Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Carpentry for Boys - In a Simple Language, Including Chapters on Drawing, Laying - Out Work, Designing and Architecture With 250 Original - Illustrations
Author: Zerbe, J. S.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Carpentry for Boys - In a Simple Language, Including Chapters on Drawing, Laying - Out Work, Designing and Architecture With 250 Original - Illustrations" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



THE "HOW-TO-DO-IT" BOOKS

CARPENTRY FOR BOYS

[Illustration: _Fig. 1. A Typical Work Bench._]



THE "HOW-TO-DO-IT" BOOKS

CARPENTRY FOR BOYS

in simple language, including
chapters on drawing, laying out
work, designing and architecture

WITH 250 ORIGINAL ILLUSTRATIONS

BY J. S. ZERBE, M.E.

AUTHOR OF


ELECTRICITY FOR BOYS
PRACTICAL MECHANICS FOR BOYS


THE NEW YORK BOOK COMPANY

NEW YORK

COPYRIGHT, 1914, BY

THE NEW YORK BOOK COMPANY


+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Transcriber's Notes: Italics are marked by underscore(_), Bold text is|
|marked by $, Small caps have been uppercased.                         |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+


CONTENTS


INTRODUCTORY

I. TOOLS AND THEIR USES Page 5

Knowledge of Tools. A Full Kit of Tools. The Hatchet. The Claw Hammer.
About Saws--Cross-cut, Rip Saw, Back Saw. Planes--Jack Plane, Smoothing
Plane, Pore Plane. Gages. Chisels--Firmer Chisel. Trusses. Saw Clamps.
The Grindstone. Oilstone. Miter Box. The Work Bench.

II. HOW TO GRIND AND SHARPEN TOOLS Page 16

Care of Tools---First Requisites. Saws--How to Set. Saw-set Errors. Saw
Setting Block. Filing. The Angle of Filing. Filing Pitch. Saw Clamps.
Filing Suggestions. The File. Using the File. The Grindstone. In the Use
of Grindstones. Correct Way of Holding Tool in Grinding. Care of Stone.
Incorrect Way to Hold Tool. Way to Revolve or Turn Grindstone. The
Plane. The Gage. Chisels. General Observations.

III. HOW TO HOLD AND HANDLE TOOLS Page 29

On the Holding of Tools. The Saw. How to Start a Saw. Sawing on a Line.
The First Stroke. The Starting Cut for Cross-cutting. Forcing a Saw. The
Stroke. The Chinese Saw. Things to Avoid. The Plane. Angle for Holding
Planes. Errors to be Avoided. The Gage. Holding the Gage. The
Draw-knife.

IV. HOW TO DESIGN ARTICLES Page 39

Fundamentals of Designing. The Commercial Instinct. First Requirements
of Designing. Conventional Styles. The Mission Style. Cabinets. Harmony
of Parts. Harmony of Wood.

V. HOW WORK IS LAID OUT Page 43

Concrete Examples of Work. Dimensions. Laying Out a Table. The Top. The
Mortises. The Facing Boards. The Tenons. Tools Used. Chamfered Tenons.
The Frame. The Drawer Support. The Table Frame. The Top. The Drawer. How
Any Structure is Built Up. Observations About Making a Box. Points.
Beveling and Mitering. Proper Terms. Picture Frames. Dovetail Points.
Box Points. First Steps in Dovetailing. Cutting Out the Spaces. Tools
Used in Laying Out Mortises and Tenons.

VI. THE USES OF THE COMPASS AND THE SQUARE Page 59

The Compass. Determining Angles. Definition of Degrees. Degrees Without
a Compass. How Degrees are Calculated by the Dividers.

VII. HOW THE DIFFERENT STRUCTURAL PARTS ARE DESIGNATED Page 65

Importance of Proper Designation. How to Explain Mechanical Forms.
Defining Segment and Sector. Arcade, Arch, Buttress, Flying Buttress,
Chamfer, Cotter, Crenelated, Crosses, Curb Roof, Cupola, Crown Post,
Corbels, Dormer, Dowel, Drip, Detent, Extrados, Engrailed, Facet, Fret,
Fretwork, Frontal, Frustrums, Fylfot, Gambrel Roof, Gargoyle, Gudgeon,
Guilloche. Half Timbered, Hammer Beam, Header, Hip Roof, Hood Molding,
Inclave, Interlacing Arch, Inverted, Inverted Arch, Key Stone, King
Post, Label, Louver, Lintel, Lug, M-Roof, Mansard Roof, Newel,
Parquetry, Peen, Pendant, Pendastyle, Pedestal, Plinth, Portico, Plate,
Queen Post, Quirk Molding, Re-entering Angle, Rafter, Scarfing, Scotia
Molding, Sill, Skewback, Spandrel, Strut, Stud, Stile, Tie Beam, Timber,
Trammel, Turret, Transom, Valley Roof.

VIII. DRAWING AND ITS UTILITY Page 73

Fundamentals in Drawing. Representing Objects. Forming Lines and
Shadows. Analysis of Lines and Shadings. How to Show Plain Surfaces.
Concave Surfaces. Convex Surfaces. Shadows from a Beam. Flat Effects.
The Direction of Light. Raised Surfaces. Depressed Surfaces. Full
Shading. Illustrating Cube Shading. Shading Effect. Heavy Lines.
Perspectives. True Perspective of a Cube. Isometric Cube. Flattened
Perspective. Technical Designations. Sector and Segment. Terms of
Angles. Circles and Curves. Irregular Curves. Ellipses and Ovals. Focal
Points. Produced Line. Spirals, Perpendicular and Vertical. Signs to
Indicate Measurement. Definitions. Abscissa. Angle. Apothegm. Apsides or
Apsis. Chord. Cycloid. Conoid. Conic Section. Ellipsoid. Epicycloid.
Evolute. Flying Buttress. Focus. Gnomes. Hexagon. Hyperbola.
Hypothenuse. Incidental. Isosceles. Triangle. Parabola. Parallelogram.
Pelecoid. Polygons. Pyramid. Rhomb. Sector. Segment. Sinusoid. Tangent.
Tetrahedron. Vertex.

IX. MOLDINGS, WITH PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS IN EMBELLISHING WORK Page 93

Moldings. The Basis of Moldings. The Simplest Moldings. The Astragal.
The Cavetto. The Ovolo. The Torus. The Apothegm. The Cymatium. The Ogee.
Ogee Recta. Ogee Reversa. The Reedy. The Casement. The Roman-Doric
Column. Lesson from the Doric Column. Applying Molding. Base.
Embellishments. Straight-faced Molding. Plain Molding. Base. Diversified
Uses. Shadows Cast by Moldings.

X. AN ANALYSIS OF TENONING, MORTISING, RABBETING AND BEADING Page 104

Where Mortises Should be Used. Depth of Mortises. Rule for Mortises.
True Mortise Work. Steps in Cutting Mortises. Things to Avoid in
Mortising. Lap-and-Butt Joints. Scarfing. The Tongue and Groove.
Beading. Ornamental Bead Finish. The Bead and Rabbet. Shading with Beads
and Rabbets.

XI. HOUSE BUILDING Page 113

House Building. The Home and Embellishments. Beauty Not Ornamentation.
Plain Structures. Colonial Type. The Roof the Keynote. Bungalow Types.
General House Building. Building Plans. The Plain Square-Floor Plan. The
Rectangular Plan. Room Measurements. Front and Side Lines. The Roof.
Roof Pitch. The Foundation. The Sills. The Flooring Joist. The Studding.
Setting Up. The Plate. Intermediate Studding. Wall Headers. Ceiling
Joist. Braces. The Rafters. The Gutter. Setting Door and Window Frames.
Plastering and Finish Work.

XII. BRIDGES, TRUSSED WORK AND LIKE STRUCTURES Page 130

Bridges. Self-supporting Roofs. Common Trusses. The Vertical Upright
Truss. The Warren Girder. The Bowstring Girder. Fundamental Truss
Forms.

XIII. THE BEST WOODS FOR THE BEGINNER Page 134

The Best Woods. Soft Woods. Hard Woods. The Most Difficult Woods. The
Hard-ribbed Grain in Wood. The Easiest Working Woods. Differences in the
Working of Woods. Forcing Saws in Wood.

XIV. WOOD TURNING Page 138

Advantages of Wood Turning. Simple Turning Lathe. The Rails. The Legs.
Centering Blocks. The Tail-stock. The Tool Rest. Materials. The Mandrel.
Fly-wheel. The Tools Required.

XV. ON THE USE OF STAINS Page 147

Soft Wood. Use of Stains. Stains as Imitations. Good Taste in Staining.
Great Contrasts Bad. Staining Contrasting Woods. Hard Wood Imitations.
Natural Effects. Natural Wood Stains. Polishing Stained Surfaces.

XVI. THE CARPENTER AND THE ARCHITECT Page 152

XVII. USEFUL ARTICLES TO MAKE Page 155

Common Bench. Its Proportions. Square Top Stool. Folding Blacking Box.
Convenient Easel. Hanging Book-rack. Sad Iron Holder. Bookcase.
Wood-box. Parallel Bars for Boys' Use. Mission Writing Desk. Screen
Frame. Mission Chair. Grandfather's Clock. Knockdown and Adjustable
Bookcase. Coal Scuttle Frame or Case. Mission Arm Chair. Dog-house.
Settle, With Convenient Shelves. Towel Rack. Sofa Framework.

XVIII. SPECIAL TOOLS AND THEIR USES Page 170

Bit and Level Adjuster. Miter Boxes. Swivel Arm Uprights. Movable Stops.
Angle Dividers. "Odd Job" Tool. Bit Braces. Ratchet Mechanism.
Interlocking Jaws. Steel Frame Breast Drills. Horizontal Boring. 3-Jaw
Chuck. Planes. Rabbeting, Beading and Matching. Cutter Adjustment. Depth
Gage. Slitting Gage. Dovetail Tongue and Groove Plane. Router Planes.
Bottom Surfacing. Door Trim Plane.

XIX. ROOFING TRUSSES Page 185

Characteristics of Trusses. Tie Beams. Ornamentation. Objects of Beams,
Struts and Braces. Utilizing Space. Types of Structures. Gambrel Roof.
Purlin Roof. The Princess Truss. Arched, or Cambered, Tie Beam Truss.
The Mansard. Scissors Beam. Braced Collar Beam. Rib and Collar Truss.
Hammer-beam Truss. Flying Buttress.

XX. ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF JOINTS Page 197

Definition and Uses. Different Types. Bridle Joint. Spur Tenon. Saddle
Joints. Joggle Joint. Heel Joints. Stub Tenon. Tusk Tenon. Double Tusk
Tenon. Cogged Joints. Anchor Joints. Deep Anchor Joints.

XXI. SOME MISTAKES AND A LITTLE ADVICE IN CARPENTRY Page 205

Lessons From Mistakes. Planing the Edge of a Board Straight. Planing it
Square. Planing to Dimensions. Holding the Plane. How it Should be Run
on the Edge of the Board. Truing With the Weight of the Plane. A Steady
Grasp. In Smoothing Boards. Correct Sand-papering. Gluing. Removing
Surplus Glue. Work Edge and Work Side. The Scribing and Marking Line.
Finishing Surfaces. Sawing a Board Square. The Stroke of the Saw. Sawing
Out of True.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


FIG.

1. A typical work bench                                     Frontispiece
                                                                    PAGE
2. Hatchet                                                             6
3. Hammer                                                              7
4. Common saw                                                          7
5. Plane                                                               8
6. Jack plane bit                                                      9
6a. Fore plane bit                                                    10
7. Firmer chisel                                                      11
7a. Mortising chisel                                                  12
8. Trestle                                                            12
9. Miter box                                                          13
10. Incorrect saw setting                                             17
10a. Correct saw setting                                              17
11. Saw setting device                                                17
12. Filing angle                                                      18
13. Rip saw                                                           19
14. Cross cut                                                         20
15. Filing clamp                                                      21
16. Grindstone                                                        23
17. Correct manner of holding tool                                    24
18. Incorrect way of holding tool                                     24
19. Gage                                                              26
20. Starting a saw                                                    31
21. Wrong sawing angle                                                32
22. Correct sawing angle                                              33
23. Thrust cut                                                        34
24. Chinese saw                                                       34
25. Moving angle for plane                                            35
26. Holding gage                                                      36
27. Laying out table leg                                              43
28. The first marking line                                            44
29. Scribing mortise line                                             44
30. The corner mortises                                               44
31. The side rail                                                     46
32. Scribing the tenons                                               46
33. Cross scoring                                                     47
34. The tenon                                                         47
35. Finishing the tenon                                               47
36. The tenon and mortise                                             48
37. The drawer support                                                48
38. Drawer cleats                                                     49
39. Assembled table frame                                             50
40. The top                                                           51
41. The drawer                                                        52
42. Bevel joint                                                       53
43. Miter joint                                                       53
44. Picture frame joint                                               54
45. Initial marks for dovetails                                       55
46. End marks for dovetails                                           55
47. Angles for dovetails                                              55
48. Cutting out recesses for dovetails                                56
49. Tongues for dovetails                                             56
50. Recess for dovetails                                              56
51. Determining angles                                                61
52. Marking degrees                                                   63
53. Angles from base lines                                            63
54. Stepping off spaces                                               63
55. Arcade                                                            67
56. Arch                                                              67
57. Buttress                                                          67
58. Chamfer                                                           67
59. Cooter                                                            67
60. Crenelated                                                        67
61. Crosses                                                           67
62. Curb roof                                                         67
63. Cupola                                                            67
64. Console                                                           67
65. Corbels                                                           67
66. Dormer                                                            67
67. Dowel                                                             67
68. Drips                                                             67
69. Detail                                                            68
70. Extrados                                                          68
71. Engrailed                                                         68
72. Facet                                                             68
73. Fret                                                              68
74. Frontal                                                           68
75. Frustrums                                                         68
76. Fylfat                                                            68
77. Gambrel                                                           68
78. Gargoyle                                                          68
79. Gudgeon                                                           68
80. Guilloche                                                         68
81. Half timbered                                                     68
82. Hammer beam                                                       68
83. Haunches                                                          69
84. Header                                                            69
85. Hip roof                                                          69
86. Hood molding                                                      69
87. Inclave                                                           69
88. Interlacing arch                                                  69
89. Invected                                                          69
90. Inverted arch                                                     69
91. Keystone                                                          69
92. King post                                                         69
93. Label                                                             69
94. Louver                                                            69
95. Lintel                                                            70
96. Lug                                                               70
97. M-roof                                                            70
98. Mansard roof                                                      70
99. Newel post                                                        70
100. Parquetry                                                        70
101. Peen, or pein                                                    70
102. Pendant                                                          70
103. Pentastyle                                                       70
104. Pedestal                                                         70
105. Pintle                                                           70
106. Portico                                                          70
107. Plate                                                            70
108. Queen post                                                       71
109. Quirk molding                                                    71
110. Re-entering                                                      71
111. Rafter                                                           71
112. Scarfing                                                         71
113. Scotia molding                                                   71
114. Sill                                                             71
115. Skew back                                                        71
116. Spandrel                                                         71
117. Strut                                                            71
118. Stud, studding                                                   71
119. Stile                                                            72
120. Trammel                                                          72
121. Turret                                                           72
122. Transom                                                          72
123. Valley roof                                                      72
125. Plain line                                                       74
126. Concave shading                                                  74
127. Convex shading                                                   74
128. Wave shading                                                     75
129. Light past concave surface                                       75
130. Light past convex surface                                        75
131. Plain surface                                                    75
132. Outlines                                                         76
133. Raised surface                                                   77
134. Depressed surface                                                77
135. Shading raised surfaces                                          78
136. Shading depressed surfaces                                       78
137. Plain cubical outline                                            79
138. Indicating cube                                                  79
139. Confused lines                                                   79
140. Heavy horizontal lines                                           80
141. Heavy vertical lines                                             80
142. Isometric cube                                                   81
143. Cube and circle                                                  81
144. Flattened perspective                                            82
145. Angles in isometric cube                                         83
146. Plain circle                                                     84
147. Sphere shading                                                   84
148. Drawing regular ellipse                                          86
149. Drawing irregular ellipse                                        88
150. Drawing spiral                                                   89
151. Abscissa                                                         90
152. Angle                                                            91
153. Apothegm                                                         91
154. Apsides, or apsis                                                91
155. Chord                                                            91
156. Convolute                                                        91
157. Conic sections                                                   91
158. Conoid                                                           91
159. Cycloid                                                          91
160. Ellipsoid                                                        91
161. Epicycloid                                                       91
162. Evolute                                                          91
163. Focus                                                            91
164. Gnome                                                            91
165. Hyperbola                                                        91
167. Hypothenuse                                                      91
168. Incidence                                                        92
169. Isosceles triangle                                               92
170. Parabola                                                         92
171. Parallelogram                                                    92
172. Pelecoid                                                         92
173. Polygons                                                         92
174. Pyramid                                                          92
175. Quadrant                                                         92
176. Quadrilateral                                                    92
177. Rhomb                                                            92
178. Sector                                                           92
179. Segment                                                          92
180. Sinusoid                                                         92
181. Tangent                                                          92
182. Tetrahedron                                                      92
183. Vertex                                                           92
184. Volute                                                           92
185. Band (molding)                                                   94
186. Astragal (molding)                                               94
187. Cavetto (molding)                                                94
188. Ovolo (molding)                                                  94
189. Torus (molding)                                                  95
190. Apophyges (molding)                                              95
191. Cymatium (molding)                                               95
192. Ogee-recta (molding)                                             95
193. Ogee-reversa (molding)                                           96
194. Bead (molding)                                                   96
195. Casement (molding)                                               97
196. The Doric column                                                 98
197. Front of cabinet                                                100
198. Facia board                                                     100
199. Molding on facia board                                          100
200. Ogee-recta on facia                                             101
201. Trim below facia                                                101
202. Trim below ogee                                                 101
203. Trim above base                                                 102
204. Trim above base molding                                         102
205. Shadows cast by plain moldings                                  103
206. Mortise and tenon joint                                         105
207. Incorrect mortising                                             105
208. Steps in mortising                                              106
209. The shoulders of tenons                                         108
210. Lap-and-butt joint                                              108
211. Panel joint                                                     109
212. Scarfing                                                        109
213. Tongue and groove                                               110
214. Beading                                                         110
215. Outside beading finish                                          110
216. Edge beading                                                    111
217. Corner beading                                                  111
218. Point beading                                                   111
219. Round edge beading                                              111
220. Beading and molding                                             111
221. First square house plan                                         117
222. First rectangular house plan                                    118
223. Square house to scale                                           119
224. Rectangular house to scale                                      120
225. Front elevation of square house                                 121
226. Elevation of rectangular house                                  121
227. Illustrating one-third pitch                                    122
228. Illustrating half pitch                                         122
229. The sills at the corner                                         123
230. The joist and sills                                             123
231. The plate splice                                                124
232. The rafters                                                     125
233. The gutter                                                      126
234. The cornice                                                     127
234a. The finish without gutter                                      128
235. Common truss                                                    130
236. Upright truss                                                   131
237. Vertical upright truss                                          131
238. Warren girder                                                   132
239. Extended Warren girder                                          132
240. Bowstring girder                                                132
241. Frame details of wood turning lathe                             139
242. Tail stock details                                              140
243. Tool rest details                                               142
244. Section of mandrel                                              143
245. View of turning lathe                                           145
246. Turning tools                                                   146
247. Bench                                                           155
248. Stool                                                           156
249. Blacking box                                                    156
250. Easel                                                           157
251. Hanging book rack                                               158
252. Book shelf                                                      159
253. Wood box                                                        160
254. Horizontal bars                                                 161
255. Mission desk                                                    161
256. Screen frame                                                    162
257. Mission chair                                                   162
258. Grandfather's clock                                             163
259. Frame for bookcase                                              164
260. Coal scuttle case                                               165
261. Mission arm chair                                               165
262. Dog house                                                       168
263. Settle                                                          167
264. Towel rack                                                      168
265. Mission sofa frame                                              168
266. Bit and square level                                            170
267. Metal miter box                                                 171
268. Parts of metal miter box                                        172
269. Angle dividers                                                  173
270. An "odd job" tool                                               174
271. Universal-jaw brace                                             176
272. Taper-shank bit brace                                           176
273. Alligator-jaw brace                                             176
274. Steel frame breast drill                                        177
275. Steel frame breast drill                                        177
276. Steel frame breast drill                                        177
277. Details of metal plane                                          179
278. Rabbet, matching and dado plane                                 180
279. Molding and beading plane                                       181
280. Dovetail tongue and groove plane                                182
281. Router planes                                                   183
282. Router planes                                                   183
283. Door trim plane                                                 184
284. Gambrel roof                                                    187
285. Purlin roof                                                     188
286. Princess truss                                                  189
287. Arched, or cambered, tie beam                                   190
288. The mansard                                                     191
289. Scissors beam                                                   192
290. Braced collar beam                                              193
291. Rib and collar truss                                            194
291-1/2. Hammer-beam truss                                           195
292. Bridle joints                                                   197
293. Spur tenons                                                     198
294. Saddle joints                                                   198
295. Joggle joints                                                   199
296. Framing joints                                                  199
297. Heel joints                                                     200
298. Stub tenon                                                      200
299. Tusk tenon                                                      201
300. Double tusk tenon                                               202
301. Cogged joints                                                   203
302. Anchor joint                                                    203
303. Deep anchor joint                                               204



CARPENTRY

A PRACTICAL COURSE, WHICH TELLS IN CONCISE AND SIMPLE FORM "HOW TO DO
IT"



INTRODUCTORY


Carpentry is the oldest of the arts, and it has been said that the
knowledge necessary to make a good carpenter fits one for almost any
trade or occupation requiring the use of tools. The hatchet, the saw,
and the plane are the three primal implements of the carpenter. The
value is in knowing how to use them.

The institution of Manual Training Schools everywhere is but a tardy
recognition of the value of systematic training in the use of tools.
There is no branch of industry which needs such diversification, in
order to become efficient.

The skill of the blacksmith is centered in his ability to forge, to
weld, and to temper; that of the machinist depends upon the callipered
dimensions of his product; the painter in his taste for harmony; the
mason on his ability to cut the stone accurately; and the plasterer to
produce a uniform surface. But the carpenter must, in order to be an
expert, combine all these qualifications, in a greater or less degree,
and his vocation may justly be called the King of Trades. Rightly,
therefore, it should be cultivated in order to learn the essentials of
manual training work.

But there is another feature of the utmost importance and value, which
is generally overlooked, and on which there is placed too little stress,
even in many of the manual training schools. The training of the mind
has been systematized so as to bring into operation the energies of all
the brain cells. Manual training to be efficient should, at the same
time, be directed into such channels as will most widely stimulate the
muscular development of the child, while at the same time cultivating
his mind.

There is no trade which offers such a useful field as carpentry. It may
be said that the various manual operations bring into play every muscle
of the body.

The saw, the plane, the hammer, the chisel, each requires its special
muscular energy. The carpenter, unlike the blacksmith, does not put all
his brawn into his shoulders, nor develop his torso at the expense of
his other muscles, like the mason. It may also be said that, unlike most
other occupations, the carpenter has both out-of-door and indoor
exercise, so that he is at all times able to follow his occupation,
summer or winter, rain or shine; and this also further illustrates the
value of this branch of endeavor as a healthful recreation.

It is the aim of this book to teach boys the primary requirements--not
to generalize--but to show how to prepare and how to do the work; what
tools and materials to use; and in what manner the tools used may be
made most serviceable, and used most advantageously.

It would be of no value to describe and illustrate how a bracket is
made; or how the framework of a structure is provided with mortises and
tenons in order to hold it together. The boy must have something as a
base which will enable him to design his own creations, and not be an
imitator; his mind must develop with his body. It is the principal aim
of this book to give the boy something to think about while he is
learning how to bring each individual part to perfection.

If the boy understands that there is a principle underlying each
structural device; that there is a reason for making certain things a
definite way, he is imbued with an incentive which will sooner or later
develop into an initiative of his own.

It is this phase in the artisan's life which determines whether he will
be merely a machine or an intelligent organism.

This work puts together in a simple, concise form, not only the
fundamentals which every mechanic should learn to know, but it defines
every structural form used in this art, and illustrates all terms it is
necessary to use in the employment of carpentry. A full chapter is
devoted to drawings practically applied. All terms are diagrammed and
defined, so that the mind may readily grasp the ideas involved.

Finally, it will be observed that every illustration has been specially
drawn for this book. We have not adopted the plan usually followed in
books of this class, of taking stock illustrations of manufacturers'
tools and devices, nor have we thought it advisable to take a picture of
a tool or a machine and then write a description around it. We have
illustrated the book to explain "_how to do the work_"; also, to teach
the boy what the trade requires, and to give him the means whereby he
may readily find the form of every device, tool, and structure used in
the art.



CHAPTER I

TOOLS AND THEIR USES


KNOWLEDGE OF TOOLS.--A knowledge of tools and their uses is the first
and most important requirement. The saw, the plane, the hatchet and the
hammer are well known to all boys; but how to use them, and where to use
the different varieties of each kind of tool, must be learned, because
each tool grew out of some particular requirement in the art. These uses
will now be explained.

A FULL KIT OF TOOLS.--A kit of tools necessary for doing any plain work
should embrace the following:


1. A Hatchet.
2. A Claw Hammer--two sizes preferred.
3. Cross-cut Saw, 20 inches long.
4. Rip Saw, 24 inches long.
5. Wooden Mallet.
 6. Jack Plane.
7. Smoothing Plane.
8. Compass Saw.
9. Brace.
10. Bits for Brace, ranging from 1/4 inch to 1 inch diameter.
11. Several small Gimlets.
12. Square.
13. Compass.
14. Draw-knife.
15. Rule.
16. Two Gages.
17. Set of Firmer Chisels.
18. Two Mortising Chisels.
19. Small Back Saw.
20. Saw Clamps.
21. Miter Box.
22. Bevel Square.
23. Small Hand Square.
24. Pliers.
25. Pair of Awls.
26. Hand Clamps.
27. Set Files.
28. Glue Pot.
29. Oil Stone.
30. Grindstone.
31. Trusses.
32. Work Bench.
33. Plumb Bob.
34. Spirit Level.


THE HATCHET.--The hatchet should be ground with a bevel on each side,
and not on one side only, as is customary with a plasterer's lathing
hatchet, because the blade of the hatchet is used for trimming off the
edges of boards. Unless ground off with a bevel on both sides it cannot
be controlled to cut accurately. A light hatchet is preferable to a
heavy one. It should never be used for nailing purposes, except in
emergencies. The pole of the hammer--that part which is generally used
to strike the nail with--is required in order to properly balance the
hatchet when used for trimming material.

[Illustration: _Fig. 2._]

THE CLAW HAMMER.--This is the proper tool for driving nails and for
drawing them out. Habits should be formed with the beginner, which will
be of great service as the education proceeds.

One of these habits is to persist in using the tool for the purpose for
which it was made. The expert workman (and he becomes expert because of
it) makes the hammer do its proper work; and so with every other tool.

[Illustration: _Fig. 3._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 4._]

ABOUT SAWS.--There are four well-defined kinds. First, a long, flat saw,
for cross-cutting. Second, a slightly larger saw for ripping purposes.
Third, a back saw, with a rib on the rear edge to hold the blade rigid,
used for making tenons; and, fourth, a compass or keyhole saw.

CROSS-CUTS.--The difference between a cross-cut and a rip saw is, that
in the latter the teeth have less pitch and are usually larger than in
the cross-cut saw. The illustrations (Figs. 13 and 14) will distinctly
show the difference in the teeth. When a cross-cut saw is used for
ripping along the grain of the wood, the teeth, if disposed at an angle,
will ride over the grain or fiber of the wood, and refuse to take hold
or bite into the wood. On the other hand, if the rip saw is used for
cross-cutting purposes, the saw kerf will be rough and jagged.

[Illustration: _Fig. 5._]

The back saw is used almost exclusively for making tenons, and has
uniformly fine teeth so as to give a smooth finish to the wood.

PLANES.--The plane may be called the æsthetic tool in the carpenter's
kit. It is the most difficult tool to handle and the most satisfactory
when thoroughly mastered. How to care for and handle it will be
referred to in a subsequent chapter. We are now concerned with its uses
only. Each complete kit must have three distinct planes, namely, the
jack plane, which is for taking off the rough saw print surface of the
board. The short smoothing plane, which is designed to even up the
inequalities made by the jack plane; and the long finishing plane, or
fore plane, which is intended to straighten the edges of boards or of
finished surfaces.

[Illustration: _Fig. 6. Jack plane bit._]

THE JACK PLANE.--This plane has the cutting edge of its blade ground so
it is slightly curved (Fig. 6), because, as the bit must be driven out
so it will take a deep bite into the rough surface of the wood, the
curved cutting edge prevents the corner edges of the bit from digging
into the planed surface.

On the other hand, the bits of the smoothing and finishing planes are
ground straight across their cutting edges. In the foregoing we have not
enumerated the different special planes, designed to make beads,
rabbets, tongues and grooves, but each type is fully illustrated, so
that an idea may be obtained of their characteristics. (Fig. 6_a_).

GAGES.--One of the most valuable tools in the whole set is the gage, but
it is, in fact, the least known. This is simply a straight bar, with a
sharpened point projecting out on one side near its end, and having an
adjustable sliding head or cheekpiece. This tool is indispensable in
making mortises or tenons, because the sharpened steel point which
projects from the side of the bar, serves to outline and define the
edges of the mortises or tenons, so that the cutting line may readily be
followed.

[Illustration: _Fig. 6a. Fore-plane bit._]

This is the most difficult tool to hold when in use, but that will be
fully explained under its proper head. Each kit should have two, as in
making mortises and tenons one gage is required for each side of the
mortise or tenon.

CHISELS.--Two kinds are found in every kit--one called the firmer (Fig.
7) and the mortising chisel. The firmer has a flat body or blade, and a
full set ranges in width from three-eighths of an inch to two inches.
The sizes most desirable and useful are the one-half inch, the inch and
the inch-and-a-half widths. These are used for trimming out cross grains
or rebates for setting door locks and hinges and for numerous other uses
where sharp-end tools are required.

[Illustration: _Fig. 7._]

THE MORTISING CHISEL.--The mortising chisel (Fig. 7_a_), on the other
hand, is very narrow and thick, with a long taper down to the cutting
edge. They are usually in such widths as to make them stock sizes for
mortises. Never, under any circumstances, use a hammer or hatchet for
driving chisels. The mallet should be used invariably.

[Illustration: _Fig. 7a._]

TRUSSES.--There should be at least two, each three feet in length and
twenty inches in height.

SAW CLAMPS.--These are necessary adjuncts, and should be made of hard
wood, perfectly straight and just wide enough to take in the narrow
back saw. The illustration shows their shape and form.

THE GRINDSTONES.--It is better to get a first-class stone, which may be
small and rigged up with a foot treadle. A soft, fine-grained stone is
most serviceable, and it should have a water tray, and never be used
excepting with plenty of water.

[Illustration: _Fig. 8._]

AN OIL STONE is as essential as a grindstone. For giving a good edge to
tools it is superior to a water stone. It should be provided with a top,
and covered when not in use, to keep out dust and grit. These are the
little things that contribute to success and should be carefully
observed.

THE MITER BOX.--This should be 14 inches long and 3" by 3" inside, made
of hard wood 3/4" thick. The sides should be nailed to the bottom, as
shown.

[Illustration: _Fig. 9._]

THE WORK BENCH.--In its proper place we show in detail the most approved
form of work bench, fitted with a tool rack to hold all the tools,
conveniently arranged. In this chapter we are more particularly
concerned with the uses of tools than their construction; and we impress
on boys the necessity of having a place for everything, and that every
tool should be kept in its proper place. A carpenter's shop filled with
chips, shavings and other refuse is not a desirable place for the
indiscriminate placing of tools. If correct habits are formed at the
outset, by carefully putting each tool in its place after using, it will
save many an hour of useless hunting and annoyance.

One of the most important things in laying off work, for instance, on
trusses, is the disposition of the saw and square. Our illustration
shows each truss with side cleats, which will permit the user
temporarily to deposit the saw or the square so that it will be handy,
and at the same time be out of the way of the work and prevent either of
the tools from being thrown to the floor.

In the same way, and for the same purpose, the work bench has temporary
holding cleats at the end and a shelf in front, which are particularly
desirable, because either a saw or a square is an encumbrance on a work
bench while the work is being assembled, and tools of this kind should
not be laid flat on a working surface, nor should they be stood in a
leaning position against a truss or work bench.

_Strictly observe these fundamentals_--Never place a tool with the
cutting edge toward you. Always have the racks or receptacles so made
that the handle may be seized. Don't put a tool with an exposed cutting
edge above or below another tool in such a manner that the hand or the
tool you are handling can come into contact with the edge. Never keep
the nail or screw boxes above the work bench. They should always be kept
to one side, to prevent, as much as possible, the bench from becoming a
depository for nails. Keep the top of the bench free from tools. Always
keep the planes on a narrow sub-shelf at the rear of the bench.

If order was Heaven's first law, it is a good principle to apply it in a
workman's shop, and its observance will form a habit that will soon
become a pleasure to follow.



CHAPTER II

HOW TO GRIND AND SHARPEN TOOLS


CARE OF TOOLS.--Dull tools indicate the character of the workman. In an
experience of over forty years, I have never known a good workman to
keep poorly sharpened tools. While it is true that the capacity to
sharpen tools can be acquired only by practice, correct habits at the
start will materially assist. In doing this part of the artisan's work,
it should be understood that there is a right as well as a wrong way.

There is a principle involved in the sharpening of every tool, which
should be observed. A skilled artisan knows that there is a particular
way to grind the bits of each plane; that the manner of setting a saw
not only contributes to its usefulness, but will materially add to the
life of the saw; that a chisel cannot be made to do good work unless its
cutting edge is square and at the right working angle.

FIRST REQUISITE.--A beginner should never attempt a piece of work until
he learns how the different tools should be sharpened, or at least learn
the principle involved. Practice will make perfect.

SAWS.--As the saw is such an important part of the kit, I shall devote
some space to the subject. _First_, as to setting the saw. The object of
this is to make the teeth cut a wider kerf than the thickness of the
blade, and thereby cause the saw to travel freely. A great many
so-called "saw sets" are found in the market, many of them built on
wrong principles, as will be shown, and these are incapable of setting
accurately.

[Illustration: _Fig. 10._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 10a._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 11._]

HOW TO SET.--To set a saw accurately, that is, to drive out each tooth
the same distance, is the first requirement, and the second is to bend
out the whole tooth, and not the point only.

In the illustration (Fig. 10), the point is merely bent out. This is
wrong. The right way is shown in Fig. 10_a_. The whole tooth is bent,
showing the correct way of setting. The reasons for avoiding one way and
following the other are: First, that if the point projects to one side,
each point or tooth will dig into the wood, and produce tooth prints in
the wood, which make a roughened surface. Second, that if there are
inequalities in setting the teeth (as is sure to be the case when only
the points are bent out), the most exposed points will first wear out,
and thereby cause saw deterioration. Third, a saw with the points
sticking out causes a heavy, dragging cut, and means additional labor.
Where the whole body of the tooth is bent, the saw will run smoothly and
easily through the kerf and produce a smooth-cut surface.

[Illustration: _Fig. 12._]

Our illustration (Fig. 11) shows a very simple setting block, the
principal merit of which is that any boy can make it, and in the use of
which he cannot go wrong in setting a tooth.

SIMPLE SAW SETTER.--Take a block of wood, a 4 by 4 inch studding, four
inches long. Get a piece of metal one-half inch thick and two inches
square. Have a blacksmith or machinist bore a quarter-inch hole through
it in the center and countersink the upper side so it may be securely
fastened in a mortise in the block, with its upper side flush with the
upper surface of the block. Now, with a file, finish off one edge, going
back for a quarter of an inch, the angle at A to be about 12 degrees.

[Illustration: _Fig. 13. Rip-Saw._]

FILING ANGLES.--In its proper place will be shown how you may easily
calculate and measure degrees in work of this kind. Fig. 12 shows an
approximation to the right angle. B, B (Fig. 11) should be a pair of
wooden pegs, driven into the wooden block on each side of the metal
piece. The teeth of the saw rest against the pegs so that they serve as
a guide or a gage, and the teeth of the saw, therefore, project over the
inclined part (B) of the metal block. Now, with an ordinary punch and a
hammer, each alternate tooth may be driven down until it rests flat on
the inclined face (A), so that it is impossible to set the teeth
wrongly. When you glance down the end of a properly set saw, you will
see a V-shaped channel, and if you will place a needle in the groove and
hold the saw at an angle, the needle will travel down without falling
out.

[Illustration: _Fig. 14. cross-cut._]

FILING.--The next step is the filing. Two things must be observed: the
pitch and the angle. By pitch is meant the inclination of the teeth.
Note the illustration (Fig. 13), which shows the teeth of a rip saw. You
will see at A that the pitch of the tooth is at right angles to the edge
of the saw. In Fig. 14, which shows the teeth of a cross-cut saw, the
pitch (B) is about 10 degrees off. The teeth of the rip saw are also
larger than those of the cross-cut.

THE ANGLE OF FILING.--By angle is meant the cutting position of the
file. In Fig. 12, the lines B represent the file disposed at an angle
of 12 degrees, not more, for a rip saw. For a cross-cut the angle of the
file may be less.

SAW CLAMPS.--You may easily make a pair of saw clamps as follows:

Take two pieces of hard wood, each three inches wide, seven-eighths of
an inch thick, and equal in length to the longest saw. Bevel one edge of
each as shown in A (Fig. 15), so as to leave an edge (B) about
one-eighth of an inch thick. At one end cut away the corner on the side
opposite the bevel, as shown at C, so the clamps will fit on the saw
around the saw handle.

[Illustration: _Fig. 15._]

When the saw is placed between these clamps and held together by the
jaws of the vise, you are ready for the filing operation. Observe the
following _filing suggestions_: Always hold the file horizontal or
level. In filing, use the whole length of the file. Do the work by a
slow, firm sweep.

Do not file all of the teeth along the saw at one operation, but only
the alternate teeth, so as to keep the file at the same angle, and thus
insure accuracy; then turn the saw and keep the file constantly at one
angle for the alternate set of teeth.

Give the same number of strokes, and exert the same pressure on the file
for each tooth, to insure uniformity. Learn also to make a free, easy
and straight movement back and forth with the file.

THE FILE.--In order to experiment with the filing motion, take two
blocks of wood, and try surfacing them off with a file. When you place
the two filed surfaces together after the first trial both will be
convex, because the hands, in filing, unless you exert the utmost
vigilance, will assume a crank-like movement. The filing test is so to
file the two blocks that they will fit tightly together without rolling
on each other. Before shaping and planing machines were invented,
machinists were compelled to plane down and accurately finish off
surfaces with a file.

In using the files on saws, however small the file may be, one hand
should hold the handle and the other hand the tip of the file.

A file brush should always be kept on hand, as it pays to preserve files
by cleaning them.

[Illustration: _Fig. 16._]

THE GRINDSTONE.--As most of the tools require a grindstone for
sharpening purposes, an illustration is given as a guide, with a diagram
to show the proper grinding angle. In Fig. 16 the upright (A) of the
frame serves as a line for the eye, so that if the point of the tool is
brought to the sight line, and the tool (C) held level, you will always
be able to maintain the correct angle. There is no objection to
providing a rest, for instance, like the cross bars (D, D), but the
artisan disdains such contrivances, and he usually avoids them for two
reasons: First, because habit enables him to hold the tool horizontally;
and, second, by holding the tool firmly in the hand he has better
control of it. There is only one thing which can be said in favor of a
rest, and that is, the stone may be kept truer circumferentially, as
all stones have soft spots or sides.

IN THE USE OF GRINDSTONES.--There are certain things to avoid and to
observe in the use of stones. Never use one spot on the stone, however
narrow the tool may be. Always move the tool from side to side. Never
grind a set of narrow tools successively. If you have chisels to grind
intersperse their grinding with plane bits, hatchet or other broad
cutting tools, so as to prevent the stone from having grooves therein.
Never use a tool on a stone unless you have water in the tray.

[Illustration: _Fig. 17. Correct manner of holding tool._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 18. Incorrect way of holding tool._]

CORRECT WAY TO HOLD TOOL FOR GRINDING.--There is a correct way to hold
each tool; see illustration (Fig. 17). The left hand should grasp the
tool firmly, near the sharp edge, as shown, and the right hand should
loosely hold the tool behind the left hand. There is a reason for this
which will be apparent after you grind a few tools. The firm grasp of
the left hand gives you absolute control of the blade, so it cannot
turn, and when inequalities appear in the grindstone, the rigid hold
will prevent the blade from turning, and thus enable you to correct the
inequalities of the stone. Bear in mind, the stone should be taken care
of just as much as the tools. An experienced workman is known by the
condition of his tools, and the grindstone is the best friend he has
among his tools.

INCORRECT WAY TO HOLD TOOL FOR GRINDING.--The incorrect way of holding a
tool is shown in Fig. 18. This, I presume, is the universal way in which
the novice takes the tool. It is wrong for the reason that the thumbs of
both hands are on top of the blade, and they serve as pivots on which
the tool may turn. The result is that the corners of the tool will dig
into the stone to a greater or less degree, particularly if it has a
narrow blade, like a chisel.

Try the experiment of grinding a quarter-inch chisel by holding it the
incorrect way; and then grasp it firmly with the left hand, and you will
at once see the difference.

The left hand serves both as a vise and as a fulcrum, whereas the right
hand controls the angle of the tool.

[Illustration: _Fig. 19._]

These remarks apply to all chisels, plane bits and tools of that
character, but it is obvious that a drawknife, which is always held by
the handles in grinding, and hatchets, axes and the like, cannot be held
in the same manner.

A too common error is to press the tool too hard on the stone. This is
wrong. Do not try to force the grinding.

Then, again, it is the practice of some to turn the stone away from the
tool. The stone should always move toward the tool, so as to prevent
forming a feather edge.

THE PLANE.--Indiscriminate use of planes should be avoided. Never use
the fore or smoothing planes on rough surfaces. The jack plane is the
proper tool for this work. On the other hand, the fore plane should
invariably be used for straightening the edges of boards, or for fine
surfacing purposes. As the jack plane has its bit ground with a curved
edge, it is admirably adapted for taking off the rough saw print
surface.

THE GAGE.--The illustration (Fig. 19) shows one of the most useful tools
in the kit. It is used to scribe the thickness of the material which is
to be dressed down, or for imprinting the edges of tenons and mortises.
Two should be provided in every kit, for convenience.

The scribing point should be sharpened with a file, the point being
filed to form a blade, which is at right angles to the bar, or parallel
with the movable cheekpiece.

CHISELS.--I have already pointed out, in general, how to hold tools for
grinding purposes, this description applying particularly to chisels,
but several additional things may be added.

Always be careful to grind the chisel so its cutting edge is square with
the side edge. This will be difficult at first, but you will see the
value of this as you use the tool. For instance, in making rebates for
hinges, or recesses and mortises for locks, the tool will invariably run
crooked, unless it is ground square.

The chisel should never be struck with a hammer or metal instrument, as
the metal pole or peon of the hammer will sliver the handle. The wooden
mallet should invariably be used.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.--If the workman will carefully observe the
foregoing requirements he will have taken the most important steps in
the knowledge of the art. If he permits himself to commence work without
having his tools in first-class condition, he is trying to do work under
circumstances where even a skilled workman is liable to fail.

Avoid making for yourself a lot of unnecessary work. The best artisans
are those who try to find out and know which is the best tool, or how to
make a tool for each requirement, but that tool, to be serviceable, must
be properly made, and that means it must be rightly sharpened.



CHAPTER III

HOW TO HOLD AND HANDLE TOOLS


Observation may form part of each boy's lesson, but when it comes to the
handling of tools, practice becomes the only available means of making a
workman. Fifty years of observation would never make an observer an
archer or a marksman, nor would it enable him to shoe a horse or to
build a table.

It sometimes happens that an apprentice will, with little observation,
seize a saw in the proper way, or hold a plane in the correct manner,
and, in time, the watchful boy will acquire fairly correct habits. But
why put in useless time and labor in order to gain that which a few
well-directed hints and examples will convey?

Tools are made and are used as short cuts toward a desired end. Before
the saw was invented the knife was used laboriously to sever and shape
the materials. Before planes were invented a broad, flat sharpened blade
was used to smooth off surfaces. Holes were dug out by means of small
chisels requiring infinite patience and time. Each succeeding tool
proclaimed a shorter and an easier way to do a certain thing. The man
or boy who can make a new labor-saving tool is worthy of as much praise
as the man who makes two blades of grass grow where one grew before.

Let us now thoroughly understand how to hold and use each tool. That is
half the value of the tool itself.

THE SAW.--With such a commonplace article as the saw, it might be
assumed that the ordinary apprentice would look upon instruction with a
smile of derision.

HOW TO START A SAW.--If the untried apprentice has such an opinion set
him to work at the task of cutting off a board accurately on a line. He
will generally make a failure of the attempt to start the saw true to
the line, to say nothing of following the line so the kerf is true and
square with the board.

HOW TO START ON A LINE.--The first mistake he makes is to saw _on the
line_. This should never be done. The work should be so laid out that
the saw kerf is on the discarded side of the material. The saw should
cut alongside the line, and _the line should not_ be obliterated in the
cutting. Material must be left for trimming and finishing.

THE FIRST STROKE.--Now, to hold the saw in starting is the difficult
task to the beginner. Once mastered it is simple and easy. The only time
in which the saw should be firmly held by the hand is during the
initial cut or two; afterwards always hold the handle loosely. There is
nothing so tiring as a tightly grasped saw. The saw has but one handle,
hence it is designed to be used with one hand. Sometimes, with long and
tiresome jobs, in ripping, two hands may be used, but one hand can
always control a saw better than two hands.

[Illustration: _Fig. 20._]

THE STARTING CUT.--In order to make our understanding of the starting
cut more explicit, we refer to Fig. 20, in which the thumb of the left
hand is shown in the position of a guide--the end of the thumb being
held up a sufficient distance to clear the teeth. In this position you
need not fear that the teeth of the saw (A) will ride up over the thumb
if you have a firm grasp of the saw handle.

The first stroke should be upwardly, not downwardly. While in the act of
drawing up the saw you can judge whether the saw blade is held by the
thumb gage in the proper position to cut along the mark, and when the
saw moves downwardly for the first cut, you may be assured that the cut
is accurate, or at the right place, and the thumb should be kept in its
position until two or three cuts are made, and the work is then fairly
started.

[Illustration: _Fig. 21. Wrong sawing angle._]

FOR CROSS-CUTTING.--For ordinary cross-cutting the angle of the saw
should be at 45 degrees. For ripping, the best results are found at less
than 45 degrees, but you should avoid flattening down the angle. An
incorrect as well as a correct angle are shown in Figs. 21 and 22.

FORCING A SAW.--Forcing a saw through the wood means a crooked kerf. The
more nearly the saw is held at right angles to a board, the greater is
the force which must be applied to it by the hand to cause it to bite
into the wood; and, on the other hand, if the saw is laid down too far,
as shown in the incorrect way, it is a very difficult matter to follow
the working line. Furthermore, it is a hard matter to control the saw so
that it will cut squarely along the board, particularly when ripping.
The eye must be the only guide in the disposition of the saw. Some boys
make the saw run in one direction, and others cause it to lean the
opposite way. After you have had some experience and know which way you
lean, correct your habits by disposing the saw in the opposite
direction.

[Illustration: _Fig. 22. Right sawing angle._]

THE STROKE.--Make a long stroke, using the full blade of the saw. Don't
acquire the "jerky" style of sawing. If the handle is held loosely, and
the saw is at the proper angle, the weight of the saw, together with the
placement of the handle on the saw blade, will be found sufficient to
make the requisite cut at each stroke.

You will notice that the handle of every saw is mounted nearest the back
edge. (See Fig. 23.) The reason for so mounting it is, that as the
cutting stroke is downward, the line of thrust is above the tooth line,
and as this line is at an angle to the line of thrust, the tendency is
to cause the saw teeth to dig into the wood.

[Illustration: _Fig. 23._]

[Illustration: CHINESE SAW. _Fig. 24._]

THE CHINESE SAW.--This saw is designed to saw with an upward cut, and
the illustration (Fig. 24) shows the handle jutting out below the tooth
line, in order to cause the teeth to dig into the material as the handle
is drawn upwardly. Reference is made to these features to impress upon
beginners the value of observation, and to demonstrate the reason for
making each tool a particular way.

THINGS TO AVOID.--Do not oscillate the saw as you draw it back and
forth. This is unnecessary work, and shows impatience in the use of the
tool. There is such an infinite variety of use for the different tools
that there is no necessity for rendering the work of any particular
tool, or tools, burdensome. Each in its proper place, handled
intelligently, will become a pleasure, as well as a source of profit.

[Illustration: _Fig. 25._]

THE PLANE.--The jack plane and the fore plane are handled with both
hands, and the smoothing plane with one hand, but only when used for
dressing the ends of boards. For other uses both hands are required.

ANGLES FOR HOLDING PLANES.--Before commencing to plane a board, always
observe the direction in which the grain of the wood runs. This
precaution will save many a piece of material, because if the jack plane
is set deep it will run into the wood and cause a rough surface, which
can be cured only by an extra amount of labor in planing down.

Never move the jack plane or the smoothing plane over the work so that
the body of the tool is in a direct line with the movement of the plane.
It should be held at an angle of about 12 or 15 degrees (see Fig. 25).
The fore plane should always be held straight with the movement of the
plane, because the length of the fore plane body is used as a
straightener for the surface to be finished.

[Illustration: _Fig. 26._]

ERRORS TO BE AVOIDED.--Never draw back the plane with the bit resting on
the board. This simply wears out the tool, and if there should be any
grit on the board it will be sure to ruin the bit. This applies
particularly to the jack plane, but is bad practice with the others as
well.

A work bench is a receptacle for all kinds of dirt. Provide a special
ledge or shelf for the planes, and be sure to put each plane there
immediately after using.

THE GAGE.--A man, who professed to be a carpenter, once told me that he
never used a gage because he could not make it run straight. A few
moments' practice convinced him that he never knew how to hold it. The
illustration shows how properly to hold it, and the reason why it should
so be held follows.

You will observe (Fig. 26) that the hand grasps the stem of the gage
behind the cheekpiece, so that the thumb is free to press against the
side of the stem to the front of the cheekpiece.

HOLDING THE GAGE.--The hand serves to keep the cheekpiece against the
board, while the thumb pushes the gage forward. The hand must not, under
any circumstances, be used to move the gage along. In fact, it is not
necessary for the fingers to be clasped around the gage stem, if the
forefinger presses tightly against the cheekpiece, since the thumb
performs all the operation of moving it along. Naturally, the hand
grasps the tool in order to hold it down against the material, and to
bring it back for a new cut.

THE DRAW-KNIFE.--It is difficult for the apprentice to become accustomed
to handle this useful tool. It is much more serviceable than a hatchet
for trimming and paring work. In applying it to the wood always have the
tool at an angle with the board, so as to make a slicing cut. This is
specially desirable in working close to a line, otherwise there is a
liability of cutting over it.

This knife requires a firm grasp--firmness of hold is more important
than strength in using. The flat side is used wholly for straight edges,
and the beveled side for concave surfaces. It is the intermediate tool
between the hatchet and the plane, as it has the characteristics of both
those tools. It is an ugly, dangerous tool, more to be feared when lying
around than when in use. Put it religiously on a rack which protects the
entire cutting edge. _Keep it off the bench._



CHAPTER IV

HOW TO DESIGN ARTICLES


FUNDAMENTALS OF DESIGNING.--A great deal of the pleasure in making
articles consists in creative work. This means, not that you shall
design some entirely new article, but that its general form, or
arrangement of parts, shall have some new or striking feature.

A new design in any art does not require a change in all its parts. It
is sufficient that there shall be an improvement, either in some
particular point, as a matter of utility, or some change in an artistic
direction. A manufacturer in putting out a new chair, or a plow, or an
automobile, adds some striking characteristic. This becomes his talking
point in selling the article.

THE COMMERCIAL INSTINCT.--It is not enough that the boy should learn to
make things correctly, and as a matter of pastime and pleasure. The
commercial instinct is, after all, the great incentive, and should be
given due consideration.

It would be impossible, in a book of this kind, to do more than to give
the fundamental principles necessary in designing, and to direct the
mind solely to essentials, leaving the individual to build up for
himself.

FIRST REQUIREMENTS FOR DESIGNING.--First, then, let us see what is
necessary to do when you intend to set about making an article. Suppose
we fix our minds upon a table as the article selected. Three things are
necessary to know: First, the use to which it is to be put; second, the
dimensions; and, third, the material required.

Assuming it to be the ordinary table, and the dimensions fixed, we may
conclude to use soft pine, birch or poplar, because of ease in working.
There are no regulation dimensions for tables, except as to height,
which is generally uniform, and usually 30 inches. As to the length and
width, you will be governed by the place where it is to be used.

If the table top is to have dimensions, say, of 36" × 48", you may lay
out the framework six inches less each way, thus giving you a top
overhang of three inches, which is the usual practice.

CONVENTIONAL STYLES.--Now, if you wish to depart from the conventional
style of making a table you may make variations in the design. For
instance, the Chippendale style means slender legs and thin top. It
involves some fanciful designs in the curved outlines of the top, and in
the crook of the legs. Or if, on the other hand, the Mission type is
preferred, the overhang of the top is very narrow; the legs are straight
and heavy, and of even size from top to bottom; and the table top is
thick and nearly as broad as it is long. Such furniture has the
appearance of massiveness; it is easily made and most serviceable.

MISSION STYLE.--The Mission style of architecture also lends itself to
the making of chairs and other articles of furniture. A chair is,
probably, the most difficult piece of household furniture to make,
because strength is required. In this type soft wood may be used, as the
large legs and back pieces are easily provided with mortises and tenons,
affording great rigidity when completed. In designing, therefore, you
may see how the material itself becomes an important factor.

CABINETS.--In the making of cabinets, sideboards, dressers and like
articles, the ingenious boy will find a wonderful field for designing
ability, because in these articles fancy alone dictates the sizes and
the dimensions of the parts. Not so with chairs and tables. The
imagination plays an important part even in the making of drawers, to
say nothing of placing them with an eye to convenience and artistic
effect.

HARMONY OF PARTS.--But one thing should be observed in the making of
furniture, namely, harmony between the parts. For instance, a table
with thin legs and a thick top gives the appearance of a top-heavy
structure; or the wrong use of two different styles is bad from an
artistic standpoint; moreover, it is the height of refined education if,
in the use of contrasting woods, they are properly blended to form a
harmonious whole.

HARMONIZING WOOD.--Imagine a chiffonier with the base of dark wood, like
walnut, and the top of pine or maple, or a like light-colored wood. On
the other hand, both walnut and maple, for instance, may be used in the
same article, if they are interspersed throughout the entire article.
The body may be made of dark wood and trimmed throughout with a light
wood to produce a fine effect.



CHAPTER V

HOW WORK IS LAID OUT


CONCRETE EXAMPLES OF WORK.--A concrete example of doing any work is more
valuable than an abstract statement. For this purpose I shall direct the
building of a common table with a drawer in it and show how the work is
done in detail.

For convenience let us adopt the Mission style, with a top 36" × 42" and
the height 30". The legs should be 2" × 2" and the top 1", dressed. The
material should be of hard wood with natural finish, or, what is better
still, a soft wood, like birch, which may be stained a dark brown, as
the Mission style is more effective in dark than in light woods.

[Illustration: _Fig. 27._]

FRAMEWORK.--As we now know the sizes, the first thing is to build the
framework. The legs should be dressed square and smoothed down with the
fore plane to make them perfectly straight. Now, lay out two mortises at
the upper end of each leg. Follow the illustrations to see how this is
done.

LAYING OUT THE LEGS.--Fig. 27 shows a leg with square cross marks (A) at
each end. These marks indicate the finished length of the leg. You will
also see crosses on two sides. These indicate what is called the "work
sides." The work sides are selected because they are the finest surfaces
on the leg.

[Illustration: _Fig. 28._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 29._]

THE LENGTH OF THE MORTISES.--Then take a small try square (Fig. 28) and
add two cross lines (B, C) on each of the inner surfaces, the second
line (B) one-half inch from the finish line (A), and the other line (C)
seven inches down from the line (A). The side facing boards, hereafter
described, are seven inches wide.

When this has been done for all the legs, prepare your gage (Fig. 29) to
make the mortise scribe, and, for convenience in illustrating, the leg
is reversed. If the facing boards are 1" thick, and the tenons are
intended to be 1/2" thick, the first scribe line (E) should be 1/2" from
the work side, because the shoulder on the facing board projects out
1/4", and the outer surface of the facing board should not be flush with
the outer surface of the leg. The second gage line (F) should be 1" from
the work side.

[Illustration: _Fig. 30._]

THE MORTISES.--When the mortises have been made they will appear as
shown in the enlarged cross section of the leg (Fig. 30), the total
depth of each mortise being 1-1/2". The depth of this mortise determines
for us the length of the tenons on the facing boards.

THE FACING BOARDS.--These boards are each 1 inch thick and 7 inches
wide. As the top of the table is 42 inches long, and we must provide an
overhang, say of 2 inches, we will first take off 4 inches for the
overhang and 4 inches for the legs, so that the length of two of the
facing boards, from shoulder to shoulder, must be 34 inches; and the
other two facing boards 28 inches. Then, as we must add 1-1/2 inches for
each tenon, two of the boards will be 37 inches long and two of them 31
inches long.

[Illustration: _Fig. 31._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 32._]

The illustration (Fig. 31) shows a board marked with the cross lines (B)
at each end for the end of the tenons, or the extreme ends of the
boards.

THE TENONS.--Do not neglect first to select the work side and the
working edge of the board. The outer surface and the upper edges are the
sides to work from. The cheekpiece (A) of the gage must always rest
against the working side.

The cross marks (B, C) should be made with the point of a sharp knife,
and before the small back saw is used on the cross-cuts the lines (B),
which indicate the shoulders, should be scored with a sharp knife, as
shown in Fig. 33. This furnishes a guide for the saw, and makes a neat
finish for the shoulder.

[Illustration: _Fig. 33._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 34._]

[Illusstration _Fig. 35._]

TOOLS USED.--The back saw is used for cutting the tenon, and the end of
the board appears as shown in the enlarged Fig. 34. Two things are now
necessary to complete the tenons. On the upper or work edge of each
board use the gage to mark off a half-inch slice, and then cut away the
flat side of the tenon at the end, on its inner surface, so it will
appear as shown in Fig. 35.

[Illustration: _Fig. 36._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 37._]

CHAMFERED TENONS.--The object of these chamfered or beveled tenons is to
permit the ends to approach each other closely within the mortise, as
shown in the assembled parts (Fig. 36).

THE FRAME ASSEMBLED.--The frame is now ready to assemble, but before
doing so a drawer opening and supports should be made. The ends of the
supports may be mortised into the side pieces or secured by means of
gains.

Mortises and tenons are better.

THE DRAWER SUPPORTS.--Take one of the side-facing boards (Fig. 37) and
cut a rectangular opening in it. This opening should be 4 inches wide
and 18 inches long, so placed that there is 1 inch of stock at the upper
margin and 2 inches of stock at the lower margin of the board. At each
lower corner make a mortise (A), so that one side of the mortise is on a
line with the margin of the opening, and so that it extends a half inch
past the vertical margin of the opening.

[Illustration: _Fig. 38._]

You can easily cut a gain (B) in a strip, or, as in Fig. 38, you may use
two strips, one (C) an inch wide and a half inch thick, and on this nail
a strip (D) along one margin. This forms the guide and rest for the
drawer.

At the upper margin of the opening is a rebate or gain (E) at each
corner, extending down to the top line of the drawer opening, into which
are fitted the ends of the upper cross guides.

THE TABLE FRAME.--When the entire table frame is assembled it will have
the appearance shown in Fig. 39, and it is now ready for the top.

THE TOP.--The top should be made of three boards, either tongued and
grooved, or doweled and glued together. In order to give a massive
appearance, and also to prevent the end grain of the boards from being
exposed, beveled strips may be used to encase the edges. These marginal
cleats are 3/4 inch thick and 2 inches wide, and joined by beveled ends
at the corners, as shown in Fig. 40.

[Illustration: _Fig. 39._]

THE DRAWER.--The drawer (Fig. 41) shown in cross section, has its front
(A) provided with an overlapping flange (B).

It is not our object in this chapter to show how each particular article
is made, but simply to point out the underlying principles, and to
illustrate how the fastening elements, the tenons and mortises, are
formed, so that the boy will know the proper steps in their natural
order.

[Illustration: _Fig. 40._]

HOW ANY STRUCTURE IS BUILT UP.--It should be observed that each
structure, however small, is usually built from the base up. Just the
same as the more pretentious buildings are erected: First, the sill,
then the floor supports, then the posts and top plates, with their
connecting girders, and, finally, the roof.

The chapter on House Building will give more detailed illustrations of
large structures, and how they are framed and braced. At this point we
are more concerned in knowing how to proceed in order to lay out the
simple structural details, and if one subject of this kind is fully
mastered the complicated character of the article will not be difficult
to master.

OBSERVATIONS ABOUT A BOX.--As simple a little article as a box
frequently becomes a burden to a beginner. Try it. Simply keep in mind
one thing; each box has six sides. Now, suppose you want a box with six
equal sides--that is, a cubical form--it is necessary to make only three
pairs of sides; two for the ends, two for the sides and two for the top
and bottom. Each set has dimensions different from the other sets. Both
pieces of the set, representing the ends, are square; the side pieces
are of the same width as the end pieces, and slightly longer; and the
top and bottom are longer and wider than the end pieces.

[Illustration: _Fig. 41._]

A box equal in all its dimensions may be made out of six boards,
properly cut. Make an attempt in order to see if you can get the right
dimensions.

JOINTS.--For joining together boards at right angles to each other, such
as box corners, drawers and like articles, tenons and mortises should
never be resorted to. In order to make fine work the joints should be
made by means of dovetails, rabbets or rebates, or by beveling or
mitering the ends.

BEVELING AND MITERING.--There is a difference in the terms "beveling"
and "mitering," as used in the art. In Fig. 42 the joint A is _beveled_,
and in Fig. 43 the joint B is _mitered_, the difference being that a
bevel is applied to an angle joint like a box corner, while a miter has
reference to a joint such as is illustrated in Fig. 43, such as the
corner of a picture frame.

[Illustration: _Fig. 42._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 43._]

PROPER TERMS.--It is the application of the correct terms to things that
lays the foundation for accurate thinking and proper expressions in
describing work. A wise man once said that the basis of true science
consists in correct definitions.

PICTURE FRAMES.--In picture frames the mitered corners may have a saw
kerf (C) cut across the corners, as shown in Fig. 44, and a thin blade
of hard wood driven in, the whole being glued together.

DOVETAIL JOINTS.--It is in the laying out of the more complicated
dovetail joints that the highest skill is required, because exactness is
of more importance in this work than in any other article in joinery. In
order to do this work accurately follow out the examples given, and you
will soon be able to make a beautiful dovetail corner, and do it
quickly.

[Illustration: _Fig. 44._]

PREPARING A BOX JOINT.--In order to match a box joint for the inner end
of a table drawer, the first step is to select two work sides. One work
side will be the edge of the board, and the other the side surface of
the board, and on those surfaces we will put crosses, as heretofore
suggested.

[Illustration: _Fig. 45._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 46._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 47._]

FIRST STEPS.--Now lap together the inner surfaces of these boards (Y,
Z), so the ends are toward you, as shown in Fig. 45. Then, after
measuring the thickness of the boards to be joined (the thinnest, if
they are of different thicknesses), set your compasses, or dividers, for
1/4 inch, providing the boards are 1/2 inch thick, and, commencing at
the work edge of the board, step off and point, as at A, the whole width
of the board, and with a square make the two cross marks (B), using the
two first compass points (A), then skipping one, using the next two, and
so on.

[Illustration: _Fig. 48._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 49._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 50._]

When this is done, turn up the board Z (Fig. 46), so that it is at right
angles to the board Y, and so the outer surface of the board Z is flush
with the end of the board X, and with a sharp knife point extend the
lines B along with the grain of the wood on board Z, up to the cross mark
C. This cross mark should have been previously made and is located as
far from the end of the board Z as the thickness of the board Y.

We now have the marks for the outer surface of the board Z, and the end
marks of board Y. For the purpose of getting the angles of the end of
the board Z and the outer side of board Y, a cross line (D, Fig. 47) is
drawn across the board X near the end, this line being as far from the
end as the thickness of the board Z, and a vertical line (E) is drawn
midway between the two first cross marks (A).

Now, with your compass, which, in the meantime, has not been changed,
make a mark (F), and draw down the line (G), which will give you the
working angle at which you may set the bevel gage. Then draw down an
angle from each alternate cross line (A), and turn the bevel and draw
down the lines (H). These lines should all be produced on the opposite
side of the board, so as to assure accuracy, and to this end the edges
of the board also should be scribed.

CUTTING OUT THE SPACES.--In cutting out the intervening spaces, which
should be done with a sharp chisel, care should be observed not to cut
over the shoulder lines. To prevent mistakes you should put some
distinctive mark on each part to be cut away. In this instance E, H show
the parts to be removed, and in Fig. 48 two of the cutaway portions are
indicated.

When the end of the board Z is turned up (Fig. 49), it has merely the
longitudinal parallel lines B. The bevel square may now be used in the
same manner as on the side of the board Y, and the fitting angles will
then be accurately true.

This is shown in Fig. 50, in which, also, two of the cutaway parts are
removed.

TOOLS USED IN LAYING OUT TENONS AND MORTISES.--A sharp-pointed knife
must always be used for making all marks. Never employ an awl for this
work, as the fiber of the wood will be torn up by it. A small try square
should always be used (not the large iron square), and this with a
sharp-pointed compass and bevel square will enable you to turn out a
satisfactory piece of work.

The foregoing examples, carefully studied, will enable you to gather the
principles involved in laying off any work. If you can once make a
presentable box joint, so that all the dovetails will accurately fit
together, you will have accomplished one of the most difficult phases of
the work, and it is an exercise which will amply repay you, because you
will learn to appreciate what accuracy means.



CHAPTER VI

THE USES OF THE COMPASS AND THE SQUARE


THE SQUARE.--The square is, probably, the oldest of all tools, and that,
together with the compass, or dividers, with which the square is always
associated, has constituted the craftsman's emblem from the earliest
historical times. So far as we now know, the plain flat form, which has
at least one right angle and two or more straight edges, was the only
form of square used by the workman. But modern uses, and the development
of joinery and cabinet making, as well as the more advanced forms of
machinery practice, necessitated new structural forms in the square, so
that the bevel square, in which there is an adjustable blade set in a
handle, was found necessary.

THE TRY SQUARE.--In the use of the ordinary large metal square it is
necessary to lay the short limb of the square on the face of the work,
and the long limb must, therefore, rest against the work side or edge of
the timber, so that the scribing edge of the short limb does not rest
flat against the work. As such a tool is defective in work requiring
accuracy, it brought into existence what is called the try square,
which has a rectangular handle, usually of wood, into which is fitted at
one end a metal blade, which is at right angles to the edge of the
handle. The handle, therefore, always serves as a guide for the blade in
scribing work, because it lies flat down on the work.

THE T-SQUARE is another modification of the try square, its principal
use being for draughting purposes.

THE COMPASS.--The compass is one of the original carpenter's tools. The
difference between _compass_ and _dividers_ is that compasses have
adjustable pen or pencil points, whereas dividers are without adjustable
points. Modern work has brought refinements in the character of the
compass and dividers, so that we now have the bow-compass, which is,
usually, a small tool, one leg of which carries a pen or pencil point,
the two legs being secured together, usually, by a spring bow, or by a
hinged joint with a spring attachment.

PROPORTIONAL DIVIDERS.--A useful tool is called the proportional
dividers, the legs of which are hinged together intermediate the ends,
so that the pivotal joint is adjustable. By means of this tool the scale
of work may be changed, although its widest field of usefulness is work
laid off on a scale which you intend to reduce or enlarge
proportionally.

DETERMINING ANGLES.--Now, in order to lay out work the boy should know
quickly and accurately how to determine various angles used or required
in his work. The quickest way in which to learn this is to become
familiar with the degree in its various relations.

[Illustration: _Fig. 51._]

DEFINITION OF DEGREE.--A degree is not a measure, as we would designate
a foot or a pound to determine distance or quantity. It is used to
denote a division, space, interval or position. To illustrate, look at
the circle, Fig. 51. The four cardinal points are formed by the cross
lines (A, B), and in each one of the quadrants thus formed the circle is
divided into 90 degrees. Look at the radial lines (C, D), and you will
find that the distance between these lines is different along the
curved line (E) than along the curved line (F). The degree is,
therefore, to indicate only the space, division or interval in the
circle.

THE MOST IMPORTANT ANGLE.--Most important for one to know at a glance is
that of 45 degrees, because the one can the more readily calculate the
other degrees, approximately, by having 45 degrees once fixed in the
mind, and impressed on the visual image. With a square and a compass it
is a comparatively easy matter accurately to step off 45 degrees, as it
is the line C, midway between A and B, and the other degrees may be
calculated from the line C and the cardinal lines A or B.

DEGREES WITHOUT A COMPASS.--But in the absence of a compass and when you
do not wish to step off a circle, you will in such case lay down the
square, and mark off at the outer margin of the limbs two equal
dimensions. Suppose we take 2 inches on each limb of the square. The
angle thus formed by the angle square blade is 45 degrees. To find 30
degrees allow the blade of the angle square to run from 2 inches on one
limb to 3-1/2 inches on the other limb, and it will be found that for 15
degrees the blade runs from 2 inches on one limb to 7-1/2 inches on the
other limb. It would be well to fix firmly these three points, at least,
in your mind, as they will be of the utmost value to you. It is a
comparatively easy matter now to find 10 degrees or 25 degrees, or any
intermediate line.

WHAT DEGREES ARE CALCULATED FROM.--The question that now arises is what
line one may use from which to calculate degrees, or at what point in
the circle zero is placed. Degrees may be calculated either from the
horizontal or from the vertical line. Examine Fig. 53. The working
margin indicated by the cross mark is your base line, and in specifying
an angle you calculate it from the work edge. Thus, the line A indicates
an angle of 30 degrees. The dotted line is 45 degrees.

[Illustration: _Fig. 52._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 53._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 54._]

THE DIVIDERS.--The dividers are used not only for scribing circles, but
also for stepping and dividing spaces equally. There is a knack in the
use of the dividers, where accuracy is wanted, and where the surface is
of wood. Unless the utmost care is observed, the spaces will be unequal,
for the reason that the point of the dividers will sink more deeply into
the wood at some places than at others, due to the uneven texture of the
wood grain. It will be better to make a line lengthwise, and a cross
line (A) for starting (see Fig. 54). You may then insert one point of
the dividers at the initial mark (B), and describe a small arc (C). Then
move the dividers over to the intersection of the arc (C) on the line,
and make the next mark, and so on.

Some useful hints along this same line will be found under the chapter
on Drawing, which should be carefully studied.



CHAPTER VII

HOW THE DIFFERENT STRUCTURAL PARTS ARE DESIGNATED


THE RIGHT NAME FOR EVERYTHING.--Always make it a point to apply the
right term to each article or portion of a structure. Your explanation,
to those who do know the proper technical terms, will render much easier
a thorough understanding; and to those who do not know, your language
will be in the nature of an education.

PROPER DESIGNATIONS.--Every part in mechanism, every point, curve and
angle has its peculiar designation. A knowledge of terms is an
indication of thoroughness in education, and, as heretofore stated,
becomes really the basis of art, as well as of the sciences. When you
wish to impart information to another you must do it in terms understood
by both.

Furthermore, and for this very reason, you should study to find out how
to explain or to define the terms. You may have a mental picture of the
structure in your mind, but when asked to explain it you are lost.

LEARNING MECHANICAL FORMS.--Suppose, for example, we take the words
_segment_ and _sector_. Without a thorough understanding in your own
mind you are likely to confuse these terms by taking one for the other.
But let us assume you are to be called upon to explain a sector to some
one who has no idea of terms and their definitions. How would you
describe it? While it is true it is wedge-shaped, you will see by
examining the drawing that it is not like a wedge. The sector has two
sides running from a point like a wedge, but the large end of the sector
is curved.

If you were called upon to define a segment you might say it had one
straight line and one curve, but this would not define it very lucidly.
Therefore, in going over the designations given, not only fix in your
mind the particular form, but try to remember some particular manner in
which you can clearly express the form, the shape or the relation of the
parts.

For your guidance, therefore, I have given, as far as possible, simple
figures to aid you in becoming acquainted with structures and their
designations, without repeating the more simple forms which I have used
in the preceding chapters.

[Illustration: _Fig. 55.-Fig. 65._]

55. _Arcade._--A series of arches with the columns or piers which
support them, the spandrels above, and other parts.

56. _Arch._--A curved member made up, usually, of separate wedge-shaped
solids, A. K, Keystone; S, Springers; C, Chord, or span.

57. _Buttress._--A projecting mass of masonry. A, used for resisting the
thrust of an arch, or for ornamentation; B, a flying buttress.

58. _Chamfer._--The surface A formed by cutting away the arris or angle
formed by two faces, B, C, of material.

59. _Cotter or Cotter Pin._--A pin, A, either flat, square or round,
driven through a projecting tongue to hold it in position.

60. _Crenelated._--A form of molding indented or notched, either
regularly or irregularly.

61. _Crosses._--1. Latin cross, in the Church of Rome carried before
Bishops. 2. Double cross, carried before Cardinals and Bishops. 3.
Triple or Papal cross. 4. St. Andrew's and St. Peter's cross. 5. Maltese
cross. 6. St. Anthony or Egyptian cross. 7. Cross of Jerusalem. 8. A
cross patté or fermé (head or first). 9. A cross patonce (that is,
growing larger at the ends). 10. Greek cross.

62. _Curb Roof._--A roof having a double slope, or composed on each side
of two parts which have unequal inclinations; a gambrel roof.

63. _Cupola._--So called on account of its resemblance to a cup. A roof
having a rounded form. When on a large scale it is called a dome.

_Crown Post._--See _King Post_.

64. _Console._--A bracket with a projection not more than half its
height.

65. _Corbels._--A mass of brackets to support a shelf or structure.
Largely employed in Gothic architecture.

[Illustration: _Fig. 66.-Fig. 79._]

66. _Dormer._--A window pierced in a roof and so set as to be vertical,
while the roof slopes away from it. Also called a _Gablet_.

67. _Dowel._--A pin or stud in one block, or body, designed to engage
with holes in another body to hold them together in alignment.

68. _Drip._--That part of a cornice or sill course A, or other
horizontal member which projects beyond the rest, so as to divert water.

69. _Detents._--Recesses to lock or to serve as a stop or holding place.

70. _Extrados._--The exterior curve of an arch, especially the upper
curved face A. B is the _Intrados_ or _Soffit_.

71. _Engrailed._--Indented with small concave curves, as the edge of a
bordure, bend, or the like.

72. _Facet._--The narrow plain surface, as A, between the fluting of a
column.

73. _Fret, Fretwork._--Ornamental work consisting of small fillets, or
slats, intersecting each other or bent at right angles. Openwork in
relief, when elaborated and minute in all its parts. Hence any minute
play of light and shade. A, Japanese fretwork. B, Green fret.

74. _Frontal_, also called _Pediment_.--The triangular space, A, above a
door or window.

75. _Frustums._--That part of a solid next the base, formed by cutting
off the top; or the part of any solid, as of a cone, pyramid, etc.,
between two planes, which may either be parallel or inclined to each
other.

76. _Fylfat._--A rebated cross used as a secret emblem and worn as an
ornament. It is also called _Gammadium_, and more commonly known as
_Swastika_.

77. _Gambrel Roof._--A curb roof having the same section in all its
parts, with a lower, steeper and longer part. See _Curb Roof_ and
distinguish difference.

78. _Gargoyle._--A spout projecting from the roof gutter of a building,
often carved grotesquely.

79. _Gudgeon._--A wooden shaft, A, with a socket, B, into which is
fitted a casting, C. The casting has a _gudgeon_, D.

[Illustration: _Fig. 80.-Fig. 93._]

80. _Guilloche._--An ornament in the form of two or more bands or
strings twisted together or over or through each other.

81. _Half Timbered._--Constructed of a timber frame, having the spaces
filled in with masonry.

82. _Hammer Beam._--A member of one description of roof truss, called
hammer-beam truss, which is so framed as not to have a tie beam at the
top of the wall. A is the _hammer beam_, and C the pendant post.

83. _Haunches._--The parts A, A, on each side of the crown of an arch.
Each haunch is from one-half to two-thirds of the half arch.

84. _Header._--A piece of timber, A, fitted between two trimmers, B, B,
to hold the ends of the tail beams, C, C.

85. _Hip Roof._--The external angle formed by the meeting of two sloping
sides or skirts of a roof which have their wall plates running in
different directions.

86. _Hood Molding._--A projecting molding over the head of an arch, as
at A, forming the outer-most member of the archivolt.

87. _Inclave._--The border, or borders, having a series of dovetails.
One variation of molding or ornamentation.

88. _Interlacing Arch._--Arches, usually circular, so constructed that
their archivolts, A, intersect and seem to be interlaced.

89. _Invected._--Having a border or outline composed of semicircles or
arches, with the convexity outward. The opposite of engrailed.

90. _Inverted Arch._--An arch placed with the crown downward; used in
foundation work.

91. _Keystone._--The central or topmost stone, A, of an arch, sometimes
decorated with a carving.

92. _King Post._--A member, A, of a common form of truss for roofs. It
is strictly a tie intended to prevent the sagging of the tie beam, B, in
the middle. If there are struts, C, supporting the rafters, D, they
extend down to the foot of the _King Post_.

93. _Label._--The name given to the projecting molding, A, around the
top of the door opening. A form of mediæval architecture.

[Illustration: _Fig. 94.-Fig. 104._]

94. _Louver._--The sloping boards, A, set to shed rain water outward in
an opening of a frame, as in belfry windows.

95. _Lintel._--A horizontal member. A spanning or opening of a frame,
and designed to carry the wall above it.

96. _Lug._--A. projecting piece, as A, to which anything is attached, or
against which another part, like B, is held.

97. _M-Roof._--A kind of roof formed by the junction of two common roofs
with a valley between them, so the section resembles the letter M.

98. _Mansard Roof._--A hipped curb roof, that is, a roof having on all
sides two slopes, the lower one, A, being steeper than the upper portion
or deck.

99. _Newel Post._--The upright post at the foot of a stairway, to which
the railing is attached.

100. _Parquetry._--A species of joinery or cabinet work, consisting of
an inlay of geometric or other patterns, generally of different colored
woods, used particularly for floors.

101. _Peen._ also _Pein._--The round, _round_-edged or hemispherical
end, as at A, of a hammer.

102. _Pendant._--A hanging ornament on roofs, ceilings, etc., and much
used in the later styles of Gothic architecture where it is of stone.
Imitated largely in wood and plaster work.

103. _Pentastyle._--A pillar. A portico having five pillars, A, is
called the _Pentastyle_ in temples of classical construction.

104. _Pedestal._--An upright architectural member, A, right-angled in
plan, constructionally a pier, but resembling a column, having a
capital, shaft and base to agree with the columns in the structure.

[Illustration: _Fig. 105.-Fig. 117._]

105. _Pintle._--An upright pivot pin, or the pin of a hinge; A
represents the _pintle_ of a rudder.

106. _Portico._--A colonnade or covered structure, especially in
classical style, of architecture, and usually at the entrance of a
building.

107. _Plate._--A horizontal timber, A, used as a top or header for
supporting timbers, roofs and the like.

108. _Queen Post._--One of two suspending posts in a roof truss, or
other framed truss of simple form. Compare with _King Post._ A, B, tie
beam; C, C, queen posts; D, straining piece; E, principal rafter; F,
rafter.

109. _Quirk Molding._--A small channel, deeply recessed, in proportion
to its width, used to insulate and give relief to a convex rounded
molding. An excellent corner post for furniture.

110. _Re-entering._--The figure shows an irregular polygon (that is,
many-sided figure) and is a re-entering polygon. The recess A is a
re-entering angle.

111. _Rafter._--Originally any rough and heavy piece of timber, but in
modern carpentry used to designate the main roof support, as at A. See
_Queen Post_.

112. _Scarfing._--Cutting timber at an angle along its length, as the
line A. Scarfing joints are variously made. The overlapping joints may
be straight or recessed and provided with a key block B. When fitted
together they are securely held by plates and bolts.

113. _Scotia Molding._--A sunken molding in the base of a pillar, so
called from the dark shadow which it casts.

114. _Sill._--In carpentry the base piece, or pieces, A, on which the
posts of a structure are set.

115. _Skew-Back._--The course of masonry, such as a stone, A, with an
inclined face, which forms the abutment for the voussoirs, B, or
wedge-shaped stones comprising the arch.

116. _Spandrel._--The irregular, triangular space, A, between the curve
of an arch and the enclosing right angle.

117. _Strut._--In general, any piece of a frame, such as a timber A, or
a brace B, which resists pressure or thrust in the direction of its
length.

[Illustration: _Fig. 118.-Fig. 123._]

118. _Stud, Studding._--The vertical timber or scantling, A, which is
one of the small uprights of a building to which the boarding or
plastering lath are nailed.

119. _Stile._--The main uprights of a door, as A, A; B, B, B, rails; C,
C, mullions; D, D, panels.

_Tie Beam._--See _Queen Post_.

120. _Trammel._--A very useful tool for drawing ellipses. It comprises a
cross, A, with grooves and a bar, B, with pins, C, attached to sliding
blocks in the grooves, and a pen or stylus, D, at the projecting end of
the bar to scribe the ellipse.

121. _Turret._--A little tower, frequently only an ornamental structure
at one of the angles of a larger structure.

122. _Transom._--A horizontal cross-bar, A, above a door or window or
between a door and a window above it. Transom is the horizontal member,
and if there is a vertical, like the dotted line B, it is called a
_Mullion_. See _Stile_.

123. _Valley Roof._--A place of meeting of two slopes of a roof which
have their sides running in different directions and formed on the plan
of a re-entrant angle.



CHAPTER VIII

DRAWING AND ITS UTILITY


A knowledge of drawing, at least so far as the fundamentals are
concerned, is of great service to the beginner. All work, after being
conceived in the brain, should be transferred to paper. A habit of this
kind becomes a pleasure, and, if carried out persistently, will prove a
source of profit. The boy with a bow pen can easily draw circles, and
with a drawing or ruling pen he can make straight lines.

REPRESENTING OBJECTS.--But let him try to represent some object, and the
pens become useless. There is a vast difference in the use of drawing
tools and free-hand drawing. While the boy who is able to execute
free-hand sketches may become the better artist, still that art would
not be of much service to him as a carpenter. First, because the use of
tools gives precision, and this is necessary to the builder; and,
second, because the artist deals wholly with perspectives, whereas the
builder must execute from plane surfaces or elevations.

FORMING LINES AND SHADOWS.--It is not my intention to furnish a complete
treatise on this subject, but to do two things, one of which will be to
show, among other features, how simple lines form objects; how shading
becomes an effective aid; how proportions are formed; and, second, how
to make irregular forms, and how they may readily be executed so that
the boy may be able to grasp the ideas for all shapes and structural
devices.

[Illustration: _Fig. 125._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 126._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 127._]

ANALYSIS OF LINE SHADING.--In the demonstration of this work I shall
give an analysis of the simple lines formed, showing the terms used to
designate the lines, curves, and formations, so that when any work is
laid out the beginner will be able, with this glossary before him, to
describe architecturally, as well as mathematically, the angles and
curves with which he is working.

HOW TO CHARACTERIZE SURFACE.--Suppose we commence simply with straight
lines. How shall we determine the character of the surface of the
material between the two straight lines shown in Fig. 125? Is it flat,
rounded, or concaved? Let us see how we may treat the surface by simple
lines so as to indicate the configuration.

[Illustration: _Fig. 128._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 129._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 130._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 131._]

CONCAVE SURFACES.--In Fig. 126 the shading lines commence at the upper
margin, and are heaviest there, the lines gradually growing thinner and
farther apart.

CONVEX SURFACES.--In Fig. 127 the shading is very light along the upper
margin, and heavy at the lower margin. The first shaded figure,
therefore, represents a concaved surface, and the second figure a
convex surface. But why? Simply for the reason that in drawings, as well
as in nature, light is projected downwardly, hence when a beam of light
moves past the margin of an object, the contrast at the upper part,
where the light is most intense, is strongest.

The shading of the S-shaped surface (Fig. 128) is a compound of Figs.
126 and 127.

[Illustration: _Fig. 132._]

SHADOWS FROM A SOLID BODY.--We can understand this better by examining
Fig. 129, which shows a vertical board, and a beam of light (A) passing
downwardly beyond the upper margin of the board. Under these conditions
the upper margin of the board appears darker to the vision, by contrast,
than the lower part. It should also be understood that, in general, the
nearer the object the lighter it is, so that as the upper edge of the
board is farthest from the eye the heavy shading there will at least
give the appearance of distance to that edge.

But suppose that instead of having the surface of the board flat, it
should be concaved, as in Fig. 130, it is obvious that the hollow, or
the concaved, portion of the board must intensify the shadows or the
darkness at the upper edge. This explains why the heavy shading in Fig.
126 is at that upper margin.

FLAT EFFECTS.--If the board is flat it may be shaded, as shown in Fig.
131, in which the lines are all of the same thickness, and are spaced
farther and farther apart at regularly increasing intervals.

[Illustration: _Fig. 133._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 134._]

THE DIRECTION OF LIGHT.--Now, in drawing, we must observe another thing.
Not only does the light always come from above, but it comes also from
the left side. I show in Fig. 132 two squares, one within the other. All
the lines are of the same thickness. Can you determine by means of such
a drawing what the inner square represents? Is it a block, or raised
surface, or is it a depression?

RAISED SURFACES.--Fig. 133 shows it in the form of a block, simply by
thickening the lower and the right-hand lines.

DEPRESSED SURFACES.--If, by chance, you should make the upper and the
left-hand lines heavy, as in Fig. 134, it would, undoubtedly, appear
depressed, and would need no further explanation.

FULL SHADING,--But, in order to furnish an additional example of the
effect of shading, suppose we shade the surface of the large square, as
shown in Fig. 135, and you will at once see that not only is the effect
emphasized, but it all the more clearly expresses what you want to show.
In like manner, in Fig. 136, we shade only the space within the inner
square, and it is only too obvious how shadows give us surface
conformation.

[Illustration: _Fig. 135._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 136._]

ILLUSTRATING CUBE SHADING.--In Fig. 137 I show merely nine lines joined
together, all lines being of equal thickness.

As thus drawn it may represent, for instance, a cube, or it may show
simply a square base (A) with two sides (B, B) of equal dimensions.

SHADING EFFECTS.--Now, to examine it properly so as to observe what the
draughtsman wishes to express, look at Fig. 138, in which the three
diverging lines (A, B, C) are increased in thickness, and the cube
appears plainly. On the other hand, in Fig. 139, the thickening of the
lines (D, E, F) shows an entirely different structure.

[Illustration: _Fig. 137._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 138._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 139._]

It must be remembered, therefore, that to show raised surfaces the
general direction is to shade heavily the lower horizontal and the right
vertical lines. (See Fig. 133.)

HEAVY LINES.--But there is an exception to this rule. See two examples
(Fig. 140). Here two parallel lines appear close together to form the
edge nearest the eye. In such cases the second, or upper, line is
heaviest. On vertical lines, as in Fig. 141, the second line from the
right is heaviest. These examples show plain geometrical lines, and
those from Figs. 138 to 141, inclusive, are in perspective.

[Illustration: _Fig. 140._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 141._]

PERSPECTIVE.--A perspective is a most deceptive figure, and a cube, for
instance, may be drawn so that the various lines will differ in length,
and also be equidistant from each other. Or all the lines may be of the
same length and have the distances between them vary. Supposing we have
two cubes, one located above the other, separated, say, two feet or more
from each other. It is obvious that the lines of the two cubes will not
be the same to a camera, because, if they were photographed, they would
appear exactly as they are, so far as their positions are concerned, and
not as they appear. But the cubes do appear to the eye as having six
equal sides. The camera shows that they do not have six equal sides so
far as measurement is concerned. You will see, therefore, that the
position of the eye, relative to the cube, is what determines the angle,
or $the relative$ angles of all the lines.

[Illustration: _Fig. 142._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 143._]

A TRUE PERSPECTIVE OF A CUBE.--Fig. 142 shows a true perspective--that
is, it is true from the measurement standpoint. It is what is called an
_isometrical_ view, or a figure in which all the lines not only are of
equal length, but the parallel lines are all spaced apart the same
distances from each other.

ISOMETRIC CUBE.--I enclose this cube within a circle, as in Fig. 143. To
form this cube the circle (A) is drawn and bisected with a vertical line
(B). This forms the starting point for stepping off the six points (C)
in the circle, using the dividers without resetting, after you have made
the circle. Then connect each of the points (C) by straight lines (D).
These lines are called chords. From the center draw two lines (E) at an
angle and one line (F) vertically. These are the radial lines. You will
see from the foregoing that the chords (D) form the outline of the
cube--or the lines farthest from the eye, and the radial lines (E, F)
are the nearest to the eye. In this position we are looking at the block
at a true diagonal--that is, from a corner at one side to the extreme
corner on the opposite side.

[Illustration: _Fig. 144._]

Let us contrast this, and particularly Fig. 142, with the cube which is
placed higher up, viewed from the same standpoint.

FLATTENED PERSPECTIVE.--Fig. 144 shows the new perspective, in which the
three vertical lines (A, A, A) are of equal length, and the six
angularly disposed lines (B, C) are of equal length, but shorter than
the lines A. The only change which has been made is to shorten the
distance across the corner from D to D, but the vertical lines (A) are
the same in length as the corresponding lines in Fig. 143.
Notwithstanding this change the cubes in both figures appear to be of
the same size, as, in fact, they really are.

[Illustration: _Fig. 145._]

In forming a perspective, therefore, it would be a good idea for the boy
to have a cube of wood always at hand, which, if laid down on a
horizontal support, alongside, or within range of the object to be
drawn, will serve as a guide to the perspective.

TECHNICAL DESIGNATIONS.--As all geometrical lines have designations, I
have incorporated such figures as will be most serviceable to the boy,
each figure being accompanied by its proper definition.

[Illustration: _Fig. 146._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 147._]

Before passing to that subject I can better show some of the simple
forms by means of suitable diagrams.

Referring to Fig. 145, let us direct our attention to the body (G),
formed by the line (D) across the circle. This body is called a segment.
A chord (D) and a curve comprise a segment.

SECTOR AND SEGMENT.--Now examine the shape of the body formed by two of
the radial lines (E, E) and that part of the circle which extends from
one radial line to the other. The body thus formed is a sector, and it
is made by two radiating lines and a curved line. Learn to distinguish
readily, in your mind, the difference between the two figures.

TERMS OF ANGLES.--The relation of the lines to each other, the manner in
which they are joined together, and their comparative angles, all have
special terms and meanings. Thus, referring to the isometric cube, in
Fig. 145, the angle formed at the center by the lines (B, E) is
different from the angle formed at the margin by the lines (E, F). The
angle formed by B, E is called an exterior angle; and that formed by E,
F is an interior angle. If you will draw a line (G) from the center to
the circle line, so it intersects it at C, the lines B, D, G form an
equilateral or isosceles triangle; if you draw a chord (A) from C to C,
the lines H, E, F will form an obtuse triangle, and B, F, H a
right-angled triangle.

CIRCLES AND CURVES.--Circles, and, in fact, all forms of curved work,
are the most difficult for beginners. The simplest figure is the circle,
which, if it represents a raised surface, is provided with a heavy line
on the lower right-hand side, as in Fig. 146; but the proper artistic
expression is shown in Fig. 147, in which the lower right-hand side is
shaded in rings running only a part of the way around, gradually
diminishing in length, and spaced farther and farther apart as you
approach the center, thus giving the appearance of a sphere.

[Illustration: _Fig. 148._]

IRREGULAR CURVES.--But the irregular curves require the most care to
form properly. Let us try first the elliptical curve (Fig. 148). The
proper thing is, first, to draw a line (A), which is called the "major
axis." On this axis we mark for our guidance two points (B, B). With the
dividers find a point (C) exactly midway, and draw a cross line (D).
This is called the "minor axis." If we choose to do so we may indicate
two points (E, E) on the minor axis, which, in this case, for
convenience, are so spaced that the distance along the major axis,
between B, B, is twice the length across the minor axis (D), along E, E.
Now find one-quarter of the distance from B to C, as at F, and with a
compass pencil make a half circle (G). If, now, you will set the compass
point on the center mark (C), and the pencil point of the compass on B,
and measure along the minor axis (D) on both sides of the major axis,
you will make two points, as at H. These points are your centers for
scribing the long sides of the ellipse. Before proceeding to strike the
curved lines (J), draw a diagonal line (K) from H to each marking point
(F). Do this on both sides of the major axis, and produce these lines so
they cross the curved lines (G). When you ink in your ellipse do not
allow the circle pen to cross the lines (K), and you will have a
mechanical ellipse.

ELLIPSES AND OVALS.--It is not necessary to measure the centering points
(F) at certain specified distances from the intersection of the
horizontal and vertical lines. We may take any point along the major
axis, as shown, for instance, in Fig. 149. Let B be this point, taken at
random. Then describe the half circle (C). We may, also, arbitrarily,
take any point, as, for instance, D on the minor axis E, and by drawing
the diagonal lines (F) we find marks on the circle (C), which are the
meeting lines for the large curve (H), with the small curve (C). In this
case we have formed an ovate or an oval form. Experience will soon make
perfect in following out these directions.

FOCAL POINTS.--The focal point of a circle is its center, and is called
the _focus_. But an ellipse has two focal points, called _foci_,
represented by F, F in Fig. 148, and by B, B in Fig. 149.

A _produced line_ is one which extends out beyond the marking point.
Thus in Fig. 148 that part of the line K between F and G represents the
produced portion of line K.

[Illustration: _Fig. 149._]

SPIRALS.--There is no more difficult figure to make with a bow or a
circle pen than a spiral. In Fig. 150 a horizontal and a vertical line
(A, B), respectively, are drawn, and at their intersection a small
circle (C) is formed. This now provides for four centering points for
the circle pen, on the two lines (A, B). Intermediate these points
indicate a second set of marks halfway between the marks on the lines.
If you will now set the point of the compass at, say, the mark 3, and
the pencil point of the compass at D, and make a curved mark one-eighth
of the way around, say, to the radial line (E), then put the point of
the compass to 4, and extend the pencil point of the compass so it
coincides with the curved line just drawn, and then again make another
curve, one-eighth of a complete circle, and so on around the entire
circle of marking points, successively, you will produce a spiral,
which, although not absolutely accurate, is the nearest approach with a
circle pen. To make this neatly requires care and patience.

[Illustration: _Fig. 150._]

PERPENDICULAR AND VERTICAL.--A few words now as to terms. The boy is
often confused in determining the difference between _perpendicular_ and
_vertical_. There is a pronounced difference. Vertical means up and
down. It is on a line in the direction a ball takes when it falls
straight toward the center of the earth. The word _perpendicular_, as
usually employed in astronomy, means the same thing, but in geometry, or
in drafting, or in its use in the arts it means that a perpendicular
line is at right angles to some other line. Suppose you put a square
upon a roof so that one leg of the square extends up and down on the
roof, and the other leg projects outwardly from the roof. In this case
the projecting leg is _perpendicular_ to the roof. Never use the word
_vertical_ in this connection.

SIGNS TO INDICATE MEASUREMENTS.--The small circle (°) is always used to
designate _degree_. Thus 10° means ten degrees.

Feet are indicated by the single mark '; and two closely allied marks "
are for inches. Thus five feet ten inches should be written 5' 10". A
large cross (×) indicates the word "by," and in expressing the term six
feet by three feet two inches, it should be written 6' × 3'2".

The foregoing figures give some of the fundamentals necessary to be
acquired, and it may be said that if the boy will learn the principles
involved in the drawings he will have no difficulty in producing
intelligible work; but as this is not a treatise on drawing we cannot go
into the more refined phases of the subject.

DEFINITIONS.--The following figures show the various geometrical forms
and their definitions:

[Illustration: _Fig. 151.-Fig. 165._]

151. _Abscissa._--The point in a curve, A, which is referred to by
certain lines, such as B, which extend out from an axis, X, or the
ordinate line Z.

152. _Angle._--The inclosed space near the point where two lines meet.

153. _Apothegm._--The perpendicular line A from the center to one side
of a regular polygon. It represents the radial line of a polygon the
same as the radius represents half the diameter of a circle.

154. _Apsides_ or _Apsis_.--One of two points, A, A, of an orbit, oval
or ellipse farthest from the axis, or the two small dots.

155. _Chord._--A right line, as A, uniting the extremities of the arc of
a circle or a curve.

156. _Convolute_ (see also _Involute_).--Usually employed to designate a
wave or folds in opposite directions. A double involute.

157. _Conic Section._--Having the form of or resembling a cone. Formed
by cutting off a cone at any angle. See line A.

158. _Conoid._--Anything that has a form resembling that of a cone.

159. _Cycloid._--A curve, A, generated by a point, B, in the plane of a
circle or wheel, C, when the wheel is rolled along a straight line.

160. _Ellipsoid._--A solid, all plane sections of which are ellipses or
circles.

161. _Epicycloid._--A curve, A, traced by a point, B, in the
circumference of a wheel, C, which rolls on the convex side of a fixed
circle, D.

162. _Evolute._--A curve, A, from which another curve, like B, on each
of the inner ends of the lines C is made. D is a spool, and the lines C
represent a thread at different positions. The thread has a marker, E,
so that when the thread is wound on the spool the marker E makes the
evolute line A.

163. _Focus._--The center, A, of a circle; also one of the two centering
points, B, of an ellipse or an oval.

164. _Gnome._--The space included between the boundary lines of two
similar parallelograms, the one within the other, with an angle in
common.

165. _Hyperbola._--A curve, A, formed by the section of a cone. If the
cone is cut off vertically on the dotted line, A, the curve is a
hyperbola. See _Parabola_.

[Illustration: _Fig. 167.-Fig. 184._]

167. _Hypothenuse._--The side, A, of a right-angled triangle which is
opposite to the right angle B, C. A, regular triangle; C, irregular
triangle.

168. _Incidence._--The angle, A, which is the same angle as, for
instance, a ray of light, B, which falls on a mirror, C. The line D is
the perpendicular.

169. _Isosceles Triangle._--Having two sides or legs, A, A, that are
equal.

170. _Parabola._--One of the conic sections formed by cutting of a cone
so that the cut line, A, is not vertical. See _Hyperbola_ where the cut
line is vertical.

171. _Parallelogram._--A right-lined quadrilateral figure, whose
opposite sides, A, A, or B, B, are parallel and consequently equal.

172. _Pelecoid._--A figure, somewhat hatchet-shaped, bounded by a
semicircle, A, and two inverted quadrants, and equal to a square, C.

173. _Polygons._--Many-sided and many with angles.

174. _Pyramid._--A solid structure generally with a square base and
having its sides meeting in an apex or peak. The peak is the vertex.

175. _Quadrant._--The quarter of a circle or of the circumference of a
circle. A horizontal line, A, and a vertical line, B, make the four
quadrants, like C.

176. _Quadrilateral._--A plane figure having four sides, and
consequently four angles. Any figure formed by four lines.

177. _Rhomb._--An equilateral parallelogram or a quadrilateral figure
whose sides are equal and the opposite sides, B, B, parallel.

178. _Sector._--A part, A, of a circle formed by two radial lines, B, B,
and bounded at the end by a curve.

179. _Segment._--A part, A, cut from a circle by a straight line, B. The
straight line, B, is the chord or the _segmental line_.

180. _Sinusoid._--A wave-like form. It may be regular or irregular.

181. _Tangent._--A line, A, running out from the curve at right angles
from a radial line.

182. _Tetrahedron._--A solid figure enclosed or bounded by four
triangles, like A or B. A plain pyramid is bounded by five triangles.

183. _Vertex._--The meeting point, A, of two or more lines.

184. _Volute._--A spiral scroll, used largely in architecture, which
forms one of the chief features of the Ionic capital.



CHAPTER IX

MOLDINGS, WITH PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS IN EMBELLISHING WORK


MOLDINGS.--The use of moldings was early resorted to by the nations of
antiquity, and we marvel to-day at many of the beautiful designs which
the Ph[oe]necians, the Greeks and the Romans produced. If you analyze
the lines used you will be surprised to learn how few are the designs
which go to make up the wonderful columns, spires, minarets and domes
which are represented in the various types of architecture.

THE BASIS OF MOLDINGS.--Suppose we take the base type of moldings, and
see how simple they are and then, by using these forms, try to build up
or ornament some article of furniture, as an example of their utility.

THE SIMPLEST MOLDING.--In Fig. 185 we show a molding of the most
elementary character known, being simply in the form of a band (A)
placed below the cap. Such a molding gives to the article on which it is
placed three distinct lines, C, D and E. If you stop to consider you
will note that the molding, while it may add to the strength of the
article, is primarily of service because the lines and surfaces produce
shadows, and therefore become valuable in an artistic sense.

THE ASTRAGAL.--Fig. 186 shows the ankle-bone molding, technically called
the _Astragal_. This form is round, and properly placed produces a good
effect, as it throws the darkest shadow of any form of molding.

[Illustration: _Fig. 185. Band._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 186. Astragal or Ankle Bone._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 187. Cavetto. Concave._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 188. Ovolo. Quarter round._]

THE CAVETTO.--Fig. 187 is the cavetto, or round type. Its proper use
gives a delicate outline, but it is principally applied with some other
form of molding.

THE OVOLO.--Fig. 188, called the ovolo, is a quarter round molding with
the lobe (A) projecting downwardly. It is distinguished from the
astragal because it casts less of a shadow above and below.

THE TORUS.--Fig. 189, known as the torus, is a modified form of the
ovolo, but the lobe (A) projects out horizontally instead of downwardly.

THE APOPHYGES (Pronounced apof-i-ges).--Fig. 190 is also called the
_scape_, and is a concaved type of molding, being a hollowed curvature
used on columns where its form causes a merging of the shaft with the
fillet.

[Illustration: _Fig. 189. Torus._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 190. Apophyge._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 191. Cymatium._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 192. Ogee-Recta._]

THE CYMATIUM.--Fig. 191 is the cymatium (derived from the word cyme),
meaning wave-like. This form must be in two curves, one inwardly and one
outwardly.

THE OGEE.--Fig. 192, called the ogee, is the most useful of all
moldings, for two reasons: First, it may have the concaved surface
uppermost, in which form it is called ogee recta--that is, right side
up; or it may be inverted, as in Fig. 193, with the concaved surface
below, and is then called ogee reversa. Contrast these two views and you
will note what a difference the mere inversion of the strip makes in the
appearance. Second, because the ogee has in it, in a combined form, the
outlines of nearly all the other types. The only advantage there is in
using the other types is because you may thereby build up and space your
work better than by using only one simple form.

[Illustration: _Fig. 193. Ogee-Reversa._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 194. Bead or Reedy._]

You will notice that the ogee is somewhat like the cymatium, the
difference being that the concaved part is not so pronounced as in the
ogee, and the convexed portion bulges much further than in the ogee. It
is capable of use with other moldings, and may be reversed with just as
good effect as the ogee.

THE REEDY.--Fig. 194 represents the reedy, or the bead--that is, it is
made up of reeds. It is a type of molding which should not be used with
any other pronounced type of molding.

THE CASEMENT (Fig. 195).--In this we have a form of molding used almost
exclusively at the base of structures, such as columns, porticoes and
like work.

[Illustration:_ Fig. 195. Casement._]

Now, before proceeding to use these moldings, let us examine a
Roman-Doric column, one of the most famous types of architecture
produced. We shall see how the ancients combined moldings to produce
grace, lights and shadows and artistic effects.

THE ROMAN-DORIC COLUMN.--In Fig. 196 is shown a Roman-Doric column, in
which the cymatium, the ovolo, cavetto, astragal and the ogee are used,
together with the fillets, bases and caps, and it is interesting to
study this because of its beautiful proportions.

[Illustration: _Fig. 196._]

The pedestal and base are equal in vertical dimensions to the
entablature and capital. The entablature is but slightly narrower than
the pedestal; and the length of the column is, approximately, four times
the height of the pedestal. The base of the shaft, while larger
diametrically than the capital, is really shorter measured vertically.
There is a reason for this. The eye must travel a greater distance to
reach the upper end of the shaft, and is also at a greater angle to that
part of the shaft, hence it appears shorter, while it is in reality
longer. For this reason a capital must be longer or taller than the base
of a shaft, and it is also smaller in diameter.

It will be well to study the column not only on account of the wonderful
blending of the various forms of moldings, but because it will impress
you with a sense of proportions, and give you an idea of how simple
lines may be employed to great advantage in all your work.

LESSONS FROM THE DORIC COLUMN.--As an example, suppose we take a plain
cabinet, and endeavor to embellish it with the types of molding
described, and you will see to what elaboration the operation may be
carried.

APPLYING MOLDING.--Let Fig. 197 represent the front, top and bottom of
our cabinet; and the first thing we shall do is to add a base (A) and a
cap (B). Now, commencing at the top, suppose we utilize the simplest
form of molding, the band.

This we may make of any desired width, as shown in Fig. 198. On this
band we can apply the ogee type (Fig. 199) right side up.

But for variation we may decide to use the ogee reversed, as in Fig.
200. This will afford us something else to think about and will call
upon our powers of initiative in order to finish off the lower margin or
edge of the ogee reversa.

[Illustration: _Fig. 197._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 198._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 199._]

If we take the ogee recta, as shown in Fig. 201, we may use the cavetto,
or the ovolo (Fig. 202); but if we use the ogee reversa we must use a
convex molding like the cavetto at one base, and a convex molding, like
the torus or the ovolo, at the other base.

In the latter (Fig. 202) four different moldings are used with the ogee
as the principal structure.

BASE EMBELLISHMENTS.--In like manner (Fig. 204) the base may have the
casement type first attached in the corner, and then the ovolo, or the
astragal added, as in Fig. 203.

[Illustration: _Fig. 200._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 201._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 202._]

STRAIGHT-FACED MOLDINGS.--Now let us carry the principle still further,
and, instead of using various type of moldings, we will employ nothing
but straight strips of wood. This treatment will soon indicate to you
that the true mechanic or artisan is he who can take advantage of
whatever he finds at hand.

Let us take the same cabinet front (Fig. 205), and below the cap (A)
place a narrow strip (B), the lower corner of which has been chamfered
off, as at C. Below the strip B is a thinner strip (D), vertically
disposed, and about two-thirds its width. The lower corner of this is
also chamfered, as at F. To finish, apply a small strip (G) in the
corner, and you have an embellished top that has the appearance, from a
short distance, of being made up of molding.

PLAIN MOLDED BASE.--The base may be treated in the same manner. The main
strip (4) has its upper corner chamfered off, as at I, and on this is
nailed a thin, narrow finishing strip (J). The upper part or molded top,
in this case, has eleven distinct lines, and the base has six lines. By
experimenting you may soon put together the most available kinds of
molding strips.

[Illustration: _Fig. 203._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 204._]

DIVERSIFIED USES.--For a great overhang you may use the cavetto, or the
apophyges, and below that the astragal or the torus; and for the base
the casement is the most serviceable molding, and it may be finished off
with the ovolo or the cymatium.

Pages of examples might be cited to show the variety and the
diversification available with different types.

SHADOWS CAST BY MOLDINGS.--Always bear in mind that a curved surface
makes a blended shadow. A straight, flat or plain surface does not, and
it is for that reason the concaved and the convexed surfaces, brought
out by moldings, become so important.

[Illustration: _Fig. 205._]

A little study and experimenting will soon teach you how a convex, a
concave or a flat surface, and a corner or corners should be arranged
relatively to each other; how much one should project beyond the other;
and what the proportional widths of the different molding bands should
be. An entire volume would scarcely exhaust this subject.



CHAPTER X

AN ANALYSIS OF TENONING, MORTISING, RABBETING AND BEADING


In the chapter on How Work is Laid Out, an example was given of the
particular manner pursued in laying out mortises and tenons, and also
dovetailed work. I deem it advisable to add some details to the subject,
as well as to direct attention to some features which do not properly
belong to the laying out of work.

WHERE MORTISES SHOULD BE USED.--Most important of all is a general idea
of places and conditions under which mortises should be resorted to.
There are four ways in which different members may be secured to each
other. First, by mortises and tenons; second, by a lap-and-butt; third,
by scarfing; and, fourth, by tonguing and grooving.

DEPTH OF MORTISES.--When a certain article is to be made, the first
consideration is, how the joint or joints shall be made. The general
rule for using the tenon and mortise is where two parts are joined
wherein the grains of the two members run at right angles to each
other, as in the following figure.

RULE FOR MORTISES.--Fig. 206 shows such an example. You will notice this
in doors particularly, as an example of work.

[Illustration: _Fig. 206._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 207._]

The next consideration is, shall the mortises be cut entirely through
the piece? This is answered by the query as to whether or not the end of
the tenon will be exposed; and usually, if a smooth finish is required,
the mortise should not go through the member. In a door, however, the
tenons are exposed at the edges of the door, and are, therefore, seen,
so that we must apply some other rule. The one universally adopted is,
that where, as in a door stile, it is broad and comparatively thin, or
where the member having the mortise in its edge is much thinner than
its width, the mortise should go through from edge to edge.

The reason for this lies in the inability to sink the mortises through
the stile (A, Fig. 207) perfectly true, and usually the job is turned
out something like the illustration shows. The side of the rail (B) must
be straight with the side of the stile. If the work is done by machinery
it results in accuracy unattainable in hand work.

[Illustration: _Fig. 208._]

TRUE MORTISE WORK.--The essense of good joining work is the ability to
sink the chisel true with the side of the member. More uneven work is
produced by haste than by inability. The tendency of all beginners is
to strike the chisel too hard, in order the more quickly to get down to
the bottom of the mortise. Hence, bad work follows.

STEPS IN CUTTING MORTISES.--Examine Fig. 208, which, for convenience,
gives six successive steps in making the mortise. The marks _a_, _b_
designate the limits, or the length, of the mortise. The chisel (C) is
not started at the marking line (A), but at least an eighth of an inch
from it. The first cut, as at B, gives a starting point for the next cut
or placement of the chisel. When the second cut (B) has thus been made,
the chisel should be turned around, as in dotted line _d_, position C,
thereby making a finish cut down to the bottom of the mortise, line _e_,
so that when the fourth cut has been made along line _f_, we are ready
for the fifth cut, position C; then the sixth cut, position D, which
leaves the mortise as shown at E. Then turn the chisel to the position
shown at F, and cut down the last end of the mortise square, as shown in
G, and clean out the mortise well before making the finishing cuts on
the marking lines (_a_, _b_). The particular reason for cleaning out the
mortise before making the finish cuts is, that the corners of the
mortise are used as fulcrums for the chisels, and the eighth of an inch
stock still remaining protects the corners.

THINGS TO AVOID IN MORTISING.--You must be careful to refrain from
undercutting as your chisel goes down at the lines _a_, _b_, because if
you commit this error you will make a bad joint.

As much care should be exercised in producing the tenon, although the
most common error is apt to occur in making the shoulder. This should be
a trifle undercut.

[Illustration: _Fig. 209._]

See the lines (A, Fig. 209), which illustrate this.

LAP-AND-BUTT JOINT.--The lap-and-butt is the form of uniting members
which is most generally used to splice together timbers, where they join
each other end to end.

[Illustration: _Fig. 210._]

Bolts are used to secure the laps.

But the lap-and-butt form is also used in doors and in other cabinet
work. It is of great service in paneling.

A rabbet is formed to receive the edge of the panel, and a molding is
then secured to the other side on the panel, to hold the latter in
place.

SCARFING.--This method of securing members together is the most rigid,
and when properly performed makes the joint the strongest part of the
timber. Each member (A, Fig. 212) has a step diagonally cut (B), the two
steps being on different planes, so they form a hook joint, as at C, and
as each point or terminal has a blunt end, the members are so
constructed as to withstand a longitudinal strain in either direction.
The overlapping plates (D) and the bolts (E) hold the joint rigidly.

[Illustration: _Fig. 211._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 212._]

THE TONGUE AND GROOVE.--This form of uniting members has only a limited
application. It is serviceable for floors, table tops, paneling, etc.
In Fig. 213, a door panel is shown, and the door mullions (B) are also
so secured to the rail (C). The tongue-and-groove method is never used
by itself. It must always have some support or reinforcing means.

[Illustration: _Fig. 213._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 214._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 215._]

BEADING.--This part of the work pertains to surface finishings, and may
or may not be used in connection with rabbeting.

Figs. 214 and 215 show the simplest and most generally adopted forms in
which it is made and used in connection with rabbeting, or with the
tongue and groove. The bead is placed on one or both sides of that
margin of the board (Fig. 214) which has the tongue, and the adjoining
board has the usual flooring groove to butt against and receive the
tongue. It is frequently the case that a blind bead, as in Fig. 215,
runs through the middle of the board, so as to give the appearance of
narrow strips when used for wainscoting, or for ceilings. The beads also
serve to hide the joints of the boards.

[Illustration: _Fig. 216._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 217._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 218._]

ORNAMENTAL BEAD FINISH.--These figures show how the bead may be used for
finishing corners, edges and projections. Fig. 216 has a bead at each
corner of a stile (A), and a finishing strip of half-round material (B)
is nailed to the flat edge. Fig. 217 has simply the corners themselves
beaded, and it makes a most serviceable finish for the edges of
projecting members.

Fig. 218, used for wider members, has the corners beaded and a fancy
molding (C); or the reduced edge of the stile itself is rounded off.

[Illustration: _Fig. 219._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 220._]

THE BEAD AND RABBET.--A more amplified form of work is available where
the rabbet plane is used with the beader. These two planes together
will, if properly used, offer a strong substitute for molding and
molding effects.

Fig. 219 has both sides first rabbeted, as at A, and the corners then
beaded, as at B, with the reduced part of the member rounded off, as at
C. Or, as in Fig. 220, the reduced edge of the member may have the
corners beaded, as at D, and the rabbeted corners filled in with a round
or concaved moulding (E).

SHADING WITH BEADS AND RABBETS.--You will see from the foregoing, that
these embellishments are serviceable because they provide the article
with a large number of angles and surfaces to cast lights and shadows;
and for this reason the boy should strive to produce the effects which
this class of work requires.



CHAPTER XI

HOUSE BUILDING


House building is the carpenter's craft; cabinet-making the joiner's
trade, yet both are so intimately associated, that it is difficult to
draw a line. The same tools, the same methods and the same materials are
employed.

There is no trade more ennobling than home building. It is a vocation
which touches every man and woman, and to make it really an art is, or
should be, the true aspiration of every craftsman.

THE HOUSE AND EMBELLISHMENTS.--The refined arts, such as sculpture and
painting, merely embellish the home or the castle, so that when we build
the structure it should be made with an eye not only to comfort and
convenience, but fitting in an artistic and æsthetic sense. It is just
as easy to build a beautiful home as an ugly, ungainly, illy
proportioned structure.

BEAUTY NOT ORNAMENTATION.--The boy, in his early training, should learn
this fundamental truth, that beauty, architecturally, does not depend
upon ornamentation. Some of the most beautiful structures in the world
are very plain. Beauty consists in proportions, in proper correlation
of parts, and in adaptation for the uses to which the structure is to be
put.

PLAIN STRUCTURES.--A house with a plain façade, having a roof properly
pitched and with a simple cornice, if joined to a wing which is not
ungainly or out of proper proportions, is infinitely more beautiful than
a rambling structure, in which one part suggests one order of
architecture and the other part some other type or no type at all, and
in which the embellishments are out of keeping with the size or
pretensions of the house.

COLONIAL TYPE.--For real beauty, on a larger scale, there is nothing
to-day which equals the old Colonial type with the Corinthian columns
and entablature. The Lee mansion, now the National Cemetery, at
Washington, is a fine example. Such houses are usually square or
rectangular in plan, severely plain, with the whole ornamentation
consisting of the columns and the portico. This type presents an
appearance of massiveness and grandeur and is an excellent illustration
of a form wherein the main characteristic of the structure is
concentrated or massed at one point.

The Church of the Madelaine, Paris, is another striking example of this
period of architecture.

Of course, it would be out of place with cottages and small houses, but
it is well to study and to know what forms are most available and
desirable to adopt, and particularly to know something of the art in
which you are interested.

THE ROOF THE KEYNOTE.--Now, there is one thing which should, and does,
distinguish the residence from other types of buildings, excepting
churches. It is the roof. A house is dominated by its covering. I refer
to the modern home. It is not true with the Colonial or the Grecian
types. In those the façade or the columns and cornices predominate over
everything else.

BUNGALOW TYPES.--If you will take up any book on bungalow work and note
the outlines of the views you will see that the roof forms the main
element or theme. In fact, in most buildings of this kind everything is
submerged but the roof and roof details. They are made exceedingly flat,
with different pitches with dormers and gables intermingled and
indiscriminately placed, with cornices illy assorted and of different
kinds, so that the multiplicity of diversified details gives an
appearance of great elaboration. Many of those designs are monstrosities
and should, if possible, be legally prohibited.

I cannot attempt to give even so much as an outline of what constitutes
art in its relation to building, but my object is to call attention to
this phase of the question, and as you proceed in your studies and your
work you will realize the value and truthfulness of the foregoing
observations.

GENERAL HOUSE BUILDING.--We are to treat, generally, on the subject of
house building, how the work is laid out, and how built, and in doing so
I shall take a concrete example of the work. This can be made more
effectual for the purpose if it is on simple lines.

BUILDING PLANS.--We must first have a plan; and the real carpenter must
have the ability to plan as well as to do the work. We want a five-room
house, comprising a parlor, dining room, two bedrooms, a kitchen and a
bathroom. Just a modest little home, to which we can devote our spare
hours, and which will be neat and comfortable when finished. It must be
a one-story house, and that fact at once settles the roof question. We
can make the house perfectly square in plan, or rectangular, and divide
up the space into the proper divisions.

THE PLAIN SQUARE FLOOR PLAN will first be taken up, as it is such an
easy roof to build. Of course, it is severely plain.

Fig. 221 shows our proposed plan, drawn in the rough, without any
attempts to measure the different apartments, and with the floor plan
exactly square. Supposing we run a hall (A) through the middle. On one
side of this let us plan for a dining room and a kitchen, a portion of
the kitchen space to be given over to a closet and a bathroom.

[Illustration: _Fig. 221._]

The chimney (B) must be made accessible from both rooms. On the other
side of the hallway the space is divided into a parlor and two
bedrooms.

THE RECTANGULAR PLAN.--In the rectangular floor plan (Fig. 222) a
portion of the floor space is cut out for a porch (A), so that we may
use the end or the side for the entrance. Supposing we use the end of
the house for this purpose. The entrance room (B) may be a bedroom, or a
reception and living room, and to the rear of this room is the dining
room, connected with the reception room by a hall (C). This hall also
leads to the kitchen and to the bathroom, as well as to the other
bedroom. The parlor is connected with the entrance room (B), and also
with the bedroom. All of this is optional, of course.

[Illustration: _Fig. 222._]

There are also two chimneys, one chimney (D) having two flues and the
other chimney (E) having three flues, so that every room is
accommodated.

[Illustration: _Fig. 223._]

ROOM MEASUREMENTS.--We must now determine the dimensions of each room,
and then how we shall build the roof.

In Figs. 223 and 224, we have now drawn out in detail the sizes, the
locations of the door and windows, the chimneys and the closets, as well
as the bathroom. All this work may be changed or modified to suit
conditions and the taste of the designer.

[Illustration: _Fig. 224._]

FRONT AND SIDE LINES.--From the floor diagram, and the door and window
spaces, as marked out, we may now proceed to lay out rough front and
side outlines of the building. The ceilings are to be 9 feet, and if we
put a rather low-pitched roof on the square structure (Fig. 223) the
front may look something like Fig. 225, and a greater pitch given to the
rectangular plan (Fig. 224) will present a view as shown in Fig. 226.

[Illustration: _Fig. 225._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 226._]

THE ROOF.--The pitch of the roof (Fig. 225) is what is called "third
pitch," and the roof (Fig. 226) has a half pitch. A "third" pitch is
determined as follows:

ROOF PITCH.--In Fig. 227 draw a vertical line (A) and join it by a
horizontal line (B). Then strike a circle (C) and step it off into three
parts. The line (D), which intersects the first mark (E) and the angle
of the lines (A, B), is the pitch.

In Fig. 228 the line A is struck at 15 degrees, which is halfway between
lines B and C, and it is, therefore, termed "half-pitch."

[Illustration: _Fig. 227._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 228._]

Thus, we have made the ground plans, the elevations and the roofs as
simple as possible. Let us proceed next with the details of the
building.

THE FOUNDATION.--This may be of brick, stone or concrete, and its
dimensions should be at least 1-1/2 inches further out than the sill.

THE SILLS.--We are going to build what is called a "balloon frame"; and,
first, we put down the sills, which will be a course of 2" × 6", or 2" ×
8" joists, as in Fig. 229.

THE FLOORING JOIST.--The flooring joists (A) are then put down (Fig.
230). These should extend clear across the house from side to side, if
possible, or, if the plan is too wide, they should be lapped at the
middle wall and spiked together. The ends should extend out flush with
the outer margins of the sills, as shown, but in putting down the first
and last sill, space must be left along the sides of the joist of
sufficient width to place the studding.

[Illustration: _Fig. 229._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 230._]

THE STUDDING.--The next step is to put the studding into position. 4" ×
4" must be used for corners and at the sides of door and window
openings. 4" × 6" may be used at corners, if preferred. Consult your
plan and see where the openings are for doors and windows. Measure the
widths of the door and window frames, and make a measuring stick for
this purpose. You must leave at least one-half inch clearance for the
window or door frame, so as to give sufficient room to plumb and set the
frame.

SETTING UP.--First set up the corner posts, plumbing and bracing them.
Cut a top plate for each side you are working on.

[Illustration: _Fig. 231._]

THE PLATE.--As it will be necessary in our job to use two or more
lengths of 2" × 4" scantling for the plate, it will be necessary to join
them together. Do this with a lap-and-butt joint (Fig. 231).

Then set up the 4" × 4" posts for the sides of the doors and windows,
and for the partition walls.

The plate should be laid down on the sill, and marked with a pencil for
every scantling to correspond with the sill markings. The plate is then
put on and spiked to the 4" × 4" posts.

INTERMEDIATE STUDDING.--It will then be an easy matter to put in the
intermediate 2" × 4" studding, placing them as nearly as possible 16
inches apart to accommodate the 48-inch plastering lath.

[Illustration: _Fig. 232._]

WALL HEADERS.--When all the studding are in you will need headers above
and rails below the windows and headers above all the doors, so that you
will have timbers to nail the siding to, as well as for the lathing.

CEILING JOISTS.--We are now ready for the ceiling joists, which are,
usually, 2" × 6", unless there is an upper floor. These are laid 16
inches apart from center to center, preferably parallel with the floor
joist.

It should be borne in mind that the ceiling joist must always be put on
with reference to the roof.

Thus, in Fig. 232, the ceiling joists (A) have their ends resting on the
plate (B), so that the rafters are in line with the joists.

BRACES.--It would also be well, in putting up the studding, to use
plenty of braces, although for a one-story building this is not so
essential as in two-story structures, because the weather boarding
serves as a system of bracing.

[Illustration: _Fig. 233._]

THE RAFTERS.--These may be made to provide for the gutter or not, as may
be desired. They should be of 2" × 4" scantling.

THE GUTTER.--In Fig. 233 I show a most serviceable way to provide for
the gutter. A V-shaped notch is cut out of the upper side of the rafter,
in which is placed the floor and a side. This floor piece is raised at
one end to provide an incline for the water.

A face-board is then applied and nailed to the ends of the rafters. This
face-board is surmounted by a cap, which has an overhang, beneath which
is a molding of any convenient pattern. The face-board projects down at
least two inches below the angled cut of the rafter, so that when the
base-board is applied, the lower margin of the face-board will project
one inch below the base.

[Illustration: _Fig. 234._]

This base-board is horizontal, as you will see. The facia-board may be
of any desired width, and a corner molding should be added. It is
optional to use the brackets, but if added they should be spaced apart a
distance not greater than twice the height of the bracket.

A much simpler form of gutter is shown in Fig. 234, in which a V-shaped
notch is also cut in the rafter, and the channel is made by the pieces.
The end of the rafter is cut at right angles, so the face-board is at an
angle. This is also surmounted by an overhanging cap and a molding. The
base is nailed to the lower edges of the rafters, and the facia is then
applied.

[Illustration: _Fig. 234a._]

In Fig. 234_a_ the roof has no gutter, so that the end of the rafter is
cut off at an angle and a molding applied on the face-board. The base is
nailed to the rafters. This is the cheapest and simplest form of
structure for the roof.

SETTING DOOR AND WINDOW FRAMES.--The next step in order is to set the
door and window frames preparatory to applying the weather boarding. It
is then ready for the roof, which should be put on before the floor is
laid.

PLASTERING AND INSIDE FINISH.--Next in order is the plastering, then the
base-boards and the casing; and, finally, the door and windows should
be fitted into position.

Enough has been said here merely to give a general outline, with some
details, how to proceed with the work.



CHAPTER XII

BRIDGES, TRUSSED WORK AND LIKE STRUCTURES


BRIDGES.--Bridge building is not, strictly, a part of the carpenter's
education at the present day, because most structures of this kind are
now built of steel; but there are certain principles involved in bridge
construction which the carpenter should master.

SELF-SUPPORTING ROOFS.--In putting up, for instance, self-supporting
roofs, or ceilings with wide spans, and steeples or towers, the bridge
principle of trussed members should be understood.

The most simple bridge or trussed form is the well-known A-shaped arch.

[Illustration: _Fig. 235._]

COMMON TRUSSES.--One form is shown in Fig. 235, with a vertical king
post. In Fig. 236 there are two vertical supporting members, called
queen posts, used in longer structures. Both of these forms are equally
well adapted for small bridges or for roof supports.

THE VERTICAL UPRIGHT TRUSS.--This form of truss naturally develops into
a type of wooden bridge known all over the country, as its framing is
simple, and calculations as to its capacity to sustain loads may readily
be made. Figs. 237, 238 and 239 illustrate these forms.

[Illustration: _Fig. 236._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 237._]

THE WARREN GIRDER.--Out of this simple truss grew the Warren girder, a
type of bridge particularly adapted for iron and steel construction.

This is the simplest form for metal bridge truss, or girder. It is now
also largely used in steel buildings and for other work requiring
strength with small weight.

[Illustration: _Fig. 238._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 239._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 240._]

THE BOWSTRING GIRDER.--Only one other form of bridge truss need be
mentioned here, and that is the _bowstring_ shown in Fig. 240.

In this type the bow receives the entire compression thrust, and the
chords act merely as suspending members.

FUNDAMENTAL TRUSS FORM.--In every form of truss, whether for building or
for bridge work, the principles of the famous A-truss must be employed
in some form or other; and the boy who is experimentally inclined will
readily evolve means to determine what degree of strength the upper and
the lower members must have for a given length of truss to sustain a
specified weight.

There are rules for all these problems, some of them very intricate, but
all of them intensely interesting. It will be a valuable addition to
your knowledge to give this subject earnest study.



CHAPTER XIII

THE BEST WOODS FOR THE BEGINNER


In this place consideration will be given to some of the features
relating to the materials to be employed, particularly with reference to
the manner in which they can be worked to the best advantage, rather
than to their uses.

THE BEST WOODS.--The prime wood, and the one with which most boys are
familiar, is white pine. It has an even texture throughout, is generally
straight grained, and is soft and easily worked. White pine is a wood
requiring a very sharp tool. It is, therefore, the best material for the
beginner, as it will at the outset teach him the important lesson of
keeping the tools in a good, sharp condition.

SOFT WOODS.--It is also well for the novice to do his initial work with
a soft wood, because in joining the parts together inaccuracies may be
easily corrected. If, for instance, in mortising and tenoning, the edge
of the mortised member is not true, or, rather, is not "square," the
shoulder of the tenon on one side will abut before the other side does,
and thus leave a crack, if the wood is hard. If the wood is soft there
is always enough yield to enable the workman to spring it together.
Therefore, until you have learned how to make a true joint, use soft
wood.

Poplar is another good wood for the beginner, as well as redwood, a
western product.

HARD WOODS.--Of the hard woods, cherry is the most desirable for the
carpenter's tool. For working purposes it has all the advantages of a
soft wood, and none of its disadvantages. It is not apt to warp, like
poplar or birch, and its shrinking unit is less than that of any other
wood, excepting redwood. There is practically no shrinkage in redwood.

THE MOST DIFFICULT WOODS.--Ash is by far the most difficult wood to
work. While not as hard as oak, it has the disadvantage that the entire
board is seamed with growth ribs which are extremely hard, while the
intervening layers between these ribs are soft, and have open pores, so
that, for instance, in making a mortise, the chisel is liable to follow
the hard ribs, if the grain runs at an angle to the course of the
mortise.

THE HARD-RIBBED GRAIN IN WOOD.--This peculiarity of the grain in ash
makes it a beautiful wood when finished. Of the light-colored woods, oak
only excels it, because in this latter wood each year's growth shows a
wider band, and the interstices between the ribs have stronger
contrasting colors than ash; so that in filling the surface, before
finishing it, the grain of the wood is brought out with most effective
clearness and with a beautifully blended contrast.

THE EASIEST WORKING WOODS.--The same thing may be said, relatively,
concerning cherry and walnut. While cherry has a beautiful finishing
surface, the blending contrasts of colors are not so effective as in
walnut.

Oregon pine is extremely hard to work, owing to the same difficulties
experienced in handling ash; but the finished Oregon pine surface makes
it a most desirable material for certain articles of furniture.

Do not attempt to employ this nor ash until you have mastered the trade.
Confine yourself to pine, poplar, cherry and walnut. These woods are all
easily obtainable everywhere, and from them you can make a most
creditable variety of useful articles.

Sugar and maple are two hard woods which may be added to the list.
Sugar, particularly, is a good-working wood, but maple is more
difficult. Spruce, on the other hand, is the strongest and toughest
wood, considering its weight, which is but a little more than that of
pine.

DIFFERENCES IN THE WORKING OF WOODS.--Different woods are not worked
with equal facility by all the tools. Oak is an easy wood to handle
with a saw, but is, probably, aside from ash, the most difficult wood
known to plane.

Ash is hard for the saw or the plane. On the other hand, there is no
wood so easy to manipulate with the saw or plane as cherry. Pine is
easily worked with a plane, but difficult to saw; not on account of
hardness, but because it is so soft that the saw is liable to tear it.

FORCING SAWS IN WOOD.--One of the reasons why the forcing of saws is
such a bad practice will be observed in cutting white or yellow pine.
For cross-cutting, the saw should have fine teeth, not heavily set, and
evenly filed. To do a good job of cross-cutting, the saw must be held at
a greater angle, or should lay down flatter than in ripping, as by so
doing the lower side of the board will not break away as much as if the
saw should be held more nearly vertical.

These general observations are made in the hope that they will serve as
a guide to enable you to select your lumber with some degree of
intelligence before you commence work.



CHAPTER XIV

WOOD TURNING


ADVANTAGES OF WOOD TURNING.--This is not, strictly, in the carpenter's
domain; but a knowledge of its use will be of great service in the
trade, and particularly in cabinet making. I urge the ingenious youth to
rig up a wood-turning lathe, for the reason that it is a tool easily
made and one which may be readily turned by foot, if other power is not
available.

SIMPLE TURNING LATHE.--A very simple turning lathe may be made by
following these instructions:

THE RAILS.--Procure two straight 2" × 4" scantling (A), four feet long,
and planed on all sides. Bore four 3/8-inch holes at each end, as shown,
and 10 inches from one end four more holes. A plan of these holes is
shown in B, where the exact spacing is indicated. Then prepare two
pieces 2" × 4" scantling (C), planed, 42 inches long, one end of each
being chamfered off, as at 2, and provided with four bolt holes. Ten
inches down, and on the same side, with the chamfer (2) is a cross gain
(3), the same angle as the chamfer. Midway between the cross gain (3)
and the lower end of the leg is a gain (4) in the edge, at right angles
to the cross gain (3).

THE LEGS.--Now prepare two legs (D) for the tail end of the frame, each
32 inches long, with a chamfer (5) at one end, and provided with four
bolt holes. At the lower end bore a bolt hole for the cross base piece.
This piece (E) is 4" × 4", 21 inches long, and has a bolt hole at each
end and one near the middle. The next piece (F) is 2" × 4", 14-1/2
inches long, provided with a rebate (6) at each end, to fit the cross
gains (4) of the legs (C). Near the middle is a journal block (7).

[Illustration: _Fig. 241. Frame details._]

CENTERING BLOCKS.--Next provide a 4" × 4" piece (G), 40 inches long,
through which bore a 3/4-inch hole (8), 2 inches from the upper end,
and four bolt holes at right angles to the shaft hole (8). Then, with a
saw split down this bearing, as shown at 9, to a point 4 inches from the
end. Ten inches below the upper end prepare two cross gains (10), each
an inch deep and four inches wide. In these gains are placed the top
rails (A), so the bolt holes in the gains (10) will coincide with the
bolt holes (11) in the piece A. Below the gains (10) this post has a
journal block (12), intended to be in line with the journal block (7) of
the piece F.

[Illustration: _Fig. 242. Tail Stock._]

Then make a block (H) 2" × 4", and 6 inches long. This also must have a
shaft hole (B), and a saw kerf (14), similar to the arrangement on the
upper end of the post (G); also bore four bolt holes, as shown. This
block rests between the upper ends of the lugs (C).

Another block (I), 2" × 4", and 6 feet long, with four bolt holes, will
be required for the tail end of the frame, to keep the rails (A) two
inches apart at that end.

THE TAIL STOCK.--This part of the structure is made of the following
described material:

Procure a scantling (J), planed, 4" × 4", 24 inches long, the upper end
of which is to be provided with four bolt holes, and a centering hole
(15). At the lower end of the piece is a slot (16) 8 inches long and
1-1/2 inches wide, and there are also two bolt holes bored transversely
through the piece to receive bolts for reinforcing the end.

A pair of cheekpieces (K), 2" × 4", and each 12 inches long, are mitered
at the ends, and each has four bolt holes by means of which the ends may
be bolted to the upright (J).

Then a step wedge (L) is made of 1-3/8" × 2" material, 10 inches long.
This has at least four steps (17), each step being 2 inches long. A
wedge 1-3/8 inches thick, 10 inches long, and tapering from 2 inches to
1-3/8 inches, completes the tail-stock.

THE TOOL REST.--This is the most difficult part of the whole lathe, as
it must be rigid, and so constructed that it has a revolvable motion as
well as being capable of a movement to and from the material in the
lathe.

Select a good 4" × 4" scantling (M), 14 inches long, as shown in Fig.
243. Two inches from one end cut a cross gain (I), 1-1/2 inches deep and
1 inch wide, and round off the upper edge, as at 2.

Then prepare a piece (N), 1 inch thick, 8 inches wide, and 10 inches
long. Round off the upper edge to form a nose, and midway between its
ends cut a cross gain 4 inches wide and 1-1/2 inches deep. The lower
margin may be cut away, at an angle on each side of the gain. All that
is necessary now is to make a block (O), 8 inches long, rounded on one
edge, and a wedge (P).

[Illustration: _Fig 243. Tool Rest._]

A leather belt or strap (Q), 1-1/2 inches wide, formed into a loop, as
shown in the perspective view (R), serves as a means for holding the
rest rigidly when the wedge is driven in.

MATERIALS.--Then procure the following bolts:

        4-3/8" bolts, 10" long.
        8-3/8"  ''     6" ''
       20-3/8"  ''     5" ''
        5-3/8"  ''     9" ''

THE MANDREL.--A piece of steel tubing (S), No. 10 gage, 3/4 inch in
diameter, 11-1/2 inches long, will be required for the mandrel. Get a
blacksmith, if a machine shop is not convenient, to put a fixed center
(1) in one end, and a removable centering member (2) in the other end.

On this mandrel place a collar (3), held by a set screw, and alongside
of it a pair of pulleys, each 1-1/2 inches wide, one of them, being,
say, 2 inches in diameter, and the other 3 inches. This mandrel is held
in position by means of the posts of the frame which carry the split
journal bearings. This form of bearing will make a durable lathe, free
from chattering, as the bolts can be used for tightening the mandrel
whenever they wear.

[Illustration: _Fig. 244. Mandrel._]

The center point (1) is designed to rest against a metal plate (4)
bolted to the wooden post, as shown in the large drawing.

FLY-WHEEL.--It now remains only to provide a fly-wheel and treadle with
the communicating belt. The fly-wheel may be of any convenient size, or
it may be some discarded pulley or wheel. Suppose it is two feet in
diameter; then, as your small pulley is 2 inches in diameter, each
revolution of the large wheel makes twelve revolutions in the mandrel,
and you can readily turn the wheel eighty times a minute. In that case
your mandrel will revolve 960 revolutions per minute, which is ample
speed for your purposes.

The wheel should be mounted on a piece of 3/4-inch steel tubing, one end
having a crank 3 inches long. This crank is connected up by a pitman
rod, with the triangularly shaped treadle frame.

Such a lathe is easily made, as it requires but little metal or machine
work, and it is here described because it will be a pleasure for a boy
to make such a useful tool. What he needs is the proper plan and the
right dimensions to carry out the work, and his own ingenuity will make
the modifications suitable to his purpose.

The illustration (Fig. 245) shows such a lathe assembled ready for work.

THE TOOLS REQUIRED.--A few simple tools will complete an outfit capable
of doing a great variety of work. The illustration (Fig. 246) shows five
chisels, of which all other chisels are modifications.

A and B are both oblique firmer chisels, A being ground with a bevel on
one side only, and B with a bevel on each side.

C is a broad gage, with a hollow blade, and a curved cutting edge,
ground with a taper on the rounded side only.

D is a narrow gage similarly ground, and E is a V-shaped gage.

[Illustration: _Fig. 245._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 246._]

It may be observed that in wood-turning sharp tools are absolutely
necessary, hence a good oil stone, or several small, round and V-shaped
stones should be used.



CHAPTER XV

ON THE USE OF STAINS


As this subject properly belongs to the painter and decorator, it is not
necessary to go into details concerning the methods used to finish off
your work. As you may not be able to afford the luxury of having your
productions painted or stained, enough information will be given to
enable you, if the character of the wood justifies it, to do the work
yourself to a limited extent.

SOFT WOOD.--As, presumably, most of your first work will be done with
pine, poplar, or other light-colored material, and, as many people
prefer the furniture to be dark in color, you should be prepared to
accommodate them.

USE OF STAINS.--Our subject has nothing to do with the technique of
staining, but has reference, solely, to the use of stains. I recommend,
therefore, that, since all kinds of stains are now kept in stock, and
for sale everywhere, you would better rely upon the manufactured goods
rather than to endeavor to mix up the paints yourself.

STAINS AS IMITATIONS.--It will be well to remember one thing as to
stains. Never attempt to stain anything unless that stain is intended
to produce an imitation of some real wood. There are stains made up
which, when applied, do not imitate any known wood. This is bad taste
and should be avoided. Again you should know that the same stain tint
will not produce like effects on the different light-colored woods. Try
the cherry stain on pieces of pine, poplar, and birch, and you will
readily see that while pine gives a brilliant red, comparatively
speaking, pine or birch will be much darker, and the effect on poplar
will be that of a muddy color. In fact, poplar does not stain cherry to
good advantage; and for birch the ordinary stain should have a small
addition of vermilion.

By making trials of your stains before applying them to the furniture,
you will readily see the value of this suggestion.

GOOD TASTE IN STAINING.--Oak, mahogany, cherry, black walnut, and like
imitations are always good in an artistic sense, but imitations of
unfamiliar woods mean nothing to the average person. The too common
mistake is to try to imitate oak by staining pine or poplar or birch. It
may, with good effect, be stained to imitate cherry.

Oregon pine, or some light-colored wood, with a strong contrasting grain
may be used for staining in imitation of oak.

GREAT CONTRASTS BAD.--Violent contrasts in furniture staining have the
effect of cheapness, unless the contrasting outlines are artistically
distributed throughout the article, from base to top finish.

STAINING CONTRASTING WOODS.--Then, again, do not stain a piece of
furniture so that one part represents a cheap, soft wood, and the other
part a dark or costly wood. Imagine, for instance, a cabinet with the
stiles, rails and mullions of mahogany, and the panels of pine or
poplar, or the reverse, and you can understand how incongruous would be
the result produced.

On the other hand, it would not be a very artistic job to make the
panels of cherry and the mullions and stiles of mahogany, because the
two woods do not harmonize, although frequently wrongly combined.

HARD WOOD IMITATIONS.--It would be better to use, for instance, ash or
oak for one portion of the work, and a dark wood, like cherry or walnut,
for the other part; but usually a cherry cabinet should be made of
cherry throughout; while a curly maple chiffonier could not be improved
by having the legs of some other material.

These considerations should determine for you whether or not you can
safely use stains to represent different woods in the same article.

NATURAL EFFECTS.--If effects are wanted, the skilled workman will
properly rely upon the natural grain of the wood; hence, in staining,
you should try to imitate nature, because in staining you will depend
for contrast on the natural grain of the wood to help you out in
producing pleasing effects.

NATURAL WOOD STAINS.--It should be said, in general, however, that a
stain is, at best, a poor makeshift. There is nothing so pleasing as the
natural wood. It always has an appearance of cleanliness and openness.
To stain the wood shows an attempt to cover up cheapness by a cheap
contrivance. The exception to this rule is mahogany, which is generally
enriched by the application of a ruby tint which serves principally to
emphasize the beautiful markings of the wood.

POLISHING STAINED SURFACES.--If, on the other hand, you wish to go to
the labor of polishing the furniture to a high degree, staining becomes
an art, and will add to the beauty and durability of any soft or cheap
wood, excepting poplar.

When the article is highly polished, so a good, smooth surface is
provided, staining does not cheapen, but, on the other hand, serves to
embellish the article.

As a rule, therefore, it is well to inculcate this lesson: Do not stain
unless you polish; otherwise, it is far better to preserve the natural
color of the wood. One of the most beautiful sideboards I ever saw was
made of Oregon pine, and the natural wood, well filled and highly
polished. That finish gave it an effect which enhanced its value to a
price which equaled any cherry or mahogany product.



CHAPTER XVI

THE CARPENTER AND THE ARCHITECT


A carpenter has a trade; the architect a profession. It is not to be
assumed that one vocation is more honorable than the other. A
_profession_ is defined as a calling, or occupation, "if not mechanical,
agricultural, or the like," to which one devotes himself and his
energies. A _trade_ is defined as an occupation "which a person has
learned and engages in, especially mechanical employment, as
distinguished from the liberal arts," or the learned professions.

_Opportunity_ is the great boon in life. To the ambitious young man the
carpenter's trade offers a field for venturing into the learned
professions by a route which cannot be equaled in any other pursuit. In
his work he daily enters into contact with problems which require
mathematics of the highest order, geometry, the methods of calculating
strains and stresses, as well as laying out angles and curves.

This is a trade wherein he must keep in mind many calculations as to
materials, number, size, and methods of joining; he must remember all
the small details which go to make up the entire structure. This
exercise necessitates a mental picture of the finished product. His
imagination is thus directed to concrete objects. As the mind develops,
it becomes creative in its character, and the foundation is laid for a
higher sphere of usefulness in what is called the professional field.

A good carpenter naturally develops into an architect, and the best
architect is he who knows the trade. It is a profession which requires
not only the artistic taste, but a technical knowledge of details, of
how practically to carry out the work, how to superintend construction,
and what the different methods are for doing things.

The architect must have a scientific education, which gives him a
knowledge of the strength of materials, and of structural forms; of the
durability of materials; of the price, quality, and use of everything
which goes into a structure; of labor conditions; and of the laws
pertaining to buildings.

Many of these questions will naturally present themselves to the
carpenter. They are in the sphere of his employment, but it depends upon
himself to make the proper use of the material thus daily brought to
him.

It is with a view to instil that desire and ambition in every young man,
to make the brain do what the hand has heretofore done, that I suggest
this course. The learned profession is yours if you deserve it, and you
can deserve it only through study, application, and perseverance.

Do well that which you attempt to do. _Don't_ do it in that manner
because some one has done it in that way before you. If, in the trade,
the experience of ages has taught the craftsman that some particular way
of doing things is correct, there is no law to prevent you from
combating that method. Your way may be better. But you must remember
that in every plan for doing a thing there is some particular reason, or
reasons, why it is carried out in that way. Study and learn to apply
those reasons.

So in your leisure or in your active moments, if you wish to advance,
you must be alert. _Know for yourself the reasons for things_, and you
will thereby form the stepping stones that will lead you upward and
contribute to your success.



CHAPTER XVII

USEFUL ARTICLES TO MAKE


As stated in the Introductory, the purpose of this book is to show _how
to do the things_, and not to draw a picture in order to write a
description of it. Merely in the line of suggestion, we give in this
chapter views and brief descriptions of useful household articles, all
of which may be made by the boy who has carefully studied the preceding
pages.

[Illustration: _Fig. 247._]

This figure shows a common bench wholly made of material 1 inch thick,
the top being 12 inches wide and 4 feet long. The legs are 14 inches
high and 13 inches wide; and the side supporting rails are 3 inches
wide. These proportions may, of course, be varied. You will note that
the sides of the top or seat have an overhang of 1/2 inch on each
margin.

[Illustration: _Fig. 248._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 249._]

This is a common, square-top stool, the seat being 12" × 12", and the
legs 14 inches high. Two of the pieces forming the legs are 10 inches
wide and the other two 8 inches wide, so that when the wide pieces are
nailed to the edges of the narrow pieces the leg body will be 10" × 10"
and thus give the seat an overhang of 1 inch around the margins.

[Illustration: _Fig. 250._]

A most useful article is shown in Fig. 249. It is a blacking-box with a
lid, a folding shoe rest and three compartments. The detached figure
shows a vertical cross-section of the body of the box, and illustrates
how the shoe rest is hinged to the sides of the box. The box itself is
14" × 16" in dimensions; the sides are 6 inches wide and the legs 5
inches in height. In order to give strength to the legs, the bottom has
its corners cut out, to permit the upper ends of the legs to rest in
the recesses thus formed.

[Illustration: _Fig. 251._]

This is a convenient form of easel, made of four uprights. The main
front uprights are of strips 5/8" × 1-1/4", and the rear uprights are of
1/2" × 1" material. A thin broomstick will serve as the pivot bar for
the upper end. The rest is made of two strips, each 1/2" × 1", nailed
together to form an L, and nails or wooden pins will serve to hold the
rest in any desired position. The front uprights should be at least 5
feet long.

A simple hanging book-rack is illustrated in Fig. 251. The two vertical
strips are each 4 inches wide, 1 inch thick and 4 feet long. Four
shelves are provided, each 3/4 inch thick, 9 inches wide and 4 feet
long. Each shelf is secured to the uprights by hinges on the upper side,
so as to permit it to be swung upwardly, or folded; and below each hinge
is a triangular block or bracket, fixed to the shelf, to support it in a
horizontal position.

[Illustration: _Fig. 252._]

A sad-iron holder, or bookcase, shown in Fig. 252, is another simple
form of structure. It may be sufficiently large to serve as a standing
case by having the uprights at the ends serve as legs, or the uprights
may have holes at their upper ends, by means of which it can be
suspended on a wall. As shown, it is 30 inches long from bottom to top,
and 20 inches wide. The shelves are 8 inches wide. All the material is,
preferably, 3/4-inch stock.

[Illustration: _Fig. 253._]

Fig. 253 shows a wood-box, or it may readily be adapted for coal. For
wood it should be 2 feet long, 1 foot 8 inches wide and 1 foot 10 inches
high. It will, of course, be made of such dimensions as to suit the wood
to be stored in it, and both the flat-top as well as the sloping portion
of the top should be hinged, so that the entire top can be opened for
filling purposes.

[Illustration: _Fig. 254._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 255._]

A pair of parallel bars is shown in Fig. 254. The dimensions of this
will vary, and be dependent on the size of the boy intending to use it;
but a size best adapted is to make the posts 3 feet high, and the
distance between the bars 16 inches. This gives ample room for the
exercises required. The length between the posts along the bars should
be at least 5 feet. The entire structure can be made of soft wood,
except the bars, which should be of hard, rigid wood. The posts can be
made of 2" × 2" material, and the braces 2" × 1". The base pieces, both
longitudinal and transverse, should also be of 2" × 2" material.

[Illustration: _Fig. 256._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 257._]

Fig. 255 represents a mission type of writing desk for a boy's use. All
the posts, braces and horizontal bars are of 2" × 2" material, secured
to each other by mortises and tenons. The legs are 27 inches high up to
the table top, and the narrow shelf is 12 inches above the top. The most
convenient size for the top is 26" × 48". The top boards may be 1 inch
thick and the shelf the same thickness, or even 3/4 inch. It is well
braced and light, and its beauty will depend largely on the material of
which it is made.

[Illustration: _Fig. 258._]

The screen (Fig. 256) represents simply the framework, showing how
simple the structure is. The bars are all of 1-1/2" × 1-1/2" material,
secured together by mortises and tenons.

Fig. 257 represents a mission chair to match the desk (Fig. 255), and
should be made of the same material. The posts are all of 2" × 2"
material. The seat of the chair should be 16 inches, and the rear posts
should extend up above the seat at least 18 inches.

[Illustration: _Fig. 259._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 260._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 261._]

Fig. 258 is a good example of a grandfather's clock in mission style.
The framework only is shown. The frame is 12" × 12", and 5 feet high,
and made up of 2" × 2" material. When neatly framed together, it is a
most attractive article of furniture. The top may be covered in any
suitable way, showing a roof effect. The opening for the dial face of
the clock should be at one of the gable ends.

A more pretentious bookcase is shown in Fig. 259, in which the frame is
made up wholly of 2" × 2" material. The cross-end bars serve as ledges
to support the shelves. This may be lined interiorly and backed with
suitable casing material, such as Lincrusta Walton, or fiber-board, and
the front provided with doors. Our only object is to show the framework
for your guidance, and merely to make suggestions as to structural
forms.

[Illustration: _Fig. 262._]

Another most serviceable article is a case for a coal scuttle (Fig.
260). This should be made of 1-inch boards, and the size of the door,
which carries the scuttle shelf, should be 12" × 16" in size. From this
you can readily measure the dimensions of the case itself, the exterior
dimensions of which are 15" × 20", so that when the 1-inch top is placed
on, it will be 21 inches high. The case from front to rear is 12 inches,
and the shelf above the top is 11 inches wide, and elevated 10 inches
above the top of the case. This is a most useful box for culinary
articles, if not needed for coal, because the ledge, used for the coal
scuttle, can be used to place utensils on, and when the door is opened
all the utensils are exposed to view, and are, therefore, much more
accessible than if stored away in the case itself.

[Illustration: _Fig. 263._]

A mission armchair. Fig. 261 is more elaborate than the chair shown in
Fig. 257, but it is the same in general character, and is also made of
2" × 2" stock. The seat is elevated 16 inches from the floor, and the
rear posts are 28 inches high. The arms are 8 inches above the seat. A
chair of this character should have ample seat space, so the seat is 18"
× 18".

The dog house (Fig. 262), made in imitation of a dwelling, is 24 inches
square, and 18 inches high to the eaves of the roof. The opening in
front is 8" × 10", exclusive of the shaped portion of the opening.

[Illustration: _Fig. 264._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 265._]

Fig. 263 shows a simple and easily constructed settee with an under
shelf. The seat is 16 inches from the floor and 24 inches wide. The back
extends up 24 inches from the seat. The lower shelf is midway between
the floor and seat, and is 19 inches wide. This may or may not be
upholstered, dependent on the character of the material of which it is
made. If upholstered, the boards may be of second-class material,
preferably of pine or other light, soft wood.

A towel rack (Fig. 264) is always a needed article in the kitchen. The
roller may be an old curtain roller cut down to 18 inches in length. The
top piece is 2-1/2 inches wide and 21 inches long. The vertical bars are
each 1-1/2 inches wide and 9 inches long. The brackets are 1-1/2 inches
wide and made of 3/4-inch material.

Fig. 265 represents the framework of a sofa, the seat of which is 16
inches high, the front posts up to the arm-rests 24 inches, and the rear
posts 38 inches. From front to rear the seat is 18 inches. The posts are
of 3" × 3" material. This makes a very rigid article of furniture, if
mortised and tenoned and properly glued. The seat is 6 feet long, but it
may be lengthened or shortened to suit the position in which it is to be
placed. It is a companion piece to the chair (Fig. 261).



CHAPTER XVIII

SPECIAL TOOLS AND THEIR USES


In the foregoing chapters we have referred the reader to the simple
tools, but it is thought desirable to add to the information thus given,
an outline of numerous special tools which have been devised and are now
on the market.

BIT AND LEVEL ADJUSTER.--It is frequently necessary to bore holes at
certain angles. This can be done by using a bevel square, and holding it
so one limb will show the boring angle. But this is difficult to do in
many cases.

[Illustration: _Fig. 266. Bit and Square level._]

This tool has three pairs of V slots on its back edges. The shank of the
bit will lie in these slots, as shown in Fig. 266, either vertically, or
at an angle of 45 degrees, and boring can be done with the utmost
accuracy. It may be attached to a Carpenter's square, thus making it an
accurate plumb or level.

MITER BOXES.--The advantages of metal miter boxes is apparent, when
accurate work is required.

The illustration, Fig. 267, shows a metal tool of this kind, in which
the entire frame is in one solid casting. The saw guide uprights are
clamped in tapered sockets in the swivel arm and can be adjusted to hold
the saw without play, and this will also counteract a saw that runs out
of true, due to improper setting or filing.

[Illustration: _Fig. 267. Metal Miter Box._]

A second socket in the swivel arm permits the use of a short saw or
allows a much longer stroke with a standard or regular saw.

The swivel arm is provided with a tapering index pin which engages in
holes placed on the under side of the base. The edge of the base is
graduated in degrees, as plainly shown, and the swivel arm can be set
and automatically fastened at any degree desired.

[Illustration: _Fig. 268. Parts of Metal Miter Box._]

The uprights, front and back are graduated in sixteenths of inches, and
movable stops can be set, by means of thumb-screw to the depth of the
cut desired.

Figure 268 shows the parts of the miter box, in which the numbers
designate the various parts: 101 is the frame; 102 the frame board; 104
frame leg; 106 guide stock; 107 stock guide clamp; 109 stock guide
plate; 110 swivel arm; 111 swivel arm bushing; 112 swivel bushing screw;
113 index clamping lever; 115 index clamping lever catch; 116 index
clamping lever spring; 122 swivel complete; 123 T-base; 124-1/2
uprights; 126 saw guide cap; 127 saw guide cap plate; 132 saw guide tie
bar; 133 left saw guide stop and screw; 134 right side guide stop and
screw; 135 saw guide stop spring; 136 saw guide cylinder; 137 saw guide
cylinder plate; 138 trip lever (back); 139 trip lever (front); 141
leveling screw; 142 trip clamp and screw; 146 T-base clamp screw.

[Illustration: _Fig. 269. Angle Dividers._]

ANGLE DIVIDERS.--This is another tool, which does not cost much and is
of great service to the carpenter in fitting moldings where they are
applied at odd angles.

To lay out the cut with an ordinary bevel necessitates the use of
dividers and a second handling of the bevel, making three operations.

THE "ODD JOB" TOOL.--A most useful special tool, which combines in its
make-up a level, plumb try-square, miter-square, bevel, scratch awl,
depth gage, marking gage, miter gage, beam compass, and a one-foot rule.
To the boy who wishes to economize in the purchase of tools this is an
article which should be obtained.

[Illustration: _Fig. 270. "Odd Job" Tool._]

Figure 270 shows the simplicity of the tool, and how it is applied in
use.

BIT BRACES.--These tools are now made with so many improved features
that there is really no excuse for getting poor tools.

The illustrations show merely the heads and the lower operating parts of
the tools. Fig. 271 shows a metal-clad ball-bearing head, so called, as
its under side is completely encased in metal securely screwed to the
wood and revolving against the ball thrust bearing.

D represents a concealed ratchet in which the cam ring governs the
ratchet, and, being in line with the bit, makes it more convenient in
handling than when it is at right angles. The ratchet parts are entirely
enclosed, thus keeping out moisture and dirt, retaining lubrication and
protecting the users' hands.

The ratchet mechanism is interchangeable, and may be taken apart by
removing one screw. The two-piece clutch, which is drop forged, is
backed by a very strong spring, insuring a secure lock. When locked, ten
teeth are in engagement, while five are employed while working at a
ratchet. It has universal jaws (G) for both wood and metal workers.

In Fig. 272, B represents a regular ball bearing head, with the wood
screw on the large spindle and three small screws to prevent its working
loose. This also has a ball thrust. E is the ratchet box, and this shows
the gear teeth cut on the extra heavy spindle, and encased, so that the
user's hands are protected from the teeth.

The interlocking jaws (H), which are best for taper shanks, hold up to
No. 2 Clark's expansion, and are therefore particularly adapted for
carpenter's use.

[Illustration: _Fig. 271. Fig. 272. Fig. 273. Types of Bit Braces._]

In Fig. 273 the plain bearing head (C) has no ball thrust. The head is
screwed on the spindle and held from turning off by two small screws.
The open ratchet (F) shows the gear pinned to the spindle and exposed.
This has alligator jaws (J), and will hold all ordinary size taper shank
bits, also small and medium round shank bits or drills.

[Illustration: _Fig. 274. Fig. 275. Fig. 276. Steel Frame Breast Drills._]

STEEL FRAME BREAST DRILL.--These drills are made with both single and
double speed, each speed having three varieties of jaws. The single
speed is very high, the ratio being 4-1/2 to 1, which makes it
desirable to use for small drills, or for use in wood.

A level is firmly set in the frames of these tools to assist the user to
maintain a horizontal position in boring. Each of the forms shown has a
ball thrust bearing between the pinion and frame. The breast plate may
be adjusted to suit and is locked by a set screw. The spindle is kept
from turning while changing drills, by means of the latch mounted on the
frame, and readily engaging with the pinion. The crank is pierced in
three places so that the handle can be set for three different sweeps,
depending on the character of the work.

Figure 274 has a three jaw chuck, and has only single speed. Figure 275
has an interlocking jaw, and is provided with double speed gearing.
Figure 276 has a universal jaw, and double speed.

PLANES.--The most serviceable planes are made in iron, and it might be
well to show a few of the most important, to bring out the manner
employed to make the adjustments of the bits.

In order to familiarize the boy with the different terms used in a
plane, examine Figure 277. The parts are designated as follows: 1A is
the double plane iron; 1 single plane iron; 2 plane iron cap; 3 cap
screw; 4 lever cap; 5 lever cap screw; 6 frog complete; 7 Y adjusting
lever; 8 adjusting nut; 9 lateral adjusting lever; 11 plane handle; 12
plane knob; 13 handle bolt and nut; 14 knob bolt and nut; 15 plane
handle screw; 16 plane bottom; 44 frog pin; 45 frog clamping screw; 46
frog adjusting screw.

[Illustration: _Fig. 277. Details of Metal Plane._]

RABBETING, MATCHING AND DADO PLANES.--Figure 278 shows a useful form of
plane for the reason that it is designed to receive a variety of irons,
adapted to cut rabbets.

The detached sections of Fig. 278 show the various parts, as well as the
bits which belong to it. 1, 1 represent the single plane irons; 4 the
lever cap; 16 the plane bottom, 50 the fence; 51 the fence thumb screw;
61 the short arm; 70 the adjustable depth gage; 71 the depth gage which
goes through the screw; and 85 the spurs with screws.

MOLDING AND BEADING PLANE.--A plane of the character shown in Fig. 279
will do an immense variety of work in molding, beading and dado work,
and is equally well adapted for rabbeting, for filletsters and for match
planing. The regular equipment with this tool comprises fifty-two
cutters.

[Illustration: _Fig. 278. Rabbet, Matching and Dado Plane._]

As shown in Fig. 279, the plane has a main stock (A), which carries the
cutter adjustment, a handle, a depth gage, a slitting gage, and a steel
bottom forming a bearing for the other end of the cutter, and slides on
arms secured to the main stock.

This bottom can be raised or lowered, so that, in addition to allowing
the use of cutters of different widths, cutters can be used having one
edge higher or lower than the edge supported in the main stock.

[Illustration: _Fig. 279. Molding and Beading Plane._]

The auxiliary center bottom (C), which can be adjusted for width or
depth, fulfils the requirement of preventing the plane from tilting and
gouging the work. The fence D has a lateral adjustment by means of a
screw, for extra fine work. The four small cuts in the corners show how
the bottoms should be set for different forms of cutters, and the great
importance of having the fences adjusted so that the cutters will not
run.

The samples of work illustrated show some of the moldings which can be
turned out with the plane.

[Illustration: _Fig. 280. Dovetail Tongue and Groove Plane._]

DOVETAIL TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANE.--This is a very novel tool, and has
many features to recommend it. Figure 280 shows its form, and how it is
used. It is designed to make the dovetailed tongue as well as the
groove.

It will cut any size groove and tongues to fit with sides of twenty
degrees flare, where the width of the neck is more than one-quarter of
an inch thick, and the depth of the groove not more than three-quarters
of an inch. The tongue and groove are cut separately, and can be made
with parallel or tapering sides. The operation of the plane is very
simple.

[Illustration: _Fig. 281. Fig. 282. Router Planes._]

ROUTER PLANES.--This is a type of plane used for surfacing the bottom of
grooves or other depressions parallel with the general surface of the
work.

The planes are made in two types, one, like Fig. 281, which has a closed
throat, and the other, Fig. 282, with an open throat. Both are
serviceable, but the latter is preferable. These planes will level off
bottoms of depression, very accurately, and the tool is not an expensive
one.

DOOR TRIM PLANE.--This is a tool for making mortises for butts, face
plates, strike plates, escutcheons, and the like, up to a depth of 5/16,
and a width of 3 inches. The principal feature in the plane is the
method of mounting the cutter, which can be instantly set to work from
either end of the plane or across it.

[Illustration: _Fig. 283. Door Trim Plane._]

The cutter, as shown in Fig. 283, is cushioned by a spring which
prevents taking a heavier chip than can be easily carried. A fence
regulates the position of the cut and insures the sides of the cut being
parallel. The depth of the cut is governed by a positive stop. By
removing the fence and locking the cutter post with the thumb screw,
instead of using the spring, a very superior router plane is obtained.



CHAPTER XIX

ROOFING TRUSSES


The chapter on Bridge Building gives some suggestions as to form of
trusses, the particular types there shown being principally for wide
spans. Such trusses were made for one purpose only, namely, to take
great weight, and they were, as a consequence, so constructed as to
provide strength.

But a roofing truss, while designed to hold the accumulated materials,
such as snow and ice, likely to be deposited there, is of such a design,
principally, so as to afford means of ornamentation. This remark has
reference to such types as dispense with the cross, or tie beam, which
is the distinguishing feature in bridge building.

The tie beam is also an important element in many types of trusses,
where ornamentation is not required, or in such structures as have the
roofed portion of the buildings enclosed by ceiling walls, or where the
space between the roofs is used for storage purposes.

In England, and on the Continent of Europe, are thousands of trusses
structured to support the roofs, which are marvels of beauty. Some of
them are bewildering in their formation. The moldings, beaded surfaces,
and the carved outlines of the soffits, of the arches, and of the
purlins, are wonderful in detail.

The wooden roof of Westminster Hall, while very simple in structure, as
compared with many others, looks like an intricate maze of beams, struts
and braces, but it is, nevertheless, so harmonized that the effect is
most pleasing to the eye, and its very appearance gives the impression
of grandeur and strength.

Nearly all of the forms shown herein have come down to us from mediæval
times, when more stress was laid on wooden structures than at the
present time, but most of the stone and metal buildings grew out of the
wooden prototypes.

Now the prime object of nearly all the double-roofed trusses was to
utilize the space between the rafters so as to give height and majesty
to the interior.

A large dome is grand, owing to its great simplicity, but the same plain
outlines, or lack of ornamentation, in the ceiling of a square or
rectangular building would be painful to view, hence, the braces, beams,
plates, and various supports of the roofed truss served as ornamental
parts, and it is in this particular that the art of the designer finds
his inspiration.

Before proceeding to apply the matter of ornamentation, it might be well
to develop these roof forms, starting with the old type Barn Roof, where
the space between the rafters must be utilized for the storage of hay.

[Illustration: _Fig. 284. Gambrel Roof._]

_The Gambrel Roof_, Fig. 284, requires a tie beam, (A), as shown, but
the space above the beam is free of all obstructions, and gives a large
storage space. The roof has two sets of rafters (B, C), and of different
pitch, the lower rafters (B) having a pitch of about 30 degrees, and the
upper ones (C), about 45 degrees.

A tie bar (D) joins the middle portion of each of the rafters (B, C) and
another tie bar (E) joins the middle part of the rafter (B), and the
supporting post (F). The cross tie beam (G) completes the span, and a
little study will show the complete interdependence of one piece upon
the other.

[Illustration: _Fig. 285. Purlin Roof._]

_The Purlin Roof_ is a type of structure used very largely throughout
the United States, for wide barns. (A) is the cross beam; (B, B) the
purlin posts; (C, C) the purlin plates; (D, D) the rafters; and (E, E)
the supporting braces.

The rafters (D) are in two sections, the distance from the eaves to the
comb being too great for single length rafters, and the purlin plates
are not designed to make what is called a "self-supporting" roof, but
merely to serve as supports for the regular rafters.

_The Princess Truss_, on the other hand, is designed to act as a support
for the different lengths of rafters (A, B, C), and as a means for
holding the roof. It is adapted for low pitch and wide spans.

[Illustration: _Fig. 286. Princess Truss._]

The main truss is made up of the cross beam (D), rafters (E, E) and
thrust beam (F). Purlin posts (G, G) are placed at an angle intermediate
the ends of the rafters, and the purlin plates (H, H) support the roof
rafters (A, B, C); I, I are the vertical tie rods.

This type is probably the oldest form of truss for building purposes,
and it has been modified in many ways, the most usual modification being
the substitution of posts for the tie rods (I, I).

Following out the foregoing forms, we may call attention to one more
type which permitted ornamentation to a considerable degree, although it
still required the tie beam. In fact the tie beam itself was the feature
on which the architect depended to make the greatest effect by
elaborating it.

This is shown in Fig. 287, and is called the _Arched_, or _Cambered, Tie
Beam Truss_. It is a very old type, samples of which have been found
which take it back to a very remote age.

[Illustration: _Fig. 287. Arched, or Cambered, Tie Beam._]

The tie beam A, in wide spans, was made in two sections, properly tied
together, and sometimes the outer ends were very wide, and to add to the
effect of the arch, it might also be raised in the middle, something in
the form shown by the dotted line (B).

_The Mansard_ is what may be called a double-mounted roof, and it will
be seen how it was evolved from the preceding types. It will be noted
that the simple truss formed by the members (A, B, C) is merely
superposed on the leaning posts, the tie beam also being necessary in
this construction.

[Illustration: _Fig. 288. The Mansard._]

But the most elaborate formations are those which were intended to
provide trusses for buildings wherein the tie beams were dispensed with.

The simplest form known is called the _Scissors Beam_, illustrated in
Fig. 289. This has been utilized for small spaces, and steep pitches.
Each rafter (A) has an angled beam or brace (B), springing from its
base, to the opposite rafter (A), to which it is joined, midway between
its ends, as at C.

Where the two braces (B) cross each other they are secured together, as
at D. As a result, three trusses are formed, namely, 1, 2, 3, and it
possesses remarkable strength.

[Illustration: _Fig. 289. Scissors Beam._]

BRACED COLLAR BEAM.--This is a modification of the last type, but is
adapted for thick walls only. The tie rod braces (A, A) have to be
brought down low to give a good bracing action, and this arrangement is
capable of considerable ornamentation.

The steeper the pitch the higher up would be the inner and lower brace
posts (B, B) which were supported by the top of the wall. This form is
not available for wide spans, and is shown to illustrate how the
development was made into the succeeding types.

[Illustration: _Fig. 290. Braced Collar Beam._]

THE RIB AND COLLAR TRUSS, Fig. 291, is the first important structural
arrangement which permitted the architect to give full sway to
embellishment. The inwardly-projecting members (A, A) are called _Hammer
Beams_. They were devised as a substitute for the thick walls used in
the Braced Collar Beam Truss, and small brackets (B, B) were placed
beneath as supports.

[Illustration: _Fig. 291. Rib and Collar Truss._]

The short tie beam (C), near the apex, serves as the member to receive
the thrust and stress of the curved ribs (D, D). It forms a most
graceful type of roof, and is capable of the most exquisite
ornamentation, but it is used for the high pitched roofs only.

[Illustration: _Fig. 290-1/2. Hammer Beam Truss._]

The acme of all constructions, in which strength, beauty, and capacity
for ornamentation are blended, is the _Hammer Beam Truss_. Here the
hammer beam projects inwardly farther than in the preceding figure, and
has a deeper bracket (B), and this also extends down the pendant post
(C) a greater distance.

The curved supporting arch (D), on each side, is not ribbed, as in the
Rib and Collar Truss, but instead, is provided with openwork (not shown
herein), together with beadings and moldings, and other ornamental
characteristics, and some of the most beautiful architectural forms in
existence are in this type of roof.

What are called Flying Buttresses (E) are sometimes used in connection
with the Hammer Beam Truss, which, with heavy roofs and wide spans, is
found to be absolutely necessary.



CHAPTER XX

ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF JOINTS


In uniting two or more elements, some particular type of joint is
necessary. In framing timbers, in making braces, in roof construction
and supports, in floor beams, and in numerous other places, where
strength is required, the workman should have at his command a knowledge
of the most serviceable methods.

Illustrations can most forcibly convey the different types; but the
sizes must be determined by the character of the material you are
working with. Our aim is to give the idea involved, and the name by
which each is known.

[Illustration: _Fig. 292. Bridle Joints._]

Reference has been made in Chapter X, to certain forms of scarfing and
lapping pieces. This chapter has to do with a variety of other
structural forms, but principally with such as are used in heavy
building work, and in cases where neither fish plates nor scarfing will
answer the purpose.

[Illustration: _Fig. 293. Spur Tenon._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 294. Saddle Joints._]

BRIDLE JOINTS.--This is a form of joint where permanency is not desired,
and where it is necessary to readily seat or unseat the vertical timber.
It is also obvious that the socket for the upright is of such a
character that it will not weaken it to any great extent.

SPUR TENON.--This tenon can be used in many places where the regular one
is not available. This, like the preceding, is used where the parts are
desired to be detachable, and the second form is one which is used in
many structures.

SADDLE JOINT.--This is still another manner in which a quickly
detachable joint can be constructed. The saddle may be mounted on the
main base, or cut into the base piece. An infinite variety of forms of
saddles are made, most of them being used in dock work, and for framing
of that character where large timbers are used, as in the building of
coal chutes, and the like.

[Illustration: _Fig. 295. Joggle Joints._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 296. Framing Joints._]

JOGGLE JOINT.--This joint is used almost exclusively for brace work
where great weight must be supported. The brace has a tenon, and the
end must also be so arranged that it will have a direct bearing against
the upright, which it braces and supports, or it may have two faces, as
in the second figure, which is an exceedingly strong construction.

[Illustration: _Fig. 297. Heel Joints._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 298. Stub Tenon._]

FRAMING JOINTS.--These are the simplest form in which two members are
secured together. They are used almost wholly in rafter work, and have
very few modifications. The depth of the cut, for the toe of the rafter,
depends on the load to be carried, and also on the distance the end of
the rafter is from the end of the horizontal member on which the rafter
rests.

HEEL JOINTS.--This is by far the most secure of the framing type of
joints. This, if properly made, is much better than the construction
shown in the previous illustration, but the difficulty is to make the
rafter fit into the recesses properly. This is no excuse for failure to
use, but it is on account of inability to make close fits that is
accountable for lack of use. It will be seen that in case one of the
heels rests against the recess, and the others do not, and the pressure
is great, there is a liability to tear out the entire joint.

[Illustration: _Fig. 299. Tusk Tenon._]

STUB TENON.--This is another form of tenon which is made and designed to
be used where it is in close proximity to another tenon, or where the
mortises, if made full size, will weaken the member. The long tusk can
be shortened, to suit the place where it projects, and the stub tenon on
each side of the tusk may be made very short, and one side longer than
the other if necessary.

TUSK TENON.--Two forms of tusk construction are given. Any number of
forms have been devised, all for special purposes, and designed for
different kinds of woods. These shown are particularly adapted for soft
woods, and the principal feature that is valuable lies in the fact that
they have a number of shoulders within the mortise, each of which,
necessarily adds to the strength. It should be observed that in the
construction of the tusk tenon, the greatest care must be taken to have
it fit the mortise tightly, and this has reference to the bottom and
shoulder ends as well.

[Illustration: _Fig. 300. Double Tusk Tenon._]

DOUBLE TUSK TENONS.--The distinguishing difference between this and the
preceding is in the tusk, which in this form of construction goes
through the upright member, and is held by a cross key. The double tusk
is intended for hard woods, and it is regarded as the finest, as well
as the strongest, joint known.

COGGED JOINTS.--This differs from the regular tenoning and mortising
methods, principally because the groove or recess is in the form of an
open gain. It is used where the member is to be inserted after the main
structure is put together.

[Illustration: _Fig. 301. Cogged Joints._]

[Illustration: _Fig. 302. Anchor Joint._]

ANCHOR JOINT.--This form of connection is designed for very large
timbers, and where great care must be taken in making the parts fit
together nicely, as everything depends on this. This style is never
used where the angles are less than 45 degrees, and the depth of the
gain in the timber receiving the brace is dependent on the thrust of the
brace.

[Illustration: _Fig. 303. Deep Anchor Joint._]

The Deep Anchor Joint is an extension of the tongue of the Anchor tenon,
so that it affords a greater support for the end thrust. To clearly
distinguish between this and the preceding form, it might be said that
the Anchor Joint is one designed to protect the member containing the
gains, while the Deep Anchor Joint favors the brace, by giving it a
greater power.



CHAPTER XXI

SOME MISTAKES, AND A LITTLE ADVICE IN CARPENTRY


In the mechanical arts, workers are as likely to learn from the mistakes
committed as through correct information imparted. Advice, therefore,
might be considered superfluous. But there are certain things which are
easily remembered and may be borne in mind while engaged in turning out
any work.

This chapter is not given for the purpose of calling attention to all
the errors which are so common, but merely to point out a few which the
boy will commit as he tries to carry out his work for the first time.

One of the difficult things for any one to learn, in working with wood,
is to plane the edge of a board straight and square at the same time.
This is made doubly difficult if it is desired to plane it strictly to
dimensions.

Usually before the edge is straight it is down to the proper width
desired, and it is then too late to correct any error, because further
work will make it too narrow.

The whole difficulty is in the holding of the plane. It matters not how
rigidly it is held, and how carefully it is guarded to veer it toward
one side or the other, it will be found a most difficult task.

If the fore, or finishing, plane is used, and which is the proper tool
for the purpose, the impression seems to be, that to square up the edge
and make it cut off a thicker shaving on one side than on the other,
requires that the plane should be pressed down with force, so as to make
it dig in and cut a thicker shaving.

When this is resorted to the board is liable to get out of true from end
to end. A much better plan is to put the plane on the edge of the board
true and straight. If it is too high on the edge nearest you, bring the
plane over so the inside edge is flush with the inside edge of the
board.

Then use the fingers of the left hand as a gage to keep the plane from
running over.

Now, the weight of the plane in such a condition is sufficient to take
off a thicker shaving at the high edge, and this will be done without
any effort, and will enable you to concentrate your thoughts on keeping
the plane straight with the board.

The weight of the plane will make a thicker shaving on one side than on
the other, and correct inequalities, provided you do not attempt to
force the plane.

It requires an exceedingly steady hand to hold a plane firmly for
squaring up a half-inch board. Singular as it may seem, it is almost as
difficult a job with a two-inch plank. In the case of the thin board the
plane will move laterally, unless the utmost care is exercised; in the
truing up the thick plank the constant tendency is to move the plane
along the surface at a slight diagonal, and this is sure to cause
trouble.

It only emphasizes the fact most clearly, that to do a good job the
plane must be firmly held, that it must move along the board with the
utmost precision, and that it should not be forced into the wood.

In smoothing down a board with the short smoothing plane, preparatory to
sandpapering it, the better plan is to move the plane slightly across
the grain. This will enable the bit to take hold better, and when the
sandpaper is applied the course of the movement should be across the
grain opposite the direction taken by the smoothing plane.

It is never satisfactory to draw the sandpaper directly along in the
course of the grain. Such a habit will cause the sandpaper to fill up
very rapidly, particularly with certain woods.

When gluing together joints or tenons, always wipe off the surplus glue
with warm water taken from the glue pot. If you do not follow this
advice the glue will gum up the tools and the sandpaper used to finish
the work.

Never try to work from opposite sides of a piece of material. Have a
_work side_ and a work _edge_, and make all measurements therefrom. Mark
each piece as you go along. Take a note mentally just how each piece is
to be placed, and what must be done with it.

The carpenter, above all others, must be able to carry a mental picture
of his product.

Never saw out the scribing or marking line, either in cutting or in
ripping. The lines should be obliterated by the plane, when it is being
finished, and not before.

Make it a habit to finish off the surfaces and edges true and smooth
before the ends are cut, or the mortises or tenons are made. This is one
of the most frequent mistakes. No job can be a perfect one unless your
material has been worked down to proper dimensions.

Learn to saw across a board squarely. This may be a hard thing for the
novice to do. A long, easy stroke of the saw will prevent it from
running, unless too badly set or filed, and will also enable you to hold
it more nearly square with the board.

If you find that you invariably saw "out of true," then take some sawing
lessons for your own benefit, until you can judge whether the saw is
held true or not.

It is better to saw up a half dozen boards in making the test than
commit the error while working on a job.



GLOSSARY OF WORDS USED IN TEXT OF THIS VOLUME


$Acute.$ Sharp, to the point.

$Adjuster.$ A tool which measures distances and relative spaces.

$Æsthetic.$ The theory of taste; science of the beautiful in nature and
art.

$Abstract.$ That which exists in the mind only; separate from matter; to
think of separately as a quality.

$Alligator jaws.$ A term used to designate a pair of serrated bars which
are held together in a headpiece, and capable of clamping bits between
them.

$Analyzed.$ Separated into its primitive or original parts.

$Anchor.$ Any device for holding an object in a fixed position.

$Angle dividers.$ A sort of double bevel tool so arranged that an angle
can be made at the same time on both side of a base line.

$Angularly disposed.$ Forming an angle with reference to some part or
position.

$Archivolt.$ The architectural member surrounding the curved opening of
an arch. More commonly the molding or other ornaments with which the
wall face of an arch is changed.

$Artisan.$ One trained in some mechanic's art or trade.

$Beaded.$ A piece of wood or iron having rounded creases on its
surface.

$Beam compass.$ A drawing compass in which the points are arranged to
slide on a rod, instead of being fixed on dividers.

$Belfry.$ A bell-tower, usually attached to a church.

$Bevel square.$ A handle to which is pivotally attached a blade, which
may be swung and held at any desired angle.

$Bisected.$ To divide, mark, or cut into two portions.

$Bit.$ A small tool, either for drilling, or for cutting, as a plane
iron.

$Braced collar.$ A form of roofing truss, in which the upper cross
member is supported by a pair of angled braces.

$Breast drill.$ A tool for holding boring tools, and designed to have
the head held against the breast for forcing in the boring tool.

$Bridle joint.$ A form for securing elements together which provides a
shallow depression in one member, and a chamfered member at its end to
fit therein.

$Bungalow.$ A Bengalese term; originally a thatched or tiled house or
cottage, single story, usually surrounded by a veranda.

$Bushing.$ A substance of any kind interposed, as, for instance, a
wearing surface between a mandrel and its bearing.

$Butts.$ A term applied to certain hinges, usually of the large type.

$Callipered.$ A measured portion which has its side or thickness fixed
by a finely graduated instrument.

$Cambered.$ Slightly rising in the middle portion. An upward bend, or
projection.

$Capital.$ A small head or top of a column; the head or uppermost member
of a pilaster.

$Cardinal.$ Pre-eminent, chief, main line; _Cardinal_ line is the
principal line to make calculations or measurements from.

$Centering point.$ A place for the reception of the point of an
instrument, like a compass or a dividers, or for the dead center of the
tail-stock of a lathe.

$Cheekpiece.$ A piece or pieces at right angles to another piece, either
fixed or movable, which serves as a rest or a guide.

$Chiffonier.$ A movable and ornamental closet or piece of furniture with
shelves and drawers.

$Chute.$ A channel in any material, or made of any substance, for
conveying liquids or solids.

$Circumference.$ The distance around an object.

$Circumferentially.$ Surrounding or encircling.

$Classical.$ Relating to the first class or rank, especially in
literature or art.

$Cogged.$ Having teeth, either at regular or at irregular intervals.

$Concrete.$ Expressing the thing itself specifically; also the quality;
a specific example.

$Configuration.$ Form, as depending on the relative disposition of the
parts of a thing; a shape or a figure.

$Coincide.$ To occupy the same place in space; to correspond exactly; to
agree; to concur.

$Correlation.$ A reference, as from one thing to another; the putting
together of various parts.

$Conventional.$ Something which grows out of or depends upon custom, or
is sanctioned by general usage.

$Craftsman.$ One skilled in a craft or trade.

$Curvature.$ The act of curving or being bent.

$Concentrated.$ To bring to a common center; to bring together in one
mass.

$Dado.$ A plain flat surface between a base and a surbase molding.
Sometimes a painted or encrusted skirting on interior walls.

$Depth gage.$ A tool by means of which the depths of grooves and
recesses are measured.

$Degree.$ Measure of advancement; quality; extent; a division or space.

$Discarded.$ Cast off; to reject or put away.

$Deterioration.$ To grow worse; impairing in quality.

$Depressed.$ A sunken surface or part.

$Diagrammatical.$ A drawing made to illustrate the working or the
scheme, without showing all the parts or giving their relative positions
or measurements.

$Diametrically.$ A direction toward the center or across the middle of a
figure or thing.

$Diagonal.$ A direction which is not parallel with or perpendicular to a
line.

$Dominate.$ To govern; controlling.

$Door trim.$ The hardware which is attached to a door.

$Double-roofed.$ All form of roof structure where there is an inner
frame to support the rafters.

$Drop forged.$ Metal forms which are struck up by means of heavy
hammers, in which are the molds or patterns of the article to be formed.

$Elaboration.$ Wrought with labor; finished with great care.

$Elevation.$ The act of raising from a lower to a higher degree; a
projection of a building or other object on a plane perpendicular to the
horizon.

$Elliptical.$ Having the form of an ellipse.

$Embellishment.$ The act of adorning; that which adds beauty or
elegance.

$Entablature.$ The structure which lies horizontally upon the columns.

$Equidistant.$ Being at an equal distance from a point.

$Escutcheon.$ An ornamental plate like that part about a keyhole.

$Evolve.$ To unfold or unroll; to open and expand.

$Façade.$ The front of a building; the principal front having some
architectural pretensions.

$Facing-boards.$ The finishing of the face of a wall of different
material than the main part of the wall; the wide board below the
cornice or beneath the windows.

$Factor.$ One of the elements, circumstances or influences which
contribute to produce a result.

$Fence.$ A term used to designate a metal barrier or guard on a part of
a tool.

$Fish plate.$ A pair of plates, usually placed on opposite sides of the
pieces to be secured together, and held by cross bolts.

$Flare.$ A pitch; an angle; an inclination.

$Flush.$ Unbroken, or even in surface; on a level with the adjacent
surface.

$Frog clamping screw.$ A screw which is designed to hold or adjust two
angled pieces.

$Fulcrum.$ That by which a lever is sustained, or on which a lever rests
in turning or moving a body.

$Fluting.$ The channel or channels in a body; as the grooves in a
column.

$Gain.$ A square or beveled notch or groove cut out of a girder, beam,
post or other material, at a corner.

$Gambrel.$ A roof having two different pitches, the upper much greater
than the lower.

$Geometry.$ Pertaining to that branch of mathematics which investigates
the relations, properties and measurements of solids, surfaces, lines
and angles.

$Girder.$ A main beam; a straight horizontal beam to span an opening or
carry a weight, such as the ends of floor beams.

$Glossary.$ A collection or explanation of words and passages of the
works of an author; a partial dictionary.

$Graduated.$ Cut up into steps; divided into equal parts.

$Guide stock.$ A member which is the main portion of the tool, and from
which all measurements are taken.

$Hammer beam.$ A member in a truss roof structure, at the base of the
roof proper, which consists of an inwardly projecting part, on which the
roof rests, and from which it is braced.

$Hammer-pole.$ The peon, or round end of a hammer which is used for
driving nails.

$Hemispherical.$ Pertaining to a half globe or sphere.

$Horizontal.$ On the level; at right angles to a line which points to
the center of the earth.

$Incorporated.$ United in one body.

$Index pin.$ A small movable member which is designed to limit the
movement of the operative part of a machine.

$Initial.$ To make a beginning with; the first of a series of acts or
things.

$Insulate.$ To place in a detached position; to separate from.

$Interchangeable.$ One for the other.

$Interval.$ A space between things; a void space; between two objects.

$Interest.$ To engage the attention of; to awaken or attract attention.

$Interlocking jaw.$ Two or more parts of a piece of mechanism in which
the said parts pass each other in their motions.

$Intersection.$ The point or line in which one line or surface cuts
another.

$Intervening.$ The portion between.

$Inverted.$ Turned over; to put upside down.

$Joggle-joint.$ A form of connection which has struts attached to a
pendant post.

$Joinery.$ The art or trade of joining wood.

$Kerf.$ A notch, channel or slit made in any material by cutting or
sawing.

$Kit.$ A working outfit; a collection of tools or implements.

$Level.$ A tool designed to indicate horizontal or vertical surfaces.

$Liberal.$ Not narrow or contracted.

$Lobe.$ Any projection, especially of a rounded form; the projecting
part of a cam-wheel.

$Longitudinal.$ In the direction of the length; running lengthwise.

$Lubrication.$ The system of affording oiling means to a machine or to
any article.

$Mandrel.$ The live spindle of a lathe; the revolving arbor of a
circular saw.

$Mansard.$ A type of roof structure with two pitches, one, the lower,
being very steep, and the other very flat pitch.

$Manual.$ Of or pertaining to the hand; done or made by hand.

$Marginal.$ The border or edge of an object.

$Marking gage.$ A bar on which is placed a series of points, usually
equidistant from each other.

$Matching.$ Placing tongue in one member and a corresponding groove in
another member, so that they will join each other perfectly.

$Mediæval.$ Of or relating to the Middle Ages.

$Miter-box.$ A tool for the purpose of holding a saw true at any desired
adjustable angle.

$Miter-square.$ A tool which provides adjustment at any desired angle.

$Mullion.$ A slender bar or pier which forms the vertical division
between the lights of windows, screens, etc.; also, indoors, the main
uprights are _stiles_, and the intermediate uprights are _mullions_.

$Obliterated.$ Erased or blotted out.

$Obtuse.$ Not pointed; bent.

$Orbit.$ The path made by a heavenly body in its travel around another
body.

$Ordinate.$ The distance of any point in a curve or a straight line,
measured on a line called the _axis of ordinates,_ or on a line parallel
to it from another line, at right angles thereto, called the _axis of
abscissas_.

$Ornamentation.$ To embellish; to improve in appearance.

$Oscillate.$ To swing like a pendulum.

$Overhang.$ In a general sense that which projects out.

$Paneling.$ A sunken compartment or portion with raised margins, molded
or otherwise, as indoors, ceilings wainscoting, etc.

$Parallelogram.$ A right-lined quadrilateral figure, whose opposite
sides are parallel and, consequently, equal.

$Parallel.$ Extended in the same direction, and in all parts equally
distant.

$Perspective.$ A view; a vista; the effect of distance upon the
appearance of objects, by means of which the eye recognizes them as
being at a more or less measurable distance.

$Pivot.$ A fixed pin, or short axis, on the end of which a wheel or
other body turns.

$Pitch.$ Slope; descent; declivity, like the slope of a roof.

$Placement.$ The act of placing; in the state of being placed.

$Predominate.$ To be superior in number, strength, influence or
authority; controlling.

$Produced.$ To lengthen out; to extend.

$Prototype.$ The original; that from which later forms sprang.

$Purlin.$ A longitudinal piece of timber, under a roof, midway between
the eaves and comb, to hold the rafters.

$Rabbeting.$ The manner of cutting grooves or recesses.

$Ratchet.$ A wheel, bar, or other form of member, having teeth or
recesses.

Rebate. A rectangular, longitudinal recess or groove, cut in the corner
or edge of a body.

$Rail.$ A horizontal piece in a frame or paneling.

$Rectangular.$ Right-angled; having one or more angles of ninety
degrees; a four-sided figure having only right angles.

$Rib and collar.$ A form of roof truss in which the collar between
rafters is used as the thrust bearing for the ribs which project up from
the hammer beam.

$Router.$ A tool for cutting grooves or recesses.

$Saddle joint.$ A form of connection in which one part has a portion cut
away, resembling a saddle, and in which the part to be attached has its
end cut so as to fit the saddle thus formed.

$Scarfing.$ The cutting away of the ends of timbers to be joined, so the
two parts on lapping will unite evenly.

$Scissors beam.$ A form of truss, in which there is a pair of interior
braces formed like shears, and secured to the main rafters themselves.

$Score, Scored.$ Shear; cut; divide; also notching or marking.

$Scratch awl.$ A sharp-pointed tool, with a handle.

$Scribe.$ To cut, indent or mark with a tool, such as a knife, awl or
compass, so as to form a cutting line for the workman.

$Self-supporting.$ Held by itself; not depending upon outside aid.

$Shank.$ Usually the handle, or portion to which the handle is attached.

$Slitting gage.$ A tool which is designed to cut along a certain line
guided by an adjustable fence.

$Soffit.$ The under side of an arch.

$Solid.$ Not hollow; full of matter; having a fixed form; hard; opposed
to liquid or fluid.

$Spindle.$ A small mandrel; an arbor; a turning shaft.

$Springer.$ The post or point at which an arch rests upon its support,
and from which it seems to spring.

$Sphere.$ A body or space continued under a single surface which, in
every part, is equally distant from a point within called its center.

$Spur.$ A small part jutting from another.

$Strike plate.$ A plate serving as a keeper for a beveled latch bolt and
against which the latter strikes in closing.

$Steel Tubing.$ Pipes made from steel; tubing is measured across from
outside to outside; piping is measured on the inside.

$Step-wedge.$ A wedge having one straight edge, and the other edge
provided with a succession of steps, by means of which the piece
gradually grows wider.

$Strain, Stresses.$ To act upon in any way so as to cause change of form
or volume; as forces on a beam to bend it.

$Strut.$ Any piece of timber which runs from one timber to another, and
is used to support a part.

$Stub.$ A projecting part, usually of some defined form, and usually
designed to enter or engage with a corresponding recess in another
member.

$Submerged.$ To be buried or covered, as with a fluid; to put under.

$Swivel.$ A pivoted member, used in many forms of tools, in which one
part turns on the other.

$Tail-stock.$ The sliding support or block in a lathe, which carries the
dead spindle, or adjustable center.

$Technical.$ Of or pertaining to the useful in mechanical arts, or to
any science, business, or the like.

$Texture.$ The disposition of the several parts of any body in
connection with each other; or the manner in which the parts are united.

$Tool rest.$ That part of a lathe, or other mechanism, which supports a
tool, or holds the tool support.

$Torso.$ The human body as distinguished from the head and limbs.

$Transverse.$ In a crosswise direction; lying across; at right angles to
the longitudinal.

$Trimmer.$ A beam, into which are framed the ends of headers in floor
framing, as when a hole is left for stairs, chimneys, and the like.

$Truss.$ An assemblage of members of wood or iron, supported at two
points, and arranged to transmit pressure vertically to those points
with the least possible strain, across the length of any member.

$Tusk.$ In mechanism, a long projecting part, longer than a tenon, and
usually applied to the long or projecting part of a tenon.

$Universal joint.$ A joint wherein one member is made to turn with
another, although the two turning members are not in a line with each
other.

$Vocation.$ Employment; trade; profession; business.

$Voissoir.$ One of the wedgelike stones of which an arch is composed.



THE "HOW-TO-DO-IT" BOOKS


CARPENTRY FOR BOYS

A book which treats, in a most practical and fascinating manner, all
subjects pertaining to the "King of Trades"; showing the care and use of
tools; drawing; designing, and the laying out of work; the principles
involved in the building of various kinds of structures, and the
rudiments of architecture. It contains over two hundred and fifty
illustrations made especially for this work, and includes also a
complete glossary of the technical terms used in the art. The most
comprehensive volume on this subject ever published for boys.

       *       *       *       *       *

ELECTRICITY FOR BOYS

The author has adopted the unique plan of setting forth the fundamental
principles in each phase of the science, and practically applying the
work in the successive stages. It shows how the knowledge has been
developed, and the reasons for the various phenomena, without using
technical words so as to bring it within the compass of every boy. It
has a complete glossary of terms, and is illustrated with two hundred
original drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *

PRACTICAL MECHANICS FOR BOYS

This book takes the beginner through a comprehensive series of practical
shop work, in which the uses of tools, and the structure and handling of
shop machinery are set forth; how they are utilized to perform the work,
and the manner in which all dimensional work is carried out. Every
subject is illustrated, and model building explained. It contains a
glossary which comprises a new system of cross references, a feature
that will prove a welcome departure in explaining subjects. Fully
illustrated.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Price 60 cents per volume_

       *       *       *       *       *


THE NEW YORK BOOK COMPANY 147 FOURTH AVENUE NEW YORK


THE WONDER ISLAND BOYS

BY ROGER T. FINLAY

Thrilling adventures by sea and land of two boys and an aged Professor
who are cast away on an island with absolutely nothing but their
clothing. By gradual and natural stages they succeed in constructing all
forms of devices used in the mechanical arts and learn the scientific
theories involved in every walk of life. These subjects are all treated
in an incidental and natural way in the progress of events, from the
most fundamental standpoint without technicalities, and include every
department of knowledge. Numerous illustrations accompany the text.

Two Thousand things every boy ought to know. Every page a romance. Every
line a fact.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Six titles--60 cents per volume_

       *       *       *       *       *


THE WONDER ISLAND BOYS The Castaways

THE WONDER ISLAND BOYS Exploring the Island

THE WONDER ISLAND BOYS The Mysteries of the Caverns

THE WONDER ISLAND BOYS The Tribesmen

THE WONDER ISLAND BOYS The Capture and Pursuit

THE WONDER ISLAND BOYS The Conquest of the Savages


PUBLISHED BY THE NEW YORK BOOK COMPANY 147 FOURTH AVENUE NEW YORK


THE HICKORY RIDGE BOY SCOUTS

A SERIES OF BOOKS FOR BOYS

Which, in addition to the interesting boy scout stories by CAPTAIN ALAN
DOUGLAS, Scoutmaster, contain articles on nature lore, native animals
and a fund of other information pertaining to out-of-door life, that
will appeal to the boy's love of the open.

       *       *       *       *       *

I. The Campfires of the Wolf Patrol

Their first camping experience affords the scouts splendid opportunities
to use their recently acquired knowledge in a practical way. Elmer
Chenoweth, a lad from the northwest woods, astonishes everyone by his
familiarity with camp life. A clean, wholesome story every boy should
read.

II. Woodcraft; or, How a Patrol Leader Made Good

This tale presents many stirring situations in which some of the boys
are called upon to exercise all their ingenuity and unselfishness. A
story filled with healthful excitement.

III. Pathfinder; or, The Missing Tenderfoot

Some mysteries are cleared up in a most unexpected way, greatly to the
credit of our young friends. A variety of incidents follow fast, one
after the other.

IV. Fast Nine; or, a Challenge From Fairfield

They show the same team-work here as when in camp. The description of
the final game with the team of a rival town, and the outcome thereof,
form a stirring narrative. One of the best baseball stories of recent
years.

V. Great Hike; or, The Pride of The Khaki Troop

After weeks of preparation the scouts start out on their greatest
undertaking. Their march takes them far from home, and the good-natured
rivalry of the different patrols furnishes many interesting and amusing
situations.

VI. Endurance Test; or, How Clear Grit Won the Day

Few stories "get" us more than illustrations of pluck in the face of
apparent failure. Our heroes show the stuff they are made of and
surprise their most ardent admirers. One of the best stories Captain
Douglas has written.

       *       *       *       *       *

$Boy Scout Nature Lore to be Found in The Hickory Ridge Boy Scout
Series$

Wild Animals of the United States--Tracking--in Number I.
Trees and Wild Flowers of the United States in Number II.
Reptiles of the United States in Number III.
Fishes of the United States in Number IV.
Insects of the United States in Number V.
Birds of the United States in Number VI.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Cloth Binding    Cover Illustrations in Four Colors     40c. Per Volume_

THE NEW YORK BOOK COMPANY
147 FOURTH AVENUE (near 14th St.) NEW YORK

 ___________________________________
|                                  |
|               THE                |
|                                  |
|   Campfire and Trail Series      |
|__________________________________|


1. In Camp on the Big Sunflower.
2. The Rivals of the Trail.
3. The Strange Cabin on Catamount Island.
4. Lost in the Great Dismal Swamp.
5. With Trapper Jim in the North Woods.
6. Caught in a Forest Fire.

BY LAWRENCE J. LESLIE

A series of wholesome stories for boys told in an interesting way and
appealing to their love of the open.

_Each, 12mo.     Cloth.     40 cents per volume_

THE NEW YORK BOOK COMPANY
147 FOURTH AVENUE
NEW YORK

Christy Mathewson's Book

[Illustration: WON IN THE NINTH CHRISTY MATHEWSON]

_A Ripping Good Baseball Story by One Who Knows the Game_

This book has attained a larger sale than any baseball story ever
published.

The narrative deals with the students of a large university and their
baseball team, the members of which have names which enable the reader
to recognize them as some of the foremost baseball stars of the day
before their entrance into the major leagues.

One gains a very clear idea of "inside baseball" stripped of wearisome
technicalities. The book is profusely illustrated throughout and
contains also a number of plates showing the manner in which Mathewson
throws his deceptive curves, together with brief description of each.

_Cloth bound 5-1/2 x 7-5/8       Price 60c. per volume_

THE NEW YORK BOOK COMPANY
147 FOURTH AVENUE       NEW YORK



ECONOMICAL COOKING
_Primrose Edition_

_Planned for Two or More Persons_

By
MISS WINIFRED S. GIBBS

Dietitian and Teacher of Cooking of the New York Association for
Improving the Condition of the Poor

_Printed on Fine Quality Book Paper. Cover Design in Colors_

Many Cook Books have been published, from time to time, to meet various
requirements, or to elucidate certain theories, but very few have been
written to meet the needs of the large proportion of our population who
are acutely affected by the constantly increasing cost of food products.
Notwithstanding that by its valuable suggestions this book helps to
reduce the expense of supplying the table, the recipes are so planned
that the economies effected thereby are not offset by any lessening in
the attractiveness, variety or palatability of the dishes.

Of equal importance are the sections of this work which deal with food
values, the treatment of infants and invalids and the proper service of
various dishes.

The recipes are planned for two persons, but may readily be adapted for
a larger number. The book is replete with illustrations and tables of
food compositions--the latter taken from the latest Government
statistics.

_Cloth Binding     Illustrated     40c. per volume, postpaid_

THE NEW YORK BOOK COMPANY
147 FOURTH AVENUE (near 14th St.) NEW YORK

CUT-OUT AND PAINT BOOKS

[Illustration: SCISSORS BOOK _Dolls of All Nations_]

An original line of art studies printed in full rich colors on high
grade paper. This series introduces many novel features of interest, and
as the subject matters have been selected with unusual care, the books
make a strong appeal not only to the little ones but even to those of
riper years.

Post Cards                 _Painting Book_
Dolls of all Nations       _Scissors Book_
Our Army                   _Scissors Book_
Children's Pets            _Puzzle Book_

_Size 8-1/4 x 10-1/4 inches_

$Price 15c. per copy$

Send for sample and trade discount

THE NEW YORK BOOK COMPANY
147 FOURTH AVENUE       NEW YORK





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Carpentry for Boys - In a Simple Language, Including Chapters on Drawing, Laying - Out Work, Designing and Architecture With 250 Original - Illustrations" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home