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Title: A Middle High German Primer - Third Edition
Author: Wright, Joseph, 1855-1930
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Middle High German Primer - Third Edition" ***

  [Transcriber’s Note:

  This e-text includes characters that will only display in UTF-8
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    ā ē ī ō ū (long vowels, printed with macron/overline)
    ẹ (e with dot under, used in reading selections)
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  last resort, use the ASCII-7 version of this file instead.

  A few additional characters are used mainly in the historical
  introduction, and may be disregarded if they present problems,
  as may the two or three Greek words:

    ƀ, ʒ, χ, ŋ (b with line through stem; ezh; chi; eng)
    ā̆, ī̆, ē̆, ō̆ (a, e, i, o with both macron and breve)
    ǖ, ǣ (ü, æ with macron)

  Italics are marked with _lines_. Boldface type is shown with {braces}.
  Boldface markings have generally been omitted from tables to aid

  Punctuation in the Glossary has been silently regularized. Other
  typographical errors are listed at the end of the text.]

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


               MIDDLE HIGH GERMAN

          Grammar, Notes, And Glossary

                 JOSEPH WRIGHT
      M.A., Ph.D., D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D.

         Fellow of the British Academy
Corpus Christi Professor of Comparative Philology
          in the University of Oxford

                 THIRD EDITION
            Re-Written And Enlarged



      London  Edinburgh  Glasgow  New York
          Toronto   Melbourne  Bombay

                HUMPHREY MILFORD
          Publisher to the University


The present book has been written in the hope that it will serve as an
elementary introduction to the larger German works on the subject from
which I have appropriated whatever seemed necessary for the purpose. In
the grammar much aid has been derived from Paul’s _Mittelhochdeutsche
Grammatik_, second edition, Halle, 1884, and Weinhold’s
_Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik_, second edition, Paderborn, 1883. The
former work, besides containing by far the most complete syntax, is also
the only Middle High German Grammar which is based on the present state
of German Philology.... I believe that the day is not far distant when
English students will take a much more lively interest in the study of
their own and the other Germanic languages (especially German and Old
Norse) than has hitherto been the case. And if this little book should
contribute anything towards furthering the cause, it will have amply
fulfilled its purpose.

  LONDON: _January, 1888._

When I wrote the preface to the first edition of this primer in 1888,
I ventured to predict that the interest of English students in the
subject would grow and develop as time went on, but I hardly expected
that it would grow so much that a second edition of the book would be
required within so short a period. It has been revised throughout, and
several changes have been made in the phonology, but I have not thought
it advisable to alter the general plan and scope of the former edition.
After many years of personal experience as a teacher and examiner in the
older periods of the German language, I have become firmly convinced
that the larger books on the subject contain too many details for
beginners. I feel sure that the easiest and best way to acquire a
thorough knowledge of Middle High German is to start with an elementary
book like the present, and then to learn the details of the grammar,
especially the phonology of the various dialects, from a more advanced

  OXFORD: _December, 1898._


In the preparation of the new edition, I have steadily kept in view the
class of students for whom the book was originally written. When the
first edition appeared twenty-eight years ago, there were very few
students in this country who took up the serious study of the older
periods of the various Germanic languages at the Universities. In late
years, however, the interest in the study of these languages has grown
so much that Honour Courses and Examinations in them have been
established at all our Universities. The result is that a book even
intended for beginners can now reasonably be expected to be of a higher
standard than the previous editions of this Primer. The grammatical
introduction has accordingly been entirely rewritten and expanded to
more than twice its original size. The texts have also been nearly
doubled by the addition of eighteen poems from Walther von der
Vogelweide, and selections from Reinmar, Ulrich von Lichtenstein, and
Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The greater part of Middle High German literature is so excellent and
interesting that most students, who have mastered the grammatical
introduction and read the texts in the Primer, will doubtless desire to
continue the subject. Such students should procure a copy of either the
_Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik_ by Hermann Paul, eighth edition, Halle,
1911, or the _Mittelhochdeutsches Elementarbuch_ by Victor Michels,
second edition, Heidelberg, 1912, where the Grammar, especially the
phonology and syntax, can be studied in greater detail. They should also
procure a copy of the _Mittelhochdeutsches Taschenwörterbuch_ by
Matthias Lexer, tenth edition, Leipzig, 1910, and also have access to
the two standard Middle High German dictionaries-- _Mittelhochdeutsches
Wörterbuch mit Benutzung des Nachlasses von Georg Friedrich Benecke_,
ausgearbeitet von Wilhelm Müller und Friedrich Zarncke, drei Bände,
Leipzig, 1854-61, and _Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch_, von Matthias
Lexer, zugleich als Supplement und alphabetischer Index zum
_Mittelhochdeutschen Wörterbuch_ von Benecke-Müller-Zarncke, drei Bände,
Leipzig, 1872-78. An excellent bibliography of the best editions of the
Middle High German texts-- classified according to the dialects in which
they were written-- will be found on pp. 20-35 of Michels’

May the new edition of the Primer continue to further the study of the
subject in the future to the same extent as it has done in the past!


    _October, 1916._




  The classification of the MHG. dialects (§1).


The Vowels ... 2-22

  The MHG. alphabet (§2). Pronunciation of the MHG. vowels (§3).
  Phonetic survey of the MHG. vowel-system (§4). The OHG.
  equivalents of the MHG. vowels (§5). The characteristic
  differences between OHG. and MHG. (§6). The weakening of
  unaccented vowels (§§7-8). The loss of unaccented vowels (§9).
  Umlaut (§10). The MHG. equivalents of the OHG. vowels (§11).
  Ablaut (§12). Other vowel changes (§§13-18).


The Consonants ... 22-35

  Pronunciation of the consonants (§§19-20). Phonetic survey of the
  MHG. consonants (§21). Characteristic differences between High
  German and the other West Germanic languages (§22). The High
  German sound-shifting (§§23-7). The interchange between {pf, b}
  and {f}; {k, g} and {h}; {ȥȥ, ȥ} and {ss, s} (§28). The loss
  of the guttural nasal {ŋ} (§29). Verner’s Law (§30). The doubling
  of consonants (§31). The simplification of double consonants
  (§32). The interchange between the lenes and the fortes (§33).
  Interchange between medial {h} and final {ch} (§34). Initial and
  medial {j} (§35). Medial and final {w} (§36). The loss of
  intervocalic {b, d, g} (§37). The loss of intervocalic {h}
  (§38). The loss of final {r} (§39). The change of medial {t} to
  {d} after nasals and {l} (§40).


Declension of Nouns ... 36-46

  Introductory remarks (§41).
  A. The vocalic or strong declension:-- Masculine nouns (§§42-5);
       Neuter nouns (§§46-7); Feminine nouns (§§48-9).
  B. The weak declension (§§50-3).
  C. Declension of proper names (§54).


Adjectives ... 46-52

  A. The declension of adjectives (§§55-6).
  B. The comparison of adjectives (§§57-9).
  C. The formation of adverbs from adjectives (§§60-1).
  D. Numerals (§§62-4).


Pronouns ... 53-57

  Personal (§65). Reflexive (§66). Possessive (§67).
  Demonstrative (§68). Relative (§69). Interrogative (§70).
  Indefinite (§71).


Verbs ... 57-75

  Classification of MHG. verbs (§72).
  A. Strong verbs:-- The conjugation of the model strong verb
       {nëmen} (§§73-4). Class I (§§76-7). Class II (§§78-80).
       Class III (§81). Class IV (§82). Class V (§§83-4).
       Class VI (§§85-6). Class VII (§87).
  B. Weak Verbs:-- Classification of MHG. weak verbs (§§88-9).
       Class I (§90). Class II (§92).
  C. Minor groups.-- Preterite-presents (§93). Anomalous verbs
       (§§94-8). Contracted verbs (§99).


Syntax ... 75-78

  Cases (§§100-2). Adjectives (§103). Pronouns (§104).
  Verbs (§§105-7). Negation (§108).


     I. Berthold von Regensburg                  79-83
    II. The Swabian Lantrehtbuoch                83-85
   III. Hartman von Ouwe                        86-116
    IV. Walther von der Vogelweide             116-133
     V. Reinmar                                133-139
    VI. Ulrich von Lichtenstein                140-148
   VII. Das Nibelungen-Lied                    149-158
  VIII. Wolfram von Eschenbach                 158-168

NOTES ... 169-171

GLOSSARY ... 172-213


  Goth.    = Gothic
  Gr.      = Greek
  HG.      = High German
  Lat.     = Latin
  MHG.     = Middle High German
  NHG.     = New High German
  OE.      = Old English
  OHG.     = Old High German
  OS.      = Old Saxon
  P. Germ. = Primitive Germanic
  UF.      = Upper Franconian
  UG.      = Upper German

The asterisk * prefixed to a word denotes a theoretical form, as MHG.
{wärmen} from {*warmjan}, to warm.

In representing prehistoric forms the following signs are used:--
{þ} (= {th} in Engl. {thin}), {ð} (= {th} in Engl. {then}), {ƀ}
(= a bilabial spirant, which may be pronounced like the {v} in Engl.
{vine}), {ʒ} (= {g} often heard in German {sagen}), {χ} (= NHG. {ch} and
the {ch} in Scotch {loch}), {ŋ} (= {n} in Engl. {sunk}).





Middle High German (MHG.) embraces the High German language from about
the year 1100 to 1500. It is divided into three great dialect-groups:
Upper German, Franconian, and East Middle German.

1. Upper German is divided into: (_a_) Alemanic, embracing High Alemanic
(Switzerland), and Low Alemanic (South Baden, Swabia, and Alsace).
(_b_) Bavarian, extending over Bavaria and those parts of Austria where
German is spoken.

2. Franconian (West Middle German), which is subdivided into Upper
Franconian and Middle Franconian. Upper Franconian consists of East
Franconian (the old duchy of Francia Orientalis) and Rhenish Franconian
(the old province of Francia Rhinensis), Middle Franconian extending
over the district along the banks of the Moselle and of the Rhine from
Coblence to Düsseldorf.

3. East Middle German, extending over: Thuringia, Upper Saxony, and

Since it is impossible to deal with all these dialects in an elementary
book like the present, we shall confine ourselves almost exclusively to
Upper German, and shall only deal with that period of Middle High German
which extends from about 1200 to 1300.





MHG. had the following simple vowels and diphthongs:--

  Short vowels  a, ä, ë, e, i, o, u, ö, ü.
  Long    „     ā, æ,    ē, ī, ō, ū, œ, iu.
  Diphthongs             ei, ie, ou, uo, öu (eu), üe.

  NOTE.--{ë} represents primitive Germanic {e} (= Gr. ε, Lat. {e}, as
  in Gr. δέκα, Lat. {decem}, MHG. {zëhen}, _ten_) and is generally
  written {ë} in Old and Middle High German grammars, in order to
  distinguish it from the OHG. umlaut-{e} (§10). The former was an
  open sound like the {e} in English {bed}, whereas the latter was a
  close sound like the {é} in French {été}. {ä} was a very open sound
  nearly like the {a} in English {hat}, and arose in MHG. from the
  {i}-umlaut of {a} (§10). Good MHG. poets do not rhyme Germanic {ë}
  with the umlaut-{e}, and the distinction between the two sounds is
  still preserved in many NHG. dialects. In like manner the modern
  Bavarian and Austrian dialects still distinguish between {ä} and
  {ë}. In the MHG. period {ä, ë}, and {e} were kept apart in
  Bavarian, but in Alemanic and Middle German {ä} and {ë} seem to have
  fallen together in {ë} or possibly {ä}, as the two sounds frequently
  rhyme with each other in good poets. MHG. texts do not always
  preserve in writing the distinction between the old umlaut-{e} and
  the MHG. umlaut-{ä}, both being often written {e} in the same text.

  NOTE.--{ë} represents primitive Germanic {e} (= Gr. [epsilon], Lat.
  {e}, as in Gr. [deka], Lat. {decem}, MHG. {zëhen}, _ten_) and is
  generally written {ë} in Old and Middle High German grammars, in
  order to distinguish it from the OHG. umlaut-{e} (§10). The former
  was an open sound like the {e} in English {bed}, whereas the latter
  was a close sound like the {é} in French {été}. {ä} was a very open
  sound nearly like the {a} in English {hat}, and arose in MHG. from
  the {i}-umlaut of {a} (§10). Good MHG. poets do not rhyme Germanic
  {ë} with the umlaut-{e}, and the distinction between the two sounds
  is still preserved in many NHG. dialects. In like manner the modern
  Bavarian and Austrian dialects still distinguish between {ä} and
  {ë}. In the MHG. period {ä, ë}, and {e} were kept apart in
  Bavarian, but in Alemanic and Middle German {ä} and {ë} seem to have
  fallen together in {ë} or possibly {ä}, as the two sounds frequently
  rhyme with each other in good poets. MHG. texts do not always
  preserve in writing the distinction between the old umlaut-{e} and
  the MHG. umlaut-{ä}, both being often written {e} in the same text.



The approximate pronunciation of the above vowels and diphthongs was as

  a  as in NHG. m_a_nn     man, _man_.
  ā  „  „  Engl. f_a_ther  hāt, _has_.
  ä  „  „   „    m_a_n     mähte, _powers_.
  æ  „  „   „    _ai_r     lære, _empty_.
  ë  „  „   „    m_e_n     hëlfen, _to help_.
  e  „  „  Fr. _é_t_é_     geste, _guests_.
  ē  „  „  NHG. r_e_h      sē, _sea_.
  i  „  „  Engl. b_i_t     biten, _to beg_.
  ī  „  „   „    w_ee_n    wīn, _wine_.
  o  „  „   „    p_o_t     golt, _gold_.
  ō  „  „  NHG. t_o_t      tōt, _dead_.
  u  „  „  Engl. p_u_t     guldīn, _golden_.
  ū  „  „   „    f_oo_l    hūs, _house_.
  ö  „  „  NHG. l_ö_cher   löcher, _holes_.
  œ  „  „   „   sch_ö_n    schœne, _beautiful_.
  ü  „  „   „   f_ü_llen   vüllen, _to fill_.
  iu „  „   „   m_ü_de     hiuser, _houses_.
       ei = e + i          stein, _stone_.
       ie = i + e          knie, _knee_.
       ou = o + u          ouge, _eye_.
  öu (eu) = ö _or_ e + ü   dröuwen, _to threaten_.
       üe = ü + e          grüeȥen, _to greet_.
       uo = u + o          bruoder, _brother_.

To the above list should be added the MHG. {e} in unaccented syllables,
which mostly arose from the weakening of the OHG. full vowels, as OHG.
{zunga}, _tongue_, {hirti}, _shepherd_, {namo}, _name_, {fridu}, _peace_
= MHG. {zunge}, {hirte}, {name}, {fride}; OHG. {habēn}, _to have_,
{scōnī}, _beauty_, {salbōn}, _to anoint_, {zungūn}, _tongues_ = MHG.
{haben}, {schœne}, {salben}, {zungen}. The {e} in this position was
pronounced like the {-e} in NHG. {zunge}, {name}, {friede}, &c.



  Palatal  { Short ä, ë, e, i, ö, ü.
           { Long  æ,    ē, ī, œ, iu (= ü).

  Guttural { Short a, o, u.
           { Long  ā, ō, ū.



The following are the OHG. equivalents of the MHG. short vowels, long
vowels and diphthongs of accented syllables:--

1. The short vowels a, ë, e, i, o, u = the corresponding OHG. short
vowels, as {tac}, _day_, {gast}, _guest_, {bant}, _he bound_, {gap}, _he
gave_ = OHG. {tag}, {gast}, {bant}, {gab}.

{wëc}, _way_, {nëmen}, _to take_, {zëhen}, _ten_ = OHG. {wëg}, {nëman},

{geste}, _guests_, {lember}, _lambs_, {vert}, _he goes_ = OHG. {gesti},
{lembir}, {ferit}.

{wiȥȥen}, _to know_, {hilfe}, _I help_, {visch}, _fish_ = OHG. {wiȥȥan},
{hilfu}, {fisk}.

{got}, _God_, {wol}, _well_, {geholfen}, _helped_ = OHG. {got}, {wola},

{sun}, _son_, {wurm}, _worm_, {gebunden}, _bound_ = OHG. {sunu}, {wurm},

{ä} is the umlaut of {a} before certain consonant combinations which
prevented umlaut from taking place in OHG., as {mähte}, _powers_,
{hältet}, _he holds_, {wärmen}, _to warm_ = OHG. {mahti}, {haltit},
{warmen} from {*warmjan} (§10). It also occurs in derivatives ending in
{-līch} and {-līn}, as {mänlīch}, _manly_, {tägelīch}, _daily_,
{väterlīn}, dim. of {vater}, _father_; and in words which originally had
an {i} in the third syllable, the vowel of the second syllable having
become {i} by assimilation, as {mägede}, _maids_, {zäher(e)}, _tears_ =
OHG. {magadi}, {zahari}.

{ö} is the umlaut of OHG. {o}, as {löcher}, _holes_, {möhte}, _I might_
= OHG. {lohhir}, {mohti}; {götinne}, _goddess_, beside {got}, _God_.

{ü} is the umlaut of OHG. {u}, as {dünne}, _thin_, {süne}, _sons_,
{züge}, _I might draw_ = OHG. {dunni}, {suni}, {zugi}.

2. The long vowels ā, ē, ī, ō, ū = the corresponding OHG. long vowels,
as {sāt}, _seed_, {slāfen}, _to sleep_, {nāmen}, _we took_, {dāhte}, _he
thought_ = OHG. {sāt}, {slāfan}, {nāmum}, {dāhta}.

{sēle}, _soul_, {mēre}, _more_, {lēren}, _to teach_ = OHG. {sēla},
{mēro}, {lēren}.

{wīp}, _wife_, {sīn}, _his_, {bīȥen}, _to bite_ = OHG. {wīb}, {sīn},

{ōre}, _ear_, {tōt}, _death_, {kōs}, _I chose_ = OHG. {ōra}, {tōd},

{hūs}, _house_, {tūsent}, _thousand_, {dūhte}, _it seemed_ = OHG. {hūs},
{dūsunt}, {dūhta}.

{æ} is the umlaut of OHG. {ā}, as {lære}, _empty_, {næme}, _thou
tookest_ = OHG. {lāri}, {nāmi}.

{œ} is the umlaut of OHG. {ō}, as {schœne}, _beautiful_, {hœher},
_higher_, {hœren}, _to hear_ = OHG. {scōni}, {hōhiro}, {hōren} from
{*hōrjan} older {*hausjan}.

iu = (1) OHG. {iu} (diphthong), as {liute}, _people_,
         {kiuset}, _he chooses_ = OHG. {liuti}, {kiusit}.

   = (2) the umlaut of OHG. {ū}, as {hiuser}, _houses_,
         {briute}, _brides_ = OHG. {hūsir}, {brūti}.

3. The diphthongs ei, ou, uo = the corresponding OHG. diphthongs, as
{bein}, _bone_, {leiten}, _to lead_, {schreip}, _I wrote_ = OHG. {bein},
{leiten}, {screib}.

{ouge}, _eye_, {houbet}, _head_, {bouc}, _I bent_ = OHG. {ouga},
{houbit}, {boug}.

{bruoder}, _brother_, {stuont}, _I stood_, {vuor}, _I went_ = OHG.
{bruoder}, {stuont}, {fuor}.

ie = (1) OHG. {ie} (diphthong) older {ia}, {ea, ē} (Germanic {ē}),
         as {hier}, _here_, {miete}, _pay, reward_, {gienc}, _I went_
         = OHG. {hier}, {mieta}, {gieng}.

   = (2) OHG. {io} (Germanic {eu}), as {bieten}, _to offer_, {liep},
         _dear_ = OHG. {biotan}, {liob}.

   = (3) the OHG. {io} which occurs in the preterite of the old
         reduplicated verbs whose presents have {ou}, {ō, uo} (§87),
         as inf. {loufen}, _to run_, {stōȥen}, _to push_, {ruofen},
         _to call_, preterite {lief}, {stieȥ}, {rief} = OHG. {liof},
         {stioȥ}, {riof}.

   = (4) Upper German {iu} (OHG. {io}) before labials and gutturals,
         as {liup}, _dear_, {tiuf}, _deep_, {siuch}, _sick_,
         {liugen}, _to tell a lie_ = {liep}, {tief}, {siech},

{öu} ({eu}) is the umlaut of OHG. {ou}, as {löuber}, _leaves_, {löufel},
_runner_ = OHG. {loubir}, {loufil}.

{üe} is the umlaut of OHG. {uo}, as {grüene}, _green_, {güete},
_goodness_, {vüere}, _thou didst go_ = OHG. {gruoni}, {guotī}, {fuori}.



The two most characteristic differences between OHG. and MHG. are: (1)
the spread of umlaut (§10); (2) the weakening and partial loss of vowels
in unaccented syllables.



The short vowels a, i, o, u, and the long vowels ē, ī, ō, ū were
weakened to {e}. This {e} was pronounced like the final {-e} in NHG.
{leute}, see §3. Examples are:--

{gëba}, _gift_, {hërza}, _heart_, {zunga}, _tongue_, {taga}, _days_ =
MHG. {gëbe}, {hërze}, {zunge}, {tage}; {heilag}, _holy_, neut.
{blindaȥ}, _blind_, {nëman}, _to take_ = MHG. {heilec}, {blindeȥ},

{kunni}, _race, generation_, {gesti}, _guests_ = MHG. {künne}, {geste};
{kuning}, _king_, {beȥȥisto}, _best_, dat. pl. {gestim}, _to guests_,
gen. pl. {lembiro}, _of lambs_, {nimit}, _he takes_ = MHG. {künec},
{beȥȥest} ({beste}), {gesten}, {lember(e)}, {nimet}.

{haso}, _hare_, nom. acc. pl. fem. {blinto}, _blind_, gen. pl. {tago},
_of days_ = MHG. {hase}, {blinde}, {tage}; acc. sing. {hason}, _hare_ =
MHG. {hasen}.

{fridu}, _peace_, dat. sing. {gëbu}, _to a gift_, {nimu}, _I take_ =
MHG. {fride}, {gëbe}, {nime}; dat. pl. {tagum}, _to days_, {nāmum}, _we
took_ = MHG. {tagen}, {nāmen}.

Nom. sing. masc. {blintēr}, _blind_, {unsēr}, _our_, {habēn}, _to have_,
{nëmēm}, _we may take_ = MHG. {blinder}, {unser}, {haben}, {nëmen}.

{scōnī}, _beauty_ = MHG. {schœne}; {sālīg}, _blessed_, {nāmīm}, _we
might take_ = MHG. {sælec}, {næmen}.

{salbōn}, _to anoint_, {suohtōs(t)}, _thou soughtest_, dat. pl. {gëbōm},
{hërzōm} = MHG. {salben}, {suohtes(t)}, {gëben}, {hërzen}.

Gen. dat. acc. sing., nom. acc. pl. {zungūn} = MHG. {zungen}.


The vowel in suffixal and derivative syllables was generally weakened to
{e} just as in the inflexional syllables, but in some suffixal and
derivative syllables which had a secondary accent the vowel was not
weakened to {e}. This was especially the case with derivatives in {-ære}
(denoting nomina agentis), {-inne}, {-inc} ({-ing}), {linc} ({-ling}),
diminutives in {-īn} and {-līn}, abstract nouns in {-nisse} ({-nusse},
{-nüsse}), {-unge}. In others the vowel fluctuated between the full
vowel and {e}, as in {-isch} beside {-esch}; {-ic} (= OHG. {-ag}, and
{-ī̆g}) beside {-ec}; superlative of adjectives {-ist} (= OHG. {-ist})
beside {-est} (= OHG. {-ōst}); {-sal} beside {-sel}. Beside the full
forms {-līch}, {-rīch} occurred the shortened forms {-lich}, {-rich}.

The OHG. endings of the present participle {-anti}, {-enti}, {-ōnti},
{ēnti} regularly became {-ende}, but {-ant} occurs in a few old
participles which had become nouns, as {heilant}, _Saviour_, {wīgant},
_warrior_, {vīant} beside {vīent} ({vīnt}), _fiend, enemy_. Examples
are: {gartenære}, _gardener_, {schepfære}, _creator_, {schrībære},

{küneginne}, _queen_, {vriundinne}, _female friend_, {wirtinne},

{edelinc}, _son of a nobleman_, {hendelinc}, _glove_, {vingerlinc},
_ring_; {müedinc}, _unhappy man_.

{magedīn}, _little girl_, {vingerīn}, _ring_; {kindelīn}, _little
child_, {vogelīn}, _little bird_.

{hindernisse}, _hindrance_, {verdërbnisse}, _destruction_,
{vinsternisse}, _darkness_, {vancnüsse}, _captivity_.

{beȥȥerunge}, _improvement_, {handelunge}, _action_, {mëldunge},

{himelisch}, _heavenly_, {irdisch}, _earthly_, {kindisch}, _childish_,
beside {-esch}.

{heilic} (OHG. {heilag}), _holy_, {honic} (OHG. {honag}, {honig}),
_honey_, {künic} (OHG. {cuning}, {cunig}), _king_, {manic} (OHG.
{manag}), _many a_, {sælic} (OHG. {sālīg}), _blessed_, beside {-ec}.

{oberist} beside {oberest}, _highest_.

{kumbersal}, _distress_, {trüebsal}, _gloom_, {wëhsal} beside {wëhsel},

{bitterlīch}, _bitterly_, {sicherlīch}, _surely_, {wīslīch}, _wisely_,
beside {-lich}.

{Dietrīch}, {Heinrīch}, beside {-rich}.

The OHG. pronominal ending of the nom. sing. fem. and the nom. acc. pl.
neuter remained unweakened, as OHG. {blintiu} = MHG. {blindiu} (§55).



The weakened {e} regularly disappeared:--

1. After {l} and {r} in dissyllables with short stems, as {ar}, older
{are} (OHG. {aro}), _eagle_, acc. gen. dat. {arn}, beside {name},
_name_, {namen}; {wol}, older {wole} (OHG. {wola}), _well_; {gar} (OHG.
{garo}), _ready_, {milch} (OHG. {milih}), _milk_, {zal} (OHG. {zala}),
_number_; {kil}, _quill_, gen. {kil(e)s}, dat. {kil}, pl. nom. acc.
{kil}, dat. {kil(e)n}, beside {tac}, _day_, gen. {tages}, dat. {tage},
pl. nom. acc. {tage}, dat. {tagen}; {bërn}, _to bear_, {stëln}, _to
steal_, {nern}, _to rescue_, pres. sing. {stil}, {stils(t)}, {stilt};
{ner}, {ners(t)}, {nert}, beside {hœren}, _to hear_, pres. sing. {hœre},
{hœres(t)}, {hœret}.

2. After liquids and nasals in trisyllabic and polysyllabic forms with
long stems, as {sælde} (OHG. {sālida}), _blessedness_, {hērsen},
{hërsen} (OHG. {hērisōn}), _to rule_, {zierde} (OHG. {ziarida}),
_adornment_, {wandelte} (OHG. {wantalōta}), _I wandered_, {zwīfeln}
(OHG. {zwīfalōn}), _to doubt_, {wundern} (OHG. {wuntarōn}), _to wonder_,
{schœnste} (OHG. {scōnisto}), _most beautiful_, {diente}, {diende} (OHG.
{dionōta}), _I served_; {dienest}, _service_, gen. {dienstes}; {engel},
_angel_, gen. {engel(e)s}, dat. {engel(e)}, pl. nom. acc. gen.
{engel(e)}, dat. {engel(e)n}, and similarly with words like {acker},
_acre_, {lūter}, _clear_, {buosem}, _bosom_, {heiden}, _heathen_;
{grœȥer} (OHG. {grōȥiro}), _greater_, fem. dat. sing. {grœȥer} (OHG.
{grōȥiru}); dat. sing. {blindem(e)}, _blind_, {guotem(e)}, _good_ = OHG.
{blintemu}, {guotemu}; gen. pl. {blinder(e)} = OHG. {blintero}. After
the analogy of forms with long stems it was also dropped in forms with
short stems, as pl. {nagel}, _nails_, {vogel}, _birds_, beside {nagele},
{vogele}; {wider} beside {widere} (OHG. {widaro}), _wether_, dat. sing.
{disem(e)}, _this_, {vadem(e)}, _thread_, gen. {vadem(e)s}.

There was however a strong tendency in MHG. for the medial vowel to
disappear in trisyllabic forms with long stems irrespectively as to
whether they contained a liquid or a nasal, as {market}, _market_, gen.
{marktes}; {rīchsen} (OHG. {rīchisōn}), _to rule_, {ahte} (OHG.
{ahtōta}), _he observed_, {wartte}, {warte} (OHG. {wartēta}), _he
waited_, {vrāgte} beside {vrāgete} (OHG. {frāgēta}), _he asked_,
{dancte} beside {dankete} (OHG. {dankōta}), _he thanked_. See §92.

3. In the medial syllable of trisyllabic forms with long stems having
liquids or nasals in successive syllables, as {dīme} beside {dīneme}
(OHG. {dīnemu}), dat. of {dīn}, _thy_; {eime} beside {ein(e)me} (OHG.
{einemu}), dat. of {ein}, _one_; {hērre}, {hërre} (OHG. {hēriro}),
_master_; {minre} beside {minner(e)} (OHG. {minniro}), _less_; {tiurre}
(OHG. {tiuriro}), _dearer_.

4. Finally after a nasal, and medially after a nasal before a following
{t}, in forms with short stems, as {han(e)}, _cock_, {nam(e)}, _name_,
{sun} (OHG. {sun}, {sunu}), _son_, {won(e)}, _I dwell_; {man(e)t}, _he
admonishes_, {won(e)t}, _he dwells_, {scham(e)t}, _he shames_,
{nim(e)t}, _he takes_, {nëm(e)t}, _ye take_; pret. {won(e)te},
{scham(e)te}. In these and similar forms the {e} was often restored
through the influence of forms which regularly preserved the {e}.

  NOTE.--The {e}, when not preceded by a nasal, was sometimes dropped
  in verbal forms ending in {t}. This was especially the case in
  {wirst}, {wirt} older {wirdes(t)}, {wirdet}; {siht}, _he sees_,
  {sëht}, _ye see_, older {sihet}, {sëhet}; and often in forms like
  {gilt}, {vint}, {spricht}, {sticht} beside {giltet}, {vindet},
  {sprichet}, {stichet}.

5. The superlative of adjectives often has double forms, the one with
the loss of the medial {e}, and the other with the loss of the final
{e}, as {beste}, _best_, {ērste}, _first_, {grœste}, _greatest_,
{leste}, _last_, {min(ne)ste}, _least_, {wir(se)ste}, _worst_, beside
{beȥȥest(e)}, {ērest(e)}, {grœȥest(e)}, {leȥȥest(e)}, {minnest(e)},
{wirsest(e)}, OHG. {beȥȥisto}, {ēristo}, {grōȥisto}, {leȥȥisto},
{minnisto}, {wirsisto}.

6. In the unstressed forms of dissyllables, as adv. {ane}, {abe},
{mite}, {obe} beside the prepositions {an}, _on_, {ab}, _of_, {mit},
_with_, {ob}, _over_; dat. sing. {dëme}, {wëme}, {ime}, beside {dëm},
{wëm}, {im}; {unde}, _and_, {wande}, _for_, _because_, beside {und}
({unt}), {wan(d)}; {hërre}, {vrouwe}, beside {hër}, {vrou} before proper
names and titles.

7. The {e} in the unaccented verbal prefixes {be-}, {ge-} often
disappeared before {l, n, r}, as {blīben}, _to remain_, {glīch}, _like_,
{glit}, _member_, {glouben}, _to believe_, {gnāde}, _favour_, {gnanne},
_namesake_, {gnuoge}, _many_, {grade}, _quick_, {grëch}, _straight_,
beside {belīben}, {gelīch}, {gelit}, {gelouben}, {genāde}, {genanne},
{genuoge}, {gerade}, {gerëch}; it disappeared before vowels during the
OHG. period, as {bange}, _anxious_: {ange}, _anxiously_, {gëȥȥan} p.p.
of {ëȥȥan}, _to eat_, {gunnan}, MHG. {gunnen}, {günnen}, _to grant_.



By umlaut is meant the modification (palatalization) of an accented
vowel through the influence of an {ī̆} or {j} which originally stood in
the following syllable. The only vowel which underwent this change in
OHG. was {a}, which became close {e} (§2, note).

The change is first met with in OHG. monuments about the middle of the
eighth century. In the ninth century the process was practically
complete except when the {a} was followed by certain consonant
combinations which prevented umlaut from taking place. These consonant
combinations were:--

1. {ht}, {hs}, or consonant + {w}, as {maht}, _power_, pl. {mahti;
wahsit}, _he grows_, inf. {wahsan}; {bi-scatwen} from {*-scatwjan}, _to

2. In Upper German before {l} + consonant, before {hh}, {ch} (= Germanic
{k}), and often before {r} + consonant, and before {h} (= Germanic {h}),
as Upper German {haltit} beside Upper Franconian {heltit}, _he holds_,
inf. {haltan}; UG. {altiro} beside UF. {eltiro}, _older_; UG. {sachit}
beside UF. {sehhit}, _he quarrels_, inf. {sachan}, Goth. {sakan}; UG.
{warmen} beside {wermen}, Goth. {warmjan}, _to warm_; UG. {slahit}
beside {slehit}, _he strikes_, inf. OHG. {slahan}, Goth. {slahan}.

3. In words ending in {-nissi}, {-nissa}, or {-līh}, as {firstantnissi},
_understanding_; {infancnissa}, _assumption_; {kraftlīh}, _strong_;
{tagalīh}, _daily_.

Umlaut must have taken place earlier in the spoken language than it is
expressed in late OHG. and early MHG. manuscripts, because the {ī̆}
which caused the umlaut was weakened to {e} in MHG. (§7) and {j} had
disappeared except between vowels. The vowels and diphthongs which
underwent umlaut in MHG. are a, o, u, ā, ō, ū, ou, uo. The umlaut of all
these sounds was completed by about the year 1200.

a > e: {gast}, _guest_, pl. {geste} (OHG. {gesti}); {lamp}, _lamb_, pl.
{lember} (OHG. {lembir}); inf. {graben}, _to dig_, pres. second and
third pers. sing. {grebes(t)}, {grebet} (OHG. {grebis}, {grebit});
{lanc}, _long_, beside {lenge} (OHG. {lengī}), _length_; {brennen},
Goth. {brannjan}, _to burn_; {bette} (OHG. {betti}), _bed_.

a > ä: From the twelfth century onwards the umlaut of {a} also
occurs--often beside forms without umlaut--in words containing the
consonant combinations which prevented umlaut from taking place in OHG.,
as pl. {mähte} (OHG. {mahti}), _powers_; {geslähte} (OHG. {gislahti}),
_race_, _generation_; {wähset} (OHG. {wahsit}), _he grows_; {wärmen}
(OHG. {warmen}, older {*warmjan}), _to warm_; Upper German {älter} (OHG.
{altiro}), _older_; {kälte} (OHG. {kaltī}), _coldness_; {hältet} (OHG.
{haltit}), _he holds_; {äher} (OHG. {ahir}), _ear of corn_; {slähet}
(OHG. {slahit}), _he strikes_. It also occurs in derivatives ending in
{-līch}, {-līn}, as {mänlīch}, _manly_, {schämelīch}, _shameful_,
{tägelīch}, _daily_, {väterlīch}, _fatherly_, {väterlīn}, dim. of
{vater}, _father_. It is likewise met with in MHG. words which
originally had an {i} in the third syllable, the vowel of the second
syllable having become {i} by assimilation, as {frävele} (OHG.
{frafali}), _bold_, pl. {mägede} (OHG. {magadi}), _maids_, pl.
{zäher(e)} (OHG. {zahari}), _tears_. See §2, Note.

o > ö: Although {ö}, the umlaut of {o}, is common in MHG. and still
commoner in NHG., yet all words containing this umlaut are really new
formations due to levelling or analogy, because primitive Germanic {u}
(§15) did not become {o} in OHG. when followed by an {ī̆} or {j} in the
next syllable. Examples are: {boc}, _he-goat_, beside dim. {böcklīn}
(OHG. {pochilī}); {dorf}, _village_, beside pl. {dörfer}; {got}, _God_,
beside {götinne}, _goddess_; {hof}, _court_, beside {hövesch},
_courtly_; {loch} (OHG. {loh}), _hole_, beside pl. {löcher} (OHG.
{lohhir}); {tohter}, _daughter_, beside dim. {töhterlīn}; pret. subj.
{möhte} (OHG. {mohti}), _I might_; {törste} (OHG. {torsti}), _I might

u > ü: {dünne} (OHG. {dunni}), _thin_; {künne} (OHG. {kunni}), _race_,
_generation_; pl. {süne} (OHG. {suni}), _sons_; {tür} (OHG. {turi}),
_door_; pret. subj. {züge} (OHG. {zugi}), inf. {ziehen}, _to draw_.

  NOTE.--In Upper German certain consonant combinations often
  prevented umlaut from taking place where it might be expected. Of
  these the principal are:--

  1. Before a liquid + consonant, as {hulde} (OHG. {huldī}), _favour_;
  {schuldec} (OHG. {sculdīg}), _guilty_; {gedultec} (OHG. {gidultīg}),
  _indulgent_; {burge} (OHG. {burgi}), dat. of {burc}, _city_;
  {sturbe} (OHG. {sturbi}), pret. subj. of {stërben}, _to die_;
  {wurfe} (OHG. {wurfi}), pret. subj. of {wërfen}, _to throw_, cp.
  2 above.

  2. {u} fluctuates with {ü} when followed by a nasal + consonant,
  as {dunken}, _to seem_, {umbe}, _about_, {wunne}, _joy_, beside
  {dünken}, {ümbe} (OHG. {umbi}), {wünne}. This fluctuation is
  especially common in the pret. subjunctive, as {bunde}, {sunge},
  beside {bünde}, {sünge}, inf. {binden}, _to bind_, {singen}, _to

  3. {u} fluctuates with {ü} when followed by {gg}, {ck}, {pf}, {tz},
  {ȥȥ}, {st}, {ch}, and {g}, as {brugge}, {brügge}, {brucke},
  {brücke}, _bridge_; {mugge}, {mügge}, {mucke}, {mücke}, _midge_;
  {drucken}, {drücken}, _to press_; {hupfen}, {hüpfen}, _to hop_;
  {schupfen}, {schüpfen}, _to push_; {nutzen}, {nützen}, _to use_;
  pret. subj. {fluȥȥe}, {flüȥȥe}; {schuȥȥe}, {schüȥȥe}, inf.
  {flieȥen}, _to flow_, {schieȥen}, _to shoot_; pl. {bruste},
  {brüste}, _breasts_; {kuchen}, {küchen}, _kitchen_; pret. subj.
  {fluge}, {flüge}, inf. {fliegen}, _to fly_.

ā > æ: {lære} (OHG. {lāri}), _empty_; {mære} (OHG. {māri}), _renowned_;
{sæjen} (OHG. {sājan}), _to sow_; pret. subj. {næme} (OHG. {nāmi}), pl.
{næmen} (OHG. {nāmīm}), inf. {nëmen}, _to take_.

ō > œ: {hœher} (OHG. {hōhiro}), _higher_; {hœhest} (OHG. {hōhisto}),
_highest_; {hœren} (OHG. {hōren}, from older {*hōrjan}), _to hear_;
{schœne} (OHG. {scōni}), _beautiful_.

ū > iu: pl. {briute} (OHG. {brūti}), _brides_; {hiuser} (OHG. {hūsir}),

Traces of the umlaut of {ū}, written {iu} (= {ǖ}), occur in late OHG.
monuments of the tenth century. It is common in the writings of Notker
(† 1022), as {hiute} older {hūti}, _skins_; {chriuter} older {chrūtir},
_herbs_. In other writings of the tenth to the twelfth century the
umlaut of {ū} is seldom found. Umlaut did not take place in Upper German
before a following {m}, as {rūmen} from {*rūmjan}, _to make room_;
{sūmen} from {*sūmjan}, _to tarry_.

ou > öu, often written {eu}, rarely {oi}, {öi}: {löufel} (OHG.
{loufil}), _runner_; {löuber} (OHG. {loubir}), _leaves_.

Umlaut of {ou} did not take place in the combination {ouw} = OHG. {ouw},
{auw}, West Germanic {aww}, primitive Germanic {awj}, as {frouwe} (OHG.
{frouwa}, prim. Germanic {*frawjō-}), _woman_; {ouwe} (OHG. {ouwa},
{auwia}, prim. Germanic {*a(ʒ)wjō-}), _meadow_; {frouwen} (OHG.
{frouwen}, prim. Germanic {*frawjan}), _to rejoice_, and similarly
{douwen}, _to digest_, {drouwen}, _to threaten_, {strouwen}, _to strew_.
Forms like {fröuwen}, {döuwen}, {dröuwen}, {ströuwen} were analogical
formations due to the influence of the pres. second and third pers.
singular and the preterite which regularly had umlaut; see the Author’s
Historical German Grammar, §232.

Umlaut of {ou} did not take place in Upper German before labials and
{g}, as {erlouben}, _to allow_, {gelouben}, _to believe_, {houbet},
_head_, {koufen}, _to buy_, {troumen}, _to dream_, {toufen}, _to
baptize_, {bougen}, _to bend_, {ougen}, _to show_, beside Middle German
{erlöuben}, {gelöuben}, {höubet}, {köufen}, {tröumen}, {töufen},
{böugen}, {öugen}.

uo > üe: {grüene} (OHG. {gruoni}), _green_; {güete} (OHG. {guotī}),
_goodness_; {vüeȥe} (OHG. {fuoȥi}), _feet_; pret. pl. subj. {vüeren}
(OHG. {fuorīm}), _we might go_, inf. {varn}, _to fare_, _go_; {buoch},
_book_, dim. {büechlīn}; {muoter}, _mother_, dim. {müeterlīn}.



OHG. had the following short vowels, long vowels, and diphthongs:--

  Short Vowels  a, e, ë,      i,         o,    u.
  Long    „     ā, ē,         ī,         ō,    ū.
  Diphthongs       ei,   ie (ia, ea), ou (au), uo.
                         io (eo),

The following are the MHG. equivalents of the above simple vowels and
diphthongs in accented syllables:--

1. The short vowels: Apart from the changes caused by umlaut, viz. {a}
to {ä, o} to {ö, u} to {ü} (§10), and of {ë} to {e} before certain
consonants, the OHG. short vowels remained in MHG., as

a = (1) MHG. a, as OHG. {fater}, _father_, {tag}, _day_, {faran},
        _to go_ = MHG. {vater}, {tac}, {varn}.

  = (2) MHG. ä, in words containing the consonant combinations which
        prevented umlaut from taking place in OHG., as OHG. {mahti},
        _powers_, {kaltī}, _coldness_, {ahir}, _ear of corn_, {warmen},
        _to warm_ = MHG. {mähte}, {kälte}, {äher}, {wärmen}, see §10.

e = MHG. e, as OHG. {gesti}, _guests_, {lembir}, _lambs_, {brennen},
    _to burn_ = MHG. {geste}, {lember}, {brennen}.

ë = (1) MHG. ë, as OHG. {wëg}, _way_, {hëlfan}, _to help_, {stëlan},
        _to steal_ = MHG. {wëc}, {hëlfen}, {stëln}.

  = (2) MHG. e, before {st}, {sch}, and palatal {g}, as OHG. {nëst},
        _nest_, {swëster}, _sister_ = MHG. {nest}, {swester}; and
        similarly, {gestern}, _yesterday_, {deste}, _all the more_,
        {weste}, _I knew_, {dreschen}, _to thrash_, {leschen},
        _to go out_, {degen}, _warrior_; and also in a few words
        before a following {l}, as {helm}, _helmet_, {vels}, _rock_,
        {welch}, _which_, &c.

i = MHG. i, as OHG. {fisk}, _fish_, {nimu}, _I take_, {wiȥȥan},
    _to know_ = MHG. {visch}, {nime}, {wiȥȥen}.

o = (1) MHG. o, as OHG. {got}, _God_, p.p. {giholfan}, _helped_,
        {tohter}, _daughter_ = MHG. {got}, {geholfen}, {tohter}.
  = (2) MHG. ö, as OHG. {lohhir}, _holes_, {mohti}, _I might_ = MHG.
        {löcher}, {möhte}.

u = (1) MHG. u, as OHG. {sunu}, {sun}, _son_, {butum}, _we offered_,
        {buntum}, _we bound_ = MHG. {sun}, {buten}, {bunden}.
  = (2) MHG. ü, as OHG. {dunni}, _thin_, {suni}, _sons_ = MHG. {dünne},

2. The long vowels: Apart from the changes caused by umlaut, viz. {ā} to
{æ, ō} to {œ}, and {ū} to {iu} (§10), the OHG. long vowels remained in
MHG., as

ā = (1) MHG. ā, as OHG. {sāt}, _seed_, {slāfan}, _to sleep_, {dāhta},
        _I thought_ = MHG. {sāt}, {slāfen}, {dāhte}.
  = (2) MHG. æ, as OHG {lāri}, _empty_, {nāmi}, _I might take_
        = MHG. {lære}, {næme}.

ē = MHG. ē, as OHG. {ēra}, _honour_, {lēren}, _to teach_, {sēla},
    _soul_ = MHG. {ēre}, {lēren}, {sēle}.

ī = MHG. ī, as OHG. {sīn}, _his_, {wīb}, _woman_, {snīdan}, _to cut_
    = MHG. {sīn}, {wīp}, {snīden}.

ō = (1) MHG. ō, as OHG. {ōra}, _ear_, {tōd}, _death_, {kōs},
        _I chose_ = MHG. {ōre}, {tōt}, {kōs}.
  = (2) MHG. œ, as OHG. {hōhiro}, _higher_, {hōren}, _to hear_,
        {scōni}, _beautiful_ = MHG. {hœher}, {hœren}, {schœne}.

ū = (1) MHG. ū, as OHG. {hūs}, _house_, {rūm}, _room_, {dūhta},
        _it seemed_ = MHG. {hūs}, {rūm}, {dūhte}.

  = (2) MHG. iu, as OHG. {hūsir}, _houses_, {brūti}, _brides_
        = MHG. {hiuser}, {briute}.

3. The diphthongs:

ei = MHG. ei, as OHG. {bein}, _bone_, {leiten}, _to lead_, {sneid},
     _I cut_ = MHG. {bein}, {leiten}, {sneit}.

ie (older ia, ea = Germanic ē) = MHG. ie, as OHG. {hier}, _here_,
     {mieta}, _reward_, {hielt}, _I held_, {hieȥ}, _I called_, {slief},
     _I slept_ = MHG. {hier}, {miete}, {hielt}, {hieȥ}, {slief}.

io (eo) = Germanic eu (§16), and the io (eo) in the preterites of the
          old reduplicated verbs whose presents have ou, ō, uo (§87).
        = MHG. ie, as OHG. {liob}, _dear_, {biotan}, _to offer_
          = MHG. {liep}, {bieten}; OHG. {liof}, _I ran_, {stioȥ},
          _I pushed_, {riof}, _I called_ = MHG. {lief}, {stieȥ},

iu = MHG. ǖ written iu, as OHG. {liuti}, _people_, {kiusit}, _he
     chooses_ = MHG. {liute}, {kiuset}.

ou (older au) = (1) MHG. ou, as OHG. {ouga}, _eye_, {boug}, _I bent_,
                    {loufan}, _to run_ = MHG. {ouge}, {bouc}, {loufen}.
              = (2) MHG. öu (eu), as OHG. {loubir}, _leaves_,
                    {loufil}, _runner_ = MHG. {löuber}, {löufel}.

uo = (1) MHG. uo, as OHG. {bruoder}, _brother_, {muoter}, _mother_,
         {stuont}, _I stood_ = MHG. {bruoder}, {muoter}, {stuont}.
   = (2) MHG. üe, as OHG. {gruoni}, _green_, {fuoȥi}, _feet_,
         = MHG. {grüene}, {vüeȥe}.



By ablaut is meant the gradation of vowels both in stem and suffix,
which was chiefly caused by the primitive Indo-Germanic system of
accentuation. See the Author’s Historical German Grammar, §23.

The vowels vary within certain series of related vowels, called
ablaut-series. In MHG. there are six such series, which appear most
clearly in the stem-forms of strong verbs. Four stem-forms are to be
distinguished in a MHG. strong verb which has vowel gradation as the
characteristic mark of its different stems:--(1) the present stem, to
which belong all the forms of the present, (2) the stem of the first or
third person of the preterite singular, (3) the stem of the preterite
plural, to which belong the second person of the preterite singular and
the whole of the preterite subjunctive, (4) the stem of the past

By arranging the vowels according to these four stems we arrive at the
following system:--

        i.       ii.      iii.      iv.

    I.  ī        ei, ē     i         i
   II.  ie       ou, ō     u         o
  III.  i, ë     a         u         u, o
   IV.  ë        a         ā         o
    V.  ë        a         ā         ë
   VI.  a        uo        uo        a

  NOTE.--1. On the difference between {ei} and {ē}, see §17; {ou} and
  {ō}, §18; and in Series III {i} and {ë}, §14; {u} and {o}, §15.

  2. Strong verbs belonging to Series II have {iu} in the indicative
  pres. singular; and strong verbs belonging to Series III-V with {ë}
  in the infinitive have {i} in the indicative pres. singular
  (§§14, 16).


    I. snīden, _to cut_     snīde     sneit    sniten    gesniten;
       līhen, _to lend_     līhe      lēch     lihen     gelihen.
   II. biegen, _to bend_    biuge     bouc     bugen     gebogen;
       sieden, _to seethe_  siude     sōt      suten     gesoten.
  III. binden, _to bind_    binde     bant     bunden    gebunden;
       hëlfen, _to help_    hilfe     half     hulfen    geholfen.
   IV. nëmen, _to take_     nime      nam      nāmen     genomen.
    V. gëben, _to give_     gibe      gap      gāben     gegëben.
   VI. graben, _to dig_     grabe     gruop    gruoben   gegraben.

For further examples see the various classes of strong verbs §§76-86.
Class VII of strong verbs embracing the old reduplicated verbs (§87) has
been omitted from the ablaut-series, because the exact relation in which
the vowel of the present stands to that of the preterite has not yet
been satisfactorily explained.



Most of the following vowel changes took place in prehistoric times; but
as they play an important part in the verbs and word-formation, &c., we
shall give them here.


ë (= Indo-Germanic e) became i in the prehistoric period of all the
Germanic languages:--

1. Before a nasal + consonant, as OE. {wind}, OHG. MHG. {wint}, Lat.
{ventus}, _wind_; OHG. {fimf}, {finf}, Gr. πέντε, _five_. This explains
why verbs like MHG. {binden}, _to bind_, {rinnen}, _to run_, {singen},
_to sing_, belong to the same ablaut-series as {hëlfen}, _to help_,
{wërden}, _to become_.

1. Before a nasal + consonant, as OE. {wind}, OHG. MHG. {wint}, Lat.
{ventus}, _wind_; OHG. {fimf}, {finf}, Gr. [pente], _five_. This
explains why verbs like MHG. {binden}, _to bind_, {rinnen}, _to run_,
{singen}, _to sing_, belong to the same ablaut-series as {hëlfen}, _to
help_, {wërden}, _to become_.

2. Before other consonants when followed by an {ī̆} or {j} in the next
syllable, and further in OHG. when followed by an {u} in the next
syllable, as OHG. MHG. {ist}, Gr. ἐστί, _is_; OHG. {fihu}, Lat. {pecu},
_cattle_; {ërde} (OHG. {ërda}), _earth_, but {irdīn}, _earthen_; {ligen}
(OHG. {liggen} from {*ligjan}), _to lie down_, {sitzen} (OHG. {sitzen}
from {*sitjan}), _to sit_, but p.p. {gelëgen} (OHG. {gilëgan}),
{gesëȥȥen} (OHG. {gisëȥȥan}). This explains why strong verbs belonging
to the fourth (§§12, 82) and fifth (§§12, 83) ablaut-series have {i}
throughout the present singular, and similarly in verbs belonging to the
third (§§12, 81) series with {ë} in the infinitive, as

  OHG. nëman,  _to take_, three persons sing. nimu, nimis(t), nimit.
  MHG. nëmen,       „       „      „     „    nime, nimes(t), nimet.
  OHG. gëban,  _to give_,   „      „     „    gibu, gibis(t), gibit.
  MHG. gëben,       „       „      „     „    gibe, gibes(t), gibet.
  OHG. hëlfan, _to help_,   „      „     „    hilfu, hilfis(t), hilfit.
  MHG. hëlfen,      „       „      „     „    hilfe, hilfes(t), hilfet.


{u}, followed originally by an {ā̆}, {ō̆}, or {ē} in the next syllable,
became {o} when not protected by a nasal + consonant or an intervening
{ī̆} or {j}; hence the interchange between {u} and {o} in the preterite
plural and past participle of verbs belonging to the second
ablaut-series (§§12, 78), as {bugen} (OHG. {bugum}), _we bent_, p.p.
{gebogen} (OHG. {gibogan}); in the p.p. of verbs belonging to the third
ablaut-series (§§12, 81), as {gebunden} (OHG. {gibuntan}), but
{geholfen} (OHG. {giholfan}); in weak verbs as {fürhten} (OHG. {furhten}
from {*furhtjan}), _to fear_, beside pret. {vorhte} (OHG. {forhta});
{hügen} (OHG. {huggen} from {*hugjan}) beside {hogen} (OHG. {hogēn}),
_to think_; in preterite presents like {durfen} (OHG. {durfum}), _we
dare_, beside pret. {dorfte} (OHG. {dorfta}); in many nouns and
adjectives, as {wolle} (OHG. {wolla}), _wool_, beside {wüllīn},
{wullīn}, _woollen_; {wolf} (stem {*wulfo-}), _wolf_, beside {wülpinne},
_she-wolf_; {vol}, _full_, beside {vülle} (OHG. {fullī}), _fulness_;
{golt}, _gold_, beside {guldīn}, _golden_.


From primitive Germanic {eu} were developed two different diphthongs in
OHG., viz. {eu} became {eo} (cp. §15), later {io}, when originally
followed by an {ā̆}, {ō̆}, or {ē} in the next syllable, and this {io}
was regularly developed to {ie} in MHG.; whereas {eu} became {iu} in
OHG. when originally followed by an {ī̆, j} or {u} in the next syllable,
and this {iu} became {ǖ} (written {iu}) in MHG., even after the {ī̆, j}
or {u} had been weakened to {e}. This law explains the difference
between the diphthong {ie} in the infinitive and the simple vowel {iu}
(= {ǖ}) in the three persons singular of the present indicative of
verbs belonging to the second ablaut-series (§§12, 78), as

  OHG. biogan, _to bend_, pres. sing. biugu, biugis(t), biugit;
  MHG. biegen,      „       „     „   biuge, biuges(t), biuget.

Cp. further {tief} (OHG. {tiof}), _deep_, beside OHG. {tiufī}, _depth_;
{lieht} (OHG. {lioht}), _a light_, beside {liuhten} (OHG. {liuhten} from
{*liuhtjan}), _to light_.

  NOTE.--The {iu} in the above and similar examples must not be
  confounded with the {iu} in the OHG. and MHG. combination {iuw}
  which arose from prim. Germanic {eww} (= {euw}), and {ewj}, as
  {triuwe} (OHG. {triuwi}, Goth. {triggws}), _true_; {triuwen},
  {trūwen}, _to trust_, pret. {triuete}, {triute}, {trūte}; {riuwe}
  (OHG. {riuwa}), _regret_, {bliuwen} (OHG. {bliuwan}, Goth.
  {bliggwan}), _to strike_, and similarly, {briuwen}, _to brew_,
  {kiuwen}, _to chew_, {riuwen}, _to regret_; {niuwe} (OHG. {niuwi},
  Goth. {niujis}, prim. Germanic stem-form {*newja-}), _new_. This
  {iu} before {w} never interchanged with MHG. {ie} from prim.
  Germanic {eu}, and explains why the strong verbs {bliuwen}, &c. have
  {iu} in all forms of the present.


Accented primitive Germanic {ai} (= Goth. {ái}) became {ē} in OHG.
before {r, w}, Germanic {h} (cp. §23, 1), and finally; in MHG. it
appears also as {ē} before the same consonants and finally, as {mēre},
{mēr} (OHG. {mēro}, Goth. {máiza}), _more_, {lēren} (OHG. {lēren}, Goth.
{láisjan}), _to teach_; {sēle} (OHG. {sēla}, older {sēula}, Goth.
{sáiwala}), _soul_; {snē} (OHG. {snēo}, Goth. {snáiws}), _snow_, gen.
OHG. and MHG. {snēwes}; {spīwen}, _to spit_, pret. {spē} (OHG. {spēo},
Goth. {spáiw}); {dīhen}, _to thrive_, pret. {dēch} (OHG. {dēh}, Goth.
{dáih}); {wē} (OHG. {wē}, Goth. {wái}), _woe!_; in all other cases {ai}
became {ei} in both OHG. and MHG., as {stein} (Goth. {stáins}), _stone_,
{heiȥen} (OHG. {heiȥan}, Goth. {háitan}), _to call_; {snīden}, _to cut_,
pret. {sneit} (OHG. {sneid}, Goth. {snáiþ}). This accounts for the
difference between the {ei} and {ē} in the preterite singular of strong
verbs belonging to the first ablaut-series (§§12, 76).


Primitive Germanic {au} became {ō} in OHG. before the consonants
{d, t}, {ȥ, s}, {n, r, l}, and Germanic {h} (cp. 23, 1). Before other
consonants and finally {au} became {ou} in the ninth century. Hence the
difference between {ō} and {ou} in the preterite singular of strong
verbs belonging to the second ablaut-series (§§12, 78), as:--

  Infinitive bieten, _to offer_,  pret. sing. bōt
      „      sieden, _to seethe_,   „     „   sōt
      „      kiesen, _to choose_,   „     „   kōs
      „      dieȥen, _to roar_,     „     „   dōȥ
      „      vliehen, _to flee_,    „     „   vlōch (OHG. flōh);
  but „      biegen, _to bend_,     „     „   bouc
      „      klieben, _to cleave_   „     „   kloup.





The MHG. consonant-system was represented by the following letters:
  b, c, ch, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r,
  s, sch, t, v, w, (x), z, ȥ.

The letters k, l, m, n, p, t, w, (x) had nearly the same sound-values as
in English. The remaining letters require special attention.

When the pronunciation of consonants merely differs in the intensity or
force with which they are produced, they are called fortes or lenes
according as they are produced with more or less intensity or force. In
MHG. the consonants {b, d, g} were not voiced explosives like English
{b, d, g}, but were voiceless lenes, and only differed from the fortes
{p, t, k} in being produced with less intensity or force, see §33.
A similar difference in pronunciation existed between antevocalic and
intervocalic {v, s} and final {f, s}, see §33.

{c} and {k} represented the same sound. The latter was generally used at
the beginning, and the former at the end of a syllable, as {kunst},
_art_; {trinken}, _to drink_, {senken}, _to sink_ (trans.), pret.
{tranc}, {sancte}.

{ch} had the same sound as in NHG. {nacht}, {noch}, as {sprechen}, _to
speak_, pret. {sprach}; {hōch}, _high_.

{f} had a twofold pronunciation in the oldest HG. It was a labiodental
when it arose from Germanic {f} (cp. OHG. {fater}, English {father}),
and bilabial when it arose from Germanic {p} (cp. inf. OHG. {slāfan},
English {sleep}), but during the OHG. period the bilabial {f} became
labiodental. The two kinds of {f} did not however completely fall
together in pronunciation. {f} = Germanic {f} became a lenis initially
before and medially between vowels, and was often written {v} in the
former and generally {v} in the latter position, but remained a
fortis--written {f}--when final. In MHG. it was also often written {f}
initially before {l, r, u}, as {fliehen}, _to flee_, {fride}, _peace_,
{fünf}, _five_, beside {vliehen}, {vride}, {vünf}. On the other hand {f}
= Germanic {p} (§23, 1), which only occurred medially and finally, was a
fortis and was always written {f} ({ff}), as {slāfen}, _to sleep_, pret.
{slief}; {tief}, _deep_, {schif} (gen. {schiffes}), _ship_, {offen},
_open_. The two {f} sounds thus fell together when final, but the
distinction between the two sounds was still preserved in MHG. in the
intervocalic position, as {hof}, _court_, {schif}, _ship_, but gen.
{hoves}, {schiffes}.

{h} before and after consonants was pronounced like {ch}, as {fuhs},
_fox_, {naht}, _night_, {bevëlhen}, _to confide._ In other cases it had
the same sound as the {h} in English {hat}.

{j} had nearly the same sound as the {y} in English {yet}, as {jār},
_year_, {junc}, _young_; {blüejen}, _to blossom._

{q} occurred only in combination with {u} as in English, as {quëc},
_quick, alive_, {quëden}, _to say._

{r} was a trilled sound in all positions like Scotch {r}, as {rōt},
_red_, {hart}, _hard_, {bërn}, _to bear_, {vater}, _father._

{s} was a lenis medially between vowels and probably also initially
before vowels, but a fortis in other positions, as {sun}, _son_,
{wësen}, _to be_, pret. {was}, {bresten}, _to burst_. It may be
pronounced like the {s} in English {sit}.

{sch} was like the {sh} in English {ship}, as {schif}, _ship_,
{geschëhen}, _to happen_, {visch}, _fish._

{v} was a voiceless lenis, and may be pronounced like the {v} in NHG.
{voll}. See {f}.

{w} was pronounced like the {w} in English {wet}, as {wīn}, _wine_,
{bliuwen}, _to strike._

{z} and {ȥ} were not distinguished in MHG. manuscripts, both being
written {z}. Both {z} and {ȥ} (but {ȥȥ} medially between vowels when the
first vowel was short) arose from Germanic {t} (see §23). {z} had the
sound-value of {ts} (= NHG. {z}): (_a_) always initially, as {zīt},
_time_; (_b_) medially and finally after consonants ({l, m}, {n, r}), as
{holz} (gen. {holzes}), _wood_, {hërze}, _heart_, {smërze}, _pain_,
{ganz}, _whole_; (_c_) finally after vowels (= Germanic {tt}) in those
words which change final {z} to {tz} when it becomes medial, as {schaz}
(gen. {schatzes}), OE. {sceatt}, _money, treasure_. MHG. intervocalic
{tz} always arose from older {tt}, as {setzen} = OE. {settan}, _to set_.
{ȥ} was a kind of lisped {s} and only occurred medially between and
finally after vowels, as {bīȥen}, _to bite_, {ëȥȥen}, _to eat_, {haȥ},
_hatred_. It should be noted that good MHG. poets never rhymed pairs of
words like {was}, _was_, and {waȥ}, _what_; {missen}, _to miss_, and
{wiȥȥen}, _to know_.

{ph} and {pf} represent the same sound, viz. the {pf} in NHG. {pfund},


MHG. has the following double consonants medially between vowels: {bb,
gg}; {p, tt, ck}; {ff, ss, ȥȥ}; {mm, nn}; {ll, rr}. They were always
pronounced long as in Italian and Swedish, as {bit-ter}, _bitter_,
{ëȥ-ȥen}, _to eat_, {küs-sen}, _to kiss_, {müg-ge}, _midge_, {rin-nen},
_to run_. In NHG. double consonants are never long, they merely indicate
that the preceding vowel is short.


{Phonetic Survey of the MHG. Consonants.}

                 LABIAL.         DENTAL.            GUTTURAL.

  Voiceless     { fortis p, pp    t, tt              k, ck
    explosives  { lenis  b, bb    d                  g, gg

  Spirants      { fortis f, ff  { s, ss, sch, ȥ, ȥȥ   h (ch)
                { lenis  v      { s

  Nasals          m, mm           n, nn               n (= ŋ)

  Liquids                         l, ll; r, rr

  Semi-vowels     w, j (palatal)

To the above must be added the aspirate {h} and the affricatae (i.e. an
explosive + a homorganic spirant) {z} (i.e. {ts}) and {pf} ({ph}).



The most characteristic difference between High German and the other
West Germanic languages is the shifting which the consonants {p, t, k,
þ}; {pp, tt, kk, þþ}; {b (ƀ), d, g (ʒ)}; {bb, dd, gg} underwent partly
in the prehistoric and partly in the historic period of Old High German.
In the following treatment of what is generally called the High German
sound-shifting only such points are considered as are of importance for
the purposes of this book. See Old High German Primer, §§82-6.


The voiceless explosives p, t, k underwent a two-fold treatment
according to their position in the word: (1) Medially or finally after
vowels; (2) Initially, medially and finally after consonants (l, m, n,
r), and when doubled.

  NOTE.--p, t, k remained unshifted in the combinations sp,
  st, sk as also t in the combinations tr, ht, ft.

1. Single p, t, k were shifted to the voiceless double spirants ff, ȥȥ,
hh (also written ch) = MHG. ff (f), ȥȥ (ȥ), ch.

p > ff. OE. {open}, OHG. {offan}, MHG. {offen}, _open_; OE. {slǣpan},
OHG. {slāffan}, MHG. {slāfen}, _to sleep_; OE. {ūp}, OHG. MHG. {ūf},

t > ȥȥ. OE. {etan}, OHG. {ëȥȥan}, MHG. {ëȥȥen}, _to eat_; OE. {hātan},
OHG. {heiȥȥan}, MHG. {heiȥen}, _to call_; OE. {hwæt}, OHG. {hwaȥ}, MHG.
{waȥ}, _what_. In a few cases the {ȥ, ȥȥ} became {s} in MHG. before {t}
or {st}, as pret. {saste} from {saȥte}: {setzen}, _to set_; {beste},
_best_, {leste}, _last_ = OHG. {beȥȥisto}, {leȥȥisto}.

k > hh. OE. {ic}, OHG. {ih}, MHG. {ich}, _I_; OE. {sprecan} ({specan}),
OHG. {sprëhhan}, MHG. {sprëchen}, _to speak_; OE. {tācen}, OHG.
{zeihhan}, MHG. {zeichen}, _token_. This {ch} must not be confused with
the MHG. {h, ch} which corresponded to Indo-Germanic {k} (= Germanic
{h}), as {ziehen}, _to draw, lead_, pret. {zōch}, cp. Lat. {dūcō}, _I
lead_, see §34.

The double consonants were simplified in OHG. and MHG. according to §32.

2. {p}, {t} initially, medially and finally after consonants (l, m, n,
r), and when doubled, were shifted to the affricatae {pf} (also written
{ph}), {tz} (generally written {zz} and {z}) = MHG. {pf} ({ph}), {tz}

p > pf. OE. {pund}, OHG. MHG. {pfunt}, _pound_; OE. {gelimpan}, OHG.
{gilimpfan}, MHG. {gelimpfen}, _to be meet_; OE. {scieppan}, OHG.
{skepfen}, MHG. {schepfen}, _to create_. The {pf} became {f} after {l}
and {r} already in OHG., as {hëlfan}, MHG. {hëlfen}, OE. {helpan}, _to
help_; {wërfan}, MHG. {wërfen}, OE. {weorpan}, _to throw_.

t > z. OE. {tunge}, OHG. {zunga}, MHG. {zunge}, _tongue_; OE. {heorte},
OHG. {hërza}, MHG. {hërze}, _heart_; OE. {sealt}, OHG. MHG. {salz},
_salt_; OE. {sittan}, OHG. {sizzen}, {sitzen}, MHG. {sitzen}, _to sit_;
OE. {sceatt}, OHG. {scaz} (gen. {scazzes}, {scatzes}), MHG. {schaz}
(gen. {schatzes}), _money, treasure_.

{k}, {kk} (written {ck}) remained unshifted (except in High Alemanic),
as OE. {corn}, OHG. MHG. {korn}, _corn_; OE. {cnēo}, OHG. {kneo}, MHG.
{knie}, _knee_; OE. {sincan}, OHG. {sinkan}, MHG. {sinken}, _to sink_,
pret. {sanc}; OE. {þeccan}, OHG. MHG. {decken}, _to cover_.


{þ} became {d}, and {þþ} became {tt}, as OE. {þorn}, OHG. MHG. {dorn},
_thorn_; OE. {brōþor}, OHG. MHG. {bruoder}, _brother_. OE. {smiþþe},
OHG. {smitta}, MHG. {smitte}, _smithy_; OE. {moþþe}, late MHG. {motte},


The voiced explosives {b, d, g}, and the voiced spirants {ƀ, ʒ} did not
undergo the same universal shifting as the voiceless explosives. {ƀ, ʒ}
became {b, g}. {b, g} remained, and {d} became {t}, as OE. {brōþor},
OHG. MHG. {bruoder}, _brother_; OE. {bēodan}, OHG. {biotan}, MHG.
{bieten}, _to offer_; Goth. {giban} (= {giƀan}), OHG. {gëban}, MHG.
{gëben}, _to give_. OE. {dohtor}, OHG. MHG. {tohter}, _daughter_; OE.
{bēodan}, OHG. {biotan}, MHG. {bieten}, _to offer_; OE. {dēad}, OHG.
MHG. {tōt}, _dead_. OE. {gōd}, OHG. MHG. {guot}, _good_; OE. {flēogan},
OHG. {fliogan}, MHG. {fliegen}, _to fly_.


The double consonants {bb, dd, gg} = OHG. {pp (bb), tt, cc (gg)}, and
MHG. {pp (b), {tt, ck (gg)}, as OE. {sibb}, OHG. {sippa} ({sibba}), MHG.
{sippe} ({sibbe}), _relationship_; OE. {cribb}, OHG. {krippa}
({kribba}), MHG. {krippe (kribbe)}, _crib_. OE. {biddan}, OHG. {bitten},
MHG. {bitten}, later {biten}, _to request_; OE. {þridda}, OHG. {dritto},
MHG. {dritte}, later {drite}, _third_. OE. {brycg}, OHG. {brucca
(brugga)}, MHG. {brücke} ({brügge}), _bridge_. The fluctuation in the
writing of {pp} and {bb}, {ck} and {gg} is merely orthographical, and
does not represent a difference in pronunciation. Both pairs were used
to express the lenes medially between vowels. For other examples see


The summary of the consonantal changes in §§23-6 may be expressed as

  WEST GERMANIC.                     MHG.
  p; t; k; þ      = ff (f), pf; ȥȥ (ȥ), z;  ch; d.
  pp; tt; kk; þþ  =         pf;    tz (z);  ck; tt.
  b (ƀ); d; g (ʒ) = b;           t;         g.
  bb; dd; gg      = pp (bb);    tt;         ck (gg).


The following sound-changes took place in primitive Germanic:--Every
labial + {t} became {ft}; every guttural + {t} became {ht}; every dental
+ {t} became {ss}, which was simplified to {s} after long vowels. This
explains the frequent interchange in MHG. between {pf, b} and {f};
between {k, g} and {h}; and between {ȥȥ, ȥ} and {ss, s} in forms which
are etymologically related.

{pf}, {b}--{f}. {schepfen}, _to create_: {geschaft}, _creature_;
{gëben}, _to give_: {gift}, _gift_; {wëben}, _to weave_: English {weft}.

{k}, {g}--{h}. {würken}, _to work_: pret. {worhte}; {denken}, _to
think_: pret. {dāhte}; {mugen} ({mügen}), _to be able_: pret. {mohte};
{bringen}, _to bring_: pret. {brāhte}.

{ȥȥ}, {ȥ}--{ss}, {s}. {gieȥen}, _to pour_: {güsse}, _inundation_;
{wiȥȥen}, _to know_: pret. {wisse (wiste): wīs}, _wise_; {muoȥ}, _must_:
pret. {muose} ({muoste}); {ëȥȥen}, _to eat_: {ās}, _carrion_. Preterites
like {wiste}, {muoste} were formed after the analogy of preterites like
{worhte}, {dāhte}, where the {t} was regular.


The guttural nasal {ŋ} (written n) only occurred in the combinations
{nk} ({nc}) and {ng}. It disappeared before {h} (= prim. Germanic {χ})
in primitive Germanic with lengthening of a preceding short vowel, as
{vāhen} from prim. Germanic {*faŋχanan}, _to seize, catch_, beside p.p.
{gevangen}; and similarly {hāhen}, _to hang_, p.p. {gehangen}; pret.
{brāhte}, {dāhte}, {dūhte}, beside {bringen}, _to bring_, {denken}, _to
think_, {dunken}, _to seem_.

The guttural nasal disappeared in an unstressed syllable when preceded
by an {n} in a stressed syllable in the course of the OHG. and MHG.
period, as OHG. {honag}, MHG. {honec}, beside OHG. {honang}, _honey_;
OHG. {kunig}, MHG. {künec}, beside OHG. {kuning}, _king_; OHG.
{pfennig}, MHG. {pfennic}, beside OHG. {pfenning}, MHG. {pfenninc},
penny. And similarly with dental {n}, as {senede} beside {senende},
_longing, yearning_.


Strong verbs, which have a medial {v} ({f}), {d, h, s} in the present,
have respectively {b, t, g} ({ng}), {r} in the second person sing. pret.
indicative, the preterite plural indicative, the pret. subjunctive and
the past participle. This interchange of consonants is called Verner’s
Law, see OHG. Primer, §§72, 87:--

                  INF.               PRET. PL.    P.P.
  v(f)--b.      heven, _to raise_     huoben    gehaben.
  d--t.         mīden, _to avoid_     miten     gemiten.
                snīden, _to cut_      sniten    gesniten.
  h--g.         dīhen, _to thrive_    digen     gedigen.
                ziehen, _to draw_     zugen     gezogen.
                slahen, _to strike_   sluogen   geslagen.
  h--ng (§29).  hāhen, _to hang_      hiengen   gehangen.
                vāhen, _to catch_     viengen   gevangen.
  s--r.         rīsen, _to fall_      rirn      gerirn.
                kiesen, _to choose_   kurn      gekorn.

This law has, however, many exceptions in MHG. owing to levelling having
taken place with the infinitive, present indicative and preterite
singular, as {risen}, {gerisen} beside {rirn}, {gerirn}.

The same interchange of consonants exists between strong verbs and their
corresponding causative weak verbs, as {līden}, _to go_: {leiten}, _to
lead_; {hāhen}, _to hang_: {hengen}, _to hang_ (trans.); {ge-nësen}, _to
be saved_: {nern}, _to save_; and in nouns, &c., as {hof} (gen.
{hoves}), _court_: {hübesch}, _courtly_; {tōt} (gen. {tōdes}), _death_:
{tōt} (gen. {tōtes}), _dead_; {swëher}, _father-in-law_: {swiger},
_mother-in-law_; {hase}: English {hare}.


The doubling of consonants took place under certain well-defined rules
partly in prim. Germanic and partly in prim. West Germanic, see the
Author’s Hist. Germ. Grammar, §§202, 213-14. Examples of words which had
double consonants in prim. Germanic are: {kopf}, head; {napf} (OE.
{hnæp}, gen. {hnæppes}), _basin_; {boc} (OE. {bucca}), _buck_, gen.
{bockes}; {rinnen}, _to run_; {swimmen}, _to swim_; {vol} (gen.
{volles}), _full_; {vërre}, _far_; {gewisser}, _certain_.

The chief cases in which double consonants arose in prim. West Germanic

1. The assimilation of {ƀn, ʒn, pn} to {bb, gg, pp} = MHG. {pp, ck (gg),
pf}, as {knappe}: {knabe}, _boy_; {rappe}: {rabe}, _raven_; {rocke}:
{rogge}, _rye_; {tropfe}, _drop_: {triefen}, _to drip_.

2. {p, t, k} were doubled before a following {r} or {l}. The doubling
regularly took place in the inflected forms, and was then extended to
the uninflected forms by levelling, as {apfel} (OE. {æppel}), _apple_;
{kupfer} (Lat. {cuprum}), _copper_; {bitter} (Goth. {báitrs}), _bitter_,
see §23 note; {lützel} (OS. {luttil}), _little_; {acker} (Goth. {akrs}),
_field_; {wacker} (OE. {wæccer}), _watchful_. See §23, 2.

3. All single consonants, except {r}, were doubled after a short vowel
when there was originally a {j} in the next syllable. The {bb}, {dd},
{gg}; {pp}, {tt}, {kk}, which thus arose, became {pp} ({bb}), {tt}, {ck}
({gg}); {pf}, {tz}, {ck} in MHG. (§§23,2, 26), as {sippe} ({sibbe}),
Goth. {sibja}, _relationship_; {bitten}, later {biten}, Goth. {bidjan},
_to request_; {tretten} (_wv._): {trëten} _(sv.), to tread_; {brücke}
({brügge}), _bridge_; {ecke} ({egge}), _edge_; {mücke} ({mügge}),
_midge_; {rücke} ({rügge}), _ridge, back_. {schepfen}, Goth. {skapjan},
_to create_; {hitze}, _heat_: {heiȥ}, _hot_; {netzen}, _to wet_: {naȥ},
_wet_; {setzen}, Goth. {satjan}, _to set_; {sitzen}, _to sit_: pret.
{saȥ}, p.p. {gesëȥȥen}; {decken}, _to cover_: {dach}, _cover_; {lücke},
_gap_: {loch}, _hole_. {zellen}, later {zeln}, _to count_: {zal},
_number_. {vremmen}, later {vremen} (OE. {fremman}), _to perform_.
{henne}, _hen_: {hane}, _cock_.

In MHG. the double consonants in verbs were often simplified through the
levelling out of forms which regularly had a single consonant, e.g.
regular forms were: {vremmen}, _to perform_, sing. {vremme}, {vremes(t),
vremet}, pl. {vremmen}, {vremmet}, {vremment}, pret. {vremete}, p.p.
{gevremet}, then the stem-form with single {m} was levelled out into all
the forms, and similarly with many other verbs, as {denen}, _to
stretch_; {seln}, _to hand over_; {weln}, _to choose_; {wenen}, _to
accustom_; {legen} beside {lecken} ({leggen}), _to lay_; and the strong
verbs {biten}, _to beg_; {ligen} beside {licken (liggen)}, _to lie


Double consonants were simplified:--

1. When they became final, as {boc}, _buck_, {kus}, _kiss_, {man},
_man_, {schif}, _ship_, {stum}, _dumb_, {vël}, _hide_, beside gen.
{bockes}, {kusses}, {mannes}, {schiffes}, {stummes}, {vëlles}; pret.
{maȥ}, {ran}, {traf}, beside {mëȥȥen}, _to measure_, {rinnen}, _to run_,
{trëffen}, _to hit_.

2. Before other consonants, as pret. {dacte (dahte), nante (nande),
kuste}, beside {decken}, _to cover_, {nennen}, _to name_, {küssen}, _to

3. After consonants, as pret. {sante} ({sande}) from {*santte}, {wante}
({wande}) from {*wantte}, beside {senden}, _to send_, {wenden}, _to

4. After long vowels and diphthongs, as pret. sing. {leite} from
{*leitte}, pret. pl. {māȥen}, {trāfen}, {vielen}, beside {leiten}, _to
lead_, {mëȥȥen}, _to measure_, {trëffen}, _to hit_, {vallen}, _to fall_.
This simplification of double consonants took place during the OHG.
period, as {slāfan}, _to sleep_, {heiȥan}, _to call_, {loufan}, _to
run_, {zeichan}, _token_, beside older OHG. {slāffan}, {heiȥȥan},
{louffan}, {zeihhan}.


In MHG. the lenes {b, d, g} became the fortes {p, t, c (k)} when they
ended a syllable, that is when they came to stand finally, or medially
before a voiceless consonant. Traces of this law existed already in OHG.
The interchange between the lenes and fortes includes two independent
processes, viz. the change of the medial lenes {b, d, g} to the final
fortes {p, t, k}, and the change of the final {f, s} to the medial
intervocalic lenes {v} and to what is written {s} (cp. also NHG.
{lesen}, {las}). It must be noted that in MHG. the interchanging pairs
of consonants were all voiceless and that the difference merely
consisted in the intensity or force with which the sounds were produced.
This is quite different from NHG. where the interchange is between
voiced and voiceless sounds except in the case of {f} which is voiceless
in all positions in native words. Examples are: {gëben}, _to give_,
{gelouben}, _to believe_, {wërben}, _to turn_, beside pret. {gap},
{geloupte}, {warp}; gen. {lībes}, {lambes}, beside nom. {līp}, _life_,
{lamp}, _lamb_. {binden}, _to bind_, {wërden}, _to become_, beside pret.
{bant}, {wart}; gen. {kindes}, {tōdes}, beside nom. {kint}, _child_,
{tōt}, _death_. {biegen}, _to bend_, {singen}, _to sing_, {zeigen}, _to
show_, beside pret. {bouc}, {sanc}, {zeicte}; gen. {tages}, {bërges},
beside nom. {tac}, _day_, {bërc}, _mountain_. {nëve}, _nephew_, beside
{niftel}, _niece_; gen. {hoves}, {brieves}, beside nom. {hof}, _court_,
{brief}, _letter_. {kiesen}, _to choose_, {lësen}, _to gather_, {lœsen},
_to loose_, beside pret. {kōs}, {las}, {lōste}; pl. {hiuser}, beside
sing. {hūs}, _house_.


Final {ch} after vowels interchanged with medial {h}, as {schuoch},
_shoe_, gen. {schuohes}; {hōch}, _high_, gen. {hōhes}; {nāch}, _near_,
adv. {nāhe}; pret. {geschach}, {sach}, beside {geschëhen}, _to happen_,
{sëhen}, _to see_.

The medial combinations {lh}, {rh} were written {lch}, {rch} when they
came to stand finally, as {bevëlhen}, _to confide_, pret. {bevalch};
gen. {schëlhes}, {twërhes}, beside nom. {schëlch}, {twërch}, _askew_,
see §19. {h} (= {ch}) and {ch} often disappeared in unstressed syllables
and particles, as {ē̆t}, _only_, {hīnte}, {hīnt}, _to-night_, {niet},
_not_, {dur}, _through_, beside {ëht}, {hīnaht}, {niht}, {nieht},


Initial {j} became or was written {g} before a following {i}, as
{gihet}, _he assures_, beside inf. {jëhen}, pret. {jach}, and similarly
{jësen}, _to ferment_, {jëten}, _to weed_. In the verba pura forms with
and without the intervocalic glide {j} existed side by side in OHG. and
MHG., as {blüejen} (OHG. {bluojen}) beside {blüen} (OHG. {bluoen}), _to
bloom_; and similarly {dræjen}, _to twist_, {müejen}, _to trouble_,
{sæjen}, _to sow_, beside {dræn}, {müen}, {sæn}. In a few words forms
with and without intervocalic {j (g)} existed side by side, as gen.
{blīges} beside nom. {blī}, _lead_; {eijer}, {eiger} beside {eier},
_eggs_; {frījen}, {frīgen} beside {frīen}, _to free_; {meige}, {meie},
_May_; {nerigen}, {nerjen} beside {nern}, _to save_, _rescue_;
{swerigen}, {swerjen} beside {swern}, _to swear_; gen. {zwīges},
{zwīes}, nom. {zwī}, _twig_; gen. {zweiger}, {zweier}, _of two_.


In OHG. {w} became vocalized to {o} when it came to stand at the end of
a word or syllable, and then generally disappeared after long vowels,
but the medial {w} regularly remained in OHG. and MHG. when it was at
the beginning of a syllable, as {blā} (OHG. {blāo}, {blā}), _blue_, gen.
{blāwes}; {snē} (OHG. {snēo}, {snē}), _snow_, gen. {snēwes}; {strō}
(OHG. {strao}, {strō} by contraction), _straw_, gen. {strōwes}; {knie}
(OHG. {kneo}), _knee_, gen. {kniewes}, OHG. {knëwes}; {schate} (OHG.
{scato}), _shadow_, gen. {schat(e)wes}; pret. {blou}, {hiu}, {kou},
beside {bliuwen}, _to strike_, {houwen}, _to hew_, {kiuwen}, _to chew_;
{fal} (OHG. {falo}), _fallow_, gen. {falwes}; {gar} (OHG. {garo}),
_ready_, gen. {garwes}; {mël} (OHG. {mëlo}), _meal_, gen. {mëlwes};
{smër} (OHG. {smëro}), _fat_; pret. {smirte}, {ströute}, beside
{smirwen}, _to smear_, {ströuwen}, _to strew_. See §9, r.

The {w} element sometimes disappeared in the initial combinations
{qua-}, {quā-}, {quë-}, {qui-}, {quī-} partly with and partly without
influencing the quality of the following vowel, as pret. sing. {kam},
{kom} beside {quam}, _he came_, pret. pl. {kōmen}, {kāmen} beside
{quāmen}; {kāle} beside {quāle}, _torture_; {këc} beside {quec},
_alive_; {korder}, {körder} beside {quërder}, _bait_; {komen}, {kömen},
{kumen} beside {quëmen}, _to come_; pres. sing. {kume}, {küm(e)s(t)},
{kum(e)s(t)}, {küm(e)t}, {kum(e)t} = OHG. {quimu}, {quimis}, {quimit};
{kücken} beside {quicken}, _to enliven_; {kīt} beside {quīt} = {quidet},
_he says_.


Medial {-ibe-}, {-ide-}, {-ige-} were sometimes contracted to {ī}; and
medial {-age-}, {-ege-} to {ei}, as {gīst}, _thou givest_, {gīt}, _he
gives_, beside {gibes(t)}, {gibet}; {quīst}, _thou sayest_, {quīt}, _he
says_, beside {quides(t)}, {quidet}; {līst}, _thou liest down_, {līt},
_he lies down_, beside {liges(t)}, {liget}. {meit} beside {maget},
_maid_; {seist}, _thou sayest_, {seit}, _he says_, beside {sages(t)},
{saget}; {leist}, _thou layest_, {leit}, _he lays_, beside {leges(t)},
{leget}; {eislīch} beside {egeslīch}, _terrible_; {gein} beside {gegen},


Intervocalic {h} often disappeared when the first vowel was long, and
then the two vowels underwent contraction, as {hān}, _to hang_, {vān},
_to catch_, {vlēn}, _to implore_, {hō} (adv.), _high_, beside {hāhen},
{vāhen}, {vlēhen}, {hōhe}. Other contracted forms will be found in the


The final {r} disappeared after long vowels in monosyllables when the
next word began with a consonant, but was often restored analogically,
as {dā} (OHG. {dār}), _there_: {dārinne}, _therein_; {wā} (OHG. {wār}),
_where_: {wārinne}, _wherein_; {hie} (OHG. {hiar}): {hierunder},
_hereunder_; adv. {mē} (OHG. {mēr}), _more_; {ē} (OHG. {ēr}),
_formerly_; {sā} (OHG. {sār}), _at once_.


Medial {t} (§25) became {d} after nasals in late OHG. and early MHG., as
{senden}, _to send_, gen. {blindes} (nom. {blint}, _blind_), pret.
{nande}, _he named_, {rūmde}, _he left_, beside early MHG. {senten},
{blintes}, {nante}, {rūmte}. It also occasionally became {d} after {l},
as {halden} beside {halten}, _to hold_, {solde} beside {solte}, pret. of
{suln}, _shall_.





MHG. nouns have two numbers: singular and plural; three genders:
masculine, feminine, and neuter, as in OHG. and NHG., from which the
gender of nouns in MHG. does not materially differ; four cases:
nominative, accusative, genitive, and dative. Traces of an old locative
occur in what is called the uninflected dative singular of {hūs},
_house_, beside {hūse}, and in proper names like {Engellant} beside
{Engellande}. The vocative is like the nominative.

In MHG., as in the older periods of the other Germanic languages, nouns
are divided into two great classes, according as the stem originally
ended in a vowel or a consonant, cp. the similar division of nouns in
Latin and Greek. Nouns whose stems originally ended in a vowel belong to
the vocalic or so-called strong declension. Those whose stems originally
ended in {-n} belong to the so-called weak or {n-}declension. All other
consonantal stems are generally put together under the general heading,
‘Minor Declensions’. In OHG. nouns whose stems originally ended in a
vowel are subdivided into the {a-}declension including pure {a-}stems,
{ja-}stems, and {wa-}stems; the {ō-}declension including pure {ō-}stems,
{jō-}stems, and {wō-}stems; the {ī̆-}declension, and the {u-}declension.
All the nouns belonging to the {u-}declension went over into other
declensions in MHG. (cp. §§43, 44, 49). But as all final vowels either
disappeared (some of them already in OHG.) or were weakened to {e} in
MHG. (see §§7, 8), it is no longer practicable to retain the OHG.
subdivision fully without entering into the oldest and in many cases
into the prehistoric period of the language, which would be quite out of
place in a MHG. grammar. The old ‘Minor Declensions’ had begun to pass
over into the vocalic, especially into the {i-} and {a-}, declensions in
the oldest OHG. The remnants of the old inflexions preserved in MHG.
will be noted in the following paragraphs. The neuter nouns whose stems
originally ended in {-os}, {-es} (cp. §47) are in this Primer included
in the strong declension.


1. {Masculine Nouns.}


{First declension.}--To this declension belong all masculine nouns which
form their plural in {-e} only. It includes: (a) the old masculine
{a-}stems; (b) the old masculine {wa-}stems which lost their final {-w}
after long vowels in OHG., as {sē}, _sea_, gen. {sēwes}, pl. {sēwe}, and
similarly {bū}, _dwelling_, {rē} (also neuter), _corpse_, {snē}, _snow_,
see §36; and (c) the old masculine {i-}stems which could not have umlaut
in the plural (§44).


       Nom. Acc. tac, _day_    kil, _quill_        engel, _angel_
            Gen. tages         kil(e)s             engel(e)s
            Dat. tage          kil(e)              engel(e)


  Nom. Acc. Gen. tage          kil(e)             engel(e)
            Dat. tagen         kil(e)n            engel(e)n

On the interchange between fortis and lenis, as in {tac}, _day_, {lop},
_praise_, {sant}, _sand_, {hof}, _court_, gen. {tages}, {lobes},
{sandes}, {hoves}, see §33.

Like {tac} are also declined the old consonantal stems {vīent}, _enemy_,
and {vriunt}, _friend_, but pl. {vriunde} beside the old plural

Like {kil} are declined all monosyllabic masculine nouns having a short
stem-vowel and ending in {-l} or {-r} (§9, 1).

Like {engel} are declined masculine polysyllabic nouns ending in {-el},
{-em}, {-en}, {-er}, when their stem-syllable is long, as {mantel},
_mantle_, {ātem}, _breath_, {morgen}, _morning_, {acker}, _field_.
Those in {-em}, {-en} generally retain the {e} in the dative plural.
Polysyllabic nouns with short stem-syllables fluctuate between the
retention or loss of the {e}, as gen. sing. {vogeles} or {vogels}, dat.
sing, and nom. acc. pl. {vogele} or {vogel}, and similarly {vadem},
_thread_, {rëgen}, _rain_, {sumer}, _summer_, see §9,2.


{Second declension.}--To this declension belong all masculine nouns
whose nom. and acc. singular end in {-e}, which is the only difference
between this and the first declension. It includes: (a) the old
masculine {ja-}stems; (b) many old {u-}stems with short stem-syllable,
as {fride} (OHG. {fridu}), _peace_, {site} (OHG. {situ}), _custom_, and
similarly {huge}, _thought_, {mëte}, _mead_, {sige} beside {sic},
_victory_, {wite}, _wood_ (see §36); (c) the old short {i-}stem {wine},
_friend_; and (d) the old masculine {wa-}stem {schate} (gen.
{schat(e)wes} beside {schates}), _shadow_.

                SING.                   PLUR.

     Nom. Acc. hirte, _shepherd_        hirte
          Gen. hirtes                   hirte
          Dat. hirte                    hirten


{Third declension.}--To this declension belong all masculine nouns
which form their plural in {-e} and with umlaut of the stem-vowel.
It includes: (a) the old masculine {i-}stems; (b) the old masculine
{u-}stem {sun} (OHG. {sunu}, {sun}), _son_; and (c) the two old
consonant stems {fuoȥ}, _foot_, {zant} (gen. {zandes}), {zan}, _tooth_.

                SING.                      PLUR.
            MHG.     OHG.              MHG.     OHG.

  Nom. Acc. gast     gast, _guest_     geste    gesti
       Gen. gastes   gastes            geste    gesteo, -io
       Dat. gaste    gaste             gesten   gestim

The singular of nouns of this declension was inflected like the
{a-}stems (§42) already in OHG. And owing to the weakening of the
case-endings of the plural in passing from OHG. to MHG. (§7), the only
difference in the two declensions is the presence or absence of umlaut
in the plural. The old masculine {i-}stems which could not have umlaut
in the plural accordingly came to be inflected entirely like the old
masculine {a-}stems, as {schrit}, _step_, {snit}, _cut_, {biȥ}, _bite_,
pl. {schrite}, {snite}, {biȥȥe}. A further consequence of the singular
being inflected alike in both declensions is that the old {a-}stems
began to have umlaut in the plural after the analogy of the {i-}stems,
as {gedenke}, _thoughts_, {nägele}, _nails_, {wägene}, _wagons_, beside
{gedanke}, {nagele}, {wagene}.

Nouns ending in the fortis {p, t, c}, or {f} (= Germanic {f}) regularly
change the fortis to lenis in the inflected forms, as {korp}, _basket_,
{walt}, _wood_, {slac}, _blow_, {brief}, _letter_, gen. {korbes},
{waldes}, {stages}, {brieves}.


The old consonant stems {vater}, _father_, {bruoder}, _brother_, often
remain uninflected in the singular, as gen. {vater}, {bruoder} beside
{vaters}, {bruoders} (cp. §9, 2). In the plural they take umlaut, as
{veter}, {brüeder}. The old consonant stem {man}, _man_, is either
declined like {tac} (§42) or remains uninflected throughout, as

            SING.            PLUR.

  Nom. Acc. man              manne, man
       Gen. mannes, man      manne, man
       Dat. manne, man       mannen, man

The nom. plural {man}, now written {mann}, is still preserved in
counting, as {hundert mann}, _a hundred men_.

2. {Neuter Nouns.}


{First Declension.}--To this declension belong all neuter nouns which
have their nominative case singular and plural alike. It includes three
different types of nouns: (a) The old neuter {a-}stems like {wort},
_word_, {venster}, _window_. (b) The old neuter {ja-}stems like {künne},
_race_, _generation_, {bette}, _bed_, {netze}, _net_. The characteristic
of this type of noun is that it has umlaut in all forms of the singular
and plural when the stem-vowel is capable of it (cp. §31, 3). And (c)
the old neuter {wa-}stems (cp. §36) like {knie}, _knee_, gen. {kniewes}.


  Nom. Acc. wort    venster   künne   knie
       Gen. wortes  vensters  künnes  kniewes (knies)
       Dat. worte   venster   künne   kniewe (knie)


  Nom. Acc. wort    venster   künne   knie
       Gen. worte   venster   künne   kniewe (knie)
       Dat. worten  venstern  künnen  kniewen (knien)

(a) On the interchange between the fortes {p, t, c} and the lenes {b, d,
g}, as in {grap}, _grave_, {gëlt}, _money_, {dinc}, _thing_, gen.
{grabes}, {gëldes}, {dinges}, see §33.

Like {venster} are declined the neuter polysyllabic nouns ending in
{-el}, {-em}, {-en}, {-er}, as {luoder}, _bait_, {wāfen}, {wāpen},
_weapon_; {schapel}, _garland_, {gadem}, _house_, {wëter}, _weather_. On
the endings, see §§9, 42.

(b) Like {künne} is also declined the old neuter {u-}stem {vihe} (OHG.
{fihu}), _cattle_.

(c) Like {knie} are declined {mël}, _meal_, {rē} (also masc.), _corpse_,
{smër}, _fat_, {strō}, _straw_, {tou}, _dew_, {wē}, _woe_, gen.
{mëlwes}, {rēwes}, {smërwes}, {strōwes}, {touwes}, {wēwes}, see §36.


{Second declension.}--To this declension belong all neuter nouns which
form their plural in {-er} and by umlaut of the stem-vowel when it is
capable of it. This class of nouns corresponds to the Latin neuters in
{-us}, as {genus}, gen. {generis}, pl. {genera}. The {-er} (OHG. {-ir})
was originally a stem-forming suffix which came to be regarded as a
plural ending. In the oldest period of the language only about
half-a-dozen nouns belonged to this class, but during the MHG. period
nearly twenty neuter {a-}stems passed into this declension, and in NHG.
the number has increased to about a hundred.

                SING.                      PLUR.
            MHG.     OHG.             MHG.      OHG.

  Nom. Acc. lamp     lamb, _lamb_     lember    lembir
       Gen. lambes   lambes           lember    lembiro
       Dat. lambe    lambe            lembern   lembirum

On the loss of the {e} in the gen. and dat. plural, see §9, 2.

Other examples are: {ei} (pl. {eiger}, {eijer}, {eier}, §35), _egg_,
{huon}, _hen_, {kalp}, _calf_, {rat}, _wheel_, {rint}, _bullock_, {tal},

3. {Feminine Nouns.}


{First declension.}--To this declension belong all feminine nouns having
their nominative case singular and plural alike. It includes: (a) the
old feminine {ō-}stems, as {gëbe}, _gift_, {sēle}, _soul_, {zal},
_number_; (b) the old feminine {jō-}stems, as {küneginne}, {künegin},
{künegīn}, _queen_, and similarly {vriundinne}, _friend_, {gütinne},
_goddess_; (c) the old feminine {wō-}stems with and without {w}, as
{brāwe}, {brā}, _brow_, pl. {brā} beside weak pl. {brāwen}; {diuwe},
{diu}, _servant_; (d) the old feminine abstract nouns in {-ī}, as
{vinster} (OHG. {finstrī}), _darkness_, {schœne} (OHG. {scōnī}),
_beauty_; and (e) the old consonant stem, {swester}, {swëster},


  Nom. Acc. gëbe       zal       vinster
       Gen. gëbe       zal       vinster
       Dat. gëbe       zal       vinster


  Nom. Acc. gëbe       zal       vinster
       Gen. gëben      zaln      vinstern
       Dat. gëben      zaln      vinstern

On the endings in nouns declined like {zal}, _number_, {dol}, _pain_,
{wal}, _choice_, {nar}, _food_, {schar}, _flock_, and {vinster}, see §9,

The gen. plural had the ending of the weak declension already in the
oldest period of the language. Through the nom. singular and the gen.
and dat. plural having the same endings as the feminine weak declension
(§53), {ō-}stems began in OHG. to be inflected after the analogy of the
weak declension, especially in the plural. This process spread
considerably in MHG. with concrete nouns, but not often with abstract


{Second declension.}--To this declension belong all feminine nouns
which form their plural in {-e} and have umlaut in the stem-vowel. It
includes: (a) the old feminine {i-}stems; (b) the old {u-}stem {hant},
_hand_; and (c) several old consonantal stems, see below.

                    SING.                           PLUR.
            MHG.              OHG.              MHG.    OHG.

  Nom. Acc. anst              anst, _favour_    enste    ensti
       Gen. enste _or_ anst   ensti             enste    ensteo, -io
       Dat. enste _or_ anst   ensti             ensten   enstim

In {jugent} (OHG. {jugund}, pl. {jugundi}), _youth_, gen. dat. {jugende}
beside {jugent}, pl. {jugende}, the original {-i} being in the third
syllable did not cause umlaut in the stem-syllable; and similarly
{tugent}, _valour_.

{hant}, _hand_, originally belonged to the {u-}declension, which
explains forms like gen. sing, and plural {hande} beside {hende}, dat.
pl. {handen} beside {henden}. The old gen. plural has been preserved in
NHG. {allerhand}, and the dat. plural in {abhanden}, {beihanden},
{vorhanden}, {zuhanden}.

Several old consonant stems went over partly or entirely into this
declension, viz. {maget}, {meit} (§37), _maid_, pl. {mägede} or {meide};
{kuo}, _cow_, pl. {küeje} or {küewe} (OHG. {kuoi}), {sū}, _sow_, pl.
{siuwe} (OHG. {sūi}); both these nouns generally remained uninflected in
the gen. and dat. singular. {naht}, _night_, has gen. and dat. singular
{naht} beside {nähte}; pl. nom. acc. gen. {naht} beside {nähte}, dat.
{nahten} beside {nähten}, cp. also NHG. {weihnachten}, MHG. {zën wīhen
nahten}. The MHG. adverbial gen. {nahts}, {dës nahtes} was formed after
the analogy of {dës tages}. Like {naht} were also inflected {brust},
_breast_, and {burc}, _citadel_.

{muoter}, _mother_, and {tohter}, _daughter_, remain uninflected in the
singular. In the plural they have umlaut: {müeter}, {töhter}.



The weak declension contains a large number of masculine and feminine
nouns, but only four neuter nouns, viz. {hërze}, _heart_, {ōre}, _ear_,
{ouge}, _eye_, and {wange}, _cheek_; these nouns, especially {hërze},
sometimes form their nom. acc. plural after the analogy of nouns like
{künne} (§46). The original case endings of the weak declension had
disappeared in the oldest period of the language except in the nom.
singular (masc. {-o}, fem., and neut. {-a}), the gen. pl. ({ōno}) and
dat. pl. ({-ōm}). Owing to the weakening of the {-o}, {-a} to {-e} in
MHG. the nom. singular became alike in all genders. And similarly the
endings {-ōno}, {-ōm} and the endings of the other oblique forms were
all weakened to {-en} in MHG. (§7), so that the element which originally
formed part of the stem came to be regarded as a case ending.

On the loss of the final and medial {e} in nouns like {ar}, _eagle_,
{bir} (fem.), _pear_, {gevangen(e)}, _prisoner_, beside the inflected
forms {arn}, {birn}, {gevangen} from {*gevangen-en} through the
intermediate stage {*gevangenn}, see §9, 1,2.


1. {Masculine Nouns.}

            MHG.        OHG.

       Nom. bote        boto, _messenger_
       Acc. boten       boton, -un
       Gen. boten       boten, -in
       Dat. boten       boten, -in


  Nom. Acc. boten       boton, -un
       Gen. boten       botōno
       Dat. boten       botōm


2. {Neuter Nouns.}

             MHG.           OHG.

  Nom. Acc. hërze        hërza, _heart_
       Gen. hërzen       hërzen, -in
       Dat. hërzen       hërzen, -in


  Nom. Acc. hërzen       hërzun, -on
       Gen. hërzen       hërzōno
       Dat. hërzen       hërzōm


3. {Feminine Nouns.}

             MHG.           OHG.

       Nom. zunge        zunga, _tongue_
       Acc. zungen       zungūn
       Gen. zungen       zungūn
       Dat. zungen       zungūn


  Nom. Acc. zungen       zungūn
       Gen. zungen       zungōno
       Dat. zunge        zungōm



Names of persons ending in {e} in the nominative follow the weak
declension. Masculine names of persons take {-es} in the genitive, {-e}
in the dative, and {-en} in the accusative after the analogy of the
strong adjectives. The accusative ending {-en} was sometimes extended to
the dative, and the dative ending {-e} to the accusative. And sometimes
both these cases were without endings. Names of countries ending in
{-lant} often have no ending in the dative, as {Engellant} beside
{Engellande}, see §41. Feminine names of persons ending in a consonant
take {-e} in the genitive, dative and accusative, but occasionally
remain uninflected throughout.


            Nom. Sīfrit              Hagene
            Gen. Sīfrides            Hagenen
       Dat. Acc. Sīfrit, Sīfride(n)  Hagenen


            Nom. Kriemhilt               Uote
  Gen. Dat. Acc. Kriemhilde, Kriemhilt   Uoten




1. {The Strong Declension.}


The MHG. adjectives are declined as strong or weak. They have three
genders, and the same cases as nouns. The endings of the strong
declension are partly nominal and partly pronominal. The nominal endings
are: the accusative feminine singular, as {blinde} like {gëbe} (§48);
and the genitive singular masculine and neuter, as {blindes} like
{tages}, {wortes} (§§43, 46). All the other endings are pronominal. The
so-called uninflected form of adjectives in the nom. singular masculine
and feminine and the nom. acc. neuter is a remnant of the time when
adjectives and nouns were declined alike, see the Author’s Hist. Germ.
Grammar, §§399-400. The strong declension includes three different types
of adjectives, all of which are declined alike: (a) The old {a-}stems,
as {blint}, infl. form {blinter}, _blind_; {bar}, _bare_, {guot},
_good_, {heilec}, _holy_, {hol}, _hollow_, {michel}, _great_, {vinster},
_dark_, and similarly with a very large number of adjectives, including
the past participles of strong and weak verbs. (b) The old {ja-}stems,
as {lære} (OHG. {lāri}), infl. {lærer}, _empty_; {dünne}, _thin_,
{enge}, _narrow_, {grüene}, _green_, {niuwe}, _new_, {reine}, _pure_,
{schœne}, _beautiful_, {senfte}, _soft_, {wilde}, _wild_, and many
others, including the present participles of strong and weak verbs. The
{ja-}stems only differ from the {a-}stems in having {-e} in the
uninflected form and umlaut in the stem-syllable when it is capable of
it. (c) The old {wa-}stems, as {blā} (OHG. {blāo}, {blā}), infl. form
{blāwer}, _blue_; {gar} (OHG. {garo}), infl. form {garwer} (see §§9,1,
36), _ready_; {grā}, _grey_, {val}, _fallow_, {gël}, _yellow_, {kal},
_bald_, &c., all of which have {w} in the inflected forms.

The adjectival {i-} and {u-}stems had come to be declined like the
{ja-}stems in the prehistoric period of the language, but a few remnants
of such adjectives have survived in MHG. in forms without the final {-e}
beside those with it, as {bereit}, {bereite}, _ready_, {dic}, {dicke},
_thick_, {gāch}, {gæhe}, _quick_, {grīs}, {grīse}, _old_, _grey_, {hēr},
{hēre}, _high_, _noble_, {rasch}, {resche}, _quick_, {rīch}, {rīche},
_noble_, {swā}, {swære}, _heavy_, {was}, {wasse}, _sharp_.

       _Masc._            _Neut._      _Fem._

  Nom. blinder, _blind_   blindeȥ      blindiu
  Acc. blinden            blindeȥ      blinde
  Gen. blindes            blindes      blinder(e)
  Dat. blindem(e)         blindem(e)   blinder(e)


  Nom.  blinde            blindiu      blinde
  Acc.  blinde            blindiu      blinde
  Gen.  blinder(e)        blinder(e)   blinder(e)
  Dat.  blinden           blinden      blinden

On the loss of the {-e} in {blindem(e), blinder(e)}, see §9, 2. Umlaut
caused by the {-iu} occurs in the nom. sing. feminine and nom. acc. pl.
neuter of {al}, _all_, and {ander}, _other, second_, as {älliu},
{ändriu}. This rarely happens in other words.

         _Masc._             _Neut._      _Fem._

  Nom.  micheler, _great_    michel(e)ȥ   micheliu
  Acc.  michel(e)n           michel(e)ȥ   michel(e)
  Gen.  michel(e)s           michel(e)s   michelre,
  Dat.  michelme,            michelme,    michelre,
        michel(e)m           michel(e)m   micheler


  Nom.  michel(e)            micheliu     michel(e)
  Acc.  michel(e)            micheliu     michel(e)
  Gen.  michelre,            michelre,    michelre,
        micheler             micheler     micheler
  Dat.  michel(e)n           michel(e)n   michel(e)n

Like {michel} are inflected monosyllabic adjectives ending in {-l}, {-r}
with a short stem-vowel, and polysyllabic adjectives ending in {-el},
{-en}, {-er}, as {bar}, _bare_, {hol}, _hollow_; {zwīvel}, _doubtful_,
{eigen}, _own_, {tougen}, _secret_, {ander}, _other, second_, {bitter},
_bitter_, {vinster}, _dark_; {ëben}, _even_, {übel}, _evil, bad_, &c.
See §9, 1,2.

2. {The Weak Declension.}


The weak declension of adjectives agrees exactly with that of the nouns.


        _Masc._           _Neut._    _Fem._

  Nom.  blinde, _blind_   blinde     blinde
  Acc.  blinden           blinde     blinden
  Gen.  blinden           blinden    blinden
  Dat.  blinden           blinden    blinden

  Plural {blinden} for all cases and genders.



The comparative was formed by means of the suffix {-er(e)} = OHG.
{-iro}, {-ōro}, and the superlative by means of the suffix {-est(e)} =
OHG. {-isto}, {-ōsto}. On the loss of the medial or final {e} in such
forms as {tiurre}, _dearer_, {tiurste}; {minner}, {minre}, _less_,
{minnest}, {min(ne)ste}, see §9, 3. Most monosyllables have umlaut in
the comparative and superlative either exclusively or have mutated
beside unmutated forms. The cause of these double forms is in a great
measure due to the two OHG. double suffixes: comp. {-iro}, {-ōro} and
superl. {-isto}, {-ōsto} having fallen together in {-er(e)} and
{-est(e)} in MHG., as {elter}, _older_, {ermer}, _poorer_, {jünger},
_younger_, {grœȥer}, _greater_, {hœher}, _higher_, beside {alter},
{armer}, {junger}, {grōȥer}, {hōher}; superl. {eltest}, {ermest},
{jüngest}, {grœȥest}, {hœhest}, beside {altest}, {armest}, {jungest},
{grōȥest}, {hōhest}. Adjectives which have umlaut in the positive
regularly preserve it in the comparative and superlative.

The comparative is declined weak, but the superlative is declined strong
and weak.


The following adjectives form their comparative and superlative from a
different root than the positive:--

  guot, _good_,     beȥȥer, beȥȥest, beste (§23).
  übel, _bad_,      wirser, wirsest, wir(se)ste.
  lützel, _little_, minner, minre (§9, 3), minnest, min(ne)ste.
  michel, _great_,  mērer, mēr(r)e, meiste.


The following adjectives are defective:--

  ērer, ērre, ërre, _former_,  ērest, ērste, _first_.
  hinder, _hinder_,            hinderste, _hindmost_.
  ober, _upper_,               oberste, _uppermost_.
                               leȥȥeste, leste (§23), _last_.
  vorder, _former_,            vorderste, _foremost_.



1. By adding {-e} (= OHG. {-o}) to the adjective when this does not
already end in {-e}, as {ëben}, _even_, {hōch}, _high_, {lanc}, _long_:
adv. {ëbene}, {hōhe}, {lange}; {edele} (OHG. {edili}), _noble_, {übel}
(OHG. {ubil}), _evil_: adv. {edele} (OHG. {edilo}), {übele} (OHG.

2. Dissyllabic adjectives ending in {-e} and containing a mutated
stem-vowel change it to the corresponding unmutated vowel, when used as
adverbs, as {schœne} (OHG. {scōni}), _beautiful_, {herte}, _hard_,
{senfte}, _soft_, {süeȥe}, _sweet_, {swære}, _heavy_: adv. {schōne},
{harte}, {sanfte}, {suoȥe}, {swāre}.

3. By adding {-līche} or {-līchen} to the adjective, as {ganz}, _whole_,
{vlīȥec}, _diligent_: adv. {ganzlīche(n), vlīȥeclīche(n)}.

4. The comparative and superlative degrees of adverbs are the same as
the corresponding uninflected forms of the adjectives without umlaut:--

  Adjective lanc, _long_  lenger         lengest.
  Adverb    lange         langer         langest
                    (OHG. langōr)  (OHG. langōst).


The following are irregular:--

  wol, _well_   baȥ, _better_                best(e), _best_.
                wirs, _worse_                wirsest, wirste, _worst_.
                min, minner, minre, _less_   minnest, minste, _least_.
                mē, mēr, mēre, _more_        meist, meiste, _most_.
                ē, _formerly_                ēr(e)st, ērste, _first_.



  CARDINAL.                             ORDINAL.
  ein, -er, -eȥ, -iu, _one_             ērste
  zwei, _two_                           ander
  drī, _three_                          dritte
  vier, _four_                          vierde
  fünf (finf), _five_                   fünfte, finfte
  sëhs, _six_                           sëhste
  siben, _seven_                        sibende, -te
  ahte, _eight_                         ahtede, ahte
  niun, _nine_                          niunde, -te
  zëhen, _ten_                          zëhende, -te
  einlif (eilif), _eleven_              ei(n)lifte, eilfte
  zwelf, _twelve_                       zwelfte
  drīzëhen, _thirteen_                  drīzëhende
  vierzëhen, _fourteen_                 vierzëhende
  fünfzëhen, _fifteen_                  fünfzëhende
  sëh(s)zëhen, _sixteen_                së(h)szëhende
  sibenzëhen, _seventeen_               sibenzëhende
  ah(t)zëhen, _eighteen_                ah(t)zëhende
  niunzëhen, _nineteen_                 niunzëhende
  zweinzic (_or_ -zec), _twenty_        zweinzigeste
  drīȥic           „    _thirty_        drīȥigeste
  vierzic          „    _forty_         vierzigeste
  fünfzic          „    _fifty_         fünfzigeste
  sëhszic          „    _sixty_         sëhszigeste
  sibenzic         „    _seventy_       sibenzigeste
  ah(t)zic         „    _eighty_        ah(t)zigeste
  niunzic          „    _ninety_        niunzigeste
  zëhenzic              _hundred_       zëhenzigeste
    _or_ hundert                           _or_ hundertste
  zwei hunt             _two hundred_   zweihundertste
    _or_ hundert
  tūsent                _thousand_      tūsenste
  zwei tūsent           _two thousand_  zweitūsentste


{Ein} follows the strong declension, when used as a numeral. The dat.
{einme} is generally contracted to {eime} (§9, 3). When {ein} is used in
the sense of _alone_, it follows the weak declension. On the inflexion
of {ander}, _second_, see §55. {Zwei} and {drī} are declined as

            _Masc._           _Neut._         _Fem._

  Nom. Acc. zwēne             zwei            zwō, zwuo, zwā
       Gen. zwei(g)er (§35)   zwei(g)er       zwei(g)er
       Dat. zwein, zweien     zwein, zweien   zwein, zweien

  Nom. Acc. drī, dr[i]e       driu            drī, drīe
       Gen. drī(g)er (§35)    drī(g)er        drī(g)er
       Dat. drī̆n, drīen       drī̆n, drī̆en     drī̆n, drīen


The other cardinals up to twelve are sometimes inflected; when such is
the case the endings are:--

       _Masc. and Fem._   _Neut._

  Nom. Acc.  -e             -iu
       Gen.  -er            -er
       Dat.  -en            -en

  {hundert} and {tūsent} are neuter nouns.






  Nom. ich, _I_         du, dū, _thou_
  Acc. mich             dich
  Gen. mīn              dīn
  Dat. mir              dir


  Nom. wir              ir
  Acc. unsich, uns      iuch
  Gen. unser            iuwer
  Dat. uns              iu


      _Masc._     _Neut._           _Fem._

  Nom. ër, _he_   ëȥ, _it, there_   si, sī, siu, sie, _she_
  Acc. in         ëȥ                sie, si, sī
  Gen. (ës)       ës                ir(e)
  Dat. im(e)      im(e)             ir(e)


  Nom. Acc. si, sī, sie (Neut. also siu), _they_
       Gen. ir(e)
       Dat. in

  NOTE.--1. The gen. {ir} is often used as a possessive pronoun. For
  {ëȥ} the form {iȥ} sometimes appears.

  2. For the acc. pl. {unsich} the dat. {uns} is mostly used. {iu} is
  often used for {iuch}, and _vice versa_. {im}, {ir} are more usual
  than {ime}, {ire}.

  3. The unstressed forms of personal pronouns are often attached to
  other words, as {ichȥ}, {iȥ} = {ich ëȥ}; {ichne}, {ine}, {ichn}
  = {ich ne} (_not_); {tuostu} = {tuost du}; {dune}, {dun} = {du ne}
  (_not_); {tuoȥ} = {tuo ëȥ}; {eist}, {ēst} = {ëȥ ist}; {deiȥ}
  = {daȥ ëȥ}; {mohter} = {mohte ër}; {baten} = {bat in}; {wirȥ}
  = {wir ëȥ}, &c.



          SING.         PLUR.

  Acc.  sich             sich
  Gen.  sīn  (fem. ir)   ir
  Dat.  im, ir           in



{mīn}, _my_; {dīn}, _thy_; {sīn}, _his_; {ir}, _her_; {unser}, _our_;
{iuwer}, _your_; {ir}, _their_.

They are declined like the strong adjective {michel}, _great_ (§55). The
dat. sing. forms {dīnme}, {sīnme} are generally contracted to {dīme},
{sīme}, see §9, 3.



          _Masc._     _Neut._  _Fem._

  Nom.    dër, _the_  daȥ      diu
  Acc.    dën         daȥ      die
  Gen.    dës         dës      dër(e)
  Dat.    dëm(e)      dëm(e)   dër(e)
  Instr.              diu

          _Masc._     _Neut._   _Fem._

  Nom.    die         diu       die
  Acc.    die         diu       die
  Gen.    dër(e)      dër(e)    dër(e)
  Dat.    dën         dën       dën

Like {dër} is also declined {jener}, _that_, except that the Nom., Acc.
sg. neut. ends in {-eȥ}. {dër}, &c., is used both as definite article
and relative pronoun.

  NOTE.--1. For the fem. nom. sing. and the neut. nom. acc. pl. {diu},
  the form {die} was sometimes used; and conversely {diu} for {die} in
  the fem. acc. singular. {diu} and {die} were sometimes weakened to
  {de}, and to {d’} before words beginning with a vowel. {daȥ} was
  sometimes weakened to {deȥ}, and still further to {ȥ} which was then
  attached to a preceding word, as {lātȥ kind} = {lāt daȥ kint};
  {anȥ} {inȥ} = {an}, {in daȥ}. {dēst}, {deis}, {dēs} = {daȥ ist}.

  2. The various cases were often fused into one word with
  prepositions, as {anme}, {ame}, {am} = {an dëme}; {zëme}, {zëm} = {ze
  dëme}; {ūfme} = {ūf dëme}; {zër} = {ze dër} (fem.); {übern} = {über
  dën}; {ūfën} = {ūf dën}; {zën} = {ze dën}.

       _Masc._                      _Neut._           _Fem._

  Nom. dirre (diser, dise), _this_  ditze, diz, diȥ   disiu
  Acc. disen                        ditze, diz, diȥ   dise
  Gen. dises                        dises             dirre
  Dat. disem(e)                     disem(e)          dirre


  Nom. dise                         disiu             dise
  Acc. dise                         disiu             dise
  Gen. dirre                        dirre             dirre
  Dat. disen                        disen             disen



A relative pronoun proper did not exist in the oldest periods of the
Germanic languages, and accordingly the separate languages expressed it
in various ways. In MHG. the following pronouns and adverbial particles
were used to express it:--

1. {dër}, {daȥ} (also used as a conjunction), {diu}, also in combination
with the particles {dar der dā}. 2. {sō}, {alsō} ({alse}, {als}), _as_;
{sam} ({alsam}), _as_. 3. {dā(r)}, _where_, {dar}, _thither, whither_,
{darinne}, _therein_, {dannen}, _wherefrom_, {darumbe}, _therefore_,
{dō}, _when, as._ 4. Indefinite relatives, as {swër} (from {sō wër}),
_whoever_, {swelch}, _each who_, {swëder}, _who of two_; {swā}, {swar},
_wherever_, {swannen}, {swanne} ({swenne}), _whenever_, {swie},
_however, howsoever._ 5. The conjunction {unde}, _and_.



The MHG. simple interrogative pronoun has no independent form for the
feminine, and is declined in the singular only.

          _Masc. Fem._    _Neut._

  Nom.    wër, _who_        waȥ
  Acc.    wën               waȥ
  Gen.    wës               wës
  Dat.    wëm(e)            wëm(e)
  Instr.                    wiu

In the same manner are declined the compounds:

{swër} (from {sō wër}), _whoever_, {etewër}, {eteswër}, _anyone_,
{neiȥwër} (= {ne weiȥ wër}, _I do not know who_), _anyone_.

{wëder}, _who of two_, is declined like a strong adjective; {welīch}
({welch}), _which_, is also declined like a strong adjective, but the
nom. singular remains uninflected.



{ander}, _other_; {dechein}, {dehein}, {dekein}, _no, none_; {dewëder},
_neither_; {ein}, _one, some one_: when {ein} is used with the meaning
_alone_ it follows the weak declension; {etelīch}, {etlīch}, {eteslīch},
{etslīch}, _anyone, many a_, pl. = _some_; {etewër}, {eteswër},
_anyone_; {etewaȥ}, _anything_; {iegelīch}, {ieslīch}, {iegeslīch},
_each_; {ieman}, {iemen}, _someone, somebody_; {iewëder}, {ietwëder},
_each_; {iewelīch}, {iewelich}, _each_; {iewiht}, {iht}, _anything_;
{kein}, _no_; {man}, _one_; {manec}, _many a_, declined {maneger},
{manegeȥ}, {manegiu}, &c.; {nehein}, _no, none_; {niht}, _nothing_;
{solch}, _such_, declined like {manec}; {sum}, _any one at all_, pl.
_some_; {sumelīch}, {sumlīch}, _many a_; {swelch}, _each who_; {swër},
_whoever_; {wëder}, _which of two_; {welīch} ({welch}), _which_,
declined like {manec}.




The MHG. verb has the following independent forms:--one voice (active),
two numbers, three persons, two tenses (present and preterite), two
complete moods (indicative and subjunctive, the latter originally the
optative), besides an imperative which is only used in the present
tense; two verbal nouns (the present infinitive, and the gerund,
generally called the inflected infinitive), a present participle with
active meaning, and one verbal adjective (the past participle).

The MHG. verbs are divided into two great classes:--Strong and Weak. The
strong verbs form their preterite (originally the perfect) and past
participle by means of ablaut (§12). The weak verbs form their preterite
by the addition of the syllable {-te}, and their past participle by
means of a {t}-suffix. The strong verbs were originally further
sub-divided into reduplicated and non-reduplicated verbs. The
reduplication had, however, entirely disappeared in the oldest period of
the language. The non-reduplicated verbs are divided into six classes
according to the six ablaut-series (§12). The originally reduplicated
verbs are put together here and called Class VII. Besides these two
great classes of strong and weak verbs, there are a few others which
will be treated under the general heading _Minor Groups_.



We are able to conjugate a MHG. strong verb when we know the four stems,
as seen in (1) the infinitive or first pers. sing. of the present
indicative, (2) the first or third pers. sing. of the preterite
indicative, (3) the first pers. plural of the preterite indicative, (4)
the past participle. The pret. subjunctive and the second pers. pret.
indicative have the same stem-vowel as the pret. plural indicative.


The conjugation of {nëmen}, OHG. {nëman}, _to take_, will serve as a
model for all strong verbs.


             INDIC.                           SUBJ.
           MHG.           OHG.              MHG.      OHG.
  Sing. 1. nime           nimu              nëme      nëme
        2. nimes(t)       nimis(t)          nëmes(t)  nëmēs(t)
        3. nimet          nimit             nëme      nëme
  Plur. 1. nëmen          nëmemēs, -ēm      nëmen     nëmēm
        2. nëmet          nëmet             nëmet     nëmēt
        3. nëment         nëmant            nëmen     nëmēn

             IMPER.                           INFIN.
           MHG.           OHG.              MHG.      OHG.
  Sing. 2. nim            nim               nëmen     nëman
  Plur. 1. nëmen          nëmemēs, -ēm
        2. nëmet, (-ent)  nëmet

                                                 MHG.        OHG.
                                          Gen. nëmen(n)es  nëmannes
                                          Dat. nëmen(n)e   nëmanne

                                               PRESENT PARTICIPLE.
                                               nëmende     nëmanti


             INDIC.            SUBJ.
           MHG.    OHG.      MHG.        OHG.
  Sing. 1. nam     nam       næme      nāmi
        2. næme    nāmi      næmes(t)  nāmīst
        3. nam     nam       næme      nāmi
  Plur. 1. nāmen   nāmum     næmen     nāmīm
        2. nāmet   nāmut     næmet     nāmīt
        3. nāmen   nāmun     næmen     nāmīn

              PAST PARTICIPLE.

           MHG.       OHG.
           genomen    ginoman

  NOTE.--The {e} in the endings is regularly lost according to the
  rule given in §9,1, as sing. {stil}, {stilst}, {stilt}, inf.
  {stëln}, _to steal_; sing. {var}, {verst}, {vert}, inf. {varn}, _to
  go_. It was also frequently lost in the third pers. sing. pres.
  indicative of other verbs, as {vint} = {vindet}, {siht} = {sihet},
  see §9,4 note. The {n} in the first pers. plural was sometimes
  dropped when the pronoun came after the verb, as {nëme wir} = {nëmen

  The imperative singular sometimes has {-e} after the analogy of weak
  verbs (§90).

  The OHG. forms given above show in what forms umlaut regularly took
  place, viz. in the second and third pers. singular of the pres.
  indicative, when possible, in the second pers. singular of the pret.
  indicative, and in the pret. subjunctive. The second pers. singular
  of the pret. indicative always has the same stem-vowel as the pret.
  subjunctive. On the absence of umlaut in the pret. subjunctive of
  certain types of verbs, see §10, note. Forms without and with umlaut
  are found in the second and third pers. singular of the present in
  verbs belonging to Class VII, as {slāfes(t)}, {slāfet} beside
  {slæfes(t)}, {slæfet}.

  Concerning the changes between {i, ë}; {u, o}; {iu}, {ie}; {ei, ē};
  {ou, ō} in the various classes of strong verbs, see §§14-17.



We shall only give in each class a few verbs to illustrate the gradation
of vowels and consonant changes. All other verbs occurring in the texts
will be found in the Glossary referred to their proper class.



The verbs of this class belong to the first ablaut-series (§12) and
therefore have {ī} in all forms of the present; {ei} in the first and
third pers. sing. of the preterite, but {ē} before {ch} (= Germanic {h},
§23), and finally (§17); and {i} in the preterite plural and past
participle, thus:--

  bīten, _to wait_        beit   biten   gebiten
  swīgen, _to be silent_  sweic  swigen  geswigen
  trīben, _to drive_      treip  triben  getriben

And similarly {belīben}, _to remain_, {bīȥen}, _to bite_, {rīben}, _to
rub_, {rīten}, _to ride_, {schīnen}, _to shine_, {schrīben}, _to write_,
{sīgen}, _to sink_, {strīten}, _to quarrel_.

  snīden, _to cut_    sneit   sniten         gesniten
  dīhen, _to thrive_  dēch    digen          gedigen
  rīsen, _to fall_    reis    rirn (risen)   gerirn (gerisen)

And similarly {līden}, _to suffer_, {mīden}, _to avoid_, {nīden}, _to
envy_, {līhen}, _to lend_, {zīhen}, _to accuse_. See §30.


The following two verbs which are also used as weak verbs have mixed
forms in the preterite and past participle:--

  schrīen, _to scream_  schrē   schriuwen  geschriuwen
                        schrei  schrūwen   geschrūwen
                                schrirn    geschrirn
  spīwen, _to vomit_    spē     spiwen     gespiwen
                        spei    spiuwen    gespiuwen
                                spūwen     gespūwen
                                spirn      gespirn



The verbs of this class belong to the second ablaut-series (§12) and
therefore have {ie} in the present, but {iu} in the present singular
(§16); {ou} in the first and third pers. sing. of the preterite, but {ō}
before {t, ȥ, s} and {ch} (= Germanic {h}), §18; {u} in the pret.
plural; and {o} in the past participle, thus:--

  biegen, _to bend_      biuge     bouc    bugen      gebogen
  triefen, _to drop_     triufe    trouf   truffen    getroffen
  bieten, _to offer_     biute     bōt     buten      geboten
  schieȥen, _to shoot_   schiuȥe   schōȥ   schuȥȥen   geschoȥȥen

And similarly {klieben}, _to cleave_, {kriechen}, _to creep_, {liegen},
_to lie_, {riechen}, _to smell_, {schieben}, _to shove_, {vliegen}, _to
fly_; {dieȥen}, _to roar_, {gieȥen}, _to pour_, {vlieȥen}, _to flow_.

  sieden, _to seethe_  siude  sōt   suten  gesoten
  ziehen, _to draw_    ziuhe  zōch  zugen  gezogen
  kiesen, _to choose_  kius   kōs   kurn   gekorn

And similarly {vliehen}, _to flee_, {niesen}, _to sneeze_, {verliesen},
_to lose_, {vriesen}, _to freeze_. See §30.


On the stem-vowels in the following verbs, see §16, note and §36:--

  bliuwen, _to strike_  bliuwe  blou  blūwen
                                      bliuwen   gebliuwen
                                      blouwen   geblouwen

And similarly {briuwen}, _to brew_, {kiuwen}, _to chew_, {riuwen}, _to


To this class also belong the three aorist presents:--

  lūchen, _to shut_       liuche    louch  luchen  gelochen
  sūfen, _to gulp down_   sūfe      souf   suffen  gesoffen
  sūgen, _to suck_        sūge      souc   sugen   gesogen



The verbs of this class belong to the third ablaut-series (§12), and
include the strong verbs having a medial nasal or a liquid + consonant.
Those with nasal + consonant have {i} throughout the present tense and
{u} in the past participle; the others have {i} in the present singular,
{ë} in the plural, and {o} in the past participle (see §§14, 15),

  binden, _to bind_  binde   bant   bunden   gebunden
  rinnen, _to run_   rinne   ran    runnen   gerunnen
  singen, _to sing_  singe   sanc   sungen   gesungen

And similarly {brinnen}, _to burn_, {dringen}, _to press_, {entrinnen},
_to escape_, {gelingen}, _to succeed_, {gewinnen}, _to gain_,
{schrinden}, _to split_, {sinken}, _to sink_, {sinnen}, _to reflect_,
{spinnen}, _to spin_, {swimmen}, _to swim_, {trinken}, _to drink_,
{vinden} (p.p. {vunden}), _to find_, {winden}, _to wind_. {beginnen},
_to begin_, pret. sing. {began} beside {begunde}, {begonde}, pl.
{begunden}, p.p. {begunnen}.

  bërgen, _to hide_    birge    bare    burgen    geborgen
  hëlfen, _to help_    hilfe    half    hulfen    geholfen
  stërben, _to die_    stirbe   starp   sturben   gestorben

And similarly {bevëlhen}, _to order_, {emphëlhen}, {enphëlhen}, _to
recommend_, {gëlten}, _to pay_, {mëlken}, _to milk_, {schëlten}, _to
revile_, {swëllen}, _to swell_, {verdërben}, _to destroy_, {wërfen}, _to
throw_, {wërren}, _to confuse_, {wërden}, _to become_, pret. pl.
{wurten}, {wurden}, p.p. {worten}, {(ge)worden}, see §30.



The verbs of this class belong to the fourth ablaut-series (§12). They
include those strong verbs which have a liquid or a nasal before or
after the stem-vowel, and a few others, thus:--

    ë                   i             a       ā         o
  nëmen, _to take_     nime          nam     nāmen     genomen
  bërn, _to bear_      bir (§9, 1)   bar     bāren     geborn
  stëln, _to steal_    stil (§9, 1)  stal    stālen    gestoln
  brëchen, _to break_  briche        brach   brāchen   gebrochen
  vëhten, _to fight_   vihte         vaht    vāhten    gevohten

And similarly {schërn}, _to shear_, {schrëcken}, _to frighten_,
{sprëchen}, _to speak_, {vlëhten}, _to plait_, {zëmen} (p.p. also
{gezëmen}), _to be befitting_, {stëchen}, _to prick_, {trëffen} (p.p.
{troffen}), _to hit_; {dreschen}, _to thrash_, {leschen}, _to be
extinguished_, see §11, 1. {komen} (OHG. {quëman}), _to come_, {kume},
{quam}, {quāmen}, {komen}; on other forms of this verb, see §36.



The verbs of this class belong to the fifth ablaut-series (§12). They
include the strong verbs containing a medial consonant other than a
nasal or liquid, thus:--

    {ë}              {i}         {a}    {ā}     {ë}
  gëben, _to give_   gibe        gap    gāben   gegëben
  jëhen, _to say_    gihe (§35)  jach   jāhen   gejëhen
  sëhen, _to see_    sihe        sach   sāhen   gesëhen
  wëgen, _to move_   wige        wac    wāgen   gewëgen

And similarly {geschëhen}, _to happen_, {knëten}, _to knead_, {mëȥȥen},
_to measure_, {pflëgen}, _to be accustomed_, {trëten}, _to tread_,
{vergëȥȥen}, _to forget_, {wëben}, _to weave_.

  wësen, _to be_   wise   was   wāren   gewësen

And similarly {genësen} (pret. pl. also {genāsen}), _to recover_,
{jësen}, _to ferment_, {lësen} (pret. pl. also {lāsen}), _to gather,
read_. See §30.

  ëȥȥen, _to eat_        iȥȥe     āȥ(aȥ)   āȥen     gëȥȥen (§9,7)
  vrëȥȥen, _to devour_   vriȥȥe   vrāȥ     vrāȥen   vrëȥȥen

These verbs had a long vowel in the pret. singular in the oldest period
of all the Germanic languages, cp. also Lat. {ēdī}.


To this class also belong the three verbs:--

  bit(t)en, _to beg_     bite    bat   bāten   gebëten
  ligen, _to lie down_   lige    lac   lāgen   gelëgen
  sitzen, _to sit_       sitze   saȥ   sāȥen   gesëȥȥen

{bit(t)en}, OHG. {bitten} from {*bidjan}; {ligen}, OHG. {liggen} from
{*ligjan}; {sitzen}, OHG. {sitzen} from {*sitjan}, see §§14, 31,3. The
inf. {ligen} is sometimes contracted to {līn}, see §37.



The verbs of this class belong to the sixth ablaut-series (§12), and
accordingly have {a} in the present; {uo} in the pret. singular and
plural; and {a} in the past participle. They have umlaut in the second
and third pers. singular, as {grebes(t)}, {grebet}; {verst}, {vert}. See

  graben, _to dig_     gruop   gruoben   gegraben
  tragen, _to carry_   truoc   truogen   getragen
  maln, _to grind_     muol    muolen    gemaln
  varn, _to go_        vuor    vuoren    gevarn

And similarly {laden}, _to load_, {nagen}, _to gnaw_, {schaffen}, _to
create_, {spanen}, _to entice_, {waschen}, _to wash_, {wahsen}, _to
grow_, {waten}, _to wade_.

  slahen, _to strike_   sluoc   sluogen   geslagen
  twahen, _to wash_     twuoc   twuogen   getwagen

See §30. The pret. sing. {sluoc}, {twuoc} for {*sluoch}, {*twuoch} were
formed after the analogy of the pret. plural.


To this class also belong:--

  stān, stēn (§96),
    _to stand_                stuont    stuonden    gestanden
  entseben (older entseven),
    _to perceive_             entsuop   entsuoben   entsaben
    _to mention_              gewuoc    gewuogen    gewagen
  heben (older heven),
    _to raise_                huop      huoben      gehaben
  swern (see §35),
    _to swear_                swuor     swuoren     geswarn}

The pret. singular {stuont}, {entsuop}, {gewuoc}, {huop} for {*stuot}
(cp. Engl. {stood}), {*entsuof}, {*gewuoch}, {*huof} were formed after
the analogy of the pret. plural. On the {b, g} in the pret. plural, see
§30. The last four verbs in the list originally had a {j} in the
present, which accounts for the umlaut, cp. OHG. {heffen}, Goth.
{hafjan}, _to raise_. {heben} had its {b} from forms where it was



To this class belong the verbs which originally had reduplicated
preterites. The present and past participle have the same stem-vowel;
and the preterite singular and plural have {ie}. In OHG. the verbs which
had {a, ā} or {ei} in the present had {ia} (older {ea, ē}) in the
preterite; and those which had {ou (ō)}, {uo} in the present had {io}
(older {eo}) in the preterite. But in MHG. the {ia} and {io} regularly
fell together in {ie} (§11, 3), so that all the preterites had {ie}.

  bannen, _to banish_   bien    bienen    gebannen
  halten, _to hold_     hielt   hielten   gehalten
  slāfen, _to sleep_    slief   sliefen   geslāfen
  heiȥen, _to call_     hieȥ    hieȥen    geheiȥn
  loufen, _to run_      lief    liefen    geloufen
  ruofen, _to call_     rief    riefen    geruofen

And similarly {halsen}, _to embrace_, {salzen}, _to salt_, {spalten},
_to split_, {spannen}, _to span_, {vallen}, _to fall_, {valten}, _to
fold_, {wallen}, _to bubble_; {bāgen}, _to quarrel_, {blāsen}, _to
blow_, {brāten}, _to roast_, {lāȥen} (see also §99), _to let_, _leave_,
{rāten}, _to advise_; {meiȥen}, _to cut_, {scheiden}, _to separate_,
{sweifen}, _to rove_; {bōȥen}, _to strike_, {stōȥen}, _to push_,
{houwen} (pret. {hiu} and {hie}, pl. {hiuwen}, {hiewen}), _to hew_,
{wuofen}, _to bewail_.

  gān, gēn, _to go_          gienc (gie)  giengen  (ge)gangen
  hāhen (§29) }
  hān (§38)   }, _to hang_   hienc (hie)  hiengen  gehangen
  vāhen (§29) }
  vān (§38)   }, _to catch_  vienc (vie)  viengen  gevangen
  erren, ern, _to plough_    ier          ieren     gearn

On the interchange between {h} and {ng}, see §30; {erren}, {ern} from
older {*arjan}.



The OHG. weak verbs were divided into three great classes according as
the infinitive ended in {-en} from older {*-jan}, {-on}, or {-ēn}.

The characteristic endings of the three OHG. classes were:--

               CLASS I.            CLASS II.   CLASS III.

  Indic. sing.  -u,                  -ōn,        -ēn
                -is(t)               -ōs(t)      -ēs(t)
                -it                  -ōt         -ēt
    „    plur.  -ēn                  -ōn         -ēn
                -et                  -ōt         -ēt
                -ent                 -ōnt        -ēnt

  Subj. sing.   -e                   -o          -e
                -ēs(t)               -ōs(t)      -ēs(t)
                -e                   -o          -e
    „   plur.   -ēn                  -ōn         -ēn
                -ēt                  -ōt         -ēt
                -ēn                  -ōn         -ēn

  Imper. sing.  -i                   -o          -e
    „    plur.  -ēn                  -ōn         -ēn
                -et                  -ōt         -ēt


  Indic. sing.  -ta,     -ita,       -ōta,       -ēta,
                -tōs(t), -itōs(t)    -ōtōs(t)    -ētōs(t)
                -ta,     -ita        -ōta        -ēta
    „    plur.  -tun,    -itun       -ōtun       -ētun
                -tut,    -itut       -ōtut       -ētut
                -tun,    -itun       -ōtun       -ētun

  Subj. sing.   -ti,     -iti        -ōti        -ēti
                -tīs(t), -itīs(t)    -ōtīs(t)    -ētīs(t)
                -ti,     -iti        -ōti        -ēti
    „   plur.   -tīn,    -itīn       -ōtīn        -ētīn
                -tīt,    -itīt       -ōtīt        -ētīt
                -tīn,    -itīn       -ōtīn        -ētīn

                     _Past Participle._

  Uninfl. form  -it                  -ōt          -ēt

  Infl.    „    -tēr,  -itēr         -ōtēr        -ētēr


                -en                  -ōn          -ēn

In OHG. the verbs of Class I were divided into two sub-divisions:
(_a_) polysyllabic verbs and those containing an old long stem-syllable;
(_b_) those which originally had a short stem-syllable (cp. §31, 3). The
former formed their preterite in {-ta}, and the latter in {-ita}; and
similarly in the inflected form of the past participle. In MHG. all the
unaccented vowels {i, e}, {a, o}, {u, ī}, {ē, ō} regularly fell together
in {e} (§7), so that the old distinction between the endings of the
three classes of verbs was to a great extent obliterated. The OHG. verbs
with a short stem-syllable belonging to Classes II and III came in MHG.
to be inflected entirely like sub-division (_b_) of Class I; and those
with a long stem-syllable mostly came to be inflected like sub-division
(_a_) of Class I, see §§9,2, 92.

Owing to all the OHG. unaccented vowels being weakened to {e} the MHG.
endings are:--

                      Sing.                   Plur.
  Pres. Indic.:   -e, -es(t), -et        -en, -et, -ent
    „    Subj.:   -e, -es(t), -e         -en, -et, -en

  Pret. Indic. }  -te, -tes(t), -te   }  -ten, -tet, -ten    }
    and Subj.: }  -ete, -etes(t) -ete }  -eten, -etet, -eten }

  Imper.          -e                     -en, -et

  P.P. Uninfl. form  -et
       Infl.    „    -ter  }
                     -eter }

  Infin.  -en.

Final {-n} in the first pers. sing. of the pres. indicative of the old
Classes II and III remained in early MHG., but during the MHG. period
the first person was remodelled after the analogy of Class I.

  NOTE.--Old forms with {ō̆} ({u}) for later {e} occasionally occur in
  verbs originally belonging to the OHG. Class II; and in like manner
  {ī̆} for {e} in the pret. subjunctive.


The MHG. weak verbs are divided into two classes, according as the
preterite is formed in {-te} or {-ete} (see however §40). The inflexion
of the present is the same in both classes.



To this class belong (1) verbs which have old long stem-syllables. Those
having a mutated vowel in the present have the corresponding unmutated
vowel in the preterite. The {i} which would have caused umlaut in the
preterite disappeared in the prehistoric period of the language. The
past participle generally has two forms: one with a mutated vowel, and
the other without it, properly from the old inflected form which did not
have umlaut. (2) Verbs having a short stem-vowel followed by a single
consonant ({l, r}), and trisyllabic verbs containing an {l, n}, or {r}
in the second syllable, as {zeln}, older {zellen} (§31,3), _to count_,
pret. {zelte} beside {zalte}, p.p. {gezelt} beside {gezalt}; {nern}, _to
rescue_, pret. {nerte} (OHG. {nerita}), p.p. {genert}; and similarly
{doln} (OHG. {dolōn}), _to tolerate_, {seln}, _to hand over_, {spiln},
_to play_, {weln}, _to choose_; {wern}, _to defend_; {wandeln} (OHG.
{wantalōn}), _to change_, pret. {wandelte}; {vordern} (OHG. {fordarōn}),
_to further_, pret. {vorderte}; {sëgenen} (OHG. {sëganōn}), _to bless_,
pret. {sëgente}. See §§9, 1,2, 92.


           INDIC.     SUBJ.      IMPER.
  Sing. 1. kenne      kenne
        2. kennes(t)  kennes(t)  kenne
        3. kennet     kenne
  Plur. 1. kennen     kennen     kennen
        2. kennet     kennet     kennet, (-ent)
        3. kennent    kennen


  Sing. 1. kante      kante
        2. kantes(t)  kantes(t)
        3. kante      kante
  Plur. 1. kanten     kanten
        2. kantet     kantet
        3. kanten     kanten

Infin. {kennen}, _to know_; Pres. Part. {kennende}; Past Part.
{gekennet}, {gekant}.

And similarly with a large number of verbs, as {blüemen}, _to bloom_,
{brennen}, _to burn_, {füllen}, _to fill_, {grüeȥen}, _to greet_,
{hœren}, _to hear_, {küssen}, _to kiss_, {lœsen}, _to loose_, {nennen},
_to name_, {rennen}, _to run_, {senden} (pret. {sante}), _to send_,
{senken}, _to sink_, {setzen} (pret. {satte}, {sazte}, p.p. {gesat},
{gesazt}, {gesetzt}), _to set_, {stellen}, _to place_, {süeȥen}, _to
sweeten_, {vellen}, _to fell_, {wǣnen}, _to fancy_, {wünschen}, _to
wish_; {gelouben}, _to believe_, {kēren}, _to turn_, {koufen}, _to buy_,
{leiten} (pret. {leite}), _to lead_, {ougen}, _to show_, {suochen}, _to
seek_. The verba pura have double forms in the present and preterite, as
{dræjen}, {dræn} (§35), _to turn_, pret. {drāte} beside the new
formation {dræjete}, {dræte}, and similarly {blüejen}, _to bloom_,
{müejen}, _to trouble_, {rüejen}, _to row_, {sæjen}, _to sow_, {wæjen},
_to blow_. Verbs with medial {ck} have double preterites, as {decken},
_to cover_, pret. {dacte} beside {dahte}, and similarly {drücken},
{drucken}, _to press_, {smecken}, _to taste_, {wecken}, _to awake_. See
also §92.


The following are irregular:--

    _Infin._                  _Pret._   _P.P._
  denken, _to think_           dāhte    gedāht (§§28, 29)
  dunken, dünken, _to seem_    dūhte    gedūh (§§28, 29)
  furhten, fürhten, _to fear_  vorhte   gevorht
  wurken, würken, _to work_    worhte   geworht
  bringen, _to bring_          brāhte   gebrāht (§§28, 29)

  NOTE.--The second pers. sing. of {brāhte} is {bræhte} or
  {brāhtes(t)}, pret. subj. {bræhte}; and similarly with {dāhte}; the
  subj. of {dūhte} is {dūhte} or {diuhte}.



The verbs belonging to this class form their preterite in {-ete} and
their past participle in {-et}. In other respects Class II has the same
endings as Class I.

It includes: (_a_) The dissyllabic verbs, having a short stem-vowel
followed by a single consonant other than {l, r}, which in OHG. belonged
to Classes II and III, as {loben} (OHG. {lobōn}), _to praise_, pret.
{lobete}, p.p. {gelobet}; {lëben} (OHG. {lëbēn}), _to live_, pret.
{lëbete}, p.p. {gelëbet} (see §88). (_b_) The dissyllabic verbs of OHG.
Class I with a short stem-vowel followed by double consonants other than
{ll} (see §31, 3), as {legen}, older {leggen} (OHG. {leggen}), _to lay_,
pret. {legete} or {leite} (§37), p.p. {geleget} or {geleit}; {denen},
older {dennen} (OHG. {dennen}), _to stretch_, pret. {denete}, p.p.

Other examples belonging to Class II are: {bëten}, _to pray_, {dagen},
_to be silent_, {klagen}, _to complain_, {klëben}, _to stick_, {laden},
_to invite_, {namen}, _to name_, {sagen}, _to say_, pret. {sagete} and
{seite} (§37).

The verbs with a long stem-syllable, which belonged to OHG. Classes II
and III, went over in MHG. either into Class I (1), see §90, or had
preterites in {-te} beside {-ete}, as {danken}, _to thank_, pret.
{dancte} beside {dankete}, p.p. {gedanct} beside {gedanket}; {vrāgen},
_to ask_, pret. {vrāgte} beside {vrāgete}, p.p. {gevrāgt} beside
{gevrāget}, and similarly {ahten}, _to observe_, {minnen}, _to love_,
{trahten}, _to strive_, &c., see §§9,2, 90; {dienen}, _to serve_, pret.
{diende} (§40), &c.


1. {Preterite-Presents.}


These have strong preterites with a present meaning, from which new weak
preterites have been formed. The 2nd pers. sg. ends in {-t}, and has the
same stem-vowel as the 1st and 3rd pers. sg. The following verbs belong
to this class:--

{weiȥ}, _I know_, 2nd pers. sg. {weist}; pl. {wiȥȥen}; inf. {wiȥȥen};
pres. p. {wiȥȥende}; pret. {wisse}, {wesse}, {wiste} _or_ {weste}; p.p.
{gewist} _or_ {gewest}.

{touc}, _I am of use_, inf. and pl. {tugen} _or_ {tügen}; pret. {tohte};
subj. {töhte}.

{gan}, _I grant_, 2nd pers. sg. {ganst}; inf. and pl. {gunnen} _or_
{günnen}; pret. {gunde}; subj. {gunde} _or_ {günde}; p.p. {gegunnen},
{gegunnet}, _or_ {gegunst}.

{kan}, _I know_, 2nd pers. sg. {kanst}; inf. and pl. {kunnen} _or_
{künnen}; pret. {kunde} ({konde}); subj. {kunde} _or_ {künde}.

{darf}, _I need_, 2nd pers. sg. {darft}; pl. {durfen} _or_ {dürfen};
pret. {dorfte}; subj. {dörfte}; infin. and p.p. only in {bedürfen},

{tar}, _I dare_, _venture_, 2nd pers. sg. {tarst}; inf. and pl. {turren}
_or_ {türren}; pret. {torste}; subj. {törste}.

{sol}, _I shall_, 2nd pers. sg. {solt}; inf. and pl. {suln} _or_ {süln};
pret. {solde} _or_ {solte}.

{mac}, _I can_, 2nd pers. sg. {maht}; pl. {magen}, {megen}, {mugen},
_or_ {mügen}; pret. {mahte} _or_ {mohte}; subj. {mehte (mahte)} _or_

{muoȥ}, _I must_, 2nd pers. sg. {muost}; pl. {müeȥen}; pret. {muoste}
_or_ {muose}; subj. {müeste} _or_ {müese}.

2. {Anomalous Verbs.}


(1) {tuon}, _to do_.

          INDIC.         SUBJ.

        1. tuon (tuo)     tuo
  Sing. 2. tuos(t)        tuos(t)
        3. tuot           tuo

        1. tuon           tuon
  Plur. 2. tuot (tuont)   tuot
        3. tuont          tuon

           INFIN.   tuon
           IMPER.   tuo
           PRES. P. tuonde


        1. tëte (tët)      tæte (tëte)
  Sing. 2. tæte            tætes(t)
        3. tëte (tët)      tæte

  Plur.    tāten, (tæten, tëten)  tæten

            P.P. getān


(2) {gān}, _to go_.

          INDIC.            SUBJ.

        1. gān, gēn         gē (gā, gange)
  Sing. 2. gās(t), gēs(t)   gēs(t) (gās(t), ganges(t))
        3. gāt, gēt         gē (gā, gange)

  Plur.    gān, gēn         gēn (gān, gangen)

           INFIN.   gān, gēn
           IMPER.   ganc, genc, ginc (gā, gē)
           PRES. P. gānde, gēnde


            Sing. gienc _or_ gie
            Plur. giengen
            P.P.  (ge)gangen _or_ gegān


(3) {stān}, _to stand_.

           INDIC.                  SUBJ.

        1. stān, stēn, stā, stē   stā, stē (stande),
  Sing. 2. stās(t), stēs(t)         &c.
        3. stāt, stēt

  Plur.    stān, stēn

           INFIN. stān, stēn
           IMPER. stā, stē, stant


            P.P.  gestanden _or_ gestān


(4) {sīn}, {wësen}, _to be_.

          INDIC.          SUBJ.

        1. bin             sī (sīge, sīe)
  Sing. 2. bis(t)          sīs(t) (sīges(t), sīes(t))
        3. ist             sī (sīge, sīe)
        1. birn, sīn       sīn (sīgen, sīen)
  Plur. 2. birt, sīt       sīt (sīget, sīet)
        3. sint            sīn (sīgen, sīen)

           INFIN. sīn, wësen.

  Indic. Pret. Sing. was;   pl. wāren (§30)
  Subj.     „     „  wære;  pl. wæren
               P.P.  gewësen (gewëset)


(5) {wellen}, _to will_.

           INDIC.          SUBJ.
  Sing. 1. wil             welle
        2. wil, wilt       welles(t)
        3. wil             welle
  Plur. 1. wellen, weln    wellen
        2. wellet, welt    wellet
        3. wellen, weln    wellen

  Pret.  wolte _or_ wolde (§40)  wolte _or_ wölte
  Infin. wellen.

3. {Contracted Verbs.}


(1) {lān} = {lāȥen}, _to let_, _leave_.

  Pres. Sing. lān, lās(t), læs(t), lāt (læt)
   „    Plur. lān, lāt,            lān
  Pret. lie _or_ lieȥ (§87).

                 Imper. lā, lāt

  Infin. lān.    P.P. (ge)lān

(2) hān = haben, _to have_.

  Pres. Sing. hān, hās(t), hāt
    „   Plur. hān, hāt, hān
  Pret.       hāte (hëte, hēt(e), hiet(e), hæte), hātes(t), &c.
  Subj. pres. habe, habes(t), &c.
    „   pret. hæte, hete, hēte, hiete, hatte, &c.

  Infin. hān.    P.P. gehabet, gehapt, gehāt.

The contracted form {hān}, &c., is mostly used as an auxiliary.





{Accusative.} The accusative has much the same function as in NHG. It is
sometimes used, however, where the dat. or a preposition would be
required in NHG.:--{ër vuor waȥȥer unde wëge}, _he went by water and
land_. The acc. is used after {wol}, _well_, when used as an
interjection, as {wol mich}. A double accusative is required not only
after {lēren}, _to teach_, but also after {hëln}, {verhëln}, _to
conceal_, {verdagen}, {verswīgen}, _to keep secret_.


{Dative.} {ruofen}, _to call_, and {schirmen}, _to protect_, take the
dative. The dative is often used adverbially: {allenthalben}, _on all
sides_, {wīlen(t)}, _formerly_, &c.


{Genitive.} The genitives {hande}, {slahte}, {leie} = _manner_ are used
adverbially: {maneger hande}, {slahte}, _or_ {leie}, _in many ways_,

The gen. is used in combination with the comparative of adjectives, as
{dicker eines dūmes}, _thicker by the breadth of a thumb_. Indefinite
and interrogative pronouns, used substantively, take the genitive:
{iemen armer liute}, _any poor people_; {niht schœneres}, _nothing more
beautiful_; {dës enmac niht sīn}, _that cannot be_; {waȥ mannes ër
wære}, _what kind of man he was_. In the same manner the rel. {swaȥ} may
take the genitive: {swaȥ man vant dër armen}, _whatever poor people one

The genitive may be used predicatively:--{sīt sī dës goteshūses sint},
_since they belong to the house of God_; {diu sorge ist mīn eines niht},
_I am not the only one who has sorrow_.

Impersonal verbs often take the genitive: {mich genüeget dës}, _that is
enough for me_; {mich gezimt dës}, _that pleases me_.

The genitives {dës} and {wës} may be used adverbially in the sense of
_therefore_, _wherefore_; and likewise many nouns: {tages}, _by day_;
{dës sëlben tages}, _the same day_; {nahtes}, _by night_.

Interjections usually take the genitive: {owē mir mīnes leides!} _alas!
for my grief_. {vil}, _much_, _many_; {mē(re)}, _more_; {wēnic},
{lützel}, _little_; {minner}, {minre}, _less_; and {genuoc}, _enough_,
used as indeclinable substantives, are followed by the genitive.
Cardinal numerals, used substantively, are also followed by the
genitive: {zweinzec starker man}, _twenty strong men_.



The weak and strong forms are used in the same manner as in Mod. HG.
{dirre}, _this_, is followed by the weak or strong form; {aller}, _all_,
usually by the strong. The strong or weak form can be used after
pronouns, as {ich armer} or {ich arme}, _I poor ..._ In the vocative the
weak form without the article is used, as {guoten liute}, _(ye) good
people_. When the same adjective refers to nouns of different gender, it
is put in the neuter plural.

{ein} and the possessive pronouns are followed by the strong form in the
Nom. and Acc. singular; by the strong or weak form in the pl. and Gen.
and Dative singular.

The possessive pronouns are declined strong.

The uninflected form of the adjective is used side by side with the
inflected in the Nom. singular, all genders, and Acc. singular neuter,
when the adjective comes before the noun: {ein guot man}, _a good man_.
When the adjective stands after the noun the uninflected form may be
used without reference to number, gender, or case, {ein}, {dehein}, and
the possessive pronouns have the uninflected form in the Nom. for all
genders, and Acc. neuter. The uninflected form of {al}, _all_, can be
used before all forms of the definite article: {in al dër wërlte}, _in
all the world_. See §55.



{im}, {ir}, pl. {in}, are used to express the dative of the reflexive
pronoun. {dër} is sometimes used pleonastically, as {dër brunne}, {dër
was küele}, _the spring was cool_. {man} used as an indefinite pronoun
can take the definite article along with it.



{Number.} The verb can be used in the singular after a compound subject,
as {Volkēr und Hagene sō sēre wüeten began}, _... began to rage so


{Tenses.} The fut. simple is expressed by {sol}, {muoȥ}, {wil} and the
infin., or simply by the pres., as in OE.: {ich sol gān}, _I shall go_;
{bin ich gnislīch}, {sō genise ich}, _if I am curable_, _I shall
recover_. For the fut. pf. the pf. is used: {daȥ ist schiere getān},
_that will soon have been done_. The pf. is expressed either by the
simple pret. or the p.p. and the verbs {hān}, {sīn}; in subordinate
sentences the pret. often has the meaning of the pluperfect: {dō du von
ir schiede, zehant sie starp}, _she died immediately after thou hadst
taken leave of her_.

The preterite acquires a pluperfect, and the present a future perfect
meaning when the prefix {ge} is added to them: {swenne iuwer sun
gewahset}, _when your son (shall have) has grown up_; {dō ich in
gesach}, _when I had seen him_. The present participle with {sīn} is
sometimes used as in English, see ‘Arme Heinrich,’ l. 24.


{Voice.} The present and preterite passive are expressed by {wërden} and
the p.p., and the corresponding perfect tenses by {sīn} and the p.p.

  Pres.  ich wirde gelobet.
  Pret.  ich wart    „
  Perf.  ich bin     „
  Plupf. ich was     „

  Inf.   gelobet sīn.


{Negation.} Negation in sentences is expressed by {ne} ({en, n}) before
the verb, and {niht} after it: {ër enist guot}, _he is not good_. {niht}
is frequently omitted, especially after the preterite presents, the
verbs {wellen}, {lān}, sentences containing negative pronouns or
adverbs, and in subordinate sentences.

{en} without {niht} is used with the subjunctive in subordinate
sentences in the sense of _unless_, _if not_, _except that_, _when
that_, _that not_, &c.: {dën līp wil ich verliesen, si enwërde mīn wīp},
_I will die if she will not become my wife_; {ich wæne nieman in dër
wërlte lëbe, ërn habe ein leit}, _I believe no one lives in the world
who has not his trouble_.

{en} is further also used in the sense of Latin ‘quin’: {ich mac daȥ
niht bevarn, mirn wërde mīn ritterschaft benomen}, _I cannot prevent my
knighthood being taken away from me_.


  [Transcriber’s Note:

  Line numbers have been removed from the prose passages. Note
  references are marked as [1], [2]...

  In the verse passages, some unstressed e’s, and a few i’s, were
  printed with an under-dot: ẹ ị. This usage is not explained. Some
  under-dots may be flyspecks, and a few umlauts were uncertain.]



  His name was properly Berthold Lech. He was the most celebrated
  preacher of the thirteenth century. He died in Regensburg in 1272.
  The following extract is from a sermon on Matt. v. 8.

‘Sælic sint die armen: wan daȥ himelrīch ist ir,’ etc. Mit disen
aht tugenden sint alle die ze himelrīche komen, die dā sint, und
mit den selben aht tugenden müeȥent noch alle die dar komen, die
iemer mēr dar komen süln. Nū wil ich die siben under wegen lān
und wil niuwen von ir einer sagen, wan alse vil guoter dinge an
ir ieglīcher ist; und von ir ieglīcher wære gar vil und gar lanc
sunderlīchen ze sagenne; und wie manigiu untugent uns an disen
ahte tugenden irret, daȥ würde eht von ieglīcher gar lanc ze
sagenne. Wan man eȥ alleȥ in einer predigen niht verenden mac,
noch in vieren, noch in zehenen, sō wil ich iu hiute niuwen
sagen von den, die ein reine herze habent, und von den man hiute
dā liset in dem heiligen ewangelio ‘sælic sint, die reines
herzen sint: die werdent got sehende.’[1] Die sint wol von rehte
sælic, die dā got sehent. Ein übergülde ist eȥ aller der
sælikeit, diu ie wart oder iemer mēr eht werden mac, swer got
ansehende eht wirt, alsō süeȥe und alsō wünneclich ist diu
gesiht, die man an got siht. Sō wart nie deheiner muoter ir kint
nie sō liep, ān unser frouwen, und solte si eȥ drīe tage ane
sehen ān underlāȥ, daȥ si anders niht enpflæge,[2] wan eht si ir
liebeȥ kint solte an sehen: si æȥe an dem vierden tage vil
gerner ein stücke brōtes. Und wolte ich vil gerner, daȥ ich alsō
ein guot mensche wære, als daȥ wār ist, daȥ ich iezuo reden wil.
Ob daȥ alsō wære, daȥ man zuo einem menschen spræche, der iezuo
bī gote ist, ‘du hāst zehen kint ūf ertrīche, und du solt in
koufen allen samt, daȥ sie ēre und guot haben unz an ir tōt, dā
mit, daȥ du einigen ougenblic von gotes angesiht tuost, niuwen
als lange als einȥ sīn hant möht umbe kēren, und sich danne
wider zuo gote, und du solt dīn ougen niemer mēr von im kēren’:
der mensche entæte sīn niht. Alse wār, herre, dīn wārheit ist,
alse wār ist disiu rede, daȥ er disiu zehen kint unze an ir tōt
ē nāch dem almuosen lieȥe gēn, ē danne er sich die kleine wīle
von gote wolte wenden. In habent die engel wol sehzic hundert
jār an gesehen, und sehent in hiute als gerne als des ērsten
tages. Und sie sint ouch alle samt sam des ērsten tages, dō sie
got an sehende wurden. Dō wart ir deheiner sīt nie eltlīcher
danne des ērsten tages, und sint doch sider wol sehzic hundert
jār alt. Swelher hundert jār alt würde under uns, der wære den
liuten alse smæhe an ze sehenne von ungestaltheit und von dem
gebresten, den daȥ alter an im hæte gemaht: sō mālet man die
engele--dā sehet ir wol, swā man sie mālt, daȥ man sie eht
anders niht enmālt wan als ein kint von fünf jāren, als
junclich, oder von sehsen. Wan alle, die got sehent, die werdent
niemer eltlīcher, die in in himelrīche sehent in sīnen freuden
und in sīnen ēren. Ūf ertrīche sehen wir in alle tage in sīnem
gewalte. Dehein irdenischer muot noch irdenisch līp möhte daȥ
niht erlīden, daȥ in dehein irdenisch ouge iemer an gesehen
möhte in sīnen freuden und in sīnen ēren, als er ze himelrīche
ist. Wir sagen iu ettewenne ein glīchnisse, wie schœne got sī.
Seht, alleȥ daȥ wir iemer gesagen künnen oder mügen, daȥ ist
rehte dem glīche, als obe ein kint uns solte sagen, ob eȥ
müglich wære, von aller der wirde und von aller der gezierde,
die diu werlt hāt, von der liehten sunnen, von den liehten
sternen, von edelre gesteine craft und von ir maniger slahte
varwe, von der edelen würze craft und von dem edelen gesmacke,
und von der rīchen gezierde, die man ūȥer sīden und ūȥer golde
machet in dirre werlte, und von maniger hande süeȥen stimme, die
diu werlt hāt, von vögelīn sange und von seitenspil, und von
maniger hande bluomen varwe, und von aller der gezierde, die
disiu werlt hāt. Alse unmügelich unde alse unkuntlīchen eime
kinde dā von ze redenne ist, als unkunt ist ouch uns dā von ze
redenne, von der unsegelīchen wünne, diu dā ze himel ist, und
von dem wünneclīchen antlütze des lebendigen gotes. Wan alliu
diu freude, diu dā ze himele ist, der ist niht wan von dem
schīne, der von unsers herren antlütze gēt. Und rehte als alle
sternen ir lieht von der sunnen nement, alsō habent alle
heiligen ir gezierde und ir schōnheit von gote, und engele und
alleȥ himelische her. Reht als alle die sternen des himeles, der
māne und die planēten, grōȥ und kleine, die habent alle samt ir
lieht von der sunnen, diu uns dā liuhtet: und alsō hāt alleȥ
himelischeȥ her, engel und heiligen, die hœhsten und die
minnesten, die habent alle samt ir freude und ir wünne und ir
gezierde und die ēre und die wirde und ouch die schœnde, daȥ
habent sie alle samt von der angesihte gotes, daȥ sie got an
sehent. Die engele, die dā unser hüetent, die sehent in ze aller
zīt an, als ob sie bī im wæren. Wan alliu diu freude, diu in
himelrīche ist, diu diuhte sie ze nihte, solten sie got niht an
sehen. Und dā von ‘sælic sint, die reines herzen sint; wan sie
werdent got sehende.’ Nu sehent, wie sælic die sint, die dā
reineȥ herze tragent. Ir, junge werlt, die noch unbewollen sint
mit sünden, behaltent iuwer herze vor allen tœtlīchen sünden, sō
werdent ir got sehende in solīchen freuden und in sō grōȥen
ēren, die ouge nie gesach oder ōre nie gehōrte, alse sant Paulus
dā sprichet; und alse sant Johannes sprichet: ‘wær eȥ mügelich,
daȥ man eȥ alleȥ samt geschrīben möhte, sō möhte diu werlt diu
buoch in ir niht behalten, dā eȥ an gestüende, daȥ ich gesach.
Und alleȥ, daȥ ich gesach, daȥ was niht wan got alleine.’ Und
dar umbe möhten wir doch gerne ze dem himelrīche komen und
drumbe arbeiten. Ob uns niht diu minne und diu liebe dar twünge,
der wir gote schuldic sīn, seht, sō möhten wir dar umbe dar
komen, durch daȥ wunder, daȥ dā ist. Eȥ ist maniger vor mir: der
im von sō getāner freude[3] seite, daȥ si jenhalp meres wære, er
füere gar gerinclīchen dar von hinnen über mer, niuwen daȥ erȥ
gesæhe. Sō möhtent ir hundertstunt gerner dar umb arbeiten, daȥ
irȥ iemer mēre ēwiclīchen nieȥen soltet. Die vil wünneclīchen
angesiht des almehtigen gotes und der himelischen küniginne ze
der zeswen sīner sīten in guldīner wæte, die möhtet ir gerne an
sehen. Wan würde iu einiger anblic, sō wære in alliu diu freude
und diu ēre und aller der wollust, den diu werlt ie gewan, daȥ
wær iu hinne für als widerzæme und ouch alse unmære, reht als
sant Paulus dā sprach. Nu hœret wie er sprach; er sprach: ‘alliu
diu ēre und diu freude und daȥ gemach, diu disiu werlt ie gewan
von keisern und von künigen, wider der freude, diu in himelrīch
ist; als widerzæme einem wære ein diep an einem galgen, als
kurz einem diu wīle dā mite wære, daȥ er einen erhangen man
triuten solte, wider aller der freude, die diu werlt hāt: alse
widerzæme ist mir diu freude aller der werlte wider der ēwigen
freude.’ Ei wol iuch wart, daȥ iuch iuwer muoter ie getruoc, die
sō getāne freude süln besitzen. Der ist, ob got wil, vil maniger
vor mīnen ougen. Ouch ist maniger, der vil kleine freude dar für
nimt hie ūf ertrīche, und daȥ dem guoten sante Paulen gar
versmāhte, des wirt im der tūsentste teil niht. Und die habent
übel kouft, die sō übergrōȥe freude gebent umb ein sō kurzeȥ
freudelīn in dirre werlte. Die habent übel gevarn; wan sie
habent weder hie noch dort niht. Als ich iezuo sprach, rehte in
glīcher wīse, rehte alse alle sternen des himeles ir lieht von
der sunnen habent, alsō hāt alleȥ himelisch her ir lieht von dem
wāren sunnen, sīt danne unser herre der wāre sunne und daȥ wāre
lieht ist, alse der guote sant Johannes dā sprichet. Der hei et
in daȥ wāre lieht; als ouch daȥ vil wār ist: wan er ist daȥ wāre
lieht, daȥ niemer mēr verlischet. Und alle, die von sīme
gotvarwen liehte enzündet werdent, die erleschent ouch niemer
mēre von der schōnheit, die sie von dem wāren sunnen hānt. Und
als vil diu sunne liehter und gelpfer ist, danne wir dā sehen,
rehte als vil diu liehtes und glastes über alle sterne hāt, die
an dem himel stēnt: als vil hāt der wāre sunne in himelrīche
schīnes und glastes mēr über alle engele und ist geschœnet und
gewirdet an allen ēren, alse billich ist. Und dā von sint sie
sælic, die ein reineȥ herze habent; wan si werdent got sehende.



  This work was compiled by David von Augsburg, about 1280 A.D.


Herre got, himelischer vater, durch dīne milte güete geschüefe
du den menschen in drīvaltiger werdikeit. Diu ērste, daȥ er nāch
dir gebildet ist. Daȥ ist ouch ein alsō hōhiu werdikeit, der dir
alleȥ menschlich künne sunderlīchen immer danken sol. Wan des
haben wir gar michel reht, vil lieber herre, himelischer vater,
sīt du uns zuo dīner hōhen gotheit alsō werdiclīchen geedelt
hāst. Diu ander werdikeit, dā du, herre got, almähtic schepfer,
den menschen zuo geschaffen hāst, daȥ ist diu, daȥ du alle dise
werelt, die sunnen unde den mānen, die sterne unde diu vier
element, viur, waȥȥer, luft unde die erden, die vogel in den
lüften, die vische in dem wāge, diu tier in dem walde, die würme
in der erden, golt unde edel gesteine, der edeln würze süeȥen
smac, der bluomen liehte varwe, der boume fruht unde ēt alle
crēatūre: daȥ hāst du, herre, alleȥ dem menschen ze nutze unde
ze dienste geschaffen durch die triuwe unde durch die minne, die
du ze dem menschen hetest. Diu dritte werdikeit, dā du, herre,
den menschen mit gewirdet unde geedelt hāst, daȥ ist diu, daȥ
der mensche die wirde unde die ēre, die vreude unde die wünne
immer mit dir ēwiclīchen nieȥen sol. Der werelde dienst unde nuz
hāst du, herre, dem menschen umbe sust gegeben ze einer manunge
unde ze einem vorbilde. Sīt des sō vil ist, des du, herre, dem
menschen umbe sust gegeben hāst, dā bī sol der mensche nu
trahten, sō mege[4] des wol gar übermæȥiclīchen vil sīn, des du
dem menschen umbe sīnen dienst geben wilt. Unde dar umbe sol
ein iegelīch mensche got dienen mit ganzen triuwen; wan der lōn
ist alsō übermæȥiclīchen grōȥ, daȥ in herzen sin nie betrahten
möhte noch menschen zunge nie gesprechen möhte, noch ougen sehen
künde in nie beliuhten, noch ōre nie gehœren. Daȥ wir nu got der
hōhen werdikeit gedanken unde den grōȥen lōn verdienen, des
helfe uns der almähtige got. āmen.

Sīt uns got in sō hōher werdikeit geschaffen hāt, sō wil er
ouch, daȥ wir werdeȥ leben haben, unde daȥ wir einander wirde
unde ēre erbieten, triuwe unde wārheit, niht haȥ unde nīt
einander tragen. Wir sullen mit fride unde mit suone under
einander leben. Fridlich leben hāt unser herre got liep. Wan er
kom von himelrīche ūf erderīche durch anders niht wan durch den
rehten fride, daȥ er uns einen rehten fride schüefe vor der
ēwigen marter, ob wir selben wellen. Unde dā von sungen die
engel ob der krippen: ‘_Gloria in excelsis deo et in terra pax
hominibus bonae voluntatis_’--‘Gots ēre in dem himel unde guot
fride ūf der erden allen den, die guoten willen habent ūf
erderīche!’ Dō unser herre got hie ūf erderīche gie, sō was daȥ
ie sīn ellich wort: ‘_Pax vobis!_’ daȥ sprichet: ‘der fride sī
mit iu!’ unde alsō sprach er alle zīt zuo sīnen jungern unde zuo
andern liuten. Unde dā bī suln wir merken, wie rehte liep der
almehtige got den rehten vride hāt. Wan dō er von erderīche
wider ūf zuo himel fuor, dō sprach er aber zuo sīnen jungern:
‘der vride sī mit iu!’ unde enphalh dem guoten Sant Pēter, daȥ
er phleger wære über den rehten fride, unde gap im den gewalt,
daȥ er den himel ūf slüȥȥe allen den, die den fride hielten,
unde swer den fride bræche, daȥ er dem den himel vor beslüȥȥe.
Daȥ ist alsō gesprochen: ēt alle, die diu gebot unsers herren
zebrechent, die habent ouch den rehten fride gebrochen. Daȥ ist
ouch von gote reht, swer diu gebot unsers herren zebrichet, daȥ
man dem den himel vor besliuȥet, sīt uns got nu geholfen hāt,
daȥ wir mit rehtem leben unde mit fridlīchem leben daȥ himelrīch
verdienen mügen. Wan daȥ was niht vor gotes geburt, swie wol der
mensche tæt in aller der werelde, sō mohte er doch ze dem
himelrīch niht komen. Got geschuof des ērsten himel unde erden,
dar nāch den menschen unde sazte in in daȥ paradys. Der zebrach
die gehōrsam uns allen ze schaden; dar umbe gienge wir irre sam
diu hirtelōsen schāf, daȥ wir in daȥ himelrīch niht mohten, unz
an die zīt, daȥ uns got den wec dar wīste mit sīner marter, unde
dar umbe solde wir got immer loben unde ēren von allem unserm
herzen unde von aller unserre sēle unde von aller unserre maht,
daȥ wir nu sō wol ze den ēwigen freuden kæmen, ob wir wolden;
daȥ hie vor manigen heiligen patriarken unde prophēten tiure
was. Diu genāde unde diu sælikeit ist uns kristen liuten nu
widervaren, daȥ wir nu wol daȥ himelrīch mugen verdienen. Unde
swer des niht entuot unde diu gebot unsers herren zebrichet, daȥ
richet er billīchen an im.


Wir zelen drīer hande vrīen. Der heiȥent eine sempervrīen:[5]
daȥ sint die vrīen herren, als fürsten unde die ander frīen ze
man hānt. Sō heiȥent die andern miter[6] vrīen: daȥ sint die,
die der hōhen vrīen man sint. Die driten vrīen daȥ sint die
vrīen lantsæȥen, die gebūren, die dā vrī sint. Der hāt ieglīcher
sīn sunder reht, als wir her nāch wol bescheiden.


Die tiutschen kiesent den künic: daȥ erwarb in der künic Karl.
Swenne er gewīhet wirt unt ūf den stuol ze Ache gesetzet wirt
mit der willen, die in erwelt hānt, sō hāt er küniclīchen gewalt
unde namen.--Den künic kiuset man ze rihter umbe eigen unde umbe
lēhen unde über ieglīches menschen līp unde umbe alleȥ, daȥ vür
in ze klagen kumet. Der keiser mac in allen landen niht gesīn,
unde mac alleȥ ungerihte niht verrihten. Dā von līhet er den
fürsten unde andern herren wereltlīch gerihte. An die vierten
hant mac dehein gerihte nimmer komen mit rehte, dā man umbe
menschenbluot rihten sol ode umbe alle vrevel.



  He was born somewhere between 1160-1170, in the neighbourhood of
  Rottenburg in Swabia, and died about 1220.

  The following extract is taken from Paul’s edition: Der Arme
  Heinrich, Halle, 1882.

  Ein ritter sō gelēret was
  daȥ er an den buochen las
  swaȥ er dar an geschriben vant.
  der was Hartman genant,
  dienstman was er ze Ouwe.                    5
  er nam im mange schouwe
  an mislīchen buochen:
  dar an begunde er suochen
  ob er iht des funde
  dā mite er swære stunde                     10
  möhte senfter machen,
  und von sō gewanten sachen
  daȥ gotes ēren töhte
  und dā mite er sich möhte
  gelieben den liuten.                        15
  nu beginnet er in diuten
  ein rede die er geschriben vant.
  dar umbe hāt er sich genant,
  daȥ er sīner arbeit
  die er dar an hāt geleit                    20
  iht āne lōn belībe,
  und swer nāch sīnem lībe
  sī hœre sagen oder lese,
  daȥ er im bittende wese
  der sēle heiles hin ze gote.                25
  man seit, er sī sīn selbes bote
  unde erlœse sich dā mite,
  swer über des andern schulde bite.

    Er las ditze mære,
  wie ein herre wære                          30
  ze Swāben geseȥȥen:
  an dem enwas vergeȥȥen
  deheiner der tugende
  die ein ritter in sīner jugende
  ze vollem lobe haben sol.                   35
  man sprach dō niemen alsō wol
  in allen den landen.
  er hete ze sīnen handen
  geburt und dar zuo rīcheit:
  ouch was sīn tugent vil breit.              40
  swie ganz sīn habe wære,
  sīn geburt unwandelbære
  und wol den fürsten gelīch,
  doch was er unnāch alsō rīch
  der gebürte und des guotes                  45
  sō der ēren und des muotes.

    Sīn name der was erkennelich,
  und hieȥ der herre Heinrich,
  und was von Ouwe geborn.
  sīn herze hāte versworn                     50
  valsch und alle törperheit,
  und behielt ouch vaste den eit
  stæte unz an sīn ende.
  ān alle missewende
  stuont sī ēre und sīn leben.                55
  im was der rehte wunsch gegeben
  ze werltlīchen ēren:
  die kunde er wol gemēren
  mit aller hande reiner tugent.
  er was ein bluome der jugent,               60
  der werlte fröude ein spiegelglas.
  stæter triuwe ein adamas,
  ein ganziu krōne der zuht.
  er was der nōthaften fluht,
  ein schilt sīner māge,                      65
  der milte ein glīchiu wāge:
  im enwart über noch gebrast.
  er truoc den arbeitsamen last
  der ēren über rücke.
  er was des rātes brücke,                    70
  und sanc vil wol von minnen.
  alsus kund er gewinnen
  der werlte lop unde prīs.
  er was hübesch und dar zuo wīs.

    Dō der herre Heinrich                     75
  alsō geniete sich
  ēren unde guotes
  und frœlīches muotes
  und werltlīcher wünne
  (er was für al sīn künne                    80
  geprīset unde geēret),
  sīn hōher muot wart verkēret
  in ein leben gar geneiget.
  an im wart erzeiget,
  also ouch an Absolōne,                      85
  daȥ diu üppige krōne
  werltlīcher süeȥe
  vellet under füeȥe
  ab ir besten werdekeit,
  als uns diu schrift hāt geseit.             90
  eȥ spricht an einer stete dā,
  ‘mēdiā vītā
  in morte sumus’:
  daȥ bediutet sich alsus,
  daȥ wir in dem tōde sweben                  95
  sō wir aller beste wænen leben.

     Dirre werlte veste,
  ir stæte, unde ir beste
  unde ir grœste magenkraft,
  diu stāt āne meisterschaft.                100
  des muge wir an der kerzen sehen
  ein wāreȥ bilde geschehen,
  daȥ sī zeiner aschen wirt
  enmitten dō sī lieht birt.
  wir sīn von brœden sachen.                 105
  nū sehent wie unser lachen
  mit weinen erlischet.
  unser süeȥe ist vermischet
  mit bitterre gallen.
  unser bluome der muoȥ vallen               110
  so er allergrüenest wænet sīn.
  an hern Heinrīche wart wol schīn,
  der in dem hœhsten werde
  lebet ūf dirre erde,
  derst der versmæhete vor gote.             115
  er viel von sīme gebote
  ab sīner besten werdekeit
  in ein versmæhelīcheȥ leit:
  in ergreif diu miselsuht.
  dō man die swæren gotes zuht               120
  gesach an sīnem lībe,
  manne unde wībe
  wart er dō widerzæme.
  nū sehent wie genæme
  er ē der werlte wære,                      125
  und wart nū alse unmære
  daȥ in niemen gerne an sach:
  alse ouch Jōbe geschach,
  dem edeln und dem rīchen,
  der ouch vil jæmerlīchen                   130
  dem miste wart ze teile
  mitten in sīme heile.

    Und dō der arme Heinrich
  alrēst verstuont sich
  daȥ er der werlte widerstuont,             135
  als alle sīne gelīchen tuont,
  dō schiet in sīn bitter leit
  von Jōbes gedultikeit.
  wan eȥ leit Jōb der guote
  mit gedultigem muote,                      140
  do eȥ ime ze līdenne geschach,
  durch der sēle gemach.
  den siechtuom und die smācheit
  die er von der werlte leit,
  des lobet er got und fröute sich.          145
  dō tet der arme Heinrich
  leider niender alsō:
  wan er was trūrec unde unfrō.
  sīn swebendeȥ herze daȥ verswanc,
  sīn swimmendiu fröude ertranc,             150
  sīn hōchvart muoste vallen,
  sīn honic wart ze gallen,
  ein swinde vinster donreslac
  zerbrach im sīnen mitten tac,
  ein trüebeȥ wolken unde dic                155
  bedaht’ im sīner sunnen blic.
  er sente sich vil sēre
  daȥ er sō manege ēre
  hinder im müeste lāȥen.
  verfluochet und verwāȥen                   160
  wart vil ofte der tac
  dā sīn geburt ane lac.

    Ein wēnic fröuwet er sich doch
  von eime trōste dannoch:
  wan im wart dicke geseit                   165
  daȥ disiu selbe siecheit
  wære vil mislich
  und etelīchiu gnislich.
  des wart vil maneger slahte
  sīn gedinge und sīn ahte.                  170
  er gedāhte daȥ er wære
  vil līhte genisbære,
  und fuor alsō drāte
  nāch der arzāte rāte
  gegen Munpasiliere.                        175
  dā vant er vil schiere
  niht wan den untrōst
  daȥ er niemer würde erlōst.

    Daȥ hōrte er vil ungerne,
  und fuor gegen Sālerne                     180
  und suochte ouch dā durch genist
  der wīsen arzāte list.
  den besten meister er dā vant.
  der seite ime zehant
  ein seltsæne mære,                         185
  daȥ er genislich wære
  und wære doch iemer ungenesen.
  dō sprach er ‘wie mac daȥ wesen?
  diu rede ist harte unmügelich.
  bin ich gnislich, sō genise ich:           190
  und swaȥ mir für wirt geleit
  von guote oder von arbeit,
  daȥ trūwe ich vollebringen.’
  ‘nū lāt daȥ gedingen’
  sprach der meister aber dō:                195
  ‘iuwẹrre sühte ist alsō
  (waȥ frumet daȥ ichȥ iu kunt tuo?):
  dā hœret arzenīe zuo:
  des wæret ir genislīch.
  nu enist ab nieman sō rīch                 200
  noch von sō starken sinnen
  der sī müge gewinnen.
  des sint ir iemer ungenesen,
  got enwellẹ der arzāt wesen.’

    Dō sprach der arme Heinrich              205
  ‘war umbe untrœstent ir mich?
  jā hān ich guotes wol die kraft:
  ir enwellent iuwer meisterschaft
  und iuwer reht ouch brechen
  und dar zuo versprechen                    210
  beidiu mīn silber und mīn golt,
  ich mache iuch mir alsō holt
  daȥ ir mich harte gerne ernert.’
  ‘mir wærẹ der wille unrewert’
  sprach der meister aber dō:                215
  ‘und wærẹ der arzenīe alsō
  daȥ man sī veile funde
  oder daȥ man sī kunde
  mit deheinen dingẹn erwerben,
  ich enlieȥe iuch niht verderben.           220
  nu enmac des leider niht sīn:
  dā von muoȥ iu diu helfe mīn
  durch alle nōt sīn versaget.
  ir müesent haben eine maget
  diu vollen ērbære                          225
  und ouch des willen wære
  daȥ sī den tōt durch iuch lite.
  nu enist eȥ niht der liute site
  daȥ eȥ iemen gerne tuo.
  sō hœrt ouch anders niht dar zuo           230
  niwan der megede herzen bluot:
  daȥ wærẹ für iuwer suht guot.’

    Nu erkantẹ der arme Heinrich
  daȥ daȥ wære unmügelich
  daȥ iemen den erwürbe                      235
  der gerne für in stürbe.
  alsus was im der trōst benomen
  ūf den er dar was komen,
  und dar nāch für die selben frist
  hāt er ze sīner genist                     240
  dehein gedinge mēre.
  des wart sīn herzesēre
  alsō kreftic unde grōȥ
  daȥ in des aller meist verdrōȥ,
  ob er langer solte leben.                  245
  nū fuor er heim und begunde geben
  sīn erbe und ouch sīn varnde guot,
  als in dō sīn selbes muot
  und wīser rāt lērte,
  da erȥ aller bestẹ bekērte.                250
  er begundẹ bescheidenlīchen
  sīn armen friunde rīchen
  und trōste ouch frömde armen,
  daȥ sich got erbarmen
  geruochte über der sēle heil:              255
  gotes hiusern viel daȥ ander teil.
  alsus sō tet er sich abe
  bescheidenlīchen sīner habe
  unz an ein geriute:
  dar flōch er die liute.                    260
  disiu jæmerlīchẹ geschiht
  diu was sīn eines klage niht:
  in klageten elliu diu lant
  dā er inne was erkant,
  und ouch von vrömden landen                265
  die in nāch sage erkanden.

    Der ē ditz geriute
  und der eȥ dannoch biute,
  daȥ was ein frīer būman
  der vil selten ie gewan                    270
  dehein grōȥ ungemach,
  daȥ andẹrn gebūren doch geschach,
  die wirs geherret wāren,
  und sī die niht verbāren
  beidiu mit stiure und mit bete.            275
  swaȥ dirrẹ gebūre gerne tete,
  des dūhte sīnen herren gnuoc:
  dar zuo er in übertruoc
  daȥ er dehein arbeit
  von frömdem gewalte leit.                  280
  des was deheiner sīn gelīch
  in dem lande alsō rīch.
  zuo deme zōch sich
  sīn herrẹ, der arme Heinrich.
  swaȥ er in het ē gespart,                  285
  wie wol daȥ nū gedienet wart
  und wie schōne er sīn genōȥ!
  wan in vil lützel des verdrōȥ
  swaȥ im geschach durch in.
  er hete die triuwe und ouch den sin        290
  daȥ er vil willeclīche leit
  den kumber und die arbeit
  diu ime ze līdenne geschach.
  er schuof ime rīch gemach.

    Got hete dem meiger gegeben              295
  nāch sīner ahte ein reineȥ leben.
  er hete ein wol erbeiten līp
  und ein wol werbendeȥ wīp,
  dar zuo het er schœniu kint,
  diu gar des mannes fröude sint,            300
  unde hete, sō man saget,
  undẹr den kinden eine maget,
  ein kint von ahte jāren:
  daȥ kunde wol gebāren
  sō rehte güetlīchen:                       305
  sī wolte nie entwīchen
  von ir herren einen fuoȥ:
  umb sīne hulde und sīnen gruoȥ
  sō diente si ime alle wege
  mit ir güetlīchen pflege.                  310
  sī was ouch sō genæme
  daȥ sī wol gezæme
  ze kinde deme rīche
  an ir wætlīche.

    Die andern heten den sin                 315
  daȥ sī ze rehter māȥe in
  wol gemīden kunden:
  sō flōch sī zallen stunden
  zuo ime und niender anders war.
  sī was sīn kurzewīle gar.                  320
  sī hete gar ir gemüete
  mit reiner kindes güete
  an ir herren gewant,
  daȥ man sī zallen zīten vant
  undẹr ir herren fuoȥe.                     325
  mit süeȥer unmuoȥe
  wonte sī ir herren bī.
  dar zuo sō liebte er ouch sī
  swā mite sō er mohte,
  und daȥ der meide tohte                    330
  zuo ir kintlīchen spil,
  des gab der herre ir vil.
  ouch half in sēre daȥ diu kint
  sō līhte ze gewenenne sint.
  er gewan ir swaȥ er veile vant,            335
  spiegel unde hārbant,
  gürtel unde vingerlīn
  und swaȥ kinden liep solte sīn.
  mit dienste brāhte er s’ ūf die vart
  daȥ sī im alsō heimlich wart               340
  daȥ er sī sīn gemahele hieȥ.
  diu guote maget in lieȥ
  belīben selten eine:
  er dūhte sī vil reine.
  swie starke ir daȥ geriete                 345
  diu kindische miete,
  iedoch geliebte irȥ aller meist
  von gotes gebe ein süeȥer geist.

    Ir dienst war sō güetlich.
  dō dō der arme Heinrich                    350
  driu jār dā getwelte
  unde im got gequelte
  mit grōȥem jāmer den līp,
  nū saȥ der meier und sīn wīp
  unde ir tohter, diu maget                  355
  von der ich iu ē hān gesaget,
  bī im in ir unmüeȥekeit
  und begunden klagen ir herren leit.
  diu klage tet in michel nōt:
  wan sī vorhten daȥ sīn tot                 360
  sī sēre solte letzen
  und vil gar entsetzen
  ēren unde guotes
  und daȥ herters muotes
  würde ein ander herre.                     365
  si gedāhten alsō verre
  unz dirre selbe būman
  alsus frāgen began.

    Er sprach ‘lieber herre mīn,
  möht eȥ mit iuwern hulden sīn,             370
  ich frāgte vil gerne,
  sō vil ze Sālerne
  von arzenīen meister ist,
  wie kumet daȥ ir deheines list
  ze iuwerme ungesunde                       375
  niht gerāten kunde?
  herre, des wundert mich.’
  dō holtẹ der arme Heinrich
  tiefen sūft von herzen
  mit bitterlīchem smerzen:                  380
  mit solher riuwe er dō sprach
  daȥ ime der sūft daȥ wort zerbrach.

    ‘Ich hān disen schemelīchen spot
  vil wol gedienet umbe got.
  wan dū sæhe wol hie vor                    385
  daȥ hōh offen stuont mīn tor
  nāch werltlīcher wünne
  und daȥ niemen in sīnem künne
  sīnen willen baȥ hete dan ich:
  und was daȥ doch unmügelich,               390
  wan ich enhete niht gar.
  dō nam ich sīn vil kleine war
  der mir daȥ selbe wunschleben
  von sīnen gnāden hete gegeben.
  daȥ herze mir dō alsō stuont               395
  als alle werlttōren tuont,
  den daȥ saget ir muot
  daȥ sī ēre unde guot
  āne got mügen hān.
  sus troug ouch mich mīn tumber wān,        400
  wan ich in lützel ane sach
  von des genāden mir geschach
  vil ēren unde guotes.
  dō dō des hōhen muotes
  den hōhen portenærẹ bedrōȥ,                405
  die sælden porte er mir beslōȥ.
  dane kum ich leider niemer in:
  daȥ verworhte mir mīn tumber sin.
  got hāt durch rāche an mich geleit
  ein sus gewante siecheit                   410
  die niemen mag erlœsen,
  nū versmæhent mich die bœsen,
  die biderben ruochent mīn niht.
  swie bœse er ist der mich gesiht,
  des boeser muoȥ ich dannoch sīn.           415
  sīn unwert tuot er mir schīn:
  er wirfẹt diu ougen abe mir.
  nū schīnet ērste an dir
  dīn triuwe die dū hāst,
  daȥ dū mich siechen bī dir lāst            420
  und von mir niht enfliuhest.
  swie dū mich niht enschiuhest,
  swie ich niemen liep sī danne dir,
  swie vil dīns heiles stē an mir,
  du vertrüegest doch wol mīnen tōt.         425
  nū wes unwert und wes nōt
  wart ie zer werlte merre?
  hie vor was ich dīn herre
  und bin dīn dürftige nū.
  mīn lieber friunt, nu koufest dū           430
  und mīn gemahele und dīn wīp
  an mir den ēwigen līp
  daȥ dū mich siechen bī dir lāst.
  des dū mich gefrāget hāst,
  daȥ sage ich dir vil gerne.                435
  ichn kunde ze Sālerne
  einen meister niender vinden
  der sich mīn underwinden
  getörste oder wolte.
  wan dā mite ich solte                      440
  mīner sühte genesen,
  daȥ müeste ein solhiu sache wesen
  die in der werlte nieman
  mit nihte gewinnen kan.
  mir wart niht anders dā gesaget            445
  wan ich müeste haben eine maget
  diu vollen manbære
  und ouch des willen wære
  daȥ sī den tōt durch mich lite
  und man sī zuo dem herzen snite,           450
  und mir wærẹ niht anders guot
  wan von ir herzen daȥ bluot.
  nū ist genuoc unmügelich
  daȥ ir deheiniu durch mich
  gerne līde den tōt.                        455
  des muoȥ, ich schemelīche nōt
  tragen unz an mīn ende.
  daȥ mirȥ got schiere sende!’

    Daȥ er dem vater hete gesagt,
  daȥ erhōrte ouch diu reine magt:           460
  wan eȥ hete diu vil süeȥe
  ir lieben herren füeȥe
  stānde in ir schōȥen,
  man möhte wol genōȥen
  ir kintlīch gemüete                        465
  hin ze der engel güete.
  sīner rede nam sī war
  unde marhte sī ouch gar:
  sī enkam von ir herzen nie
  unz man des nahtes slāfen gie.             470
  dō sī zir vater füeȥen lac
  und ouch ir muoter, sō sī pflac,
  und sī beide entsliefen,
  manegen sūft tiefen
  holte sī von herzen.                       475
  umbe ir herren smerzen
  wart ir riuwe alsō grōȥ
  daȥ ir ougen regen begōȥ
  der slāfenden füeȥe,
  sus erwahte sī diu süeȥe.                  480

    Dō sī der trehene enpfunden,
  si erwachten und begunden
  sī frāgen waȥ ir wære
  und welher hande swære
  sī alsō stille möhte klagen.               485
  nu enwolte sī es in niht sagen,
  wan daȥ ir vater aber tete
  vil manege drō unde bete
  daȥ sī eȥ ime wolte sagen.
  sī sprach ‘ir möhtent mit mir klagen.      490
  waȥ möhte uns mē gewerren
  danne umb unsern herren,
  daȥ wir den suln verliesen
  und mit ime verkiesen
  beide guot und ēre?                        495
  wir gewinnen niemer mēre
  deheinen herren alsō guot
  der uns tuo daȥ er uns tuot.’

    Sī sprāchen ‘tohter, dū hāst wār.
  nū frumet uns leider niht ein hār          500
  unser riuwe und dīn klage:
  liebeȥ kint, dā von gedage.
  eȥ ist uns alsō leit sō dir.
  leider nū enmuge wir
  ime ze keinen staten komen.                505
  got der hāt in uns benomen:
  het eȥ iemen anders getān,
  der müese unsern fluoch hān.’

    Alsus gesweigẹten sī sī dō.
  die naht beleip sī unfrō                   510
  und morne allen den tac.
  swes iemen anders pflac,
  diz enkam von ir herzen nie
  unz man des andern nahtes gie
  slāfen nāch gewonheit.                     515
  dō sī sich hete geleit
  an ir alte bettestat,
  sī bereite aber ein bat
  mit weinenden ougen:
  wan sī truoc tougen                        520
  nāhe in ir gemüete
  die aller meisten güete
  die ich von kinde ie vernam.
  welch kint getete ouch ie alsam?
  des einen sī sich gar verwac,              525
  gelebetẹ sī morne den tac,
  daȥ sī benamen ir leben
  umbe ir herren wolte geben.

    Von dem gedanke wart sī dō
  vil ringes muotes unde frō,                530
  und hete deheine sorge mē,
  wan ein vorhtẹ diu tete ir wē,
  sō sīȥ ir herren sagte,
  daȥ er dar an verzagte,
  und swenne sīȥ in allen drin               535
  getæte kunt, daȥ sī an in
  der gehenge niht enfunde
  daȥ mans ir iht gunde.

    Des wart sō grōȥ ir ungehabe
  daȥ ir muoter dar abe                      540
  unde ir vater wart erwaht
  als ouch an der vordern naht.
  sī rihten sich ūf zuo ir
  und sprāchen ‘sich, waȥ wirret dir?
  dū bist vil alwære                         545
  daȥ du dich sō manege swære
  von solher klage hāst an genomen
  der niemen mac zeim ende komen.
  war umbẹ lāstu uns niht slāfen?’
  sus begunden sī sī strāfen.                550
  waȥ ir diu klage töhte,
  die niemen doch enmöhte
  verenden noch gebüeȥen?
  sus wānden sī die süeȥen
  gesweigen an der selben stunt:             555
  dō was ir wille in vil unkunt.

    Sus antwurte in diu maget.
  ‘als uns mīn herre hāt gesaget,
  sō mac man in vil wol ernern.
  zewāre, ir welt mirȥ danne wern,           560
  sō bin ich ze der arzenīe guot.
  ich bin ein maget und hān den muot,
  ē ich in sihe verderben,
  ich wil ē für in sterben.’

    Von dirre rede wurden dō                 565
  trūric unde unfrō
  beide muoter unde vater.
  sīne tohter die bat er
  daȥ sī die rede lieȥe
  und ir herren gehieȥe                      570
  daȥ sī geleisten möhte,
  wand ir diz niht entöhte.

    Er sprach ‘tohter, du bist ein kint
  und dīne triuwe die sint
  ze grōȥ an disen dingen.                   575
  du enmaht es niht für bringen
  als dū uns hie hāst verjehen.
  dū hāst des tōdes niht gesehen.
  swenn eȥ dir kumet ūf die frist
  daȥ des dehein rāt ist,                    580
  dū enmüeȥest sterben,
  und möhtest dūȥ erwerben,
  dū lebetest gerner dannoch:
  wan dun kæme nie in leider loch.
  dā von tuo zuo dīnen munt:                 585
  und wirstū für dise stunt
  der rede iemer mēre lūt,
  eȥ gāt dir ūf dīne hūt.’

    Alsus sō wānde er sī dō
  bēdiu mit bete und mit drō                 590
  gesweigen: dō enmohter.
  sus antwurt ime sīn tohter.

    ‘Vater mīn, swie tump ich sī,
  mir wonet iedoch diu witze bī
  daȥ ich von sage wol die nōt               595
  erkenne daȥ des lībes tōt
  ist starc unde strenge.
  swer ouch dannẹ die lenge
  mit arbeiten leben sol,
  dem ist iedoch niht ze wol.                600
  wan swenne er hie geringet
  und ūf sīn alter bringet
  den līp mit michelre nōt,
  sō muoȥ er līden doch den tōt.
  ist ime diu sēle dannẹ verlorn,            605
  sō wære er beȥȥer ungeborn.
  eȥ ist mir komen ūf daȥ zil,
  des ich got iemer loben wil,
  daȥ ich den jungen līp mac geben
  umbẹ daȥ ēwige leben.                      610
  nū sult ir mirȥ niht leiden.
  ich wil mir unde iu beiden
  vil harte wol mite varn.
  ich mag iuch eine wol bewarn
  vor schaden und vor leide,                 615
  als ich iu nū bescheide.
  ir hānt ēre unde guot:
  daȥ meinet mīnes herren muot;
  wan er iu leit nie gesprach
  und ouch daȥ guot nie abe gebrach.         620
  die wīle daȥ er leben sol
  sō stēt iuwer sache wol:
  und lāȥe wir den sterben,
  sō müeȥen wir verderben.
  den wil ich uns fristen                    625
  mit alsō schœnen listen
  dā mite wir alle sīn genesen.
  nū gunnet mirs, wan eȥ muoȥ wesen.’

    Diu muoter weinende sprach,
  dō sī der tohter ernst ersach,             630
  ‘gedenke, tohter, liebeȥ kint,
  wie grōȥ die arbeite sint
  die ich durch dich erliten hān,
  und lā mich beȥȥern lōn enpfān
  dan ich dich hœre sprechen.                635
  dū wilt mīn herze brechen.
  senfte mir der rede ein teil.
  jā wiltū alleȥ dīn heil
  an uns verwürken wider got.
  wan gedenkest dū an sīn gebot?             640
  jā gebōt er unde bat er
  daȥ man muoter unde vater
  minne und ēre biete,
  und geheiȥet daȥ ze miete
  daȥ der sēle rāt werde                     645
  und lanclīp ūf der erde.
  dū gihst, dū wellest dīn leben
  umb unser beider fröude geben:
  dū wilt uns beiden
  daȥ leben vaste leiden.                    650
  daȥ dīn vater unde ich
  gerne leben, daȥ ist durch dich.
  waȥ solte uns līp unde guot,                 a
  waȥ solte uns werltlich muot,                b
  swenne wir dīn enbæren?                      c
  dune  . . . . . .                            d
  jā soltū, liebiu tohter mīn,
  unser beider fröude sīn,
  gar unsers lībes wünne,                    655
  ein bluome in dīme künne,
  unsers alters ein stap.
  und lāstū uns über dīn grap
  gestēn von dīnen schulden,
  dū muost von gotes hulden                  660
  iemer sīn gescheiden:
  daȥ koufest an uns beiden.’
  ‘wiltu uns tohter wesen guot,                a
  sō soltū rede und den muot                   b
  durch unsers herren hulde lān,               c
  die ich von dir vernomen hān.’               d

    Si sprach ‘muoter, ich getrūwe dir
  und mīnem vater her ze mir
  aller der genāden wol                      665
  der vater unde muoter sol
  leisten ir kinde,
  als ich eȥ wol bevinde
  an iu allertegelich.
  von iuwern gnāden hān ich                  670
  die sēle und einen schœnen līp.
  mich lobet man unde wīp,
  und alle die mich sehende sint,
  ich sī daȥ schœneste kint
  daȥ sī zir lebene haben gesehen.           675
  wem soll ich der genāden jehen
  niuwan iu zwein nāch gote?
  des sol ich ze iuwerm gebote
  iemer vil gerne stān:
  wie michel reht ich des hān!               680
  muoter, sæligeȥ wīp,
  sīt ich nū sēle unde līp
  von iuwern genāden hān,
  sō lāntȥ an iuwern hulden stān
  daȥ ich ouch die beide                     685
  von dem tiuvel scheide
  und mich gote müeȥe geben.
  jā ist dirre werlte leben
  niuwan der sēle verlust.
  ouch hāt mich werltlīch gelust             690
  unz her noch niht berüeret,
  der hin zer helle füeret.
  nū wil ich gote genāde sagen
  daȥ er in mīnen jungen tagen
  mir die sinne hāt gegeben                  695
  daȥ ich ūf diz brœde leben
  ahte harte kleine.
  ich wil mich alsus reine
  antwürtẹn in gotes gewalt.
  ich fürhte, solt ich werden alt,           700
  daȥ mich der werlte süeȥe
  zuhte under füeȥe,
  als sī vil manegen hāt gezogen
  den ouch ir süeȥe hāt betrogen:
  sō würde ich līhte gote entsaget.          705
  gote müeȥe eȥ sīn geklaget
  daȥ ich unz morne leben sol:
  mir behaget diu werlt niht sō wol.
  ir meiste liep ist herzeleit
  (daȥ sī iu für wār geseit),                710
  ir süeȥer lōn ein bitter nōt,
  ir lancleben ein gæher tōt.
  wir hān niht gewisses mē
  wan hiute wol und morne wē
  und ie ze jungest der tōt.                 715
  daȥ ist ein jæmerlīchiu nōt.
  eȥ enschirmet geburt noch guot,
  schœne, sterke, hōher muot,
  eȥ enfrumt tugent noch ēre
  für den tōt niht mēre                      720
  dann ungeburt und untugent.
  unser leben und unser jugent
  ist ein nebel unde ein stoup,
  unser stæte bibent als ein loup.
  er ist ein vil verschaffen gouch           725
  der gerne in sich vaȥȥt den rouch,
  eȥ sī wīp oder man,
  der diz niht wol bedenken kan
  und ouch der werlt nāch volgende ist.
  wan uns ist über den fūlen mist            730
  der pfeller hie gespreitet:
  swen nū der blic verleitet,
  der ist zuo der hellẹ geborn
  unde enhāt niht mē verlorn
  wan beidiu sēle unde līp.                  735
  nu gedenkent, sæligeȥ wīp,
  müeterlīcher triuwe
  und senftent iuwer riuwe
  die ir dā habent umbe mich:
  so bedenket ouch der vater sich.           740
  ich weiȥ wol daȥ er mir heiles gan.
  er ist ein alsō biderber man
  daȥ er erkennet wol daȥ ir
  unlange doch mit mir
  iuwer fröude mügent hān,                   745
  ob ich joch lebende bestān.
  belībe ich āne man bī iu
  zwei jār oder driu,
  sō ist mīn herre līhte tōt,
  und kument in sō grōȥe nōt                 750
  vil līhte von armuot
  daȥ ir mir alsolheȥ guot
  zeinem man niht mugent geben,
  ich enmüeȥe alse swache leben
  daȥ ich iu lieber wære tōt.                755
  nu verswīgẹ wir aber der nōt,
  daȥ uns niht enwerre
  und uns mīn lieber herre
  were und alsō lange lebe
  unz daȥ man mich zeim manne gebe           760
  der rīche sī unde wert:
  sō ist geschehen des ir dā gert
  und wænent mir sī wol geschehen.
  anders hāt mir mīn muot verjehen.
  wirt er mir liep, daȥ ist ein nōt:         765
  wirt er mir leit, daȥ ist der tōt.
  wan sō hān ich iemer leit
  und bin mit ganzer arbeit
  gescheiden von gemache
  mit maneger hande sache                    770
  diu den wīben wirret
  und sī ze fröuden irret.
  nū setzt mich in den vollen rāt
  der dā niemer zergāt.
  mīn gert ein frīer būman                   775
  dem ich wol mīnes lībes gan.
  zwāre, dem sult ir mich geben,
  sō ist geschaffet wol mīn leben.
  im gēt sīn pfluoc harte wol,
  sīn hof ist alles rātes vol,               780
  da enstirbet ros noch daȥ rint,
  da enmüent diu weinenden kint,
  da enist ze heiȥ noch ze kalt,
  dā wirt von jāren niemen alt,
  der alte wirt junger,                      785
  da enist frost noch hunger,
  da enist deheiner slahte leit,
  da ist ganziu fröude ān arbeit.
  ze dem wil ich mich ziehen
  und solhen bū fliehen                      790
  den daȥ fiur und der hagel sleht
  und der wāc abe tweht,
  mit dem man ringet unde ie ranc.
  swaȥ man daȥ jār alse lanc
  dar ūf gearbeiten mac,                     795
  daȥ verliuset schiere ein halber tac.
  den bū den wil ich lāȥen:
  er sī von mir verwāȥen.
  ir minnent mich: deist billich.
  nū sihe ich gerne daȥ mich                 800
  iuwer minne iht unminne.
  ob ir iuch rehter sinne
  an mir verstān kunnent
  und ob ir mir gunnent
  beide guotes unde ēren,                    805
  sō lāȥet mich kēren
  ze unserm herren Jēsū Krist,
  des gnāde alsō stæte ist
  daȥ sī niemer zergāt,
  unde ouch zuo mir armen hāt                810
  alsō grōȥe minne
  als zeiner küniginne.
  ich sol von mīnen schulden
  ūȥ iuwern hulden
  niemer komen, wil eȥ got.                  815
  eȥ ist gewisse sīn gebot
  daȥ ich iu sī undertān,
  wan ich den līp von iu hān:
  daȥ leist ich āne riuwe.
  ouch sol ich māne triuwe                   820
  an mir selber niht brechen.
  ich hōrte ie daȥ sprechen,
  swer den andern fröuwet sō
  daȥ er selbe wirt unfrō,
  und swer den andern krœnet                 825
  und sich selben hœnet,
  der triuwen sī ze vil.
  wie gerne ich iu des volgen wil
  daȥ ich iu triuwe leiste,
  mir selber doch die meiste.                830
  welt ir mir wenden mīn heil,
  sō lāȥ ich iuch ein teil
  ē nāch mir geweinen,
  ich enwelle mir erscheinen
  wes ich mir selber schuldic bin.           835
  ich wil iemer dā hin
  da ich volle fröude vinde.
  ir hānt doch mē kinde:
  diu lānt iuwer fröude sīn
  und getrœstent ir iuch mīn.                840
  wan mir mac daȥ nieman erwern,
  zwāre, ich enwelle ernern
  mīnen herren unde mich.
  muoter, jā hōrte ich dich
  klagen unde sprechen ē,                    845
  eȥ tæte dīme herzen wē,
  soltest dū ob mīme grabe stān.
  des wirst du harte wol erlān:
  dū stāst ob mīme grabe niht.
  wan dā der tōt geschiht,                   850
  daȥ enlāt dich niemen sehen:
  eȥ sol ze Sālerne geschehen.
  dā sol uns viere der tōt                     a
  lœsẹen von aller slahte nōt.                 b
  des tōdes des genese wir,
  und ich doch verre baȥ dan ir.’

    Dō sī daȥ kint dō sāhen                  855
  ze dem tōde sō gāhen,
  und eȥ sō wīslīchen sprach
  unde menschlich reht zerbrach,
  si begunden ahten under in
  daȥ die wīsheit und den sin                860
  niemer erzeigen kunde
  dehein zunge in kindes munde.
  sī jāhen daȥ der heiliggeist
  der rede wære ir volleist,
  der ouch sante Niklauses pflac             865
  dō er in der wagen lac
  und in die wīsheit lērte
  daȥ er ze gote kērte
  sīne kintlīche güete:
  und bedāhtẹn sich in ir gemüete            870
  daȥ sī niht enwolden
  sī wenden noch ensolden
  des sī sich hete an genomen:
  der willẹ sī ir von gote komen.
  von jāmẹr erkalte in der līp,              875
  dō der meiger und sīn wīp
  an dem bette sāȥen
  und vil gar vergāȥen
  durch des kindes minne
  der zungen und der sinne                   880
  sā ze der selben stunde.
  ir enwederȥ enkunde
  einic wort gesprechen.
  daȥ gegihtẹ begunde brechen
  die muoter von leide.                      885
  sus gesāȥen sī beide
  riuwic unde unfrō
  unz sī sich bedāhten dō
  waȥ in ir trūren töhte:
  sō man ir doch niht enmöhte                890
  benemen ir willen unde ir muot,
  sō enwære in niht alsō guot
  sō daȥ sī irs wol gunden,
  wan sī doch niht enkunden
  ir niemer werden āne baȥ;                  895
  enpfiengen sī der rede haȥ,
  eȥ möhte in umbe ir herren
  vil harte wol gewerren,
  und verviengen anders niht dā mite.
  mit vil willeclīchem site                  900
  sprāchen sī beide dō
  daȥ sī der rede wæren frō.

    Des fröute sich diu reine maget.
  dō eȥ vil kūme was getaget
  dō gie sī dā ir herre slief.               905
  sīn trūtgemahele ime rief,
  sī sprach ‘herre, slāfent ir?’
  ‘nein ich, gemahele, sage mir,
  wie bistū hiute alsō fruo?’
  ‘herrẹ, dā twinget mich derzuo             910
  der jāmer iuwerr siecheit.’
  er sprach ‘gemahelẹ, daȥ ist dir leit:
  daȥ erzeigest du an mir wol,
  als eȥ dir got vergelten sol.
  nune mag es dehein rāt sīn.’               915
  ‘entriuwen, lieber herre mīn,
  iuwer wirt vil guot rāt.
  sīt eȥ alsus umbe iuch stāt
  daȥ man iu gehelfen mac,
  ichn gesūme iuch niemer tac.               920
  herre, ir hānt uns doch gesaget,
  ob ir hetent eine maget
  diu gernẹ den tōt durch iuch lite,
  dā soltent ir genesen mite.
  diu wil ich weiȥgot selbe sīn:             925
  iuwer leben ist nützer dan daȥ mīn.’

    Dō gnādẹte ir der herre
  des willen harte verre.
  und ervollẹten im diu ougen
  von jāmer alsō tougen.                     930
  er sprach ‘gemahelẹ, ja ist der tōt
  iedoch niht ein senftiu nōt,
  als dū dir līhte hāst gedāht.
  du hāst mich des wol innen brāht,
  möhtestū, dū hülfest mir.                  935
  des genüegẹt mich wol von dir.
  ich erkenne dīnen süeȥen muot:
  dīn wille ist reine unde guot.
  ichn sol ouch niht mē von dir gern.
  dū maht mich des niht wol gewern           940
  daȥ dū dā gesprochen hāst.
  die triuwe die du an mir begāst,
  die sol dir vergelten got.
  ditz wærẹ der lantliute spot,
  swaȥ ich mich für dise stunde              945
  arzenīen underwunde,
  und mich doch niht vervienge
  wan als eȥ doch ergienge.
  gemahele, dū tuost als diu kint
  diu dā gæhes muotes sint:                  950
  swaȥ den kumet in den muot,
  eȥ sī übel oder guot,
  dar zuo ist in allen gāch,
  und geriuwẹt sī sēre dar nāch.
  gemahele, alsō tuost ouch dū.              955
  der rede ist dir ze muote nū:
  der die von dir nemen wolte,
  sō manȥ danne enden solte,
  so geriuweȥ dich vil līhte doch.’
  und daȥ sī sich ein teil noch              960
  baȥ bedæhte des bat er.
  er sprach ‘dīn muoter und dīn vater
  die enmugen dīn niht wol enbern.
  ich sol ouch niht ir leides gern
  die mir ie gnāde tāten.                    965
  swaȥ sī dir beide rāten,
  liebẹ gemahele, daȥ tuo.’
  hie mite lachete er dar zuo,
  wan er lützel sich versach
  daȥ doch sider dō geschach.                970

    Sus sprach er zuo der guoter.
  der vater und diu muoter
  sprāchen ‘lieber herre,
  ir hānt uns vil verre
  geliebet und geēret:                       975
  daȥ enwærẹ niht wol bekēret,
  wir engültenȥ iu mit guote.
  unser tohter ist ze muote
  daȥ sī den tōt durch iuch dol:
  des gunne wir ir harte wol.                980
  eȥ ist hiutẹ der dritte tac
  daȥ sī uns alleȥ ane lac
  daȥ wir ir sīn gunden:
  nū hāt sīȥ an uns funden.
  nū lāȥe iuch got mit ir genesen:           985
  wir wellen ir durch iuch entwesen.’

    Do im sīn gemahele dō bōt
  für sīnen siechtuom ir tōt
  und man ir ernest ersach,
  dō wart dō michel ungemach                 990
  und jæmerlīch gebærde.
  manc mislīchiu beswærde
  huop sich dō under in,
  zwischẹn dem herren unde in drin.
  ir vater unde ir muoter die                995
  erhuoben michel weinen hie:
  des weinens tet in michel nōt
  umb ir vil lieben kindes tōt.
  nū begunde ouch der herre
  gedenken alsō verre                       1000
  an des kindes triuwe,
  und begreif in ein riuwe,
  daȥ er sēre weinen began,
  und zwīvelte vaste dran
  weder eȥ beȥȥer getān                     1005
  möhte sīn oder verlān.
  von vorhten weinte ouch diu maget:
  sī wānde er wære dran verzaget.
  sus wārens alle unfrō.
  sī gerten keines dankes dō.               1010

    Ze jungest dō bedāhte sich
  ir herrẹ, der arme Heinrich,
  und begunde sagen in
  grōȥe gnāde allen drin
  der triuwen und des guotes                1015
  (diu maget wart rīches muotes
  daȥ ers gevolgẹte gerne),
  und bereitẹ sich ze Sālerne
  sō er schiereste mohte.
  swaȥ ouch der megede tohte,               1020
  daȥ wart vil schiere bereit:
  schœniu pfert und rīchiu kleit,
  diu sī getruoc nie vor der zīt:
  hermin unde samīt,
  den besten zobel den man vant,            1025
  daȥ was der megede gewarit.

    Nū wer möhte volgesagen
  die herzeriuwe und daȥ klagen,
  der muoter grimmigeȥ leit
  und ouch des vater arbeit?                1030
  eȥ wærẹ wol undẹr in beiden
  ein jæmerliīcheȥ scheiden,
  dō sī ir liebeȥ kint von in
  gefrumten sō gesundeȥ hin
  niemer mē ze sehenne in den tōt,          1035
  wan daȥ in senftet ir nōt
  diu reine gotes güete,
  von der doch daȥ gemüete
  ouch dem jungen kinde quam
  daȥ eȥ den tōt gerne nam.                 1040
  eȥ was āne ir rāt kōmen:
  dā von wart von ir herzẹn genomen
  alliu klage und swære,
  wan eȥ anders wunder wære
  daȥ in ir herze niht zerbrach.            1045
  ze liebe wart ir ungemach,
  daȥ sī dar nāch deheine nōt
  liten umbe ir kindes tōt.



  The exact dates of his birth and death are unknown. His chief poems
  were written between the years 1187 and 1230.

  The best edition of his works is: Walther von der Vogelweide,
  herausgegeben und erklärt von W. Wilmanns, Halle, 1883 (2nd edit.).


    Ir sult sprechen: ‘willekomen!’
  der iu mære bringet, daȥ bin ich.
    Alleȥ daȥ ir habt vernomen,
  daȥ ist gar ein wint: nū frāget mich.
    Ich wil aber miete:                                    5
  wirt mīn lōn iht guot,
  sō sage ich iu vil līhte, daȥ in sanfte tuot.
  seht, waȥ man mir ēren biete.

    Ich wil tiuschen frouwen sagen
  solhiu mære, daȥ si deste baȥ                           10
    Al der werlte suln behagen:
  āne grōȥe miete tuon ich daȥ.
    Waȥ wold’ ich ze lōne?
  si sint mir ze hēr;
  sō bin ich gefüege und bite si nihtes mēr               15
  wan daȥ si mich grüeȥen schōne.

    Ich hān lande vil gesehen
  unde nam der besten gerne war:
    Übel müeȥe mir geschehen,
  künde ich ie mīn herze bringen dar,                     20
    Daȥ im wol gevallen
  wolde fremeder site.
  nū waȥ hülfe mich, ob ich unrehte strite?
  tiuschiu zuht gāt vor in allen.

    Von der Elbe unz an den Rīn                           25
  und her wider unz an Ungerlant
    Mügen wol die besten sīn,
  die ich in der werlte hān erkant.
    Kan ich rehte schouwen
  guot gelāȥ und līp,                                     30
  sam mir got, sō swüere ich wol, daȥ hie diu wīp
  beȥȥer sint danne ander frouwen.

    Tiusche man sint wol gezogen,
  rehte als engel sint diu wīp getān.
    Swer si schiltet, derst betrogen:                     35
  ich enkan sīn anders niht verstān.
    Tugent und reine minne,
  swer die suochen wil,
  der sol komen in unser lant: da ist wünne vil:
  lange müeȥe ich leben dar inne!                         40


  Owē war sint verswunden / alliu mīniu jār!
  ist mir mīn leben getroumet / oder ist eȥ wār?
  daȥ ich ie wānde, daȥ / iht wære, was daȥ iht?
  dar nāch hān ich geslāfen / und enweiȥ es niht.                 45
    Nū bin ich erwachet, / und ist mir unbekant,
  daȥ mir hie vor was kündic / als mīn ander hant.
  liut unde lant, dā ich / von kinde bin erzogen,
  die sint mir fremde worden, / reht’ als eȥ sī gelogen:
    Die mīne gespilen wāren, / die sint træge und alt;            50
  bereitet ist daȥ velt, / verhouwen ist der walt:
  wan daȥ daȥ waȥȥer fliuȥet, / als eȥ wīlent flōȥ,
  für wār ich wāndẹ / mīn ungelücke würde grōȥ.
  mich grüeȥet maneger trāge, / der mich bekande ē wol.
  diu werlt ist allenthalben / ungenāden vol.                     55
  als ich gedenke an manegen / wünneclīchen tac,
  die sint mir enpfallen gar / als in daȥ mer ein slac,
  iemer mēre owē!
    Owē wie jæmerlīche / junge liute tuont!
  den vil unriuweclīche / ir gemüete stuont,                      60
  die kunnen niuwan sorgen: / owē wie tuont si sō?
  swar ich zer werlte kēre, / dā ist nieman frō:
    Tanzen unde singen / zergāt mit sorgen gar.
  nie kristenman gesach / sō jæmerlīchiu jār.
  nū merket, wie den frouwen / ir gebende stāt;                   65
  die stolzen ritter tragent / dörperlīche wāt.
    Uns sint unsenfte brieve / her von Rōme komen,
  uns ist erloubet trūren / und fröude gar benomen.
  daȥ müet mich inneclīchen / (wir lebten ē vil wol),
  daȥ ich nū für mīn lachen / weinen kiesen sol.                  70
  diu wilden vogellīn / betrüebet unser klage:
  waȥ wunders ist, ob ich / dā von vil gar verzage?
  waȥ spriche ich tumber man / durch mīnen bœsen zorn?
  swer dirre wünne volget, der / hāt jene dort verlorn
  iemer mēre, owē!                                                75
    Owē wie uns mit süeȥen / dingen ist vergeben!
  ich sihe die gallen mitten / in dem honege sweben.
  diu werlt ist ūȥen schœne, / wīȥ, grüen’ unde rōt
  und innen swarzer varwe, / vinster sam der tōt.
    Swen si nū habe verleitet, / der schouwe sīnen trōst:         80
  er wirt mit swacher buoȥe / grōȥer sünde erlōst.
  dar an gedenket, ritter! / eȥ ist iuwer dinc;
  ir traget die liehten helme / und manegen herten rinc,
    Dar zuo die vesten schilte / und diu gewīhten swert.
  wolte got, wær ich / der sigenünfte wert,                       85
  sō wolte ich nōtic man / verdienen rīchen solt.
  joch meine ich niht die huoben / noch der hērren golt:
  ich wolte selbe krōne / ēweclīchen tragen;
  die möhte ein soldenære / mit sīme sper bejagen.
  möht ich die lieben reise / gevaren über sē,                    90
  sō wolte ich denne singen ‘wol’ / und niemer mēre ‘owē,’
  niemer mēre ‘owē!’


  Dō der sumer komen was
  und die bluomen durch daȥ gras
  wünneclīche ensprungen,
  aldā die vogele sungen,                     95
  dār kom ich gegangen
  an einen anger langen,
  dā ein lūter brunne entspranc;
  vor dem walde was sīn ganc,
  dā diu nahtegale sanc.                     100

  Bī dem brunnen stuont ein boum,
  dā gesach ich einen troum.
  ich was zuo dem brunnen
  gegangen von der sunnen,
  daȥ diu linde mære                         105
  den küelen schaten bære.
  bī dem brunnen ich gesaȥ:
  mīner swære ich gar vergaȥ,
  schiere entslief ich umbe daȥ.

  Dō bedūhte mich zehant,                    110
  wie mir dienten elliu lant,
  wie mīn sēle wære
  ze himel āne swære
  und der līp hie solte
  gebāren swie er wolte.                     115
  dā enwas mir niht ze wē.
  got der waldes, swie’ȥ ergē:
  schœner troum enwart nie mē.

  Gerne sliefe ich iemer dā,
  wan ein unsæligiu krā,                     120
  diu begonde schrīen.
  daȥ alle krā gedīen
  alse ich in des günne!
  si nam mir michel wunne.
  von ir schrīenne ich erschrac:             125
  wan daȥ dā niht steines lac,
  sō wær’ eȥ ir suontac.

  Wan ein wunderalteȥ wīp
  diu getrōste mir den līp.
  die begonde ich eiden.                     130
  nū hāt si mir bescheiden
  waȥ der troum bediute.
  daȥ merken wīse liute;
  zwēne und einer daȥ sint drī;
  dannoch seitẹ si mir dā bī,                135
  daȥ mīn dūme ein vinger sī.


  Ich saȥ ūf eime steine
  und dahte bein mit beine;
  dar ūf satzt ich den ellenbogen;
  ich hete in mīne hant gesmogen             140
  daȥ kinne und ein mīn wange:
  dō dāhte ich mir vil ange,
  wie man zer werlte solte leben.
  deheinen rāt kond ich gegeben,
  wie man driu dinc erwürbe,                 145
  der keineȥ niht verdürbe.
  diu zwei sint ēre und varnde guot,
  daȥ dicke einander schaden tuot;
  daȥ dritte ist gotes hulde,
  der zweier übergulde.                      150
  die wolte ich gerne in einen schrīn;
  jā leider des enmac niht sīn,
  daȥ guot und werltlīch ēre
  und gotes hulde mēre
  zesamene in ein herze komen.               155
  stīg’ unde wege sint in benomen:
  untriuwe is in der sāȥe,
  gewalt vert ūf der strāȥe,
  fride unde reht sint sēre wunt.
  diu driu enhabent geleites niht,           160
  diu zwei enwerden ē gesunt.


  Ich hōrte ein waȥȥer dieȥen
  und sach die vische flieȥen;
  ich sach swaȥ in der werlte was,
  velt unde walt, loup rōr und gras;         165
  swaȥ kriuchet unde fliuget
  und bein zer erden biuget,
  daȥ sach ich unde sage iu daȥ:
  der keineȥ lebet āne haȥ.
  daȥ wilt und daȥ gewürme                   170
  die strītent starke stürme,
  sam tuont die vogel under in;
  wan daȥ sie habent einen sin:
  sie diuhten sich ze nihte,
  sie enschüefen starc gerihte:              175
  sie kiesent künege unde reht,
  sie setzent hērren unde kneht.
  sō wē dir, tiuschiu zunge,
  wie stēt dīn ordenunge,
  daȥ nū diu mucke ir künic hāt              180
  und daȥ dīn ēre alsō zergāt!
  bekērā dich, bekēre!
  die zirken sint ze hēre,
  die armen künege dringent dich:
  Philippe setze en weisen ūf
          und heiȥ sie treten hinder sich!


  Ich sach mit mīnen ougen
  man unde wībe tougen,
  dā ich gehōrte und gesach
  swaȥ iemen tet, swaȥ iemen sprach.
  ze Rōme hōrte ich liegen                   190
  und zwēne künege triegen.
  dā von huop sich der meiste strīt,
  der ē was oder iemer sīt,
  daȥ sich begonden zweien
  die pfaffen unde leien.                    195
  daȥ was ein nōt vor aller nōt:
  līp unde sēle lac dā tōt,
  die pfaffen striten sēre:
  doch wart der leien mēre.
  diu swert sie legeten dernider             200
  und griffen zuo der stōle wider:
  sie bienen die sie wolten
  und niuwet den sie solten.
  dō stōrte man diu goteshūs.
  ich hōrte verre in einer klūs              205
  vil michel ungebære:
  dā weinde ein klōsenære,
  er klagete gote sīniu leit:
  ‘ōwē, der bābest ist ze junc:
          hilf, hērre, dīner Kristenheit!’


  Diu krōne ist elter dan der künec Philippes sī:        210
  dā muget ir alle schouwen wol ein wunder bī,
  wie s’ ime der smit sō ebene habe gemachet.
  sīn keiserlicheȥ houbet zimt ir alsō wol,
  daȥ sie ze rehte nieman guoter scheiden sol.
  ir dwedereȥ daȥ ander niht enswachet.                  215
  sie liuhtent beide ein ander an,
  daȥ edele gesteine wider den jungen man:
  die ougenweide sehent die fürsten gerne.
  swer nū des rīches irre gē,
  der schouwe, wem der weise ob sīme nacke stē:          220
  der stein ist aller fürsten leitesterne.


  Mir ist verspart der sælden tor:
  dā stēn ich als ein weise vor,
  mich hilfet niht swaȥ ich dar an geklopfe.
  wie möhte ein wunder grœȥer sīn?                       225
  eȥ regent beidenthalben mīn,
  daȥ mir des alles niht enwirt ein tropfe.
  des fürsten milte ūȥ Ōsterrīche
  freut dem süeȥen regen gelīche
  beidiu liute und ouch daȥ lant.                        230
  er ist ein schœne wol gezieret heide,
  dar abe man bluomen brichet wunder:
  und bræche mir ein blat dar under
  diu sīn vil milte rīchiu hant,
  sō möhte ich loben die süeȥen ougenweide.              235
  hie bī sī er an mich gemant.


  Ich hān mīn lēhen, al die werlt! ich hān mīn lēhen!
  nū enfürhte ich niht den hornunc an die zēhen
  und wil alle bœse hērren deste minre vlēhen.
  der edel künec, der milte künec hāt mich berāten,              240
  daȥ ich den sumer luft und in dem winter hitze hān.
  mīn’ nāhgebūren dunke ich verre baȥ getān:
  sie sehent mich niht mēr an in butzen wīs, alsō sie tāten.
  ich bin ze lange arm gewesen ān’ mīnen danc.
  ich was sō volle scheltens, daȥ mīn ātem stanc.                245
  daȥ hāt der künec gemachet reine und dar zuo mīnen sanc.


  Ōwē hovelīcheȥ singen,
  daȥ dich ungefüege dœne
  solten ie ze hove verdringen!
  daȥ sie schiere got gehœne!                250
  ōwē, daȥ dīn wirde alsō geliget,
  des sint alle dīne friunde unfrō.
  daȥ muoȥ eht sō sīn, nū sī alsō:
  frō Unfuoge, ir habt gesiget.

    Der uns freude wider bræhte,             255
  diu reht und gefüege wære,
  hei wie wol man des gedæhte,
  swā man von im seite mære!
  eȥ wær’ ein vil hovelīcher muot,
  des ich iemer gerne wünschen sol.          260
  frouwen unde hērren zæme eȥ wol:
  ōwē daȥ eȥ nieman tuot!

    Die daȥ rehte singen stœrent,
  der ist ungelīche mēre
  danne die eȥ gerne hœrent.                 265
  des volg’ ich der alten lēre:
  ich enwil niht werben ze der mül;
  dā der stein sō riuschend’ umbe gāt
  und daȥ rat sō manegẹ unwīse hāt,
  merket wer dā harpfen sül!                 270

    Die sō frevellīchen schallent,
  der muoȥ ich vor zorne lachen,
  daȥ s’ in selben wol gevallent
  mit als ungefüegen sachen.
  die tuont sam die frösche in eime sē,      275
  den ir schrīen alsō wol behaget,
  daȥ diu nahtegal dā von verzaget,
  sō si gerne sunge mē.

    Der unfuoge swīgen hieȥe,
  waȥ man noch von freuden sunge,            280
  und sie abe den bürgen stieȥe,
  daȥ si dā die frōn iht twunge!
  wurden ir die grōȥen höve benomen,
  daȥ wær’ alleȥ nāch dem willen mīn:
  bien gebūren lieȥe ich sie wol sīn,        285
  dannen ist s’ ouch here komen.


  Der rīfe tet den kleinen vogelen wē,
  daȥ sie niht ensungen.
  nū hōrte ich s’aber wünneclīche als ē:
  nū ist diu heide entsprungen.                      290
  dā sach ich bluomen strīten wider den klē,
  weder ir lenger wære.
  mīner frouwen seite ich disiu mære.

  Uns hāt der winter kalt und ander nōt
  vil getān ze leide.                                295
  ich wānde, daȥ ich iemer bluomen rōt
  sæhe an grüener heide.
  joch schāte eȥ guoten liuten, wære ich tōt,
  die nāch freuden rungen
  und ie gerne tanzten unde sprungen.                300

  Versūmde ich disen wünneclīchen tac,
  sō wær’ ich verwāȥen
  und wære an freude ein angestlīcher slac:
  dennoch müese ich lāȥen
  al mīne freude, der ich wīlent pflac.              305
  got gesegen’ iuch alle:
  wünschet noch, daȥ mir ein heil gevalle.


  Wīp muoȥ ēt iemer sīn der wībe hōhste name
  und tiuret baȥ dan frouwe, als ich’ȥ erkenne.
  swā nū deheiniu sī, diu sich ir wīpheit schame,                    310
  diu merke disen sanc und kiese denne.
  under frouwen sint unwīp,
  under wīben sint sie tiure:
  wībes name und wībes līp
  die sint beide vil gehiure.                                        315
  swie’ȥ umb’ alle frouwen var,
  wīp sint alle frouwen gar.
  zwīvellop daȥ hœnet,
  als under wīlen frouwe: wīp dēst ein name der s’alle krœnet.


  Sō die bluomen ūȥ dem grase dringent,          320
  same sie lachen gegen der spileden sunnen,
  in einem meien an dem morgen fruo,
  und diu kleinen vogellīn wol singent
  in ir besten wīse die sie kunnen,
  waȥ wünne mac sich dā genōȥen zuo?             325
  eȥ ist wol halb ein himelrīche.
  suln wir sprechen, waȥ sich deme gelīche,
  sō sage ich, waȥ mir dicke baȥ
  in mīnen ougen hāt getān,
  und tæte ouch noch, gesæhe ich daȥ.            330

  Swā ein edeliu schœne frouwe reine
  wol gekleidet unde wol gebunden
  durch kurzewīle zuo vil liuten gāt,
  hovelīchen hōchgemuot, niht eine,
  umbe sehendẹ ein wēnic under stunden:          335
  alsam der sunne gegen den sternen stāt:
  der meie bringe uns al sīn wunder,
  waȥ ist dā sō wünneclīches under
  als ir vil minneclīcher līp?
  wir lāȥen alle bluomen stān,                   340
  und kapfen an daȥ werde wīp.

  Nū wol dan, welt ir die wārheit schouwen,
  gēn wir zuo des meien hōchgezīte!
  der ist mit aller sīner krefte komen.
  seht an in und seht an werde frouwen,          345
  wedereȥ daȥ ander überstrīte,
  daȥ beȥȥer spil ob ich daȥ habe genomen.
  ōwē der mich dā welen hieȥe,
  deich daȥ eine durch daȥ ander lieȥe,
  wie rehte schiere ich danne küre!              350
  hēr Meie, ir müeset merze sīn,
  ē ich mīne frouwen dā verlüre.


  Swie wol der heide ir manicvaltiu varwe stāt,
  sō wil ich doch dem walde jehen,
  daȥ er vil mēre wünneclīcher dinge hāt.                355
  noch ist dem velde baȥ geschehen.
  sō wol dir, sumer, sus getāner emȥekeit!
  sumer, daȥ ich iemer lobe dīne tage,
  mīn trōst, sō trœste ouch mīne klage:
  ich sage dir, waȥ mir wirret:                          360
  diu mir ist liep, der bin ich leit.

  Ich mac der guoten niht vergeȥȥen noch ensol,
  diu mir sō vil gedanke nimet.
  die wīle ich singe, wil ich vinden iemer wol
  ein niuwe lop, daȥ ir gezimet.                         365
  nū habe ir diȥ für guot (sō lobe ich danne mē):
  eȥ tuot in den ougen wol, daȥ man sie siht,
  und daȥ man ir vil tugende giht,
  daȥ tuot wol in den ōren.
  sō wol ir des! sō wē mir, wē!                          370


  In einen zwīvellīchen wān
  was ich geseȥȥen und gedāhte,
  ich wolte von ir dienste gān,
  wan daȥ ein trōst mich wider brāhte.
  trōst mag eȥ rehte niht geheiȥen, ouwē des!            375
  eȥ ist vil kūme ein kleineȥ trœstelīn,
  sō kleine, swenne ich’ȥ iu gesage, ir spottet mīn;
  doch fröwet sich lützel ieman, er enwiȥȥe wes.

  Mich hāt ein halm gemachet frō:
  er giht, ich süle genāde vinden.                       380
  ich maȥ daȥ selbe kleine strō,
  als ich hie vore sach von kinden.
  nū hœret unde merket, ob si’ȥ denne tuo:
  ‘si tuot, si entuot, si tuot, si entuot, si tuot.’
  swie dicke ich’ȥ tete, sō was ie daȥ ende guot.        385
  daȥ trœstet mich: dā hœret ouch geloube zuo.


  Nieman kan beherten
  kindes zuht mit gerten:
  den man z’ēren bringen mac,
  dem ist ein wort als ein slac.             390
  dem ist ein wort als ein slac,
  den man z’ēren bringen mac:
  kindes zuht mit gerten
  nieman kan beherten.

    Hüetet iuwer zungen,                     395
  daȥ zimt wol den jungen;
  stōȥ den rigel für die tür,
  lā kein bœse wort dar für.
  lā kein bœse wort dar für,
  stōȥ den rigel für die tür:                400
  daȥ zimt wol den jungen,
  hüetet iuwer zungen.

    Hüetet iuwer ougen
  offenbāre und tougen:
  lāt sie guote site spehen                  405
  und die bœsen übersehen;
  und die bœsen übersehen
  lāt sie, guote site spehen:
  offenbāre und tougen
  hüetet iuwer ougen.                        410

  Hüetet iuwer ōren,
  oder ir sīt tōren:
  lāt ir bœsiu wort dar in,
  daȥ gunēret iu den sin.
  daȥ gunēret in den sin,                    415
  lāt ir bœsiu wort dar in,
  oder ir sīt tōren:
  hüetet iuwer ōren.

  Hüetet wol der drīer
  leider alze frīer:                         420
  zungen ougen ōren sint
  dicke schalchaft, z’ēren blint.
  dicke schalchaft, z’ēren blint
  zungen ougen ōren sint:
  leider alze frīer                          425
  hüetet wol der drīer.


  Junc man, in swelher aht dū bist,
  ich wil dich lēren einen list:
  dū lā dir niht ze wē sīn nāch dem guote:
  lā dir’ȥ ouch niht z’unmære sīn.                   430
  und volges dū der lēre mīn,
  sō wis gewis, eȥ frumt dir an dem muote.
  die rede wil ich dir baȥ bescheiden.
  lāst dū dir’ȥ ze sēre leiden,
  zergāt eȥ so ist dīn freude tōt:                   435
  wilt aber dū daȥ guot ze sēre minnen,
  dū maht verliesen sēle und ēre.
  dā von sō volge mīner lēre:
  leg’ ūf die wāge ein rehteȥ lōt
  und wig ouch dar mit allen dīnen sinnen,           440
  als eȥ diu māȥe eht ie gebōt.


    Die väter hānt ir kint erzogen,
  dar an sie beide sint betrogen:
  sie brechent dicke Salomōnes lēre:
  der sprichet, swer den besmen spar,                445
  daȥ der den sun versūme gar:
  des sint die ungebatten gar ān’ ēre.
  hie vor dō was diu werlt sō schœne,
  nū ịst sie worden alsō hœne.
  des enwas niht wīlent ē:                           450
  die jungen hānt die alten sō verdrungen.
  nū spottet alse dar der alten!
  eȥ wirt iu selben noch behalten.
  beitet unz iuwer jugent zergē:
  swaȥ ir nū tuot, daȥ rechent iuwer jungen,         455
  daȥ weiȥ ich wol und weiȥ noch mē.


  Wer zieret nū der ēren sal?
  der jungen ritter zuht ist smal,
  sō pflegent die knehte gar unhövescher dinge
  mit worten und mit werken ouch.                    460
  swer zühte hāt, der ist ir gouch.
  nemt war, wie gar unfuoge für sich dringe!
  hie vor dō berte man die jungen,
  die dā pflāgen frecher zungen;
  nū ist eȥ ir werdekeit:                            465
  sie schallent unde scheltent reine frouwen.
  wē ir hiuten unde ir hāren,
  die niht kunnen frō gebāren
  sunder wībe herzeleit!
  dā mac man sünde bī der schande schouwen,          470
  die maneger ūf sich selben leit.


  Swer āne vorhte, hērre got,
  wil sprechen dīniu zehen gebot
  und brichet diu, daȥ ist niht rehtiu minne.
  dich heiȥet vater maneger vil:                     475
  swer mīn ze bruoder niht enwil,
  der sprichet starkiu wort ūȥ krankem sinne.
  wir wahsen ūȥ gelīchem dinge:
  spīse frumet uns, diu wirt ringe,
  sō si durch den munt gevert.                       480
  wer kan den hērren von dem knehte scheiden
  swa ẹr ir gebeine blōȥeȥ fünde,
  und hæte er ir joch lebender künde,
  sō gewürme daȥ fleisch verzert?
  im dienent kristen, juden unde heiden,             485
  der elliu lebendiu wunder nert.


  Ōwē daȥ wīsheit unde tugent,
  des mannes schœne noch sīn jugent
  niht erben sol, sō ie der līp erstirbet!
  daȥ mac wol klagen ein wīser man,                                  490
  der sich des schaden versinnen kan.
  Reinmār, waȥ guoter kunst an dir verdirbet!
  dū solt von schulden iemer des genieȥen,
  daȥ dich des tages wolte nie verdrieȥen,
  du’n spræches ie den frouwen wol und guoten wībes siten.           495
  des suln sie iemer danken dīner zungen.
  und hætest niht wan eine rede gesungen:
  ‘sō wol dir, wīp, wie reine ein nam!’, dū hætest an gestriten
  ir lobe, daȥ elliu wīp dir iemer gnāden solten biten.


  Dēswār, Reinmār, dū riuwes mich                                    500
  michels harter denne ich dich,
  obe dū lebtes unde ich wære erstorben
  ich wil’ȥ bī mīnen triuwen sagen:
  dich selben wil ich lützel klagen,
  ich klage dīn edelen kunst, daȥ s’ist verdorben.                   505
  dū kundest al der werlte freude mēren,
  sō du’ȥ ze guoten dingen woltest kēren.
  mich riuwet dīn wol redender munt und dīn vil süeȥer sanc,
  daȥ der verdorben ist bī mīnen zīten.
  daȥ dū niht eine wīle mohtest bīten!                               510
  sō leiste ich dir geselleschaft: mīn singen ist niht lanc.
  dīn sēle müeȥe wol gevarn und habe dīn zunge danc.



  Reinmar, often called Reinmar der Alte, was by birth an Alsatian.
  He spent many years of his active life as Court poet at Vienna,
  where he was extremely popular. Next to his rival Walther von der
  Vogelweide he was the most prolific and important lyrical poet of
  his period, cp. ll. 487-512, pp. 132-3. He died some time during the
  first decade of the thirteenth century. See Burdach, Reinmar der
  Alte und Walther von der Vogelweide, Leipzig, 1880, and Bartsch,
  Deutsche Liederdichter des zwölften his vierzehnten Jahrhunderts,
  Stuttgart, 1879.


  ‘Sī koment underwīlen her
  die baȥ dā heime möhten sīn.
  Ein ritter des ich lange ger,
  bedæhte er baȥ den willen mīn,
  sō wære er z’allen zīten hie,                    5
  als ich in gerne sæhe.
  owē des, waȥ suochent die
  die nīdent daȥ ob iemen guot geschæhe?’

    Mir ist geschehen daȥ ich niht bin
  langer vrō wan unz ich lebe.                    10
  sī wundert wer mir schœnen sin
  und daȥ hōhgemüete gebe
  daȥ ich zer werlte niht getar
  ze rehte alsō gebāren,
  nie genam ich vrowen war,                       15
  ich wære in holt die mir ze māȥe wāren.


  Ein rede der liute tuot mir wē:
  da enkan ich niht gedulteclīchen zuo gebāren.
  nu tuont si’ȥ alle deste mē:
  sī frāgent mich ze vil von mīner frouwen jāren              20
  und sprechent welher tage sī sī,
  dur daȥ ich ir sō lange bin gewesen mit triuwen bī;
  sī jehent daȥ es möhte mich verdrieȥen.
  nu lā daȥ aller beste wīp
  ir zühtelōser vrāge mich genieȥen.                          25


  Sī jehent, der sumer der sī hie,
  diu wunne diu sī komen
  und daȥ ich mich wol gehabe als ē.
  nu rātet unde sprechet wie:
  der tōt hāt mir benomen                                     30
  daȥ ich niemer überwinde mē.
  waȥ bedarf ich wunneclīcher zīt,
  sīt aller vröuden hērre Liutpolt in der erde līt,
  den ich nie tac getrūren sach?
  eȥ hāt diu werlt an ime verlorn                             35
  daȥ ir an manne nie
  sō jæmerlīcher schade geschach.

  ‘Mir armen wībe was ze wol,
  dō ich gedāhte an in
  wie mīn heil an sīnem lībe lac.                             40
  daȥ ich des nū niht haben sol,
  des gāt mit sorgen hin
  swaȥ ich iemer mē geleben mac.
  mīner wunnen spiegel derst verlorn
  den ich mir hete ze sumerlīcher ougen weide erkorn,         45
  des muoȥ ich leider ænic sīn.
  dō man mir seite er wære tōt,
  zehant wiel mir daȥ bluot
  von herzen ūf die sēle mīn.

    Die fröide mir verboten hāt                               50
  mīns lieben hērren tōt
  alsō deich ir mēr enberen sol.
  sīt des nu niht mac werden rāt,
  in ringe mit der nōt,
  daȥ mīn klagedeȥ herze ist jāmers vol,                      55
  diu in iemer weinet, daȥ bin ich,
  wan er vil sælic man, jā trōste er wol ze lebenne mich.
  der ist nu hin: waȥ töhte ich hie?
  wis ime genædic, hērre got,
  wan tugenthafter gast                                       60
  kam in dīn ingesinde nie.’


  Ich welte ūf guoter liute sage
  und ouch durch mīnes herzen rāt
  ein wīp von der ich dicke trage
  vil manige nōt diu nāhe gāt.                65
  die swære ich z’allen zīten klage,
  wand eȥ mir kumberlīche stāt.
  ich tet ir schīn den dienst mīn:
  wie möhte ein grœȥer wunder sīn,
  daȥ sī mich des engelten lāt?               70

    Ze rehter māȥe sol ein man
  beidiu daȥ herze und al den sin
  ze stæte wenden, ob er kan:
  daȥ wirt im līhte ein guot gewin.
  swem dā von ie kein leit bekan,             75
  der weiȥ wol wie’ch gebunden bin.
  ich gloube im wol, als er mir sol.
  von schulden ich den kumber dol:
  ich brāhte selbe mich dar in.


  ‘Er hāt ze lange mich gemiten                                       80
  den ich mit triuwen nie gemeit.
  von sīner schulde ich hān erliten
  daȥ ich nie grœȥer nōt erleit.
  sō lebt mīn līp nāch sīnem lībe.
  ich bin ein wīp, daȥ im von wībe                                    85
  nie liebes mē geschach, swie mir von im geschæhe.
  mīn ouge in gerner nie gesach dann ich in hiute sæhe.’

    Mir ist vil liebe nu geschehen,
  daȥ mir sō liebe nie geschach.
  sō gerne hān ich sī gesehen                                         90
  daȥ ich sī gerner nie gesach.
  ich scheide ir muot von schwachem muote:
  sī ist sō guot, ich wil mit guote
  ir lōnen, ob ich kan, als ich doch gerne kunde.
  vil mēre fröiden ich ir gan dann ich mir selben gunde.              95


  Wol mich lieber mære,
  diu ich hān vernomen,
  daȥ der winter swære
  welle ze ende komen.
  kūme ich des erbeiten mac,                 100
  want ich fröide niht enpflac
  sīt der kalte rīfe lac.

    Mich enhaȥȥet niemen,
  ob ich bin gemeit.
  Weiȥ got, tuot eȥ iemen,                   105
  deist unsælekeit,
  wande ich schaden niht enkan.
  swes ot sī mir wole gan,
  waȥ wil des ein ander man?

    Solte ich mīne liebe                     110
  bergen unde heln,
  sō müest ich ze diebe
  werden unde steln.
  sinneclīch ich daȥ bewar.
  mīn gewerbe ist anderswar,                 115
  ich gē dannen oder dar.

    Sō sī mit dem balle
  trībet kindes spot,
  daȥ’s iht sēre valle,
  daȥ verbiete got.                          120
  megde, lāt iur dringen sīn:
  stōȥet ir mīn frouwelīn,
  so’st der schade halber mīn.


  Ich sach vil wunneclīche stān
  die heide mit den bluomen rōt,             125
  der vīol der ist wol getān:
  des hāt diu nahtegal ir nōt
  wol überwunden diu sī twanc.
  zergangen ist der winter lanc.
  ich hōrte ir sanc.                         130

    Dō ich daȥ grüene loup ersach,
  dō lieȥ ich vil der swære mīn.
  von einem wībe mir geschach
  daȥ ich muoȥ iemer mēre sīn
  vil wunneclīchen wol gemuot.               135
  eȥ sol mich alleȥ dunken guot
  swaȥ sī mir tuot.

    Sī schiet von sorgen mīnen līp,
  daȥ ich dekeine swære hān.
  wan āne sī vier tūsent wīp                 140
  dien heten’s alle niht getān.
  ir güete wendet mīniu leit.
  ich hān sī mir ze friunt bereit,
  swaȥ iemen seit.

    Mir’n mac niht leides widerstān:         145
  des wil ich gar ān angest sīn.
  ergienge eȥ als ich willen hān,
  sō læge’s an dem arme mīn.
  daȥ mir der schœnen wurde ein teil,
  daȥ diuhte mich ein michel heil,           150
  und wære ouch geil.

    Deich ir sō holdeȥ herze trage,
  daȥ ist in sumelīchen leit.
  dar umbe ich niemer sō verzage:
  sī vliesent alle ir arebeit.               155
  waȥ hilfet sī ir arger list?
  si’n wiȥȥen wie’ȥ ergangen ist
  in kurzer frist.


  Mīn ougen wurden liebes alsō vol,
  dō ich die minneclīchen ērst gesach,                   160
  daȥ eȥ mir hiute und iemer mē tuot wol.
  ein minneclīcheȥ wunder dō geschach:
  sī gie mir alse sanfte dur mīn ougen
  daȥ sī sich in der enge niene stieȥ.
  in mīnem herzen sī sich nider lieȥ:                    165
  dā trage ich noch die werden inne tougen.

    Lā stān, lā stān! waȥ tuost du, sælic wīp,
  daȥ du mich heimesuochest an der stat,
  dar sō gewalteclīche wībes līp
  mit starker heimesuoche nie getrat?                    170
  genāde, frowe! ich mac dir niht gestrīten.
  mīn herze ist dir baȥ veile danne mir:
  eȥ solde sīn bī mir, nu’st eȥ bī dir:
  des muoȥ ich ūf genāde lōnes bīten.


  Ze fröiden nāhet alle tage                 175
  der werlte ein wunneclīchiu zīt,
  ze senfte maniges herzen klage
  die nu der swære winter gīt.
  von sorge ich dicke sō verzage,
  swenn alsō jæmerlīche līt                  180
  diu heide breit. daȥ ist mir leit.
  diu nahtegal uns schiere seit
  daȥ sich gescheiden hāt der strīt.


  Sō wol dir, wīp, wie reine ein nam!
  wie sanfte er doch z’erkennen und ze nennen ist!                   185
  eȥ wart nie niht sō lobesam,
  swā du’ȥ an rehte güete kērest, sō dū bist.
  dīn lop mit rede nieman wol volenden kan.
  swes dū mit triuwen pfligest wol, der ist ein sælic man
  und mac vil gerne leben.                                           190
  dū gīst al der werlte hohen muot:
  maht dū ouch mir ein wēnic freude geben?



  Ulrich von Lichtenstein came of a better-class Styrian family, and
  was born about the year 1200 and died in 1275 or 1276. He was one of
  the best representatives of the later Court lyrical poets. For
  editions of his works, see Lachmann, Ausgabe der Dichtungen Ulrichs
  von Lichtenstein, Berlin, 1841; Bechstein, Ulrichs von Lichtenstein
  Frauendienst, Leipzig, 1887. The following extracts are taken from
  Bartsch, Deutsche Liederdichter des zwölften bis vierzehnten
  Jahrhunderts, Stuttgart, 1889.


{Ein tanzwīse, und ist diu vierde wīse.}

  In dem walde süeȥe dœne
  singent kleiniu vogellīn.
  an der heide bluomen schœne
  blüejent gegen des meien schīn.
  alsō blüet mīn hōher muot                    5
  mit gedanken gegen ir güete,
  diu mir rīchet mīn gemüete
  sam der troum den armen tuot.

    Eȥ ist ein vil hōch gedinge
  den ich gegen ir tugenden trage,            10
  daȥ mir noch an ir gelinge,
  daȥ ich sælde an ir bejage.
  des gedingen bin ich vrō.
  god geb’ daȥ ich’ȥ wol verende,
  daȥ sie mir den wān iht wende               15
  der mich freut sō rehte hō.

    Sie vil süeȥe, valsches āne,
  vrī vor allem wandel gar,
  lāȥe mich in liebem wāne
  die wīl eȥ niht baȥ envar;                  20
  daȥ diu vreude lange wer,
  daȥ ich weinens iht erwache,
  daȥ ich gegen dem trōste lache
  des ich von ir hulden ger.

    Wünschen unde wol gedenken                25
  dēst diu meiste vreude mīn.
  des sol mir ir trōst niht wenken,
  sie enlāȥe mich ir sīn
  mit den beiden nāhen bī,
  sō daȥ sie mit willen gunne                 30
  mir von ir sō werder wunne
  daȥ sie sælic immer sī.

    Sælic meie, du aleine
  trœstest al die welde gar.
  du und al diu werlt gemeine                 35
  vreut mich min dann umb ein hār.
  wie möht’ ir mir vreude geben
  āne die vil lieben guoten?
  von der sol ich trōstes muoten;
  wan ir trōstes muoȥ ich leben.              40


{Ein sincwīse, und ist diu sibende wīse.}

  Wē war umbe sul wir sorgen?
  vreude ist guot.
  von den wīben sol man borgen
  hōhen muot.
  wol im der in kan gewinnen                  45
  von in! der’st ein sælic man.
  freude sol man durch sie minnen,
  wan dā līt vil ēren an.

  Wir suln tanzen singen lachen
  durch diu wīp.                              50
  dā mit mac ein man gemachen
  daȥ sīn līp
  wirdet wert, ob er mit triuwen
  dienet guoter wībe gruoȥ.
  swen sīn dienest wil geriuwen,              55
  dem wirt selten kumbers buoȥ.

    Mit dem waȥȥer man daȥ, fiuwer
  laschet gar:
  vinster ist der sunnen tiuwer.
  beidiu wār                                  60
  sint diu mære: ir hœret mēre.
  habet für wār ūf minen līp:
  rehten man von herzen sēre
  scheidet nieman wan diu wīp.

    Owē owē, frowe Minne,                     65
  mir ist wē.
  nu grīf her wie sēre ich brinne.
  kalder snē
  müeste von der hitze brinnen
  diu mir an dem herzen līt.                  70
  kanstu, Minne, triuwe minnen,
  sō hilfestu mir enzīt.


{Daȥ ist ein ūȥreise.}

  Wil iemen nāch ēren die zīt wol vertrīben,
  ze sælden sich kēren, bī freuden belīben,
  der diene ze flīȥe mit triuwen vil schōne                   75
  nāch der minne lōne: der ist süeȥe, reine,
  vil guot und aleine den guoten gemeine.

    Swer volget dem schilde, der sol eȥ enblanden
  dem lībe, dem guote, dem herzen, den handen.
  des lōnet vil hōhe mit guotem gewinne                       80
  diu vil werde Minne: diu gīt freud’ und ēre.
  wol ir süeȥen lēre! sie kan trœsten sēre.

    Der schilt wil mit zühten vil baltlīcheȥ ellen:
  er haȥȥet, er schiuhet Schand’ und ir gesellen.
  got des niht enwelle daȥ man bī im vinde                    85
  sō swachlīch gesinde, er wil daȥ die sīnen
  ūf ēre sich pīnen, in tugenden erschīnen.

    Erg’ unde unfuoge und unfuore diu wilde
  gezimt niht dem helme und touc niht dem schilde,
  der schilt ist ein dach daȥ niht schande kan decken.        90
  sīn blic tæt’ enblecken an ēren die weichen,
  von vorhten erbleichen: diu varwe ist ir zeichen.

    Hōchgemuote frouwen, ir sült wol gedenken:
  getriuwen gesellen vil stæte āne wenken
  den minnet, den meinet, mit herzen, mit muote,              95
  daȥ in iwer huote behalte, behüete
  mit liebe, mit güete, vrī vor ungemüete.

    Sie ist āne schulde mir haȥlīch erbolgen
  der ich ze dienste dem schilde wil volgen.
  nu hān ich für zürnen noch für herzen sēre                 100
  niht ander schilt mēre wan den trōst aleine,
  daȥ ich sie baȥ meine dann ie wīp deheine.

    Gein ir langen kriege setz’ ich mīn gedulde:
  sō stē gein ir haȥȥe ze wer mīn unschulde.
  mīn wer gein den valschen daȥ sol sīn mīn triuwe           105
  vil süeȥe āne riuwe: mīn kampflīch gewæte
  für ir nīdetæte daȥ sol sīn mīn stæte.


{Ditz ist der leich.}

  Got füege mir’ȥ ze guote:
  ich bin noch in dem muote
  daȥ ich wil guoten wīben                                           110
  mit dienest āne valschen muot immer bī belīben.
  dā von rāt’ ich einen rāt
  der allen wol gemuoten mannen tugentlīchen stāt.

    Ich rāt’ iu, ēre gerende man,
  mit triuwen, als ich beste kan:                                    115
  ob ir welt werende freude hān,
  sō sīt den wīben undertān
  mit triwen āne valschen muot.
  ir güete ist alsō rehte guot,
  swer in mit triwen dienest tuot,                                   120
  den kunnen sie wol machen frō.
  der werlde heil gar an in līt:
  ir güete ist freuden hōchgezīt,
  ir schœne sō vil freuden gīt,
  dā von diu herze stīgent hō.                                       125

  sunder leit
  kunnen sie wol friunden geben.
  swem sō sī
  witze bī,                                                          130
  der sol nāch ir hulden streben
  unde zinsen in sīn leben:
  daȥ rāte ich ūf die triwe mīn.
  swer ēren sælic welle sīn
  und rīche an hōhem muote,                                          135
  der sol mit triwen guotiu wīp
  reht minnen als sīn selbes līp.
  vil guot vor allem guote
  ist der wībe güete, unde ir schœne schœne ob aller schœne.
  ir schœne ir güete ir werdikeit ich immer gerne krœne.             140
  an ir schœne und an ir güete stāt mīn heil und ouch mīn wunne.
  wær’ guoter wībe schœne niht, wie selten ich gewunne
  deheinen ēren gernden muot.
  wol mich daȥ sie sint alsō guot,
  daȥ man hāt von ir güete                                           145
  sō hōhen trōst für senediu leit.
  ir schœne, ir güete, ir werdikeit
  gīt mir vil hōch gemüete.

    Mīn muot von wīben hōhe stāt.
  waȥ danne ob mir ir einiu hāt                                      150
  erzeiget hōhe missetāt?
  dēswār des mac wol werden rāt.

    Waȥ sie gegen mir hāt getān,
  daȥ wil ich gerne wiȥȥen lān
  mit zühten, als ich beste kan,                                     155
  ūf genāde guotiu wīp.
  ich hān ir driu und zehen jār
  gedienet sunder wenken gar,
  bī mīnen triwen, daȥ ist wār,
  daȥ in der zīt mīn seneder līp                                     160
  nie gewan
  sölhen wān,
  des mīn stæte wurde kranc.
  al mīn gir
  was gein ir                                                        165
  sleht mit triwen āne wanc.
  nu vert entwer ir habedanc
  reht als ein rat daȥ umbe gāt
  und als ein marder den man hāt
  in eine lin gebunden.                                              170
  kund’ ich als sie unstæte sīn,
  sō hæt’ ich nāch dem willen mīn
  ān sie ein frowen funden.

  Ē daz ich mīn ritterlīche stæte bræch’ an guoten wīben
  ich wold’ ē immer valscher wībe hulde vrī belīben.                 175
  ich muoȥ in der stæten wībe dienest sunder lōn verderben
  oder ich muoȥ ir stæten herzen liebe alsus erwerben
  daȥ ich gewenke nimmer wanc
  von in. ir hōhen habedanc,
  und mag ich den erringen,                                          180
  sō hān ich alleȥ daȥ ich wil,
  süeȥ’ ougen wunne, herzen spil,
  vil wunne an allen dingen.

    Nu waȥ bedarf mīn seneder līp
  genāden mēr, ob ich ein wīp                                        185
  ze frowen vinde alsō gemuot,
  diu sich vor wandel hāt behuot
  und niht wan daȥ beste tuot?
  der sol mīn dienest sīn bereit
  immer mē,                                                          190
  swie’ȥ ergē,
  sunder valsch mit stætikeit.
  dā von gewinne ich werdikeit
  und alsō freuderīchen sin,
  des ich getiuret immer bin                                         195
  an aller hande dingen.

    Vind’ ich sie, ich sol sō ritterlīchen nāch ir hulden ringen.
  daȥ mir von ir stætikeit muoȥ hō an ir gelingen.
  sie muoȥ abr ūf die triwe mīn
  gar vrī vor allem wandel sīn,                                      200
  diech mēr mich lāȥe twingen
  und ouch in kumber bringen.
  jā gehœret man mich nimmer mē
  deheines valschen wībes lop gesprechen noch gesingen.


  In dem lufte süeȥem meien,                 205
  sō der walt gekleidet stāt,
  sō siht man sich schōne zweien
  alleȥ daȥ iht liebes hāt,
  unde ist mit ein ander vrō.
  daȥ ist reht: diu zīt wil sō.              210

    Swā sich liep ze liebe zweiet,
  hōhen muot diu liebe gīt.
  in der beider herzen meiet
  eȥ mit vreuden alle zīt.
  trūrens wil diu liebe niht,                215
  swā man liep bī liebe siht.

    Swā zwei liep ein ander meinent
  herzenlīchen āne wanc
  und sich beidiu sō vereinent
  daȥ ir liebe ist āne kranc,                220
  die hāt got zesamne geben
  ūf ein wunneclīcheȥ leben.

    Stætiu liebe heiȥet minne.
  liebe, minne, ist al ein:
  die kan ich in mīnem sinne                 225
  niht gemachen wol zuo zwein.
  liebe muoȥ mir minne sīn
  immer in dem herzen mīn.

  Swā ein stæteȥ herze vindet
  stæte liebe, stæten muot,                  230
  dā von al sīn trūren swindet.
  stætiu liebe ist alsō guot
  daȥ sie stæte freude gīt
  stætem herzen alle zīt.

    Möhte ich stæte liebe vinden,            235
  der wold’ ich sō stæte sīn
  daȥ ich dā mit überwinden
  wolde gar die sorge mīn.
  stæter liebe wil ich gern
  unde unstæte gar verbern.                  240


  Disiu liet diu heiȥent vrowen tanz:
  diu sol niemen singen, er’n sī vrō.
  swer mit zühten treit der freuden kranz,
  und dem sīn muot stāt von wīben hō,
  dem erloube ich sie ze singen wol:                 245
  blīdeclīchen man sie tanzen sol.

    Trūren ist ze wāre niemen guot
  wan dem einen der sīn sünde klaget,
  hōhen lop erwirbet hōher muot.
  guoten wīben hōchmuot wol behaget:                 250
  dā von wil ich immer mēre sīn
  hōchgemuot durch dich, guot vrowe mīn.

    Vreude gibt mir dīn wol redender munt,
  hōhen muot dīn reine senfte sit’:
  vreuden tou mir ūȥ des herzen grunt                255
  kumt von dir in elliu mīniu lit.
  got hāt sīnen vlīȥ an dich geleit,
  dā von dī lop ēren krōne treit.

  Liehtiu ougen, dā bī brūne brā,
  hāstu und zwei rōtiu wängelīn.                     260
  schœne bistu hie und schœne dā.
  brūn rōt wīȥ, der drīer varwe schīn
  treit dīn hōchgeborner schœner līp.
  tugende hāstu vil, guot wīplīch wīp.

    Daȥ du alsō manege tugende hāst,                 265
  dā von bin ich alles trūrens vrī.
  sō du alsō schœniu vor mir gāst,
  sō ist mir als ich in dem himel sī.
  got sō schœnen engel nie gewan
  den ich für dich wolde sehen an.                   270





  The following extract is from Bartsch’s edition, Leipzig, 1879.

  Dō erbiten si der nahte / und fuoren über Rīn.
  von heleden kunde nimmer / wirs gejaget sīn.
  ein tier daȥ si dā sluogen, / daȥ weinden edeliu kint.
  jā muosen sīn engelten / vil guote wīgande sint.                     4

  Von grōȥer übermüete / muget ir hœren sagen,
  und von eislīcher rāche. / dō hieȥ Hagene tragen
  Sīfriden alsō tōten / von Nibelunge lant
  für eine kemenāten / dā man Kriemhilde vant.                         8

  Er hieȥ in tougenlīchen / legen an die türe,
  daȥ sin dā solde vinden / so si gienge derfüre
  him zer mettīne / ē daȥ eȥ wurde tac,
  der diu vrouwe Kriemhilt / vil selten keine verlac.                 12

  Man lūte dā zem münster / nāch gewoneheit.
  vrou Kriemhilt diu schœne / wahte manige meit:
  ein lieht bat si ir bringen / und ouch ir gewant.
  dō kom ein kamerære / dā er Sīfriden vant.                          16

  Er sah in bluotes rōten: / sīn wāt was elliu naȥ.
  daȥ eȥ sīn herre wære, / nine wesse er daȥ.
  hin zer kemenāten / daȥ lieht truog an der hant
  von dem vil leider mære / diu vrouwe Kriemhilt ervant.              20

  Dō si mit ir vrouwen / zem münster wolde gān,
  dō sprach der kamerære / ‘jā sult ir stille stān:
  eȥ līt vor dem gademe / ein ritter tōt erslagen.’
  dō begonde Kriemhilt / vil harte unmæȥlīche klagen.                 24

  Ē daȥ si rehte erfunde / daȥ iȥ wære ir man,
  an die Hagenen vrāge / denken si began,
  wie er in solde vristen: / dō wart ir ērste leit.
  von ir was allen vreuden / mit sīme tōde widerseit.                 28

  Dō seic si zuo der erden, / daȥ si niht ensprach:
  die schœnen vreudelōsen / ligen man dō sach.
  Kriemhilde jāmer / wart unmāȥen grōȥ:
  do ẹrschrē si nāch unkrefte / daȥ al diu kemenāte erdōȥ.            32

  Dō sprach daȥ gesinde: / ‘waȥ ob eȥ ist ein gast?’
  daȥ bluot ir ūȥ dem munde / von herzen jāmer brast.
  dō sprach si ‘eȥ ist Sīfrit, / der mīn vil lieber man:
  eȥ hāt gerāten Prünhilt, / daȥ eȥ hat Hagene getān.’                36

  Diu vrouwe bat sich wīsen / dā si den helt vant.
  si huop sīn schœne houbet / mit ir vil wīȥen hant.
  swie rōt eȥ was von bluote, / si het in schiere erkant.
  dō lac vil jæmerlīche / der helt von Nibelunge lant.                40

  Dō rief vil trūreclīche / diu küneginne milt:
  ‘owē mir mīnes leides! / nu ist dir dīn schilt
  mit swerten niht verhouwen: / du līst ermorderōt.
  unt wesse ich wer iȥ het getān, / ich riete im immer sīnen tōt.’    44

  Alleȥ ir gesinde / klagete und scrē
  mit ir lieben vrouwen, / wand’ in was harte wē
  umb’ ir vil edelen herren, / den si dā heten verlorn.
  dō het gerochen Hagene / harte Prünhilde zorn.                      48

  Dō sprach diu jāmerhafte: / ‘ir sult hine gān
  und wecket harte balde / die Sīfrides man.
  ir sult ouch Sigemunde / mīnen jāmer sagen,
  ob er mir helfen welle / den küenen Sīfriden klagen.’               52

  Dō lief ein bote balde / da ẹr si ligen vant,
  die Sīfrides helede / von Nibelunge lant.
  mit den vil leiden mæren / ir vreude er in benam.
  si wolden’ȥ niht gelouben / unz man daȥ weinen vernam.              56

  Der bote kom ouch schiere / dā der künic lac.
  Sigemunt der herre / des slāfes niht enpflac:
  ich wæn’ sīn herze im sagete / daȥ im was geschehen,
  ern möhte sīnen lieben sun / lebenden nimmer gesehen.               60

  ‘Wachet, herre Sigemunt. / mich bat nāch iu gān
  Kriemhilt mīn vrouwe. / der ist ein leit getān
  daȥ ir vor allen leiden / an ir herze gāt:
  daȥ sult ir klagen helfen, / wand’ eȥ iuch sēre bestāt.’            64

  Ūf rihte sich dō Sigemunt; / er sprach: ‘waȥ sint diu leit
  der schœnen Kriemhilde, / diu du mir hāst geseit?’
  der bote sprach mit weinen: / ‘ine kan iu niht verdagen:
  jā ist von Niderlanden / der küene Sīfrit erslagen.’                68

  Dō sprach der herre Sigemunt: / ‘lāt daȥ schimpfen sīn
  und alsō bœsiu mære / durch den willen mīn,
  daȥ ir daȥ saget iemen / daȥ er sī erslagen:
  wand’ ine kunde in nimmer / unz an mīn ende verklagen.’             72

  ‘Welt ir mir niht gelouben / daȥ ir mich hœret sagen,
  sō muget ir selbe hœren / Kriemhilde klagen
  unt alleȥ ir gesinde / den Sīfrides tōt.’
  vil sēre erscrac dō Sigemunt: / des gie im wærlīchen nōt.           76

  Mit hundert sīnen mannen / er von den betten spranc.
  si zuhten zuo den handen / diu scharpfen wāfen lanc,
  si liefen zuo dem wuofe / vil jāmerliche dan.
  dō kōmen tūsent recken / des küenen Sīfrides man.                   80

  Dō si sō jæmerlīche / die vrouwen hōrten klagen,
  dō wānden sumelīche, / si solden kleider tragen.
  janẹ mohten si der sinne / vor leide niht gehaben:
  in wart vil michel swære / in ir herzen begraben.                   84

  Dō kom der künec Sigemunt / da ẹr Kriemhilde vant.
  er sprach: ‘owē der reise / here in ditze lant.
  wer hāt mich mīnes kindes / und iuch des iuwern man
  bī alsō guoten friunden / sus mortlīch āne getān?’                  88

  ‘Hey solde ich den bekennen,’ / sprach daȥ vil edele wīp,
  ‘holt enwurde im nimmer / mīn herze unt ouch mīn līp:
  ich geriete im alsō leide / daȥ die friunde sīn
  von den mīnen schulden / müesen weinende sīn.’                      92

  Sigemunt der herre / den fürsten umbeslōȥ.
  dō wart von sīnen vriunden / der jāmer alsō grōȥ
  daȥ von dem starken wuofe / palas unde sal
  und ouch diu stat ze Wormeȥ / von ir weinen erschal.                96

  Donẹ kunde niemen trœsten / daȥ Sīfrides wīp.
  man zōch ūȥ den kleidern / den sīnen schœnen līp.
  man wuosch im sīne wunden / unt leit’ in ūf den rē.
  dō was sīnen liuten / von grōȥem jāmere wē.                        100

  Dō sprāchen sīne recken / von Nibelunge lant:
  ‘in sol immer rechen / mit willen unser hant.
  er ist in dirre bürge, / der iȥ hāt getān.’
  dō īlten nāch wāfen / alle Sīfrides man.                           104

  Die ūȥ erwelten degene / mit schilden kōmen dar,
  einlef hundert recken: / die hete an sīner schar
  Sigemunt der herre. / sīnes sunes tōt
  den wolde er gerne rechen: / des gie im wærlīchen nōt.             108

  Sinẹ wessen wen si solden / mit strīte dō bestān,
  sīne tæten’ȥ Gunther / unde sīne man,
  mit den der herre Sīfrit / an daȥ gejegede reit.
  Kriemhilt sach si gewāfent: / daȥ was ir grœȥlīche leit.           112

  Swie michel wær’ ir jāmer / und swie starc ir nōt,
  dō vorhte si harte / der Nibelunge tōt
  von ir bruoder mannen, / daȥ si eȥ understuont.
  si warnt’ si güetlīche / sō vriunde liebe vriunde tuont.           116

  Dō sprach diu jāmers rīche: / ‘mīn her Sigemunt,
  wes welt ir beginnen? / iu ist niht rehte kunt.
  jā hāt der künic Gunther / sō manigen küenen man:
  ir welt iuch alle vliesen, / welt ir die recken bestān.’           120

  Mit ūf erbürten schilden / in was ze strīte nōt.
  diu edel küneginne / bat und ouch gebōt
  daȥ siȥ mīden solden, / die recken vil gemeit.
  dō siȥ niht lāȥen wolden, / daȥ was ir wærlīchen leit.             124

  Si sprach: ‘herre Sigemunt, / ir sult iȥ lāȥen stān
  unz eȥ sich baȥ gefüege: / sō wil ich mīnen man
  immer mit iu rechen. / der mir in hāt benomen,
  wirde ich des bewīset, / ich sol im schedelīche komen.             128

  Eȥ ist der übermüeten / hie bī Rīne vil:
  dā von ich iu des strītes / rāten niht enwil.
  si habent wider einen / ie wol drīȥec man.
  nu lāȥ’ in got gelingen / als si umb uns gedienet hān.             132

  Ir sult hie belīben, / unt dolt mit mir diu leit;
  als iȥ tagen beginne, / ir helde vil gemeit,
  sō helfet mir besarken / den mīnen lieben man.’
  dō sprāchen die degene: / ‘daȥ sol werden getān.’                  136

  Iu enkunde niemen / daȥ wunder volsagen
  von rittern unt von vrouwen, / wie man die hōrte klagen,
  sō daȥ man des wuofes / wart in der stat geware.
  die edelen burgære / die kōmen gāhende dare.                       140

  Si klageten mit den gesten, / want in was harte leit.
  die Sīfrides schulde / in niemen het geseit,
  durch waȥ der edele recke / verlüre den sīnen līp.
  dō weinden mit den vrouwen / der guoten burgære wīp.               144

  Smide hieȥ man gāhen, / wurken einen sarc,
  von silber und von golde, / vil michel unde starc.
  man hieȥ in vaste spengen / mit stahel, der was guot.
  dō was al den liuten / harte trūrec der muot.                      148

  Diu naht was zergangen: / man sagte eȥ wolde tagen.
  dō hieȥ diu edele vrouwe / zuo den münster tragen
  Sīfrit den herren, / ir vil lieben man.
  swaȥ er dā vriunde hēte, / die sach man weinende gān.              152

  Dō sị in zem munster brāhten, / vil der gloken klanc.
  dō hōrt’ man allenthalben / vil maniges pfaffen sanc.
  dō kom der künic Gunther / mit den sīnen man
  und ouch der grimme Hagene / zuo dem wuofe gegān.                  156

  Er sprach: ‘vil liebiu swester, / owē der leide dīn,
  daȥ wir niht mohten āne / des grōȥen schaden sīn.
  wir müeȥen klagen immer / den Sīfrides līp.’
  ‘daȥ tuot ir āne schulde’, / sprach daȥ jāmerhafte wīp.            160

  ‘Wær’ iu dar umbe leide, / son wær’ es niht geschehen.
  ir hetet mīn vergeȥȥen, / des mag ich wol jehen,
  da ịch dā wart gescheiden / von mīme lieben man.
  daȥ wolde got’, sprach Kriemhilt, / ‘wær’ iȥ mir selber getān.’    164

  Si buten vaste ir lougen. / Kriemhilt begonde jehen
  ‘swelher sich unschuldige, / der lāȥe daȥ gesehen;
  der sol zuo der bāre / vor den liuten gēn.
  dā bī mac man die wārheit / harte schiere verstēn.’                168

  Daȥ ist ein michel wunder: / vil dicke eȥ noch geschiht,
  swā man den mortmeilen / bī dem tōten siht,
  sō bluotent im die wunden: / als ouch dā gescach.
  dā von man die sculde / dā ze Hagenen gesach.                      172

  Die wunden vluȥȥen sēre / alsam si tāten ē.
  die ē dā sēre klageten, / des wart nu michel mē.
  dō sprach der künic Gunther / ‘ich wil’ȥ iuch wiȥȥen lān.
  in sluogen schāchære: / Hagene hāt es niht getān.’                 176

  ‘Mir sint die schāchære’, / sprach si, ‘vil wol bekant.
  nu lāȥe eȥ got errechen / noch sīner vriunde hant.
  Gunther unde Hagene, / jā habet ir iȥ getān.’
  die Sīfrides degene / heten dō ze strīte wān.                      180

  Dō sprach aber Kriemhilt: / ‘nu habt mit mir die nōt.’
  dō kōmen dise beide / dā si in funden tōt,
  Gērnōt ir bruoder / und Gīselher daȥ kint.
  in triuwen si in klageten / mit den anderen sint.                  184

  Si weinden inneclīche / den Kriemhilde man.
  man solde messe singen: / zuo dem münster dan
  giengen allenthalben / man wīp unde kint.
  die sīn doch līhte enbāren, / die weinden Sīfriden sint.           188

  Gērnōt und Gīselher / sprāchen: ‘swester mīn,
  nu trœste dich nāch tōde, / als iȥ doch muoȥ sīn.
  wir wellen dich’s ergetzen / die wīle unt wir geleben.’
  donẹ kunde ir trōst deheinen / zer werlde niemen gegeben.          192

  Sīn sarc der was bereitet / wol umbe’n mitten tac.
  man huop in von der bāre / dā er ūfe lac.
  in wolde noch diu frouwe / lāȥen niht begraben.
  des muosen al die liute / michel arebeite haben.                   196

  In einen rīchen pfellel / man den tōten want.
  ich wæne man dā iemen / āne weinen vant.
  dō klagete herzenlīche / Uote, ein edel wīp,
  und alleȥ ir gesinde / den sīnen wætlīchen līp.                    200

  Dō man daȥ gehōrte, / daȥ man zem münster sanc,
  unt in gesarket hēte, / dō huop sich grōȥ gedranc:
  durch willen sīner sēle / waȥ opfers man dō truoc!
  er hete bī den vīnden / doch guoter vriunde genuoc.                204

  Kriemhilt diu arme / zir kameræren sprach:
  ‘si suln durch mīne liebe / līden ungemach,
  die im iht guotes günnen / und mir wesen holt;
  durch Sīfrides sēle / sol man teilen sīn golt.’                    208

  Dehein kint was sō kleine / daȥ witze mohte haben,
  daȥ muose gēn zem opfer. / ē ẹr wurde begraben,
  baȥ danne hundert messe / man dā des tages sanc.
  von Sīfrides vriunden / wart dō grōȥer gedranc.                    212

  Dō man dā hete gesungen, / daȥ volc huop sich von dan.
  dō sprach diu vrouwe Kriemhilt / ‘irn sult niht eine lān
  hīnte mich bewachen / den ūȥ erwelten degen.
  eȥ ist an sīme lībe / al mīn vreude gelegen.                       216

  Drī tage und drī nahte / wil ich in lāȥen stān,
  unz ich mich geniete / mīns vil lieben man.
  waȥ ob daȥ got gebiutet / daȥ mich ouch nimet der tōt?
  sō wære wol verendet / mīn armer Kriemhilde nōt.’                  220

  Zen herbergen giengen / die liute von der stat.
  pfaffen unde müniche / si belīben bat
  und alleȥ sīn gesinde, / daȥ des heldes pflac.
  si heten naht vil arge / unt vil müelīchen tac.                    224

  Ān eȥȥen und ān trinken / beleip dā manic man.
  die eȥ nemen wolden, / den wart daȥ kunt getān,
  daȥ man’s in den vollen gæbe: / daȥ schuof Sigemunt.
  dō was den Nibelungen / vil michel arebeite kunt.                  228

  Die drīe tagezīte, / sō wir hœren sagen,
  die dā kunden singen, / daȥ si muosen tragen
  vil der arebeite. / waȥ man in opfers truoc!
  die vil arme wāren, / die wurden rīche genuoc.                     232

  Swaȥ man vant der armen / die es niht mohten hān,
  die hieȥ man doch zem opfer / mit dem golde gān
  ūȥ sīn selbes kamere. / do ẹr niht solde leben,
  umbe sīne sēle / wart manic tūsent marc gegeben.                   236

  Urbor ūf der erden / teilte s’in diu lant,
  swā sō man diu klōster / und guote liute vant.
  silber unde wæte / gap man den armen gnuoc.
  si tet dem wol gelīche / daȥ sim holden willen truoc.              240

  An dem dritten morgen / ze rehter messezīt
  sō was bī dem münster / der kirchof alsō wīt
  von den lantliuten / weinens alsō vol:
  si dienden im nāch tōde / als man lieben vriunden sol.             244

  In den tagen vieren, / man hāt gesaget daȥ,
  ze drīȥec tūsent marken, / oder dannoch baȥ,
  wart durch sīne sēle / den armen dā gegeben.
  dō was gelegen ringe / sīn grōȥiu schœne und ouch sīn leben.       248

  Dō gote dā wart gedienet / und daȥ man vol gesanc,
  mit ungefüegem leide / vil des volkes ranc.
  man hieȥ in ūȥ dem münster / zuo dem grabe tragen.
  die sīn ungern enbāren, / die sah man weinen unde klagen.          252

  Vil lūte scrīende / daȥ liut gie mit im dan:
  vrō enwas dā niemen, / weder wīp noch man.
  ē daȥ man in begrüebe, / man sanc unde las:
  hey waȥ guoter pfaffen / ze sīner pīfilde was!                     256

  Ē daȥ zem grabe kœme / daȥ Sīfrides wīp,
  dō ranc mit solhem jāmer / der ir getriuwer līp,
  daȥ man si mit dem brunnen / vil dicke dā vergōȥ.
  eȥ was ir ungemüete / vil harte unmæȥlīchen grōȥ.                  260

  Eȥ was ein michel wunder / daȥ si ie genas.
  mit klage ir helfende / manic vrouwe was.
  dō sprach diu küneginne: / ‘ir Sīfrides man,
  ir sult durch iuwer triuwe / an mir genāde begān.                  264

  Lāt mir nāch mīme leide / daȥ kleine liep geschehen,
  daȥ ich sīn schœne houbet / noch eines müeȥe sehen.’
  dō bat si’s alsō lange / mit jāmers sinnen starc,
  daȥ man zebrechen muose / den vil hērlīchen sarc.                  268

  Dō brāhte man die vrouwen / dā si in ligen vant.
  si huop sīn schœne houbet / mit ir vil wīȥen hant;
  dō kuste s’ alsō tōten / den edelen ritter guot.
  ir vil liehten ougen / vor leide weineten bluot.                   272

  Ein jæmerlīcheȥ scheiden / wart dō dā getān.
  dō truoc man si von dannen: / sine mohte niht gegān.
  dō vant man sinnelōse / daȥ hērlīche wīp.
  vor leide möht’ ersterben / der ir vil wünneclīcher līp.           276

  Dō man den edelen herren / hete nu begraben,
  leit āne māȥe / sah man die alle haben
  die mit im komen wāren / von Nibelunge lant.
  vil selten vrœlīchen / man dō Sigemunden vant.                     280

  Dō was der etelīcher / der drīer tage lanc
  vor dem grōȥem leide / niht aȥ noch entranc.
  doch mohten si dem lībe / sō gar geswīchen niht:
  si nerten sich nāch sorgen, / sō noch genuogen geschiht.           284



  Wolfram von Eschenbach was a native of Bavaria. Of his life little
  is known, not even the exact dates of his birth and death. He
  flourished in the latter part of the twelfth and early part of the
  thirteenth century, and was by far the best and most extensive
  representative of the Court epic poetry. He is best known by his
  Parzival, which contains 24,812 lines divided up into sixteen books.
  The following extract is taken from Book III. For editions of his
  works, see Lachmann, Wolfram von Eschenbach, Berlin, 1833, fifth
  edition, Berlin, 1891; Bartsch, Wolfram’s von Eschenbach Parzival
  und Titurel, Leipzig, 1875.

    Sich zōch diu frouwe jāmers balt
  ūȥ ir lande in einen walt,
  zer waste in Soltāne;
  niht durch bluomen ūf die plāne,
  ir herzen jāmer was sō ganz,                         5
  sinẹ kērte sich an keinen kranz,
  er wære rōt oder val.
  sie brāhte dar durch flühtesal
  des werden Gahmuretes kint.
  liute, die bī ir dā sint,                           10
  müeȥen būwen unde riuten.
  sie kunde wol getriuten
  ir sun. ē daȥ sich der versan,
  ir volc sie gar für sich gewan:
  eȥ wære man oder wīp,                               15
  den gebōt sie allen an den līp,
  daȥ se iemer rīters wurden lūt.
  ‘wan friesche daȥ mīns herzen trūt,
  welch rīters leben wære,
  daȥ wurde mir vil swære.                            20
  nu habet iuch an der witze kraft,
  und helt in alle rīterschaft.’

    Der site fuor angestlīche vart.
  der knappe alsus verborgen wart
  zer waste in Soltāne erzogen,                       25
  an küneclīcher fuore betrogen;
  eȥ ẹnmöhte an eime site sīn:
  bogen unde bölzelīn
  die sneit er mit sīn selbes hant,
  und schōȥ vil vogele die er vant.                   30
  swenne ab er den vogel erschōȥ,
  des schal von sange ē was sō grōȥ,
  sō weinde er unde roufte sich,
  an sīn hār kērt’ er gerich.
  sīn līp was klār unde fier:                         35
  ūf dem plān am rivier
  twuog er sich alle morgen.
  er’n kunde niht gesorgen,
  eȥ ẹnwære ob im der vogelsanc,
  die suoȥe in sīn herze dranc:                       40
  daȥ erstracte im sīniu prüstelīn.
  al weinde er lief zer künegīn.
  sō sprach sie ‘wer hāt dir getān?
  du wær’ hin ūȥ ūf den plān.’
  er’n kunde es ir gesagen niht,                      45
  als kinden līhte noch geschiht.
  dem mære gienc sie lange nāch.
  eins tages sie in kapfen sach
  ūf die boume nāch der vogele schal.
  sie wart wol innen daȥ zeswal                       50
  von der stimme ir kindes brust.
  des twang in art und sīn gelust.
  frou Herzeloyde kērte ir haȥ
  an die vogele, sine wesse um waȥ:
  sie wolte ir schal verkrenken.                      55
  ir būliutẹ und ir enken
  die hieȥ sie vaste gāhen,
  vogele würgen unde vāhen.
  die vogele wāren baȥ geriten:
  etslīches sterben wart vermiten:                    60
  der bleip dā lebendic ein teil,
  die sīt mit sange wurden geil.

    Der knappe sprach zer künegīn
  ‘waȥ wīȥet man den vogelīn?’
  er gerte in frides sā zestunt.                      65
  sīn muoter kuste in an den munt:
  diu sprach ‘wes wende ich sīn gebot,
  der doch ist der hœhste got?
  suln vogele durch mich fröude lān?’
  der knappe sprach zer muoter sān                    70
  ‘owē muoter, waȥ ist got?’
  ‘sun, ich sage dir’ȥ āne spot.
  er ist noch liehter denn’ der tag,
  der antlitzes sich bewac
  nāch menschen antlitze.                             75
  sun, merke eine witze,
  und flēhe in umbe dīne nōt:
  sīn triwe der werlde ie helfe bōt.
  sō heiȥet einẹr der helle wirt:
  der ịst swarz, untriuwe in niht verbirt.            80
  von dem kēr’ dīne gedanke,
  und och von zwīvels wanke.’
  sīn muoter underschiet im gar
  daȥ vinster unt daȥ lieht gevar.
  dar nāch sīn snelheit verre spranc.                 85
  er lerntẹ den gabylōtes swanc,
  dā mite er manegen hirz erschōȥ:
  des sīn muoter und ir volc genōȥ.
  eȥ wære æber oder snē,
  dem wilde tet’ sīn schieȥen wē.                     90
  nu hœret fremdiu mære.
  swenne er’rschōȥ daȥ swære,
  des wære ein mūl geladen genuoc,
  als unzerworht hin heim er’ȥ truoc.

    Eins tages gieng er den weideganc                 95
  an einer halden, diu was lanc:
  er brach durch blates stimme ‘en zwīc.
  dā nāhen bī im gienc ein stīc:
  dā hōrt’ er schal von huofslegen.
  sīn gabylōt begund’er wegen:                       100
  dō sprach er ‘waȥ hān ich vernomen?
  wan wolte et nu der tiuvel komen
  mit grimme zorneclīche!
  den bestüende ich sicherlīche.
  mīn muoter freisen von im saget:                   105
  ich wæne ir ellen sī verzaget.’
  alsus stuont er in strītes ger.
  nu seht, dort kom geschūftet her
  drī rīter nāch wunsche var,
  von fuoȥe ūf gewāpent gar.                         110
  der knappe wānde sunder spot,
  daȥ ieslīcher wære ein got.
  dō stuont ouch er niht langer hie,
  in’ȥ phat viel er ūf sīniu knie.
  lūte rief der knappe sān                           115
  ‘hilf, got: du maht wol helfe hān.’
  der vorder zornes sich bewac,
  dō der knappe im phade lac:
  ‘dirre tœrsche Wāleise
  unsich wendet gāher reise.’                        120
  ein prīs den wir Beier tragen,
  muoȥ ich von Wāleisen sagen:
  die sint tœrscher denne beiersch her,
  und doch bī manlīcher wer.
  swer in den zwein landen wirt,                     125
  gefuoge ein wunder an im birt.

    Dō kom geleischieret
  und wol gezimieret
  ein rīter, dem was harte gāch.
  er reit in strīteclīchen nāch,                     130
  die verre wāren von im komen:
  zwēn’ rīter heten im genomen
  ein’ frouwen in sīm’ lande,
  den helt eȥ dūhte schande:
  in müetẹ der juncfrouwen leit,                     135
  diu jæmerlīche vor in reit.
  dise drī wāren sīne man.
  er reit ein schœne kastelān:
  sīns schildes was vil wēnic ganz.
  er hieȥ Karnahkarnanz                              140
  leh cons Ulterlec.
  er sprach ‘wer irret uns den wec?’
  sus fuor er zuome knappen sān.
  den dūhte er als ein got getān:
  er’n het’ ē sō liehtes niht erkant.                145
  ūfẹm towe der wāpenroc erwant.
  mit guldīn schellen kleine
  vor ietwederem beine
  wārn die stegreife erklenget
  unt ze rehter māȥe erlenget.                       150
  sīn zeswer arm von schellen klanc,
  swar er’n bōt oder swanc.
  der was durch swertslege sō hel:
  der helt was gein prīse snel.
  sus fuor der fürste rīche,                         155
  gezimiert wünneclīche.

    Aller manne schœne ein bluomen kranz,
  den vrāgte Karnahkarnanz
  ‘junchērre, sāht ir für iuch varen
  zwēn’ rīter die sich niht bewaren                  160
  kunnen an rīterlīcher zunft?
  sie ringent mit der nōtnunft
  und sint an werdekeit verzaget:
  sie füerent roubes eine maget.’
  der knappe wānde, swaȥ er sprach,                  165
  eȥ wære got, als ime verjach
  frou Herzeloyd’ diu künegīn,
  do s’im underschiet den liehten schīn.
  dō rief er lūte sunder spot
  ‘nu hilf mir, helfe rīcher got.’                   170
  vil dicke viel an sīn gebet
  fil li roy Gahmuret.
  der fürste sprach ‘ich pin niht got,
  ich leiste ab gerne sīn gebot.
  du maht his vier rīter sehen,                      175
  ob du ze rehte kundest spehen.’
  der knappe frāgte fürbaȥ
  ‘du nennest rīter: waȥ ist daȥ?
  hāstu niht gotelīcher kraft,
  sō sage mir, wer gīt rīterschaft.’                 180
  ‘daȥ tuot der künec Artūs.
  junchērre, komet ir in des hūs,
  der bringet iuch an rīters namen,
  daȥ ir’s iuch niemer durfet schamen.
  ir muget wol sīn von rīters art.’                  185
  von den helden er geschouwet wart:
  dō lac diu gotes kunst an ime.
  von der āventiurẹ ich daȥ nime,
  diu mich mit wārheit des beschiet:
  nie mannes varwe baȥ geriet                        190
  vor ime sīt Adāmes zīt.
  des wart sīn lop von wīben wīt.

    Aber sprach der knappe sān
  dā von ein lachen wart getān.
  ‘ay rīter got, waȥ mahtu sīn?                      195
  du hāst sus manec vingerlīn
  an dīnen līp gebunden,
  dort oben unt hie unden.’
  aldā begreif des knappen hant
  swaȥ er īsers ame fürsten vant:                    200
  des harnasch begunder schouwen.
  ‘mīner muoter juncfrouwen
  ir vingerīn an snüeren tragent,
  diu niht sus an ein ander ragent.’
  der knappe sprach durch sīnen muot                 205
  ‘war zuo ist ditze guot,
  daȥ dich sō wol kan schicken?
  i’ne mages niht abe gezwicken.’
  der fürste im zeigete sā sīn swert:
  ‘nu sich, swer an mich strītes gert,               210
  des selben wer ich mich mit slegen:
  für die sīne muoȥ ich an mich legen,
  und für den schuȥ und für den stich
  muoȥ ich alsus wāpen mich.’
  aber sprach der knappe snel                        215
  ‘ob die hirze trüegen sus ir vel,
  son’ verwunt’ ir niht mīn gabylōt.
  der vellet manger vor mir tōt.’

    Die rīter zurnden daȥ er hielt
  bi dem knappen der vil tumpheit wielt.             220
  der fürste sprach ‘got hüete dīn.
  ōwī wan wær’ dīn schœne mīn!
  dir hete got den wunsch gegeben,
  ob du mit witzen soldest leben.
  diu gotes kraft dir virre leit.’                   225
  die sīne und och er selbe reit,
  unde gāheten balde
  z’einem velde in dem walde.
  dā vant der gefüege
  frōn Herzeloyden phlüege.                          230
  ir volke leider nie geschach;
  die er balde eren sach:
  si bẹgunden sæn, dar nāch egen,
  ir gart ob starken ohsen wegen.
  der fürste in guoten morgen bōt,                   235
  und frāgte sẹ, op sie sæhen nōt
  eine juncfrouwen līden,
  sine kunden niht vermiden,
  swes er vrāgt’, daȥ wart gesaget.
  ‘zwēne rīter und ein maget                         240
  dā riten hiute morgen.
  diu frouwe fuor mit sorgen:
  mit sporen sie vaste ruorten,
  die die juncfrouwen fuorten.’
  eȥ was Meljahkanz.                                 245
  den ergāhte Karnachkarnanz,
  mit strīte er ime die frouwen nam:
  diu was dā vor fröuden lam.
  sie hieȥ Īmāne
  von der Bēāfontāne.                                250

    Die būliute verzageten,
  dō die helde für sie jageten.
  sie sprāchen ‘wie’st uns sus geschehen?
  hāt unser junchērre ersehen
  ūf disen rītern helme schart,                      255
  sonẹ hān wir uns niht wol bewart.
  wir sulen der küneginne haȥ
  von schulden hœren umbe daȥ,
  wand’ er mit uns dā her lief
  hiute morgen dō sie dannoch slief.’                260
  der knappe enruochte ouch wer dō schōȥ
  die hirze kleine unde grōȥ:
  er huop sich gein der muoter wider,
  und sagete ir mær’. dō viel sie nider:
  sīner worte sie sō sēre erschrac,                  265
  daȥ sị unversunnen vor im lac.
  dō diu küneginne
  wider kom z’ir sinne,
  swie sie dā vor wær’ verzaget,
  dō sprach sie ‘sun, wer hāt gesaget                270
  dir von rīters orden?
  wā bist du’s innen worden?’
  ‘muoter, ich sach vier man
  noch liehter danne got getān:
  die sageten mir von rīterschaft.                   275
  Artūses küneclīchiu kraft
  sol mich nāch rīters ēren
  an schildes ambet kēren.’
  sich huop ein niuwer jāmer hie.
  diu frouwe enwesse rehte, wie                      280
  daȥ sie ir den list erdæhte
  unde in von dem willen bræhte.

    Der knappe tump unde wert
  iesch von der muoter dicke ein pfert.
  daȥ begunde sẹ in ir herzen klagen.                285
  sie dāhte ‘i’n wil im niht versagen:
  eȥ muoȥ aber vil bœse sīn.’
  dō gedāhte mēr diu künegīn
  ‘der liute vil bī spotte sint.
  tōren kleider sol mīn kint                         290
  ob sīme liehten lībe tragen.
  wirt er geroufet unt geslagen,
  sō kumet er mir her wider wol.’
  ōwē der jæmerlīchen dol!
  diu frouwe nam ein sactuoch:                       295
  sie sneit im hemede unde bruoch,
  daȥ doch an eime stücke erschein,
  unz enmitten an sīn blankeȥ bein.
  daȥ wart für tōren kleit erkant.
  ein gugel man obene drūfe vant.                    300
  al frisch rūch kelberīn
  von einer hūt zwei ribbalīn
  nāch sīnen beinen wart gesniten.
  dā wart grōȥ jāmer niht vermiten.
  diu künegīn was alsō bedāht,                       305
  sie bat belīben in die naht.
  ‘dunẹ solt niht hinnen kēren,
  ich wil dich list ē lēren.
  an ungebanten strāȥen
  soltu tunkel fürte lāȥen:                          310
  die sīhte unde lūter sīn,
  dā solte al balde rīten īn.
  du solt dich site nieten,
  der werelde grüeȥen bieten.
  ob dich ein grā wīse man                           315
  zuht wil lērn als er wol kan,
  dem soltu gerne volgen,
  und wis im niht erbolgen.
  sun, lā dir bevolhen sīn,
  swa du guotes wībes vingerlīn                      320
  mügest erwerben unt ir gruoȥ,
  daȥ nim: eȥ tuot dir kumbers buoȥ.
  du solt z’ir kusse gāhen
  und ir līp vast’ umbevāhen:
  daȥ gīt gelücke und hōhen muot,                    325
  op sie kiusche ist unde guot.
  du solt och wiȥȥen, sun mīn,
  der stolze küene Lähelīn
  dīnen fürsten abe ervaht zwei lant,
  diu sollen dienen dīner hant,                      330
  Wāleis und Norgāls.
  ein dīn fürste Turkentals
  den tōt von sīner hende enphienc:
  dīn volc er sluoc unde vienc.’
  ‘diz riche ich, muoter, ruocht es got:             335
  in verwundet noch mīn gabylōt.’

    Des morgens dō der tag erschein,
  der knappe balde wart enein,
  im was gein Artūse gāch.
  frou Herzeloyde in kuste und lief im nāch.         340
  der werelde riuwe aldā geschach.
  dō sie ir sun niht langer sach
  (der reit enwec: wem’st deste baȥ?),
  dō viel diu frouwe valsches laȥ
  ūf die erde, aldā sie jāmer sneit                  345
  dō daȥ se ein sterben niht vermeit.
  ir vil getriulīcher tōt
  der frouwen wert’ die hellenōt.
  ōwol sie daȥ se ie muoter wart!
  sus fuor die lōnes bernden vart                    350
  ein wurzel der güete
  und ein stam der diemüete.
  ōwē daȥ wir nu niht enhān
  ir sippe unz an den eilften spān!
  des wirt gevelschet manec līp.                     355
  doch solten nu getriuwiu wīp
  heiles wünschen disem knaben,
  der sich hie von ir hāt erhaben.


  [Transcriber’s Note:
  Notes to the prose passages are identified by numbers [1]-[6].
  The following bracketed sentence is from the original text.]

[The references refer to the paragraphs in the Grammar.]


[1] p. 79, l. 13. {werdent sehende}, will see.

[2] p. 79, l. 19. {daȥ si anders niht enpflæge}, see §§102, 108.

[3] p. 81, l. 34. {von sō getāner freude}, of joy of such a beautiful


[4] p. 83, l. 26. {mege}, pres. subj. of {mac}, see §93.

[5] p. 85, l. 15. {sempervrīen}, from {sentbærevrīen}, the highest class
of freemen.

[6] p. 85, l. 17. {miter} = {mitter(e)}, _aj. nom. pl._, middle, see
§9, 2.


l. 6. {im}, is reflexive, see §§66, 104.

ll. 24-5. That this one (er) may pray to God for the salvation of
Heinrich’s soul.

l. 31. {ze Swāben} = in the country of the Swabians, i.e. Swabia.

l. 38. {ze handen haben}, possess.

l. 50. {versworn}, _pp._ of {verswern}, §86.

l. 101. {des muge wir}: {des} is dependent on {ein wāreȥ bilde}; for
{muge}, see §74, note.

l. 106. {sehent} = {sehet}, imperative.

l. 133-4. {dō . . . alrēst}, as soon as.

l. 164. {eime} = {eineme}, see §9, 3.

l. 190. {gnislich} = {genislich}, cp. §9, 7.

l. 239. {für die selben frist}, since then.

ll. 240-1. no longer any hopes of being healed.

l. 257. {sich abe tuon}, renounce, resign.

l. 351. {getwelte}, had dwelt, see §106.

ll. 372-3. The construction is {sō ze Salerne vil meister} (_gen._) {von
arzenīen ist}, see §102.

l. 376. {kunde} for {kundet}.

l. 486. {es} _gen._ is dependent on {niht}.

l. 547. {sich ein dinc an nemen}, to take a thing to heart.

l. 591. {mohter} = {mohte er}, see §65, note 3.

l. 621. {die wīle daȥ}, so long as.

l. 640. {wan} = {waȥ ne}, why not.

l. 756. {verswīge wir} is the imperative, cp. also note to l. 101.

l. 846. {dīme} = {dīneme}, see §9, 3.


l. 144. {kond} _pret._ of {kan}.

ll. 174-5. They would imagine themselves ruined if they did not exercise
a stern rule. On the omission of the negative see §108.

l. 178. {tiuschiu zunge}, German language, i.e. Germany.

l. 182. {bekērā}, see {ā} in the Glossary.

l. 185. {Philippe} is _dative_; {en} = {den}.

l. 187. {man . . . wībe} are the _gen. plural_.

l. 214. {guoter} is _gen. plural_.

l. 232. {bluomen . . . wunder}, a great multitude of flowers.

l. 250. {daȥ sie schiere got gehœne!} may God curse them soon.

l. 255. {Der uns freude wider bræhte}, if anyone would bring us joy

l. 285. {bien} = {bī den}.

l. 292. {weder ir}, which of the two.

l. 308. {hōhste} (weak form) {name}, the most beautiful _or_ precious

l. 429. {du lā dir niht ze wē sīn nāch dem guote}, do not worry yourself
too much about wealth.

ll. 475-6. Very many call thee father, who will not recognize me as
their brother.

ll. 498-9. See Extracts from Reinmar, ll. 184-192.


l. 33. {Liutpolt}: Duke Leopold VI of Austria.

l. 75. {bekan} = {bekam}.


l. 28. {sīme} = {sīneme}, see §9,3; {widerseit} = {widersaget}, §37.

l. 32. {nāch unkrefte}, after she had regained her consciousness.

l. 37. {bat sich wīsen}, asked them to lead her to.

l. 43. {ermorderōt}, older form of _pp._ of {ermordern}, see §88, note.

l. 88. {āne tuon}, with _gen._ and _acc._, bereave, rob.

l. 92. {weinende sīn} = {weinen}, see §106.

l. 213. {huop sich von dan}, betook themselves away.


l. 17. that they should never mention the word ‘knight’. On the omission
of the negative see §108.

l. 42. {weinde} = {weinende}, see §29.

ll. 83-4. The mother explained to him fully the difference between
darkness and light, i.e. between the Devil and God.

l. 141. {leh cons} = {le (li) cons}, the Count.

ll. 157-8. K. asked him, who was the perfection of human beauty.

l. 172. {fil li roy}, son of the king.

l. 243. Supply {ros} as object.



  _sm._, _sf._, _sn._, = strong masculine, &c.
  _sv._ = strong verb.
  _wm._, _wf._, _wn._, = weak masculine, &c.
  _wv._ = weak verb.
  _pret.-pres._ = preterite-present.
  _pn._ = proper name.

  The remaining abbreviations need no explanation.

  The Roman numeral after a verb indicates the class to which the
  verb belongs. The ordinary numerals after a word indicate the
  paragraph in the Grammar where the word either occurs or some
  peculiarity of it is explained.


  {ā}, _interj._ added to the imperative, nouns, and particles;
    {neinā}, certainly not.
  {ab}, {abe}, _prep. c. dat._ of, from;
    _av._ away, away from, 9.6.
  {aber}, {abr}, {ab}, _av._ and _cj._ again, once more, but;
    {aber sprëchen}, answer, reply.
  {acker}, _sm._ field, acre, 9.2, 31.2, 42.
  {Adām}, _pn._ Adam.
  {adamas}, _sm._ diamond.
  {æber}, _sn._ place where the snow has melted away.
  {ænic} (with _gen._), _aj._ bereft.
  {äher} (OHG. {ahir}), _sn._ ear of corn.
  {aht(e)}, _num._ eight, 62.
  {aht(e)}, _sf._ attention, meditation; station, position.
  {ahtede}, _num._ eighth, 62.
  {ahten}, _wv._ observe, consider, deliberate.
  {ah(t)zëhen}, _num._ eighteen, 62.
  {ah(t)zëhende}, _num._ eighteenth, 62.
  {ah(t)zic} ({-ec}), _num._ eighty, 62.
  {ah(t)zigeste}, _num._ eightieth, 62.
  {al} (_infl._ {aller}, {alleȥ}, {alliu} ({älliu}, {elliu})), _aj._
    {al dā}, there, thereupon;
    {al dō}, as soon as;
    {al ein}, all one, the same;
    {aller hande}, of all kinds;
    {alle wëge}, everywhere, 55.
  {aleine}, _av._ alone.
  {allenthalben}, _av._ on all sides.
  {allertegelīch}, _av._ daily.
  {alleȥ}, _av._ always, already.
  {allmahtic} ({almähtic}, {almehtic}), _aj._ all-powerful, almighty.
  {almuosen}, _sn._ alms, charity.
  {alrēst} = {aller ērst}, at first.
  {als}, see {alsō}.
  {alsam}, _av._ as, just as, 69.
  {alsō} ({alse}, {als}), _av._ as, just as, so, likewise, 69;
    {alse dar}, always, all the time.
  {alsolch} = {solch}.
  {alsus} ({alsust}), _av._ in this manner, so, thus.
  {alt}, _aj._ old, former, 10, 57.
  {alter}, _sn._ age.
  {alwære}, _aj._ foolish.
  {alze}, _av._ too, too much.
  {alzehant}, _av._ on the spot, at once, immediately.
  {am} = {an dëm}.
  {ambet}, _sn._ service, office, calling.
  {anblic}, _sm._ look.
  {ander}, _num._ and _pr._ other, second, 55, 62, 71.
  {anders}, _av._ otherwise, else;
    {niht anderswan}, nothing but.
  {anderswar}, _av._ elsewhere.
  {ane} ({an}), _prep. c. dat._ or _acc._ on, by, in; of;
      along with; until, 9.6;
    {an dën līp}, by (their) life, on the penalty of (their) life;
    {an dër stat}, at once, on the spot.
  {āne} ({ān}), _av._ alone, free, deprived of;
    {eines āne wërden}, to lose;
    _cj._ except;
    _prep. c. acc._ or _gen._ without, except, next to.
  {ange}, _av._ narrowly, exactly, carefully, anxiously, 9.7.
  {anger}, _sm._ grass plot.
  {angesiht}, _sf._ sight.
  {angest}, _smf._ care, sorrow, anxiety.
  {anges(t)lich}, _aj._ anxious, fearful, dangerous, terrible.
  {anme}, {amme}, {ame}, {am} = {an dëme}, 68, note 2.
  {ansëhen}, _sv._ V, look at, behold.
  {anst} (_pl._ {enste}), _sf._ favour, 49.
  {antlütze}, {antlitze}, _sn._ face, countenance.
  {antwürten} (_pret._ {antwurte}), _wv._ answer.
  {apfel}, _sm._ apple, 31, 2.
  {ar}, _wm._ eagle, 9.1, 50.
  {arbeit} ({arebeite}), _sf._ work, trouble, grief.
  {arbeitsam}, _aj._ painful, troublesome.
  {arc} ({-ges}), _aj._ bad, mischievous, wicked.
  {arm}, _aj._ poor, helpless, unhappy, 57.
  {arm}, _sm._ arm.
  {armuot}, _sf._ poverty, want.
  {art}, _smf._ inborn manner, nature, quality; origin, descent.
  {Artūs}, _pn._ Arthur, king of Britain.
  {arzāt}, _sm._ physician.
  {arzenīe}, _sf._ medicine, remedy.
  {ās}, _sn._ carrion, 28.
  {ātem}, _sm._ breath, 42.
  {āventiure}, _sf._ wonderful event
  {ay}, _interj._ ah! alas!


  {bābest}, _sm._ pope.
  {bāgen}, _sv._ VII, quarrel, 87.
  {bal} ({-lles}), _sm._ ball.
  {balde}, _av._ boldly, bravely, valiantly; quickly;
    {balde wërden enein}, be quickly resolved.
  {balt}, _aj._ courageous, full of courage, firm, unyielding.
  {baltlīch}, _aj._ courageous.
  {bange}, _aj._ anxious, 9.7.
  {bannen}, _sv._ VII, banish, expel, put under the ban, 87.
  {bar}, _aj._ bare, 55.
  {bāre}, _sf._ bier.
  {bat} ({-des}), _sn._ bath, flood of tears.
  {baȥ}, _av._ better, more, 61;
    {baȥ geriten}, quicker;
    {baȥ veile}, of less value;
    {wëm’st deste baȥ?}, who feels joy at this parting?
  {Bēāfontāne}, _pn._
  {bedāht}, _p.p._ thoughtful, intent.
  {bēde} = {beide}.
  {bedecken} (_pret._ {-dacte}, {-dahte}), _wv._ cover, 90.
  {bedenken} (_pret._ {-dāhte}, _subj. pret._ {-dæhte}), think over,
    {sich dës willen bedenken}, decide upon a thing.
  {bediuten}, _wv._ expound;
    _refl._ mark, denote.
  {bedrieȥen}, _sv._ II, seem troublesome _or_ irksome.
  {bedunken} (_pret._ {-dūhte}), _wv._ seem, appear.
  {bedurfen}, {bedürfen} (_pr. sing._ {-darf}), _pret. pres._, need,
    see {durfen}.
  {begān}, _anom. v._ to do a thing;
    _refl._ live;
    see {gān}.
  {begieȥen}, _sv._ II, pour over, moisten.
  {beginnen}, _sv._ III (_pret._ also weak {begunde}, {begonde}),
      begin, 81.
  {begraben}, _sv._ VI, bury, inter.
  {begrīfen}, _sv._ I, grasp, understand.
  {begunder} = {begunde ër}.
  {behagen}, _wv._ please, delight, suit.
  {behalten}, _sv._ VII, hold, keep, preserve, reserve, store up.
  {beherten}, _wv._ harden, enforce.
  {behüeten}, _wv._ keep, preserve, protect.
  {behuot}, _p.p._ of {behüeten}.
  {beide} ({bēde}), _num._, _neut._ {beidiu}, both;
    {beide--und}, both--and.
  {beidenthalben}, _av._ on both sides.
  {Beier}, _pn._ people of Bavaria, Bavarians.
  {beier(i)sch}, _aj._ Bavarian.
  {bein}, _sn._ bone, leg, 5, 11.
  {beiten}, _wv._ wait;
    _sn._ a waiting.
  {bejagen}, _wv._ acquire, get.
  {bejëhen}, _sv._ V, assure.
  {bekan} = {bekam}.
  {bekennen} (_pret._ {-kante}), _wv._ know, recognize, get to know.
  {bekēren}, _wv._ employ, turn;
    {bekēren sich}, turn round.
  {bekomen}, _sv._ IV, get, obtain.
  {belīben} ({blīben}), _sv._ I, remain, 9.7, 76;
    {under wëgen belīben}, be left undone, cease.
  {beliuhten}, _wv._ illumine, explain, make manifest.
  {benamen} = {bī namen}, in the true sense of the word.
  {benëmen}, _sv._ IV, take, take away;
    _c. gen._ exempt.
  {berāten}, _sv._ VII, consider, arrange, provide for;
    _refl._ consider, reflect.
  {bërc} ({-ges}), _sm._ mountain.
  {bereit} ({bereite}), _aj._ ready, willing;
    _av._ readily, willingly, 55.
  {bereiten} (_pret._ {-reite}), _wv._ plough, make arable, prepare,
      make ready.
  {bërgen}, _sv._ III, hide, 81.
  {bërn}, _sv._ IV, bear, carry, bring forth, 9.1, 19, 82.
  {bern} (_pret._ {berte}), _wv._ beat, strike.
  {berouben}, _wv._ bereave, rob.
  {berüeren}, _wv._ touch, move.
  {besarken} ({beserken}), _wv._ put into the coffin.
  {beschëhen}, _sv._ V, happen.
  {bescheiden}, _sv._ VII, make clear, explain.
  {bescheiden} ({bescheidenlīch}), _aj._ sensible, prudent.
  {bescheidenheit}, _sf._ understanding, sense, prudence.
  {bescheidenlīchen}, _av._ definitely, clearly, sensibly.
  {beschern}, _wv._ bestow upon, divide, let out.
  {bëseme}, _wm._ besom; rod.
  {besitzen} (_pret._ {-saȥ}), _sv._ V, take possession of.
  {beslieȥen}, _sv._ II, close, shut.
  {besorgen}, _wv._ provide, be conscious of; requite.
  {bestān}, _anom. v._ remain; attack, assail;
    {einen bestān}, concern, belong to.
  {beste}, _aj._ and _av._ best, 9.5, 23.1, 61.
  {besunder}, _av._ apart.
  {beswærde}, _sf._ affliction, grief, sadness.
  {beswæren}, _wv._ afflict, grieve.
  {beswern} (_pret._ {-swuor}, _pp._ {-sworn}), _sv_. VI, take an oath,
      swear to.
  {bëte}, _sf._ request, command.
  {bëten}, _wv._ pray, 92.
  {betrahten}, _wv._ view, consider.
  {betriegen}, _sv._ II, deceive.
  {betrüeben}, _wv._ make gloomy _or_ angry.
  {bette}, _sn._ bed, 10, 46.
  {bettestat}, _sf._ couch, place of rest.
  {bevëlhen}, _sv._ III, order, recommend;
    bring home to a person, 19, 34, 81.
  {bevinden}, _sv._ III, become sensible of, get to know.
  {bewachen}, _wv._ watch, guard.
  {bewarn}, _wv._ protect, guard against, preserve;
    avert, ward off, prevent.
  {bewëgen} ({sich} with _gen._), _sv._ V, resolve to _or_ upon,
      take upon oneself; part with, cast off.
  {bewenden} (_pp._ {-want}), _wv._ turn to, use.
  {bewīsen}, _wv._ put right, inform, instruct.
  {beȥȥer} (_superl._ {beȥȥest}, {beste}), _aj._ better, 58.
  {beȥȥern}, _wv. refl._ get better, improve.
  {beȥȥerunge}, _sf._ improvement, 8.
  {bī}, _prep._ and _av._ near, near by, with, beside; thereby;
    {bī sīn} with _dat._ of person: be near, have;
    {bī mīnen triuwen}, in truth, upon my word!;
    {bī mīnen zīten}, during my lifetime;
    {bī spotte sīn}, like mockery;
    {bī wësen}, remain.
  {bibenen} ({biben}, _pp._ {bibent}), _wv._ quake, tremble.
  {biderbe}, _aj._ noble, active, good.
  {biegen}, _sv._ II, bow, bend, 5, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 33, 78.
  {bien} = {bī dën}.
  {bieten}, _sv._ II, offer, show, 5, 11, 18, 25, 78.
  {bilde}, _sn._ example, comparison.
  {bilden}, _wv._ form.
  {billich}, _aj._ becoming, right.
  {billīchen}, _av._ rightly, properly, befittingly.
  {bin}, am, 97.
  {binden}, _sv._ III, bind, fasten, 10 note 2, 11, 12, 15, 33, 81;
    {wol gebunden}, with the hair neatly braided and decked out.
  {bir}, _swf._ pear, 50.
  {bīten}, _sv._ I, wait, put off, delay, 76.
  {bit(t)en} (_pret._ {bat}), _sv._ V, ask, beg, request, command,
      3, 26, 31.3, 84.
  {bitter}, _aj._ bitter, 20, 31.2, 55.
  {bitterlīch}, _aj._ bitter, 8.
  {bitterlīchen}, _av._ bitterly.
  {biȥ}, _sm._ bite, 44.
  {bīȥen}, _sv._ I, bite, 5, 19, 76.
  {blā} ({-wes}), _aj._ blue, 36, 55.
  {blanc}, _aj._ white, shining, beautiful.
  {blāsen}, _sv._ VII, blow, 87.
  {blat}, _sn._ leaf.
  {blī} ({-ges}), _snm._ lead, 35.
  {blīben} = {belīben}.
  {blic} ({-ckes}), _sm._ glance, look; splendour.
  {blīdeclīchen}, _av._ blithely, joyfully.
  {blint} ({-des}), _aj._ blind, 7, 9.2, 55, 56.
  {bliuwen}, _sv._ II, strike, 16 note, 19, 36, 79.
  {blōȥ}, _aj._ bare, naked; only.
  {blüejen}, {blüewen}, {blüen}, _wv._ bloom, 19, 35, 90.
  {blüemen}, _wv._ bloom, 90.
  {bluome}, _wmf._ flower, blossom.
  {bluot}, _sn._ blood.
  {bluoten}, _wv._ bleed.
  {boc} ({-ckes}), _sm._ he-goat, 10, 32.1.
  {böcklīn}, _sn._ little he-goat, 10.
  {bœse}, _aj._ bad, worthless, despicable.
  {boge}, _wm._ bow.
  {bölzelīn}, _sn._ little cross-bow, bolt _or_ arrow.
  {borgen}, _wv._ borrow.
  {bote}, _wm._ messenger, 51.
  {bougen}, {böugen}, _wv._ bend, 10.
  {boum}, _sm._ tree.
  {bōȥen}, _sv._ VII, beat, strike, 87.
  {brā} ({brāwe}), _swf._, brow, eyebrow; eyelash, 48.
  {brāten}, _sv._ VII, roast, 87.
  {brëchen}, _sv._ IV, break, pluck, gather; neglect, 82.
  {breit}, _aj._ wide, broad.
  {brennen}, _wv._ burn, 10, 11, 90.
  {bresten}, _sv._ IV, break, burst, be deficient, want, lack, 19.
  {brief} ({-ves}), _sm._ letter, 33, 44.
  {bringen} (_pret._ {brāhte}, _pret. subj._ {bræhte}), bring,
      28, 29, 91;
    {sich bringen lāȥen}, let oneself be brought;
    {vür bringen}, carry out.
  {brinnen}, _sv._ III, burn, 81.
  {briuwen}, _sv._ II, brew, 16 note, 79.
  {brœde}, _aj._ breakable, perishable.
  {brōt}, _sn._ bread.
  {brugge}, {brügge} ({brucke}, {brücke}), _sf._ bridge, 10 note 3,
      26, 31.3.
  {brūn}, _aj._ brown; dark-coloured.
  {brunne}, _wm._ spring, well, brook.
  {bruoch}, _sf._ covering for the upper part of the thigh.
  {bruoder}, _sm._ brother, 3, 5, 11, 24, 25, 45.
  {brust} (_pl._ {bruste}, {brüste}), _sf._ breast, bosom,
      10 note 3, 49.
  {brūt} (_pl._ {briute}), bride, 5, 10, 11.
  {bū} ({-wes}), _smn._ cultivated land; farmhouse;
    dwelling, abode, 42.
  {büechlīn}, _sn._ little book, 10.
  {būman} (_pl._ {būliute}), _sm._ peasant, farmer, farm labourer.
  {buoch}, _sn._ book, 10.
  {buosem}, _sm._ bosom, 9.2.
  {buoȥ}, _sm._ remedy, compensation, reparation;
    {buoȥ tuon} _c gen._, free from, liberate from.
  {būr}, _sm._ peasant.
  {burc} ({-ge}), _sf._ castle, town, 10 note 1, 49.
  {burgære}, _sm._ citizen, parishioner.
  {burt}, _sf._ birth, of good family.
  {butze}, _wm._ hobgoblin, bug-bear;
    {in butzen wīs}, like a ghostly hobgoblin.
  {būwen}, {biuwen} (_pret._ {biute}), _wv._ till, cultivate, plant.


  For {c} see {k}.


  {dā}, {dār}, _av._ there, where, 39, 69;
    {dā mite}, therewith;
    {dā von}, thereby;
    {dā vor}, before it _or_ that;
    {dā zuo}, thereby, therewith, thereto.
  {dach}, _sn._ covering, 31.3.
  {dagen}, _wv._ be silent, 92.
  {dahte}, see {decken}.
  {danc} ({-kes}), _sm._. thanks, wish;
    {sunder} _or_ {an’ mīnen danc}, against my wish.
  {danken}, _wv._ thank, 9.2.
  {danne}, {denne} ({dan}), _av._ then;
    _after the comparative_, than as;
    in conditional sentences with or without {ne} = unless.
  {dannen}, _av._ from there, thence; wherefrom, 69.
  {dannoch} ({dennoch}), _av._ however, even, still;
    besides, in addition to this; moreover.
  {dar}, {dare}, _av._ thither, whither, 69;
    {dar an}, thereon, in that, therein;
    {dar für}, before it;
    {dar nāch}, thereupon, after that;
    {dar umbe}, therefore, 69;
    {dar under}, amongst them, in between;
    {dar zuo}, besides, in addition.
  {dārinne}, {darinne}, _av._ therein.
  {daȥ} _cj._ that.
  {dechein}, _pr._ no, none, 71.
  {decken} (_pret._ {dacte}, {dahte}), _wv._ cover, 23.2, 31.3,
      32.2, 90.
  {dëgen}, _sm._ warrior, vassal, 11.
  {dehein}, {dekein}, _pr._ any one; no, none, 71.
  {deich} = {daȥ ich}.
  {deist} = {daȥ ist}.
  {denen} ({dennen}), _wv._ stretch, 92.
  {denken} (_pret._ {dāhte}), think, 5, 11, 28, 29, 91.
  {denne} = {danne}.
  {dennoch}, see {dannoch}.
  {dër}, {daȥ}, {diu}, _def. art._, _dem. pr._, and _rel. pr._, the,
      who; 9.6, 68, 69;
    {dës}, _av._ with which, thereby, therefore, wherefore.
  {derfüre}, _av._ out.
  {dernider}, _av._ down.
  {dërst} = {dër ist}.
  {dēst}, {deis}, {dēs} = {daȥ ist}, 68 note 1.
  {deste}, _av._ the more, all the more;
    _before comparatives_, the, so much, 11.
  {dēswār} (= {daȥ ist wār}), _av._ truly, in truth, indeed.
  {dewëder}, {dwëder}, _pr._ one of two, neither of two, 71.
  {deȥ} = {daȥ}.
  {dic} ({dicke}), _aj._ thick, dark, 55;
    _av._ {dicke}, often;
    {dicke baȥ}, often still better.
  {die} = Middle Germ. form of {dër}.
  {diech} = {daȥ ich}.
  {diemüete}, _sf._ humility.
  {dien} = {die en}.
  {dienen}, _wv._ serve, earn, deserve; requite, 9.2, 92.
  {dienest} ({dienst}), _sm._ service, serviceableness; devotion, 9.2;
    {ze dienste}, out of devotion.
  {dienstman}, _sm._ servant, feoffee.
  {diep} ({-bes}), _sm._ thief;
    {ze diebe wërden}, become a thief.
  {dieȥen}, _sv._ II, resound, roar, rush, 18, 78.
  {dīhen} (_pret._ {dēch}, _pp._ {gedigen}), _sv._ I, thrive,
      17, 30, 76.
  {dīn}, _pr._ thy, 9.3, 67.
  {dinc} ({-ges}), _sn._ thing, affair, 46.
  {dingen}, _wv._ speak, make a contract.
  {dirre}, {diser}, {dise} (_neut._ {ditze}, {diz}, {diȥ};
      _fem._ {disiu}), _pr._ this, 68.
  {diuhen}, _wv._ change, remove; press, shove.
  {diuten}, _wv._ intimate, relate, display.
  {diuwe} ({diw}), _sf._ servant, 48.
  {dō}, {do}, _av._ and _cj._ then, when, as, 69.
  {doch}, _av._ yet, however, nevertheless.
  {dol}, _sf._ suffering, pain, distress, misery, 48.
  {doln}, _wv._ endure, tolerate, suffer, 90.
  {dōn}, {tōn} (_pl._ {dœne}), _sm._ sound, melody, song.
  {donreslac} ({-ges}), _sm._ thunder-clap, lightning,
  {dorf} (_pl._ {dörfer}), _sn._ village, hamlet, 10.
  {dorn}, _sm._ thorn, 24.
  {dörperlīch}, _aj._ peasant-like, rustic.
  {dort}, _av._ there, yonder.
  {douwen}, {döuwen}, _wv._ digest, 10.
  {dræjen} ({dræn}), _wv._ turn, 35, 90.
  {drāte}, _av._ quickly, immediately;
    {alsō drāte}, directly, forthwith.
  {dreschen}, _sv._ IV, thrash, 11, 82.
  {drī} (_neut._ {driu}), _num._ three, 62, 63;
    {drīer hande}, of three kinds.
  {dringen}, _sv._ III, press, throng, shoot up, also _sn._, 81;
    {für sich dringen}, press forwards, spread.
  {drīstunt}, _av._ thrice.
  {dritte}, {drite}, _num._ third, 26, 62.
  {drīvaltic}, _aj._ threefold.
  {drīȥic} ({-ec}), _num._ thirty, 62.
  {drīzëhen}, _num._ thirteen, 62.
  {drīzëhende}, _num._ thirteenth, 62.
  {drīȥigeste}, _num._ thirtieth, 62.
  {drouwe} ({drowe}, {drō}), _sf._ threat, threatening.
  {drouwen}, {dröuwen}, _wv._ threaten, 3, 10.
  {drucken}, {drücken}, _wv._ press, 10 note 3, 90.
  {drūfe} = {dar ūfe}.
  {drumb(e)}, _av._ to that end, therefore.
  {drunder} = {dar under}.
  {dū}, {du}, _pr._ thou;
    _gen._ {dīn};
    _dat._ {dir};
    _acc._ {dich};
    _pl. nom._ {ir};
    _gen._ {iuwer};
    _dat._ {iu};
    _acc._ {iuch}, 65.
  {dulden}, _wv._ endure.
  {dūme}, _wm._ thumb.
  {dunken}, {dünken} (_pret._ {dūhte}, _pret. subj._ {diuhte}), seem,
      appear, 5, 10 note 2, 11, 29, 91;
    {sich ze nihte dunken}, to imagine oneself undone.
  {dünne}, _aj._ thin, 5, 10, 11, 55.
  {durch} ({dur}), _prep._ through, on account of, for, for the sake
      of, 34;
    {dur daȥ}, on this account, for that reason, therefore;
    {durch plates stimme}, for drawing sounds _or_ notes from the
      leaf; for making a whistling sound on the leaf;
    {durch sīnen muot}, through his (childish) mind.
  {durfen}, {dürfen} (_pres. sing._ {darf}, _pret._ {dorfte},
      _pret. subj._ {dörfte}), _pret. pres._ need, 16, 93.
  {durftige}, _wm._ beggar, one in want of help.
  {dūȥ} = {du ëȥ}.


  {ē, ēr}, _av._ formerly, rather, sooner, before, 39, 61
  {ëben}, _aj._ even, 55, 60.
  {ëbene}, _av._ evenly, smoothly, well-fitting, 60.
  {ecke}, _swf., sn._ corner, 31, 3.
  {edel(e)}, _aj._ and _av._ noble, 60.
  {edelinc}, _sm._ son of a nobleman, 8.
  {edeln}, _wv._ ennoble.
  {egen}, _wv._ harrow.
  {egeslīch} ({eislīch}), _aj._ fearful, terrible, 37.
  {ëht} ({ē̆t}, {ō̆t}), _av._ only; even, at any rate, 34.
  {ei} (_pl._ {eijer}, {eiger}, {eier}), _sn._ egg, 35, 47
  {ei}, _interj._ ah.
  {eiden}, _wv._ take an oath, pledge.
  {eigen}, _aj._ own, 55.
  {eigen}, _sn._ property;
    {ze eigen gëben}, present.
  {eilfte}, _aj._ eleventh, 62.
  {ein}, _num._ and _indef. art._ one; a, an, 9.3, 62, 63;
    _indef, pr._ one, some one, 71.
  {einander}, _pr._ one another.
  {eine}, _av._ alone.
  {eines}, _av._ once.
  {einic} ({-ec}), _aj._ only, single.
  {einlif}, {einlef} ({eilif}), _num._ eleven, 62.
  {ei(n)lifte} ({eilfte}), _num._ eleventh, 62.
  {eischen}, _sv._ VII, ask, demand.
  {eislīch}, see {egeslīch}.
  {eit} ({-des}), _sm._ oath.
  {element}, _sn._ element.
  {ēlīch}, _aj._ legal, conjugal.
  {ellen}, _sn._courage, valour; manliness.
  {ellenboge}, _wm._ elbow.
  {ellenden}, _wv._ go abroad.
  {ellich}, _aj._ universal, constant.
  {elter}, _aj._ older.
  {eltlīch}, _aj._ elderly, old.
  {emphëlhen}, _sv._ III, recommend, 81.
  {emzekeit}, _sf._ activity, diligence, industry.
  {en}, _neg. particle_, generally used before the verb with or
      without {niht} after the verb, _not_.
    {en} in subordinate sentences with the subjunctive, _unless_,
      _if not_, _except that_, _when that_, _that not_, &c.
  {en} = {in}; shortened form of {dën}.
  {enbërn}, _sv._ IV, be without a thing, do without.
  {enbieten}, _sv._ II, bid, announce, summon.
  {enblanden}, _sv._ VII, let be painful _or_ irksome to.
  {enblecken}, _wv._ make visible, expose.
  {ende}, _sn._ end.
  {endelīchen}, _av._ throughout, entirely.
  {enden}, _wv._ end, finish.
  {enein} = {in ein}.
  {enge}, _aj._ narrow, 55.
  {enge}, _sf._ narrow place, strait, difficulty.
  {engel}, _sm._ angel, 9.2, 42.
  {Engellant}, _pn._ England, 54.
  {engëlten}, _sv._ III, pay, requite.
  {enges(t)līch}, _aj._ anxious, timid, dangerous.
  {enke}, _wm._ man who tends the cattle.
  {enmitten}, _av._ in the midst;
    {enmitten dō}, during, whilst.
  {enpfāhen}, {enpfān}, _sv._ VII, accept, receive.
  {enpfallen}, _sv._ VII, pass away, perish.
  {enpfinden}, _sv._ III, perceive, become conscious of.
  {enpflëgen}, _sv._ V, care for, cherish.
  {enphëlhen}, _sv._ III, order, recommend, 81.
  {entrinnen}, _sv._ III, escape.
  {entsagen}, _wv._ free, remove, withdraw.
  {entseben} ({-seven}), _sv._ VI, perceive, 86.
  {entsetzen}, _wv._ bereave, rob.
  {entslāfen}, _sv._ VII, fall asleep.
  {en(t)springen}, _sv._ III, spring up, shoot up, shoot forth.
  {entstān}, _sv._ VI, understand.
  {entwër}, {entwërch}, _av._ athwart; perversely.
  {entwësen}, _sv._ V, be without, do without.
  {entwīchen}, _sv._ I, yield, go away.
  {enwëc}, _av._ away.
  {enzīt}, _av._ by times, soon.
  {enzünden}, _wv._ light, kindle.
  {enzwischen}, _prep._ between.
  {ër}, {si} ({sī}, {siu}, {sie}), {ëȥ}, _pr._ he, she, it;
    _gen._ {sīn} ({ës}), {ir}, {ës};
    _dat._ {im(e)}, {ir}, {im(e)};
    _acc._ {in}, {sie} ({si}, {sī}), {ëȥ} ({iȥ});
    _pl. nom. acc._ {si}, {sī}, {sie}, _neut._ also {siu};
    _gen._ {ir(e)};
    _dat._ {in}, 65.
  {ērbære}, _aj._ honourable, decent, modest.
  {erbarmen}, _wv._ move to pity.
  {erbe}, _sn._ inherited property, inheritance.
  {erbeit} = {arbeit}.
  {erbeiten}, _wv._ work, have trouble;
    _c. gen._ wait for.
  {erbëlgen}, _sv._ III, become angry, grow angry.
  {erben}, _wv._ be hereditary, descend from generation to generation.
  {erbieten}, _sv._ II, show, manifest.
  {erbīten}, _sv._ I, wait.
  {erbleichen}, _wv._ become pale.
  {erbolgen}, _pp._ angered, angry with.
  {erbürn}, _wv._ raise, lift up.
  {ërde}, _wf._ earth, world, 14.2.
  {erdenken} (_pret._ {erdāhte}, _pret. subj._ {erdæhte}), _wv._
      think out, devise, contrive.
  {ërderīch} = {ërtrīch}.
  {erdieȥen}, _sv._ II, resound, re-echo.
  {erdringen}, _sv._ III, gain by force.
  {erdröuwen}, _wv._ compel by threats.
  {ēre}, _wf._ honour, renown, 11.
  {ēren}, _wv._ honour.
  {ērest}, {ērste}, _aj._ first, 59.
  {ergāhen}, _wv._ overtake, go to meet.
  {ergān}, _sv._ VII, come out, happen.
  {erge}, _sf._ wickedness.
  {ergëben}, _sv._ V, submit, devote.
  {ergetzen}, _wv._ cause to forget, compensate.
  {ergrīfen}, _sv._ I, seize.
  {erhāhen}, {erhān}, _sv._ VII, hang.
  {erheben}, _sv_. VI, raise;
    _refl._ rise.
  {erhœren}, _wv._ hear.
  {erkalten}, _wv._ become cold.
  {erkant}, _aj._ known.
  {erkennelich}, _aj._ well-known, renowned.
  {erkennen} (_pret._ {-kante}, {-kande}), _wv._ recognize, perceive,
      understand; know.
  {erkiesen}, _sv._ II, elect, select, choose.
  {erklengen}, _wv._ make resonant _or_ sonorous.
  {erlāȥen}, {erlān}, _sv._ VII, release, forgive.
  {erlengen}, _wv._ lengthen.
  {erleschen}, _sv._ IV, extinguish.
  {erlīden}, _sv._ I, suffer.
  {erlouben}, {erlöuben}, _wv._ allow, permit, 10.
  {erlœsen} (_pp._ {erlōst}), _wv._ remove, free, deliver.
  {ermordern}, _wv._ murder.
  {ern}, {eren}, {erren} (_pret._ {ier}, _pp._ {gearn}), _sv._ VII,
      till, plough, 87.
  {ërn} = {ër ne}.
  {ernern}, _wv._ rescue, heal, cure.
  {erniuwen}, _wv._ renew.
  {ërnst}, _sm._ fervour.
  {errëchen}, _sv._ IV, avenge.
  {ērrer}, {ērre}, {ërre}, _aj._ former, 59.
  {erringen}, _sv._ III, gain, obtain, get.
  {erscheinen}, _wv._ show, make to appear.
  {erschëllen}, _sv._ III, resound.
  {erschieȥen}, _sv._ II, shoot, shoot through, pierce to death.
  {erschīnen}, _sv._ I, appear; dawn.
  {erschrëcken}, _sv._ IV, frighten, become frightened;
    _refl. c. gen._ become frightened at.
  {erschrīen} (_pret._ {-schrē}), _sv._ I, shriek, cry out.
  {ersëhen}, _sv._ V, see, perceive.
  {erslahen}, {erslān}, _sv._ VI, slay, kill.
  {ēr(e)st}, {ērste}, _av._ at first, so soon as, 61.
  {ērste}, _num._ first, 9.5, 62.
  {erstërben}, _sv._ III, die.
  {erstrecken} (_pret._ {erstracte}), _wv._ expand, spread out.
  {ërtrīch} ({ërderīch}), _sn._ earth, world.
  {ertrinken}, _sv._ III, drown, perish.
  {ervëhten}, _sv._ IV, gain by fighting;
    with {abe} and _dat._: win _or_ gain from by fighting.
  {ervinden}, _sv._ III, experience, get to know.
  {ervollen}, _wv._ become full.
  {ervröuwen}, _wv._ rejoice, make glad.
  {erwachen}, _wv._ awake.
  {erwecken} (_pret._ {-wahte}), _wv._ waken, awaken.
  {erweln}, _wv._ elect, choose.
  {erwërben}, _sv._ III, reach, attain, acquire, beget.
  {erwern}, _wv._ prevent, hinder.
  {erwinden}, _sv._ III, turn round; be thrown back, be reflected.
  {erzeigen}, _wv._ show, prove.
  {erziehen}, _sv._ II, bring up, educate.
  {esche}, _wf._ ash.
  {ët}, {ēt} = {ëht}.
  {etelīch}, {eteslīch} ({etlīch}, {etslīch}), _pr._ many a one,
      any one;
    _pl._ some, 71.
  {etewër}, {eteswër}, _pr._ any _or_ some one;
    _neut._ {etewaȥ}, anything, something, 70, 71.
  {ettewanne} ({eteswenne}, {ettewenne}), _av._ sometimes.
  {ēvangēlium}, _sn._ gospel.
  {ēwic}, _aj._ everlasting.
  {ēwiclīchen}, _av._ ever, everlastingly.
  {ëȥ}, _pr._ it, 65.
  {ëȥȥen} (_pp._ {gëȥȥen}), _sv._ V, eat, 9.7, 19, 20, 23.1, 28, 83.


  For {f} see {v}.


  {gābe}, _sf._ gift.
  {gabylōt}, {gabilōt}, _sn._ small javelin _or_ dart.
  {gāch} ({-hes}), _aj._ quick, rapid, 55;
    {gāch wësen} (with _dat._ of pers.), be in a hurry;
    {mir ist gāch}, I hasten;
    _gen._ {gāhes} as _av._
  {gadem}, _sn._ room, bed-room; house, 46.
  {gæhe}, _aj._ quick, hasty.
  {gāhelōs}, _aj._ fickle, wanton.
  {gāhen}, {gæhen}, _wv._ hasten, hurry.
  {Gahmuret}, _pn._ the name of Parzival’s father.
  {galge}, _wm._ gallows, scaffold.
  {galle}, _swf._ gall, bitterness, grief.
  {gan}, see {gunnen}.
  {gān}, {gēn}, _sv._ VII, go, 87, 95;
    {umbe gān}, go _or_ turn round.
  {ganz}, _aj._ whole, entire, complete, 19, 60.3.
  {ganzlīche(n)}, _av._ completely, 60.3.
  {gar} ({-wes}), _aj._ ready, prepared, 9.1, 36, 55.
  {gar}, _av._ fully, entirely, completely.
  {gart}, _sm._ goad, whip.
  {gartenære}, _sm._ gardener, 8.
  {gast} (_pl._ {geste}), stranger, guest, 3, 5, 10, 11, 44.
  {gearbeiten}, _wv._ work.
  {gebærde}, _sf._ countenance.
  {gebāren}, _wv._ behave, conduct oneself.
  {gëbe}, _sf._ gift, 7, 48.
  {gebeine}, _sn._ bones, remains.
  {gëben}, _sv._ V, give, grant, 5, 12, 14.2, 25, 28, 33, 83.
  {gëben}, _pp._ = {gegëben}.
  {gebende}, _sn._ head-dress.
  {gebët}, _sn._ prayer.
  {gebieten}, _sv._ II, order, command.
  {gebot}, _sn._ command, order, commandment.
  {gebrëchen} = {brëchen}.
  {gebreste}, _wm._ defect, waste.
  {gebresten} = {bresten}.
  {gebüeȥen}, _wv._ atone for, improve.
  {gebūre}, _wm._ peasant, citizen.
  {geburt}, _sf._ birth, noble birth.
  {gedagen}, _wv._ keep silent.
  {gedanc}, _sm._ thought, 44.
  {gedanken} = {danken}.
  {gedenken} (_pret._ {-dāhte}), _wv._ think, intend, strive;
    bear in mind, remember.
  {gedienen}, _wv._ earn, deserve, obtain.
  {gedīhen} ({gedīen}), _sv._ I, thrive, speed well, advance.
  {gedinge}, _wm._ or _sfn._ hope, confidence; thought; contract.
  {gedingen}, _wv._ negotiate.
  {gedranc} ({-ges}), _sm._ thronging, crowd.
  {gedulde}, {gedult}, _sf._ patience.
  {gedulteclīchen}, _av._ patiently.
  {gedultic} ({-ec}), _aj._ patient, indulgent, 10 note 1.
  {gedultikeit}, _sf._ patience.
  {geenden}, _wv._ end, finish.
  {gefüege}, _aj._ befitting, suitable, seemly.
  {gefuoge}, _sf._ fitness, good breeding.
  {gegān} = {gān}.
  {gegëben} = {gëben}.
  {gëgen} ({gein}), _prep._ against, opposite to, towards, to;
    at, for, 37.
  {gegihte}, _sn._ gout, cramp.
  {gegrüeȥen}, _wv._ greet, salute.
  {gehaben} (_refl._), _wv._ be, fare, feel.
  {geheiȥen}, _sv._ VII, promise; call, name.
  {gehëlfen} = {hëlfen}.
  {gehenge}, _sf._ permission.
  {gehiure}, _aj._ lovely, charming, gracious.
  {gehœnen}, _wv._ dishonour, abuse, revile, curse.
  {gehœren}, _wv._ hear.
  {gehōrsam(e)}, _sf._ obedience.
  {geil}, _aj._ joyous, joyful, gay.
  {geist}, _sm._ spirit, mind, ghost.
  {gejegede}, _sn._ hunt.
  {geklopfen}, _wv._ knock.
  {gël} ({-wes}), _aj._ yellow, 55.
  {gelāȥ}, _snm._ formation, figure, shape.
  {gelëben}, _wv._ live, live to see.
  {geleischiert}, _pp._ with or having the reins of the horse slack;
    see {leischieren}.
  {geleisten} = {leisten}.
  {geleit} = {geleget}.
  {geleite}, _sn._ protection, retinue;
    _wm._ attendant, companion.
  {gëlf} ({gëlph}), _aj._ shining; merry, insolent.
  {gelīch} ({glīch}), _aj._ like, same, straight, even, 9.7;
    _av._ {gelīche}, equally, in like manner.
  {gelīchen}, _refl. wv._ be like, be equal; resemble.
  {gelieben}, _wv._ love, make dear, please.
  {geligen}, _sv._ V, succumb, be ruined.
  {gelimpfen}, _wv._ be meet, 23.2.
  {gelingen}, _sv._ III, succeed, 81;
    {mir gelingt wol}, I have good success.
  {gelit}, {glit} ({-des}), _sn._ member, 9.7.
  {geloube}, _wm._ faith.
  {gelouben}, {gelöuben}, _wv._ believe, think, 10, 33, 90.
  {gëlt} ({-des}), _sn._ money.
  {gëlten}, _sv._ III, pay, requite; procure, 9.4 note, 81.
  {gelücke}, _sn._ good fortune, happiness.
  {gelust}, _sm._ wish, desire; joy, pleasure.
  {gemach}, _smn._, rest, ease; bedroom.
  {gemachen}, _wv._ make.
  {gemahele}, _wf._ bride.
  {gemeine}, _aj._ common, familiar.
  {gemeit}, _aj._ happy, joyful.
  {gemēren}, _wv._ increase.
  {gemīden}, _sv._ I, avoid, keep at a distance.
  {gemīten}, _sv._ I, shun, avoid.
  {gemüete}, _sn._ disposition, desire, longing; heart.
  {gemuot}, _aj._ minded, disposed, inclined.
  {genāde}, {gnāde}, _sf._ grace, favour, kindness, 9.7;
    in addressing a person: be gracious;
    {genāde sagen}, thank;
    {ūf genāde}, graciously.
  {genādelōs}, _aj._ unhappy, without grace.
  {genāden}, _wv._ to thank.
  {genædic}, _aj._ gracious, merciful.
  {genæme}, _aj._ beloved, dear, pleasant.
  {genanne}, {gnanne}, _wm._ namesake, 9.7.
  {genësen}, _sv._ V, recover, become well _or_ free, 30, 83.
  {genieten}, _wv. refl._ rejoice, be glad, become satisfied with.
  {genieȥen}, _sv._ II _c. gen._, enjoy, have advantage of;
    make use of, use as food.
  {genisbære}, _aj._ healable, curable.
  {genislīch}, _aj._ healable, curable.
  {genist}, _sf._ recovery.
  {genōȥ}, _sm._ companion.
  {genōȥen} ({hin ze}), _wv._ compare, compare with.
  {genüegen}, _wv._ be sufficient, suffice;
    {mich genüeget dës}, that is enough for me.
  {genuoc}, {gnuoc}, _aj._ and _av._ enough, 9.7;
    _pl._ many;
    as _indecl. sb._ with _gen._ enough.
  {genüogen} = {genüegen}.
  {gequeln}, _wv._ plague, torment.
  {gër}, {gir}, _sf._ longing, eager desire.
  {gerāde}, {grāde}, _aj._ quick, 9.7.
  {gerāten} (_pret._ {-riet}), _sv._ VII, advise; come at;
    prosper, thrive, succeed.
  {gerëch}, {grëch}, _aj._ straight, 9.7.
  {gerich}, _sm._ revenge, vengeance.
  {gerihte}, _sn._ jurisdiction.
  {gerinclīchen}, _av._ small, easily.
  {geringen}, _sv._ III, struggle, strive.
  {geriute}, _sn._ arable land.
  {geriuwen}, _wv._ repent, lament.
  {gërn} (with _gen._ and _dat._), _wv._ long for, yearn for, desire,
      want, hanker after.
  {gërne}, _av._ willingly, gladly.
  {gerte}, _swf._ rod.
  {gerūmen}, _wv._ leave, make room.
  {geruochen}, _wv._ be pleased, hold good for.
  {gesagen}, _wv._ say, tell.
  {geschaffen}, _sv._ VI, provide, care for, create.
  {geschaft}, _sf._ creature, 28.
  {geschëhen}, _sv._ V, happen, fall to one’s lot _or_ share,
      19, 34, 83.
  {geschiht}, _sf._ occurrence, event.
  {geschlähte}, _sn._ race, generation, 10.
  {gesëgen}, _wv._ bless.
  {gesëhen} = {sëhen}.
  {geselle}, _wm._ companion.
  {geselleschaft}, _sf._ company.
  {gesīn} = {sīn}.
  {gesinde}, _sn._ retinue;
    _wm._ retainer.
  {gesingen} = {singen}.
  {gesitzen} = {sitzen}.
  {gesmac}, _sm._ taste, smell.
  {gesorgen}, _wv._ trouble oneself; fear, dread.
  {gespile}, _wm._ play-mate, comrade.
  {gesprëchen} = {sprëchen}.
  {gestān}, _sv._ VI, remain.
  {gesteine}, _sn._ precious stones.
  {gestern}, _av._ yesterday.
  {gestrīten}, _sv._ I, quarrel, fight, strive.
  {gesūmen}, _wv._ stay, delay, let one wait.
  {gesunde} ({gesunt}), _aj._ healthy, alive.
  {gesunt}, _sm._ health.
  {gesweigen}, _wv._ bring to silence.
  {geswīchen}, _sv._ I, weary, tire; leave in the lurch.
  {getar} = {tar}, see {turren}.
  {getragen} = {tragen}.
  {getriulīch}, _aj._ through, owing to faithfulness.
  {getriuten}, _wv._ love, like, be fond of.
  {getriuwe}, _aj._ faithful, good.
  {getriuwen}, {getrūwen}, _wv._ trust, confide in.
  {getrœsten}, _wv. refl._ bear with patience, forget.
  {getrūren}, _wv._ mourn, grieve, be downcast.
  {getrūwen}, see {getriuwen}.
  {getuon} = {tuon}.
  {geturren}, _pret. pres._ dare, venture.
  {getweln}, _wv._ dwell, stay.
  {gevallen}, _sv._ VII, fall to one’s lot, please.
  {gevangen(e)}, _wm._ prisoner, 50.
  {gevar}, _aj._ having colour.
  {gevarn}, _sv._ VI, go, travel;
    {wol gevarn}, make a successful journey.
  {gevolgen}, _wv._ obey.
  {gevüege}, {gefüege}, _aj._ courteous, well-bred.
  {gewæte}, _sn._ clothing.
  {gewähenen}, _sv._ VI, mention, 86.
  {gewalt}, _smf._ power, might, command.
  {gewalteclīch}, _aj._ violent, mighty;
    _av._ {gewalteclīche}.
  {gewaltic}, _aj._ powerful, mighty.
  {gewant}, _sn._ clothing.
  {gewant} (_pp._ of {wenden}), conditioned, circumstanced;
    {so gewante sache}, of such a nature;
    {ëȥ ist alsō gewant}, it is important;
    {ëȥ ist niht alsō gewant}, the matter is not so.
  {gewar(e)}, _aj._ sensible, mindful.
  {geweinen}, _wv._ weep, cry.
  {gewenen}, _wv._ accustom.
  {gewenken}, _wv._ waver, vacillate; bend, turn.
  {gewërbe}, _sn._ activity.
  {gewërn}, _wv._ perceive, perform.
  {gewërren}, _sv._ III, be troublesome, hinder.
  {gewin} ({-nnes}), _sm._ gain, advantage.
  {gewinnen}, _sv._ III, get, gain, obtain, receive, 81;
    {für sich gewinnen}, get for oneself.
  {gewis} ({-sses}), _aj._ certain, sure, 31.
  {gewisse}, _av._ surely, truly, certainly.
  {gewonheit}, _sf._ custom.
  {gewürme}, _sn._ worm, insect; reptile, creeping creature.
  {gezëmen}, _sv._ IV, become, beseem;
    {mich gezimt dës}, that pleases me.
  {gezierde}, _sf._ adornment.
  {gezwicken}, _wv._ pinch, pull, pluck.
  {gieȥen}, _sv._ II, pour, 28, 78.
  {gift}, _sf._ gift, 28.
  {giht}, _third pers. sing._ of {jëhen}.
  {gir}, see {gër}.
  {gīst} = {gibest}, 37.
  {gīt} = {gibet}, 37.
  {glast}, _sm._ splendour.
  {glīchnisse}, _sn._ parable.
  {glocke}, _sf._ bell.
  {gnanne}, see {genanne}.
  {golt}, _sn._ gold, 3, 15.
  {got}, _sm._ God, 5, 10, 11.
  {gotelīch}, _aj._ divine.
  {goteshūs}, _sn._ church, monastery.
  {gotheit}, _sf._ godhead.
  {götinne}, _sf._ goddess, 5, 10.
  {gotvar} ({-wes}), _aj._ godlike, divine.
  {gouch}, _sm._ cuckoo; fool.
  {grā} ({-wes}), _aj._ grey, 55.
  {graben}, _sv._ VII, dig, 10, 12, 85.
  {gram}, _aj._ hostile.
  {grap} ({-bes}), _sn._ grave, 46.
  {gras}, _sn._ grass.
  {grīfen}, _sv._ I, seize, grasp, touch, feel.
  {grim} ({-mmes}), _sm._ rage, fury.
  {grimme} ({grimmic}), _aj._ fearful, angry; great.
  {grimmen}, _sv._ III, rage.
  {grīs} ({grīse}), _aj._ grey, old, 55.
  {grœȥlīch}, _aj._ great.
  {grœȥlīchen}, _av._ greatly, very.
  {grōȥ}, _aj._ great, large, 9.2, 57.
  {grüen(e)}, _aj._ green, 5, 10, 55.
  {grüeȥen}, _wv._ greet, 39; also _sn._
  {grunt} ({-des}), _sm._ bottom.
  {gruoȥ}, _sm._ greeting, salutation.
  {güete}, _sf._ goodness, kindness, 5, 10.
  {güetlich}, _aj._ friendly;
    _av._ {güetlīchen}.
  {gugel}, _sf._ cowl; cape, hood.
  {guldīn}, _aj._ golden, 3, 15.
  {gunēren}, _wv._. dishonour, disgrace.
  {gunnen}, {günnen} (_pres. sing._ {gan}; _pret._ {gunde},
      _pret. subj._ {gunde}, {günde}), _pret. pres._ grant, bestow,
      not to grudge, 9.7, 93.
  {guot}, _aj._ good, 9.2, 25, 55, 58;
    {daȥ guot}, wealth, property;
    {ze guote}, to the good.
  {gürtel}, _sm._ girdle, belt, sash.
  {güsse}, _sf._ inundation, 28.
  {gütinne}, _sf._ goddess, 48.

  {habe}, _sf._ possession.
  {habedanc}, _sm._ thanks with words.
  {haben} ({hān}), _wv._ have, hold, 3, 99;
    {haben sich an dër witze kraft}, collect all one’s wits together.
  {hacken}, _sm._ hook, fetter; footprint.
  {haft}, _sm._ bond, fetter.
  {hagel}, _sm._ hail; misfortune, destruction.
  {Hagene}, _pn._, 54.
  {hāhen} ({hān}), _sv._ VII, hang, 29, 30, 38, 87.
  {halde}, _wf._ slope, declivity.
  {halm}, _sm._ blade, stalk.
  {halp} ({-bes}), _aj._ half.
  {halsen}, _sv._ VII, embrace, 87.
  {halten} ({halden}), _sv._ VII, hold, keep;
    stop, keep from, 5, 10, 11, 40, 87.
  {hān}, see {haben}.
  {handeln}, _wv._ do, perform.
  {handelunge}, _sf._ action, 8.
  {han(e)}, _wm._ cock, 9.4, 31.3.
  {hant} (_pl._ {hende}), hand, 49.
  {hār}, _sn._ hair.
  {hārbant}, _sn._ head-band.
  {harnasch}, _smn._ harness.
  {harpfen}, _wv._ play the harp.
  {hart}, _aj._ hard, 19.
  {harte}, _av._ very, very great, 60;
    _comp._ {harter}, more; more seriously.
  {hase}, _wm._ hare, 7, 30.
  {haȥ}, _sm._ hate, hatred, enmity; indignation, anger, wrath, 19.
  {haȥlīch}, _aj._ full of hate, hostile.
  {haȥȥen}, _wv._ hate.
  {heben} ({heven}), _sv._ VI, raise, 30, 86;
    {sich (an) heben}, betake oneself, begin.
  {hei}, _interj._ an exclamation of joy, grief, or wonder.
  {heide}, _sf._, heath, uncultivated land; meadow.
  {heiden}, _sm._ heathen, 9.2.
  {heil}, _sn._ happiness, welfare, good fortune.
  {heilant}, _sm._ Saviour, 8.
  {heilic} ({-ec}), holy, 7, 8, 55.
  {heiliggeist}, _sm._ holy ghost.
  {heim}, _smn._ home;
    {heime}, _av._ at home.
  {heimlīch} ({-lich}), _aj._ homely, familiar.
  {heimsuochen}, _wv._ visit; attack with evil intent.
  {heimsuochunge}, _sf._ disturbance of domestic peace and security.
  {heimvart}, _sf._ homeward journey.
  {heiȥ}, _aj._ hot, 31.3.
  {heiȥen}, _sv._ VII, call, be called, named; bid, 11, 17, 23.1, 87.
  {hël} ({-lles}), _aj._ resounding.
  {hëlfe}, _sf._ help.
  {hëlfen}, _sv._ III, help, 3, 11, 12, 14.2, 15, 23.2, 81.
  {helle}, _sf._ hell.
  {hellemōr}, _sm._ devil.
  {hellenōt}, _sf._ necessity of hell.
  {helm}, _sm._ helm, helmet, 11.
  {helme}, _wm._ warrior.
  {hëln} (with double _acc._), _sv._ IV, hide, conceal.
  {helt} (_gen._ {heldes}, {heledes}), _sm._ hero, protector, brave
  {hemede}, {hemde}, _sn._ shirt.
  {hendelinc} ({-ges}), _sm._ glove, 8.
  {hengen}, _wv._ hang, 30.
  {henne}, _swf._ hen, 31.3.
  {hēr}, {hēre}, _aj._ and _av._ high, proud, haughty, agreeable, 55.
  {her}, _sn._ army, host.
  {hër(e)}, _av._ hither, this way.
  {herbërge}, _sf._ lodging.
  {hērlīch}, _aj._ agreeable, distinguished;
    _av._ {hērlīchen}.
  {hērre}, {hërre}, {hër}, _wm._ master, lord, 9.3, 9.6.
  {hërren}, _wv._ to make as master.
  {hērsen}, {hërsen}, _wv._ rule, govern, 9.2.
  {herte} ({hart}), _aj._ hard, difficult, 60;
    _av._ {harte} ({herte}), 60.
  {hërze}, _wn._ heart, 7, 19, 23.2, 50, 52.
  {hërzeleit}, _sn._ heart-sore, grief.
  {hërzelīch}, _aj._ dear, affectionate.
  {hërzeliep}, _sn._ heart’s joy.
  {Hërzeloyde}, _pn._ the name of Parzival’s mother.
  {hërzenlīch}, _aj._ hearty, dear, affectionate;
    _av._ {hërzenlīchen}.
  {hërzeriuwe}, _sf._ great grief, sadness of heart, pain.
  {hërzesēre}, _sf._ great sorrow, grief.
  {heven}, see {heben}.
  {hey}, _interj._, hey!
  {hie}, {hier}, _av._ here, 5, 11, 39;
    {hie bī}, herewith, hereby;
    {hie vor(e)}, formerly, in former times.
  {hierunder}, _av._ hereunder, 39.
  {himel}, _sm._ heaven, sky.
  {himelisch}, _aj._ heavenly, 8.
  {himelkrōne}, _sf._ heavenly crown.
  {himelrīch}, _sn._ kingdom of heaven.
  {hin}, {hinnen}, _av._ from here, hence, away;
    {hin für}, without, out of doors;
    {hin heim}, away home.
  {hinder}, _aj._ hinder;
    _prep._ behind, 59.
  {hindernisse}, _snf._ hindrance, 8.
  {hinderste}, _aj._ hindmost, 59.
  {hīnte}, {hīnt}, {hīnaht}, _av._ to-night, 34.
  {hīrāt}, _sm._ marrying, marriage.
  {hirte}, _sm._ shepherd, 3, 43.
  {hirtelōs}, _aj._ shepherdless.
  {hirȥ} (OHG. {hiruȥ}) beside {hirz} (OHG. {hirz}), _sm._ stag.
  {hitze}, _sf._ heat, warmth, 31.3.
  {hiute}, _av._ to-day;
    {hiute morgen}, this morning.
  {hōch} (_comp._ {hœher}, _superl._ {hœhst}, {hōhst}), _aj._ high,
      5, 10, 11, 19, 34, 57, 60.
  {hōchgeborn}, _aj._ of gentle birth; noble.
  {hōchgemuot}, _aj._ noble, high-minded; lofty, proud;
    joyful, in high spirits.
  {hōchgezīt}, _sfn._ festival, feast, highest joy.
  {hōchmuot}, _sm._ consciousness, pride, well-being.
  {hōchvart}, _sf._ pride, haughtiness.
  {hœne}, _aj._ haughty; contemptible.
  {hœnen}, _wv._ dishonour, calumniate.
  {hœren}, _wv._ hear; be requisite, be necessary, require; listen;
    belong to, 5, 10, 11, 90.
  {hof} ({-ves}), _sm._ court, 19, 30, 33, 42.
  {hogen}, _wv._ think, consider.
  {hōhe}, {hō}, _av._ highly, 60.
  {hōhgemüete}, _sn._ joyousness, joyfulness.
  {hol}, _aj._ hollow, 55.
  {holn}, _wv._ fetch;
    {tiefen siuft holn}, sigh deeply.
  {holt} ({-des}), _aj._ kind, affectionate, well-disposed.
  {holz}, _sn._ wood, 19.
  {honic}, {honec} ({-ges}), _smn._ honey, 29.
  {hornunc} ({-ges}), _sm._ February; frost; chilblain.
  {houbet}, _sn._ head, 5, 10.
  {houwen}, _sv._ VII, hew, 36, 87.
  {hovelīch}, _aj._ courtly, court-like.
  {hovelīchen}, _av._ courtly, in the manner of the court.
  {hübesch}, _aj._ noble, courtly, chivalrous, 30.
  {hüeten}, _wv._ protect, shield, hold, keep, guard.
  {huge}, _sm._ thought, 43.
  {hügen}, _wv._ consider, 15.
  {hulde}, _sf._ grace, favour, kindness, permission, 10 note 1.
  {hundertste}, _num._ hundredth, 62.
  {hundertstunt}, _num._ hundred times.
  {hunger}, _sm._ hunger.
  {hunt}, {hundert}, _num._ hundred, 62, 64.
  {huobe}, _sf._ a piece (hide) of land.
  {huofslac} (_dat. pl._ {huofslegen}), _sm._ horseshoe.
  {huon} (_pl._ {hüener}), _sn._ hen, 47.
  {huote}, _sf._ care, guardianship.
  {hupfen}, {hüpfen}, _wv._ hop, 10 note 3.
  {hūs} (_pl._ {hiuser}), _sn._ house, 3, 5, 10, 11, 33.
  {hūt} (_dat. pl._ {hiuten}), _sf._ skin, hide.


  {ich}, _pr._ I, 23, 65.
  {ie}, _av._ ever.
  {iedoch}, _av._ however.
  {iegelīch}, {iegeslīch} ({ieglīch}, {ieslīch}), _pr._ each, 71.
  {ieman}, {iemen}, _pr._ anyone, no one, someone, somebody, 71.
  {iemer}, {immer}, _av._ ever, always, at any time, never.
  {ietwëder}, _pr. aj._ each of two, 71.
  {iewëder}, _pr._ each, 71.
  {iewelī̆ch}, _pr._ each, 71.
  {iewiht}, _pr._ anything, 71.
  {iezuo}, _av._ now, directly.
  {iht}, _pr._ anything;
    _av._ not, 71.
  {īlen}, _wv._ hasten.
  {Imāne}, _fpn._
  {in}, _prep._ in, into.
  {in}, _pr. acc._ him.
  {īn}, {in}, _av._ in, into, from out here.
  {in}, {ine} = {ich ne}, I not.
  {i’n} = {ich in}.
  {ingesinde}, _sn._ household, family; followers.
  {inme}, {imme} = {in dëme}.
  {inneclīch}, _aj._ inward;
    _av._ {inneclīchen}, at heart.
  {innen}, {inne}, _av._ within, inwardly;
    {inne bringen}, observe, let understand, convince;
    {inne wërden}, hear of, learn of.
  {ir}, _pr._ her, their, ye, 71.
  {irdenisch}, _aj._ earthly.
  {irdīn}, _aj._ earthen, 14.2.
  {irdisch}, _aj._ earthly, 8.
  {irre}, _aj._ astray;
    {dës rīches irre}, astray in regard to the kingdom.
  {irren}, _wv._ put out, confound, hinder, interrupt, stop.
  {irs} = {ir ës}.
  {īser}, _sn._ iron, iron weapon, armour.
  {iuwer} ({iwer}), _pr._ your, 67.
  {iȥ} = {ëȥ}, 65 note 1.


  {jā}, _interj._ forsooth.
  {jæmerlīch}, _aj._ pitiable, sad, sorrowful;
    _av._ {jæmerlīche(n)}.
  {jagen}, _wv._ pursue, follow, hunt.
  {jāmer}, _sm._ grief, pain;
    {jāmers balt}, courageous in grief.
  {jāmerhaft}, _aj._ painful, sorrowful.
  {jār}, _sn._ year; age, 19.
  {jëhen}, _sv._ V, say, speak; assure, grant, concede, 35, 83.
  {jener}, _pr._ that, 68.
  {jenhalp}, _av._ on that side, the other side.
  {jësen}, _sv._ V, ferment, 35, 83.
  {jëten}, _sv._ V, weed, 35.
  {joch}, _av._ and _conj._ also, even, yet.
  {jude}, _wm._ Jew.
  {jugent}, _sf._ youth, 49.
  {junc} ({-ges}), _aj._ young, 19, 57.
  {juncfrouwe}, _wf._ maiden.
  {junchērre}, _wm._ young sir.
  {junger}, _sm._ disciple.


  {kal} ({-wes}), _aj._ bald, 55.
  {kāle}, see {quāle}, 36.
  {kalp} (_pl._ {kälber}), _sn._ calf, 47.
  {kalt}, _aj._ cold.
  {kälte}, _sf._ coldness, 11.
  {kamerære}, _sm._ chamberlain, guard of the treasure, _or_ bed-room.
  {kampflīch}, _aj._ warlike.
  {kapfen}, _wv._ stare, gape, look on with astonishment.
  {Karnahkarnanz}, {Karnachkarnanz}, _pn._ Count of Unterlec.
  {kastelān}, _sn._ Castilian horse.
  {këc}, see {quëc}.
  {kein}, _pr._ no, none, 71.
  {keiser}, _sm._ emperor.
  {keiserlīch}, _aj._ imperial.
  {kelberīn}, _aj._ of a calf.
  {kemenāte}, _sf._ room, bed-room.
  {kennen}, _wv._ know, 90.
  {kēren}, _wv._ turn, go, 90;
    {sich kēren}, turn;
    {ze gote kēren}, apply to God’s service.
  {kerze}, {kërze}, _wf._ candle.
  {kiesen}, _sv._ II, test, try, choose, elect, 5, 11, 18, 30, 33, 78.
  {kil}, _sm._ quill, 9.1, 42.
  {kindelīn}, _sn._ little child, 8.
  {kindisch}, _aj._ childish, 8.
  {kinne}, _sn._ chin.
  {kint} ({-des}), _sn._ child, 33.
  {kintlīch}, _aj._ childish.
  {kirchhof}, _sm._ churchyard.
  {kīt} = {quīt}, 36.
  {kiusch(e)}, _aj._ chaste, modest, pure, spotless; maidenly.
  {kiuwen}, _sv._ II, chew, 16 note, 36, 79.
  {klage}, _sf._ complaint, lamentation.
  {klagen}, _wv._ complain, bewail, 92;
    {klagedeȥ hërze}, mournful heart.
  {klār}, _aj._ clear, bright, beautiful, pure.
  {klē} ({-wes}), _sm._ clover, trefoil.
  {klëben}, _wv._ stick, 92.
  {kleiden}, _wv._ clothe, dress.
  {klein(e)}, _aj._ little, neat, insignificant;
    _av._ {kleine}.
  {kleit} (_pl._ {kleit} or {kleider}), _sn._ dress.
  {klieben}, _sv._ II, cleave, 18, 78.
  {klingen}, _sv._ III, ring, toll.
  {klōsenære}, _sm._ hermit, recluse.
  {klōster}, _sn._ cloister, monastery.
  {klūs}, _sf._ cell, hermitage.
  {knabe}, _wm._ boy, youth, 31.1.
  {knappe}, _wm._ a youth who has not yet become a knight, 31.1.
  {knëht}, _sm._ boy, candidate for knighthood, attendant; warrior.
  {knëten}, _sv._ V, knead, 83.
  {knie} (_gen._ {kniewes}), _sn._ knee, 3, 23.2, 36, 46.
  {komen}, _sv._ IV (_pres._ {kume}, {kum}; _pret._ {quam}, {kom};
      _pret. subj._ {quæme}, _pp._ {komen}), come, 36, 82.
  {kopf}, _sm._ head.
  {kōr}, _sm._ choir.
  {korder}, {körder}, see {quërder}, 36.
  {korn}, _sn._ corn, 23.2.
  {korp} ({-bes}), _sm._ basket.
  {koufen}, {köufen}, _wv._ buy, acquire; earn, 10, 90.
  {krā}, {krāwe}, _sf._ crow.
  {kraft}, _sf._ strength, might; multitude.
  {kranc}, _sm._ weakness.
  {kranc}, _aj._ impotent, weak; little; worthless.
  {kranz}, _sm._ garland, wreath.
  {krēatiure}, {krēatūr(e)}, _sf._ creature.
  {kreftic}, _aj._ strong, powerful.
  {kriec} ({-ges}), _sm._ resistance, strife, quarrel.
  {kriechen}, _sv._ II, creep, crawl, 78.
  {Kriemhilt}, _pn._ 54.
  {krippe} ({kribbe}), _swf._, manger (cradle), crib, 26.
  {Krist}, _sm._ Christ.
  {kristen}, _aj._ and _sb._ christian.
  {kristenheit}, _sf._ christianity, christian faith.
  {kriuze}, _sn._ cross.
  {krœnen}, _wv._ crown, adorn.
  {krōne}, _swf._ crown.
  {kuchen}, {küchen}, _sf._ kitchen, 10 note 3.
  {küele}, _aj._ cool.
  {küen(e)}, _aj._ bold, warlike.
  {kumber}, _sm._ grief, trouble.
  {kumberlīche}, _av._ with grief, with oppression.
  {kumbersal}, _sn._ distress, 8.
  {kūme}, _av._ scarcely, hardly.
  {künde}, _sf._ acquaintance, knowledge;
    {kunde haben} (with _gen._), know.
  {kunde}, see {künnen}.
  {künden}, _wv._ announce, promise.
  {kündic}, _aj._ known.
  {küneclīch}, _aj._ kingly, royal.
  {künic} ({-ec}), _sm._ king, 7, 8, 29.
  {künne}, race, generation; relationship, 7, 10, 46.
  {kün(n)egin(ne)}, {künegīn}, _sf._ queen, king’s daughter, 8, 48.
  {künnen}, {kunnen} (_pret._ {kunde}, {konde}), _pret. pres._ know,
      understand, can, 93.
  {kunst}, _sf._ art, skill, 19.
  {kunt} ({-des}), _aj_. known.
  {kuo} (_pl._ {küeje}, {küewe}), _sf._ cow, 49.
  {kupfer}, _sn._ copper, 31.2.
  {kurz}, _aj._ short, small;
    {vor kurzer stunt}, recently.
  {kurzewīle}, _sf._ pastime, entertainment.
  {kus} ({-sses}), _smn._ kiss, 32.1.
  {küssen}, _wv._ kiss, 20, 32.2, 90.


  {lā}, _imperative_ of {lāȥen}, q.v.
  {lachen}, _wv._ laugh, laugh at;
    also _sn._
  {laden}, _sv._ VI, load, 85.
  {laden}, _wv._ invite, 92.
  {lære}, _aj._ empty, 3, 5, 10, 11, 55.
  {Lähelīn}, _mpn._
  {lam}, _aj._ lame, weak in the limbs.
  {lamp} (_pl._ {lember}), lamb, 5, 10, 11, 33, 47.
  {lān}, see {lāȥen}.
  {lanc}, _aj._ long, 10, 60;
    _av._ {lange}, 60.
  {lanclëben}, _sn._ long life.
  {lanclīp}, _sm._ long life.
  {lant} ({-des}), _sn._ land, country.
  {lantliut}, _sn._ country folk, vassalage;
    _pl._ inhabitants.
  {lantrëhtbuoch}, _sn._ book of common _or_ land laws.
  {lantsæȥe}, _wm._ freeholder.
  {last}, _sm._ burden.
  {laster}, _sn._ ignominy, disgrace.
  {laȥ} ({-ȥȥes}), _aj._ feeble, languid, faint, exhausted; weary.
  {lāȥen}, {lān}, _sv._ VII, let, leave, give up; stop, avoid, 87, 99;
    {lān niht ze wē sīn}, not to worry too much;
    {lāȥen sīn}, cease, stop;
    {lā stān}, cease! stop!
  {lëben}, _wv._ live, cause to live, 92.
  {lëben}, _sn._ life.
  {lëbendic} ({-ec}), _aj._ living, alive.
  {legen} ({leggen}, {lecken}), _wv._ lay, place, put, 31.3, 92;
    {arbeit dar an legen}, expend much trouble on a thing.
  {leh} (= {le} or {li}) {cons}, Count.
  {lēhen}, _sn._ feudal tenure, loan, fee, feod.
  {leich}, _sm._ song consisting of strophes of unequal length.
  {leide}, _av._ painfully, sorrowfully;
    _comp._ {leider}, greater pain, grief, trouble.
  {leiden}, _wv._ be repugnant, odious, _or_ offensive;
    render disagreeable, do harm;
    {mir leidet ëȥ}, it is repugnant to me.
  {leider}, _av._ and _interj._ unfortunately, alas!
  {leie}, _wm._ layman.
  {leischieren}, _wv._ give a horse its head.
  {leisten} (_pret. subj._ {leiste} = {leistete}), _wv._ follow the
      trace of, follow, perceive;
    {leisten geselleschaft}, accompany.
  {leit} ({-des}), _aj._ sorrowful, bitter, painful, disagreeable;
    hateful, vexatious.
  {leit} ({-des}), _sn._ grief, pain.
  {leit} = {leget}, 37.
  {leiten} (_pret._ {leite}), _wv._ to lead, 5, 11, 30, 32.4, 90.
  {leitestërne}, _wm._ loadstar.
  {lenge}, _sf._ length, 10.
  {lēre}, _sf._ teaching, instruction, precept, guidance, advice;
  {lēren} ({lērn}), _wv._ teach, 5, 11, 17.
  {lërnen}, _wv._ learn.
  {leschen}, _sv._ IV, be extinguished, go out, 11, 82.
  {leschen}, _wv._ extinguish, put out.
  {lësen}, _sv._ V, gather, read, 33, 83.
  {leste}, _aj._ last, 9.5, 23.1.
  {lesterlīch}, _aj._ disgraceful, ignominious.
  {letzen}, _wv._ injure, prejudice; forsake.
  {leȥȥeste}, {leste}, _aj._ last, 59.
  {līden}, _sv._ I, suffer, endure, 30, 76.
  {liebe}, _sf._ love, joy.
  {lieben}, _wv._ give pleasure, gladden; present with.
  {liegen}, _sv._ II, lie, tell a lie, 5, 78.
  {lieht}, _sn._ light, 16.
  {lieht}, _aj._ bright;
    _av._ liehte.
  {liep} ({-bes}), _aj._ dear, pleasant, friendly, 5, 11;
    _sn._ what is lovable; dearest joy; lover.
  {liet} ({-des}), _sn._ song, poem.
  {ligen} ({liggen}, {licken}), _sv._ V, lie, lie down, 14.2, 31.3, 84.
  {līhen}, _sv._ I, lend, 12, 76.
  {līhte}, _aj._ light, easy, worthless;
    _av._ easily, perhaps;
    {līhte noch}, still now-a-days.
  {lin}, {line}, _swf._ window with balcony.
  {linde}, _wf._ linden-tree.
  {līp} ({-bes}), _sm._ life, body, person, 33.
  {list}, _sm._ prudence, wisdom, advice; means, art;
    artfulness, cunning.
  {līst} = {liges(t)}, 37.
  {lit} ({-des}), _sn._ limb, member.
  {līt} = {liget}, 37.
  {liuhten}, _wv._ light, shine, shed lustre, 16.
  {liut}, _sn._ folk, people, army, 5, 11.
  {liuten}, _wv._ ring.
  {liuterlīch}, _av._ expressly, quite, entirely.
  {Liutpolt}, _pn._ Leopold of Austria.
  {lobelīch}, _aj._ praiseworthy.
  {loben}, _wv._ praise, 92.
  {lobesam}, _aj._ praiseworthy, glorious.
  {loch} (_pl._ {löcher}), _sn._ hole, 5, 10, 31.3.
  {lœsen}, _wv._ loose, 33, 90.
  {lōn}, _sm._ pay, reward.
  {lōnen}, _wv._ reward.
  {lop} ({-bes}), _smn._ praise, glorification; price.
  {lōsen}, _wv._ be rid, released of;
    {hin ze einem lōsen}, flatter.
  {lōt}, _sn._ weight.
  {löufel}, _sm._ runner, 5, 10.
  {loufen}, _sv._ VII, run, 5, 11, 87.
  {lougen}, _sn._ a denying, denial;
    {āne lougen}, truly.
  {loup} (_pl._ {löuber}), _sn._ foliage, leaf, 5, 10, 11.
  {lūchen}, _sv._ II, shut, 80.
  {lücke}, _swf._ gap, hole, 31.3.
  {luft}, _smf._ air, firmament.
  {luoder}, _sn._ bait, 46.
  {lūt}, _aj._ loud;
    {lūt wërden} (_c. gen._), give to understand, mention, be heard.
  {lūte}, _av._ aloud, loudly.
  {lūter}, _aj._ clear, bright, 9.2;
    _av._ {lūterlīche}.
  {lützel}, _aj._ and _av._ little, small, 31.2, 58;
    {lützel ieman}, nobody, no one;
    as _indecl. sb._ with _gen._, little.


  {mac}, see {mügen}.
  {māc} ({-ges}), _sm._ relation.
  {machen}, _wv._ make.
  {mære}, _sn._ story, tidings, report.
  {mære}, _aj._ known, renowned, 10.
  {magedīn}, _sn._ maid, maiden, 8.
  {magen}, {megen}, see {mugen}.
  {maget} (_pl._ {mägede}, {megde}), _sf._ girl, maiden, 5, 10, 37, 49.
  {maht} (_pl._ {mähte}), _sf._ strength, power, might, 5, 11.
  {mahtu} = {maht dū}.
  {mālen}, _wv._ paint, draw.
  {maln}, _sv._ VI, grind, 85.
  {man}, _sm._ man, 3, 32.1, 45;
    _pr._ one, 71.
  {manbære}, _aj._ marriageable.
  {māne}, _wm._ moon.
  {manen}, _wv._ urge on, remind, admonish.
  {manic}, {manec} ({manc}), _aj._ many, much, 8;
    _pr._ many a, 71;
    {maneger hande}, {slahte}, _or_ {leie}, in many ways, manifoldly;
    {maneger vil}, very many.
  {manicvalt}, _aj._ manifold, variegated.
  {manlīch}, _aj._ manly, brave, 5, 10.
  {mantel}, _sm._ mantle, 42.
  {manunge}, _sf._ exhortation, admonition.
  {marc}, _sf._ half pound of gold _or_ silver.
  {marder}, _sm._ marten; skin of a marten.
  {market}, _sm._ market, 9.2.
  {marter}, _sf._ martyr; torture.
  {māȥe}, _sf._ measure, manner; moderation, propriety, fitness;
    {ze einer māȥe}, little, moderate;
    {ze māȥe}, fairly, sufficiently;
    {ze rëhter māȥe}, to the right length.
  {mē}, {mēre}, _aj._ and _av._ more, further, 5, 17, 39, 61;
    as _indecl. sb._ with _gen._ more.
  {meie}, _wm._ May; spring of the year, 35.
  {meien}, _wv._ become May; be joyful, make merry.
  {meier} ({meiger}), _sm._ farmer.
  {meierin}, _sf._ farmer’s wife.
  {meinen}, _wv._ mean, mean well, have in view; cause.
  {meist}, {meiste}, _aj._ and _av._ most, greatest, 58, 61.
  {meister}, _sm._ master.
  {meisterschaft}, _sf._ skill in an art, mastery, order.
  {meit} = {maget}, 37.
  {meiȥen}, _sv._ VII, cut, 87.
  {mël} ({-wes}), _sn._ meal, 36, 46.
  {mëlden}, _wv._ announce, make known; betray.
  {mëldunge}, _sf._ announcement, 8.
  {Meljahkanz}, _pn._
  {mëlken}, _sv._ III, milk.
  {mensch(e)}, _wsmn._ man (’homo’).
  {menschenbluot}, _sn._ human blood.
  {menschlich}, _aj._ human.
  {mer}, _sn._ sea.
  {mēre}, see {mē}.
  {mēren}, _wv._ increase.
  {mērer}, {mēr(r)e}, _aj._ more, 58.
  {merken} (_pret._ {markte}), _wv._ observe, perceive, understand.
  {merze}, _wm._ March.
  {mësse}, _sf._ mass;
    {mëssezīt}, _sf._ time for mass.
  {mëte}, _sm._ mead, 43.
  {mettīne}, _sf._ matins, primes.
  {mëȥȥen}, _sv._ V, measure, 32.1, 32.4, 83.
  {mëȥȥer}, _sn._ knife.
  {michel}, _aj._ great;
    {michels}, _av._ by far, 55, 58.
  {mīden}, _sv._ I, avoid, shun, do without, 30, 76.
  {miete}, _sf._ pay, reward, present, 5, 11.
  {milch}, _sf._ milk, 9.1.
  {milt} ({-des}), _aj._ generous;
    _av._ {miltlīche}, {milteclīche}.
  {milte}, _aj._ generous, bounteous.
  {milte}, _sf._ liberality, generosity; grace, favour.
  {min}, _av._ less, 61.
  {mīn}, _pr._ my, 67.
  {minne}, _sf._ love; loving memory, remembrance.
  {minneclīch}, _aj._ dear, lovely, loving, kind.
  {minnen}, _wv._ love, value, 92.
  {minner}, {minre}, {min}, _aj._ and _av._ less, 9.3, 57, 58;
    as _indecl. sb._ with _gen._ less.
  {minnest}, {min(ne)ste}, _aj._ and _av._ least, 9.5, 57, 58, 61.
  {mirs} = {mir ës}.
  {miselsuht}, _sf._ leprosy.
  {mislīch}, _aj._ sundry, uneven, different.
  {misselingen}, _sv._ III, not to succeed.
  {missesagen}, _wv._ deceive, lie.
  {missetāt}, _sf._ misdeed, offence.
  {missewende}, _sf._ mistake, fault, blot.
  {mist}, _sm._ dung, dirt.
  {mit}, {mite}, _prep._ and _av._ with, by, through, 9.6;
    {mit sorgen}, sorrowfully;
    {mit triuwen}, faithful, faithfully;
    {mit willen}, gladly, willingly;
    {mit witze}, reasonably, sensibly, cleverly, prudently, wisely;
    {mit zühten}, politely.
  {mitte}, _aj._ middle;
    _av._ {mitten}.
  {morgen} ({morne}), _sm._ morning, 42;
    {dës morgens}, in the morning.
  {mortlīch}, _aj._ murderous;
    _av._ {mortlīche}.
  {mortmeile}, _aj._ blood-stained, blood-guilty.
  {motte}, _swf._ moth, 24.
  {müedinc}, _sm._ unhappy man, 8.
  {müelīch}, _aj._ and _av._ painful, troublesome.
  {müen} ({müejen}, {müewen}), _wv._ torment, trouble, distress,
      grieve, 35, 90.
  {müeterlīch}, _aj._ motherly.
  {müeterlīn}, _sn._ little mother, 10.
  {müeȥen}, _pret.-pres._ (_pres. sing._ {muoȥ}, _pret._ {muoste},
      {muose}), must, 28, 93.
  {müeȥic}, _aj._ idle, at leisure.
  {müg(e)lich}, _aj._ possible.
  {mügen}, {mugen}, {magen}, {megen} (_pres. sing._ {mac}, _pret._
      {mohte}, _pret. subj._ {möhte}), _pret.-pres._ may, can,
      10, 11, 28, 93.
  {mugge}, {mügge} ({mucke}, {mücke}), _wf._ midge, fly, 10 note 3, 20.
  {mül}, _sf._ mill.
  {mūl}, _sn._ mule.
  {münich}, _sm._ monk.
  {münster}, _sn._ minster.
  {munt} ({-des}), _sm._ mouth.
  {muot}, _sm._ sense, mind, spirits, mood, feeling, courage,
      disposition, sentiment;
    {rīches muotes wërden}, be in good spirits.
  {muoten}, _wv. c. gen._ desire, long for.
  {muoter}, _sf._ mother, 10, 11, 49.


  {nac} ({-ckes}), _sm._ back part of the head.
  {nāch}, _prep._ after, according to, on account of, at, for, to, 34;
    {nach dëm guote}, about wealth _or_ money;
    {nāch ēren}, honourably;
    {nāch sīnen beinen}, made to fit his legs;
    {nāch wünsche}, to perfection, all that one could wish for;
    {vil nāch}, nearly.
  {nacket}, _aj._ naked.
  {nagel}, _sm._ nail, 9.2, 44.
  {nagen}, _sv._ VI, gnaw, 85.
  {nāhe} ({nāch}), _av._ near, nigh, 34;
    {nāhe tragen}, take to heart;
    {nāhe gān}, go closely, touch;
    {nāhen}, near by.
  {nāhen}, _wv._ draw near, come near, approach, be near.
  {nāhgebūre}, _wm._ neighbour.
  {naht}, _sf._ night, 19, 49;
    _av._ {nahtes}, by night.
  {nahtigale}, {nahtegal(e)}, _sf._ nightingale.
  {nam(e)}, _wm._ name, position, 3, 9.1, 9.4.
  {namen}, _wv._ name, 92.
  {napf}, _sm._ basin, 31.
  {nar}, _sf._ food, 48.
  {nāt}, _sf._ seam.
  {naȥ} ({-ȥȥes}), _aj._ wet, 31.3.
  {ne}, {n’}, _neg. particle_, generally used before the verb with
      and without {niht}, _not_, 108.
  {nëbel}, _sm._ fog, mist,
  {nehein}, _pr._ no, none, 71.
  {neigen}, _wv._ bow, bend down.
  {neiȥwër}, _pr._ anyone, 70.
  {nëmen}, _sv._ IV, take;
    _c. dat. pers._ take away, rob, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14.2, 74, 82.
  {nennen}, _wv._ name, mention the name of, 32.2, 40, 90.
  {nern} ({nerigen}, {nerjen}), _wv._ nourish, rescue, keep alive,
      _refl._ subsist on, 9.1, 30, 35, 90.
  {nest}, {nëst}, _sn._ nest, 11.
  {netze}, _sn._ net, 46.
  {netzen}, _wv._ make wet, 31.3.
  {nëve}, _wm._ nephew, 33.
  {nīden}, _sv._ I, hate, envy, 76.
  {nider}, _av._ down;
    {sich nider laȥen}, settle, establish oneself.
  {nīdetāt}, _sf._ spiteful action.
  {nie}, _av._ never.
  {nieman}, {niemen}, _pr._ nobody, no one, 71.
  {niemēr} ({niemer}, {nimer}, {nimmer}), _av._ never.
  {niender}, _av._ by no means.
  {niene}, _av._ not, not at all.
  {niesen}, _sv._ II, sneeze, 78.
  {nieten} (_refl._ with _gen._), _wv._ be eager _or_ zealous for.
  {nieȥen} = {genieȥen}.
  {niftel}, _sf._ niece, 33.
  {niht}, {nieht}, {niet}, _av._ not;
    _pr._ nothing, 71;
    _indecl. sb. c. gen._ nothing.
  {nine} = {niene}, not at all.
  {nīt} ({-des}), _sm._ hatred, anger, hostility.
  {niun}, _num._ nine, 62.
  {niunte} ({-de}), _num._ ninth, 62.
  {niunzëhen}, _num._ nineteen, 62.
  {niunzëhende}, _num._ nineteenth, 62.
  {niunzic} ({-ec}), _num._ ninety, 62.
  {niunzigeste}, ninetieth, 62.
  {niuwan} ({niwan}, {niuwen}), _av._ nothing but, only;
    _cj._ except, except that.
  {niuwe}, _aj._ new, 16 note, 55.
  {niuwet}, _av._ not.
  {noch}, _av._ still;
    {noch en noch}, neither--nor.
  {Norgāls}, _pn._ the country belonging to Herzeloyde.
  {nōt}, _sf._ need, danger, trouble, distress.
  {nōthaft}, _aj._ needy, poor,
  {nōtic}, _aj._ in distress, hasty.
  {nōtnunft}, _sf._ abduction by violence.
  {nū} ({nu}), _av._ now;
    {nu wol dan}, well then be off there!
  {nutz} ({nuz}), _sm._ use, advantage.
  {nütze}, _aj._ useful.
  {nutzen}, {nützen}, _wv._ to use, 10 note 3.


  {ob}, {obe}, {op}, _prep._ and _av._ over, above;
    _conj._ if, in case that, whether, 9.6.
  {oben} ({e}), _av._ from above, above.
  {ober}, _aj._ upper, 59.
  {oberste}, {oberist}, {oberest}, _aj._ highest, uppermost, 8, 59.
  {oder}, {ode}, _conj._ or.
  {offen}, _aj._ and _av._ open, 23.1.
  {offenbāre}, _av._ openly.
  {ofte}, _av._ often.
  {ohse}, _wm._ ox.
  {opfer}, _sn._ offering.
  {orden}, _sm._ order, rule; rank;
    {rīters orden}, knightly order.
  {ordenunge}, _sf._ order, rule.
  {ōre}, _wn._ ear, 5, 11, 50.
  {op} = {ob}.
  {Ōsterrīch}, _pn._ Austria.
  {ot}, see {ëht}.
  {ouch}, {ō̆ch}, _av._ also; henceforward.
  {ouge}, _wn._ eye, 3, 5, 11, 50.
  {ougen}, _wv._ show, 10, 90.
  {ougenweide}, _sf._ delight of the eyes, sight, appearance.
  {ouwē}, _sf._ water; meadow, 10.
  {owē}, {ouwē}, {ō̆wī}, _interj._ woe! alas! ah!;
    {owē mir mīnes leides!} alas! for my grief;
    {ōwī wan}, used to express a wish: would that;
    {owē dës}, alas for that!
  {ōwol}, _interj._ well!


  {palas}, _sn._ hall.
  {paradys}, _sn._ paradise.
  {pfaffe}, _wm._ priest.
  {pfeller}, {pfellel}, _sm._ carpet, silk cloth.
  {pfennic}, {pfenninc} ({-ges}), _sm._ penny, 29.
  {pfert} ({-des}), _sn._ horse.
  {pflëge}, _sf._ care, fostering.
  {pflëgen} ({phlëgen}), _sv._ V, be accustomed, use, practise,
      care for, 83.
  {pfluoc}, {phluoc} ({-ges}), _sm._ plough; ploughman.
  {pfunt}, _sn._ pound, 23.2.
  {phat} ({-des}), _smn._ path, footway.
  {phel} ({phelle}) = {pfeller}.
  {Philip}, {Philippes} (_dat._ {Philippe}), _pn._ Philip.
  {phlëger}, _sm._ guardian, protector.
  {pin} = {bin}.
  {pīnen} (with {sich} and {ūf}), _wv._ exert oneself for.
  {plān}, _smf._, {plāne}, _sf._ plain, open space, meadow.
  {planēte}, _wm._ planet.
  {porte}, _sf._ door, gate.
  {portenære}, _sm._ porter, door-keeper.
  {prëdige}, _wf._ sermon.
  {prīs}, _sm._ praise, renown, reputation; price.
  {prīsen}, _wv._ value, praise, extol.
  {prophēte}, _wm._ prophet.
  {prüstelīn}, _sn._ breast, chest.


  {quāle} ({kāle}), _sf._ torture, 36.
  {quëc} ({këc}), _aj._ quick, alive, 19, 36.
  {quëden}, _sv._ V, say, 19, 36.
  {quërder} ({korder}, {körder}), _smn._ bait, 36.
  {quicken} ({kücken}), _wv._ enliven, 36.
  {quīst} = {quides(t)}, 37.


  {rabe}, _wm._ raven, 31.1.
  {rāche}, _sf._ revenge, punishment.
  {ragen}, _wv._ strike, knock, hit.
  {rappe}, _wm._ raven, 31.1.
  {rasch} ({rasche}), _aj._ quick, 55.
  {rat} ({-des}), _sn._ wheel, 47.
  {rāt}, _sm._ (_pl._ {ræte}), advice, care, resolution;
    {rāt wërden}, be helped.
  {rāten}, _sv._ VII, advise, devise, 87.
  {rē} ({-wes}), _smn._ corpse; bier, hearse, 42, 46.
  {rëchen}, _sv._ IV, avenge, punish.
  {rëde}, _sf._ speech, answer, story, saying.
  {rëgen}, _sm._ rain, 42.
  {rëht}, _aj._ and _sn._ right, proper, just; right, duty, law.
  {rëhte}, _av._ rightly, properly; very.
  {reine}, {rein}, _aj._ pure, spotless, perfect, 55.
  {reise}, _sf._ journey, march.
  {reiȥen}, _wv._ irritate; entice, allure.
  {rennen}, _wv._ run, 90.
  {ribbalīn}, _sn._ foot-covering, shoe.
  {rīben}, _sv._ I, rub, 76.
  {rīch}, {rīche}, _aj._ powerful, mighty, noble, great, fine, rich,
      free, 55.
  {rīche}, _sn._ kingdom.
  {rīcheit}, _sf._ wealth, power.
  {rīchen}, _wv._ make rich, enrich, present with.
  {rīchsen}, _wv._ rule, 9.2.
  {riechen}, _sv._ II, smell, 78.
  {rīfe}, _wm._ hoar-frost.
  {rigel}, _sm._ bolt, bar.
  {rihten}, _wv._ put right, confirm, judge;
    _refl._ get up.
  {rinc} ({-ges}), _sm._ ring.
  {ringe}, _aj._ easy, light, small; consumed.
  {ringen}, _sv._ III, strive, struggle; busy oneself, wrestle;
    {ringen nāch}, strive for _or_ after.
  {rinnen}, _sv._ III, run, 20, 31, 32.1, 81.
  {rint} (_pl._ {rinder}), _sn._ cow, heifer.
  {rīsen}, _sv._ I, fall, 30, 76.
  {rīten}, _sv._ I, ride, 76.
  {rīter}, {ritter}, _sm._ rider; knight, the name of knight.
  {rīterlīch}, _aj._ knightly.
  {rīterschaft}, _sf._ knighthood, customs and manners of knights.
  {ritterlīchen}, _av._ in knightly manner.
  {riuschen}, _wv._ rush, move noisily.
  {riuten}, _wv._ root out, clear the land, bring the land into
  {riuwe}, _sf._ sadness, grief, pity, regret, 16 note.
  {riuwen}, _wv._ grieve, grieve for, regret.
  {riuwen}, _sv._ II, pain, grieve, regret, 16 note, 78.
  {riuwic}, _aj._ sorrowful, repentant.
  {rivier}, _sm._ brook, stream.
  {rocke}, {rogge}, _wm._ rye, 31.1.
  {Rōme}, _pn._ Rome.
  {rōr}, _sn._ reed.
  {ros}, _sn._ horse.
  {rōt}, _aj._ red, 19.
  {rouben}, _wv._ rob.
  {rouch}, _sm._ smoke.
  {roufen}, _wv._ pluck, pull up, pull at, lug;
    _refl._ tear _or_ pull out one’s hair.
  {roup} ({-bes}), _sm._ robbery;
    {roubes}, _av._ by robbery.
  {rūch}, _aj._ raw; coarse.
  {rucke}, {rügge}, _swm._ back.
  {ruejen}, _wv._ row, 90.
  {rüemen}, _wv._ praise, commend.
  {rueren} (_pret._ {ruorte}), _wv._ drive, urge on;
    with {ros} understood: run.
  {rūm}, _sm._ room, 11.
  {rūmen}, _wv._ make room, 10, 40.
  {ruochen}, _wv._ trouble oneself about a thing, observe;
    with _gen._ deign, will, wish.
  {ruofen}, _sv._ VII, call, 5, 11, 87.


  {sā}, {sān}, _av._ presently, at once, forthwith, immediately,
  {sache}, _sf._ thing.
  {sactuoch}, _sn._ sacking, sackcloth.
  {sæjen}, {sæwen}, {sæn}, sow, 10, 35, 90.
  {sælde}, _sf._ happiness, good fortune, excellence, blessedness, 9.2.
  {sælic}, {sælec} ({-ges}), _aj._ blessed, happy, 7, 8.
  {sælikeit}, _sf._ blessedness.
  {sage}, _sf._ saying, statement, report;
    {nāch sage}, by hear-say.
  {sagen}, _wv._ say, tell, 37, 92;
    {sagen mære}, relate what has happened.
  {sal}, _sm._ room, hall; house.
  {salben}, _wv._ anoint.
  {Salomōn}, _sm._ Solomon.
  {salz}, _sn._ salt, 23.2.
  {salzen}, _sv._ VII, salt, 87.
  {same}, {sam}, _av._ so, as, like, just as, even as, 69.
  {samīt}, _sm._ velvet.
  {samt}, _av._ together.
  {sān}, see {sā}.
  {sanc} ({-ges}), _sm._ song, singing.
  {sanfte}, _av._ softly, slowly, pleasantly, 60.
  {sant} ({-des}), _sm._ sand, 42.
  {sant(e)}, _aj._ holy; holy one.
  {sarc}, _sm._ coffin.
  {sarken}, {serken}, _wv._ put into the coffin.
  {sāt}, _sf._ seed, 5, 11.
  {satzt(e)}, _pret._ of {setzen}.
  {sāȥe}, _sf._ ambush, trap, snare.
  {sazte}, _pret._ of {setzen}.
  {schāchære}, _sm._ robber.
  {schade}, _wm._ injury, loss.
  {schaden} (_pret._ {schadete}, {schāte}), _wv._ injure, harm.
  {schāf}, _sn._ sheep.
  {schaffen}, _sv._ VI, create, exercise, institute, 85.
  {schaffen}, _wv._ do, perform, provide.
  {schal} ({-lles}), _sm._ sound, noise, loud tone; singing.
  {schalchaft}, _aj._ malicious, mischievous.
  {schallen}, _wv._ be noisy; bluster; exult, boast, swagger.
  {schame}, _wf._ shame.
  {schämelich}, _aj._ shameful, 10.
  {schamen}, _wv._ shame;
    _c. gen._ be ashamed, 9.4.
  {schande}, _sf._ disgrace, disgracefulness, shamefulness, shameful
      _or_ disgraceful act.
  {schapel}, _sn._ garland, 46.
  {schar}, _sf._ crowd, flock, 48.
  {scharpf}, _aj._ sharp.
  {schart}, _aj._ jagged, hacked, hewn, battered.
  {schate} (_gen._ {schat(e)wes}), _sm._ shade, shadow, 36, 43.
  {schaz} (_gen._ {schatzes}), _sm._ treasure, 19, 23.2.
  {schedelīche}, _av._ injuriously.
  {scheiden}, _sv._ VII, sever, separate, deprive; go away, 87;
    {sich scheiden}, come to an end, be decided.
  {schëlch} (_gen._ {schëlhes}), _aj._ askew, 34.
  {schelle}, _wf._ little bell.
  {schëlten}, _sv._ III, abuse, revile, mock, 81;
    also as _sn._
  {schemelīch}, _aj._ disgraceful.
  {schepfen} (_pret._ {schuof}, _pp._ {geschaffen}), _sv._ VI, create,
      23.2, 28, 31.3.
  {schepfære}, {schepfer}, _sm._ creator, 8.
  {schërn}, _sv._ IV, shear, 82.
  {schicken} (with _acc._), _wv._ become, suit, fit.
  {schieben}, _sv._ II, shove, 78.
  {schiere}, _av._ quickly, soon.
  {schieȥen}, _sv._ II, shoot;
    _sn._ shooting, 10 note 3, 78.
  {schif} ({-ffes}), _sn._ ship, 19, 32.1.
  {schilt} ({-des}), _sm._ shield, protection;
    {schildes ambet}, knight-service, chivalry.
  {schimpfen}, _wv._ make fun of, jest;
    also as _sn._
  {schīn}, _aj._ visible, clear;
    {schīn tuon}, make clear, show;
    _sm._ splendour.
  {schīnen}, _sv._ I, shine, become evident or manifest, 76.
  {schirmen}, _wv. c. dat._ protect.
  {schiuhen}, _wv._ fear, shun.
  {schœnde}, _sf._ beauty.
  {schœne}, _aj._ beautiful, fine, 3, 5, 9.2, 55, 60.
  {schœne}, _sf._ beauty, 3, 48.
  {schœnen}, _wv._ make beautiful.
  {schōne}, _av._ beautifully, 60.
  {schouwen}, _wv._ see, behold, look, inspect, survey.
  {schrëcken}, _sv._ IV, frighten, 82.
  {schrībære}, _sm._ scribe, 8.
  {schrīben}, _sv._ I, write, 5, 76.
  {schrīen} ({scrīen}), _sv._ I, cry, cry out, scream; croak, 77;
    also as _sn._
  {schrift}, _sf._ writing (Bible).
  {schrīn}, _sm._ box.
  {schrinden}, _sv._ III, split, 81.
  {schrit}, _sm._ step, 44.
  {schrunde}, _wf._ scratch, tear, slit.
  {schūften}, _wv._ gallop, canter.
  {schulde}, _sf._ reason, cause;
    {von welhen schulden}, wherefore.
  {schuldic} ({-ec}), _aj._ guilty, 10 note 1;
    {schuldic sīn}, owe.
  {schuoch} (_gen._ {schuohes}), _sm._ shoe, 34.
  {schupfen}, {schüpfen}, _wv._ push, 10 note 3.
  {schuz} ({-tzes}), _sm._ protection.
  {se} = {sie}.
  {sē} ({-wes}), _sm._ sea, lake, 3, 42.
  {sëgenen}, _wv._ bless, 90.
  {sëhen}, _sv._ V, see, look, 9.4 note, 34, 74 note, 83.
  {sëhs}, _num._ six, 62.
  {sëhste}, _num._ sixth, 62.
  {sëh(s)zëhen}, _num._ sixteen, 62.
  {sëh(s)zehënde}, _num._ sixteenth, 62.
  {sëh(s)zic} ({-ec}), _num._ sixty, 62.
  {sëh(s)zigeste}, _num._ sixtieth, 62.
  {seist} = {sages(t)}, 37.
  {seit} = {saget}, 37.
  {seite}, _wm._ string.
  {seite} = {sagete}.
  {seitenspil}, _sn._ playing of stringed instrument.
  {sele}, _sf._ soul, 5, 11, 17, 48.
  {seln}, _wv._ hand over, 90.
  {sëlp} ({-bes}), _pr._ self.
  {sëlten}, _av._ seldom.
  {sëltsæne}, _aj._ rare, strange.
  {senden} (_pret._ {sante}), _wv._ send, 32.3, 40, 90.
  {senede}, {sende}, _pp._ of {senen}, painfully longing, yearning,
      love-sick, 29.
  {senen}, _wv. refl._ fret oneself, be sick at heart.
  {senfte}, _sf._ softening.
  {senfte}, _aj._ soft, gentle, tender, mild, easy; quiet, 55, 60.
  {senften}, _wv._ appease, soften.
  {senken}, _wv._ sink, 19, 90.
  {sēr}, _snm._ pain; grief, trouble; sore.
  {sēre}, _av._ sorely, violently; very.
  {setzen} (_pret._ {satzte}), _wv._ put, set, place, appoint, 19,
      23.1, 31.3, 90.
  {si}, {sī}, {siu}, {sie}, _pr._ she, 65.
  {siben}, _num._ seven, 62.
  {sibende}, _num._ seventh, 62.
  {sibenzëhen}, _num._ seventeen, 62.
  {sibenzëhende}, _num._ seventeenth, 62.
  {sibenzic} ({-ec}), seventy, 62.
  {sibenzigste}, seventieth, 62.
  {sich}, _refl. pr._ himself, themselves, 66.
  {sicherheit}, _sf._ assurance.
  {sicherlīch(e)}, _av._ certainly, surely, assuredly, 8.
  {sīde}, _sf._ silk.
  {sider}, _av._ since, afterwards.
  {siech}, _aj._ sick, ill, 5.
  {siecheit}, _sf._, {siechtuom}, _sm._ sickness.
  {sieden}, _sv._ II, seethe, 12, 18, 78.
  {Sīfrit}, _pn._, 54.
  {sige} ({sic}), _sm._ victory, 43.
  {sīgen}, _sv._ I, sink, 76.
  {sigenunft}, _sf._ victory.
  {sīhte}, _aj._ shallow.
  {silber}, _sn._ silver.
  {sim} = {si im}.
  {sin}, _sm._ sense, mind, feeling; courage.
  {sīn}, _pr._ his;
    {sīn sëlbes}, of himself, 5, 11, 67.
  {sīn}, _anom. v._ be, 97.
  {sin} = {si in}.
  {sincwīse}, _sf._ song.
  {singen}, _sv._ III, sing;
    also as _sn._ song, lay, 10 note 2, 33, 81.
  {sinken}, _sv._ III, sink, 23.2, 81.
  {sinne}, _sf._ sense, mind;
    {ze sinne wider komen}, recover consciousness, become conscious
  {sinneclīch}, _aj._ sensible, reasonable.
  {sinnelōs}, _aj._ unconscious.
  {sinnen}, _sv._ III, reflect, 81.
  {sint} = {sīt}.
  {sippe} ({sibbe}), _sf._ consanguinity, relationship, 26, 31.3.
  {sīt} ({sīd}, {sint}), _av._ and _conj._ afterwards, since, because.
  {site}, _sm._ custom, habit; bearing, demeanour, behaviour, 43.
  {sīte}, _swf._ side.
  {sitzen} (_pret._ {saȥ}, _pp._ {gesëȥȥen}), sit, 14.2, 23.2, 31.3, 84.
  {siȥ} = {sī ëȥ}.
  {slac} ({-ges}), _sm._ blow; misfortune, 44.
  {slāf}, _sm._ sleep.
  {slāfen}, _sv._ VII, sleep, 5, 11, 19, 23.1, 74 note, 87.
  {slahen}, _sv._ VI, beat, strike, slay, 10, 30, 85.
  {slahte}, _sf._ manner; race.
  {slëht}, _aj._ straight; straight-forward, honest.
  {slieȥen}, _sv._ II, close, shut.
  {smac} ({-ckes}), _sm._ taste, smell.
  {smācheit}, _sf._ shameful treatment.
  {smæhe}, _aj._ little, despicable, disgusting.
  {smal}, _aj._ small, little.
  {smecken}, _wv._ taste, 90.
  {smër} ({-wes}), _smn._ fat, 36, 47.
  {smërze}, _wm._ pain, 19.
  {smiegen}, _sv._ II, bend, incline; press close.
  {smielen}, _wv._ smile.
  {smirwen}, _wv._ smear, 36.
  {smit} ({-des}), _sm._ smith, metal worker, goldsmith.
  {smitte}, _swf._ smithy, 24.
  {snē} ({-wes}), _sm._ snow, 17, 36, 42.
  {snël} ({-lles}), _aj._ quick, eager, alert; blithe.
  {snëlheit}, _sf._ haste, quickness.
  {snīden}, _sv._ I, cut, injure, wound, 11, 12, 17, 30, 76.
  {snit}, _sm._ cut, slice, 44.
  {snuor} (_pl._ {snüere}), _sf._ string.
  {sō}, {so}, _av._ and _conj._ as, so, if, whereas, on the other hand,
      thus, as it was, 69.
  {solch}, {sölch} ({solich}), _pr._ such, of such a nature, 71.
  {soldenære}, _sm._ hired soldier, mercenary.
  {solt} ({-des}), _sm._ pay.
  {Soltāne}, _pn._
  {soltu} = {solt dū}.
  {son} = {so ne}.
  {sorge}, _swf._ care, grief, sorrow.
  {sorgelōs}, _aj._ free from cares.
  {sorgen}, _wv._ be anxious, fear, dread.
  {spāhe}, _av._ elegantly, neatly.
  {spalten}, _sv._ VII, split, 87.
  {spān}, _sm._ chip, shaving; notched stick, tally;
    degree of relationship.
  {spanen}, _sv._ VI, entice, 85.
  {spange}, _swf._ clasp, buckle.
  {spannen}, _sv._ VII, span, 87.
  {sparn}, _wv._ spare, forbear.
  {spëhen}, _wv._ look at, observe.
  {spër}, _sn._ spear, lance.
  {spiegel}, _sm._ mirror, looking-glass; model, pattern.
  {spiegelglas}, _sn._ lovely image, picture.
  {spil}, _sn._ game, play; joke, fun; pleasure, delight.
  {spiln} (_pres. part._ {spilende}, {spilede}), _wv._ play;
    glitter, glisten, 90.
  {spinnen}, _sv._ III, spin, 81.
  {spīse}, _sf._ food.
  {spīwen}, _sv._ I, vomit, 17, 77.
  {spore}, {spor}, _wm._ spur.
  {spot}, _sm._ scoff, scorn, mockery; joke, fun;
    {āne spot}, sincerely, candidly.
  {spotten}, _wv._ (with _gen._), mock, scoff at, scorn.
  {sprëchen}, _sv._ IV, speak, say, talk, 9.4 note, 19, 23.1, 82.
  {spreiten}, _wv._ spread.
  {springen}, _sv._ III, spring, leap.
  {stæte}, _sf._ duration, continuance, constancy, steadfastness.
  {stæte}, _aj._ constant, firm, steadfast;
    _av._ {stæteclīchen}.
  {stætekeit}, {stætikeit}, _sf._ firmness, constancy.
  {stahel}, _sm._ steel.
  {stam} ({-mmes}), _sm._ stem; prop, model.
  {stān}, {stēn}, _sv._ VI, stand; befit, become, suit, 11, 86, 96.
  {stap} ({-bes}), _sm._ stick, staff.
  {starc}, _aj._ strong, heavy, hard, severe;
    _av._ {starke}.
  {stat}, _sf._ abode, place, spot; opportunity.
  {state}, _sf._ suitable _or_ comfortable place; opportunity;
    {ze staten komen}, help.
  {stëchen}, _sv._ IV, prick, 9.4 note, 82.
  {stëgreif}, _sm._ stirrup.
  {stein}, _sm._ stone, precious stone, grindstone, millstone, 3, 17.
  {stëln}, _sv._ IV, steal, 9.1, 11, 74 note, 82.
  {stellen}, _wv._ place, 90.
  {stërben}, _sv._ III, die, 10 note 1, 81;
    _sn._ dying, death.
  {sterke}, _sf._ strength, bravery.
  {stërne}, _wm._ star.
  {stīc} ({-ges}), _sm._ path, way.
  {stich}, _sm._ stab, thrust.
  {stīgen}, _sv._ I, rise, mount,
  {stille}, _aj._ still, quiet, secret.
  {stimme}, _sf._ voice.
  {stinken} (_pret._ {stanc}), _sv._ III, stink, exhale a disagreeable
  {stiure}, _sf._ gift, tax.
  {stœren}, _wv._ hinder, overthrow, destroy.
  {stōle}, _sf._ stole, surplice.
  {stolz}, _aj._ stately.
  {stoup} ({-bes}), _sm._ dust.
  {stōȥen}, _sv._ VII, push, shove, thrust, 5, 11, 87.
  {strāfen}, _wv._ blame, set right.
  {strāȥe}, _swf._ way, road,
  {strëben}, _sv._ V, exert oneself, strive.
  {strenge}, _aj._ strict, unfriendly.
  {strīchen}, _sv._ I, strike, stroke, rub.
  {strīt}, _sm._ strife, quarrel, fight.
  {strīteclīchen}, _av._ eagerly, zealously.
  {strīten}, _sv._ I, quarrel, fight, strive, 76.
  {strō} ({-wes}), _sn._ straw; blade, stalk, 36, 46.
  {strouwen}, {ströuwen}, _wv._ strew, 10, 36.
  {stücke}, _sn._ piece.
  {stum}, _aj._ dumb, 32.1.
  {stunde}, _sf._ hour, time.
  {stunt}, _indecl. fem._ time.
  {stuol}, _sm._ seat of a judge, papal power; throne.
  {sturm}, _sm._ fight, battle.
  {sū}, _sf._ sow, pig, 49.
  {süeȥe}, _aj._ sweet, lovely, 60.
  {süeȥe}, _sf._ loveliness, alluring enticement.
  {süeȥen}, _wv._ sweeten, 90.
  {sūfen}, _sv._ II, gulp down liquids, 80.
  {sūft}, _sm._ sigh, groan.
  {sūgen}, _sv._ II, suck, 80.
  {suln}, {süln}, _pret.-pres._ (_pres._ {sol},_pret._ {solte}, should,
ought), shall, 40, 93.
  {sum}, _pr._ any one at all;
    _pl._ some, 71.
  {sumelīch}, _pr._ many a, whoever;
    _pl._ some, 71.
  {sūmen}, _wv._ tarry, 10.
  {sumer}, _sm._ summer, 42.
  {sumerlīch}, _aj._ summerlike.
  {sumerzīt}, _sf._ summer time.
  {sun}, _sm._ son, 5, 9.4, 10, 19, 44.
  {sünde}, _sf._ sin.
  {sunder}, _prep._ without, against;
    {sunder spot}, seriously, in earnest;
    _av._ {sunderlīche(n)}, especially, separately.
  {sunne}, _wmf._ sun.
  {suochen}, _wv._ seek, 90.
  {suone}, _sf._ atonement.
  {suon(e)tac} ({-ges}), _sm._ day of judgement.
  {suoȥe}, _av._ sweetly, 60.
  {sus} ({sust}), _av._ so, thus, in such a way.
  {swā}, {swar}, _av._ wherever, 69.
  {swach(e)}, _aj._ worthless, bad.
  {swacheit}, _sf._ dishonour, disgrace.
  {swachen}, _wv._ weaken.
  {swachlīch}, _aj._ weak.
  {swǣre}, _aj._ painful, sad, unpleasant, burdensome;
    weighty, heavy, 60;
    {daȥ swære}, such a weight.
  {swære}, _sf._ burden, trouble, grief, sadness.
  {swanc} ({-ges}, {-kes}), _sm._ swinging movement, hurling, throwing.
  {swannen}, {swanne}, _av._ and _conj._ whenever, 69.
  {swar}, see {swā}.
  {swār} ({swære}), _aj._ heavy, 55;
    _av._ {swāre}, 60.
  {swarz}, _aj._ black.
  {swëben}, _wv._ hover, move to and fro.
  {swëder}, _pr._ who of two, 69.
  {swëher}, _sm._ father-in-law, 30.
  {sweifen}, _sv._ VII, rove, 87.
  {swelch} ({swel}), _pr._ each who, whoever, what sort, whatever,
      69, 71.
  {swëllen}, _sv._ III, swell, 81.
  {swenne} (see {swannen}), _conj._ whenever, if, whilst, 69.
  {swër}, _pr._ who, whoever, whosoever;
    _neut._ {swaȥ}, 69, 70, 71.
  {swern} ({swerigen}, {swerjen}), _sv._ VI, swear, 35, 86.
  {swërt}, _sn._ sword.
  {swërtslac} (_pl._ {-slege}), _sm._ sword-cut.
  {swester}, {swëster}, _sf._ sister, 11, 48.
  {swie}, _av._ and _conj._, as, how, however, howsoever; though, 69.
  {swīgen}, _sv._ I, be silent, keep silent, 76.
  {swiger}, _sf._ mother-in-law, 30.
  {swimmen}, _sv._ III, swim, 31, 81.
  {swinde}, _aj._ powerful, strong, angry;
    _av._ quickly.
  {swinden}, _sv._ III, vanish, disappear.
  {swingen}, _sv._ III, swing.


  {tac} ({-ges}), _sm._ day, 5, 11, 33, 42;
    _av._ {tages}, by day.
  {tägelīch}, _aj._ daily, 5, 10.
  {tagen}, _wv._ become day, dawn.
  {tagezīt}, _sf._ space of a day.
  {tal} (_pl._ {teler}), _sn._ dale, 47.
  {tanz}, _sm._ dance.
  {tanzen}, _wv._ dance.
  {tanzwīse}, _sf._ a song which is sung to the accompaniment of
  {teil}, _smn._ portion;
    {ein teil}, something, a little.
  {teilen}, _wv._ divide, distribute.
  {tief}, _aj._ deep, 15, 19.
  {tier}, _sn._ animal.
  {tisch}, _sm._ table.
  {tiure}, {tiuwer}, _aj._ and _av._ dear, precious;
    noble, excellent, 9.3, 57.
  {tiuren}, {tiuwern}, _wv._ esteem highly, honour, confer honour.
  {tiutsch}, {tiusch}, _aj._ German;
    {tiuschiu zunge}, German language, Germany.
  {tiuvel}, _sm._ devil.
  {tœrisch}, {tœrsch}, _aj._ foolish, silly.
  {tœtlīch}, _aj._ deadly.
  {tohter}, _sf._ daughter, 10, 25, 49.
  {töhterlīn}, _sn._ little daughter, 10.
  {tor}, _sn._ gate, door.
  {tōre}, {tōr}, _wm._ fool.
  {törperheit}, _sf._ impoliteness, vulgarity.
  {tōt}, _aj._ dead, 3, 25, 30.
  {tōt} ({-des}), _sm._ death, 5, 11, 30, 33;
    {in dëm tōde swëben}, be on the peril of losing one’s life.
  {tou} ({-wes}), _sn._ dew, 46.
  {toufen}, _wv._ baptize, 10.
  {tougen}, _sfn._ secret, wonder;
    _aj._ dark, secret;
    _av._ secretly, 55.
  {tougenlīch}, _aj._ secret;
    _av._ {tougenlīche}.
  {træge}, _aj._ slow, weary, lazy;
    _av._ {trāge}.
  {tragen}, _sv._ VI, bear, carry; wear; have, 85.
  {trahen} (_pl._ {trehene}), _sm._ drop, tear.
  {trahten}, _wv._ think, strive, 92.
  {trëffen}, _sv._ IV, hit, 32, 82.
  {treit} = {traget}.
  {trëten}, _sv._ V, tread, step, enter, 83;
    {trëten hinder sich}, step back.
  {tretten}, _wv._ tread, 31.3.
  {trīben}, _sv._ I, drive; play, carry on, 76.
  {triefen}, _sv._ II, drop, drip, 31.1, 78.
  {triegen}, _sv._ II, deceive, plot, intrigue.
  {trinken}, _sv._ III, drink, 19, 81.
  {triuten}, _wv._ caress, like, love; greet.
  {triuwe}, _aj._ true, 16 note;
    _sf._ fidelity, faithfulness;
    {mit triuwen} ({triwen}), faithfully.
  {triuwen}, {trūwen}, _wv._ believe, trust, hope, 16 note.
  {trœstelīn}, _sn._ consolation, hope.
  {trœsten}, _wv._ console, comfort; help.
  {tropfe}, _wm._ drop, 31.3.
  {trōst}, _sm._ consolation, hope.
  {troum}, _sm._ dream.
  {troumen}, _wv._ dream, 10.
  {trüebe}, _aj._ gloomy.
  {trüebsal}, _sn._ gloom, 8.
  {trūrec}, _aj._ sad;
    _av._ {trūreclīche}.
  {trūren}, _wv._ mourn, be sad, downcast;
    also _sn._
  {trūt}, _aj._ dear, beloved.
  {trūtgemahele}, _sf._ bride.
  {tugen}, {tügen}, _pret.-pres._ (_pres._ {touc}, _pret._ {tohte}),
      be fit for, good for, of use, 93.
  {tugenhaft}, _aj._ fit, hearty, noble.
  {tugent}, {tugende}, _sf._ virtue, good qualities, strength, power,
      valour, 49.
  {tugentlīchen}, _av._ with noble demeanour.
  {tump} ({-bes}), _aj._ inexperienced, silly, young.
  {tumpheit}, _sf._ folly, foolish action; inexperience;
    {tumpheit walten}, show or have great inexperience.
  {tunkel}, _aj._ dark.
  {tuon}, _anom. v._ do, make, form, shape; cause, 94;
    {tuon enblecken}, cause to become visible;
    {ze leide tuon}, cause grief, pain, _or_ injury to;
    {wër hāt dir getān?} who has done anything to you?;
    {als ein got getān}, like a god.
  {tür}, _sf._ door.
  {Turkentāls}, _pn._ one of Parzival’s princes.
  {turren}, {türren}, _pret.-pres._ (_pres._ {tar}, _pret._ {torste}),
      dare, venture, 10, 93.
  {tūsenste}, _num._ thousandth, 62.
  {tūsent}, _num._ thousand, 5, 62, 64.
  {twahen} (_pret._ {twuoc}), _sv._ VI, wash, 85.
  {twërch} (_gen._ {twërhes}), askew, 34.
  {twingen}, _sv._ III, compel, force, subdue, overcome;
    {sich twingen lāȥen}, let oneself be compelled.


  {übel}, _aj._ evil, bad, 55, 58, 60;
    _av._ {übele}.
  {über}, _prep._ over, because of, for.
  {übergrōȥ}, _aj._ very great.
  {übergülde}, _sn._ gilding, raising of value.
  {übergulde}, _sf._ that which surpasses something else in value.
  {übermæȥlīchen}, _av._ beyond measure.
  {übermüete}, _sf._ insolence, haughtiness.
  {übermuot}, _sm._ haughtiness, insolence.
  {übern} = {über dën}, 68 note 2.
  {übersëhen}, _sv._ V, overlook, not observe.
  {überstrīten}, _sv._ I, gain the victory over, conquer.
  {übertragen}, _sv._ VI, spare, discharge something.
  {überwinden}, _sv._ III, overcome, get over.
  {ūf}, {ūfe}, _prep._ and _av._ up, up to, on, to, upwards, 23.1;
    {ūf genāde}, in firm confidence;
    {ūf die triwe mīn}, upon my faith _or_ troth;
    {ūf slieȥen}, open.
  {ūfem}, {ūfme} = {ūf dëm}, 68 note 2.
  {ūfen} = {ūf dën}, 68 note 2.
  {Ulterlec}, _pn._
  {umbe}, {ümbe}, {umb}, {um}, _prep._ and _av._ about, around, upon,
      for, 10 note 2;
    {dar umbe}, therefore;
    {umbe sust}, for nothing;
    {um waȥ}, why, for what reason;
    {umbe daȥ}, on account of that, for that, therefore;
    {umbe gān}, turn _or_ go round.
  {umbeslieȥen}, _sv._ II, embrace, surround.
  {umbevāhen}, _sv._ VII, embrace.
  {unbewollen}, _part. aj._ unspotted.
  {und}, {unde}, {unt}, _cj._ and _av._ and;
    again, on the other hand, 9.6, 69.
  {unden}, _av._ below, beneath.
  {under} ({undr}), _prep._ under, beneath, between, among;
    {under in}, among themselves;
    {under wëgen lān}, omit;
    {under stunden}, at times, now and then, sometimes;
    {under wīlen}, from time to time, at times, sometimes.
  {underlāȥ}, _sm._ interruption.
  {underscheiden}, _sv._ VII, relate; explain fully.
  {undersnīden}, _sv._ I, interrupt, intermingle.
  {understān}, _sv._ VI, step in between, hinder.
  {undertænic}, _aj._ humble, subject, submissive.
  {undertān}, _part. aj._ humble, submissive.
  {underwinden}, _sv._ III, _refl._ undertake.
  {unfuoge} (also used as a proper noun), _sf._ unseemliness,
      indecorum, misconduct; coarseness.
  {unfuore}, _wf._ badness, roughness; wicked mode of life.
  {ungebære}, _sf._ despairing lamentation.
  {ungebant}, _aj._ unbeaten, untrodden.
  {ungebatten}, _aj._ useless, worthless.
  {ungeborn}, _part. aj._ unborn.
  {ungeburt}, _sf._ low birth.
  {ungefüege}, _aj._ very great, powerful;
    bad, unbecoming, coarse, uncouth, rude;
    _av._ {ungefuoge}.
  {ungehabe}, _sf._ sorrow, grief.
  {ungelīche}, _av._ immeasurably, incomparably.
  {ungelōnet}, _aj._ unrewarded.
  {ungelouplich}, _aj._ incredible.
  {ungelücke}, _sn._ misfortune.
  {ungemach}, _sn._ misfortune, discomfort, sorrow.
  {ungemüete}, _snf._ mourning, grief, sorrow.
  {ungenāde}, _sf._ disfavour, hatred, harm.
  {ungenæme}, _aj._ unpleasant.
  {ungenësen}, _aj._ unhealed, uncured.
  {ungerihte}, _sn._ fault, crime.
  {ungërne}, _av._ unwillingly.
  {ungesammet}, _aj._ not united, not unanimous.
  {ungeschriben}, _part. aj._ that which cannot be written.
  {ungestaltheit}, _sf._ deformity.
  {ungesunt}, ({-des}), _sm._ sickness, illness.
  {unhövesch}, _aj._ uncourtly, coarse, low, vulgar.
  {unkraft}, _sf._ fainting fit, swoon.
  {unkunt} ({unkuntlīch}), _aj._ unknown.
  {unlange}, _av._ in a short time.
  {unmære}, _aj._ not worth mentioning, little observed, worthless,
      disgusting; undervalued.
  {unmæȥlīch}, _aj._ immoderate, excessive.
  {unmāȥen}, _av._ immeasurably.
  {unminnen}, _wv._ treat in an unloving manner.
  {unmueȥekeit}, _sf._ work, trouble.
  {unmugelīch}, _aj._ impossible.
  {unmuoȥe}, _sf._ occupation, restlessness.
  {unnāch}, _av._ by no means.
  {unnōt}, _sf._ without danger _or_ need.
  {unrewert} = {unerwert}, _part. aj._ unprohibited.
  {unriuweclīche}, _av._ without trouble _or_ care.
  {unsælekeit}, _sf._ unhappiness; misfortune.
  {unsælic} ({-ec}), _aj._ unhappy, cursed.
  {unschulde}, _sf._ innocence.
  {unschuldigen}, _wv._ proclaim one’s innocence.
  {unsegelīch}, _aj._ unspeakable.
  {unsenfte}, _aj._ painful, hard.
  {unser}, _pr._ our, 7, 67.
  {unstæte}, _aj._ inconstant, fickle.
  {unstæte}, _sf._ inconstancy, fickleness.
  {untriuwe}, _sf._ faithlessness, deceit.
  {untrœsten}, _wv._ dishearten, discourage.
  {untrōst}, _sm._ despondency, discouragement.
  {untugent}, _sf._ lack of good training.
  {unversunnen}, _pp._ unconscious.
  {unvrō}, {unfrō}, _aj._ unhappy, sad, mournful.
  {unwandelbære}, _aj._ steadfast, unchangeable.
  {unwendic} ({-ec}), _aj._ unchangeable.
  {unwërt}, _sm._ unworthiness, contempt for, scorn.
  {unwīp}, ({-bes}), _sn._ bad woman; unwomanly creature;
    unworthy the name of Weib.
  {unwīse}, _sf._ false tone _or_ sound; bad style.
  {unze}, {unz}, _prep._ and _conj._ till, until, up to, down to, to;
    {unz her}, hitherto;
    {unz enmitten an}, right down to.
  {unzerworht}, _aj._ undivided, undissected, not cut up.
  {Uote}, _pn._ 54.
  {üppic}, _aj._ unnecessary, superfluous; proud.
  {ūȥ}, _prep._ and _av._ out, out of, of, from;
    {ūȥen}, _av._;
    {ūȥerwelt}, select, chosen.
  {ūȥer}, _prep._ out of, from.
  {ūȥreise}, _sf._ marching, going out _or_ off; departure;
    song sung by knights on the march.

V (F)
  {vadem}, _sm._ thread, 9.2, 42.
  {vāhen}, {fāhen} ({vān}), _sv._ VII, catch, seize, take, 29, 30,
      38, 87.
  {val} ({-wes}), _aj._ yellow, 36.
  {vallen}, _sv._ VII, fall, fall down, fall to one’s lot, 32.4, 87.
  {valsch}, _aj._ false, deceitful.
  {valsch}, _sm._ fault, spot, impurity, deceit;
    {valsches laȥ}, free from deceit _or_ falseness.
  {valten}, _sv._ VII, fold, 87.
  {vancnüsse}, _sf._ captivity, 8.
  {var}, {vare} ({-wes}), _aj._ coloured; formed, looking.
  {vāren}, _wv._ place behind, watch, lie in wait.
  {varn}, _sv._ VI, go, fare, betake oneself, 5, 10, 74 note, 85;
    {varndeȥ guot}, movable property.
  {vart}, _sf._ way, march, journey.
  {varwe}, _sf._ colour, form, appearance.
  {vaste}, _av._ fast, quickly, strongly, firmly; very.
  {vater}, _sm._ (_pl._ {veter}, {väter}), father, 11, 19, 45.
  {väterlīch}, _aj._ fatherly, 10.
  {väterlīn}, _dim._ of {vater}, 5, 10.
  {vaȥȥen}, _wv._ seize, take, gather.
  {vëhten}, _sv._ IV, fight, 82.
  {veile}, _aj._ cheap, purchasable.
  {vël} ({-lles}), _sn._ hide, skin, 32.1.
  {vellen}, _wv._ fell, kill, 90.
  {vels}, _swm._ rock, 11.
  {velschen}, _wv._ falsify; make faithless.
  {vëlt} ({-des}), _sn._ field.
  {venster}, _sn._ window, 46.
  {verbërgen}, _sv._ III, hide, conceal.
  {verbërn}, _sv._ IV, spare, abstain from, forbear, avoid, keep from,
      give up.
  {verbieten}, _sv._ II, forbid, hinder, prevent, obstruct; ward off.
  {verdagen}, _wv._ keep secret, conceal.
  {verdërben}, perish, spoil, destroy, 81.
  {verdërbnisse}, _sfn._ destruction, 8.
  {verdienen}, _wv._ deserve, earn.
  {verdrieȥen} (_impers. c. gen._), _sv._ III, grieve, fret, vex.
  {verdringen}, _sv._ III, crowd out, suppress, displace,
      push on one side.
  {vereinen}, _wv. refl._ unite.
  {verenden}, _wv._ end.
  {vergëben}, _sv._ V, poison, infect.
  {vergëlten}, _sv._ III, repay, requite.
  {vergëȥȥen}, _sv._ V, forget, 83.
  {vergieȥen}, _sv._ II, pour over, sprinkle with water.
  {verhëln}, _sv._ IV, conceal.
  {verhouwen} (_pret._ {-hiu} and {-hie}, also weak {-houte}),
      _sv._ VII, hew in pieces, cut asunder.
  {verjëhen}, _sv._ V, say, tell, relate; give to understand, assure.
  {verkēren}, _wv._ change, turn round; destroy.
  {verkiesen}, _sv._ II, give up, forgo, forget.
  {verklagen}, _wv._ cease to mourn, bear with patience.
  {verkrenken}, _wv._ destroy.
  {verlāȥen} ({verlān}), _sv._ VII, leave off, forsake.
  {verleiten}, _wv._ lead astray.
  {verleschen}, _sv._ IV, become extinguished, extinguish.
  {verliesen} ({vliesen}), _sv._ II, lose, 78.
  {verligen}, _sv._ V, miss through sleeping too long, over-sleep.
  {verlust}, _sm._ loss.
  {vermīden}, (_pp._ {vermiten}), _sv._ I, avoid, omit, not to take
      place, keep aloof from.
  {vermischen}, _wv._ mix, mingle.
  {vernëmen}, _sv._ IV, perceive, observe, get to know.
  {vërre}, _aj._ and _av._ far, far away, distant, 31.
  {verrihten}, _wv._ settle, pass sentence upon.
  {versagen}, _wv._ refuse, deny.
  {verschaffen}, _sv._ VI, do _or_ act in a bad manner, spoil, destroy.
  {verschulden}, _wv._ pay back.
  {versëhen}, _sv._ V, observe, recognize;
    _refl._ hope, dread.
  {versinnen} ({sich}), _sv._ III, arrive at years of discretion;
    _c. gen._ become conscious of.
  {versmæhelīch}, _aj._ disgraceful, ignominious.
  {versmæhen}, _wv._ despise, mock.
  {versperren} (_pret._ {versparte}), _wv._ shut, close.
  {versprëchen}, _sv._ IV, decline, spurn.
  {verstān} ({-stēn}), _sv._ VI, perceive, understand.
  {verstōȥen}, _sv._ VII, drive away.
  {versūmen}, _wv._ neglect, let slip, spoil.
  {versuochen}, _wv._ try, test.
  {verswern}, _sv._ VI, abjure, deny by an oath.
  {verswīgen}, _sv._ I, forbear talking.
  {verswinden}, _sv._ III, disappear, flee.
  {vertragen}, _sv._ VI, endure, bear.
  {vertrīben}, _sv._ I, drive away, make to pass.
  {vervāhen}, {verfāhen}, _sv._ VII, reach, bring to pass;
    {mich vervæhet}, it is of use _or_ advantage to me.
  {vervluochen}, {-fluochen}, _wv._ curse.
  {verwāȥen}, _sv._ VII, ruin; imprecate, curse.
  {verwëgen}, _sv._ V, resolve.
  {verweinen}, _wv._ exhaust by weeping.
  {verwunden}, _wv._ wound.
  {verwürken} (_pret._ {-worhte}), _wv._ lose, forfeit, commit.
  {verzagen}, _wv._ lose courage, withdraw, despair, despond.
  {verzern}, _wv._ consume; destroy.
  {veste}, _sf._ firmness, constancy.
  {vīant}, {vīent}, {vīnt}, _sm._ enemy, fiend, 8, 42.
  {vier}, _num._ four, 62.
  {vier}, {fier}, _aj._ proud, stately, majestic, beautiful;
    _av._ {viere}.
  {vierde}, _num._ fourth, 62.
  {vierzëhen}, _num._ fourteen, 62.
  {vierzëhende}, _num._ fourteenth, 62.
  {vierzic} ({-ec}), _num._ forty, 62.
  {vierzigeste}, _num._ fortieth.
  {vihe}, _sn._ cattle, 46.
  {vil}, _aj._ much, many;
    _av._ very;
    _indecl. sb. c. gen._ much, many;
    {vil wēnic ganz} _c. gen._ not at all complete _or_ whole.
  {vinden}, {finden}, _sv._ III, find, 9.4 note, 81.
  {vinger}, _sm._ finger.
  {vingerlīn}, {vingerīn}, _sn._ ring, 8.
  {vingerlinc}, _sm._ ring.
  {vinster}, _sf._ darkness, 48.
  {vinster}, _aj._ dark, gloomy, 55.
  {vinsternisse}, _sfn._ darkness, 8.
  {vint} = {vindet}, 74 note.
  {vīnt}, see {vīant}.
  {vīol}, _sm._ violet.
  {virren}, _wv._ keep away from.
  {visch}, _sm._ fish, 11, 19.
  {viur}, {fiuwer}, _sn._ fire; lightning.
  {vlēhen}, {flēhen} ({vlēn}), _wv._ beseech, implore, 38.
  {vlëhten}, _sv._ IV, plait, 82.
  {fleisch}, _sn._ flesh.
  {vliegen}, {fliegen}, _sv._ II, fly, 10 note 3, 25, 78.
  {vliehen}, {fliehen}, _sv._ II, flee, 18, 19, 78.
  {vliesen} = {verliesen}.
  {vlieȥen}, {flieȥen}, _sv._ II, flow, swim;
    ruin, destroy, 10 note 3, 78.
  {vlīȥ}, {flīȥ}, _sm._ assiduity, zeal, eagerness, care;
    {ze flīȥe}, diligently, carefully.
  {vlīȥec}, _aj._ diligent, 60.3.
  {vlīȥeclīche(n)}, _av._ diligently, 60.3.
  {vluht}, _sf._ refuge.
  {flühtesal}, _sf._ flight, escape; security.
  {vluoch} (_pl._ {vlüeche}), _sm._ curse.
  {vogel}, _sm._ bird, 9.2, 42.
  {vogelīn}, {vogel(l)īn}, _sn._ little bird, 8.
  {vogelsanc}, _sm._ song of birds.
  {vol} ({-lles}), _aj._ full, 15, 31.
  {volc}, _sn._ folk, people.
  {volenden}, _wv._ bring to an end.
  {volgen}, _wv._ follow, accompany.
  {volgesagen}, _wv._ tell fully.
  {volle}, _wm._ abundance, completeness.
  {vollebringen} (_pret._ {-brāhte}), _wv._ perfect, carry out.
  {volleclīchen}, _av._ fully, entirely.
  {volleist}, _sm._ assistance, succour.
  {von}, _prep._ from, away from, with, about, through, by;
    {von schulden}, rightly, properly.
  {vonme}, {vomme} = {von dëme}.
  {vor}, _prep._ before, for.
  {vorbilde}, _sn._ pattern, model.
  {vorder}, _aj._ former, front, 59.
  {vordern}, _wv._ further, 90.
  {vorderste}, _aj._ foremost, 59.
  {vorht}, _sf._ fear, dread.
  {vrāge}, _sf._ question.
  {vrāgen}, _wv._ ask, 9.2, 92.
  {frävele}, _aj._ bold, 10.
  {frëch}, _aj._ courageous, daring, bold, brave; saucy, impudent.
  {freischen}, _sv._ VII, come to know, learn, be told.
  {vreise}, {freise}, _swf._ horror, what is dreadful _or_ horrible.
  {vremde}, {fremde} ({vrömde}), _aj._ strange, wonderful; unknown.
  {vremen}, _wv._ perform, 31.3.
  {vreude}, {vröude}, {fröide}, {freude}, {fröude}, _swf._ joy,
    {fröuden} (_gen. pl._) {lam}, bereft of joys, pleasures.
  {vreudelōs}, _aj._ joyless.
  {freuderīche}, _aj._ rich in joy, very gratifying.
  {vreuwen}, {vrewen}, {vreun}, {freuwen}, {frewen}, {freun},
      _wv._ cause to rejoice, rejoice, gladden, give pleasure to,
      be glad.
    See {vröuwen}.
  {vrevel}, _sf._ audacity, insolence.
  {frevellīchen}, _av._ insolently, boldly, with impudence.
  {vrëȥȥen}, _sv._ V, devour, 83.
  {vrī}, _aj._ free, unrestrained, unmarried.
  {vride}, {fride}, _sm._ peace, truce; protection, safety, 3, 19, 43.
  {vrid(e)lich}, _aj._ peaceful.
  {vrīe}, _sf._ freedom.
  {vrīe}, _wm._ freeman.
  {frīen}, {frījen}, {frīgen}, _wv._ free, 35.
  {vriesen}, _sv._ II, freeze, 78.
  {vrisch}, {frisch}, _aj._ fresh, new.
  {vrist}, _sf._ time.
  {vristen}, _wv._ keep alive, protect, rescue.
  {vriundinne}, _sf._ female friend, 8, 48.
  {vriunt}, {friunt}, _sm._ friend, 42.
  {vrō}, {frō}, _aj._ and _av._ glad, joyful.
  {vrœlīch}, _aj._ joyful;
    _av._ {vrœlīchen}.
  {vrömde} = {vremde}.
  {vrömede}, _sf._ absence.
  {frosch}, _sm._ frog.
  {vröuen}, {vröuwen}, {fröwen}, _wv._ gladden, give pleasure to;
    be glad, 10.
    See {vreuwen}.
  {vrouwe}, {frouwe}, {frowe} ({vrou}, {frou}, {frō}, before proper
      names), _wf._ lady, madam, 9.6, 10;
    {ze frowen}, as wife.
  {vröuwelīn}, {frouwelīn}, _sn._ little girl, maid, miss.
  {vruht}, _sf._ fruit.
  {vrum}, _aj._ brave, active, excellent, useful.
  {vrumen}, {frumen}, _wv._ benefit, be of use _or_ advantage.
  {vruo}, _av._ early.
  {vüegen}, {füegen}, _wv._ procure, bring to pass; grant.
  {vüeren}, {füeren} (_pret._ {fuorte}), _wv._ lead, carry, remove.
  {fuhs}, _sm._ fox, 19.
  {vūl}, _aj._ bad, rotten.
  {vülle}, _sf._ fulness, 15.
  {füllen}, _wv._ fill, 90.
  {funden}, _pp._ of {finden}.
  {vünf}, {fünf}, {finf}, _num._ five, 19, 62.
  {fünfte}, {finfte}, _num._ fifth, 62.
  {vuoge}, _sf._ becomingness, decency.
  {fuore}, _sf._ manner of life; way of acting.
  {vuoȥ}, {fuoȥ} (_pl._ {vüeȥe}), _sm._ foot, 10, 44.
  {vür}, {für}, _prep._ and _av._ for, before, over, against;
    {für guot haben}, be content with, put up with;
    {für iuch}, past you;
    {für sie}, past them;
    {für tōren kleit}, as fool’s clothing;
    {vür wār}, in truth, truly.
  {vürbaȥ}, {fürbaȥ}, _av._ further.
  {vürhten}, {fürhten} (_pret._ {vorhte}), _wv._ fear, dread, 15, 90.
  {vürnames}, _av._ in the full sense of the word.
  {vürste}, {fürste}, _wm._ prince;
    {ein dīn fürste}, one of thy princes.
  {vurt}, {furt} (_pl._ {fürte}), _sm._ ford, bed of a river.


  {wā}, _av._ where, whither, 39.
  {wāc} ({-ges}), _sn._ moving water, flood.
  {wacker}, _aj._ watchful, 31.2.
  {wæjen} ({wæn}), _wv._ blow, 90.
  {wæenen} (_pret._ {wānde}), _wv._ think, fancy, 90.
  {wærlīchen}, _av._ in truth, truly.
  {wætlīch}, _aj._ beautiful.
  {wætlīche}, _sf._ beauty.
  {wāfen}, _sn._ weapon, sword.
  {wāfenen}, {wāpenen}, _wv._ arm, equip, array.
    See {wāpen}.
  {wage}, _wf._ cradle.
  {wāge}, _sf._ balance, scale.
  {wagen}, _sm._ wagon, 49.
  {wahsen}, _sv._ VI, grow, 10, 85.
  {wal}, _sf._ choice, 48.
  {walden}, _sv._ VII, have power over.
    See {walten}.
  {Wāleis}, _pn._ Valois in France, inhabitant of Valois.
  {wallen} (_pret._ {wiel}), _sv._ VII, boil, bubble, 87.
  {walt} ({-des}), _sm._ wood, forest.
  {walten} (with _gen._), _sv._ VII, have power.
  {wan}, _aj._ empty, bereft of.
  {wan}, _av._ besides, but only;
    {niht wan}, only, nothing but;
    {wan daȥ}, only that, if--not;
    {wan unz}, whilst, as long as;
    {wan dëm einen}, except for the one.
  {wan} ({wande}, {want}), _conj._ for, if, because, then, 9.6.
  {wān}, _sm._ faith, hope, mood.
  {wanc} ({-kes}), _sm._ inconstancy, disloyalty, unfaithfulness,
  {wandel}, _smn._ change, fickleness; fault, defect, failing.
  {wandeln}, _wv._ wander, 9.2, 90.
  {wange}, _wn._ cheek, 50.
  {wängelīn}, _sn._ little cheek.
  {want}, _sf._ wall.
  {wāpen} (with {sich}), _wv._ arm oneself.
    See {wāfenen}.
  {wāpen}, _sn._ weapon, 46.
  {wāpenen}, see {wāfenen}.
  {wāpenroc}, _sm._ upper-garment drawn over the coat of mail.
  {war}, _av._ where, whither;
    {war umbe}, wherefore, why;
    {war zuo}, for what purpose.
  {war}, _sf._ attention, observation;
    {war nëmen}, give attention.
  {wār}, _sn._ truth; right;
    {wār haben}, be right.
  {wār}, _aj._ true, right, real.
  {wārheit}, _sf._ truth.
  {wārinne}, _av._ wherein, 39.
  {wärmen}, _wv._ to warm, 5, 10.
  {warnen}, _wv._ equip, prepare.
  {warten} (_pret._ {warte}), _wv._ wait; look, view, 9.2.
  {was}, {wasse}, _aj._ sharp, 55.
  {waschen} ({weschen}), _sv._ VI, wash, 85.
  {waste}, _sf._ desert.
  {wāt}, _sf._ clothing, dress.
  {waten}, _sv._ VI, wade, 85.
  {waȥ}, _pr._ what, 19, 23.1, 70;
    _av._ why, wherefore.
  {wē} (_gen._ {wēwes}), _sn._ woe, pain;
    {wē tuon}, hurt, 17, 46;
    _interj._ {wehe}, {wē}, woe! alas!;
    {mir ist wē}, I am sad.
  {wëben}, _sv._ V, weave, 28, 83.
  {wëc} ({-ges}), _sm._ way; homeward journey, 5, 11.
  {wecken} (_pret._ {wacte}, {wahte}), _wv._ awake.
  {wëder}, _pr._ who of two, which of two, 70, 71;
    {wëder--noch}, neither--nor.
  {wegen}, _wv._ move, swing.
  {wëgen}, _sv._ V, weigh, poise; put in motion, 83.
  {wëhsal} ({-el}), _smn._ change, 8.
  {weich}, _aj._ weak.
  {weideganc} ({-ges}), _sm._ hunting way _or_ path.
  {weinen} (_pres. part._ {weinde} for {weinende}), _wv._ weep, bewail;
    also _sn._
  {weise}, _wm._ orphan; precious stone in the royal crown.
  {weiȥgot}, _interj._ verily.
  {welīch}, {welch}, _pr._ which, what kind of, 11, 70, 71.
  {wellen} (_pres. sing._ {wil}, _pret._ {wolte}), _anom. v._ will,
      wish, 98;
    {got dës niht enwelle}, may God forbid it.
  {weln}, {welen}, {wellen}, _wv._ choose, 90.
  {wenden} (_pp._ {gewant}), _wv._ with _gen._ turn, prevent, hinder,
      turn away, 32.3.
  {wēnic}, _aj._ little, small;
    _indecl. sb. c. gen._ little.
  {wenke}, _sf._ turning, turn, change.
  {wenken}, _wv._ totter, stagger, waver.
  {wer}, _sf._ defence; protection; battle.
  {wër}, _neut._ {waȥ}, _pr._ who, what;
    {wës}, _av._ wherefore, 9.6, 70.
  {wërben}, _sv._ III, turn, go to and fro, strive, work, be active, 33.
  {wërde}, _aj._ worthy, noble.
  {wërdekeit}, {wërdikeit}, _sf._ worthiness, respect, honour,
  {wërden}, _sv._ III, become, be, be born, 9.4 note, 38, 81;
    {wërden wol innen}, perceive clearly;
    {wërden buoȥ}, with _dat._ of pers. and _gen._ of thing:
      {dëm wirt kumbers buoȥ}, he has compensation for his grief;
    {wërden rāt}, _c. gen._ be a remedy.
  {wërdiclīchen}, _av._ worthily.
  {wërfen}, _sv._ III, throw, set in quick motion, 10 note, 23.2, 81.
  {wërlt}, {wërelt}, {wëlt}, _sf._ world, people;
    {dër wërelde riuwe}, great sadness _or_ grief, lit. sadness of the
  {wërltlīch}, _aj._ worldly, earthly.
  {wërlttōre}, _wm._ one befooled by the world.
  {wërltzage}, _wm._ arrant coward.
  {wern} ({weren}), _wv._ check, ward off from, restrain, hinder, 90;
    _c. gen._ and _sich_, protect _or_ defend oneself against.
  {wern}, _wv._ last, hold out, continue.
  {wërren} (with _dat._), _sv._ III, perplex, confuse, trouble,
      disturb, be a hindrance, 81.
  {wërt} ({-des}), _aj._ worthy, noble;
    _snm._ respect, good fortune;
    _av._ {wërde}.
  {wës} (_gen._ of {waȥ}), _av._ why, wherefore.
  {wësen}, _sv._ V, be, 19, 83;
    {wësen gāch}, _c. gen._ of person: hasten, exert oneself, eagerly.
  {wëter}, _sn._ weather, 46.
  {wetzen}, _wv._ whet, sharpen.
  {wider} ({widere}), _sm._ wether, 9.2.
  {wider}, _prep._ against, to;
    _av._ again, back.
  {widersagen}, _wv._ renounce; proclaim war; contradict.
  {widerstān}, _sv._ VI, resist, withstand, be opposed to.
  {widervarn}, _sv._ VI, fall to the lot of.
  {widerzæme}, _aj._ revolting, hateful, disgusting.
  {wie}, _av._ and _conj._ how, as, that.
  {wīgant} ({-des}), _sm._ warrior, 8.
  {wīhen}, _wv._ consecrate, bless.
  {wilde}, _aj._ untamed, wild, 55.
  {wīle}, {wīl}, _sf._ time, while;
    {die wīle}, meanwhile, in the meantime.
  {wīlen(t)}, _av._ formerly, once upon a time.
  {wille}, _wm._ will, wish, desire.
  {willeclīch}, _aj._ willing, wishing;
    _av._ {willeclīchen}.
  {willekomen}, _aj._ and _av._ welcome.
  {wilt} ({-des}), _sn._ wild animals, game.
  {wīn}, _sm._ wine, 3, 19.
  {winden}, _sv._ III, wind, bind up, 81.
  {wine}, _sm._ friend.
  {wint} ({-des}), _sm._ wind, 14.1.
  {winter}, _sm._ winter.
  {wīp} ({-bes}), _sn._ woman, wife, 5, 11.
  {wīpheit}, _sf._ womanliness.
  {wīplīch}, _aj._ womanly.
  {wirde}, _sf._ worthiness, dignity, honour, honourableness.
  {wirden}, _wv._ make valuable.
  {wirs}, _av._ worse, 61.
  {wirser}, _aj._ worse, 58.
  {wirsest}, {wir(se)ste}, _aj._ and _av._ worst, 9.5, 58, 60, 61.
  {wirt}, _sm._ head of a house, landlord;
    {dër helle wirt}, devil.
  {wirtinne}, _sf._ mistress, hostess, 8.
  {wīse}, {wīs}, _aj._ wise, sensible, experienced, 28.
  {wīse}, {wīs}, _sf._ manner, melody, song.
  {wīsen}, _wv._ guide, direct.
  {wīsheit}, _sf._ wisdom.
  {wīslīch}, _aj._ wisely, 8;
    _av._ {wīslīchen}.
  {wīt}, _aj._ far, wide.
  {witze}, _sf._ understanding, sense; reflection.
  {wīȥ}, _aj._ white.
  {wīȥen} (with _dat._), _sv._ I, reproach, blame.
  {wiȥȥen}, _pret.-pres._ (_pres._ {weiȥ}, _pret._ {weste}, {wiste},
      {wesse}, {wisse}), know, 5, 11, 28, 92.
  {wol}, {wole}, _av._ well, 5, 9.1, 61;
    {wolgezogen}, well-mannered;
    {wol getān}, beautiful;
    {wol im}, happy _or_ lucky is he!;
    {wol dir}, hail to thee;
    {wol mich}, happy am I!;
    {wol tuon}, _c. dat._ do good, please;
    {wol ir dës}, good luck to her for that!
  {wolf}, _sm._ wolf, 15.
  {wolken}, _sn._ cloud.
  {wolle}, _wf._ wool, 15.
  {wollust}, _smf._ joy, bliss, happiness.
  {wonen}, _wv._ dwell, live, 9.4;
    {mir wont bī}, I possess.
  {wort}, _sn._ word, speech, 46.
  {wüllīn}, {wullīn}, _aj._ woollen, 15.
  {wülpinne}, _sf._ she-wolf, 15.
  {wunde}, _wf._ wound.
  {wunder}, _sn._ wonder, marvel; a great amount _or_ number, abundance;
    {bluomen wunder}, a great quantity of flowers.
  {wunderalt}, _aj._ very old.
  {wundern}, _wv._ wonder, wonder at, admire, 9.2.
  {wünne}, {wunne}, _sf._ joy, pleasure, 10 note 2.
  {wünneclīch}, {wunneclīch}, _aj._ joyful, delightful, beautiful,
    _av._ {wünneclīche(n)}.
  {wunsch}, _sm._ wish, ideal, perfection, highest perfection.
  {wünschen} (with _gen._), _wv._ wish, desire, 90.
  {wunschleben}, _sn._ such a life as one could wish for.
  {wunt} ({-des}), _aj._ wounded.
  {wuof}, _sm._ cry of woe.
  {wuofen}, _sv._ VII, bewail, 87.
  {würgen}, _wv._ take by the throat, choke, throttle.
  {würken}, {wurken} (_pret._ {worhte}), _wv._ work, 28, 91.
  {wurm}, _sm._ worm, snake, 5.
  {wurze}, _wf._ root, plant.
  {wurzel}, _swf._ root.


  {zageheit}, _sf._ cowardice.
  {zaher}, _sm._ tear, 5, 10.
  {zal}, _sf._ number, 9.1, 31.3, 48.
  {zant}, {zan} (_gen._ {zandes}), _sm._ tooth, 43.
  {ze} ({zuo}), _prep._ at, in, to, as much as, (undergoes contraction
      with the def. art.);
    {ze bruoder}, as brother;
    {ze rëhte}, rightly, properly;
    {ze handen haben}, possess;
    _av._ too: {ze sēre}, too much.
  {zebrëchen}, {zerbrëchen}, _sv._ IV, break, break in pieces.
  {zehant}, _av._ at once, on the spot.
  {zēhe}, _wf._ toe.
  {zëhen}, _num._ ten, 5, 62.
  {zëhente} ({-de}), _num._ tenth, 62.
  {zëhenzic} ({-ec}), hundred, 62.
  {zëhenzigeste}, _num._ hundredth, 62.
  {zeichen}, _sn._ sign, mark, token, 23, 1.
  {zeigen}, _wv._ show, 33.
  {zeim} = {ze einem(e)}.
  {zeln}, _wv._ reckon, count, 31.3, 90.
  {zëme}, {zëm} = {ze dëme}, 68 note 2.
  {zëmen}, _sv._ IV, suit, be becoming _or_ fitting, 82.
  {zën} = {ze dën}, 68 note 2.
  {zër} = {ze dër}, 68 note 2.
  {zergān}, {-gēn}, _sv._ VII, vanish, stop, perish.
  {zerren} (_pret._ {zarte}), _wv._ pull, tug, tear.
  {zerwirken} (_pp._ {zerworht}), _wv._ cut up, dissect.
  {zesamene}, _av._ together.
  {zëse} ({-wes}), _aj._ right.
  {zestunt}, _av._ on the spot.
  {zeswëllen}, _sv._ III, swell to the utmost.
  {zewāre}, {zwār}, _av._ in truth, truly.
  {ziehen}, _sv._ II, draw;
    _refl._ withdraw, 10, 23.1, 30, 78.
  {zierde}, _sf._ adornment, 9.2.
  {zieren}, _wv._ adorn, decorate.
  {zīhen}, _sv._ I, accuse, 76.
  {zil}, _sn._ aim, object.
  {zimieren}, _wv._ furnish with knightly accoutrements.
  {zinsen}, _wv._ give as interest, give away.
  {zir} = {ze ir}.
  {zirke}, _wm._ garland, circle, prince’s crown.
  {zirkel}, _sm._ prince’s crown.
  {zīt}, _sf._ time, 19.
  {zobel}, _sm._ robe furred with sable.
  {zorn}, _sm._ anger.
  {zorneclīche}, _av._ angrily, violently.
  {zücken} (_pret._ {zuhte}), _wv._ pull quickly, tear.
  {zuht}, _sf._ bringing up, education;
    good manners, politeness, demeanour; chastisement, punishment;
    {mit zühten}, becomingly, gracefully, politely.
  {zühtelōs}, _aj._ ill-bred, rude, insolent.
  {zunft}, _sf._ propriety, dignity, good breeding.
  {zunge}, _wf._ tongue, 3, 7, 23.2, 53
  {zuo}, _av._ to, toward; to it;
    {zuo zwein}, into two.
    See {ze}.
  {zuome} = {zuo dëme}.
  {zürnen}, {zurnen}, _wv._ be angry.
  {zwei}, _num._ two, 35, 62, 63.
  {zweien} with {sich}, _wv._ fall out, quarrel; pair.
  {zweinzic} ({-ec}), _num._ twenty, 62.
  {zweinzigeste}, _num._ twentieth, 62.
  {zwelf}, _num._ twelve, 62.
  {zwelfte}, _num._ twelfth, 62.
  {zwene}, {zwei}, {zwō} (_gen._ {zweier}, {zweiger}, _dat._ {zwein}),
      two, 35, 63.
  {zwī}, {zwic} (_gen._ {zwīges}, {zwīes}), _smn._ twig, bough, 35.
  {zwīfeln}, _wv._ doubt, 9.2.
  {zwischen}, _prep._ between.
  {zwīvel}, {zwīfel}, _sm._ doubt, uncertainty;
    _aj._ doubtful, 55.
  {zwīvellīch}, _aj._ doubtful, uncertain, dejected.
  {zwīvellop} ({-bes}), doubtful _or_ ambiguous praise.

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

Substitute Letters

  If some of the special characters will not display in your text
  reader, open the document in a word processor or text editor and
  try these substitutions.

    ā ē ī ō ū (a e i o u  with macron)
      >> â ê î ô û (a e i o u  with circumflex accent)
    ẹ (e with under-dot)
      >> plain “e” (the under-dot is not explained in the primer)
    ȥ (z  with hook at end of bottom line)
      >> z̧ (z  with cedilla)
      >> z (plain z: read §19 carefully before taking this step)

Errors and Inconsistencies


  §3.  {ū}  „  „  „  f_oo_l  {hūs}, _house_.  [“l” italicized]
  §19.  {f} ... {f} = Germanic {p} (§23, 1)  [§22, 1]


  III. Hartman von Ouwe
  l. 417 er wirfẹt diu ougen abe mir  [“ẹ” may be flyspeck]
  l. 841 wan mir mac daȥ nieman erwern  [“erwerṇ” or flyspeck]
  l. 956 der d e von dir nemen wolte  [“der d e von” with space]

  IV.17 Walther von der Vogelweide
  l. 435 zergāt eȥ so ist dīn freude tōt  [possibly “zergān”]

  VIII. Wolfram von Eschenbach
  l. 266 daȥ si unversunnen vor im lac  [“sị” or flyspeck]


  {lërnen}, _wv._ learn.  [ambiguous umlaut may be “lernen”]
  {schate} (_gen._ {schat(e)wes})  [“gen.” not italicized]
  {tugen}, {tügen}  [“tugen, tugen” without umlaut]

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