By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Practical Grammar and Composition
Author: Wood, Thomas
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Practical Grammar and Composition" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.








This book was begun as a result of the author's experience in teaching
some classes in English in the night preparatory department of
the Carnegie Technical Schools of Pittsburg. The pupils in those
classes were all adults, and needed only such a course as would
enable them to express themselves in clear and correct English.
English Grammar, with them, was not to be preliminary to the grammar
of another language, and composition was not to be studied beyond
the everyday needs of the practical man.

Great difficulty was experienced because of inability to secure a
text that was suited to the needs of the class. A book was needed
that would be simple, direct and dignified; that would cover grammar,
and the essential principles of sentence structure, choice of words,
and general composition; that would deal particularly with the sources
of frequent error, and would omit the non-essential points; and,
finally that would contain an abundance of exercises and practical

It is with these ends in view that this book has been prepared. The
parts devoted to grammar have followed a plan varying widely from
that of most grammars, and an effort has been made to secure a more
sensible and effective treatment. The parts devoted to composition
contain brief expositions of only the essential principles of ordinary
composition. Especial stress has been laid upon letter-writing,
since this is believed to be one of the most practical fields for
actual composition work. Because such a style seemed best suited to
the general scheme and purpose of the book, the method of treatment
has at times been intentionally rather formal.

Abundant and varied exercises have been incorporated at frequent
intervals throughout the text. So far as was practicable the exercises
have been kept constructive in their nature, and upon critical
points have been made very extensive.

The author claims little credit except for the plan of the book
and for the labor that he has expended in developing the details of
that plan and in devising the various exercises. In the statement
of principles and in the working out of details great originality
would have been as undesirable as it was impossible. Therefore,
for these details the author has drawn from the great common stores
of learning upon the subjects discussed. No doubt many traces of
the books that he has used in study and in teaching may be found
in this volume. He has, at times, consciously adapted matter from
other texts; but, for the most part, such slight borrowings as
may be discovered have been made wholly unconsciously. Among the
books to which he is aware of heavy literary obligations are the
following excellent texts: Lockwood and Emerson's Composition and
Rhetoric, Sherwin Cody's Errors in Composition, A. H. Espenshade's
Composition and Rhetoric, Edwin C. Woolley's Handbook of Composition,
McLean, Blaisdell and Morrow's Steps in English, Huber Gray Buehler's
Practical Exercises in English, and Carl C. Marshall's Business

To Messrs. Ginn and Company, publishers of Lockwood and Emerson's
Composition and Rhetoric, and to the Goodyear-Marshall Publishing
Company, publishers of Marshall's Business English, the author is
indebted for their kind permission to make a rather free adaptation
of certain parts of their texts.

Not a little gratitude does the author owe to those of his friends
who have encouraged and aided him in the preparation of his manuscript,
and to the careful criticisms and suggestions made by those persons
who examined the completed manuscript in behalf of his publishers.
Above all, a great debt of gratitude is owed to Mr. Grant Norris,
Superintendent of Schools, Braddock, Pennsylvania, for the encouragement
and painstaking aid he has given both in preparation of the manuscript
and in reading the proof of the book.





          Common and Proper
          Inflection Defined
            The Formation of Plurals
              Compound Nouns
            The Formation of the Possessive Case

          Agreement with Antecedents
            Rules Governing Gender
          Compound Antecedents
          Case Forms
            Rules Governing Use of Cases
          Compound Personal
          Compound Relative
          Miscellaneous Cautions

          Confusion of Adjectives and Adverbs
          Improper Forms of Adjectives
          Errors in Comparison
          Singular and Plural Adjectives
          Placing of Adverbs and Adjectives
          Double Negatives
          The Articles

          Principal Parts
            Past Tense
            Past Participle
          Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
          Active and Passive Voice
            Forms of the Subjunctive
            Use of Indicative and Subjunctive
          Agreement of Verb with its Subject
            Rules Governing Agreement of the Verb
            Miscellaneous Cautions
          Use of _Shall_ and _Will_
          Use of _Should_ and _Would_
          Use of _May_ and _Might_, _Can_ and _Could_
          Participles and Gerunds
            Misuses of Participles and Gerunds
            Sequence of Infinitive Tenses
            Split Infinitives
          Agreement of Verb in Clauses
          Omission of Verb or Parts of Verb
          Model Conjugations
            _To Be_
            _To See_

          Independent and Dependent Clauses
          Case and Number of Relative and Interrogative Pronouns
          Conjunctive or Relative Adverbs
          Placing of Correlatives

          Sentence Length
          The Essential Qualities of a Sentence

          Rules for Capitalization
          Rules for Punctuation

          Paragraphing of Speech
          Indentation of the Paragraph
          Essential Qualities of the Paragraph

          Inside Address
          Body of the Letter
          Miscellaneous Directions
          Outside Address
          Correctly Written Letters
          Notes in the Third Person

          Statement of Subject
          The Outline
          The Beginning
          Essential Qualities of the Whole Composition
          The Ending
          Illustrative Examples
            Lincoln's _Gettysburg Speech_
            Selection from _Cranford_
          List of Books for Reading

            Good Use
            Offenses Against Good Use
            Choice of Words
            How to Improve One's Vocabulary


       *       *       *       *       *



1. In thinking we arrange and associate ideas and objects together.
Words are the symbols of ideas or objects. A SENTENCE is a group
of words that expresses a single complete thought.

2. SENTENCES are of four kinds:

1. DECLARATIVE; a sentence that tells or declares something; as,
_That book is mine_.

2. IMPERATIVE; a sentence that expresses a command; as, _Bring me
that book_.

3. INTERROGATIVE; a sentence that asks a question; as, _Is that
book mine?_

4. EXCLAMATORY; a declarative, imperative, or interrogative sentence
that expresses violent emotion, such as terror, surprise, or anger;
as, _You shall take that book!_ or, _Can that book be mine?_

3. PARTS OF SPEECH. Words have different uses in sentences. According
to their uses, words are divided into classes called Parts of Speech.
The parts of speech are as follows:

1. NOUN; a word used as the name of something; as, _man, box,
Pittsburgh, Harry, silence, justice_.

2. PRONOUN; a word used instead of a noun; as, _I, he, it, that._

Nouns, pronouns, or groups of words that are used as nouns or pronouns,
are called by the general term, SUBSTANTIVES.

3. ADJECTIVE; a word used to limit or qualify the meaning of a noun
or a pronoun; as, _good, five, tall, many_.

The words _a, an_, and _the_ are words used to modify nouns or
pronouns. They are adjectives, but are usually called ARTICLES.

4. VERB; a word used to state something about some person or thing;
as, _do, see, think, make_.

5. ADVERB; a word used to modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective,
or another adverb; as, _very, slowly, clearly, often_.

6. PREPOSITION; a word used to join a substantive, as a modifier,
to some other preceding word, and to show the relation of the
substantive to that word; as, _by, in, between, beyond_.

7. CONJUNCTION; a word used to connect words, phrases, clauses,
and sentences; as, _and, but, if, although, or_.

8. INTERJECTION; a word used to express surprise or emotion; as,
_Oh! Alas! Hurrah! Bah!_

Sometimes a word adds nothing to the meaning of the sentence, but
helps to fill out its form or sound, and serves as a device to
alter its natural order. Such a word is called an EXPLETIVE. In
the following sentence _there_ is an expletive: _THERE are no such
books in print_.

4. A sentence is made up of distinct parts or elements. The essential
or PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS are the Subject and the Predicate.

The SUBJECT of a sentence is the part which mentions that about
which something is said. The PREDICATE is the part which states
that which is said about the subject. _Man walks_. In this sentence,
_man_ is the subject, and _walks_ is the predicate.

The subject may be simple or modified; that is, may consist of
the subject alone, or of the subject with its modifiers. The same
is true of the predicate. Thus, in the sentence, _Man walks_, there
is a simple subject and a simple predicate. In the sentence, _The
good man walks very rapidly_, there is a modified subject and a
modified predicate.

There may be, also, more than one subject connected with the same
predicate; as, _THE MAN AND THE WOMAN walk_. This is called a COMPOUND
SUBJECT. A COMPOUND PREDICATE consists of more than one predicate
used with the same subject; as, _The man BOTH WALKS AND RUNS_.

5. Besides the principal elements in a sentence, there are SUBORDINATE
ELEMENTS. These are the Attribute Complement, the Object Complement,
the Adjective Modifier, and the Adverbial Modifier.

Some verbs, to complete their sense, need to be followed by some
other word or group of words. These words which "complement," or
complete the meanings of verbs are called COMPLEMENTS.

The ATTRIBUTE COMPLEMENT completes the meaning of the verb by stating
some class, condition, or attribute of the subject; as, _My friend
is a STUDENT, I am WELL, The man is GOOD Student, well_, and _good_
complete the meanings of their respective verbs, by stating some
class, condition, or attribute of the subjects of the verbs.

The attribute complement usually follows the verb _be_ or its forms,
_is, are, was, will be_, etc. The attribute complement is usually a
noun, pronoun, or adjective, although it may be a phrase or clause
fulfilling the function of any of these parts of speech. It must
not be confused with an adverb or an adverbial modifier. In the
sentence, _He is THERE, there_ is an adverb, not an attribute

The verb used with an attribute complement, because such verb _joins_
the subject to its attribute, is called the COPULA ("to couple")

Some verbs require an object to complete their meaning. This object
is called the OBJECT COMPLEMENT. In the sentence, _I carry a BOOK_,
the object, _book_, is required to complete the meaning of the
transitive verb _carry_; so, also in the sentences, _I hold the
HORSE_, and _I touch a DESK_, the objects _horse_ and _desk_ are
necessary to complete the meanings of their respective verbs. These
verbs that require objects to complete their meaning are called
Transitive Verbs.

ADJECTIVE and ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS may consist simply of adjectives
and adverbs, or of phrases and clauses used as adjectives or adverbs.

6. A PHRASE is a group of words that is used as a single part of
speech and that does not contain a subject and a predicate.

A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE, always used as either an adjective or an
adverbial modifier, consists of a preposition with its object and
the modifiers of the object; as, _He lives IN PITTSBURG, Mr. Smith
OF THIS PLACE is the manager OF THE MILL, The letter is IN THE

There are also Verb-phrases. A VERB-PHRASE is a phrase that serves

7. A CLAUSE is a group of words containing a subject and a predicate;
as, _The man THAT I SAW was tall_. The clause, _that I saw_, contains
both a subject, _I_, and a predicate, _saw_. This clause, since
it merely states something of minor importance in the sentence,
making the most important assertion, is, _The man was tall_. Clauses
may be used as adjectives, as adverbs, and as nouns. A clause used
as a noun is called a SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSE. Examine the following

  Adjective Clause: The book _that I want_ is a history.
  Adverbial Clause: He came _when he had finished with the work_.
  Noun Clause as subject: _That I am here_ is true.
  Noun Clause as object: He said _that I was mistaken_.

8. Sentences, as to their composition, are classified as follows:

SIMPLE; a sentence consisting of a single statement; as, _The man

COMPLEX; a sentence consisting of one principal clause and one or
more subordinate clauses; as, _The man that I saw is tall_.

COMPOUND; a sentence consisting of two or more clauses of equal
importance connected by conjunctions expressed or understood; as,
_The man is tall and walks rapidly_, and _Watch the little things;
they are important_.


_In this and in all following exercises, be able to give the reason
for everything you do and for every conclusion you reach. Only
intelligent and reasoning work is worth while.

In the following list of sentences:

(1) Determine the part of speech of every word.

(2) Determine the unmodified subject and the unmodified predicate;
and the modified subject and the modified predicate.

(3) Pick out every attribute complement and every object complement.

(4) Pick out every phrase and determine whether it is a prepositional
phrase or a verb-phrase. If it is a prepositional phrase, determine
whether it is used as an adjective or as an adverb.

(5) Determine the principal and the subordinate clauses. If they
are subordinate clauses, determine whether they are used as nouns,
adjectives, or adverbs.

(6) Classify every sentence as simple, complex, or compound._

  1. Houses are built of wood, brick, stone, and other materials,
     and are constructed in various styles.
  2. The path of glory leads but to the grave.
  3. We gladly accepted the offer which he made.
  4. I am nearly ready, and shall soon join you.
  5. There are few men who do not try to be honest.
  6. Men may come, and men may go, but I go on forever.
  7. He works hard, and rests little.
  8. She is still no better, but we hope that there will be a change.
  9. Let each speak for himself.
 10. It was I who told him to go.
 11. To live an honest life should be the aim of every one.
 12. Who it really was no one knew, but all believed it to have been him.
 13. In city and in country people think very differently.
 14. To be or not to be, that is the question.
 15. In truth, I think that I saw a brother of his in that place.
 16. By a great effort he managed to make headway against the current.
 17. Beyond this, I have nothing to say.
 18. That we are never too old to learn is a true saying.
 19. Full often wished he that the wind might rage.
 20. Lucky is he who has been educated to bear his fate.
 21. It is I whom you see.
 22. The study of history is a study that demands a well-trained memory.
 23. Beyond the city limits the trains run more rapidly than they do here.
 24. Alas! I can travel no more.
 25. A lamp that smokes is a torture to one who wants to study.


(1) _Write a list of six examples of every part of speech._

(2) _Write eight sentences, each containing an attribute complement.
Use adjectives, nouns, and pronouns._

(3) _Write eight sentences, each containing an object complement._

(4) _Write five sentences, in each using some form of the verb TO
BE, followed by an adverbial modifier._



9. A noun has been defined as a word used as the name of something.
It may be the name of a person, a place, a thing, or of some abstract
quality, such as, _justice_ or _truth_.

10. COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS. A PROPER NOUN is a noun that names
some particular or special place, person, people, or thing. A proper
noun should always begin with a capital letter; as, _English, Rome,
Jews, John_. A COMMON NOUN is a general or class name.

11. INFLECTION DEFINED. The variation in the forms of the different
parts of speech to show grammatical relation, is called INFLECTION.
Though there is some inflection in English, grammatical relation
is usually shown by position rather than by inflection.

The noun is inflected to show number, case, and gender.

12. NUMBER is that quality of a word which shows whether it refers
to one or to more than one. SINGULAR NUMBER refers to one. PLURAL
NUMBER refers to more than one.


1. Most nouns add _s_ to the singular; as, _boy, boys; stove, stoves_.

2. Nouns ending in _s, ch, sh_, or _x_, add _es_ to the singular;
as, _fox, foxes; wish, wishes; glass, glasses; coach, coaches_.

3. Nouns ending in _y_ preceded by a vowel (_a, e, i, o, u_) add
_s_; as, _valley, valleys_, (_soliloquy, soliloquies_ and _colloquy,
colloquies_ are exceptions). When _y_ is preceded by a consonant
(any letter other than a vowel), _y_ is changed to _i_ and _es_
is added; as, _army, armies; pony, ponies; sty, sties_.

4. Most nouns ending in _f_ or _fe_ add _s_, as, _scarf, scarfs;
safe, safes_. A few change _f_ or _fe_ to _v_ and add _es_; as,
_wife, wives; self, selves_. The others are: _beef, calf, elf,
half, leaf, loaf, sheaf, shelf, staff, thief, wharf, wolf, life_.
(_Wharf_ has also a plural, _wharfs_.)

5. Most nouns ending in _o_ add _s_; as, _cameo, cameos_. A number
of nouns ending in _o_ preceded by a consonant add _es_; as, _volcano,
volcanoes_. The most important of the latter class are: _buffalo,
cargo, calico, echo, embargo, flamingo, hero, motto, mulatto, negro,
potato, tomato, tornado, torpedo, veto_.

6. Letters, figures, characters, etc., add the apostrophe and _s_
(_'s_); as, _6's, c's, t's, that's_.

7. The following common words always form their plurals in an irregular
way; as, _man, men; ox, oxen; goose, geese; woman, women; foot,
feet; mouse, mice; child, children; tooth, teeth; louse, lice_.

COMPOUND NOUNS are those formed by the union of two words, either
two nouns or a noun joined to some descriptive word or phrase.

8. The principal noun of a compound noun, whether it precedes or
follows the descriptive part, is in most cases the noun that changes
in forming the plural; as, _mothers-in-law, knights-errant,
mouse-traps_. In a few compound words, both parts take a plural form;
as, _man-servant, men-servants; knight-templar, knights-templars_.

9. Proper names and titles generally form plurals in the same way
as do other nouns; as, _Senators Webster and Clay, the three Henrys_.
Abbreviations of titles are little used in the plural, except _Messrs._
(_Mr._), and _Drs._ (_Dr._).

10. In forming the plurals of proper names where a title is used,
either the title or the name may be put in the plural form. Sometimes
both are made plural; as, _Miss Brown, the Misses Brown, the Miss
Browns, the two Mrs. Browns_.

11. Some nouns are the same in both the singular and the plural;
as, _deer, series, means, gross_, etc.

12. Some nouns used in two senses have two plural forms. The most
important are the following:

BROTHER _brothers_ (by blood)       _brethren_ (by association)
CLOTH   _cloths_ (kinds of cloth)   _clothes_ (garments)
DIE     _dies_ (for coinage)        _dice_ (for games)
FISH    _fishes_ (separately)       _fish_ (collectively)
GENIUS  _geniuses_ (men of genius)  _genii_ (imaginary beings)
HEAD    _heads_ (of the body)       _head_ (of cattle)
INDEX   _indexes_ (of books)        _indices_ (in algebra)
PEA     _peas_ (separately)         _pease_ (collectively)
PENNY   _pennies_ (separately)      _pence_ (collectively)
SAIL    _sails_ (pieces of canvas)  _sail_ (number of vessels)
SHOT   _ shots_ (number of discharges) _shot_ (number of balls)

13. Nouns from foreign languages frequently retain in the plural
the form that they have in the language from which they are taken;
as, _focus, foci; terminus, termini; alumnus, alumni; datum, data;
stratum, strata; formula, formulœ; vortex, vortices; appendix,
appendices; crisis, crises; oasis, oases; axis, axes; phenomenon,
phenomena; automaton, automata; analysis, analyses; hypothesis,
hypotheses; medium, media; vertebra, vertebrœ; ellipsis, ellipses;
genus, genera; fungus, fungi; minimum, minima; thesis, theses_.


_Write the plural, if any, of every singular noun in the following
list; and the singular, if any, of every plural noun. Note those
having no singular and those having no plural_.

News, goods, thanks, scissors, proceeds, puppy, studio, survey,
attorney, arch, belief, chief, charity, half, hero, negro, majority,
Mary, vortex, memento, joy, lily, knight-templar, knight-errant, why,
4, x, son-in-law, Miss Smith, Mr. Anderson, country-man, hanger-on,
major-general, oxen, geese, man-servant, brethren, strata, sheep,
mathematics, pride, money, pea, head, piano, veto, knives, ratios,
alumni, feet, wolves, president, sailor-boy, spoonful, rope-ladder,
grandmother, attorney-general, cupful, go-between.

_When in doubt respecting the form of any of the above, consult
an unabridged dictionary._

14. CASE. There are three cases in English: the Nominative, the
Possessive, and the Objective.

The NOMINATIVE CASE; the form used in address and as the subject
of a verb.

The OBJECTIVE CASE; the form used as the object of a verb or a
preposition. It is always the same in form as is the nominative.

Since no error in grammar can arise in the use of the nominative
or the objective cases of nouns, no further discussion of these
cases is here needed.

The POSSESSIVE CASE; the form used to show ownership. In the forming
of this case we have inflection.


1. Most nouns form the possessive by adding the apostrophe and _s_
(_'s_); as, _man, man's; men, men's; pupil, pupil's; John, John's_.

2. Plural nouns ending in _s_ form the possessive by adding only
the apostrophe ('); as, _persons, persons'; writers, writers'_. In
stating possession in the plural, then one should say: _Carpenters'
tools sharpened here, Odd Fellows' wives are invited_, etc.

3. Some singular nouns ending in an _s_ sound form the possessive
by adding the apostrophe alone; as, _for appearance' sake, for
goodness' sake_. But usage inclines to the adding of the apostrophe
and _s_ (_'s_) even if the singular noun does end in an _s_ sound;
as, _Charles's book, Frances's dress, the mistress's dress_.

4. When a compound noun, or a group of words treated as one name,
is used to denote possession, the sign of the possessive is added
to the last word only; as, _Charles and John's mother_ (the mother
of both Charles and John), _Brown and Smith's store_ (the store
of the firm Brown & Smith).

5. Where the succession of possessives is unpleasant or confusing,
the substitution of a prepositional phrase should be made; as, _the
house of the mother of Charles's partner_, instead of, _Charles's
partner's mother's house_.

6. The sign of the possessive should be used with the word immediately
preceding the word naming the thing possessed; as, _Father and
mother's house, Smith, the lawyer's, office, The Senator from Utah's

7. Generally, nouns representing inanimate objects should not be
used in the possessive case. It is better to say _the hands of
the clock_ than _the clock's hands_.

NOTE.--One should say _somebody else's_, not _somebody's else_.
The expression _somebody else_ always occurs in the one form, and
in such cases the sign of the possessive should be added to the
last word. Similarly, say, _no one else's, everybody else's_, etc.


_Write the possessives of the following:_

Oxen, ox, brother-in-law, Miss Jones, goose, man, men, men-servants,
man-servant, Maine, dogs, attorneys-at-law, Jackson & Jones, John the
student, my friend John, coat, shoe, boy, boys, Mayor of Cleveland.


_Write sentences illustrating the use of the possessives you have
formed for the first ten words under Exercise 4._


_Change the following expressions from the prepositional phrase
form to the possessive:_

  1. The ships of Germany and France.
  2. The garden of his mother and sister.
  3. The credit of Jackson & Jones.
  4. The signature of the president of the firm.
  5. The coming of my grandfather.
  6. The lives of our friends.
  7. The dog of both John and William.
  8. The dog of John and the dog of William.
  9. The act of anybody else.
 10. The shortcomings of Alice.
 11. The poems of Robert Burns.
 12. The wives of Henry the Eighth.
 13. The home of Mary and Martha.
 14. The novels of Dickens and the novels of Scott.
 15. The farm of my mother and of my father.
 16. The recommendation of Superintendent Norris.


_Correct such of the following expressions as need correction. If
apostrophes are omitted, insert them in the proper places:_

  1. He walked to the precipices edge.
  2. Both John and William's books were lost.
  3. They sell boy's hats and mens' coats.
  4. My friends' umbrella was stolen.
  5. I shall buy a hat at Wanamaker's & Brown's.
  6. This student's lessons.
  7. These students books.
  8. My daughters coming.
  9. John's wife's cousin.
 10. My son's wife's aunt.
 11. Five years imprisonment under Texas's law.
 12. John's books and Williams.
 13. The Democrat's and Republican Convention.
 14. France's and England's interests differ widely.
 15. The moons' face was hidden.
 16. Wine is made from the grape's juice.
 17. Morton, the principals, signature.
 18. Jones & Smith, the lawyers, office.

16. GENDER. Gender in grammar is the quality of nouns or pronouns
that denotes the sex of the person or thing represented. Those
nouns or pronouns meaning males are in the MASCULINE GENDER. Those
meaning females are in the FEMININE GENDER. Those referring to
things without sex are in the NEUTER GENDER.

In nouns gender is of little consequence. The only regular inflection
is the addition of the syllable-_ess_ to certain masculine nouns to
denote the change to the feminine gender; as, _author, authoress;
poet, poetess_. -I_x_ is also sometimes added for the same purpose;
as, _administrator, administratrix_.

The feminine forms were formerly much used, but their use is now
being discontinued, and the noun of masculine gender used to designate
both sexes.



17. PRONOUN AND ANTECEDENT. A PRONOUN is a word used instead of a
noun. The noun in whose stead it stands is called its ANTECEDENT.
_JOHN took Mary's BOOK and gave IT to HIS friend_. In this sentence
_book_ is the antecedent of the pronoun _it_, and _John_ is the
antecedent of _his_.


19. PERSONAL PRONOUNS are those that by their form indicate the
speaker, the person spoken to, or the person or thing spoken about.

Pronouns of the FIRST PERSON indicate the speaker; they are: _I,
me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours_.

Pronouns of the SECOND PERSON indicate the person or thing spoken
to; they are: _you, your, yours_. There are also the grave or solemn
forms in the second person, which are now little used; these are:
_thou, thee, thy, thine_, and _ye_.

Pronouns of the THIRD PERSON indicate the person or thing spoken
of; they are: _he, his, him, she, her, hers, they, their, theirs,
them, it, its_.

Few errors are made in the use of the proper person of the pronoun.

20. GENDER OF PRONOUNS. The following pronouns indicate sex or
gender; Masculine: _he, his, him_. Feminine: _she, her, hers_. Neuter:
_it, its_.

REFERS. Gender of nouns is important only so far as it concerns
the use of pronouns. Study carefully the following rules in regard
to gender. These rules apply to the singular number only, since
all plurals of whatever gender are referred to by _they, their,
theirs_, etc.


MASCULINE; referred to by _HE, HIS_, and _HIM_:

1. Nouns denoting males are always masculine.

2. Nouns denoting things remarkable for strength, power, sublimity,
or size, when those things are regarded as if they were persons,
are masculine; _as, WINTER, with HIS chilly army, destroyed them

3. Singular nouns denoting persons of both sexes are masculine;
as, _EVERY ONE brought HIS umbrella_.

FEMININE; referred to by _SHE, HER_, or _HERS_:

1. Nouns denoting females are always feminine.

2. Nouns denoting objects remarkable for beauty, gentleness, and
peace, when spoken of as if they were persons, are feminine; as,
_SLEEP healed him with HER fostering care_.

NEUTER; referred to by _IT_ and _ITS_:

1. Nouns denoting objects without sex are neuter.

2. Nouns denoting objects whose sex is disregarded are neuter; as,
_IT is a pretty child, The WOLF is the most savage of ITS race_.

3. Collective nouns referring to a group of individuals as a unit
are neuter; as, _The JURY gives its VERDICT, The COMMITTEE makes
ITS report_.

An animal named may be regarded as masculine; feminine, or neuter,
according to the characteristics the writer fancies it to possess;
as, _The WOLF seeks HIS prey, The MOUSE nibbled HER way into the
box, The BIRD seeks ITS nest.

Certain nouns may be applied to persons of either sex. They are
then said to be of COMMON GENDER. There are no pronouns of common
gender; hence those nouns are referred to as follows:

1. By masculine pronouns when known to denote males; as, _MY CLASS-MATE_
(known to be Harry) _is taking HIS examinations_.

2. By feminine pronouns when known to denote females; as, _EACH
OF THE PUPILS of the Girls High School brought HER book._

3. By masculine pronouns when there is nothing in the connection
of the thought to show the sex of the object; as, _Let every PERSON
bring his book_.

21. NUMBER OF PRONOUNS. A more common source of error than disagreement
in gender is disagreement in number. _They, their, theirs_, and
_them_ are plural, but are often improperly used when only singular
pronouns should be used. The cause of the error is failure to realize
the true antecedent.

_If ANYBODY makes that statement, THEY are misinformed_. This sentence
is wrong. _Anybody_ refers to only one person; both _any_ and _body_,
the parts of the word, denote the singular. The sentence should read,
_If ANYBODY makes that statement, HE is misinformed. Similarly,
_Let EVERYBODY keep THEIR peace_, should read, _Let EVERYBODY keep
HIS peace.

22. COMPOUND ANTECEDENTS. Two or more antecedents connected by
_or_ or _nor_ are frequently referred to by the plural when the
singular should be used. _Neither John nor James brought THEIR
books_, should read, _Neither John nor James brought HIS books_.
When a pronoun has two or more singular antecedents connected by
_or_ or _nor_, the pronoun must be in the singular number; but
if one of the antecedents is plural, the pronoun must, also, be
in the plural; as, _Neither the Mormon nor his wives denied THEIR

When a pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by _and_, the
pronoun must be in the plural number; as, _John and James brought
THEIR books_.

Further treatment of number will be given under verbs.


_Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the proper
pronouns. See that there is agreement in person, gender, and number:_

  1. Has everybody finished ---- work.
  2. If any one wishes a longer time, let ---- hold up ---- hand.
  3. The panther sprang from ---- lurking place.
  4. Many a man has (have) lost ---- money in speculation.
  5. The cat came each day for ---- bit of meat.
  6. Everyone has to prove ---- right to a seat.
  7. Let every boy answer for ---- self (selves).
  8. The crowd was so great that we could hardly get through ----.
  9. Let any boy guess this riddle if ---- can.
 10. Company H was greatly reduced in ---- numbers.
 11. Every animal has some weapon with which ---- can defend
     ----self (selves).
 12. Nowhere does each dare do as ---- pleases (please).
 13. The elephant placed ---- great foot on the man's chest.
 14. The child did not know ---- mother.
 15. Death gathers ---- unfailing harvest.
 16. Every kind of animal has ---- natural enemies.
 17. The committee instructed ---- chairman to report the matter.
 18. Two men were present, but neither would tell what ---- saw.
 19. Truth always triumphs over ---- enemies.
 20. Nobody did ---- duty more readily than I.
 21. The cat never fails to catch ---- prey.
 22. I have used both blue crayon and red crayon, but ---- does
     (do) not write so clearly as white.
 23. If John and Henry whisper (whispers) ---- will be punished.
 24. If John or Henry whisper (whispers) ---- will be punished.
 25. Both Columbus and Cabot failed to realize the importance
     of ---- discoveries.
 26. Neither the lawyer nor the sheriff liked ---- task.
 27. The canary longed to escape from ---- cage.
 28. The rat ran to ---- hole.
 29. The dog seemed to know ---- master was dead.
 30. Everyone should try to gather a host of friends about ----.
 31. If any one wishes to see me, send ---- to the Pierce Building.
 32. Probably everybody is discouraged at least once in ---- life.
 33. Nobody should deceive ----selves (self).
 34. Let each take ---- own seat.
 35. Let each girl in the class bring ---- book.
 36. Let each bring ---- book.
 37. Let each bring ---- sewing.
 38. The fox dropped ---- meat in the pool.
 39. The rock lay on ---- side.
 40. Let sleep enter with ---- healing touch.
 41. Each believed that ---- had been elected a delegate to the
     Mother's Congress.
 42. Consumption demands each year ---- thousands of victims.
 43. Summer arrays ----self (selves) with flowers.
 44. Despair seized him in ---- powerful grasp.
 45. If any boy or any girl finds the book, let ---- bring it to me.
 46. Let every man and every woman speak ----mind.
 47. Spring set forth ---- beauties.
 48. How does the mouse save ---- self (selves) from being caught?
 49. The hen cackled ---- loudest.
 50. Some man or boy lost ---- hat.
 51. John or James will favor us with ---- company.
 52. Neither the captain nor the soldiers showed ----self (selves)
     during the fight.
 53. If the boys or their father come we shall be glad to see ----.
 54. Every man and every boy received ---- dinner.
 55. Every man or boy gave ---- offering.


_By what gender of the pronouns would you refer to the following

Snake, death, care, mercy, fox, bear, walrus, child, baby, friend
(uncertain sex), friend (known to be Mary), everybody, someone,
artist, flower, moon, sun, sorrow, fate, student, foreigner, Harvard
University, earth, Germany?

23. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Relative Pronouns are pronouns used to introduce
adjective or noun clauses that are not interrogative. In the sentence,
_The man THAT I MENTIONED has come_, the relative clause, _that I
mentioned_, is an adjective clause modifying _man_. In the sentence,
_WHOM SHE MEANS, I do not know_, the relative clause is, _whom
she means_, and is a noun clause forming the object of the verb

The relative pronouns are _who_ (_whose, whom_), _which, that_
and _what_. _But_ and _as_ are sometimes relative pronouns. There
are, also, compound relative pronouns, which will be mentioned

24. _Who_ (with its possessive and objective forms, _whose_ and
_whom_) should be used when the antecedent denotes persons. When
the antecedent denotes things or animals, _which_ should be used.
_That_ may be used with antecedents denoting persons, animals or
things, and is the proper relative to use when the antecedent includes
both persons and things. _What_, when used as a relative, seldom
properly refers to persons. It always introduces a substantive
clause, and is equivalent to _that which_; as, _It is WHAT (that
which) he wants_.

25. _That_ is known as the RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE, because it should
be used whenever the relative clause limits the substantive, unless
_who_ or _which_ is of more pleasing sound in the sentence. In the
sentence, _He is the man THAT DID THE ACT_, the relative clause,
_that did the act_, defines what is meant by man; without the relative
clause the sentence clearly would be incomplete. Similarly, in
the sentence, _The book THAT I WANT is that red-backed history_,
the restrictive relative clause is, _that I want_, and limits the
application of _book_.

26. _Who_ and _which_ are known as the EXPLANATORY or NON-RESTRICTIVE
RELATIVES, and should be used ordinarily only to introduce relative
clauses which add some new thought to the author's principal thought.
_Spanish, WHICH IS THE LEAST COMPLEX LANGUAGE, is the easiest to
learn_. In this sentence the principal thought is, _Spanish is
the easiest language to learn_. The relative clause, _which is
the least complex language_, is a thought, which, though not fully
so important as the principal thought, is more nearly coördinate
than subordinate in its value. It adds an additional thought of
the speaker explaining the character of the Spanish language. When
_who_ and _which_ are thus used as explanatory relatives, we see
that the relative clause may be omitted without making the sentence

Compare the following sentences:

Explanatory relative clause: That book, _which is about history_,
has a red cover.

Restrictive relative clause: The book _that is about history_ has
a red cover.

Explanatory relative clause: Lincoln, _who was one of the world's
greatest men_, was killed by Booth.

Restrictive relative clause: The Lincoln _that was killed by Booth_
was one of the world's greatest men.

NOTE.--See §111, for rule as to the punctuation of relative clauses.

27. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. An Interrogative Pronoun is a pronoun
used to ask a question. The interrogative pronouns are, _who_ (_whose,
whom_), _which_, and _what_. In respect to antecedents, _who_ should
be used only in reference to persons; _which_ and _what_ may be
used with any antecedent, persons, animals, or things.


_Choose the proper relative or interrogative pronoun to be inserted
in each of the following sentences. Insert commas where they are
needed._ (_See_ §111):

  1. The kindly physician ---- was so greatly loved is dead.
  2. This is the man ---- all are praising.
  3. John ---- is my coachman is sick.
  4. The intelligence ---- he displayed was remarkable.
  5. Intelligence ---- he had hitherto not manifested now showed its
  6. He maintains that the book ---- you used is now ruined.
     (Does _which_ or _that_ have the more pleasing sound here?)
  7. The pleasure ---- education gives the man ---- has it is a
     sufficient reward for the trouble ---- it has cost.
  8. That man ---- wears a cap is a foreigner.
  9. The best hotel is the one ---- is nearest the station.
 10. Who is it ---- is worthy of that honor?
 11. The carriages and the drivers ---- you ordered yesterday have arrived.
 12. ---- thing is it ---- you want?
 13. He purchased ---- he wished.
 14. There is no cloud ---- has not its silver lining.
 15. It is the same dog ---- I bought.
 16. The man and horse ---- you see pass here every afternoon.
 17. ---- did they seek?
 18. They inquired ---- he was going to do.
 19. Who was it ---- lost the book?
 20. The man ---- was a Frenchman was very much excited.
 21. It is neither the party nor its candidate ---- gains support.
 22. That is a characteristic ---- makes him seem almost rude.
 23. It is the same tool ---- I used all day.
 24. He is a man ---- inspires little confidence.
 25. ---- does he expect of us?
 26. It is just such a thing ---- I need.
 27. There are few ---- will vote for him.
 28. The wagon and children ---- you just saw came from our town.
 29. He ---- writes out his lesson does all ---- can be expected.
 30. Was it you or the cat ---- made that noise?
 31. It is the same song ---- he always sings.
 32. Such ---- I have is yours.
 33. All the men and horses ---- we had were lost.
 34. That is ---- pleased me most and ---- everyone talked about.
 35. The horse was one ---- I had never ridden before.
 36. That is ---- everyone said.

28. CASE FORMS OF PRONOUNS. Some personal, relative, and interrogative
pronouns have distinctive forms for the different cases, and the
failure to use the proper case forms in the sentence is one of
the most frequent sources of error. The case to be used is to be
determined by the use which the pronoun, not its antecedent, has
in the sentence. In the sentence, _I name HIM_, note that _him_
is the object of the verb _name_. In the sentence, _WHOM do you
seek_, although coming at the first of the sentence, _whom_ is
grammatically the object of the verb _seek_. In the use of pronouns
comes the most important need for a knowledge of when to use the
different cases.

Note the following different case forms of pronouns:

Nominative: _I, we, you, thou, ye, he, she, they, it, who_.

Objective: _me, us, you, thee, ye, him, her, it, them, whom_.

Possessive: _my, mine, our, ours, thy, thine, your, yours, his,
her, hers, its, their, theirs, whose_.

It will be noted that, while some forms are the same in both the
nominative and objective cases, _I, WE, HE, SHE, THEY, THOU_, AND
_ME, US, HIM, THEM, THEE, WHOM_, AND _HER_, except when _her_ is
These forms must be remembered. It is only with these pronouns
that mistakes are made in the use of the nominative and objective

FORMS OF THE PRONOUNS. The outline should be mastered.


1. When the noun or pronoun is the subject of a finite verb; that
is, a verb other than an infinitive. See 3 under Objective Case.

2. When it is an attribute complement. An attribute complement, as
explained in Chapter I, is a word used in the predicate explaining
or stating something about the subject. Examples: _It is I, The
man was HE, The people were THEY of whom we spoke._

3. When it is used without relation to any other part of speech,
as in direct address or exclamation.


1. When the noun or pronoun is the object of a verb; as, _He named
ME, She deceived THEM, They watch US_.

2. When it is the object of a preposition, expressed or understood:
as, _He spoke of ME, For WHOM do you take me, He told (to) ME a

3. When it is the subject of an infinitive; as, _I told HIM to
go, I desire HER to hope_. The infinitives are the parts of the
verb preceded by _to_; as, _to go, to see, to be, to have been
seen_, etc. The sign of the infinitive, to, is not always expressed.
The objective case is, nevertheless, used; as, _Let HIM (to) go,
Have HER (to be) told about it._

4. When it is an attribute complement of an expressed subject of
the infinitive _to be_; as, _They believed her to be ME, He denied
it to have been him_. (See Note 2 below.)


When the word is used as a possessive modifier; as, _They spoke
of HER being present, The book is HIS (book), It is THEIR fault._

NOTE I.--When a substantive is placed by the side of another substantive
and is used to explain it, it is said to be in APPOSITION with that
other substantive and takes the case of that word; as, _It_ was
given _to John Smith, HIM whom you see there._

NOTE 2.--The attribute complement should always have the case of
that subject of the verb which is expressed in the sentence. Thus,
in the sentence, _I could not wish John to be HIM, him_ is properly
in the objective case, since there is an expressed subject of the
infinitive, _John_, which is in the objective case. But in the
sentence, _I should hate to be HE, he_ is properly in the nominative
case, since the only subject that is expressed in the sentence is
_I_, in the nominative case.

NOTE 3.--Where the relative pronoun _who (whom)_ is the subject of
a clause that itself is the object clause of a verb or a preposition,
it is always in the nominative case. Thus the following sentences are
both correct: _I delivered it to WHO owned it, Bring home WHOEVER
will come with you._


_Write sentences illustrating the correct use of each of the following

I, whom, who, we, me, us, they, whose, theirs, them, she, him, he,
its, mine, our, thee, thou.


_In the following sentences choose the proper form from the words
in italics:_

  1. My brother and _I me_ drove to the east end of the town.
  2. Between you and _I me_ things are doubtful.
  3. May James and _I me_ go to the circus?
  4. Will you permit James and _I me_ to go to the play?
  5. Who made that noise? Only _I me_.
  6. He introduced us all, _I me_ among the rest.
  7. He promised to bring candy to Helen and _I me_.
  8. Was it _I me_ that you asked for?
  9. Who spoke? _I me_.
 10. I am taken to be _he him_.
 11. No, it could not have been _me I_.
 12. All have gone but you and _I me_.
 13. You suffer more than _me I_.
 14. Everyone has failed in the examination except you and _I me_.
 15. He asked you and _I me_ to come to his office.
 16. See if there is any mail for Mary and _me I_.
 17. Neither you nor _I me_ can teach the class.
 18. They think it to be _I me_.
 19. This is the student _whom who_ all are praising.
 20. The one that is _he him_ wears a brown hat.
 21. He is a man _who whom_ all admired.
 22. He is one of those men _who whom_ we call snobs.
 23. I did not see that it was _her she_.
 24. It is in fact _he him_.
 25. He still believes it to be _them they_.
 26. Between you and _I me_, it is my opinion that _him he_ and John
     will disagree.
 27. We saw John and _she her_; we know it was _them they_.
 28. I did not speak of either you or _she her_.
 29. Our cousins and _we us_ are going to the Art Gallery.
 30. Aunt Mary has asked our cousins and _us we_ to take dinner at her house.
 31. They are more eager than _we us_ since they have not seen her for
     a long time.
 32. It could not have been _we us who whom_ you suspected.
 33. _We us_ boys are going to the ball game.
 34. They sent letters to all _who whom_ they thought would contribute.
 35. This money was given by John _who whom_ you know is very stingy.
 36. The superintendent, _who whom_, I cannot doubt, is responsible
     for this error, must be discharged.
 37. The teacher told you and _I me_ to stay.
 38. The teacher told you and _him he_ to stay.
 39. The teacher told you and _she her_ to stay.
 40. There are many miles between England and _we us_.
 41. They can't play the game better than _we us_.
 42. It is unpleasant for such as _they them_ to witness such things.
 43. Between a teacher and _he him who whom_ he teaches there is
     sometimes a strong fellowship.
 44. You are nearly as strong as _him he_.
 45. All were present but John and _he him_.
 46. Father believed it was _she her_.
 47. Mother knew it to be _her she_.
 48. It was either _he him_ or _she her_ that called.
 49. Because of _his him_ being young, they tried to shield him.
 50. It was _he him who whom_ the manager said ought to be promoted.
 51. The throne was held by a king _who whom_ historians believe
     to have been insane.
 52. _Who whom_ did he say the man was?
 53. _Who whom_ did he say the judge suspected?
 54. _Who whom_ do you consider to be the brightest man?
 55. _Who whom_ do you think is the brightest man?
 56. He cannot learn from such as _thou thee_.
 57. If they only rob such as _thou thee_, they are honest.
 58. What dost _thou thee_ know?
 59. They do tell _thee thou_ the truth.
 60. She told John and _me I_ to study.
 61. My father allowed my brother and _her she_ to go.
 62. My brother and _she her_ were allowed to go by my father.
 63. Turn not away from _him he_ that is needy.
 64. Neither Frances nor _she her_ was at fault.
 65. The property goes to _they them_.
 66. He thought it was _her she_, but it was _him he_ and William
who did it.
 67. It was through _she her_ that word came to _me I_.
 68. I thought it was _her she_.
 69. I wish you were more like _he him_.
 70. I thought it to be _she her_.
 71. It seems to be _he_. I should hate to be _he_. I should like to be
     _he_ or _she_. (All these sentences are in the correct form.)
 72. He is a man in _whom who_ I have little faith.
 73. You are as skillful as _she her_.
 74. We escorted her mother and _her she_ to the station.
 75. _She her_ and _I me_ are going on the boat.
 76. If any are late it will not be _us we_.
 77. _Who whom_ are you going to collect it from?
 78. _Who whom_ do men say that he is?
 79. _Who whom_ do you think _him he_ to be?
 80. _They them_ and their children have gone abroad.
 81. It was not _they them_.
 82. _Who whom_ am I said to be?
 83. I do not know to _who whom_ to direct him.
 84. How can one tell _who whom_ is at home now?
 85. _Who whom_ is that for?
 86. Choose _who whom_ you please.
 87. Do you think _I me_ to be _her she who whom_ you call Kate?
 88. Some _who whom_ their friends expected were kept away.
 89. Give it to _who whom_ seems to want it most.
 90. _Who whom_ do you think I saw there?
 91. I hope it was _she her who whom_ we saw.
 92. It could not have been _him he_.
 93. _Who whom_ did you say did it?
 94. Let _them they_ come at once.
 95. The man on _who whom_ I relied was absent.
 96. I know it was _they them who whom_ did it.
 97. Will he let _us we_ go?
 98. It came from _they them who whom_ should not have sent it.
 99. It was not _us we_ from _who whom_ it came.
100. Can it be _she her_?
101. _Thou thee_ art mistaken.
102. Let me tell _thee thou, thee thou_ wilt do wrong.
103. Send _who whom_ wants the pass to me.
104. Tell _who whom_ you choose to come.
105. Is he the man for _who whom_ the city is named?
106. The book is for _who whom_ needs it.
107. I do not know _who whom_ the book is for.

30. The COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS are formed by adding _self_
or _selves_ to certain of the objective and possessive personal
pronouns; as, _herself, myself, itself, themselves_, etc. They
are used to add emphasis to an expression; as, _I, MYSELF, did
it, He, HIMSELF, said so._ They are also used reflexively after
verbs and prepositions; as, _He mentioned HIMSELF, He did it for

The compound personal pronouns should generally be confined to
their emphatic and reflexive use. Do not say, _MYSELF and John
will come_, but, _John and I will come_. Do not say, _They invited
John and MYSELF_, but, _They invited John and ME_.

The compound personal pronouns have no possessive forms; but for
the sake of emphasis _own_ with the ordinary possessive form is
used; as, _I have my OWN book, Bring your OWN work, He has a home
of his OWN._

31. There are no such forms as _hisself, your'n, his'n, her'n,
theirself, theirselves, their'n_. In place of these use simply _his,
her, their_, or _your_.


_Write sentences illustrating the correct use of the following simple
and compound personal pronouns:_

Myself, me, I, them, themselves, him, himself, her, herself, itself,
our, ourselves.


_Choose the correct form in the following sentences. Punctuate
properly._ (_See_ §108):

  1. _Yourself you_ and John were mentioned
  2. She told Mary and _me myself_ to go with _her herself_.
  3. The book is for _you yourself_ and _I me myself_.
  4. Henry and _I me myself_ are in the same class.
  5. He thinks _you yourself_ and _I me myself_ should bring the books.
  6. Our friends and _we us ourselves_ are going out to-night.
  7. _Herself she_ and her husband have been sick.
  8. _They themselves_ and their children have gone abroad.
  9. You play the violin better than _he himself_.
 10. The machine failed to work well, because _it itself_ and the
     engine were not properly adjusted to each other.
 11. Let them do it _theirselves themselves_.
 12. He came by _hisself himself_.
 13. The teacher _hisself himself_ could not have done better.
 14. I'll bring my gun, and you bring _your'n yours your_ own.
 15. That book is _his'n his_.


_Fill the blanks in the following sentences with the proper emphatic
or reflexive forms. Punctuate properly._ (_See_ §108):

  1. He ---- said so.
  2. I ---- will do it.
  3. We ---- will look after her.
  4. That, I tell you, is ---- book.
  5. It belongs to me ----.
  6. Those books are my ----.
  7. Let them ---- pay for it.
  8. The horse is to be for ---- use.
  9. The horse is to be for the use of ----.
 10. He said it to ----.
 11. He deceived ----.
 12. I do not wish ---- to be prominent.

32. The COMPOUND RELATIVE PRONOUNS are formed by adding _ever, so_,
or _soever_ to the relative pronouns, _who, which_, and _what_;
as, _whoever, whatever, whomever, whosoever, whoso, whosoever_,
etc. It will be noted that _whoever, whosoever_, and _whoso_ have
objective forms, _whomever, whomsoever_, and _whomso_; and possessive
forms, _whosoever, whosesoever_, and _whoseso_. These forms must
be used whenever the objective or possessive case is demanded.
Thus, one should say, _I will give it to WHOMEVER I find there_.
(See §29 and Note 3.)


_Fill the following blanks with the proper forms of the compound

  1. We will refer the question to ---- you may name.
  2. ---- it may have been, it was not he.
  3. I shall receive presents from ---- I wish.
  4. It was between him and ---- was with him.
  5. ---- they may choose, I will not vote for him.
  6. Let them name ---- they think will win.
  7. Give it to ---- you think needs it most.
  8. He may take ---- he cares to.
  9. He will take ---- property he finds there.
 10. He promised to ask the question of ---- he found there.
 11. ---- can have done it?
 12. ---- else may be said, that is not true.
 13. There are the two chairs; you may take ---- you like.
 14. ---- you take will suit me.
 15. You may have ---- you wish.
 16. ---- is nominated, will you vote for him?
 17. ---- they nominate, I will vote for him.
 18. ---- does that is a partizan.
 19. ---- candidate is elected, I will be satisfied.
 20. He may name ---- he thinks best.
 21. ---- he says is worthy of attention.
 22. ---- she takes after, she is honest.
 23. ---- follows him will be sorry.
 24. ---- he may be, he is no gentleman.
 25. ---- they do is praised.

33. There are certain words, called ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS, which are
regarded as pronouns, because, although they are properly adjective
in their meaning, the nouns which they modify are never expressed;
as, _One_ (there is a possessive form, _one's_, and a plural form,
_ones_), _none, this, that, these, those, other, former, some,
few, many_, etc.


1. The pronoun _I_ should always be capitalized, and should, when
used as part of a compound subject, be placed second; as, _James
and I were present, not I and James were present_.

2. Do not use the common and grave forms of the personal pronouns
in the same sentence; as, _THOU wilt do this whether YOU wish or

3. Avoid the use of personal pronouns where they are unnecessary;
as, _John, HE did it, or Mary, SHE said_. This is a frequent error
in speech.

4. Let the antecedent of each pronoun be clearly apparent. Note the
uncertainty in the following sentence; _He sent a box of cheese,
and IT was made of wood_. The antecedent of _it_ is not clear.
Again, _A man told his son to take HIS coat home_. The antecedent
of _his_ is very uncertain. Such errors are frequent.

In relative clauses this error may sometimes be avoided by placing
the relative clause as near as possible to the noun it limits.
Note the following sentence: _A cat was found in the YARD WHICH
wore a blue ribbon_. The grammatical inference would be that the
yard wore the blue ribbon. The sentence might be changed to, _A
CAT, WHICH wore a blue ribbon, was found in the yard_.

5. Relative clauses referring to the same thing require the same
relative pronoun to introduce them; as, _The book THAT we found
and the book THAT he lost are the same_.

6. Use _but that_ when _BUT_ is a conjunction and _that_ introduces
a noun clause; as, _There is no doubt BUT THAT he will go_. Use
_but what_ when _but_ is a preposition in the sense of _except_;
as, _He has no money but (except) WHAT I gave him_.

7. _Them_ is a pronoun and should never be used as an adjective.
_Those_ is the adjective which should be used in its place; as,
_Those people_, not, _Them people_.

8. Avoid using _you_ and _they_ indefinitely; as, _YOU seldom hear
of such things, THEY make chairs there_. Instead, say, _ONE seldom
hears of such things, Chairs are made there_.

9. _Which_ should not be used with a clause or phrase as its antecedent.
Both the following sentences are wrong: _He sent me to see John,
WHICH I did. Their whispering became very loud, which annoyed the

10. Never use an apostrophe with the possessive pronouns, _its,
yours, theirs, ours_ and _hers_.


_Correct the following sentences so that they do not violate the
cautions above stated_:

  1. How can you say that when thou knowest better?
  2. May I and Mary go to the concert?
  3. He asked me to write to him, which I did.
  4. Grant thou to us your blessing.
  5. The train it was twenty minutes late.
  6. Mother she said I might go.
  7. Mary told her mother she was mistaken.
  8. The man cannot leave his friend, for if he should leave him he
     would be angry.
  9. Sarah asked her aunt how old she was.
 10. That is the man whom we named and that did it.
 11. Mr. Jones went to Mr. Smith and told him that his dog was lost.
 12. This is the book that we found and which he lost.
 13. She told her sister that if she could not get to the city, she
     thought she had better go home.
 14. Jack cannot see Henry because he is so short.
 15. Then Jack and George, they went home.
 16. Bring them books here.
 17. Them are all wrong.
 18. There are no men in the room but that can be bought.
 19. I have no doubt but what it was done.
 20. Them there should be corrected.
 21. I have faith in everything but that he says.
 22. I have no fears but what it can be done.
 23. Napoleon, he threw his armies across the Rhine.
 24. Thou knowest not what you are doing.
 25. It was thought advisable to exile Napoleon, which was done.
 26. A grapevine had grown along the fence which was full of grapes.
 27. Keep them people out of here.
 28. The two cars contained horses that were painted yellow.
 29. She is a girl who is always smiling and that all like.
 30. You never can tell about foreigners.
 31. They say that is not true.
 32. The cabin needed to be swept, which we did.
 33. They use those methods in some schools.
 34. It is the house that is on the corner and which is painted white.
 35. You can easily learn history if you have a good memory.
 36. How can you tell but what it will rain?
 37. He does everything but what he should do.
 38. He has everything but that he needs.
 39. It was a collie dog which we had and that was stolen.
 40. Aunt, she said that she didn't know but what she would go.
 41. Tell I and John about it.
 42. He went to his father and told him he had sinned.
 43. Dost thou know what you doest?
 44. It's appearance was deceitful.
 45. The chair was also their's.
 46. There is a slight difference between mine and your's.
 47. Which of the two is her's?
 48. They are both our's.



35. An ADJECTIVE is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun. An
ADVERB is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another
adverb. Adjectives and adverbs are very closely related in both
their forms and their use.

36. COMPARISON. The variation of adjectives and adverbs to indicate
the degree of modification they express is called COMPARISON. There
are three degrees of comparison.

The POSITIVE DEGREE indicates the mere possession of a quality;
as, _true, good, sweet, fast, lovely_.

The COMPARATIVE DEGREE indicates a stronger degree of the quality
than the positive; as, _truer, sweeter, better, faster, lovelier_.

The SUPERLATIVE DEGREE indicates the highest degree of quality;
as, _truest, sweetest, best, fastest, loveliest_.

Where the adjectives and adverbs are compared by inflection they are
said to be compared regularly. In regular comparison the comparative
is formed by adding _er_, and the superlative by adding _est_. If
the word ends in _y_, the _y_ is changed to _i_ before adding the
ending; as, _pretty, prettier, prettiest_.

Where the adjectives and adverbs have two or more syllables, most
of them are compared by the use of the adverbs _more_ and _most_,
or, if the comparison be a descending one, by the use of _less_
and _least_; as, _beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful_, and
_less beautiful, least beautiful_.

37. Some adjectives and adverbs are compared by changing to entirely
different words in the comparative and superlative. Note the following:

bad, ill, evil, badly   worse                   worst
far                     farther, further        farthest, furthest
forth                   further                 furthest
fore                    former                  foremost, first
good, well              better                  best
hind                    hinder                  hindmost
late                    later, latter           latest, last
little                  less                    least
much, many              more                    most
old                     older, elder            oldest, eldest

NOTE.--_Badly_ and _forth_ may be used only as adverbs. _Well_
is usually an adverb; as, _He talks well_, but may be used as an
adjective; as, _He seems well_.

used where an adverb is required, and vice versa. The sentence,
_She talks FOOLISH_, is wrong, because here the word to be modified
is _talks_, and since _talks_ is a verb, the adverb _foolishly_
should be used. The sentence, _She looks CHARMINGLY_, means, as
it stands, that her manner of looking at a thing is charming. What
is intended to be said is that she appears as if she was a charming
woman. To convey that meaning, the adjective, _charming_, should
have been used, and the sentence should read, _She looks charming_.
Wherever the word modifies a verb or an adjective or another adverb,
an adverb should be used, and wherever the word, whatever its location
in the sentence, modifies a noun or pronoun, an adjective should
be used.

39. The adjective and the adverb are sometimes alike in form. Thus,
both the following sentences are correct: _He works HARD_ (adverb),
and _His work is HARD_ (adjective). But, usually, where the adjective
and the adverb correspond at all, the adverb has the additional
ending _ly_; as, _The track is SMOOTH_, (adjective), and _The train
runs SMOOTHLY_, (adverb).


_In the following sentences choose from the italicized words the
proper word to be used:_

  1. The sunset looks _beautiful beautifully_.
  2. The man acted _strange strangely_.
  3. Write _careful carefully_ and speak _distinct distinctly_.
  4. Speak _slow slowly_.
  5. He acted _bad badly_.
  6. He behaved very _proper properly_.
  7. The boat runs _smooth smoothly_.
  8. He is a _remarkable remarkably_ poor writer.
  9. I am in _extremely extreme_ good health.
 10. The typewriter works _good well_.
 11. The bird warbles _sweet sweetly_.
 12. He was _terrible terribly_ angry.
 13. He was in a _terrible terribly_ dangerous place.
 14. He talks _plainer more plainly_ than he ever did before.
 15. The dead Roman looked _fierce fiercely_.
 16. The fire burns _brilliant brilliantly_.
 17. You are _exceeding exceedingly_ generous.
 18. He struggled _manful manfully_ against the opposition.
 19. My health is _poor poorly_.
 20. He is sure surely a _fine fellow_.
 21. Have everything _suitable suitably_ decorated.
 22. That can be done _easy easily_.
 23. I can speak _easier more easily_ than I can write.
 24. The music of the orchestra was _decided decidedly_ poor.
 25. She is a _remarkable remarkably_ beautiful girl.
 26. The wind roared _awful awfully_.
 27. The roar of the wind was _awful awfully_.
 28. I have studied grammar _previous previously_ to this year.
 29. I didn't study because I felt too _bad badly_ to read.
 30. The roses smell _sweetly sweet_.
 31. They felt very _bad badly_ at being beaten.
 32. That violin sounds _different differently_ from this one.
 33. The soldiers fought _gallant gallantly_.
 34. She looks _sweet sweetly_ in that dress.
 35. I can wear this coat _easy easily_.
 36. Speak _gentle gently_ to him.
 37. He talks _warm warmly_ on that subject.
 38. He works _well good_ and _steady steadily_.
 39. He stood _thoughtful thoughtfully_ for a moment and then went
     _quiet quietly_ to his tent.
 40. He walked down the street _slow slowly_, but all the time looked
    _eager eagerly_ about him.
 41. The music sounds _loud loudly_.
 42. That coin rings _true truly_.
 43. He looked _angry angrily_ at his class.
 44. He moved _silent silently_ about in the crowd.
 45. His coat fits _nice nicely_.
 46. That is _easy easily_ to do.
 47. He went over the work very _thorough thoroughly_.


_The adjectives and adverbs in the following sentences are correctly
used. In every case show what they modify:_

  1. The water lay smooth in the lake.
  2. She looked cold.
  3. The train runs smoothly now.
  4. The sun shone bright at the horizon.
  5. The sun shone brightly all day.
  6. She looks coldly about her.
  7. Be careful in your study of these sentences.
  8. Study these sentences carefully.
  9. We found the way easy.
 10. We found the way easily.
 11. He looked good.
 12. He looked well.
 13. We arrived safe.
 14. We arrived safely.
 15. Speak gently.
 16. Let your speech be gentle.


_Write sentences containing the following words correctly used:_

Thoughtful, thoughtfully, masterful, masterfully, hard, hardly,
cool, coolly, rapid, rapidly, ungainly, careful, carefully, eager,
eagerly, sweet, sweetly, gracious, graciously.

40. IMPROPER FORMS OF ADJECTIVES. The wrong forms in the following
list of adjectives are frequently used in place of the right forms:

  RIGHT           WRONG
everywhere      everywheres
not nearly      nowhere near
not at all      not much or not muchly
ill             illy
first           firstly
thus            thusly
much            muchly
unknown         unbeknown
complexioned    complected


_Correct the errors in the following sentences:_

  1. She goes everywheres.
  2. Hers is the most illy behaved child I know.
  3. Not muchly will I go.
  4. Use the lesser quantity first.
  5. He is nowhere near so bright as John.
  6. You do the problem thusly.
  7. The causes are firstly, ignorance, and second, lack of energy.
  8. They came unbeknown to me.
  9. He is a dark complected man.
 10. It all happened unbeknownst to them.
 11. His vote was nowhere near so large as usual.

41. ERRORS IN COMPARISON are frequently made. Observe carefully
the following rules:

1. The superlative should not be used in comparing only two things.
One should say, _He is the LARGER of the two_, not _He is the LARGEST
of the two_. But, _He is the largest of the three_, is right.

2. A comparison should not be attempted by adjectives that express
absolute quality--adjectives that cannot be compared; as, _round,
perfect, equally, universal_. A thing may be _round_ or _perfect_,
but it cannot be _more round_ or _most round_, _more perfect_ or
_most perfect_.

3. When two objects are used in the comparative, one must not be
included in the other; but, when two objects are used in the
superlative, one must be included in the other. It is wrong to say,
_The discovery of America was MORE IMPORTANT THAN ANY geographical
discovery_, for that is saying that the discovery of America was
more important than itself--an absurdity. But it would be right to
say, _The discovery of America was more important THAN ANY OTHER
geographical discovery_. One should not say, _He is the most honest
OF HIS fellow-workmen_, for he is not one of his fellow-workmen.
One should say, _He is more honest THAN ANY of his fellow-workmen_,
or, _He is the most honest OF ALL the workmen_. To say, _This machine
is BETTER THAN ANY machine_, is incorrect, but to say, _This machine
is better THAN ANY OTHER machine_, is correct. To say, _This machine
is the BEST OF ANY machine_ (or _any other machine_), is wrong,
because all machines are meant, not one machine or some machines.
To say, _This machine is the BEST OF machines_ (or _the best of
all machines_), is correct.

Note the following rules in regard to the use of _other_ in comparisons:

a. After comparatives followed by _than_ the words _any_ and _all_
should be followed by _other_.

b. After superlatives followed by _of, any_ and _other_ should not
be used.

4. Avoid mixed comparisons. _John is as good, if not better than
she_. If the clause, _if not better_, were left out, this sentence
would read, _John is as good than she_. It could be corrected to
read, _John is as good AS, if not better than she_. Similarly, it
is wrong to say, _He is one of the greatest, if not the greatest,
man in history_.


_Choose the correct word from those italicized:_

  1. The _older oldest_ of the three boys was sick.
  2. Of Smith and Jones, Smith is the _wealthiest wealthier_.
  3. Of two burdens choose the _less least_.
  4. Which can run the _fastest faster_, John or Henry?
  5. Of the two men, Smith and Jones, the _first former_ is the
     _better best_ known.
  6. Which is the _larger largest_ of the two?
  7. Which is the _best better_ of the six?
  8. Which is the _larger largest_ number, six or seven
  9. Which is the _more most_ desirable, health or wealth?
 10. My mother is the _oldest older_ of four sisters.
 11. The _prettier prettiest_ of the twins is the _brighter brightest_.
 12. This is the _duller dullest_ season of the year.
 13. The other is the _worse worst_ behaved of the two.
 14. Which was the _hotter hottest_, yesterday or to-day?
 15. That is the _cleaner cleanest_ of the three streets.


_Correct any of the following sentences that may be wrong. Give
a valid reason for each correction:_

  1. He was the most active of all his friends.
  2. He is the brightest of all his brothers.
  3. Of all the other American Colleges, this is the largest.
  4. Philadelphia is larger than any city in Pennsylvania.
  5. Philadelphia is the largest of all other cities in Pennsylvania.
  6. No city in Pennsylvania is so large as Philadelphia.
  7. That theory is more universally adopted.
  8. He was, of all others, the most clever.
  9. This apple is more perfect than that.
 10. No fruit is so good as the orange.
 11. The orange is better than any fruit.
 12. Of all other fruits the orange is the best.
 13. The orange is the best of all the fruits.
 14. The orange is better than any other fruit.
 15. That is the most principal thing in the lesson.
 16. Which has been of most importance, steam or electricity?
 17. He was more active than any other of his companions.
 18. This apple is rounder than that.
 19. This apple is more nearly round than that.
 20. Paris is the most famous of any other European city.
 21. Pennsylvania is the wealthiest of her sister states.
 22. No state is so wealthy as Pennsylvania.
 23. Pennsylvania is the wealthiest of any of the States.
 24. Pennsylvania is wealthier than any of her other sister states.
 25. New York is one of the largest, if not the largest city in the
 26. That book is as good if not better than mine.
 27. John is taller than any other boy in his classes.
 28. John is taller than any boy in his class.
 29. Iron is the most useful of all other metals.
 30. Iron is the more useful of the metals.
 31. Iron is the most useful of the metals.
 32. Of iron and lead, lead is the heaviest.
 33. Iron is among the most useful, if not the most useful metal.
 34. He is among the oldest if not the oldest of the men in the Senate.
 35. That picture is more beautiful than all the pictures.

42. SINGULAR AND PLURAL ADJECTIVES. Some adjectives can be used
only with singular nouns and some only with plural nouns. Such
adjectives as _one, each, every_, etc., can be used only with singular
nouns. Such adjectives as _several, various, many, sundry, two_,
etc., can be used only with plural nouns. In many cases, the noun
which the adjective modifies is omitted, and the adjective thus
acquires the force of a pronoun; as, _FEW are seen, SEVERAL have

The adjective pronouns _this_ and _that_ have plural forms, _these_
and _those_. The plurals must be used with plural nouns. To say
_those kind_ is then incorrect. It should be _those kinds_. _Those
sort of men_ should be _that sort of men_ or _those sorts of men_.

43. EITHER AND NEITHER are used to designate one of two objects
only. If more than two are referred to, use _any, none, any one,
no one_. Note the following correct sentences:

_NEITHER John nor Henry may go._

_ANY ONE of the three boys may go._

44. EACH OTHER should be used when referring to two; ONE ANOTHER
when referring to more than two. Note the following correct sentences:

_The two brothers love EACH OTHER._

_The four brothers love ONE ANOTHER._


_Correct such of the following sentences as are incorrect. Be able
to give reasons:_

  1. He is six foot tall.
  2. I like those kind of fruit.
  3. He lost several pound.
  4. I have not seen him this twenty year.
  5. Have you heard these news?
  6. Are they those kind of people?
  7. He rode ten mile.
  8. There were fifteen car-load of people.
  9. These kind of books are interesting.
 10. Several phenomenon marked his character.
 11. There are a few crisis in every man's career.
 12. Each strata of the rock lies at an angle.
 13. The poem has six verse in it.
 14. Either of the five will do.
 15. Little children should love each other.
 16. Neither of the large cities in the United States is so large as
 17. You will be able to find it in either one of those three books.
 18. Those two brothers treat one another very coldly.
 19. Neither of the many newspapers published an account of it.
 20. Either law or medicine is his profession.
 21. Some ten box of shoes were on the train.
 22. Those two statements contradict one another.
 23. The Sahara Desert has several oasis.
 24. How can he associate with those sort of men?

45. PLACING OF ADVERBS AND ADJECTIVES. In the placing of adjective
elements and adverbial elements in the sentence, one should so
arrange them as to leave no doubt as to what they are intended to

Wrong: A man was riding on a _horse wearing gray trousers_.

Right: A _man wearing gray trousers_ was riding on a horse.

The adverb _only_ requires especial attention. Generally _only_
should come before the word it is intended to modify. Compare the
following correct sentences, and note the differences in meaning.

_Only_ he found the book.

He _only_ found the book.

He found _only_ the book.

He found the book _only_.

The placing of the words, _almost, ever, hardly, scarcely, merely_,
and _quite_, also requires care and thought.


_Correct the errors in the location of adjectives and adverbs in
the following sentences:_

  1. I only paid five dollars.
  2. I have only done six problems.
  3. The clothing business is only profitable in large towns.
  4. The school is only open in the evening.
  5. I only need ten minutes in which to do it.
  6. He had almost climbed to the top when the ladder broke.
  7. I never expect to see the like again.
  8. A black base-ball player's suit was found.
  9. Do you ever remember to have seen the man before?
 10. The building was trimmed with granite carved corners.
 11. People ceased to wonder gradually.
 12. The captain only escaped by hiding in a ditch.
 13. I never wish to think of it again.
 14. On the trip in that direction he almost went to Philadelphia.
 15. Acetylene lamps are only used now in the country.
 16. He only spoke of history, not of art.
 17. I know hardly what to say.
 18. I was merely talking of grammar, not of English literature.
 19. The girls were nearly dressed in the same color.
 20. He merely wanted to see you.

46. DOUBLE NEGATIVES. _I am here_ is called an affirmative statement.
A denial of that, _I am not here_, is called a negative statement.
The words, _not, neither, never, none, nothing_, etc., are all
negative words; that is, they serve to make denials of statements.

Two negatives should never be used in the same sentence, since
the effect is then to deny the negative you wish to assert, and
an affirmative is made where a negative is intended. _We haven't
no books_, means that we have some books. The proper negative form
would be, _We have no books_, or _We haven't any books_. The mistake
occurs usually where such forms as _isn't, don't, haven't_, etc.,
are used. Examine the following sentences:

Wrong: _It isn't no_ use.

Wrong: There _don't none_ of them believe it.

Wrong: We _didn't_ do _nothing_.

_Hardly, scarcely, only_, and _but_ (in the sense of _only_) are
often incorrectly used with a negative. Compare the following right
and wrong forms:

Wrong: It was so dark that we _couldn't hardly_ see.

Right: It was so dark that we _could hardly_ see.

Wrong: There _wasn't only_ one person present.

Right: There _was only_ one person present.


Correct the following sentences:

  1. I can't find it nowhere.
  2. For a time I couldn't scarcely tell where I was.
  3. They are not allowed to go only on holidays.
  4. There isn't but one person that can make the speech.
  5. They didn't find no treasure.
  6. It won't take but a few minutes to read it all.
  7. I haven't seen but two men there.
  8. There isn't no one here who knows it.
  9. I didn't see no fire; my opinion is that there wasn't no fire.
 10. I can't hardly prove that statement.
 11. I didn't feel hardly able to go.
 12. She couldn't stay only a week.
 13. I hadn't scarcely reached shelter when the storm began.
 14. You wouldn't scarcely believe that it could be done.
 15. He said that he wouldn't bring only his wife.
 16. There isn't nothing in the story.
 17. He doesn't do nothing.
 18. I can't think of nothing but that.
 19. He can't hardly mean that.
 20. He isn't nowhere near so bright as I.
 21. He can't hardly come to-night.
 22. It is better to not think nothing about it.
 23. She can't only do that.
 24. There isn't no use of his objecting to it.
 25. There shan't none of them go along with us.
 26. Don't never do that again.
 27. We could not find but three specimens of the plant.
 28. He wasn't scarcely able to walk.
 29. He hasn't none of his work prepared.

47. THE ARTICLES. _A, an_, and _the_, are called Articles. _A_ and
_an_ are called the INDEFINITE ARTICLES, because they are used to
limit the noun to any one thing of a class; as, _a book, a chair_.
But _a_ or _an_ is not used to denote the whole of that class;
as, _Silence is golden_, or, _He was elected to the office of

_The_ is called the DEFINITE ARTICLE because it picks out some one
definite individual from a class.

In the sentence, _On the street are A brick and A stone house_,
the article is repeated before each adjective; the effect of this
repetition is to make the sentence mean two houses. But, in the
sentence, _On the street is A brick and stone house_, since the
article is used only before the first of the two adjectives, the
sentence means that there is only one house and that it is constructed
of brick and stone.

Where two nouns refer to the same object, the article need appear
only before the first of the two; as, _God, the author and creator
of the universe_. But where the nouns refer to two different objects,
regarded as distinct from each other, the article should appear
before each; as, _He bought a horse and a cow_.

_A_ is used before all words except those beginning with a vowel
sound. Before those beginning with a vowel sound _an_ is used.
If, in a succession of words, one of these forms could not be used
before all of the words, then the article must be repeated before
each. Thus, one should say, _AN ax, A saw, and AN adze_ (not _An
ax, saw and adze_), _made up his outfit_. Generally it is better
to repeat the article in each case, whether or not it be the same.

Do not say, _kind of A HOUSE_. Since _a house_ is singular, it
can have but one kind. Say instead, a _kind of house, a sort of
man_, etc.


_Correct the following where you think correction is needed:_

  1. Where did you get that kind of a notion?
  2. She is an eager and an ambitious girl.
  3. He received the degree of a Master of Arts.
  4. The boy and girl came yesterday.
  5. Neither the man nor woman was here.
  6. He was accompanied by a large and small man.
  7. He planted an oak, maple and ash.
  8. The third of the team were hurt.
  9. The noun and verb will be discussed later.
 10. I read a Pittsburg and Philadelphia paper.
 11. Read the third and sixth sentence.
 12. Read the comments in a monthly and weekly periodical.
 13. He is dying from the typhoid fever.
 14. He was elected the secretary and the treasurer of the
 15. What sort of a student are you?
 16. He is a funny kind of a fellow.
 17. Bring me a new and old chair.
 18. That is a sort of a peculiar idea.
 19. He was operated upon for the appendicitis.
 20. Lock the cat and dog up.

48. No adverb necessary to the sense should be omitted from the
sentence. Such improper omission is frequently made when _very_ or
_too_ are used with past participles that are not also recognized
as adjectives; as,

Poor: I am _very insulted_. He was _too wrapped_ in thought to notice
the mistake.

Right: I am _very much insulted_. He was _too much wrapped_ in thought
to notice the mistake.


_Write sentences containing the following adjectives and adverbs.
Be sure that they are used correctly._

Both, each, every, only, evidently, hard, latest, awful, terribly,
charming, charmingly, lovely, brave, perfect, straight, extreme,
very, either, neither, larger, oldest, one, none, hardly, scarcely,
only, but, finally, almost, ever, never, new, newly, very.



49. A VERB has already been defined as a word stating something
about the subject. Verbs are inflected or changed to indicate the
time of the action as past, present, or future; as, _I talk, I
talked, I shall talk_, etc. Verbs also vary to indicate completed
or incompleted action; as, _I have talked, I shall have talked_,
etc. To these variations, which indicate the time of the action,
the name TENSE is given.

The full verbal statement may consist of several words; as, _He
MAY HAVE GONE home_. Here the verb is _may have gone_. The last
word of such a verb phrase is called the PRINCIPAL VERB, and the
other words the AUXILIARIES. In the sentence above, _go (gone)_
is the principal verb, and _may_ and _have_ are the auxiliaries.

50. In constructing the full form of the verb or verb phrase there
are three distinct parts from which all other forms are made. These
are called the PRINCIPAL PARTS.

The First Principal Part, since it is the part by which the verb is
referred to as a word, may be called the NAME-FORM. The following
are name-forms: _do, see, come, walk, pass_.

The Second Principal Part is called the PAST TENSE. It is formed
by adding _ed_ to the name-form; as, _walked, pushed, passed_.
These verbs that add _ed_ are called Regular Verbs. The verb form
is often entirely changed; as, _done (do), saw (see), came (come)_.
These verbs are called Irregular Verbs.

The Third Principal Part is called the PAST PARTICIPLE. It is used
mainly in expressing completed action or in the passive voice.
In regular verbs the past participle is the same in form as the
past tense. In irregular verbs it may differ entirely from both
the name-form and the past tense, or it may resemble one or both
of them. Examples: _done (do, did), seen (see, saw), come (come,
came), set (set, set)_.

51. THE NAME-FORM, when unaccompanied by auxiliaries, is used with
all subjects, except those in the third person singular, to assert
action in the present time or present tense; as, _I go, We come,
You see, Horses run_.

The name-form is also used with various auxiliaries (_may, might,
can, must, will, should, shall_, etc.) to assert futurity,
determination, possibility, possession, etc. Examples: _I may go,
We shall come, You can see, Horses should run_.

By preceding it with the word _to_, the name-form is used to form
what is called the PRESENT INFINITIVE; as, _I wish to go, I hope
to see_.

What may be called the S-FORM of the verb, or the SINGULAR form,
is usually constructed by adding _s_ or _es_ to the name-form.
The s-form is used with singular subjects in the third person; as,
_He goes, She comes, It runs, The dog trots_.

The s-form is found in the third personal singular of the present
tense. In other tenses, if present at all, the s-form is in the
auxiliary, where the present tense of the auxiliary is used to
form some other tense of the principal verb. Examples: _He has_
(present tense), _He has gone_ (perfect tense), _He has been seen_.

Some verbs have no s-form; as, _will, shall, may_. The verb _be_
has two irregular s-forms: _Is_, in the present tense, and _was_
in the past tense. The s-form of _have_ is _has_.

52. The past tense always stands alone in the predicate; i. e., IT
is one of the most frequent errors in grammar. The following are
past tense forms: _went, saw, wore, tore_. To say, therefore, _I
have saw, I have went, It was tore, They were wore_, would be grossly

53. The third principal part, the past participle, on the other
The following are distinctly past participle forms: _done, seen,
sung_, etc. One could not then properly say, _I seen, I done, I
sung_, etc.

The distinction as to use with and without auxiliaries applies, of
course, only to irregular verbs. In regular verbs, the past tense
and past participle are always the same, and so no error could
result from their confusion.

The past participle is used to form the _Perfect Infinitives_; as,
_to have gone, to have seen, to have been seen_.

54. The following is a list of the principal parts of the most
important irregular verbs. The list should be mastered thoroughly.
The student should bear in mind always that, THE PAST TENSE FORM

In some instances verbs have been included in the list below which
are always regular in their forms, or which have both regular and
irregular forms. These are verbs for whose principal parts incorrect
forms are often used.


_Name-form                   Past Tense                  Past Participle_
awake                       awoke or awaked             awaked
begin                       began                       begun
beseech                     besought                    besought
bid (to order or to greet)  bade                        bidden or bid
bid (at auction)            bid                         bidden or bid
blow                        blew                        blown
break                       broke                       broken
burst                       burst                       burst
choose                      chose                       chosen
chide                       chid                        chidden or chid
come                        came                        come
deal                        dealt                       dealt
dive                        dived                       dived

_Name-form                   Past Tense                  Past Participle_
do                          did                         done
draw                        drew                        drawn
drink                       drank                       drunk or drank
drive                       drove                       driven
eat                         ate                         eaten
fall                        fell                        fallen
flee                        fled                        fled
fly                         flew                        flown
forsake                     forsook                     forsaken
forget                      forgot                      forgot or forgotten
freeze                      froze                       frozen
get                         got                         got (gotten)
give                        gave                        given
go                          went                        gone
hang (clothes)              hung                        hung
hang (a man)                hanged                      hanged
know                        knew                        known
lay                         laid                        laid
lie                         lay                         lain
mean                        meant                       meant
plead                       pleaded                     pleaded
prove                       proved                      proved
ride                        rode                        ridden
raise                       raised                      raised
rise                        rose                        risen
run                         ran                         run
see                         saw                         seen
seek                        sought                      sought
set                         set                         set
shake                       shook                       shaken
shed                        shed                        shed
shoe                        shod                        shod
sing                        sang                        sung
sit                         sat                         sat
slay                        slew                        slain
sink                        sank                        sunk
speak                       spoke                       spoken

_Name-form                   Past Tense                  Past Participle_
steal                       stole                       stolen
swim                        swam                        swum
take                        took                        taken
teach                       taught                      taught
tear                        tore                        torn
throw                       threw                       thrown
tread                       trod                        trod or trodden
wake                        woke or waked               woke or waked
wear                        wore                        worn
weave                       wove                        woven
write                       wrote                       written

NOTES.--_Ought_ has no past participle. It may then never be used
with an auxiliary. _I had ought to go_ is incorrect. The idea would
be amply expressed by _I ought to go_.

MODEL CONJUGATIONS of the verbs _to be_ and _to see_ in all forms
are given under §77 at the end of this chapter.


_In the following sentences change the italicized verb so as to
use the past tense, and then so as to use the past participle:_

Example: (Original sentence),          _The guests begin to go home._
         (Changed to past tense),      _The guests began to go home._
         (Changed to past participle), _The guests have begun to go home._

  1. Our books _lie_ on the mantel.
  2. John _comes_ in and _lays_ his books on the desk.
  3. I _see_ the parade.
  4. He _runs_ up the road.
  5. They _set_ their chairs in a row.
  6. The noise _wakes_ me.
  7. Cæsar _bids_ him enter.
  8. If they _prove_ their innocence, they should be discharged.
  9. His friends _plead_ strongly for him.
 10. Do you know what they _mean_ by that?
 11. I _awake_ early every morning.
 12. He _begins_ to think of strange things.
 13. The children _beseech_ me to go with them.
 14. My mother _bids_ me to say that she will be here at six.
 15. Smith _bids_ fifty dollars for the chair.
 16. My servants _break_ many dishes.
 17. They _choose_ their associates.
 18. The box _bursts_ open.
 19. His mother _chides_ him for his misbehavior.
 20. He _comes_ here every day.
 21. I _deal_ there this week.
 22. The boys _dive_ beautifully.
 23. You _do_ so much more than is necessary.
 24. They _draw_ lots for the watch.
 25. Jones _drinks_ this wine very seldom.
 26. They _drive_ over to Milton once a week.
 27. They _drive_ a sorrel horse.
 28. The cows _eat_ grass.
 29. The Gauls _flee_ before Cæsar.
 30. The swallows all _fly_ into the chimney at evening.
 31. They _forsake_ the cause without any reason.
 32. Cæsar _gives_ them no answer.
 33. They _get_ no money for their services.
 34. You _forget_ that we have no right to do that.
 35. Water _freezes_ at thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit.
 36. The ball _goes_ to the opposing team.
 37. You _hang_ the rope on the tree.
 38. The sheriff _hangs_ the murderer at noon.
 39. I _know_ of nothing more worrying.
 40. She _lays_ the knife on the table.
 41. They _lie_ in bed until eleven.
 42. Why they _rise_ so late, I do not know.
 43. They _raise_ no objection.
 44. John _runs_ very rapidly.
 45. You _sit_ very quietly.
 46. Cæsar _seeks_ to learn the intention of the enemy.
 47. The politician vigorously _shakes_ all hands.
 48. The roof _sheds_ water in all storms.
 49. The blacksmith _shoes_ horses.
 50. The choir _sings_ for each service.
 51. You _speak_ too rapidly to be easily understood.
 52. Few men _steal_ because they want to.
 53. I _swim_ one hundred yards very readily.
 54. They _teach_ all the elementary branches there.
 55. You _take_ all subscriptions for the concert.
 56. Those clothes _tear_ readily.
 57. They _tread_ the grapes in making wine.
 58. Who _throws_ paper on the floor?
 59. I always _wear_ old clothes in which to work.
 60. She _writes_ to her mother daily.
 61. They _weave_ the best rugs in Philadelphia.


_Write original sentences containing the following verbs, correctly

Begun, blew, bidden, bad, chose, broke, come, dealt, dived, drew,
driven, flew, forsook, froze, given, give, gave, went, hanged,
knew, rode, pleaded, ran, seen, saw, shook, shod, sung, slew, spoke,
swum, taken, torn, wore, threw, woven, wrote, written.


_Insert the proper form of the verb in the following sentences.
The verb to be used is in black-faced type at the beginning of
each group:_

  1. BEGIN. He ---- to act at once. The reports ---- to disturb
     him a little. He has ---- to feel hurt over them.
  2. BID. The proprietor ---- us a pleasant good day. No matter
     how much he ---- the auctioneer will not hear him. We were
     ---- to enter.
  3. BLOW. The cornetist ---- with all his might. The ship was
     ---- about all day. The wind does ---- terrifically sometimes.
     It may ---- to-night. The wind ---- all last night.
  4. BREAK. He fell and ---- his leg. It is well that his neck
     was not ----.
  5. BURST. During the battle the shells frequently ---- right
     over us. Oaken casks have often ----.
  6. CHIDE. He ---- us frequently about our actions. He was
     never ---- himself.
  7. CHOOSE. They ---- him president. They have ---- wisely.
  8. COME. He ---- at nine to-day. He has always ---- earlier
     heretofore. Let him ---- when he wishes.
  9. DEAL. Before explaining the game, he ---- out the cards.
 10. DIVE. Twice last summer he ---- off the bridge.
 11. DO. Thou canst not say I ---- it. He often ---- it.
 12. DRAW. The picture was ---- by a famous artist. He formerly
     ---- very well, but I think that now he ---- very poorly.
 13. DRIVE. The horse was ---- twenty miles. He almost ----
     it to death.
 14. EAT. He ---- everything which the others had not ----.
     How can he ---- that?
 15. FLEE. Since the cashier has ----, they think that a warrant
     would be useless.
 16. FLY. The air-ship ---- three hundred miles on its first trip.
     That it has ---- so far is sufficient proof of its success.
 17. FORSAKE. He ---- his new friends just as he had ---- all the
 18. FREEZE. The man was ---- stiff. He evidently ---- to death
     so easily because he had been so long without food.
 19. GIVE. She was not ---- as much as her sisters. Her father
     ---- her less because of her extravagance. But, he now ----
     her enough to make it up.
 20. GO. She ---- to school to-day. She ---- yesterday. She has
     ---- every day this month.
 21. KNOW. He ---- that he cannot live. As long as I have
     ---- him, this is the first time I ever ---- he was married.
 22. MEAN. He ---- to do right, and has always ---- to do so.
 23. RIDE. They ---- as if they had ---- a long distance. They
     say that they ---- from Larimer this morning.
 24. PLEAD. The mother ---- an hour for her son's life.
 25. PROVE. They ---- him a thief in the eyes of the people, even
     if he was not ---- so to the satisfaction of the jury.
 26. RUN. John ---- the race as though he had ---- races all
     his life. The race was ---- very rapidly. Soon after that race,
     he ---- in another race.
 27. SEE. Smith, who has just arrived, says he ---- two men
     skulking along the road. He was not ---- by them. That play
     is the best I ever ----.
 28. SEEK. The detectives ---- all through the slums for him.
     Now they ---- him in the better parts of the city. No criminal
     was ever more eagerly ----.
 29. SHAKE. During the day his hand was ---- five hundred times. He
     ---- hands with all who came.
 30. SHOE. The entire army was ---- with Blank's shoes.
 31. SING. The choir ---- the anthem as they had never ---- it before.
     They always ---- it well.
 32. SINK. The stone ---- as soon as it is in the water. The
     ship was ---- in forty fathoms of water. They ---- the ship in
 33. SPEAK. Though they claimed that they always ---- to her, she was
     really never ---- to by any member of the family.
 34. STEAL. The money was ----; whether or not he ---- it I
     do not know. Everyone believes that he has frequently ---- goods
     from the store.
 35. TAKE. I was ---- for him several times that day. No one ever
     ---- me for him before.
 36. TEACH. John ---- school every day. He has ---- for ten years.
     He first ---- when he was eighteen years old.
 37. TEAR. The dog ---- at the paper until it was ---- entirely
     to pieces. He ---- up everything he finds.
 38. THROW. He was ---- by a horse which never before ---- anyone.
 39. WEAR. The trousers were ---- entirely out in a month, but I ----
     the coat and vest for six months.
 40. WEAVE. This carpet was ---- at Philadelphia. The manufacturers
     say they never ---- a better one, and they ---- the best in the
 41. WRITE. Although he has ---- several times, he has never ----
     anything about that. He ---- to me just last week. He ---- at
     least once a month.


_Correct the errors in the use of verbs in the following sentences:_

  1. He plead all day to be released.
  2. The horse was rode to death.
  3. The letter was wrote before he knowed the truth.
  4. He was immediately threw out of the room.
  5. She run around all day and then was sick the next day.
  6. I never seen anything like it.
  7. He was very much shook by the news.
  8. The matter was took up by the committee.
  9. The horse has been stole from the owner.
 10. Goliath was slew by David.
 11. The words have been spoke in anger.
 12. I have went to church every day.
 13. Was the river froze enough for skating?
 14. He begun to take notice immediately.
 15. The umbrella was blew to pieces.
 16. I have broke my ruler.
 17. Jones was chose as leader of the class.
 18. He said he come as soon as he could.
 19. I done it.
 20. I have never did anything so foolish.
 21. I have ate all that was in the lunch-box.
 22. The horse was drove ten miles.


_Write sentences in which the following verb forms are properly

begun, blew, broke, chose, come, came, done, did, drew, drunk,
drove, ate, flew, forsook, froze, forgot, gave, give, went, hang,
hung, knew, rode, run, shook, sung, slew, spoke, stole, took, tore,
threw, wore, wrote.

in which the action of the verb goes over to a receiver; as, _He
KILLED the horse, I KEEP my word_. In both these sentences, the
verb serves to transfer the action from the subject to the object
or receiver of the action. The verbs in these sentences, and all
similar verbs, are transitive verbs. All others, in which the action
does not go to a receiver, are called INTRANSITIVE VERBS.

56. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE. The ACTIVE VOICE represents the subject
as the doer of the action; as, _I tell, I see, He makes chairs_.
The PASSIVE VOICE represents the subject as the receiver of the
action; as, _I am told, I am seen, I have been seen, Chairs are
made by me_. Since only transitive verbs can have a receiver of
the action, only transitive verbs can have both active and passive

57. There are a few special verbs in which the failure to distinguish
between the transitive and the intransitive verbs leads to frequent
error. The most important of these verbs are the following: _sit,
set, awake, wake, lie, lay, rise, arise, raise, fell_, and _fall_.
Note again the principal parts of these verbs:

wake (to rouse another)     woke, waked     woke, waked
awake (to cease to sleep)   awoke, awaked   awaked

fell (to strike down)       felled          felled
fall (to topple over)       fell            fallen

lay (to place)              laid            laid
lie (to recline)            lay             lain

raise (to cause to ascend)  raised          raised
(a)rise (to ascend)         (a)rose         (a)risen

set (to place)              set             set
sit (to rest)               sat             sat

The first of each pair of the above verbs is transitive, and the
second is intransitive. Only the first, then, of each pair can
have an object or can be used in the passive voice.

NOTES.--The following exceptions in the use of _sit_ and _set_
are, by reason of usage, regarded as correct: _The sun sets, The
moon sets, They sat themselves down to rest_, and _He set out for

_Lie_, meaning to deceive, has for its principal parts, _lie, lied,
lied. Lie_, however, with this meaning is seldom confused with _lie_
meaning to recline. The present participle of _lie_ is _lying_.

Compare the following sentences, and note the reasons why the second
form in each case is the correct form.

WRONG                              RIGHT
Awake me early to-morrow.          Wake me early to-morrow.
He was awoke by the noise.         He was woke (waked) by the noise.
He has fallen a tree.              He has felled a tree.
I have laid down.                  I have lain down.
I lay the book down (past tense).  I laid the book down.
The river has raised.              The river has risen.
He raised in bed.                  He rose in bed.
I set there.                       I sat there.
I sat the chair there.             I set the chair there.


_Form an original sentence showing the proper use of each of the
following words:_

Lie, lay (to place), sit, set, sat, sitting, setting, lie (to recline),
lie (to deceive), lying, laying, rise, arose, raised, raise, fell (to
topple over), fallen, felled, awake, wake, awaked, woke, falling,
felling, rising, raising, waking, awaking, lain, laid, lied.


_Correct such of the following sentences as are wrong:_

  1. Let sleeping dogs lay.
  2. The sun has sat in the golden west.
  3. He has laid in bed all morning.
  4. He will sit out on his journey this morning.
  5. Let him sit there as long as he wishes.
  6. He sat the chair by the table.
  7. He awoke everybody at daylight.
  8. He laid down to sleep.
  9. Let him lie there until he wakes.
 10. The shower has lain the dust.
 11. The curtain raised because it was raised by his orders.
 12. The river has risen four feet.
 13. Falling trees is his amusement.
 14. To have been awaked then would have been sad.
 15. To have waked then would have been sad.
 16. Waking at dawn, they renewed the journey.
 17. He has set there all day.
 18. He lay the papers before the judge.
 19. The judge laid the papers aside.
 20. Lieing in the shade is his most strenuous occupation.


_In the following sentences fill the blanks with the proper forms
of the verbs indicated:_


  1. I ---- in that seat all the evening.
  2. Please ---- here until I return.
  3. He was still ----ting there on my return.
  4. The sun ---- in the west.
  5. He ---- out for home yesterday.
  6. ---- down and rest awhile.
  7. James ---- down and talked to me.
  8. He was engaged in ----ting out flowers.
  9. I ---- the bucket on the rock above the bridge.
 10. Last evening we ---- at the table for more than an hour.
 11. ---- here until I call my mother.
 12. ---- the lamp on the table.
 13. He has ---- there all day.
 14. The chair was ---- by the desk.
 15. I usually ---- up until twelve.
 16. She ---- the hen on some eggs and she remained ---- there.
 17. She told me to ---- there, and I ---- down.
 18. By whom has the lamp been ---- there?
 19. I ---- my chair by the window and ---- there all the afternoon.
 20. How can she ---- still for so long?
 21. The moon ---- at twelve.


  1. I ---- down this afternoon to rest.
  2. I ---- in bed until late every morning.
  3. I have frequently ---- in bed until eleven.
  4. He always ---- his books on the desk.
  5. He just now ---- his books on the desk.
  6. He has ---- them there every morning.
  7. His books have sometimes ---- there all day.
  8. His books have sometimes been ----ing there before I arrive.
  9. After he ---- down he remembered that he had left a letter
     on his desk.
 10. Will it not be well for you to ---- down for a while?
 11. I ---- on the grass yesterday for an hour or more.
 12. I have ---- down and feel much better.
 13. Now I ---- me down to sleep.
 14. The scene of the play is ---- in rural Pennsylvania.
 15. The tramps ---- behind the barn waiting for dawn.
 16. I had ---- down to rest before (set or sit) ting out on my
 17. The floor was ---- by an expert carpenter.
 18. She told me to ---- the matter before the teacher.
 19. ---- down, Fido.
 20. When we are weary, we ---- down.
 21. Who ---- that on the table?
 22. He has repeatedly ---- about the matter.
 23. He ---- without the slightest hesitation.
 24. ----ing down is a good way to rest.
 25. ----ing is a sin.
 26. He ---- to his father, and his father knew it.


  1. I will ---- and go unto my father.
  2. He has ---- early to-day.
  3. I do not know why he ---- so early.
  4. ---- your hand if you know.
  5. Everyone ---- his hand.
  6. They have all ---- their hands.
  7. All their hands were ---- at once.
  8. The price of meat has ----.
  9. The bread would not ----.
 10. I ---- in order that I might see better.
 11. The flag was very carefully ----.
 12. He tried to ---- himself from the condition into which he had
 13. The curtain is to ---- at eight. I myself shall see to ----ing
     it then.
 14. The boy ---- and answers.
 15. He is ---- rapidly to prominence.
 16. Will you please ---- the window?
 17. The safe was ---- by means of a rope.
 18. It is like trying to ---- one's self by one's boot-straps.
 19. ---- and march to the front of the room.
 20. The river ---- rapidly.


  1. Gladstone, when living, ---- a tree each morning for exercise.
  2. To ---- an ox with one blow of the fist is a feat of wonderful
  3. He was ---- to the earth by a blow from a club.
  4. To ---- often is to be expected in learning to skate.
  5. ----ing down is a small matter to the young.
  6. He has often ---- from the roof of the porch.
  7. After he ---- once, he seemed to try to do so again.
  8. I did not see him----.
  9. Not a shot is fired but a bird ----.
 10. Let the tree be ---- across the road.
 11. It is hard to avoid ----ing on the ice.


  1. Have them ---- me very early.
  2. He went upstairs and ---- his brother.
  3. His brother did not wish to be ---- so early.
  4. This morning I ---- at dawn.
  5. It is unpleasant to ---- so early.
  6. You say that you have never ---- after nine?
  7. Who ---- so early, this morning?
  8. He would not say who ---- him.
  9. ----ing in the dead of night is unpleasant.
 10. ----ing everybody up by their noise is an every night
 11. The sun ---- me early.
 12. The whole country-side seemed to ---- at once.
 13. He had himself ---- at six o'clock.

58. MODE. Mode is that form of the verb which indicates the manner
in which the action or state is to be regarded. There are several
modes in English, but only between the indicative and subjunctive
modes is the distinction important. Generally speaking, the INDICATIVE
MODE is used when the statement is regarded as a fact or as truth,
and the SUBJUNCTIVE MODE is used when the statement expresses
uncertainty or implies some degree of doubt.

59. FORMS OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE. The places in which the subjunctive
differs from the indicative are in the present and past tenses
of the verb _be_, and in the present tense of active verbs. The
following outline will show the difference between the indicative
and the subjunctive of _be_:

I am                we are       I was                we were
thou art            you are      thou wert or wast    you were
he (she, it) is     they are     he (she, it) was     they were

If I be             If we be     If I were            If we were
If thou be          If you be    If thou were         If you were
If he (she, it) be  If they be   If he (she, it) were If they were

_If_ is used only as an example of the conjunctions on which the
subjunctive depends. Other conjunctions may be used, or the verb
may precede the subject.

NOTE.--It will be noticed that _thou art_ and _thou wast_, etc.,
have been used in the second person singular. Strictly speaking,
these are the proper forms to be used here, even though _you are_
and _you were_, etc., are customarily used in addressing a single

In the subjunctive of _be_, it will be noted that the form _be_ is
used throughout the present tense; and the form _were_ throughout
the past tense.

In other verbs the subjunctive, instead of having the s-form in
the third person singular of the present tense, has the name-form,
or the same form as all the other forms of the present tense; as,
indicative, _he runs, she sees, it seems, he has;_ subjunctive,
_if he run, though she see, lest it seem, if he have_.

NOTE.--An examination of the model conjugations under §77 will give
a further understanding of the forms of the subjunctive.

60. USE OF INDICATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE. The indicative mode would
be properly used in the following sentence, when the statement is
regarded as true: _If that evidence is true, then he is a criminal_.
Similarly: _If he is rich, he ought to be charitable_. Most directly
declarative statements are put in the indicative mode.

But when the sense of the statement shows uncertainty in the speaker's
mind, or shows that the condition stated is regarded as contrary to
fact or as untrue, the subjunctive is used. Note the two sentences
following, in which the conditions are properly in the subjunctive:
_If those statements be true, then all statements are true, Were
I rich, I might be charitable_.

The subjunctive is usually preceded by the conjunctions, _if, though,
lest, although_, or the verb precedes the subject. But it must be
borne in mind that these do not always indicate the subjunctive

It should be added that the subjunctive is perhaps going out of
use; some of the best writers no longer use its forms. This passing
of the subjunctive is to be regretted and to be discouraged, since
its forms give opportunity for many fine shades of meaning.


_Write five sentences which illustrate the correct use of BE in
the third person singular without an auxiliary, and five which
illustrate the correct use of WERE in the third person singular._


_Choose the preferable form in the following sentences, and be able
to give a definite reason for your choice. In some of the sentences
either form may be used correctly:_

  1. He acts as if it _were was_ possible always to escape death.
  2. If it _was were_ near enough, I should walk.
  3. If I _was were_ only wealthy!
  4. If I _were was_ in his place, I should study medicine.
  5. If you _are be_ right, then the book is wrong.
  6. If he _was were_ I, he would come.
  7. Though he _was were_ very economical, he remained poor.
  8. Though she _was were_ an angel, I should dislike her.
  9. If he _be is_ there, ask him to pay the bill.
 10. If he _be is_ there, he makes no sign of his presence.
 11. If this _be is_ wrong, then all love of country is wrong.
 12. If it _rains rain_, I stay at school.
 13. Take care lest you _are be_ deceived by appearances.
 14. Would that I _was were_ a bird.
 15. If it _snow snows_, I can't come.
 16. If your father _comes come_, bring him to dinner.
 17. If your father _was were_ here, you would act differently.
 18. Though he _were was_ king over all the earth I should despise
 19. If he _come comes_, he will find me at home.
 20. _Was were_ it necessary, I should jump.
 21. If to-morrow _be is_ pleasant, we shall go driving.
 22. If my mother _was were_ here, she would say I might go.
 23. If she _was were_ at home, I did not hear of it.
 24. If that _is be_ his motive, he is unworthy.
 25. Though this _seem seems_ improbable, it is true.
 26. If a speech _is be_ praised by none but literary men, it is bad.
 27. If the father _pays pay_ the debt, he will be released.
 28. Though Mary _be is_ young, she is a writer of note.
 29. Unless he _takes take_ better care of his health, he will die.
 30. If he _be is_ honest, he has not shown it.
 31. If he _be is_ honest, he will insist on paying me.
 32. If he ever _tell tells_ the truth, he conceals the fact.

ITS SUBJECT IN PERSON AND NUMBER. The most frequent error is the
failure of the verb to agree in number with its subject. Singular
subjects are used with plural verbs, and plural subjects with singular
verbs. These errors arise chiefly from a misapprehension of the
true number of the subject.

The s-form of the verb is the only distinct singular form, and
occurs only in the third person, singular, present indicative;
as, _He runs, she goes, it moves_. _Is, was_, and _has_ are the
singular forms of the auxiliaries. _Am_ is used only with a subject
in the first person, and is not a source of confusion. The other
auxiliaries have no singular forms.

Failure of the verb and its subject to agree in person seldom occurs,
and so can cause little confusion.

Examine the following correct forms of agreement of verb and subject:

A barrel of clothes WAS shipped (not _were shipped_).

A man and a woman HAVE been here (not _has been here_).

Boxes ARE scarce (not _is scarce_).

When WERE the brothers here (not _when was_)?

be borne in mind in regard to number, is that IT IS THE MEANING
to the use of singular or plural pronouns.

Many nouns plural in form are singular in meaning; as, _politics,
measles, news_, etc.

Many, also, are treated as plurals, though in meaning they are singular;
as, _forceps, tongs, trousers_.

Some nouns, singular in form, are, according to the sense in which,
they are used, either singular or plural in meaning; as, _committee,
family, pair, jury, assembly, means_. The following sentences are
all correct: _The assembly has closed its meeting, The assembly
are all total abstainers, The whole family is a famous one, The
whole family are sick_.

In the use of the adjective pronouns, _some, each_, etc., the noun
is often omitted. When this is done, error is often made by using
the wrong number of the verb. _Each, either, neither, this, that_,
and _one_, when used alone as subjects, require singular verbs.
_All, those, these, few, many_, always require plural verbs. _Any,
none_, and _some_ may take either singular or plural verbs. In most
of these cases, as is true throughout the subject of agreement in
number, reason will determine the form to be used.

Some nouns in a plural form express quantity rather than number.
When quantity is plainly intended the singular verb should be used.
Examine the following sentences; each is correct: _Three drops of
medicine is a dose, Ten thousand tons of coal was purchased by
the firm, Two hundred dollars was the amount of the collection,
Two hundred silver dollars were in the collection_.


_In each of the following sentences, by giving a reason, justify
the correctness of the agreement in number of the verb and the

  1. The jury have agreed.
  2. The jury has been sent out to reconsider its verdict.
  3. The committee has presented its report, but they have differed
     in regard to one matter.
  4. The whole tribe was destroyed.
  5. The tribe were scattered through the different states.
  6. The regiment were almost all sick.
  7. A variety of persons was there.
  8. The society meets each month.
  9. The society is divided in its opinion.
 10. A number were unable to be present.
 11. A great number was present.
 12. The number present was great.
 13. What means were used to gain his vote?
 14. That means of gaining votes is corrupt.
 15. Seventeen pounds was the cat's weight.
 16. Twenty years of his life was spent in prison.
 17. Two hundred pounds was his weight.
 18. The family are all at home.
 19. The family is large.
 20. A pair of gloves has been lost.
 21. A pair of twins were sitting in the doorway.
 22. The army was defeated.


_Construct sentences in which each of the words named below is
used correctly as the subject of some one of the verbs, IS, WAS,

One, none, nobody, everybody, this, that, these, those, former,
latter, few, some, many, other, any, all, such, news, pains, measles,
gallows, ashes, dregs, goods, pincers, thanks, victuals, vitals,
mumps, flock, crowd, fleet, group, choir, class, army, mob, tribe,
herd, committee, tons, dollars, bushels, carloads, gallons, days,


_Go over each of the above sentences and determine whether IT or
THEY should be used in referring to the subject._


1. When a singular noun is modified by two adjectives so as to
mean two distinct things, the verb should be in the plural; as,
_French and German literature ARE studied._

2. When the verb applies to the different parts of the compound
subject, the plural form of the verb should be used; as, _John
and Harry ARE still to come._

3. When the verb applies to one subject and not to the others,
it should agree with that subject to which it applies; as, _The
employee, and not the employers, WAS to blame, The employers, and
not the employee, WERE to blame, The boy, as well as his sisters,
DESERVES praise._

4. When the verb applies separately to several subjects, each in
the singular, the verb should be singular; as, _Each book and each
paper WAS in its place, No help and no hope IS found for him, Either
one or the other IS he, Neither one nor the other IS he._

5. When the verb applies separately to several subjects, some of
which are singular and some plural, it should agree with the subject
nearest to it; as, _Neither the boy, nor his sisters DESERVE praise,
Neither the sisters nor the boy DESERVES praise._

6. When a verb separates its subjects, it should agree with the
first; as, _The leader WAS slain and all his men, The men WERE
slain, and also the leader._


_Choose the proper form of the verb in the following sentences:_

  1. Hard and soft coal _is are_ used.
  2. The boy and the girl _have has_ come.
  3. Neither James nor I _are is_ to go.
  4. Neither James nor they _are is_ to go.
  5. Henry, and not his sister, _is are_ sure to be invited.
  6. The children and their father _was were_ on the train.
  7. Each man and each woman _was were_ present.
  8. Either Tennyson or Wordsworth _was were_ the author of that poem.
  9. Either the man or his children _was were_ lost.
 10. Either the children or their father _was were_ lost.
 11. Bread and milk _are is_ frugal but wholesome fare.
 12. The teacher _was were_ cut off by the fire, and also her pupils.
 13. The pupils _was were_ cut off by the fire, and also the teacher.
 14. Dogs and cats _is are_ useless animals.
 15. Neither the daughters nor their mother _is are_ at home.
 16. Either the soldier or his officers _is are_ mistaken.
 17. The cat and all her kittens _was were_ at the door.
 18. Tennyson, not Wordsworth, _were was_ the author.
 19. Each of the trustees _has have_ a vote.
 20. Our success or our failure _is are_ due solely to ourselves.
 21. Neither sincerity nor cordiality _characterize characterizes_ him.
 22. Everyone of these chairs _is are_ mine.
 23. Each day and each hour _bring brings_ new questions.
 24. The car and all its passengers _was were_ blown up.
 25. The ambition and activity of the man _has have_ been the
     _cause causes_ of his success.
 26. Old and new hay _is are_ equally good for horses.
 27. Matthew or Paul _are is_ responsible for that belief.
 28. A man, a woman, and a child _is are_ comprised in the group.
 29. The pupils and also the teacher _were was_ embarrassed.
 30. The teacher and also the pupils _were was_ embarrassed.
 31. Neither he nor I _are is am_ going.
 32. Book after book _was were_ taken from the shelves.
 33. Either Aunt Mary or her daughters _is are_ coming.
 34. Either the daughters or Aunt Mary _is are_ coming.
 35. Aunt Mary, but not her daughters, _is are_ coming.
 36. The daughters, but not Aunt Mary, _is are_ coming.
 37. Both Aunt Mary and her daughter _is are_ coming.
 38. Mary, and not her mother, _is are_ coming.
 39. No preacher and no woman _is are_ allowed to enter.
 40. Every adult man and woman _has have_ a vote.
 41. Money, if not culture, _gains gain_ a way.
 42. Brain power, as well as money, _talk talks_.
 43. Each boy and girl _bring brings_ books.


1. Do not use a plural verb after a singular subject modified by an
adjective phrase; as, _The thief, with all his booty, was captured_.

2. Do not use a singular form of the verb after _you_ and _they_.
Say: _You were, they are, they were_, etc., not, _you was, they
was,_ etc.

3. Do not mistake a noun modifier for the noun subject. In the
sentence, _The SALE of boxes was increased, sale_, not _boxes_,
is the subject of the verb.

4. When the subject is a relative pronoun, the number and the person
of the antecedent determine the number and the person of the verb.
Both of the following sentences are correct: _He is the only one
of the men THAT IS to be trusted, He is one of those men THAT ARE
to be trusted._ It is to be remembered that the singulars and the
plurals of the relative pronouns are alike in form; _that, who_,
etc., may refer to one or more than one.

5. Do not use incorrect contractions of the verb with _not_. _Don't_
cannot be used with _he_ or _she_ or _it_, or with any other singular
subject in the third person. One should say, _He doesn't_, not _he
don't; it doesn't_, not _it don't; man doesn't_, not _man don't_. The
proper form of the verb that is being contracted in these instances
is _does_, not _do_. _Ain't_ and _hain't_ are always wrong; no
such contractions are recognized. Such colloquial contractions
as _don't, can't_, etc., should not be used at all in formal


_Correct such of the following sentences as are wrong:_

  1. The ship, with all her crew, were lost.
  2. You was there, John, was you not?
  3. They was never known to do that before.
  4. A barrel of apples were sold.
  5. How many were there who was there?
  6. This is one of the books that is always read.
  7. He don't know his own relatives.
  8. I ain't coming to-night.
  9. The art gallery, with all its pictures, was destroyed.
 10. John, when was you in the city?
 11. The book, with all its errors, is valuable.
 12. Who they was, I couldn't tell.
 13. This is one of the mountains which are called "The Triplets."
 14. This is one of the eleven pictures that has gained prizes.
 15. The hands of the clock is wrong.
 16. The gallery of pictures are splendid.
 17. This is one of those four metals that is valuable.
 18. This is the one of those four metals that are valuable.
 19. That answer, as you will see, hain't right.
 20. The whole box of books were shipped.


_In the following sentences correct such as are wrong:_

  1. "Cows" are a common noun.
  2. Such crises seldom occurs.
  3. Fifty dollars were given him as a present.
  4. There were four men, each of which were sent by a different bank.
  5. At that time the morals of men were very low.
  6. Mathematics are my most interesting study.
  7. There was once two boys who was imprisoned in the Tower.
  8. The jury is delivering its verdict.
  9. The "Virginians" is a famous book.
 10. Ten minutes were given him in which to answer.
 11. Everyone of these farms are mine.
 12. Lee, with his whole army, surrender.
 13. Farm after farm were passed by the train.
 14. He is one of the greatest men that has ever been president.
 15. Three hundred miles of wires were cut down.
 16. Three fourths of his time are wasted.
 17. Three quarts of oats is all that is needed.
 18. A variety of sounds charms the ear.
 19. A variety of recitations were given.
 20. The committee have adjourned.
 21. Washington was one of the greatest generals that has ever lived.
 22. Take one of the books that is lying on the table.
 23. The house is one of those that overlooks the bay.
 24. Question after question were propounded to him.
 25. He was one of the best orators that has been produced by the
 26. He is one of those persons who are quick to learn.
 27. A black and white horse were in the ring.
 28. A black and a white horse was in the ring.
 29. The committee disagree on some points.
 30. Mary, where was you yesterday?
 31. The end and aim of his life are to get money.
 32. All the crop were lost.
 33. One of them are gone.
 34. There comes the children.
 35. Were either of these men elected?
 36. The alumni of this school is not very loyal.
 37. There seem to be few here.
 38. There seems to be a few here.
 39. Neither of the letters were received.
 40. In all those songs there are a sprightliness and charm.
 41. The Association of Engineers are still flourishing.
 42. Neither John nor Henry have come.
 43. Either this book or that are wrong.
 44. This book and that is wrong.
 45. This book, not that, is wrong.
 46. Either this book or those students is wrong.
 47. Either those students, or this book is wrong.
 48. This chemical with its compounds were the agents used in tanning.

65. USE OF SHALL AND WILL. The use of the auxiliaries, _shall_ and
_will_, with their past tenses, is a source of very many errors.
The following outline will show the correct use of _shall_ and
_will_, except in dependent clauses and questions:

To indicate simple futurity or probability:

  Use _shall_ with _I_ and _we_; use _will_ with
  all other subjects.

To indicate promise, determination, threat, or command on the part
of the speaker; i. e., action which the speaker means to control;

  Use _will_ with _I_ and _we_; use _shall_ with
  all other subjects.

Examine the following examples of the correct use of _shall_ and

Statements as to probable future events:

  _We shall_ probably be there.
  I think _you will_ want to be there.
  _It will_ rain before night.

Statements of determination on the part of the speaker:

  _I will_ come in spite of his command.
  _You shall_ go home.
  _It shall_ not happen again, I promise you.

66. SHALL AND WILL IN QUESTIONS. In interrogative sentences _shall_
should always be used with the first person. In the second and third
persons that auxiliary should be used which is logically expected
in the answer.

Examine the agreement in the use of _shall_ and _will_ in the following
questions and answers:

  QUESTIONS.                        ANSWERS.
_Shall_ I miss the car?             You _will_ miss it.
_Shall_ you be there?               I think I _shall_ (probability).
_Will_ he do it?                    I think he _will_ (assertion).
_Shall_ your son obey the teacher?  He _shall_ (determination).
_Will_ you promise to come?         We _will_ come (promise).

67. SHALL AND WILL IN DEPENDENT CLAUSES. In dependent clauses which
are introduced by _that_, expressed or understood, the auxiliary
should be used which would be proper if the dependent clause were
a principal clause. The sentence, _They assure us that they SHALL
come_, is wrong. The direct assurance would be, _We WILL come_.
The auxiliary, then, in a principal clause would be _will_. _Will_
should, therefore, be the auxiliary in the dependent construction,
and the sentence should read, _They assure us that they WILL come_.
Further examples:

  I suppose _we shall_ have to pay.
  He thinks that _you will_ be able to do it.
  He has decided that _John shall_ replace the book.

In all dependent clauses expressing a condition or contingency use
_shall_ with all subjects. Examples;

  _If he shall_ go to Europe, it will be his tenth trip abroad.
  _If you shall_ go away, who will run the farm?
  _If I shall_ die, I shall die as an honest man.


_Justify the correct use of SHALL and WILL in the following sentences:_

  1. I will go if you wish.
  2. I shall probably go if you wish.
  3. I will have it in spite of all you can do.
  4. We shall return by way of Dover.
  5. We will fight it out on this line if it takes all summer.
  6. I feel that I shall not live long.
  7. We think we shall come to-morrow.
  8. I promise you, the money shall be raised.
  9. You will then go to Philadelphia.
 10. You shall never hear from me again.
 11. He will surely come to-morrow.
 12. How shall you answer him?
 13. I think I shall ride.
 14. He is sure they will come.
 15. He is sure that I will come.
 16. Shall you be there?
 17. Will he who fails be allowed to have a reexamination?
 18. Will you be there?
 19. Will all be there?
 20. He says he shall be there.
 21. He has promised that he will be there.
 22. I fear that he will fail to pass.
 23. We think she will soon be well.
 24. We are determined that they shall pay.
 25. We expect that they will bring their books.
 26. I doubt that he will pay.
 27. We have promised that we will do it.
 28. If he shall ask, shall I refer him to you?


_Fill the blanks in the following sentences with SHALL or WILL:_

  1. I think I ---- find the work easy.
  2. I ---- probably be refused, but I ---- go anyway.
  3. ---- you be busy to-night? Yes, I ---- be in class until ten.
  4. I ---- probably fail to pass the examination.
  5. If no one assists me, I ---- drown.
  6. No. I ---- never sell my library.
  7. If I fail I ---- be obliged to take an examination.
  8. ---- my men begin work to-day?
  9. ---- you stop at Chicago on your way West? No, I don't, think
     I ----.
 10. ---- you promise me to sing at the concert to-night? Yes, I
     ---- sing to-night.
 11. ---- I put more wood on the fire?
 12. I ---- be lost; no one ---- help me.
 13. It ---- be there when you need it.
 14. It is demanded that the pupils ---- be orderly and attentive.
 15. I think it ---- rain soon.
 16. We ---- be disappointed.
 17. ---- we be permitted to go?
 18. We ---- do it for you.
 19. ---- I go or remain at home?
 20. I ---- be very grateful to you if you ---- do this.
 21. If you ---- ask her, she ---- go with you.
 22. If you ---- stop, I ---- go with you.
 23. Where ---- we join you?
 24. I think we ---- be there in time.
 25. I ---- go to the river for a boat ride.
 26. When ---- you be twenty years of age?
 27. ---- we ever see you again?
 28. Perhaps we ---- return next year.
 29. We promise, we ---- return.
 30. You ---- probably suffer for it.
 31. I ---- not impose on you in that way.
 32. ---- I ask for your mail?
 33. I hope that we ---- be there before the curtain rises.
 34. ---- they probably be there?
 35. ---- you please fetch me a paper?
 36. ---- we stop for you on our way downtown?
 37. When ---- I find you in your office?
 38. They ---- never do it if I can help.
 39. You ---- do as I say.
 40. I ---- never, never, go there again.
 41. We ---- decide what to do about that at our next meeting which
     ---- be in October.
 42. ---- it make any difference to you?
 43. ---- I go with you?
 44. No, you ---- please stay here.
 45. He ---- never enter this house again.
 46. It is believed that they ---- probably be present.
 47. He fears that he ---- die.
 48. He requests that you ---- come to-day at seven o'clock.
 49. She asks that it ---- be sent at once.
 50. It is thought that his death ---- not seriously change things.
 51. It is believed that the emperor ---- have to retract.
 52. A story is told that ---- gain little credence.
 53. I fear that I ---- take cold.
 54. She says that I ---- take cold.
 55. They say that they ---- do it in spite of anything done to prevent.
 56. He is determined that he ---- go away.
 57. She is determined that he ---- go to school.
 58. They say they ---- probably not go.
 59. John thinks he ---- probably live to be past sixty.
 60. He tells me that he thinks that he ---- be elected.
 61. They say that they ---- meet you.
 62. They assure us that we ---- find good stores in Berlin.
 63. He says he fears he ---- miss his train.
 64. Wright says his father ---- become famous.
 65. He writes that he ---- be here to-day.
 66. Do you say that you ---- be present?
 67. The book says that ---- be wrong.
 68. Does she say that she ---- come?
 69. I told you that I ---- not come.
 70. I tell you that she ---- not come.
 71. He says that he ---- go as a matter of duty.
 72. John says that ---- not happen anyway.
 73. Does he say that he ---- surely come?
 74. Does John write what he ---- promise to do in the matter?
 75. ---- you be sure to be there?


_Write five sentences in which SHALL is used in an independent
clause, and five in which SHALL is used in a dependent clause._

_Write five sentences in which WILL is used in an independent clause,
and five in which WILL is used in a dependent clause._

_Write five interrogative sentences in which SHALL is used and five
in which WILL is used._

68. SHOULD AND WOULD. _Should_ and _would_ are the past tenses
of _shall_ and _will_, and have corresponding uses. _Should_ is
used with _I_ and _we_, and _would_ with other subjects, to express
mere futurity or probability. _Would_ is used with _I_ and _we_,
and _should_ with other subjects, to express conditional promise
or determination on the part of the speaker. Examples:


  I _should_ be sorry to lose this book.
  If we _should_ be afraid of the storm, we _should_ be foolish.
  It was expected that they _would_ be here.

Volition or determination:

  If it _should_ occur, we _would_ not come.
  It was promised that it _should_ not occur again.
  He decided that it _should_ be done.

_Should_ is sometimes used in the sense of _ought_, to imply duty;
as, _He should have gone to her aid_.

_Would_ is often used to indicate habitual action; as, _This would
often occur when he was preaching_.


_Justify the correct use of SHOULD and WOULD in the following

  1. I feared that they would not come.
  2. He should know his duty better than that.
  3. I should be displeased if he would act that way.
  4. We should be ruined if we did that.
  5. You should have seen his face.
  6. We would often take that road.
  7. He said that he would come at once.
  8. If that should happen, we should not come.
  9. If you were I, what should you do?
 10. I should see the president of the class.
 11. We should have been at the meeting.
 12. He said that we should have been at the meeting.
 13. He promised that he would be at the meeting.
 14. If I should say so, he would dislike me.
 15. Should he come, I would go with him.
 16. They would usually stop at the new hotel.
 17. What would they do in the city?
 18. She asked if she should write the letter.
 19. She said they would write the letter.
 20. She agreed that it would be right.
 21. She assured us that she would attend to it.


_Fill in the blanks with SHOULD or WOULD in the following sentences:_

  1. I fear I ---- be drowned if I ---- go swimming.
  2. I ---- be much pleased to meet him.
  3. It was feared that they ---- not accept.
  4. If it ---- storm, we ---- not start.
  5. She ---- often come to class with no books.
  6. I believed that he ---- come late.
  7. He ---- never have been invited.
  8. If that had become known, we ---- surely have been ruined.
  9. To think that he ---- do such a thing!
 10. I ---- like to see the game.
 11. You ---- not enjoy it.
 12. ---- you like to see the game?
 13. ---- I bring my opera glasses?
 14. Mary ---- never have known it.
 15. He ---- have easily deceived her.
 16. They were anxious that we ---- not miss the train.
 17. If we ---- come late, ---- it make any difference?
 18. If they had proposed it, we ---- have voted it down.
 19. On what date ---- that come?
 20. I suppose I ---- have done it; but, it ---- have inconvenienced me.
 21. Had Lee known that, he ---- never have surrendered.
 22. I ---- never have believed she ---- do such a thing.
 23. We ---- never have come.
 24. ---- you think him capable of such a trick?
 25. I knew I ---- not be here on time.
 26. ---- they dare to attempt opposition?
 27. How ---- you go about it?
 28. Lincoln, under those circumstances, ---- probable not have been
 29. It ---- have changed our whole history.
 30. He said that it ---- have changed our whole history.
 31. He said he ---- come.
 32. She thinks they ---- not do it.
 33. We believe that we ---- like to go at once.
 34. They say it ---- be done now.
 35. I think I ---- like to go.


_Write five sentences in which SHOULD is used independently, and
five in which SHOULD is used dependently._

_Write five sentences in which WOULD is used independently, and
five in which WOULD is used dependently._

_Write five sentences in which SHOULD is used in questions, and
five in which WOULD is used in questions._

69. USE OF MAY AND MIGHT, CAN AND COULD. _May_, with its past tense,
_might_, is properly used to denote permission. _Can_, with its
past tense, _could_, refers to the ability or possibility to do
a thing. These two words are often confused.


_Fill the blanks in the following sentences:_

  1. ---- I go home?
  2. ---- we get tickets at that store?
  3. ---- the mountain be climbed?
  4. ---- we come into your office?
  5. You ---- stay as long as you wish.
  6. ---- you finish the work in an hour?
  7. How ---- you say such a thing?
  8. Several people ---- use the same book.
  9. We ---- afford to delay a while.
 10. ---- John go with me?
 11. You ---- often hear the noise.
 12. What ---- not be done in a week?
 13. That ---- be true, but it ---- not be relied on.
 14. What ---- he do to prevent it?
 15. When ---- we hand in the work?

70. PARTICIPLES AND GERUNDS. The past participle has already been
mentioned as one of the principal parts of the verb. Generally, the
PARTICIPLES are those forms of the verb that ARE USED ADJECTIVELY;
as, _seeing, having seen, being seen, having been seen, seen, playing,
having played_, etc. In the following sentences note that the verb
form in each case modifies a substantive: _He, HAVING BEEN INVITED
TO DINE, came early, John, BEING SICK, could not come_. The verb
form in all these cases is called a participle, and must be used
in connection with either a nominative or objective case of a noun
or pronoun.

The GERUND is the same as the participle in its forms, but differs
in that, while the participle is always used adjectively, the GERUND
AFTER HIS ASSERTING it, I believe the statement_.


1. A participle should not be used unless it stands in a grammatical
and logical relation to some substantive that is present in the
sentence. Failure to follow this rule leads to the error known
as the "dangling participle." It is wrong to say, _The dish was
broken, RESULTING from its fall_, because _resulting_ does not
stand in grammatical relation to any word in the sentence. But
it would be right to say, _The dish was broken as a result of its
fall_. Examine, also, the following examples:

Wrong: I spent a week in Virginia, _followed_ by a week at Atlantic

Right: I spent a week in Virginia, _following_ it by a week at Atlantic

Right: I spent a week in Virginia, _and then_ a week at Atlantic

2. A participle should not stand at the beginning of a sentence or
principal clause unless it belongs to the subject of that sentence
or clause. Compare the following:

Wrong: Having been sick, it was decided to remain at home.

Right: Having been sick, I decided to remain at home.

3. A participle preceded by _thus_ should not be used unless it
modifies the subject of the preceding verb. Compare the following:

Wrong: He had to rewrite several pages, _thus causing_ him a great
deal of trouble.

Right: He had to rewrite several pages, _and was thus caused_ a
great deal of trouble.

Right: He had to rewrite several pages, _thus experiencing_ a great
deal of trouble.

4. The gerund is often used as the object of a preposition, and
frequently has a noun or pronoun modifier. Owing to confusion between
the gerund and the participle, and to the failure to realize that
the gerund can only be used substantively, the objective case of a
modifying noun or pronoun is often wrongly used before the gerund.
A substantive used with the gerund should always be in the possessive
case. Say, _I heard OF JOHN'S COMING_, not, _I heard OF JOHN COMING_.

5. When a gerund and a preposition are used, the phrase should
be in logical and immediate connection with the substantive it
modifies, and the phrase should never introduce a sentence unless
it logically belongs to the subject of that sentence. Exception:
When the gerund phrase denotes a general action, it may be used
without grammatical connection to the sentence; as, _In traveling,
good drinking water is essential_. Compare the following wrong
and right forms:

Wrong: _After seeing his mistake_, a new start was made.

Right: _After seeing his mistake_, he made a new start.

Wrong: _By writing rapidly, the work_ can be finished.

Right: _By writing rapidly, you_ can finish the work.

Wrong: _In copying the exercise_, a mistake was made.

Right: _In copying the exercise, I_ made a mistake.


_In the following sentences, choose the proper form of the substantive
from those italicized:_

  1. He spoke of _John John's_ coming down.
  2. The idea of _his him_ singing is absurd.
  3. Do you remember _me my_ speaking about it?
  4. What is the use of _you your_ reading that?
  5. _He his him_ being arrested was a sufficient disgrace.
  6. _He him his_ being now of age, sold the farm.
  7. _He him his_ selling it was very unexpected.
  8. You should have heard _him his_ telling the story.
  9. You should have heard _his him_ telling of the story.
 10. To think of _them they their_ having been seen there!
 11. What is the object of _Mary Mary's_ studying French?
 12. _It its_ being John was a great surprise.
 13. What is the use of _them they their_ talking so much?
 14. _John John's_ going to school takes all his evenings.
 15. The beauty of _James James's_ writing got him the position.
 16. He had heard about _me my_ coming to-day.
 17. _John John's_ coming was a surprise.


_Wherever participles or gerunds are improperly used in the following
sentences, correct the sentences so as to avoid such impropriety.
See §107 for rule as to punctuation:_

  1. Having assented to your plan, you try to hold me responsible.
  2. He asked him to make the plans, owing to the need of an experienced
  3. It was decided to send his son abroad being anxious for his health.
  4. On hearing that, a new plan was made.
  5. Moving slowly past our window, we saw a great load of lumber.
  6. Intending to go to the theater, the whole afternoon was spent in
  7. He was taken into the firm, thus gaining an increased income.
  8. Not having the lesson prepared, he told John to stay after class.
  9. No letter was written for more than a week, causing considerable
 10. Expecting us to come, we disappointed him.
 11. After telling me the story, I left him.
 12. By reading aloud to the class, they do not gain much.
 13. He had to wait several hours for the train, thus causing him to
     lose a great deal of valuable time.
 14. After listening to his lecture for an hour he became tiresome.
 15. We listened attentively to his lecture, thus showing our interest.

72. INFINITIVES. The Infinitives are formed by the word _to_ and
some part of the verb or of the verb and auxiliary. For _see_ and
_play_ as model verbs, the infinitives are as follows:

  to see                    to be seen
  to play                   to be played

  to have seen              to have been seen
  to have played            to have been played

The word _to_ is frequently omitted. In general, other verbs follow
the same endings and forms as do the infinitives above.

It is necessary to know the difference between the two tenses, since
the misuse of tenses leads to a certain class of errors.

73. SEQUENCE OF INFINITIVE TENSES. The wrong tense of the infinitive
is frequently used. The following rules should be observed:

1. If the action referred to by the infinitive is of the same time
or of later time than that indicated by the predicate verb, the
PRESENT INFINITIVE should be used.

2. When the action referred to by the infinitive is regarded as
completed at the time indicated by the predicate verb, the PERFECT
INFINITIVE should be used.

Examine the following examples:

Wrong: _I should have liked to have gone._

Right: _I should have liked to go_ (same or later time).

Right: _I should like to have gone_ (earlier time).

Wrong: _It was bad to have been discovered._

Right: _It is bad to have been discovered_ (earlier time).

Right: _It was bad to be discovered_ (same or later time).

Right: _She did not believe her son to have committed the crime_
(earlier time).

Right: _When he died, he believed himself to have been defeated
for the office_ (earlier time.)


_In the following sentences choose the proper form from those

  1. I was sorry _to have heard to hear_ of John's death.
  2. Should you have been willing _to go to have gone_ with us?
  3. The game was intended _to be played to have been played_
  4. I intended _to write to have written_ long ago.
  5. He wished _to have met to meet_ you.
  6. I should have liked _to meet to have met_ you.
  7. Mary was eager _to have gone to go_.
  8. Nero was seen _to have fiddled to fiddle_ while Rome burned.
  9. Nero is said _to have fiddled to fiddle_ while Rome burned.
 10. This was _to be done to have been done_ yesterday.
 11. They agreed _to finish to have finished_ it yesterday.
 12. He was willing _to sing to have sung_ alone.
 13. He expected _to have spoken to speak_ here to-morrow.
 14. The Civil War is said _to cause to have caused_ more loss of life
     than any other war.
 15. Blackstone is said _to have failed to fail_ at the practice of law.
 16. It would have been hard _to accomplish to have accomplished_
     that result.
 17. He was foolish enough _to have spoiled to spoil_ six negatives.
 18. I wanted _to have attended to attend_ the convention.
 19. It would be terrible _to be lost to have been lost_ in the forest.
 20. We were asked _to have waited to wait_.
 21. I am eager _to have seen to see it_.
 22. I am pleased _to meet to have met_ you.

74. SPLIT INFINITIVES. In the sentence, care should be taken to
avoid as much as possible the inserting of an adverb or an adverbial
modifier between the parts of the infinitive. This error is called
the "split infinitive." Compare the following:

Bad: He seemed _to easily learn_.
Good: He seemed _to learn easily_.

Bad: He is said _to have rapidly run_ along the street.
Good: He is said _to have run rapidly_ along the street.


_Correct the following split infinitives:_

  1. She is known to have hurriedly read the note.
  2. Mary tried to quickly call help.
  3. He was asked to slowly read the next paragraph.
  4. John attempted to rudely break into the conversation.
  5. The plan was to secretly destroy the documents.
  6. His policy was to never offend.
  7. He wished to in this way gain friends.
  8. He proposed to greatly decrease his son's allowance.

75. AGREEMENT OF VERB IN CLAUSES. In a compound predicate, the
parts of the predicate should agree in tense; PAST TENSE SHOULD
the following:

Wrong: He _has tried_ to do, and really _did_ everything possible
to stop his son.

Right: He _has tried_ to do, and really _has done_ everything possible
to stop his son.

Right: He _tried_ to do, and really _did_ everything possible to
stop his son.

Wrong: I _hoped_ and _have worked_ to gain this recognition.

Right: I _hoped_ and _worked_ to gain this recognition.

Right: I _have hoped_ and _have worked_ to gain this recognition.


_Correct the following sentences:_

  1. I went last week and have gone again this week.
  2. I have heard of his being here, but not saw him.
  3. I saw John, but I have not seen Henry.
  4. He desired to see John, but has not wished to see Henry.
  5. John was sent for, but has not yet arrived.
  6. I endeavored to find a way of avoiding that, but have not succeeded.
  7. I have never seen its superior, and, in fact, never saw its equal.
  8. She has succeeded in getting his promise, but did not succeed
     in getting his money.
  9. I hoped and have prayed for your coming.
 10. I have believed and usually taught that theory.
 11. I intended to and have endeavored to finish the work.
 12. No one has wished to see so much and saw so little of the world
     as I.
 13. He has gained the favor of the king and was sent to Italy.
 14. We have needed you and did our best to find you.

of its parts are often omitted. This omission sometimes makes the
sentence ungrammatical or doubtful in its meaning.

_I like him better than John_. This sentence may have the meaning
shown in either of its following corrected forms: _I like him better
than John DOES_, or _I like him better than I LIKE John_.

As a matter of good usage, the verb or any other part of speech
should be repeated wherever its omission either makes the sentence
ambiguous or gives it an incomplete sound.

Bad: _He was told to go where he ought not_.
Good: _He was told to go where he ought not to go_.
Good: _He was told to go where he should not go_.


_Correct the following sentences:_

  1. I admire Mary more than John.
  2. I think she is older than John.
  3. He should have succeeded in gaining the end he tried.
  4. I asked him to do what I should not have.
  5. I did what I ought not.
  6. We wish him better luck than Mary.
  7. We want to see him more than Henry.
  8. I should hate him worse than you.
  9. He wanted me to do what I didn't care to.
 10. You may, as you please, do it or not.
 11. She may go if she wishes or not.
 12. We think of you oftener than mother.






_Person  Singular Number        Plural Number_
1. I _am_                        We _are_
2. [*]Thou _art_ (you _are_)     You _are_
3. He _is_                       They _are_

[Footnote *: The forms, _thou art, thou wast, thou hast_, etc.,
are the proper forms in the second person singular, but customarily
the forms of the second person plural, _you are, you were, you
have_, etc., are used also in the second person singular. These
distinct second person singular forms will be used throughout the
model conjugations.]


1. I _was_                       We _were_
2. Thou _wast_ or _wert_         You _were_
3. He _was_                      They _were_


(_Have_ with the past participle, _been_.)

1. I _have been_                 We _have been_
2. Thou _hast been_              You _have been_
3. He _has been_                 They _have been_


(_Had_ with the past participle, _been_.)

1. I _had been_                  We _had been_
2. Thou _hadst been_             You _had been_
3. He _had been_                 They _had been_


(_Shall_ or _will_ with the present infinitive, _be_.[*])

_Person  Singular Number        Plural Number_
1. I _shall be_                  We _shall be_
2. Thou _shalt be_               You _shall be_
3. He _shall be_                 They _shall be_

[Footnote *: To determine when to use _shall_ and when to use _will_
in the future and future perfect tenses, see §§ 65, 66, and 67.
In these model conjugations the forms of _shall_ are given with
the future and the forms of _will_ with the future perfect.]


(_Shall_ or _will_ with the perfect infinitive, _have been_.[*])

1. I _will have been_            We _will have been_
2. Thou _wilt have been_         You _will have been_
3. He _will have been_           They _will have been_

[Footnote *: See Note under Future Tense.]


(Generally follows _if, though, lest, although_, etc. See §59.)


1. (If) I _be_                   (If) we _be_
2. (If) thou _be_                (If) you _be_
3. (If) he _be_                  (If) they _be_


1. (If) I _were_                 (If) we _were_
2. (If) thou _were_              (If) you _were_
3. (If) he _were_                (If) they _were_


(_Have_, unchanged, with the past participle, _been_.)

1. (If) I _have been_            (If) we _have been_
2. (If) thou _have been_         (If) you _have been_
3. (If) he _have been_           (If) they _have been_


(_Had_, unchanged, with the past participle, _been_.)

_Person  Singular Number           Plural Number_
1. (If) I _had been_                (If) we _had been_
2. (If) thou _had been_             (If) you _had been_
3. (If) he _had been_               (If) they _had been_


(_Shall_ or _will_, unchanged, with present infinitive _be_.[*])

[Footnote *: See Note to Future Indicative.]

1. (If) I _shall be_                (If) we _shall be_
2. (If) thou _shall be_             (If) you _shall be_
3. (If) he _shall be_               (If) they _shall be_


(_Shall_ or _will_, unchanged, with the perfect infinitive, _have

1. (If) I _shall have been_         (If) we _shall have been_
2. (If) thou _shall have been_      (If) you _shall have been_
3. (If) he _shall have been_        (If) they _shall have been_


[Footnote *: The distinct potential mode is no longer used by many
authorities on grammar, and the potential forms are regarded as
of the indicative mode. It has, however, been thought best to use
it in these model conjugations.

As to when to use the different auxiliaries of the potential mode
see §§ 68 and 69. The conjugation with _must_ (or _ought to_) is
sometimes called the OBLIGATIVE MODE. The conjugation with _should_
or _would_ is sometimes called the CONDITIONAL MODE.]


(_May, can_, or _must_, with the present infinitive, _be_.)

1. I _may, can_, or _must be_         We _may, can_, or _must be_
2. Thou _mayst, canst_, or _must be_  You _may, can_, or _must be_
3. He _may, can_, or _must be_        They _may, can_, or _must be_


(_Might, could, would_, or _should_, with the present infinitive,

_Person  Singular Number           Plural Number_
1. I _might, could, would_, or      We _might, could, would_, or
   _should be_                      _should be_
2. Thou _mightst, couldst,_         You _might, could, would,_ or
   _wouldst,_ or _shouldst be_        _should be_
3. He _might, could, would,_        They _might, could, would,_ or
   or _should be_                   _should be_


(_May, can_, or _must_, with the perfect infinitive, _have been_.
For forms substitute _have been_ for _be_ in the present potential.)


(_Might, could, would_, or _should_, with the perfect infinitive
_have been_. For forms substitute _have been_ for _be_ in the past


[Footnote *: The imperative is the same in both singular and plural.]



_To be                             To have been_


_Being                             Having been_


(Same as participles)






_Person  Singular Number           Plural Number_
1. I _see_                          We _see_
2. Thou _seest_                     You _see_
3. He _sees_                        They _see_


1. I _do see_                       We _do see_
2. Thou _dost see_                  You _do see_
3. He _does see_                    They _do see_


1. I _am seeing_                    We _are seeing_
2. Thou _art seeing_                You _are seeing_
3. He _is seeing_                   They _are seeing_



1. I _am seen_                      We _are seen_
2. Thou _art seen_                  You _are seen_
3. He _is seen_                     They _are seen_


1. I _am being seen_                We _are being seen_
2. Thou _art being seen_            You _are being seen_
3. He _is being seen_               They _are being seen_



1. I _saw_                          We _saw_
2. Thou _sawest_                    You _saw_
3. He _saw_                         They _saw_


_Person  Singular Number           Plural Number_
1. I _did see_                      We _did see_
2. Thou _didst see_                 You _did see_
3. He _did see_                     They _did see_


1. I _was seeing_                   We _were seeing_
2. Thou _wast_ or _wert seeing_     You _were seeing_
3. He _was seeing_                  They _were seeing_



1. I _was seen_                     We _were seen_
2. Thou _wast_ or _wert seen_       You _were seen_
3. He _was seen_                    They _were seen_


1. I _was being seen_               We _were being seen_
2. Thou _wert_ or _wast being seen_ You _were being seen_
3. He _was being seen_              They _were being seen_



(Substitute _seen_ for _been_ in the present perfect indicative
of _to be_.)


(Substitute _been seeing_ for _been_ in the present perfect indicative
of _to be_.)


(Substitute _been seen_ for _been_ in the present perfect indicative
of _to be_.)



(Substitute _seen_ for _been_ in the past perfect indicative of
_to be_.)


(Substitute _been seeing_ for _been_ in the past perfect indicative
of _to be_.)


(Substitute _been seen_ for _been_ in the past perfect indicative
of _to be_.)



(Substitute _see_ for _be_ in the future indicative of _to be_.)


(Substitute _be seeing_ for _be_ in the future indicative of _to


(Substitute _be seen_ for _be_ in the future indicative of _to be_.)



(Substitute _have seen_ for _have been_ in the future perfect indicative
of _to be_.)


(Substitute _have been seeing_ for _have been_ in the future perfect
indicative of _to be_.)


(Substitute _have been seen_ for _have been_ in the future perfect
indicative of _to be_.)




_Person  Singular Number           Plural Number_
1. (If) I _see_                     (If) we _see_
2. (If) thou _see_                  (If) you _see_
3. (If) he _see_                    (If) they _see_


_Person  Singular Number           Plural Number_
1. (If) I _do see_                  (If) we _do see_
2. (If) thou _do see_               (If) you _do see_
3. (If) he _do see_                 (If) they _do see_


1. (If) I _be seeing_               (If) we _be seeing_
2. (If) thou _be seeing_            (If) you _be seeing_
3. (If) he _be seeing_              (If) they _be seeing_


1. (If) I _be seen_                 (If) we _be seen_
2. (If) thou _be seen_              (If) you _be seen_
3. (If) he _be seen_                (If) they _be seen_



1. (If) I _saw_                     (If) we _saw_
2. (If) thou _saw_                  (If) you _saw_
3. (If) he _saw_                    (If) they _saw_


1. (If) I _did see_                 (If) we _did see_
2. (If) thou _did see_              (If) you _did see_
3. (If) he _did see_                (If) they _did see_


1. (If) I _were seeing_             (If) we _were seeing_
2. (If) thou _were seeing_          (If) you _were seeing_
3. (If) he _were seeing_            (If) they _were seeing_


1. (If) I _were seen_               (If) we _were seen_
2. (If) thou _were seen_            (If) you _were seen_
3. (If) he _were seen_              (If) they _were seen_



(Substitute _seen_ for _been_ in the present perfect subjunctive
of _to be_.)


(Substitute _been seeing_ for _been_ in the present perfect subjunctive
of _to be_.)


(Substitute _been seen_ for _been_ in the present perfect subjunctive
of _to be_.)



(Substitute _seen_ for _been_ in the past perfect subjunctive of
_to be_.)


(Substitute _been seeing_ for _been_ in the past perfect subjunctive
of _to be_.)


(Substitute _been seen_ for _been_ in the past perfect subjunctive
of _to be_.)



(Substitute _see_ for _be_ in the future subjunctive of _to be_.)


(Substitute _be seeing_ for _be_ in the future subjunctive of _to


(Substitute _be seen_ for _be_ in the future subjunctive of _to



(Substitute _seen_ for _been_ in the future perfect subjunctive
of _to be_.)


(Substitute _been seeing_ for _been_ in the future perfect subjunctive
of _to be_.)


(Substitute _been seen_ for the future perfect subjunctive of _to




(Substitute _see_ for _be_ in the present potential of _to be_.)


(Substitute _be seeing_ for _be_ in the present potential of _to



(Substitute _be seen_ for _be_ in the present potential of _to be_.)



(Substitute _see_ for _be_ in the past potential of _to be_.)


(Substitute _be seeing_ for _be_ in the past potential of _to be_.)


(Substitute _be seen_ for _be_ in the past potential of _to be_.)



(Substitute _have seen_ for _be_ in the present potential of _to


(Substitute _have been seeing_ for _be_ in the present potential
of _to be_.)


(Substitute _have been seen_ for _be_ in the present potential of
_to be_.)



(Substitute _have seen_ for _be_ in the past potential of _to be_.)


(Substitute _have been seeing_ for _be_ in the past potential of
_to be_.)


(Substitute _have been seen_ for _be_ in the past potential of _to






_do see_.


_be seeing_.


_be seen_




_to see._


_to be seeing._



_to be seen_



_to have seen._


_to have been seeing._



_to have been seen._





_being seen_



[Footnote *: There is no past participle in the active voice.]



_having seen_


_having been seeing_


_having been seen_





_being seen_


_having seen_


_having been seen_



78. INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT CLAUSES. A sentence may consist of
two or more independent clauses, or it may consist of one principal
clause and one or more dependent clauses.

INDEPENDENT CLAUSES are joined by conjunctions; such as, _hence,
but, and, although_, etc.

DEPENDENT CLAUSES are joined to the sentence by relative adverbs;
such as, _where, when_, etc., or by relative pronouns; as, _who,
what_, etc. These dependent clauses may have the same office in
the sentence as nouns, pronouns, adjectives, or adverbs. (See §7.)

to use the proper case and number of the relative pronouns has
already been touched upon (see §29), but a further mention of this
fault may well be made here.

The relative pronoun has other offices in the sentence than that
of connecting the dependent and principal clauses. It may serve
as a subject or an object in the clause. The sentence, _I wonder
WHOM will be chosen_, is wrong, because the relative here is the
subject of _will be chosen_, not the object of _wonder_, and should
have the nominative form _who_. Corrected, it reads, _I wonder
WHO will be chosen_. Examine the following sentences:

Wrong: We know _who_ we mean.

Right: We know _whom_ we mean.

Wrong: You may give it to _whoever_ you wish.

Right: You may give it to _whomever_ you wish.

Wrong: Do you know _whom_ it is?

Right: Do you know _who_ it is? (Attribute complement.)

Wrong: Everybody _who were_ there were disappointed. (Disagreement
in number.)

Right: Everybody _who was_ there was disappointed.

The relative pronoun takes the case required by the clause it
introduces, not the case required by any word preceding it. Thus,
the sentence, _He gave it to WHO had the clearest right_, is correct,
because _who_ is the subject of the verb _had_, and therefore in
the nominative case. _Give it to WHOMEVER they name_, is right,
because _whomever_ is the object of _they name_.

Errors in the use of interrogative pronouns are made in the same
way as in the use of the relatives. The interrogative pronoun has
other functions besides making an interrogation. It serves also as
the subject or object in the sentence. Care must be taken, then,
to use the proper case. Say, _Whom are you looking for?_ not, _Who
are you looking for?_

NOTE. Some writers justify the use of _who_ in sentences like the
last one on the ground that it is an idiom. When, as in this book,
the object is training in grammar, it is deemed better to adhere
to the strictly grammatical form.


_In the following sentences, choose the proper forms from those

  1. _Who whom_ do you wish to see?
  2. You will please write out the name of _whoever whomever_ you want.
  3. I saw _who whom_ was there.
  4. _Who whom_ was it you saw?
  5. _Who whom_ did you see?
  6. John did not know _whom who_ to ask.
  7. Why did he not ask _whomever whoever_ was there?
  8. _Who whom_ can tell the difference?
  9. Give it to _whoever whomever_ you please.
 10. None of those who _were was_ wanted _was were_ there.
 11. The one of those who _were was_ wanted was not there.
 12. He is one of those fellows who _are is_ always joking.
 13. _Whom who_ was called "The Rail Splitter?"
 14. Do you not know _whom who_ it was?
 15. That is one of the birds that _is are_ very rare.
 16. One of the books which _was were_ brought was one hundred years old.
 17. I am not among those _who whom were was_ there.
 18. Only one of the men who _were was_ on board survived.
 19. Everyone else who _was were_ there _was were_ lost.
 20. I am the one of the three men who _is am are_ guilty.
 21. He was chosen one of the four speakers who _was were_ to speak
     on Commencement Day.
 22. It was one of the books which _were was_ being sought by the
 23. Give it to one of the men _who whom_ is found there.
 24. To _who whom_ did you give it?
 25. It was for _whomever whoever_ was present.
 26. Ask _whomever whoever_ is nearest the door.

CLAUSE only in the subordinate part of the sentence, to state the
time of an event. Compare the following:

Bad: He was turning the corner, when suddenly he saw a car approaching.
Good: When he was turning the corner, he suddenly saw a car approaching.

Bad: When the news of the fire came, it was still in the early morning.
Good: The news of the fire came when it was still in the early morning.

81. Do not use a _WHEN_ or a _WHERE_ CLAUSE in defining a subject
or in place of a predicate noun.

Bad: Commencement is when one formally completes his school course.
Good: Commencement is the formal completion of one's school course.

Bad: Astronomy is where one studies about the stars.
Good: Astronomy is the study of the stars.

82. _So, then_, and _also_, the conjunctive adverbs, should not
be used to unite coördinate verbs in a sentence unless _and_ or
_but_ be used in addition to the adverb.

Bad: The boys' grades are low, _so_ they indicate lack of application.
Good: The boys' grades are low, _and so_ indicate lack of application.

Bad: He read for a while, _then_ fell asleep.
Good: He read for a while, _and then_ fell asleep.

Bad: I'll be down next week; _also_ I shall bring Jack along.
Good: I'll be down next week; _and also_ I shall bring Jack along.


_Correct the following sentences:_

  1. Anarchism is when one believes in no government.
  2. I am studying German, also French.
  3. The clock had just struck five when the cab came.
  4. I shall work until nine o'clock, then I shall retire.
  5. I was sick all day, so I couldn't come to the office.
  6. I was going up street yesterday when unexpectedly I met Jones.
  7. Death is when one ceases to live.
  8. Dinner is ready, so I shall have to cease work.
  9. He told half of the story, then he suddenly stopped.
 10. He loves good music, also good pictures.
 11. A restaurant is where meals are served.

83. CONJUNCTIONS. There are certain conjunctions, and also certain
pairs of conjunctions that frequently cause trouble.

AND or BUT should not be used to join a dependent clause to an
independent clause; as, _It was a new valise AND differing much
from his old one_. Say instead, _It was a new valise, differing
much from his old one_, or _It was a new valise, and differed very
much from his old one_. Similarly, _It was a new book WHICH_ (not
_and which_) _interested him very much_. This "and which" construction
is a frequent error; _and which_ should never be used unless there
is more than one relative clause, and then never with the first

BUT or FOR should not be used to introduce both of two succeeding
statements. Both of the following sentences are bad by reason of
this error: _He likes geometry, BUT fails in algebra, BUT studies
it hard, He read all night, FOR the book interested him, FOR it
was along the line of his ambition_.

THAN and AS should not be followed by objective pronouns in sentences
like this: _I am as large AS HIM_. The verb in these sentences
is omitted. If it is supplied, the error will be apparent. The
sentence would then read, _I am as large as HIM (is large)_. The
correct form is, _I am as large as he (is large)_. Similarly, _He
is taller than I (am tall), She is brighter than HE (is bright)_.

AS may be used as either a conjunction or an adverb. _He is AS
tall AS I_. The first _as_ is an adverb, the second _as_ is a
conjunction. _As_ is properly used as an adverb when the equality
is asserted, but, when the equality is denied, _so_ should be used
in its place. _He is AS old AS I_, is correct, but the denial should
be, _He is NOT SO old AS I_. After _not_ do not use _as_ when _as_
is an adverb.

NEITHER, when used as a conjunction, should be followed by NOR;
as, _Neither he NOR (not or) I can come. Neither_ should never
be followed by _or_.

EITHER, when used as a conjunction, should be followed by OR.

84. PLACING OF CORRELATIVES. The correlatives, such as _neither--nor,
either--or, not only--but also_, should be placed in clear relation
to similar parts of speech or similar parts of the sentence. One
should not be directed toward a verb and the other toward some
other part of speech.

Bad: He _not only_ brought a book, _but also_ a pencil.
Good: He brought _not only_ a book _but also_ a pencil.

Bad: He would offer _neither_ reparation _nor_ would he apologize.
Good: _Neither_ would he offer reparation _nor_ would he apologize.
Good: He would offer _neither_ reparation _nor_ apology.

85. The prepositions _without, except, like_, and the adverb _directly_
should not be used as conjunctions.

Wrong: _Without_ (_unless_) you attend to class-room work, you cannot

Wrong: This she would not do _except_ (_unless_) we promised to
pay at once.

Wrong: I acted just _like_ (_as_) all the others (did).

Wrong: _Directly_ (_as soon as_) he came, we harnessed the horses.


_Correct the following sentences:_

  1. Mary is as old as her.
  2. I read as much as him.
  3. He either wore his coat or a sort of vest.
  4. He walked to the next town, but did not come back, but stayed
     all night.
  5. We are better players than them.
  6. He became thoroughly under the influence of the hypnotist and
     doing many absurd things.
  7. There we met a man named Harmon and whom we found very
  8. They work harder than us.
  9. John is not as tall as you.
 10. Neither John or James is as tall as you.
 11. I admire Mary more than she.
 12. That can't be done without you get permission from the principal.
 13. He dresses just like I do.
 14. Directly he came we launched the canoes.
 15. This cannot be done except you are a senior.
 16. Neither she nor I was present.
 17. He not only had a trained pig but also a goose.
 18. Mary is not as pretty as Helen.
 19. The men neither interested him nor the places.
 20. He has traveled more than me.
 21. We like him very much, for he is very interesting, for he has
     traveled so much.
 22. It is a good book and which has much valuable information.
 23. It was a rough town and harboring many criminals.
 24. He took an interest neither in studies, nor did he care for
 25. He neither took an interest in studies nor athletics.


_Construct sentences in which the following words are correctly

When, where, than, as--as, so--as, neither--nor, not only--but also,
either--or, except, like, without, directly.

86. PREPOSITIONS. Some mistakes are made in the use of prepositions.
Note the following brief list of words with the appropriate prepositions
to be used with each:

agree _with_ a person                 differ _from_ (person or thing)
agree _to_ a proposition              differ _from_ or _with_ an opinion
bestow _upon_                         different _from_
compare _with_ (to determine value)   glad _of_
compare _to_ (because of similarity)  need _of_
comply _with_                         part _from_ (a person)
confide _in_ (to trust in)            part _with_ (a thing)
confide _to_ (to intrust to)          profit _by_
confer _on_ (to give)                 prohibit _from_
confer _with_ (to talk with)          reconcile _to_ (a person)
convenient _to_ (a place)             reconcile _with_ (a statement)
convenient _for_ (a purpose)          scared _by_
dependent _on_                        think _of_ or _about_

Do not use prepositions where they are unnecessary. Note the following
improper expressions in which the preposition should be omitted:

continue _on_                           _down_ until
covered _over_                          inside _of_
off _of_                                outside _of_
started _out_                           where _to_?
wish _for_ to come                      remember _of_
more than you think _for_

Do not omit any preposition that is necessary to the completeness
of the sentence.

Bad: He is a dealer and shipper _of_ coal.

Good: He is a dealer _in_ and shipper _of_ coal.


_Illustrate in sentences the correct use of each of the expressions
listed under the first paragraph of_ §86.

_Form sentences in which correct expressions are used in place of
each of the incorrect expressions listed under the second paragraph
of_ §86.


four kinds of sentences? What are the different parts of speech?
Define each. What is the difference between a clause and a phrase?
What is the difference between a principal clause and a subordinate
clause? Illustrate. Illustrate an adverbial clause. An adjective
clause. Illustrate an adverbial phrase. An adjective phrase. What is
an attribute complement? Illustrate. What is an object complement?
Illustrate. Illustrate and explain the difference between simple,
complex, and compound sentences.

NOUNS. What is the difference between singular and plural number?
How is the plural of most nouns formed? Of nouns ending in _s,
ch, sh, x_, or _z_? In _y_? In _f_ or _fe_? In _o_? Of letters,
figures, etc.? Of compound nouns? Of proper names and titles? How
is the possessive case of most nouns formed? Of nouns ending in
_s_ or in an _s_ sound? Of a compound noun or of a group of words?
What is gender? How is the feminine gender formed from the masculine?
What is the difference between common and proper nouns?

PRONOUNS. What is a pronoun? What is the antecedent of a pronoun?
What is the rule for their agreement? What is meant by "person"
in pronouns? Name five pronouns of each person. Name the pronouns
that indicate masculine gender. Feminine. Neuter. What pronouns may
be used to refer to antecedents that stand for persons of either
sex? To antecedents that are collective nouns of unity? To animals?
What are nouns of common gender? By what pronouns are they referred
to? Should a singular or a plural pronoun be used after _everybody_?
After _some one_? After _some people_? After two nouns connected by
_or_? By _nor_? By _and_? What are relative pronouns? Name them.
With what kind of antecedents may each be used? What is the difference
between the explanatory relative and the restrictive relative?
Illustrate. What is an interrogative pronoun? What pronouns may
be used only in the nominative case? In the objective case? When
should the nominative case be used? The objective? The possessive?
May _thou_ and _you_ be used in the same sentence? When should _but
that_ be used, and when _but what_? May _them_ be used adjectively?
May _which_ be used with a clause as an antecedent? May _which_ and
_that_, or _who_ and _that_ be used in the same sentence with the
same antecedent?

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. Distinguish between adjectives and adverbs.
Illustrate. What is comparison? What is the positive degree, the
comparative, the superlative? Illustrate each. May one say, _He is
the largest of the two?_ Reason? _He is the larger of the three?_
Reason? _He is the largest of all?_ Reason? Name three adjectives
which cannot be compared. May one say, _Paris is larger than any
city?_ Reason? _Paris is larger than all cities?_ Reason? _Paris
is the largest of any other city?_ Reason? Is a singular or plural
noun demanded by _every_? By _two_? By _various_? By _each_? With
how many objects may _either_ be used? _Neither_? Where should
the adjective or adverb be placed in the sentence? What is meant
by a double negative? Illustrate. What is its effect? What is the
definite article?

VERBS. What is a verb? What is a principal verb? An auxiliary?
Illustrate. What are the principal parts of a verb? Name each.
With what is the s-form used? With which form can no auxiliary
be used? Make a sentence using each of the principal parts of the
verbs, _go, see, begin, come, drink, write_. What is a transitive
verb? Illustrate. An intransitive verb? Illustrate. What is the
difference between active and passive voice? Does a transitive or
does an intransitive verb have both voices? Illustrate the passive
voice. Distinguish between the use of _sit_ and _set_. Of _lay_ and
_lie_. Of _rise_ and _raise_. What is the general rule for the use
of the subjunctive mode? In what way and where does the subjunctive
of _be_ differ from the indicative in its forms? How do other verbs
differ in the form of the subjunctive? In what respects should a
verb agree with its subject? Does the form of the subject always
determine its number? What should be the guide in determining whether
to use a singular or plural verb? What class of subjects may not be
used with _don't, can't_, etc.? What determines whether to use
a singular or a plural verb after _who_, _which_, and _that_? What
form of the verb is used after _you_? After _they_? When are _shall_
and _should_ used with _I_ and _we_? When with other subjects?
What rule governs their use in questions. What form is used in
dependent clauses introduced by _that_, expressed or understood? In
contingent clauses? Distinguish the use of _may_ and _might_ from
_can_ and _could_. What is a "dangling participle"? Is it an error?
May the gerund be correctly used without any grammatical connection
to the rest of the sentence? As the object of a preposition is a
participle or gerund used? Which is used adjectively? Which may
be used in connection with a possessive substantive as a modifier?
When it is dependent on another verb, in what case should the present
infinitive be used? When the perfect infinitive? What is a "split
infinitive"? Need the parts of a compound predicate agree in tense?

CONNECTIVES. By what are independent clauses connected? Dependent
clauses? Name two conjunctive adverbs. Should a _when_ clause be
used in a subordinate or in the principal part of the sentence?
May _so, then_, or _also_ be used alone as conjunctive adverbs? May
_and_ or _but_ be used to join a dependent clause to a principal
clause? What case should follow _than_ or _as_? Should _neither_
be followed by _nor_ or _or_?



_Correct such of the following sentences as are wrong. After each
sentence, in parenthesis, is placed the number of the paragraph
in which is discussed the question involved:_

   1. He likes to boast of Mary cooking. (71.)
   2. It is an error and which can't be corrected. (83.)
   3. He said he should come if he could. (68.)
   4. Can I use your pencil? (69.)
   5. If you were I, what would you do? (68.)
   6. We would like to go. (68.)
   7. Neither the members of the committee nor the chairman is
      present. (63-5.)
   8. He only spoke of history, not of art. (45.)
   9. Socialists don't have no use for trusts. (46.)
  10. This is John's book. (13.)
  11. I feared that they should not come. (68.)
  12. Mother's and father's death. (15-4.)
  13. Mary was eager to have gone. (73.)
  14. The boys, as well as their teacher, is to be praised. (64-1.)
  15. The members of Congress watch each other. (44.)
  16. I fear that I will take cold. (67.)
  17. Some one has forgotten their umbrella. (20.)
  18. Neither of the three is well. (43.)
  19. Whom do you consider to be the brighter man in the class?
      (29) (41.)
  20. He is determined that he shall go away. (67.)
  21. Neither John nor James brought their books. (22.)
  22. Whom did the man say he was? (29.)
  23. His clothes look prettily. (38.)
  24. The play progressed smooth until the last act. (38.)
  25. Henry and William is to come to-morrow. (22.)
  26. This is the lesser of the two evils. (40.)
  27. Do you think you will stop at Chicago? (66.)
  28. I am believed to be him. (29.)
  29. He sings very illy. (40.)
  30. When they come to build the bridge the stream was too deep
      for them to work. (54.)
  31. She is very discontented. (48.)
  32. Iron is the most useful of all other metals. (41-3.)
  33. The barrel bursted from the pressure. (54.)
  34. Shall my work soon begin? (66.)
  35. He is six foot tall. (42.)
  36. Seeing his mistake, I was not urged further by him. (71.)
  37. Will the dog bite? (66.)
  38. I am believed to be he. (29.)
  39. I am eager to have seen it. (73.)
  40. I think it shall rain soon. (67.)
  41. She showed the dish to Mary and I. (29.)
  42. Mary asked her mother to wash her face. (34-4.)
  43. Who did the man say he was? (29.)
  44. He deserved the place, for he is well educated, for he has
      been through Oxford University. (83.)
  45. Choose who you please. (29.)
  46. It don't make any difference about that. (64-5.)
  47. The pump was froze fast. (54.)
  48. A boat load of fishes was the days catch. (13-12.)
  49. Wagner was never too rattled to play. (48.)
  50. It is him. (29.)
  51. He did it hisself. (31.)
  52. He eat all there was on the table. (54.)
  53. He sent a chest of tea, and it was made of tin. (34-4.)
  54. The murderer was hung at noon. (54.)
  55. It is a queer kind of a book. (47.)
  56. You may give it to whoever you wish. (32.)
  57. Whoever is nominated, will you vote for him? (32.)
  58. I think I will find the work easy. (67.)
  59. He sent his son abroad, being anxious for his health. (71.)
  60. Neither they nor Mary was there. (22.)
  61. Brewer's the blacksmith's shop. (15-6.)
  62. Goliath was slew by David. (54.)
  63. Myself and mother are sick. (30.)
  64. John is as good, if not better than she. (41-4.)
  65. If anybody creates a disturbance, have the police put them
      out. (21.)
  66. The paper was addressed to John and herself. (30.)
  67. John's and William's dog. (15-4.)
  68. Tell the boy and girl to come here. (47.)
  69. Everybody's else mail has came. (15, 54.)
  70. He knows nothing about it but that he has read in the
      paper. (34-6.)
  71. Awake me early in the morning. (57.)
  72. If he be honest, he has not shown it. (60.)
  73. Either Adams or Monroe were president. (63-4.)
  74. Washington, the general and the president, was born on
      February 22d. (47.)
  75. Horne's and Company's Store. (15-4.)
  76. A hole had been tore in the ships' side. (54.)
  77. I sat my chair by the window. (57.)
  78. I sat myself down to rest. (57.)
  79. I can't hardly see to write. (46.)
  80. John is one of the people who comes each night. (64-4.)
  81. He laid on the couch all day. (57.)
  82. Death is when one ceases to live. (81.)
  83. I was told to set here. (57.)
  84. Iron is more useful than any other metal. (41-3.)
  85. I not only told him, but also Morton. (84.)
  86. McKinley was nowhere near so strenuous as Roosevelt. (40.)
  87. It weighs several ton. (42.)
  88. John is not as bright as Henry. (83.)
  89. Germany and France's ships. (15-4.)
  90. John's employer's wife's friend. (15-5.)
  91. You had ought to go home. (54.)
  92. This is the man who wants the ticket. (26.)
  93. Which is the larger of the three? (41-1.)
  94. An axe is the tool which they use. (26.)
  95. It is that characteristic that makes him so disagreeable. (26.)
  96. The horse which we drove, and the horse which you had last
      week are the same. (26, 34-5.)
  97. I don't like those kind of people. (42.)
  98. I do not question but what he is right. (34-6.)
  99. Let him lay there. (57.)
 100. My friend and me drove to Hughesville. (29.)
 101. American and English grammar is alike. (63-1.)
 102. William and Mary has to go to the city. (63-2.)
 103. The boy, and not his parents, were wrong. (63-3.)
 104. The price of meat has raised. (57.)
 105. This train runs slow. (38.)
 106. Which is the best of the two? (41-1.)
 107. Iron is the most useful of all other metals. (41-3.)
 108. Without the safety catch is raised, the gun can't be
      discharged. (85.)
 109. The family is all at home. (62.)
 110. The horse run the mile in two minutes. (54.)
 111. This suit hasn't hardly been wore. (46, 54.)
 112. The knife has laid there all day. (57.)
 113. The noise of the street was very loud, which kept me awake. (34-9.)
 114. The jury has agreed. (62.)
 115. Such things make him terrible nervous. (38.)
 116. Whom do you think is the brightest man? (29.)
 117. The army were defeated. (62.)
 118. If I was you, I should go at once. (60.)
 119. She may go if she wishes or not. (76.)
 120. Everybody whom was there was given a vote. (79.)
 121. I like her better than you. (76.)
 122. Who do you want? (79.)
 123. Knox is one of the alumnuses of the college. (13-13.)
 124. By law, no one is allowed to kill more than two deers. (13.)
 125. The clock had just struck five when the cab came. (80.)
 126. When was you there? (64-2.)
 127. He is as tall as me. (83.)
 128. Neither John nor her will come. (29.)
 129. You hear such statements everywheres. (34-8, 40.)
 130. You never can tell whom you will meet on the train. (79.)
 131. I wish you were more like she. (29.)
 132. Winter, with her frost, destroyed them all. (20.)
 133. Tell everybody to cast their vote for Jones. (21.)
 134. He is the only one of the members who pay dues. (64-4.)
 135. Was it necessary, I should jump? (60.)
 136. The production of oranges were encouraged. (64-3.)
 137. The ship, with all its passengers, were lost. (64-1.)
 138. He has fell from his chair. (57.)
 139. I will raise and go to my father. (57.)
 140. The policeman failed the ruffian with his club. (57.)
 141. They make pottery in Trenton. (34-8.)
 142. Iron is more useful than all metals. (41-3.)
 143. I intended to and have endeavored to finish the work. (75.)
 144. He won't come, except we pay his expenses. (85.)
 145. Neither German or French is taught there. (83.)
 146. We have needed you and did our best to find you. (75.)
 147. He awoke at nine. (57.)
 148. I wish I was a bird. (60.)
 149. If it rains, I stay at school. (60.)
 150. Thou shouldst pray when you are in trouble. (34-2.)
 151. The Indians, they hid behind trees. (34-3.)
 152. We started out for the city at noon. (86.)
 153. The king, he said they should kill him. (34-3.)
 154. Outside of the house stood a large moving van. (86.)



87. Classified as to their rhetorical construction, sentences are
considered as loose, periodic, and balanced.

The LOOSE SENTENCE is so constructed that it may be closed at two
or more places and yet make complete sense; as,

Napoleon felt his _weakness_, and tried to win back popular _favor_
by concession after _concession_, until, at his fall, he had nearly
restored parliamentary _government_.

Note that this sentence could be closed after the words. _weakness,
favor_, and _concession_, as well as after _government_.

88. The PERIODIC SENTENCE holds the complete thought in suspense
until the close of the sentence. Compare the following periodic
sentence with the loose sentence under §87:

Napoleon, feeling his weakness, and trying to win back popular favor
by concession after concession, had, at his fall, nearly restored
parliamentary government.

Both loose and periodic sentences are proper to use, but, since
periodic sentences demand more careful and definite thought, the
untrained writer should try to use them as much as possible.

89. The BALANCED SENTENCE is made up of parts similar in form,
but often contrasted in meaning; as, _He is a man; Jones is a

90. SENTENCE LENGTH. As to the length of the sentence there is
no fixed rule. Frequently, sentences are too long, and are, in
their thought, involved and hard to follow. On the other hand, if
there is a succession of short sentences, choppiness and roughness
are the result. One should carefully examine sentences which contain
more than thirty or thirty-five words to see that they are clear
in their meaning and accurate in their construction.


_Compose, or search out in your reading, five loose sentences, five
periodic sentences, and five balanced sentences._


_In the following sentences, determine whether each sentence is
loose, periodic, or balanced. Change all loose sentences to the
periodic form:_

1. At the same time the discontent of the artisans made the lower
class fear a revolution, and that class turned to Napoleon, because
they felt him to be the sole hope for order and stable government.

2. The members of the council were appointed by the king, and held
office only at his pleasure.

3. A society and institutions that had been growing up for years
was overturned and swept away by the French Revolution.

4. Galileo was summoned to Rome, imprisoned, and forced publicly
to adjure his teaching that the earth moved around the sun.

5. He draws and sketches with tolerable skill, but paints abominably.

6. Loose sentences may be clear; periodic sentences may not be clear.

7. He rode up the mountains as far as he could before dismounting
and continuing the ascent on foot.

8. They visited the town where their father had lived, and while
there, procured the key to the house in which he had been born.

9. His death caused great grief and extreme financial distress in
the family.

10. There stands the Tower of London in all its grimness and centuries
of age, holding within its walls the scene of many a stirring tragedy.

11. Few men dislike him, but many would gladly see him overthrown
merely as an example.

12. Germany is moving in the same direction, although the reformers
find it a hard task to influence public opinion, and a far harder
one to change the various laws prevalent in the many German states.

13. Is this thing we call life, with all its troubles, pains, and
woes, after all, worth living?

14. He read much, but advanced little intellectually, for all the
facts and philosophy of his reading found no permanent lodgment
in his mind.

15. His coming home was very unexpected, because he had started
on a trip that usually took ten days, and that he had said would
take longer this time.

16. It was during the time of the National Convention that Napoleon
first became very prominent by defending the convention against
a mob.


_Combine each of the following groups of sentences into one well
constructed long sentence:_

1. In highly developed commercial communities banks cannot afford
space in their vaults for valuables. Especially, they cannot afford
it merely to accommodate their patrons. Hence, in such communities
the furnishing of places for safe deposit has become a separate

2. History should be a part of the course in all schools. It develops
the memory. It furnishes the explanation of many social phenomena.
It broadens the intellectual view. It gives culture as no other
study can give it.

3. He never desired a higher education. This was possible because
of the money bequeathed to him by his father. It had left him no
need for a great earning capacity. More likely, it was because
of the inborn dulness and lethargy of his mind.

4. New York is the pivotal state in all national elections. Its
great number of electors makes it always possible for it to throw
the election either way. Therefore, until one knows to which party
New York will fall, he cannot tell how the election will result.

5. Our forefathers were devout. They were easily shocked in many
ways. However, they permitted many liberties in the application
of sermons to particular individuals. Such things would nowadays
be strongly disapproved or resented.

6. Man's life is divided into two parts by a constantly moving
point. This point is called the present. It divides the past from
the future.

7. The Spartans were tormented by ten thousand absurd restraints.
They were unable to please themselves in the choice of their wives.
They were unable to please themselves in their choice of food or
clothing. They were compelled to assume a peculiar manner, and
to talk in a peculiar style. Yet they gloried in their liberty.

8. The mere approach to the temperance question is through a forest
of statistics. This forest is formidable and complicated. It causes
one, in time, to doubt the truth of numbers.

9. They passed the old castle. It was almost unrecognizable. This
was by reason of the scaffolding which surrounded it. The castle
was now being transformed into a national museum.

10. He stood looking with curiosity at John Peters. Peters limped
slightly. Otherwise, he looked well and happy. He was moving about
shaking hands right and left.

11. They rushed at him with a yell. He had by this time reached
the base of the fountain. With a sudden wonderful leap he sprang
onto the railing. There he was out of reach. He balanced himself
by touching the brackets which held the lamps.

12. The unintelligent worker reminds one of the squirrel on the
wheel. The squirrel rushes round and round and round all day long.
At the end of the day the squirrel is still a squirrel. It is still
rushing round and round. It is getting nowhere.

13. The man looked at the ladder. He believed he could reach it.
There was a sudden flash of hope in his face. His face was already
scorched by the fire.

14. Smith was financially embarrassed. He was determined to get
to his home. He crawled on top of the trucks of an express car.
The car was about to leave the terminal. He courted almost certain

15. The commander again looks toward the hills. He looks for a
long time. Something seems to excite his apprehension. He converses
earnestly with the staff officer. Then the two look more than once
toward a poplar tree. The tree stands at the top of the hill. Only
its top half shows. The hill is on the east.

16. The most important political question has been the tariff question.
This has been most important for ten years. It is important because
it is believed to have caused high prices and trusts.

17. The pleasantest month is June. It has flowers. It has mild
weather. It has a slight haze in the atmosphere. These things seem
to flood one's soul with peace and contentment.

91. The essential qualities that a sentence should possess, aside
from correctness, are those of Unity, Coherence, Emphasis, and

UNITY. Unity demands that the sentence deal with but one general
thought, and that it deal with it in such a consistent and connected
manner that the thought is clearly and effectively presented. Unity
demands, also, that closely related thoughts should not be improperly
scattered among several sentences.

1. Statements having no necessary relation to one another should
not be embodied in one sentence.

Bad: The house sat well back from the road, _and its owner_ was
a married man.
Good: The house sat well back from the road. _Its owner_ was a
married  man.

a. Avoid the "comma blunder"; that is, do not use a comma to divide
into clauses what should be separate sentences, or should be connected
by a conjunction.

Bad: Jones lives in the country, _he_ has a fine library.
Good: Jones lives in the country. _He_ has a fine library.
Good: Jones lives in the country _and has_ a fine library.

b. Avoid the frequent use of the parenthesis in the sentence.

Bad: This is a city (it is called a city, though it has but twelve
hundred people) that has no school-house.

2. Avoid all slipshod construction of sentences.

a. Avoid adding a clause to an apparently complete thought.

Bad: That is not an easy problem, _I think_.
Good: That, _I think_, is not an easy problem.
Good: _I do not think_ that is an easy problem.

Bad: He could not be elected mayor again under any circumstances,
_at least so I am told_.
Good: He could not, _I am told_, be elected mayor again under any
Good: _I am told_ that he could not under any circumstances be elected
mayor again.

b. Avoid long straggling sentences.

Poor: The students often gathered to watch the practice of the
team, but, just before the last game, the management excluded almost
all, and only a few who had influence were allowed to enter, and
this favoritism caused much hard feeling and disgust, so that the
students were reluctant to support the team, and lost most of their
interest, a fact which had a bad effect on the athletics of the

3. Unite into one sentence short sentences and clauses that are
closely and logically connected with one another.

Bad: That it is a good school is not without proof. Its diploma
admits to all colleges.
Good: That it is a good school is not without proof, for its diploma
admits to all colleges.
Good: That its diploma admits to all colleges is proof that it is
a good school.

Bad: This fact was true of all of us. With the exception of John.
Good: This fact was true of all of us, with the exception of John.

Bad: Edward came. But John never appeared.
Good: Edward came, but John never appeared.

Bad: The town has two railroads running through it. Also, three
trolley lines.
Good: The town has two railroads running through it, and also three
trolley lines.
Good: The town has two railroads and three trolley lines running
through it.

4. Do not change the point of view.

Bad: _We_ completed our themes, and _they_ were handed in to the
teacher. (In the first part of the sentence, the subject is _we_;
in the second it is _themes_.)
Good: We completed our themes and handed them in to the teacher.
Good: Our themes were completed and handed in to the teacher.

Bad: The _stage_ took us to the foot of the hill, and _we_ walked
from there to the top, where _our friends_ met us.
Good: _We_ were taken to the foot of the hill by the stage, and _we_
walked from there to the top, where _we_ were met by our friends.


_Revise such of the following sentences as violate the principles
of unity:_

1. I frequently had ridden on a bicycle, and though the first ride
made me stiff, I felt little inconvenience afterwards.

2. Of the firm Jones & Smith, Jones is a man to be respected. While
Smith is thoroughly dishonest.

3. John had plenty of energy and ambition. And it is hard to understand
why he didn't succeed.

4. I have taken thorough courses in history in both grade school
and high school, and I also worked on the farm in the summer.

5. In the East the people are conservative. But, in the West, they
are radical and progressive.

6. The news came that special rates would be given from Chicago,
and that we could go to Seattle and back for fifty dollars, and
so, when our checks came, we seized our grips and started on a
trip which was so long and eventful, but as enjoyable as any two
months we had ever spent, and gave us an experience that was very
valuable in our work, which we took up on our return in the fall.

7. The town has a fine public library, besides there are a number
of steel mills.

8. One may reach Boston in two ways. Either by water or by rail.

9. Women (and Christian American women, too) frequently try to evade
the customs laws.

10. My aunt has some of Jefferson's silver spoons, so she says.

11. He graduated from college (I think it was Harvard, though I
am not sure) and then taught for three years.

12. This is one of Hugo's novels, it is very good.

13. He accomplishes everything he undertakes, if it is at all possible.

14. Washington was president of the United States. But Hamilton
guided its financial policy.

15. Every year they sell three hundred sets, and Mr. West helps
to write the letters.

16. The country people were the chief patrons of the store. Although
no small amount of trade came from the town.

17. The box sat under a tree, and the dog, which was a collie,
would go when he was told and sit on it, and no one could call
him away but his master who was very often cruelly slow in doing
so, but the dog never lost patience.

18. He was one of those persons (of whom there are so painfully
many) who never do what they promise.

19. He then went to his room, which was in the back of the house,
to sleep, and his books were found there the next day.

20. He was the man that I had mentioned, who had been recommended
for the position. Who had been refused because of his deficiencies
in English.

21. I can't go, I don't think.

22. He was a very big and very strong man. And, he should have made
a great football player.

23. He will surely be elected, I haven't any fear.

24. The food was good, and the service was fine, but we did not
care to stay on account of the weather, which was rainy most of
the time, and because it was an out-of-the-way place.

25. He converses intelligently and pleasantly, and never gossips,
hence he is an agreeable companion.

26. He died of smallpox, and was ninety years old.

27. There were twenty boys in the class. Each past twenty-five years
of age.

28. He is in every way honorable, at least so far as money matters
are concerned.

29. I had not previously thought of going to college, but now I
was enthusiastic on the matter, and all my time (at least most
of it) was devoted to poring over catalogues, of which I had a
great number, and many of which I knew by heart from having gone
over them so often, and finally a college was selected which seemed
to suit me, so I went there in the fall to study chemistry.

30. He was very sensitive. So that we could tease him very little
without making him angry.

31. There are a great number of stations along this short line of
railroad, these, however, do little business.

32. They stopped and asked us the road to Milton, and it was discovered
that they were going in the wrong direction, as Milton lay south
of Williamsport, and we were camping twenty miles north.

33. He will most likely be suspended, it may perhaps be.

34. That day my cousin went home, and the next day John came to
spend a few hours with me, and in the afternoon we drove all over
the valley, but neither of us grew tired, because there were so
many things to converse about, and so many long treasured questions
to ask, and John left in the evening, and then I went to bed.

35. He has been proved a gambler, there you have it all.

36. Mrs. Smith (whose husband had been killed by a falling beam
in one of the buildings he was constructing) consented to give
us a room and board.

37. He read his lesson carefully, then he closed the book to think
it over.

38. He is the most peculiar person I ever met--in the last few years
at least.

39. I am reading a book, it is very interesting.

40. They get a great deal of amusement when he is walking (which
he does every nice day) by whistling in time with his steps.

41. He gave me this book which you see, and I have been able to
get a vast amount of information out of it.

42. It was noticed by everyone that he always behaved well. When
he was in school.

43. The magician was present. And pleased everybody with his

44. Because he liked music, John was considered an odd fellow, and
his father was dead.

92. COHERENCE. Coherence in the sentence demands that the arrangement
and the construction of the sentence be clear and free from ambiguity.

1. Frame the sentence so that it can have but one possible meaning.

Wrong: He owned several dogs and was greatly troubled with the mange.

Right: He owned several dogs and was greatly troubled _because they
had_ the mange.

Right: He was greatly troubled because several of _his dogs had_
the mange.

2. See that the antecedent of every pronoun is clear and explicit.

Wrong: The dog was bitten on the front _foot which_ has since died.

Right: The _dog, which_ has since died, was bitten on the front foot.

Right: The dog was bitten on the front foot and has since died.

3. See that the word to which each modifier refers is unmistakable.

a. Place every modifying element as near as possible to the word
which it modifies.

Wrong: He was sitting in a chair reading a _book made_ in the mission

Right: He was sitting in a _chair made_ in the mission style and
was reading a book.

Right: He was sitting reading a book in a chair made in the mission

Wrong: The table had been inlaid by his _father, containing_ over
fifteen hundred pieces.

Right: The _table, containing_ over fifteen hundred pieces, had
been inlaid by his father.

Right: The table contained over fifteen hundred pieces and had been
inlaid by his father.

b. Avoid the "squinting construction." By this term is meant the
placing of a clause so that it is impossible to tell whether it
refers to the preceding or succeeding part of the sentence.

Wrong: It would be hard to explain, _if you were to ask me_, what
the trouble was.

Right: If you were to ask me what the trouble was, it would be hard
to explain.

4. Place correlatives so that there can be no doubt as to their
office. _Neither--nor, both--and_, etc., are frequently not placed
next to the expressions they are meant to connect. See §84.

Wrong: He _neither_ brought a trunk _nor_ a suit-case.

Right: He brought _neither_ a trunk _nor_ a suit-case.

Wrong: He _not only_ received money from his father, _but also_
his mother.

Right: He received money _not only_ from his father, _but also_
from his mother.

Right: He _not only_ received money from his father, _but also_
received it from his mother.

5. Omit no word that is not accurately implied in the sentence.

Wrong: The man _never has_, and _never will_ be successful.

Right: The man _never has been_, and _never will be_ successful.

Wrong: It _is no_ concern to him.

Right: It _is of no_ concern to him.

6. Use a summarizing word, in general, to collect the parts of a
long complex sentence.

Republicans, Democrats, Socialists, Prohibitionists, and
Populists--_all_ were there.

7. Express similar thoughts, when connected in the same sentence,
in a similar manner.

Bad: I decided _on doing_ the work that night, and _to write_ it
out on the typewriter.
Good: I decided _to do_ the work that night and _to write_ it out
on the typewriter.

Bad: _Textbooks are going_ out of use in the modern law schools,
but some schools still use them.
Good: _Textbooks are going_ out of use in the modern law schools,
but in some _they_ are still used.
Good: Though _textbooks are going_ out of use in modern law schools,
_they are still used_ in some of them.

Bad: _One_ should never try to avoid work in school, for _you_ always
increase your trouble by doing so.
Good: _One_ should never try to avoid work in school, for _one_
always increases his trouble by doing so.
Good: _One_ usually only increases _his_ troubles by trying to avoid
work in school.


_Point out and correct any lack of coherence that exists in the
following sentences:_

 1. Chicken lice are troubling all the farmers in the state.

 2. The statute requires that one study three years, and that you
    pass an examination.

 3. He is home.

 4. Rich and poor, old and young, large and small, good and bad,
    were in the assemblage.

 5. He both presented me with a gold piece and an increase in salary.

 6. Tell the doctor, if he comes before seven, to call.

 7. When the dog came on the porch, feeling playful, I laid aside
    my paper.

 8. I only knew John.

 9. The cart was pulled by a man creaking under a heavy load.

10. John told his father that his coat was too tight for him.

11. I not only knew the president but also the whole board of directors.

12. The boxes were full of broken glass with which we made fire.

13. Mrs. Smith wants washing.

14. A young woman died very suddenly last Sunday while I was away
    from home as a result of a druggist's mistake.

15. He was hit in the discharge of his duty by a policeman.

16. A dog has been found by Mrs. Jones with one black ear.

17. In taking the census innumerable errors are made, thus making
    the result unreliable.

18. It was a pleasure to see them work and their good nature.

19. The boy went to the teacher and told him that his trouble was
    that he used the wrong book.

20. John was not punished because of his ill health, and he was
    not entirely to blame for it.

21. They said they saw them coming before they saw them.

22. The officers arrested the men and they were then locked up.

23. You made the same mistake that you now make last week.

24. Wishing to make no mistake the boy was told by him to see the

25. It resulted opposite to that in which it was expected.

26. They are required to report both on their way to work and coming

27. Under his direction we were taught grammar and something of
    composition was taken up.

28. Taking all precautions, a watchman is on duty every night.

29. We tried to study, but didn't do any.

30. I do not care either to see you or Henry.

31. He has a number of kennels with many dogs scattered over the

32. Mrs. X. wants a picture of her children painted very badly.

33. One of the drawbacks to the work is that time is very scarce,
    in this way limiting what can be done.

34. The bicycle was easy to learn to ride, which I did.

35. Rails are placed along the sides of the bridges, and horses
    are forbidden to trot over them.

36. John told Henry that he thought he needed help.

37. He has to stop for rest, and to avoid getting too far ahead.

38. Board, room, clothes, laundry, and amusements, are higher there
    than here.

39. Mathematics is not only necessary, but also languages.

40. After having read the proof, it is rolled up, and you mail it
    back to the printer.

41. The baskets were unpacked and the girls waited upon them.

42. They knew all that was to be learned, including John.

43. We could say that the greater part of us had both seen the Niagara
    Falls and Canada.

44. Let him wear a loose shoe that has sore feet.

45. Being out of work, and as I did not wish to loaf, I started
    to school.

46. He tried to study unsuccessfully, and in the end failed.

47. He built a house for his wife with seven windows.

48. He sent her an invitation to go for a ride on the back of his
    business card.

49. I saw five automobiles the other night sitting on our front
    door step.

50. Mrs. Smith was killed last night while cooking in a dreadful

51. Post cards are both increasing in variety and beauty.

52. He neither told John nor his father.

53. Mary told her mother, if she were needed, she would be called.

54. He bought a horse when ten years old.

55. The child the parent often rebuked.

56. Sitting on a chair the entire house could be watched.

57. Coming along the road a peculiar noise was heard by us.

58. Under the enforced sanitary laws people ceased to die gradually.

59. I knew him as a physician when a boy.

60. He came leading his dog on a bicycle.

61. When wanted he sent me a letter.

93. EMPHASIS. Emphasis demands that the sentence be so arranged
that the principal idea shall be brought into prominence and the
minor details subordinated.

1. Avoid weak beginnings and weak endings in the sentence.

Bad: He was a student who did nothing right _as a rule_.
Good: He was a student, who, _as a rule_, did nothing right.

2. A change from the normal order often makes a great change in

Normal: A lonely owl shrieked from a thick tree not far back of
our camp.

Changed: From a thick tree not far back of our camp a lonely owl

3. Where it is suitable, arrange words and clauses so as to produce
a climax; i. e., have the most important come last.

Bad: Human beings, dogs, cats, horses, all living things were destroyed.
Good: Cats, dogs, horses, human beings, all living things were

4. Avoid all words which add nothing to the thought.

Bad: He is universally praised by all people.
Good: He is universally praised.

Bad: The darkness was absolutely impenetrable, and not a thing could
be seen.
Good: The darkness was absolutely impenetrable.

Bad: Mr. Smith bids me say that he regrets that a slight indisposition
in health precludes his granting himself the pleasure of accepting
your invitation to come to your house to dine.
Good: Mr. Smith bids me say that he regrets that sickness prevents
his accepting your invitation to dine.


_Reconstruct all of the following sentences that violate the principles
of emphasis:_

 1. Children, women, and men were slain without pity.

 2. I'll prove his guilt by means of marked money, if I can.

 3. Most of the students have done good work, although some have not.

 4. Will you please start up the machine.

 5. Where ignorance leads to a condition of blissful happiness, it
    would be folly to seek a condition of great wisdom.

 6. A man having foolishly tried to board a moving train yesterday,
    was killed by being run over.

 7. As a maker of violins he has never had an equal before nor since.

 8. All his friends were collected together.

 9. The field was so wet that we could not play on it, except

10. Few were superior to him as a sculptor.

11. Railway companies, trolley companies, cable companies, and even
    hack lines were affected by the change.

12. Books were his constant companions, and he was with them always.

13. That great, gaunt mass of stones, rock, and earth, which falls
    upon your vision at the edge of the horizon of your view, is
    known by the appellation of Maxon Mountain.

14. The noise of trains is heard ceaselessly from morning till night,
    without stopping at all.

15. He tried to do right so far as we know.

16. That knowledge is the important thing to gain beyond all else.

94. EUPHONY. Euphony demands that the sentence be of pleasing sound.

1. Avoid repeating the same word in a sentence.

Bad: He _commanded_ his son to obey his _commands_.

2. Avoid words and combinations of words that are hard to pronounce.

Bad: He seized quickly a thick stick.

3. Avoid a rhyme and the repetition of a similar syllable.

Bad: They went for a _walk_ in order to _talk_.


_Correct such of the following sentences as lack euphony:_

 1. In the problems, he solved one once.

 2. Most of the time he does the most he can.

 3. She worries about what to wear wherever she goes.

 4. It is impossible for one to believe that one so changeable can
    be capable of such work.

 5. Those are our books.

 6. Every time there was a chance for error, error was made.

 7. It is true that the man spoke truly when he said, "Truth is stranger
    than fiction."

 8. The well must have been well made, else it would not have served
    so well.

 9. Everything he said was audible throughout the auditorium.

10. He acted very sillily.

11. He is still worried over the ill fulfillment of John's promise.

12. In his letters there is something fine in every line.

13. They ordered the members of the order to pay their dues.


_Revise the following sentences. In parentheses after each sentence
is the number of the paragraph in which the error involved is set

 1. Not only should we go to church, but also prayer-meeting. (92-4.)

 2. In the East, just above the horizon, Mars may be readily seen
    in the evenings. (93-1.)

 3. There is nothing distinctive about the style of the book, and
    it tells the story of a young Russian couple. (91-1.)

 4. The nasal noise in his enunciation was displeasing. (94-2.)

 5. Books, papers, records, money, checks, and receipts, were burned.

 6. I tried to learn to write plainly, and have failed. (92-7.)

 7. He has not and never will succeed in doing that. (92-5.)

 8. He is sick as a result of the picnic, it may be. (91-2.)

 9. Finally they stepped from the boat into the water, and tried
    to move it by all of them pushing. (92-2.)

10. One is sure to become dull in mind, and ill in health, if you
    fail to exercise. (93-1.)

11. The trip was comparatively quickly and easily made. (94-1.)

12. She was of ordinary family, but he didn't think of criticizing
    that, since his own parents were of the German peasantry. (91-4.)

13. The man was sentenced to either be hanged or life-imprisonment.

14. People of wealth (and it is by no means an exception to the
    rule) fail to notice the misery about them. (91-1-b.)

15. There one can see miles and miles. For there are no mountains.

16. She told her that she thought that she had come too soon. (92-2.)

17. By the judge's mistake, he was made a free man, and started
    on a career of crime again. (93-1.)

18. Flora Macdonald was a genuine heroine. (94-3.)

19. No criticism was made of the object, but of the means. (92-5.)

20. If you observe the relation of spelling to pronunciation, you
    will have little trouble in pronunciation. (94-1.)

21. He threw the stone at the window. And then he ran. (91-3.)

22. The reading of Poe's stories at least is entertaining, if not
    elevating. (92-3-b.)

23. John the lion killed. (92-3-b.)

24. He arose suddenly upsetting the table. (92-3-b.)

25. Bridget was a faithful servant, she never failed in her duties
    for more than five years. (91-1-a.)

26. Instead of six, now four years only are to be spent in college.

27. We started down the river toward Harrisburg. But we did not
    get very far. For a storm soon came upon us. (91-3.)

28. He says that he has the book at his home which belongs to Anderson.

29. I secured a horse and went for a ride, and after my return,
    we had supper. (91-4.)

30. Two of the company were killed in the battle. The others escaped
    without a scratch. (91-3.)

31. Different from most persons, he will not mention to any one
    his faults. (92-2.)

32. Not only is the book interesting, but it is instructive also.

33. May not only he be satisfied with the result, but delighted.

34. Main Street is very long, and the hotels are on Market Street.

35. He saw the money passing the store which had been lost. (92-2.)




95. Capitalize all proper nouns and adjectives derived from proper

France, French, Paris, Parisian, John, etc.

96. Capitalize all titles when used with proper nouns. Capitalize,
also, the titles of governmental officers of high rank even when
used separately. Do not capitalize other titles when used separately.

Uncle Sam, Bishop Anselm, Professor Morton, the Postmaster General,
Postmaster Smith of Kelley Cross Roads, the postmaster of Kelley
Cross Roads.

97. Capitalize the important words in titles of books.

The Master of Ballantrae, The Trail of the Lonesome Pine, The Discovery
of America.

98. Capitalize the first word of every sentence, of every line of
poetry, and of every complete sentence that is quoted.

He said, "Is it I whom you seek?"

He said she was a "perfect woman, nobly planned."

99. Capitalize the words, _mother, father_, etc., when used with
proper names of persons, or when used without a possessive pronoun
to refer to some definite person. Capitalize also, common nouns
in phrases used as proper nouns.

Father John, my Uncle John, my uncle, if Uncle writes, if my uncle
writes, along the river, along the Hudson River, Madison Square.

100. Capitalize the names, _North, South, East_, and _West_, when
referring to parts of the country; words used to name the Deity;
the words, _Bible_ and _Scriptures_; and the words _I_ and _O_,
but not _oh_ unless it is at the beginning of a sentence.


_Secure five examples under each of the above rules, except the


101. Punctuation should not be done for its own sake, but simply
to make the meaning clearer; never punctuate where no punctuation
is needed.

The following rules of punctuation are generally accepted:

_The Period_ (.)

102. Use the period after (1) every complete sentence that is not
interrogative nor exclamatory; (2) after every abbreviation; and
(3) after _Yes_ and _No_ when used alone.

_The Interrogation Point_ (?)

103. Use the interrogation point after every direct question.

_The Exclamation Point_ (!)

104. Use the exclamation point after every exclamatory sentence
or expression.

Alas! It is too late.

Fire if you dare!

_The Comma_ (,)

105. Use the comma after each word of a series of words that all
have the same grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence,
unless conjunctions are used between all of those words.

Ours is a red, white, and blue flag.

He talked, smoked, and read.

He talked and smoked and read.

Do not, however, precede the series by a comma.

Wrong: He lectures on, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays.

Right: He lectures on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays.

106. Use the comma to separate two adjectives modifying the same
noun, but not if one modifies both the other adjective and the

An honest, upright man.

An old colored man.

A soiled red dress.

107. Use the comma to set off non-emphatic introductory words or
phrases, and participial phrases.

John, come here.

By the way, did you see Mary?

After having done this, Cæsar crossed the Rubicon.

Cæsar crossed the Rubicon, thus taking a decisive step.

108. Use the comma to set off appositive expression (see §29, Note
1), or a geographical name that limits a preceding name.

He was told to see Dr. Morton, the principal of the school.

Muncy, Pennsylvania, is not spelled the same as Muncie, Indiana.

109. Use the comma to set off any sentence element that is placed
out of its natural order.

If it is possible, he will do it.

To most people, this will seem absurd.

110. Use the comma to set off slightly parenthetical remarks that
are thrown into the sentence. If the break is very marked, use
the dash or parenthesis.

That, if you will permit me to explain, cannot be done without
permission from the police.

Two men, Chase and Arnold, were injured.

He, himself, said it.

111. Use the comma to set off explanatory or non-restrictive clauses,
but not to set off restrictive clauses. (See §§ 25 and 26.)

Mr. Gardner, who has been working in the bank, sang at the church.

But: The Mr. Gardner whom you know is his brother.

112. Use the comma to separate coördinate clauses that are united
by a simple conjunction.

He can sing well, but he seldom will sing in public.

He doesn't wish to sing, and I do not like to urge him.

113. Use the comma to separate the members of a compound sentence
when those members are short and closely connected in their thought.

John carried the suit-case, I the hat box, and William the umbrella.

114. Use the comma to separate dependent and conditional clauses
introduced by such words as _if, when, though,_ unless the connection
be close.

He did not stop, though I called repeatedly.

Your solution is right in method, even if you have made a mistake
in the work.

But: You are wrong when you say that.

115. Use the comma to set off short, informal quotations, unless
such quotation is a word or phrase closely woven into the sentence.

William said, "Good morning"; but, "Hello," was Henry's greeting.

But: He introduced the man as "my distinguished friend."

116. Use the comma to set off adverbs and adverbial phrases; such
as, _however, then, also, for example, so to speak,_ etc.

Such a man, however, can seldom be found.

This sentence, for example, can be improved by changing the order.

117. Use the comma whenever for any reason there is any distinct
pause in the sentence that is not otherwise indicated by punctuation,
or whenever something clearly is omitted.

We want students, not boys who simply come to school.

Cæsar had his Brutus; Charles the First, his Cromwell; ...

_The Semicolon_ (;)

118. Use the semicolon to separate the clauses of a compound sentence
that are long or that are not joined by conjunctions.

He says that he shall teach for two more years; then he shall probably
return to college.

119. Use a semicolon to separate the clauses of a compound sentence
that are joined by a conjunction, only when it is desirable to
indicate a very definite pause.

I have told you of the theft; but I have yet to tell you of the
reason for it.

120. Use a semicolon to separate the parts of a compound or a complex
sentence, when some of those parts are punctuated by commas.

As men, we admire the man that succeeds; but, as honest men, we
cannot admire the man that succeeds by dishonesty.

Wrong: He spends his money for theatres, and dinners, and wine,
and for his family he has not a cent.

Right: He spends his money for theatres, and dinners, and wine;
and for his family he has not a cent.

121. Use a semicolon before certain adverbs and adverbial expressions,
when they occur in the body of the sentence and are used conjunctively;
such as, _accordingly, besides, hence, thus, therefore_, etc.

I do not care to see the game; besides, it is too cold.

John is sick; however, I think he will be here.

122. Use the semicolon before the expressions, _namely, as, that
is_, etc., or before their abbreviations, _viz., i.e.,_ etc., when
they are used to introduce a series of particular terms, simple
in form, which are in apposition with a general term.

At present there are four prominent political parties; namely, the
Republican, the Democratic, the Prohibition, and the Socialist.

_The Colon_ (:)

123. Use the colon after an introduction to a long or formal quotation,
before an enumeration, or after a word, phrase, or sentence that
constitutes an introduction to something that follows.

Mr. Royer says in his letter: "You will remember that I promised
to send you a copy of my latest musical composition. I am mailing
it to you to-day."

There are four essentials of a legal contract: competent parties,
consideration, agreement, and legal subject matter.

124. Use the colon after the salutation of a formal letter. (See

_The Dash_ (--)

125. Use the dash to indicate any sudden break in thought or

I am pleased to meet you, Captain--what did you say your name is?

The man I met--I refer to Captain Jones--was in the naval service.

126. Use the dash in the place of the comma to set off more definitely
some part of a sentence.

I was always lacking what I needed most--money.

127. Use the dash preceded by a comma before a word which sums up
the preceding part of a sentence.

Democrats, Republicans, Prohibitionists, Socialists, and
Populists,--_all_ were there.

128. Do not use dashes where not required or in place of some other
mark of punctuation.

_The Parenthesis Marks_ ( )

129. Use the parenthesis marks only to enclose a statement that
is thrown into the sentence, but is grammatically independent of

He belongs (at least so it is said) to every secret society in town.

130. Do not use a comma or other punctuation mark with the parenthesis
marks unless it would be required even if there were no parenthesis.
When other punctuation is used it should follow the parenthesis.

They sent us (as they had agreed to do) all the papers in the case.

We expect John to bring his roommate home with him (he has been
very anxious to do so); but we expect no one else.

Modern usage is to avoid entirely the use of the parentheses.

_The Bracket_ [ ]

131. Use the bracket to enclose some statement or word of the writer
that is thrown into a quotation by way of explanation or otherwise.

His letter reads: "We have decided to get Mr. Howard [his cousin]
to deliver the address..."

_The Quotation Marks_ (" ")

132. Use quotation marks to enclose quotations of the exact language
of another.

The Bible says, "Charity suffereth long."

133. Use single quotation marks (' ') to enclose a quotation within
a quotation.

The speaker in closing said: "I can imagine no more inspiring words
than those of Nelson at Trafalgar, 'England expects every man to
do his duty.'"

134. If a quotation consists of several paragraphs, quotation marks
should precede each paragraph and follow the last.

135. Do not use quotation marks to enclose each separate sentence
of a single continuous quotation.

136. Do not use quotation marks to enclose well-known nicknames,
titles of books, proverbial phrases, or to indicate one's own literary

137. Examine the location of quotation marks and other punctuation
in the following sentences:

Wrong: "You may do as you wish, he said, if you only wish to do

Right: "You may do as you wish," he said, "if you only wish to do

Wrong: "Can you come," she asked?

Right: "Can you come?" she asked.

_The Apostrophe_ (')

138. Use the apostrophe to mark certain plurals and possessives.
See §§ 13 and 15.

Use the apostrophe to indicate the omission of letters.

Doesn't, Can't, What's the matter?

_The Hyphen_ (-)

139. Use the hyphen when a word must be divided at the end of a

Never divide words of one syllable, nor short words; such as, _though,
through, also, besides, over_, etc.

Never divide words except at the end of a syllable, and always
put the hyphen at the end of the first line, not at the beginning
of the second.

Wrong division: _int-end, prop-ose, superint-endent, expre-ssion_.

Proper division: _in-tend, pro-pose, superin-tendent, expres-sion_.

In writing it is good usage not to divide a word like _expression_
by placing _ex_ on one line and the rest of the word on the next

140. Use the hyphen to divide certain compound words. No rule can
be given by which to determine when compounded words demand the
hyphen. Only custom determines.

Always use a hyphen with _to-day, to-morrow_, and _to-night_.


_Punctuate and capitalize the following selections. For instructions
as to paragraphing and the arrangement of conversation, see_ §§
143 _and_ 144:

 1. however father had told us not to expect good accommodations
    because it is a very small town

 2. tomorrow if it is a clear day we will go to pittsburgh

 3. will that be satisfactory was his question

 4. it doesnt make any difference said she whether you come or not

 5. whats the matter with you john

 6. john replied i mean that poem that begins the curfew tolls the
    knell of parting day

 7. and that day i was only a child then I travelled all alone to
    new york city

 8. he is a member at least he claims to be of the presbyterian church

 9. the author says that the hero of waterloo wellington was a general
    of great military training

10. buddhist brahmin mohammedan christian jewish every religion
    was represented

11. his letter will tell what he wants or will attempt to do so

12. you will please hand in the following sentences one three seven
    and nine

13. four presidents have been unitarians namely the two adams fillmore
    and taft

14. the verse to which you refer is as follows
      the boast of heraldry the pomp of power
      all that beauty all that wealth eer gave
      await alike the inevitable hour
      the paths of glory lead but to the grave

15. a noun is the name of something as william france book cat

16. the train leaves at eight therefore we shall have to rise at
    seven at latest

17. the different points discussed are these first the history of
    the divine right theory second the exponents of the theory and
    third the result of the theory

18. in the first problem divide in the second multiply

19. if the break is slight use a comma if it is more perceptible
    use a semicolon if it is very sharp use a period

20. william if you gear me answer

21. he told mother that he must go home at least that is what she

22. as noise it is an undoubted success as music it is a flat failure

23. that may be true but i still doubt it

24. separate the clauses by a comma unless the connection be close

25. even though that be true it does not prove what we want proved

26. mary said yes but helen said no

27. he is called the peerless leader

28. such a man for example was lincoln

29. if as you say it ought to be done why dont you do it

30. that too is a mistake

31. that is wool not cotton as you seem to think

32. the english are stolid the french lively

33. in that case let us have war

34. such an opinion i may say is absurd

35. alas when i had noticed my mistake it was too late

36. the house which was built by smith is on the corner of a large lot

37. he means the house that has green shutters

38. those are all good books but none of them will do

39. dickens wrote nicholas nickleby hugo les miserables thackeray
    henry esmond

40. he is a good student and also a great athlete

41. he gave me a red silk handkerchief

42. having assigned the lesson he left the room

43. royers address is danville illinois

44. you will find it discussed in paragraphs one two and three

45. i had classes under the president dr harris

46. moreover naxon the cashier has fled

47. oh that is what you mean is it

48. for this you will need a piece of clean white paper

49. the bible says the lord thy god is a jealous god

50. the boundary of uncle sams lands is the rio grande river

51. theodore roosevelt is not the only strenuous man in history

52. the north quickly recovered from the civil war

53. he told mother to write to my uncle about it

54. he said then why are you here

55. in that army old young and middle aged men served for their
    country could no longer raise a picked army
56. he was told to ask the principal professor morton

57. in the same town muncy lives smith now a respected man

58. a peasant named ali according to a good old oriental story
    needing badly a donkey for some urgent work decided to apply to
    his neighbor mehmed whose donkey ali knew to be idle in the stable
    that day i am sorry my dear neighbor said mehmed in reply to alis
    request but i cannot please you my son took the donkey this morning
    to the next village i assure you insisted ali i shall take the
    very best care of him my dear neighbor can you not take my word
    demanded mehmed with a show of anger i tell you the donkey is out
    but at this point the donkey began to bray loudly there that is
    the donkey braying now well said the justly indignant mehmed if you
    would rather take my donkeys word than my word we can be friends
    no longer and under no circumstances can i lend you anything.

59. a coroner was called upon to hold an inquest over the body of
    an italian the only witness was a small boy of the same nationality
    who spoke no english the examination proceeded thus where do you
    live my boy the boy shook his head do you speak english another
    shake of the head do you speak french another shake do you speak
    german still no answer how old are you no reply have you father
    and mother no reply do you speak italian the boy gave no sign well
    said the coroner i have questioned the witness in four languages and
    can get no answer it is useless to proceed the court is adjourned.

NOTE. Further exercise in punctuation may be had by copying without
the marks of punctuation selections from books, and afterwards
inserting the proper marks.



141. The PARAGRAPH is a connected series of sentences all dealing
with the development of a single topic. Where the general subject
under discussion is very narrow, the paragraph may constitute the
whole composition; but usually, it forms one of a number of subtopics,
each dealing with some subdivision of the general subject. For each
one of these subtopics a separate paragraph should be made.

The purpose of the paragraph is to aid the reader to comprehend
the thought to be expressed. The paragraph groups in a logical way
the different ideas to be communicated. It gives rest to the eye
of the reader, and makes clearer the fact that there is a change
of topic at each new paragraph.

142. PARAGRAPH LENGTH. There is no fixed rule governing the proper
length of the paragraph, but, probably, no paragraph need be more
than three hundred words in length. If the whole composition is not
more than two hundred and fifty words in length, it will not often
need to be subdivided into paragraphs. In a letter, paragraphing
should be more frequent than in other compositions.

Paragraphing should not be too frequent. If paragraphing is too
frequent, by making each minute subdivision of equal importance,
it defeats its purpose of grouping ideas about some general topic.

143. Sometimes a sentence or even a part of a sentence may be set
off as a separate paragraph in order to secure greater emphasis.
This, however, is only using the paragraph for a proper purpose--to
aid in gaining clearness.

144. PARAGRAPHING OF SPEECH. In a narrative, each direct quotation,
together with the rest of the sentence of which it is a part, should
constitute a separate paragraph. This rule should be always followed
in writing a conversation. Examine the following:

A certain Scotch family cherishes this anecdote of a trip which
Dr. Samuel Johnson made to Scotland. He had stopped at the house
of this family for a meal, and was helped to the national dish.
During the meal the hostess asked:

"Dr. Johnson, what do you think of our Scotch broth?"

"Madam," was the answer, "in my opinion it is fit only for pigs."

"Then have some more," said the woman.

The only case in which the quoted words can be detached from the
remainder of the sentence is where they form the end of the sentence
after some introductory words, as in the second paragraph of the
example just given.

145. INDENTATION OF THE PARAGRAPH. The first sentence of each new
paragraph should be indented. See example under §144. No other
sentence should be so indented.

146. The essential qualities which each paragraph should have are:
Unity, Coherence, and Emphasis.

UNITY. Unity requires that the paragraph should deal with only one
subject, and should include nothing which does not have a direct
bearing on that subject. Thus, in the following paragraph, the
italicized sentence violates the principle of Unity, because, very
obviously it belongs to some other paragraph:

Never did any race receive the Gospel with more ardent enthusiasm
than the Irish. _St. Patrick, a zealous priest, was thought to
have banished the snakes from the island_. So enthusiastic were
the Irish, that, not content with the religious work in Ireland,
the Irish Church sent out its missionaries to Scotland, to Germany,
and to the Alps and Apennines. It founded religious houses and

Separate paragraphs should not be made of matter which belongs
together. If the ideas can all be fairly included under one general
topic, unity demands that they be grouped in one paragraph. Thus,
in describing the route followed in a certain journey, one should
not use a separate paragraph for each step in the journey.


In returning to the University, I went from Pittsburgh to Cleveland.

Then I took a berth for the night on one of the lake steamers running
from Cleveland to Detroit.

From Detroit I completed the journey to Ann Arbor on an early train
the next morning.

If unity is to be secured, not only must all the ideas brought
out in the paragraph deal with the same topic, but also, they must
be developed in some consistent, systematic order. A certain point
of view should be generally maintained as to tense, subject, and
manner of expression.

147. HOW TO GAIN UNITY. Careful thought before beginning the paragraph
is necessary if unity is to be gained. The topic of the paragraph
should be determined, and should be clearly indicated by a topic
sentence. Usually this topic sentence should be placed near the
beginning of the paragraph. The first sentence is the clearest
and best place for it. The topic sentence need not be a formal
statement of the subject to be discussed, but may be any sentence
that shows what is to be the central idea of the paragraph.

With the topic determined, there are various ways of developing it.
It may be developed by repetition; by adding details and specific
instances to the general statement; by presenting proof; by
illustration; or by showing cause or effect.

148. Examine the following paragraphs. Each possesses the quality
of unity. The topic sentence in each case is italicized.

_To rule was not enough for Bonaparte._ He wanted to amaze, to
dazzle, to overpower men's souls, by striking, bold, magnificent,
and unanticipated results. To govern ever so absolutely would not
have satisfied him, if he must have governed silently. He wanted
to reign through wonder and awe, by the grandeur and terror of his
name, by displays of power which would rivet on him every eye, and
make him the theme of every tongue. Power was his supreme object;
but power which should be gazed at as well as felt, which should
strike men as a prodigy, which should shake old thrones as an
earthquake, and, by the suddenness of its new creations, should
awaken something of the submissive wonder which miraculous agency

From _The Character of Napoleon Bonaparte_, by Channing.

_There is something in the very season of the year that gives a
charm to the festivity of Christmas._ At other times we derive a
great portion of our pleasures from the mere beauties of Nature.
Our feelings sally forth and dissipate themselves over the sunny
landscape and we "live abroad and everywhere." The song of the bird,
the murmur of the stream, the breathing fragrance of spring, the
soft voluptuousness of summer, the golden pomp of autumn; earth with
its mantle of refreshing green, and heaven with its deep delicious
blue and its cloudy magnificence--all fill us with mute but exquisite
delight, and we revel in the luxury of mere sensation. But in the
depth of winter, when Nature lies despoiled of every charm, and
wrapped in her shroud of sheeted snow, we turn our gratifications
to moral sources. The dreariness and desolation of the landscape,
the short gloomy days and darksome nights, while they circumscribe
our wanderings, shut in also our feelings from rambling abroad,
and make us more keenly disposed for the pleasures of the social
circle. Our thoughts are more concentrated; our friendly sympathies
more aroused. We feel more sensibly the charm of each other's society,
and are brought more closely together by dependence on each other for
enjoyment. Heart calleth unto heart, and we draw our pleasures from
the deep wells of living kindness which lie in the quiet recesses of
our bosoms; and which, where resorted to, furnish forth the pure
element of domestic felicity.

From _Christmas_, by Washington Irving.

149. COHERENCE. Coherence demands that each paragraph shall be
perfectly clear in its meaning, and that it be so constructed that
it may be readily grasped by the reader. The relation of sentence
to sentence, of idea to idea, must be clearly brought out. The
whole fabric of the paragraph must be woven together--it must not
consist of disconnected pieces.

150. HOW TO GAIN COHERENCE. Where vividness or some other quality
does not gain coherence in the sentence, it is usually gained by
the use of words or phrases which refer to or help to keep in mind
the effect of the preceding sentences, or which show the bearing of
the sentence on the paragraph topic. These words may be of various
sorts; as, _it, this view, however, in this way_, etc. Sometimes
the subject is repeated occasionally throughout the paragraph,
or is directly or indirectly indicated again at the end of the

Examine carefully the following selections. Note the italicized
words of coherence, and note in each case how they aid the flow
of thought from sentence to sentence, and help to keep in mind
the paragraph topic.

I will give you my opinion and advice in regard to the _two books_
you have named. The _first_ is interesting and easy to read. _It_
is, _also_, by no means lacking in the value of the information
it presents. _But the second_, while it is no less interesting
and equally valuable in its contents, seems to me far more logical
and scholarly in its construction. _In addition to this_ I think
you will find it cheaper in price, by reason of its not being so
profusely illustrated. _Therefore_, I should advise you to procure
the _second_ for your study. _Either, indeed_, will do, but since
you have a choice, take the better one.

A Husbandman who had a quarrelsome family, after having tried in
vain to reconcile them by words, thought he might more readily
prevail by an example. _So_ he called his sons and bade them lay
a bundle of sticks before him. _Then having tied them_ up into a
fagot, he told _the lads_, one after another, to take it up and
break it. _They all tried_, but tried in vain. _Then_, untying
_the fagot_, he gave _them_ the sticks to break one by one. _This_
they did with the greatest ease. _Then_ said the father: "_Thus_,
my sons, as long as you remain united, you are a match for all your
enemies; but differ and separate, and you are undone." _Æsop's

Examine also the selections under §§ 205 and 206.

151. EMPHASIS. The third quality which a paragraph should possess
is emphasis. The paragraph should be so constituted as to bring
into prominence the topic or the point it is intended to present.
The places of greatest emphasis are usually at the beginning and at
the end of the paragraph. In short paragraphs sufficient emphasis
is generally gained by having a topic sentence at the beginning.
In longer paragraphs it is often well to indicate again the topic
at the end by way of summary in order to impress thoroughly on
the reader the effect of the paragraph.


_The few following suggestions for practice in paragraph construction
are given by way of outline. Additional subjects and exercises
will readily suggest themselves to teacher or student._

_These topics are intended to apply only to isolated
paragraphs--"paragraph themes." As has been suggested, more latitude
in the matter of unity is allowed in compositions so brief that
more than one paragraph is unnecessary._

Write paragraphs:

 1. Stating the refusal of a position that has been offered to you,
    and giving your reasons for the refusal.

 2. Describing the appearance of some building. Give the general
    appearance and then the details.

 3. Explaining how to tie a four-in-hand necktie.

 4. Stating your reasons for liking or not liking some book or play.

 5. Describing the personal appearance of some one of your acquaintance.

 6. To prove that the world is round.

 7. To prove that it pays to buy good shoes. (Develop by illustration.)

 8. Showing by comparison that there are more advantages in city
    life than in country life.

Write paragraphs on the following subjects:

 9. My Earliest Recollection.

10. The Sort of Books I Like Best.

11. Why I Like to Study X Branch.

12. My Opinion of My Relatives.

13. The Man I Room With.

14. Why I Was Late to Class.

15. What I Do on Sundays.

16. How to Prevent Taking Cold.

17. How to Cure a Cold.

18. My Best Teacher.

19. My Favorite Town.

20. Why I Go Fishing.

21. My Favorite Month.

22. What Becomes of My Matches.

23. Baseball is a Better Game than Football.

24. The View from X Building.

25. Why I Go to School.

26. My Opinion of Rainy Days.

27. My Most Useful Friend.

28. Why I Dislike Surprise Parties.

29. Why I Like to Visit at X's.

30. The Police Service of X Town.



NOTE TO TEACHER.--For the purpose of training in composition, in
the more elementary work, letter-writing affords probably the most
feasible and successful means. Letter-writing does not demand any
gathering of material, gains much interest, and affords much latitude
for individual tastes in topics and expression. Besides, letter-writing
is the field in which almost all written composition will be done
after leaving school; and so all training in school will be thoroughly
useful. For this reason, it is suggested that letter-writing be
made one of the chief fields for composition work.

In Exercise 75, are given a number of suggestions for letter-writing.
Others will readily occur to the teacher.


152. POSITION OF HEADING. In all business letters the writer's
address and the date of writing should precede the letter and be
placed at the upper right hand side of the sheet not less than an
inch from the top. This address and date is called the HEADING.
In friendly letters the parts of the heading are sometimes placed
at the end of the letter on the left side a short distance below
the body of the letter. This is permissible, but to place it at
the beginning in all letters is more logical and customary. Never
write part of the heading at the beginning and part at the end
of the letter.

153. ORDER OF HEADING. The parts of the heading should be sufficient
to enable the accurate addressing of a reply, and should be in
the following order: (1) the street address, (2) the town or the
city address, (3) the date. If all cannot be easily placed on one
line, two or even three lines should be used; but, in no case,
should the above order be varied. Examples:

Wrong: March 31, 1910, Red Oaks, Iowa, 210 Semple Street.

Right: 210 Semple Street, Red Oaks, Iowa, March 31, 1910.

Right: 210 Semple Street, Red Oaks, Iowa,
                        March 31, 1910.

Right: 210 Semple Street,
       Red Oaks, Iowa,
           March 31, 1910.

If only two lines are used, put the writer's address on the first
line and the date on the second.

Wrong: January 19, 1910, Sharon, Pennsylvania,
                    The Hotel Lafayette.

Right: The Hotel Lafayette, Sharon, Pennsylvania,
                   January 19, 1910.

154. PUNCTUATION OF HEADING. Place a period after each abbreviation
that is used. In addition to this, place commas after the street
address, after the town address, after the state address, and after
the number of the day of the month. Place a period after the number
of the year. Examine the correct address under §153.

155. FAULTS TO BE AVOIDED IN HEADINGS. Avoid the use of abbreviations
in the friendly letter, and avoid their too frequent use in the
business letter.

It is better to avoid abbreviating any but the longer names of states.

Avoid all such abbreviations as the following: _St._ for _Street;
Ave._ for _Avenue; Apart._ for _Apartments; Chi._ for _Chicago;
Phila._ for _Philadelphia_.

Wrong: Hardie Apart., Pbg., Pa.

Right: Hardie Apartments, Pittsburg, Pa.

Do not use the sign # before the street number.

Do not omit the word _Street_.

Wrong: 229 Market.

Right: 229 Market Street.

Do not write the date thus: _9/10/10_. Represent the numbers by
figures, not words. See §§ 75 and 76. Do not use _st., rd.,_ etc.,
after the number of the day.

Wrong: 9/8/09.

Right: September 8, 1909.

Wrong: September the Ninth, Nineteen Hundred and Nine.

Right: September 9, 1909.

Wrong: March 10th, 1910.

Right: March 10, 1910.


156. POSITION OF INSIDE ADDRESS. In strictly commercial letters
the name and the address of the person to whom the letter is being
sent should come at the beginning of the letter, and should begin
flush with the margin at the left side of the page, and a little
below the level of the heading. The second line of the inside address
should be set in a little from the margin. See model letters under

In formal friendly letters and in letters of a non-commercial nature,
the inside address should stand a little below the bottom of the
letter at the left side of the page. In informal friendly letters
the inside address may be omitted.

157. PUNCTUATION OF INSIDE ADDRESS. In punctuating the inside address,
place a period after each abbreviation that is used. In addition
to this, place a comma after the name of the addressee, a comma
after the street address, if one be given, and after the name of
the town or city. Place a period after the name of the state or
country. Examine the correct inside address under §174.

town, city, or state address from the inside address.

Wrong: Mr. E. P. Griffith,
       My dear Sir:

Right: Mr. E. P. Griffith.
            Muskogee, Oklahoma.
       My dear Sir:

Right: Mr. E. P. Griffith,
            221 Fiji Avenue,
               Muskogee, Oklahoma.
       My dear Sir:

Do not omit proper titles.

Wrong: R. R. Stolz,
           Muncy, Pennsylvania.

Right: Mr. R. R. Stolz,
           Muncy, Pennsylvania.

When two or more men are addressed, do not omit the title _Mr._,
before the name of each of the men, unless their names constitute
a partnership or trading name.

Right: Jones & Smith, (_firm name_)
            New York City.

Right: Mr. Jones and Mr. Smith, (_not a firm name_)
            New York City.

Avoid all abbreviations of titles preceding the name except _Mr.,
Mrs., Messrs._, and _Dr._ Abbreviations of titles placed after
the name, such as, _Esq., D.D., A.M._, etc., are proper.

Do not use _Mr._ and _Esq._ with the same name.

Avoid all other abbreviations except in case of a state with a
very long name. In this case it is permissible to abbreviate, but
it is better form to write the name in full. _United States of
America_ may be abbreviated to _U. S. A._

Wrong: Merch. Mfg. Co.,
          N. Y. C.

Right: The Merchants' Manufacturing Company.
                 New York City.

Wrong: Mr. William Shipp,
            Bangor, Me.
       Dear Sir:

Right: Mr. William Shipp,
            Bangor, Maine.
       Dear Sir:

Do not place a period after the title _Miss. Miss_ is not an


159. POSITION OF SALUTATION. The salutation should begin flush
with the margin and on the line next below the inside address. See
correctly written letters under §174.

160. FORM OF SALUTATION. The salutation varies with the form of
the letter and the relations between the writer and receiver of
the letter. Where the parties are strangers or mere business
acquaintances the most common salutations for individuals are,
_Dear Sir, Dear Madam_, or _My dear Sir, My dear Madam_. For a
group of persons, or for a company or a partnership, _Gentlemen,
Dear Sirs, Dear Madams_ or _Mesdames_ are used. In less formal
business letters such salutations as, _My dear Mr. Smith_, or _Dear
Miss Jaekel_ may be used.

In the case of informal and friendly letters, as in business and
formal letters, the salutation to be used is largely a matter of
taste. The following are illustrations of proper salutations for
friendly letters: _My dear Doctor, Dear Cousin, Dear Cousin Albert,
Dear Miss Jaekel, Dear Major, My dear Miss Smith, Dear William,
Dear Friend,_ etc.

It is considered more formal to prefix _My_ to the salutation.

It is over formal to use simply _Sir_ or _Madam_ in any letter,
or to use _Dear Sir_ or _Dear Madam_ when writing to a familiar

If one uses a very familiar salutation, such as _Dear Brown, Dear
John,_ etc., it is better to put the inside address at the close
of the letter, or to omit it.

161. PUNCTUATION OF SALUTATION. Punctuate the salutation with a
colon, except in informal letters, when a comma may be used.

except _Dr., Mr., Mrs._ Do not use the abbreviation _Dr._, when
that title is used as a final word in a salutation.

Wrong: My dear Maj. Wren:

Right: My dear Major Wren:

Wrong: My dear Dr.:

Right: My dear Doctor:

Do not use a name alone as a salutation.

Wrong: Mr. W. W. Braker:
           Will you please inform ...

Right: Mr. W. W. Braker,
           Muncy, Pennsylvania.
       Dear Sir:
           Will you please inform ...

In the salutation capitalize only the important nouns and the first
word of the salutation.

Wrong: My Dear Sir:

Right: My dear Sir:

Wrong: My very Dear Friend:

Right: My very dear Friend:

Wrong: Dear sir:

Right: Dear Sir:


163. THE SUBJECT MATTER OF THE LETTER. In friendly letters much
latitude is allowed in the body of the letter, but business letters
should be brief and to the point. No letter, however, should be
lacking in the courteous forms or in completeness.

164. FORM OF BODY. The body of the letter usually begins on the
line below the salutation and is indented the same distance from
the margin as any other paragraph would be indented. See model
letters under §174.

In commercial letters paragraph divisions are made more frequently
than in other composition. Each separate point should be made the
subject of a separate paragraph.

165. FAULTS IN BODY OF THE LETTER. In letters that are intended to
be complete and formal, avoid the omission of articles, pronouns,
and prepositions. Avoid also expressions that are grammatically
incomplete. Only in extremely familiar and hasty letters should
the "telegraph style" be adopted.

Bad: Received yours of the 10th. Have had no chance to look up man.
Will do so soon.

Good: I have received your letter of the tenth. I have had no chance
as yet to look up the man, but I will do so soon.

Bad: Address c/o John Smith, Mgr. Penna. Tele.

Good: Address in care of John Smith, Manager of the Pennsylvania

Bad: In reply will say ...

Good: In reply I wish to say ...

Bad: Yours of the 10th at hand.

Good: Your letter of the 10th is at hand.

Bad: Your favor received ...

Good: We have received your letter ...

Bad: Enclose P. O. money order for $2.

Good: We enclose post office money order for two dollars, ($2).

Bad: We have read your plan. Same is satisfactory.

Good: We have read your plan, and it is satisfactory.

Avoid the use of abbreviations in the letter.

It is well to avoid the too frequent use of the pronoun _I_ in
the letter, though care must be taken not to carry this caution
to extremes. _I_, however, should not be omitted when necessary
to the completeness of the sentence. Do not try to avoid its use
by omitting it from the sentence, but by substituting a different
form of sentence.

There is no objection to beginning a letter with _I_.

Punctuate the letter just as carefully as any other composition.

Excepting in letters of a formal nature, there is no objection
to the use of colloquial expressions such as _can't, don't,_ etc.

Unless you have some clear reason to the contrary, avoid the use
of expressions that have been used so much that they are worn out
and often almost meaningless. Such expressions as the following ones
are not wrong, but are often used when they are both inappropriate
and unnecessary.

Your esteemed favor is at hand.

In reply permit me to say ...

We beg leave to advise ...

We beg to suggest ...

Thanking you for the favor, we are ...

Please find enclosed ...

In answer to your favor of the tenth ...

We take pleasure in informing you ...

In reply would say ...

We beg to acknowledge receipt of your favor ...

Awaiting your further orders, we are ...


166. FINAL WORDS. Business letters frequently close with some final
words, such as, _Thanking you again for your kind assistance, I am
..., A waiting your further orders, we are_ ..., etc. These expressions
are not wrong, but are often used when not at all necessary.

167. THE COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE. The complimentary close should be
written on a separate line near the middle of the page, and should
begin with a capital letter. Appropriateness is the only guide
to the choice of a complimentary close.

The following complimentary closes are proper for business letters:

  Yours respectfully,    Yours very truly,
  Yours truly,           Very truly yours,

The following complimentary closes are proper for friendly letters:

  Yours sincerely,       Very truly yours,
  Yours very truly,      Your loving son,
  Yours cordially,       Affectionately yours,

168. FAULTS IN THE CLOSE. Do not use abbreviations, such as, _Yrs.
respy., yrs. try.,_ etc.

169. THE SIGNATURE OF THE WRITER. The letter should be so signed as
to cause no doubt or embarrassment to any one addressing a reply.
The signature should show whether the writer is a man or a woman;
and, if a woman, it should indicate whether she is to be addressed
as _Miss_ or _Mrs._ In formal letters it is customary for a woman
to indicate how she is to be addressed by signing her name in the
following manner:

  Sincerely yours,
      Caroline Jones.
    (Mrs. William Jones).

  Very truly yours,
    (Miss) Matilda Stephens.

In signing a company name write first the name of the company, and
after it the name of the writer. Example:

D. Appleton & Company,
         per J. W. Miller.


170. In beginning the letter, place the address and date an inch
and a half or two inches below the top of the page.

Leave a margin of about a half inch or more on the left side of
the page. Indent the beginning of each paragraph about an inch
or more beyond the margin.

In using a four-page sheet, write on the pages in their order, 1,
2, 3, 4.

In the correctly written forms of letters under §174 observe the
indentation of the lines. The first line of the inside address
should be flush with the margin, the second somewhat set in. The
salutation should begin flush with the margin. The body of the letter
should begin on the line below the salutation, and some distance
in from the margin.


171. POSITION OF OUTSIDE ADDRESS. Place the address on the envelope
so that it balances well. Do not have it too far toward the top,
too close to the bottom, nor too far to one side. See addressed
envelope under §173. Place the stamp squarely in the upper right-hand
corner, not obliquely to the sides of the envelope.

172. PUNCTUATION OF OUTSIDE ADDRESS. Punctuation may be omitted
at the end of the lines of the address. If it is used, place a
period at the end of the last line, and a comma after each preceding

Within the lines punctuate just as you would in the inside address.

If an abbreviation ends the line, always place a period after it,
whether the other lines are punctuated or not.

173. FAULTS IN THE OUTSIDE ADDRESS. Avoid the use of abbreviations
except those that would be proper in the inside address or in the
heading. See §§ 155 and 158.

Do not use the sign # before the number of the street address. No
letters or sign at all should be used there. See §155.

Compare the following forms of addresses:

Bad: Col. Wm. Point,
          #200 John St.,
       Trenton, N. J.

Good: Colonel William Point,
            200 John Street,
                       New Jersey.

Good: Colonel William Point
            200 John Street
                   Trenton, New Jersey

Bad: Chas. Jones,
        c/o Edward Furrey,
            Wilkinsburg, Pa.

Good: Mr. Charles Jones
          In care of Mr. Edward Furrey

Bad: Rev. Walter Bertin

Good: The Reverend Walter Bertin

Bad: Pres. of Bucknell Univ.

Good: For the President of Bucknell University.

A properly arranged address:

[Illustration: Mr. Robert D. Royer,
                     201 Tenth Street,


                                   200 Mead Avenue,
                                        Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania,
                                           January 12, 1909.
Mr. A. M. Weaver,
    Cambridge, Massachusetts.

My dear Sir:

I have received your letter of inquiry about the sale of my law
books. I will say in answer that at present I have no intention
of selling them.

You may, however, be able to secure what you want from H. B. Wassel,
Esquire, Commonwealth Building, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. He has
advertised the sale of a rather extensive list of books.

                                 Very truly yours,
                                            Charles M. Howell.

                                 Muncy, New York, January 12, 1909.
My dear Professor Morton:

We are trying to establish in the school here some permanent system
of keeping students' records. I have been told that you have worked
out a card method that operates successfully. If you can give me
any information in regard to your method, I shall consider it a
very great favor. I enclose a stamped envelope for your reply.

                                 Very sincerely yours,
                                                 Harris A. Plotts.

Professor E. A. Morton,
    Braddock, Pennsylvania.

                          Braddock, Pennsylvania, January 12, 1909.
My dear Mrs. Hagon:

I wish to thank you for your kind aid in securing Captain Howard
to deliver one of the lectures in our course. Only your influence
enabled us to get so good a man at so Iowa price.

                                 Very sincerely,
                                      Sylvester D. Dunlop.

                              173 State Street, Detroit, Michigan,
                                       January 23, 1910.
To whom it may concern:

It gives me great pleasure to testify to the character, ability
and attainments of Mr. E. J. Heidenreich. He has been a trusted
personal associate of mine for more than twenty years. He may be
counted upon to do successfully anything that he is willing to

                                                 Harry B. Hutchins.

My dear Walter:

I am to be in the city only a few more weeks before leaving permanently.
Before I go, I should like to have you come out and take dinner with
me some evening. How would next Wednesday at six o'clock suit you?
If you can come at that time, will you please write or telephone
to me sometime before Tuesday?

                               Very cordially yours,
                                               Paul B. Vandine.

6556 Broad Street,
    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
        March 30, 1909.

                           The Lafayette, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
                                        March 31, 1909.
My dear Paul:

I shall be very glad to accept your invitation to take dinner with
you before you take final leave of the city. The time you mention,
next Wednesday evening, is entirely satisfactory to me.

I was more than pleased to receive your invitation, for the prospect
of talking over old times with you is delightful.

                                   Sincerely yours,
                                                 Walter Powell.

                                     Napoleon, Ohio, February 28, 1908.
The American Stove Company,
    Alverton, Pennsylvania.


With this letter I enclose a check for ten dollars, for which please
send me one of your small cook stoves, of the sort listed in your
catalogue on page two hundred thirty-eight.

It will be a great favor if you will hasten the shipment of this
stove as much as possible, since it is urgently needed in a summer
cottage that I have for rent.

                           Very truly yours,
                                        Ernest Burrows.

                                    223 Siegel Street, New York City,
                                               June 5, 1910.
The Acme Tapestry Company,
    Syracuse, New York.

Dear Sirs:

Will you please send me a price list and descriptive catalogue of
your tapestries and carpets?

I have been commissioned to purchase all the tapestries and carpets
that may be needed for the new Young Women's Christian Association
Building, on Arlington Avenue, this city. I understand that institutions
of this sort are allowed a ten per cent discount by you. Will you
please tell me if this is true?

                             Very truly yours,
                                          Anna R. Fleegor.
                                        (Mrs. C. C. Fleegor.)

                                 Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, May 10, 1910.
The Merchant's Electric Wiring Company,
    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


I am writing to ask if you can give me employment in your work
for about ten weeks beginning June 15th. I am at present taking
a course in electrical engineering at Bucknell University, and
am in my sophomore year., It is my plan to gain some practical
experience in various sorts of electrical work during the vacations
occurring in my course. This summer I want to secure practical
experience in electric wiring.

If you wish references as to my character and ability, I would
refer you to Mr. William R. Stevenson, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, and
to Mr. Harry E. McCormick, Superintendent of the Street Railways
Company, Danville, Illinois.

Salary is a very slight object to me in this work, and I shall be
willing to accept whatever compensation you may see fit to offer

                                Respectfully yours,
                                             Harvey H. Wilkins.

                                    Drawsburg, Ohio, May 21, 1910.
My dear Norman:

I have just heard of your good fortune and hasten to assure you
of my sincere pleasure in the news. May you find happiness and
prosperity in your new location. But do not forget that your old
friends are still living and will always be interested in your

                             Your affectionate cousin,
                                                  Mary E. Johnston.

                          223 Holbrook Avenue, Wilkinsburg, Indiana.
                                     November 10, 1908.
The Jefferson Life Insurance Company,
    Norfolk, Virginia.


I am the holder of Policy Number 2919 in your company. In that
Policy, which was taken out about ten years ago, my occupation
is stated to be carpenter. Lately I have changed occupations, and
am now engaged in conducting a store. If, in order to maintain the
validity of my policy, the change of occupation should be recorded
on your books, will you please have the proper entry made.

I should like to know if at the present time my policy has any cash
surrender value, and if so, what that value is.

                                  Very truly yours,
                                               Arthur J. Pearse.

                               Bunnell Building, Scranton, Pennsylvania,
                                                    April 20, 1909.
Mr. James R. Elliot,
    Germantown, Colorado.

My dear Elliot:

Will you please send me, as soon as you conveniently can, the addresses
of George English, Ira S. Shepherd, and G. N. Wilkinson.

This request for addresses may lead you to think that wedding
invitations are to be looked for. Your conclusion, I am happy to
say, is a correct one; I expect to be married sometime in June.

                          Cordially your friend,
                                      Charles R. Harris.

                              The Anglo-American Hotel, Vienna, Austria,
                                          March 19, 1907.
Dear Aunt Emily:

You will no doubt be surprised when you read the heading of this
letter and learn that we are now in Vienna. We had really intended,
as I wrote to you, to spend the entire months of March and April
in Berlin, but a sudden whim sent us on to this city.

Until we came to Vienna I had but a very vague idea of the city,
and thought it a place of little interest. I was surprised to find
it a place of so many beautiful buildings and beautiful streets.
Still more was I surprised to find what a festive, stylish place
it is. Paris may have the reputation for fashion and frivolity,
but Vienna lacks only the reputation; it certainly does not lack
the fashionable and frivolous air.

The other day in one of the shops here, I discovered, as I thought,
a very fine miniature. I purchased it to present to you, and have
already sent it by post. It ought to reach you as soon as this

We have not received the usual letter from you this week, but suppose
it is because we so suddenly changed our address. The necessity
of forwarding it from Berlin has probably caused the delay.

Father and Mother join in sending their love to you.

                          Your affectionate niece,


175. It is customary and desirable to write certain kinds of notes
in the third person. Such a note contains nothing but the body
of the note, followed at the left side of the paper, by the time
and the place of writing.

Use no pronoun but that of the third person. Never use any heading,
salutation, or signature. Use no abbreviations except _Mr., Mrs._,
or _Dr._ Spell out all dates.


Mrs. Harry Moore requests the pleasure of Mr. Leighou's company
at dinner on Sunday, June the first, at two o'clock.

1020 Highland Street,
    Washington, Pennsylvania,
May the twenty-fifth.

The Senior Class of Bucknell University requests the pleasure of
Professor and Mrs. Morton's company on Tuesday evening, June the
tenth, at a reception in honor of Governor Edwin S. Stuart.

  Bucknell University,
  June the fifth.

Mr. Leighou regrets that a previous engagement prevents his acceptance
of Mrs. Moore's kind invitation for Sunday, June the first.

  110 Braddock Avenue,
  May the twenty-seventh.


_Make use of some of the following suggestions for letters. Have
every letter complete in all its formal parts. Fill in details
according to your own fancy:_

 1. A letter to the X Express Company of your town, complaining of
    their delay in delivering a package to you.

 2. A letter to a friend, thanking him for the entertainment afforded
    you on a recent visit to his house.

 3. A letter to the X Book Company, inquiring what dictionary they
    publish, the prices, etc.

 4. A letter to Mr. X, asking him for a position in his office, and
    stating your qualifications.

 5. A letter congratulating a friend on some good fortune that has
    befallen him.

 6. A letter asking a friend his opinion of some business venture
    that you are thinking of entering upon. Explain the venture.

 7. A letter to your home, describing to your parents your school.

 8. A letter to a friend, telling him of the chance meeting with
    some friend.

 9. A letter to the X store ordering from them material for covering
    a canoe that you are building. Explain your needs.

10. A letter describing experiences which you had on your vacation.

11. A letter arranging to meet a friend at a certain place, time, etc.

12. A letter explaining how to reach your home from the railway
    station. Leave no doubt.

13. A letter describing some new acquaintance.

14. A letter telling some humorous story that you have recently heard.

15. A letter to a relative telling him the recent occurrences in
    your town.

16. A letter detailing your plans for the succeeding year.

17. A letter describing some play which you have recently attended.

18. A letter to your parents explaining to them why you failed in
    an examination.

19. A letter inviting a friend to visit you at a certain time.

20. A letter accepting an invitation to visit a friend.

21. A letter stating your opinions on some public question; as,
    prohibition, woman suffrage, etc.

22. A letter discussing the baseball prospects in your town or school.

23. A letter to the X school, inquiring about courses of study given,
    prices, etc.

24. A formal third person invitation to a reception given to some
    organization to which you belong.

25. A formal third person acceptance of such invitation.

26. A travel letter describing your visit to various places of interest.

27. A letter describing a day's outing to a friend who was unable
    to go with you.

28. A letter describing a house to a man who wishes to purchase it.

29. A letter to a schoolmate describing to him various events which
    happened at school during his absence.

30. A letter in reply to an inquiry from a friend as to what outfit
    he will need to take along on a prospective camping trip.

31. A letter describing to a friend the appearance and characteristics
    of a dog which you have lately bought.

32. A letter to your parents telling them of your boarding place,
    your recent visit to the theater, your meeting an old friend, your
    work, your new acquaintances. Arrange the topics and make the
    transition as smooth as possible.

33. A letter telling about an intended celebration by the school
    of some national holiday.

34. A letter about a lecture that you recently attended. Describe
    the place, occasion, lecturer, address, etc.

35. A letter telling a friend the first impression you formed of
    your school.



177. By the term WHOLE COMPOSITION or THEME is meant a composition
consisting of a number of related paragraphs all dealing with one
general subject, whether the composition be a narration, a description,
or an exposition.

The following general principles applying to the construction of the
whole composition are stated for the guidance of the inexperienced

178. STATEMENT OF SUBJECT. Care should be used in the statement of
the subject. It should not be so stated as to be more comprehensive
than the composition, but should be limited to cover only what is
discussed. For a small essay, instead of a big subject, take some
limited phase of that subject:

Too broad: _College, Photography, Picnics_.

Properly limited: _A College Education as an Aid to Earning Power,
Does College Life Make Loafers? Photography as a Recreation, How
Picnics Help the Doctor._

179. THE OUTLINE. Just as in the building of a house or of a machine,
if anything creditable is to be attained, a carefully made plan is
necessary before entering on the construction; so in the writing
of an essay or theme, there should be made some plan or outline,
which will determine what different things are to be discussed,
and what is to be the method of developing the discussion. By the
inexperienced writer, at least, a composition should never be begun
until an outline has been formed for its development. As soon as
the material for the composition is in hand, the outline should be
made. It should be an aid in the construction of the composition,
not a thing to be derived after the composition is completed. Only
by the previous making of an outline can a logical arrangement be
gained, topics properly subordinated, and a suitable proportion
secured in their discussion.

In the previous chapter on the paragraph the following different
subtopics, were discussed:

Definition of Paragraph.            How to Secure Unity.
Length of Paragraph.                How to Secure Coherence.
The Topic Sentence.                 Too Frequent Paragraphing.
Unity in the Paragraph.             Paragraphing of Speech.
Coherence in the Paragraph.         Paragraphing for Emphasis.
Examples of Unity.                  Examples showing how Unity is
Purpose of the Paragraph.               Destroyed.
Emphasis in the Paragraph.          The Paragraph Theme.

If the topics had been taken up in the above irregular order, a
sorry result would have been obtained. Compare the above list of
topics with the following arrangement of the same topics in a logical


1. Its definition and purpose.
2. Its length.
     Paragraphing of speech.
     Paragraphing for emphasis.
     Too frequent paragraphing.
3. Its essential qualities.
     A. Unity.
          Examples showing how unity is destroyed.
          How to secure unity.
          The topic sentence.
          Development of topic sentence.
          Examples showing unity.
     B. Coherence.
          How to secure coherence.
          Examples showing coherence.
     C. Emphasis.
          Places of emphasis in the paragraph.
4. Practical construction of the paragraph.
5. The paragraph theme.

180. USE AND QUALITIES OF THE OUTLINE. The use of the outline is
not restricted to an expository composition, as above, but is also
necessary in narration and description. Usually, in a narration,
the order of time in which events occurred, is the best order in
which to present them, though other arrangements may frequently
be followed with very good reason.

In a description different methods may be followed. Often a general
description is given, and then followed by a statement of various
details. Thus, in describing a building, one might first describe
in a general way its size, its general style of architecture, and
the impression it makes on the observer. Then more particular
description might be made of its details of arrangement and
peculiarities of architecture and ornamentation.

The whole object of the outline is to secure clearness of statement
and to avoid confusion and repetition. To secure this end the outline
should present a few main topics to which all others either lead
up or upon which they depend. These topics or subtopics should all
bear some apparent and logical relation to one another. The relation
may be that of chronology; that of general statement followed by
details; that of cause and effect; or any other relation, so long
as it is a logical and natural one.

The outline should not be too minute and detailed. It should be
sufficient only to cover the various divisions of the subject-matter,
and to prevent the confusion of subtopics. A too detailed outline
tends to make the composition stiff and formal.

The outline should have proportion. The essential features of the
subject should be the main topics. Minor subjects should not be
given too great prominence, but should be subordinated to the main

181. THE BEGINNING OF THE COMPOSITION. To choose a method of beginning
a composition often causes trouble. Usually a simple, direct beginning
is the best. But sometimes an introductory paragraph is necessary
in order to explain the writer's point of view, or to indicate
to what phases of the subject attention is to be given. Examine
the following methods of beginning.


Oddly enough, hardly any notice is taken of an industry in which
the United States towers in unapproachable supremacy above all
other nations of the earth. The census does not say a word about
it, nor does there exist more than the merest word about it in
all the literature of American self-praise.


Nothing stands out more keenly in the recollection of my childhood,
than the feelings of terror which I experienced when forced to go
to bed without the protecting light of a lamp. Then it was that
dread, indefinite ghosts lurked behind every door, hid in every
clothes-press, or lay in wait beneath every bed.


No other metal is put to so many uses and is so indispensable as

The opening sentences of a composition should be able to stand
alone; their meaning or clearness should not depend upon reference
to the title.



There is a rapidly growing belief _that this study_ has too large
a place in our high-school courses of study.



There is a rapidly growing belief _that Latin_ has too large a place
in our high school courses of study.

182. UNITY IN THE COMPOSITION. Unity is an essential element of
the whole composition as well as of the paragraph, and its demands
here are in general the same. Nothing must be brought into the
composition which does not fall well within the limits of the subject.
In the different subdivisions, also, nothing must be discussed
which properly belongs to some other division of the topic.

As in the paragraph, a definite point of view should be adopted
and adhered to. There must not be a continual changing of relation
of parts of the composition to the subject, nor of the writer's
relation to the subject.

A consistent point of view is especially necessary in a narrative.
If the writer is telling of events within his own experience, care
must be taken not to bring in any conversation or occurrence, at
which, by his own story, he could not have been present. A continual
changing back and forth between present and past tenses must also
be avoided. One or the other should be adopted consistently.

183. COHERENCE IN THE COMPOSITION. A composition must also be coherent.
Its different parts must be closely knit together and the whole
closely knit to the subject. Just as in the paragraph, words of
reference and transition are needed, so in the composition, words,
or sentences of reference and transition are needed, in order to
bind the whole together and show the relation of its parts.

For this purpose, the beginning of a new division or any definite
change of topic should be closely marked, so as to prevent confusion.
There should be transition sentences, or sentences which show the
change of topic from paragraph to paragraph, and yet at the same
time bridge the thought from paragraph to paragraph. These transition
sentences may come at the end of a preceding paragraph, or at the
beginning of a following one, or at both of these places.

Examine the following parts of paragraphs in which the words or
phrases showing transition from part to part are italicized:

(Last sentence of first paragraph)

... The American War was pregnant with misery of every kind.

(Second paragraph)

_The mischief, however,_ recoiled on the unhappy people of this
country, who were made the instruments by which the wicked purposes
of the authors were effected. The nation was drained of its best
blood, and of its vital resources of men and money. The expense
of the war was enormous--much beyond any former experience.

(Third paragraph)

_And yet, what has the British nation received in return_ for this

... I was now enabled to see the _extent and aspect of my prison.
In its size_ I had been greatly mistaken....

(Beginning of paragraph following one on Unity in the paragraph)

_The second of the essentials of the paragraph_, coherence, demands

Frequently, in the longer compositions, a separate paragraph is
devoted to accomplishing the transition from part to part. Observe
the following:

(Paragraph 7)

... The only other law bearing on this matter is the Act of Assembly
of last year authorizing the receipts from the automobile taxes
to be used in the construction of roads. This then completes the
enumeration of what has already been done toward building good

(Paragraph 8. Transitional paragraph)

_There are, however, several promising plans for the securing of
this important result, which are now being seriously discussed._

(Paragraph 9)

_The first of these plans is_ ...

The following are a few of the words and phrases often used to
indicate transition and to show relation between the paragraphs:
_So much for, It remains to mention, In the next place, Again,
An additional reason, Therefore, Hence, Moreover, As a result of
this, By way of exception._

Examine the selection under §187.

184. THE ENDING OF THE COMPOSITION. In a longer composition, the
ending should neither be too abrupt, nor, on the other hand, should
it be too long drawn out. It should be in proportion to the length
of the composition. Usually, except in the case of a story, it
should consist of a paragraph or two by way of summary or inference.
In a story, however, the ending may be abrupt or not. The kind of
ending depends entirely upon the nature and the scheme of development
of the story. Examine the following endings:

Ending of a theme on _The Uses of Iron_:

Only some of the more important uses of this wonderful metal, iron,
have been mentioned. There are hundreds of other uses to which it
is constantly put--uses which no other metal could fill. Gold may
once have been called the king of metals, but it has long since
lost its claim to that title.

Ending of a story:

John heard her answer, and began to move slowly away from the gate.

"Good-bye," he said.

And then he was gone, forever.

Suggested subjects for the making of outlines and compositions.

  1. How I Spent my Vacation.
  2. Shall Final Examinations be Abolished?
  3. The Subjects which Should be Taught in High Schools.
  4. My Qualifications for a Position.
  5. The Uses of Iron.
  6. Paul Revere's Ride.
  7. The City Park.
  8. My Town as a Place of Residence.
  9. The Value of Railroads.
 10. Why I Believe in Local Option.
 11. A Winter's Sleigh Ride.
 12. Shall Foreign Immigration be Restricted?
 13. My Youthful Business Ventures.
 14. Why I Belong to the X Political Party.
 15. Various Methods of Heating a House.

185. Below is given in full Lincoln's _Gettysburg Speech_. It is
perfect in its English and its construction. Study it with especial
reference to its coherence, unity, and emphasis. Some of the words
of coherence have been italicized.

Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers, brought forth upon this
continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created equal. _Now_ we are engaged
in a great civil war, testing whether _that nation_, or any nation
so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure.

We are met on a great battle-field of _that war_. We have come
to dedicate a portion of _that field_ as the final resting-place
for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.
It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do _this. But_
in a larger sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we
cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who
_struggled here_ have consecrated it far above our power to add
or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what
we say here; but it can never forget what _they did here_.

It is for us, the living, _rather_, to be dedicated here to the
unfinished work which _they who fought here_ have thus far so nobly
advanced. _It is rather for us_ to be here dedicated to the great
task remaining before us, that from these honored dead we take
increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last
full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that _these
dead_ shall not have died in vain; that _this nation_, under God,
shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people,
by the people, and for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

186. _Small Economies_, from Mrs. Gaskell's _Cranford_.

I have often noticed that everyone has his own individual small
economies--careful habits of saving fractions of pennies in some
one peculiar direction--any disturbance of which annoys him more
than spending shillings or pounds on some real extravagance.

An old gentleman of my acquaintance, who took the intelligence of
the failure of a Joint-Stock Bank, in which some of his money was
invested, with a stoical mildness, worried his family all through a
long summer's day because one of them had torn (instead of cutting)
out the written leaves of his now useless bank-book. Of course, the
corresponding pages at the other end came out as well, and this
little unnecessary waste of paper (his private economy) chafed
him more than all the loss of his money. Envelopes fretted his
soul terribly when they first came in. The only way in which he
could reconcile himself to such waste of his cherished article
was by patiently turning inside out all that were sent to him,
and so making them serve again. Even now, though tamed by age, I
see him casting wistful glances at his daughters when they send
a whole inside of a half-sheet of note paper, with the three lines
of acceptance to an invitation, written on only one of the sides.

I am not above owning that I have this human weakness myself. String
is my foible. My pockets get full of little hanks of it, picked up
and twisted together, ready for uses that never come. I am seriously
annoyed if any one cuts the string of a parcel instead of patiently and
faithfully undoing it fold by fold. How people can bring themselves
to use india-rubber bands, which are a sort of deification of string,
as lightly as they do, I cannot imagine. To me an india rubber band
is a precious treasure. I have one which is not new--one that I
picked up off the floor nearly six years ago. I have really tried
to use it, but my heart failed me, and I could not commit the

Small pieces of butter grieve others. They cannot attend to conversation
because of the annoyance occasioned by the habit which some people
have of invariably taking more butter than they want. Have you not
seen the anxious look (almost mesmeric) which such persons fix on
the article? They would feel it a relief if they might bury it out
of their sight by popping it into their own mouths and swallowing
it down; and they are really made happy if the person on whose
plate it lies unused suddenly breaks off a piece of toast (which
he does not want at all) and eats up his butter. They think that
this is not waste.

Now Miss Matty Jenkins was chary of candles. We had many devices
to use as few as possible. In the winter afternoons she would sit
knitting for two or three hours--she could do this in the dark, or
by firelight--and when I asked if I might not ring for candles to
finish stitching my wristbands, she told me to "keep blind man's
holiday." They were usually brought in with tea; but we only burnt
one at a time. As we lived in constant preparation for a friend
who might come in any evening (but who never did), it required
some contrivance to keep our two candles of the same length, ready
to be lighted, and to look as if we burnt two always. The candles
took it in turns; and, whatever we might be talking or doing, Miss
Matty's eyes were habitually fixed upon the candle, ready to jump
up and extinguish it and to light the other before they had become
too uneven in length to be restored to equality in the course of
the evening.

One night, I remember this candle economy particularly annoyed me.
I had been very much tired of my compulsory "blind man's holiday,"
especially as Miss Matty had fallen asleep, and I did not like to
stir the fire and run the risk of awakening her; and so I could
not even sit on the rug, and scorch myself with sewing by firelight,
according to my usual custom....

187. A LIST OF BOOKS FOR READING. These books are of a varied character
and are all interesting and of recognized excellence in their English.
Most of them are books that, as a matter of general education,
should be read by everyone.

  Treasure Island--Stevenson.
  Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde--Stevenson.
  The Scarlet Letter--Hawthorne.
  Twice Told Tales--Hawthorne.
  The Luck of Roaring Camp--Bret Harte.
  Tales of Mystery and Imagination--Poe.
  Silas Marner--Eliot.
  Robinson Crusoe--Defoe.
  Henry Esmond--Thackeray.
  Pilgrim's Progress--Bunyan.
  The Spy--Cooper.
  The Man without a Country--Hale.
  Tales of a Traveller--Irving.
  The Legend of Sleepy Hollow--Irving.
  Rip Van Winkle--Irving.
  Lorna Doone--Blackmore.
  Uncle William--Lee.
  The Blue Flower--Van Dyke.

  Sesame and Lilies--Ruskin.
  Stones of Venice--Ruskin.
  The American Commonwealth--Bryce.
  A History of the English People--Green.
  Views Afoot--Taylor.
  The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table--Holmes.
  Conspiracy of Pontiac--Parkman.
  Lincoln--Douglas Debates.
  Critical Periods of American History--Fiske.
  Certain Delightful English Towns--Howells.
  The Declaration of Independence.
  Bunker Hill Oration--Webster.
  On Conciliation with America--Burke.
  The Sketch Book--Irving.



188. To write and to speak good English, one must have a good working
vocabulary. He must know words and be able to use them correctly;
he must employ only words that are in good use; he must be able
to choose words and phrases that accurately express his meaning;
and he must be able to spell and pronounce correctly the words
that he uses.


189. GOOD USE. The first essential that a word should have, is
that it be in good use. A word is in good use when it is used
grammatically and in its true sense, and is also:

(1) _Reputable_; in use by good authors and writers in general.
The use of a word by one or two good writers is not sufficient
to make a word reputable; the use must be general.

(2) _National_; not foreign or local in its use.

(3) _Present_; used by the writers of one's own time.

190. OFFENSES AGAINST GOOD USE. The offenses against good use are
usually said to be of three classes: Solecisms, Barbarisms, and

191. SOLECISMS are the violations of the principles of grammar.
Solecisms have been treated under the earlier chapters on grammar.

192. BARBARISMS. The second offense against good use, a barbarism,
is a word not in reputable, present or national use. The following
rules may be given on this subject:

1. AVOID OBSOLETE WORDS. Obsolete words are words that, once in
good use, have since passed out of general use. This rule might
also be made to include obsolescent words: words that are at present
time passing out of use. Examples of obsolete words:

  methinks            yesterwhiles        twixt
  yclept              afeard              shoon

There are a great many words current in the newspapers and in other
hasty writing that have not the sanction of general good use at
the present time, though many of these words may in time come into
use. A safe rule is to avoid all words that are at all doubtful.

  an invite           an exposé           a try
  enthuse             a combine           fake

A common newspaper fault is the coining of a verb or adjective from
a noun, or a noun from a verb. Examples:

  locomote            suicided            derailment
  pluralized          burglarized         refereed

3. AVOID FOREIGN WORDS. A foreign word should not be used until it
has become naturalized by being in general, reputable use. Since
there are almost always English words just as expressive as the
foreign words, the use of the foreign words usually indicates
affectation on the part of the one using them. Examples:

  billet-doux (love letter)    conversazione (conversation)
  ad nauseam (to disgust)      distingué (distinguished)
  ad infinitum (infinitely)    entre nous (between us)

4. AVOID PROVINCIALISMS. Provincialisms are expressions current
and well understood in one locality, but not current or differently
understood in another locality. Examples:

  guess (think)                reckon (suppose)
  near (stingy)                smart (clever)
  tuckered (tired out)         lift (elevator)
  tote (carry)                 ruination (ruin)

5. AVOID VULGARISMS. Vulgarisms are words whose use shows vulgarity
or ignorance. Such words as the following are always in bad taste:

  chaw                nigger              your'n
  gal                 flustrated          hadn't oughter
  haint               dern                his'n

6. AVOID SLANG. Slang is a form of vulgarism that is very prevalent
in its use even by educated people. Slang words, it is true, sometimes
come into good repute and usage, but the process is slow. The safest
rule is to avoid slang expressions because of their general bad
taste and because of their weakening effect on one's vocabulary
of good words. Examples of slang:

  grind               swipe               booze
  long green          on a toot           dough
  pinch               peach               dukes

7. AVOID CLIPPED OR ABBREVIATED WORDS. The use of such words is
another form of vulgarism. Examples:

  pard (partner)               rep (reputation)
  doc (doctor)                 cal'late (calculate)
  musee (museum)               a comp (complimentary ticket)

clearly understood only by persons of one class or profession.

  valence             hagiology           allonge
  kilowatt            sclerosis           estoppel

193. WHEN BARBARISMS MAY BE USED. In the foregoing rules barbarisms
have been treated as at all times to be avoided. This is true of
their use in general composition, and in a measure true of their
use in composition of a special nature. But barbarisms may sometimes
be used properly. Obsolete words would be permissible in poetry
or in historical novels, technical words permissible in technical
writing, and even vulgarisms and provincialisms permissible in
dialect stories.


_Substitute for each of the barbarisms in the following list an
expression that is in good use. When in doubt consult a good

Chaw, quoth, fake, reckon, dern, forsooth, his'n, an invite, entre
nous, tote, hadn't oughter, yclept, a combine, ain't, dole, a try,
nouveau riche, puny, grub, twain, a boom, alter ego, a poke, cuss,
eld, enthused, mesalliance, tollable, disremember, locomote, a right
smart ways, chink, afeard, orate, nary a one, yore, pluralized,
distingué, ruination, complected, mayhap, burglarized, mal de mer,
tuckered, grind, near, suicided, callate, cracker-jack, erst,
railroaded, chic, down town, deceased (verb), a rig, swipe, spake,
on a toot, knocker, peradventure, guess, prof, classy, booze, per
se, cute, biz, bug-house, swell, opry, rep, photo, cinch, corker,
in cahoot, pants, fess up, exam, bike, incog, zoo, secondhanded,
getable, outclassed, gents, mucker, galoot, dub, up against it,
on tick, to rattle, in hock, busted on the bum, to watch out, get


_Make a list of such barbarisms as you yourself use, and devise
for them as many good substitute expressions as you can. Practice
using the good expressions that you have made._


_Correct the italicized barbarisms in the following sentences:_

  1. They can go _everywheres_.
  2. He spends all his time _grinding_.
  3. There _ain't_ a _sightlier_ town in the state.
  4. He ate the whole _hunk_ of cake.
  5. He was treated very _illy_.
  6. Smith's new house is very _showy_.
  7. Not _muchly_ will I go.
  8. All were ready for breakfast before _sun-up_.
  9. Do you like _light-complected_ people?
 10. I had never _orated_ before.
 11. Their clothes are always _tasty_ in appearance.
 12. He has money, but he is very _near_.
 13. He left the room _unbeknown_ to his mother.
 14. If manners are any indication, she belongs to the _nouveau riche_.
 15. I feel pretty _tollable_ today.
 16. I _reckon_ all will be able to get seats.
 17. Do you _callate_ to get there before noon?
 18. If I had as much _long green_ as he has, I wouldn't be such a
 19. He was the _beau ideal_ of soldier.
 20. John is a _crazy cuss_.
 21. Let me say _en passant_ we did not ask for the tickets.
 22. Even at that time John had a bad _rep_.
 23. That woman is the Countess of Verdun, _née_ Smith.
 24. _Methinks_ you are wrong.
 25. The teacher _spake_ sharply to her.
 26. I _didn't go for to do_ it.
 27. It will be published _inside of_ two months.
 28. The duke and his wife were travelling _incog_.
 29. I hadn't _thought on_ that.
 30. There is little difference _twixt_ the two.
 31. Come now, _fess up_.
 32. It's a _right smart ways_ to Williamsport.
 33. You _wot_ not what you say.
 34. He bought a _poke_ of apples for his lunch.
 35. Brown runs a pretty _classy_ store.
 36. I finally _got shut_ of him.
 37. I _could of_ jumped across.
 38. That can't be done _nohow_.
 39. You make such _dumb_ mistakes.
 40. I never saw such a _bum_ show.

194. IMPROPRIETIES. The third offense against good use, an impropriety,
is the use of a proper word in an improper sense. In many cases an
offense against good use may be called a barbarism, an impropriety,
or a solecism, since the fields covered by the three terms somewhat
overlap one another. Many improprieties have their origin in the
similarities in sound, spelling or meaning of words. The following
exercises deal with a number of common improprieties resulting
from the confusion of two similar words.


_Study the proper use of the words given under each of the following
divisions. In each group of sentences fill the blanks with the
proper words:_

ACCEPT, EXCEPT. See Glossary at end of book, under _except_.

  1. I cannot ---- your gift.
  2. Have you no books ---- these?
  3. Cicero was not ---- from the list of those condemned.
  4. He ---- the invitation.

AFFECT, EFFECT. See Glossary under _effect_.

  1. Will your plan ---- a reform from the present condition?
  2. The sad news will seriously ---- his mother.
  3. How was the bank ---- by the indictment of its president?
  4. The change of schedule was ---- without a hitch.


  1. Her manner ---- me.
  2. The crime was ---- by being committed in cold blood.
  3. The children do everything they can to ---- her.
  4. His illness was ---- by lack of proper food.

ALLUDE, MENTION. See Glossary.

  1. He ---- (to) certain events which he dared not name directly.
  2. The attorney ---- (to) no names.
  3. That passage in his book delicately ---- (to) his mother.
  4. In his speech the labor leader boldly ---- (to) his recent arrest.

ARGUE, AUGUR. _To argue_ is to state reasons for one's belief. _To
augur_ means _to foretell, to presage_.

  1. The reported quarrel ---- ill for the army.
  2. He will ---- at length on any subject.
  3. Her darkening looks ---- a quarrel.

AVOCATION, VOCATION. A _vocation_ is one's principal work or calling.
_An avocation_ is something aside from or subordinate to that principal

  1. The young physician enthusiastically pursues his ----.
  2. Law is his ----, but politics is his ----.
  3. The ministry should be one's ----, never his ----.
  4. While preparing for his life work, school teaching was for a
time his ----.

BESIDES, BESIDE. _Besides_ means _in addition to. Beside_ refers
to place; as, _He sits beside you_.

  1. ---- you, who else was there?
  2. Is there nothing ---- this to do?
  3. John walked ---- me.
  4. ---- me was a tree.

CALCULATE, INTEND. _To calculate_ means _to compute, to adjust_ or
_to adapt. Intend_ means _to have formed the plan to do something_.

  1. He ---- to sell books this summer.
  2. He ---- that the work will take ten years.
  3. He ---- to finish it as soon as he can.
  4. The oil is ---- to flow at the rate of a gallon a minute.


  1. In this community his ---- is excellent.
  2. One's friends may endow him with a good ----, but not with a good ----.
  3. Slander may ruin one's ----, but it will not destroy his ----.
  4. See that your ---- is right, and your ---- will establish itself.

CLAIM, ASSERT. _To claim_ means to make a demand for what is one's
own. It should not be confused with _assert_.

  1. I ---- that I am innocent.
  2. John ---- the property as his.
  3. They ---- their right to the land.
  4. The cashier ---- the money in payment of a note.
  5. Do you still ---- that you were born in America?

COUNCIL, COUNSEL, CONSUL. A _council_ is a group of persons called
in to hold consultation. _Counsel_ means _an adviser_, as a lawyer;
or _advice_ that is given. _Consul_ is an officer of the government.

  1. In the colonies each governor had his ----.
  2. The advisers gave him ---- when he desired it.
  3. The United States has a ---- in every important foreign port.
  4. In criminal cases the accused must be provided with ----.
  5. The president's cabinet constitutes for him a sort of ----.
  6. In Rome two ---- were elected to manage the affairs of the state.


  1. Foreign ---- into the United States is greatly restricted.
  2. The ---- of the citizens of the United States to Canada is
becoming a matter of concern.
  3. Our ---- Bureau enforces the Chinese Exclusion Act.
  4. The treatment of the royalists caused a great ---- from France.

GOOD, WELL. _Good_ is an adjective. _Well_ is usually an adverb,
though sometimes an adjective; as, _Are you well to-day?_

  1. She talks very ----.
  2. She prepares a ---- paper, even if she does not write ----.
  3. Do ---- what you are doing.
  4. Did you have a ---- time?
  5. Recite it as ---- as you can.

HOUSE, HOME. _House_ means only _a building. Home_ means a place
that is one's habitual place of residence.

  1. He thought often of the flowers about the door of his old ----.
  2. They have recently bought a ---- which they intend to make their ----.
  3. Mr. Heim lives here now, but his ---- is in Lewisburg.
  4. He has several miserable ---- that he rents.
  5. Such a place is not fit to be called a ----.

MOST, ALMOST. _Almost_ is an adverb meaning _nearly. Most_ never
has this meaning.

  1. I was ---- injured when the machine broke.
  2. It is ---- time for him to come.
  3. The ---- discouraging thing was his indifference.
  4. I ---- missed the car.
  5. ---- of the books are torn.

LET, LEAVE. See Glossary, under _leave_.

  1. Will his employer ---- him go so early.
  2. I shall ---- at noon.
  3. ---- me help you with your coat.
  4. ---- me here for a while.
  5. This book I ---- with you.
  6. Do not ---- that danger disturb you.

LIKE, AS. _Like_ should not be used as a conjunction in the sense
of _as_. As a preposition it is correct. It is wrong to say, _Do
like I do_; but right to say, _Do as I do_.

  1. He looks ---- James.
  2. Read ---- James does.
  3. Does she look ---- me?
  4. She thinks of it ---- I thought.
  5. Lincoln could do a thing ---- that.
  6. Other men could not do ---- Lincoln did.

LIKELY, LIABLE, PROBABLY. It is better to avoid using _likely_ as
an adverb; but it may be used as an adjective; as, _He is likely
to come. Probably_ refers to any sort of possibility. _Liable_
refers to an unpleasant or unfavorable possibility; it should not
be used as equivalent to _likely_.

  1. He is ---- to arrest for doing that.
  2. The president's car will ---- arrive at noon.
  3. It is ---- to rain to-day.
  4. Is he ---- to write to us?
  5. Continued exposure makes one more ---- to serious illness.
  6. What will ---- come of it?

LOAN, LEND. _Loan_ should be used only as a noun, and _lend_ only
as a verb.

  1. I wish to obtain a ---- of fifty dollars.
  2. Will you ---- me your knife?
  3. A ---- of money loses both itself and friend.
  4. A ---- is something that one ---- to another.

MAD, ANGRY. Mad means _insane, uncontrollably excited through fear_,
etc. It should not be used for _angry_ or _vexed_.

  1. His manner of speaking makes me ----.
  2. It makes one ---- to see such behavior.
  3. The noise almost drove me ----.

MUCH, MANY. _Much_ refers to quantity; _many_ to number.

  1. Sometimes they have as ---- as fifty in a class.
  2. ---- of the trouble comes from his weak eyes.
  3. Do you use ---- horses on the farm?
  4. How ---- marbles did the boy have?

NEAR, NEARLY. _Near_ is an adjective; _nearly_ an adverb.

  1. Is the work ---- finished?
  2. The man was ---- the end of the porch.
  3. It was ---- noon when Blucher came.
  4. They are ---- insane with worry.
  5. Mary is not ---- so old as John.

OBSERVATION, OBSERVANCE. _Observation_ means to _watch, to look at.
Observance_ means _to celebrate, to keep_. _Observation_ applies
to a fact or an object; _observance_ to a festival, a holiday, or
a rule.

  1. The ---- of the astronomer proved the theory.
  2. Sunday ---- is of value to one's bodily as well as to one's spiritual health.
  3. The ---- of the sanitary regulations was insisted upon.
  4. The scientist needs highly developed powers of ----.

RESPECTIVELY, RESPECTFULLY. _Respectively_ means _particularly,
relating to each. Respectfully_ means _characterized by high regard._

  1. These three kinds of architecture were characterized ---- as
"severe," "graceful," and "ornate."
  2. Sign your letter "Yours ----," not "yours ----."
  3. Their shares were ---- two hundred dollars and five hundred dollars,
  4. The class ---- informed the faculty of their desire.

SUSPECT, EXPECT. _Suspect_ means _to mistrust. Expect_ means _to
look forward to_.

  1. I ---- that he will come.
  2. He ---- his brother of hiding his coat.
  3. When do you ---- to finish the work?
  4. The man was never before ---- of having done wrong.

TEACH, LEARN. See Glossary under _learn_.

  1. You must ---- him to be careful.
  2. He must ---- to be careful.
  3. To ---- a class to study is a difficult task.
  4. Who ---- your class to-day.

TRANSPIRE, HAPPEN. _Transpire_ does not mean _to happen_. It means
_to become gradually known, to leak out_.

  1. She knows everything that ---- in the village.
  2. It ---- that he had secretly sold the farm.
  3. No more important event than this has ---- in the last ten years.
  4. It has now ---- that some money was stolen.

QUITE, VERY. _Quite_ is not in good use in the sense of _very_ or
_to a great degree_. It properly means _entirely_.

  1. The book is ---- easy to study.
  2. Have you ---- finished your work.
  3. The train ran ---- slowly for most of the distance.
  4. That is ---- easy to do.
  5. We were ---- unable to reach the city any sooner.


_The following list includes some groups of words that are often
confused. Far the proper meaning of the words refer to a good
dictionary. Write sentences using the words in their proper senses:_

  practical, skilled            sensible, sensitive
  couple, two                   access, accession
  future, subsequent            allusion, illusion, delusion
  folk, family                  conscience, consciousness
  evidence, testimony           identity, identification
  party, person, firm           limit, limitation
  plenty, many, enough of       majority, plurality
  portion, part                 materialize, appear
  solicitation, solicitude      invent, discover
  human, humane                 prescribe, proscribe
  bound, determined             some, somewhat, something
  fix, mend                     mutual, common
  foot, pay                     noted, notorious
  creditable, credible          wait for, wait on
  exceptionable, exceptional    in, into


_Show how the use of each of the two italicized words in the following
sentences would affect the meaning of the sentence:_

  1. We experienced a _succession series_ of hindrances.
  2. That _statement assertion_ was made by an eye witness.
  3. The student has remarkable _ability capacity_.
  4. In my _estimate estimation_ the cost will be higher than fifty dollars.
  5. The _import importance_ of his words is not fully understood.
  6. The _union unity_ of the clubs is remarkable.
  7. The _acts actions_ of the president were closely watched.
  8. The man needed a new _stimulus stimulant_.
  9. He was _captivated captured_ by her unusual charms.
 10. We are quick to _impute impugn_ motives that we think to exist.
 11. He was _convinced convicted_ by John's argument.
 12. The dog's suffering was _alleviated relieved_ by the medicine.
 13. He _persuaded advised_ me to consult a lawyer.
 14. His behavior was _funny odd_.
 15. The plan seems _practical practicable_.
 16. That is the _latest last_ letter.
 17. That certainly was not a _human humane_ action.
 18. He _waited on waited for_ his mother.
 19. The _completeness completion_ of the work brought many congratulations.


_Supply a word which will remedy the italicized impropriety in each
of the following sentences. When in doubt consult a dictionary:_

  1. The _majority_ of the illustrations are good.
  2. No one can accurately _predicate_ what the weather will be.
  3. Shall you _except_ the invitation?
  4. They _claim_ that the assertion cannot be proved.
  5. They finally _located_ the criminal in Dravosburg.
  6. I shall _leave_ you go at noon.
  7. The _balance_ of the essay was uninteresting.
  8. By questions they tried to _eliminate_ the true story.
  9. They _impugn_ false motives to me.
 10. He was greatly _effected_ by the news.
 11. Sabbath _observation_ was then very strict.
 12. They _expect_ that she wrote the letter.
 13. The _invention_ of electricity has revolutionized all manufactures.
 14. Who _learned_ her to sing?
 15. Edison _discovered_ the phonograph.
 16. One cannot comprehend the _enormity_ of a billion of dollars.
 17. Many _complements_ were paid to her beauty.
 18. His _consciousness_ pricked him.
 19. How could any one be guilty of such a cruel _action_.
 20. The _advancement_ of the army was very slow.

195. IDIOMS. There are in English, as in other languages, a number
of expressions that cannot be justified by the rules of grammar or
rhetoric; and yet these expressions are among the most forcible
ones in the language, and are continually used by the best writers.
These expressions that lie outside all rules we call idioms. Compare
the following idiomatic expressions with the unidiomatic expressions
that succeed them. The second expression in each group is in accord
with the strict rules of composition; but the first, the idiomatic,
is far more forceful.

Idiomatic: The book which I read about.

Unidiomatic: The book about which I read.

Idiomatic: More than one life was lost.

Unidiomatic: More lives than one life were lost.

Idiomatic: Speak loud. Speak louder.

Unidiomatic: Speak loudly. Speak more loudly.

Idiomatic: A ten-foot pole.

Unidiomatic: A ten-feet pole.

Idiomatic: He strove with might and main.

Unidiomatic: He strove with might. (Might and main are two words
of the same meaning.)

Idiomatic: He lectured on every other day.

Unidiomatic: He lectured on one day out of every two.

Idioms are not to be avoided. On the contrary, because they contribute
great ease and force to composition, their use is to be encouraged.
But the distinction between idiomatic and unidiomatic expressions
is a fine one, and rests solely on usage. Care must be taken not
to go beyond the idiomatic. There is probably little danger that
the ordinary writer or speaker will not use idioms enough.

The following expressions are examples of commonly used idioms:

He was standing at the door _in his shirt sleeves_.

I _don't think_ it will rain (I think it will not rain).

She walked out of the room _on her father's arm_.

John was a poor _shot_.

Do you feel _like a little candy_?

See what my foolishness has brought me _to_.

What part of the city will they settle _in_?

What was the house built _for_?

John needs a match to light his pipe _with_.

That is all I ask _for_.

What are you driving _at_?

_Hard put to it._

_By all odds._

_Must needs._

I must _get up_ by noon.

_Get rid of._

_Get used to._

_Never so good._

_Whether or no._

I can't go _either_.

_You forget yourself_ when you speak so harshly.

I can come only _every other_ day.

If the bell rings _answer the door_.

_I take it_ that you will be there too.

_Come and see_ me.

_Try and_ do it.

The thief _took to his heels_.

196. CHOICE OF WORDS. The words in which a thought is expressed may
not offend against good use, and yet still be objectionable because
they do not accurately and appropriately express the thought. One
should choose not merely a word that will approximately express
the thought, but the one word that best expresses it. The following
suggestions are given to aid in the choice of words:

1. CHOOSE SIMPLE ENGLISH WORDS and avoid what is called "fine writing."
Young writers and newspaper writers are greatly given to this offense
of fine or bombastic writing. Examples:

FINE WRITING                            SIMPLE STYLE
Was launched into eternity              Was hanged
Disastrous conflagration                Great fire
Called into requisition the services    Sent for the doctor
  of the family physician
Was accorded an ovation                 Was applauded
Palatial mansion                        Comfortable house
Acute auricular perceptions             Sharp ears
A disciple of Izaak Walton              A fisherman

general words may be used to advantage, but more often specific
words should be used, since they call to the mind a definite image.
Compare these sentences:

The _high color_ of his face showed his embarrassment.

His _crimson_ face showed his embarrassment.

He was a _large_ man.

He was a _fat_ man.

He was a man of _large frame_.

He was a _tall, heavily proportioned_ man.

He was a man _six feet four inches tall_ and _heavy_ in proportion.

It was an _impressive_ building.

It was a building of _impressive size_.

It was a building of _impressive beauty_.

His _fault_ was robbery.

His _crime_ was robbery.

3. AVOID OVER-STATEMENT OF FACTS. The use of words that are too
strong is a fault especially characteristic of Americans. Examples:

Poor: The concert was _simply exquisite_.

Better: The concert was _very good_.

Poor: She was _wild_ over the mistake.

Better: She was _much annoyed_ by the mistake.

4. AVOID HACKNEYED PHRASES; expressions that have been worked to
death. Examples:

His paternal acres.

The infuriated beast.

The gentle zephyrs of springtime.

Was gathered to his fathers.

The blushing bride was led to the hymeneal altar.

Applauded to the echo.


_For each of the following expressions devise the best simple English
expression that you can:_

  1. Individual was precipitated.
  2. Tendered him a banquet.
  3. At the witching hour of midnight.
  4. The devouring element was checked.
  5. Piscatorial sport.
  6. Pedal extremities.
  7. Fraught with tremendous possibilities.
  8. Amid the plaudits of the multitude.
  9. Caudal extremity.
 10. Passed to his long home.
 11. Dissected the Thanksgiving bird.
 12. Presided at the organ.
 13. Finger of scorn pointed at him.
 14. Wended his way.
 15. The green eyed monster.
 16. The whole aggregation of knowledge chasers.
 17. Maternal ancestor.
 18. Shuffled off this mortal coil.
 19. Failed to materialize at the banquet.
 20. Tonsorial artist.
 21. Twirler of the sphere.
 22. Pugilistic encounters.
 23. Performed his matutinal ablutions.
 24. Partook of a magnificent collation.
 25. Solemnized the rites of matrimony.


_In the third paragraph of the selection from Cranford (see §186)
observe the use of the following words: HUMAN, WEAKNESS, HANKS,
TWISTED, ANNOYED, and UNDOING. Study the specific nature of these
words by grouping about each of them other words of somewhat similar
meaning, and then comparing the force of the various words in each

_This sort of exercise may be continued by choosing passages from
any careful writer and studying the words that he has used._


_Substitute for each of the following expressions some expression
that will be less general or less exaggerated:_

  1. She is _nice_ looking.
  2. We had a _perfectly gorgeous_ time.
  3. John is a _professional_ man.
  4. The play was _simply exquisite_.
  5. To hear his voice makes me feel _funny_.
  6. The opposing team was _completely annihilated_.
  7. A _noise_ caught our attention.
  8. His manners are _horrid_.
  9. We had a _great_ time.
 10. Such arrogance is _unendurable_.
 11. That is a _good_ book.

197. HOW TO IMPROVE ONE'S VOCABULARY. The few following suggestions
may be found helpful in the acquiring of a good vocabulary:

1. CULTIVATE THE DICTIONARY HABIT. Learn the meaning, pronunciation,
and spelling of each new word that you meet. Only when these three
things are grasped about each word, does one really know the word.
Some persons have found it an invaluable aid to carry with them a
small note book or card on which they note down to be looked up
at a convenient time words concerning which they are in doubt.


3. CONSTRUCT GOOD ENGLISH EXPRESSIONS for all the slang, fine writing,
and hackneyed phrases that you meet, and then use the good expressions
instead of the bad ones.

4. STUDY SYNONYMS; words of similar form and meaning. Only by a
knowledge of synonyms can you express fine shades of meaning. _Crabbe's_
English Synonyms and _Fernald's_ Synonyms and Antonyms are good
books of reference for this purpose. In addition to these books,
lists of synonyms will be found in many books that are designed
for general reference.

5. TRY TO GET THE ONE WORD that will best express the idea.

6. READ GOOD BOOKS and good magazines, and read them carefully.

7. CULTIVATE THE SOCIETY of those who use good language.


_Look up the meaning of each of the words in the following groups of
synonyms. Construct sentences in which each word is used correctly:_

  1. Love, like.
  2. Wit, humor.
  3. Discover, invent.
  4. Observe, watch.
  5. Pride, vanity, conceit.
  6. Proof, evidence, testimony.
  7. Balance, rest, remainder.
  8. Word, term, expression.
  9. Bring, fetch, carry.
 10. Abandon, desert, forsake.
 11. Propose, purpose, intend.
 12. Healthful, healthy, wholesome.
 13. Student, pupil, scholar.
 14. Capacity, power, ability.
 15. Blame, censure, criticism.
 16. Accede, agree, yield, acquiesce.
 17. Trickery, cunning, chicane, fraud.
 18. Instruction, education, training, tuition.
 19. Hardship, obstacle, hindrance, difficulty.
 20. Maxim, precept, rule, law
 21. Multitude, crowd, throng, swarm.
 22. Delight, happiness, pleasure, joy.
 23. Work, labor, toil, drudgery, task.
 24. Silent, mute, dumb, speechless.
 25. Kill, murder, assassinate, slay.
 26. Hatred, enmity, dislike, ill-will.
 27. Example, pattern, sample, model.
 28. Obvious, plain, clear, apparent.
 29. Noted, eminent, famous, prominent, notorious.
 30. Old, aged, antique, ancient, antiquated, obsolete.


198. The following is a list of words that are frequently misspelled
or confused. Where possible, an effort has been made to arrange
them in groups in order that they may be more easily remembered.
The word with an added ending has been used in most cases in place
of the bare word itself as, _occasional_ instead of _occasion_.
A few rules have been included.

  accede              descend             pressure
  accident            fascinate           misspelled
  accommodate         mischievous         possession
  accordance          miscellaneous
  accuracy            muscle              recollection
  succeed             susceptible         dispelled
  occasional                              miscellaneous
  occur               existence           monosyllable
                      experience          intellectual
  across              sentence            parallel
  amount                                  embellishment
  apart               foregoing           wholly
  arouse              forehead            woolly
  already             forty               villain
  all right           foreign             till
  amateur             formally            perpetual
  grandeur            formerly            persuade
  appal               fulfill
  apparatus           willful             police
  appetite                                policies
  approximate         guardian
  opportunity         guessing            presence
  opposite                                precede
  disappoint          imminent            preceptor
  disappearance       immediately
                      accommodation       fiend
  choose              commission          siege
  chosen              grammar             friend
                      inflammation        yielding
  boundary            recommend
  elementary          summary             seize
                      symmetrical         receive
  final               committee           receipt
  usual               ledger              succeed
  usually             legible             proceed

  ascend              assassin            recede
  ascent              dissimilar          secede
  discerning          essential           accede
  discipline          messenger           intercede
  discontent                              concede
  discreet            necessary           supersede
  descent             necessity

199. Words ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel,
if monosyllables, or if the last syllable is accented, double the
final consonant before the ending _-ed_ and _-ing_, but not before
_-ence_; as,

  rob, rob_bed_, rob_bing_, rob_bers_.
  confer, confer_red_, confer_ring_, confer_ence_.
  transmit, transmit_ted_, transmit_ting_, transmi_ssion_.
  impel, impel_led_, impel_ling_, imp_ulsion_.

Similar to the above are.

defer, infer, prefer, refer, transfer, occur (occurrence), abhor
(abhorrence), omit, remit, permit, commit, beset, impel, compel,
repel, excel (excellence), mob, sob, rub, skid.

If these words are not accented on the last syllable, the consonant
is not doubled; as,

benefit, benefit_ed_, benefit_ing_, benefi_cial_.

Similar are:

differ, summon, model.

200. Words ending in silent _e_ drop the _e_ before a suffix beginning
with a vowel; as,

  arrive, arriv_ing_, arriv_ed_, arriv_al_.
  precede, preced_ed_, preced_ing_, preced_ence_.
  receive, receiv_ed_, receiv_ing_.

Similar are:

move, write, blame, tame, come, receive, believe, relieve, grieve,
deceive, conceive, perceive, seize, precede, concede, supersede,
recede, argue, rue, construe, woe, pursue.

201. Words ending in _-ge, -ce_, or _-se_, retain the _e_ before
endings: as,

arrange, arrangement; arrange, arranging.

Similar are:

gauge, manage, balance, finance, peace, service, amuse, use.

202. Words in _-dge_ do not retain the _e_ before endings; as,
acknowledge, acknowledg_ment_, acknowledg_ed_, acknowledg_ing_.

Similar are:

nudge, judge.

203. Most words ending in _y_ preceded by a consonant change _y_
to _i_ before all endings except-_ing_:

busy, bus_iness_, bus_ied_, busy_ing_.

Similar are:

duty, mercy, penny, pity, vary, weary, study.


canvas (cloth)                          principle (rule)
canvass (all meanings except _cloth_)     principal (chief)
capitol (a building)                    stationary (immovable)
capital (all meanings except _building_)  stationery (articles)
counsel (advice or an adviser)          miner (a workman)
council (a body of persons)             minor (under age)
complement (a completing element)       angel (a spiritual being)
compliment (praise)                     angle (geometrical)


annual              laundry             schedule
awkward             leisure             separate
beneficial          lenient             Spaniard
decimal             license             speak
exhilarate          mechanical          specimen
familiarize         mediæval            speech
fiber               medicine            spherical
fibrous             militia             subtle
genuine             motor               surely
gluey               negotiate           technical
height              origin              tenement
hideous             pacified            their
hundredths          phalanx             therefore
hysterical          physique            thinnest
icicle              privilege           until
irremediable        prodigies           vengeance
laboratory          rarefy              visible
laid                rinse               wherein
larynx              saucer              yielding


206. The following list is made up of words that are frequently
mispronounced. An effort has been made to arrange them in groups
according to the most frequent source of error in their pronunciation.

The only marks regularly used are the signs for the long and short
sounds of the vowel.

  a as in _hate_        i as in _high_        u as in _use_
  a as in _hat_         i as in _hit_         u as in _run_

  e as in _me_          o as in _old_         oo as in _boot_
  e as in _met_         o as in _hop_         oo as in _foot_

When sounds are not otherwise indicated take the sound that comes
most naturally to the tongue.

207. a AS IN _HATE_:

  alma mater          _alma mater_
  apparatus           _apparatus_
  apricot             _apricot_
  attaché             _attasha'_
  audacious           _audashus_
  ballet              _bal'la_
  blasé               _blaza'_
  blatant             _blatant_
  chasten             _chasen_
  Cleopatra           _Cleopatra_
  compatriot          _compatriot_
  gratis              _gratis_ or _grahtis_
  harem               _harem_ or _hahrem_
  heinous             _hanous_
  hiatus              _hiatus_
  implacable          _implakable_
  nape                _nap_
  née                 _na_
  négligé             _naglezha'_
  patron              _patron_
  protégé             _protazha'_
  résumé              _razuma'_
  tenacious           _tenashus_
  tomato              _tomato_ or _tomahto_
  valet               _va'la_ or _val'et_
  vase                _vas, vahz_, or _vaz_
  veracious           _verashus_
  vivacious           _vivashus_

208. a AS IN _HAT_:

  alternative         _alternative_
  Arab                _Ar'ab_, not _arab_
  arid                _ar'id_
  asphalt             _asfalt_, not _fawlt_
  bade                _bad_
  catch               not _ketch_
  defalcate           _defal'kate_, not _fawl_
  dilletante          _dilletan'te_
  forbade             _forbad_
  granary             _granary_
  program             _pro'gram_, not _grum_
  rapine              _rap'in_
  rational            _rational_
  sacrament           _sacrament_

209. Ä AS IN _ARM_:

  aunt                _änt_
  behalf              _behäf_
  calf                _käf_
  calm                _käm_
  half                _häf_
  laugh               _läf_
  psalm               _säm_

210. e AS IN _ME_:

  amenable            _amenable_
  clique              _klek_, not _klick_
  creek               _krek_, not _krick_
  either              _eether_ (preferable)
  mediocre            _mediocre_
  naïve               _na'eve_ (_a_ as in _arm_)
  neither             _neether_ (preferable)
  precedence          _prece'dence_
  precedent           _prece'dent_ (when an adjective)
  predecessor         _predecessor_
  predilection        _predilection_
  premature           _premature_
  quay                _ke_
  resplendent         _resplen'dent_
  sacrilegious        _sacrilegious_, not -_religious_
  series              _serez_
  sleek               _slek_, not _slick_
  suite               _swet_, not like _boot_

211. e AS IN _MET_:

  again               _agen_
  against             _agenst_
  crematory           _krem'atory_
  deaf                _def_, not _def_
  heroine             _heroin_, not like _hero_
  measure             _mezhure_, not _ma_
  metric              _metrik_
  precedent           _prec'edent_ (noun)
  prelate             _prel'at_
  presentation        _prezentation_
  sesame              _ses'ame_
  steady              _stedy_, not _stiddy_
  tenet               _ten'et_
  weapon              _wepon_, not _wepon_

212. i AS IN _HIGH_:

  appendicitis        _appendicitis_
  biennial            _biennial_
  biography           _biography_
  bronchitis          _bronkitis_
  carbine             _carbine_
  decisive            _decisive_
  demise              _demise_
  dynasty             _di'nasty_
  finis               _finis_
  grimy               _grimy_
  hiatus              _hia'tus_
  inquiry             _inqui'ry_
  long-lived          _long-livd_
  peritonitis         _peritonitis_
  privacy             _privacy_
  short-lived         _short-livd_
  simultaneous        _simultaneous_
  tiny                _tiny_, not _teny_

213. i AS IN _HIT_:

  bicycle             _bi'sicle_
  breeches            _briches_
  breeching           _briching_
  feminine            _feminin_
  genuine             _genuin_
  hypocrisy           _hipok'risy_
  italic              _ital'ik_
  Italian             _italyan_
  maritime            _maritim_
  pretty              _pritty_
  puerile             _pu'eril_
  respite             _res'pit_
  tribune             _trib'un_

214. o AS IN _OLD_:

  Adonis              _Adonis_
  apropos             _apropo_
  bowsprit            _bowsprit_
  brooch              _broch_ not _broosh_
  compromise          _compromize_
  jowl                _jol_, not like _owl_
  molecular           _molecular_
  ogle                _ogle_
  trow                _tro_
  vocable             _vocable_
  zoology             _zoology_, not _zoo_

215. o AS IN _HOP_:

  choler              _koler_
  dolorous            _dolorous_
  florid              _florid_
  molecule            _molecule_
  obelisk             _obelisk_
  probity             _probity_
  solecism            _solesism_
  solstice            _solstice_
  stolid              _stolid_

216. oo AS IN _BOOT_:

  bouquet             _booka'_
  canteloupe          _can'taloop_
  coup d'état         _koo data'_
  coupon              _koo'pon_
  ghoul               _gool_
  hoof                _hoof_
  roof                _roof_
  root                _root_
  route               _root_
  routine             _rootine_
  wound               _woond_

217. u AS IN _USE_:

  accurate            _ak'kurat_
  culinary            _kulinary_
  gubernatorial       _gubernatorial_
  jugular             _jugular_

218. u AS IN _US_:

  constable           _kunstable_
  courtesan           _kur'tezan_
  hover               _huver_
  iron                _iurn_
  monetary            _munetary_
  nothing             _nuthing_
  wont                _wunt_ (different from _won't_)


  adobe               _ado'ba_
  algebra             not _bra_
  alien               _alyen_, not _alien_
  ameliorate          _amelyorate_
  antarctic           _antarktik_
  anti                not _anti_
  archangel           _arkangel_
  archbishop          _arch_, not _ark_
  arch fiend          _arch_, not _ark_
  architect           _arkitect_
  awkward             _awkward_, not _ard_
  Beethoven           _batoven_
  Bingen              _Bing'en_
  blackguard          _blag'gard_
  Bowdoin             _bodn_
  brougham            _broom_
  business            _bizness_
  caldron             _kawldron_
  calk                _kawk_
  Cayenne             _kien'_
  courtier            _kortyer_
  cuckoo              _kookoo_
  dilemma             _dilem'ma_
  directly            not _directly_
  dishevelled         _dishev'ld_
  Don Juan            _Don Juan_ or _hooan_
  drought             _drowt_
  drouth              _drowth_
  extempore           _extempore_ (four syllables)
  familiarity         _familyarity_
  gaol                _jal_
  genealogy           _-alogy_, not _-ology_
  gemus               _genyus_
  Gloucester          _gloster_
  gooseberry          _gooz_, not _goos_
  Hawaiian            _Hawi'yan_ (_a_ as in _arm_)
  Helena              _hel'ena_ (except _St. Hele'na_)
  inconvenience       _inconvenyence_
  Israel              _izrael_, not _issrael_
  jeans               _janes_
  joust               _just_ or _joost_
  larynx              _lar'inx'_ or _la'rinx_, not _larnix_
  literature          _literature_, or _choor_
  Messrs.             _meshyerz_ or _mesyerz_
  Mineralogy          _-alogy_, not _-ology_
  nature              _nature_, or _choor_
  oleomargarine       _g_ is hard, as in _get_
  orchid              _orkid_
  oust                _owst_, not _oost_
  peculiar            _peculyar_
  pecuniary           _pekun'yari_
  perspiration        not _prespiratian_
  prestige            _pres'tij_ or _prestezh'_
  pronunciation       _pronunzeashun_ or _pronunsheashun_
  saucy               not _sassy_
  schedule            _skedyul_
  semi                not _semi_
  theater             _the'ater_ not _thea'ter_
  turgid              _turjid_
  usage               _uzage_
  usurp               _uzurp_
  vermilion           _vermilyun_
  wife's              not _wives_
  Xerxes              _zerxes_


  almond              _ahmund_
  chasten             _chasen_
  chestnut            _chesnut_
  glisten             _glissen_
  kiln                _kill_
  often               _ofen_
  ostler              _osler_
  poignant            _poin'ant_
  psalter             _sawlter_
  salmon              _samun_
  schism              _sism_
  soften              _sofen_
  subtle              _sutle_
  sword               _sord_
  thyme               _time_
  toward              _tord_


  bivouac             _biv'wak_
  chargé d'affaires   _shar zha'daffar'_
  connoisseur         _connissur_
  dishabille          _dis'abil_
  ennui               _onwe_, not _ongwe_
  finale              _finah'le_
  foyer               _fwaya'_
  massage             _masahzh_
  naïve               _nah'ev_
  papier maché        _papya mahsha_
  piquant             _pe'kant_
  prima facie         _prima fa'shie_
  pro tempore         _pro tem'pore_
  régime              _razhem'_


  aerial              _aereal_, not _areal_
  athlete             two sylables, not _ath e lete_
  attacked            _attakt_, two syllables
  casualty            _kazh'ualte_, not _ality_
  conduit             _condit_ or _kundit_, not _dooit_
  different           three syllables, not _diffrunt_
  elm                 not _ellum_
  helm                not _hel um_
  history             three syllables, not _histry_
  honorable           not _honrable_
  hygienic            _hy gi en' ic_, four syllables
  interest            not _intrust_
  interesting         not _intrusting_
  ivory               not _ivry_
  omelet              not _omlet_
  realm               not _rellum_
  separable           not _seprable_
  ticklish            two syllables, not _tickelish_
  valuable            _valuable_, not _valuble_
  vaudeville          _vodvil_
  Zeus                _zus_, not _zeus_


  admirable           _ad'mirable_
  alias               _a'lias_
  applicable          _ap'plicable_
  bicycle             _bi'sikle_
  chastisement        _chas'tisement_
  construe            _con'strue_
  despicable          _des'picable_
  desultory           _des'ultory_
  disputant           _dis'putant_
  exigency            _ex'ijency_
  explicable          _ex'plicable_
  exquisite           _ex'quisite_
  extant              _ex'tant_
  formidable          _for'midable_
  Genoa               _jen'oa_
  gondola             _gon'dola_
  harass              _har'ass_
  hospitable          _hos'pitable_
  impious             _im'pious_, not _imp?ous_
  industry            _in'dustry_
  inventory           _in'ventory_
  lamentable          _lam'entable_
  mischievous         _mis'chievous_
  obligatory          _ob'ligatory_
  pariah              _pa'riah_
  peremptory          _per'emptory_
  preferable          _pref'erable_
  Romola              _Rom'ola_
  vehemence           _ve'hemence_


  abdomen             _abdo'men_
  acclimate           _accli'mate_
  acumen              _acu'men_
  albumen             _albu'men_
  artificer           _artif'iser_
  bitumen             _bitu'men_
  chicanery           _shika'nery_
  illustrate          _illus'trate_
  incognito           _inkog'nito_
  incomparable        _incom'parable_
  indisputable        _indis'putable_
  inexorable          _inex'orable_
  inexplicable        _inex'plicable_
  inhospitable        _inhos'pitable_
  inquiry             _inqui'ry_
  irrevocable         _irrev'ocable_
  misconstrue         _miscon'strue_
  nitrogenous         _nitroj'enous_
  opponent            _oppo'nent_
  pianist             _pian'ist_
  refutable           _refut'able_
  syllabic            _syllab'ic_
  telegraphy          _teleg'raphy_
  vagary              _vaga'ry_
  Yosemite            _yo swm' i te_


  address             _address'_
  adept               _adept'_
  adult               _adult'_
  ally                _ally'_
  commandant          _commandänt' (ä as in arm)_
  contour             _contour'_
  dessert             _dessert'_
  dilate              _dilate'_
  excise              _eksiz'_
  finance             _finance'_
  grimace             _grimace'_
  importune           _importune'_
  occult              _occult'_
  pretence            _pretence'_
  research            _research'_
  robust              _robust'_
  romance             _romance'_
  tirade              _tirade'_


  accent     _Accent'_ the first syllable.
             Place the _ac'cent_ upon the first syllable.

  aged       An _a'ged_ man.
             Properly _aged_ wine (one syllable).

  blessed    The _bless'ed_ saints.
             Let them be _blessed_ (one syllable).

  contrast   The strange _con'trast_.
             _Contrast'_ the two.

  converse   Did you _converse'_ with him?
             Is the _con'verse_ true?

  desert     The sandy _des'ert_.
             They _desert'_ their friends.

  learned    He _learned_ (one syllable) to sing.
             A _learn ed_ man.

  precedent  A _prece'dent_ place.
             It establishes a _prec'edent_.

  project    A new _proj'ect_.
             To _project'_ from.


ADMIRE. Do not use _admire_ in the sense of _like_.

Wrong: I should _admire_ to be able to do that.

Right: I should _like_ to be able to do that.

AGGRAVATE. Do not use _aggravate_ in the sense of _irritate_ or
_disturb_. _Aggravate_ means _to make worse_.

Wrong: His impudence _aggravates_ me.

Right: His impudence _irritates_ me.

AIN'T. _Ain't_ and _hain't_ are never proper as contractions of
_am not, is not_, or _are not_.

ALLOW. Do not use _allow_ in the sense of _assert, say_, or _intend_.

Wrong: He _allowed_ that he had better start. I _allow_ to be back
before noon.

Right: He _said_ that he had better start. I _intend_ to be back
before noon.

ALLUDE. Do not use _allude_ in the sense of _refer_. To _allude_
to a thing means to refer to it in an indirect way.

Wrong: He _alluded_ by name to John Milton.

Right: He _alluded_ to Milton by the term "Blind Poet."

ANY. Do not use _any_ in the sense of _at all_ or _to any degree_.

Wrong: Because of the injury he can not see _any_.

AS. Do not use _as_ for the relative pronouns _who_ and _that_.

Wrong: I am the man _as_ digs your garden. Not _as_ I remember.

Right: I am the man _who_ digs your garden. Not _that_ I remember.

AS. Do not use _as_ in the sense of _since_ or _because_.

Wrong: I cannot come _as_ I am sick now.

Right: I cannot come; I am sick now.

Right: I cannot come _because_ I am sick now.

AT. Do not use _at_ for _in_ with the names of large cities

Wrong: He lives _at_ Philadelphia.

Right: He lives _in_ Philadelphia.

ATTACKTED. Do not use this form for _attacked_.

AWFUL, AWFULLY. These are two very much overworked words. Substitute
other and more accurate expressions.

Wrong: We have had an _awfully_ good time. That is an _awfully_
pretty dress.

Right: We have had an _exceedingly_ nice time. That is a _very_
pretty dress.

BADLY. Do not use _badly_ in the sense of _very much_.

Wrong: She wanted _badly_ to come.

Right: She wanted _very much_ to come.

BESIDE, BESIDES. _Beside_ means _next to. Besides_ means _in addition

Right: John lives _beside_ his mother.

Right: _Besides_ the daughters, there are three sons.

BETWEEN. Do not use _between_ when referring to more than two objects.

Wrong: There is bad feeling _between_ the members of the class.

Right: There is bad feeling _among_ the members of the class.

BLOWED. Do not use _blowed_ for _blew_ or _blown_. There is no such

BEST. Do not use _best_ when only two objects are referred to.
Use _better_. _Best_ should be used only when more than two are
referred to.

Wrong: He is the _best_ of the two brothers.

Right: He is the _better_ of the two brothers.

Right: He is the _best_ of the three brothers.

BOUND. Do not use _bound_ for _determined_.

Wrong: He was _bound_ to go skating.

Right: He was _determined_ to go skating.

Right: He _bound_ himself to pay three hundred dollars.

BUT. Do not use _but_ after a negative in the sense of _only_. See

Wrong: There _isn't but_ one apple left.

Right: There _is but_ one apple left.

CALCULATE. Do not use _calculate_ in the sense of _think, expect_,
or _intend_.

CAN. Do not use _can_ to denote permission. It denotes ability or
possibility. _May_ denotes permission. See §69

Wrong: _Can_ I speak to you for a minute?

Right: _May_ I speak to you for a moment?

CHARACTER, REPUTATION. Do not confuse these two words. _Character_
means one's moral condition. _Reputation_ means the morality that
others believe one to possess.

CLUM. There is no such form of the verb _climb_.

COMPLECTED. Do not use _complected_ for _complexioned_. See §40.

CONCLUDE. Do not use conclude in the sense of _forming an intention._

Right: Finally, I _decided_ to go home.

Right: I was forced to _conclude_ that I had made an error.

CONSIDERABLE. Do not use _considerable_ in the sense of _very much_.

Wrong: This lesson is _considerable_ better than yesterday's.

CUTE. A much overworked word. Use some expression that is more accurate;
as, _pretty, amusing_, etc.

DECEASE, DISEASE. Do not confuse _decease_ and _disease_. The first
means _death_, the second _sickness_. _The deceased_ means a person
who is dead.

Wrong: The _diseased_ will be buried at four o'clock.

Wrong: The property of the _diseased_ will be sold at auction.

DECEASE. Do not use _decease_ as a verb in the sense of _die_.

Wrong: His father _deceased_ last year.

DEMAND. _Demand_ should not have a person as its object.

Wrong: He _demanded_ John to pay.

Right: He _demanded_ payment from John. He _demanded_ that John

DIFFERENT. Use the preposition _from_ after _different_, not _than_.

DON'T. Do not use _don't_ with a subject in the third person singular.
See §64.

DOWN. Do not use _down_ as a verb in the sense of _defeat_ or

Wrong: Our football team _has downed_ every other team in the state.

Right: Our football team _has defeated_ every other team in the

DROWNDED. _Drownded_ is not a proper form of the verb _drown_. Say
_drowned_. (Pronounced _drownd._)

EACH OTHER. Do not use _each other_ to refer to more than two objects.
See §44.

Wrong: The members of the regiment helped _each other_.

Right: The members of the regiment helped _one another_.

EFFECT, AFFECT. Do not confuse _effect_ and _affect. Effect_ means
_a result_, or _to cause a thing to be done. Affect_ means _to
disturb_ or _have an influence on_.

Wrong: The news _effected_ him seriously.

Right: The news _affected_ him seriously.

Wrong: The _affect_ of this news was to cause war.

Right: The _effect_ of this news was to cause war.

EITHER. Do not use _either_ with reference to more than two objects,
nor follow it by a plural verb. See §43.

Wrong: _Either_ of the three will do. _Either_ you or John _have_
done it.

Right: _Any one_ of the three will do. _Either_ you or John _has_
done it.

EMIGRATE, IMMIGRATE. Do not confuse _emigrate_ and _immigrate_.
_To emigrate_ means _to go out of a place_, to _immigrate_ means
_to come into a place_.

Right: The Italians _emigrate_ from their country.

Right: Of those who _immigrate_ to America, a large number are Italians.

ENOUGH. Do not follow _enough_ by a clause beginning with _that_
or _so that_.

Wrong: I studied _enough_ that I could recite the lesson.

Right: I studied _enough to_ recite the lesson.

ENTHUSE. Do not use _enthuse_ in the sense of to create enthusiasm.

Wrong: He tried to _enthuse_ his audience.

Right: He tried to _arouse_ enthusiasm in his audience.

ETC. _Etc._ stands for _et cetera_, and means _and so forth_. Do
not spell it _ect_. Do not use it in composition that is intended
to be elegant.

EVERYBODY. _Everybody_ should not be followed by a plural verb or
a plural pronoun. See §21.

EXCEPT, ACCEPT. Do not confuse these two words. _Accept_ means _to
acknowledge_. _Except_ means _to exclude_.

Right: I cannot _accept_ such slovenly work.

Wrong: I _except_ your apology.

EXCEPT. Do not use _except_ for _unless_. See §85.

Wrong: I can not sleep _except_ it is quiet.

EXPECT. Do not use _expect_ in the sense of _suppose_ or _think_.

Wrong: I _expect_ you have read that book.

Right: I _suppose_ you have read that book.

FINE. Do not use _fine_ in place of some more definite word. _Fine_
is a much over-worked word.

Wrong: The book is _fine_ for class-room work.

Right: The book is _well adapted_ for class-room work.

FIRSTLY. _Firstly_ should never be used. Say _first_. See §40.

FIRST-RATE. Do not use _first-rate_ as an adverb in the sense of
_very well_.

Wrong: That does _first-rate_.

Right: That does _very well_.

Right: He is a _first-rate fellow_.

FORMER. Do not use _former_ when more than two are referred to.
Say _first_. See §41.

FROM. Do not use _from_ with _whence, hence_ and _thence_.

Wrong: _From whence_ have you come?

Right: _Whence_ have you come? _From where_ have you come?

FUNNY. Do not use _funny_ for _singular_ or _strange_. _Funny_ is
an overworked word.

Wrong: It is _funny_ that he died.

Right: It is _singular_ that he died.

GENT. Do not use the word at all. Say _gentleman_ or _man_.

GENTLEMAN. Do not use _gentleman_ to denote sex only. Say _man_.
_Gentleman_ is properly used, however, to denote a person of refinement.

Wrong: Only _gentlemen_ are allowed to vote in Pennsylvania.

Right: Mr. Lincoln was a _gentleman_ in the true sense of the word.

GOT. Do not use got with _have_ or _had_ to indicate merely _possession_
or _obligation. Got_ means acquired through effort.

Wrong: I _have got_ the measles. You _have got_ to do it.

Right: I _have_ the measles. You _must_ do it.

Right: After much study I _have got_ my lesson.

GRAND. Do not use _grand_ in place of some more definite and accurate
expression. It is another over-worked word.

Wrong: We have had a _grand time_ this afternoon.

Right: We have had a _very pleasant_ time this afternoon.

GUESS. Do not use _guess_ in the sense of _think_ or _suppose_.

Wrong: I _guess_ the trains are late to-day.

Right: I _suppose_ the trains are late to-day.

Right: Can you _guess_ the riddle?

HAD OUGHT. Do not use _had_ with _ought_. See §54.

HARDLY. Do not use _hardly_ after a negative. See §46.

Wrong: I _can not hardly_ believe that.

Right: I _can hardly_ believe that.

HAVE. Do not use _have_ after _had_.

Wrong: If I _had have been_ able to go.

Right: If I _had been_ able to go.

HEIGHTH. Do not use _heighth_ for _height_.

HUNG. Do not confuse _hung_ and _hanged_. _Hanged_ is the proper
word to use in reference to executions.

Wrong: He was condemned _to be hung_.

Right: He was condemned _to be hanged_.

Right: The picture was _hung_ in the parlor.

HUMBUG. Do not use _humbug_ as a verb.

Wrong: He has _humbugged_ the people for years.

ILLY. Do not use _illy_ for the adverb _ill_. See §40.

IN, INTO. Do not confuse _in_ and _into_.

Wrong: He went _in_ the house.

Right: He went _into_ the house.

Right: He exercised _in_ a gymnasium.

KIND. Do not precede kind by _those_ or _these_.

Wrong: I do not like _those kind_ of plays.

Right: I do not like _that kind_ of play.

KIND OF A. Do not use _a_ or _an_ after _kind of_. See §47.

Wrong: It is _one kind of_ a mistake.

Right: It is _one kind of_ mistake.

LADY. Do not use _lady_ to designate sex only. It is properly used
to indicate persons of refinement.

Wrong: Is Mrs. Johnson a colored _lady_?

Right: Is Mrs. Johnson a colored _woman_?

Right: Mrs. Johnson is a colored _woman_, and _a lady_.

LATTER. Do not use _latter_ to refer to more than two objects. Use
_last_. See §41.

LAY. Do not confuse _lay_ and _lie_. See §57.

LEARN. Do not confuse _learn_ and _teach_. _Learn_ means _to acquire
knowledge. Teach_ means _to impart knowledge_.

Wrong: He can _learn_ you as much as any one can.

Right: He can _teach_ you as much as any one can.

LEAVE. Do not confuse _leave_ and _let_. Leave means _to let remain_.
Let means _to give permission_.

Wrong: Will your mother _leave_ you go?

Right: Will your mother _let_ you go?

Right: I shall _leave_ my trunk in my room.

LIABLE. Do not use _liable_ for _likely_.

Wrong: It is _liable_ to rain to-day.

Right: It is _likely_ to rain to-day.

Right: He is _liable_ for all that he has agreed to pay.

LIGHTNING. Do not use _lightning_ as a verb in place of _lightens_.

Wrong: During the storm, it _lightnings_ frequently.

Right: During the storm, it _lightens_ frequently.

LIKE. Do not use _like_ for _as_. _Like_ is a preposition. _As_
is a conjunction.

Wrong: He doesn't talk _like_ he did yesterday.

Right: He doesn't talk _as_ he did yesterday.

Right: It looks _like_ a mahogany chair.

LIT ON. Do not use _lit on_ in the sense of _met with_ or _discovered_.

Wrong: I at last _lit on_ this plan.

LOT. Do not use _lot_ in the sense of _a great number_ or _a great

Wrong: A _lot_ of people were there, She talks _a lot_.

MOST. Do not use _most_ for _almost_.

Wrong: I have _most_ completed the book.

Right: I have _almost_ completed the book.

Right: He has done _the most_ of the work.

MRS. Do not use _Mrs._ before titles; as, _Mrs. President, Mrs.
Professor, Mrs. Doctor_.

MUCH. Do not use _much_ for _many_. _Much_ refers to quantity. _Many_
refers to number.

Wrong: As _much as_ five hundred people were present.

Right: As _many as_ five hundred people were present.

MUTUAL. Do not confuse _mutual_ and _common_. _Mutual_ means

Wrong: John and William had a _mutual_ liking for Mary.

Right: John and William had a _common_ liking for Mary.

Right: John and William had a _mutual_ liking for each other.

NEAR. Do not use _near_ for _nearly_.

Wrong: He ran _near_ all the way to the station. I came _nearly_
making the same mistake.

Right: He ran _nearly_ all the way to the station. I came _near_
making the same mistake.

NERVE. Do not use _nerve_ in the sense of _impudence_.

NEWSY. Do not use _newsy_ in the sense of _full of news_.

NEITHER. Do not use _neither_ with reference to more than two objects,
nor follow it by a plural verb.

Wrong: _Neither_ of the three could come. _Neither_ of the two _are_

Right: _No one_ of the three could come. _Neither_ of the two _is_

NO GOOD. Do not use _no good_ in the sense of _worthless_ or _not

Wrong: The book is _no good_.

NO PLACE. Do not use _no place_ after a negative. See §46.

Wrong: I am not going _no place_.

Right: I am not going _anywhere_. I _am going nowhere_.

NOTORIOUS. Do not use _notorious_ in the sense of _famous_ or _noted.
Notorious_ means of _evil reputation_.

Wrong: Gladstone was a _notorious_ statesman of England.

Right: Several _notorious thieves_ were arrested.

NOWHERE NEAR. Do not use _nowhere near_ for _not nearly_. See §40.

Wrong: _Nowhere near_ so many people came as were expected.

Right: _Not nearly_ so many people came as were expected.

Right: James was _nowhere near_ the scene of the fire.

OF. Do not use _of_ for _have_ in such expressions as _could, have,
might have, should have_, etc.

Wrong: If I _could of_ been there.

Right: If I _could have_ been there.

ONLY. Guard against the improper use of _only_ after a negative.
See §46.

Wrong: There _are not only_ four books on that subject.

Right: There _are only_ four books on that subject.

OUTSIDE OF. Do not use _outside of_ for _aside from_.

Wrong: _Outside of_ James, all had a good time.

Right: _Aside from_ James, all had a good time.

OVER WITH. Do not use _over with_ for _over_.

Wrong: I must write the letter and have it _over with_.

PANTS. Do not use the word _pants_ for _trousers_.

PHOTO. Do not use _photo_ for _photograph_.

PIECE. Do not use _piece_ in the sense of _way_ or _distance_.

Wrong: I shall walk a _little piece_ with you.

Right: I shall walk a _little way_ with you.

PLACE. Do not use _place_ after _any, every, no_, etc., in the sense
of _anywhere, everywhere, nowhere_, etc.

Wrong: I can not find it _any place_.

Right: I can not find it _anywhere_.

PLENTY. Do not use _plenty_ as an adjective or an adverb.

Wrong: Money is _plenty_. He is _plenty able_ to do it.

Right: Money is _plentiful_. He is _quite able_ to do it.

POORLY. Do not use _poorly_ for _ill_ or _bad_.

Wrong: He feels very _poorly_.

PRINCIPLE, PRINCIPAL. Do not confuse _principle_ and _principal_.
_Principle_ means a _rule_ or _truth_. _Principal_ means _leader,
chief, the most important_.

PROPOSE. Do not use _propose_ in the sense of _intend_.

Wrong: I _propose_ to tell all I know.

Right: I _intend_ to tell all I know.

PROVIDING. Do not use _providing_ for _if_ or _on the condition_.

Wrong: I will go _providing_ you can get tickets for three.

Right: I will go _on the condition that_ you get the tickets.

RAISE, RISE. Do not confuse _raise_ with _rise_. See §57.

RECOMMEND, RECOMMENDATION. Do not use _recommend_ as a noun.
_Recommendation_ is the noun.

Wrong: Her employer gave her a good _recommend_.

Right: Her employer gave her a good _recommendation_.

RIGHT AWAY, RIGHT OFF. Do not use _right away_ or _right off_ in
the sense of _immediately_.

Wrong: After the play we will come _right off_.

Right: After the play we will come _at once_.

SAME. Do not use _same_ as a pronoun.

Wrong: I will write the letter and mail _same_ at once.

Right: I will write the letter and mail _it_ at once.

SAY. Do not use _say_ in the sense of _order_ or _command_.

Wrong: Your mother _said for_ you to come home at once.

Right: Your mother _said that_ you should come home at once.

SCARCELY. Do not use _scarcely_ after a negative. See §46.

Wrong: There _was not scarcely_ a pound of meat for us all.

Right: There _was scarcely_ a pound of meat for us all.

SELDOM EVER. Do not use _seldom_ with _ever_. Say instead _seldom_
or _seldom, if ever_.

Wrong: Fires _seldom ever_ occur.

Right: Fires _seldom_ occur. Fires _seldom, if ever_ occur.

SHUT OF. Do not use _shut of_ in the sense of _rid of_.

Wrong: We are _shut of_ him at last.

SIGHT. Do not use _sight_ in the sense of _many_ or _much_.

Wrong: A great _sight of people_ flocked to hear him.

Right: A great _many people_ flocked to hear him.

SIT, SET. Do not confuse these two words. See §57.

SO. Do not use _so_ alone as a conjunction. Say _so that_.

Wrong: He spoke in the open air, _so_ more could see and hear him.

Right: He spoke in the open air, _so that_ more could see and hear

SOME. Do not use _some_ as an adverb in the sense of _somewhat_
or a _little_.

Wrong: He plays the violin _some_.

Right: He plays the violin _a little_.

SORT OF A. Do not use _a_ after _sort of_. See _Kind of a_.

SORT. Do not precede _sort_ by _these_ or _those_. See _Kind_.

SUCH. Do not follow _such_ by _who, which_, or _that_ as relatives.

Wrong: All _such persons who_ think so will soon see their mistake.

Right: All _such persons as_ think so will soon see their mistake.

Right: He spoke with _such_ force _that_ we were compelled to listen.
(_That_ is not a relative here.)

TASTY. Do not use _tasty_ in the sense of _tasteful_.

THAT. Do not use _that_ as an adverb.

Wrong: I did not think the book was _that_ small.

Right: I did not think that the book was _so_ small.

in all these expressions are worse than unnecessary.

THEM THERE. Do not use _them there_ for _those_.

Wrong: Bring me _them there_ books.

Right: Bring me _those_ books.

THREE FIRST, TWO FIRST, ETC. Do not say _three first_, but _first
three_. There can be only one _first_.

TOO. Do not use _too_ alone before a verb or a participle.

Wrong: He is _too excited_ to listen to you.

Right: He is _too much excited_ to listen to you.

VERY. Do not use _very_ alone before a verb or a participle.

Wrong: You are _very_ mistaken.

Right: You are _very much_ mistaken.

WAIT ON, WAIT FOR. Do not confuse these two expressions. _Wait on_
means _to serve_. _Wait for_ means _to await_.

Wrong: Do not _wait on_ me if I do not come at noon.

Right: Do not _wait for_ me if I do not come at noon.

WAKE, AWAKE. Do not confuse _wake_ and _awake_. See §57.


References are to pages. Sections or subdivisions on the pages are
sometimes indicated in parenthesis after the page numbers.

Since the _EXERCISES_ follow throughout the subjects treated,
exercises on any subject may be found by looking up that subject
in this text index.

_A_, use of article.
Abbreviated words, rule against.
Abbreviations, punctuation of (§102); use of, in letters.
_Accept_, for _except_, Glossary.
Active voice and passive voice, explained; forms of.
Adjectives, defined; capitalization of proper; confused with adverbs;
  distinguished from adverbs; errors in comparison of; improper forms
  of; list of irregular; placing of; adjective pronouns; punctuation
  of two or more adjectives modifying same noun (§106); singular and
_Admire_, for _like_, Glossary.
Adverbs, defined; comparison of; conjunctive; confusion with adjectives;
  distinguished from adjectives; double negative; errors in comparison;
  list of irregularly compared; omission of; punctuation of (§116), (§121).
_Æsop's Fables_, quotation from.
_Affect_, for _effect_, Glossary.
_Aggravate_, for _irritate_, Glossary.
Agreement, of adjective and noun; of pronoun and antecedent; of verb and
  subject; of verb in clauses.
Ain't, Glossary.
_Allow_, for _assert_ or _intend_, Glossary.
_Allude_, for _refer_, Glossary.
_Also_, without _and_.
_Among_, for _between_, Glossary.
_An_, use of article.
_And_, use of.
Antecedents, of pronouns, defined; agreement of pronouns and; clearness
  of; compound; indefinite; of relative pronouns.
_Any_, for _at all_, Glossary.
Apostrophe, general use of; with plural nouns; with possessive nouns;
  with possessive pronouns.
Apposition, explained.
Appositives, punctuation of (§108).
_Argue_, for _augur_.
Articles, explained; use of.
_As_, as conjunction or adverb; as a relative pronoun, Glossary; for
  _like_; for _since_, Glossary; punctuation of (§122).
_At_, for _in_, Glossary.
_Attackted_, mispronunciation of _attacked_, Glossary.
Attribute complement, explained; case of (note 2).
Auxiliary verbs, explained; _shall_ and _will_; _should_ and _would_;
  _may, can, might_, and _could_.
_Avocation_, for _vocation_.
_Awake_, for _wake_, Glossary.
_Awful_, for _awfully_, Glossary.

_Bad_, for _badly_, Glossary.
Balanced sentence.
Barbarisms, defined; rules for avoidance of; when proper.
Beginning of the composition.
_Beside_, for _besides_, Glossary.
_Best_, for _better_, Glossary.
_Between_, for _among_, Glossary.
_Bible_, capitalization of (§100).
_Blowed_, for _blew_, Glossary.
Body, of the letter.
Books for reading, list of.
_Bound_, for _determined_, Glossary.
Brackets, use of.
_But_, as a relative pronoun; with a negative; with a dependent clause;
  to introduce two succeeding statements.
_But that_, for _but what_.

_Calculate_, for _intend_.
_Can_, use of; model conjugation of.
"Cant expressions," in letters.
Capitalization, rules for.
Cases, classified and defined; case forms of pronouns;
case of word in apposition; case forms of relative pronouns; outline
  for use of case forms; rules for forming possessive.
_Character_, for _reputation_, Glossary.
_Character of Napoleon Bonaparte_, by Channing, quotation from.
Choice of words, rules to aid in.
_Christmas_, by Washington Irving, quotation from.
_Claim_, for _assert_.
Clauses, defined; adjective; adverbial; agreement, of verb in;
  principal or independent; subordinate or dependent; substantive;
  _when_ and _where_ clauses.
Climax in sentences.
Clipped words, rule against.
Close of letter.
_Clum_, for _climbed_, Glossary.
"_In care of_," misuse of _c|o_ for.
Coherence, of paragraph; how to gain in paragraph; illustrations of
  in paragraph; of sentence; of whole composition; words of.
"Comma blunder".
Common gender, defined, of nouns and pronouns.
Comparative degree; misuse of, in reference to more than two things.
Comparison, degrees of; irregular forms in; errors in; manner of comparing.
_Complected_, for _complexioned_, Glossary.
Complex sentence.
Complimentary close, in letters.
Compound nouns, explained; rules for forming plurals of.
Compound pronouns, personal; relative.
Compound sentence.
Compound subject; agreement of verb with.
Compound words, use of hyphen with (§140).
_Concluded_, for _to form an opinion_, Glossary.
Conditional clauses, punctuation of (§114).
Confusion of adjectives and adverbs.
Conjunctions, defined; misuses of; correlatives.
_Considerable_, for _considerably_, Glossary.
_Consul_, for _council_, or _counsel_.
Contractions of _not_, use of, in formal composition.
Co-ordinate clauses, punctuation of (§§112, 113), (§§118, 119, 120).
Copulative verb.
Correctly written letters.
Correlatives, placing of.
_Could_, use of; model conjugations of.
_Council, counsel_ and _consul_ confused.
_Cranford_, by Mrs. Gaskell, selection from.
_Cute_, for _pretty, clever_, etc., Glossary.

Dash, use of.
_Decease_, Glossary.
Definition, by a _when_ or _where_ clause.
Degrees in comparison, classified.
_Demand_, Glossary.
Dependent and conditional clauses, punctuation of (§114), (§§119, 120).
Dictionary, value of its use.
_Different_, with _than_, Glossary.
_Directly_, misused as a conjunction.
_Disease_, Glossary.
Division of words at ends of lines (§139).
_Don't_, Glossary.
Double negatives.
_Down_, misuse as a verb, Glossary.
_Drownded_, mispronunciation of _drowned_, Glossary.

_East_, capitalization of (§100).
_Each other_, misuse with more than two objects, Glossary.
_Effect_, for _affect_, Glossary.
_Either_, misuse with more than two objects, Glossary.
Elements of the sentence: Principal elements, subject;
  predicate. Subordinate elements: attribute complement; adjective
  modifier; adverbial modifier; object complement.
_Emigration_, for _immigration_, Glossary.
Emphasis, in paragraphs; in sentence.
Ending of whole composition.
_Enough_, Glossary.
_Euthuse_, Glossary.
Enumerations, punctuation before, (§§122, 123).
_Esq._, misuse after Mr..
_Etc._, misspelling of, Glossary.
Euphony, in sentences.
_Everybody_, followed by a plural form, Glossary.
_Everywheres_, for _everywhere_.
Examples, of beginning of whole composition; of correctly written letters;
  of ending of whole composition; of outline of whole composition.
Exclamation point, use of.
_Except_, for _accept_, Glossary.
Explanatory relative clauses, punctuation of (§111).
_Expect_, for _suppose_.

_Fall_, for _fell_.
_Father_, capitalization of (§99).
_Fell_, for _fall_.
Feminine gender, defined; of nouns and pronouns.
Final words, in letters.
_Fine_, Glossary.
_Firstly_, Glossary.
_First-rate_, Glossary.
_For_, used to introduce two succeeding clauses.
Foreign words.
_Former_, Glossary.
Form of letters.
From, Glossary.
_Funny_, for _singular_, Glossary.

Gender, defined and classified formation of feminine from
  masculine; gender of pronouns.
General terms, use of.
_Gent_, Glossary.
_Gentleman_, Glossary.
Geographical names, punctuation of (§108).
Gerunds, explanation of; confusion with participle; with noun or
  pronoun modifier; placing of gerund phrase.
Gettysburg speech, by Lincoln.
_Good_, for _well_.
Good use of words; offenses against.
_Got_, Glossary.
_Grand_, Glossary.
Grave forms of personal pronouns, use of.
_Guess_, for _think_, Glossary.

Hackneyed expressions, general rule against; in letters.
_Had, ought_, Glossary.
_Hain't_, Glossary.
_Hanged_, confused with _hung_, Glossary.
_Hardly_, placing of; with a negative, Glossary.
_Have_, misuse after _had_, Glossary.
Heading, of letters.
_Heighth_, for _height_, Glossary.
_Here_, misuse with demonstratives, Glossary.
_Him_, misuse with gerund.
_Home_, confused with _house_; for _at home_, Glossary.
_Humbug_, Glossary.
_Hung_, confused with _hanged_, Glossary.
Hyphen, use of.

_I_, capitalization of (§100). Order of.
In the letter.
_i. e._, punctuation of (§122).
_Illy_, Glossary.
_Immigration_, confused with _emigration_, Glossary.
Imperative mode.
Improving one's vocabulary, rules for.
Indentation, of paragraph; of paragraph, in letters.
Infinitives, explanation of; forms of; cases used with; rules for
  sequence of infinitive tenses; split.
Inflection, defined.
_In_, confused with _into_, Glossary.
Inside address of letters.
Interrogation point, use of.
Interrogative pronouns.
Intransitive verbs, see _Transitive_.
Introductory words or phrases, punctuation of (§107).

_Kind_, with plural modifiers, Glossary.
_Kind of a_.

_Lady_, Glossary.
_Latter_, confused with _last_, Glossary.
_Lay_, confused with lie.
_Learn_, for _teach_, Glossary.
_Leave_, for _let_, Glossary.
_Lend_, confused with _loan_.
Length, of paragraphs; of sentences.
Letter writing; body of letter; close; heading; illustrations of
  correctly written letters; inside address; miscellaneous
  directions; notes in third person; outside address; salutation.
_Liable_, for _likely_.
_Lie_, confused with _lay_.
_Lightning_, Glossary.
_Like_, misuse as a conjunction.
_Lit on_, Glossary.
_Loan_, confused with _lend_.
Loose sentences.
_Lot_ for _a great deal_, Glossary.

_Mad_, for _angry_.
Masculine gender, defined; of pronouns.
_May_; model conjugation of.
_Messrs._, use of.
_Might_; model conjugations of.
Mode, definition of; indicative; infinitive; imperative; obligative,
  footnote; participal; potential, of; subjunctive.
Modifiers, placing of.
_Most_ for _almost_.
_Mother_, capitalization of (§99).
_Mrs._, Glossary.
_Much_, for _many_.
_Mutual_, confused with _common_, Glossary.

Name, form of verb.
_Namely_, punctuation of (§122).
_Near_, confused with _nearly_.
_Neither_, misuse with more than two objects, Glossary.
_Nerve_, Glossary.
Neuter gender, defined; of nouns and pronouns.
Newly coined expressions, rule against.
_Newsy_, Glossary.
Nominative case, defined; when used, note.
_No place_, Glossary.
_No_, punctuation of (§102).
_No good_, for _worthless_.
_North_, capitalization of (§100).
_Not muchly_.
Notes in the third person.
_Not only--but also_.
_Notorious_, confused with _noted_, Glossary.
Nouns, common; proper; case of; gender of; number of.
_Nowhere near_, for _not nearly_, Glossary.
Number, defined; agreement of verb and subject in number; singular;
  plural; of relative pronouns; of pronouns; of pronouns with
  compounded antecedent; rules for forming plurals of nouns.
_Number_, sign #, used for.

_O_ and _oh_, capitalization of (§100).
Object complement, explained.
Objective case, defined; when used.
Obligative mode (footnote).
_Observance_, confused with _observation_.
Obsolete words.
_Of_, Glossary.
Omission, of adverb _much_; of important words; of prepositions;
  punctuation in case of (§117); (§138); of verbs.
_One another_, use of.
_Only_, placing of; with a negative, Glossary.
Order of heading in letters.
_Other_, use of in comparison.
Outline, for composition; illustration of.
Outside address, of letters.
_Outside of_, Glossary.
Over-statement of facts, rule against.
_Over with_, Glossary.

_Pants_, Glossary.
Paragraphing of letters.
Paragraphs; coherence in; emphasis in; indentation of; in letters;
  length of; unity in.
Parenthesis marks, use of; too frequent use of.
Parts of speech, classified.
Passive voice and active voice explained; forms of.
Past participle, explanation and use of.
Past tense, explanation and use of.
Participles, explanation of; confusion with gerunds; dangling; at
  beginning of sentence; preceded by _thus_.
Period, use of.
Periodic sentence.
Personal pronouns, defined; classified; compound personal pronouns;
  use of common and of grave forms of; unnecessary use of.
_Piece_, Glossary.
_Photo_, Glossary.
Phrases, defined; prepositional; verb; punctuation of adverbial
  phrases (§116), (§121).
_Place_, Glossary.
Placing of adjectives and adverbs.
_Plenty_, Glossary.
Plural number, explained; rules for forming plurals of nouns.
Point of view, in paragraph; in sentence; in whole composition.
_Poorly_, for _ill_, Glossary.
Positive degree.
Position, in letters, of complimentary close; of heading; of inside
  address; of salutation; of outside address.
Possessive case, defined; rules for forming possessives of nouns;
  when used.
Potential mode, explanation and forms of.
Predicate of the sentence; defined; compound, predicate, explained.
Prepositional phrase.
Prepositions, defined; omission of; proper use of; unnecessary use
  of; used as conjunctions.
_Principal_, confused with _principle_, Glossary.
Principal parts of verbs, explained; classified; list of; rules for
  use of.
Principal verbs, explained.
Professional words.
Pronouns, defined; adjective; antecedent of, defined; agreement with
  antecedent; case forms of; compound personal; compound relative;
  gender of; interrogative; number of; outline of, use of case forms
  of; relative; rules determining gender of; with compound antecedents.
Pronunciation, lists of frequently mispronounced words; words given
  wrong sounds; words given wrong accent; words of foreign pronunciation;
  words of similar spelling.
Proper adjectives, capitalization of (§95).
Proper nouns, defined; capitalization of (§95).
_Propose_, for _intend_, Glossary.
_Providing_, for _if_, Glossary.
Provincialisms, definition and rule against use of.
Punctuation, rules for; in letters, body; heading; inside address;
  outside address; salutation.

Qualities, essential: Of sentences, unity; emphasis; euphony. Of
  paragraphs, unity; coherence; emphasis. Of whole composition, unity;
_Quite_, for _very_.
Quotation marks, use of.
Quotations, punctuation of (§115), (§123), (§131), (§§132-137).

_Raise_, confused with _rise_, Glossary.
_Recommend_, confused with _recommendation_, Glossary.
Relative causes, cases in; explanatory or non-restrictive; introduction
  of successive; punctuation of (§111); use of _when_ or _where_ clause.
Relative pronouns, defined and explained; agreement of verb
  with; case and number of; compound; explanatory or non-restrictive;
  restrictive; use of, with different antecedents.
Repetition of similar words or syllables.
_Reputation_, confused with _character_, Glossary.
_Respectfully_, confused with _respectively_.
_Right away_, Glossary.
_Right off_, Glossary.
_Rise_, confused with _raise_, Glossary.

Salutation, in letters.
_Some_, misuse as a pronoun, Glossary.
_Say_, for _order_ or _command_, Glossary.
_Scarcely_, placing of; with a negative, Glossary.
Scriptures, capitalization, of (§100).
_Seldom ever_, Glossary.
Semi-colon, use of.
Sentence elements out of natural order, (§109).
Sentences: defined; declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory;
  essential qualities of; loose, periodic, balanced; simple, complex,
  compound; length of; slipshod construction of.
Sequence of tenses, infinitive; in clauses.
Series of words, punctuation of.
_Set_, confused with _sit_, Glossary.
S-form of verb.
_Shut of_, for _rid of_, Glossary.
_Sight_, for _many_, Glossary.
Signature of writer, in letters.
Simple sentence, defined.
Simple words, use of.
Similar expressions of similar thoughts.
Singular form of verb, explanation and use of, after you and they.
Singular number, explained.
_Sit_, confused with _set_, Glossary.
_Shall_ and _will_, use of, in dependent clauses; in principal clauses;
  in questions; model conjugations of; past tenses of.
_Should_ and _would_, model conjugations of; use of.
_So_, use of.
_Some_, misuse as an adverb, Glossary.
_Somebody else's_.
_Sort_, with plurals, Glossary.
_Sort of a_, Glossary.
_South_, capitalization of, (§100).
Speech, paragraphing of.
Specific terms, use of.
Spelling, lists of words frequently misspelled; rules for; of words of
  similar sound.
"Squinting construction."
_Street_, omission of in letters.
Subject of sentence or clause, defined; agreement of verb and subject;
  compound; relative pronoun as, of whole composition; statement of,
  in composition.
Subject matter of letters.
Subjunctive mode.
_Such_, Glossary.
Summarizing word, use of; punctuation of, (§127).
Superlative degree; misuse in comparing only two things.
_Suspect_, for _expect_.
Syllables, division of words into, (§139).
Synonyoms, value of.

_Tasty_, for _tasteful_, Glossary.
Technical words.
"Telegraph style," in letters.
Tense, explained; sequence of.
_Than_, use of.
_That_, with what antecedents used; as a restrictive relative;
  misuse of, Glossary.
_That is_, punctuation of, (§122).
_The_, use of article.
_Their'n, theirself, theirselves_.
_Them_, for _those_.
_Then_, use of.
_There_, improper use of after demonstratives, Glossary.
_They_, indefinite use of; with singular verb.
Third person, notes in the.
_Those kind_, and _these sort_.
_Three first_, Glossary.
Title of whole composition.
Titles, abbreviations of; capitalization of, (§§ 96, 97).
_To-day, to-morrow, to-night_, hyphens with, (§140).
_Too_, misuse of, Glossary.
Transition, in whole composition.
Transitive and intransitive verbs, confusion of; explanation of.
_Transpire_, for _happen_.
_Try and_, Glossary.
_Two first_, Glossary.

_Unbeknown_, for _unknown_.
Unity: Of paragraph; how to gain; illustrations of.
  Of sentence. Of whole composition.
Unnecessary words, use of.

Verb phrase, explained.
Verbs, defined; agreement of verb and subject; agreement of verb in
  clauses; auxiliary; gerunds; infinitives; mode; model conjugations
  of _to-be_ and _to see_; omission of verbs or parts of; participles;
  principal; principal parts; principal parts, list of; transitive and
  intransitive; use of auxiliaries; voice.
_viz._, punctuation of, (§122).
Vocabulary, rules for improvement of.
_Vocation_, confused with _avocation_.

_Wake_, confused with _awake_, Glossary.
_Wait on_, confused with _wait for_, Glossary.
_Ways_, Glossary.
Weak beginnings and endings of sentences.
_Well_, confused with _good_.
_West_, capitalization of, (§100).
_What_, with what antecedents.
_Which_, with clause or phrase as antecedent; with what antecedents used.
_Who_, with what antecedents used.
Whole composition; beginning of, ending of; paragraph composition or
  paragraph theme.
_Will_, use of, see _shall_.
_Without_, misuse as a conjunction.
Words, choice of; clipped or abbreviated; division of at ends of lines,
  (§139); foreign; good use of; how to improve vocabulary of, idioms;
  in place of figures in letters; newly-coined; of coherence;
  professional; pronunciation of, provincialisms; simple English; slang;
  spelling of; technical words; vulgarisms.
_Would_, see _should_.

_Yes_, punctuation of, (102).
_You_, indefinite use of; with singular verb.
_Yours truly_ and _yours respectfully_, wrong abbreviation of.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Practical Grammar and Composition" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.