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Title: A Review of Uncle Tom's Cabin - or, An Essay on Slavery
Author: Woodward, A.
Language: English
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A REVIEW OF UNCLE TOM'S CABIN;

OR,

AN ESSAY ON SLAVERY,



BY A. WOODWARD, M.D.



CINCINNATI:
PUBLISHED BY APPLEGATE & CO.


1853


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1853,
BY A. WOODWARD, M.D.,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States,
for the District of Indiana.



PREFACE.


For the last two years a "still small voice" has constantly whispered
to me, in private and in public, at home and abroad, saying, _write!_
It was in vain that I strove to quiet this inward monitor by pleading
incapacity, poverty, want of time, &c.; he heeded not my excuses. I
inquired what would become of my dependant family, should I relinquish
the practice of my profession and engage in other pursuits? He
answered, "Put thy trust in the Lord, and _write!_" I yielded not to
his monitions, but continued with unabated ardor the practice of my
profession, until the latter part of autumn, 1852, when I was suddenly
prostrated by disease, and forced to desist from the practice of
medicine. I then commenced as soon as I was able, the preparation of a
work, which I contemplated bringing before the public at some future
period, provided I should live. In accordance with the plan of the
proposed work, an essay on African slavery was to close the volume.
After I had finished about a hundred pages manuscript, in order, the
question of African slavery in the United States suddenly thrust
itself upon my mind with such force, that I found it somewhat
difficult to investigate any other subject. My mind at the time was
enervated by disease, and by no means well disciplined. Hence I could
not control it. For this reason, I at once concluded to draw up a
skeleton or outline of my essay on slavery; after which I contemplated
resuming my work in regular order. It was about this time that my
health rapidly declined, and I became so feeble that I could not sit
at my table more than one or two hours in twenty-four. In this
condition, by a slow process, I finished from chapter i, to the close
of chapter xiii. The Introduction was written afterwards, to supply
some obvious defects in that portion of the work alluded to.

None need tell me that there are defects and imperfections in the
work. I am well aware of the fact, but could not remedy them without
re-writing the whole, and that was impracticable under the
circumstances. Critics need not trouble themselves about its defects
as a literary production, as I lay no claim to merit on that ground.
Having been actively engaged in the practice of an arduous and
perplexing profession for the last twenty-five years, I am aware that
my qualifications for authorship must be somewhat defective. I was
moreover forced to write, when my corporeal system was exhausted, and
my mental powers oppressed by a complication of diseases. There are
not many, I conceive, who will find any difficulty in clearly
comprehending the ideas I intended to convey; if so, my object is
accomplished.

The work was written under disadvantageous circumstances; but such as
it is, I cast it out on the great sea of public opinion to abide its
fate. If good is accomplished thereby, I shall rejoice; but if it is
destined to sink into oblivion, I shall console myself with the
reflection that I had no other object in writing, but the correction
of error and the welfare of my fellow creatures. I may err, but I
appeal to "the searcher of all hearts" for the purity of my motives
and intentions. Whatever may be the effects of this work on the public
mind; light and truth were my aim, and the best interests of my fellow
beings, my sole object.

I appear before the public with reluctance, and am exceedingly
mortified that it has fallen to my lot to treat any portion of my
fellow citizens with severity; but I am nevertheless prepared to meet
the sneers and frowns of those implicated. I shall offer no apology
for the harsh language which will be occasionally found in this
volume; as a desperate disease requires an active remedy. If I could,
however, have re-written the work, I would have changed, in some
places, the phraseology. I have brought many and serious charges
against the abolition faction in the United States, but those who are
not guilty of the charges alleged, need not feel aggrieved thereby. My
remarks, for the most part refer to what is called _ultra-abolitionism_.

It is probable that I have occasionally quoted the language of others,
without marking the same as a quotation. If so, it was not
intentional. I could not, in doubtful cases, refer to writers whose
ideas I may have used, on account of ill health. In quoting from the
Bible I relied almost entirely on my own memory; but I presume I am
generally correct.

I have now finished a task--by no means a pleasant one--and I have
done it with a trembling hand, for the subject is a delicate one--a
subject of intense interest, under the existing circumstances, to
every American citizen. To me, the signs of the times appear to be
ominous--to forebode evil! I sometimes fear that our political sun has
passed the zenith--lowering clouds intercept his rays, and at times
obscure his former brightness, majesty and glory. The ship of State is
tossed by furious winds, and threatened by boisterous waves--rocks and
quicksands are on the right and left--an awful wreck awaits her, and
can only be averted by vigilance, prudence, caution and circumspection
on the part of her crew.

GREENCASTLE, IND., May, 1853.



Transcriber's Note: The CONTENTS are printed at the end of this book.



REVIEW OF UNCLE TOM'S CABIN;

OR

AN ESSAY ON SLAVERY.


INTRODUCTION.


SECTION I.

Since the following chapters were prepared for the press, my attention
was directed by a friend, to a letter published in a Northern paper,
which detailed some shocking things, that the writer had seen and
heard in the South; and also some severe strictures on the institution
of domestic slavery in the Southern States, &c.

I have in the following work, related an anecdote of a young lawyer,
who being asked how he could stand up before the court, and with
unblushing audacity state falsehoods; he very promptly answered, "I
was well paid; I received a large fee, and could therefore afford to
lie." I infer from the class of letters referred to, that the writers
are generally "well paid" for their services.

It has long been a practice of abolition editors in the Northern
States, when they were likely to run short of matter, to employ some
worthy brother, to travel South, and manufacture articles for their
papers. Many of those articles are falsehoods; and most of them, if
not all, are exaggerations.

No man who will consent to go south, and perform this dirty work, is
capable of writing truth. And moreover, many of the letters published
in abolition papers, purporting to have been written from some part of
the South, were concocted by editors and others at home; the writers
never having traveled fifty miles from their native villages. But some
of them do travel South and write letters; and it is of but little
consequence what they see, or what they hear; they have engaged to
write letters, and letters they must write: letters too, of a certain
character; and if they fail to find material in the South, it then
devolves on them to manufacture it.

They have engaged to furnish food for the depraved appetites of a
certain class of readers in the North; and furnish it they must, by
some means. They truly, are an unlucky set of fellows, for I never yet
heard of one of them, who was so fortunate as to find anything good or
praiseworthy among Southern people. This is very strange indeed! They
travel South with an understanding on the part of their employer, and
with an intention on their part, to misrepresent the South, and to
excite prejudice in Northern minds. How devoid of patriotism, truth
and justice. The mischief done by these misrepresentations is
inconceivable. If every abolitionist North of Mason and Dixon's line,
were separately and individually asked, from whence he derived his
opinions and prejudices in relation to Southern men, and Southern
slavery, nine hundred and ninety-nine out of every thousand would
answer, that they had learned all that they knew about slavery and
slaveholders from the publication of abolitionists: not one in a
thousand among them having ever seen a southern slave or his master.
"Truth is stranger than fiction;" and it is also becoming more rare.
No wonder people are misled, when the country is flooded with
abolition papers and Uncle Tom's Cabin. No one can read such
publications without being misled by them, unless he is, or has been,
a resident of a slave State. It is thus that materials are furnished
for abolition papers and such publications as Uncle Tom's Cabin; and
it is thus that the public mind is poisoned, public morals vitiated,
and honest but ignorant men led to say and do many things, which must,
sooner or later, result in deplorable consequences, unless something
can be brought to bear on the public mind that will counteract the
evil. The writer hopes, through the blessing of God, that the
following pages will prove an efficient antidote.

Southern people have their faults; they err in many things: and far be
it from me, under such circumstances, to become their apologist. It is
not as a defender of the South I appear before the public, but in
defense of my country, North and South. We are all brethren; we are
all citizens of the same heaven-favored country; and how residents of
one part of it can spend their lives in vilifying, traducing, and
misrepresenting those of another portion of it, is, to me,
unaccountable. It is strange, indeed! I entreat my countrymen to
reflect soberly on these things; and in the name of all that is sacred
I entreat you, my abolition friends, to pause a while, in your mad
career, and review the whole ground. It may be that some of you may
yet see the error of your course. I cannot give you all up. I trust in
God that you are not all given over to "hardness of heart and
reprobacy of mind." A word to the reader. Pass on--hear me
through--never mind my harsh expressions and uncouth language. Truth
is not very palatable, to any of us, at all times. Crack the nut; it
may be that you will find a kernel within that will reward you for
your trouble.

False impressions have been made, and continue to be made by the
writers alluded to above; sectional hatred is engendered, North and
South; and if this incessant warfare continues, it will, at no very
distant day, produce a dissolution of this Union. This result is
inevitable if the present state of things continues. Has the agitation
and discussion of the question of African slavery, in the free States,
resulted in any good, or is it ever likely to result in any? I flatter
myself that I have clearly shown, in the following pages, that
hitherto its consequences have been evil and only evil, and that
nothing but evil can grow out of it in future. I think that I have
adduced historical facts which clearly and indisputably prove that
northern agitation has served but to rivet the chains of slavery; that
it has retarded emancipation; that it has augmented the evils and
hardships of slavery; that it has inflicted injury on both masters and
servants; that it has engendered sectional hatred which endangers the
peace, prosperity, and perpetuity of the Union. Why, then, will
abolitionists persist in a course so inconsistent; so contrary to
reason; so opposed to truth, righteousness, and justice? They need not
tell me that slavery is an evil; that slavery is a curse; that slavery
is a hardship, and that it ought to be extinguished. I admit it; but
this is not the question. On this head I have no controversy with
them. The question is, whether their course of procedure is ever
likely to remove or mitigate the evils of slavery. Are we prepared, in
our efforts to remove the evils of slavery, to incur the risk of
subjecting ourselves to calamities infinitely worse that African
slavery itself? Or rather, is there the remotest probability,
supposing the plans and schemes of abolitionists should be carried
out, the Union dissolved, and the country plunged into civil war, that
slavery would thereby be abolished in the southern States?

These are the questions at issue between the abolition party and the
writer; and these are among the prominent questions discussed in the
following pages. It is true that I have hastily glanced at slavery in
all its bearings, but it was the fell spirit of abolitionism which
first attracted my attention, and induced me to investigate the
subject. It was its revolutionary designs and tendencies, its contempt
of all law, human and Divine, that first impressed my mind with the
necessity of prompt and efficient action on the part of the friends of
our country. It was the unparalleled circulation of Uncle Tom's Cabin
that aroused my fears, and excited in my mind apprehensions of danger.
If such productions as Uncle Tom's Cabin are to give tone to public
sentiment in the North, then assuredly are we in danger. Should Mrs.
Stowe's vile aspersion of southern character, and her loose, reckless
and wicked misrepresentations of the institution of slavery in the
southern States ever become accredited in the northern section of the
Union I fear the consequence. I sometimes survey the condition of my
country with consternation and dismay, and tremble in prospect of what
may yet occur. History records the rise and fall of nations. We read
of revolutions, butcheries, and blood. We have flattered ourselves
that our beloved country for ages to come, and probably forever, is
destined to escape these calamities. But, O God! how mortifying the
reflection that there are now, in our midst, religious fanatics and
political demagogues, who for a little paltry gain or notoriety would
plunge us into all these evils!

I have repeatedly, in the following pages charged the abolition
faction with revolutionary designs and tendencies. Some may doubt the
truth and justice of the charge; but I beg such persons to recollect
that abolition writers and orators have, times without number, avowed
an intention to overthrow this government; but it matters not what
their avowed designs and intentions are, for their lawless and
seditious course leads directly to that result. If they ever succeed
in carrying out their plans and schemes we know that revolution and
disunion will be the consequence. It was remarked by Mr.
Frelinghuysen, of New York, on a certain occasion, that "abolitionists
are seeking to destroy our happy Union." Chancellor Walworth says,
"They are contemplating a violation of the rights of property secured
by the Constitution, and pursuing measures which must lead to civil
war."

The union of these States is based on what has been called the slavery
compromise; and the Union would have never taken place, had not the
right to hold slave property been secured to the slave states, by a
provision in the Federal Constitution. Had not the free states
relinquished all right to interfere with slavery in the slave states,
no union of the slave and free states could ever have taken place. The
right to hold slave property, and to manage, control, and dispose of
that property in their own way, and at their own discretion, was
secured to the slave states by a solemn contract between the slave and
non-slaveholding states, and that contract binds every individual in
this nation, North and South. Slave property then, is held under the
protection of the supreme law of the nation, and any citizen invading
the rights of the South, is guilty of a civil trespass. Hence, all
interference with slavery by northern men, is a violation of the
spirit, if not of the letter of that constitutional compact, which
binds these states together. Any attempt by northern men, either
direct or indirect, to dispossess the South of her slave property, or
in any way to endanger or injuriously to affect their interests
therein, is a violation of the supreme law of the nation. It is an act
of bad faith--of gross injustice, and none but bigoted corrupt
fanatics, and low political demagogues, would be guilty of so base an
act.

It is clear then, that the slave states never will yield to the
requisitions of abolitionists, and should that faction ever become the
dominant party in the free states, dissolution of the Union will be a
necessary consequence _Intelligent men_, who will persist in a course
of conduct so unjust, so illegal, with a perfect knowledge of the
probable consequences; are to all intents and purposes, as truly
traitors to their country, as was Benedict Arnold; and as such, they
should be viewed and treated. Mark my words, reader, I say,
_intelligent men_, for nine out of every ten among those who have been
seduced into the abolition net, are objects of pity, and not of
contempt or indignation. Poor souls, they are ignorant; it is, I
suppose, their misfortune and not their fault.

In order that I may be clearly understood, I will reiterate tho
foregoing argument. Before the adoption of the Federal constitution,
the states were to a great extent sovereign and independent, and of
course were in a condition to settle terms on which to form a more
perfect union. The North and the South, otherwise, the slave-holding
and the non-slaveholding states met in convention to settle those
_terms_. The North in convention conceded to the South the right to
hold slave property; and the sole right of making all laws necessary
for the regulation of slavery. It was thus, we see, by a solemn
contract or agreement, that the South acquired exclusive right to
control domestic slavery within her borders. What right then, have the
citizens of free states, to intermeddle with it? They have none, as
long as the Federal Constitution is the supreme law of the land. The
union of these states is based on that instrument, and whenever we
cease faithfully to observe its provisions, the Union must necessarily
cease to exist. All interference then on the part of the North,
endangering the rights or injuriously affecting the interests of the
South in slave property, is a violation of the supreme law of the
nation. I need not say more; the argument must be clear to every one;
and I think the duty of all concerned equally clear.

Ralfe, referring to the adoption of the Federal Constitution, says,
"It was no easy task to reconcile the local interests and discordant
prepossessions of different sections of the United States, but it was
accomplished by acts of concession." Madison says, "Mutual deference
and concession were absolutely necessary," and that the Southern
States never would have entered the Union, without concession as to
slave property. And Governor Randolph informs us, "That the Southern
States conceived their property in slaves to be secured by this
arrangement?"

We are also informed by Patrick Henry, Chief Justice Tiglman,
Chancellor Kent, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, Justice Shaw, Chief
Justice Parker, Edward Everett and others, that no union of these
states ever could have taken place, had not the right to hold slave
property, and the sole right to control that property been conceded to
the southern States. And, Edward Everett, moreover, tells us that the
northern States "deemed it a point of the highest policy, to enter
with the slave states into the present Union." The reader will
observe, that a majority of the authorities referred to, are northern
men of the highest distinction.

I remarked in the preceding pages, that whoever invades the rights of
the South in her slave property, violates the law of the land, and is
guilty of a civil trespass; and I will now prove from the sacred
record, that in opposing the civil laws of their country, they violate
the laws of God, and consequently are guilty of a moral trespass. The
primitive church of Christ was, under all circumstances, and at all
times, subordinate to the civil authorities. They never stopped to
inquire whether the laws were good or bad, just or unjust; their
business was to obey the laws and not to find fault with them.

Christ and his apostles enjoined on their followers unreserved
obedience and submission to the civil authorities. I need not here
quote the language of our Saviour; it must be familiar to every Bible
reader. I will, however, quote the remarks of St. Paul and St. Peter,
on this topic. The former says, "Let every soul be subject to the
higher powers." "Whosoever therefore, resisteth the power, resisteth
the ordinance of God; and they that resist shall receive to themselves
damnation." He instructs Bishop Titus to put his flock "in mind to be
subject to principalities and powers, and to obey magistrates, to be
ready to every good work." "To speak evil of no man, to be no
brawlers, but gentle, showing meekness unto all men." St. Peter says,
"Submit yourselves to every ordinance of men for the Lord's sake;
whether to the king as supreme; or unto governors, as unto them that
are sent by him for the punishment of evil doers." There is neither
precept nor precedent in the Bible, which will countenance opposition
to the laws of our country. No, not one word in the sacred volume,
that can be thus construed. Opposition and resistance to the civil
authorities, is one of the many corruptions winch have crept into the
church of Christ. Men "have become wise above what is written;" and
truly as our Saviour said unto the ancient scribes and pharisees,
"they shall receive the greater damnation."

What a marked contrast between Christ and his apostles, and the
apostles of modern reform, _alias_ abolitionists. How dare they
professing Christianity to fly in the face of the laws of their
country? How dare they resist the execution of those laws? How dares
Mrs. Stowe inculcate disobedience and open resistance to her country's
laws? Great God! shall our country ever be freed from the dark and
damnable deeds of religious fanatics? Shall our country ever be freed
from the curse of curses, religious ultraism, bigotry, and delusion?
Let those who profess to be the followers of the meek and lowly
Jesus--those who profess to take the Bible as their guide, cease from
their unwarrantable and seditious opposition to the laws of their
country; or otherwise let them renounce the Bible, lay aside their
Christian garb, and appear before us in their true colors, that we may
know who they are, what they are, whom they serve, and under what
standard they are fighting. Throw off your masks, gentlemen; don't try
to deceive us any longer; some of us understand you, and we intend to
expose you, and hold you up to the public gaze, as long as the good
Lord will vouchsafe to us health and strength sufficient to sit in our
seats, and hold a pen in our hands. Your conduct is a reproach to the
Christian name, a stigma on the Christian character.


SECTION II.

There are nearly four millions of slaves in the United States; and the
question now presents itself to every free born American citizen; what
are we to do with them? The abolition party demand their immediate
emancipation. Is it practicable, safe, or proper? What would be the
consequences? What would be the consequence of turning loose upon
ourselves four millions of human beings, to prowl about like wild
beasts without restraint, or control, and commit depredations on the
white population? Four millions of human beings without property or
character, and utterly devoid of all sense of honor and shame, or any
other restraining motive or influence whatever! And they too, under
the ban of a prejudice, as firm, as fixed as the laws which govern the
material universe. In that event, is it not probable; is it not almost
certain, that there would be either a general massacre of the slaves,
or otherwise that the white population would be forced to abandon the
soil? Will any one pretend to deny that either entire extinction of
the African race would be likely to result from universal
emancipation, supposing the manumitted slaves should remain in our
midst, or that otherwise the consequences would be disastrous to the
white population? None, I presume. What then shall we do? The slaves
are among us; they must be governed and provided for, and is it not
our duty in making provisions for them, to act with reference to the
general welfare of all concerned--white and black? Is there an
intelligent man in this nation, who has reflected on the subject, that
really believes that the condition of the African race in the United
States, would be bettered or improved in any respect, by immediate
emancipation? I have clearly shown in the following pages that it
would not. Facts prove the contrary. Yes, stubborn undeniable facts,
that none but a knave or a fool will gainsay. We know that
improvidence, idleness, vagrancy, and crime, are the fruits of
emancipation; not only in the United States, but also in the West
Indies. We have already stated on good English authority, (Lord
Brougham), that the West India free negroes, are rapidly retrograding
into their original barbarism and brutality; and the London Times
quite recently asserted, that the British emancipation experiment was
a failure; that the negro would not work; that his freedom was little
better than that of a brute; that the island was going to the dogs,
and the negroes would have to be removed, &c. Have we any reason to
believe, that a different result would follow emancipation in the
United States? No, we have none, for it is a notorious fact, that free
negroes are everywhere idle and vicious in this country, and that
crime among them is ten-fold more common than it is among Southern
slaves.

We hear a great deal about emancipation--the freedom of the African
race--free negroes, &c. It is all sheer nonsense. Strictly speaking,
there is not a free negro in the limits of the United States! There
never has been, and there never will be. The white and the black races
have never co-existed under the same government, on equal footing, and
never can. Their liberty is only nominal! "It is all a lie and a
cheat!" Is the negro free any where in the Northern States? No, he is
not. There is no sympathy between the two races. Northern people
loathe and despise free negroes. They cannot bear the sight or smell
of them. The negro then is not free anywhere in the Northern States.
Not only the prejudices, but also the laws of the free states proclaim
it impossible: and the prejudices of the whites against the African
race is stronger in the free states, than it is in the slave states.
Every free state in this Union is disposed to cast them off as a
nuisance. They cannot bear their presence. Their very color renders
them odious; and this aversion to the African race, is daily becoming
stronger and stronger in every free state in this union. Nothing can
counteract it--nothing can overcome it. It is in the very nature of
things impossible. No, no! Negro novels piled mountain high in every
street and alley, in every city and village in this Union, will
accomplish nothing for the poor despised African. "Can the Ethiopian
change his skin, or the leopard his spots," then may ye who are
accustomed to loathe, shun, and cast off the African race, receive
them to your kind embraces.

It is true that abolitionists affect to have a great deal of sympathy
for them while they are slaves in the South, but they have none for
the ignorant, degraded, half starved, ill clad, free negroes in the
North. No wonder, for their Southern sympathy costs them nothing, but
Northern sympathy might empty their purses. Show me the abolitionist
who is willing to meet the free negro on terms of equality. No man can
point to one--no, not one. The African is neglected, scorned, and
trodden under foot every where; by abolitionists and every one else.
This prejudice is invincible, irremediable. The poor African is
hopelessly and irretrievably doomed to scorn, contempt and degradation
while in the midst of the white race. Is the African allowed the
ordinary privileges of the white man any where in all the liberty
loving North? Show me the spot! Where is it? Show me the state--show
me the neighborhood--the man--the woman among all the white race in
all the North, who is willing to allow the despised African, the
ordinary privileges of white men. Ah! you cannot do it. Shame! shame!
Hold! cease,--for God's sake cease your hypocritical cant about
Southern slavery. No! no! there is not a state in all this union where
they enjoy the privileges of white men. There is not--there never has
been--and there never will be! They are no where equal parties in an
action at law. They are no where credible witnesses against white men.
They are no where allowed the right of suffrage; or if the law allows
it, they are not suffered to avail themselves of it. They are no where
admitted as judge, juror, or counsellor. They are no where eligible to
any office of profit, trust, or honor. Their children are no where
admitted into the same school-room with the whites. They are no where
protected, encouraged, and rewarded in all the North. They are victims
of injustice, scorned and despised in every free state in this
confederacy. And abolitionists are as far from making equals of them,
or associating with them, as any one else.

The city of Baltimore presents the largest and most intelligent mass
of free negroes found in the United States. These in an appeal to the
citizens of Baltimore, and through them to the people of the United
States, say, "we reside among you, and yet are strangers,--natives,
yet not citizens--surrounded by the freest people and the most
republican institutions in the world, and yet we enjoy none of the
immunities of freedom. As long as we remain among you, we shall be a
distinct race--an extraneous mass of men irrecoverably excluded from
your institutions. Though we are not slaves--_we are not free_."

Judge Blackford, speaking of free negroes, says, "They are of no
service here, (in the free states,) to the community or themselves.
They live in a country, the favorite abode of liberty, without the
enjoyment of her rights."

Dr. Miller says, "if liberated and left among the whites, they would
be a constant source of corruption, annoyance and danger. They could
never be trusted as faithful citizens."

There is at last no sympathy between the two races, except in the
slave states. There, for the most part, we find kind feelings and
strong attachments between the slaves and the families in which they
reside. I must, however, refer the reader to other parts of this
volume for additional remarks on the subjects discussed in the
preceding pages,--more particularly to chapters, 4, 5, 6, 7. But I
would ask, in the name of all that is sacred, what advantage, what
benefit under these circumstances is conferred on the Southern slaves
by emancipation? I know from personal observation, that Southern
slaves are better fed, better clothed, and better housed than are free
negroes, either North or South; in short, they are better paid for
their labor. The South is the only part of the United States, where
ministers of the gospel are successful in Christianizing the African
race--the only part of the United States where there is anything like
good order, good morals, or Christianity among them. The only place at
last, on this continent, where the African is cared for and provided
for, and where there is any thing like sympathy, kindness or
fellow-feeling between the two races.

It would be well for the people of the United States to inquire into
the origin of this slavery agitation. It is of foreign origin! It was
our old enemy England, that first sowed broadcast the seeds of
dissension in our midst. Abolitionism in this country first originated
in, and has been sustained by, foreign interference, and religious
fanaticism. It is the last hope of European monarchies to destroy our
republic. The fact is notorious, and is susceptible of proof, that the
abolition excitement was first set on foot in this country by British
influence. There has been a constant effort in England, to array the
North against the South. "We have the best of reasons for believing,
that her original object was the severance of this Union." One English
journal says, "The people of England will never rest, till slavery is
terminated in the United States;" and another says, "Slavery can only
be reached through the Federal Constitution." That is, slavery can
only be reached, by destroying our present form of government, and
dissolving our Union. The English are well aware, that they cannot
reach slavery in this country, except by dissolving our Union and
involving us in civil war; in which war, of course, they expect to
take an active part. In the name of God, are we prepared for all this?
Have we ever counted the cost? I hope I shall be pardoned for using
strong language, when I allude to this subject. It is enough. Who that
loves his country, can keep cool, while reflecting on these things? Is
it not almost enough to make a Christian swear? No my friends we will
not swear about it; but I entreat you to keep your eyes upon that old
rascal, John Bull. He needs watching, and his Northern allies in the
United States, are as vile scamps as he is.

I might quote from English journals, and English statesmen, to show
what her feelings, views, and intentions have been in relation to this
country; but I forbear at present. We know that her unwarrantable
interference with the civil institutions of our country, did not
originate in any sympathy that she felt for the oppressed African in
our midst. The idea is ridiculous. The whole history of the English
government proves the contrary. Talk about the English government
sympathizing with the oppressed of other nations. It is nonsense--a
ridiculous inconsistency. No part of the English government can be
pointed out, in which there is not worse slavery in some form or
other, than there is in the United States:--yes, worse, far worse,
than negro-slavery in the Southern States. What says Southy, the
English poet, of the great mass of the English poor? He says that
"they are deprived, in childhood, of all instruction, and enjoyment.
They grow up without decency--without comfort--without hope--without
morals, and without shame." The North British Review expressed similar
sentiments. If I am correctly informed, negro slavery, itself, is not
extinct in the British dominions. I am aware that they call it an
apprenticeship, but it is slavery notwithstanding. Yes, it is
involuntary slavery and nothing else. But yet she would have us
believe that she feels an intense interest in African slavery, in the
United States. How does it happen that she is so interested about
slavery among us, but is deaf to the cry of her own enslaved and
starving millions, in British India, and other parts of her dominions?
It is said that in 1838, five hundred thousand perished of famine, in
a single district, in British India; and that too within the reach of
English granaries locked up, and guarded by a military force! This is
a fair sample of English benevolence; _alias_, English cupidity. And
what says Allison the English historian of wretched Ireland? Her
history and her sufferings are familiar to every one. He avows the
opinion, in his History of Europe, "that it would be a real blessing
to its inhabitants, in lieu of the destitution of freedom, to obtain
the protection of slavery." And Murray the English traveler says of
the slaves of the United States, "if they could forget that they are
slaves, their condition is decidedly better than the great mass of
European laborers." And what said Dr. Durbin a few years ago of the
British nation? He told us that "the mass of the people were slaves,
and the few were masters without the responsibility of masters." He
proceeds to tell us, that the condition of the slaves of the United
States, is in every respect better than millions in Ireland and
England. This is the testimony of a distinguished minister of the
Methodist Episcopal Church, (North,) whom, nobody will suspect of any
undue partiality for Southern slave-holders. When we look at the
"degradation, the slavery, the exile, the hunger, the toil, the filth
and the nakedness," of the English poor, we are astonished at the
brazen impudence of that cruel, godless, and hypocritical nation! Nor
are we less surprised, when we think of the ungodly crew of fools and
fanatics in the United States, who are leagued with that monster
England to overthrow their own government! I have said, and I boldly
reiterate the assertion, that slavery exists in every part of the
British dominions, in a form far worse than negro slavery in the
United States! And I am able to corroborate the truth of the remark,
by a volume of the most reliable testimony; and much of that might be
drawn from the admissions of English Journals, and English statesmen.
I will quote a few more English authorities, and dismiss the subject.
The British Asiatic Journal says, "the whole of Hindostan, with the
adjacent possessions, is one magnificent plantation, peopled by more
than one hundred millions of slaves, belonging to a company of
gentlemen in England, whose power is far more unlimited than any
Southern planter over his slaves in the United States." And the same
authority tells us, "that in Malabar, the islands of Ceylon, St.
Helena and other places, the English government is a notorious
slave-factor--a regular jobber in the purchase and sale of slaves; and
that this system is carried on and perpetuated by the purses and
bayonet of the English government." Dr. Bowering affirms of the
British subjects in India, "that the entire population of that empire
_are_ subjected to the most degrading servitude--a deeper degradation
than any produced by American slavery." The same writer declares "that
a regular system of kidnapping is carried on by the English." The Duke
of Wellington remarked in the House of Lords, that "slavery does exist
in India--domestic slavery in particular." Sir Robert Peel made the
charge and offered the evidence, "that British merchants are even now
deeply and extensively engaged in the slave trade;" and that the
English government was, at the time he spoke, "engaged in a new system
of English negro slavery, by the forcible capture of negroes in
Africa, &c." We are told by the London Times of Feb. 20, 1853, "that
British slavery is ten thousand times worse than negro slavery of the
United States," and that the condition of those, whom he denominated
British slaves, "is a scandal and a reproach, not only to the
government, but to the owners of every description of property in
England." This is strong language, and the reader will please
recollect, that it is the testimony of a leading English Journal, so
late as February, 1853.

Here is an array of English testimony that cannot fail to convince
every one that slavery exists to the present moment in the English
dominions, in a form far more aggravated than African slavery in the
United States. How is it then, that she has been, and is to the
present time, making ceaseless and untiring efforts to exaggerate the
sufferings and the disabilities of the African race in our midst,
while there is so much suffering and oppression among her own
subjects? Is it not an, extraordinary circumstance, that a nation who
has expended so much blood and treasure in invading the rights of
others--a nation that to the present hour tolerates and legalizes
slavery in its worst possible forms--or rather, in every possible
form; should affect so much solicitude about its extinction in a
foreign government? In view of all these facts, is it not a
humiliating circumstance; or rather, is it not an outrageous insult to
the American people, that Madam Stowe, after having basely
caricatured, slandered and misrepresented her own country, to flatter
and please the English people, and their Northern allies in the United
States; should with her ill-gotten gains fly across the ocean, to join
the slanderers, denunciators and libelers of our beloved country? The
world can't produce another instance of such insulting, arrogant,
bare-faced knavery and hypocrisy! A thousand reflections force
themselves on my mind, and had I a voice as seven-fold thunder, and
could I congregate around me in one solid phalanx, every man, woman
and child, on the North American portion of this continent; I would
warn them of their danger. I would direct their attention to the
history of nations wrecked, torn to pieces, and almost obliterated
from the face of the earth by internal feuds and dissentions--by envy,
jealousy and hatred; and that not unfrequently instigated by foreign
powers. I would point to the catalogue of crimes--the commotions, the
dissentions, the tumults, the strife--the envy, the jealousy, the
hatred--the wars, the butcheries and bloodsheds, that have been
incited by visionary, bigoted, fanatical religionists. I would
inculcate the fear and love of God; the love of our country, and the
love of our neighbor as paramount virtues; and meekness, gentleness
and patience, as Christian graces of the first importance; and
resignation to the will of God, and obedience and submission to civil
authorities, as the duty of all good citizens. And to the ladies I
would say, return home ladies, and love your husbands, nurse your
babies, attend to your household affairs; and recollect, that nothing
adorns your sex so much, as the ornament of a meek, a quiet spirit. I
would also advise you to read your Bibles and other good books, and
never again to read or write another novel. And, dear ladies, if you
have hitherto worn either bloomers or breeches, lay them aside. I must
return from this digression to the subject under discussion.


SECTION III.

It was said a few years ago, that one of the nobility of England
openly declared, that the sovereigns of Europe had determined upon the
destruction of the government of the United States; and that they
expected to accomplish their infamous designs by involving us in
"discord, disunion, anarchy and civil war." He is reported moreover to
have said, that they expected to accomplish this, by flooding our
country with their vicious refuse pauper population, and by agitating
the subject of slavery among us. Unfortunately for us, England in her
nefarious designs upon our country, has always found too many allies,
aiders and abettors, in our midst. I will not say, that Mrs. Stowe had
designs upon the liberties of her country, when she wrote Uncle Tom's
Cabin; but this I will say, that in writing that book, she performed
an acceptable service for the enemies of her country, for which it
seems, from recent demonstrations, they are profoundly thankful. Be it
as it may, she wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin; the work was republished in
England, and we are credibly informed, that it has almost supplanted
the Bible in that country. Travelers tell us, that nothing else is
talked about throughout the British dominions. They received it, I
suppose, as a revelation from heaven--revelation of higher authority
than the Bible, for the reason, that it is of more recent origin.
Well, she is invited to England by the nation _en masse_; and if the
Saviour of the world should perchance make his advent into the British
Isles, on the day that she lands in that country, I think it highly
probable, that he would be forced a second time to _take lodgings in a
manger_. He might wander through the country unnoticed and unknown,
while the whole nation were draggling after Mrs. Stowe's petticoat. He
might again be forced to exclaim, "the foxes have holes, and the birds
of the air have nests, but the Son of man hath not where to lay his
head" to rest. No Marthas and Marys would be found in that reprobate
country, to minister to him. If so, they would be found among the
"lowly," and we understand that they have no part or lot in Mrs.
Stowe's visit. No! no! she has made money enough by her "_life among
the lowly_" and now she is preparing to take her stand among the
aristocracy of England.

We have had from time to time all sorts of _isms_ and _schisms_ in
this world; and Yankee ingenuity has furnished us, withal, with a
great variety of _notions_ and _notable things_; among which, wooden
nutmegs, wooden bacon hams, horn gun flints and wooden seeds of
different kinds, are not the least remarkable. We certainly have had
_isms_ enough to indulge the whims and caprices, and to suit the
peculiar predilections, prejudices and prepossessions of all
concerned; but it appears from present indications, that we are about
to have a new _ism_ forced upon us, whether we will or no. I allude to
Uncle _Tomism_, which I beg leave to call _Tomism_, as it will sound
rather more euphonious. It is rumored that this new _sect_, viz., the
Tomites, have spread with great rapidity through the New England
States within the past year; and it is moreover reported, that they
have many adherents in other parts of the Union. It must have been the
rapid spread of Mormonism that first suggested the idea to Mrs. Stowe,
the founder of this sect; for like Jo. Smith, she has furnished her
adherents with a novel for their Bible; and it is said that a Key to
its mysteries is forthcoming. In order that nothing should be wanting
for their enlightenment, edification and comfort, a distinguished D.D.
of a neighboring city, has furnished them with an elaborate
Commentary. The Key and Commentary I have not seen, but their Bible,
viz., Uncle Tom's Cabin, I have read. However popular _Tomism_ may be
in America, it is said to be more so in England. It appears that this
_Woolyism, alias, Tomism_, has spread with unparalleled rapidity
throughout, the British domains, and Mrs. Stowe has hastened to that
country to instruct them in the doctrines and mysteries of this New
Revelation. I would suggest to the English nation, that they suffer
Mrs. Stowe to make her debut on the lord chancellor's _woolsack_.
Black wool, of course, would be most appropriate on this occasion, and
withal, most significant of her mission.

However the English nation may shed their crocodile tears over the
woes and wrongs of the African race in our country; we know that they
are a nation of murderers, thieves and robbers. Their religion is
little else, but legalized hypocrisy. Justice and humanity never yet
found a place in their moral code. It looks well in them to talk about
oppression in other lands; but so it is the world over. Men as vile as
crime can make them, will arrogate to themselves the right to judge
and censure others. The history of England for centuries past, is but
a record of crime--of wars, butcheries and bloodshed--rapine,
injustice, oppression and inhumanity. But she will talk about negro
slavery in the United States notwithstanding--and of liberty, and
justice, and truth, and righteousness, and the rights of man! "Thou
hypocrite, first cast the beam out of thine own eye."

Perhaps, my English friends, while Mrs. Stowe is in your midst, you
had as well suffer her to look around among your "lowly." Perchance
she might find material for another novel. Ah! that would be cruel
indeed. Well, it would--but then it might turn out a good speculation
"among the lowly;" and a Yankee is always ready for that. Well,
seriously, my good friends across the water, you had better not trust
this lady too far. We are aware that when you invited her to your
country, it was no part of your design, that she should spend any
portion of her time among your servants. Well, then, I would advise
you as a friend, not to trust Yankee cupidity too far. Watch the lady
well, otherwise she might yet make a little money by a "life" among
your "lowly."

But the English nation have had another object in view, in fanning
this flame of discord among us, by keeping up the slavery agitation.
It was to conceal their own dark and damnable deeds. It is the
universal practice of those who are guilty of criminal acts, to bring
railing accusations against others, in order to divert public
attention from themselves. So it has been with England. She has grown
rich by injustice and oppression. Hence, her attempt to divert the
attention of the world from herself to her rival, the United States.
We know that it is a common occurrence for persons to attempt to
conceal their own crimes, by directing attention to the crimes of
others--to justify themselves, by making the impression, that others
are just as bad as they are. It has often brought to mind an
altercation I once witnessed between a couple of boys. One remarked to
the other, that he was a thief. "I don't care," (replied the little
urchin,) "if I am a _tief_; you are a tief too." So it has been with
old mother England, she knew well, that she was a "_tief_" but she did
not care, provided she could make it appear that her daughter, the
United States, was a "_tief_" too.

I will now dismiss John Bull and return to Mrs. Stowe and her
abolition coadjutors in general--one and all. I am heartily sick and
tired of this whole abolition clap-trap, catch-penny business. I
cannot express my views on the subject better than in the language of
Graham's Magazine. Alluding to Uncle Tom's Cabin, and other kindred
publications, he very justly remarks, "that they are all together
speculations in patriotism--a question of dollars and cents, not of
slavery or liberty. Many persons who are urging on this negro crusade
into the domain of letters, have palms with an infernal itch for gold.
They would fire the whole republic, if they could but take the gems
and precious stones from the ashes. They care nothing for principle,
honor or right, &c." No, they care nothing about negro slavery, or
negro oppression. Money is their sole object in all these
publications. Sympathy for the poor benighted African, has no agency
whatever in the matter. The object is to make money out of the woolly
heads, and after that is accomplished they have no farther use for
them. The same motives prompt them to write books on slavery--negro
oppression and the negroes woes, that induce the cotton grower and the
sugar planter to work slaves on their farms. Money is as truly the
object of the former, as it is of the latter. And facts prove that the
cotton growers and sugar planters, have more sympathy for the African
race, than Northern abolitionists.


SECTION IV.

How mortifying the reflection, that such a work as Uncle Tom's Cabin,
should have become so popular in England and America. As an American,
we can but view it with shame and regret. Where is the Bible? Where
are Shakespeare and Milton, and Addison and Johnson? And where are our
own immortal poets and prose writers? Who reads the chaste and
beautiful writings of Washington Irvin? What has become of our well
written and instructive histories and biographies? Why is it that a
filthy negro novel is found in every body's hand? Uncle Tom's Cabin!
What is it? What can be expected from it? Will it improve the manners,
the morals, or the literary tastes of our country-men, and fair
country-women? No! Never! Its very touch is contaminating. Filth,
pollution, and mental degradation, follow in the train of this class
of writers. In what consists the merit of Uncle Tom's Cabin? It is
hard to tell. Look at its dark design--its injustice--its falsehoods!
Its vulgarisms, negroisms, localisms, and common place slang! Its
tendency to pervert public taste, and corrupt public morals. How
remarkable that a work of its character, should have been so much read
and admired! We may boast of our intelligence and virtue to our hearts
content, the reception of this work is a sad commentary on the age in
which we live. We may boast of our religion; it is little else at
last, but self-righteous phariseism! We throw around ourselves
religion as a cloak; the more effectually to conceal our dark designs!
Yes, verily, while we stab an erring, or unerring brother in the dark!
We are all prostrate before the god of mammon, and there are but few
of us, who would not sell our Saviour for less than thirty pieces of
silver! Professedly we are Christians, but practically we are
infidels! The Bible is no longer our guide. The fact is, we know but
little about it, and care less! We profess to believe that it is the
word of God; and yet it is laid aside for any impure negro novel, or
other filthy tale, that may chance to fall in our way? Uncle Tom's
Cabin has been read more within the past year, than the Bible had been
for the last ten years, immediately preceding its appearance!
Thousands of Christians have gloated over its pages with rapture and
delight, from the rising till the setting sun, for days and nights in
succession, who had not during their lives read a dozen chapters in
the Bible! We will now remove the veil and look within. Its high time
that the motives which prompt us to action were exposed to public
gaze. Let us then take a peep at the "inward man."

A portion of our fellow citizens in another part of this Union, had,
by no fault or agency of their own, become involved in the evils and
calamities of slavery. We turned our eyes in that direction, and
looked on the dark pictures. We felt that we were great sinners.
Guilt pressed heavily upon us. "The sorrows of death compassed us:
and the pains of hell got hold upon us;" and we "found trouble and
sorrow." The anguish of our guilt was insupportable. We were in deep
distress, and we longed for some thing to soothe and ease our troubled
minds: but we did not, with the Psalmist, call upon the Lord to
"deliver us." No! By no means, for we thought if we could find worse
sinners than ourselves, it would afford us some relief.

    Twas thus we sought, but sought in vain
    A panacea for all our pain!
    Are there not those more vile than we--
    If baser mortal man can be!
    We looked around--and looked again,
    And searched the world--but searched in vain;
    For more depraved--more vile than we
    Sure there were none--none could there be!
    Alas our souls are steeped in sin!
    Though clean without--impure within--
    As sepulchers adorned with paint
    A devil within--without a saint!

Our condition was pitiable indeed. We said among ourselves, "What now
shall we do?" "Where! O! Where shall we find worse sinners than
ourselves?" Our woe-begone looks betrayed the secret workings and
intentions of our hearts; We again went forth in search of those more
wicked than ourselves; but we were destined to disappointment, for we
sought in vain,--they were hard to find. They were neither here--nor
there--nor any where to be found in all the land of the living! Worse
sinners than ourselves could not be found upon this terrestial
globe--among all the degenerate sons and daughters of Adam. When we
had well nigh given up in despair, we again directed our eyes to the
dark picture of African slavery. "Oh!" said we, to ourselves, "how it
would soothe and tranquilize our troubled consciences, if we could but
find worse sinners than ourselves." "We know that we are vile and
depraved, but are not those slaveholders, a little worse than we are?"
Anxiously and intensely we gazed on, but we were disappointed! The
picture was dark, _to be sure_; but we failed to observe all that we
expected! We then called for glasses that magnified a thousand fold,
and again, and again, we surveyed the dark picture! Ah! we saw
something at last! What was it? Well, we either saw something, or,
otherwise, we thought we saw something. Chagrin and despair seized
upon us, and we exclaimed in the bitter agonies of our souls,
"merciful God, are we sinners above all sinners--are there none, so
vile as we are?" "But stop--hold on," (said we), "we are not done with
negrodom yet--we cannot let those rascally slaveholders off so
lightly--we will yet make it appear, that they are more wicked than
ourselves--or, at all events, we will not give them up yet." It was
but seldom that we troubled the good old Bible, but as we were in a
difficulty, we decided at once to consult her--perchance she might
talk about right on the subject of slavery. After a long search we
found the old book; brushed off the dust and opened it. Well, now, we
felt quite certain, that the Bible would tell us, that we were better
Christians than slaveholders; for we had already succeeded in
persuading ourselves, that we were not quite so bad as we imagined at
the outset; and we moreover thought, that we got a glimpse of some
thing dreadful about these Southern folks, but hardly knew what it
was. We then proceeded to examine the Bible. "Where is it," (said we),
"that the Bible denounces these slaveholders, as the chief of
sinners?" "Well, we don't know, but we think it says something
dreadful about them; but we don't know where it is, or what it is."
We searched, but searched in vain; almost ready to abuse the good
Boob, because it refused to abuse slaveholders. We then soliloquized
in the following words. "We don't like these slaveholders--never
did--nor did our fathers before us. Our fathers told us that they were
bad men--that they were guilty of many horrible things; and that they
were not good Christians, like the people out here North." We were,
nevertheless, still oppressed by a load of guilt, and felt the
insupportable gnawings of a guilty conscience. We had oppressed the
poor and robbed the widow and orphans! We had defrauded our neighbor
and slandered our brother! We had lied to both God and man! "Can it be
possible," (said we to ourselves), "that there are human beings
living, who have been guilty of more abominable crimes?" "What is more
odious?" "What could be more detestable?" "What could render a human
being more obnoxious to eternal vengeance?" We were in this deplorable
condition, when we first set about trying to deceive ourselves. We
pondered the matter well, and could devise no means, that in our
judgment, would be so likely to bring relief to our troubled minds, as
to find that there were others who were as bad, or probably a little
worse than ourselves. We flattered ourselves, that while we were
talking about the sins of others, we might forget our own; and at
length be able to persuade ourselves that we were Christians. But it
was all of no avail. Our consciences said "nay"--the Bible said "nay."
It was at this critical moment, that Uncle Tom's Cabin came to our
relief, and it settled the difficulty. It proved to our satisfaction,
that these Southern people were infinitely worse than ourselves. We
now found but little difficulty in persuading ourselves that we were
really Christians. We then had Southern men just where we had long
been trying to place them. We had nothing then to do, but to compare
ourselves with them; and the result of the whole matter was, Mrs.
Stowe had made them out so much worse than ourselves, that we were
forced to the conclusion, that we were good Christians at last.

Mrs. Stowe was a shrewd Yankee woman, and seeing the difficulties and
embarrassments in which we were involved, and being in need of a
little money, and knowing that we were willing to pay almost any price
for something that would flatter ourselves, and blacken the characters
of Southern people; she wrote her book. We received it with transports
of joy, and cried aloud at the top of our voices, HUZZA FOR MADAM
STOWE, _and her incomparable negro novel_; viz., Uncle Tom's Cabin, or
Life among the Lowly. And so we go, in England and America! This is a
marvelous world, and it is inhabited by a wondrous species of animals,
called man!

The conclusion of the whole matter is, abolitionism is little else at
last, but hypocritical self-righteous phariseism, and Mrs. Stowe wrote
her book to flatter their pride, indulge their whims, tickle their
fancies, and pick their pockets. I have remarked, that this is a
marvelous world, and among the many wondrous things that fall under
our observation, there is nothing more remarkable than Yankee
ingenuity! The Southern people, it is true, receive the proceeds of
the labor of the slaves, but then, they must first expend money in
raising them; feed and clothe them in health, nurse them in sickness,
and provide for them in old age. But Mrs. Stowe without contributing
anything for their support, has made more money out of them within the
last year, than any half dozen sugar planters in the State of
Louisiana! This is truly a wondrous speculation in negroes.

"But all their works they do," (says our Saviour,) "to be seen of
men." "But God shall bring every work into judgment." And if our
motives are selfish, or impure, we incur the risk of falling under the
condemnation of a just and holy God. Too many "make clean the outside
of the cup and platter, but within, they are full of extortion and
excess."

There are a class among the abolition party, whose leading object is
pecuniary gain. With them, "gain is godliness," and their pretended
godliness is all for gain. That is, all is well, if they can make
money; if not, they are off. When English emissaries are sent over to
this country, to lecture on the subject of slavery, they are well paid
for their services, either by the abolition party; or, probably, more
frequently by the English government. In our own country, the editors
of abolition papers, the writers of negro novels and other abolition
productions; together with the numerous agents and other notable
functionaries, that are employed to carry out their diabolical schemes
and machinations; are all well paid for their services. Like the young
lawyer alluded to, in the preceding pages, they receive a "_large
fee_," and can therefore "afford to _lie_." But by far the larger
portion of them are operated on by different feelings, views and
motives. I have already indicated certain motives that prompt the
abolition party to action; but there are yet others, to which I have
but incidentally alluded. Sympathy for the African race with them, is
a mere pretence, or affectation of superior sanctity and philanthropy.
Like the pharisees of old, they are always ready to thank God, that
they are not as other men. I am holier than thou, is their universal
cry to all that dissent from their peculiar views, or take exceptions
to their conduct. Bigots, fools and fanatics of every class, grade and
description, the world over, are guilty of the same; yes, I am holier
than thou, is their universal exclamation.

Every man is conscious that he ought to be a Christian, or at least a
philanthropist; and every man desires to be esteemed such. But as it
does not, in all cases, accord with the interests and inclinations;
or, is otherwise, incompatible with the beastly and sordidly corrupt
natures of a large portion of the human family, to become either
Christians or philanthropists; therefore, they can do no better than
to affect to be either one or the other, or both. Plain, simple,
old-fashioned _Bible Christianity_ is not sufficient for them. It is
too quiet--too lowly and unassuming for them. They would have us
believe, that they are brim full of humanity and benevolence--so full,
that they are constantly running over--surcharged with a
superabundance of kind, generous and sympathetic feeling for their
fellow creatures. They must, at least, make the world around them
believe that they are such. This is their object--this their aim. To
accomplish this, everything is brought into requisition--all their
energies, all their efforts are directed to this end. They wish to
deceive the world, and make the impression on the mind of mankind,
that they are a superior order of beings--better Christians--better
philanthropists--have more humanity--more benevolence, and a greater
regard for the rights of man, than mankind in general. I say their
object is to make the world believe all this. Nothing is found to
answer their purpose so well, in the accomplishment of this object, as
African slavery in the Southern States. They have talked about negro
slavery--negro oppression, and the negroe's woes, until they have
really induced some to believe that they are persons of more than
ordinary benevolence--that they are really humane, generous and just.
But it is mere affectation--it is all hypocrisy. Facts prove it.
England boasts of her philanthropy--talks about American oppression,
and at the same time makes no effort to elevate her own miserable
tenantry, whose conditions are far worse than American slaves. If she
is really philanthropic, why refuse to do any thing for her own
suffering poor throughout her vast dominions? This is proof positive,
that John Bull is an old villain; a rotten, two-faced, bigoted,
meddlesome old hypocrite. If abolitionists in the United States are
really philanthropic, why have they not made some effort to relieve
the suffering poor in their own midst; whose conditions in general,
are far worse than Southern slaves? They have work enough at home, and
it is an old and very true proverb, "that charity begins at home." It
is certainly true, that home is the place where it should begin. What
are they doing for the thousands of ignorant, ill-clad, half starved
free negroes now in their midst? Nothing for either soul or body! They
spurn them from their presence, or trample them under their feet, and
turn around and wipe their mouths, and express the deepest sympathy
for the poor slave in the Southern States; whose conditions are
incomparably better than the free negroes, North! Ah! their benevolent
souls are overflowing with sympathy for Southern slaves, who are
generally well fed, well clothed, content and happy; but the poor,
vicious, degraded and friendless free negroes, North, are left to
shift for themselves. And what are they doing for the suffering poor
of their own color? How many widows that they have defrauded, and
orphans they have robbed, will confront them at the bar of God? I
appeal to those among whom they live; to those who know them best; as
citizens, as neighbors; are they humane, generous and just? Are they
husbands to the widows; and fathers to the fatherless? Do they feed
the hungry, clothe the naked, and visit the sick? Are they ever ready
to relieve the poor, the needy and distressed? In every city, village
and neighborhood, throughout the length and breadth of the North,
there are poor, wretched, miserable objects of charity, and here they
have an opportunity to give us practical proof of the sincerity of
their professions; and until they furnish evidence that they are what
they profess to be, we wish them to cease their hypocritical cant
about Southern slavery.


SECTION V.

Abolitionists may affect as much sanctity and philanthropy, as they
please, and pile their maledictions and execrations on the heads of
slave holders mountain high! They can call them murderers, thieves and
robbers to their hearts content! They can anathematize better men than
themselves; and denounce slavery as a curse, an evil, a hardship! They
can call slavery by what name they choose! For it matters but little
what they call it; nor what it really is; nor in what it originated;
nor yet, what perpetuates it; nor what our feelings and views may be;
for slavery exists in our midst; and has existed in our world as a
civil institution, for more than three thousand years: and when God in
his amazing condescension, unbounded benevolence, and infinite mercy
vouchsafed to us a revelation of his will; he informed us in language
clear and explicit, how we should treat it. The duties and obligations
of ministers, and churches--of masters and servants, are unfolded and
enforced in the Sacred Record; and he that errs, is without excuse.
"But men have become wise above what is written." God, alone, was
competent to decide what was best for masters and servants,
individuals, and nations. We are all the work of his hands, and it is
his prerogative to dictate to us laws for the guidance and regulation
of our conduct. Those, then, who receive the Bible as a revelation of
the will of God, and take it as their guide and counsellor; cannot
consistently do otherwise, than to treat slavery and slaveholders in
accordance with its clear and unmistakable injunctions, warnings and
admonitions, a precept or practice from the Sacred Oracles, is
practical infidelity; and I here, openly and boldly assert, that no
intelligent man, who reads and believes the Bible to be the word of
God, ever did, or ever will embrace the extreme views of the abolition
party in the United States. No! It is impossible: for they are in
direct opposition to the plainest declarations of the inspired
writers--to the whole spirit and tenor of the Sacred Volume. I care
not on whom this may fall; nor where it falls, it is true. I am well
aware, that nine tenths of mankind, neither read nor think for
themselves--particularly on subjects that relate to their duties and
obligations to their Creator, or their fellow creatures! No! They
suffer others to read and think for them; and by the by, they too
often commit their consciences, and their souls, to the keeping of
those whose object is to secure the fleece, though the devil take the
flock!

I have said that God, alone, was competent to decide what was best
under the circumstances for masters and servants, individuals and
nations. I have clearly shown in the following chapters, that as
masters and servants, and as a nation we cannot do better, than to
faithfully observe and carry out the injunctions of Holy Writ--that
the best interests of all concerned will be subserved thereby--that
there is no other safe and practicable course--that the Bible, and the
Bible alone, is a safe and sure guide in this emergency. We "may bite
and devour each other;" speculate, wrangle and contend to no purpose.
No good will ever grow out of it. I have shown that nothing is likely
to mitigate the evils of slavery--or rather, its abuses; or in any
reasonable time bring about its abolition, but a rigid adherence on
the part of masters and servants, to the duties and obligations
imposed on them in the Sacred Volume. That it is the duty of servants
to love, serve and obey their masters, and that it is the duty of
masters to enlighten the minds and elevate the characters of their
slaves--to prepare them for self government and the enjoyment of
liberty, and then to colonize them.

And I flatter myself, that I have clearly and indisputably
demonstrated, that the African race in this country, are not yet
prepared for freedom--and that they cannot enjoy freedom in our midst,
provided they were prepared for it--and consequently that the African
derives no benefit from emancipation if he remain among us. Hence, the
propriety of manumitting slaves is, to say the least, doubtful, unless
they are colonized. Every man of truth and candor, who is acquainted
with the condition of slaves and free negroes, North and South, must
admit, that the conditions of slaves is better, than that of free
negroes.

Mrs. Stowe has labored hard to prove that there are evils and abuses
in the treatment of slaves in the Southern States; but then she would
have us substitute greater evils for lesser--according to the old
proverb, "out of the frying pan into the fire." Many of the Southern
people as deeply deplore these evils, and are as fully impressed with
the necessity of removing them, as Mrs. Stowe or any one else; but
hitherto they have been unable to decide upon any plan by which these
evils could be removed--except, at least, to a very limited extent.
They knew well, that if they manumitted their slaves, it would involve
both the slaves and themselves in greater evils than African slavery
itself, as it exists in the Southern States.

I beg leave to digress for a moment from the subject under discussion.
Mrs. Stowe has told her tale about Southern slavery; and what a
wondrous story it is! Remarkable indeed! She has told of deeds, dark
and revolting! A tale of injustice and wrongs--oppression and woe! I
admit there are, and ever have been, occasional and rare instances of
acts of inhumanity and cruelty among Southern slaveholders; too
shocking for recital! But if any one will be at the trouble to spend a
few months in the Yankee States, and take for granted all that is
related to him by busy-bodies, idlers and others that have nothing
else to do but to talk about their neighbors; they will find no
difficulty in gathering up material, out of which, they could
manufacture as dark a tale as Uncle Tom's Cabin. The free negroes in
the North could furnish material for a shocking story! But, ah! it is
all a contemptibly low business; we had better quit talking about our
neighbors. There are the best of reasons why we should not give full
credence to village and neighborhood gossip, old women's stories, and
free negroes tales. What we see, feel, taste and smell, we know to be
true: and that is about all we do know. As for the remainder, it is as
the breeze which plays around us, or passes over our heads. It is
here, it is gone, and we know not from "whence it cometh, or whither
it goeth?" nor yet what pestiferous emanations might perchance float
in the current. The sooner we get rid of negro novels and village
gossip, and neighborhood slander, and busy-bodies, and idlers, and
loafers, and liars, and the whole crew, who have nothing else to do,
but to meddle with people's business, the better. God speed the day
when we shall all find better employment. But to return to the evils
of slavery.

Slavery is not an evil to those involved in it, under all
circumstances. There are circumstances, under which it may be a
blessing to the slave--and a blessing it would have proved to the
entire slave population in this country, if both masters and servants
had complied with the requisitions of the Bible. None are so much to
blame for the evils and hardships of slavery as the abolition party.
No! none! Not the slaveholders themselves. They have incited the
slaves to deeds for which they have been cruelly punished. In
consequence of their unwarrantable interference, slaves that were,
previous to such interference, pious, contented and happy, have become
discontented, impertinent and perverse, and have been too often
cruelly punished for their dereliction of duty. Ah! well do I
recollect the time when the months of Southern clergyman were closed,
when rigid laws were enacted--when so many restrictions were thrown
around slaveholders. I then saw, and deplored the evil, and hoped, but
hoped in vain, that Northern men would desist from a procedure, so
fraught with mischief to masters and servants--so contrary to the laws
of God--so opposed to every principle of humanity, justice, truth and
righteousness. I must refer the reader to chapter three, and return to
the proposition under investigation, that slavery is not, an evil
under all circumstances.

The peculiar condition of an individual may be such, that he is fit
for nothing but a slave. He maybe physically, mentally, and morally
disqualified for any other condition or station in life. To such an
individual slavery is not necessarily an evil; but, on the contrary,
to him it may be a blessing and not a curse. He may be utterly
incapable of making provision for his own wants. Servitude may be the
only condition or station in life, in which he could be provided for,
and enjoy happiness. The disabilities of such an individual is a
misfortune; or, as it is generally termed, a curse, an evil; but the
evil consists in the incompetence of the individual, and not in that
condition or station in life, to which his incompetency subjects him.
It is, (to use common parlance), a curse, or an evil, to be
physically, mentally, and morally disqualified to enjoy the rights,
privileges and immunities of a free man; but if such be the condition
of the individual, slavery to him is a blessing. It is, at least the
only condition or station in life, adapted to his peculiar
circumstances, and the only one in which he would be likely to enjoy
happiness. I have shown in chapter eight, that African slavery
originated in the inferiority of the African race, and that their
inferiority originated in the transgression of God's laws.

Hence, the evils of slavery have their origin in its abuses. They have
resulted from the cupidity, cruelty and inhumanity of masters, and the
disobedience and perverseness of servants. Under the circumstances
that the African race became servants to the citizens of the United
States, servitude to them would have been a blessing, and not a curse,
if both masters and servants had obeyed the commands of God. I have
alluded to this elsewhere, to which I must refer the reader.

But in order to clearly comprehend the argument, we must contemplate
the African in his native state, and survey the peculiar circumstances
under which he became a slave. A large portion of the negroes that
were transported to the United States, and sold as slaves, were
captives taken in war, and if they had not been transported to the
United States, they would have been subjected to slavery in their
native country.[1] Was it not better for those poor captives to have
become the servants of intelligent and humane men, in the United
States, than to have become the slaves of barbarians of their own
race? It certainly was, for I observed while a resident of the South,
that negro overseers were the most cruel, barbarous wretches, that
ever were clothed with a little brief authority. Yes, they are the
most barbarous relentless demons, that ever flourished a rod over a
fellow being's back. Men in an ignorant, semi-savage state, when
clothed with authority, (or otherwise when they have others in their
power,) are universally cruel. Where we find most ignorance, there
will we, as a general rule, find least humanity, for I observed while
in the South, that intelligent men were seldom cruel to their slaves.
Cruel masters in the South, are generally individuals of low birth,
who, in early life, were white servants themselves; but by some lucky
turn they got hold of a little money, and purchased a few negroes.
These _mock_ lords are the most cruel masters, and the most pompous
gentlemen in all the sunny South. Such men are universally dreaded by
the African race in the South. I wish here to impress the reader's
mind with the fact, that a native semi-savage African, must
necessarily be a cruel master. We need but reflect on their ignorance,
barbarism and brutality, to satisfy ourselves of the truth of the
remark. I have alluded to the fact in Chapter 8, that one portion of
the African race have been slaves to another, ever since the earliest
dawn of history; and it is said that by far the larger portion are
slaves. It is then certain, that most of the native Africans who were
originally enslaved in the United States, would have been slaves in
their own country, if they had not been transported to this country.
Wretched as the condition of slaves may be in this country, what is
American, to African slavery? Slavery in the United States was but an
exchange of African, for American slavery. The condition of the slaves
of the South is better than the native African, formerly, or now; yes,
it is better than that of African masters, and it must be infinitely
better than the condition of African slaves. As a general rule, the
native Africans who were originally subjected to slavery in this
country; were not, as is generally supposed, deprived of their
liberties; for they were for the most part captives, or slaves, when
they were sold to the slave dealers. The reader will please recollect,
that I am not justifying the slave trade. I am simply stating facts;
and I deem it essential that these facts should be understood. Those
who wish to know what my views are on the subject of slavery, will be
under the necessity of reading this volume through.

    [1] The reader will see Chapter 8; where the subject of slavery
    in Africa is treated at length.

Most of the native Africans that were transported to this country,
were not only the lowest grade of barbarians, but they were the
servants of barbarians. Here, in the United States, they have enjoyed
to a considerable extent, the advantages of civilization, and so far
as religious instruction is concerned; there is not, I suppose, four
millions of human beings on earth, of what are called the lower
classes of society, white or black, who have had superior religious
advantages. I have remarked, however, at the close of chapter 11, that
in consequence of their ignorance; religious instruction had failed to
produce that decided, thorough and permanent influence, which
otherwise it might have done. But I think it probable that there are
not four millions of ignorant illiterate human beings living, on whom
the doctrines of Christianity have exerted as salutary an influence;
nor can there be found a body of ministers of the gospel in the world,
who have made so great sacrifices to Christianize the "lowly," as Mrs.
Stowe chooses to denominate them. The devotion of the Southern clergy
to the best interests of the poor African, is worthy of all praise.
Men without a tithe of their piety may calumniate and reproach them;
but there is one who seeth not as man seeth, who has taken cognizance
of their sacrifices and "labors of love." Ah! my friends, you may
deceive yourselves, and deceive one another, but of one thing you may
rest assured--you cannot deceive your God. Nor are you as successful
in deceiving your fellow creatures, as some of you probably imagine.
Some of us understand you.


SECTION VI.

Is it the duty of American slaveholders to liberate their slaves? I
feel no hesitancy in replying to this interrogatory. It would be their
duty, as Christians, to liberate their slaves, provided the condition
of the slave would be improved thereby; otherwise it is their duty to
retain them in bondage, and make that provision for them which their
circumstances require. They should make ample provision for their
physical wants--enlighten their minds; and so far as is practicable
under existing circumstances, they should elevate their characters
above that debasement and degradation, in which, ignorance, prejudice
and vice has involved them. It is clearly the duty of slaveholders to
place their slaves in that condition, which will conduce most to their
happiness here and hereafter. But if this is their object, they could
not, as a general rule, take a worse step, than to liberate them in
their present condition and turn them loose among us. Nor do I
consider the mass of the negro population in this country as yet
prepared for colonization: but I would rejoice to see all
well-disposed and intelligent negroes manumitted and colonized.

The poverty, vice and degradation of free negroes is notorious,
throughout the length and breadth of this country--North and South;
but having so frequently alluded to it, I deem it unnecessary to say
more on the subject. I will however remark, that if the entire African
population were manumitted and turned loose among us; they would be
forced to subsist almost entirely by theft, and all the county jails
and state prisons in the Union, would not contain one in a hundred of
the convicts. The fact is, such would be their depredations on the
white population, that the whites would shoot them down with as little
ceremony as they now shoot a mad dog; and their ultimate extermination
would be the inevitable consequence! I appeal to facts. It was stated
a few years ago by an able writer; that in Massachusetts the free
negroes were 1 to 74, viz., there were 74 white persons for every free
negro in the State; and yet one-sixth of all the convicts were free
negroes. That in Connecticut the free negroes were 1 to 34; and that
one-third of the convicts were free negroes. That in New York the free
negroes were 1 to 35; but that one-fourth of the convicts were free
negroes. That in New Jersey the free negroes were 1 to 13; negro
convicts one-third. That in Pennsylvania the free negroes were 1 to 34,
and that one-third of the convicts were free negroes. He moreover
stated, that one-fourth of the whole expense connected with the prison
system of the entire North was incurred by crime committed by free
negroes; and that the same was true with regard to the pauper
expenditures of the entire North. In view of these facts, we can feel
but little surprise, that Indiana and Illinois have enacted laws to
interdict the immigration of free negroes into those States.

It appears from the above named States, that in 1845, about
_one-fortieth_ of the entire population in the free States were
colored persons; and yet about _one-fourth_ of the convicts were free
negroes; but notwithstanding that the colored and the white population
are very nearly balanced in the slave States, I do not suppose that
one in a hundred of the convicts are negroes! But there is another
fact with regard to free negroes North, that is still more remarkable!
Few, comparatively, very few, are members of any branch of the
church--probably not one in twenty of the entire adult population.
But, on the contrary, in the slave States, I think it probable that at
least three-fourths of the entire adult slave population are church
members; and I presume, that near one-half of the African professors
of the Christian religion, in the slave States, are attached to the
Methodist Episcopal Church South; and strange as it may appear, it is
nevertheless true, that in the very hot-bed of abolitionism, viz., in
the extensive territory of New England, Providence, Maine, Vermont and
New Hampshire Conferences, there was not a solitary free negro in
connection with the Methodist Episcopal Church! Is not this a
remarkable fact? Here, we have a territory of vast extent; embracing
something more than a half dozen states, and containing within its
limits multiplied thousands of free negroes; and not one! No! not a
solitary free negro is found in the bosom of the Methodist Episcopal
Church! Many of them left pious and humane masters in the South, and
were withal pious themselves when they left their masters; or,
otherwise, they were stolen from good men in the South by pseudo
Christians of the North, _and taken to that free and happy land! the
land of their dear friends_, and consigned to poverty, vice,
degradation and the devil!!!

What does all this mean? How does it happen that the free blacks of the
North are so little benefitted by the Christian ministry--particularly
in those sections where a large portion of the ministers belong to the
abolition faction? How does it happen that the African population are
so little benefitted or influenced by them? Is it true, that the
negroes have discernment enough to see, that their wordy benefactors
have done nothing for either their souls or their bodies--that
conscience and religious principle have but little to do with all this
slavery agitation? It must be so! Hence, we can understand why it is,
that the African population have more confidence in a slaveholding
ministry in the South, than they have in an abolition ministry in the
North.

My engagements are such, that I shall be forced for the present to
pass over the argument mainly relied on by abolitionists of every
grade, to prove the sinfulness of American slavery; or at least, I can
give it but a cursory notice. I understand that a celebrated D.D., has
published a work, in which, he labors hard to prove the sinfulness of
American slavery from its evils. It was the design of the author of
Uncle Tom's Cabin, to prove the sinfulness of slavery from its evils;
or otherwise, its abuses. If this mode of reasoning is allowable in
one case, it is so in another, and by this mode of reasoning I can
prove the sinfulness of every institution beneath the sun, social,
civil and religions. It is in fact the argument principally relied on
by skeptics to invalidate the Christian religion. They will all point
to its abuses, or in other words, to the evils growing out of its
abuses. Every institution, social, civil and religious is subject to
abuse--may be prostituted to the worst of purposes--the institution of
Christianity not excepted. But it does not necessarily follow, because
an institution is subject to abuse--because it is prostituted to vile
purposes, that there is any thing wrong about the institution. The
evil consists in the abuse or improper use, and not in the
institution. Cupidity inhumanity, and the gratification of the animal
passions and propensities, have incited slaveholders to the worst of
crimes. But this does not prove that the holding of slaves is sinful,
_per se_, under all circumstances. I have shown in the last chapter of
this work, (Chap 13,) that men are too often prompted from selfish
motives to attach themselves to churches, and that many of them are
prostituting a Christian profession to the worst of purposes. But this
does not prove that there is anything defective or wrong about the
Christian religion. No, by no means. If clergymen descend from their
sacred vocation to dabble with politics, and a thousand other things
that a minister of Christ should not touch; or to use their
ministerial influence to accomplish the most diabolical purposes, and
thereby bring reproach on the Christian name, and a grievous curse on
the nation--then assuredly, the institution of Christianity is not to
blame for it; for its Author, both by precept and example taught the
contrary. It was but a few days ago, that a skeptic remarked to me,
"that the inconsistent conduct of professors of religion satisfied him
that there was no truth in the Bible; or at all events, that there was
something wrong about it." I must hasten to a close, as I cannot
extend my remarks on this subject.

There now lies before me a paper, containing the following remarks:
"There is, however, one admitted feature in American slavery of a
character so shameful as to justify almost anything that can be said
or imagined of the institution. Men live with their female slaves in a
state of concubinage, beget children, raise them in their families
with a perfect knowledge of their origin, and sell them or leave them
to be sold by others in case of decease or reverses." It is strange
that those who indulge in such opprobrious remarks about southern
slaveholders, do not look after their own white bastards which are
scattered over this entire country, east, west, north and south. Men
are everywhere, (with a few exceptions,) the world over, utterly
devoid of all parental affections for their illegitimate children; and
the Southern man, no doubt, has fully as much concern about his
mulatto bastards as the Northern man has about his white bastards.
What is the Southern man to do with his brood of mulatto children?
Suppose he liberates them, their condition is but little improved
thereby, unless he sends them out of the country. It is, however,
clearly his duty to educate and manumit such children; but what is the
duty of the Northern man surrounded by a score of his illegitimate
progeny? The condition of the children of the white concubines of the
North are not a whit better, than that of the colored concubines of
the South; and the Northern man who suffers his children to become the
victims of poverty and vice--to sink into the very lowest depths of
degradation!--hopelessly, irretrievably lost, is no better than the
Southern man who suffers his mulatto children to be sold. One thing is
clear; the Northerner can do much more to ameliorate the condition of
his unfortunate offspring than the Southerner; and for this reason, he
is probably the worst man of the two.



CHAPTER I.


While I was preparing the following work for the press, a friend
called on me, and with apparent solicitude, inquired, "Which side of
the question are you on, Sir?" I answered him, that I was on the side
of truth, or at least, that I wished to be found on that side. Calling
at a book-store, I purchased a work on slavery, returned immediately
to my room, and was anxiously looking over its pages; a friend tapped
at my door, "Come in, Sir; take a seat." He had scarcely seated
himself, before he inquired, "What book are you reading, Sir?" A work
on slavery, was my answer. "Which side of the question is it on?" It
was but a short time before I purchased two other volumes on the same
subject, and laid them on my table. A gentleman called on business,
and observing the books, inquired what kind of books they were? I
laughingly answered that they were novels. "Why," replied he, "I
thought you did not read novels." I remarked (in substance), that they
were novels on the subject of slavery, and that I had been for some
time engaged in an investigation of the subject, and that it had
produced in my mind a desire to consult some writers on slavery; and
it appeared, that recent writers, preferred that their views upon it,
should appear before the public in a fictitious garb. I have no doubt,
that the first inquiry of most of those into whose hands this volume
may chance to fall, will be, "_Which side of the question is it on?_"
Thus, it appears that the question of African slavery has two sides;
and that either interest, ignorance, or prejudice; or what is worse, a
vain glorious desire on the part of some to be considered the
champions of liberty, the guardians of the rights of man, has arrayed
a large portion of this nation on one side, or the other. I utterly
despair--I have no hope that my labors will meet the approbation of
ultraists, North, or South. But there is yet another class in our
country--a class of persons who are conservative in their views,
honest in their intentions, and patriotic in their feelings; who are
prepared to listen to the voice of reason, and the injunctions,
admonitions and warnings of Divine Revelation. It is to them I appeal.
Thank God, I believe that they constitute a large majority of the
nation.

I have long beheld with regret and astonishment, the efforts that have
been made by a certain class of writers, to disseminate erroneous
views in the Northern section of the United States, with regard to
Southern slavery.[2] The recent publication by Mrs. Stowe, entitled
"Uncle Tom's Cabin," is a work of that class. I have no wish to write
anything harsh or unkind; for however ill-timed, ill-advised, or
ill-judged the work may be, if her object was the alleviation of human
woe, I can but respect the motive that prompted her to write, though I
may differ with her in opinion as to the means most likely to
accomplish the proposed object. The fair authoress may have meant
well. I shall leave that, however, to the "Searcher of all hearts;"
but I frankly confess that I fear that the book will result "in evil,
and only evil." I cannot avoid here, quoting the language that she
puts in the mouth of Chloe, the wife of Uncle Tom, who is the hero of
her tale: "Wal any way, that's wrong about it somewhar, I can't jest
make out whar it is, but thar's wrong somewhar." We all admit that
there are wrongs, it is clear to every one, neither do we differ much
as to what those wrongs are, nor yet as to their causes and effects;
but unfortunately for us, we differ widely, when we undertake to
propose remedies for the evil complained of. We have all need of that
charity "which suffereth long and is kind; that thinketh no evil." It
is as unreasonable and as wicked, to treat each other unkindly,
because we differ in opinion, as it would be to treat each, other
unkindly, because there is a difference in the features of our faces,
and the expression of our countenances. The Author of our existence,
for wise purposes, made us to differ mentally, as well as physically.
The structures of our minds are different. The great Architect
_willed_ that it should be thus; why, we presume not to know, but so
it is. And then moreover, our physical training, mental, moral and
religious culture; together with climate and a variety of other
external and internal causes, have all contributed more or less in
shaping our opinions, and giving a peculiar cast to our minds. Thus it
is, that we are all looking through different glasses, and it is no
wonder that we do not all see objects just alike. Objects must
necessarily present themselves to us, in different hues and colors.
Some are so accustomed to view all objects through a microscope, that
they have no just conception of the real magnitude of any body.
Exaggeration is their _forte_--in this they excel. Their towering
minds soar above common comprehension and common sense, and their
fertile imaginations are ever ready to conjure up spectres, ghosts and
hobgoblins; or otherwise, where others see a mouse, they behold an
elephant; and to their distorted visions, a mole-hill is magnified
into a mountain. We look in vain to such writers for a plain,
unvarnished, common sense statement of facts, for sound arguments, or
logical deductions. Such authors have nothing to do with facts, or
things as they exist among us. Their imaginations are ever ready to
furnish facts, on which to base their preconceived inferences and
conclusions. They were cast in a fictitious mould, and works of
fiction they have read, until their minds can run in no other channel.
Their mental vision seizes an object, and they pursue it with an
enthusiasm that borders on insanity. Onward, and upward their flight;
blind and deaf--utterly insensible to all surrounding objects. The
object of pursuit is their "all in all;" and every thing must be
sacrificed for its attainment. In their view, there is no other object
or interest worthy of a moment's consideration in earth, or heaven.
Their religion too, is of a peculiar cast. They are frequently very
religious in their own way. In their estimation, the very essence of
piety, the sum total of all religion consists in the advancement of
some one benevolent object. Above, beneath, beyond the attainment of
this, there is no religion, no virtue. Every thing must not only be
brought into requisition, in order to its attainment; but the end must
be attained in their own way, and according to their own notions; or
otherwise it might as well be left undone. In nine eases out of ten,
though the object of pursuit is a laudable one, yet so ill-judged and
injudicious are their plans, that if carried out, they will result in
more evil than good. The plainest and most obvious declarations of the
Bible, if they contravene their favorite theories or doctrines, are to
them unmeaning twaddle; though they are always ready to press the good
book into their service, so far as they are able by forced
constructions of detached passages, to give plausibility to their own
visionary opinions and projects.

    [2] I had read but a few pages of Uncle Tom's Cabin, when the
    following sentences were written. Before I had passed through the
    work, my opinions underwent a change as to the merit of the work
    and the designs of the writer in bringing it before the public.
    The present chapter contains my first reflections on the subject
    of slavery, after I determined to write on the subject.

It is a dire calamity that this class of writers have taken hold of
the subject of slavery. It is a misfortune that slavery should be
presented in a fictitious garb. I fear the consequences. It portends
no good to the nation. Slavery is among us, it is a solemn reality,
and if we expect to get rid of it, we must look it full in the face;
see it as it is, and treat it as a matter of fact business. We know
that it is an evil--a deplorable evil; but what shall we do with it?
The plague is on us--about us--in our midst. Where? Oh! where, shall
we find a remedy? The great work is before us; who is competent to the
task? Statesmen as wise and patriotic as any the world ever produced,
have shrunk from the task, confounded and abashed. Where is Clay!
Where is Webster? All that was earthly of them, is no more. Long did
they grapple with the monster slavery, and by their wise councils,
through many a dark and stormy period, did they safely conduct the
ship of State. But they are gone, and shall we now confide the
interests of this great nation, to the keeping of a few sickly
sentimentalists? No, heaven forbid that we should be led blindfold to
ruin! I entreat you, my fellow countrymen, to open your eyes and look
around you, and be not deceived. Your all is at stake. Arise in your
strength and crush the monster abolitionism, that threatens your
blood-bought liberties.

Mrs. Stowe tells us that the object of her book is to awaken sympathy
for the African race. If that, and that alone was her object, she
probably had better not have written on the subject. Sympathy for the
African race is right and proper, provided that it is properly
directed; but blindfold sympathy in the North, is not likely to result
in any good to the slaves of the South. The kindest and best feelings
of the human heart, unless they are directed and controlled by
prudence and discretion, frequently result in no good to the
possessor, and too often in positive injury to the object of his
solicitude. An excess of sympathy some times dethrones the judgment.
Sympathy for the slave may prompt us to act in the right direction;
but unless judgment and justice illumine our paths, and direct our
steps, all our efforts to ameliorate his condition, will prove worse
than useless. The slaves of the South are proper objects of our
sympathy, and so are their masters, and so is every living and
sensitive being in God's creation. Everything that lives and breathes
upon the face of the earth, has demands upon our sympathies; and it
would be well for us to provide ourselves with a large stock of it;
but we should be careful in meting it out, to give every one his due.
It is a gross error in the dispensation of our sympathies, to direct
our attention solely to some one object, regardless of the wants and
rights of others.

In order to accomplish anything for the benefit of the slave, we must
have a Southern audience; to them we must speak, and for them we must
write. With them we must reason, as brother holding familiar converse
with brother. Mrs. Stowe's book is not likely to be generally read in
the South; and provided it should be, it can excite no other than
feelings of indignation and defiance in Southern minds. Hence the work
can result in no good, and may possibly, unless its baneful influence
is counteracted, originate much evil.

If we take the institution of slavery in the United States, as a
whole, and view it correctly, Uncle Tom's Cabin is a gross
misrepresentation. The book has placed the people of this country in a
false position; in a ridiculous attitude before the world. There may
be some truth in her statements--barely enough to give them
plausibility among the thoughtless, inconsiderate and uninformed; and
those whose minds are warped by prejudice. Horrid and revolting
occurrences, such as are detailed in her book, have sometimes occurred
among slaveholders, but they have been rare, and are now more rare
than formerly. They are but exceptions to general rules; why then
present them to the world under circumstances, and in a style and
manner, that will make an impression on the minds of a majority of
uninformed readers, that they are every day occurrences; that a large
portion, if not a majority of the slaveholders are involved in the
charges specified. How does such a procedure, on the part of Mrs.
Stowe, comport with the great principles of truth and justice; which
should have been her guide while writing on so grave a subject!
Wherever man possesses power over his fellow man, throughout the
length and breadth of the habitable globe, there are occasional
instances of brutality and barbarism, too shocking for recital; and
that deeds dark, dolorous and infamous, should sometimes be
perpetrated by American slaveholders, is nothing strange. But is it
just, is it right, for her to present slaveholders in the United
States, _en masse_, to the whole civilized world, as a set of
God-forsaken, heaven-daring, hell-deserving barbarians? That Uncle
Tom's Cabin will make this impression on the minds of most of its
readers, who are uninformed as to the institution of slavery in this
country, is obvious to any one who will carefully read it. I resided
in the slave States forty-four years, and can testify that few,
comparatively very few, were guilty of separating wives and husbands,
parents and children, and that a majority--yes a very large majority
of slaves were treated kindly; and generally there existed between
slaves and their possessors kind feelings, and strong attachments. It
is this attachment of slaves to their masters, that has frequently
frustrated the evil designs set on foot by intermeddling,
philanthropic cut-throats, _alias_ abolitionists.

Mrs. Stowe will probably learn when it is too late, that she cannot
work out the salvation of the slave population by misrepresenting
slaveholders,--by exciting sympathy in the North, and by arousing
feelings of wrath and defiance in the South. "The wrath of man worketh
not the righteousness of God." She may inculcate disobedience and open
resistance to the laws of her country; but so did not Jesus Christ; so
did not St. Paul. Go, woman, to your Bible and learn your duty to your
Creator and your fellow creatures, before you write another book.
They, (Jesus Christ and St. Paul,) enforced obedience to the ruling
authorities, "Render unto Cæsar, the things that are Cæsars; and let
every soul be subject to the higher powers;" is the language of Divine
Inspiration. Mrs. Stowe belongs to that faction in the North, long
known as the abolition party, and would not scruple to bring about the
emancipation of the slaves by any means, regardless of consequences.
She would not, I suppose, hesitate to force emancipation on the South,
at the point of the bayonet, regardless of the murders, rapines,
rapes--the indiscriminate butchery of unoffending women and
children--the overthrow of the Union, and the introduction of lasting
hates and civil wars, and the ultimate massacre and extinction of the
entire African race!! Great God, what atrocious crimes have been
perpetrated in the name of liberty!!! She does not, however, openly
advocate these extreme measures in her book, but there is,
nevertheless, a squinting in that direction in several places. In
inculcating resistance to the laws of her country, she is virtually
advocating a dissolution of the Union, with all its attendant
consequences, results and horrors. For whenever we cease to observe
the solemn compact that binds us together, then the Union must
necessarily be dissolved, and civil wars, with all its calamities,
must follow!! Mrs. Stowe will pardon me if I should perchance,
inferentialy saddle on her some things, that will make the vital fluid
curdle in her veins; unless she is dead to all those emotions of soul
which characterize her sex. As I find her in bad company, I am forced
in the absence of better testimony, to judge her from the company in
which I find her. The old Spanish proverb is as true as Holy Writ,
viz., "Show me the company you keep, and I will tell you who you are."
If she chooses to write novels, and bring grave charges against others
by insinuation and innuendo, in order to evade the responsibility of
defining her position clearly and openly, she will not, I hope, take
offense if I define it for her.

Mrs. Stowe asserts that there are no laws in slave States to protect
slaves, and to punish the cruel and brutal outrages of masters. That
masters can cruelly beat their slaves, and also murder them with
impunity! This is untrue--nothing could be more false. In the eye of
the law, there is no difference between the man that murders his
slave, and the man that murders his neighbor; and the laws not only
punish men for cruel and unnecessary punishment inflicted on slaves,
but there are penal statutes against the unnecessary and barbarous
abuse and destruction of horses, and other species of property. She
may tell us that the penal statutes, so far as slaves are concerned,
are a dead letter; that they are inoperative; that they have no force
or effect whatever. This also, I know to be untrue, from personal
observation. I admit that slaveholders often evade the punishment due
their crimes, and so do men everywhere. The crimes of men of wealth
and influence too often go unpunished, not only in the slave States,
but wherever the foot of man has trodden the soil. All will admit,
that as a general rule, so far as free men are concerned, the laws are
based on principles of justice and equality, and yet, the wealthy, the
influential and the powerful, in many instances, find but little
difficulty in evading the law, and perverting justice whenever they
come in contact with the indigent and ignorant. From a superiority of
knowledge, wealth and station, men derive advantages in legal
transactions as well as in everything else. It is but one of the
misfortunes incident to poverty and ignorance.

Much has been said, and much has been written about the harsh and
cruel treatment of Southern slaves; but there is a vast deal of error
and misconception among those unacquainted with the facts, and too
much misrepresentation among those, who are, or ought to be better
informed. The Southern slave is not amenable to the civil laws for his
conduct, except in a qualified sense, and under certain circumstances.
He is accountable to his master, and his master is amenable to the
civil laws. If suit is instituted for damages, in consequence of
depredations committed by a slave, it is brought against the master,
and not against the slave. Hence, when a slave is guilty of a
misdemeanor, the authority to punish is vested in the master, and not
in the legal authorities. I do not pretend to say, that this is the
exact letter of the law, but this I know, by common consent, is the
practice in the South. The right to punish being vested in the master,
he inflicts the punishment in his own way, and to some extent, at his
own discretion. The master is judge, juror, and executioner. Whipping
is the ordinary punishment inflicted on slaves for crime. Whether it
is the punishment most likely to deter them from the commission of it,
I know not; but I think it is probable, that under the circumstances,
they can find no punishment better adapted to the proposed object. Be
it as it may; custom has decided that it shall be the punishment of
the slave. Theft is the most common crime among slaves, and for this
they are whipped by their masters, and no further notice is taken of
the crime. A slave is simply whipped for an offense, which would
imprison a white man for several months, and then confine him in the
State penitentiary for several years. The master may, if he chooses,
surrender the offending slave to the legal authorities; but supposing
that he does, the punishment is the same; he is simply whipped and
sent back to his master. The crime may be theft, destruction of
property, assault and battery; it matters but little what, if we
except murder, rape and arson, the punishment is whipping; whether
inflicted by the master or the legal authorities. Thus, we see, that
the punishment of slaves is much more lenient, than the punishment of
free white men for similar crimes. Hence, slaves escape punishment
under circumstances, and for crimes, for which white men would be
severely punished. Slaves are viewed, for certain reasons, to some
extent, as irresponsible beings. "Oh! he is a poor negro, and knows no
better," is an expression common in the South. The crimes of free
negroes in the slave States, unless they are of the most flagrant
kind, are seldom punished. I have known repeated instances, where
stolen goods were found in their possession, and they were suffered to
escape unpunished; no one appearing willing to enforce the law against
them. On the contrary, their crimes were winked at and tolerated, for
the reason that they were considered a poor, unfortunate, depraved and
ignorant class.

Transportation of slaves from Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and
Kentucky, to the extreme Southern States, as a punishment for crime,
is not an unfrequent occurrence. I believe that in most cases, where
families have been separated, it has been in consequence of vile
conduct on the part of slaves. Much of the selling of negroes to
traders--the parting of wives and husbands, parents and children,
which we hear and read of in Northern publications, had its origin in
crime on the part of the slaves. They are frequently transported for
crimes which would hang a white man; or otherwise confine him in the
penitentiary for a series of years, or for life time. Negroes are
frequently whipped and then transported to the extreme Southern States
for murder; and that too, under circumstances, where the crime is one
of a very aggravated character; for premeditated murder--murder
committed with malice prepense. But in the eyes of abolitionists, it
is dreadful to whip a slave for so small an offense; and yet they
would stand by, and with exquisite pleasure see a white man hanged for
the same crime. Kind souls! what a pity that white men could not come
in for a share of their sympathies; but they have none for them; it is
all for the woolly heads. But really, I should like to know what
becomes of their sympathies, when some poor free negro is taken sick
in their midst, and starves, and dies, and rots in his filth! Ah!
don't touch my purse. No, by no means! We all know that it won't do to
touch your purses. Your sympathies never leak out in that way. You are
too shrewd for that. Fie! Fie! it is all wind, and it costs you but
little to blow it out.

Slaveholders are called murderers, because in a few rare instances, a
slave may have been worked to death; and they denounced as cruel and
oppressive task-masters, because probably one in five hundred, under
peculiar circumstances, may have been guilty of cruelty to his slaves.
The same thing occurs everywhere, the world over. And it occurs as
frequently in Yankeedom, the hot-bed of abolitionism, infidelity, and
wooden nutmegs, as anywhere else, There are more white men and white
women worked to death in the North, than there are slaves worked to
death in the South. Oh! but, says an objector, those white people are
free. Nobody forces them to work beyond their capabilities of
endurance. The objection is without foundation, for indigence and
liberty, never resided together in the same hovel or hut. Hunger and
cold are hard masters, far worse than Southern slaveholders; and the
penurious Yankee who inadequately pays the laborer, and thus suffers
him to starve or freeze to death, is morally as bad as the man who
whips his slave to death. If the latter is a murderer, so is the
former. The generality of slaves are better paid for their labor, than
the poorer classes of people North or South. They at least receive
more in return for their labor. They are better fed, better clothed,
and better housed. Most of them are happy and well provided for. Their
appearance, their health, cheerfulness and fondness for music, give
the lie to Northern representations. Masters are responsible for the
maintenance of their slaves under all circumstances; in infancy and
old age, in sickness as well as in health. But as soon, as Northern
white slaves become incapacitated for labor, they are suffered to lie
down in their filth and starve and die. Where then, are their lords
and masters, who have grown wealthy from the proceeds of their labor?

Mrs. Stowe may write about slavery to her heart's content; but has
she, or any one else, pointed out to us, any fair, open, practicable
system of emancipation? No, they have not, and until that is done,
they should be a little more modest in their denunciations of
slaveholders. Suppose the South should manumit their slaves, will the
North receive and educate them? No, by no means; and however ignorant
Mrs. Stowe may be in relation to Southern slavery, she must be well
aware of the universal prejudice in the North against free negroes. A
very large majority of the blacks in the North, are in an impoverished
and degraded condition; and there is no sympathy with them, or for
them, among Northern men. Northern prejudice is much stronger than
Southern prejudice, against these unfortunate creatures.

The whites cannot, and will not make equals of them any where. They
are at the bottom of the social ladder, and there they must and will
remain, so long as they are among the whites. They can never enjoy the
blessings of freedom in the United States. The liberty of the free
blacks is but nominal; they have no more rights and fewer comforts, as
free men, (so called), than they have as slaves in the South. White
freedom is one thing, and colored freedom is another. Most of the
Northern states treat the African worse now, than they did a half
century ago! They are in the North virtually slaves, without masters.
The half starved, ill-clad free negro will soon have no foot hold in
the North; for Irish and German laborers will supersede them; or
otherwise Northern men will legislate them out of the free states.
Pennsylvania has already taken from them the privilege of voting, and
Indiana and Illinois will not suffer them to enter their borders; and
I judge from present indications, that Ohio will soon follow the
example of her younger sisters; and moreover, I venture to predict,
that in less than twenty years from the present time; a free negro
will not be suffered to enter a free state in this Union. This
prejudice never can be removed. "Can the Ethiopian change his skin?"
If he could, then might we have hope; till then, there is none for the
poor African while he remains in the midst of the Anglo-Saxon race.
Behold the negro quarters about the larger cities in the North; think
of the riots and burning of African churches, &c., that have occurred
within the last dozen years, and tell me, where is the hope of the
African! Not in the United States. The African race in the United
States, are not yet prepared for emancipation; they must first be
educated; otherwise there is danger that they will sink into their
original barbarism. England emancipated the West India slaves, and
Lord Brougham tells us, that they are rapidly declining into
barbarism.



CHAPTER II.


It is no part of my design to offer apologies for, or by any means to
conceal the faults of Southern slaveholders. But the reading of Uncle
Tom's Cabin, has indelibly fixed the impression on my mind that Mrs.
Stowe's narrative is false. The question is, whether such, or similar
occurrences, are _common_ among Southern slaveholders. If they had
been _rare_, she had no right to make the impression on the whole
civilized world, that they are every-day occurrences. Nor had she any
right unless she had been an eye witness of the leading facts detailed
in her story, to publish a book which presents her country in such an
ignoble attitude before the world; she had no right to base such
calumnious charges on heresay, rumor, or common report. I shall
proceed to show that her tale is improbable, and that it is likely
that no such transactions as are detailed in her story, ever have
transpired among Southern slaveholders.

It is doubtful whether one hundreth part of what hag been published in
abolition papers, during the last fifty years, in regard to Southern
slavery, is true; and those who have received their impressions of
African slavery in the South, from that source, are utterly incapable
of expressing correct opinions on the subject. It was never the
intention of abolition writers, to publish the truth on any subject,
having reference to the Southern section of the United States. Their
object was to make false impressions on the minds of Northern men, and
thereby to originate and sustain a party, from whom, they expected to
derive certain benefits. They worked for pay. Many years ago, I
stepped into a court-house, in a small town in Tennessee, and
immediately after I had seated myself, a lawyer arose, and made a very
vehement speech in favor of some scape-gallows who was arraigned
before the court. After he had taken his seat, another gentleman of
the bar arose, and replied to him. The two gentlemen alternately
speechified the judge and jury for several hours; after which the
judge passed sentence on the culprit, and the two lawyers left the
court-house. As they passed on in the direction of their residences, I
overheard one remark to the other, "in the name of ----, how can a man
stand up before the court, and lie as you did to-day." "Oh!" said the
gentleman in reply, "I was well paid, I received a large fee, and
could afford to lie." Some of the abolition editors, I presume, are
well paid for their services. But to return to Uncle Tom's Cabin. No
other mental culture is necessary, in order to qualify an individual
to write such a book as Uncle Tom's Cabin, except the reading of
novels and abolition papers. Mrs. Stowe, I have no doubt, is well read
in both. And she has performed her task in a manner that has excited
the wonder, and elicited the admiration and applause of millions!
Volumes of eulogiums have been lavished upon her! She is now the
wonder and admiration of America, and a goddess in England; and woe to
him who refuses to do her homage! This rare production bids fair to
supplant the Bible in Sabbath Schools in some parts of our country!
What next? This is an age of wonders and humbugs. For aught we know,
Jo. Smith's Bible, Uncle Tom's Cabin, and the spiritual rappers, may
yet revolutionize our world. It is, however, difficult to tell, what
is in the womb of the future; for many new wonders and marvelous
revelations may yet spring up in the land of Yankeedom! Nothing is too
hard for them. The word impossible, has no place in their vocabulary.

Having remarked, that I considered the narrative of Mrs. Stowe untrue;
it now devolves on me to show the improbability of some of her
statements. An old negro man, whom she calls Uncle Tom, is the hero of
her tale. Uncle Tom was the servant of a gentlemen, by name Shelby,
who resided in Kentucky. She represents this old negro, Uncle Tom, as
a very remarkable character. She tells us that Tom was pious and
honest; not simply so, indulgent reader, in the ordinary acceptation
of these terms, but that he was really and truly a God-fearing man--a
man of unimpeachable veracity, strict honesty, and ardent piety; above
suspicion--above crime--a perfect man--a man of almost angelic purity.
We, moreover, learn from her narrative, that good old Tom, (God bless
his soul and preserve his dust), was a kind of overseer on Shelby's
farm; that to him was committed the oversight and supervision, of
whatever pertained to Shelby's farming operations and interests. And
as a proof of Shelby's implicit confidence in him, she states, that he
sent Tom alone at one time, to Cincinnati on business, and that he
returned home with five hundred dollars in his pocket. Tom, according
to her account, was a great favorite, not only with his master, but
also with his mistress and the entire family. Shelby's son George was
devotedly attached to him.

We learn also from the narrative, that Tom was an old man, not less
than forty-five, and probably fifty years of age. She tells us that
Shelby had a son, by name George, who was thirteen years of age; and
that Tom was seven years older than his master Shelby. Supposing that
Shelby was twenty-five years of age when his son George was born; and
that George was thirteen years of age, and that Tom was seven years
older than his master, it stands thus: seven added to twenty-five make
thirty-two, and thirteen added to thirty-two, make forty-five. But
supposing that Shelby was thirty, when George was born, the result
would be fifty.

From the narrative, we infer, that Shelby was in possession of many
slaves; for Mrs. Stowe speaks of a dozen black children perched on the
veranda railings at one time; and it is not presumable, that all the
little boys and girls in his possession, would happen to be perched on
the veranda railings at the same time; and these children must have
had fathers and mothers, and many of them of course, brothers and
sisters, who were men and women. She also tells us, that there were
various negro cabins on the place; each cabin must have contained one
family of negroes at least, if not more. She speaks of a couple of
negro men who went with Haley, the trader, in search of Eliza and her
child.

The labor on Shelby's farm was performed by slaves, and it is a fair
supposition, that there were from fifty to seventy-five slaves on the
farm. This is common through the states of Kentucky and Tennessee, and
farther South it is no uncommon occurrence, to find from one hundred
to five hundred slaves on the same farm, or otherwise in the
possession of the same man.

Hence, we learn that Tom was an old man; that he nursed Shelby when an
infant; that he was a trusty servant; that he had charge of everything
about the place; that he was a pious man, and that Shelby entertained
for him the kindest feelings; and that Mrs. Shelby was warmly attached
to him; and that their son George's attachment to the good old servant
knew no bounds; and that he was the husband of Aunt Chloe, the old
cook; who, (by the by,) is always a great favorite in a Southern
family. But strange as it may appear to those who have never read
Uncle Tom's Cabin, Mrs. Stowe tells us, notwithstanding, that Shelby
sold good old Tom to a negro trader; and that he was again sold to a
gentleman in New Orleans, and that after the death of this gentleman,
he was purchased by an inhumane wretch by the name of Legree.

This man Shelby, nevertheless, according to her tale, was a very
gentlemanly, humane man. I suppose that she would have us to
understand, that he was altogether a pretty fair character for the
South.

I believe the statements of Mrs. Stowe to be untrue, for the following
reasons. First, because Shelby had a number of slaves from whom he
could select; and I know from personal observation, that it is a
universal practice among slaveholders to sell their most worthless and
vicious slaves to negro traders. If they are forced to sell such a
negro as she represents Tom to be, some neighbor who is acquainted
with the slave, will give a higher price for him than a negro trader
will. A negro trader will give as much for a negro who is a rogue, as
he will for one who is an honest man. The negro trader pays no
attention to the character of a negro; for the very good reason that
the character of the negro is unknown to those to whom he expects to
sell. No representation or recommendation whatever, can have any
influence with those to whom they sell. They know nothing about the
character of the negroes whom they purchase, and they have no reliable
means of learning anything about them. Tom was purchased in Kentucky
and sold in New Orleans. Therefore, Haley, the negro trader, would not
have given one dime more for Tom on account of his good qualities. But
Mrs. Stowe tells us, that Shelby was indebted to Haley, and that he
preferred to purchase Tom on account of his good qualities; and that
Shelby expected a high price from him on that account. Haley would
have given several hundred dollars more for a man who was about
twenty-five years of age, than he would have given for poor old Tom;
though the young man might have been as vile a rogue, as ever went
unhung. No man of common sense can fail for one moment, to discover
the truth and justness of the above reasoning. Thus we see that
falsehood is indelibly stamped on Mrs. Stowe's narrative at the very
outset. What is it that enhances the value of negroes in the
estimation of the negro trader? And what is it that recommends them,
or enhances their value in market? First, the age of the slave is
taken into consideration. Nobody will give as much for an old negro as
he will for a young one in the prime of life. Tom was an old man, and
Shelby had in his possession a number of young negroes. These facts
alone stamp falsehood on the face of Mrs. Stowe's tale. Secondly, the
physical force or power of the negro, and his apparent health, are
taken into consideration. The purchaser, if he knows nothing about the
qualities of negroes, will give the highest price for those (judging
from appearances) that can perform the most labor. Now, is it
reasonable to suppose, that a purchaser would have given as much for
poor old Tom, as he would have given for a negro who was twenty-five
or thirty years of age? There are from twenty to twenty-five years
difference in the ages of the negroes, and there is a proportionate
difference in their values. Reader, what do you suppose is the value
of twenty years' labor in dollars and cents? Well, whatever it is,
poor old Tom was precisely that amount less valuable, than many other
negroes in the possession of Shelby; and yet Mrs. Stowe tells us that
Shelby sold Tom, because he could get a higher price for him than any
other negro in his possession. Why? Because of his good qualities. I
have clearly and indisputably shown that Tom's good qualities did not
enhance his value one cent with Haley. And at the same time, Tom was
worth more to Shelby than any half dozen negroes on the farm. How
absurd! Was a more barefaced, palpable, glaring and malicious
falsehood ever fabricated? I am sorry that justice to my countrymen,
my friends and my relatives, requires at my hands, an expose of this
low, scurrilous production, entitled "Uncle Tom's Cabin." This is a
fair sample of abolitionism. But I am not done with Uncle Tom. Mrs.
Stowe tells us that he was a great favorite with Mrs. Shelby, and
Shelby knew of course that it would almost break his wife's heart, and
that young master George would almost go beside himself; yet he sells
poor old Tom to this infamous negro trader, notwithstanding! Ah!
"murder will out," and falsehood will out, likewise. The statements of
Mrs. Stowe are inconsistent; they are sheer fabrications: the figments
of a diseased brain.

I will again remark, that strictly honest, upright negroes, those
remarkable for their good qualities, and those who are withal, negroes
of more than ordinary value, are never sold to negro traders. The
statement that Shelby was guilty of such an act, under the
circumstances, as detailed in the preceding pages, is too absurd, too
futile, too foolish to deceive or mislead any one who knows anything
about the institution of slavery in the South; or the customs, habits,
or manners of slaveholders. The work, however, was prepared for those
whoso minds were warped by prejudice, whose judgments were beclouded
and perverted by sectional hatred and bigotry, and whose imaginations
were bewildered and distempered by the reading of abolition
publications and novels. To such it has proved a treat, yea, they have
read it with avidity and delight.

Mrs. Stowe, presuming on the gullibility of her readers, has made
other statements that I will notice. The wife of this very
kind-hearted, humane and gentlemanly man, Shelby, had a maid-servant,
by name Eliza; and Eliza had an only child; a very remarkable boy
indeed! probably about five or six years of age; if there is any truth
in her tale. Eliza was a delicate bright mulatto girl; a great
favorite with her mistress; and her child of course a great favorite
with the entire family. But, as if determined to break his wife's
heart, Shelby sells Eliza's child also, to the negro trader, Haley.
Here is another, to say the least of it, very improbable statement. If
Shelby was the man that she represents him, he would have sold the
entire dozen woolly heads that were perched on the veranda railings,
on the morning after the transaction, before he would have sold the
only child of his wife's maid-servant. The estimation in which
maid-servants and their children are held by Southern ladies, is
probably unknown to most of my Northern readers. Unless driven to it
by dire necessity, a Southern gentleman would almost as soon part
with his own children, as with his wife's maid-servant, or her
children, except for crime. Eliza is represented by Mrs. Stowe as all
perfection and beauty, and her darling boy as a little angel.
Maid-servants occupy a position in Southern families far above that of
any other class of servants; but little below the white members of the
family. I resided forty-four years in the Southern States, and it is
with pride that I record the fact, that a Southern gentleman would
dispose of anything--everything--carriages, horses, stocks, tenements
and lands, before he would dispose of such servants as Uncle Tom, and
his wife's maid-servant's child, and thereby break his wife's heart.
No! far be it from Southern men; their wives are their all; and far be
it from them, to say or do aught in opposition to the will of their
wives, anything that will deeply mortify or afflict them. A man would
be hooted from genteel society in the Southern States, for such an
ignoble act. Whatever the faults of Southern men may be, they feel
themselves bound to treat their wives with consideration, respect and
kindness. But I must return to Eliza and her boy. Eliza, overhearing
the conversation between Mr. and Mrs. Shelby, on the night after the
interview between Shelby and Haley, she cautiously and quietly takes
her boy out of the bed, and elopes. She hastens with all possible
speed to the State of Ohio. Haley returns to Shelby's on the
succeeding morning for the purpose of taking possession of Tom, and
Eliza's child; but Eliza having decamped with the child, he and a
couple of Shelby's negro men go in pursuit of her. They overtook her
at the river; and Mrs. Stowe tells us, that she fled precipitately
across the river on floating fragments of ice, with her boy in her
arms! She tells us, that the ice was floating, and that a boat was
expected to pass over the river that night. Was ever a more glaring
falsehood penned. As well might she have told us, that Eliza walked
over the river on the water, with a boy who was probably five or six
years of age, in her arms! How inconsistent! How foolish! How
superlatively ridiculous are such tales!! It is enough; I need not
wade through the entire work, in order to show the falsity of Mrs.
Stowe's tale.

She has calumniated her countrymen, and the slander has gone with
electric speed on the pinions of the press, to the ends of the earth.
Her country lies bleeding at her feet; its institutions totter. But
ah! if she can but luxuriate in her ill-gotten gains, but little does
she care what becomes of her country. She, truly, has been well paid
for her services. She has received a "large fee," and all this was
done under the pretense of serving the cause of liberty! Yes, truly,
she is serving the cause of liberty with a vengeance. Had all the
despots of earth leagued themselves together, for the purpose of
crushing civil liberty, they could not have given it such a shock, as
has been done by the publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Well may the
friends of republican institutions bow their heads with shame and
regret. The moral influence of the great American republic is
destroyed. The friends of liberty throughout the world, mourn the
disaster.

Mrs. Stowe is the modern Eve. Old mother Eve said, "The serpent
beguiled me, and I did eat." Mrs. Stowe may say, "The serpent beguiled
me, and I did write." Yes, she did write. The daughter of a clergyman
and the wife of a clergyman did write a novel; and other clergymen
seem to think it a fit substitute for the Bible in Sabbath schools;
and ere long, other clergymen will, I have no doubt, read their text
from it in the pulpit. God preserve the world, from clerical knaves
and fools. Of all the curses, that ever were permitted by Almighty God
to fall on wicked and deluded nations, there are none so much to be
dreaded, as corrupt, bigoted, fanatical clergymen. A clergyman--a
minister of God--a minister of the gospel of peace and glad tidings to
all--who with his eyes open, will countenance, aid, or abet, any thing
that destroys the peace and harmony of this nation, or that threatens
to result in disunion and civil war, ought to be hurled forty leagues
deep into perdition.

I entreat you my fellow citizens, to open your eyes and look around
you! Behold hydra-headed infidelity stalking over New England, in
clerical robes. Behold _others_, who have so far lost sight of their
calling, and the spirit of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, that they are
opposing the execution of the laws of our common country! Sowing
dissentions and exciting feelings of envy, jealousy and hatred among
our citizens. Be not deceived by their clerical robes and assumed
sanctity; it is all lighter than a feather in the balance. My friends,
there is danger ahead. Beware lest you be led blindfold to ruin by
canting hypocrites. These are the men that endanger our liberties.
Stand aloof, give no support to religious bigotry and fanaticism. I
call on you as Christians, as patriots, "to touch not, taste not,
handle not the unclean thing."

Pardon me, my countrymen; I am an American citizen, and as such, I
speak and write. I know that I shall incur the displeasure of many by
the expression of such sentiments as the above; but shall the fear of
man deter me from warning you of your danger? No! heaven forbid! My
country is my pride; my country is my boast; my country is my all; and
woe to him, that would dissolve this glorious and heaven favored
Union, and stain her fair fields with the blood of her own citizens.
He that rebels against the laws of his country, or bids defiance to
the solemn compact which binds together these States, is a traitor to
his country--a traitor to his God. He that would destroy the
Constitution, which was framed by our revolutionary sires, let him be
accursed of God, and driven forth from the habitations of civilized
man. Let every Christian--every friend of our beloved country,
respond, a hearty Amen.

Mrs. Stowe has slandered her countrymen; hence, the great popularity
of her book! We listen with pleasure to a recital, of the vices of our
neighbors; we roll it as a sweet morsel under our tongues; but oh! I
don't tell us anything about their virtues; we don't want to hear them
spoken of! Friend, speak evil only of your neighbors, or else, be
silent! We don't wish to hear you speak well of any one. We have no
taste for eulogy, but give us slander, by wholesale and retail, and we
will gulph it down!

This is a dark picture of the human heart, but I believe a tolerably
correct one!



CHAPTER III.


Having in the preceding chapter dismissed Mrs. Stowe's narrative; I
shall in the following pages, confine my remarks, so far as they refer
to "Uncle Tom's Cabin," to its evident design and manifest tendency.

It was about thirty-five years ago, that the great abolition
excitement broke out in the North. The subject of course, was agitated
previous to that time, but there must have been then, some additional,
or new excitement, for it was at that memorable period, that the South
took the alarm. Previous to that period, as far back as I can
recollect, the subject of slavery was freely discussed in the Southern
States, by clergymen and politicians in public; and it was withal, a
common topic of conversation in the social circle. Throughout the
slave states, at that time, the necessity of enlightening the minds,
and ameliorating the conditions of the slaves was generally seen,
felt, and acknowledged. It was then enforced on church members as a
duty, by ministers of all denominations; and the ministers of the
Gospel rebuked, (sometimes with great severity), harshness, cruelty,
or unkindness to slaves.

A spirit of emancipation was then common among slaveholders; many
slaves were set at liberty, and Christians, and philanthropists, were
anxiously looking forward to a period of universal emancipation. A
gentleman, by name Benjamin Lundy, published at that time an
anti-slavery paper in Greenville, East Tennessee; which paper had an
extensive circulation. About that time, I gathered up my anti-slavery
juvenile doggerel, corrected it, as well as I could,--selected poems
from Cowper and others, on the subject; forwarded the manuscript to
the aforesaid B. Lundy, and the result was, a little volume of
anti-slavery poems. But the abolition excitement broke out in the
North, and the South took the alarm. The mouths of clergymen were
closed in the pulpit; for it was deemed inadvisable, in consequence of
Northern interference, to discuss the subject of slavery in the
pulpit, social circle, or under any circumstances, whatever. It was
thus, we see, through the intermeddling of Northern abolitionists,
that discussion was cut off in the South. Rigid laws were then enacted
by the state Legislatures, for the suppression of public discussion;
and there were also enactments which threw obstacles in the way of
emancipation; and thus, the fetters of slavery have been drawn
tighter, and tighter, from that day, to the present time.

A short time after the excitement commenced in the South, a committee
of panic-stricken citizens called on Mr. Lundy, after expressing for
him personally the highest regard, they politely requested him to
discontinue his paper; expressing the opinion, at the time, that its
publication was no longer consistent with public safety. Mr. Lundy
complied with their request, and it was rumored, whether true or
false, I know not, that he remarked, that it was a great pity that the
Yankees could not mind their own business. Mr. Lundy, I believe, was a
Yankee himself, but was said to be a gentlemanly, humane man. Some are
no doubt ready to ask, Why was it, that the abolition excitement in
the North, produced such a panic in the South? It was the revolting
and shocking doctrines, which they openly promulgated. It was their
notorious disregard of the laws of God and man, and all those ties
which bind us together as one great nation; their denial of the right
of the South to hold slave property, notwithstanding that right had
been guaranteed to them by the Federal Constitution; their advocacy of
the right of the slave to arise in the night and cut his master's
throat; or, else, burn his house over his head; their advocacy of the
right of the North to force emancipation on the South, at the point of
the bayonet, &c.

It was these monstrous doctrines and assumptions, which were then, and
are to the present day, avowed and defended by abolition orators, that
alarmed the Southern people. It was not long before Northern
abolitionists were detected in circulating through the South, exciting
and incendiary publications, on the subject of slavery, and in some
instances, intermeddling with slaves, and trying to incite
insurrections among them. These things inflamed the public mind more
and more in the South. Legislatures met, and enacted laws still more
stringent for the punishment of such offenders; for the suppression of
public discussion; and they, withal, threw so many restrictions around
those who held slaves that in most of the states, emancipation became
exceedingly difficult, and in some of them, absolutely impracticable.
These are historical facts, and they are worth more than a volume of
any man's speculations on the subject of slavery. They speak for
themselves, and require but little comment from me. Who was it that
crushed in embryo, the reform which was in progress thirty-five years
ago? It was the abolitionists, and every one is aware of it, who is
informed on the subject; and intelligent men among the abolitionists
know it, as well as any one else. The officious inter-meddling of
abolitionists with Southern slavery, never has, and never can effect
anything for the slave; it has served but to retard emancipation, and
to rivet the chains of slavery. This opinion has been expressed a
thousand times, by the wisest and best men, that our nation has ever
produced--men, who enjoyed the best opportunities for forming correct
opinions on the subject. Henry Clay said, in a letter, written in
1845, "I firmly believe that the cause of the extinction of negro
slavery, far from being advanced, has been retarded by the agitation
of the subject at the North."

I believe slavery to be an individual and a national evil--a dire
calamity--and would rejoice to see it extinguished by any means
compatible with the safety, peace and prosperity of the nation, the
best interests of master and slave; and in the fear of God Almighty,
before whose bar I know that I must shortly appear, I sincerely,
firmly and solemnly believe, that if the free states had stood aloof,
and left the discussion and disposition of it entirely to the slave
states, several states which are now slave states, and are likely to
remain so, would have long since made provisions for the emancipation
of their slaves. And I moreover believe, that if the North would now
desist from all interference with it, the evil would be eradicated
from the United States, some hundreds of years sooner than it will be,
provided she persists in her present course. This is a legitimate
conclusion from the foregoing historical facts. Abolitionists can do
nothing, and men of intelligence well know it, that will mitigate the
evils of slavery, or eradicate it from the South. It is entirely
beyond their reach, they cannot control it; and if the object of
intelligent men in the North was the abolition of slavery, they would
cease to agitate the subject. But that is not their object. I allude
to the leaders of that party--the politicians, and not the common
people, for they are sincere. What then is their object? It is to
produce a dissolution of the Union; a separation of the Northern and
Southern sections of the United States, civil war, blood-shed, the
sacking and burning of cities, devastations, brother imbruing his
hands in the blood of brother, the father shedding the blood of his
son, and the son that of the father! Yea, and ten thousand other evils
and calamities, of which they, themselves, have never dreamed. Is this
abolitionism? Great God! what a picture--and the half has not been
told! From whence did it spring? "By whom begot?" It is an offspring
of New England infidelity. It was born in fanaticism, and nurtured in
violence and disorder. It opposes and violates the commands of God,
and is full of strife and pride. Its course is unchristian, impolitic
and hypocritical; it is alike hostile to religion and republicanism;
it rejects the Bible and the constitution of our country, and under
the pretense of higher law, it abrogates all law! This is
abolitionism, but all is not yet told. Be patient, reader, and perhaps
before I bring this essay to a close, I shall succeed in disclosing
its anti-christian and anti-republican tendencies; its seditious
spirit; its self will, pride and contumacy; its duplicity and
hypocrisy; its cruelties, horrors and woes.

Should they succeed in dissolving the Union, what would they
accomplish thereby? Would they by dissolving the Union emancipate a
solitary slave in the South? No, not one. The South would then set up
for itself, and the North for itself.

We would then have a Southern confederacy, and a Northern confederacy;
each separate and independent of the other. The North would then have
no more control or influence over the South; nor yet the South over
the North, than England has over America, or America over England. But
what has now become of the institution of slavery in the South? There
it is, just as it was, before the dissolution of the Union was
accomplished. And the Northern portion of the Union has lost all her
control--all her influence over the South; which influence, she might
have exerted for the benefit of the slave, if the Union had not been
dissolved, and her course towards the South had been kind,
conciliatory and pacific. It is all very plain--so clear, that it
requires but a little common sense to comprehend the whole matter. It
is clear then--clear as the noon-day sun, that the object of the
leaders of the abolition party is not the abolition of slavery.
Office, is the god they worship. Elevation to office, and self
aggrandizement, is their ultimate object. If they can strengthen their
party, and agitate the subject of slavery, until they bring about a
dissolution of the Union, then Hale will be president of the Northern
confederacy, Julian, vice-president, and Giddings, I suppose, prime
minister. Would not Joshua cut a sorry figure, in that high and
responsible office! Prince John, I suppose, would be attorney general.
The little magician, John's daddy, would be thrown overboard, for no
party, I think, will ever trust him again.

But only once let them get snugly fixed in their fat offices, and we
shall then hear nothing more about Southern slavery from them, for the
very good reason, that they care nothing about it. They have tried
various expedients, and fallen upon various plans, in order to
accomplish their diabolical purposes, but they have made the
discovery, that either the whig, or the democratic party must be
dissolved--annihilated; before they can possibly succeed. They base
this conclusion on the supposition, that the fragments of the
demolished party will unite with them. Well, one of the two great
parties must be dissolved; but the democratic party being strong, and
well organized, it was vain for them to expect aid from that quarter;
but, it was otherwise with the whig party; and from this source they
had reason to hope for aid. Hence, they labored hard in the recent
presidential canvass, to defeat the whig nominee; believing that it
was at least probable, that if General Scott was defeated, the whig
party would in that event dissolve, and a large majority of the voters
belonging to that party would fall into their ranks. If the whig party
should hang together, and God grant they may, if for no other reason,
to avert a calamity so awful, then are they again destined to meet
with defeat and discomfiture, as heretofore. It is true that the whig
party may not have entire confidence in their rivals, the democratic
party; they may doubt the propriety of some of the measures advocated
by them--the purity of the motives of some of their leaders. They may
raise many objections to the democratic party, but I assure you, my
whig friends, that there is more patriotism in Col. Benton's or Gen.
Cass's little finger, as well as some others of the same party, whom I
could name, than there is in every abolition politician on this
continent. If you must leave your own party, I pray you go over to the
democratic ranks, or else, stand neutral; but for God's sake, and for
the sake of our common country, never be found in the abolition ranks.
Keep clear of them--stand aloof--come not near them--have nothing to
do with them. I am not advising the whig party to disband; on the
contrary, I believe that the interests of the country will be
subserved by their hanging together as a band of brothers. It is only
on the supposition, that you must and will bolt, that I give you this
advice.

The formation and organization of parties must and will take place, in
all governments; and under these circumstances, it becomes our duty to
guard against those moral and political evils, which are generated or
brought about by selfish or corrupt partisans. I think it probable,
that the present organization of parties into whig and democratic, is
the best and safest that we could have; and for this reason, I have no
wish to see either party dissolved. I am well aware, that when party
prejudices and prepossessions are carried to excess, a vast deal of
evil may grow out of them; but keep party spirit within clue bounds,
and parties exert a salutary influence on government.

It is true, that such men as Hale, Julian and Giddings, would be
likely to receive office from the hands of any party to which they
might choose to attach themselves; but it is not less true, that
ambitious men are rarely satisfied, unless there is a prospect of
their reaching the pinnacle of fame. Elect such men to a State
legislature, and they fix their eyes on the lower house of Congress,
elect them to the lower house of Congress, and they fix their eyes on
the United States Senate; elect them to the upper house of Congress,
and they fix their eyes on the presidency; elect them to the
presidency, and they are not yet satisfied--yea, they would then
dethrone the Eternal, if possible.

I will close my remarks for the present on abolitionism, with a
summary of my leading objections to it. I am opposed to it, because it
proposes to abolish slavery by any means, and at any cost, be the
consequences what they may. Because it would abolish slavery at any
cost, and at any hazard; though it plunges us into a thousand evils,
infinitely worse than African slavery.

I am opposed to the abolitionists, because they trample under foot the
Constitution and laws of their country. The following sentiment is
found in a report, offered to an abolition convention, recently in
session, in Boston: "Anti-slavery shall sweep over the ruins of the
Constitution and the Union, when a fairer edifice, than our lathers
knew how to build, shall rise."

I am opposed to them, because they have in some instances made
attempts to foment insurrections, and to incite the slaves to
indiscriminate murder and rapine.

I am opposed to them, because they have decoyed away slaves from their
masters, and have at the same time encouraged slaves to steal from
their masters and others.

I am opposed to them, because of their utter and notorious disregard
of truth, in their representations of Southern slavery.

I am opposed to them, because they reject the Bible, and profess to be
under the guidance of a higher law. I was at a loss for some time to
know from what source they derived their higher law; but looking over
a Cincinnati paper a few days since, I read as follows: "The infidels
celebrated the birth-day of Thomas Paine on the night," &c. A
gentleman remarked, "that it was through the spread of Paine's
opinions, that he expected to see the colored race elevated, and
through this instrumentality alone." Vain hope!

I am opposed to them, because their plans, so far from bringing about
the abolition of slavery, will but rivet the chains on the slave, and
bring disaster on both master and slave. Because it strews the paths
of both master and slave with difficulties and dangers. Because their
interference makes slaves more impertinent and unhappy, frequently
subjecting them to harsh and cruel treatment.

I am opposed to their theories and views, because they are illogical,
and because so far as there is any truth in them, it is abstract
truth, and not real truth, as modified by circumstances. Because they
refuse to view things as they are, but rather as they should be, and
are utterly reckless as to results and consequences.

And finally, I am opposed to them, because there is no fairness,
justice, truth, or righteousness in them. The following is from the
Detroit Free Press; and I shall give it without comment. It is headed
"THE MORALITY OF NEGRO-STEALING."

  "A novice might suppose, in witnessing the chuckle of satisfaction
  that has been noticeable among a certain class of people hereabouts
  within a few days back, that stealing is a virtue, and that the
  receiver of stolen goods is, _par excellence_, a model Christian.
  And even a man of some experience in the world might doubt the
  morality of the precept "to do unto others as ye would that others
  should do unto you," in view of the effrontery and impudence of
  those who regard negro stealing as a Christian duty.

  "A paper in this city, which professes that the free soil party do
  not aim to attack the institution of slavery in those states where
  it exists, unblushingly published a few days since the proceedings
  of a meeting of free negroes, held on the occasion of the arrival
  here of a quantity of runaway negroes from some of the Southern
  States. We say, unblushingly, because more than usual prominence
  was given to the proceedings in its columns.

  "Now, there is no difference, under the Constitution and laws,
  between stealing negroes from Kentucky and stealing horses from
  Kentucky. The Constitution of the United States and the laws of
  Kentucky hold one not less criminal than the other; and a paper in
  this city would be just precisely as justifiable in publishing the
  proceedings of a horse stealing society as the proceedings of a
  negro stealing society. There is not less guilt involved in the one
  than the other.

  "For our own part we are disposed to call things by their right
  names. We believe that he who would be guilty of aiding and
  abetting the escape of a negro from his master, would not hesitate
  to steal any other property if he could do it with equal safety to
  himself. The fact that slaveholding is a sin does not change the
  nature of the offense, because the Bible doctrine of submission to
  the powers that be, is a plain and unequivocal duty. Negro stealing
  is as much a violation of the law of God as of the law of a
  Southern State.

  "But we have not much faith in the Christianity of those abolitionists
  who steal negroes. And the receiver of stolen goods is equally
  guilty with the thief. Tom Corwin was not far out of the way (and
  it must be conceded that Mr. Corwin has had abundant opportunities
  to know) when he declared that 'they (the abolitionists) are a
  whining, canting, praying set of fellows who keep regular books of
  debit and credit with the Almighty.' 'They will,' he says, 'lie and
  cheat all the week, and pray off their sins on Sunday. If they
  steal a negro, that makes a very large entry to their credit, and
  will cover a multitude of peccadilloes and frauds. This kind of
  entry they are always glad to make, because it costs them nothing.'
  'But,' adds Mr. Corwin, and this is the severest cut of all, 'when
  they cannot steal a negro they give something in charity for the
  extension of the gospel, and then commence a system of fraud and
  cheating, till they think they have balanced accounts with their God.'
  For once we believe Mr. Corwin has told the truth."



CHAPTER IV.


Would the condition of the slaves be ameliorated by emancipation,
under existing circumstances; supposing they continue, either in the
slave, or free States? This is a grave question, and so far as I am
capable, I shall endeavor to give it a candid and impartial answer.
Having resided both in slave and free States, I presume that I have
had as good an opportunity of forming a correct opinion on the subject
as most of others. It has long been my settled conviction, that the
condition of the slaves in the United States, would be in no respect
bettered by emancipation in their present condition, under existing
circumstances; supposing that they continue residents of the United
States. It is in my view, no longer problematical; for I consider it a
settled question, that their condition would in no respect be improved
by emancipation; but on the contrary, I contend, that the condition of
the free negroes in both the slave and free States, is far worse than
that of the Southern slave. I shall again appeal to historical
facts--past experience--and universal observation. Throughout the
slave States, ever since slavery has existed on this continent,
conscientious and benevolent persons have, from time to time
emancipated slaves; and that too, in many instances, under the most
favorable circumstances. And what was the result? In nine cases out of
ten, and I think it probable, that in ninety-nine out of a hundred,
their conditions were evidently made worse thereby. This is an
indisputable fact, well known throughout the South. I resided
forty-four years in the slave States, and had as favorable
opportunities as any man living, for forming correct opinions on the
subject, and I do here most solemnly aver, that of the hundreds of
manumitted slaves, that came under my immediate observation, few,
comparatively very few, appeared to be benefited by the change. The
condition of a large majority of the free blacks in Tennessee and
Virginia, who fell under my observation, was deplorable, and farther
South, I suppose, that it was still worse. I practiced medicine among
them for twenty years, and conversed freely with them; in some
instances on the subject of their emancipation, and they frequently
admitted, that they were in a more comfortable condition while they
were slaves.

A majority of the slaves in the Southern States are professedly pious;
the free negroes more rarely so. A majority of the slaves appear to be
honest; a majority of the free blacks are petty thieves, drunkards,
liars and gamblers. I have frequently known slaves set at liberty on
account of their piety and other good qualities, and within a few
years most of them would undergo a change for the worse--frequently,
in fact, become vicious in the extreme. One instance I will here
record. A gentleman in Western Virginia, by name Carter, held a slave,
Absalom by name. Absalom became a member of the Methodist Episcopal
Church. He began praying in public a short time after his admission
into the church. Soon he was licensed to exhort, next to preach. All
this occurred, I believe, within less than eighteen mouths. He was
powerful in prayer, and eloquent in exhortation. No one doubted his
piety. He was prospectively liberated by a will. Carter, however, told
him verbally, about this time, that he had made provisions in his will
for his liberation, and that henceforth he could go where he chose,
and do as he pleased. That he was a free man. What was the
consequence? It was not long before a young lady belonging to a
respectable family, was delivered of a mulatto child. On being
questioned as to the child's paternity, she stated that it was parson
Absalom's. Those interested, immediately called on him, and he frankly
confessed that he was the father of the child. Poor Absalom, he was
promoted by the church, set at liberty by his master; caressed and
eulogized by the white brethren--it was too much for him--he could not
bear it--until finally, he was "lifted up with pride," and "fell into
the condemnation of the devil." Then might the church mourn, "O
Absalom, my son! how art thou fallen." This is not an isolated case;
many similar ones fell under my observation, but I cannot stop here to
record them. In the city of Knoxville, East Tennessee, where I last
resided while in the South; there were several hundred free negroes,
and I could readily distinguish a free negro from a slave when I met
him in the street. The slaves, to use Southern parlance, looked fat,
saucy, happy and contented, while the free blacks, with a few
exceptions, had a miserable and dejected appearance. When slaves are
liberated in the South they immediately become stupid, indolent and
improvident, though they were previous to their liberation,
industrious and economical. If previous to their liberation they were
pious, they frequently become vicious; if temperate while slaves, they
often become drunkards, after they obtain their freedom; if honest,
thieves; if truthful, liars. There are exceptions, I admit, and they
are but few exceptions. These are undeniable facts--melancholy
truths--would to God that it had fallen to the lot of some one else to
record them.

I have endeavored, in the preceding pages, to show that the condition
of the slaves of the South; so far from being improved; is made worse
by emancipation under existing circumstances. Free negroes meet with
but little sympathy in the South, and with still less in the North. A
residence of a few years in the slave and also in the free States,
will satisfy anyone of the truth of this remark. Free negroes are more
odious to Northern than to Southern people. In all the varied and
multifarious relations of social life, they are told to stand aside.
Under no circumstances, social, civil or religious, can the white man
and the African, meet on terms of equality and reciprocity. They are
debarred from social intercourse with the whites. They are not
suffered to become, so far as I know, members of any secret society,
association or organization, whatever. Beside the white man at the
hospitable board, they cannot, they dare not sit; and to a seat in the
white man's parlor, and social converse, they dare not aspire. The
carpet of the white man was not spread for them, and around his
cheerful hearth, before his crackling fire, there is no place for
them. They are not suffered to participate in any of the festivities
or amusements of their more highly favored white brethren. If they are
admitted into the same crowd, they must not commingle with the whites;
they are required to stand to one side. If they are admitted into the
same house, a separate apartment is assigned to them, and if to the
same table, they are taught to wait in patience until the white man is
satiated; and then to be content with the fragments and crumbs. If
they enter the same church, a separate bench, or a separate apartment
in the church is allotted to them; for beside the white man they dare
not sit, while engaged in devotional exercises. The black man's
children are not gathered together in the same school room, with the
white man's. They are denied in free, as well as in slave States, the
right of suffrage, or any participation, whatever, in civil affairs.
All this is true of free, as well as slave States, with a few
exceptions. The free negro in no respect betters his condition, by
taking up his residence in a free State. In some respects it is made
worse by the change. They are offcasts from society--loathed and
despised, wherever they go. Nature has interposed an impassable
barrier, between the white and the black man. It is not alone tho
black skin, and the woolly hair of the African that render him so
odious to the Anglo-Saxon. The two races are diverse, mentally and
morally--in their social qualities, habits, tastes and feelings. I
shall not stop here to draw a contrast in detail, but after a few
remarks I shall pass on.

The African differs from the Anglo-Saxon in his physical conformation,
by his black skin, his curly hair, his flat nose and broad flat foot.
Nor is he less distinctly marked by his mental characteristics.
Content to repose on the bosom of his mother _terra firma_, he is not
disturbed by dreams of honor, wealth or fame. He does not with the
white man possess that towering ambition, that soars aloft in climes
ethereal. There is with the African no motive to spur him to action;
no incentive to the acquisition of wealth; no aspiration for power; no
desire for honor or fame. Self reliance and enterprise, are the
peculiar characteristics of the Anglo-Saxon race; on the contrary, the
African in his native state, is content with his hut and his palm-leaf
shade, and he is now what he was centuries ago; there is no
improvement or change whatever. The African under no circumstances, in
any part of the habitable globe, has ever attained a high degree of
civilization. "For centuries on centuries, Africa has remained
stationary, and at the very lowest stage of civilization, but one
remove indeed above brutishness." "Back to that merely animal
existence too, the Jamaica blacks are fast retrograding." The African
is constitutionally indolent and improvident. Work he will not, so far
as he is able to avoid it, nor will he economize what falls into his
hands, I do them no injustice. I appeal to facts. Look at the
condition of the free negroes, North and South! Look at Africa--behold
the African race the world over, and then tell me from whence come
their universal poverty, ignorance and degradation. The African
possesses none of that sensitiveness--that acuteness of
sensibility--that delicacy and refinement of taste, which characterize
the white race. There is with the African a predominance of the animal
propensities, and with him, their gratification, constitutes the sum
total of life and all its enjoyments. He knows no other enjoyment, he
has no higher object, or aim. It is therefore, very clear, that
abolitionists are contending for an impracticability; that the two
races cannot amalgamate and become one people, and enjoy equal rights
and privileges; that they cannot live together on terms of perfect
equality. The white man has the pre-eminence; it is the gift of God;
and the African is doomed to servitude, until he is removed beyond the
white man's reach. The African is not fully prepared for the enjoyment
of liberty. Hence, the universal emancipation of the race, supposing
that they were colonized, would be very likely to throw them back into
their original barbarism; and the idea of liberating the entire slave
population of the Southern States, and letting them loose upon us, is
so ridiculous, that it scarcely deserves notice. It would be to us as
a moral pestilence; a plague, far worse than all the plagues of Egypt!
Yes, far worse, than frogs and lice, and locusts, and flies, and
murrain of beasts, and biles on man, and darkness all combined. Free
negroes would then deluge the great Northern cities. It would be as
tornadoes and volcanoes let loose upon us. Our country is already
deluged with as many vagrants, as she is able to jog along with.



CHAPTER V.


I consider slavery an evil, an individual evil, a national calamity;
but I believe that the evil falls more heavily on the master, than on
the slave. In order to understand this subject correctly, we must
contemplate the African in his native ignorance and destitution; his
brutal barbarism and his savage ferocity. We need but contrast the
African in his original state, with the well housed, well clothed, and
well fed slave of the United States. I am well aware, that an
objection will be urged against this view of the subject, on the
ground, that when brought to this country they were deprived of their
liberty; and this with some persons is proof positive, that their
individual happiness was curtailed thereby. The argument then resolves
itself into this; is the happiness of individuals, under all
circumstances, diminished by depriving them of their liberty? I have
already attempted to prove, that the happiness of slaves in this
country is diminished by attempting to restore them to liberty, and I
may again recur to this subject before I close this essay. For this
reason, I shall waive, at the present time, the refutation of what I
conceive a gross error, unless the objector is satisfied with a few
general remarks on the subject. I assert, without fear of successful
contradiction, that neither the happiness of individuals, nor yet of
nations, is always augmented by what is sometimes falsely called
liberty. It depends wholly on the virtue and intelligence of
individuals, and nations, as to whether liberty or servitude will
conduce to their happiness and general welfare. We have no doubt, that
the condition of the Mexican Republic would be greatly bettered at
this time, by placing over them, a humane and politic king. Whoever is
incompetent to take care of himself, is fortunate indeed, when he
finds a competent individual, who, will perform that office for him.
Show me a nation who are so debased by vice and ignorance, that they
are incapable of self-government, and you show me a nation who ought
to be ruled by a king or an emperor. Show me an individual, who is
incompetent to provide for, and take care of himself, and you show me
an individual whose happiness would be augmented by subjecting him to
a humane man. Abolitionists, propagandists, and filibusters, would do
well to bear these facts in mind. Servitude is sometimes a grievous
calamity to the unfortunate slave, for the cruelty and brutality of
some masters, better entitle them to the appellation of demons than
men. There are, and ever have been, and ever will be such, but I am
happy to believe, that there are comparatively few such monsters among
the slaveholders at the present time. I am well aware that but few
masters, in the treatment of their slaves, have complied with the
requisitions of Divine revelation, but cruelty to slaves is by no
means common among slaveholders at the present time.

I have said that I regarded the evils of slavery as falling most
heavily on the slaveholders; in other words, on the white population.
Slavery begets idleness; idleness begets vice; and vice plunges
individuals into-wretchedness, degradation and infamy. In some of the
slave States, the slaves perform most of the labor, consequently
children are brought up in idleness. The inevitable consequence is,
that a large majority of them, long before they arrive to adult age,
are deplorably vicious. It is in the extreme Southern States, that
this evil is most apparent.

The demoralizing influence of slavery is not so great in Tennessee,
Kentucky, Missouri, and Western Virginia. The evil falls mostly on the
male population; females not being exposed to the same temptations.

The boy is let loose at an early age, and runs into all manner of
excesses; not so with the girl; for from childhood to adult age, she
is ever under the eye of her mother; and I do not suppose, that for
intelligence, beauty and refinement, the world can produce a set of
females superior to the Southern ladies; though, the manner in which
they are brought up, their habits and modes of life, too often
incapacitate them for the active duties incumbent on mothers.

It has been stated as one of the effects of slavery, that it renders
men proud, haughty and tyrannical. There may be some truth in the
remark, but I am well satisfied, that there is not so much as some
suppose. In contrasting the character of the white population in the
slave and free states, it is somewhat difficult to ascertain the
precise influence of the institution of slavery, in moulding and
shaping Southern character. We must, in an investigation of the
subject, take into consideration the influence of climate North and
South, and various other influences less obvious, though not less
certain to leave their impress on human character. I have neither
time, nor space, for a thorough examination of the subject, and must,
therefore, after stating some facts, leave the reader to arrive at his
own conclusions. Southern people are proverbially liberal and
hospitable. No Southerner can fail, after a short residence in the
North, to observe opposite traits of character in Northern people; and
the Southerner, after emigrating to the North, is soon forced, in self
defence, or rather prompted by the laws of self preservation, to close
up the avenues of his liberality, and assume an attitude, or rather
take a position in society, unknown to him while a resident of a
Southern clime. The liberality of Southern people too often leads them
into recklessness in the management of their pecuniary transactions,
which frequently results in embarrassment and ruin. A Southerner to
his friend, never says _no_. He promptly and cheerfully complies with
his request, and, truly, the giver, if not more "blessed," appears to
be more happy than the receiver. Whatever they do, they seem to do it
cheerfully. They act as if they esteemed it a singular favor, to have
it in their power to relieve a friend. A Southern man will part with
his last dime to aid a friend, though, he may be forced, in less than
twenty four hours, to borrow money himself. I long lived among them,
embarrassed by a series of unprecedented misfortunes, and their
generosity I shall never forget. I shall carry the recollection of it
to my grave; it will, no doubt, soothe me on my dying bed. Dear
friends of the sunny South, in an evil hour I was separated from you,
and what I have suffered since both in body and mind, God only knows.
Ah! I could tell a _tale_, but I forbear. There is a marked contrast
in the manner in which strangers are treated North and South. Every
stranger in the South is presumed to be an honest man, until he proves
himself to be a rogue. Every stranger in the North, is presumed to be
a rogue, until he proves himself an honest man. Another Southern
peculiarity is, that no one can attack the character of another,
without incurring the risk of loosing his life. The slanderer in the
South is an outlaw, and the injured party incurs but little more risk
in stabbing, or shooting him, than he would in shooting a mad dog; for
public opinion justifies the deed, and a jury of his fellow citizens
will acquit him. This is literally and emphatically true, if the
female is the injured party. In the latter case, any relation or
friend is at liberty, to silence forever the tongue of the slanderer.
If he that slanders a female is in danger, he that seduces her runs a
risk tenfold. A few days previous to my leaving the city of Knoxville,
Tenn., an old man, by name M., walked into the court-house, (court in
session) and deliberately shot down a gentleman, by name N. He lived
after the discharge of thirty-six buckshot into his body, but a few
minutes. N. was an official character, and one of the most popular men
in the county, and though I remained in the city but a few days after
the perpetration of the atrocious act, I discovered that nine-tenths
of the community justified him in the horrible deed. It was not long
before I received information, that the murderer of N. was acquitted.
The crime of N. was seduction. Similar occurrences are frequent in the
South.

Swearing, gambling and drunkenness, are the most common vices among
Southern men; and slander, detraction, and a species of low detestable
swindling in business transactions, are the vices most obvious in the
North. The better part of Southern society are regulated and
controlled, to a great extent, by certain laws of honor and rules of
social etiquette. A Southerner is more likely to inquire, is it
honorable or dishonorable, than is it morally right or wrong? They
rigidly observe those rules and regulations which govern society, in
their social intercourse. I will close this chapter with some remarks
on slave labor; its effects on the agricultural interests of the
South, &c.

It is a trite remark that slave labor is unproductive, when compared
with labor performed by free white citizens; and that the agricultural
interests of the country have suffered by the introduction of slave
labor, &c.

The fact is admitted by all, but the reason is not very clear to every
one. Many cannot comprehend, why it is, that the farmer who pays his
laborers nothing, should be less prosperous than his neighbor, who
pays his laborers from ten to fifteen dollars per month. The idea that
those who work slaves, pay nothing for their labor; or in other words,
that slave labor costs a man nothing, is incorrect. If a farmer breeds
and raises slaves, it is at a cost of at least a thousand dollars per
slave. If he purchases a slave with his money, the slave frequently
costs him one thousand dollars. If we suppose his money worth ten per
cent interest, per annum, the amount of the interest on the purchase
money, is one hundred dollars per annum. Here is eight dollars and
thirty-three and one-third cents per month, that the farmer is paying
for labor. To this add fifty dollars per annum for clothing, viz.,
four dollars and sixteen and two-third cents per month; making an
aggregate of twelve dollars and fifty cents per month, that the farmer
expends for slave labor. During a residence of forty four years in the
South, I never knew the time when white laborers could not be procured
for that amount, and frequently for less. To this we may fairly add at
least twenty-five per cent for loss of time by sickness, loss of slave
property by death, physician's bills, &c., so that we may put down
slave labor at fifteen dollars per month. Fifty per cent more, than
white labor ordinarily costs in the slave states. This is a fair
statement of the case. But the disadvantages of slave labor do not
stop here. As a general rule, land cultivated by white laborers, will
produce from twenty-five to fifty per cent more than land cultivated
by slave labor. This is owing to the careless, slovenly manner in
which slave labor is performed. To this we may add the destruction of
farming utensils and implements of husbandry, over and above what
occurs in the hands of white laborers; and also the injury inflicted
on horses, mules and oxen; the loss of stock for the want of proper
attention, regular feeding, &c.

None can comprehend the force of my remarks so well, as the practical
farmer. Well does he understand the vast expense incurred, and the
loss that is sustained, by the careless and reckless wear and tear,
and destruction of farming utensils and machinery--the improper
treatment of horses--inattention to hogs, cattle, &c. Slaves are
remarkable for their listlessness and indolence, and the little
interest they manifest in anything. Many of them perform their round
of labor with as little apparent concern or interest, as the horses or
mules which they drive before them. There are, I admit, exceptions,
but as a general rule, my remarks hold good. I never owned a negro,
but I frequently employed them as cooks, washerwoman, &c., and many
years observation satisfied me, that as a general rule, that when left
to themselves, they consumed, or rather wasted, one-third more
precisions than would have sufficed for my family under the management
and supervision of an economical white woman.

It is a notorious fact, well known to every one who has had
opportunities of making observations, that in those parts of the
United States where the operations of farming have been confided
mostly to slaves, the lands are exhausted of their fertility and have
become barren and unproductive. Some lands are now in this condition,
which were originally the finest in the United States. Eastern
Virginia is a good sample of the effects of slave labor on the
fertility of lands. This all results from the ignorance, carelessness
and inattention of those to whom the operations of farming are
confided. All soils are capable of improvement by judicious culture,
and the interests of farmers, individually and collectively, as well
as the interest of every American citizen, requires at their hands to
so cultivate their lands as to augment their fertility; and not solely
with a view to their present productiveness. It is a duty incumbent on
them as good citizens; a duty they owe to themselves; to their
posterity; to the nation; to the world.



CHAPTER VI.


There is yet another evil growing out of slavery which I must notice
before I bring my remarks to a close on this topic. I allude to the
degraded condition of a portion of the white population in the slave
States. There are, throughout the slave States, a class of the white
population who are so debased by ignorance and vice, that the slaves
are in many respects their superiors. They are about on a par with the
free negroes. About the larger cities in the North, a similar class
may be found, a majority of whom are free negroes and foreigners. The
poverty, vice, ignorance and degradation of this class of persons, in
the South, is a sore evil, and demands the attention of every
Christian philanthropist in the Southern States. This, I conceive, has
originated partly from the competition of slave and free labor, but
mainly, I presume, from the association of this class with the African
population. There are other agencies, no doubt, which have contributed
to debase and brutalize this class of the white population, but I
judge, that the causes above indicated, are the principal ones. Some
will, no doubt, attribute this in part to the disparity between the
lower classes in the South, and what they choose to term the
slaveholding aristocracy. They will contend, that the vast difference
between the higher and lower classes in the South, results in the
deterioration of the latter. There is some plausibility in the
argument, and it may be that there is some truth in it, but such
individuals have forgotten that the same agency is in active operation
in the free as well as the slave States. I am aware that men of wealth
do not feel themselves under any obligation to associate with their
less fortunate neighbors, the world over. It is one of the
characteristics of human nature. But men of wealth in the Southern
part of the United States, are not more haughty, distant and
overbearing, than the same class in other parts of the Union. On the
contrary, there is an urbanity about Southern slaveholders, that
enables the lower classes to approach them with less embarrassment
than they feel when they attempt to approach the frigid, stiff, and
less polite Northerner. Gentlemen and ladies, in the Southern part of
the United States, are accustomed to treat every one that approaches
them, rich or poor, with a degree of civility and courteous ease, that
is unknown among the same class in any other part of the civilized
world. Their blandness and kindness cannot fail to make the poor man
feel happier and better. If he is forced to approach them for the
purpose of soliciting aid, he is seldom turned away empty. They are
universally liberal and hospitable. Having practiced medicine among
them twenty years, I have no recollection of a solitary instance in
which any of them made a long face, when I made out a long bill for
services. I will here relate some anecdotes which will serve to
illustrate Southern character. Being pressed at a certain time for two
hundred dollars, and not having time at my disposal to collect it, and
having rendered important services for a wealthy citizen near the town
in which I resided; I seated myself at my table, with an intention of
making out a bill against him that would liquidate the claim against
myself. With considerable difficulty, I at length screwed up the bill
to two hundred dollars, and off I posted to his house. I found him at
home and presented the bill; not without some misgivings, that
perchance he might take exceptions to the amount charged for services.
But I was disappointed, for after looking over the bill a few moments,
he remarked, "why sir, you have not charged me half enough; you ought
to have charged me five hundred dollars." He paid the bill, made me a
present of fifty dollars, and told me that if I needed money at any
time to "call and get it." At another time I was employed by a
gentleman to attend his son, who had been, for several years previous
to that time, subject to epileptic attacks. The fee, per visit, was
stipulated at the outset, and I was paid for each visit before leaving
the house, according to contract. I attended the young gentleman near
two years, and during the time was pressed for money and borrowed one
hundred dollars of the old gentleman, and executed my note for that
amount. Some years after I had dismissed my patient, I called for my
note, and presented the amount, principal and interest. The gentleman
handed me the note, but refused to receive the money, and when I
pressed him to take it, he replied, "No sir, I shall not receive the
money, I always intended to give it to you, provided that you cured my
son, and I presume he is well."

On a bright sunny morning, when a boy, I was seated on a rock watching
a flock of lambs, that were frisking and skipping about in a meadow.
An old lady by name S., and a gentleman by name M., met within a few
yards from where I sat. After the usual salutations; "Well, Mrs. S.,"
said the gentleman, "I understand that you have sustained a heavy loss
by fire." "Yes," replied Mrs. S. "Well I am very sorry to hear it, and
I intend to send you a wagon load of provisions, &c., shortly." "I
thank you Mr. M., but don't trouble yourself about the matter, for we
have already received twice as much as we lost by the fire." I will
relate yet another.

A wealthy gentleman being informed that a poor Irish widow in his
neighborhood was likely to suffer for provisions; went immediately to
her cabin in order to ascertain her condition. When about taking his
leave, he remarked to the widow, "if she would send over, she could
have some Irish potatoes, and any other articles of food that her
family needed."

"Bless your dear soul," replied the widow, "when you undertake to do a
good and charitable deed, and sarve the Lord Jasus, if you expect a
blessing on your soul, don't half do the thing, and leave a poor widow
to do the other half. Go home and send the potatoes, and send some
meat to cook with the potatoes, and send meal to make bread, to eat
with the meat; and then may ye expect a blessing on yer soul." The
gentleman returned home and complied with her request.

Whatever the faults of Southern slaveholders may be, and they are
many, these are redeeming traits in their characters; nor are they so
devoid of sympathy for their slaves, as is generally supposed in the
North. I know that they are represented by a certain class in the
North, as a set of tyrants, ruling their slaves with a rod of iron.
All such representations are untrue, for a majority of them seldom
correct an adult slave with the rod, except as a punishment for some
flagitious crime, for which a white man would be fined or imprisoned,
or else, confined in the State penitentiary.

Go to the field, and there you will find the aged slave and his
master, busily engaged in the same employment; listen to their kind
and familiar converse. Direct your steps from thence to the parlor,
and there behold the aged house-woman and her mistress, seated side by
side. Listen to the soothing and affectionate tones of this amiable
lady, and behold the happy, joyful countenance, of this aged African.
Cast your eyes around the splendid mansion, and behold the
indiscriminate groups of white and black children, chattering,
skipping, jumping, wrestling or rolling over the fine Turkey carpet.
If freedom was tendered to these aged slaves, what think you, would
they accept it? No, they would spurn the offer with indignation. They
are happier than their masters or mistresses, and they well know it.
They are provided for; partake of the same food, while they are exempt
from the cares which perplex and embarrass, and too often embitter the
lives of those who have charge of families. A large majority of the
slaves in the Southern States are contented and happy. This will
appear to many, no doubt, improbable. Nevertheless, it is true. If
African character was generally better understood, it would silence
much of that clamor and agitation of the subject, which is so annoying
to all patriotic, peaceable and good citizens. The African desires but
little, and aspires to but little; consequently it requires but little
to render, him happy. Happiness consists in the gratification of our
appetites, passions and propensities. Those of the African, occupy but
a small space; therefore but little is necessary to satisfy him. On
the contrary; the appetites, passions and propensities of the
Anglo-Saxon are boundless; therefore, much is requisite for their
happiness, or otherwise to satisfy them. For this reason, an
individual may be miserable, though he possess all the comforts and
luxuries that the world can afford; and he may be happy with a bare
sufficiency of coarse food and coarse clothing. He that is satisfied
with what he has, is happy; be it little or much. Slaves, as a general
rule, are happy in a state of servitude, because in a state of
servitude they have all that they desire--all to which they aspire.
Hence the evils of slavery, so far as the slave is concerned, are more
in appearance than reality, because the African is happy under
circumstances, in which an Anglo-Saxon would be miserable.

In the present condition of the African race they are happier as
slaves, than they would be as free men, because they are incapable of
providing for themselves, and are therefore incompetent to enjoy the
rights and privileges of free men.

I could fill a volume with anecdotes, which ought to make those who
vilify and traduce slaveholders blush for shame; but I have neither
time nor space at present. I will, however, relate one and pass on. I
visited professionally, many years ago, an aged infidel. A more
benevolent man I have seldom seen. Humanity appeared to be a
constituent element in his composition, and kindness an innate
principle of his heart. In one corner of the yard, in a log cabin,
lived a pious old slave with his family. It was the custom of the old
slave to pray in his family every night before retiring to bed. Old
massa was never forgotten in his prayers. He never failed to present
him before a throne of grace. The old infidel never doubted the
sincerity of his slave, nor yet the purity of his motives, though he
sincerely believed that it was all delusion. He had listened for many
years to the prayers of this slave, and could distinctly hear the
slave pray for "old massa." Some years after my first visit to this
worthy old gentleman, he was suddenly taken very ill. I was again
summoned to his aid. All my efforts availed nothing; he must die. All
hopes of his recovery were abandoned. Then did the prayers of the poor
old slave become long and loud. "Massa must die, and must he die
unprepared? O Lord, spare him--O Lord, convert him--O Lord, save him,"
was the prayer of the slave. While the slave was praying an arrow
pierced the infidels heart, and he cried aloud for mercy. The slave
was invited into the house, and he knelt at the bed-side of his dying
master, and there petitioned a throne of grace in his behalf. The old
infidel made a profession of religion, and shortly afterwards died
happy.



CHAPTER VII.


There is another point of view, in which slavery must be viewed by
every patriot, as a national curse. I allude to the agitation and
sectional hatred, which it engenders. This is a grievous misfortune.
It is folly to attempt to conceal the fact, that it has originated
sectional jealousy and prejudice, which endangers the perpetuity of
the Union. This is a serious view of the subject, and it demands the
sober consideration of every friend of this glorious Union. _The Union
must be preserved_; should be the motto of every one who has a spark
of patriotism in his breast. All those questions of national policy,
which have separated the great political parties in this country, when
compared with this great question, sink into utter insignificance.
Whatever endangers the perpetuity of this Union, demands the attention
of every friend of his country; every man who is worthy the name of an
American citizen. It calls loudly for prompt and effectual action, to
avert the calamitous catastrophe. _God save the Union_, should be the
prayer of every Christian. This petition, should begin and end their
devotional exercises. _God save the Union_, should be the first lesson
taught to the child in the cradle; and from infancy to old age, the
reverential aspirations of our hearts should ascend to him who holds
the destinies of nations in his hands; to save and bless our common
country.

    From morn till eve, our hearts should breathe,
    Father of mercies, God of love preserve--
    Oh! preserve, our blood bought liberties;
    Preserve them unalloyed, unimpaired While time shall last.

If we all could be animated by this spirit, then would peace,
prosperity and good will, abound more and more, throughout the length
and breadth of our land. Bound together by cords of love; as a band of
brothers; we should know "no North, no South;" the prime object of all
would then be, the prosperity and preservation of our common country.
We are the conservators of liberty. We hold it as a trust, and the
oppressed of all nations expect here to find a refuge from tyranny;
and here they may find it, so long as we preserve our Federal Union
unimpaired.

But unfortunately for us, ambitious demagogues have seized upon the
subject of slavery, and are convulsing the country from one end to the
other. Slavery is the demagogue's hobby, and he mounts it, raises his
hat, kicks and spurs, as if the salvation of the universe was
suspended on his elevation, to some petty, insignificant office.
Slavery is to us, as a great subterraneous fire, which is ever ready
to burst upon us with volcanic violence, deluging our country with
boiling lava, red hot stones, smoke and flames; carrying devastation,
death and destruction in its train. But the subject will be agitated,
more or less, and unless the people of this country become better
informed on this subject, and peaceably adopt some practicable means
for its final extirpation; sooner or later the Union will be
endangered thereby. The North should cease to vex the South, and the
South should cease to vex the North, and patriotic men North and
South, should devise some means, by which the end might be
accomplished at some future day. The question now presents itself to
every friend of humanity--to every philanthropist; is there no remedy
for these evils, or must we groan under their pestilential influence
forever?

I know that the subject of slavery is a perplexing question, and that
its abolition will be attended with dangers and difficulties, take what
course we may; but shall we for that reason, fold our arms, sit still
and do nothing? Or else flee from its hydra-headed ghost in dismay? No,
my friends and fellow citizens; to those who put their trust in God,
and have the wisdom to plan, and the will to work, all things are
possible. It is, however, folly for us to flatter ourselves, that
slavery can be extirpated in the United States in a short time. It will
require time and patience to attain an object, so desirable. Hasty and
inconsiderate action will be likely to prove abortive, and result in no
good to either master or slave; if not in irretrievable ruin to both.
We should avoid everything in word or deed, which has a tendency to
irritate the South and arouse them to resistance. Abolitionists by
their low abuse and vile misrepresentations, have done everything in
their power to excite and irritate them; hence, there is an impassable
gulf between them and Southern men. We should beware lest we fall into
the same error. The course of the North towards the South, should be
kind and conciliatory. We should consult her interests, and appeal to
her patriotism, and thus may the North and South as a band of brothers,
heartily co-operate in the great and glorious work, of restoring
liberty to the enslaved Africans, and of enlightening their minds and
thereby qualifying them for the enjoyment of freedom. What patriot,
what philanthropist, does not respond a hearty Amen? Not one. Show me
the man who says no, and you show me a man in whose bosom a patriotic,
or philanthropic sentiment never found a resting place--a man who is an
entire stranger to every sentiment of humanity--to every tender and
sympathetic emotion of the soul--to all the kindlier and better
feelings of our nature.

I have in the preceding pages endeavored to show, that the visionary
schemes of abolitionists can never accomplish anything for the slave;
but that they are on the contrary, potent for evil, and powerless for
good. It is therefore incumbent on me to reply to the interrogatory,
what can be done? By what means can slavery be abolished in the United
States? Is it practicable? Yes; it can be done; and the only means by
which it can be accomplished, is by colonization. There is no other
safe and practicable method, or way, by which slavery can be abolished
in the United States. It is probable that an objector will point to
the African colonization society, and ask, what has it accomplished
towards the abolition of slavery? But little, I admit. The reason is
obvious. It grows out of the immense distance of Africa from the
United States and the vast difficulties, and expenditures, consequent
upon the transportation of free blacks from the United States, to the
colony in Africa, and also the unwillingness of a majority of the free
blacks to leave this country, or at least, to be transported to
Africa.

Those philanthropists, who originated the African colonization
society, had another object in view. Their prime object was, the
regeneration of Africa; and in this they will probably succeed. We
must colonize the free blacks nearer home. We must have territory set
apart for that purpose, somewhere on this continent; if we expect to
accomplish anything toward the abolition of slavery by colonization.
Slaveholders must get their eyes open. They must have light on the
subject. They must become satisfied that it is not only their duty,
but their interest, to prepare and qualify the rising generation of
slaves for the enjoyment of freedom. Slaves must be educated and
enlightened before they are liberated.

We of the North must approach our Southern brethren in a spirit of
kindness, conciliation and concession; and talk to them as brothers,
and not denounce and stigmatize them as murderers, rogues, rascals,
slave-catchers and kidnappers. We have mistaken Southern men and
Southern character.

We may lead Southern men, but we cannot drive them. We must treat them
as gentlemen; we must approach them as friends, holding the olive
branch of peace in our hands, and treat them with that civility,
kindness and condescension, to which they are accustomed, and to which
they think themselves entitled. Don't talk to Southern men about
liberating slaves, until some provision is made for manumitted
slaves--an asylum provided where they can quietly repose in peace, and
enjoy the blessings of freedom. Don't urge them to liberate their
slaves, when both the condition of the master and the slave is made
worse thereby. 'Tis folly--'tis sheer nonsense; and well informed men
ought to be ashamed thus to conduct themselves. If you know anything,
you ought to know better; and if you know nothing, you ought to say
nothing, until you are better informed. Congress should be
memorialized in every town, city, and village in the United States, to
set apart territory for the colonization of free blacks. It should be
done speedily. It matters not what it might cost this government, it
should be done. Talk not of dollars and cents. Mountains of gold are
lighter than a feather, if thrown into the balance against a cause
which disturbs the peace, and endangers the perpetuity of this Union.
Territory should be secured and set apart, near the Southern border of
the United States. I repeat that it should be done speedily. Humanity
and justice demand it at our hands. What can the free blacks do? Where
can they go? They will soon be legislated out of the free states, and
their condition in the slave states, must necessarily be one of
wretchedness and degradation. Reader, what say you to the above
proposition? It is offered for your sober and prayerful consideration.
Does it commend itself to your judgment? Is it safe? Is it
practicable? Is it suitable, proper and right? Consult that inward
monitor conscience. Ask him if all is right; if all is well within
you? Ask him if something should not be done for the African.

Thousands of slaveholders at this time would cheerfully liberate their
slaves, if they could be removed beyond the limits of the United
States, and provision made for them, that would conduce to their
peace, happiness, and well being. Knowing, as I do, the feelings and
views of Southern men; I here confidently assert, that if our national
legislature will colonize the free blacks somewhere on this continent,
contiguous to the Southern border of the United States, and make
suitable provision for them; in less than twenty years from this time,
at least one fourth of the slaves, now in bondage in the United
States, will be manumitted and colonized. Don't talk to us about
colonizing the free blacks in Africa; it can't be done; it never will
be done; the majority of them are unwilling to go to Africa. They
prefer bondage in the United States, to transportation to Africa,
During my residence in the States of Virginia and Tennessee, I had
knowledge of several instances, in which masters proposed to liberate
slaves, provided they were willing to be removed to the colony in
Africa, and in most cases they refused, declaring that they preferred
bondage in the United States to a removal to Africa. I interrogated at
different times hundreds of slaves, old and young, male and female, as
to whether they would consent to a removal to Africa; provided their
masters would liberate them, and in at least, nine cases out of ten,
they would promptly and emphatically answer, No; they would not go to
Africa--they would rather continue slaves--they would rather die, &c.

Make provision then for liberated slaves, and cease, oh! cease, ye
fanatics and fools, to agitate the country by your clamor; and then
shall we behold the noble and generous sons and daughters of Kentucky
and Tennessee, conferring the boon of freedom on the African race,
within their borders. Missouri and Maryland will soon follow their
example; nor will North Carolina and Virginia long lag behind; South
Carolina will straggle long and hard, but she must ultimately yield;
and the soft zephyr of freedom will then fan the fair fields of
Alabama, Mississippi and Arkansas; Louisiana will feel its refreshing
influence; and the Lone Star, (Texas), cannot long stand alone, in her
opposition, to the rights of man, and the impulsive calls of humanity.
The shades of Washington and Clay will then hover over the states of
Virginia and Kentucky, and around them will cluster, a convoy of
angels, and the spirits of the fathers of American freedom; all
watching with intense interest the great and godlike movement.



CHAPTER VIII.


I shall now proceed to show, that the holding of slaves is not
necessarily sinful under all circumstances; or in other words, that
the relation of master and slave is not, under all circumstances,
inconsistent with, or in opposition to the revealed will of God. In
the discussion of this question it will be necessary, first to glance
at the origin and history of African slavery. I am apprised of the
difficulties which I shall encounter in the investigation of this
subject; and I am by no means blind, or insensible to my own
incompetency; but I set out with the determination to look the subject
of slavery full in the face, and fearlessly to express my opinions,
regardless of consequences; at least so far as my own personal ease,
interest, or reputation is involved; I shall, therefore, take the
responsibility of openly expressing such opinions and views, as I
conceive to be in accordance with the Holy Bible, and leave
consequences to a just, wise and righteous God. To Him, and to Him
alone, am I responsible for what I write.

God in his infinite benevolence and wisdom, and for the manifestation
of his own glory, created man in his own image, and placed him in the
garden of Eden, holy and happy. And he commanded him, "of every tree
of the garden thou mayest freely eat; but of the tree of knowledge of
good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou
eatest thereof thou shalt surely die." Adam disobeyed the high mandate
of heaven; he ate of the forbidden fruit, and thus he fell by
transgression from his high and holy estate. He was our federal head;
and he fell not alone, for on all his posterity fell the withering
curse of Almighty God. "Curst is the ground for thy sake." "Thorns and
thistles shall it bring forth unto thee." "In the sweat of thy face,
shalt thou eat thy bread, till thou return unto the ground:--for dust
thou art and unto dust shalt thou return." The posterity of Adam soon
forgot God. Gross wickedness soon covered the earth. Vile and
depraved, the descendants of Adam went forth, perpetrating every act
of wickedness, every abomination that the heart of man could devise.
The world was soon filled with brutality, lust, and violence. "And God
looked down upon the earth and behold it was corrupt." "And God said
unto Noah, the end of all flesh is come before me." "And behold I,
even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all
flesh." Righteous Noah and his wife, and his son's and his son's wives
were preserved in the ark; "and the winds blew, and the rains
descended and the floods came;" "and all flesh died that moved upon
earth;" and God said unto Noah, "go forth of the ark, thou and thy
wife, and thy sons, and thy son's wives with thee." And God said unto
Noah, "be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth."

The sons of Noah were Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and Ham was the father
of Canaan. And Noah drank wine and was drunken; and he was uncovered
within his tent; and Ham saw the nakedness of his father and told his
two brethren, Shem and Japheth; and they took a garment and covered
their father, without beholding his nakedness; "And Noah awoke from
his wine," and after being correctly informed as to the conduct of his
sons while he was intoxicated, "He said, cursed be Canaan; a servant
of servants shall he be unto his brethren."

We learn from the Sacred Record, that the curse of slavery fell on the
posterity of Ham in consequence of his dishonoring his aged father.
Every Bible reader must have noted the severe punishment of children,
under the Mosaic dispensation, for disobedience and disrespect to
parents. It appears to have been classed amongst the worst of crimes,
and death was the penalty. "Cursed be he," (said Moses on Mount Ebal,)
"that setteth light by his father or his mother." "Every one that
curseth father or mother, shall die the death." The children of Israel
were commanded to "stone a stubborn or rebellious son to death." "Honor
thy father and thy mother, that thy days maybe long in the land, which
the Lord thy God giveth thee," is one of the commands which was
delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai. Here is a command with a promise of
long life annexed to it on condition of obedience, and it is but a
fair inference, that those who disobey the command, will be cut off in
the prime of life. It appears that the punishment for disobedience to
parents, is the same under the gospel dispensation; for St. Paul says;
"Honor thy father and thy mother, that it may be well with thee, and
that thou mayest live long upon the earth." The language of Moses and
St. Paul suggests some solemn reflections, and I entreat my juvenile
readers to observe well the language; it is the voice of God that
speaks. Beware, lest you are brought to an untimely end, and the curse
of a sin-avenging God falls upon you. I cannot dwell on this subject,
but I entreat you, my young friends, to pause for a moment, and
reflect on the awful, the calamitous consequences of disobeying, or
otherwise dishonoring your parents. I must pass on.

We have no reason to believe that Noah was moved by resentment to
denounce the curse of slavery on the posterity of Canaan, in
consequence of the disrespect shown toward him by Ham. We have no
reason to suppose that there was any abatement of parental solicitude,
for the future welfare of this ungodly son and his posterity. He was
moved by the Holy Ghost, and uttered but a prophecy, which entailed
slavery on the posterity of Ham, as a consequence of wilful
disobedience of God's just and righteous laws. He uttered but a fact
_in futuro_, which had been revealed to him by an omniscient God. How
fully the above prediction has been verified, is familiar to every
historian. The continent of Africa was principally peopled by the
descendants of Ham; and for ages, the better part of that country was
under the dominion of the Romans; then of the Saracens; and more
recently of the Turks; and the fact, that the slave trade has been
carried on for hundreds of years with all its horrors, iniquities,
cruelties and abominations, is familiar to every one. A large portion
of the children of Ham have existed in a state of slavery for more
than three thousand years. It is said that more than nine-tenths of
the whole sixty millions of Africa are slaves. Negro slavery existed
in the colonies of Greece for ages before the Christian era. All other
races of mankind have enslaved the African. The phraseology of Noah's
prediction is a little remarkable. The children of Ham were not only
to be servants, but "a servant of servants." It is true that
unconnected with all other races, one portion of the negro race have
been enslaved to another, ever since the earliest dawn of history, and
that in a greater proportion too, than to any other race. It is
recorded by historians, that there are perhaps twenty negro masters in
Africa to every white one in the United States, and that they hold in
bondage at least ten times as many slaves. It is moreover stated, that
those portions of Africa where the slave trade with the white man is
unknown, are the most inveterate slave regions. In the negro islands
of the Indian Archipelago, the negro is enslaved to the negro.

Some are, no doubt, ready to ask, how is it that Africans became
slaves to their own race? Many of them were taken captives in war and
subjected to slavery. The different tribes in Africa have in all ages
engaged in predatory warfare, and the captives taken in those wars
became slaves. Necessity may have forced many of them to subject
themselves to servitude. Negroes have not that aversion to slavery,
that many suppose who are unacquainted with the peculiarities of negro
character. They are ignorant, indolent and improvident, and in many
instances are neither competent nor willing to provide for themselves;
and, therefore, they probably frequently became slaves to the more
highly gifted and fortunate of their own race from necessity, and it
may be from choice.

How is it that one nation acquires dominion over another? that one
nation falls a prey to another? that one nation makes slaves of
another? By what means were the posterity of Shem and Japheth enabled
to enslave the posterity of Ham? Some will say that God willed it
thus, and so it is. I consider the phraseology of this answer faulty.
It would, in my view, be more appropriate to say, God suffered it; or
permitted it; and so it is. I do not believe that Ham's crimes were in
accordance with the benevolent designs of Providence. The degradation
and slavery entailed upon his posterity, was but a necessary
consequence of his crimes, a just judgment, which a righteous God
suffered to fall on his posterity. It was a violation of God's laws,
which involved the African race in accursed slavery. God has attached
certain punishments to the violation of certain laws, in other words,
to the commission of certain crimes. The law is violated, otherwise,
the crime is committed, and the penalty, or punishment falls on the
head of the offender. Now all this is brought about in opposition to
the will of God; for when God gave laws, he willed that man should
obey those laws. If he says, "son honor thy father," and the son
dishonors his father, he acts in opposition to God's will. And to
secure obedience to his laws, and uphold moral order, he has attached
to every crime its appropriate punishment.

But every effect has a cause, and if one nation acquires an ascendancy
over another, there is a reason in the nature of things, _why it is
so_. There are reasons why individuals differ, and why they are found
under different circumstances and conditions in this world. Why one
becomes poor and another rich; why one acquires wealth and influence,
while another becomes poor, indigent and miserable--it may be a slave
to his wealthy neighbor. There is an internal cause; a constitutional
difference in individuals, physically, mentally, and morally. So it is
with nations. Locality, climate and other external causes have also
had much agency in shaping and moulding the characters, and
determining the destinies of nations. Nothing is more true than the
trite saying, "that knowledge is power." The Author of our existence,
"the giver of every good and perfect gift," conferred on Shem and
Japheth, or rather, on their posterity, superior mental endowments.
The African and the Anglo-Saxon races differ widely in their physical
organizations; their mental susceptibilities, and their moral natures;
and the advantages are in favor of the Anglo-Saxon. The Anglo-Saxons
are a superior race. They are the best specimens of humanity--the
noblest work of God. They excel in all those qualities and endowments
that raise man above his fellow man. The whole posterity of Shem and
Japheth are intellectually superior to the posterity of Ham. Locality
has had its influence. The human species degenerate mentally and
morally in a tropical climate.

Vice saps the foundation, and gradually impairs and undermines the
mental and moral constitutions of mankind. Ham being more vicious than
his brothers, the mental and moral deterioration of his race,
commenced in his own person, and was transmitted by him to his
posterity. A man transmits his intellectual powers, his moral nature,
or sentiments, as well as his physical organization to his progeny;
and this he does with positive certainty, unless the mother possesses
opposite qualities and properties. The children of the vicious are by
nature more vicious than the children of the virtuous. Hence, we see
that men by ordinary generation, transmit their own peculiar vices to
their offspring. Every innate principle, passion and propensity of
soul, body and mind, is transmitted from parent to child. This view of
the subject need strike us with no surprise, if we would reflect, that
men beget the souls, as well as the bodies of their children. I read
in Genesis, that God breathed into Adam's nostrils the breath of life,
"and that he became a living soul;" but I am not aware, that the
Divine Being has breathed a soul into any other living being since the
day he created Adam. No! When he breathed a soul into Adam he invested
him with the power to procreate the souls as well as the bodies of his
progeny. Hence, every man begets a soul and a body like his own,
except so far as his own qualities and properties come in contact with
opposite ones in the female; then, of course, some modification of the
foetus may be expected. If an acid and an alkali are brought in
contact, the result will be a neutral salt. We will generally find,
however, that in what are called neutral mixtures, there is either a
predominance of the acid, or the alkali. So it is with the children of
parents possessing opposite propensities and qualities, either those
of the father or the mother, are likely to predominate in the
offspring.

Slavery was entailed on Ham's posterity, in consequence of the
indignity with which he treated his aged and pious father. Ham was a
free agent; it was an act of his own. The Divine Being suffered him to
transgress his laws; and foreseeing that it would involve his
posterity in the curse of slavery, he foretold the result of the
transgression, by the mouth of Noah, Ham's father.

I have remarked in the preceding pages, that Ham was more wicked than
his brothers; and that he transmitted his own corrupt nature to his
offspring; and that in consequence of sin, his descendants sank into
ignorance, barbarism and brutality which subjected them to the
dominion of their more enlightened and virtuous brethren. Thus, we
see, that it was the wickedness of Ham, which involved his race in
ignorance, degradation and slavery. I repeat, that Ham entailed
slavery on his own race; it was an effect of the violation of
Jehovah's righteous laws; a just and righteous judgment. It is clear,
from the foregoing remarks, that Ham transmitted the germs of slavery
to his posterity, by ordinary generation.

God permitted the transgression, and he also permitted the penalty to
fall on the transgressors; and it then devolved on him, as Supreme
Ruler of the universe, to regulate, govern, and control the
transgressors, and the calamitous consequences of their transgression
according to his own righteous will. "Justice and judgment are the
habitation of his throne, and righteousness goeth before him." "The
wrath of man shall praise thee, and the remainder of wrath wilt thou
restrain." That the almighty and all-wise God governs both men and
devils, and the consequences of their acts, in accordance with the
strictest principles of righteousness, judgment and justice, we have
no right to doubt. He, in his amazing condescension, illimitable
goodness, and boundless mercy, has given us a revelation of his will,
to regulate, govern, and control our actions; and all that comports
with our best interests, or that is essential for us to know
concerning himself and his government of our world, is revealed in
this Holy Volume; and if there are some things in the moral government
of God, which we cannot comprehend, we have no right to cavil. "The
Judge of all the earth will do right."

If either masters or servants wish to know the will of God concerning
slavery--if they would learn their respective relations and duties, as
masters, and servants, I must refer them to the Bible. There they will
find a revelation of the will of God in relation to slavery, clearly
set forth. If we have any other authority, or guide, I am not aware of
it. I know of none. It is true, that I have heard something about a
_higher law_ but from whence it came, "to whom related, or by whom
begot," I know not. It is enough for us to know, that it did not come
from God. Christians must take the Bible as their guide, and God as
their master; and if others think that they can do better, let them
try. Poor old Ham, I suppose, thought that he could do better; and
he deserted the source of all mercy, goodness, truth, light and
knowledge; and what was the consequence? Ignorance, barbarism,
degradation and woe; ending in the accursed slavery of his race.
Accursed of God! A curse entailed on sin--an individual curse--national
curse! Too often, a curse to him that serves, and him that rules! God
be merciful to the slave and his master. The master, as well as the
slave, is entitled to our sympathies, and not to our maledictions.

Whether the mental powers of Shem and Japheth, were originally
superior to those of Ham, we know not. We know that the posterity of
Shem and Japheth, are mentally superior to the posterity of Ham, at
the present day. To me, it seems probable, that Ham came from the
hands of his Creator, in every respect equal to Shem and Japheth; and
that his mental and moral powers were debased by sin, and they thus
acquired a superiority over him. But, supposing that Ham was
originally inferior to his more fortunate brothers, he had no right to
complain. Suppose that the Divine Being gave Ham one talent, Japheth
two, and Shem four; he, in so doing, inflicted no wrong on Ham. To
whom much is given, of the same much is required. In order to secure
the blessing of God, it was only necessary for Ham to improve what he
had received. God required no more at his hands. But it is evident,
from the manner in which he conducted himself toward his heaven
favored and pious father, that he was an egregious sinner, and the
curse of God fell upon him, and his progeny. "The curse causeless
shall not come."

When the Almighty in his providence suffers a punishment to fall on a
man, or a race of men, he has a good and sufficient reason for it. If
He hides his face, or withhold his blessings, we may search for the
cause in our own hearts. "It is your iniquities," (said the prophet),
"that have separated you and your God." But to return to the
sovereignty of God. He has the power.--He has the right. He, alone, is
competent to decide what is best for us. "Hath not the potter power
over the same lump of clay, to make one vessel to honor, and another
to dishonor." He is under no obligation to any one; the best of us
having forfeited all right, title, or claim to his mercy. Whatever
mercies or blessings we may receive at the hands of Divine
Benificence, are unmerited; undeserved on our part. The Divine Being
is debtor to no one. There is no merit on our part, there can be none.
God nevertheless has respect to character. Shem and Japheth, acted in
accordance with Divine will, and He chose to confer on them certain
favors and benefits. Ham incurred his displeasure, by violating his
laws; and He left his posterity to those temporal misfortunes, which
must necessarily grow out of moral infirmities, and mental
disabilities.

I think I have clearly shown that African slavery originated in the
inferiority of the African race; and that the inferiority of the
African race, originated in the violation of God's laws. Slavery is
perpetuated by the cause that brought it into existence. I have
alluded in the preceding pages to the mental disabilities and the
moral defects and infirmities of the posterity of Ham; as subjecting
them to degradation and slavery. Physical conformation and color,
viz., the curly hair, the black skin, the flat nose, the broad flat
foot, &c., have had no small share in subjecting the negro race to
degradation and slavery. All other races of men shun and despise them
on account of their physical peculiarities. This is the key to that
universal prejudice against the African race, the world over. The
negro race are then, slaves from necessity, viz., they are slaves
because they are incapable of attaining to the rights and privilege of
free men. And those rights and privileges they never can enjoy in the
midst of the Anglo-Saxon race.

We have seen in the preceding pages, that slavery and all the evils
and calamities appertaining thereto, were entailed on Ham's posterity,
as a penalty for the wilful violation of God's laws; and, I shall
attempt to show before I bring this essay to a close, that in
consequence of disobedience on the part of masters, as well as
servants, that the evils and calamities of slavery fall not alone on
him who serves, but also on him who rules. Therefore, the evils of
slavery can only be mitigated, or removed by obedience to the
requisitions of Divine revelations, on the part of masters and
servants. This is the only remedy. There is no other. Here is a great
principle of God's moral government of the world, which we should
never lose sight of. It is a principle of universal application. All
those evils that befal mankind in consequence of transgression, may be
mitigated, or removed, or otherwise the penalty may be averted, by
repentance and obedience to the requisitions of the Holy Bible.



CHAPTER IX.


I shall now take a glance at slavery under the Mosaic dispensation.
Whatever our views may be on the subject of slavery, if we have read
our Bibles, we know that it was tolerated and regulated by the Divine
Being among the children of Israel; no doubt for wise and beneficent
purposes. I know that it is vain for us to attempt to elevate our
minds to a clear comprehension of the moral government of God. There
is much, I admit, that to us is incomprehensible. Finite beings,
cannot fathom the Infinite mind of Jehovah. We can, however, if we
will read our Bibles, learn the will of God concerning ourselves and
our fellow creatures; at least so far as our respective duties are
concerned. This may be learned from the Old, as well as the New
Testament. Forms and ceremonies may change; but the eternal principles
of truth, righteousness and justice, change not.

Prior to the Mosaic dispensation, we read that Abraham held servants,
and that when Sarai treated her maid-servant unkindly, and she fled
from her face, the angel of the Lord said unto her, "Return to thy
mistress, and subject thyself under her hands." It is a notable fact,
that when the law was delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai, he received
from the hands of God Almighty the following words: "In it," (the
Sabbath,) "thou shalt not do any work; thou, nor thy son, nor thy
daughter, thy man-servant nor thy maid-servant." It appears that the
Hebrews under peculiar circumstances became servants; and they were
released, or went free on the seventh year. If, however, they
preferred to remain with their masters, they then became servants
forever. The Hebrews were not suffered to enslave each other, except
for a limited time; their servants were taken from the heathen nations
around them. See Leviticus, 25th Chapter, from the 39th to the 55th
verses inclusive. Mention is frequently made of servants throughout
the Old Testament. Men women and children were held in bondage by
patriarchs, prophets, kings, and others. Moses delivered various laws
to the children of Israel, for the guidance and regulation of both
masters and servants. The holding of slaves is nowhere denounced as
sinful in the Old Testament; on the contrary, the Hebrews were
_permitted_ to buy slaves from the surrounding heathen nations.
Masters were commanded in the Old as well as in the New Testament, to
treat servants with kindness and humanity. Inhumanity, cruelty, and
oppression being every where forbidden in the Bible.

Having briefly alluded to the revealed will of God tinder the old
dispensation, we will now hastily glance at the position occupied by
Christ and his apostles in relation to this institution, and at their
instructions and admonitions to masters and servants.

It is clearly and indisputably true that their course with reference
to masters and servants, and the doctrine which they taught, give no
countenance to the wild and visionary views of the faction, known in
the United States by the name of abolitionists. I cannot, however,
stop here to draw fully the contrast, but it will be found in other
parts of this work.

Christ came to preach the gospel, and not abolitionism. Christ came to
preach peace, and not to foment strife. He and his apostles taught
servants to love and obey their masters, to serve them freely and
cheerfully, and not to run away from them. No! No! They never incited
servants to murder their masters, nor to murmur at their service; nor
yet to steal all they could get, and then leave then. But there are
those among us who have been guilty of all these things; and yet,
notwithstanding, they have the audacity to tell us, at least those who
have not embraced the views of Tom Paine, that they are Christians.
The more consistent ones, I believe, are open infidels.

Our Saviour said nothing that could be construed into a condemnation
of the institution of slavery; nor yet did he invest his apostles with
any authority to interfere with it. It was no part of their
commission. Our Saviour preached the gospel of peace and glad tidings
to the bond and the free, to masters and servants, to the poor, the
maimed, the halt and the blind. He intermeddled not with the civil
institutions of the day. On the contrary, he inculcated, both by
precept and example, submission to the ruling authorities. His
apostles followed in his footsteps, for they likewise enjoined on
their followers, to be subject to the higher powers--to those in
authority. They too, preached the gospel to the bond and the free,
masters and servants; and gathered them together in the same fold, as
brethren beloved--the sheep of one common shepherd, the servants of
one common master--members of the same church--partakers of the same
joys. But they did not in a solitary instance denounce the holding of
slaves as sinful; nor yet enjoin it on masters to release their
slaves. They carefully instructed both masters and servants in their
relative duties, as masters and servants; and otherwise left the
institution of slavery as they found it. How unlike the great apostles
of modern reform! Many will no doubt be ready to ask, if slavery is an
evil, why did not Christ and his apostles strike directly at its root,
and eradicate it from the face of the earth? Others may impiously ask
if it is an evil, why did the Almighty permit it, or why does he
tolerate it? The latter interrogatory is fully considered in the
preceding Chapter; but I will for obvious reasons make a few
additional remarks in reply. I again beg such persons to recollect
that we are but finite beings, and cannot, therefore, fully comprehend
the Infinite Mind; and that God is moreover the Supreme Ruler of the
universe, and that to Him belongs the right to govern and dispose of
the work of his own hands, as he, in his infinite wisdom, sees fit and
proper. We may observe His dealings with man, but we cannot in all
cases say why he acts thus; nor have we any right to ask him, why hast
them done thus? Slavery is a consequence of sin, and God, in his
providence, suffered it to fall on the posterity of Ham as a just and
righteous judgment--as a punishment suitable and proper--as a
punishment proportioned to the magnitude of the crime. The Divine
Being, no doubt, intended that the signal punishment inflicted on
Ham's posterity, should be a warning to all future generations, in all
future time, to warn them of the danger of violating his commands, and
deter them from the commission of crime. God, no doubt, willed that it
should continue until the crime was adequately punished, and future
generations warned of the danger of violating his laws; and his own
honor vindicated. We have reason to believe that God moreover willed,
that in his own good time, this evil, as well as all other evils
should be eradicated; and that the sons and daughters of Adam should
enjoy universal freedom; and that "righteousness should cover the
earth, as the waters cover the great deep." But God willed to bring
about this result, not only in his own time, but in his own way. By
his own appointed means as revealed in his Holy Word; and that we as
co-workers with him, in the accomplishment of his designs, should be
guided by his revealed will. So far as we deviate from the revealed
will of God in the use of means, we sin against him, and are destined
to disappointment. The Holy Scriptures justify the conclusion, that in
the process of time, the Almighty disposer of events, will root out
all evil from the face of the earth. "Every plant," (says Jesus
Christ,) "that my heavenly father hath not planted shall be rooted
up." But there are many evils so interwoven with the institutions of
society, that they can only be rooted out by the general spread of the
benign and purifying influences of the Gospel.

Much has been said and written about slavery as an evil--a curse--a
misfortune, &c. It is admitted on all hands that slavery is an evil;
but it would be well for those who undertake to propose remedies for
it, first to ascertain wherein the evil consists; or in other words,
what are the circumstances which give rise to it. It is essential to
the success in medical practice, that the physician correctly
understands the disease which he proposes to treat. I have shown in the
preceding Chapter that slavery originated in sin; or otherwise, that
Ham entailed it on his posterity by violating the laws of God. The
evils of slavery, to the present day, originate in the same cause, viz,
a violation of God's commands; a failure on the part of masters and
servants to comply with the requisitions of the Holy Bible. It is
disobedience to God's commands, that makes slavery an evil and a curse.
The curse of slavery originates in the disobedience of slaves, and the
cruelty of masters. "Servants, be obedient to them that are your
masters--masters give unto your servants that which is just and equal."
Here, in a sentence of twenty words, the Apostle Paul prescribes a
remedy for the evils of slavery, a remedy too, that has never failed--a
remedy that will remove the curse of slavery; and under some
circumstances, make it a blessing to both masters and servants. A
compliance on the part of masters and servants with the requisitions of
God's word, will disarm slavery of all its evils and terrors. It will
bring peace and consolation to masters and servants. Herein is
manifest, the wisdom and goodness of God. When the gospel was first
promulgated slavery existed in the world, in a form, no doubt, which
made it a sore evil--a grievous curse. The cries of the oppressed had
come up before the throne of God. He was moved with compassion for
masters and servants. Go, said He, to his beloved son, to yonder world,
and remove the curse of slavery. Instruct servants to love and obey
their masters, to serve them freely and cheerfully--without murmuring
or repining--and to be content with their lot. Instruct masters to give
unto their servants that which is just and equal. To never loose sight,
in the treatment of their slaves, of the great principles of love,
justice and humanity.

Jesus Christ and his apostles went forth to preach the gospel of peace
and glad tidings. Their object was to confer the largest possible
amount of happiness on the bond and free, that they were capable of
enjoying under the circumstances. The gospel contemplated the present
happiness of the human race, as well as their future interests. It had
no design of detracting anything from the happiness of masters or
servants; on the contrary, it contemplated the augmentation of the
happiness of all who should be brought under its influence. Slavery
existed. Masters were cruel and oppressive, and slaves were
disobedient. This condition of slavery made it a sore evil--a grievous
calamity, to both masters and servants. The duty of the apostles was
clear. It was to remove those evils as far as practicable. It was to
instruct masters and servants in their relative duties; well knowing,
that obedience on their part, would remove the evils of slavery, and
make both masters and servants better and happier. Having done this,
they could do no more. Any other course would have entailed misery on
masters and servants; or otherwise would have deprived them of all
access to both servants and masters. The apostles adopted and carried
out the only practicable and effective means within their reach, of
ameliorating the condition of servants. Go, ye ministers of Jesus
Christ, and follow in their footsteps. And ye apostles of modern
reform, from whence did ye derive your authority to speak evil of
rulers? To oppose the execution of the laws of your country? to foment
strife? to sow the seeds of discontent and rebellion among the slaves,
and thereby incite masters to acts of cruelty and oppression? "Woe to
you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites."

We may speculate, wrangle, and contend about slavery in the United
States for centuries to come, without bringing relief to the slave;
for after all, there is but one course which can ensure relief to the
servant, the master, and the nation--but one course by which we can
bring about universal emancipation, and secure at the same time the
peace, happiness and prosperity of the Union; and that is obedience on
the part of ministers of the gospel, masters and servants, to the
requisitions of God's word. Let ministers of the gospel imitate the
example of Jesus Christ and his apostles; let masters and servants
strictly observe what is enjoined on them in the New Testament; and
let those not immediately interested, look around, and see if they
cannot find objects of charity nearer home; and then will slavery soon
cease to exist as an institution in this nation. This is the only safe
and practicable means of accomplishing an object so desirable; and
those who attempt to extirpate slavery in any other way, are openly,
knowingly, wilfully and deliberately violating God's laws; and can
expect nothing but the curse of Almighty God on their devoted heads.
If they sow the whirlwind, they may expect to reap the storm. They
will learn, when it is too late, that no good can result from fraud,
falsehood and force.

Hence, we see, why it is that the interference of abolitionists with
slavery in the United States, has resulted in injury to masters and
servants. They have refused to act in accordance with God's revealed
will; consequently, they have augmented the evils, hardships and
calamities of slavery. Thus it has been; thus it is; and thus it ever
will be. God is immutable; his laws are unchangeable; and he that
expects to accomplish good, must do it by His appointed means. "Ask
for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein." Follow
the example of Jesus Christ and his apostles, and then may ye expect
to accomplish good for your fellow creatures, and enjoy the approving
smiles of heaven.

I shall close the present chapter with some quotations from the Bible.

  "THUS SAITH THE LORD."

  "And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his youngest son had
  done unto him. And he said, cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants
  shall he be unto his brethren." _Genesis_ ix, 24, 25.

  "But Abram said unto Sarai, Behold thy maid is in thy hand; do to
  her as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai dealt hardly with her, she
  fled from her face. And the angel of the Lord found her by a
  fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to
  Shur. And he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence comest thou? and
  whither wilt thou go? And she said, I flee from the face of my
  mistress, Sarai. And the angel of the Lord said unto her, Return to
  thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands." _Genesis_ xvi,
  6-10.

  "But in it (the Sabbath,) thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy
  son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor
  thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates." _Exodus_ xx,
  10.

  "Both thy bond-men, and thy bond-maids, which thou shalt have, shall
  be of the heathen that are round about you; of them ye shall buy
  bond-men and bond-maids. Moreover, of the children of the strangers
  that do sojourn among you, of them shall ye buy and of their
  families that are with you, which they begat in your land; and they
  shall be your possession. And ye shall take them as an inheritance
  for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession, they
  shall be your bond-men forever." _Leviticus_ xxv. 44-47.

  "Art thou called being a servant? care not for it; but if thou
  mayest be made free, use it rather." 1 _Cor._ vii, 21.

  "Servants, be obedient to them who are your masters according to the
  flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto
  Christ. Not with eye service, as men-pleasers; but as the servants
  of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart; With good will
  doing service, as to the Lord, and not to men: Knowing that
  whatsoever good thing any man doeth, the same shall he receive of
  the Lord, whether he be bond or free. And ye masters, do the same
  things unto them, forbearing threatening; knowing that your Master
  also is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons with him."
  _Ephesians_ vi, 5-10.

  "Servants, obey in all things your masters according to the flesh;
  not with eye service, as men-pleasers; but in singleness of heart,
  fearing God; And whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as to the Lord
  and not unto men." _Col._ iii, 22, 23.

  "Masters, give unto your servants that which is just and equal;
  knowing that ye also hare a Master in heaven." _Col._ iv, 1.

  "Let as many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters
  worthy of all honor, that the name of God and his doctrine be not
  blasphemed. And they that have believing masters let them not
  despise them, because they are brethren; but rather do them service,
  because they are faithful and beloved, partakers of the benefit.
  These things teach and exhort. If any man teach otherwise and
  consent not to wholesome words even the words of our Lord Jesus
  Christ, and to the doctrine which is according to godliness, He is
  proud, knowing nothing but doting about questions and strifes of
  words, whereof cometh envy, strife, railings, evil surmisings." 1
  _Timothy_ vi, 1-5.

  "Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters and to please
  them well in all things; not answering again; Not purloining, but
  showing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God
  our Saviour in all things." _Titus_ ii, 9, 10.

  "Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the
  good and gentle, but also to the froward." 1 _Peter_ ii, 18.



CHAPTER X.


We have proof positive, that the relation of master and servant is not
inconsistent with the word of God. "Servants, be obedient to them that
are your masters according to the flesh." "Masters, give unto your
servants, that which is just and equal." This is the language of Holy
Writ. Among the converts of the apostles were slaveholders. They were
converted as slaveholders; admitted into the church as slaveholders;
and as such, retained in the church in full fellowship, enjoying all
the privileges and immunities of the church. They were not required so
far as we know, in any instance, to manumit their slaves. It is highly
probable, that the best thing that they could do for them, for the
time being, was to retain them as servants, and treat them according
to the injunctions of the apostle; "Give unto your servants that which
is just and equal."

The case of Philemon and Onesimus, his servant, is fully to the point.
Philemon, a convert of St. Paul, appears to have been a devoted
Christian; and I infer, from the language of St. Paul, a teacher or
preacher of the Gospel. He had a wicked servant, by name Onesimus.
Onesimus, (if I may use modern parlance), ran away from his master,
Philemon. St. Paul found him at Rome, and converted him. What then
became of this fugitive slave? Did St. Paul conceal him, or did he
advise him to flee still farther from his master, in order to elude
pursuit and apprehension? Did he say to Onesimus, why brother
Onesimus, you are now a Christian; Philemon, your master is a
Christian; we are all Christians; and one Christian has no right,
under any circumstances, to retain another in bondage? No! Thank God,
St. Paul promulgated no such doctrine. What then did he say to
Onesimus? Go home, and be subject to your master, Philemon. Love him
and serve him, in the singleness of your heart. Do it freely and
cheerfully; without murmuring or repining; and whatever service them
shalt render unto thy master, Philemon, it shall be accounted unto
thee, as service rendered unto the God of heaven. Dear brother
Onesimus, thy condition is now changed; for, whereas Philemon was
formerly thy master; he is now thy master and thy brother, and thou
shalt obey him and love him as such. Go home brother; and here is a
letter I have written to brother Philemon, your master. Onesimus
returns home with this letter in his pocket. Anxious I have no doubt,
to see his good old master. His feelings and views had undergone a
change. He loved his master then; whereas, he formerly hated him, and
fled from his service. No time is lost; he returns home in haste to
his master. They meet. He approaches Philemon and extends his hand,
while tears trickle down his cheeks. Master, (says he to Philemon), I
have been a wicked and unfaithful servant; but thank God, I found St.
Paul at Rome and he has converted me to Christianity; and here is a
letter from brother Paul. And did you see brother Paul, exclaimed
Philemon? Oh! yes, said Onesimus; his countenance lighting up and his
eyes dancing in their sockets for joy. And is dear brother Paul well?
How does he do? Oh! very well master, very well, indeed. Philemon then
proceeds to open the letter, and what does he read therein?

"I, Paul, the prisoner of Jesus Christ--unto Philemon, our dearly
beloved brother--Grace to you and peace from God--Hearing of thy love
and faith--Which thou hast toward the Lord Jesus Christ; I beseech
thee for my son, Onesimus, That thou shouldst receive him forever."

Receive him, said St. Paul, not only as a good and faithful servant,
now profitable to thee; but receive him as a brother beloved--an heir
of salvation. Here is clearly set forth the duty of ministers,
masters, and servants; but, as I shall again and again refer to this
subject, I will now proceed to show reasons why, the holding of slaves
is not necessarily sinful under all circumstances.

A slaveholder is under no obligation to emancipate his slave, provided
the condition of the slave is made worse thereby. And it is obvious,
that there are many cases, in which both master and slave would
sustain injury, by the emancipation of the slave. Under such
circumstances, there are as good reasons, why a slave should be
retained in bondage, as there are, that a minor should be subject to
his parents until he is twenty-one years of age; or that an idiot
should be placed under the supervision and control of some one, during
his natural life. The reason is based on inability and incompetency of
the slave, the minor and the idiot. They are not qualified to reason
and to judge, and are therefore incompetent to act; hence, it devolves
on some one to reason and to judge for them, and to supervise and
control their actions. The welfare of the slave, the minor, and the
idiot, is subserved by subjecting them to the control of competent
persons; and the peace, prosperity, and general good of all are
promoted thereby.

Before I proceed farther with the respective duties of masters and
servants, I beg leave to present some solemn thoughts, for the
consideration of Christian slaveholders. I have endeavored to show,
that the holding of slaves is not sinful, _per se_; but if
slaveholders fail to discharge the duties enjoined on them, the Divine
Being will hold them accountable for their dereliction of duty. Such
is the deceitfulness of our hearts, and such the proneness of our
corrupt natures to wander from the path of duty, that it is necessary
for us at all times to scrutinize well, the motives which prompt us to
act, and to test all our actions by the only standard of truth, the
Holy Scriptures. Our Saviour tells us, that it is easier for a camel
to pass through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into
the kingdom of heaven. Not that the possession and enjoyment of riches
is necessarily sinful; but if those who have wealth, fail as good
stewards, to use it according to the requisitions of the Bible, then
are they guilty in the sight of God. So it is with slavery.
Slaveholding is not necessarily sinful, but if slaveholders fail to
discharge the duties enjoined on them in the New Testament; then are
they guilty in the sight of God. And here lies the difficulty; when we
point out to a rich man his duty, his corrupt and avaricious heart
interposes and says, no; you would rob me of my goods, you would
damage my pecuniary interests; I cannot, I will not yield to your
requisitions. We sometimes encounter the same difficulty with
slaveholders. They sometimes imagine that duty and interest, are
antagonistic principles. They imagine, that if they discharge their
duty to the slaves, their pecuniary interests will suffer thereby; and
for this reason, I have sometimes thought, that it might be as
difficult for a slaveholder to enter the kingdom of heaven, as for a
rich man. "The love of money, the root of all evil," stands in the way
in both cases. If duty and our worldly interest could always run in
the same channel, then should we find it no difficult task to be
Christians; but as they are sometimes opposing forces, antagonistic
principles, the contest is difficult, and the result sometimes
doubtful.[3] Duty, commands the rich man to feed the hungry and clothe
the naked; but the rich man says, nay, Lord, my goods are my own; I
procured them by honest labor, and must I now appropriate them to
feeding the hungry and clothing the naked? What right have they to
enjoy the fruits of my labor? Your requisition Lord, is unreasonable.
I cannot, I will not comply. Duty, says to the slaveholder, "Give unto
your servants that which is just and equal, forbearing threatening;"
but the slaveholder says, nay Lord, my slave is my own property, I
purchased him with my own money, and what right have you to dictate to
me, how I shall treat my slave? Is he not my own, have I not the right
to feed, clothe, work, and otherwise treat him, as seemeth good in
mine own eyes; and who has the right to interfere? A compliance with
your unreasonable demands will materially affect my pecuniary
interests. My object is to amass wealth, to hoard up silver and gold;
and I shall therefore so manage my affairs as to accomplish this
object.

    [3] By _worldly interest_, I wish to be understood, the accumulation
    of wealth by any and every means, and the hoarding it up, regardless
    of the wants and sufferings of those around us.

He that sets up for himself, regardless of the peace, happiness, and
comfort of his fellow creatures--he that hath a will of his own, and
will not yield to the requisitions of God's word--he that will take
his own way, regardless of the dictates of his better informed
judgment--he that will go his own course, it matters not on whose
rights he infringes--he that will consult his own interests, and at
the same time trample under foot the dearest interests of others, has
no right, or title, to the name of a Christian. If the Bible says do
this, or abstain from that, the Christian has no right to demur; it
matters not how repugnant it may be to the feelings and inclinations
of his heart. He must cheerfully and heartily at all times, and under
all circumstances, acquiesce in the will of a superior intelligence.
He must be willing to sacrifice all; not only his earthly goods, but
life itself, if God requires it at his hands. This is the doctrine of
the Bible, and well did the Saviour say, "Strait is the gate and
narrow is the way, that leadeth to life; and few there are that find
it." "Many are called, but few are chosen." The Christian is not at
liberty to consult his own personal interests and inclinations, when
they are in opposition to the will of God. "Ye are not your own, (says
the apostle), ye are bought with a price."

It was impressed on my mind in early life, that there was much error
and misconception among Christian slaveholders in general, in
reference to their obligations to their slaves, and a long residence
among them has but strengthened and confirmed those convictions. I
have no reference here to those who view slave property in the same
light, that they do every other species of property; but to
conscientious and humane men. I allude to you, who profess to be the
followers of the meek and lowly Jesus--you, who take the Bible for the
man of your council--you, who profess to be the servants of that God
who is no respector of persons--you, who profess to be under the
influence of that religion which recognizes every man as a brother
beloved, for whom Christ shed his precious blood.

I beg leave to impress on your minds the solemn truth, that your
slaves are human beings of like passions, feelings, and propensities
as yourselves; that they have immortal souls; that their joys and
their sorrows, their happiness, and their misery, are suspended on the
treatment which they receive at your hands; and that not only their
present happiness and misery, but in all probability, their eternal
destiny may be influenced by your course of conduct toward them. These
are weighty considerations--would to God I could impress their
importance on your minds; and that you would give them that prayerful
and serious attention winch they demand at your hands.

In assuming the right to direct and control fellow beings, from their
cradles to their graves, you have taken on yourselves responsibilities,
onerous indeed; and whatever may be your feelings,--whatever may be
your views--whatever may be your course toward these unfortunate
beings, of one thing you may be assured, that you are destined to meet
them at the bar of judgment, and that if you have failed to discharge
the duties obligatory on you, God Almighty will require their souls at
your hands.

It is there that the rich and the poor, the bond and the free, the
slave and his master, shall meet on a common level before a just and
Almighty Judge; who, without respect of persons, colors, grades, or
conditions in life, shall render unto every man according to his
works, whether they be good or evil. In that dread day, it will avail
you nothing, that in this world you were men of renown; that in this
world the indigent and the ignorant, cowered in your presence, or were
awed into submission by your superiority; or, that the summits of your
superb and beautiful mansions vied with the clouds--that you added
house to house, and field to field--that you amassed silver and gold
as the dust of the earth--and that you were surrounded by all the
elegancies and enjoyed all the comforts of life--rioted in excess and
reveled in luxury. There you will stand before a just and scrutinizing
God, divested of all those superfluities, and stripped of all that
drapery, and those fascinating accomplishments, which attracted the
attention and commanded the respect and admiration of your dependants
and inferiors in this world.

Having in the preceding pages, but incidentally alluded to the duties
of servants, I will close the present chapter with a few remarks on
that subject. "Servants obey in all things your masters according to
the flesh," &c. Servants are taught in the New Testament, not only to
obey their masters, but to do it in the fear of God, cheerfully,
freely, and actively; not simply with a view to please their masters,
but as a service or duty, which God requires of them and for which he
will hold them accountable.

It is a little remarkable, that so much should have been said and
written about the cruel and harsh treatment of servants, and the
duties of masters, and that the duties of servants should have been
overlooked. Servants are commanded to be subject to their masters,
"not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward." The
non-observance of this command on the part of servants, has frequently
engendered that peevishness and perverseness in masters to which the
apostles alludes, viz. forwardness among servants, has engendered
frowardness in masters. It is the duty of servants, to oppose the evil
tempers and dispositions, and the inhumanity of masters, by opposite
tempers and dispositions, and by an opposite course of conduct. This
is the command of God; and by yielding obedience to this command, they
would to some extent, at least, reform their masters, and secure to
themselves kind treatment. It is their only hope; it is all they can
do, that will be likely to ameliorate their conditions as slaves. If
servants would obey the injunctions of Holy Writ, they would seldom be
treated cruelly or unkindly. It is their own disobedience and
perverseness that subjects them, for the most part, to cruel
treatment. I know, from personal observation, that the unkind, the
harsh, the cruel treatment of slaves, in a large majority of cases,
originates in their failure to observe the injunctions of the inspired
writers.

I have shown that it is the duty of servants to "love" and "obey"
their "masters," to "count them worthy of all honor," and "to please
them well in all things;" and it now devolves on those who have taught
a contrary doctrine, to either admit their error, or otherwise to
throw away their Bibles. It is folly for persons to persist in a
course so contrary to the word of God, and notwithstanding, to call
themselves Christians. I know that there are many who will plead
ignorance, when they are arraigned for their unscriptural views, and
their unwarrantable interference with slavery. It is too true--poor
souls, they are ignorant--deplorably ignorant; but in all seriousness
I would ask, how is it in this land of Bibles, that a majority of
those professing Christianity, should know but little more about the
Sacred Scriptures, than the heathen who never saw a Bible? But they
have no time to read the Bible, and what is worse, they have no taste
for it. All their leisure moment are devoted to the reading abolition
papers, Uncle Tom's Cabin, and other contemptible low, filthy novels!

But how is it, that there are ministers of the gospel of all
denominations of Christians, who are guilty of inculcating doctrines
on the subject of slavery, that are directly opposed to teachings of
Divine inspiration? Are they ignorant of the fact, "that slavery
pervaded the whole Eastern world, at the introduction of
Christianity;" and yet not one word was uttered by our Saviour and his
apostles, in condemnation of it as a civil institution? Are they
ignorant of the fact, that both masters and servants were admitted
into the church of Christ, and that masters were required in no
instance, so far as we know, to manumit their slaves? Are they
ignorant of the fact, that Christ and his apostles taught masters and
servants their relative duties, and otherwise left the institution of
slavery as they found it? Have they ever read Paul's letter to
Timothy? "Let as many servants as are under the yoke, count their
masters worthy of all honor, that the name of God and his doctrine be
not blasphemed. And they that have believing masters, let them not
despise them, because they are brethren? but rather do them service,
&c. These things teach and exhort. _If any man teach otherwise, he is
proud, knowing nothing, but doting about questions and strifes of
words, whereof cometh envy, strife, railings, evil surmisings,
perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds, and destitute of the
truth. From such withdraw thyself_."

A more graphic description of the abolition clergymen of the present
day could not be drawn. It is a picture of modern abolition drawn by
the Omniscient God; and every word of it was originally applied to the
subject of slavery and abolitionism. We have had strife, we have had
railings, evil surmisings and perverse disputings; and we are indebted
to corrupt fanatical clergymen for all these evils--for all this
contention and slavery agitation--for all this envy, jealousy, hatred
and sectional feeling--for all that endangers our peace and
prosperity--our liberty, our happiness--and the perpetuity of this
glorious Union. Yes, my fellow citizens, we are indebted to the
emissaries of England, and native born American citizens, who from
sinister motives have cloaked themselves with ministerial garb, for
all the contention, all the evils, all the crime that has accrued or
grown out of African slavery in the United States! St. Paul says, that
they are "men of corrupt minds," and that they are "destitute of the
truth;" and he moreover commands Timothy to "withdraw from such"
characters. And in the name of God, I command every Christian, every
patriot, every friend of republicanism, every gentleman of honor, to
"withdraw" from such men. Excommunicate them, cast them off,--cast
them out as evil spirits--have no fellowship with them, until they
repent of their crimes and cease from the evil of their ways. They are
enemies to "pure and undefiled religion," and traitors to their
country; and as such, they should be viewed and treated by every good
citizen.

Many persons suppose that abolitionism is of modern origin; but it is
an error, for we learn from the Epistle of Paul to Timothy, that it
was agitating the church of Christ in the apostolic ages. St. Paul
denounces those agitators as "men of corrupt minds;" and he moreover
says unto Timothy, "from such withdraw thyself;" viz., excommunicate
them--exclude them from the church, and have no fellowship with them.
It is a fact, worthy of note, that primitive Christians never meddled
with the civil institutions of the countries in which they resided.
They were under all circumstances good and loyal subjects. But the
efforts of the apostle Paul, to crush the monster abolitionism, did
not entirely succeed, for it has continued to agitate the church, from
that day to the present hour. Yes, the foul fiend, with head erect,
and brazen front, is stalking over our beloved country to the present
day!

It appears that portions of the church, notwithstanding the solemn
injunctions and admonitions of St. Paul, continued to interfere with
the civil and domestic relations of master and servant. But the
practice was condemned as unchristian, by nearly all the principal
_fathers_. Particularly, Ignatius, Chrysostom and Jerome. Ignatius
says, "let them (servants), serve their masters with greater
diligence, and not be puffed up--and let them not desire their liberty
to be purchased by the church." It was decreed by one of the ancient
councils of the church,--"if any teach, that by virtue of religion or
Christian instruction, that the slave may despise his master, or may
withhold his service, let him be anathema," viz., let him be accursed
of God, and separated or excommunicated from the church of Christ. Let
the church have no fellowship, union, or communion with him, and let
him be an off-cast from society.

Mark the above, reader! It is the language of the apostle Paul, and
the voice of the primitive church of Christ with reference to
abolitionism. I have said nothing worse--I have not said more--I shall
not say less. It is God's truth; harsh and severe as it may appear to
some of you. And to abolitionists, I have only to say in conclusion,
poor deluded souls, I sincerely pity you. Bow your heads with shame
and grief--it may be, the Lord will have mercy upon you.



CHAPTER XI.


I am not yet done with the obligations of masters to their slaves. I
cannot hastily dismiss the subject. In it I feel an intense interest.
Bear with me, my beloved friends and fellow citizens of the South. For
I assure you, that if I know anything of my own heart, I am prompted
to write by the best of motives and the kindest of feelings. To many
of you I am personally known; and I flatter myself, that those who
know me best, will not suspect me of improper motives or feelings. I
have for you the highest respect, and for you I entertain the kindest
feelings. I long resided in your midst, and was treated with kindness
by you, in all the relations of life, whether private or public; and I
feel myself bound to you by ties of gratitude, which neither time nor
space can separate; by all those tender and endearing associations and
relations in life, which must necessarily grow out of a long residence
in the midst of a generous, humane and hospitable people. My regard
and solicitude for my Southern friends is now a thousand fold greater
than at any previous period of my life. And my anxiety for your peace,
happiness, and permanent prosperity, becomes more and more ardent. But
I must come directly to the point under investigation.

Masters, I conceive, are under obligations to act with reference to
the comfort and happiness of their slaves; and not solely with a view
to their own pecuniary interests. If they fail to provide for their
slaves comfortable houses, clothing suited to their various wants, and
adapted to the varying and changeable seasons of the year, together
with a supply of wholesome and nutritious food, they violate the
commands of God. Their own interests, as well as duty, demand it at
their hands. I do not contend that the master is bound to furnish the
slave with clothing of the same material with which he clothes
himself; nor do I contend, that in all cases, he is bound to provide
for him the precise articles of food, on which he himself subsists.
The occupations of the master and the slave may be different; and
supposing that they are engaged in the same occupation, their
feelings, views, appetites and propensities differ. In other words,
their _wants_ differ. Hence, what would conduce to comfort in the case
of the slave, would not, at all times, suffice for the master's
happiness and comfort.

Here is a fact which is not understood in the free States. Slaves are
happy and content under circumstances in which a white man would be
miserable. They are satisfied and content with food, on which the
better portion of the white race can hardly subsist. Nor would soft
beds and fine houses conduce to their comfort. There are many of them,
who, if they were provided with downy beds, would prefer to repose on
the hearth or the floor. They are by nature a happier people than the
Anglo-Saxon race, and of course, less will suffice for their happiness
and comfort. All that I contend for is, that the health, comfort and
convenience of the slave, should be amply provided for by the master;
or at least as far as practicable. I wish here, as well as elsewhere,
to avoid the error of asking too much, for I have generally observed
through life, that those who ask too much are likely to get nothing. I
shall, therefore, contend for nothing more than the clear, obvious,
and indisputable duty of slaveholders.

Slaves do not, as a general rule, receive that attention in sickness
from their masters, to which they are entitled. Humanity, as well as
interest, should prompt their masters to be a little more attentive to
them, under the afflictive dispensations of Providence. And the
necessity is more apparent from the consideration of the fact, that
slaves are ignorant, and universally entertain opinions in regard to
dieting the sick, which, if practically carried out, will in all
cases, endanger their lives. I allude to the notion prevalent among
them, that the sick are in no danger, so long as they can by any means
induce them to take food. The same error is common among the more
ignorant class of white people; and it constitutes the worst
difficulty that the physician encounters in the treatment of disease.
I once remarked to an ignorant, drunken, degraded son of Belial, that
if he was not a little more cautious in the use of certain articles of
food, he would sooner or later destroy himself. "Oh! there is no
danger," said he, "I shall never die while I can get plenty of fat
'possum to eat, and whiskey to drink." So it is with ignorant persons;
they know that food sustains life, and for that reason they believe,
that as long as they are able to cram it down their throats, there is
no danger.

It is a little remarkable that the proprietors of slaves do not more
generally enforce cleanliness among them. This is the more to be
regretted, as cleanliness conduces not only to the health and comfort
of the body, but also to the purity of the mind. I am aware that it
would in most cases be difficult to enforce cleanliness among them, as
they seem to be constitutionally a filthy race. This may originate
partly, however, from, the peculiar circumstances under which they
live, their ignorance, degradation, &c.

But there are yet duties obligatory on slaveholders, to which I have
not directly alluded, which bear heavily on my mind. Oh! that I could
in appropriate language, impress their importance on the minds of my
Southern friends. Oh! that in view of their responsibility to the
Supreme Ruler of the universe, they would calmly, patiently, soberly,
seriously and prayerfully reflect on the following remarks. Aid a worm
of the dust, O God, to plead the cause of humanity. "Paul may plant,
and Apollos may water," but thou, O God, "must give the increase."
Thou knowest that in vain I admonish my Southern brethren, unless thy
Spirit attends the warnings and admonitions herein given. May thy
Spirit attend this little volume in its Southern tour. Give the
hearing ear, and the understanding heart. May they hear, and give ear;
and not only hear and give ear, but may they "work, while it is called
day, for the night cometh, when no man can work."

I allude to the mental and moral culture of the African population in
the Southern States. I feel intensely on this subject; and could I
arouse the Southern States to reflection and action, I should then
feel as if the great work of my life was accomplished. I could then
repose in peace and quiet on my dying pillow; assured, that ere long,
my beloved country would, be redeemed from the curse of slavery.

In whatever aspect we may view slavery, the ignorance of slaves
presents itself to us, as the darkest spot in the picture. It is
humiliating--a national reproach--an omission of duty, for which
Almighty God will hold us accountable, that so little effort has been
made to enlighten the minds, and elevate the characters of the African
population in our midst. Here lies our great delinquency. "O shame!
where is thy blush?" In the name of all that is sacred, how long is
this state of things to continue? When, Oh! when will we arouse to a
sense of our vast responsibilities to God, and our obligations to the
African race? Several millions of fellow beings in our midst, not one
in twenty of whom can read the Holy Bible! And yet it is our boast,
that we are the most enlightened nation under the sun--the most
virtuous and intelligent people under the canopy of heaven--a nation
of Christians. God help us; for when I reflect on these things, I
cannot avoid asking myself, is there any probability, that we shall
ever get our eyes open, and help ourselves? It is the duty of every
slaveholder to instruct his slaves so far as to enable them to read
the Bible; and to furnish every slave with a copy of the will and word
of God; to encourage them to read the same; and not only read it, but
to make it the "man of their council." This, friendly slaveholder, is
your obvious and indispensable duty, and you well know it. If you have
neglected or overlooked this duty in time past, for your own sakes,
for the sakes of your slaves, defer it no longer. There is no time to
be lost; it is a matter of infinite importance, both to yourselves and
your slaves. Commence it in good earnest, and may success attend your
efforts. You are under moral obligations to enlighten the minds and
elevate the characters of your slaves, as far as practicable. You
should spare no pains, and no consideration whatever, of expediency,
convenience or self-interest, should deter you from the faithful
discharge of your duty.

It appears clear to my mind that, in a qualified sense, a master
sustains the same relation to a young slave, that he sustains to an
orphan as a guardian; and that his relation and obligation to an
orphan as guardian, does not differ materially from his obligations to
a son or daughter. Suppose that he purchases a young slave with his
money; he is legally his property during his natural life. Suppose
that he becomes guardian to an orphan child; he acquires a legal right
to control the child until he is twenty-one years of ago. Let him ask
himself, what are his obligations to the orphan? Whatever they are, he
is under the same obligations to the slave. But if he is at a loss as
to what are his obligations to the orphan, let him ask himself what
are his obligations to a son or a daughter? In a qualified sense, he
is under the same obligations to the orphan that he is to a child, and
ho is under the same obligations to the slave that he is to the
orphan. They may differ in degree, but they cannot differ in kind.
They are of the same kind, of the same quality, for the reason that
the temporal wants and the eternal interests of the slave, the orphan,
and the child are the same; and he, as master, guardian and father, is
bound to make provision for them. He is morally bound to act with
reference to the present happiness and eternal interests of the child,
the orphan and the slave. As a general rule, whatever conduces to the
happiness of the child, conduces to the happiness of the orphan, and
whatever conduces to the happiness of the orphan, conduces to the
happiness of the slave. They are each persons of like feelings,
passions and propensities; requiring at his hands the same kind of
training; the same moral and mental culture. I admit that the
profession or occupation which they are destined to follow through
life, may render it necessary that there should be some difference in
their scholastic training and attainments; but it does not follow
because a son is destined for the medical profession, and therefore
requires a smattering of Latin and Greek, that an orphan who is
expected to follow the occupation of farming, should not be a
tolerable English scholar; nor, that a slave, though he remain a slave
during his life, should not receive at his hands that amount of mental
culture which is requisite to expand his mind, and elevate his
character above that ignorance, superstition, degradation and vice, in
which the African race are involved.

The laws in conferring the right to hold slaves as property, did not
invest any one with the right to act the tyrant. Every father is
invested with the right to control his family; but he has no right to
treat any member of his family harshly or unkindly. It is the duty of
the father so to demean himself, and so to govern his family as to
secure the good order, and promote the peace and happiness of every
member of his household. A man's slaves are members of his household;
and the same rules, laws and great cardinal principles, which regulate
his conduct as a husband, father and guardian, should regulate his
conduct as a master. He has a right to control every member of his
family; it is a Divine right, conferred on him for the good of the
whole; but in the exercise of this delegated authority, meekness,
patience and forbearance should characterize every act of his life;
and in his intercourse with every member of his family, white or
black, his countenance in their presence, should be as the revivifying
influence of the sun on the down-trodden vegetation of the earth,
infusing hope, life and animation into all around him; and his words,
yea, his commands, should descend as the gentle and genial showers on
a parched and thirsty soil, and not in torrents of wrath, anger and
indignation. Anger, clamor and strife should be banished from his
household. His commands should be mild but firm; and unconditional
submission and prompt obedience should be strictly enjoined on his
children, dependants and slaves. Beloved by all, he would then move in
the midst of his family with that dignity and grace which becometh the
true Christian gentleman. Beloved, respected and venerated by every
member of his family, he would find it no difficult task to enforce
obedience, and thus to govern them according to the requisitions of
God's word.

Masters, I conceive, by pursuing the course indicated in the preceding
pages, would discharge their duty to their slaves, and stand guiltless
in the sight of God. The condition of the slaves would be ameliorated;
their minds expanded and their manners improved; and thus, at some
future period, if in the providence of God it should be their happy
lot to attain the rights of freemen, then would they be qualified to
appreciate the blessings of freedom, and not sink again into their
original barbarism. Thus would they, as freemen, be competent to
exercise the rights and privileges of free citizens; and, while rising
in the scale of nations, they would point to our government as their
great benefactor, who raised them from the lowest depths of savage
barbarism and brutality, and conferred on them light, liberty and
science, and inducted them into the doctrines of the Christian
religion. Then would they view our nation as their great donor, from
whom they received light, science and religion, and not as their
oppressor.

It is incumbent on me to state, in conclusion, that the clergy of the
slave States have done all that was practicable, under the
circumstances, to confer on the slaves the benefits and advantages of
religious instruction. I doubt whether the poorer class of people,
white or black, have had superior religious advantages in any part of
Christendom, at least so far as it relates to the preaching of the
gospel, and the ordinances of the church. The clergy of the different
denominations have been untiring in their efforts to Christianize the
African population. And it is a little remarkable that, in many
instances, irreligious men,--men who make no pretentious to religion,
men who rarely attend the preaching of the gospel themselves, should
encourage their slaves to attend divine service, and, in some
instances build churches and employ ministers for the benefit of their
own slaves. Strange as it may appear, it is nevertheless true. But
admitting the fact, and I cheerfully admit it, that all has been done
that was practicable, under the circumstances, to Christianize the
African race in the Southern States, yet the principles of
Christianity have exerted on them but a partial influence, in
consequence of their ignorance. No people can be brought fully under
the influence of the Christian religion, unless their minds are at the
same time enlightened and expanded by literature. Religion and
literature are twin sisters; bound together by indissoluble ties, and
the Divine Being never intended that they should be separated.
Religious instruction without literary culture, can produce but a
partial and superficial effect on the human mind; it can produce no
strong, permanent and abiding influence. When the gospel is preached
to an ignorant, illiterate, semi-savage people, the seed is sown in an
incongenial soil, and the product will be in accordance with the soil
in which the seed is sown. This accounts for a fact stated in the
preceding pages, that slaves apparently pious, when liberated and
exposed to certain temptations, were very likely to fall into their
former habits and vices. It also accounts for the fact, that but few
Africans can bear flattery and attention from the white race, it
matters not how virtuous and pious they may be; it is certain to elate
them, and to excite them to acts of indiscretion, and sometimes to
acts grossly vicious. It is so common for Southern slaves who arc
apparently pious, when exposed to temptation to fall into acts of
gross immorality, that many unthinking persons in the South have come
to the conclusion that there is no sincere piety among them; that they
are insincere and hypocritical in their professions and pretentious. A
gentleman once remarked to me, that he had never seen an African in
whose piety he had entire confidence. It was a remark, I believe of
Doctor Nelson, (the author of the celebrated work on infidelity,) that
he had never seen but one or two consistently pious slaves. The doctor
was long a resident of Tennessee, a practitioner of medicine and a
minister of the gospel, and certainly had good opportunities for
forming correct opinions on the subject; but it appears to me that
such views are not only uncharitable, but also unphilosophical.
Professors of the Christian religion of the African race are not less
sincere than are the same class of persons among the white race. On
the contrary a slave is more likely than his master to attach himself
to a church from pure motives. Many considerations may induce a white
man to make a profession of religion, which have no bearing, force, or
influence whatever, on an African. But the slave is ignorant and
degraded; and consequently he lacks moral stamina. He lacks that
firmness and stability of character which result from mental culture.
And moreover, his views of the Divine Being, of his attributes and his
works are erroneous. He knows but little of his Creator or his works;
but little about himself and his relations to his fellow creatures. He
desires to do right, but he is too often unable to distinguish between
right and wrong. But this is not all; for slaves are, to a great
extent, devoid of what, (in ordinary parlance,) is called a sense of
honor and shame; and too many white Christians, as well as black ones,
require all the restraining motives and influences, that can be
brought to bear on them, to keep them in the paths of rectitude. What
is called the moral sense alone, would fail in a large majority of
cases. The above remarks are as applicable to an ignorant, depraved
and vicious class of white persons, which may be found every where, as
they are to the Southern slaves and free negroes. I will here remark
that all that is indispensably necessary to enable an individual to
cultivate his mind, is a tolerable knowledge of his mother tongue, so
far at least, as to be able to read and write it; and a few well
selected books. It is neither necessary nor advisable to read many
books; for most of reading men have read too many books, and have
studied none. It is a little remarkable that Christians know so little
about the Bible. I do not suppose that there is one in a hundred among
them who ever read the sacred volume through; and a large majority of
them know very little about it, except some very incorrect notions
which they have gathered from sermons. It seems that some people
imagine that attending church, and hearing sermons comprises the
"whole duty of man." This is all very well so far as it goes; but I
beg leave to remind such persons that our Saviour preached a sermon on
the mount, near two thousand years ago, which is far superior to any
sermon that has been preached from that day to the present time; and
that they would do well to read it at least once a month.

It is but an act of justice to slaveholders for me to state, that the
education of slaves in most of the slave States is barred by
prohibitory laws. This is one of the fruits of abolition interference
with slavery. I have remarked in Chapter 3, of this volume, that the
abolition excitement in the North, about thirty-five years ago, cut
off discussion in the South on the subject of slavery; and that the
legislatures of the slave States in self-defence, or otherwise, in
obedience to the imperious demands of self-preservation, enacted
stringent laws in reference to the slave population, &c.; and that
among them will be found enactments making the education of slaves a
penal offense. It was the circulation of abolition tracts and papers
among the slaves by Northern men, that first suggested this idea to
the Southern legislatures. Previous to that time, many Christian
slaveholders were educating their slaves. These laws are inoperative
in many places in the South; and it affords me pleasure here to record
the fact, that most of the slaves in Knoxville, Tennessee, the city in
which I last resided while a citizen of the South, are able to read,
and many of them can write. Well done, ye noble and generous sons and
daughters of Knoxville.



CHAPTER XII.


The subject of slavery for the last thirty-five years has been an
exciting one in the United States. There has been much discussion, and
what is worse, much angry contention on the subject. It has been a
hobby for demagogues, and a fire-brand in the hands of factious
disorganizers. Fanatics and false philanthropists have rolled it as a
sweet morsel under their tongues. It has furnished them with a pretext
to cry liberty! liberty! from the rising to the setting sun. Their
whole souls, bodies, and minds, appear to have been absorbed in the
contemplation of African slavery. They appeared to be wholly engrossed
with this one idea, to be engulphed! swallowed up! lost! confounded
and bewildered in visionary abstractions, and ever and anon, their
plaintive notes were heard throughout the hills and dales, liberty and
oppression, the burden of their songs. They seemed to consider all
crime, all oppression, all injustice, all wrong, as merged in African
slavery and its concomitant evils, and themselves the peculiar, the
special guardians of the rights of man. The North and the South have
been hissed on each other with demoniac fury, and have glutted their
vengeance in attempts to "bite and devour each other." Truth, justice,
and righteousness have been lost sight of, and a fair and impartial
statement of facts has seldom been placed before the public; but in
its stead, crimination and recrimination have been hurled from North
to South, and from South to North.

The North has arraigned the South, and the South has hurled defiance
at the North; or, if the former set up a defense, it was little better
than special pleading. Those who have read the foregoing pages are
apprised, that it was no part of my design in this work, to exonerate
either North or South, there is guilt enough everywhere to humble us
all. But I have long considered the attacks of abolitionists on
slaveholders, as devoid of truth and justice, and that their views on
slavery, were in direct opposition to the revealed will of God.
Abolitionism cannot be of God, because its views, plans, and
machinations, are in direct opposition to the revealed will of God.
Whosoever sows dissension or excites discontent among the slaves, and
influences them to dishonor, despise, or forsake the service of their
masters, in so doing, violates the positive injunctions of the Bible.
Servants are commanded in the New Testament to obey, love, and serve
their masters, and to resign themselves to the will of God, and be
content with their lot. Servants are not only taught to obey their
masters, but to account them worthy of all honor, and to endeavor to
please them in all things. "If any man teach otherwise, (says the
apostle), he is proud, knowing nothing." But abolitionists do teach
otherwise; hence, we find many of the leaders of that party
repudiating the Bible.

I do not suppose that Northern people, where slavery is not legalized,
are any better than the Southern people where it is legalized. Each
section of the Union has its virtues and vices. I do not suppose that
England, where slavery is not legalized, is any better than America
where it is legalized. There is more or less injustice and oppression
everywhere. It looks well in England to talk about oppression in the
United States. "Thou hypocrite, first cast the beam out of thine own
eye." Look at down trodden Ireland, thou despotic tyrant. And ye dukes
and lords, ye pinks of mortality, professing to be Christians, have ye
forgotten the words of Divine inspiration? "He that hath of this
worlds goods, and seeth his brother have need, how dwelleth the love
of God in him?" Look at your tenantry, the millions of miserable
wretches on your own soil, whose condition is far worse than that of
the African slaves in the United States? And ye bishops! ye overseers
of the flock of Christ? with your princely salaries! surrounded by
wealth, splendor, and luxury! Have ye ever thought of the millions,
that are starving around you, not only for the bread of eternal life,
but also for that which is essential to the sustenance of animal life!
Woe to you, ye hypocrites. Ye wolves in sheep's clothing! Bow your
heads with shame, and repent in sack-cloth, or else as surely as there
is a God in heaven, you will have "your portion in the lake that
burneth with fire and brimstone."

Some people at the North are constantly harping on the subject of
slavery, and yet lo! when some one emancipates a slave in the South,
and he straggles off to the North, every one with whom he meets gives
him a kick. Benevolent souls, look at the treatment which the Randolph
negroes received in the state of Ohio. If slaves are emancipated where
are they to go? Where will they find an asylum? Not in the North? For
Northern legislatures are already telling them by prohibitory
enactments, here, you cannot come. "O consistency! thou art a jewel, a
pearl of great price," a virtue rarely met with.

Abolitionists make a great noise about slavery, some of them, no
doubt, conscientious and sincere; but there are many among them,
should they remove to the South, that would in less than five years
own a cotton farm or a sugar plantation well stocked with negroes.
Facts have in many instances verified the truth of this assertion. Men
have frequently emigrated from the free states to the South,
professedly abolitionists, and after getting into one or two
difficulties with the excitable Southerners, they would all at once
throw off their garb of abolitionism, and then, they too, must have
slaves. Perhaps they thought that a change of location justified a
change of opinion; or, it may be, that they reasoned thus: poor
creatures, they are in bondage, and why should they not as well belong
to us as to any one else? We can treat them as well as any one. The
Southern slaves, however, tell a different tale. They say that
Northern men have no business with slaves, for the reason, that they
are very hard masters. The negroes of the South have as little
sympathy for the Yankees, as their pro-slavery masters.

I have said that we all are guilty; yes, England is guilty! America is
guilty! The Northern states are guilty! The Southern states are
guilty! There is guilt everywhere! We should therefore beware how we
censure one another. Mother England furnished her American colonies
with slaves, and pocketed the money, and now she tells us, that we
have no right to that property which she forced on us, when we were a
weak and defenceless people, and could not do otherwise than obey her
commands. The eagle eyed, shrewd, and sagacious Yankees, ever alive to
all that pertains to their own pecuniary interests, with that
keen-witted penetration and over-reaching foresight, for which they
are remarkable, soon made the discovery, that slave labor in a
Northern latitude, and on a comparatively barren soil, must prove
unproductive. Hence, they strike a bargain with their Southern
neighbors. The Yankees say to the Southern planters, gentlemen, you
can employ these slaves profitably in the cultivation of tobacco and
cotton. Your climate and soil is adapted to slave labor, ours is not,
take our slaves, and let us have in return, gold and silver. It will
be a profitable investment on your part, and will relieve us of a
species of property, which, to us, is unprofitable. The Southern
planters accept their offer and purchase their slaves, and what next?
The Yankees turn around and say to the Southern men, you have no right
to hold these slaves as property. Kentucky and Tennessee might now,
with equal propriety and consistency sell their slaves to the Texan
planters, pocket the money, turn on their heels and say, why
gentlemen, it is true that we sold you these slaves, and you have paid
us for them; but you have no right to hold them in bondage. Refund our
money, cry the Texan planters. If you have sold us property which we
have no right to hold as property, refund our money? No, say the
sturdy Kentuckian and the stalwart Tennessean, not we. Help yourselves
the best way you can, we have got your money, and we shall hold on to
it. We make no children's bargains, and thus the matter ends.

If slave labor had been profitable in the North, Northern men would
have remained in possession of their slaves to the present day. No
one, I suppose, doubts it, and it is a good and sufficient reason why
they should be a little more modest in their denunciation of their
Southern brethren. Slavery is perpetuated by selfishness. Northern
men, to say the least, are as selfish as Southern men; and it would
require nothing, but a change of location, to make them as oppressive
task-masters. Where there is most selfishness, there we will find most
oppression; provided, that surrounding circumstances are favorable.
Most men, in this world, consult their own pecuniary interests. If
they are enhanced by African slavery, African slaves they will have,
provided they can get them; but if they cannot get African slaves,
they will make slaves of unfortunate and ignorant individuals of their
own color. It is the same dominant principle the world over. The
Northern man with his leagues of land, surrounded by ignorant,
indigent and impoverished families, is virtually a slaveholder. He
gets all their labor, and what do they receive in return? A bare
subsistence. Southern slaves get that. These tenants spend their lives
in laboring for their landlords, and receive in return, barely a
sufficiency of coarse food and coarse clothing, to keep soul and body
together through a protracted and miserable existence; the condition
of many of them being worse than that of a majority of Southern
slaves. Most of operatives who live on their daily wages, do nothing
more than earn their victuals and clothes, and slaves are generally as
well clothed, and better fed than they are. It is clear to my mind,
that a majority of slaves are better compensated for their labor, than
the poorer class of people, North or South. I base this conclusion on
the fact, that neither the one, nor the other, receive any thing more
than their victuals and clothes, and the slave is better fed, and
better clothed than the poor white man. This is neither a far-fetched
conclusion, nor yet an exaggeration. It is literally true. I repeat,
that the slaves of the South are generally better provided for, than
the generality of the tenantry, North or South. Hence, the slave is
better paid for his labor than the white man, under these
circumstances, slaves are also exempt from those corroding cares,
perplexities and anxieties, which embitter the lives of the poorer
class of white people. He has but to finish his task, and eat and
sleep; the cares of the family devolve on master and mistress. The
storms of adversity, the losses and crosses incident to all families,
pass over his humble hut. The poor white man has bread and meat
to-day, but God only knows from whence it will come to-morrow. Not so
with the slave, he knows well from whence his bread and meat is to
come "for the morrow." Master is bound to make provision for him, and
he feels no concern about the matter. "He takes no thought for the
morrow." Well, but says one, the white man has liberty, poor as he may
be. He can work to-day, and forbear to-morrow, if it suits his ease,
convenience, or inclination. Very true, and the misfortune is, that he
too often works to-day, and gets drunk to-morrow; or, otherwise,
squanders away his time foolishly. Indigence and ignorance subject men
to oppression in all countries, and under all circumstances, it
matters not whether you call them slaves or freemen. There is
oppression and injustice everywhere. It originates in the supreme
selfishness of our natures--our self-love. It was the original design
of Christianity to eradicate this principle from the human heart.
"Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." "Whatsoever ye would that
men should do to you, do ye even so to them." This is the language of
the author of our religion. The great apostle had direct reference to
the selfishness of our hearts when he said, "the love of money is the
root of all evil." While selfishness is the dominant principle of our
hearts, we can neither love God, nor yet our neighbor. The Holy spirit
can never enter our hearts, while this principle reigns supreme
within. He has been trying to expel the monster from the hearts of the
human family, for nearly two thousand years; but as yet he has
accomplished his object but partially. He pleads for entrance, but too
often pleads in vain. We must relinquish our self-love, before we can
love God supremely, and our neighbor as ourselves.

Selfishness, self-love, or the love of money, as the apostle terms it,
stands in the way of all that is noble, generous, and just, in our
intercourse with our fellow creatures. It is "the root of all evil,"
all injustice, all oppression, all unrighteousness, all that mars our
peace and happiness in this world, all tumults, all strife, all
contention, all war, all blood-shed, all hatred, all misery in time,
and all our woes to all eternity.

There are times when my heart sickens within me. I feel, I know that
there is oppression and wrong in our world, and that millions of my
fellow creatures are interested in perpetuating those wrongs. I know
that wherever the human foot has trodden the soil, that _might
triumphs over right_, that the strong oppress the weak, that the poor
and dependent too often become the servants of the rich; that the man
of quick discernment, too often overreaches and takes advantage of his
simple, less gifted, and unsuspecting neighbor. That the master, the
land-lord, those who are endowed with superior knowledge, those who
are in possession of wealth, power, and influence, too often become
oppressive, tyrannical and cruel to their inferiors, servants and
dependants. I know that these evil exist, and that many believe that
they would sustain damage by any attempt to mitigate, or remove them.
Self-love, self-interest, the love of money, the love of ease, the
love of wealth, splendor, and power, stand in the way of any
reformation. Their prejudices, too, that have grown with their growth,
and ripened with their years, must be removed. They moreover imagine
that not only their self-interests, but their honor, their ease and
convenience, their all--all that they hold dear in the world, will be
endangered by any attempt to eradicate the evils alluded to. Will
they, under these circumstances, listen to the calls of suffering
humanity, the voice of reason, the laws of Divine revelation, and the
stern dictates of conscience? Can we expect it, when so many interests
are involved, when so many prejudices must be broken down, and old
institutions rooted up, and a new order of things introduced? Can
moral obligation, a sense of duty, the dictates of conscience,
overcome that instinctive passion of the human soul, the love of gain?
Oh! the love of money, that mighty leveller of power, the golden
serpent that beguiles us to transgress the laws of God, to disregard
the rights of man, and to burst asunder the common ties of humanity,
which were designed in the wisdom and beneficence of the adorable
Creator to bind us all together--the world, every member of the human
family of all nations, kindred, and tongues, high and low, rich and
poor, bond and free, into one common brotherhood. Will men ever
reflect, that we are all brothers, descendants of the same earthly
parent, children of the same heavenly father, having common interests,
alike the subjects of joy and sorrow; that the author of our existence
is no respecter of persons; and, finally, that we must all stand
before a just and righteous Judge, and give an account of the deeds
done in the body, "whether they be good or evil." These are solemn
thoughts, and we look in vain for a correction of the evils under
which the world groans, unless the minds of men can be disentangled
from worldly pursuits, and can be impressed with their responsibility
to the Author of their existence, and the obligation to each other.
Here all our hopes must center, and to this end must all our efforts
tend, if our object is the regeneration of the human race. Men must
understand their true interests, their relations and obligations to
each other, and their accountability to God, before they will "cease
to do evil and learn to do well." If either the writer or the reader,
expects to do anything in behalf of suffering humanity, he must never
lose sight of the corruption of our natures, and the great fountain of
error and misconception, self-love, as the source of all that mars the
peace and happiness of the human family. And what is of paramount
importance, we must bear in mind, that without Divine aid, we write in
vain, we read in vain, that God alone can accomplish the great work,
and that we are but instruments in his hands. We must then, with
unwearied patience and diligence, do our duty, and leave the event to
him who has all power in heaven and earth.



CHAPTER XIII.


The memorable words of our Saviour, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God,
with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind; and
thy neighbor as thyself," comprise the whole duty of man. God requires
nothing more of any man. He that loves God will yield a ready and
cheerful obedience to all his commands; and he that loves his
neighbor, cannot, under any circumstances, or in any condition of
life, do his neighbor injustice or wrong. I have shown in the
preceding Chapter, that all oppression, all injustice, that all the
evils and calamities which befal the human family, originate in, or
are perpetuated by our self-love. Selfishness, self-interest, or
otherwise self-aggrandizement, is the mainspring of all our actions if
we are devoid of love to God and man. This innate principle of our
hearts, the love of money, the love of ease, wealth, power and fame,
must be overcome before we can love God and our neighbor; or otherwise
discharge those duties incumbent on us as Christians, good citizens,
and philanthropists. While self-love or selfishness is the dominant
principle in our hearts, we can be neither humane, just, nor generous
in our intercourse with our fellow creatures. It is impossible. Under
these circumstances we must and will invade their rights; provided
that our interests are enhanced thereby. I have said that this innate
principle of cupidity must be overcome before we can love God or our
neighbor. The question present itself, how? By what means or agency?
The gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ was promulgated for
this special purpose. By what agency? Through the pervading influence
of the Holy Ghost shed abroad in our hearts, purifying our corrupt
natures. To whom was this gospel committed? The church of Christ. We
look then to the church of Christ for its promulgation, and an
application of its principles. But some branches of the church are so
corrupt that we can no longer look to them as the depositories of
truth, righteousness and justice. Our Saviour sowed good seed, and the
devil sowed tares; and the tares have grown and multiplied until they
have nearly superseded the product of the good seed. But the
difficulty does not stop here, for we find, at this time, multitudes
who have crept into every branch of Christ's church, who give
incontestible evidence that they are under the influence of the worst
passions and propensities of the human heart. Who are devoid of every
principle of the Christian religion. What is their object? What are
the motives of such persons when they attach themselves to the
different branches of Christ's church? Search your hearts ye whited
sepulchers, and tell me what was your leading object when you became
church members? Tell me, was it to serve God? No, for ye continue to
serve the devil with more alacrity than formerly. Shall I hold you up,
naked and deformed as ye are, or shall I forbear? The truth must be
told, be the consequence what it may. It was not your intention when
ye entered the pale of the church, to place yourselves in such a
position as would enable you more effectually to serve either the
Author of your existence, or the father of lies. You made a profession
of religion in order to serve yourselves. You designed nothing more
nor less than to make a profession of religion subserve your business,
profession or avocation; or else, give you character and notoriety in
the world. Here now is the principle of self-love, selfishness,
self-aggrandizement, prompting men to attach themselves to the
different branches of Christ's church.

The politician contemplated, no doubt, that by becoming a church
member he would secure the suffrages and the influence of a large
portion of the members of that church to which he attached himself.
The merchant by the same manoeuvre, expected to sell more goods; and
the physician was aware that it would afford him an excellent
opportunity to _brother and sister_ himself into a better practice.
The lawyer expected to get large fees from avaricious and contentious
church litigants. For church members will engage in lawsuits, the
authority of John Wesley, and the still higher authority of St. Paul
to the contrary, notwithstanding. The mechanic too, must have the
patronage and influence of the church. Neighbor B., over the way, is a
regular church member in good standing; and I must become one too, in
order to compete with him in business. Dear me, says the farmer to his
beloved spouse, don't you see that we are raising a large and
promising family of children; and we must make them respectable. How,
my dear, says the good lady; by dressing our daughters in silks, and
our sons in broadcloth? No, no, says the close-fisted farmer, there is
a cheaper and readier way to accomplish it; though I have no objection
to seeing the children decently clothed. Have you not observed that
all the respectable families in this neighborhood are Methodist,
Presbyterians, or Baptists, (as the case may be,) and in order to
become respectable, we too must go and join the church. These are the
corrupt, the impure, the abominable motives, which too often lead men
to attach themselves to churches; and these are the considerations
which are too often presented to non-professors by ministers, as well
as private members. I regret to say it--I blush while I record it: I
have frequently seen professors of religion approach non-professors
with all the sanctimoniousness which they could possibly assume, and
abruptly address them in the following words: "Come, my friend, you
must be religious; you must get religion and join the church." The
poor sinner objected--difficulties interposed--he could not, at least
at the present time; begs leave to be excused until a more convenient
season. "Well, but--come my friend, you may find it greatly to your
advantage. We are numerous, we are respectable, we are influential, we
can aid you in your business, and elevate your character in society."
This is no fancy sketch, I have seen it with my own eyes, and heard it
with my own ears, a thousand times; and I beg those who honor this
work with a perusal, to reflect for one moment, and I think that they
can call to mind similar circumstances. I am loathe to wound the
feelings of any one, but a practice so well calculated to corrupt the
church of Christ, so contrary to the spirit of Christianity, must and
shall be exposed. It is thus that men are frequently drawn into
churches, by appeals to the worst passions and propensities that
characterize the human heart. By appeals to their cupidity! their love
of fame! their love of power! By touching the mainspring or the root
of all evil--love of money! What can be expected of those on whom such
unhallowed means are brought to bear? They were begotten by
unrighteousness, "conceived in sin, and brought forth in iniquity." No
wonder churches are corrupt.

It behoves us to inquire in what, this ungodly procedure, on the part
of professors of the Christian religion, originates. It originates in
an undue desire on the part of ministers and church members to
strengthen their party. It is the same spirit that actuated the
Pharisees of old, when our Saviour told them, "ye compass sea and land
to make a proselyte;" and what then, after they had succeeded, why he
is then "seven-fold more a child of hell than yourselves." No wonder,
nothing else can be expected, when people are induced to attach
themselves to churches from such impure motives. I never yet saw such
extra efforts made to get some poor, indigent, ignorant, insignificant
individual into a church. But if the man has wealth or influence we
generally find all hands at the bellows.

There are a class of religionists in the world, and there are more or
less of them among all denominations of Christians, who are never
easy, never satisfied, never content, unless they are cramming their
own peculiar notions down other people's throats. Their object is not
to change men's hearts, but to change their opinions. They take up the
New Testament and read Christ's sermon on the Mount; but they find
nothing in it to answer their purpose. It is but an ordinary
production in their estimation. They pass on through Matthew, Mark,
Luke and John. How stale, how dull, how uninteresting these gospels,
they are led to exclaim. They see but little beauty in the God-like
teaching; or the inimitable example of Christ. His last agonies, his
death on the cross is insufficient to move their callous hearts. But
on they pass through the Acts of the Apostles, and the Epistle to the
Romans; but, oh! stop, they have found it at last? Reader, what do you
suppose that they have found? What were they in search of? Why some
text of Scripture which seem to support their own peculiar notions on
the subject of Baptism, Election, Predestination, the Final
Perseverance of the saints, &c. The zeal of such persons to propagate
their opinions is not more remarkable than the confident, dogmatic
manner in which they express them. It is remarkable that professors of
religion who are most ignorant and depraved, those who have embraced
the grossest errors, are the most confident, arrogant and intolerant
in their efforts to force their opinions on others. It may be set down
as a maxim, that where there is most ignorance and error--that those
whose creeds contain the least truth, are under all circumstances the
most forward to engage in controversy with others.

Truth is quiet--error is noisy and boisterous; truth is meek--error is
proud and self-sufficient; truth is modest--error is bold and forward;
truth is diffident--error is confident and assuming; truth is resigned
to the will of God--error is self-willed. To arrive at the truth is
not the design of such persons. It is not their eternal interests, nor
those of their fellow creatures that stimulate them to effort. They
read the Scriptures, not as honest inquirers after truth, but with a
view of finding something that will give support to some preconceived
opinion, doctrine, creed or ceremony. That will give support to some
abstruse doctrine, form or ceremony, which has no direct reference,
whatever, to their eternal interests, nor to their duty and
obligations to their Creator, nor yet to their fellow creatures. Their
motives and intentions are dishonest, their professions insincere and
hypocritical, and it is not in the power of their bigoted and corrupt
minds to comprehend, "whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things
are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure,
whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report."



CONTENTS.


INTRODUCTION.--SECTION I.

Abolition editors. Their statements false,

Letter writers travel South--Misrepresentations,

Northern men mislead by abolition papers, and Uncle Tom's Cabin,

Sectional hatred is engendered thereby, and the Union endangered.
Slavery agitation has retarded emancipation, riveted the chains of
slavery, and inflicted injury on masters and servants,

The revolutionary designs and tendencies of abolitionism,

The Union based on the slavery compromise,

Those who invade the rights of the South, are guilty of not only a
civil, but also of a moral trespass. The primitive church was
subordinate to the civil authorities. Language of Christ and his
Apostles,

Contrast between Christ and his Apostles, and the apostles of modern
reform,


SECTION II.

Is universal emancipation safe or practicable? What would be the
consequences?

Idleness, vagrancy and crime, the fruits of emancipation,

There is not a free negro in the limits of the United States,

Universal prejudice against the African race. The African no where
allowed the ordinary privileges of the white man,

Free negroes of Baltimore--their appeal to the people of the United
States. Judge Blackford. Dr. Miller,

Slavery agitation of foreign origin. Slavery not extinct in the
British dominions. The English poor,

White slavery and negro slavery,

The condition of African slaves in the United States better than the
mass of European laborers. Slavery exists in every part of the British
dominions,

British Asiatic Journal. Dr. Bowering. Duke of Wellington. Sir Robert
Peel and the London Times,

Madame Stowe has caricatured, slandered and misrepresented her
country, to please the English people. She is invited to England.

Reflections. The wreck of nations. Cardinal virtues. Bigotry and
fanaticism. Advice to ladies,


SECTION III.

Declaration of an English nobleman. Destruction of the government of
the United States, by the Sovereigns of Europe. Their allies, aiders
and abettors in the United States. Uncle Tom's Cabin. Mrs. Stowe in
England,

_Isms and Schisms. Tomism_ in England and America,

England a nation of murderers, thieves, and robbers. Their hypocrisy,

Mrs. Stowe in England. Their object in fanning the flame of discord
among us,

John Bull. Mrs. Stowe and her coadjutors. Graham's Magazine,


SECTION IV.

Popularity of Uncle Tom's Cabin in England and America. Its designs,
tendencies, injustice, falsehood, &c.

The Bible. Cupidity and hypocrisy,

The "inward man." Self deception,

Mrs. Stowe's object in writing her book,

Its reception. The conclusion of the whole matter. Yankee ingenuity.
Hypocrisy,

"Gain is godliness," and their pretended godliness is all for gain.
English emissaries and abolition editors. Motives that prompt the
abolition party to action. Sympathy for the African race a mere
pretense, or affectation of superior sanctity,

Every man is conscious that he ought to be a Christian, therefore
every man wishes to be esteemed such. Affected piety. Bible
Christianity,

England's inconsistency. John Bull a bigoted, meddlesome old
hypocrite. "Charity begins at home." Treatment of free negroes North,
by abolitionists,


SECTION V.

Harsh epithets applied to Southern slaveholders by abolitionists,

The Sacred Record. God alone was competent to decide what was best for
masters and servants, individuals and nations. Every departure from
the Sacred Oracles is practical infidelity,

The Bible alone is a safe and sure guide. Nothing can mitigate the
evils of slavery, but a rigid observance of its precepts on the part
of masters and servants,

The African derives no benefit from emancipation if he remain among
us. Mrs. Stowe would have us substitute greater evils for lesser--"out
of the frying pan into the fire." She has told a wondrous story,

Uncle Tom's Cabin. Free negroes' tales. Negro novels, village gossip,
busy-bodies, idlers, loafers and liars,

Slavery is not an evil under all circumstances. It would have proved a
blessing to the slaves, if masters and servants had complied with the
requisitions of the Bible. None so much to blame as abolitionists. The
condition of an individual may be such, that he is fit for nothing but
a slave,

The evil consists in the incompetence of the individual, and not in
that condition or station in life, to which his incompetency subjects
him. Hence, the evils of slavery have their origin in its abuses,

The African in his native state. Negroes transported to the United
States. Slavery in Africa. Captives taken in war. Cruelty of negro
overseers. Ignorant men hard masters. African masters,

One portion of the African race are slaves to another--the larger
portion slaves. American and African slavery,

The slaves of the South have superior religions advantages. Southern
clergy,


SECTION VI.

Is it the duty of American slaveholders to liberate their slaves? The
consequences of universal emancipation,

Crime committed by free negroes. Negro convicts, North. Prison system.
Pauper expenditures. Crime among free negroes, North and South,
contrasted,

The religious condition of the African race, North and South,
contrasted. Why is it, that the free blacks, North, derive so little
benefit from the Christian ministry?

The argument mainly relied on, to prove the sinfulness of American
slavery. Every institution subject to abuse,

White and black concubines. Illegitimate children,


CHAPTER I.

Which side of the question are you on, Sir?

Ultraists North and South. Writers who disseminate erroneous views.
Uncle Tom's Cabin a work of that class,

The Author of our existence made us to differ mentally and physically,

We all look through different glasses, some view objects through a
microscope--exaggeration is their _forte_. Their minds were cast in a
fictitious mould,

It is a dire calamity that this class of writers have taken hold of
the subject of slavery,

Slavery an evil--but what shall we do with it? Sympathy for the
African race, the object of Mrs. Stowe's book--right and proper, if
properly directed, but blindfold sympathy not likely to result in any
good,

Slaves of the South proper objects of sympathy--so are their masters.
Uncle Tom's Cabin, a gross misrepresentation,

Is it right for Mrs. Stowe to present slaveholders, _en masse_, to the
whole civilized world, as a set of hell-deserving barbarians?

No good can result from misrepresentation. "The wrath of man worketh
not the righteousness of God." Mrs. Stowe may inculcate resistance to
the laws of her country, but so did not Christ and his Apostles,

What atrocious crimes have been perpetrated in the name of liberty!
"Show me the company you keep, and I will tell you who you are,"

Are there no laws to protect slaves? The Southern slave is not
amenable to the civil laws for his conduct, except in a qualified
sense,

The punishment of slaves is much more lenient than the punishment of
white men for similar crimes. Transportation of slaves for crime,

Ah! don't touch my purse! Your sympathies never leak out in that way.
Slaveholders called murderers, &c.,

White and black slavery. Hunger and cold are hard _masters_--worse
than Southern slaveholders. Condition of free negroes, North.
Universal prejudice against negroes--their freedom but nominal, &c.


CHAPTER II.

The improbability of Mrs. Stowe's tale. Those who receive their
impressions of Southern slavery from abolition papers, are incapable
of expressing correct opinions on the subject,

Anecdote of a lawyer. Abolition editors,

Wonders and humbugs. Jo. Smith's Bible. Uncle Tom's Cabin and
Spiritual Rappers. Mrs. Stowe's narrative untrue. Her story of Uncle
Tom, &c. The improbability of her tale,

Eliza and her child. Maid servants in the South,

Southern men and their wives. Eliza flees precipitately across the
river on floating fragments of ice,

Mrs. Stowe has calumniated her country. The moral influence of the
great American Republic is destroyed,

Clerical knaves and fools. N. England infidelity,

My country is my pride, my country is my boast, my country is my all.
We listen with pleasure to a recital of the vices of our neighbors,


CHAPTER III.

Abolition excitement in the North, thirty-five years ago. Discussion,
public sentiment, and treatment of Southern slaves, previous to that
time,

The effects of anti-slavery excitement in the North, on the South.
Discussion cut off--the enactment of rigid laws, &c. Benjamin Lundy,

Why was it, that the abolition excitement in the North produced such a
panic in the South? Shocking doctrines and incendiary publications,

Who was it that crashed in embryo the reform that was in progress
thirty-five years ago? Henry Clay's Letter,

A legitimate conclusion. The object of abolitionists, dissolution of
the Union, civil war, &c.

The tendency and spirit of abolitionism. A confederacy, North and
South,

The whig and the democratic parties,

Col. Benton and Gen. Cass. Parties and party spirit,

Hale, Julian and Giddings. Ambition. A summary of my leading
objections to _abolitionism_,

_Negro stealing a virtue_. Detroit Free Press,

Tom Corwin and the abolitionists,


CHAPTER IV.

Would the condition of the slaves in the United States be ameliorated
by emancipation, under existing circumstances?

Historical facts. Manumitted slaves. Vice among slaves and free
negroes--contrast,

The condition of Southern slaves made worse by emancipation. Under no
circumstances can the white man and the African meet on terms of
equality,

Nature has imposed an impassable barrier between the two races,

Physical conformation and mental characteristics. Indolence and
poverty of the African race,

Universal emancipation--effects and consequences,


CHAPTER V.

Evils of slavery. Is the happiness of individuals under all
circumstances diminished, by depriving them of liberty?

The demoralizing influence of slavery,

The liberality of Southern people,

Northern and Southern peculiarities. Slander and seduction,

Vices, North and South. Slave labor unproductive--the reason why?


CHAPTER VI.

The evils of slavery continued. The poorer class of whites, South,

The higher and lower classes, North and South. Politeness of Southern
gentlemen,

Anecdotes,

The slave and his master. Slaves content and happy,

Why is it, that the African race are happy, in a state of servitude?

An old infidel and his slave,


CHAPTER VII.

The evils of slavery continued. Agitation and sectional hatred. _God
save the Union_,

Ambitions demagogues. Dangers of agitation,

Is there no remedy? Difficulties. The course of the Worth toward the
South should be kind and conciliatory,

The schemes of abolitionists potent for evil. By what means can
slavery be abolished?

Colonization. Kindness and conciliation,

Territory should be set apart for free blacks,

Aversion of slaves to a removal to Africa,


CHAPTER VIII.

The holding of slaves not sinful under all circumstances--Curse
denounced on Ham, &c., &c.


CHAPTER IX.

Slavery under the Mosaic Dispensation--Christ and his Apostles,


CHAPTER X.

Paul,--Philemon,--and Onesimus. Solemn thoughts,


CHAPTER XI.

The respective duties of masters and servants, &c.


CHAPTER XII.

Demagogues--Disorganizes--Abolitionists, &c.


CHAPTER XIII.

The love of God--Self-love--Truth and error,





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