of the work of the Williams are rich mouldings, varied and
elaborately carved capitals on the pillars, and the introduction of
gracefully slender shafts of Purbeck marble. Gervase, in pointing out the
differences between the works before and after the fire, mentions that
"the old capitals were plain, the new ones most artistically sculptured.
The old arches and everything else either plain or sculptured with an axe
and not with a chisel, but in the new work first rate sculpture abounded
everywhere. In the old work no marble shafts, in the new innumerable ones.
Plain vaults instead of ribbed behind the choir." "Sculptured with an
axe," reads rather curiously, but Professor Willis points out that "the
axe is not quite so rude a weapon in the hands of a mason as it might
appear at first sight. The French masons use it to the present day with
great dexterity in carving." The mouldings used by Ernulf were extremely
simple, and were decorated with a "peculiar and shallow class of notched
ornament", of which many examples exist in other buildings of the period;
while the mouldings of William of Sens "exhibit much variety, but are most
remarkable for the profusion of billet-work, zigzag and dogtooth, that are
lavished upon them." The first two methods of ornamentation are Norman,
the last an Early English characteristic. This mixture is not confined to
the details of decoration but may be observed also in the indiscriminate
employment of round and pointed arches. This feature, as Willis remarks,
"may have arisen either from the indifference of the artist as to the
mixture of forms or else from deliberate contrivance, for as he was
compelled, from the nature of his work, to retain round-headed arcades,
windows, and arches, in the side-aisles, and yet was accustomed to and
desirous of employing pointed arches in his new building, he might
discreetly mix some round-headed arches with them, in order to make the
contrast less offensive by causing the mixture of forms to pervade the
whole composition, as if an intentional principle."

[Illustration: THE CHOIR, LOOKING EAST
(FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY CARL NORMAN AND CO.).]

Whatever the motive, this daring mixture renders the study of the
architectural features of our cathedral peculiarly interesting. In the
triforium we find a semicircular outer arch circumscribing two inner
pointed ones. The clerestory arch is pointed, while some of the transverse
ribs of the great vault are pointed and some round.

The inward bend of the walls at the end of the choir was necessitated by
the fact that the towers of St. Anselm and St. Andrew had survived the
great fire of 1174. Naturally the pious builders did not wish to pull down
these relics of the former church, so that a certain amount of contraction
had to be effected in order that these towers should form part of the new
plan. This arrangement also fitted in with the determination to build a
chapel of the martyred St. Thomas at the end of the church, on the site of
the former Trinity Chapel. For the Trinity Chapel had been much narrower
than the new choir, but this contraction enabled the rebuilders to
preserve its dimensions.

#The Altar#, when the choir was at first completed by William, stood
entirely alone, and without a reredos; behind it the archbishop's chair
was originally placed, but this was afterwards transferred to the corona.
The remarkable height at which the altar was set up is due to the fact
that it is placed over the new crypt, which is a good deal higher than the
older, or western crypt. Before the Reformation the high altar was richly
embellished with all kinds of precious and sacred ornaments and vessels:
while beneath it, in a vault, were stored a priceless collection of gold
and silver vessels: such of these as escaped the rapacity of Henry VIII.
were destroyed by the bigotry of the Puritan zealots: the latter made
havoc of the reredos which had been erected behind the high altar,
probably during the fourteenth century, and also a "most idolatrous costly
glory cloth," the gift of Archbishop Laud. The reredos was replaced by a
Corinthian screen, which was of elaborate design, but must have been
strangely out of keeping with its surroundings; it was removed about 1870,
to make way for the present reredos which was designed in the style of the
screen work in the Lady Chapel in the crypt, but which cannot be commended
as an object of beauty. The altar coverings which are now in use were
presented to the cathedral by Queen Mary, the wife of William III., when
she visited Canterbury. A chalice, given by the Earl of Arundel in 1636,
is among the communion-plate. In his account of the building of the new
choir, Gervase tells us that "the Master carefully prepared a
resting-place for St. Dunstan and St. Elfege--the co-exiles of the monks."
When the choir was ready, "Prior Alan, taking with him nine of the
brethren of the Church in whom he could trust, went by night to the tombs
of the saints, so that he might not be incommoded by a crowd, and having
locked the doors of the church, he commanded the stone-work that inclosed
them to be taken down. The monks and the servants of the Church, in
obedience to the Prior's commands, took the structure to pieces, opened
the stone coffins of the saints, and bore their relics to the
_vestiarium_. Then, having removed the cloths in which they had been
wrapped, and which were half-consumed from age and rottenness, they
covered them with other and more handsome palls, and bound them with linen
bands. They bore the saints, thus prepared, to their altars, and deposited
them in wooden chests, covered within and without with lead: which chests,
thus lead-covered, and strongly bound with iron, were inclosed in
stone-work that was consolidated with melted lead." This translation
was thus carried out by Prior Alan on the night before the formal re-entry
into the choir: the rest of the monks, who had not assisted at the
ceremony, were highly incensed by the prior's action, for they had
intended that the translation of the fathers should have been performed
with great and devout solemnity. They even went so far as to cite the
prior and the trusty monks who had assisted him before the Archbishop, and
it was only by the intervention of the latter, and other men of authority,
and "after due apology and repentance," that harmony was restored in the
convent.

[Illustration: THE CHOIR BEFORE RESTORATION.]

The bones of St. Dunstan were long a cause of contention between the
churches of Canterbury and Glastonbury. The monks of Glastonbury
considered that they had a prior claim on the relics of the sainted
archbishop, and stoutly contended that his body had been conveyed to their
own sanctuary after the sack of Canterbury by the Danes; and they used to
exhibit a coffin as containing Dunstan's remains. But early in the
fourteenth century they went so far as to set up a gorgeous shrine in
which they placed, with much pomp and circumstance, the supposed relics.
Archbishop Warham, who then ruled at Canterbury, accordingly replied by
causing the shrine in our cathedral to be opened, and was able to declare
triumphantly that he had found therein the remains of a human body, in the
costume of an archbishop, with a plate of lead on his breast, inscribed
with the words "SANCTUS DUNSTANUS." In the course of the subsequent
correspondence which passed between the two monasteries, the Abbot of
Glastonbury, after trying to argue that perhaps part only of the saint's
relics had been conveyed to his church, at last frankly confesses "the
people had believed in the genuineness of their saint for so long, that he
is afraid to tell them the truth." This shrine of St. Dunstan stood on the
south of the high altar, and was erected after the manner of a tomb:
though the shrine itself perished at the time of the Reformation, there
still remains, on the south wall of the choir, between the monuments of
Archbishops Stratford and Sudbury, some very fine open diaper-work, in
what is known as the Decorated style, which once formed part of the
ornamentation of St. Dunstan's altar. The shrine of St. Elfege, or
Alphege, who was archbishop at the time of the sacking of Canterbury by
the Danes, and was murdered by them, has been altogether destroyed.

#The Choir Screen#, a solid structure of stone we know to be the work of
Prior de Estria, _i.e._, of Eastry in Kent, who was elected in 1285, and
died in 1331. According to the Obituary record, he "fairly decorated the
choir of the church with most beautiful stone-work cunningly carved." In
his Register there is an entry which evidently refers to the same work:
"Anno 1304-5. Reparation of the whole choir with three new doors and a new
screen (_pulpito_)." The three doors referred to are the north and south
entrances and the western one. It has already been pointed out that the
present western screen is a later addition. Professor Willis, whose great
work on the Architectural History of Canterbury Cathedral should be
studied by all who wish to examine the details of the building more
closely than is allowed by the scope of this work, describes De Estria's
screen as follows: "The lateral portions of this wall of enclosure are in
excellent order. In the western part of the choir, namely, between the
eastern transepts and the organ-screen, this wall is built so that its
inner face nearly ranges with the inner faces of the pillars; but eastward
of the transepts it is built between the pillars. The north doorway
remains perfect. The present south doorway, which is in a much later
style, is manifestly a subsequent insertion. This enclosure consists of a
solid wall, seven feet nine inches in height from the pavement of the
side-aisles. It has a stone-bench towards the side-aisles, and above that
a base, of the age of William of Sens; so that it is clear that the work
of De Estria belongs to the upper part only of the enclosure, which
consists of delicate and elaborately worked tracery, surmounted by an
embattled crest.... The entire work is particularly valuable on account
of its well-established date, combined with its great beauty and
singularity."

A portion of the choir-pavement, lying between the two transepts, is
interesting as being undoubtedly part of the original flooring of Conrad's
choir, and probably the only fragment of it that was left undisturbed
after the great fire which destroyed "that glorious choir which had been
so magnificently completed by the care and industry of Prior Conrad." This
part of the pavement consists of large slabs of a peculiar "stone, or
veined marble of a delicate brown colour. When parts of this are taken up
for repair or alteration, it is usual to find lead which has run between
the joints of the slabs and spread on each side below, and which is with
great reason supposed to be the effect of the fire of 1174, which melted
the lead of the roof, and caused it to run down between the paving stones
in this manner." It is said that when the choir was filled with pews in
1706, and it was necessary to remove part of the pavement, the men engaged
on the work picked up enough of this lead to make two large gluepots.

[Illustration: A MISERERE IN THE CHOIR.]

The original wooden #stalls of the choir# were described by the writer of a
book published in 1640. He relates that there were two rows on each side,
an upper and a lower, and that above the stalls on the south side stood
the archbishop's wooden chair, "sometime richly guilt, and otherwise
richly set forth, but now nothing specious through age and late neglect."
Perhaps the battered and shabby condition of this part of the cathedral
furniture accounts for its having survived the Puritan period; it is at
least certain that it remained untouched until 1704, when the refurnishing
of the choir was begun by Archbishop Tenison; he himself presented a
wainscoted throne with lofty Corinthian canopy adorned with carving by
Gibbons, while the altar, the pulpit, and the stalls for the dean and
vice-dean were provided with rich fittings by Queen Mary II. The tracery
of the screen was hidden by a lining of wainscoting, which was put before
it. This arrangement lasted little more than a century. In the time of
Archbishop Howley, who held office from 1828 to 1848, the wainscoting
which concealed the screen was taken away, and Archbishop Tenison's throne
has made way for a lofty canopy of tabernacle work. Some carved work,
which has been ascribed to Gibbons, still remains before the eastern front
of the screen, between the choir and the nave.

The position of the organ has been frequently shifted. In Conrad's choir
it was placed upon the vault of the south transept; afterwards it was set
up upon a large corbel of stone, over the arch of St. Michael in the same
transept. This corbel has now been removed; subsequently it was placed
between two pillars on the north side of the choir, and, later on, it was
again transferred to a position over the west door of the choir, the usual
place for the organ in cathedral churches; finally it has been
"ingeniously deposited out of sight in the triforium of the south aisle of
the choir; a low pedestal with its keys stands in the choir itself, so as
to place the organist close to the singers, as he ought to be, and the
communication between the keys and the organ is effected by trackers
passing under the pavement of the side aisles, and conducted up to the
triforium, through a trunk let into the south wall." This arrangement not
only secures the retirement from view of the organ, which, with its
tedious rows of straight and unsightly pipes, is generally more or less an
eyesore in cathedrals, but is said to have caused a great improvement in
the effect of its music. The present organ, which was built by Samuel
Green, is believed to have been used at the Handel Festival in Westminster
Abbey in 1784. It was enlarged by Hill in 1842, and entirely reconstructed
in 1886. In this connection we may mention that Archbishop Theodore first
introduced the ecclesiastical chant in Canterbury Cathedral.

The tombs in the choir are all occupied by famous archbishops and
cardinals. On the south side, hard by the site of the shrine of St.
Dunstan, is the tomb of Simon of Sudbury, who was archbishop from 1375 to
1381. He built the west gate of the city, and a great part of the town
walls; in consideration of these benefits the mayor and aldermen used at
one time to make an annual procession to his resting-place and offer
prayers for his soul. Outside Canterbury his acts were not regarded with
so much gratitude, for he was the inventor, or reviver, of the poll tax,
and was in consequence beheaded on Tower Hill by Wat Tyler and his
followers. Stanley relates that "not many years ago, when this tomb was
accidentally opened, the body was seen within, wrapped in cere-cloth, a
leaden ball occupying the vacant place of the head." Sudbury is also
famous as having spoken against the "superstitious" pilgrimages to St.
Thomas' shrine, and his violent death was accordingly attributed to the
avenging power of the incensed saint. Westward of his monument stands that
of Archbishop Stratford (1333-1348), who was Grand Justiciary to Edward
III. during his absence in Flanders, and won fame by his struggle with the
king. Between this tomb and the archbishop's throne lies Cardinal Kemp
(1452-1454), who was present at Agincourt in the camp of Henry V.; his
tomb is surmounted by a remarkable wooden canopy. Opposite, on the north
side, is the very interesting monument of Archbishop Henry Chichele
(1414-1443). Shakespeare tells us that he was the instigator of Henry V.'s
war with France, and it is supposed that out of remorse for this act he
built, during his lifetime, the curious tomb which now conceals his bones;
it is kept in repair by All Souls' College, which was founded by the
penitent archbishop that its fellows might pray for the souls of all who
had perished during the war; the effigy, in full canonicals, with its head
supported by angels, and with two monks holding open books, kneeling at
its feet, lies on the upper slab; and underneath is a ghastly figure in a
winding-sheet, supposed to represent the archbishop after death; the
diminutive figures which originally filled the niches were destroyed by
the Puritans, but have been to some extent replaced. The gaudy colours of
the tomb enable one to form some idea of the appearance of the churches in
the Middle Ages, when they were bedizened with painted images, hangings,
and frescoes: to judge from this specimen the effect must have been
distinctly tawdry. Further east we find the monument of Archbishop Howley;
he was chiefly remarkable as having crowned Queen Victoria and married her
to the Prince Consort, and his monument is noticeable as being the first
erected to an archbishop, in the cathedral, since the Reformation; he
himself lies at Addington. Beyond is a fine tomb well worthy of
examination, crowned by an elaborate canopy which shows traces of rough
usage at the hands of the restoring enthusiasts, who surrounded the choir
with classical wainscoting after the Restoration. It is the monument of
Archbishop Bourchier, a staunch supporter of the House of York; he was
primate for thirty-two years, from 1454 to 1486, and crowned Edward IV.,
Richard III., and Henry VII. The "Bourchier knot" is among the decorations
which enrich the canopy of his tomb.

#The South-East Transept.#--According to the present custom of the
Canterbury vergers, the visitor is led from the choir to the south-east
transept. "In the choir of Ernulf," says Willis, "the transepts were cut
off from the body by the continuity of the pier-arches and the wall above,
and each transept was therefore a separate room with a flat ceiling....
But in the new design of William the transepts were opened to the central
portion, and the triforium and clerestory of the choir were turned at
right angles to their courses, and thus formed the side walls of the
transepts.... The entire interior of the eastern transept has been most
skilfully converted from Ernulfian architecture to Willelmian (if I may be
allowed the phrase for the nonce). It was necessary that the triforium and
clerestory of the new design should be carried along the walls of these
transepts, which were before the fire probably ornamented by a
continuation of those of Ernulf. But the respective level of these
essential members were so different in the old and new works that the
only parts of them that could be retained were the windows of the old
clerestory, which falls just above the new triforium tablet, and
accordingly these old windows may still be seen in the triforia of the
transepts, surmounted by the new pointed clerestory windows. But the whole
of the arcade work and mouldings in the interior of these transepts
belongs to William of Sens, with the sole exception of the lower windows.
Even the arches which open from the east wall of these transepts to the
apses have been changed for pointed arches, the piers of which have a
singularly elegant base."

In the two apses of this transept altars to St. Gregory and St. John once
stood, and here were shrines of four Saxon primates. There is a window in
the south wall erected to the memory of Dean Alford; below it is the spot
on which the tomb of Archbishop Winchelsea (1294-1313) was placed. He was
famous for his contest with Edward I. concerning clerical subsidies, and
for having secured from the king the confirmation of the charter. He was
more practically endeared to the people by the generosity of his
almsgiving--it is said that he distributed two thousand loaves among the
poor every Sunday and Thursday when corn was dear, and three thousand when
it was cheap. His tomb was heaped with offerings like the shrine of a
saint, but the Pope refused to confirm the popular enthusiasm by
canonizing the archbishop; the fact, however, that it had been so
reverenced was enough to qualify it for destruction in the days of Henry
VIII. This transept is used at present as a chapel for the King's School,
a direct continuation of the monastery school, at which Archbishops
Winchelsea and Kemp were both educated. It contains the Corinthian throne
which was set up in the choir early in the last century.

#The South-West Choir Aisle.#--At the corner of this aisle we may notice
the arcade which shows the combination of the Norman rounded arch and
double zigzag ornamentation with the pointed arch and dogtooth tracery of
William. Here also are two tombs, which have given rise to a good deal of
speculation. The more easterly one used to be regarded as the monument of
Hubert Walter, who was chancellor to Richard Coeur de Lion and followed
him and Archbishop Baldwin to Palestine, and, on the death of the latter,
was made primate in the camp at Acre: it is thought more probable,
however, in the light of recent research, that he is buried in the Trinity
Chapel. The other tomb used to be the resting place of Archbishop
Reynolds, the favourite of Edward II., but it also affords food for
discussion, as there is no trace of the "pall"--a Y-shaped strip of lamb's
wool marked with crosses, a special mark of metropolitan dignity which was
sent to each primate by the Pope--on the vestments of the effigy. Hence
conjecture doubts whether these tombs are tenanted by archbishops at all,
and inclines to the theory that they contain the bones of two of the
Priors, perhaps of d'Estria. From this point we can notice the ingenious
apparatus connected with the organ.

#St. Anselm's Tower and Chapel.#--Proceeding eastward, towards the Trinity
Chapel, we pause to examine the chapel or tower of St. Anselm, which
corresponds to that of St. Andrew on the north side of the cathedral. Both
these chapels probably at one time were much more lofty, as they are
described as "lofty towers" by Gervase; it was in order to bring them into
the church, when it was reconstructed after the fire, that the eastward
contraction, which presents such a curious effect as seen from the choir,
was found necessary. They are now, as Willis points out, "only of the same
height as the clerestory of the Norman Church, to which they formed
appendages, and consequently they rose above the side-aisles of that
church as much as the clerestory did. The external faces of the inward
walls of these towers are now inclosed under the roof of William's
triforium, and it may be seen that they were once exposed to the weather."
The arches in St. Anselm's tower were originally set up by Ernulf, but
there is reason to believe that they were rebuilt after the great
conflagration. "The arch of communication," says Willis, "is a round
arch, at first sight plainly of the Ernulfian period, having plaited-work
capitals and mouldings with shallow hollows. A similar arch opens on the
eastern side of the tower into its apse. But a close examination will shew
that both these arches have undergone alteration.... I am inclined to
believe that both these arches were reset and reduced in space after the
fire, probably to increase their strength and that of their piers, on
account of the loss of abutment, when the circular wall of the choir-apse
was removed." The alterations that were made in these arches were probably
not important, and did not extend beyond the re-modelling of the mouldings
on the side of the arch towards the choir-aisle; for we may notice that
above both the arches we can still trace the notched decoration which is
peculiar to Ernulf's work. This chapel was originally dedicated to St.
Peter and St. Paul, and a very interesting relic of this saintly patronage
has lately been discovered. Apparently, in order to strengthen the
building, two of the three windows in the chapel were blocked up, and a
buttress was built across a chord of the apse, in the early part of the
thirteenth century. In the course of the restoration of the tower which
was recently carried out, this buttress was taken away, and its removal
laid bare a fresco painting, representing St. Paul and the viper at
Melita. This piece of decoration, as need hardly be said, must have been
put in before the construction of the buttress which has concealed and
preserved it for nearly seven centuries; it is conjectured, with a good
deal of reason, that a similar presentment of St. Paul
[Transcriber: St. Peter?] was painted at the same time on the opposite
wall, but as it had no buttress to protect it, it has been altogether
effaced. A copy of the fresco of St. Paul has been placed in the cathedral
library. The altar of SS. Peter and Paul stood at the east end, and behind
it was the tomb of the celebrated Archbishop Anselm, by whose name the
chapel is now commonly called. A very interesting feature of this tower
is a large and elaborate five-light window of the Decorated period. It
replaced the original south window of the chapel, and was inserted by
Prior d'Estria in 1336; it is remarkable as being one of the few instances
of Decorated architecture in the cathedral, and also because of the
detailed account that has been preserved of its erection and cost. The
passage in the archives runs as follows:--"Memorandum, that in the year
1336, there was made a new window in Christ Church, Canterbury, that is to
say, in the chapel of the Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul, upon which
there were expended the following sums:

                                                     _£   s.   d._
"Imprimis, for the workmanship, or labour of the
    masons                                           21   17   9
Item, for the breaking down of the wall, where the
    window now is                                     0   16   9
----for lime and gravel                               1    0   0
----for 20 cwt. of iron bought for said window        4    4   0
----for the labour of the smiths                      3    5   4
----for Caen stone bought for same                    5    0   0
----for glass and the labour of the glaziers          6   13   4
                                                     -----------
                                        Total        42   17   2."

On the heads of the lights of this window were pendent bosses, like those
of the door in the choir-screen, which, as has been said, was also the
work of Prior de Estria. These bosses and the stones from which they were
suspended, have altogether disappeared, otherwise the internal tracery of
the window is in good preservation. "The outside, however, is in a very
bad condition for the purpose of the antiquarian; for, apparently on
account of the decayed state of its surface, the tracery has undergone the
process of splitting, namely, the whole of the outer part has been faced
down to the glass, and fresh worked in Portland stone; Portland stone
mullions, or _monials_ as they are more properly called, have also been
supplied. And as this repair was executed at a period when this class of
architecture was ill understood, the mouldings were very badly wrought,
which, with the unfortunate colour and surface of the Portland stone, has
given the window a most ungenuine air. However, the interior is as good as
ever it was, and it is on account of its date, as well as for its beauty,
a most valuable example" (Willis).

The insertion of the window in question probably had the effect of
weakening the walls of the chapel; at any rate they show signs of a
tendency to settle. Beneath it is the tomb of Archbishop Bradwardine, a
great scholar and divine, whose primacy only lasted three months. Opposite
to him lies Simon de Mepeham--archbishop from 1328 to 1333--whose tomb
forms the screen of the chapel. It is a black marble monument well worthy
of examination, with a double arcade and a richly decorated canopy; the
ornamentation has been greatly damaged, but the shattered remains show
traces of beautiful work. Mepeham's short primacy was brought to an
untimely end by the contumacy of Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter, who refused
to allow him to enter Exeter Cathedral, actually guarding the west door
with an armed force. The pope sided with the recalcitrant bishop, and
Mepeham died, according to Fuller, of a broken heart in consequence of
this humiliation.

#The Watching Chamber.#--Above the Chapel of St. Anselm is a small room,
which is reached by a staircase from the north-west corner. A window in
it commands a view into the cathedral, and from this circumstance it has
been inferred that a watcher was stationed here at night to protect the
priceless treasures of St. Thomas's shrine from pillage by marauders. Some
doubt has been thrown on this assumption, since the site of the shrine is
not fully seen from the window, but the room is still generally known as
the Watching Chamber. Probably the shrine was much more efficiently
guarded than by the presence of a solitary monk in a chamber, from which
even if he could see thieves he certainly could not arrest them; for we
know that "on the occasion of fires the shrine was additionally guarded by
a troop of fierce ban-dogs" (Stanley). It is also said that King John of
France was imprisoned in this chamber during his stay at Canterbury, but
this is most unlikely, seeing that he was treated by the Black Prince more
as a sovereign than as a captive.

[Illustration: SOME MOSAICS FROM THE FLOOR OF TRINITY CHAPEL.]

#Trinity Chapel.#--Passing further east, we ascend the flight of steps,
deeply worn by innumerable pilgrims, and enter the precincts of the
Trinity Chapel. All this part of the cathedral, from the choir-screen
to the corona, was rebuilt from the ground, specially with a view to its
receiving the shrine of St. Thomas. It is still, however, called by the
name of the Trinity Chapel, which previously occupied this site, and was
burnt down by the fire which destroyed Conrad's choir. In this chapel
Thomas à Becket celebrated his first mass after his installation as
archbishop, and his remains were laid for some time in the crypt below
it. This portion of the building was all carried out under the direction
of English William. Gervase relates that when William of Sens, after his
accident, "perceiving that he derived no benefit from the physicians,
returned to his home in France," his successor, English William "laid the
foundation for the enlargement of the church at the eastern part, because
a chapel of St. Thomas was to be built there; for this was the place
assigned to him; namely the Chapel of the Holy Trinity, where he
celebrated his first mass--where he was wont to prostrate himself with
tears and prayers, under whose crypt for so many years he was buried,
where God for his merits had performed so many miracles, where poor and
rich, kings and princes, had worshipped him, and whence the sound of his
praises had gone out into all lands." As to the extent to which the second
William was guided by the plans of his predecessor we have no means of
judging accurately. Certainly the general outline of this part of the
building must have been arranged by William of Sens, for the contraction
of the choir, in order to preserve the width of the ancient Trinity Chapel
had been carried out up to the clerestory before his retirement. Willis
deals with the subject at some length: "Whether," he says, "we are to
attribute to the French artist the lofty elevation of the pavement of
the new chapel, by which also so handsome a crypt is obtained below, must
remain doubtful. The bases of his columns, as well as those of the shafts
against the wall are hidden and smothered by the platform at the top of
these steps and by the side steps that lead to Becket's chapel. This looks
like an evidence of a change of plan, and induces me to believe that the
lofty crypt below may be considered as the unfettered composition of the
English architect.... The Trinity Chapel of the Englishman is under the
influence of the French work of which it is a continuation, and
accordingly the same mouldings are employed throughout, and the triforium
and clerestory are continued at the same level; but the greater level of
the pavement wholly alters the proportion of the piers to their arches,
and gives a new and original, and at the same time a very elegant
character to this part of the church compared with the work of the
Frenchman, of which, at first sight, it seems to be a mere continuation.
The triforium also of this Trinity Chapel differs from that of the choir,
in that its four pointed arches instead of being, like them, included
under two circular ones, are set in the form of an arcade of four arches,
of two orders of mouldings each. The mouldings are the same as in the
choir, but the effect of their arrangement is richer. Also in the
clerestory two windows are placed over each pier-arch, instead of the
single window of the choir. The mixture of the two forms of arches is
still carried on, for although the semicircular arch is banished from
the triforium, it is adopted for the pier-arches.

"However, in the side-aisles of the Trinity chapel, and in the corona,
our English William appears to have freed himself almost as completely
from the shackles of imitation, as was possible. In the side-aisles the
mouldings of the ribs still remain the same, but their management in
connection with the side walls, and the combination of their slender
shafts with those of the twin lancet windows, here for the first time
introduced into the building, is very happy. Slender shafts of marble are
employed in profusion by William of Sens, and Gervase expressly includes
them in his list of characteristic novelties. But here we find them either
detached from the piers, or combined with them in such a manner as to
give a much greater lightness and elegance of effect than in the work of
the previous architect. This lightness of style is carried still farther
in the corona, where the slender shafts are carried round the walls, and
made principal supports to the pier-arches, over which is placed a light
triforium and a clerestory; and it must be remarked that all the arches in
this part of the building are of a single order of mouldings, instead of
two orders as in the pier-arches and triforium of the choir."

So much for the architectural details of the Trinity Chapel. To the
ordinary visitor its interest lies rather in the fact that it contained
Becket's shrine, and that we here see the curious old windows portraying
the sainted Archbishop's miracles, and what is, perhaps, most important of
all to many, #the tomb of Edward the Black Prince#. This monument is the
first feature that we notice as we enter by the south-west gate of the
chapel; it stands between the two first pillars, and by the side of the
site of the shrine. By the Prince's will he had left directions that he
should be buried in the crypt, where he had already founded a chantry,
at the time of his marriage with the "Fair Maid of Kent" in 1363. But for
some unknown reason, probably in order that the dead hero's bones might be
placed in the most sacred spot possible--he was laid to rest by the side
of the martyr, then in the zenith of his sanctity. One of the most
romantic figures in English history is that of Edward the Black Prince,
who "fought the French" as no Briton, except perhaps Nelson, has fought
them since; he was sixteen years old when he commanded the English army
in person at the battle of Cressy, and was wounded in the thickest of that
most sanguinary fray: ten years later, facing an army of 60,000 men with
a mere 8,000 behind him, he inflicted a still more severe defeat on the
French at Poitiers, and captured their king, whom he took with him to
Canterbury on his triumphant return to London. In all our list of national
heroes there is not one who upheld the prowess of the English arms more
gallantly than this mighty warrior who was cut off while still in the
flower of his years, leaving England to the miseries of sedition and civil
war. His tomb is one of the most impressive of such monuments. The gilding
and bright colours have almost entirely disappeared, but the striking
effect of the effigy is probably only enhanced by the solemn sombreness of
its present appearance. It is a figure clad in full armour, spurred and
helmeted, as the Prince had ordained by his will. The head rests on the
helmet and the hands are joined in the attitude of prayer. The face, which
is undoubtedly a portrait, is stern and masterful. "There you can see
his fine face with the Plantagenet features, the flat cheeks, and the
well-chiselled nose, to be traced, perhaps, in the effigy of his father in
Westminster Abbey, and his grandfather in Gloucester Cathedral." The tomb
itself is worthy to support the figure and guard the ashes of the Black
Prince. Carved on its side clearly, that all might read it, is the
inscription which he had himself chosen; it is in Norman French, which was
still the language spoken by the English Court, and in the same spirit
which moved the designer of Archbishop Chichele's tomb to portray the
living man and the mouldering skeleton, this epitaph contrasts the glories
of the Prince's life--his wealth, beauty, and power--with the decay and
corruption of the grave. It is distinctly pagan in thought, and reminds
one strongly of the laments of the dead Homeric heroes as they wail for
the joys of life and strength and lordship. Stanley states that it is
"borrowed, with a few variations, from the anonymous French translation of
the 'Clericalis Disciplina' of Petrus Alphonsus composed between the years
1106 and 1110." But it is strangely un-Christian in sentiment as a few
lines will show--

    "Tiel come tu es, je autiel fu, tu seras tiel come je su,
    De la mort ne pensay je mie, tant come j'avoy la vie.
    En terre avoy grand richesse, dont je y fys grand noblesse,
    Terre, mesons, et grand tresor, draps, chivalx, argent et or.
    Mesore su je povres et cheitifs, perfond en la terre gys,
    Ma grand beaute est tout alee, ma char est tout gastee
    Moult est estroite ma meson, en moy ne si verite non,
    Et si ore me veissez, je ne quide pas que vous deeisez
    Que j'eusse onges hom este, si su je ore de tout changee."

Below this inscription are ranged coats-of-arms, bearing the ostrich
feathers and the motto _Ich Diene_ ("I serve"), which, according to
time-honoured but unauthenticated tradition, the prince won from the blind
King of Bohemia, who was led into the thick of the fighting at Cressy, and
died on the field. Welsh archæologists, however, maintain that these words
are Celtic, and mean "behold the man;" their theory suggests that this was
the phrase used by Edward I. when he presented his firstborn son to the
Welsh people as their prince, and that the words thus became the motto of
the princes of Wales. This is a rather far-fetched piece of reasoning, and
one would certainly prefer to accept the more picturesque tradition which
connects the phrase with the glories of Cressy. The other word found on
these escutcheons--_Houmont_--is still more puzzling. We know that the
Black Prince was wont to sign himself _Houmont, Ich Diene_. Stanley
explains the combination gracefully, but not very convincingly. "If, as
seems most likely, they are German words, they exactly express what we
have seen so often in his life, the union of 'Hoch muth,' that is _high
spirit_, with 'Ich Dien,' _I serve_. They bring before us the very scene
itself after the battle of Poitiers, where, after having vanquished the
whole French nation, he stood behind the captive king, and served him like
an attendant."

[Illustration: THE BLACK PRINCE'S TOMB
(FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY CARL NORMAN AND CO.).]

The tomb is surmounted by a canopy on which is painted an interesting
representation of the Trinity. The work is a good deal faded, but still
worthy of notice; the absence of the figure of the dove is curious, but is
not unparalleled in such designs. At the corners are symbols of the four
evangelists. The Holy Trinity--on whose feast-day he died--was held in
peculiar veneration by the Black Prince. The ordinance of the chantry
founded by him in the crypt contains the phrase, _Ad honorem Sancte
Trinitatis quam peculiari devocione semper colimus_. A curious metal
badge, preserved in the British Museum, is stamped with the figure of the
prince kneeling before the Almighty and our Saviour, whose representation
is almost identical with the design on the canopy over the tomb; here also
the figure of the dove is absent. Round the canopy and in the pillars we
can still see the hooks which upheld the black tapestry, bordered with
crimson and embroidered with _cygnes avec têtes de dames_, which was hung,
as ordained by his will, round the prince's tomb and Becket's shrine.

[Illustration: SHIELD, COAT, ETC., OF THE BLACK PRINCE.]

Lastly, above the canopy, on a cross-beam between two pillars, are
suspended the brazen gauntlets, the helmet, the wooden shield with its
moulded leather covering, the velvet coat emblazoned with the arms of
England and France, and the empty sheath. The gauntlets were once
embellished with little figures of lions on the knuckles; these have been
detached by "collectors," vandals almost as ruthless as Blue Dick and his
troopers, and without their excuse of mistaken religious zeal. The helmet
still has its original lining of leather, showing that it was actually
worn. The sword which fitted the now empty sheath is said to have been
taken away by Oliver Cromwell; it appeared in Manchester at the beginning
of this century under circumstances so curious, that we may be excused for
quoting the following letter from Canon Wray, given in Stanley's Appendix
on the Black Prince's will. "The sword, or supposed sword, of the Black
Prince, which Oliver Cromwell is said to have carried away, I have seen
and many times have had in my hands. There lived in Manchester, when I
first came here, a Mr. Thomas Barritt, a saddler by trade; he was a great
antiquarian, and had collected together helmets, coats of mail, horns,
etc., and many coins. But what he valued most of all was a sword: the
blade about two feet long, and on the blade was let in, in letters of
gold, 'EDWARDUS WALLIE PRINCEPS'.... He was in possession of this sword
A.D. 1794. He told me he purchased many of the ancient relics of a pedlar,
who travelled through the country selling earthenware, and I think he said
he got this sword from this pedlar. When Barritt died, in 1820, his
curiosities were sold by his widow at a raffle, but I believe this sword
was not amongst the articles so disposed of. It had probably been disposed
of beforehand, but to whom I never knew; yet I think it not unlikely that
it is still in the neighbourhood. The sword was a little curved,
scimitar-like, rather thick, broad blade, and had every appearance of
being the Black Prince's sword." Truly a most remarkable story. This
historic blade, which may have hewn down the French ranks at Poitiers, is
disposed of by an itinerant crockery vender to an antiquarian saddler; on
his death is, or is not, "sold at a raffle" and--vanishes!

[Illustration: WEST GATE.]

These arms that hang over the prince's tomb are all that are left of
two distinct suits, one for war, and one for use in the joust and the
ceremonials of peace, which were, according to directions given in the
will, carried in the funeral procession through the West Gate and along
the High Street to the cathedral. The pieces which remain all belong to
the suit worn in actual warfare.

The centre of the chapel looks curiously blank, being left so by the
thoroughness with which all trace of Becket's shrine was removed by the
reforming zeal and insatiable rapacity of Henry VIII. and his minions. The
effect of the bare stone pavement presents an impressive contrast to the
vanished glories of the shrine blazing with gold and jewels, as we read of
it. (For a description of the shrine and its history, see Chapter I.) The
exact place on which it stood is plainly shown by the marks worn in the
stones by the knees of generations of pilgrims as they knelt before it,
while the prior, with his white wand, pointed out the choicest of its
treasures. To the west, between the altar-screen--the unhappy effect of
which is painfully conspicuous from this point--and the site of the
shrine, there is some very interesting mosaic pavement, containing the
signs of the zodiac, and emblems of virtue and vice, an example of the
_Opus Alexandrinum_, which appears in the floors of most of the Roman
basilicas. A similar piece of mosaic work may be seen round the shrine of
Edward the Confessor at Westminster. Above the eastern end of the shrine a
gilded crescent was fixed in the roof, which still remains; the origin and
meaning of this emblem have been disputed with considerable heat, and many
ingenious conjectures have been framed to account for its presence here.
One theory regards it as an allusion to the tradition according to which
Becket's mother was a Saracen. But this legend is believed to be
comparatively modern, and, as Mr. George Austin points out, "even if the
legend of Becket's mother had obtained credence at that early period, it
may be observed that in the painted windows around no reference is made
to the subject, though evidently capable of so much pictorial effect."
Another solution would connect the crescent with the worship of the Virgin
Mary, who is often pictured as standing on the moon (comp. Rev. xii. 1).
Supporters of this theory lay stress on the fact that the Trinity Chapel
at Canterbury occupies the extreme east end of the church, which is
generally the site of the Lady Chapel, and that therefore the presence of
this emblem--if it can be connected with the Virgin--would be peculiarly
appropriate here. Mr. Austin propounded the explanation which is now most
generally accepted. "When the groined roof," he says, "was relieved of the
long-accumulated coats of whitewash and repaired, the crescent was taken
down and regilt. It was found to be made of a foreign wood, somewhat like
in grain to the eastern wood known by the name of iron-wood. It had been
fastened to the groining by a large nail of very singular shape, with a
large square head, apparently of foreign manufacture." He comes to the
conclusion that the crescent is one of a number of trophies which he
supposes to have once decorated this part of the cathedral, and he is
led to his conclusion by the fact that "more than one fresco painting of
encounters with the Eastern infidels formerly ornamented the walls (the
last traces of which were removed during the restoration of the cathedral
under Dean Percy, afterwards Bishop of Carlisle), and in one of which the
green crescent flag of the enemy seems borne away by the English archers.
Might not these frescoes have depicted the fights in which these trophies
were won?" Also, in the hollows of the groining which radiate from the
crescent, there were a number of slight iron staples, which Mr. Austin,
having shown that they cannot have supported either hanging lamps or the
covering of the shrine, believes to have upheld flags, horsetails, etc.,
which formed the trophy of which the gilded crescent was the centre. We
know that Becket received the title of St. Thomas Acrensis owing to his
close connection with the knights of the Hospital of St. John at Acre. But
none of these explanations seem very convincing, and the history and
significance of the crescent in the roof seem likely to remain a mystery.

Before we turn from Becket and his shrine to the other monuments in the
Trinity Chapel, we must call the attention of our readers to the stained
windows which depict the miracles of the sainted martyr. The chapel was at
one time entirely surrounded with glass of this sort, but only a portion
has survived the ravages of the Puritans. "Of these windows," says Austin,
"unfortunately but three remain, but they are sufficient to attest their
rare beauty; and for excellence of drawing, harmony of colouring, and
purity of design, are justly considered unequalled. The skill with which
the minute figures are represented cannot even at this day be surpassed;
it is extraordinary to see how every feeling of joy or sorrow, pain and
enjoyment, is expressed both in feature and position. But in nothing is
the superiority of these windows shown more than the beautiful scrolls and
borders which surmount the windows, and gracefully connect the groups of
medallions." Most of these windows probably contained representations of
Becket, and so were doomed to destruction by the decree of Henry VIII., in
which "his Grace straitly chargeth and commandeth, that henceforth the
said Thomas Becket shall not be esteemed, named, reputed, nor called a
saint, but Bishop Becket, and that his images and pictures throughout the
whole realm shall be put down and avoided out of all churches and chapels,
and other places; and that from henceforth the days used to be festivals
in his name shall not be observed, nor the service, office, antiphonies,
collects and prayers in his name read, but rased and put out of all
books." This proclamation was rigorously carried out though the stained
windows which come within its terms have, in some cases, escaped
destruction. For instance there remains a window in the south transept of
Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, representing the martyrdom of Becket, but
it is interesting to note that even here the archbishop's head was removed
from the glass. Three of the windows of the Trinity Chapel have survived,
and fragments of others are scattered over the glass of the building. They
are entirely devoted to depicting the miracles of the martyr, which began
immediately after his death and reception--according to a vision of
Benedict--in a place between the apostles and the martyrs, above even St.
Stephen.

The window towards the east on the north side of the shrine is divided
into geometrical figures, each figure composed of a group of fine
medallions; every group tells the story of a miracle, or series of
miracles, performed by the influence of the saint. The lower group
portrays the story of a child who was drowned in the Medway, and
afterwards restored to life by the efficacy of the saint's blood mixed
with water. The first medallion shows the boy falling into the stream,
while his companions pelt the frogs in the reeds by the river side; the
next shows the companions relating the story of the accident to the boy's
parents, and in the third we see the grief-stricken parents watching their
son's corpse being drawn out of the river. "The landscape in these
medallions is exceedingly well rendered; the trees are depicted with
great grace" (Austin). Unfortunately the medallions which complete this
story have been destroyed. The next group depicts the quaint story of a
succession of miracles which were wrought in the family of a knight called
Jordan, son of Eisult. His ten year old boy died, and the knight, who had
been an intimate friend of Becket in his lifetime, resolved to try to
restore his son with water mixed with the saint's blood. At the third
draught, as Benedict tells the story, the dead boy "opened one eye, and
said, 'Why are you weeping, father? Why are you crying, lady? The blessed
martyr, Thomas, has restored me to you!' At evening he sat up, ate,
talked, and was restored." But the father forgot the vow which he made in
the first moment of joy at his son's recovery, namely, that he would offer
four silver pieces at the martyr's shrine before Mid Lent. And once more
all the household was stricken with sickness, and the eldest son died.
Then the parents, though sore smitten themselves, dragged themselves to
Canterbury and performed their vow. The whole of this story with other
details for which we have no space may be accurately traced on this unique
window. The most striking is the central medallion of the group in which
the vengeance of the saint is shown forth. In the middle of a large room
we see a bier on which lies the dead son; the father and mother, overcome
with despair, stand at the head and feet of the body. Behind the bier are
several figures, which, from their "unusually violent attitudes expressive
of grief," Mr. Austin considered to be professional mourners. Above,
unseen by the group below, the figure of St. Thomas, clad in full
episcopal robes, holding a sword in his right hand, and pointing to
the corpse with his left, is seen appearing through the ceiling. "The
expression," says Austin, "of the various figures in the above
compartments, both in gesture and feature, is rendered with great skill.
In the execution of this story, the points which, doubtless, the artists
of the monastery were chiefly anxious to impress upon the minds of the
devotees who thronged to the shrine are prominently brought out: the
extreme danger of delaying the performance of a vow, under whatever
circumstances made, the expiation sternly required by the saint, and the
satisfaction with which the martyr viewed money offerings made at the
shrine."

One of the other groups is noteworthy as proving that severe penances were
sometimes performed before the shrine. One medallion shows a woman
prostrating herself before a priest at the altar, while two men stand
near, holding formidable-looking rods. The next picture represents the two
men vigorously flagellating the woman with the rods; while, in the third,
one of the men is still beating the woman, who now lies fainting on the
ground, while the other is addressing the priest, who sits hard by
composedly reading his book. The other two windows contain representations
of the healings effected by the saint, which seem to have been of a very
varied character, to judge from the catalogue with which Benedict sums
them up. "What position," he asks, "in the Church, what sex or age, what
rank or order is there, which could not find something beneficial to
itself [_aliquid sibi utile_] in this treasure-house of ours? Here the
light of truth is furnished to schismatics, confidence to timid pastors,
health to the sick, and pardon to the deserving penitent [_pænitentibus
venia ejus meritis_, the last two words probably implying an offering].
The blind see, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the
dead rise again, the dumb speak, the poor have the gospel preached to
them, the paralytic recover, the dropsical lose their swellings
[_detumescunt hydropici_], the mad are restored to sense, the epileptic
are cured, the fever-stricken escape, and, to sum up, _omnimoda curatur
infirmitas_."

The last of these windows to which we must call the special attention of
our readers is one on the north side, representing a vision which Benedict
tells us that he saw himself. The martyr is seen coming forth from his
shrine in full pontifical robes, and making his way towards the altar as
if to celebrate mass. This window is noticeable as containing the only
representation that now exists of the shrine itself--for the picture in
the Cottonian MSS. evidently shows us, not the shrine, but its outer
shell, or covering. "The medallion," says Austin, "is the more
interesting, from being an undoubted work of the thirteenth century; and
having been designed for a position immediately opposite to and within a
few yards of the shrine itself, and occupying the place of honour in the
largest and most important window, without doubt represents the main
features of the shrine faithfully."

On the north side of the Trinity Chapel, immediately opposite the tomb of
the Black Prince, is that of King Henry IV., who died in 1413, and his
second consort, Joan of Navarre, who followed him in 1437. This king had
made liberal offerings towards the rebuilding of the nave of the
cathedral, and it has been conjectured that one of the figures on the
organ-screen represents him: his will ordered that he should be laid to
rest in the church at Canterbury, and here accordingly he was buried on
the Trinity Sunday after his death. The tomb, with its rich canopy, is a
beautiful piece of work, and the figures of the king and queen are
probably faithful representations. A curious story was circulated by the
Yorkists, to the effect that Henry was never buried here, but that his
body was thrown into the water between Gravesend and Barking, during the
voyage of the funeral _cortège_ to Faversham, and that only an empty
coffin was laid in the Trinity Chapel. That this point might be cleared
up, the tomb was opened in 1832 in the presence of the Dean, and there the
king was found in perfect preservation, and bearing a close resemblance to
the effigy on the monument--"the nose elevated, the beard thick and
matted, and of a deep russet colour, and the jaws perfect, with all the
teeth in them, except one foretooth."

In the wall of the north aisle, just opposite the king's tomb, is a small
chapel, built according to the directions contained in his will "that ther
be a chauntre perpetuall with twey prestis for to sing and prey for my
soul." The roof shows the first piece of fan-vaulting admitted into the
cathedral. On the eastern wall an account is scratched of the cost of a
reredos which once stood here, but has been entirely destroyed: it tells
us that the cost of "ye middil image was xix^s 11^d." This chapel was
doubtless used at one time as a storehouse of sacred relics. Two recesses
in the west wall have lately been chosen to receive certain archiepiscopal
vestments which were discovered in a tomb on the south side of Trinity
Chapel, which was long believed to be that of Archbishop Theobald.

To the east of Henry IV.'s monument is the tomb of Dean Wotton, adorned
with his kneeling figure. He was the first Dean of Canterbury after the
reorganization by Henry VIII. Opposite to him is an unsightly brick
erection which was once intended as a temporary covering for the remains
of Odo Coligny, Cardinal of Chatillon and brother of Admiral Coligny, who
was one of the victims of the massacre of St. Bartholomew. The Cardinal
fled from France in 1568, on account of his leanings towards the tenets of
the Huguenots, and was welcomed by Queen Elizabeth. It is believed that
he died from the effects of a poisoned apple given to him by a servant. It
seems curious that the French Huguenots who settled in Canterbury never
provided him with a more fitting monument.

Between this tomb and that of the Black Prince is the monument of
Archbishop Courtenay, who was primate from 1381 to 1396, and was
celebrated for his severity towards Wycliffe and his followers. He was
a large contributor to the fund for the re-building of the nave, which
perhaps accounts for the distinguished position of his tomb; the fact also
that he was executor to the Black Prince may be responsible for his being
buried at his feet. It is not, however, certain that his body actually
lies here, though the ledger book of the cathedral states that he was
buried within the walls of the church. It is known, however, that he died
at Maidstone, and that he ordered in his will that his remains should rest
there, and a slab in the pavement of All Saints', Maidstone, shows traces
of a brass representing the figure of an archbishop, whence it has been
concluded that Courtenay was in fact buried there, and that his monument
in Canterbury is only a cenotaph.

[Illustration: TRINITY CHAPEL, LOOKING INTO THE CORONA, "BECKET'S CROWN,"
WITH CHAIR OF ST. AUGUSTINE.]

#Becket's Crown.#--The circular apse at the extreme east end of the church
is known as Becket's Crown. The name has caused a good deal of discussion.
The theory once generally received was to the effect that the portion of
Becket's skull which was cut away by Richard le Breton was preserved here
as a relic of special sanctity. We know that the Black Prince bequeathed,
by his will, tapestry hangings for the High Altar and for three others,
viz., "l'autier la ou Mons'r Saint Thomas gist--l'autier la ou la teste
est--l'autier la ou la poynte de l'espie est." The first and last are
evidently the altars at the shrine and in the Chapel of the Martyrdom, and
it has been contended that the altar "where the head is" was the altar of
which traces may still be seen in the pavement of the corona, or Becket's
Crown. Against this notion we must place the authority of Erasmus, whose
words plainly show that the martyr's head was displayed in the crypt:
"_hinc digressi subimus cryptoporticum: illic primum exhibetur calvaria
martyris perforata_ (the martyr's pierced tonsure): _reliqua tecta sunt
argento, summa cranii pars nuda patet osculo_." While Willis considers
that the term corona was a common one for an apse at the end of a
church, citing "Ducange's Glossary," which defines "Corona Ecclesiæ" as
_Pars templi choro postica, quod ea pars fere desinat in circulum_; "at
all events," he concludes, "it was a general term and not peculiar to
Christ Church, Canterbury. The notion that this round chapel was called
Becket's Crown, because part of his skull was preserved here as a relic,
appears wholly untenable. There is at least no doubt that a relic of
some sort was preserved here, because we know from a record of the
offerings--Oblaciones S. Thomæ--during ten years in the first half of the
thirteenth century, that the richest gifts were made at the shrine and in
the corona. And we know that the spot was one of peculiar sanctity from
the fact that the shrines of St. Odo and St. Wilfrid were finally
transferred thither. _Corpus S. Odonis in feretro, ad coronam versus
austrum. Corpus S. Wilfridi in feretro ad coronam versus aquilonem._"

[Illustration: CHAIR OF ST. AUGUSTINE.]

On the north side of the corona is the tomb of Cardinal Pole, the last
Archbishop of Canterbury who acknowledged the supremacy of the Pope. He
held office from 1556 to 1558, and died the day after Queen Mary. Here
stands also the patriarchal chair, made out of three pieces of Purbeck
marble. It is called St. Augustine's chair, and is said to be the throne
on which the old kings of Kent were crowned; according to the tradition,
Ethelbert, on being converted, gave the chair to Augustine, from whom it
has descended to the Archbishops of Canterbury. It is needless to say
that this eminently attractive legend has been attacked and overthrown
by modern criticism. It is pointed out that the original archiepiscopal
throne was of one piece only, and that Purbeck marble did not come into
use until some time after Augustine's death. From its shape it is
conjectured that the chair dates from the end of the twelfth century or
the beginning of the thirteenth, and that it may have been constructed for
the ceremony of the translation of St. Thomas' relics. It is in this
chair, and not in the archiepiscopal throne in the choir, that the
archbishops are still enthroned. From the corona we have a view of the
full length of the cathedral, which measures 514 feet, and is one of the
longest of English cathedrals. Of the windows in Becket's Crown, the
centre one is ancient, while the rest are modern and afford a most
instructive contrast.

#St. Andrew's Tower, or Chapel.#--Leaving the Trinity Chapel, and
descending the steps, we find on our right the door of St. Andrew's Chapel
which is now used as a vestry. Formerly, it was the sacristy, a place from
which the pilgrims of humble rank were excluded, but where those of wealth
and high station were allowed to gaze at a great array of silken vestments
and golden candlesticks, and also the Martyr's pearwood pastoral staff with
its black horn crook, and his cloak and bloodstained kerchief. Here also
was a chest "cased with black leather, and opened with the utmost
reverence on bended knees, containing scraps and rags of linen with which
(the story must be told throughout) the saint wiped his forehead and blew
his nose" (Stanley). Erasmus describes this exhibition with a touch of
scorn. "_Fragmenta linteorum lacera plerumque macci vestigium servantia.
His, ut aiebant, vir pius extergebat sudorem e facie_," etc. The walls of
this chapel show many traces of fresco decoration: the pattern seems to
have consisted of a clustering vine tree spread over the roof. In the
north wall is a Norman chamber which originally served as the Treasury;
the door is still secured by three locks, the keys of which were held by
different officials. St. Andrew's Chapel is part of Ernulf's work, and the
peculiar ornamentation which marks his hand may be noticed over the arch
of the apse which terminates it.

#The North-East Transept.#--Passing along the choir aisle, we see the old
Bible desk, holding the Bible which was originally placed there, and was
restored to this position by the late Bishop Parry. Next we enter the
north-east transept, which in its architectural features is practically a
repetition of the south-east transept, with which we have already dealt.
The monument to Archbishop Tait, designed by Boehm, is well worthy of its
surroundings. Above it, in the north wall, about ten feet from the ground,
we may notice three slits in the wall. These are what are called
hagioscopes. On the other side of the wall was a recess connected with the
Prior's Chapel. Through these hagioscopes--or "holy spy-holes"--the prior
could see mass being celebrated at the high altar and at the altars below
in the transept, without entering the cathedral. These transeptal altars
are in the Chapels of St. Martin and St. Stephen which occupy two apses in
the eastern wall. St. Martin is represented in a medallion of ancient
glass preserved in the modern window, as dividing his coat with a beggar.
Scratched on the walls are the names "Lanfrancus" and "Ediva Regina;" the
bodies of Lanfranc and Queen Ediva were removed to this transept after the
fire. Lanfranc originally lay in the old Trinity Chapel, and when this
building was levelled to the ground, he was "carried to the vestiarium in
his leaden covering, and there deposited until the community should decide
what should be done with so great a Father." Apparently the heavy sheet of
lead was removed, for Gervase goes on to say that "Lanfranc having
remained untouched for sixty-nine years, his very bones were consumed with
rottenness, and nearly all reduced to powder. The length of time, the damp
vestments, the natural frigidity of lead, and above all the frailty of the
human structure, had conspired to produce this corruption. But the larger
bones, with the remaining dust, were collected in a leaden coffer, and
deposited at the altar of St. Martin." Queen Ediva, as we learn from the
same authority, "who before the fire reposed under a gilted _feretrum_ in
nearly the middle of the south cross, was now deposited at the altar of
St. Martin, under the _feretrum_ of Living," an archbishop who died in
1020. Ediva, the wife of Edward the Elder, and a generous benefactress
to the cathedral, died about 960.

From an early list of the subjects represented in the windows of the
cathedral, it appears that the north windows of the north-east transept
depicted the Parable of the Sower. The ancient glass, however, has been
displaced, and a good deal of it has been moved to the windows of the
north choir aisle, between the transept and the Chapel of the Martyrdom,
which are of great beauty, and should be examined carefully. In the
transept itself are windows in memory of Dean Stanley, Dr. Spry, and
Canon Cheshyre.

On the wall of the choir aisle, close to the transept, we can trace the
remains of a fresco representing the conversion of St. Hubert. Further on,
there hangs a picture, by Cross, which is intended to represent the murder
of Becket. As a work of art it is not without merit, but its details are
entirely inaccurate.

#The North-West Transept, or Chapel of the Martyrdom.#--The actual site
of the tragedy which rendered Becket and his cathedral famous throughout
Christendom was the North-West Transept, or as it was more commonly called
the Chapel of the Martyrdom. Hardly any portion, however, of this
structure as it stands actually witnessed the murder. In the time of
Becket the transept was of two storeys, divided by a vault, which was
upheld by a single pillar. The upper partition was dedicated to St.
Blaise, and the lower to St. Benedict. In the west wall, as now, was
a door which opened into the cloister.

[Illustration: THE MARTYRDOM, NORTH-WEST TRANSEPT.]

The story of Becket and his quarrel with Henry II. will be dealt with
in the next chapter. But before examining the spot on which he was
assassinated it is perhaps fitting to recall the events which immediately
preceded his death. Henry's wrathful exclamation, which stirred the four
knights to set out on their bloodthirsty mission, is well known. Whatever
we may think of the methods employed by these warriors--Fitzurse, de
Moreville, de Tracy, and le Bret were their names--we must at least
concede that they were gifted with undaunted courage. To slay an anointed
archbishop in his own cathedral was to do a deed from which the boldest
might well shrink, in the days when excommunication was held to be a
living reality, and the Church was believed to hold the power of eternal
blessing or damnation in her hand. These men--who were all closely
attached to the king's person, and were sometimes described as his
"cubicularii," or Grooms of the Bedchamber--arrived at the gate of the
archbishop's palace in the afternoon of Tuesday, December 29th, 1170. With
a curious want of directness they seem to have left their swords outside,
and entered, and had a stormy interview with Becket; enraged by his
unyielding firmness, they went back for their weapons, and in the
meantime the archbishop was hurried by the terrified monks through the
cloister and into the cathedral, where the vesper service was being held.
The knights quickly forced their way after him, and the monks locked and
barricaded the cloister door. But Becket, who bore himself heroically
through the whole scene, insisted that the door should be thrown open,
exclaiming that "the church must not be turned into a castle." Then all
the monks but three fled in terror. Those who stayed urged Becket to hide
himself in the crypt or in the Chapel of St. Blaise above. But he would
not hear of concealment, but preferred to make his way to the choir that
he might die at his post by the high altar. As he went up the steps
towards the choir the knights rushed into the transept, calling for "the
archbishop, the traitor to the king," and Becket turned and came down, and
confronted them by the pillar of the chapel. Clad in his white rochet,
with a cloak and hood over his shoulders, he faced his murderers, who were
now girt in mail from head to foot. They tried to seize him and drag him
out of the sacred precinct, but he put his back against the pillar and
hurled Tracy full-length on the pavement. Then commending his cause and
the cause of the Church "to God, to St. Denys, the martyr of France, to
St. Alfege, and to the saints of the Church," he fell under the blows of
the knights' swords. The last stroke was from the hand of le Bret, it
severed the crown of the archbishop's head, and the murderer's sword was
shivered into two pieces. Then the assassins left the church, ransacked
the palace, and plundered its treasures, and, lastly, rode off on horses
from the stables, in which Becket had to the last taken especial pride.

Such is the brief outline of the events of this remarkable tragedy, for
a fuller account of which we must refer our readers to the excellent
description in Stanley's "Memorials of Canterbury." As we have already
said, the present transept has been entirely rebuilt; although not damaged
by the fire, it was reconstructed by Prior Chillenden at the time when he
erected the present nave. It is even doubtful whether the present pavement
is the same as that which was trodden by Becket and his murderers. A small
square stone is still shown in the floor of the transept, as marking the
exact spot on which the archbishop fell; it is said to have been inserted
in place of the original piece which was taken out and sent to Rome, but
there is little or no authority for this statement. On the other hand, we
read that Benedict, when he became Abbot of Peterborough, in order to
supply his new cathedral with relics, in which it was sadly deficient,
came back to Canterbury and carried off the stones which had been
sprinkled with St. Thomas's blood, and made therewith two altars for
Peterborough.

In this transept an altar was erected, called the Altar of the Martyrdom,
or the Altar of the Sword's Point (_altare ad punctum ensis_), from the
fact that upon it was laid the broken fragment of le Bret's sword, which
had been left on the pavement. Also, a portion of the martyr's brains were
kept under a piece of rock crystal, and a special official, called the
Custos Martyrii, was appointed to guard these relics.

The chief window in this chapel was presented by Edward IV.; in it we can
still see the figures of himself and his queen and his two daughters, and
the two young princes who were murdered in the Tower. It originally
contained representations of "seven glorious appearances" of the Virgin,
and Becket himself in the centre, but all this portion was destroyed by
Blue Dick, the Puritan zealot. The west window was the gift of the Rev.
Robert Moore, sometime Canon of Canterbury; it is an elaborate piece of
work depicting Becket's martyrdom and scenes in his life.

Here also we see the very beautiful and interesting monument to Archbishop
Peckham (1279-1292), the oldest Canterbury monument which survives in its
entirety; even it has been encroached upon by the commonplace erection
adjoining it, which commemorates Warham who was archbishop from 1503 to
1532, and was the friend of Erasmus.

#The Dean's Chapel.#--Eastward of the north-west transept is the chapel
which was formerly known as the Lady Chapel, but has latterly been named
the Dean's Chapel from the number of deans whose monuments have been
placed here. It stands on the site of the Chapel of St. Benedict, and was
built by Prior Goldstone, who dedicated it to the Blessed Virgin in 1460.
The usual place for the Lady Chapel in cathedrals is, of course, at the
extreme east end; but at Canterbury the situation was occupied by the
shrine of St. Thomas. The principal altar to the Virgin in our cathedral
was that in the crypt, in the "Chapel of Our Lady Undercroft." The
vault of the Dean's Chapel is noticeable. It is a fan vault, of the style
developed to so great perfection in the Tudor period, as shown in Henry
VII.'s Chapel at Westminster, and in the roof of the staircase leading to
the dining-hall of Christ Church, Oxford. The architecture of this chapel
is Perpendicular in style, and its delicate decoration should be carefully
noticed; the screen which separates it from the Martyrdom Transept is also
worthy of close attention. The monuments here are interesting rather than
beautiful. Dean Fotherby is commemorated by a hideous erection bristling
with skulls. Dean Boys is represented as he died, sitting among his books
in his library; it is curious that the books are all apparently turned
with the backs of the covers towards the wall, and the edges of the leaves
outwards. Here also is the monument of Dean Turner, the faithful follower
of Charles I.

[Illustration: PART OF SOUTH-WESTERN TRANSEPT.]

#The South-West Transept.#--Crossing the cathedral through the passage
under the choir steps, we find ourselves in the south-west transept,
which, together with the nave and the north-west transept, was rebuilt
by Prior Chillenden. In the pavement we see memorial stones to canons
and other departed worthies. Among them is the tombstone of Meric Casaubon,
Archbishop Laud's prebendary, and son of Isaac Casaubon, the famous
scholar.

#St. Michael's, or the Warrior's Chapel.#--Eastward of the south-west
transept is a small chapel, generally known as that of St. Michael. In
position and size it closely corresponds with the Dean's Chapel on the
north side of the church. In general style there is also some resemblance,
but the vaulting of the roof is quite different; it is described by
Professor Willis as "as a complex lierne vault of an unusual pattern, but
resembling that of the north transept of Gloucester Cathedral, which dates
from 1367 to 1372." The exact date and the name of the builder of this
chapel are alike uncertain, but it probably replaced the old Chapel of St.
Michael at some time towards the end of the fourteenth century, and Willis
comes to the conclusion that it is most probable that its erection may be
ascribed to Prior Chillenden, and that "it formed part of the general
scheme for the transformation of the western part of the church."

A curious effect is presented by the tomb of Stephen Langton, who was
archbishop from 1207 to 1228, and is famous as having compelled King John
to sign the Great Charter, and also as having divided the Bible into
chapters. His tomb, shaped like a stone coffin, is half in the chapel and
half under the eastern wall, and Professor Willis considers that it was
originally outside the wall, in the churchyard; "and thus the new wall,
when the chapel was rebuilt and enlarged in the fourteenth century, was
made to stride over the coffin by means of an arch." The reverence in
which Langton's memory was held is attested by the fact that his remains
must have lain under the altar of the chapel, a most unusual position
except in the case of celebrated saints. In the middle of the chapel is a
very beautiful and interesting monument erected by Margaret Holland, who
died in 1437, to the memory of her two husbands and herself. The monument
is of alabaster and marble, and represents the lady reposing with her
first spouse, John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, and son of John of Gaunt,
on her left, and Thomas, Duke of Clarence, her second husband, on her
right. The latter was the second son of Henry IV., and, so, nephew of John
of Somerset the first husband; he was killed at the battle of Baugé in
1421. Leland thinks that this chapel was built expressly for the reception
of this tomb: "This chapel be likelihood was made new for the Honor of
Erle John of Somerset," but it is probably of rather earlier date than
would be allowed by this theory. The figures of Margaret and her two lords
are very fine and are interesting examples of fifteenth century costume.
As such they may be contrasted with the effigy of Lady Thornhurst, who
exhibits all the beauty of an Elizabethan ruff. Sir Thomas Thornhurst,
whose monument is hard by, was killed in the ill-fated expedition to the
Isle of Rhé. In the corner of the chapel is the bust of Sir George Rooke,
Vice-Admiral, who led the assault on Gibraltar by which it was first
captured. And the title of "Warrior's" Chapel is further justified by the
presence here of tattered standards, memorials of dead comrades, left by
the famous Kentish regiment, "the Buffs."

[Illustration: THE CRYPT.]

#The Main Crypt.#--Returning through the passage under the steps that lead
up to the choir, we turn to the right into the crypt which originally
supported Conrad's "glorious choir." On the wall as we enter we may notice
some diaper-work ornamentation, interesting from the fact that a similar
decoration may be traced on the wall of the chapter house at Rochester
for Ernulf who built the westward crypt, was afterwards made Bishop of
Rochester. Willis tells us that there are five crypts in England under the
eastern parts of cathedrals, namely, at Canterbury, Winchester,
Gloucester, Rochester, and Worcester, and that they were all founded
before 1085. "After this they were discontinued except as a continuation
of former ones, as in Canterbury and Rochester." This crypt of Ernulf's
replaced the earlier one set up by Lanfranc; Willis thinks it not
impossible that the whole of the pier-shafts may have been taken from the
earlier crypt. "The capitals of the columns are either plain blocks or
sculptured with Norman enrichments. Some of them, however, are in an
unfinished state." He describes minutely one of the capitals on the
south-west side. "Of the four sides of the block two are quite plain. One
has the ornament roughed out, or "bosted" as the workmen call it, that is,
the pattern has been traced upon the block, and the spaces between the
figures roughly sunk down with square edges preparatory to the completion.
On the fourth side, the pattern is quite finished. This proves that the
carving was executed after the stones were set in their places, and
probably the whole of these capitals would eventually have been so
ornamented had not the fire and its results brought in a new school
of carving in the rich foliated capitals, which caused this merely
superficial method of decoration to be neglected and abandoned. In the
same way some of the shafts are roughly fluted in various fashions. The
plain ones would probably have all gradually had the same ornament given
to them, had not the same reasons interfered." The crypt then stands as
it was left by Ernulf except that some of the piers were afterwards
strengthened and one new pillar was inserted in the aisle by William of
Sens, in order to fit in with the new arrangement of the pillars in the
choir which he was then rebuilding. It is therefore, of course, the oldest
part of the church, and remains a most beautiful and interesting relic of
Norman work in spite of the hot water pipe apparatus which now disfigures
it, and its general air of unkempt untidiness. There are signs, however,
that in this respect there is likely to be some improvement. The floor is
being lowered to its original level by the removal of about a foot of
accumulated dirt which had been heaping itself up for the last eight
hundred years and had at last entirely smothered the bases of the columns,
and it is even whispered that the part now cut off and used as the French
church, may be opened out and restored to its original position as part of
the main crypt.

According to Gervase, the whole of the crypt was dedicated to the Virgin
Mary. Here stood the Chapel of Our Lady Undercroft, surrounded by
Perpendicular stone-work screens, from which the altar-screen in the choir
above was imitated. The shrine of the Virgin was exceedingly rich and was
only shown to privileged worshippers: traces of decoration may still be
seen in the vault above. It was at the back of this shrine that Becket
was laid between the time of his murder and his translation to the
resting-place in the Trinity Chapel.

In the main crypt we may notice the monument of Isabel, Countess of Athol,
who died in 1292; she was heiress of Chilham Castle, near Canterbury, and
grand-daughter of King John. She was twice married, her second husband
being Alexander, brother of John Baliol, King of Scotland. The monument
of Lady Mohun of Dunster is in the south screen of the Chapel of Our Lady.
She was ancestress of the present Earl of Derby, and founded a perpetual
chantry. Lastly, here is the tomb of Cardinal Archbishop Morton, the
friend of Sir Thomas More, and the faithful servant of the House of
Lancaster; it was he who brought about the union of the Red and White
Roses by arranging the marriage of Henry of Richmond with Elizabeth of
York. As Henry VII.'s Chancellor he made great exactions under the
euphonious title of "Benevolences," and propounded the famous dilemma
known as "Morton's Fork," by which he argued that those who lived lavishly
must obviously have something to spare for the king's service, while those
who fared soberly must be grown rich on their savings, and so were equally
fair game to the royal plunderer. He lies in the south-west corner of the
crypt, and his monument, which has suffered considerably at the hands of
the Puritans, bears the Tudor portcullis and the archbishop's rebus, a
hawk or _mort_ standing on a tun.

[Illustration: ST. GABRIEL'S CHAPEL.]

In the south-east corner, under Anselm's Tower, is a chapel generally
known as that of St. John, sometimes as that of St. Gabriel. It has been
divided into two compartments by a wall. There are some very interesting
paintings[2] on the roof, representing Our Lord in the centre of the
angelic host, the Adoration of the Magi, and a figure of St. John; this
work is believed to be of the thirteenth century. The central pillar of
this chapel, with the curved fluting in the column and the quaintly
grotesque devices of the figures carved on the capital, is well worthy of
close examination. The grate that we see here was erected by the French
Protestants, large numbers of whom fled to England during the persecution
which was instituted against their sect in 1561. They were welcomed by
Queen Elizabeth, and allowed to settle in Canterbury, where the cathedral
crypt was made over to them to use as a weaving factory. It is possible
that the ridges in the floor of St. John's Chapel are marks left by their
looms, but more evident trace of their occupation is afforded by the
inscriptions in French painted on the pillars and arches of the main
crypt, and again by the custom which still survives of holding a French
service in the south aisle of the crypt; this part has been walled off
especially as a place of worship for the descendants of the French exiles,
and here service is still held in the French tongue. Alterations have been
lately made by which the French service is held in the Black Prince's
Chantry, and the part of the crypt formerly walled off has been merged
with the rest of the crypt, which is thus completely thrown open. Access
to the French church is now obtained from the crypt, and not from outside.
This chantry was founded by the Black Prince in 1363 to commemorate his
marriage with his cousin Joan, the "Fair Maid of Kent." Here, according to
the prince's ordinance, two priests were to pray for his soul, in his
lifetime and after; the situation of the two altars, at which the priests
prayed, can still be traced. On the vaulting we see the arms of the
prince, and of his father, and what seems to be the face of his wife. In
return for the permission to institute this chantry, the prince left to
the monastery of Canterbury an estate which still belongs to the Chapter,
the manor of Fawkes' Hall. This was a piece of land in South Lambeth,
which had been granted by King John to a baron called Fawkes. His name
still survives in the word "Vauxhall."

  [2] The above paintings are illustrated in Dart's "History of
  Canterbury,"   1726, and in "Archæologia Cantiana," vol. xviii.

[Illustration: IN THE MAIN CRYPT, WITH TOMB OF CARDINAL MORTON
(see p. 99).]

#The Eastern Crypt.#--The eastern portion of the crypt, under the Trinity
Chapel and the corona, is a good deal more lofty than Ernulf's building.
We noticed the ascent from the choir and presbytery to the Trinity Chapel,
and it is, of course, this greater elevation of the cathedral floor at the
east end which accounts for the greater height of the eastern crypt. The
effect, both above and below, is exceedingly happy. The most striking
thing about the interior of the cathedral is the manner in which it
rises--"church piled upon church"--from the nave to the corona, and this
characteristic enabled William the Englishman to build a crypt below which
has none of the cramped squatness which generally mars the effect of such
buildings. "The lofty crypt below," says Willis, "may be considered the
unfettered composition of the English architect. Its style and its details
are wholly different from those of William of Sens. The work, from its
position and office, is of a massive and bold character, but its unusual
loftiness prevents it from assuming the nature of a crypt.... There is one
detail of this crypt which differs especially from the work above. The
abacus of each of the piers, as well as that of each central shaft, is
round; but in the whole of the choir the abacuses are either square, or
square with the corners cut off."

It was in the smaller eastern crypt, which formerly occupied the site of
William's building which we are now examining, that Becket was hastily
buried after his assassination, when his murderers were still threatening
to come and drag his body out, "hang it on a gibbet, tear it with horses,
cut it into pieces, or throw it in some pond to be devoured by swine or
birds of prey." And from that time until the translation of the relics in
1220, this was the most sacred spot in the cathedral, and it was known,
down to Reformation times, as "Becket's tomb." Hither came the earliest
pilgrims in the first rush of enthusiasm for the newly-canonized martyr.
And here Henry II. performed that penance, which is one of the most
striking examples of the Church's power presented by history. We are told
that he placed his head and shoulder in the tomb, and there received five
strokes from each bishop and abbot who was present, and three from each of
the eighty monks. After this castigation he spent the night in the crypt,
fasting and barefooted. His penitence and piety were rewarded by the
victory gained at Richmond, on that very day, by his forces over William
the Lion of Scotland, who was taken prisoner, and afterwards, recognizing
the power of the saint, founded the abbey of Aberbrothwick to Saint Thomas
of Canterbury.



CHAPTER IV.

THE HISTORY OF THE SEE.


The history of the See of Canterbury may be said to have begun with the
coming of Augustine, for there can be no doubt that it is owing to its
being the settling-place of the first messengers of the gospel in Saxon
England that Canterbury has been the metropolis of the English Church.
Pope Gregory, with his usual thoroughness, sent to Augustine, soon after
his arrival here, an elaborate scheme for the division of our island
into sees, which were to be gradually developed as Christianity spread.
According to his arrangement, there were to be two archbishops, one at
London and one at York. But we cannot regret that this scheme was not
carried out, as an archiepiscopal see is much more picturesquely framed by
the hills which encircle Canterbury than it could have been by the dingy
vastness of the political and social capital.

#Augustine# reached England in 597, and found that his path had been made
easy by the fact that Bertha, wife of Ethelbert, King of Kent, was a
Christian. He soon effected the conversion of the king himself, and his
labours were so rapidly successful that at Christmas, 597, no less than
ten thousand Saxons were baptized at the mouth of the Medway. The
archiepiscopal pall, and a papal Bull, creating Augustine first English
archbishop, were duly sent from Rome, and the royal palace in Canterbury,
with an old church--Roman or British--close by, were handed over to him by
Ethelbert. The first archbishop died in 605, and was buried, according to
the old Roman custom, by the side of the high road which had brought him
to Canterbury. A few years later, however, his remains were transferred to
the Abbey of SS. Peter and Paul, which had then just been completed.

Augustine was succeeded by one of the monks who had originally come with
him from Rome. The new archbishop's name was #Lawrence#; he had been
already consecrated by Augustine in his lifetime. This unusual measure was
thought to be necessary, as the Church had hardly yet established itself in
a strong position. Indeed, so weak was its hold over its rapidly acquired
converts, that when Ethelbert's son, who succeeded his father in 616,
backslid into the path of heathendom, the great majority of the people
followed the royal example, and Lawrence, together with the Bishops of
London and Rochester, prepared to leave England altogether, as a country
hopelessly abandoned to paganism. However, the archbishop determined to
make one more attempt to maintain his position, and succeeded in
terrifying the king, by a pretended miracle, into becoming a Christian. He
then recalled the two bishops who had already crossed to France, and on
his death, in 619, was succeeded by the Bishop of London, #Mellitus#.
Mellitus only held the Primacy till 624, when his place was filled by
#Justin#, who also had a brief archiepiscopal life, being succeeded in 627
by #Honorius#. This archbishop held the see for twenty-six years, till 653,
and it was not until 655 that his successor was appointed.

So far the archbishops had all been foreigners who had come over either
with Augustine or with the second company of missionaries who were
despatched by Gregory soon after Ethelbert's conversion. In 655, however,
a native Englishman, named Frithona, was consecrated by the Saxon Bishop
of Rochester, and adopted the name of #Deus Dedit#. He ruled at Canterbury
till 664, and after his death the see remained vacant for four years,
probably owing to the plague which was then wasting all Europe, and caused
the death of Wighard, a Saxon, who had started for Rome to receive his
consecration there. But in 668, #Theodore#, a native of Tarsus in Cecilia,
was appointed, and was welcomed by the members of the torn and divided
English Church. He devoted all his energy to centralizing and
consolidating the power of the archbishop, which had been hitherto largely
nominal. He journeyed all over England, correcting the prevalent laxity of
discipline and establishing the control of the metropolitan authority. He
went so far as to interfere with the Archbishopric of York, and with the
help of the king attempted to divide it into three sees. He was,
moreover, an enthusiastic scholar, and first diffused the study of Greek
in England. He had brought a copy of Homer with him, and is said to have
established a school of Greek in Canterbury. He died in 690, and after his
death there was no archbishop for three years. In 693, one #Brethwald#, an
English monk, some time Abbot of Reculver, was appointed to the see. The
Saxon Church shows that it had benefited by Theodore's rigorous
discipline, in that it was henceforth able to supply its own archbishops;
it had now securely established itself all over the country, and the last
home of paganism, which, curiously enough, held its own longest in Sussex,
had been finally converted in Theodore's time. Brethwald ruled till 731,
and was followed by #Tatwin# (731-734) and #Nothelm# (734-740). In 740
#Cuthbert# became archbishop. He seems to have been an interesting
personage with a good deal of zeal for reform; he is recorded to have
assembled a synod at Cliff to discuss measures for the improvement of the
lives and behaviour both of clergy and laity. Probably at his instigation
the synod ordained that the Lord's Prayer and the Creed should be taught in
the vulgar tongue; he was the first archbishop buried in the cathedral. He
was succeeded by #Bregwin#, who held the see from 759 to 765. He was an
exception among the series of English primates, being of German origin.
During the rule of the next archbishop, #Jaenbert#, an attempt was made
to transfer the primacy from Canterbury. Offa, the King of Mercia, had
established himself in a position of commanding power, and wishing that
the seat of the chief ecclesiastical authority should be within his own
dominion, obtained a Bull from Pope Adrian I. by which an Archbishop of
Lichfield was created, with a larger see than that of Canterbury. Jaenbert
seems to have acquiesced, though doubtless most unwillingly, in this
arrangement, but in spite of the central situation of Lichfield, the
traditional claims of Canterbury were too strong, and Adulf was the first
and last Archbishop of Lichfield. #Athelard#, who succeeded Jaenbert in
790, had the primacy restored to him. The Northmen began their raids on the
English coasts at this time, and their ravages probably continued through
the days of his successors, #Wulfred#, #Feologild#, #Ceolnoth#, and
#Ethelred# (805-889).

In 889 the learned #Plegmund#, formerly tutor of Alfred, was by his quondam
pupil's influence made Archbishop of Canterbury. It was during his time
that the sees of Wells for Somerset and Crediton for Devonshire were
established.

#Athelm# (914-923).

#Wulfhelm# (923-942).

#Odo# (942-959), called "the severe," was born a pagan Dane of East
Anglia, but having been received into a noble Saxon family, was duly
baptized into the faith. He was appointed to the Wiltshire bishopric by
Athelstane, and combined in his person the characters of the warlike Dane
and the Christian churchman. Like his successor Dunstan, Odo made his
chief objects in life the maintenance of the Church's supremacy and the
reformation of the married clergy. He bore his archbishopric with much
pomp and dignity through the reigns of Edmund, Edred, and Edwy. He was
responsible for Dunstan's conduct on the occasion of King Edwy's
coronation, though it is not known how far he sanctioned the cruelties
subsequently practised on Elgiva. Odo reconstructed and enlarged the
cathedral.

His immediate successor was #Elsi#, Bishop of Winchester, but this
archbishop died while on his way to Rome to receive his pall from the
Pope.

#Dunstan# (960-988), the next archbishop, continued Odo's crusade against
the married clergy, which he conducted relentlessly. In many cases the
secular clergy were turned out of their livings to make room for members
of the regular monkish orders. Even with these harsh measures and the
employment of miracles the archbishop does not seem to have succeeded in
enforcing celibacy among the clergy. Dunstan was born in Somersetshire of
noble parents, and educated at the Abbey of Glastonbury. He became abbot
of that place, and Bishop of Worcester and London. At the coronation of
Edwy he intruded himself into the king's presence, and was afterwards
obliged to retire to Ghent. He held the See of Canterbury for twenty-seven
years, and on his death was buried in the cathedral, where countless
miracles are said to have been worked at his tomb.

#Ethelgar# (988-989).

#Siricius# (990-994).

#Ælfric# (995-1005).

#Alphege# (1005-1012), Prior of Glastonbury, migrated thence to Bath, where
he founded the great abbey, afterwards united to the See of Wells. After
holding the See of Winchester for twenty-two years, he was translated to
Canterbury. When in 1011 Canterbury was sacked by the Danes, he was
carried off a prisoner, and on his refusal to ransom himself, was
barbarously murdered by his captors. His body was ransomed by the people
of London and buried at St. Paul's Cathedral, whence it was removed to
Canterbury by Canute. Subsequently, in the time of Lanfranc, he was
canonized.

#Living# (1013-1020) also suffered much from the Danes, who from this time
continued their incursions until the reign of Canute.

#Egelnoth# (1020-1038) is described as the first dean of the Canterbury
canons who seem to have acquired an ascendancy over the monks ever since
the massacre of the latter by the Danes in 1011. He restored the cathedral
after the damages inflicted by the invaders.

#Eadsi# (1038-1050).

#Robert of Jumièges# (1051-1052) was one of the many Normans who were
brought over into England by King Edward the Confessor; he took an active
part in the king's quarrel with the great Earl Godwin, and in the reaction
which followed against the Normans retired to Jumièges, where he remained
till his death.

#Stigand# (1052-1070), Bishop of Winchester, held this see conjointly with
that of Canterbury. He was remarkable for his avarice. His espousal of the
cause of Edgar the Atheling led the Conqueror to regard him with
suspicion. William took the archbishop with him when he returned into
Normandy, and eventually dispossessed him, along with some other bishops
and abbots, at a synod held at Winchester in the year 1070. Stigand was
imprisoned at Winchester, where he eventually died, resisting to the last
the attempts made by the king to elicit information as to the whereabouts
of the vast treasures which he had accumulated and hidden.

#Lanfranc# (1070-1089) was the first Norman Archbishop of Canterbury. He
was born at Pavia, and educated at the monastery of Bec, in Normandy, then
the most remarkable seat of learning existing in Europe. His conspicuous
abilities raised him to the position of prior of the monastery. He was
subsequently abbot of the new monastery which William of Normandy founded
at Caen, and on the deposition of Stigand was called over by that king to
complete the subjection and reform of the Anglo-Saxon Church, which task
he undertook with much zeal and not a little high-handed procedure. He
assisted the king in the removal of the Saxon bishops and the substitution
of Normans in their places, as also in the reformation of the great
English monasteries which appear to have fallen into considerable
disorder. Lanfranc's character was remarkable for its firmness, and
brought him into frequent collision with the imperious temper of his
royal master. On one occasion Lanfranc insisted on the restoration of
twenty-five manors which belonged to the archiepiscopal see, and which
had been appropriated by Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, William's half-brother.
William, however, continued to honour his able servant, and during the
king's absence in Normandy, Lanfranc held the office of chief justiciary
and vice-regent within the realm, and maintained his independent attitude
against all the world, refusing to go to Rome at the summons of the pope.
Lanfranc crowned William II., and as long as he lived did much to moderate
that monarch's rapacious attacks on the wealth of the Church. He rebuilt
the cathedral which had fallen into ruin, and founded the great monastery
of Christ Church. He was the author of a celebrated treatise in refutation
of the doctrine of Berengarius of Tours, on the subject of the Real
Presence, and was present at the council held in Rome by Leo IX., in which
Berengarius was condemned. He lies buried in the nave of his cathedral,
but the exact spot is not known.

#Anselm# (1093-1109) was born at Aosta, and studied under Lanfranc at Bec,
when he succeeded him as Prior of the Convent, and subsequently became
abbot. He visited England on the invitation of Hugh the Fat, Earl of
Chester, and while there was called in by the king and made Archbishop of
Canterbury. Rufus had kept the see vacant, and appropriated the revenues
of this and many other Church properties, and was only induced by the fear
of impending death to appoint Anselm to the see. Anselm was with
difficulty persuaded to accept the post, but from that hour posed as the
firm champion of the rights of the Church, and the opponent and denouncer
of the king's exactions and the general immorality of the times. He
refused to receive his pall at the hands of the king, but eventually
agreed to take it himself from the high altar of the cathedral at
Canterbury. Though deserted by his bishops he held his own against the
king until an accusation of failing in his duty to supply troops for the
king's Welsh expedition drove him into exile and he made his way to Rome,
when his learning created much sensation and was enlisted against the
errors of the Greek Church on the subject of the procession of the Holy
Ghost. On his accession to the throne, Henry I., as part of his reversal
of his brother's ecclesiastical policy recalled Anselm from banishment and
filled up the vacant see. But Anselm remained firm on the subject of the
rights of the church in the matter of the investiture of the clergy, and
refused to consecrate the bishops who had received their investiture from
the king, or to do homage or swear fealty to Henry. The king, on his side,
was determined to uphold the rights of the crown and the matter was
referred to the pope. Anselm had to visit Rome in person, and meeting with
but lukewarm support from the pope agreed at last to a compromise, at Bec,
in 1106, by which the king surrendered the symbols of the ring and
crozier, while retaining his right to the oaths of fealty and homage.
Anselm returned to England and spent the last two years of his life in
comparative repose: he died at Canterbury, and was buried near Lanfranc,
but his remains were afterwards removed to the tower that bears his name.
After his death the see was again vacant for five years, and was managed
by Ralf, Bishop of Rochester, who was however made archbishop later; he
was a disciple of Lanfranc, but as an archbishop was unimportant.

#William de Corbeuil# (1123-1136) was the first archbishop who received the
title of Papal Legate. He crowned King Stephen after solemnly swearing to
support the cause of Matilda, and is said to have died of remorse for his
conduct in the matter. He completed the restoration of the cathedral and
dedicated it with much pomp and display.

#Theobald# (1139-1161), the next archbishop, had been Abbot of Bec, and was
a Benedictine. His importance as archbishop was much overshadowed by Henry
of Blois, Bishop of Winchester, and brother of King Stephen. The pope
granted him the title of "Legatus natus," which was retained by his
successors until the Reformation. The life of this prelate was one of
varying fortunes, and he was twice in exile. He eventually, along with
Henry of Blois, took an important part in the final compromise which was
effected between the factions of Stephen and Matilda. On his death the
see remained vacant for more than a year.

#Thomas Becket# (1162-1170) was the son of a London merchant, and was
educated among the Augustinian canons of Merton, in Surrey. He came
under the patronage of Archbishop Theobald whom he accompanied when the
latter visited Rome. While still only a deacon Becket received many
ecclesiastical benefices, including the Archdeaconry of Canterbury. About
1155 he was appointed Chancellor, through the influence of Theobald, and
thenceforward, until he became archbishop enjoyed the most intimate
friendship and confidence of King Henry II. His magnificence and authority
during this period of his career exceeded that of the most powerful
nobles, and created much sensation in France whither he was dispatched to
demand the hand of the Princess Margaret for the king's infant son. When
offered the Archbishopric of Canterbury he is said to have warned the king
that his acceptance of the office would entail his devotion to God and his
order in preference to the interests of the king. He was however persuaded
to accept the primacy, and after being duly ordained priest was
consecrated archbishop by Henry of Blois, the Bishop of Winchester.

From this moment onwards the entire character and attitude of Becket was
changed. He gave up his old pomp and magnificence and devoted himself to
monastic severity and works of charity: he furthermore insisted on
resigning his temporal offices, including that of chancellor, and engaged
on his lifelong struggle with the king on the subject of the privileges of
the clergy.

Since the separation of the bishops from the secular courts by the
Conqueror, a gross system of abuse had arisen under which all persons who
could read and write could claim exemption from the jurisdiction of the
ordinary secular courts, and insist on being tried only before their own
ecclesiastical tribunal. The spiritual courts could inflict no corporal
punishment, and the result was that many guilty persons escaped punishment
at their hands, and the benefit of clergy came to mean a practical licence
to commit crimes. This was naturally in radical opposition to the judicial
policy of Henry II., and matters were brought to a climax by the
scandalous case of Philip Brois, a murderer, whom Becket rescued from the
king's justice and condemned to a totally inadequate sentence. The king
determined to clear the question of all doubt, and to this end drew up
the famous constitutions of Clarendon in which the clergy was subjected
equally with the laity to the common laws of the land. The archbishop took
the oath, but refused to sign the constitution, as he insisted on the
immunity of the clergy from all secular jurisdiction. On retiring from the
council he sought and obtained absolution from his oath at the hands of
the pope--Alexander III.--who, insecure in his own position, and unable
to dispense with the friendship of the King of England, maintained a
vacillating attitude in the quarrel between Becket and Henry. The king
now began a systematic persecution of the archbishop. He was pressed with
various charges, and finally was ordered to account for the moneys which
he had received from the vacant See of Canterbury and other ecclesiastical
properties in his capacity as Chancellor. There seems small reason to
doubt that the charge was an unjust one, and was merely employed by the
king as an instrument of offence against his political adversary. The
archbishop came before the council in all the pomp and panoply of his
office, and bearing his own cross, as he had been deserted by most of his
bishops. After an exciting scene he escaped before any definite judgment
was pronounced, and took refuge in France, where he was hospitably and
honourably received by King Louis VII. Here he continued his struggle
with the King of England. Henry seized upon the revenues of the See of
Canterbury, and banished all Becket's kinsmen, dependants, and friends.
Becket replied by solemnly denouncing the constitution of Clarendon, and
excommunicating all who should enforce them. After further contentions
and fruitless negotiations Henry issued a proclamation withdrawing his
subjects' obedience to the archbishop, enforced by an oath from all
freemen. This oath many of the bishops refused to take. The pope, under
temporary pressure from Becket's enemies, authorized the Archbishop of
York to crown the young prince Henry: and the supremacy of the See of
Canterbury over all England, being thus called in question, became
thenceforward one of the principal subjects of dispute between Becket and
the king. The action of the king was unpopular, and Henry, seeing that he
had gone too far, consented to enter on some sort of reconciliation with
Becket, who ventured to return to England. In spite of the manifest
danger in which he found himself, Becket, on his return to England,
continued his high-handed policy, excommunicating the Archbishop of York
and others of his enemies. On hearing of this conduct Henry's fury got the
better of him, and his famous exclamation led to the departure of the four
knights to Canterbury. They demanded the immediate removal of the
excommunication. Becket was hurried into the cathedral by the monks and
murdered at the altar.

On his death he was immediately canonized, and many miracles occurred at
his tomb. Henry himself was ordered to do penance for his death. The fame
of his shrine brought countless pilgrims to Canterbury, which was thus for
the first time raised to a position of importance throughout the whole of
Europe.

#Richard# (1174-1184), Prior of Dover, was the next archbishop: he had been
present at Becket's murder and helped to convey his body to the crypt. He
was somewhat indifferent to spiritual matters, and was chiefly occupied in
supporting the supremacy of the See of Canterbury over that of York, a
question which led to at least one scene of unseemly disturbance in which
the Archbishop of York nearly lost his life. One result of the quarrel was
the conferring of the title of "Primate of England," and "Primate of all
England," on the Archbishops of York and Canterbury respectively, by the
pope.

#Baldwin# (1185-1190) was the first monk of the Cistercian order who held
the See of Canterbury. He came into collision with the Benedictine monks
with whom the election to the primacy had always rested, and whom he
attempted in vain to deprive of that privilege in favour of a body of
canons at Lambeth, which he purchased for the see. He accompanied Richard
Coeur de Lion to the Holy Land, and died in camp before Acre.

#Reginald Fitz Jocelyn#, Bishop of Bath and Wells, was next elected, but
died before receiving the pall.

#Hubert Walter# (1193-1205) was born at West Derham, in Norfolk, and
educated by Ranulph de Glanville: he was made Bishop of Salisbury, and
accompanied Richard I. to the Holy Land. When archbishop he held the
office of Justiciary, but was removed from the latter by a Papal Bull
since it compelled him to judge "causes of blood." He became chancellor,
and conducted the duties of his high offices in an admirable manner. The
laws enacted under Richard I. are said to have been drawn up by him, and
he completed the house of regular canons at Lambeth. He was buried in his
own cathedral where his effigy still remains.

After some disputes on the subject of election, the Pope, Innocent III.,
was appealed to and decided in favour of

#Stephen Langton# (1207-1228) who was an Englishman of spotless character
and profound theological learning: he was consecrated at Peterborough by
Innocent III. The "fury of King John knew no bounds," he drove the monks
of Canterbury to Flanders, and refused to allow Langton to set foot in
England. The result of this conduct was the publication of the celebrated
Interdict, followed soon after by the personal excommunication of the king
and the absolution of his subjects from their oath of allegiance by the
pope. Philip of France was ordered to depose the English king, whose crown
was declared forfeited. Hard pressed by his enemies, and having alienated
his people from his cause, King John was driven to humiliating submission:
he promised to receive Langton and to restore the Church property, and
finally, formally resigned his crown into the hands of Pandulph, the Papal
Legate. Archbishop Langton was received with honour, and King John threw
himself at his feet and reconciled himself with the Church. He also
ordered a great council to meet at St. Alban's to settle finally the
restitution of the church property. Here, however, he was met by an open
declaration of the complaints of all classes. Langton, though elevated to
the primacy, entirely through the influence of the pope, proved himself a
staunch Englishman, and posed as the champion of national liberty against
the claims of both pope and king. It was he who produced to the
malcontents the Coronation Charter of Henry I., which the barons accepted
as a declaration of the views and demands of their party. He was at the
head of the barons in their struggle with the king, and his name appears
as that of the first witness to the famous Magna Charta. John at once
applied to the pope, and obtained from him the abrogation of the charter
and a papal order to Langton to excommunicate the king's enemies. This he
refused to do. John overran the country with foreign mercenaries, and his
cruelties eventually resulted in the barons summoning Louis of France to
their assistance. Langton was summoned to Rome to attend the Lateran
Council, and was detained there until the deaths of Innocent III. and King
John, after which he was permitted to return to his see and passed the
remainder of his life in comparative tranquillity, siding strongly with
the national party under Hubert de Burgh. He presided at the translation
of Becket's remains from the crypt to Trinity Chapel; he rebuilt much of
the archiepiscopal palace at Canterbury and he lies buried in his own
cathedral. He was the first who divided the Bible into chapters.

#Richard de Wethershed# (1229-1231), Chancellor of Lincoln, was next
appointed, but died on his way back from Italy. After three more elections
by the monks which were all set aside by the pope, Honorius III., the
monks consented to accept

#Edmund Rich# (1234-1240), treasurer of Salisbury: he was the son of a
merchant of Abingdon, and was educated at Oxford University. He had a
great reputation for learning and piety. He came into disfavour with the
king by his opposition to the marriage of his sister Eleanor to Simon de
Montfort. His sympathies were all on the side of the national party: he
procured the downfall of Des Roches and maintained the struggle against
the foreign favourites and papal exactions for which the reign of Henry
III. is notorious. At length he retired to the Cistercian Abbey at
Pontigny, which had formerly sheltered Becket and Langton, in despair at
the condition of England and of her Church. It was during his time that
the great movements of the Dominican and Franciscan friars reached England
and though the archbishop never actually joined their ranks, he was
doubtless much influenced by their teaching and example, and was himself
an itinerant preacher after leaving Oxford. He was canonized six years
after his death. He was succeeded by

#Boniface of Savoy# (1241-1270), one of the king's uncles, whose violence
and warlike bearing made him a strange contrast to his predecessor. His
term of office was one long history of papal exactions from the English
clergy, and of the tyranny of foreigners, creatures of Henry III., over
the rights of the nation. The revenues of the See of Canterbury and the
enormous sums wrung from the clergy were squandered on foreign wars, and
the archbishop himself resided abroad. Boniface took a leading part in the
spoliation of the English Church: he was one of the king's council at the
so-called "Mad Parliament."

#Robert Kilwardby# (1273-1278) was nominated by the pope, after a fruitless
election of their subprior by the monks. He was a very learned Dominican,
educated at Oxford and Paris.

#John Peckam# (1279-1292) was, like his predecessor, nominated by the pope
after an education at Oxford and Paris; he also was a Franciscan. He was
at first a staunch supporter of King Edward I., whom he accompanied to
Wales. It is to be regretted that he supported the king in his cruelties
to the conquered Welsh and in the expulsion of the Jews. He firmly
defended the privileges of his see against first, the Archbishop of York,
and secondly, the king. It was in his time (1279) that the famous Statute
of Mortmain was passed. The exactions of the papacy had been considerably
lessened, and the Church was beginning to recover its wealth and national
character. Peckam died at Mortlake, and was buried in the transept of the
martyrdom at Canterbury, where his tomb and effigy still remain.

#Robert Winchelsea# (1292-1313) was next nominated, king and clergy being
unanimous on this occasion, and at once proceeded to Rome, where he
remained some time before returning to England. Meanwhile, Edward I. had
demanded the enormous subsidy of one half their annual revenue from the
clergy. Winchelsea is said to have been responsible for the celebrated
Bull _Clericis laicis_ issued by Boniface VIII. in defence of the property
of the Church. On his return home the archbishop continued to lead the
clergy in their opposition to the king's demands, and paid the penalty in
the seizure of his whole estate for the king's use. He retired with a
single chaplain to a country parsonage, discharged the humble duties of a
priest, and lived on the alms of his flocks. When the war broke out Edward
sought to propitiate the clergy by restoring the archbishop to his barony,
and summoning him to a parliament at Westminster, where the clergy
abandoned their own ground of ecclesiastical immunity from taxation and
took shelter under the liberties of the realm, thus identifying themselves
with the popular cause in their opposition to the exactions of the king.
On his return from Flanders Edward accused Winchelsea of conspiring
against him in his absence, and the archbishop was again deprived of all
his possessions, and, after many privations, escaped to France.

On the accession of Edward II. he was recalled and restored to his honour,
but subsequently became again the centre of revolution, and himself
excommunicated the king's favourite, Gaveston. He nevertheless continued
undisturbed in the discharge of his office until his death. During his
prosperous years Winchelsea was famous for his charities and liberality.
After his death he was regarded as a saint, and his shrine in the
south-east transept was removed by the commissioners of Henry VIII. at
the same time as that of Saint Thomas à Becket.

#Walter Reynolds# (1313-1327) was appointed by the pope at the request
of the king, who had set aside an election of the monks. He was tutor and
subsequently Chancellor to Edward II. After Gaveston's death he became
Keeper of the Great Seal. He obtained many bulls of privilege from Rome.
In spite of the favour he had received from Edward II. he deserted him in
his troubles. His tomb remains in the south aisle of the choir.

#Simon Mepeham# (1328-1333) was elected by the monks and consecrated at
Avignon. He was opposed in his visitation by Grandisson, the powerful
Bishop of Exeter, who refused him admission to his cathedral by force. He
was unsupported by the pope, and is said to have died of a broken heart in
consequence. His tomb forms the screen of St. Anselm's Chapel.

#John Stratford# (1333-1348) was appointed by the pope at the request
of Edward III. He was educated at Merton College, Oxford, and became
Archdeacon of Lincoln and Bishop of Winchester. He was made Lord Treasurer
by Edward II., to whose cause he remained faithful during the short-lived
triumph of Isabella and the desertion of the archbishop. Edward III. made
him Lord Chancellor, in which office he was succeeded by his own brother,
Robert. Stratford had endeavoured to dissuade the king from entering on
the French war, and the king, hard pressed for money, had the archbishop
arraigned for high treason. Stratford fled from Lambeth to Canterbury,
where he excommunicated his accusers. He subsequently returned to London
and sheltered himself, not under his ecclesiastical immunity, but under
his privileges of parliament as a member of the House of Peers, a
significant landmark in the history of the English Church. The quarrel
between the king and the archbishop was amicably settled.

Stratford held exalted opinions on the subject of clerical superiority,
and his arraignment, without the support of the pope, was a decisive blow
against the power of the Church. In his time, also, a layman was for the
first time appointed to the office of Chancellor, and Edward III. wrote a
letter to the pope protesting against the frequent papal nominations to
vacant English sees, which was followed up by the Statute of Provisors in
1350. Stratford died at Mayfield in Sussex, and was buried in his own
cathedral, where his monument still remains.

#Thomas Bradwardine# (1349) was consecrated after election by the monks of
Christ Church after the death of John Ufford, the king's nominee, who died
of the Black Death before consecration. Bradwardine had been the king's
confessor. He was educated at Merton College, and was one of the best
geometers of his time, besides being the author of an important tract
against Pelagianism.

#Simon Islip# (1349-1366), the king's secretary, built most of the palace
at Mayfield, and completed that at Maidstone. He founded and endowed
Canterbury Hall, now forming one of the quadrangles of Christ Church,
Oxford, in which he endeavoured to bring together the monastic and secular
priests.

#Simon Langham# (1366-1368) had been Bishop of Ely, Treasurer of England,
and Lord Chancellor, and also Prior and Abbot of Westminster. On being
appointed a cardinal by the Pope Urban V., he resigned his archbishopric,
the temporal powers and revenues of which had been seized by the king, and
died at Avignon.

#William Whittlesea# (1368-1374), a nephew of Islip, was translated from
Worcester.

#Simon of Sudbury# (1375-1381) was Chancellor of Salisbury and Bishop of
London, whence he was transferred to Canterbury. As chancellor he proposed
the famous poll tax, which supplied the motive for Wat Tyler's rebellion,
and, as archbishop, caused to be imprisoned the priest, John Ball. He was
captured in the tower, and beheaded during Wat Tyler's rebellion; his body
was eventually removed to Canterbury, and buried in the south aisle of
the choir. He built the west gate at Canterbury, and a great part of the
city walls.

#William Courtenay# (1381-1396) was, like his predecessor, translated from
the See of London. In a synod he condemned twenty-four articles in the
writing of Wycliffe, who was unjustly held responsible for the recent
rebellion. Much persecution of Wycliffe's followers ensued. Courtenay
succeeded in establishing his right to visit his province, although
opposed by the Bishops of Exeter and Salisbury. His monument adjoins that
of the Black Prince.

#Thomas Arundel# (1396-1414) was translated from the See of York. He was
involved in the conspiracy for which his brother, the Earl of Arundel, was
executed, and was himself exiled. He was restored after Bolingbroke's
success, and received the abdication of Richard II. In 1400 the statute
_De haeretico comburendo_ was enacted, and Arundel began to put it in
force against the Lollards. He condemned Sawtree, the first English
Protestant martyr, to be burnt, and took a prominent part in the attack
upon Sir John Oldcastle. In the parliament of 1407 he defended the clergy
against the attempts of the Commons to shift the burden of taxation upon
the wealth of the Church.

#Henry Chichele# (1414-1443) was educated at New College, Oxford. He became
successively Archdeacon of Dorset and of Salisbury, and Bishop of St.
David's. He supported Henry V. in his unjust claim to the crown of France,
and promised large subsidies from the Church for its support. There is no
doubt that this was a successful attempt at diverting the popular
attention from threatened attempts on the wealth of the Church. He was
reproached by the Pope Martin V. with lack of zeal in the interests of the
papacy in not procuring the reversal of the statutes of provisors and of
præmunire by which, amongst others, the papal power was held in check in
England. Among his foundations are the colleges of St. Bernard (afterwards
St. John's), and All Souls, at Oxford, and a library at Canterbury for the
monks of Christ Church. In his old age he was stricken with remorse for
his sin in instigating the French war, and applied to the pope for
permission to resign his see. Before a reply was received the archbishop
died, after holding the see for nearly thirty years, a longer time than
any of his predecessors. His tomb, constructed by himself during his
lifetime, is in the north aisle of the choir, and is kept in repair by
the Fellows of All Souls.

#John Stafford# (1443-1452), Bishop of Bath and Wells, was nominated by
the pope with the king's consent on the recommendation of Chichele. He also
held the office of chancellor for ten years, but was undistinguished in
either office. He lies in the south aisle of the choir.

#John Kemp# (1452-1454), Archbishop of York, succeeded. He was educated
at Merton College, and was Archdeacon of Durham and Bishop of Rochester,
Chichester, and London. He died at an advanced age, after a very brief
primacy, and was buried in the north choir aisle.

#Thomas Bourchier# (1454-1486), Bishop of Ely, was next elected by the
monks. He was a great-grandson of Edward III. He was educated at Oxford,
of which university he became chancellor; he subsequently held the sees of
Worcester and Ely. His lot fell upon difficult times, and he endeavoured
to maintain a position of neutrality in the struggle between the two
Roses, and at last effected their union by performing the marriage of
Henry VII. with Elizabeth of York. He died soon after, and his tomb
remains at Canterbury. He was bishop for fifty-one years, out of which he
held the primacy for thirty-two years. He actively encouraged education,
and helped to introduce printing into this country.

#John Morton# (1486-1500) was, like his predecessor, translated from Ely.
He was educated at Balliol College. Richard of Gloucester, after making
vain overtures to him, removed him from his office and committed him to the
Tower, and afterwards to Brecknock Castle, whence he escaped and joined
the Earl of Richmond on the Continent. After Bosworth he was recalled, and
on Bourchier's death was made archbishop. In 1493 he obtained a cardinal's
hat. In 1487 he was made Lord Chancellor, and continued for thirteen
years, until his death, in this office and in the confidence of the king,
whom he assisted in his system for controlling the great feudal barons and
in the exaction of "benevolence." His famous dilemma propounded to the
merchants was known as "Morton's fork." It was he who prevailed upon the
Pope to canonize Archbishop Anselm. His tomb, constructed during his
lifetime, may be seen in the crypt of his cathedral.

#Henry Dean# (1501-1503) was translated from Salisbury; he held the Great
Seal, with the title of Lord Keeper, after the death of Morton.

#William Warham# (1503-1532) was born of a good Hampshire family, and
educated at Winchester and New College. He was sent to Burgundy on a
mission to protest against the support of Perkin Warbeck by the Duchess
Margaret. He held the offices of Lord Keeper, Lord Chancellor, Master of
the Rolls, and Bishop of London. He crowned King Henry VIII., and
protested from the first against his marriage with Catherine. He was a
great rival of Wolsey, and retired from the court until the fall of the
cardinal. In the disputes of the time he embraced the side of the old
religion, and gave some countenance to Elizabeth Barton, the Nun of Kent.
The last part of his life was devoted to the cares of his diocese and to
letters, which he cultivated diligently. He was a personal friend of
Erasmus, whom he induced to visit England. His tomb remains in the
Transept of the Martyrdom.

#Thomas Cranmer# (1533-1556) may be considered the first Protestant
archbishop. From the first he would only accept the archbishopric as
coming from the king without intervention of the pope. He was born of a
good family in Nottinghamshire, and was educated at Cambridge, where he
became fellow of Jesus. He was first brought to the king's notice by his
suggestion that the question of Catherine's divorce might be settled
without reference to the pope. The king set him to write on the subject,
and he was rewarded with the Archdeaconry of Taunton. In 1530 he
accompanied the Earl of Wiltshire to the papal court, and was there
offered preferment by the pope. He married the niece of Osiander, who had
himself written on the subject of the divorce. On Warham's death he
succeeded him in the primacy, and returned to England. As archbishop,
Cranmer pronounced the divorce against Catherine and crowned Anne Boleyn,
and was sponsor to the Princess Elizabeth, whom he baptized. After Anne
Boleyn's trial he pronounced her marriage void, and acted as her confessor
in the Tower. Throughout his primacy Cranmer actively supported the
reforming party. In 1539 he was one of the commissioners for inspecting
into the matter of religion. In 1545 he was accused of heresy by the
opposite party led by Gardiner, and would have fallen but for the support
of the king, who befriended Cranmer throughout his life, and sent for him
to attend his death-bed. Great changes had occurred at Canterbury.
Becket's shrine had been destroyed, and a dean and twelve canons were
established in place of the old monastery of Christ Church, which was
dissolved. Under Henry's will Cranmer was appointed one of the Regents of
the Kingdom and Executors of the Will, and it was he who crowned Edward
VI. who, like Elizabeth, was his godchild. Throughout the reign of Edward,
Cranmer earnestly supported the cause of the Reformation. The Six Articles
were repealed and the first Book of Common Prayer was issued. On the
death-bed of Edward, Cranmer signed the king's will, in which he appointed
Lady Jane Grey his successor. On the accession of Queen Mary he was at
once ordered to appear before the council and within a month was committed
to the Tower. In November, 1553, he was pronounced guilty of high treason,
but was pardoned on this count, and it was decided to proceed against him
as a heretic. In 1554 he was sent to Oxford, with Latimer and Ridley,
where he remained two years in prison and was condemned as a heretic by
two successive commissions. After the death of Latimer and Ridley, Cranmer
was degraded and deprived. It was after this that, in the hopes of saving
his life, he made his famous recantation. He was brought into St. Mary's,
and in his address to the people withdrew his recantation and declared
that his right hand which had signed it should be the first to burn. He
was hurried to the place of execution opposite Balliol College, and, when
the pyre was lighted, held his right hand in the flames till it was
consumed, and died, calling on the Lord Jesus to receive his spirit.

#Reginald Pole# (1556-1558) a near connection of Henry VIII. then
succeeded. He was born in Worcestershire and was educated by the
Carthusians at Shene and at Magdalen College, Oxford. He was early
advanced to the Deanery of Exeter and other preferments. On leaving Oxford
he visited the universities of France and Italy and returned to England in
1525. Henry attempted in vain to secure Pole's support on the divorce
question, and on the appearance of his book, "Pro Unitate Ecclesiastica,"
he was sent for by the king, and when he refused to come, an act of
attainder was passed against him. In 1537 Pole was induced to accept a
cardinal's hat. It is said that he was most unwilling to do so on the
ground that he contemplated marrying the Princess Mary and seating himself
on the English throne. He took an active part in promoting the Pilgrimage
of Grace and the second rising in 1541. He remained in Italy until the
death of Edward VI. On the accession of Mary he returned to England as
papal legate after the question of his marriage with Mary had been again
discussed and set aside through the influence of the Emperor Charles V. On
Cranmer's execution Pole was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury. As
legate he absolved the Parliament and made a solemn entry into London. For
the next three years Pole was in sole management of the ecclesiastical
affairs of England, and was consenting to the persecutions which disgraced
the reign of Mary. He was at one time deprived of his legatine authority by
Pope Paul IV. who had wished for the elevation of Gardiner to the primacy.
The archbishop submitted to the pope and was again appointed legate shortly
before his death which occurred about the same time as that of Mary. He
was buried in the corona at Canterbury, where his tomb yet remains. He was
the last Archbishop of Canterbury to be buried in his own cathedral, until
the recent interment of Dr. Benson.

#Matthew Parker# (1559-1575) was born of an old Norfolk family and educated
at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Wolsey invited him to become a
fellow of Christ Church, his new foundation at Oxford, but this he
declined. After various other offices he was appointed to the Deanery of
Lincoln by Edward VI. On the accession of Mary he was deprived of all his
offices as a married priest, and lived privately until the accession of
Elizabeth, who made him archbishop. He was duly elected by the new Chapter
of Canterbury, and held his post during a most difficult time with
marvellous tact and judgment. Religious toleration for its own sake was an
idea yet unknown, but Parker directed that great caution should be
observed in administering the oath of supremacy to those of the clergy who
still favoured the old religion. It is much to his credit that he managed
to preserve such good relations with the queen in face of Elizabeth's
prejudice against the marriage of the clergy. He was an enlightened patron
of learning, and did much to encourage all branches of art.

#Edmund Grindall# (1576-1583) was born at St. Bees and educated at
Cambridge, where he became Master of Pembroke Hall. He was Chaplain to
Edward VI. During the troubles of Mary's reign he lived in Germany, and on
Elizabeth's accession became the first Protestant Bishop of London. Thence
he was removed to York and in 1575 was appointed as archbishop. He was
inclined to view the Puritans with more leniency than his predecessor and
always refused to forbid the prophesyings, or meetings of the clergy for
discussing the meaning of scripture, which Elizabeth disliked so much, and
was in consequence deprived of his jurisdiction. He went blind before his
death and was buried at Croydon.

#John Whitgift# (1583-1604) was born at Great Grimsby and educated at
Cambridge, where John Bradford was his tutor: he became one of Elizabeth's
chaplains and Master of Pembroke Hall and of Trinity. He wrote an answer
to Cartwright's "Admonition" and was preferred to the Deanery of Lincoln
and Bishopric of Worcester. After Grindall's death he was translated to
Canterbury. From this date his severity towards the Puritans increased. He
insisted that every minister of the Church should subscribe to three
points: the queen's supremacy, the Common Prayer, and the Thirty-nine
Articles, and enforced his principle with much vigour, contrary to the
advice of the more enlightened Lord Burleigh. The severity of these
measures called into existence the "Martin Marprelate" libels and produced
much dissatisfaction and suffering among the more Puritanical clergy,
which was by no means lessened by the accession of James, who, on his way
to London rejected a petition signed by more than one thousand Puritan
ministers. Whitgift was buried at Croydon where he founded a school and
hospital.

#Richard Bancroft# (1604-1610) was born near Manchester and educated at
Jesus College, Oxford. He became one of Elizabeth's chaplains, and Bishop
of London, whence he was translated to Canterbury. He was even more severe
than his predecessor against the Puritans, and was a most stern champion
of conformity. He advocated the king's absolute power beyond the law and
attempted to establish episcopacy in Scotland. He died at Lambeth and was
buried in the parish church there.

#George Abbot# (1610-1633) was born at Guildford and educated at Balliol
College. He assisted in establishing union between the Scotch and English
Churches and was rewarded with the Bishopric of Lichfield and Coventry.
Thence he was translated to London, and on the death of Bancroft was
appointed to the primacy. In contrast to his predecessor he connived at
some irregularities of discipline in the Puritanical clergy. At the same
time he was a zealous Calvinist and hater of popery, and disapproved of
those who preached up the arbitrary power of the king. These latter views
rendered him unpopular with the courtiers and the party of Laud. The
accidental death of a keeper at the hands of the archbishop was utilized
against him by his enemies and he was with difficulty restored to his
archiepiscopal functions. On refusing to licence a sermon by Dr.
Sibthorpe, asserting the king's right to tax his subjects without their
consent, he was obliged to retire to his palace of Ford, near Canterbury.
He assisted at the coronation of Charles I., but never managed to win the
favour of that monarch. He died at Croydon, and was buried at Guildford,
where his tomb and effigy still remain.

#William Laud# (1633-1645) was born at Reading, and educated at St. John's
College, Oxford. At the university he soon became conspicuous for his
hatred of the Puritans and his devotion to High Church doctrines. He
became President of St. John's in spite of the opposition of Archbishop
Abbot. He became successively one of the royal chaplains, Dean of
Gloucester, Bishop of St. David's, Bath and Wells, and London. He acted as
Dean of Westminster at Charles I.'s coronation. He was made Dean of the
Chapel Royal, Chancellor of Oxford, and a Privy Councillor of Scotland. On
Abbot's death he was elevated to the primacy, and is said to have refused
the offer of a cardinal's hat. As archbishop he was responsible for the
general Church persecution which produced his own unpopularity and
downfall, and was one of the main causes of the Civil War. Prosecutions
for non-conformity were enforced with the utmost severity. The courts of
Star Chamber and High Commission were brought to bear on the Puritans, and
Laud became universally detested. The superiority of the king over the law
was openly preached, and the Irish and Scotch Puritans were alienated by
the severity of the measures taken against them. On the common idea of
popular government, the Puritans were driven into coalition and
identification with the national party, while the king, court, bishops,
and judges represented the High Church movement and the doctrine of the
king's absolute authority. In 1639 the palace at Lambeth was attacked, but
the archbishop was removed to Whitehall and escaped for the time. In 1640,
however, he was impeached for high treason, and confined in the Tower.
Various charges were brought against him and fines inflicted, and his
property was seized and sold or destroyed for the use of the commonwealth.
The charge of high treason could not be legally established, and a bill of
attainder was passed against him in 1645. He was eventually beheaded on
Tower Hill, at the age of seventy-one years; his remains were interred at
Barking, but subsequently removed to the chapel of St. John's College at
Oxford. His conduct has been differently judged by his friends and
enemies. He built the greater part of the inner quadrangle of St. John's,
and presented a large collection of important manuscripts to the
university. In his time the archiepiscopal palace at Canterbury was ruined
by the Puritans, and on the Restoration an Act was passed dispensing the
archbishops from restoring it. From this time they have had no official
residence in Canterbury.

#William Juxon# (1660-1663) was born at Chichester, and educated, like
his predecessor, at St. John's College, Oxford, where he attracted the
attention of Laud. He became successively President of St. John's, Dean of
Worcester, Bishop of Hereford, and Bishop of London. He also became Lord
Treasurer, a post which had been held by no churchman since the days of
Henry VII., and was the last instance of any of the great offices of State
being filled by an ecclesiastic. He attended Charles I. on the occasion of
his execution. On the Restoration he became Archbishop of Canterbury, and
died three years afterwards. He lies in the chapel of St. John's College.

#Gilbert Sheldon# (1663-1677) was educated at Oxford, and became Fellow and
Warden of All Souls' College. He was a strong supporter of the king during
the Civil War. He was deprived of his wardenship and imprisoned by the
Parliamentarian commissioners when they visited Oxford. He retired to
Derbyshire until the Restoration, when he was restored to his wardenship;
he was made Dean of the Chapel Royal, and succeeded Juxon in the See of
London. In 1661 he assisted at the discussion of the liturgy between the
Presbyterian and Episcopal divines known as the Savoy Conference. In 1663
he succeeded Juxon in the primacy, and in 1667 was elected Chancellor of
Oxford. He built the Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford, which building is an
early work of Sir Christopher Wren's. He offended the court party by his
open disapproval of the king's morals, and retired in 1669 to his palace
at Croydon, where he spent most of the remainder of his life. He was
buried at the parish church at Croydon, where his tomb and effigy still
remain.

#William Sancroft# (1678-1691) was born at Fresingfield, in Suffolk, and
educated at St. Edmundsbury and at Cambridge, where he became Fellow of
Emmanuel College. He was deprived of his fellowship in 1649, and retired
to the Continent, where he remained until the restoration of Charles II.
He then returned to England, and subsequently became Master of Emmanuel
College, and Dean of York, and of St. Paul's, and Archdeacon of
Canterbury, and was raised to the primacy by Charles II., whose death-bed
he attended. In the reign of James he was at the head of the seven bishops
who presented the famous petition against the Declaration of Indulgence,
for which they were committed to the Tower, tried, and acquitted amidst
immense popular excitement. After James's flight, Sancroft acted as the
head of the council of peers who took upon themselves the administration
of the government of the country. His plan was to retain James nominally
on the throne, while placing the reins of government in the hands of a
regent. He refused to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary,
considering himself bound by his former oath to James II. He was
accordingly suspended and deprived, and when ejected by law from Lambeth
he retired to his small ancestral property at Fresingfield, where he died
and was buried.

#John Tillotson# (1691-1694) was born of Puritan parents at Sowerby, in
Yorkshire, and was educated at Cambridge. During the Protectorate he had
followed the teachings of the Presbyterians, but on the Restoration he
submitted to the Act of Uniformity. He held among other posts those of
Preacher at Lincoln's Inn and Dean of Canterbury, and enjoyed the intimate
confidence of William and Mary. On the deprivation of Sancroft he was
reluctantly induced to accept the primacy, which he was destined to hold
only for some three years. He died at Lambeth after this short term of
office, and was buried in the Church of St. Lawrence, Jewry. As a
theologian Tillotson was remarkable for his latitudinarianism, and he was
one of the finest preachers who have ever lived.

#Thomas Tenison# was born at Cottenham, in Cambridgeshire, and educated at
Cambridge. His fame as a preacher procured him the Archdeaconry of London
and the Bishopric of Lincoln, in which diocese he did admirable work. He
died at Lambeth, and lies buried in the parish church there.

#William Wake# (1716-1737) was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, and
became Dean of Exeter and Bishop of Lincoln. He was gifted with great
learning, and took an active part in the controversy with Atterbury on
the subject of the rights of convocation.

#John Potter# (1737-1747) was the son of a linendraper at Wakefield, in
Yorkshire, and was educated at University College, Oxford, becoming Fellow
of Lincoln and afterwards Bishop of Oxford. He was a learned divine and
writer. Like his predecessor he was buried in the parish church at
Croydon.

#Thomas Herring# (1747-1757) and

#Matthew Hutton# (1757-1758) were both translated to Canterbury from York.

#Thomas Secker# (1758-1768) was born of dissenting parents near Newark. At
the instance of Butler, afterwards the famous Bishop of Durham, he joined
the Church of England and abandoned the study of medicine, and took holy
orders. He held many posts in succession, including the Bishoprics of
Bristol and Oxford. He died and was buried at Lambeth, where his portrait,
by Sir Joshua Reynolds, still remains.

#Frederick Cornwallis# (1768-1783) was the seventh son of Charles, 4th Lord
Cornwallis. He was consecrated Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry in 1750,
and in 1766 became Dean of St. Paul's. On October 6th, 1768, he was
enthroned Archbishop of Canterbury. In Hasted's "Kent" we find him
commended highly for having abolished that "disagreeable distinction
of his chaplains dining at a separate table." More renowned for his
affability and courteous behaviour than for learning, he entertained at
times with semi-regal state; but once fell into some disfavour because
"his lady was in the habit of holding _routs_ on Sundays."

#John Moore# (1783-1805) became Dean of Canterbury in 1771. He was
consecrated Bishop of Bangor in 1775, and thence translated to the
archiepiscopal see in 1783. Although a promoter of Sunday-schools and
foreign missions, he did not escape reproach for paying undue regard to
the interests of his family. It has been well said that during his tenure
of office and that of his immediate successor, the sinecures and
pluralities held by the highest clergy were worthy of the mediæval period.

#Charles Manners-Sutton# (1805-1828) was grandson of John, 3rd Duke of
Rutland. In 1791 he was made Dean of Peterborough, and Bishop of Norwich
in 1792. In 1794 he was appointed Dean of Windsor, and became Archbishop
of Canterbury in 1805 owing to Court influence, which outweighed the
hostility of Pitt, who wished to appoint his own nominee. As a prelate he
was distinguished for many virtues and qualities befitting his office. He
was president at the foundation of the National Society, and worked
strenuously to advance the cause of education which it represents. While
he held the primacy a fund which had been accumulated from the sale of
Croydon Palace was applied to the purchase of Addington, where he lies
buried.

#William Howley# (1828-1848) was tutor to the Prince of Orange (afterwards
William II. of Holland) then successively Regius Professor of Divinity of
Oxford, Bishop of London, 1813, and archbishop, 1823. He played a prominent
part in politics and state ceremonials and marked the transition between
the new _régime_, and the old princely days of the archbishoprics.

#John Bird Sumner# (1848-1862) was brother of Dr. C. Sumner, Bishop of
Winchester. In 1823 he was appointed Bishop of Chester, and in 1848 was
promoted to the See of Canterbury. He published a large number of works,
and by his activity and simplicity of life is "remembered everywhere as
realizing that ideal of the Apostolic ministry which he had traced in his
earliest and most popular work."[3]

  [3] Diocesan Histories: "Canterbury," by R.C. Jenkins, M.A. 1880.

#Charles Thomas Longley# (1862-1868) was the son of a Recorder of
Rochester. In 1836 he was consecrated the first bishop of the newly founded
See of Ripon, translated to Durham in 1856, became Archbishop of York in
1860, and in 1862 was transferred to Canterbury. Perhaps the most memorable
incidents in a memorable career are the Pan-Anglican Synod held at Lambeth
in 1867, and his establishment of the Diocesan Society for Church
Building.

#Archibald Campbell Tait# (1868-1882) was son of Craufurd Tait, Esq., a
Scots attorney. He succeeded Arnold as Master of Rugby in 1842, and became
Dean of Carlisle in 1850. He presided over the Pan-Anglican Synod in 1867,
and in 1868 succeeded to the archbishopric. "Memorials of Catherine and
Craufurd Tait" is a book so well known that even the barest sketch of his
career here would be superfluous.

#Edward White Benson# (1882-1896), son of Edward White Benson, Esq., of
Birmingham Heath, was a master of Rugby. He was Head Master of Wellington
from 1858 to 1872, Prebendary and Chancellor of Lincoln in 1872, was
consecrated the first bishop of the newly created See of Truro in 1877,
and translated to Canterbury in 1883. He was buried in the Cathedral on
October 16th, 1896, in a secluded corner of the north aisle, immediately
under the north-west tower, the first archbishop who was interred in the
cathedral of the metropolitan see since Reginald Pole in 1558.

#Frederick Temple# (1896-    ), the present archbishop, is son
of the late Major Octavius Temple. He was Head Master of Rugby, 1858 to
1869, consecrated the sixty-first Bishop of Exeter in 1869, translated to
London in 1885, and to Canterbury in 1896. His share in the famous "Essays
and Reviews," and the many active works he has instituted, are too well
known to need comment.



PLANS OF CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL, AT DIFFERENT PERIODS.


[Illustration: Fig. 1. Plan of Saxon Cathedral (from Willis).]

[Illustration: Fig. 2. The Cathedral in 1774. The lighter shading shows
the conjectural termination of Lanfranc's church (from Willis).]

REFERENCES TO FIG. 2.

   Altars.
E. Holy Cross.
F. St. Mary the Virgin.
H. St. Michael's (below).
   All Saints (above).
M. St. Benedict (below).
   St. Blaise (above).
X. High Altar.


[Illustration: Fig. 3. Plan of Canterbury Cathedral at the present time.]

REFERENCES TO FIG. 3.

    EXTERIOR.

 A. West Door.
 B. South Door.
CC. Nave.
 D. South Aisle.
 E. North Aisle.
 G. Tower, N.W.
 H. Tower, S.W.
 J. Transept, S.W.
 K. Martyrdom, or
    Transept, N.W.
 L. Central Tower.
 M. Choir.
 N. South Aisle.
 O. North Aisle.
 P. Transept, S.E.
 Q. Transept, N.E.
 R. Presbytery.
 S. Altar.
 T. Trinity Chapel.
 U. Aisle ditto.
 W. Corona.
 X. Anselm's Tower.
 Y. Vestry.
 Z. Treasury.

    INTERIOR.

 1. Doorway to Cloister.
 3.   "  to Warrior's Chapel.
 4.   "  to Dean's Chapel.
 5.   "  to Crypt.
 6.   "  to Cloister.
 7. Warham's Mt. (Monument [Transcriber's Note])
 8. Peckham's Mt.
 9. Staircase.
10. Lady Holland's Mt.
11, 12 and 13. Stairs.
15. Walter's Mt.
16. Reynold's Mt.
17. Kemp's Mt.
18. Stratford's Mt.
19. Sudbury's Mt.
20. Mepeham's Mt.
21. Black Prince's Mt.
22. Courtney's Mt.
23. Chatillon's Mt.
24. Theobald's Mt.
25. Pole's Mt.
26. Dean Wotton's Mt.
27. Henry IV.'s Mt.
28. Henry IV.'s Chantry.
29. Bourchier's Mt.
30. Chichele's Mt.
31. Stairs to Crypt.
35. Library.
38. Chapter-House.
39. Cloister Square.

       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber's Notes:

1. Words and phrases which were italicized in the original have been
   surrounded by underscores ('_') in this version. Words or phrases
   which were bolded have been surrounded by pound signs ('#').

2. Obvious printer's errors have been corrected without note.

3. Inconsistencies in hyphenation or the spelling of proper names, and
   dialect or obsolete word spelling, has been maintained as in the
   original.





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