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Title: Bible Readings for the Home Circle
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                              Bible Readings

                                 For The

                               Home Circle

A Topical Study of the Bible, Systematically Arranged for Home and Private
                                  Study

                                Containing

Two Hundred Readings, in Which Are Answered Nearly Four Thousand Questions
 on Important Religious Subjects, Contributed by a Large Number of Bible
                                 Students

                    New, Revised, and Enlarged Edition

      Illuminated With Nearly Three Hundred Beautiful Illustrations

                                   1920

                  Review & Herald Publishing Association

                             Washington. D.C.



CONTENTS


The Bible; Its Origin, History, and Place in the World
The Value Of Bible Study
Part I. The Bible; How to Study and Understand It
   The Scriptures
   The Study Of The Scriptures
   Power In The Word
   The Life-Giving Word
   Christ In All The Bible
   Titles Of Christ
Part II. Sin; Its Origin, Results, and Remedy
   Creation And The Creator
   The Origin Of Evil
   The Fall And Redemption Of Man
   Creation And Redemption
   The Character And Attributes Of God
   The Love Of God
   The Deity Of Christ
   Prophecies Relating To Christ
   Christ The Way Of Life
   Salvation Only Through Christ
Part III. The Way to Christ
   Faith
   Hope
   Repentance
   Confession And Forgiveness
   Conversion, Or The New Birth
   Baptism
   Reconciled To God
   Acceptance With God
   Justification By Faith
   Righteousness And Life
   Consecration
   Bible Election
   Bible Sanctification
   Importance Of Sound Doctrine
   Present Truth
   The Obedience Of Faith
Part IV. Life, Parables, and Miracles of Christ
   Birth, Childhood, And Early Life Of Christ
   Christ’s Ministry
   Christ The Great Teacher
   Parables Of Christ
   Miracles Of Christ
   Sufferings Of Christ
   The Resurrection Of Christ
   A Sinless Life
   Our Pattern
   Our Helper And Friend
Part V. The Holy Spirit
   The Holy Spirit And His Work
   Fruit Of The Spirit
   Gifts Of The Spirit
   The Gift Of Prophecy
   The Outpouring Of The Spirit
Part VI. The Sure Word of Prophecy
   Prophecy, Why Given
   Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream
   The Gospel Of The Kingdom
   Four Great Monarchies
   The Kingdom And Work Of Antichrist
   The Vicar Of Christ
   A Great Prophetic Period. (The 2300 Days of Daniel 8.) Or The Time Of
   Restoration And Of Judgment
   The Atonement In Type And Antitype
   The Judgment
   The Judgment-Hour Message
   The Fall Of Modern Babylon
   The Closing Gospel Message. A Warning Against False Worship
   Satan’s Warfare Against The Church
      A Great Persecuting Power (The Ten-Horned Beast of Revelation 13)
      Making An Image To The Beast. The Prophecy Of Revelation 13
      The Seven Churches
      The Seven Seals
      The Seven Trumpets
      The Eastern Question
      The Seven Last Plagues
      The Mystery Of God Finished
      Great Lines of Prophecy
Part VII. Coming Events and Signs of the Times
   Our Lord’s Great Prophecy
   Signs Of The Times
   Increase Of Knowledge
   Conflict Between Capital And Labor
   Christ’s Second Coming
   Manner Of Christ’s Coming
   Object Of Christ’s Coming
   The Resurrection Of The Just
   The World’s Conversion
   The Gathering Of Israel
   The Millennium
   Length Of The Day Of The Lord
   Elijah The Prophet
Part VIII. The Law of God
   The Law of God
   The Law Of God
   Perpetuity Of The Law
   Why The Law Was Given At Sinai
   Penalty For Transgression
   The Law Of God In The Patriarchal Age
   The Law Of God In The New Testament
   Love the Fulfilling of the Law
   The Moral And Ceremonial Laws
   The Two Covenants
   What Was Abolished By Christ
   The Law And The Gospel
Part IX. The Sabbath
   Institution Of The Sabbath
   God’s Memorial
   Reasons For Sabbath-Keeping
   Manner Of Observing The Sabbath
   Christ And The Sabbath
   The Sabbath In The New Testament
   The Law of God
   The Change Of The Sabbath
   The Seal Of God And The Mark Of Apostasy
   The Lord’s Day
   Walking As He Walked
   The Sabbath In History
   Sabbath Reform
Part X. Christian Liberty
   The Author Of Liberty
   The Powers That Be
   Individual Accountability
   Union Of Church And State
   Sabbath Legislation
   Who Persecute And Why
Part XI. Life Only in Christ
   Origin, History, And Destiny Of Satan
   What Is Man?
   Life Only In Christ
   The Intermediate State
   The Two Resurrections
   Fate Of The Transgressor
   The Ministration Of Good Angels
   The Dark Ministries Of Bad Angels
   Spiritualism
Part XII. Christian Growth and Experience
   Growth In Grace
   The Christian Armor
   Walking In The Light
   Saving Faith
   Trials And Their Object
   Overcoming
   The Ministry Of Sorrow
   Comfort In Affliction
   Trusting In Jesus
   Patience
   Contentment
   Cheerfulness
   Christian Courtesy
   Confessing Faults And Forgiving One Another
   The Duty Of Encouragement
   Unity Of Believers
   Meekness And Humility
   Sobriety
   Wisdom
   Diligence
   Perfection Of Character
   Sowing And Reaping
Part XIII. Prayer and Public Worship
   Importance Of Prayer
   Meditation And Prayer
   Watching Unto Prayer
   Answers To Prayer
   Public Worship
   Reverence For The House Of God
   Christian Communion
   Praise And Thanksgiving
   The Value Of Song
Part XIV. Christian Service
   The Gift Of Giving
   Preaching The Gospel
   The Shepherd And His Work
   Missionary Work
   The Poor, And Our Duty Toward Them
   Christian Help Work
   Visiting The Sick
   Healing The Sick
   Prison Work
   Order And Organization
   Support Of The Ministry
   Free-Will Offerings
   Hospitality
   Who Is The Greatest?
Part XV. Admonitions and Warnings
   Pride
   Selfishness
   Covetousness
   Debts
   Respect Of Persons
   Backsliding
   Unbelief
   Judging
   Gossiping And Backbiting
   Envy, Jealousy, And Hatred
   Hypocrisy
   Danger In Rejecting Light
   The Just Recompense
Part XVI. The Home
   The Marriage Institution
   A Happy Home, And How To Make It
   Religion In The Home
   Honor Due To Parents
   Child Training
   The Mother
   Teaching The Children
   Promises For The Children
   Evils Of City Life
   Purity
Part XVII. Health and Temperance
   Good Health
   Christian Temperance
   Evils Of Intemperance
   The World’s Curse
   Scripture Admonitions (A Responsive Reading)
   True Temperance Reform
Part XVIII. The Kingdom Restored
   The Kingdom Of Glory
   The Saints’ Inheritance
   Promises To The Overcomer
   The Subjects Of The Kingdom
   Eternal Life
   The Home Of The Saved
   The New Jerusalem
   The Conflict Ended
   Pleasures Forevermore
   The Game Of Life In Progress
   The Game Of Life Lost
   The Game Of Life Won
Index Of Subjects



                             [Illustration.]

  The Word Of God. "Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my
                           path." Ps. 119:105.



THE BIBLE; ITS ORIGIN, HISTORY, AND PLACE IN THE WORLD


The Bible contains proof in itself of its divine origin. No other book can
answer the questionings of the mind or satisfy the longings of the heart
as does the Bible. It is adapted to every age and condition of life, and
is full of that knowledge which enlightens the mind and sanctifies the
soul.

In the Bible we have a revelation of the living God. Received by faith, it
has power to transform the life. During all its history a divine
watch-care has been over it, and preserved it for the world.



How, When, and Why Written


After the flood, as men became numerous, and darkness was again settling
over the world, holy men wrote as they were moved by the Spirit of God.
Thus God spoke to His people, and through them to the world, that a
knowledge of God and of His will might not perish from the earth.

For centuries this work went on, until Christ, the promised Seed, came.
With Him, and the blessed message of light and salvation proclaimed by Him
and by His apostles, the Scripture record closed, and the Word of God was
complete.



Original Writings and Translations


The Old Testament Scriptures were first written in Hebrew, upon scrolls,
or rolls of parchment, linen, or papyrus. These were later translated into
Greek, the oldest translation being known as the Septuagint, or “Version
of the Seventy,” made at Alexandria, for the Alexandrian Library, by a
company of seventy learned Jews, under the patronage of Ptolemy
Philadelphus, about 285 B.C. The original order for this translation is
said to have been given by Alexander the Great, who previously, upon
visiting Jerusalem in 332 B.C., had learned from the prophecy of Daniel
that Grecia was to overthrow the Persian kingdom. See Josephus’s
“Antiquities of the Jews,” book 11, chap. 8, par. 5. This was the version
in common use in the time of Christ.

The New Testament was all originally written in Greek, except Matthew,
which was first written in Hebrew, and later translated into Greek.

                             [Illustration.]

                       Gutenberg Printing The Bible


At an early date, Latin translations, both of the Septuagint and of the
Greek New Testament, were made by different individuals, and the more
carefully prepared Latin Vulgate of Jerome, the Bible complete, was made
A.D. 383-405.



Printing and the Bible


Printing, however, being yet unknown, copies of the Bible could be
produced only by the slow, laborious, and expensive process of
handwriting. This necessarily greatly limited its circulation. Worse
still, its illuminating and saving truths were largely hidden for
centuries by the errors, superstitions, and apostasy of the dark ages.
During this time the common people knew little of its contents.

But with the invention of the art of printing about the middle of the
fifteenth century, and with the dawn of the great Reformation in the
century following, the Bible entered upon a new era, preparatory to the
final proclamation of the gospel throughout the world.

                             [Illustration.]

                       Luther Translating The Bible


Not a little significant is the fact that the first book printed from
movable type was the Bible in Latin, which came from the press of John
Gutenberg, at Mentz, Germany, in 1456, a copy of which, in 1911, was sold
in New York City for fifty thousand dollars, the highest price ever paid
for a single book.



The Bible in Native Tongues


Thus far, however, the Bible had been published only in ancient tongues,
now little understood by the common people. Without the Word of God in
their hands, the good seed sown among them was easily destroyed. “O,” said
the advocates of its pure teachings, “if the people only had the Word of
God in their own language, this would not happen! Without this it will be
impossible to establish the laity in the truth.”

And why should they not have it in their own tongue? they reasoned. Moses
wrote in the language of the people of his time; the prophets spoke in the
tongue familiar to the men whom they addressed; and the New Testament was
written in the language then current throughout the Roman world.

The translation of the Bible into English by John Wyclif, in 1380, was the
chief event in the beginning of the Reformation. It also prepared the way
for the revival of Christianity in England, and the multiplying there of
the Word by the millions, for all the world, that has followed.

To make such a translation at that time, says Neander, “required a bold
spirit which no danger could appal.” For making it Wyclif was attacked
from various quarters, because, it was claimed, “he was introducing among
the multitude a book reserved exclusively for the use of the priests.” In
the general denunciation it was declared that “thus was the gospel by him
laid more open to the laity, and to women who could read, than it had
formerly been to the most learned of the clergy; and in this way the
gospel pearl is cast abroad, and trodden underfoot of swine.” In the
preface to his translation, Wyclif exhorted all the people to read the
Scriptures.

A sense of awe and a thrill of joy filled the heart of the great German
Reformer, when, at the age of twenty, while examining the volumes in the
library of the university of Erfurt, he held in his hands, for the first
time in his life, a complete copy of the Bible. “O God,” he murmured,
“could I but have one of these books, I would ask no other treasure.” A
little later he found in a convent a chained Bible. To this he had
constant recourse.

But all these Bibles here, as elsewhere, save in England, were in an
ancient tongue, and could be read only by the educated. Why, thought
Luther, should the living Word be confined to dead languages? Like Wyclif,
therefore, he resolved to give his countrymen the Bible in their own
tongue. This he did, the New Testament in 1522, and the Bible complete,
the crowning work of his life, in 1534.

Impressed with the idea that the people should read the Scriptures in
their mother tongue, William Tyndale, likewise, in 1525, gave to the
English his translation of the New Testament, and later, of portions of
the Old Testament Scriptures. His ardent desire that they should know the
Bible was well expressed in the statement that if God spared his life he
would cause the boy that drives the plow to know more of the Scriptures
than was commonly known by the divines of his day.

The first complete printed English Bible was that of Miles Coverdale,
printed at Zurich, Switzerland, in 1535. Matthew’s Bible, Taverner’s
Bible, and The Great Bible prepared at the suggestion of Thomas Cromwell,
Earl of Essex, appeared soon after. Thus the light of truth began to shine
forth once more; but not without opposition.



Burning of Bibles


As Jehoiakim, king of Judah, and the princes under King Zedekiah showed
their contempt for God by burning the writings of Jeremiah, and confining
the prophet in a dungeon (Jer. 36:20-23; 38:1-6), so now men sought to
stem the rising tide of reform by burning the Bible and its translators.

Bible burning was inaugurated in England by the destruction of copies of
the Antwerp edition of Tyndale’s New Testament, at St. Paul’s Cross,
London, in 1527, followed by the burning of a second edition in 1530. A
little later there were wholesale burnings of the writings and
translations of Wyclif, Tyndale, Basil, Barnes, Coverdale, and others.

                             [Illustration.]

              Burning Of Bibles At St. Paul’s Cross, London


Forty-three years after the death of Wyclif, or in A.D. 1428, by order of
the Council of Constance his bones were dug up and burned. Oct. 6, 1536,
by order of Charles V of Germany, Tyndale was strangled and burned at the
stake at Vilvorde, near Brussels. “If Luther will not retract,” wrote
Henry VIII of England, “let himself and his writings be committed to the
flames.”

Such, under the spiritual tyranny that ruled in those times, was the fate
of many who stood for God and His Word.



The Word Not Bound


But the Word of God could not be forever bound. In attempting to prevent
its circulation men soon discovered that they were undertaking a work
beyond their strength.

The Bible had taken deep root in the hearts of the people. What kings and
prelates had sought to suppress and destroy, kings and prelates now began
to foster and supply.

In his “Stories From English History,” pages 196, 197, Henry P. Warren
says: “Henry, by Cromwell’s advice, ordered a translation of the Bible to
be made in English, and a copy to be placed in every church. There had
been English translations before, but they had not been in the hands of
the people generally, and had only been read secretly and in fear....
Cromwell then appointed Cranmer and the bishops to revise the Bible, and
publish it without note or comment; and in the year 1539 a copy of the
English Bible was chained to the reading-desk of every parish church. From
that time the Bible has never ceased to be printed and sold freely.”

                             [Illustration.]

                            The Chained Bible


Says Charles C. Coffin, in his “Story of Liberty,” page 44: “The people
listen to the reading with wonder and delight. They begin to think; and
when men begin to think, they take a step toward freedom. They see that
the Bible gives them rights which hitherto have been denied them,—the
right to read, to acquire knowledge. Schools are started. Men and women
who till now have not known a letter of the alphabet, learn to read;
children teach their parents. It is the beginning of a new life, a new
order of things in the community—the beginning of liberty.”



The Bible to All the World


Finally great Bible societies were organized in England, America, and many
of the countries of Europe, for the purpose of giving the Bible to the
world,—to every nation, kindred, tongue, and people in its own language.
Since its organization in 1804, the British and Foreign Bible Society, up
to 1912, had published the Scriptures, or portions of them in 440
languages and dialects, with a total of 53,274,516 entire Bibles,
84,059,610 New Testaments, and 89,816,644 portions of the Bible, or a
grand total of 227,150,770 copies.

                             [Illustration.]

             British And Foreign Bible Society House, London


The total issue of the American Bible Society in the first ninety-six
years following its organization, or from 1816 to 1912, amounts to
96,219,105 copies. It now publishes the Bible in over one hundred
languages.

These, while the largest of their kind, are but two of the twenty-seven
Bible societies now disseminating the Scriptures.

Thus is the world being provided with the Word of God, preparatory to the
giving of the closing gospel message to all mankind, the ending of the
reign of sin, and the advent of the Lord in glory. “And this gospel of the
kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations;
and then shall the end come.” Matt. 24:14.



THE VALUE OF BIBLE STUDY


                             [Illustration.]

The Forbidden Book. "God’s Holy Word was prized when ’twas unsafe to read
                                   it."


The Bible is God’s great text-book for man. It is His lamp to our feet and
light to our path in this world of sin. The value of Bible study cannot
therefore be overestimated.

Considered from a literary standpoint alone, the Bible stands preeminent.
Its terse, chaste style; its beautiful and impressive imagery; its
interesting stories and well-told narratives; its deep wisdom and its
sound logic; its dignified language and its elevated themes, all make it
worthy of universal reading and careful study.

As an educating power, the Bible has no equal. Nothing so broadens the
vision, strengthens the mind, elevates the thoughts, and ennobles the
affections as does the study of the sublime and stupendous truths of
revelation. A knowledge of its principles is an essential preparation to
every calling. To the extent that it is studied and its teachings are
received, it gives strength of character, noble ambition, keenness of
perception, and sound judgment. Of all the books ever written, none
contains lessons so instructive, precepts so pure, or promises so great as
the Bible.

There is nothing that so convinces the mind of the inspiration of the
Bible as does the reading of the Bible itself, and especially those
portions known as the prophecies. After the resurrection of Christ, when
everything else seemed to have failed to convince the disciples that He
had risen from the dead, He appealed to the inspired Word, and “expounded
unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself” (Luke
24:25-27), and they believed. On another occasion He said, “If they hear
not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one
rose from the dead.” Luke 16:31.

As a guide, the Bible is without a rival. It gives a calm peace in
believing, and a firm hope of the future. It solves the great problem of
life and destiny, and inspires to a life of purity, patience, and
well-doing. It fills the heart with love for God and a desire to do good
to others, and thus prepares for usefulness here and for a home in heaven.
It teaches the value of the soul, by revealing the price that has been
paid to redeem it. It makes known the only antidote for sin, and presents
the only perfect code of morals ever given. It tells of the future and the
preparation necessary to meet it. It makes us bold for the right, and
sustains the soul in adversity and affliction. It lights up the dark
valley of death, and points to a life unending. It leads to God, and to
Christ, whom to know is life eternal. In short, it is the one book to live
by and die by.

As the king of Israel was instructed to write him a copy of the law, and
to read therein “all the days of his life,” that he might “fear the Lord,”
keep His word, and thus prolong his days and the days of his children
(Deut. 17:18-20), so ought men now to study the Bible, and from it learn
that fear which is the beginning of wisdom, and that knowledge which is
unto salvation. As an aid and incentive to this, “Bible Readings for the
Home Circle” has been prepared and published.



Bible Readings; Their Value and Use


Briefly stated, a Bible reading consists of questions asked concerning
some subject, and answers to them from the Bible. In other words, Bible
readings mean a topical study of the Bible by means of questions and
answers.

In either receiving or imparting knowledge, there is nothing like the
interrogation-point. Nothing so readily quickens thought or awakens
interest as a question. Children would learn little if they asked no
questions, and he would indeed be a poor teacher who asked and answered
none.

Knowing the value of this means of awakening thought, arousing interest,
and imparting information, God, in His wisdom, inspired those who wrote
the Bible to ask many questions, that He might set us to thinking and
studying about the great themes with which it deals. See Job 38:4, 7;
14:14; Ps. 8:4; Mal. 3:1, 2, 8; Ex. 32:26; 1 Chron. 29:5.

But God not only asks questions; He answers them. The following may be
cited as a few short Bible readings, taken, both questions and answers,
directly from the Bible itself:—

“What man is he that desireth life, and loveth many days, that he may see
good?

“Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile. Depart from
evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it.” Ps. 34:12-14.

“Who hath woe? who hath sorrow? who hath contentions? who hath babbling?
who hath wounds without cause? who hath redness of eyes?

“They that tarry long at the wine; they that go to seek mixed wine.” Prov.
23:29, 30.

“Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord? or who shall stand in His
holy place?

“He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart; who hath not lifted up his
soul unto vanity, nor sworn deceitfully. He shall receive the blessing
from the Lord, and righteousness from the God of his salvation.” Ps.
24:3-5. See also Psalm 15 and Isa. 33:14-17.

The Bible itself, therefore, sets the example of giving instruction and of
imparting most valuable information by means of asking questions and
answering them.

The readings in this book as originally prepared were contributed by a
large number of Bible workers, whose experience in giving Bible readings
had taught them the most effective methods of presenting the different
subjects treated. Over one million two hundred and fifty thousand copies
of the book as thus prepared have been sold.

The work has recently been thoroughly revised and rewritten, much
enlarged, entirely reillustrated, with the readings classified and
carefully arranged according to topics, by a large committee of able
critics and Bible students. So extensive has been the revision, and so
much and valuable the new matter added, that the present work is
practically a new book, although retaining the same name and the same
general plan as the former work. Thus prepared, it is once more sent forth
on its mission of light and blessing.

As a help in enabling the reader quickly to discover the words which most
directly answer the question asked, they are generally printed in italic,
unless the entire scripture quoted is required for the purpose.

“Bible Readings” will be found an excellent aid to private, family, and
public study of the Word of God.



PART I. THE BIBLE; HOW TO STUDY AND UNDERSTAND IT


                             [Illustration.]

 The Sermon On The Mount. "He opened His mouth, and taught them, saying,
                         Blessed." Matt. 5:2, 3.


                             [Illustration.]

  Baruch Writing The Prophecies Of Jeremiah. "All scripture is given by
                    inspiration of God." 2 Tim. 3:16.



The Scriptures


1. By what name are the sacred writings of the Bible commonly known?

“Jesus saith unto them, Did ye never read in _the Scriptures_, The stone
which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner?”
Matt. 21:42.

2. What other title is given this revelation of God to man?

“And He answered and said unto them, My mother and My brethren are these
which hear _the word of God_, and do it.” Luke 8:21.

3. How were the Scriptures given?

“All scripture is given _by inspiration of God_.” 2 Tim. 3:16.

4. By whom were the men directed who thus spoke for God?

“For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of
God spake as they were moved _by the Holy Ghost_.” 2 Peter 1:21.

5. What specific instance is mentioned by Peter?

“Men and brethren, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled, _which
the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas_, which
was guide to them that took Jesus.” Acts 1:16.

6. How does David express this same truth?

“_The Spirit of the Lord spake by me_, and His word was in my tongue.” 2
Sam. 23:2.

7. Who, therefore, did the speaking through these men?

“_God_, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto
the fathers by the prophets.” Heb. 1:1.

8. For what purpose were the Scriptures written?

“For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written _for our
learning_, that we through patience and comfort of the Scriptures might
have hope.” Rom. 15:4.

9. For what is all scripture profitable?

“All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable _for
doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness_.”
2 Tim. 3:16.

10. What was God’s design in thus giving the Scriptures?

“That the man of God may be _perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good
works_.” Verse 17.

11. What estimate did Job place upon the words of God?

“Neither have I gone back from the commandment of His lips; _I have
esteemed the words of His mouth more than my necessary food_.” Job 23:12.

12. Upon what evidence did Jesus base His Messiahship?

“And beginning at Moses and all the _prophets_, He expounded unto them _in
all the scriptures_ the things concerning Himself.” Luke 24:27.

13. What three general divisions did Jesus recognize as including all the
writings of the Old Testament?

“And He said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while
I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written
_in the law of Moses_, and in _the prophets_, and in _the Psalms_,
concerning Me.” Verse 44.

14. What does God’s character preclude Him from doing?

“In hope of eternal life, which God, _that cannot lie_, promised before
the world began.” Titus 1:2.

15. What is God called in the Scriptures?

“He is the Rock, His work is perfect: for all His ways are judgment: _a
God of truth_ and without iniquity, just and right is He.” Deut. 32:4.

16. What, therefore, must be the character of His word?

“Sanctify them through Thy truth: _Thy word is truth._” John 17:17.

17. What test should therefore be applied to every professed teacher of
truth?

“_To the law and to the testimony:_ if they speak not according to this
word, it is because there is no light in them.” Isa. 8:20.

18. What does God design that His word shall be to us in this world of
darkness, sin, and death?

“Thy word is _a lamp_ unto my feet, and _a light_ unto my path.” Ps.
119:105.

19. To what extent has God magnified His word?

“Thou hast magnified Thy word _above all Thy name_.” Ps. 138:2.


    NOTE.—God did this by backing His promises with an oath based upon
    Himself. Heb. 6:13, 14. By this He pledged and placed at stake His
    name, or character, for the fulfilment of His word.


20. In what is the true poetry of life to be found?

“_Thy statutes_ have been _my songs_ in the house of my pilgrimage.” Ps.
119:54.

21. How long will the word of God endure?

“The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: but _the word of our God shall
stand forever_.” Isa. 40:8. “Heaven and earth shall pass away, but _My
words shall not pass away_.” Matt. 24:35.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    O Word of God incarnate,
      O Wisdom from on high,
    O Truth unchanged, unchanging,
      O Light of our dark sky!
    We praise Thee for the radiance
      That from the hallowed page,
    A lamp to guide our footsteps,
      Shines on from age to age.

    The church from her dear Master
      Received the gift divine,
    And still that light she lifteth
      O’er all the earth to shine.
    It is the golden casket
      Where gems of truth are stored;
    It is the heaven-drawn picture
      Of Christ the living Word.

    WILLIAM HOW.



The Study Of The Scriptures


                             [Illustration.]

  Searching The Scriptures. "Study to show thyself approved unto God." 2
                                Tim. 2:15.


1. What did Christ say to the Jews concerning the study of the Scriptures?

“_Search the Scriptures_; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and
they are they which testify of Me.” John 5:39

2. For what were the Bereans commended?

“These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received
the word with all readiness of mind, and _searched the Scriptures daily,
whether those things were so_.” Acts 17:11.


    NOTE.—“If God’s Word were studied as it should be,” says a modern
    Bible student, “men would have a breadth of mind, a nobility of
    character, and a stability of purpose that are rarely seen in
    these times. But there is little benefit derived from a hasty
    reading of the Scriptures. One may read the whole Bible through,
    and yet fail to see its beauty or comprehend its deep and hidden
    meaning. One passage studied until its significance is clear to
    the mind and its relation to the plan of salvation is evident, is
    of more value than the perusal of many chapters with no definite
    purpose in view, and no positive instruction gained.”


3. By what comparison is it indicated that some portions of God’s Word are
more difficult to understand than others?

“For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one
teach you again which be _the first principles of __ the oracles of God_;
and are become such as have need of _milk_, and not of _strong meat_.”
Heb. 5:12.

4. In what way is this comparison further explained?

“For every one that useth milk is unskilful in the word of righteousness:
for he is a _babe_. But strong meat belongeth to them that are of _full
age_, even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to
discern both good and evil.” Verses 13, 14.

5. What writings are specifically mentioned as containing some things
difficult to understand?

“And account that the long-suffering of our Lord is salvation; even as our
beloved brother _Paul_ also according to the wisdom given unto him hath
written unto you; as also in all _his epistles_, speaking in them of these
things; _in which are some things hard to be understood_, which they that
are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures,
unto their own destruction.” 2 Peter 3:15, 16.


    NOTE.—Some scriptures are too plain to be misunderstood, while the
    meaning of others cannot so readily be discerned. To obtain a
    comprehensive knowledge of any Bible truth, scripture must be
    compared with scripture, and there should be “careful research and
    prayerful reflection.” But all such study will be richly rewarded.


6. Who alone comprehends the things of God?

“For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is
in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but _the Spirit of
God_.” 1 Cor. 2:11.

7. How thoroughly does the Spirit search out the hidden treasures of
truth?

“But God hath revealed them unto us by His Spirit: for _the Spirit
searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God_.” Verse 10.

8. What is one purpose for which the Holy Spirit was sent?

“But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in
My name, _He shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your
remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you_.” John 14:26.

9. Why cannot the natural man receive the things of the Spirit?

“But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for
they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, _because they are
spiritually discerned_.” 1 Cor. 2:14.

10. For what spiritual enlightenment should every one pray?

“_Open Thou mine eyes_, that I may behold wondrous things out of Thy law.”
Ps. 119:18.

11. For what spiritual gift did the apostle Paul pray?

“That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto
you _the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him_.” Eph.
1:17.

12. Upon what conditions is an understanding of divine things promised?

“Yea, _if thou criest after knowledge, and liftest up thy voice for
understanding; if thou seekest her as silver, and searchest for her as for
hid treasures_; then shalt thou understand the fear of the Lord, and find
the knowledge of God.” Prov. 2:3-5.

13. What great blessing did Christ confer upon His disciples after His
resurrection?

“_Then opened He their understanding_, that they might understand the
Scriptures.” Luke 24:45.

14. What beings of a higher order than man desire to study the truths
revealed in the gospel of Christ?

“Which things _the angels_ desire to look into.” 1 Peter 1:12

15. What is promised him who wills to do God’s will?

“If any man will [willeth to, R. V.] do His will, _he shall know of the
doctrine_, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of Myself.” John 7:17.

16. How did Christ reprove those who, though familiar with the letter of
the Scriptures, failed to understand them?

“Jesus answered and said unto them, _Ye do err, not knowing the
Scriptures, nor the power of God_.” Matt. 22:29.

17. What are the Scriptures able to do for one who believes them?

“And that from a child thou hast known the Holy Scriptures, _which are
able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ
Jesus_.” 2 Tim. 3:15.

18. When asked by the rich young man the conditions of eternal life, to
what did Jesus direct his attention?

“He said unto him, _What is written in the law? how readest thou?_” Luke
10:26.

                             [Illustration.]

 Jesus At The Home Of Martha And Mary. "Mary hath chosen that good part,
           which shall not be taken away from her." Luke 10:42.


19. Whom did Jesus pronounce blessed?

“But He said, Yea rather, _blessed are they that hear the word of God, and
keep it_.” Luke 11:28.

20. What did Christ say concerning the book of Daniel?

“When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation spoken of by
Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (_whoso readeth, let him
understand_).” Matt. 24:15.

21. What other book of the Bible is especially commended for our study?

“Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear _the words of this
prophecy_ [_the book of Revelation_], and keep those things which are
written therein: for the time is at hand.” Rev. 1:3.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    *“**How Readest Thou?**”*

    It is one thing to read the Bible through,
    Another thing to read to learn and do.
    Some read it with design to learn to read,
    But to the subject pay but little heed.
    Some read it as their duty once a week,
    But no instruction from the Bible seek;
    While others read it with but little care,
    With no regard to how they read, nor where.
    Some read to bring themselves into repute,
    By showing others how they can dispute;
    While others read because their neighbors do,
    To see how long ’twill take to read it through.
    Some read it for the wonders that are there,—
    How David killed a lion and a bear;
    While others read it with uncommon care,
    Hoping to find some contradictions there.
    Some read as if it did not speak to them,
    But to the people at Jerusalem.
    One reads with father’s specs upon his head,
    And sees the thing just as his father said.
    Some read to prove a preadopted creed,
    Hence understand but little that they read;
    For every passage in the book they bend
    To make it suit that all-important end.
    Some people read, as I have often thought,
    To teach the book instead of being taught;
    And some there are who read it out of spite.
    I fear there are but few who read it right.
    But read it prayerfully, and you will see,
    Although men contradict, God’s words agree;
    For what the early Bible prophets wrote,
    We find that Christ and His apostles quote.
    So trust no creed that trembles to recall
    What has been penned by one and verified by all.



Power In The Word


                             [Illustration.]

            Christ The Word. "He spake, and it was." Ps. 33:9.


1. Through what agency did God create the heavens?

“_By the word of the Lord_ were the heavens made; and all the host of them
_by the breath of His mouth_.” “For _He spake_, and it was done; _He
commanded_, and it stood fast.” Ps. 33:6, 9.

2. By what does Christ uphold all things?

“Upholding all things _by the word of His power_.” Heb. 1:3.

3. Of what are some willingly ignorant?

“For this they willingly are ignorant of, that _by the word of God the
heavens were of old_, and the earth standing out of the water and in the
water: _whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water,
perished_.” 2 Peter 3:5, 6.

4. By what are the present heavens and earth reserved for a similar fate?

“But the heavens and the earth, which are now, _by the same word_ are kept
in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of
ungodly men.” Verse 7.

5. In what other scripture is it shown that creative power is exercised
through the word of God?

“Let them praise the name of the Lord: _for He commanded, and they were
created_.” Ps. 148:5.

6. What change is wrought in one who is in Christ?

“Therefore if any man be in Christ, _he is a new creature_ [there is _a
new creation_, R. V., margin]: old things are passed away; behold, _all
things are become new_.” 2 Cor. 5:17.

7. What is this new creation also called?

“Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except
a man be _born again_, he cannot see the kingdom of God.” John 3:3.

8. Through what agency is this new creation, or new birth, accomplished?

“Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, _by the
word of God_, which liveth and abideth forever.” 1 Peter 1:23.

9. What is the first creative commandment recorded in the Bible? and what
was the result of it?

“And God said, _Let there be light_: and _there was light_.” Gen. 1:3.

10. What connection is there between the creation of light in the
beginning, and the light of the gospel?

“For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in
our hearts, to give _the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the
face of Jesus Christ_.” 2 Cor. 4:6.

11. Why were the people astonished at Christ’s teaching?

“And they were astonished at His doctrine: _for His word was with power_.”
Luke 4:32.

12. What testified to the power of the word of Christ?

“And they were all amazed, and spake among themselves, saying, What a word
is this! for _with authority and power He commandeth the unclean spirits,
and they come out_.” Verse 36.

13. What did Christ say is the seed of the kingdom of God?

“The seed is _the word of God_.” Luke 8:11.

14. Where should the word of Christ dwell?

“Let the word of Christ _dwell in you_ richly in all wisdom.” Col. 3:16.

15. What did Christ say of the unbelieving Jews respecting the word of
God?

“_Ye have not His word abiding in you:_ for whom He hath sent, Him ye
believe not.” John 5:38.

16. How does the word of God work in the believer?

“For this cause also thank we God without ceasing, because, when ye
received the word of God which ye heard of us, ye received it not as the
word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, _which effectually
worketh also in you that believe_.” 1 Thess. 2:13.

                             [Illustration.]

  The Centurion. "Speak the word only, and my servant shall be healed."
                                Matt. 8:8.


17. What nature is imparted through the promises of God?

“Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: _that by
these ye might be partakers of the divine nature_, having escaped the
corruption that is in the world through lust.” 2 Peter 1:4.

18. By what are believers made clean?

“Now ye are clean _through the word which I have spoken unto you_.” John
15:3.

19. How may a young man cleanse his way?

“Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way? _by taking heed thereto
according to Thy word_.” Ps. 119:9.

20. How did God heal His people anciently?

“_He sent His word, and healed them_, and delivered them from their
destructions.” Ps. 107:20.

21. How did the centurion show his faith in the power of Christ’s word to
heal?

“The centurion answered and said, Lord, I am not worthy that Thou
shouldest come under my roof: but _speak the word only, and my servant
shall be healed_.” Matt. 8:8.

22. What power has the word when hidden in the heart?

“Thy word have I hid in mine heart, _that I might not sin against Thee_.”
Ps. 119:11. See also Ps. 17:4.

23. Why did God humble Israel, and suffer them to hunger?

“And He humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with
manna, ... _that He might make thee know that man doth not live by bread
only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth
man live_.” Deut. 8:3.

24. What is required beyond a mere hearing of the word?

“But be ye _doers of the word_, and not hearers only, deceiving your own
selves.” James 1:22.

25. What is the result of doing God’s will?

“And the world passeth away, and the lust thereof: but _he that doeth the
will of God abideth forever_.” 1 John 2:17.



The Life-Giving Word


                             [Illustration.]

 The Raising Of Jairus’s Daughter. "His commandment is life everlasting."
                               John 12:50.


1. What is the nature of the word of God?

“For the word of God is _quick_, and _powerful_, and _sharper than any
two-edged sword_, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and
spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is _a discerner of the thoughts
and intents of the heart_.” Heb. 4:12.

2. How are the oracles of God described?

“This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which
spake to him in the mount Sina, and with our fathers: who received _the
lively oracles_ to give unto us.” Acts 7:38.

3. What did Christ declare His words to be?

“It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words
that I speak unto you, they are _spirit_, and they are _life_.” John 6:63.

4. What was Peter’s testimony concerning Christ’s words?

“Then Simon Peter answered Him, Lord, to whom shall we go? _Thou hast the
words of eternal life._” Verse 68.

5. What did Christ declare His Father’s commandment to be?

“And I know that His commandment is _life everlasting_.” John 12:50.

6. What lesson was intended by feeding the children of Israel with the
manna?

“And He humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with
manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; _that He
might make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but by every
word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man live_.” Deut.
8:3.

7. What interpretation did Jesus give to this lesson?

“Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you
not that bread from heaven; but My Father giveth you the true bread from
heaven. _For the bread of God is He which cometh down from heaven, and
giveth life unto the world._” John 6:32, 33.

8. In further explanation of the meaning of this lesson, what did Jesus
declare Himself to be?

“And Jesus said unto them, _I am the bread of life_: he that cometh to Me
shall never hunger; and he that believeth on Me shall never thirst.” Verse
35.

9. What benefit is derived from eating this bread of life?

“As the living Father hath sent Me, and I live by the Father: _so he that
eateth Me, even he shall live by Me_. This is that bread which came down
from heaven: not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead: _he that
eateth of this bread shall live forever_.” Verses 57, 58.

10. What instance is recorded of one who fed upon the true manna?

“_Thy words were found, and I did eat them_; and Thy word was unto me the
joy and rejoicing of mine heart: for I am called by Thy name, O Lord God
of hosts.” Jer. 15:16.

11. What name is applied to Jesus as the revelation of the thought of God
in the flesh?

“In the beginning was _the Word_, and the Word was with God, and the Word
was God.” John 1:1. “And He was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood:
and His name is called _The Word of God_.” Rev. 19:13.

12. What was in the Word?

“In Him was _life_; and the life was the light of men.” John 1:4.

13. What is Jesus therefore also called?

“That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have
seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled,
of _the Word of life_.” 1 John 1:1.

14. Why did the Jews fail to find life in the Scriptures?

“Search the Scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and
they are they which testify of Me. And _ye will not come to Me, that ye
might have life_.” John 5:39, 40.

15. What constitutes a part of Christian experience?

“And have _tasted the good word of God_, and the powers of the world to
come.” Heb. 6:5. See answer to question 10.

16. In assigning him his life-work, what instruction did Jesus give to
Peter?

“Jesus saith unto him, _Feed My sheep_.” John 21:17.

17. What apostolic injunction indicates the way in which this instruction
is to be obeyed?

“I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall
judge the quick and the dead at His appearing and His kingdom; _Preach the
word_; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with
all long-suffering and doctrine.” 2 Tim. 4:1, 2.

18. How are we instructed to pray for both physical and spiritual
nourishment?

“Give us this day our daily bread.” Matt. 6:11.


    NOTE.—When “the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us,” the
    thought of God was revealed in human flesh. When holy men of God
    “spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost,” the thought of God
    was revealed in human language. The union of the divine and the
    human in the manifestation of God’s thought in the flesh is
    declared to be “the mystery of godliness;” and there is the same
    mystery in the union of the divine thought and human language. The
    two revelations of God, in human flesh and in human speech, are
    both called the _Word of God_, and both are the _Word of life_. He
    who fails to find Christ thus in the Scriptures will not be able
    to feed upon the Word as the life-giving Word.


    Like wandering sheep o’er mountains cold,
      Since all have gone astray;
    To life and peace within the fold,
      How may I find the way?

    To Christ the Way, the Truth, the Life,
      I come, no more to roam;
    He’ll guide me to my Father’s house,
      To my eternal home.



Christ In All The Bible


                             [Illustration.]

 On The Way To Emmaus. "He expounded unto them in all the scriptures the
                 things concerning Himself." Luke 24:27.


1. Of whom did Christ say the Scriptures testify?

“Search the Scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and
_they are they which testify of Me_.” John 5:39.


    NOTE.—“Search the Old Testament Scriptures: for they are they that
    testify of Christ. To find Him in them is the true and legitimate
    end of their study. To be able to interpret them as He interpreted
    them is the best result of all Biblical learning.”—_Dean Alford._


2. Of whom did Moses and the prophets write?

“Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found Him, of whom
Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, _Jesus of Nazareth_, the
son of Joseph.” John 1:45.


    NOTE.—In her translation of the Old Testament Scriptures, Helen
    Spurrell expressed the following wish for all who should read her
    translation: “May very many exclaim, as the translator has often
    done when studying numerous passages in the original, _I have
    found the Messiah_!”


3. From whose words did Christ say the disciples ought to have learned of
His death and resurrection?

“O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that _the prophets_ have
spoken: ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into
His glory?” Luke 24:25, 26.

4. How did Christ make it clear to them that the Scriptures testify of
Him?

“And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, _He expounded unto them in
all the scriptures the things concerning Himself_.” Verse 27

5. What did He say a little later to the eleven?

“These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you,
that _all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of
Moses, and in the prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning Me_.” Verse 44.

6. Where in the Bible do we find the first promise of a Redeemer?

“And the Lord God said unto the serpent, ... I will put enmity between
thee and the woman, and between thy seed and _her seed_; it shall bruise
thy head, and thou shalt bruise His heel.” Gen. 3:14, 15.

7. In what words was this promise renewed to Abraham?

“_In thy seed_ shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.” Gen. 22:18.
See also Gen. 26:4; 28:14.

8. To whom did this promised seed refer?

“Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to
seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, _which is Christ_.”
Gal. 3:16.

9. Whom did God promise to send with Israel to guide them into the
promised land?

“Behold, I send _an Angel_ before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to
bring thee into the place which I have prepared.” Ex. 23:20.

10. Who was the Rock that went with them?

“And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that
spiritual Rock that followed [went with, margin] them: and _that Rock was
Christ_.” 1 Cor. 10:4.

11. In what prophecy are Christ’s life, suffering, and death touchingly
foretold?

In the fifty-third chapter of Isaiah.

12. Where is the price of Christ’s betrayal foretold?

“So they weighed for My price _thirty pieces of silver_.” Zech. 11:12. See
Matt. 26:15.

13. Where in the Psalms are Christ’s dying words recorded?

“My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken Me?” Ps. 22:1. See Matt. 27:46.
“Into Thine hand I commit My spirit.” Ps. 31:5. See Luke 23:46.

14. How is Christ’s resurrection foretold in the Psalms?

                             [Illustration.]

 Made Known In The Breaking Of Bread. "Did not our heart burn within us,
    while He talked with us by the way, and while He opened to us the
                         scriptures?" Luke 24:32.


“I will declare the decree: the Lord hath said unto Me, Thou art My Son;
_this day have I begotten Thee_.” Ps. 2:7. See Acts 13:33.

15. Where again in the Psalms is His resurrection foretold?

“For _Thou wilt not leave My soul in hell_; neither wilt Thou suffer Thine
Holy One to see _corruption_.” Ps. 16:10. See Acts 2:25-31.

16. In what words does Daniel foretell Christ’s receiving His kingdom?

“I saw in the night-visions, and, behold, one like the _Son of man_ came
with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they
brought Him near before Him. And _there was given Him dominion, and glory,
and a kingdom_, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve Him:
His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and
His kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.” Dan. 7:13, 14.

See also Luke 1:32, 33; 19:11, 12; Rev. 11:15.

17. How is Christ’s second coming described in the Psalms?

“Let the floods clap their hands: let the hills be joyful together before
the Lord; _for He cometh to judge the earth_: with righteousness shall He
judge the world, and the people with equity.” Ps. 98:8, 9. “_Our God shall
come, and shall not keep silence_: a fire shall devour before Him, and it
shall be very tempestuous round about Him. He shall call to the heavens
from above, and to the earth, that He may judge His people. Gather My
saints together unto Me; those that have made a covenant with Me by
sacrifice.” Ps. 50:3-5.

18. What is Christ to one renewed after God’s image? “Christ is _all_, and
_in all_.” Col. 3:11.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    A glory in the Word we find
      When grace restores our sight;
    But sin has darkened all the mind,
      And veiled the heavenly light.

    When God’s own Spirit clears our view,
      How bright the doctrines shine!
    Their holy fruits and sweetness show
      Their Author is divine.

    How blest we are, with open face
      To view Thy glory, Lord,
    And all Thy image here to trace,
      Reflected in Thy Word!
                  CAMPBELL’S COLLECTION.



Titles Of Christ



In the Old Testament


Seed of the woman. Gen. 3:15.
Mine Angel. Ex. 23:23.
A Star out of Jacob. Num. 24:17.
A Prophet. Deut. 18:15, 18.
Captain of the host of the Lord. Joshua 5:14.
A Friend that sticketh closer than a brother. Prov. 18:24.
My Beloved. Song of Solomon 2:10.
Chiefest among ten thousand. Song of Solomon 5:10.
(One) altogether lovely. Song of Solomon 5:16.
The Mighty God. Isa. 9:6.
The Everlasting Father. Isa. 9:6.
The Prince of Peace. Isa. 9:6.
The Lord Our Righteousness. Jer. 23:5, 6.
The Son of God. Dan. 3:25.
The Son of Man. Dan. 7:13.
Michael, ... the Great Prince. Dan. 12:1.
The Branch. Zech. 6:12, 13.
The Messenger of the covenant. Mal. 3:1.
The Sun of Righteousness. Mal. 4:2.



In the New Testament


The Word. John 1:1.
The Lamb of God. John 1:29.
The Bread of life. John 6:35.
The Light of the world. John 8:12.
The Door of the Sheep. John 10:7.
The Good Shepherd. Verse 11.
The Resurrection and the Life. John 11:25.
The Way, the Truth, and the Life. John 14:6.
The True Vine. John 15:1.
That Rock. 1 Cor. 10:4.
The last Adam. 1 Cor. 15:45.
The Chief Corner-stone. Eph. 2:20.
The Man Christ Jesus. 1 Tim. 2:5.
A Great High Priest. Heb. 4:14.
The Author and Finisher of our faith. Heb. 12:2.
The Chief Shepherd. 1 Peter 5:4.
An Advocate. 1 John 2:1.
Michael, the Archangel. Jude 9.
The Lion of the tribe of Judah. Rev. 5:5.
The Morning Star. Rev. 22:16.
King of kings, and Lord of lords. Rev. 19:16.


    NOTE.—Christ is referred to in the Bible under something like
    three hundred different titles and figures, of which the above are
    only examples. Why this is so is because He is all that these
    names and figures represent.



PART II. SIN; ITS ORIGIN, RESULTS, AND REMEDY


                             [Illustration.]

 Driven From Eden. "Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden
    of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken." Gen. 3:23.



Creation And The Creator


                             [Illustration.]

             Creation. "Behold, it was very good." Gen. 1:31.


1. By whom were the heavens and the earth created?

“In the beginning _God_ created the heaven and the earth.” Gen. 1:1.

2. Through whom did God create all things?

“For _by Him_ [the Son] were all things created, that are in heaven, and
that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or
dominions, or principalities, or powers: _all things were created by Him_,
and for Him.” Col. 1:16. “All things were made _by Him_ [_through Him_, R.
V., margin]: and without Him was not anything made that was made.” John
1:3. See also Heb. 1:1, 2.

3. What do the heavens declare?

“The heavens declare _the glory of God_; and the firmament showeth His
handiwork.” Ps. 19:1.

4. What was God’s object in making the earth?

“For thus saith the Lord that created the heavens; God Himself that formed
the earth and made it; He hath established it, He created it not in vain,
_He formed it to be inhabited_.” Isa. 45:18.

5. In whose image was man created?

“So God created man _in His own image_, in the image of God created He
him; male and female created He them.” Gen. 1:27.

6. What home did God make for man in the beginning?

“And the Lord God planted _a garden_ eastward in Eden; and there He put
the man whom He had formed. And out of the ground made the Lord God to
grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food.... And
the Lord God took the man, and put him into _the garden of Eden_ to dress
it and to keep it.” Gen. 2:8-15.

7. What may be perceived through the things that are made?

“For _the invisible things of Him_ from the creation of the world are
clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even _His
eternal power and Godhead_; so that they are without excuse.” Rom. 1:20.

8. Whose workmanship is the Christian?

“For we are _His workmanship_, created in Christ Jesus unto good works,
which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.” Eph. 2:10.

9. What assurance is given concerning the unfailing power of the Creator?

“Hast thou not known? hast thou not heard, that the everlasting God, the
Lord, the Creator of the ends of the earth, _fainteth not, neither is
weary_? there is no searching of His understanding.” Isa. 40:28.

10. What encouraging statement follows concerning the supply of power to
the faint?

“_He giveth power to the faint_; and to them that have no might _He
increaseth strength_.” Verse 29.

11. To whom are those who suffer exhorted to commit their souls?

“Wherefore let them also that suffer according to the will of God commit
their souls in well-doing _unto a faithful Creator_.” 1 Peter 4:19, R. V.

12. What gave special force to the oath of an angel?

“And the angel which I saw stand upon the sea and upon the earth lifted up
his hand to heaven, and sware by Him that liveth forever and ever, _who
created heaven, and the things that therein are, and the earth, and the
things that therein are, and the sea, and the things which are therein_,
that there should be time no longer.” Rev. 10:5, 6.

13. What contrast is drawn in the Scriptures between the Creator and false
gods?

“Thus shall ye say unto them, _The gods that have not made the heavens and
the earth_, even they shall perish from the earth, and from under these
heavens.... The portion of Jacob is not like them: for _He is the former
of all things_; and Israel is the rod of His inheritance: The Lord of
hosts is His name.” Jer. 10:11-16.

14. To whom is our worship justly due?

“O come, let us worship and bow down: let us kneel before _the Lord our
Maker_.” Ps. 95:6.

15. In view of the curse upon this creation, what has God promised?

“For, behold, _I create new heavens and a new earth_: and the former shall
not be remembered, nor come into mind.” Isa. 65:17. See Rev. 21:1.

16. What is the true basis of the brotherhood of man?

“_Have we not all one Father? hath not one God created us?_ why do we deal
treacherously every man against his brother, by profaning the covenant of
our fathers?” Mal. 2:10.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    O Thou eternal One! whose presence bright
      All space doth occupy, all motion guide;
    Unchanged through time’s all devastating flight!
      Thou only God—there is no God beside!
    Being above all beings! Mighty One,
      Whom none can comprehend and none explore;
    Who fill’st existence with Thyself alone,
      Embracing all, supporting, ruling o’er;
      Being whom we call God, and know no more!

    Thou from primeval nothingness didst call
      First chaos, then existence; Lord, on Thee
    Eternity hath its foundation; all
      Sprung forth from Thee,—of light, joy, harmony,
    Sole origin,—all life, all beauty Thine;
      Thy word created all, and doth create;
    Thy splendor fills all space with rays divine;
      Thou art and wert and shalt be! Glorious! Great!
      Light-giving, life-sustaining Potentate!

    DERZHAVIN.



The Origin Of Evil


                             [Illustration.]

 The Fall Of Satan. "I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven." Luke
                                  10:18.


1. With whom did sin originate?

“He that committeth sin is of the devil; for _the devil sinneth from the
beginning_.” 1 John 3:8.


    NOTE.—Without the Bible, the question of the origin of evil would
    remain unexplained.


2. From what time has the devil been a murderer?

“Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do.
_He was a murderer from the beginning_, and abode not in the truth,
because there is no truth in him.” John 8:44.

3. What is the devil’s relationship to lying?

“When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for _he is a liar, and
the father of it_.” Same verse.

4. Was Satan created sinful?

“Thou wast _perfect_ in thy ways from the day that thou wast created,
_till iniquity was found in thee_.” Eze. 28:15.


    NOTE.—This, and the statement in John 8:44, that he “_abode_ not
    in the truth,” show that Satan was once _perfect_, and _in the
    truth_. Peter speaks of “the angels that _sinned_” (2 Peter 2:4);
    and Jude refers to “the angels which _kept not their first
    estate_” (Jude 6); both of which show that these angels were once
    in a state of sinlessness and innocence.


5. What further statement of Christ seems to lay the responsibility for
the origin of sin upon Satan and his angels?

“Then shall He say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from Me, ye
cursed, into everlasting fire, _prepared for the devil and his angels_.”
Matt. 25:41.

6. What led to Satan’s sin, rebellion, and downfall?

“_Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty_, thou hast corrupted
thy wisdom by reason of thy _brightness_.” Eze. 28:17. “Thou hast said in
thine heart, _I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the
stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the
sides of the north: ... I will be like the Most High_.” Isa. 14:13, 14.


    NOTE.—In a word, pride and self-exaltation led to Satan’s
    downfall, and for these there is no justification or adequate
    excuse. “Pride goeth before destruction, and a haughty spirit
    before a fall.” Prov. 16:18. Hence, while we may know of the
    origin, cause, character, and results of evil, no good or
    sufficient reason or excuse can be given for it. To excuse it is
    to justify it; and the moment it is justified it ceases to be sin.
    All sin is a manifestation of selfishness in some form, and its
    results are the opposite of those prompted by love. The experiment
    of sin will result finally in its utter abandonment and banishment
    forever, by all created intelligences, throughout the entire
    universe of God. Only those who foolishly and persistently cling
    to sin will be destroyed with it. The wicked will then “be as
    though they had not been” (Obadiah 16), and the righteous shall
    “shine as the brightness of the firmament,” and “as the stars
    forever and ever.” Dan. 12:3. “Affliction shall not rise up the
    second time.” Nahum 1:9. See reading on “Origin, History, and
    Destiny of Satan,” page 499.


7. In contrast with the pride and self-exaltation exhibited by Satan, what
spirit did Christ manifest?

“Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with
God: but _made Himself of no reputation_, and took upon Him the form of a
_servant_, and was made in the likeness of _men_: and being found in
fashion as a man, _He humbled Himself_, and became obedient unto _death_,
even _the death of the cross_.” Phil. 2:6-8.

8. After man had sinned, how did God show His love, and His willingness to
forgive?

“For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that
whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”
John 3:16.


    NOTE.—Inasmuch as God, who is love, who delights in mercy, and who
    changes not, offered pardon and granted a period of probation to
    man when he sinned, it is but reasonable to conclude that a like
    course was pursued toward the heavenly intelligences who first
    sinned, and that only those who persisted in sin, and took their
    stand in open revolt and rebellion against God and the government
    of heaven, were finally cast out of heaven. Rev. 12:7-9.


                             [Illustration.]

 Cain And Abel--The First Murder. "Cain, who was of that wicked one, and
                     slew his brother." 1 John 3:12.



The Fall And Redemption Of Man


                             [Illustration.]

  Sin And Its Remedy. "The wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is
         eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord." Rom. 6:23.


1. What is sin declared to be?

“Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for _sin is the
transgression of the law_.” 1 John 3:4.

2. What precedes the manifestation of sin?

“Then when _lust_ hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin.” James 1:15.

3. What is the final result or fruit of sin?

“And sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth _death_.” Same verse. “The
wages of sin is _death_.” Rom. 6:23.

4. Upon how many of the human race did death pass as the result of Adam’s
transgression?

“By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so _death
passed upon all men_, for that all have sinned.” Rom. 5:12. “In Adam _all
die_.” 1 Cor. 15:22.

5. How was the earth itself affected by Adam’s sin?

“_Cursed is the ground_ for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all
the days of thy life; _thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to
thee_.” Gen. 3:17, 18.

6. What additional curse came as the result of the first murder?

“And the Lord said unto Cain, ... And _now art thou cursed from the
earth_, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother’s blood from
thy hand; _when thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield
unto thee her strength_.” Gen. 4:9-12.

7. What terrible judgment came in consequence of continued sin and
transgression against God?

“And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face
of the earth.... The end of all flesh is come before Me; for the earth is
filled with violence.” “And Noah was six hundred years old when _the flood
of waters_ was upon the earth.... The same day were _all the fountains of
the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened_.” Gen.
6:7-13; 7:6-11.

8. After the flood, what came in consequence of further apostasy from God?

“And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children
of men builded. And the Lord said, Behold, the people is one, and they
have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be
restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. Go to, let Us go
down, and there _confound their language, that they may not understand one
another’s speech_. So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the
face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city.” Gen. 11:5-8.

9. Into what condition has sin brought the entire creation?

“For we know that the whole creation _groaneth_ and _travaileth in pain
together_ until now.” Rom. 8:22.

10. What explains God’s apparent delay in dealing with sin?

“The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some men count
slackness; but is _long-suffering to us ward_, not willing that any should
perish, but that all should come to repentance.” 2 Peter 3:9.

11. What is God’s attitude toward the sinner?

“For _I have no pleasure in the death of him that dieth_, saith the Lord
God: wherefore turn yourselves, and live ye.” Eze. 18:32.

12. Can man free himself from the dominion of sin?

“Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots? _then may ye
also do good, that are accustomed to do evil_.” Jer. 13:23.

13. What place has the will in determining whether man shall have life?

“And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say,
Come. And let him that is athirst come. And _whosoever will, let him take
the water of life freely_.” Rev. 22:17.

14. To what extent has Christ suffered for sinners?

“He was _wounded_ for our transgressions, He was _bruised_ for our
iniquities: the _chastisement_ of our peace was upon Him; and with His
_stripes_ we are healed.” Isa. 53:5.

15. For what purpose was Christ manifested?

“And we know that _He was manifested to take away our sins_; and in Him is
no sin.... He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the devil sinneth
from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, _that
He might destroy the works of the devil_.” 1 John 3:5-8.

16. What was one direct purpose of the incarnation of Christ?

“Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, He also
Himself likewise took part of the same; _that through death He might
destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil_.” Heb. 2:14.

17. What triumphant chorus will mark the end of the reign of sin?

“And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the
earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I
saying, _Blessing, and honor, and glory, and power, be unto Him that
sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb forever and ever_.” Rev. 5:13.

18. When and by what means will the effects of sin be removed?

“But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in the which
the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and _the elements shall
melt with fervent heat, the earth also, and the works that are therein
shall be burned up_.” 2 Peter 3:10.

19. How will the curse of the confusion of tongues be brought to an end?

“For _then will I turn to the people a pure language_, that they may all
call upon the name of the Lord, to serve Him with one consent.” Zeph. 3:9.

20. How thoroughly will the effects of sin be removed?

“And God shall _wipe away all tears_ from their eyes; and there shall be
_no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any
more pain: for the former things are passed away_.” Rev. 21:4. “_And there
shall be no more curse_: but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in
it [the holy city]; and His servants shall serve Him.” Rev. 22:3.

21. Will sin and its evil results ever appear again?

“What do ye imagine against the Lord? He will make an utter end:
_affliction shall not rise up the second time_.” Nahum 1:9. “There shall
be _no more death_.” “And there shall be _no more curse_.” Rev. 21:4;
22:3.


    NOTE.—That sin exists none can deny. Why it was permitted has
    perplexed many minds. But He who can bring light out of darkness
    (2 Cor. 4:6), make the wrath of man to praise Him (Ps. 76:10), and
    turn a curse into a blessing (Deut. 23:5), can bring good out of
    evil, and turn mistakes and downfalls into stepping-stones to
    higher ground. Heaven will be happier for the sorrows of earth.
    “Sorrows remembered sweeten present joy,” says Robert Pollock, in
    “The Course of Time,” page 29. In the final outcome it will be
    seen that all things have worked together for good to them that
    love God. Rom. 8:28. Cowper, despondent and about to drown
    himself, was carried the wrong way by his driver, and went home to
    write the inspiring hymn below.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    God moves in a mysterious way
      His wonders to perform;
    He plants His footsteps in the sea
      And rides upon the storm.

    Deep in unfathomable mines
      Of never-failing skill,
    He treasures up His bright designs,
      And works His sovereign will.

    Ye fearful saints, fresh courage take;
      The clouds ye so much dread
    Are big with mercy, and shall break
      In blessings o’er your head.

    Judge not the Lord by feeble sense,
      But trust Him for His grace;
    Behind a frowning providence
      He hides a smiling face.

    Blind unbelief is sure to err,
      And scan His work in vain;
    God is His own interpreter,
      And He will make it plain.
                        WILLIAM COWPER.



Creation And Redemption


                             [Illustration.]

Creative Power. "For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto
                         good works." Eph. 2:10.


1. What is revealed concerning God in the first verse of the Bible?

“In the beginning _God created the heaven and the earth_.” Gen. 1:1.

2. What contrast is repeatedly drawn in the Scriptures between the true
God and false gods?

“Thus shall ye say unto them, _The gods that have not made the heavens and
the earth_, even they shall perish from the earth, and from under these
heavens.... The portion of Jacob is not like them: for _He is the former
of all things_; and Israel is the rod of His inheritance: The Lord of
hosts is His name.” Jer. 10:11-16. See Jer. 14:22; Acts 17:22-29; Rev.
14:6-10.

3. Through whom did God work in creating all things?

“In the beginning was _the Word_, and the Word was with God, and the Word
was God. The same was in the beginning with God. _All things were made by
Him_; and without Him was not anything made that was made.” John 1:1-3.

4. Through whom is redemption wrought?

“But God commendeth His love toward us, in that, while we were yet
sinners, _Christ died for us_. Much more then, being now justified by His
blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him.” Rom. 5:8, 9.

5. In what scripture do we learn that Christ, the active agent in
creation, is also the head of the church?

“_For by Him were all things created_, that are in heaven, and that are in
earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or
principalities, or powers: _all things were created by Him_, and for Him:
and He is before all things, and _by Him all things consist_. And _He is
the head of the body, the church_: who is the beginning, the first-born
from the dead; that in all things He might have the preeminence.” Col.
1:16-18.

6. What scripture shows that the Creator is also the Redeemer?

“But now thus saith _the Lord that created thee, O Jacob_, and He that
formed thee, O Israel, Fear not: for _I have redeemed thee_, I have called
thee by thy name; thou art Mine.” Isa. 43:1.

7. Who is declared to be the source of power to the weak?

“Hast thou not known? hast thou not heard, that the everlasting God, the
Lord, _the Creator_ of the ends of the earth, fainteth not, neither is
weary? there is no searching of His understanding. _He giveth power to the
faint_; and to them that have no might He increaseth strength.” Isa.
40:28, 29.

8. What prayer of David shows that he regarded redemption as a creative
work?

“_Create in me a clean heart_, O God; and renew a right spirit within me.”
Ps. 51:10.

9. Who keeps the heavenly bodies in their places?

“To whom then will ye liken Me, or shall I be equal? saith _the Holy One_.
Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these things, _that
bringeth out their host by number_: He calleth them all by names by the
greatness of His might, for that He is strong in power; not one faileth.”
Isa. 40:25, 26.

10. What can the same Holy One do for the believer?

“Now unto Him that is able to _keep you from falling_, and to present you
faultless before the presence of His glory with exceeding joy, to the only
wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now
and ever. Amen.” Jude 24, 25.

11. What is the measure of the power which is available for the help of
the believer?

“That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto
you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him: the eyes
of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope
of His calling, and what the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the
saints, and what is the exceeding greatness of His power to us ward who
believe, _according to the working of His mighty power, which He wrought
in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead, and set Him at His own right
hand in the heavenly places_.” Eph. 1:17-20.

12. How great was the deliverance of Israel from Egyptian bondage?

“Ask now of the days that are past, which were before thee, _since the day
that God created man upon the earth_, and ask from the one side of heaven
unto the other, whether there hath been any such thing as this great thing
is, or hath been heard like it?... _Hath God assayed to go and take Him a
nation from the midst of another nation, by temptations, by signs, and by
wonders, and by war, and by a mighty hand, and by a stretched out arm, and
by great terrors_, according to all that the Lord your God did for you in
Egypt before your eyes?” Deut. 4:32-34.


    NOTE.—The great deliverance of Israel from bondage and oppression
    in Egypt is but a type of the power of God displayed in the
    deliverance of man from the bondage and slavery of sin. In both is
    seen a manifestation of creative power.


13. What scripture plainly states that it is creative power which
transforms the believer?

“For we are His workmanship, _created in Christ Jesus unto good works_,
which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.” Eph. 2:10.

14. Of what great work is the Sabbath both a memorial and a sign?

“_Remember the Sabbath day_, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labor,
and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy
God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy
daughter, thy man servant, nor thy maid servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy
stranger that is within thy gates: _for in six days the Lord made heaven
and earth, the sea, and all that in them is_, and rested the seventh day:
wherefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.” Ex. 20:8-11.
“It is a _sign_ between Me and the children of Israel forever: _for in six
days the Lord made heaven and earth_, and on the seventh day He rested,
and was refreshed.” Ex. 31:17.

15. Inasmuch as creation and redemption are both wrought by the same
creative power, of what besides the original creation was the Sabbath
given to be a sign?

“Moreover also I gave them My Sabbaths, to be a sign between Me and them,
_that they might know that I am the Lord that sanctify them_.” Eze. 20:12.

16. Through whose agency is the material universe sustained?

“And He [Christ] is before all things, and in Him all things _hold
together_.” Col. 1:17, R. V., margin.

17. What statement shows that all things, both material and spiritual, are
sustained by the same personal agency?

“But to us there is ... one Lord Jesus Christ, _by whom are all things_,
and we by Him.” 1 Cor. 8:6.

18. Why is God worthy to receive glory and honor?

“Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honor and power: _for Thou
hast created all things_, and for Thy pleasure they are and were created.”
Rev. 4:11.


    NOTE.—That comparatively modern view of creation known as
    evolution, which rests upon human research rather than upon divine
    revelation, and which substitutes an impersonal force for a
    personal Creator, overthrows the very foundation of the gospel.
    Redemption is simply the new creation, and the Creator is the
    Redeemer. The Head of the original creation is the Head of the new
    creation. The original creation was wrought through Christ by the
    power of the word; the new creation, or redemption, is wrought in
    exactly the same way. The evolutionary theory of creation
    inevitably involves an evolutionary theory of the gospel, and sets
    aside the truth concerning sin, the atoning sacrifice of Christ,
    and the necessity of becoming new creatures through faith in the
    saving power of Christ.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    O worship the King, all-glorious above,
    And gratefully sing His wonderful love;
    Our Shield and Defender, the Ancient of days,
    Pavilioned in splendor, and girded with praise!

    O tell of His might, and sing of His grace,
    Whose robe is the light; whose canopy, space;
    His chariots of wrath the deep thunder-clouds form,
    And dark is His path on the wings of the storm!

    Thy bountiful care, what tongue can recite?
    It breathes in the air, it shines in the light;
    It streams from the hills, it descends to the plain,
    And sweetly distils in the dew and the rain.

    Frail children of dust, and feeble as frail;
    In Thee do we trust, nor find Thee to fail;
    Thy mercies, how tender! how firm to the end!
    Our Maker, Defender, Redeemer, and Friend!
                                  ROBERT GRANT.



The Character And Attributes Of God


                             [Illustration.]

   The Bow Of Promise. "This is the token of the covenant." Gen. 9:17.


1. In what one word is the character of God expressed?

“He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is _love_.” 1 John 4:8.

2. What are some of the attributes of God?

“The Lord is _righteous_ in all His ways, and _holy_ in all His works.”
Ps. 145:17.

3. Does Christ possess these same attributes?

“By His knowledge shall _My righteous servant_ [Christ] justify many.”
Isa. 53:11. “Neither wilt Thou suffer _Thine Holy One_ to see corruption.”
Acts 2:27.

4. When proclaiming His name to Moses, how did the Lord define His
character?

“And the Lord descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and
proclaimed the name of the Lord. And the Lord passed by before him, and
proclaimed, The Lord, The Lord God, _merciful_ and _gracious_,
_long-suffering_, and _abundant in goodness and truth_, _keeping mercy for
thousands_, _forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin_, and that will
by no means clear the guilty.” Ex. 34:5-7.

5. What is said of the tender compassion of God?

“But Thou, O Lord, art a God _full of compassion_, and gracious,
long-suffering, and plenteous in mercy and truth.” Ps. 86:15.

6. What is said of God’s faithfulness in keeping His promises?

“Know therefore that the Lord thy God, He is God, _the faithful God_,
which keepeth covenant and mercy with them that love Him and keep His
commandments to a thousand generations.” Deut. 7:9.

7. What is said of the strength and wisdom of God?

“Behold, God is _mighty_, and despiseth not any: He is _mighty in strength
and wisdom_.” Job 36:5.

8. What treasures are hid in Christ?

“In whom are hid all the treasures of _wisdom_ and _knowledge_.” Col. 2:3.

9. In what language is the justice of God described?

“He is the Rock, His work is perfect; for _all His ways are judgment_: a
God of truth and without iniquity, _just and right is He_.” Deut. 32:4.

10. In what words is His impartiality proclaimed?

“For the Lord your God is God of gods, and Lord of lords, a great God, a
mighty, and a terrible, _which regardeth not persons_, nor taketh reward.”
Deut. 10:17. “Then Peter opened his mouth, and said, Of a truth I perceive
that _God is no respecter of persons_: but in every nation he that feareth
Him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with Him.” Acts 10: 34, 35.

11. To how many is the Lord good?

“The Lord is _good to all_: and His tender mercies are over all His
works.” Ps. 145:9.

12. Why did Christ tell us to love our enemies?

“But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good
to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and
persecute you; _that ye may be the children of your Father which is in
heaven: for He maketh His sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and
sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust_.” Matt. 5:44, 45.

13. How perfect does Christ tell His followers to be?

“Be ye therefore perfect, _even as your Father which is in heaven is
perfect_.” Verse 48.



The Love Of God


                             [Illustration.]

   The Burial Of Christ. "God so loved the world, that He gave His only
                        begotten Son." John 3:16.


1. What is God declared to be?

“God is love.” 1 John 4:16.

2. How great is God’s love for the world?

“_For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son_, that
whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”
John 3:16.

3. In what act especially has God’s love been manifested?

“In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that _God sent
His only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through Him_.” 1
John 4:9.

4. In what does God delight?

“Who is a God like unto Thee, that pardoneth iniquity, and passeth by the
transgression of the remnant of His heritage? He retaineth not His anger
forever, because _He delighteth in mercy_.” Micah 7:18.

5. How are His mercies continually manifested?

“It is of the Lord’s mercies that we are not consumed, because His
compassions fail not. _They are new every morning_: great is Thy
faithfulness.” Lam. 3:22, 23.

6. Upon how many does God bestow His blessings?

“He maketh His sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain
on the just and on the unjust.” Matt. 5:45

7. What did Jesus say of the one who loves Him?

“_He that loveth Me shall be loved of My Father, and I will love him_, and
will manifest Myself unto him.” John 14:21.

8. Into what relationship to God does His love bring us?

“Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we
should be called _the sons of God_.” 1 John 3:1.

9. How may we know that we are the sons of God?

“For _as many as are led by the Spirit of God_, they are the sons of
God.... _The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit_, that we are
the children of God.” Rom. 8:14-16.

10. How is the love of God supplied to the believer?

“And hope maketh not ashamed; because the love of God is shed abroad in
our hearts _by the Holy Ghost_ which is given unto us.” Rom. 5:5.

11. In view of God’s great love to us, what ought we to do?

“Beloved, if God so loved us, _we ought also to love one another_.” 1 John
4:11.

12. With what measure of love should we serve others?

“Hereby perceive we the love of God, because He laid down His life for us:
and _we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren_.” 1 John 3:16.

13. What exhortation is based upon Christ’s love for us?

“And _walk in love_, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given Himself
for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling savor.”
Eph. 5:2.

14. Upon what ground does God’s work for sinners rest?

“But God, who is rich in mercy, _for His great love wherewith He loved
us_, even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with
Christ, (by grace ye are saved;) and hath raised us up together, and made
us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus.” Eph. 2:4-6. See Titus
3:5, 6.

15. In what other way is God’s love sometimes shown?

“For whom the Lord loveth He _chasteneth_, and _scourgeth_ every son whom
He receiveth.” Heb. 12:6.

16. In view of God’s great love, what may we confidently expect?

“He that spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how
shall He not with Him also freely _give us all things_?” Rom. 8:32

                             [Illustration.]

Bearing The Cross. "Yea, I have loved thee with an everlasting love." Jer.
                                  31:3.


17. What is God’s love able to do for His children?

“Nevertheless the Lord thy God would not harken unto Balaam; but the Lord
thy God _turned the curse into a blessing_ unto thee, because the Lord thy
God loved thee.” Deut. 23:5.

18. When men appreciate God’s love, what will they do?

“How excellent is Thy loving-kindness, O God! therefore the children of
men _put their trust under the shadow of Thy wings_.” Ps. 36:7.

19. How enduring is God’s love for us?

“The Lord hath appeared of old unto me, saying, Yea, _I have loved thee
with an everlasting love_: therefore with loving-kindness have I drawn
thee.” Jer. 31:3.

20. Can anything separate the true child of God from the love of God?

“For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor
principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor
height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us
from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.” Rom. 8:38, 39.

21. Unto whom will the saints forever ascribe praise?

“_Unto Him that loved us, and washed us from our sins_ in His own blood,
... to Him be glory and dominion forever and ever.” Rev. 1:5, 6.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    There’s a wideness in God’s mercy,
      Like the wideness of the sea;
    There’s a kindness in His justice,
      Which is more than liberty.

    There is welcome for the sinner,
      And more graces for the good;
    There is mercy with the Saviour;
      There is healing in His blood.

    For the love of God is broader
      Than the measure of man’s mind,
    And the heart of the Eternal
      Is most wonderfully kind.

    If our love were but more simple,
      We should take Him at His word;
    And our lives would be all sunshine
      In the sweetness of our Lord.

    FREDERICK W. FABER.



The Deity Of Christ


                             [Illustration.]

 Raising The Widow’s Son. "In Him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead
                            bodily." Col. 2:9.


1. How has the Father shown that His Son is one person of the Godhead?

“But _unto the Son He saith_, Thy throne, _O God_, is forever and ever: a
scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Thy kingdom.” Heb. 1:8.

2. In what other scripture is the same truth taught?

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and _the Word
was God_.” John 1:1.

3. In what way did Christ refer to the eternity of His being?

“And now, O Father, glorify Thou Me with Thine own self with the glory
which I had with Thee _before the world was_.” John 17:5. “But thou,
Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah,
yet out of thee shall He come forth unto Me that is to be ruler in Israel;
whose goings forth have been of old, _from everlasting_.” Micah 5:2. See
margin; and Matt. 2:6; John 8:58; Ex. 3:13, 14.

4. How was Christ begotten in the flesh?

“And the angel answered and said unto her, _The Holy Ghost_ shall come
upon thee, and _the power of the Highest_ shall overshadow thee: therefore
also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son
of God.” Luke 1:35.

5. What scripture states that the Son of God was God manifested in the
flesh?

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and _the Word
was God_.” “And _the Word was made flesh_, and dwelt among us, (and we
beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full
of grace and truth.” John 1:1, 14.

6. What does Christ say is His relation to the Father?

“I and My Father are _one_.” John 10:30.

7. How was He manifested on earth as a Saviour?

“For unto you is _born_ this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is
Christ the Lord.” Luke 2:11.

8. Why was it necessary that He should be born thus, and partake of human
nature?

“Wherefore in all things it behooved Him to be made like unto His
brethren, _that He might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things
pertaining to God_, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.”
Heb. 2:17.

9. How was He recognized by the Father while on earth?

“And lo a voice from heaven, saying, _This is My beloved Son_, in whom I
am well pleased.” Matt. 3:17.

10. What shows that Christ sustains the same relation to the angels as
does the Father?

“For the Son of man shall come in the glory of His Father _with His
angels_; and then He shall reward every man according to his works.” Matt.
16:27. See Matt. 24:31.

11. How did Christ assert an equal proprietorship with His Father in the
kingdom?

“The Son of man shall send forth His angels, and they shall gather out of
_His kingdom_ all things that offend, and them which do iniquity.” Matt.
13:41.

12. To whom do the elect equally belong?

“And shall not God avenge _His own elect_, which cry day and night unto
Him, though He bear long with them?” Luke 18:7. “And He [the Son of man]
shall send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall
gather together _His elect_ from the four winds, from one end of heaven to
the other.” Matt. 24:31.

13. Who are equally joined in bestowing the final rewards?

“But without faith it is impossible to please Him [God, the Father]: for
he that cometh to God must believe that He is, and that _He is a rewarder
of them that diligently seek Him_.” Heb. 11:6. “For the Son of man shall
come in the glory of His Father with His angels; and _then He shall reward
every man according to his works_.” Matt. 16:27.


    NOTE.—In the texts (Matt. 16:27; 13:41; 24:31) in which Christ
    refers to the angels as “His angels” and to the kingdom as “His
    kingdom” and to the elect as “His elect,” He refers to Himself as
    “the Son of man.” It thus appears that while He was on earth as a
    man, He recognized His essential deity and His equality with His
    Father in heaven.


14. What fulness dwells in Christ?

“For in Him dwelleth _all the fulness of the Godhead bodily_.” Col. 2:9.

15. What does God (Jehovah) declare Himself to be?

“Thus saith the Lord the King of Israel, and His Redeemer the Lord of
hosts; I am the _first_, and I am the _last_; and beside Me there is no
God.” Isa. 44:6.

16. In what scripture does Christ adopt the same expression?

“And, behold, I come quickly; and My reward is with Me, to give every man
according as his work shall be. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and
the end, the _first_ and the _last_.” Rev. 22:12, 13.

17. Having such a wonderful Saviour, what are we exhorted to do?

“Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is passed into the
heavens, Jesus the Son of God, _let us hold fast our profession_. For we
have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our
infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without
sin.” Heb. 4:14, 15.


    Before the heavens were spread abroad,
      From everlasting was the Word;
    With God He was, the Word was God,
      And must divinely be adored.

    Ere sin was born, or Satan fell,
      He led the host of morning stars;
    His generation who can tell,
      Or count the number of His years?

    But lo! He leaves those heavenly forms;
      The Word descends and dwells in clay,
    That He may converse hold with worms,
      Pressed in such feeble flesh as they.
                                    ISAAC WATTS.



Prophecies Relating To Christ


                             [Illustration.]

The Star Of Bethlehem. "There shall come a Star out of Jacob." Num. 24:17.


1. Whom did Moses say the Lord would raise up?

“The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee _a Prophet_ from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me, unto Him ye shall harken.” Deut.
18:15. See also verse 18.

2. What use of this prophecy by the apostle Peter shows that it referred
to Christ?

“For Moses truly said unto the fathers, _A prophet_ shall the Lord your
God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me.... Yea, and all the
prophets from Samuel and those that follow after, as many as have spoken,
have likewise foretold of _these days_.” Acts 3:22-24.

3. In what language did Isaiah foretell Christ’s birth?

“Behold, _a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son_, and shall call His
name Immanuel.” Isa. 7:14.

4. In what event was this prophecy fulfilled?

“Now _all this was done_ [the birth of Jesus of the Virgin Mary], that it
might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying,
Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and
they shall call His name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with
us.” Matt. 1:22, 23.

5. Where was the Messiah to be born?

“But thou, _Bethlehem Ephratah_, though thou be little among the thousands
of Judah, yet out of thee shall He come forth unto Me that is to be ruler
in Israel.” Micah 5:2.

6. When was Jesus born?

“Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea _in the days of Herod the king_.”
Matt. 2:1.

7. Under what striking emblem was He prophesied of by Balaam?

“There shall come _a Star_ out of Jacob, and a Scepter shall rise out of
Israel.” Num. 24:17.

8. In what scripture does Christ apply the same emblem to Himself?

“I am the root and the offspring of David, and _the bright and morning
star_.” Rev. 22:16. See also 2 Peter 1:19; Rev. 2:28.

9. What prophecy was fulfilled in the slaughter of the children of
Bethlehem?

“Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding
wroth, and sent forth, and _slew all the children that were in Bethlehem_,
and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to
the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men. Then was
fulfilled _that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet_, saying, In Rama
was there a voice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning,
Rachel weeping for her children, and would not be comforted, because they
are not.” Matt. 2:16-18.

10. How was Christ’s first advent to be heralded?

“_The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness_, Prepare ye the way of
the Lord, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.” Isa. 40:3.

11. By whom was this fulfilled?

“And this is the record of _John_, when the Jews sent priests and Levites
from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou?... he said, _I am the voice of
one crying in the wilderness_, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said
the prophet Esaias.” John 1:19-23.

12. How was Christ to be received by His own people?

“He is _despised_ and _rejected_ of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted
with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from Him; He was _despised_,
and _we esteemed Him not_.” Isa. 53:3.

                             [Illustration.]

  Christ Before Pilate. "He was oppressed, and He was afflicted, yet He
                    opened not His mouth." Isa. 53:7.


13. How is the fulfilment of this prophecy recorded?

“He was in the world, and the world was made by Him, and the world knew
Him not. _He came unto His own, and His own received Him not._” John 1:10,
11.

14. What was predicted of Christ’s preaching?

“The Spirit of the Lord God is upon Me; because _the Lord hath anointed Me
to preach good tidings unto the meek_; He hath sent Me to bind up the
broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of
the prison to them that are bound.” Isa. 61:1.

15. What application did Jesus make of this prophecy?

“And He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up: and, as His custom
was, He went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up for to
read. And there was delivered unto Him the book of the prophet Esaias. And
when He had opened the book, He found the place where it was written, The
Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, because He hath anointed Me to preach the
gospel to the poor; He hath sent Me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach
deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set
at liberty them that are bruised.... And He began to say unto them, _This
day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears_.” Luke 4:16-21. See Luke
7:19-22.

16. How, according to prophecy, was Christ to conduct Himself when on
trial?

“He was oppressed, and He was afflicted, _yet He opened not His mouth_: He
is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers
is dumb, _so He openeth not His mouth_.” Isa. 53:7.

17. When accused by His enemies before Pilate, how did Christ treat these
accusations?

“Then said Pilate unto Him, Hearest Thou not how many things they witness
against Thee? And _He answered him to never a word_; insomuch that the
governor marveled greatly.” Matt. 27:13, 14.

18. What prophecy foretold of the disposal of Christ’s garments at the
crucifixion?

“They _part My garments_ among them, and _cast lots_ upon My vesture.” Ps.
22:18.

19. What record answers to this prophecy?

“And they crucified Him, and _parted His garments, casting lots_: that it
might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted My
garments among them, and upon My vesture did they cast lots.” Matt. 27:35.

20. What was foretold of His treatment while on the cross?

“They gave Me also _gall_ for My meat; and in My thirst they gave Me
_vinegar_ to drink.” Ps. 69:21.

21. What was offered Christ at His crucifixion?

“They gave Him _vinegar_ to drink mingled with _gall_: and when He had
tasted thereof, He would not drink.” Matt. 27:34. See also John 19:28-30,
and page 167 of this work.

22. With whom did the prophet Isaiah say Christ would make His grave?

“And He made His grave with the _wicked_, and with the _rich_ in His
death.” Isa. 53:9.

23. With whom was Christ crucified?

“Then were there _two thieves_ crucified with Him, one on the right hand,
and another on the left.” Matt. 27:38.

24. Who took charge of Christ’s body after it was taken down from the
cross?

“_A rich man of Arimathæa, named Joseph_, ... went to Pilate, and begged
the body of Jesus.... He wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, and laid it in
his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock.” Verses 57-60.

25. What experience in the life of a noted prophet indicated the length of
Christ’s stay in the grave?

“But He answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation
seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign
of the prophet Jonas: for _as Jonas was three days and three nights in the
whale’s belly_; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in
the heart of the earth.” Matt. 12:39,40.

26. What prophecy foretold Christ’s triumph over death?

“For _Thou wilt not leave My soul in hell_; neither wilt Thou suffer Thine
Holy One to see corruption.” Ps. 16:10. See Acts 2:24-27.



Christ The Way Of Life


                             [Illustration.]

 At Jacob’s Well. "Whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him
                     shall never thirst." John 4:14.


1. What does Jesus declare Himself to be?

“Jesus saith unto him, _I am the way, the truth, and the life_: no man
cometh unto the Father, but by Me.” John 14:6.

2. In what condition are all men?

“But the Scripture hath concluded all _under sin_.” Gal. 3:22. “For _all
have sinned_, and come short of the glory of God.” Rom. 3:23.

3. What are the wages of sin?

“The wages of sin is _death_.” Rom. 6:23.

4. How many are affected by Adam’s transgression?

“Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin;
and so _death passed upon all men_.” Rom. 5:12.

5. What is the gift of God?

“The gift of God is _eternal life_.” Rom. 6:23.

6. How many may receive this gift?

“And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say,
Come. And let him that is athirst come. And _whosoever will_, let him take
the water of life freely.” Rev. 22:17.

7. In whom is the gift?

“This is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and _this
life is in His Son_.” 1 John 5:11.

8. In receiving the Son, what do we have in Him?

“He that hath the Son hath _life_.” Verse 12.

9. What loss do those sustain who do not accept Him?

“And he that hath not the Son of God _hath not life_.” Same verse.

10. In what other way is this same truth stated?

“_He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that
believeth not the Son shall not see life_; but the wrath of God abideth on
him.” John 3:36.

11. After one truly receives Christ, whose life will be manifested in him?

“I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but _Christ
liveth in me_: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the
faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave Himself for me.” Gal.
2:20.

12. In what condition are all before they are quickened with Christ?

“God, who is rich in mercy, for His great love wherewith He loved us, even
when we were _dead in sins_, hath quickened us together with Christ.” Eph.
2:4, 5.

13. What is this change from death to life called?

“Being _born again_, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the
word of God, which liveth and abideth forever.” 1 Peter 1:23.

14. When man first transgressed, what was done to prevent him from living
forever in sin?

“And now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life,
and eat, and live forever.... So _He drove out the man_; and He placed at
the east of the garden of Eden cherubim, and a flaming sword which turned
every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.” Gen. 3:22-24.

15. What is declared to be one purpose of Christ’s death?

“Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, He also
Himself likewise took part of the same; _that through death He might
destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil_.” Heb. 2:14.

16. Through whom will Abraham receive the promise of the future
inheritance?

“The Lord appeared unto Abram, and said, Unto _thy seed_ will I give this
land.” Gen. 12:7.

17. How many were embraced in God’s promises to Abraham?

“And in thy seed shall _all the kindreds of the earth_ be blessed.” Acts
3:25.

18. To whom does the “seed” in these promises refer?

“Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to
seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is _Christ_.”
Gal. 3:16.

19. What would make the death of Christ in vain?

“_If righteousness come by the law_, then Christ is dead in vain.” Gal.
2:21.

20. Why have all been reckoned under sin?

“But the Scripture hath concluded all under sin, _that the promise by
faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe_.” Gal. 3:22.

21. How then do all become children of God?

“For ye are all the children of God _by faith in Christ Jesus_.” Verse 26.

22. With whom are the children of God joint heirs?

“If children, then heirs; heirs of God, and _joint heirs with Christ_.”
Rom. 8:17.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Thou art the Way; to Thee alone,
        From sin and death we flee;
      And he who would the Father seek,
        Must seek Him, Lord, by Thee.

      Thou art the Truth; Thy word alone.
        True wisdom can impart;
      Thou only canst inform the mind
        And purify the heart.

      Thou art the Life; the rending tomb
        Proclaims Thy conquering arm;
      And those who put their trust in Thee,
        Nor death nor hell shall harm.

      Thou art the Way, the Truth, the Life;
        Grant us that way to know,
      That truth to keep, that life to win,
        Whose joys eternal flow.


                             [Illustration.]

 The Serpent In The Wilderness. "When he beheld the serpent of brass, he
                            lived." Num. 21:9.



Salvation Only Through Christ


                             [Illustration.]

     On The Cross. "He is able to save to the uttermost." Heb. 7:25.


1. For what purpose did Christ come into the world?

“This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ
Jesus came into the world _to save sinners_.” 1 Tim. 1:15.

2. Why was He to be named “Jesus”?

“Thou shalt call His name Jesus: _for He shall save His people from their
sins_.” Matt. 1:21.

3. Is there salvation through any other?

“Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name
under heaven given among men, _whereby we must be saved_.” Acts 4:12.

4. Through whom are we reconciled to God?

“All things are of God, who hath reconciled us to Himself _by Jesus
Christ_, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation; to wit, that
_God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto Himself_, not imputing
their trespasses unto them.” 2 Cor. 5:18, 19.

5. What has Christ been made for us, and for what purpose?

“For He hath made Him to be _sin_ for us, who knew no sin; _that we might
be made the righteousness of God in Him_.” Verse 21.

6. How dependent are we upon Christ for salvation?

“I am the vine, ye are the branches: ... _without Me ye can do nothing_.”
John 15:5.

7. What three essentials for a Saviour are found in Christ?

_Deity._ “But unto the Son He saith, Thy throne, _O God_, is forever and
ever.” Heb. 1:8.

_Humanity._ “When the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth His
Son, _made of a woman_, made under the law.” Gal. 4:4.

_Sinlessness._ “_Who did no sin_, neither was guile found in His mouth.” 1
Peter 2:22.

8. How did Christ show from the Scriptures that the promised Saviour of
the world must be both human and divine?

“While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them, saying,
What think ye of Christ? whose son is He? They say unto Him, _The son of
David_. He saith unto them, _How then doth David in spirit call Him Lord_;
saying, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou on My right hand, till I make
Thine enemies Thy footstool? _If David then call him Lord, how is He his
son?_” Matt. 22:41-45.


    NOTE.—Another has aptly put this important truth concerning the
    union of the human and divine in Christ thus: “Divinity needed
    humanity that humanity might afford a channel of communication
    between God and man. Man needs a power out of and above himself to
    restore him to the likeness of God. There must be a power working
    from within, a new life from above, before men can be changed from
    sin to holiness. That power is Christ.”


9. What two facts testify to the union of divinity and humanity in Christ?

“Concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was _made of the seed of
David according to the flesh; and declared to be the Son of God with
power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the
dead_.” Rom. 1:3, 4

10. How complete was Christ’s victory over death?

“I am the first and the last: _I am He that liveth, and was dead; and,
behold, I am alive forevermore_, Amen; and have the keys of _hell_ and of
_death_.” Rev. 1:17, 18. See Acts 2:24.

11. How complete is the salvation obtained in Christ?

“Wherefore, _He is able also to save them to the uttermost_ that come unto
God by Him, seeing He ever liveth to make intercession for them.” Heb.
7:25.

12. What should we say for such a Saviour?

“Thanks be unto God for His unspeakable gift.” 2 Cor. 9:15.



PART III. THE WAY TO CHRIST


                             [Illustration.]

The Prodigal Son. "When he came to himself, he said, ... I will arise and
                    go to my father." Luke 15:17, 18.



Faith


                             [Illustration.]

Joshua Commanding The Sun To Stand Still. "All things are possible to him
                       that believeth." Mark 9:13.


1. What is faith declared to be?

“Faith is _the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not
seen_.” Heb. 11:1.

2. How necessary is faith?

“Without faith it is impossible to please Him.” Verse 6.

3. Is mere assent to divine truth sufficient?

“Thou believest that there is one God; thou doest well: _the devils also
believe, and tremble_.” James 2:19.

4. What is required besides a belief in the existence of God?

“For he that cometh to God must believe that He is, and _that He is a
rewarder of them that diligently seek Him_.” Heb. 11:6, last part.

5. From whom does faith come?

“For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves; _it
is the gift of God_.” Eph. 2:8.

6. Why did God raise Christ from the dead?

“Who by Him do believe in God, that raised Him up from the dead, and gave
Him glory; _that your faith and hope might be in God_.” 1 Peter 1:21.

7. What is Christ’s relation to this faith?

“Looking unto Jesus the _author_ and _finisher_ of our faith.” Heb. 12:2.

8. What is the basis of faith?

“So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by _the word of God_.” Rom.
10:17.

9. What relation does faith bear to knowledge?

“_Through faith we understand_ that the worlds were framed by the word of
God.” Heb. 11:3.

10. By what principle is genuine faith actuated?

“In Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth anything, nor
uncircumcision; but faith which worketh by _love_.” Gal. 5:6.

11. Of what is faith a fruit?

“But _the fruit of the Spirit_ is love, joy, peace, long-suffering,
gentleness, goodness, _faith_.” Verse 22.

12. What in the early church showed living faith?

“Remembering without ceasing your _work of faith_, and labor of love.” 1
Thess. 1:3.

13. What is necessary in order that the preaching of the gospel may be
profitable?

“For unto us was the gospel preached, as well as unto them: but the word
preached did not profit them, not being _mixed with faith_ in them that
heard it.” Heb. 4:2.

14. What is the character of any act or service not performed in faith?

“Whatsoever is not of faith is _sin_.” Rom. 14:23.

15. How does Abraham’s experience show that obedience and faith are
inseparable?

“_By faith Abraham_, when he was called to go out into a place which he
should after receive for an inheritance, _obeyed_; and he went out, not
knowing whither he went.” Heb. 11:8.

16. With what, therefore, is the faith of Jesus joined?

“Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep _the
commandments of God_, and _the faith of Jesus_.” Rev. 14:12.

17. In what other statement is the same truth emphasized?

“But wilt thou know, O vain man, that _faith without works is dead_?”
James 2:20.

18. How is faith brought to perfection?

“Seest thou how faith wrought with his works, and _by works was faith made
perfect_?” Verse 22.

19. What is the result of faith’s being put to the test?

“The trying of your faith _worketh patience_.” James 1:3.

20. What relationship to God is established by faith?

“For ye are all the _children of God by faith_ in Christ Jesus.” Gal.
3:26.

21. How do the children of God walk?

“For _we walk by faith_, not by sight.” 2 Cor. 5:7.

22. Upon what condition may one expect answers to prayer?

“But _let him ask in faith_, nothing wavering. For he that wavereth is
like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed.” James 1:6.

23. To what parts of the ancient armor is faith compared?

“Above all, taking the _shield_ of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to
quench all the fiery darts of the wicked.” Eph. 6:16. “Putting on the
_breastplate_ of faith and love.” 1 Thess. 5:8.

24. What chapter in the Bible is devoted to faith?

The eleventh chapter of Hebrews. In verses 33-38 are summarized the
victories of the heroes of faith.

25. What gives victory in our conflicts with the world?

“This is the victory that overcometh the world, _even our faith_.” 1 John
5:4.

26. What is the ultimate purpose of faith?

“Receiving the end of your faith, even _the salvation of your souls_.” 1
Peter 1:8, 9.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    ’Tis by the faith of joys to come
      We walk through deserts dark as night;
    Till we arrive at heaven, our home,
      Truth is our guide, and faith our light.

    The want of sight she well supplies;
      She makes the pearly gates appear;
    Far into distant worlds she pries,
      And brings eternal glories near.

    Though lions roar, and tempests blow,
      And rocks and dangers fill the way,
    With joy we tread the desert through,
      While faith inspires a heavenly ray.
                                  ISAAC WATTS



Hope


                             [Illustration.]

 Return Of The Dove. "Blessed be God ... which ... hath begotten us again
                    unto a lively hope." 1 Peter 1:3.


1. What is the relation between faith and hope?

“Now faith is the _substance_ of things _hoped for_, the evidence of
things not seen.” Heb. 11:1.

2. Why were the Scriptures written?

“For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our
learning, _that we through patience and comfort of the Scriptures might
have hope_.” Rom. 15:4.

3. Why should God’s wonderful works be rehearsed to the children?

“We will not hide them from their children, showing to the generation to
come the praises of the Lord, and His strength, and His wonderful works
that He hath done.... _That they might set their hope in God_, and not
forget the works of God, but keep His commandments.” Ps. 78:4-7.

4. In what condition are those who are without Christ?

“Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, ...
that at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the
commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise,
_having no hope_, and without God in the world.” Eph. 2:11, 12.

5. What does hope become to the Christian?

“Which hope we have as _an anchor of the soul_, both sure and steadfast,
and which entereth into that within the veil.” Heb. 6:19.

6. Who have hope in their death?

“The wicked is driven away in his wickedness: but _the righteous hath hope
in his death_.” Prov. 14:32.

7. In bereavement, from what hopeless sorrow are Christians delivered?

“But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which
are asleep, _that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope_.” 1
Thess. 4:13.

8. Unto what has the resurrection of Christ begotten us?

“Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according
to His abundant mercy hath _begotten us again unto a lively hope_ by the
resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead.” 1 Peter 1:3.

9. What is the Christian’s hope called?

“Looking for _that blessed hope_, and the glorious appearing of the great
God and our Saviour Jesus Christ.” Titus 2:13.

10. At what time did Paul expect to realize his hope?

“Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the
Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me _at that day_: and not to me
only, but unto all them also that love _His appearing_.” 2 Tim. 4:8.

11. What will this hope lead one to do?

“And every man that hath this hope in him _purifieth himself_, even as He
is pure.” 1 John 3:3.

12. What does the prophet Jeremiah say is a good thing for a man to do?

“It is good _that a man should both hope and quietly wait for the
salvation of the Lord_.” Lam. 3:26.

13. What is said of the hope of the hypocrite?

“So are the paths of all that forget God; and _the hypocrite’s hope shall
perish_: whose hope shall be cut off, and whose trust shall be a spider’s
web.” Job 8:13, 14.

14. What is the condition of one whose hope is in God?

“_Happy_ is he that hath the God of Jacob for his help, whose hope is in
the Lord his God.” Ps. 146:5. “_Blessed_ is the man that trusteth in the
Lord, and whose hope the Lord is.” Jer. 17:7.

15. In what may the child of God abound?

“Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye
may _abound in hope_, through the power of the Holy Ghost.” Rom. 15:13.

16. In what do Christians rejoice?

“By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand,
and _rejoice in hope of the glory of God_.” Rom. 5:2.

17. What will prevent us from being put to shame?

“And _hope maketh not ashamed;_ because the love of God is shed abroad in
our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us.” Verse 5.

18. In the time of trouble, who will be the hope of God’s people?

“The Lord also shall roar out of Zion, and utter His voice from Jerusalem;
and the heavens and the earth shall shake: but _the Lord will be the hope
of His people_, and the strength of the children of Israel.” Joel 3:16.

19. What inspiring words are spoken to such as hope in God?

“_Be of good courage_, and He shall strengthen your heart, all ye that
hope in the Lord.” Ps. 31:24.

20. How long should our hope endure?

“And we desire that every one of you do show the same diligence to the
full assurance of _hope unto the end_.” Heb. 6:11.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    How cheering is the Christian’s hope
      While toiling here below!
    It buoys us up while passing through
      This wilderness of woe.

    It points us to a land of rest
      Where saints with Christ will reign;
    Where we shall meet the loved of earth,
      And never part again,—

    A land where sin can never come,
      Temptations ne’er annoy;
    Where happiness will ever dwell,
      And that without alloy.



Repentance


                             [Illustration.]

Micaiah Urging Israel To Repentance. "The goodness of God leadeth thee to
                          repentance." Rom. 2:4.


1. Who are called to repentance?

“I came not to call the righteous, but _sinners_ to repentance.” Luke
5:32.

2. What accompanies repentance?

“And that repentance and _remission of sins_ should be preached in His
name among all nations.” Luke 24:47.

3. By what means is sin made known?

“_By the law_ is the knowledge of sin.” Rom. 3:20.

4. How many are sinners?

“We have before proved _both Jews and Gentiles_, that _they are all under
sin_.” Verse 9.

5. What do transgressors bring upon themselves?

“Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things
cometh _the wrath of God_ upon the children of disobedience.” Eph. 5:6.

6. Who awakens the soul to a sense of its sinful condition?

“When _He_ [_the Comforter_] is come, _He will reprove_ [_convince_,
margin] _the world of sin_.” John 16:8.

7. What are fitting inquiries for those convicted of sin?

“Men and brethren, _what shall we do_?” “Sirs, _what must I do to be
saved_?” Acts 2:37; 16:30.

8. What replies does Inspiration return to these inquiries?

“_Repent, and be baptized every one of you_ in the name of Jesus Christ
for the remission of sins.” “_Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ_, and thou
shalt be saved.” Acts 2:38; 16:31.

9. What will the truly repentant sinner be constrained to do?

“I will _declare mine iniquity_; I will be _sorry_ for my sin.” Ps. 38:18.

10. What is the result of godly sorrow?

“For godly sorrow _worketh repentance to salvation_.” 2 Cor. 7:10.

11. What does the sorrow of the world do?

“The sorrow of the world _worketh death_.” Same verse.

12. How does godly sorrow for sin manifest itself?

“For behold this selfsame thing, that ye sorrowed after a godly sort, what
_carefulness_ it wrought in you, yea, what _clearing of yourselves_, yea,
what indignation, yea, what fear, yea, what vehement desire, yea, what
zeal, yea, what revenge! In all things ye have approved yourselves to be
clear in this matter.” Verse 11.

13. What did John the Baptist say to the Pharisees and Sadducees when he
saw them come to his baptism?

“O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to
come?” Matt. 3:7.

14. What did he tell them to do?

“Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance.” Verse 8.


    NOTE.—“There can be no repentance without reformation. Repentance
    is a change of mind; reformation is a corresponding change of
    life.”—_Dr. Raleigh_.


15. When God sent the Ninevites a warning message, how did they show their
repentance, and what was the result?

“And God saw their works, that _they turned from their evil way; and God
repented of the evil that He had said that He would do unto them_; and He
did it not.” Jonah 3:10.

16. What leads sinners to repentance?

“Or despisest thou the riches of His goodness and forbearance and
long-suffering; not knowing that _the goodness of God leadeth thee to
repentance?_” Rom. 2:4.

                             [Illustration.]

John The Baptist Preaching Repentance. "Bring forth therefore fruits meet
                       for repentance." Matt. 3:8.



Confession And Forgiveness


                             [Illustration.]

 Mary Magdalene’s Repentance. "According unto the multitude of Thy tender
              mercies blot out my transgressions." Ps. 51:1.


1. What instruction is given concerning confession of sin?

“Speak unto the children of Israel, When a man or woman shall commit any
sin that men commit, to do a trespass against the Lord, and that person be
guilty; _then shall they confess their sin which they have done_.” Num.
5:6, 7.

2. How futile is it to attempt to hide sin from God?

“But if ye will not do so, behold, ye have sinned against the Lord: and
_be sure your sin will find you out_.” Num. 32:23. “Thou hast set our
iniquities before Thee, our secret sins in the light of Thy countenance.”
Ps. 90:8. “All things are naked and opened unto the eyes of Him with whom
we have to do.” Heb. 4:13.

3. What promise is made to those who confess their sins?

“If we confess our sins, _He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins_,
and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.” 1 John 1:9.

4. What different results attend the covering and the confessing of sins?

“He that covereth his sins _shall not prosper:_ but whoso confesseth and
forsaketh them _shall have mercy_.” Prov. 28:13.

5. How definite should we be in confessing our sins?

“And it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things, that he
shall confess that he hath sinned _in that thing_.” Lev. 5:5.


    NOTE.—“True confession is always of a specific character, and
    acknowledges particular sins. They may be of such a nature as to
    be brought before God only; they may be wrongs that should be
    confessed to individuals who have suffered injury through them; or
    they may be of a public character, and should then be as publicly
    confessed. But all confession should be definite and to the point,
    acknowledging the very sins of which you are guilty.”—“_Steps to
    Christ_,” page 43.


6. How fully did Israel once acknowledge their wrong-doing?

“And all the people said unto Samuel, Pray for thy servants unto the Lord
thy God, that we die not: for _we have added unto all our sins this evil,
to ask us a king_.” 1 Sam. 12:19.

7. When David confessed his sin, what did he say God did?

“I acknowledged my sin unto Thee, and mine iniquity have I not hid. I
said, I will confess my transgressions unto the Lord; and _Thou forgavest
the iniquity of my sin_.” Ps. 32:5.

8. Upon what did he rest his hope for forgiveness?

“Have mercy upon me, O God, according to Thy loving-kindness: _according
unto the multitude of Thy tender mercies_ blot out my transgressions.” Ps.
51:1.

9. What is God ready to do for all who seek for forgiveness?

“For Thou, Lord, art good, and _ready to forgive_; and plenteous in mercy
unto all them that call upon Thee.” Ps. 86:5.

10. What is the measure of the greatness of God’s mercy?

“For _as the heaven is high above the earth_, so great is His mercy toward
them that fear Him.” Ps. 103:11.

11. How fully does the Lord pardon when one repents?

“Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts: and
let him return unto the Lord, and He will have mercy upon him; and to our
God, for _He will abundantly pardon_.” Isa. 55:7.

12. What reason is given for God’s readiness to forgive sin?

“Who is a God like unto Thee, that pardoneth iniquity, and passeth by the
transgression of the remnant of His heritage? He retaineth not His anger
forever, _because He delighteth in mercy_.” Micah 7:18. See Ps. 78:38.

13. Why does God manifest such mercy and long-suffering toward men?

“The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some men count
slackness; but is long-suffering to us ward, _not willing that any should
perish_, but that all should come to repentance.” 2 Peter 3:9.

14. What prayer did Moses offer in behalf of Israel?

“_Pardon, I beseech Thee, the iniquity of this people_ according unto the
greatness of Thy mercy, and as Thou hast forgiven this people, from Egypt
even until now.” Num. 14:19.

15. What reply did the Lord immediately make?

“And the Lord said, _I have pardoned according to thy word_.” Verse 20.

16. When the prodigal son, in the parable, repented and turned toward
home, what did his father do?

“When he was yet a great way off, his father saw him, and _had
compassion_, and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him.” Luke 15:20.

17. How did the father show his joy at his son’s return?

“The father said to his servants, _Bring forth the best robe, and put it
on him_; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet: and _bring
hither the fatted calf, and kill it_; and let us eat, and be merry: for
this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found.”
Verses 22-24.

18. What is felt in heaven when a sinner repents?

“Likewise, I say unto you, _there is joy in the presence of the angels of
God_ over one sinner that repenteth.” Verse 10.

19. What did Hezekiah say God had done with his sins?

“Behold, for peace I had great bitterness: but Thou hast in love to my
soul delivered it from the pit of corruption: for _Thou hast cast all my
sins behind Thy back_.” Isa. 38:17.

20. How completely does God wish to separate sin from us?

“Thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the sea.” Micah 7:19.
“As far as the east is from the west, so far hath He removed our
transgressions from us.” Ps. 103:12.

21. How did the people respond to the preaching of John?

“Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judea, and all the region round
about Jordan, and were baptized of him in Jordan, _confessing their
sins_.” Matt. 3:5, 6.

22. How did some of the believers at Ephesus testify to the sincerity of
the confession of their sins?

“And many that believed came, and _confessed, and showed their deeds_.
Many of them also which used curious arts _brought their books together,
and burned them before all men_: and they counted the price of them, and
found it fifty thousand pieces of silver.” Acts 19:18, 19.

23. Through whom are repentance and forgiveness granted?

“The God of our fathers raised up _Jesus_, whom ye slew and hanged on a
tree. Him hath God exalted with His right hand to be a Prince and a
Saviour, for _to give repentance_ to Israel, and _forgiveness of sins_.”
Acts 5:30, 31.

24. What is the only unpardonable sin?

“Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be
forgiven unto men: but _the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost_ shall not be
forgiven unto men. And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man,
it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost,
it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world
to come.” Matt. 12:31, 32.


    NOTE.—As the Holy Spirit is the agent that convicts of sin, and
    brings the offer of pardon through the Word, the denial of the
    Spirit’s work is the refusal of pardon. In other words, the only
    unpardonable sin is the sin which refuses to be pardoned.


25. Upon what basis has Christ taught us to ask forgiveness?

“And forgive us our debts, _as we forgive our debtors_.” Matt. 6:12.

26. What spirit must those cherish whom God forgives?

“For _if ye forgive men their trespasses_, your Heavenly Father will also
forgive you: but if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your
Father forgive your trespasses.” Verses 14, 15.

27. What exhortation is based on the fact that God has forgiven us?

“And be ye kind one to another, tender-hearted, _forgiving one another_,
even as God for Christ’s sake hath forgiven you.” Eph. 4:32.

28. In what condition is one whose sins are forgiven?

“_Blessed_ is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered.
_Blessed_ is the man unto whom the Lord imputeth not iniquity, and in
whose spirit there is no guile.” Ps. 32:1, 2.



Conversion, Or The New Birth


                             [Illustration.]

         Christ And Nicodemus. "Ye must be born again." John 3:7.


1. How did Jesus emphasize the necessity of conversion?

“Verily I say unto you, _Except ye be converted_, and become as little
children, _ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven_.” Matt. 18:3.

2. In what other statement did He teach the same truth?

“Verily, verily, I say unto thee, _Except a man be born again_, he cannot
see the kingdom of God.” John 3:3.

3. How did he further explain the new birth?

“Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, _Except a man be born of
water and of the Spirit_, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.” Verse
5.

4. With what comparison did He illustrate the subject?

“_The wind_ bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof,
but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: _so is every
one that is born of the Spirit_.” Verse 8.

5. What change is wrought in conversion, or the new birth?

“Even when we were dead in sins, hath _quickened_ us together with Christ,
(by grace ye are saved).” Eph. 2:5.

6. What is one evidence of this change from death to life?

“We know that we have passed from death unto life, because _we love the
brethren_. He that loveth not his brother abideth in death.” 1 John 3:14.

7. From what is a converted sinner saved?

“Let him know, that he which converteth the sinner from the error of his
way shall save a soul from _death_, and shall hide a multitude of sins.”
James 5:20. See Acts 26:14-18.

8. To whom are sinners brought by conversion?

“Create in me a clean heart, O God; and renew a right spirit within me....
Then will I teach transgressors Thy ways; and sinners shall be _converted
unto Thee_.” Ps. 51:10-13.

9. In what words to Peter did Jesus indicate the kind of service a
converted person should render to his brethren?

“And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you,
that he may sift you as wheat: but I have prayed for thee, that thy faith
fail not: and _when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren_.” Luke
22:31, 32.

10. What other experience is associated with conversion?

“For this people’s heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of
hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see
with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand with
their heart, and should be _converted_, and I should _heal them_.” Matt.
13:15.

11. What gracious promise does God make to His people?

“_I will heal their backsliding_, I will love them freely: for Mine anger
is turned away from him.” Hosea 14:4.

12. By what means is this healing accomplished?

“He [Christ] was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our
iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon Him; and _with His
stripes we are healed_.” Isa. 53:5.

13. What takes place when one is converted to Christ?

“Wherefore if any man is in Christ, _he is a new creation_: the old things
are passed away; behold, they are become new.” 2 Cor. 5:17, R. V., margin.
See Acts 9:1-22; 22:1-21; 26:1-23.

14. What is the value of merely outward forms?

“For in Christ Jesus _neither circumcision availeth anything, nor
uncircumcision_, but a new creature.” Gal. 6:15.

15. Through what was the original creation wrought?

“_By the word of the Lord_ were the heavens made; and all the host of them
by the breath of His mouth.” Ps. 33:6.

16. Through what instrumentality is conversion wrought?

“Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, _by the
word of God_, which liveth and abideth forever.” 1 Peter 1:23.

17. What change is wrought by beholding Jesus?

“But we all with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord,
are _changed into the same image_ from glory to glory, even as by the
Spirit of the Lord.” 2 Cor. 3:18.


    NOTE.—A beautiful statue once stood in the market-place of an
    Italian city. It was the statue of a Greek slave girl. It
    represented the slave as tidy and well dressed. A ragged, uncombed
    little street child, coming across the statue in her play one day,
    stopped and gazed at it in admiration. She was captivated by it.
    She gazed long and lovingly. Moved by a sudden impulse, she went
    home and washed her face and combed her hair. Another day she
    stopped again before the statue and admired it, and got a new
    idea. Next day her tattered clothes were washed and mended. Each
    time she looked at the statue she found something in its beauties
    to admire and copy, until she was a transformed child. By
    beholding we become changed.


18. What are the evidences that one has been born of God?

“If ye know that He is righteous, ye know that _every one that doeth
righteousness is born of Him_.” “Beloved, let us love one another: for
love is of God; and _every one that loveth is born of God_, and knoweth
God.” 1 John 2:29; 4:7.

19. What is true of every one who believes in Jesus?

“Whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Christ is _born of God_.” 1 John
5:1.

20. What do those born of God not do?

“We know that _whosoever is born of God sinneth not_; but he that is
begotten of God keepeth himself, and that wicked one toucheth him not.”
Verse 18.

21. What indwelling power keeps such from sinning?

“Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for _His seed remaineth in
him_: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God.” 1 John 3:9. See 1
John 5:4; Gen. 39:9.

22. What will be the experience of those born of the Spirit?

“There is therefore now _no condemnation_ to them which are in Christ
Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.” Rom. 8:1.

                             [Illustration.]

The Conversion Of Saul. "It is hard for thee to kick against the pricks."
                                Acts 9:5.



Baptism


                             [Illustration.]

  Baptism Of Christ. "Thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness."
                               Matt. 3:15.


1. What ordinance is closely associated with believing the gospel?

“And He said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to
every creature. He that believeth and is _baptized_ shall be saved; but he
that believeth not shall be damned.” Mark 16:15, 16.

2. What did the apostle Peter associate with baptism in his instruction on
the day of Pentecost?

“Then Peter said unto them, _Repent_, and be baptized every one of you in
the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins.” Acts 2:38.

3. In reply to his inquiry concerning salvation, what was the Philippian
jailer told to do?

“And they said, _Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ_, and thou shalt be
saved, and thy house.” Acts 16:31.

4. What followed immediately after the jailer and his family had accepted
Christ as their Saviour?

“And he took them [Paul and Silas] the same hour of the night, and washed
their stripes; and was _baptized_, he and all his, straightway.” Verse 33.

5. In connection with Christian baptism, what is washed away?

“And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and _wash away thy
sins_, calling on the name of the Lord.” Acts 22:16. See Titus 3:5; 1
Peter 3:21.

6. By what means are sins washed away?

“Unto Him that loved us, and washed us from our sins _in His own blood_.”
Rev. 1:5.

7. Into whose name are believers to be baptized?

“Go ye therefore, and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them
into the name of the _Father_ and of the _Son_ and of the _Holy Ghost_.”
Matt. 28:19, R. V.

8. When believers are baptized into Christ, whom do they put on?

“For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have _put on
Christ_.” Gal. 3:27.

9. Into what experience are those baptized who are baptized into Christ?

“Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were
_baptized into His death_?” Rom. 6:3.


    NOTE.—Baptism is a gospel ordinance commemorating the _death_,
    _burial_, and _resurrection_ of Christ. In baptism public
    testimony is given to the effect that the one baptized has been
    crucified with Christ, buried with Him, and is raised with Him to
    walk in newness of life. Only one mode of baptism can rightly
    represent these facts of experience, and that is immersion,—the
    mode followed by Christ and the primitive church.


10. How is such a baptism described?

“Therefore we are _buried with him_ by baptism into death: that like as
Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we
also should walk in newness of life.” Verse 4.

11. How fully are we thus united with Christ in His experience of death
and resurrection?

“For if we have been _planted together_ in the likeness of His _death_, we
shall be also in the likeness of His _resurrection_.” Verse 5.

12. What will follow this union with Christ in His death and resurrection?

“Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also _live with
Him_.” Verse 8.

13. In what working of God is faith to be exercised in connection with
baptism?

“Buried with Him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with Him _through
the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised Him from the dead_.”
Col. 2:12.

14. At the beginning of His ministry, what example did Jesus set for the
benefit of His followers?

“Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto John, to be _baptized_ of
him.” Matt. 3:13.

15. What remarkable experience attended the baptism of Jesus?

“And Jesus, when He was baptized, went up straightway out of the water:
and, lo, the heavens were opened unto Him, and He saw _the Spirit of God
descending like a dove, and lighting upon Him_: and lo a voice from
heaven, saying, _This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased_.”
Verses 16, 17.

16. What promise is made to those who repent and are baptized?

“Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in
the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and _ye shall receive
the gift of the Holy Ghost_.” Acts 2:38.

17. What question did the eunuch ask after Philip had preached Jesus unto
him?

“And as they went on their way, they came unto a certain water: and the
eunuch said, See, here is water; _what doth hinder me to be baptized_?”
Acts 8:36.

18. In order to baptize the eunuch, where did Philip take him?

“And he commanded the chariot to stand still: and _they went down both
into the water_, both Philip and the eunuch; and he baptized him.” Verse
38.

19. How did the people of Samaria publicly testify to their faith in the
preaching of Philip?

“But when they believed Philip preaching the things concerning the kingdom
of God, and the name of Jesus Christ, _they were baptized_, both men and
women.” Verse 12.

20. What instruction did the apostle Peter give concerning the Gentiles
who had believed?

“Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, which have
received the Holy Ghost as well as we? _And he commanded them to be
baptized in the name of the Lord._” Acts 10:47, 48.

21. How perfect is the unity into which believers are brought by being
baptized into Christ?

“For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of
that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ. For by one
Spirit are we all _baptized into one body_, whether we be Jews or
Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all _made to drink
into one Spirit_.” 1 Cor. 12:12, 13.

22. After being united with Christ in the likeness of His death and
resurrection, what should the believer do?

“If ye then be risen with Christ, _seek those things which are above_,
where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God.” Col. 3:1.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Lord, in humble, sweet submission,
      Here we meet to follow Thee,
    Trusting in Thy great salvation,
      Which alone can make us free.

    Naught have we to claim as merit;
      All the duties we can do
    Can no crown of life inherit;
      All the praise to Thee is due.

    Yet we come in Christian duty,
      Down beneath the wave to go;
    O the bliss! the heavenly beauty!
      Christ the Lord was buried so.
                        ROBERT T. DANIEL



Reconciled To God


                             [Illustration.]

Jonah Preaching To The Ninevites. "Be ye reconciled to God." 2 Cor. 5:20.


1. What message of entreaty has God sent to us through his appointed
messengers?

“Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by
us: we pray you in Christ’s stead, _be ye reconciled to God_.” 2 Cor.
5:20.

2. Through whom is this reconciliation made?

“All things are of God, who hath reconciled us to Himself _by Jesus
Christ_, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation.” Verse 18.

3. What was required in order to effect this reconciliation?

“For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by _the death of
His Son_, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by His life.”
Rom. 5:10.

4. What basis for reconciliation was made by Christ’s death?

“Having made _peace_ through the blood of His cross, by Him to reconcile
all things unto Himself.” Col. 1:20.

5. Through whom is the reconciliation received?

“We also joy in God _through our Lord Jesus Christ_, by whom we have now
received the atonement [reconciliation, margin].” Rom. 5:11.

6. By what union does Christ reconcile both Jew and Gentile to God through
the cross?

“And that He might reconcile both unto God _in one body_ by the cross,
having slain the enmity thereby.” Eph. 2:16.

7. In what prophecy was the work of reconciliation foretold?

“Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to
finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and _to make
reconciliation for iniquity_.” Dan. 9:24.

8. In thus reconciling the world unto Himself, what attitude did God take
toward men?

“God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto Himself, _not imputing
their trespasses unto them_.” 2 Cor. 5:19.

9. What rendered it possible for God to treat sinners thus?

“All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own
way; and _the Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all_.” Isa. 53:6.

10. What was Christ made, to release men from sin?

“For He hath made Him to be _sin_ for us, who knew no sin; that we might
be made the righteousness of God in Him.” 2 Cor. 5:21.

11. How was He treated?

“But He was _wounded_ for our transgressions, He was _bruised_ for our
iniquities: the _chastisement_ of our peace was upon Him; and with His
_stripes_ we are healed.” Isa. 53:5.

12. What did John declare concerning Him?

“Behold the Lamb of God, _which taketh away_ [_beareth_, margin] _the sin
of the world_.” John 1:29.

13. To what place did Christ carry these sins?

“Who His own self bare our sins in His own body _on the tree_, that we,
being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye
were healed.” 1 Peter 2:24.

14. What is the great purpose of Christ in His work of reconciliation?

“And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked
works, yet now hath He reconciled in the body of His flesh through death,
_to present you holy and unblamable and unreprovable in His sight_.” Col.
1:21, 22.



Acceptance With God


                             [Illustration.]

  Noah’s Sacrifice. "He hath made us accepted in the Beloved." Eph. 1:6.


1. In whom has God made us accepted?

“Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed
us with all spiritual blessings ... in Christ: according as He hath chosen
us in Him ... to the praise of the glory of His grace, wherein He hath
made us _accepted in the Beloved_.” Eph. 1:3-6.

2. What great gift comes with our acceptance of Christ?

“And this is the will of Him that sent Me, that every one which seeth the
Son, and believeth on Him, may have _everlasting life_: and I will raise
him up at the last day.” John 6:40. See also John 17:2.

3. What is the first and primary evidence of our acceptance with God?

“If we receive the witness of men, the _witness of God is greater_: for
this is the witness of God _which He hath testified of His Son_.... And
this is the record, _that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life
is in His Son_.” 1 John 5:9-11.


    NOTE.—The primary basis of all faith and acceptance is the word of
    God,—that which God Himself has _said_. To receive and believe
    this is the first essential to salvation,—the first evidence of
    acceptance.


4. Why did John write his testimony concerning God’s love and purpose in
giving Christ?

“These things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son
of God; _that ye may know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may
believe on the name of the Son of God_.” Verse 13. “These are written,
_that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that
believing ye might have life through His name_.” John 20:31.

5. What witness does the true believer in Christ have that he is accepted
of God?

“He that believeth on the Son of God _hath the witness in himself_: he
that believeth not God hath made Him a liar; because he believeth not the
_record_ that God gave of His Son.” 1 John 5:10.


    NOTE.—Faith and feeling should not be confounded. Faith is ours to
    exercise in the Word of God, regardless of our feelings, and often
    in opposition even to our feelings. Many fail to accept the pardon
    and assurance of the acceptance of Heaven, because they do not
    take God at His word, but instead turn their attention to their
    changeable moods and feelings. _Faith_ always precedes the _joyful
    feelings_ which naturally result from the assurance of forgiveness
    and acceptance. This order is never reversed.


6. How only do any become children of God?

“Ye are all the children of God _by faith in Christ Jesus_.” Gal. 3:26.

7. What is the foundation of faith?

“Faith cometh by hearing, and hearing _by the word of God_.” Rom. 10:17.

8. What assurance has the believer of his union with God?

“Hereby know we that we dwell in Him, and He in us, _because He hath given
us of His Spirit_.” 1 John 4:13.

9. What three definite witnesses of acceptance are mentioned by John?

“There are three that bear witness in earth, the _Spirit_, and the
_water_, and the _blood_: and these three agree in one.” 1 John 5:8.

10. How does the Spirit witness to our acceptance with God?

“Because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your
hearts, crying, _Abba, Father_.” Gal. 4:6. “The Spirit itself beareth
witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God.” Rom. 8:16.

                             [Illustration.]

 The Prodigal’s Return. "This my son was dead, and is alive again; he was
                     lost, and is found." Luke 15:24.


11. Of what is Christian baptism an evidence?

“As many of you as have been baptized into Christ have _put on Christ_.”
Gal. 3:27.


    NOTE.—In baptism, the water and the Spirit both bear witness of
    God’s acceptance. The same Spirit which, at Christ’s baptism,
    said, “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased,”
    witnesses to the acceptance of every sincere believer at his
    baptism.


12. To what does the blood of Christ witness?

“These things write we unto you, that your joy may be full.... If we walk
in the light, as He is in the light, we have fellowship one with another,
and the blood of Jesus Christ His Son _cleanseth us from all sin_.” 1 John
1:4-7. “In whom we have redemption through His blood, _the forgiveness of
sins_.” Eph. 1:7. See also Rev. 1:5, 6.

13. When may we find acceptance with God through Christ?

“I have heard thee _in a time accepted_, and _in the day of salvation_
have I succored thee: behold, _now is the accepted time_; behold, _now is
the day of salvation_.” 2 Cor. 6:2.

14. To whom, therefore, should we ascribe glory and honor?

“_Unto Him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in His own blood_,
and hath made us kings and priests unto God and His Father; to Him be
glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.” Rev. 1:5, 6.

15. What is another evidence of divine acceptance?

“We know that we have passed from death unto life, _because we love the
brethren_.” 1 John 3:14.

16. What blessed assurance is given all believers in Christ?

“And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your
hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.” Phil. 4:7.


    Arise, my soul, arise,
      Shake off thy guilty fears;
    The bleeding Sacrifice
      In my behalf appears;
    Before the throne my Saviour stands,
    My name is written on His hands.

    Five bleeding wounds He bears,
      Received on Calvary;
    They pour effectual prayers,
      They strongly speak for me.
    Forgive him, O, forgive! they cry,
    Nor let the contrite sinner die!
                        CHARLES WESLEY.



Justification By Faith


                             [Illustration.]

   The Penitent Thief. "Thou shalt be with Me in paradise." Luke 23:43.


1. What is the ground of justification on God’s part?

“That being justified _by His grace_, we should be made heirs according to
the hope of eternal life.” Titus 3:7.

2. What is the means through which this justifying grace is made available
to the sinner?

“Much more then, being now justified _by His_ [_Christ’s_] _blood_, we
shall be saved from wrath through Him.” Rom. 5:9.

3. How is justification laid hold upon?

“Therefore we conclude that a man is justified _by faith_ without the
deeds of the law.” Rom. 3:28.

4. What is the only way sinners may be justified, or made righteous?

“Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but _by the
faith of Jesus Christ_, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we
might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the
law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified.” Gal. 2:16.

5. What concrete example makes clear the meaning of this doctrine?

“And He brought him [Abraham] forth abroad, and said, Look now toward
heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and He said
unto him, So shall thy seed be. And _he believed in the Lord; and He
counted it to him for righteousness_.” Gen. 15:5, 6.

6. How is the righteousness thus obtained described?

“And be found in Him, not having thine own righteousness, which is of the
law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, _the righteousness
which is of God by faith_.” Phil. 3:9.

7. Upon what basis is justification granted?

“And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the _gift_: for the judgment
was by one to condemnation, but _the free gift_ is of many offenses unto
justification.” Rom. 5:16.

8. Upon what basis does the reward come to one who works?

“Now to him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of
_debt_.” Rom. 4:4.

9. Upon what condition is faith reckoned for righteousness?

“But to him that worketh not, but _believeth on Him that justifieth the
ungodly_, his faith is counted for righteousness.” Verse 5.

10. How does grace, as the ground of justification, exclude righteousness
by works?

“And _if by grace, then is it no more of works: otherwise grace is no more
grace_. But if it be of works, then is it no more grace: otherwise work is
no more work.” Rom. 11:6.

11. In what way are both Jews and Gentiles to be justified?

“Is He the God of the Jews only? is He not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of
the Gentiles also: seeing it is one God, which shall justify the
circumcision _by faith_, and uncircumcision _through faith_.” Rom. 3:29,
30.

12. What statement testifies to Abraham’s faith in God?

“He staggered not at the promise of God through unbelief; but was strong
in faith, giving glory to God; and _being fully persuaded that what He had
promised, He was able also to perform_.” Rom. 4:20, 21.

13. What did this bring to him?

“And therefore _it was imputed to him for righteousness_.” Verse 22.

14. How may we receive this same imputed righteousness?

“Now it was not written for his sake alone, that it was imputed to him;
but for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, _if we believe on Him that
raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead_.” Verses 23, 24.

15. Why must justifying faith lay hold upon both the death and the
resurrection of Christ?

“Who was _delivered for our offenses_, and _was raised again for our
justification_.” Verse 25. See 1 Cor. 15:17.


    NOTE.—The resurrection of Christ, the promised Seed (Gal. 3:16),
    was necessary in order to fulfil to Abraham the promise of an
    innumerable seed; and therefore Abraham’s faith in the promise of
    God, which included the resurrection, was reckoned to him for
    righteousness. His faith laid hold upon that which made imputed
    righteousness possible. See Heb. 11:17-19.


16. What is inseparable from the experience of justification by faith?

“Be it known unto you therefore, men and brethren, that through this man
is preached unto you _the forgiveness of sins_: and by Him all that
believe are _justified from all things_, from which ye could not be
justified by the law of Moses.” Acts 13:38, 39.

17. How has Christ made it possible for righteousness to be imputed to the
believer?

“For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so _by the
obedience of one_ shall many be made righteous.” Rom. 5:19.

18. What prophetic declaration foretold this truth?

“_In the Lord_ shall all the seed of Israel be _justified_, and shall
glory.” Isa. 45:25.

19. What other prediction asserts the same great truth?

“_By His knowledge shall My righteous servant justify many_; for He shall
bear their iniquities.” Isa. 5:11.

20. What does the imputed righteousness of Christ enable God to do, and
still be just?

“To declare, I say, at this time His righteousness: _that He might be
just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus_.” Rom. 3:26.

21. By what name is Christ appropriately called?

“Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will raise unto David a
righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute
judgment and justice in the earth. In His days Judah shall be saved, and
Israel shall dwell safely and this is His name whereby He shall be called,
THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.” Jer. 23:5, 6.

22. What blessed experience follows upon the acceptance of Christ as our
righteousness?

“Therefore being justified by faith, _we have peace with God_ through our
Lord Jesus Christ.” Rom. 5:1.

23. What does Christ thus become to the believer?

“For _He is our peace_, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the
middle wall of partition between us.” Eph. 2:14.

24. On what basis is there no possibility of justification for the sinner?

“Therefore _by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in
His sight_: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.” Rom. 3:20.

25. How does the death of Christ bear testimony to this?

“I do not frustrate the grace of God: for _if righteousness come by the
law, then Christ is dead in vain_.” Gal. 2:21.

26. What is proved by any attempt to be justified by the law?

“_Christ is become of no effect unto you_, whosoever of you are justified
by the law; _ye are fallen from grace_.” Gal. 5:4.

27. Why did Israel fail to attain unto righteousness?

“But Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness, hath not
attained to the law of righteousness. Wherefore? _Because they sought it
not by faith, but as it were by the works of the law._ For they stumbled
at that stumbling-stone.” Rom. 9:31, 32.

28. What is revealed by the law?

“By the law is _the knowledge of sin_.” Rom. 3:20

29. What bears witness to the genuineness of the righteousness obtained by
faith, apart from the deeds of the law?

“But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, _being
witnessed by the law and the prophets_.” Verse 21.

30. Does faith set aside the law of God?

“Do we then make void the law through faith? _God forbid_: yea, we
_establish_ the law.” Verse 31.

31. What scripture shows that the righteousness which is received by grace
through faith must not be made an excuse for continuing in sin?

“What shall we say then? _Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound?
God forbid._ How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein?”
Rom. 6:1, 2.

32. Does faith exclude works?

“But wilt thou know, O vain man, that _faith without works is dead_?”
James 2:20.

33. What is the evidence of genuine, living faith?

“Show me thy faith without thy works, and _I will show thee my faith by my
works_.” Verse 18.

34. What, then, are the visible proofs of genuine justification by faith?

“Ye see then how that by _works_ a man is justified, and not by faith
only.” Verse 24. See also verse 22.

35. What great exchange has been wrought for us in Christ?

“For He hath made Him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be
made the righteousness of God in Him.” 2 Cor. 5:21.


    NOTE.—Said Luther: “Learn to know Christ and Him crucified. Learn
    to sing a new song—to despair of your own works, and to cry unto
    Him, Lord Jesus, Thou art my righteousness, and I am Thy sin. Thou
    hast taken upon Thee what was mine, and given to me what was
    Thine; what Thou wast not Thou becamest, that I might become what
    I was not.”—_D’Aubigne’s_ “_History of the Reformation_,” _book 2,
    chap. 8_.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Look upon Jesus, sinless is He;
    Father, impute His life unto me.
    My life of scarlet, my sin and woe,
    Cover with His life, whiter than snow.

    Deep are the wounds transgression has made:
    Red are the stains; my soul is afraid.
    O to be covered, Jesus, with Thee,
    Safe from the law that now judgeth me!

    Longing the joy of pardon to know;
    Jesus holds out a robe white as snow:
    “Lord, I accept it! leaving my own,
    Gladly I wear Thy pure life alone.”

    Reconciled by His death for my sin,
    Justified by His life pure and clean,
    Sanctified by obeying His word,
    Glorified when returneth my Lord.
                            F. E. BELDEN.



Righteousness And Life


                             [Illustration.]

The Lord Our Righteousness. "He that hath the Son hath life." 1 John 5:12.


1. What is assured to the believer in Christ?

“For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that
whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have _everlasting
life_.” John 3:16.

2. What is revealed in the gospel?

“For therein is _the righteousness of God_ revealed from faith to faith:
as it is written, The just shall live by faith.” Rom. 1:17.

3. What has Christ brought to light through the gospel?

“Who hath abolished death, and hath brought _life and immortality_ to
light through the gospel.” 2 Tim. 1:10.

4. How closely are righteousness and life thus united?

“In the way of _righteousness_ is _life_; and in the pathway thereof there
is no death.” Prov. 12:28.

5. What does he find who follows after righteousness?

“He that followeth after righteousness and mercy findeth _life_,
righteousness, and honor.” Prov. 21:21.

6. Through what does grace reign unto eternal life?

“That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign _through
righteousness_ unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord.” Rom. 5:21.

                             [Illustration.]

Healing The Lame Man. "In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth rise up and
                             walk." Acts 3:6.


7. What is the very life of the Spirit?

“And if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit
is life because of _righteousness_.” Rom. 8:10.

8. What are the commandments of God declared to be?

“All Thy commandments are _righteousness_.” Ps. 119:172.

9. What did Jesus declare God’s commandment to be?

“And I know that His commandment is _life everlasting_.” John 12:50.


    NOTE.—Life and righteousness are thus shown to be inseparable.


10. What does the prophet Jeremiah declare Christ to be?

“And this is His name whereby He shall be called, THE LORD OUR
RIGHTEOUSNESS.” Jer. 23:6.

11. What does Christ declare Himself to be?

“I am the way, the truth, and the _life_.” John 14:6.

12. How is righteousness received?

“For if by one man’s offense death reigned by one; much more they which
receive abundance of grace and of _the gift of righteousness_ shall reign
in life by one, Jesus Christ.” Rom. 5:17.

13. How is eternal life bestowed?

“For the wages of sin is death; but the _gift_ of God is eternal life
through Jesus Christ our Lord.” Rom. 6:23.

14. What did Moses set forth as the basis of righteousness?

“And _it shall be our righteousness, if we observe to do all these
commandments_ before the Lord our God, as He hath commanded us.” Deut.
6:25.

15. What did Christ indicate as essential to eternal life?

“And He said unto him, Why callest thou Me good? there is none good but
one, that is, God: but _if thou wilt enter into life, keep the
commandments_.” Matt. 19:17.


    NOTE.—The righteousness of God, which is obtained by faith in
    Christ, brings with it the life of God, which is inseparably
    connected with righteousness; and the life of God, which is
    bestowed upon man as a gift through his faith in Christ, is a life
    of righteousness,—the righteousness, or right-doing, of Christ.



Consecration


                             [Illustration.]

 The Carpenter’s Son. "Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ
                            Jesus." Phil. 2:5.


1. What offering did King Hezekiah command to be made when he
reestablished the worship of the temple?

“And Hezekiah commanded to offer the _burnt offering_ upon the altar. And
when the burnt offering began, the song of the Lord began also with the
trumpets, and with the instruments ordained by David king of Israel.” 2
Chron. 29:27.

2. After the people had united in this service, how did Hezekiah interpret
its meaning?

“Then Hezekiah answered and said, _Now ye have consecrated yourselves unto
the Lord_, come near and bring sacrifices and thank-offerings into the
house of the Lord. And the congregation brought in sacrifices and
thank-offerings; and as many as were of a free heart burnt offerings.”
Verse 31.


    NOTE.—The morning and the evening burnt offering, or the continual
    offering (Ex. 29:42), symbolized the daily consecration of the
    people to the Lord.


3. How is this consecration urged upon all Christians?

“I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present
your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your
reasonable service.” Rom. 12:1.

4. What is the continual sacrifice of praise declared to be?

“Through Him then let us offer up a sacrifice of praise to God
continually, that is, the fruit of lips which make confession to His
name.” Heb. 13:15, R. V.

5. How is the service of consecration to be carried forward by the
Christian church?

“Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy
priesthood, _to offer up spiritual sacrifices_, acceptable to God by Jesus
Christ.” 1 Peter 2:5.

6. Who has set the example of complete consecration?

“And whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant: even as
_the Son of man_ came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to
give His life a ransom for many.” Matt. 20: 27, 28.

7. What position has Jesus taken among His brethren?

“For whether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is
not he that sitteth at meat? but _I am among you as he that serveth_.”
Luke 22:27.

8. In what does likeness to Christ consist?

“Let this _mind_ be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus.” Phil. 2:5.

9. What did Christ’s spirit of meekness and consecration lead Him to do?

“But made Himself of no reputation, and _took upon Him the form of a
servant_, and was made in the likeness of men.” Verse 7.

10. To what extent did Christ humble Himself?

“And being found in fashion as a man, He humbled Himself, and became
obedient _unto death, even the death of the cross_.” Verse 8.

11. How does He exhort us to the same consecration?

“_Take My yoke upon you, and learn of Me_; for I am meek and lowly in
heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls.” Matt. 11:29.

12. What does He make the condition of discipleship?

“So likewise, whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath,
he cannot be My disciple.” Luke 14:33.

13. What is proof that one does not belong to Christ?

“If any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His.” Rom. 8:9.

14. How should he walk who professes to abide in Christ?

“He that saith he abideth in Him _ought himself also so to walk, even as
He walked_.” 1 John 2:6.

15. Do we belong to ourselves?

“Know ye not that ... _ye are not your own_? for ye are bought with a
price.” 1 Cor. 6:19, 20.

16. What are we therefore exhorted to do?

“Therefore _glorify God in your body, and in your spirit_, which are
God’s.” Verse 20.


    NOTE.—Our time, strength, and means are God’s, and should be given
    to His service.


17. Of what are the bodies of Christians the temple?

“What? know ye not that your body is _the temple of the Holy Ghost_ which
is in you, which ye have of God?” Verse 19.

18. When truly consecrated, for what is one ready?

“Also I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, Whom shall I send, and who
will go for us? _Then said I, Here am I; send me._” Isa. 6:8.

19. How is this willingness for service otherwise expressed?

“Behold, as the eyes of servants look unto the hand of their masters, and
as the eyes of a maiden unto the hand of her mistress; _so our eyes wait
upon the Lord our God_.” Ps. 123:2.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Take my life, and let it be
    Consecrated, Lord, to Thee!
    Take my hands, and let them move
    At the impulse of Thy love.

    Take my feet, and let them be
    Swift and beautiful for Thee;
    Take my voice, and let me sing
    Always, only, for my King.

    Take my will, and make it Thine:
    It shall be no longer mine!
    Take my heart,—it is Thine own,—It
    shall be Thy royal throne.
                    FRANCES RIDLEY HAVERGAL.



Bible Election


                             [Illustration.]

The Ten Virgins. "They that were ready went in with him to the marriage."
                               Matt. 25:10.


1. What does the apostle Peter admonish us to do?

“Wherefore ... brethren, _give diligence to make your calling and election
sure_.” 2 Peter 1:10.


    NOTE.—This text at once reveals the fact that our salvation, so
    far as our own individual cases are concerned, is dependent upon
    our own action. We are elected to be saved; but we are to give
    diligence to make this election _sure_. If we do not, it will not
    meet its purpose in our case, and we shall be lost.


2. What admonition given by Christ teaches the same truth?

“Behold, I come quickly: _hold that fast which thou hast, that no man take
thy crown_.” Rev. 3:11.


    NOTE.—Crowns have been prepared for each of the finally redeemed.
    Every soul is a candidate in the race for eternal life, and hence
    for a crown. Faith in Jesus, and perseverance to the end, will
    hold it fast.


3. Upon what condition is the crown of life promised?

“_Be thou faithful unto death_, and I will give thee a crown of life.”
Rev. 2:10.

4. In whom, and from what time, have we been chosen unto holiness and
salvation?

“According as He hath chosen us _in Him_ [_Christ_] _before the foundation
of the world_.” Eph. 1:4, first part.

5. What is the character of those thus chosen before the foundation of the
world?

“That we should be _holy_ and _without blemish_ before Him in love.” Same
verse, last part, R. V.

6. To what has God foreordained those who attain to this character?

“Having foreordained us _unto adoption as sons_ through Jesus Christ unto
Himself.” Verse 5, R. V.

7. According to what does God call us?

“And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God,
to them who are the called _according to His purpose_.” Rom. 8:28.

8. According to what have we been predestinated?

“Being predestinated _according to the purpose of Him who worketh all
things after the counsel of His own will_.” Eph. 1:11.

9. How many does God desire to be saved?

“_Who will have all men to be saved_, and to come unto the knowledge of
the truth.” 1 Tim. 2:4.

10. Upon what condition is salvation offered?

“_Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ_, and thou shalt be saved.” Acts 16:31.

11. For how long must this faith be preserved in order to bring final
salvation?

“_He that shall endure unto the end_, the same shall be saved.” Matt.
24:13. See James 1:12; Rev. 2:10.

12. What scripture is sometimes cited as evidence that God is arbitrary in
His dealings with men?

“Therefore hath He mercy on whom He _will_ have mercy, and whom He _will_
He hardeneth.” Rom. 9:18.

13. But what other scripture shows with whom God _wills_ to be merciful,
and with whom otherwise?

“With the _merciful_ Thou wilt show Thyself _merciful_; with an _upright_
man Thou wilt show Thyself _upright_; with the _pure_ Thou wilt show
Thyself _pure_; and with the _froward_ Thou wilt show Thyself _froward_.”
Ps. 18:25, 26. See also Isa. 55:7.


    NOTE.—God wills that men shall be saved. He has foreordained the
    characters that will entitle men to salvation, but He does not
    _compel_ any one to receive Christ, possess this character, and be
    saved. This is a matter of individual choice. By His mighty acts
    and judgments in Egypt, God “hardened Pharaoh’s heart.” Ex. 7:3,
    13, 22. But the same manifestations _softened_ the hearts of
    others. The difference was in the _hearts_, and in the way God’s
    message and dealings were received; not in God. The same sun which
    melts the wax hardens the clay. Ex. 8:32 says that Pharaoh
    hardened his own heart.


14. What, on man’s part, is essential to salvation?

“_Choose_ ye this day whom ye will serve.” Joshua 24:15. “If any man
_willeth to do His will_, he shall know of the teaching.” John 7:17, R. V.
“_Believe_ on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved.” Acts 16:31.
“Whosoever _will_, let him take the water of life freely.” Rev. 22:17.


    NOTE.—A man once wished to join a certain church, but said he
    could not do so on account of the views this church held on the
    subject of “election.” The minister to whom he was sent for help
    and enlightenment, failing to make the matter clear, an old
    colored man, a layman, came to the rescue, and said: “Brother,
    this is the very easiest thing in the church. You see, it is like
    this: The votin’ is goin’ on all the time; and God, He is votin’
    for you; and the devil, he is votin’ agin you; and whichever way
    _you_ vote, that is the way the _election_ goes.” Commenting upon
    this incident, Rev. Wilbur Chapman, the noted evangelist, says: “I
    have studied theology some myself, and graduated at a theological
    seminary; but I never got anything quite so good as that.”


15. In what fact may every believer rejoice?

“But rejoice _that your names are written in heaven_.” Luke 10:20, R. V.

16. Whose names are to be retained in the book of life?

“_He that overcometh_, ... I will not blot out his name out of the book of
life.” Rev. 3:5.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    O, happy day! that fixed my choice
      On Thee, My Saviour and my God;
    Well may this glowing heart rejoice,
      And tell its raptures all abroad.

    ’Tis done, the great transaction’s done;
      I am my Lord’s, and he is mine;
    He drew me, and I followed on,
      Charmed to confess the voice divine.

    Now rest, my long-divided heart,
      Fixed on this blissful center rest;
    Nor ever from thy Lord depart,
      With Him of every good possessed.
                    PHILIP DODDRIDGE.



Bible Sanctification


                             [Illustration.]

   Moses At The Burning Bush. "The place whereon thou standest is holy
                            ground." Ex. 3:5.


1. What inspired prayer sets the standard of Christian experience?

“And the very God of peace _sanctify you wholly_; and I pray God your
whole _spirit_ and _soul_ and _body_ be preserved _blameless_ unto the
coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.” 1 Thess. 5:23.

2. How necessary is the experience of sanctification?

“Follow after peace with all men, and the sanctification _without which no
man shall see the Lord_.” Heb. 12:14, R. V.

3. What encouragement is held out as an aid in attaining this experience?

“For _this is the will of God_, even your sanctification.” 1 Thess. 4:3.


    NOTE.—Whatever is the will of God concerning us can be realized in
    our experience if our wills are in harmony with His will. It is
    therefore a matter of great encouragement to know that our
    sanctification is included in the will of God.


4. What distinct purpose did Christ have in giving Himself for the church?

“Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave
Himself for it; _that He might sanctify and cleanse it_ with the washing
of water by the word.” Eph. 5:25, 26.

5. What kind of church would He thus be able to present to Himself?

“That He might present it to Himself _a glorious church, not having spot,
or wrinkle, or any such thing_; but that it should be holy and without
blemish.” Verse 27.

6. In the experience of sanctification, what attitude must one assume
toward the truth?

“God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through
sanctification of the Spirit and _belief of the truth_.” 2 Thess. 2:13.

7. What instruction shows that sanctification is a progressive work?

“But _grow_ in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus
Christ.” 2 Peter 3:18. See chap. 1:5-7.

8. What description of the apostle Paul’s experience is in harmony with
this?

“Brethren, _I count not myself to have apprehended_: but this one thing I
do, forgetting those things which are behind, and reaching forth unto
those things which are before, _I press toward the mark_ of the prize of
the high calling of God in Christ Jesus.” Phil. 3:13, 14.

9. By what is this cleansing from sin and fitting for God’s service
accomplished?

“For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer
sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh: how
much more shall the _blood of Christ_, who through the eternal Spirit
offered Himself without spot to God, _purge your conscience from dead
works to serve the living God_?” Heb. 9:13, 14. See also chap. 10:29.

10. What change is thus brought about?

“And be not conformed to this world: but _be ye transformed by the
renewing of your mind_, that ye may prove what is that good, and
acceptable, and perfect, will of God.” Rom. 12:2.

11. Can any one boast of sinlessness?

“If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not
in us.” 1 John 1:8.

12. What are we exhorted by the prophet to seek?

“Seek ye the Lord, all ye meek of the earth, which have wrought His
judgment; _seek righteousness, seek meekness_: it may be ye shall be hid
in the day of the Lord’s anger.” Zeph. 2:3.

13. In whose name should everything be done?

“And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, _do all in the name of the Lord
Jesus_.” Col. 3:17.

14. In all we do, whose glory should we have in view?

“Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, _do all to the
glory of God_.” 1 Cor. 10:31.

15. What classes of persons are necessarily shut out of the kingdom of
God?

“For this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous
man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and
of God.” Eph. 5:5. “Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the
kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor
adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor
thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners,
shall inherit the kingdom of God.” 1 Cor. 6:9, 10.

16. What must be crucified and eliminated from our lives if we would be
holy?

“Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth; fornication,
uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness,
which is idolatry: for which things’ sake the wrath of God cometh on the
children of disobedience.” Col. 3:5, 6.

17. When purged from these sins, in what condition is a man, and for what
is he prepared?

“If a man therefore purge himself from these, _he shall be a vessel unto
honor, sanctified, and meet for the Master’s use, and prepared unto every
good work_.” 2 Tim. 2:21.


    NOTE.—“Sanctification is the term used to describe the work of God
    the Holy Ghost upon the character of those who are justified. We
    are justified in order that we may be sanctified, and we are
    sanctified in order that we may be glorified. ‘Whom He justified,
    them He also glorified.’ Rom. 8:30. The grace of God is given to
    make us holy, and so to fit us for God’s presence in eternity; for
    ’without holiness no man shall see the Lord.’ Heb. 12:14.”—“_The
    Catholic Religion_” (_Episcopal_), _by Rev. Vernon Staley, page
    327_.



Importance Of Sound Doctrine


                             [Illustration.]

Ezra Reading The Law. "Prove all things; hold fast that which is good." 1
                               Thess. 5:21.


1. Does it matter what one believes, so long as he is sincere?

“God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through
sanctification of the Spirit _and belief of the truth_.” 2 Thess. 2:13.


    NOTE.—Doctrine affects the _life_. Truth leads to life and God;
    error to death and destruction. No one would think of saying it
    matters not what _god_ one worships, so long as he is sincere, any
    more than he would think of saying it matters not what one _eats_
    or _drinks_, so long as he _relishes_ what he eats and drinks; or
    what _road_ he travels, so long as he _thinks_ he is on the right
    road. Sincerity is a virtue; but it is not the test of sound
    doctrine. God wills that we shall know the _truth_, and He has
    made provision whereby we may know what is truth.


2. Did Joshua think it immaterial what God Israel served?

“Now therefore fear the Lord, and serve Him in sincerity and in truth: and
_put away the gods which your fathers served on the other side of the
flood and in Egypt; and serve ye the Lord_. And if it seem evil unto you
to serve the Lord, choose you this day whom ye will serve; whether the
gods which your fathers served that were on the other side of the flood,
or the gods of the Amorites, in whose land ye dwell: but _as for me and my
house, we will serve the Lord_.” Joshua 24:14, 15.


    NOTE.—The influence of all idolatrous worship is degrading. See
    Rom. 1:21-32; Numbers 15; 1 Cor. 10:20; 1 John 5:21.


3. How may we determine the truthfulness of any doctrine?

“_Prove all things_; hold fast that which is good.” 1 Thess. 5:21.

4. By what should we test, or prove, all doctrine?

“_To the law and to the testimony_: if they speak not according to this
word, it is because there is no light in them.” Isa. 8:20.


    NOTE.—The Bible is the test of all doctrine. Whatever does not
    harmonize and square with this, is not to be received. “There is
    but one standard of the everlastingly right and the everlastingly
    wrong, and that is the Bible.”—T. DE WITT TALMAGE.


5. Of what kind of doctrines should we beware?

“That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried
about with every _wind of doctrine_.” Eph. 4:14. See also Heb. 13:9.

6. What is a “wind of doctrine”?

“And the prophets shall become _wind_; and _the word is not in them_.”
Jer. 5:13.


    NOTE.—Calling a doctrine a wind of doctrine does not make it such.
    That is a wind of doctrine which is not sustained by the Word of
    God.


7. For what is all scripture profitable?

“All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is _profitable for
doctrine_.” 2 Tim. 3:16.

8. What advice was given to Timothy while preparing for the gospel
ministry?

“Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to
_doctrine_.... Take heed unto thyself, and unto the _doctrine_.” 1 Tim.
4:13-16.

9. What solemn charge was given him concerning his public work?

“I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall
judge the quick and the dead at His appearing and His kingdom; _Preach the
word; ... reprove, rebuke, exhort with all long-suffering and doctrine_.”
2 Tim. 4:1, 2.

10. Why did the apostle say this duty was so imperative?

“_For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine_; but
after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having
itching ears; _and they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and
shall be turned unto fables_.” Verses 3, 4.

11. What similar instruction was given to Titus?

“But speak thou the things which become _sound doctrine_: ... in all
things showing thyself a pattern of good works: _in doctrine showing
uncorruptness_, gravity, sincerity.” Titus 2:1-7.

12. What will sound doctrine enable the faithful teacher to do?

“Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he may be
able _by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers_.”
Titus 1:9.

13. What danger attends the teaching of false doctrine?

“Who concerning the truth have erred, saying that the resurrection is past
already; and _overthrow the faith of some_.” 2 Tim. 2:18.

14. Who are the disciples of Jesus, and what gracious work does the truth
do for those who receive it?

“_If ye continue in My word_, then are ye My disciples indeed; and _ye
shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free_.” John 8:31, 32.

15. Through what are they to be sanctified?

“Sanctify them through _Thy truth_: Thy word is truth.” John 17:17.

16. What kind of worship results from false teaching?

“_But in vain they do worship Me_, teaching for doctrines the commandments
of men.” Matt. 15:9.

17. Can we close our ears to truth, and remain innocent before God?

“He that turneth away his ear from hearing the law, _even his prayer shall
be abomination_.” Prov. 28:9.

18. What did Christ say of those who will to do God’s will?

“If any man willeth to do His will, _he shall know of the teaching_,
whether it be of God, or whether I speak from Myself.” John 7:17, R. V.
See also Ps. 25: 9; John 8:12.

19. What will God allow to come to those who reject truth?

“Because they receive not the love of the truth, that they might be saved.
And for this cause God shall send them _strong delusion_, that they should
believe a lie: that they all might be damned who believed not the truth,
but had pleasure in unrighteousness.” 2 Thess. 2:10-12.

20. By what doctrines are some to be misled in the last days?

“Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall
depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and _doctrines of
devils_.” 1 Tim. 4:1. See 2 Peter 2:1.

21. What fate awaits blind teachers and their followers?

“Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead
the blind, _both shall fall into the ditch_.” Matt. 15:14.

22. To whom will the gates of the heavenly city finally be opened?

“Open ye the gates, that _the righteous nation which keepeth the truth_
may enter in.” Isa. 26:2. See also Rev. 22:14.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Truth is the gem for which we seek,
      O tell us where shall it be found!
    For this we search, and pray, and weep,
      That truth may in our hearts abound.

    We want the truth on every point,
      We want it all to practise by;
    Do thou, O Lord, our eyes anoint
      With a fresh unction from on high.
                            CHARLOTTE HASKINS.



Present Truth


                             [Illustration.]

 Nehemiah Viewing The Ruins Of Jerusalem. "And they said, Let us rise up
                          and build." Neh. 2:18.


1. By what are men sanctified?

“Sanctify them _through Thy truth_: Thy word is truth.” John 17:17.

2. To what knowledge would God have all men come?

“Who will have all men to be saved, and _to come unto the knowledge of the
truth_.” 1 Tim. 2:4.

3. After receiving a _knowledge_ of the truth, what must one do in order
to be sanctified by it?

“God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through
sanctification of the Spirit and _belief of the truth_.” 2 Thess. 2:13.

4. And what besides a mere belief in the truth is necessary?

“Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through
sanctification of the Spirit, _unto obedience_.” 1 Peter 1:2.

5. What effect does obedience to the truth have?

“Seeing _ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth_ through the
Spirit.” Verse 22.

6. How should the truth ever be cherished?

“Buy the truth, and _sell it not_.” Prov. 23:23.


    NOTE.—That is, buy the truth at whatever sacrifice or cost, and
    sell it under no consideration.


7. Does the Bible recognize what may be called “present truth”?

“Wherefore I will not be negligent to put you always in remembrance of
these things, though ye know them, and be established in the _present
truth_.” 2 Peter 1:12.


    NOTE.—Some truths are applicable in all ages, and are therefore
    _present_ truth for every generation; others are of a special
    character, and are applicable to only one generation. They are
    none the less important, however, because of this; for upon their
    acceptance or rejection depends the salvation or loss of the
    people of that generation. Of this kind was Noah’s message of a
    coming flood. To the generation to whom it was preached that
    message was _present truth_; to later generations it has been
    _past truth_, and not a present, testing message. Similarly, had
    the first advent message of John the Baptist, of the Messiah at
    hand, been proclaimed in the generation either before or after
    John’s time, it would not have been applicable—would not have been
    _present truth_. The people of the generation before would not
    have lived to see it fulfilled, and to those living after, it
    would have been wrongly timed. Not so with general truths, such as
    love, faith, hope, repentance, obedience, justice, and mercy.
    These are always in season, and of a saving nature at all times.
    Present truths, however, always include all these, and hence are
    saving in character, and of vital importance.


8. What was the special message for Noah’s day?

“And God said unto Noah, _The end of all flesh is come_ before Me; for the
earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, _I will destroy
them with the earth. Make thee an ark of gopherwood._” Gen. 6:13, 14.

9. How did Noah show his faith in this message?

“_By faith Noah, being warned of God of things not seen as yet, moved with
fear, prepared an ark_ to the saving of his house; by the which he
condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is by
faith.” Heb. 11:7.

10. How many were saved in the ark?

“The long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a
preparing, wherein few, that is, _eight souls were saved by water_.” 1
Peter 3:20.


    NOTE.—Doubtless many who were lost in the flood held, in a nominal
    way, to faith in God; but the test as to the genuineness of this
    came with Noah’s special message; and the difference between their
    faith and his was made plain when they rejected the saving truth
    for that time,—the warning message concerning the coming flood.


11. What special message was given to Jonah for Nineveh?

“So Jonah arose, and went unto Nineveh, according to the word of the
Lord.... And Jonah began to enter into the city a day’s journey, and he
cried, and said, _Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown_.” Jonah
3:3, 4.

12. What saved the people from the predicted overthrow?

“So the people of Nineveh _believed_ God, and proclaimed a fast, and put
on sackcloth, from the greatest of them even to the least of them.... And
God saw their works, that _they turned from their evil way_; and God
repented of the evil, that He had said that He would do unto them; and He
did it not.” Verses 5-10. See Jer. 18:7-10.


    NOTE.—So likewise would God have spared the antediluvian world had
    they received Noah’s message, and turned from their evil ways.


13. What was the special mission of John the Baptist?

“There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. The same came for a
witness, _to bear witness of the Light_, that all men through Him might
believe.” John 1:6, 7.

14. What answer did he return when asked concerning his mission?

“He said, _I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight
the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias_.” Verse 23.

15. What did Christ say of those who rejected John’s message?

“But the Pharisees and lawyers _rejected the counsel of God against
themselves_, being not baptized of him.” Luke 7:30.

16. What did those do who were baptized of John?

“And all the people that heard Him, and the publicans, _justified God_,
being baptized with the baptism of John.” Verse 29.


    NOTE.—That is, they honored God by this act, which showed their
    faith in His truth for that time.


17. Did God’s chosen people receive Christ when He came?

“He came unto His own, and _His own received Him not_.” John 1:11.

18. What reason did they give for not receiving Him?

“We know that God spake unto Moses: _as for this fellow, we know not from
whence He is_.” John 9:29.


    NOTE.—That was the trouble; they had no faith in anything new.
    They _knew_ that God spoke by Moses: it required little faith to
    believe that. They felt perfectly safe in accepting him, for
    everything had demonstrated that he was sent of God. All could see
    that. But here was One whom, although He had come in fulfilment of
    the prophecies of Moses and the prophets as their long-looked-for
    Messiah, they felt there was a risk in accepting, because they did
    not understand the prophecies relating to Him, and time had not
    worked out to their satisfaction the truthfulness of His claims.
    It required too much _faith_, as against their desire to walk by
    _sight_, to accept Christ. It also called for a change of views in
    some things, and a reformation in life. So they rejected Him. They
    believed in the flood, faith in which had saved Noah; they
    believed in Elijah also, and professed faith in all the prophets;
    but when it came to this special truth for their time, they
    refused to accept it. Thus it has been in all ages, and thus we
    may expect it to continue to be to the end.


19. How did Christ say those who rejected Him reasoned?

“Ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchers of the
righteous, and say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would
not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.” Matt.
23:29, 30.


    NOTE.—While they condemned the action of their fathers in slaying
    the prophets whom God had sent with messages of reproof and
    warning applicable to those times, they soon filled up the measure
    of the iniquity of their fathers by putting to death the Son of
    God. This showed that they would have done as did their fathers
    had they lived in their day. Thus we see that present truths are
    testing truths.


20. What was the result of the Jews’ not accepting Christ?

“And when He was come near, He beheld the city, and wept over it, saying,
If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which
belong unto thy peace! but _now they are hid from thine eyes_.” Luke
19:41, 42. “Behold, your house is left unto you _desolate_.” Matt. 23:38.

21. Is there to be a special message for the last days?

“Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son
of man cometh. _Who then is a faithful and wise servant_, whom his Lord
hath made ruler over his household, _to give them meat in due season_?”
Matt. 24:44, 45.


    NOTE.—In the last days a message will go forth which will be “meat
    in due season” to the people. This must be the warning concerning
    the Lord’s soon coming, and the preparation necessary to meet Him.
    Because such a message was not always preached, is no evidence
    that it is not now to be proclaimed. In his farewell address to
    the Pilgrim Fathers on their departure from Holland for America,
    John Robinson said: “The Lord knoweth whether I shall ever see
    your faces more; but whether the Lord hath appointed that or not,
    I charge you before God and His blessed angels to follow me no
    farther than I have followed Christ. If God should reveal anything
    to you by any other instrument of His, be as ready to receive it
    as you ever were to receive any truth by my ministry; for I am
    very confident that the Lord hath more truth and light yet to
    break forth out of His Holy Word. For my part, I cannot
    sufficiently bewail the condition of the Reformed churches, who
    are come to a period in religion, and will go no farther than the
    instruments of their reformation. The Lutherans cannot be drawn to
    go any farther than what Luther saw; and the Calvinists, you see,
    stick fast where they were left by that great man of God, who yet
    saw not all things. This is a misery much to be lamented; for
    though they were burning and shining lights in their time, yet
    they penetrated not into the whole counsel of God, but were they
    now living, would be as willing to embrace further light as that
    which they first received.”


22. What does Christ say of that servant who, when He comes, is found
giving “meat in due season”?

“_Blessed_ is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so
doing.” Verse 46.


    NOTES.—The coming of Christ in glory has been the hope of the
    faithful in all ages.

    Luther declared: “I persuade myself verily, that the day of
    judgment will not be absent full three hundred years. God will
    not, cannot, suffer this wicked world much longer. The great day
    is drawing near in which the kingdom of abominations shall be
    overthrown.”

    Melanchthon said: “This aged world is not far from its end.”

    Calvin bade Christians “not to hesitate, ardently desiring the day
    of Christ’s coming as of all events most auspicious;” and declared
    that “the whole human family of the faithful will keep in view
    that day.” “We must hunger after Christ, we must seek,
    contemplate,” he adds, “till the dawning of that great day, when
    our Lord will fully manifest the glory of His kingdom.”

    Said Knox, the Scotch Reformer: “Has not our Lord Jesus carried up
    our flesh into heaven? and shall He not return? We know that He
    shall return, and that with expedition.”

    Ridley and Latimer, who laid down their lives for the truth,
    looked in faith for the Lord’s coming. Ridley wrote: “The world
    without doubt—this I do believe, and therefore I say it—draws to
    an end.”

    Said Baxter: “The thoughts of the coming of the Lord are most
    sweet and joyful to me. It is the work of faith and the character
    of His saints to love His appearing, and to look for that blessed
    hope.”


23. What will be the burden of the closing gospel message?

“Fear God, and give glory to Him; for the hour of His judgment is come:
and worship Him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the
fountains of waters.... Babylon is fallen, is fallen.... If any man
worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or
in his hand, the same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God.” Rev.
14:7-10.

24. How are those described who accept this message?

“Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the
commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.” Verse 12.

25. How earnestly is this work to be prosecuted?

“And the lord said unto the servant, Go out into the highways and hedges,
_and compel them to come in_, that my house may be filled.” Luke 14:23.


    NOTE.—This work is now going on. In every part of the world the
    sound of this closing gospel message is being heard, and the
    people are being urged to accept it, and to prepare for Christ’s
    coming and kingdom. See readings on pages 251-263.



The Obedience Of Faith


                             [Illustration.]

Abraham Entering The Promised Land. "By faith Abraham, when he was called
                    to go out ... obeyed." Heb. 11:8.


1. What did the Lord command Abraham to do?

“Now the Lord had said unto Abram, _Get thee out of thy country_, and from
thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, _unto a land that I will show
thee_.” Gen. 12:1.

2. How did Abraham respond to this command?

“_So Abram departed_, as the Lord had spoken unto him; and Lot went with
him: and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of
Haran.” Verse 4.

3. Of what was Abraham’s obedience the fruit?

“By _faith_ Abraham, when he was called, obeyed to go out unto a place
which he was to receive for an inheritance; and he went out, not knowing
whither he went.” Heb. 11:8, R. V.

4. What command did the Lord later give to Abraham?

“And He said, _Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest_,
and get thee into the land of Moriah; _and offer him therefor a burnt
offering_ upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.” Gen. 22:2.

5. Upon what ground were the previous promises then renewed to Abraham?

“And said, By Myself have I sworn, saith the Lord, for _because thou hast
done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son_: that in
blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as
the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the seashore; and
thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies; and in thy seed shall all
the nations of the world be blessed; _because thou hast obeyed My voice_.”
Verses 16-18.

6. What enabled Abraham to endure the test?

“By _faith_ Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac: and he that had
received the promises offered up his only begotten son.” Heb. 11:17.

7. Of what were the works of Abraham an evidence?

“Was not Abraham our father _justified_ by works, when he had offered
Isaac his son upon the altar?” James 2:21.

8. By his works what was shown to be perfect?

“Seest thou how faith wrought with his works, and _by works was faith made
perfect_?” Verse 22.

9. In what statement of the scripture was Abraham’s obedience really
implied?

“And the scripture was fulfilled which saith, _Abraham believed God_, and
it was imputed unto him for righteousness: and he was called the Friend of
God.” Verse 23.

10. What kind of faith avails with God?

“For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth anything, nor
uncircumcision; but _faith which worketh by love_.” Gal. 5:6.


    NOTE.—The faith which justifies is the faith which works. Those
    who say, and do not, are not men of faith. The obedience which is
    pleasing to God is the fruit of that faith which takes God at His
    word, and submits to the working of His power, being fully assured
    that what He has promised He is able also to perform. This is the
    faith which is reckoned for righteousness. See Rom. 4:21, 22.


11. For what purpose is the mystery of the gospel made manifest?

“But now [the mystery] is made manifest, and by the scriptures of the
prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known
to all nations _for the obedience of faith_.” Rom. 16:26.

12. For what purpose is the grace of Christ received?

“Through whom we received grace and apostleship, _unto obedience of faith_
among all the nations, for His name’s sake.” Rom. 1:5, R. V.

13. What example of obedience has Christ set for us?

“And being found in fashion as a man, He humbled Himself, and _became
obedient unto death_, even the death of the cross.” Phil. 2:8.

14. At what cost did even He learn the lesson of obedience?

“Though He were a Son, yet _learned He obedience by the things which He
suffered_.” Heb. 5:8.

15. To whom did Christ become the author of salvation?

“And being made perfect, He became the author of eternal salvation _unto
all them that obey Him_.” Verse 9.

16. How complete should this obedience be?

“Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself
against the knowledge of God, and _bringing into captivity every thought
to the obedience of Christ_.” 2 Cor. 10:5.

17. What effect did the preaching of the apostles have upon the hearers?

“And the word of God increased; and _the number of the disciples
multiplied_ in Jerusalem greatly; _and a great company of the priests were
obedient to the faith_.” Acts 6:7.

18. What effect did the preaching of the apostle Paul have upon the
Gentiles?

“For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which Christ hath not
wrought by me, _to make the Gentiles obedient, by word and deed_.” Rom.
15:18.

19. How highly does God regard obedience?

“And Samuel said, Hath the Lord as great delight in burnt offerings and
sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord? Behold, _to obey is
better than sacrifice, and to harken than the fat of rams_.” 1 Sam. 15:22.

20. With what sins are rebellion and stubbornness classed?

“For rebellion is as _the sin of witchcraft_, and stubbornness is as
_iniquity_ and _idolatry_. Because thou hast rejected the word of the
Lord, He hath also rejected thee from being king.” Verse 23.

                             [Illustration.]

Ruth And Naomi. "Thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God." Ruth
                                  1:16.


21. Whose voice had more weight with Saul than had the commandment of God?

“And Saul said unto Samuel, I have sinned: for I have transgressed the
commandment of the Lord, and thy words: because _I feared the people, and
obeyed their voice_.” Verse 24.

22. What charge did Jesus bring against the Pharisees?

“And He said unto them, Full well _ye reject the commandment of God, that
ye may keep your own tradition_.” Mark 7:9.


    NOTE.—Human tradition is simply the voice of man preserved in the
    church. To follow the traditions of men instead of obeying the
    commandments of God is to repeat the sin of Saul.


23. What will be the fate of those who do not obey the gospel of Christ?

“And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be
revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, in flaming fire _taking
vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our
Lord Jesus Christ_.” 2 Thess. 1:7, 8.

24. What condition is attained in obeying the truth?

“Seeing ye have _purified your souls in obeying the truth_ through the
Spirit unto unfeigned love of the brethren, see that ye love one another
with a pure heart fervently.” 1 Peter 1:22.

25. What promise is made to the obedient?

“If ye be willing and obedient, _ye shall eat the good of the land_.” Isa.
1:19.

26. Whose example are we urged to imitate?

“That ye be not slothful, but followers of them _who through faith and
patience inherit the promises_.” Heb. 6:12.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    To obey is better than sacrifice, the Lord hath said;
    To harken when He commandeth, than an offering made.

    All ye who say, “There is naught to do since Christ doth save,”
    Remember what He commands you in the Book He gave.

    Remember only the doers of the word are blessed;
    ’Tis well to hear and believe it, but to do is best.

    F. E. BELDEN.



PART IV. LIFE, PARABLES, AND MIRACLES OF CHRIST


                             [Illustration.]

Immanuel—God With Us. "In the beginning was the Word.... And the Word was
  made flesh, and dwelt among us." John 1:1-14. "He Was Wounded For Our
Transgressions, He Was Bruised For Our Iniquities: The Chastisement Of Our
   Peace Was Upon Him; And With His Stripes We Are Healed." Isa. 53:5.



Birth, Childhood, And Early Life Of Christ


                             [Illustration.]

   The Flight Into Egypt. "Arise, ... and flee into Egypt." Matt. 2:13.


1. In what promise was a Saviour from sin first revealed?

“And the Lord said unto the serpent, ... I will put enmity between thee
and the woman, and between thy seed and _her seed_; it shall bruise thy
head, and thou shalt bruise His heel.” Gen. 3:14, 15.

2. Through whom was a restoration of the lost dominion promised to
Abraham?

“To thee will I give it, and to _thy seed_ forever.” Gen. 13:15.

3. Who was this promised seed?

“He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed,
which is _Christ_.” Gal. 3:16.

4. Where was Christ to be born?

“And ... he [Herod] demanded of them where Christ should be born. And they
said unto him, _In Bethlehem of Judea_.” Matt. 2:4-6. See Micah 5:2.

5. Of whom was Christ to be born?

“Behold, _a virgin_ shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call His
name Immanuel.” Isa. 7:14.


    NOTE.—Immanuel means “God with us.” See Matt. 1:23.


6. Before His birth, what did the angel say to Joseph concerning the
naming of the child?

“And she shall bring forth a son, and _thou shalt call His name Jesus_:
for He shall save His people from their sins.” Matt. 1:21.

7. At His birth, what message did the angel bring to the shepherds abiding
in the field?

“And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, _I bring you good
tidings of great joy_, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born
this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.” Luke
2:10, 11.

8. In what song of praise did a host of angels join?

“And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host
praising God, and saying, _Glory to God in the highest, and on earth
peace, good will toward men_.” Verses 13, 14.

9. What prophecy of Isaiah was fulfilled at Christ’s birth?

“_For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given_: and the government
shall be upon His shoulder.” Isa. 9:6.

10. What did the prophet say His name should be called?

“And His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, The mighty God, The
everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of His government
and peace there shall be no end.” Verses 6, 7.

11. What did the devout Simeon say when he saw the child Jesus?

“And when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for Him after the
custom of the law, then took he Him up in his arms, and blessed God, and
said, Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace, according to Thy
word: for mine eyes have seen Thy salvation, which Thou hast prepared
before the face of all people, a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the
glory of Thy people Israel.” Luke 2:27-32.

12. How did the aged prophetess Anna express herself at the sight of
Jesus?

“And she coming in that instant _gave thanks likewise unto the Lord_, and
spake of Him to all them that looked for redemption in Jerusalem.” Verse
38.

13. What did the wise men of the East do when they had found Jesus?

“When they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary
His mother, and _fell down, and worshiped Him_: and when they had opened
their treasures, they _presented unto Him gifts; gold, and frankincense,
and myrrh_.” Matt. 2:11.

                             [Illustration.]

 The Visit Of The Shepherds. "And they came with haste, and found ... the
                   babe lying in a manger." Luke 2:16.


14. How came Jesus to live for a time in Egypt?

“And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared to
Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child, and His
mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word:
for Herod will seek the young child to destroy Him.” Verse 13.

15. How does the revelator describe this satanic desire to destroy Christ?

“And the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered,
for to devour her child as soon as it was born.” Rev. 12:4.

16. By what means did Herod seek to destroy Christ?

“Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding
wroth, and sent forth, and _slew all the children that were in Bethlehem_,
and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under.” Matt. 2:16.

17. After Herod’s death, where did Joseph and his family live?

“_And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth_: that it might be
fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a
Nazarene.” Verse 23.

18. What is said of Christ’s childhood and early life?

“And the child _grew_, and _waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom_:
and _the grace of God was upon Him_.... And He went down with them, and
came to Nazareth, and _was subject unto them_.” Luke 2:40-51.

19. Upon returning from a feast at Jerusalem, how came Joseph and Mary to
lose Jesus when He was twelve years old?

“But _they, supposing Him to have been in the company_, went a day’s
journey; and they sought Him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance. And
when they found Him not, they turned back again to Jerusalem, seeking
Him.” Verses 44, 45.


    NOTE.—This is how many lose Jesus today. They suppose He is in
    their _company_, but do not see to it that He is with them
    _personally_. Through carelessness it takes but a day to lose Him;
    but, when once lost, it sometimes takes days of sorrowful
    searching, as it did Joseph and Mary, to find Him again.


20. What was Jesus doing when they found Him?

“And it came to pass, that after three days they found Him in the temple,
_sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking them
questions_.” Verse 46.

21. How did His questions and answers impress those who heard Him?

“And all that heard Him _were astonished at His understanding and
answers_.” Verse 47.

22. With what words do the Scriptures conclude the record of Christ’s
early life?

“And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and
man.” Verse 52.


    NOTE.—Christ’s early life is a pattern for all children and youth.
    It was marked by respect and love for His mother. He was obedient
    to His parents, and kind to all. He hated sin, and to every
    temptation turned a deaf ear. He sought to understand the reason
    of things, and so increased in knowledge and wisdom. He was
    sympathetic and tender-hearted, and ever ready to relieve the
    oppressed, the sorrowing, and the suffering. If we love Christ, we
    shall love to talk of Him; our sweetest thoughts will be of Him;
    and by beholding Him we shall be changed into the same image. See
    note on page 98.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    All praise to Thee, eternal Lord,
    Clothed in a garb of flesh and blood;
    Choosing a manger for Thy throne,
    While worlds on worlds are Thine alone!

    Once did the skies before Thee bow;
    A virgin’s arms contain Thee now:
    Angels, who did in Thee rejoice,
    Now listen to Thine infant voice.

    A little child, Thou art our guest,
    That weary ones in Thee may rest;
    Forlorn and lowly is Thy birth,
    That we may rise to heaven from earth.

    Thou comest in the darksome night
    To make us children of the light;
    To make us, in the realms divine,
    Like Thine own angels round Thee shine.

    All this for us Thy love hath done;
    By this to Thee our life is won;
    For this we tune our cheerful lays,
    And tell our thanks in songs of praise.

    MARTIN LUTHER.



Christ’s Ministry


                             [Illustration.]

Nazareth. "Who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed
                        of the devil." Acts 10:38.


1. With what words had John the Baptist announced Christ’s ministry?

“He that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy
to bear: He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire.” Matt.
3:11.

2. How old was Jesus when He began His ministry?

“And Jesus Himself began to be _about thirty years of age_.” Luke 3:23.

3. By what act and what miraculous manifestations was His ministry opened?

“And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of
Galilee, and was _baptized of John in Jordan_. And straightway coming up
out of the water, He saw the heavens opened, and _the Spirit like a dove
descending upon Him: and there came a voice from heaven, saying, Thou art
My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased_.” Mark 1:9-11.

4. Before entering upon His ministry, through what experience did Jesus
pass?

“And immediately the Spirit driveth Him into the wilderness. _And He was
there in the wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan_; and was with the
wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto Him.” Verses 12, 13. See also
Matt. 4:1-11; Luke 4:1-13.

5. With what was Jesus anointed for His work?

“How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth _with the Holy Ghost and with power_:
who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the
devil; for God was with Him.” Acts 10:38.

6. Where did Jesus begin His ministry?

“And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into _Galilee_: and there
went out a fame of Him through all the region round about. And He taught
in their synagogues, being glorified of all.” Luke 4:14, 15.

7. How did He announce His mission while at Nazareth?

“And He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up: and, as His custom
was, He went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up for to
read. And there was delivered unto Him the book of the prophet Esaias. And
when He had opened the book, He found the place where it was written, The
Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, because He hath anointed Me to preach the
gospel to the poor; He hath sent Me _to heal the broken-hearted, to preach
deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set
at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the
Lord...._ And He began to say unto them, _This day is this scripture
fulfilled in your ears_.” Verses 16-21.

8. How were the people impressed with His preaching?

“And all bare Him witness, and _wondered at the gracious words which
proceeded out of His mouth_.” Verse 22.

9. Why were the people at Capernaum astonished at His teaching?

“And [He] came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee, and taught them on
the Sabbath days. And they were astonished at His doctrine: _for His word
was with power_.” Verses 31, 32.

10. Wherein did His teaching differ from that of the scribes?

“And it came to pass, when Jesus had ended these sayings, the people were
astonished at His doctrine: _for He taught them as one having authority,
and not as the scribes_.” Matt. 7:28, 29.

11. How did the common people receive Christ?

“And the common people heard Him _gladly_.” Mark 12:37.

12. In His ministry, what work was closely associated with His preaching?

“And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and
preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and _healing all manner of sickness
and all manner of disease among the people_.” Matt. 4:23.


    NOTE.—In His ministry, Christ combined plain, practical teaching
    with practical, helpful relief work.


13. How extensive was His fame, and how many were attracted to Him?

“And His fame went _throughout all Syria_: and they brought unto Him all
sick people that were taken with divers diseases and torments, and those
which were possessed with devils, and those which were lunatic, and those
that had the palsy; and He healed them. And there followed Him _great
multitudes_ of people from _Galilee_, and from _Decapolis_, and from
_Jerusalem_, and from _Judea_, and from _beyond Jordan_.” Verses 24, 25.

14. What expression used frequently in narrating His ministry shows
Christ’s deep sympathy with mankind?

“But when He saw the multitude, _He was moved with compassion_ on them,
because they fainted, and were scattered abroad, as sheep having no
shepherd.” “And Jesus went forth, and saw a great multitude, and was
_moved with compassion_ toward them, and He healed their sick.” Matt.
9:36; 14:14.

15. In what few words did Christ sum up the object of His ministry?

“For the Son of man is come _to seek and to save that which was lost_.”
Luke 19:10.

16. How did Christ feel over the impenitence of Jerusalem?

“And when He was come near, He beheld the city, and _wept over it_.” Luke
19:41.


    NOTE.—In no other place did Christ appear so much a reformer as in
    Jerusalem, the headquarters of the Jewish religion, which
    religion, though having come from Christ Himself, had degenerated
    into mere formalism and a round of ceremony. Both the beginning
    and the close of His ministry here was marked by a cleansing of
    the temple. See John 2:13-18 and Matt. 21:12-16.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    O blessed Christ! my Strength, my King,
      He is my comfort and my stay;
    In Him I hope, of Him I sing,
      While toiling o’er life’s rugged way.
        Chiefest among ten thousand He,
        For Christ, my King, is all to me.

    MRS. L. D. AVERY-STUTTLE.



Christ The Great Teacher


                             [Illustration.]

Christ Teaching The Multitude. "Never man spake like this man." John 7:46.


1. What report did the officers bring who were sent out by the chief
priests and Pharisees to take Jesus?

“Never man spake like this man.” John 7:46.

2. How did Christ teach the people?

“He taught them _as one having authority_, and not as the scribes.” Matt.
7:29.


    NOTE.—“The teaching of the scribes and elders was cold and formal,
    like a lesson learned by rote. To them the Word of God possessed
    no vital power. Their own ideas and traditions were substituted
    for its teaching. In the accustomed round of service they
    professed to explain the law, but no inspiration from God stirred
    their own hearts or the hearts of their hearers.”


3. Why was Christ’s preaching so impressive?

“For _His word was with power_.”  Luke 4:32.

4. With what was He filled?

“And Jesus being _full of the Holy Ghost_ returned from Jordan, and was
led by the Spirit into the wilderness.” Verse 1.

5. How freely was the Holy Spirit bestowed upon Him?

“For He whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: _for God giveth not
the Spirit by measure unto Him_.” John 3:34.

6. How had Christ’s teaching by parables been foretold?

“I will open My mouth _in a parable_: I will utter dark sayings of old.”
Ps. 78:2.

7. How was this fulfilled?

“Without a parable spake He not unto them.” Matt. 13:34.

8. What question did Christ’s wonderful teaching call forth?

“And when He was come into His own country, He taught them in their
synagogue, insomuch that they were astonished, and said, _Whence hath this
man this wisdom_, and these mighty works?” Verse 54.

9. What did Isaiah say Christ would do with the law?

“He will _magnify_ the law, and make it _honorable_.” Isa. 42:21.

10. Because some thought He had come to destroy the law, what did Christ
say?

“Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not
come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and
earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till
all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least
commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called least in the
kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall
be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I say unto you, That except
your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and
Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven.” Matt.
5:17-20.

11. What testimony did Nicodemus bear concerning Him?

“Rabbi, _we know that Thou art a teacher come from God_: for no man can do
these miracles that Thou doest, except God be with him.” John 3:2.

12. What did Christ’s words at Jacob’s well lead the woman of Samaria to
ask?

“The woman then left her water-pot, and went her way into the city, and
saith to the men, Come, see a man which told me all things that ever I
did: _is not this the Christ?_” John 4:28, 29.

13. How were the two on the way to Emmaus affected by Christ’s
conversation with them?

“And they said one to another, _Did not our heart burn within us, while He
talked with us by the way_, and while He opened to us the Scriptures?”
Luke 24:32.

14. In His teaching, to what did Christ direct attention?

“And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, He expounded unto them in
all the scriptures the things concerning Himself.” “And He said unto them,
These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that
all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the _law of Moses_,
and in the _prophets_, and in the _Psalms_, concerning Me. Then opened He
their understanding, that they might understand _the Scriptures_.” Verses
27, 44, 45.

15. How did He encourage His disciples to look for the fulfilment of
prophecy?

“When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by
Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (_whoso readeth, let him
understand_:) then let them which be in Judea flee into the mountains.”
Matt. 24:15, 16.


    NOTE.—Christ was a faithful student, a consistent user, and a
    perfect expounder, of the Scriptures. He met temptation with the
    Scriptures; He proved His Messiahship by the Scriptures; He taught
    from the Scriptures; and He told His disciples to look to the
    Scriptures as their counselor and guide for the future.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


              Blest they who seek
              While in their youth,
              With spirit meek,
              The way of truth.
    To them the Sacred Scriptures now display
    Christ as the only true and living way;
    His precious blood on Calvary was given
    To make them heirs of bliss in heaven.
    And e’en on earth the child of God can trace
    The blessings of his Saviour’s grace.
              For them He bore
              His Father’s frown;
              For them He wore
              The thorny crown;
              Nailed to the cross,
              Endured its pain,
              That His life’s loss
              Might be their gain.
              Then haste to choose
              That better part,
              Nor e’en refuse
              The Lord thy heart,
              Lest He declare,
              “I know you not,”
              And deep despair
              Should be your lot.
    Now look to Jesus, who on Calvary died,
    And trust on Him who there was crucified.



Parables Of Christ


                             [Illustration.]

 Lessons From Nature. "Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow."
                               Matt. 6:28.


1. What reference is made in the Psalms to Christ’s use of parables?

“I will open My mouth _in a parable_: I will utter _dark sayings of old_.”
Ps. 78:2.


    NOTE.—A parable primarily means a _comparison_ or _similitude_;
    specifically it is a short story or narrative drawn from life or
    nature, by means of which some important lesson is taught, or some
    moral drawn.


2. From what sources did Christ usually draw His parables?

From nature and from every-day experiences.

3. For what are His parables noted?

“Our Saviour’s parables are distinguished above all others for clearness,
purity, chasteness, intelligibility, importance of instruction, and
simplicity. They are taken mostly from the affairs of common life, and are
intelligible, therefore, to all men.”—_Dr. Albert Barnes, on Matt. 13:3._

4. Following one of His parables, what did Christ say?

“Who hath ears to hear let him hear.” Matt. 13:9.

5. What question did the disciples then ask?

“And the disciples came, and said unto Him, _Why speakest Thou unto them
in parables_?” Verse 10.

6. What reply did Christ make?

“He answered and said unto them, _Because it is given unto __ you to know
the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven_, but to them it is not given. For
whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance:
but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that he hath.
Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing see not; and
hearing they hear not, neither do they understand.” Verses 11-13.


    NOTE.—Christ’s object, therefore, in using parables was to teach
    the mysteries, or truths, of the kingdom of heaven,—truths not
    necessarily difficult to understand, but which had long been
    hidden or obscured by sin, apostasy, and tradition,—in such a way
    that the spiritually minded and those desirous of learning the
    truth, might understand them, and the worldly-minded and unwilling
    would not. When asked the meaning of any parable, Christ readily
    explained it to His disciples. See Luke 8:9-15; Matt. 13:36-43;
    Mark 4:33,34.


7. After giving instruction by the use of parables, what question did
Christ ask His disciples?

“Jesus saith unto them, _Have ye understood all these things?_ They say
unto Him, Yea, Lord.” Verse 51.

8. How extensively did Christ make use of parables?

“All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in parables; and _without
a parable spake He not unto them_.” Verse 34.


    NOTE.—Parables are simply stories. All, young and old, like to
    hear a story. Story-telling is one of the most successful means of
    awakening an interest, securing attention, and teaching,
    illustrating, and enforcing important truths. Christ, the greatest
    of all teachers, recognized this, and therefore made constant use
    of this method of instruction. See reading on “Preaching the
    Gospel,” page 631.


9. How did Christ suggest that His disciples follow His example in
teaching gospel truth?

“Then said He unto them, Therefore every scribe which is instructed unto
the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, _which
bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old_.” Verse 52.

10. Which are some of the most touching and soul-winning of Christ’s
parables?

The parable of the lost sheep, and that of the prodigal son. Luke 15:3-7,
11-32.


    NOTE.—Each parable is designed to teach some one great and
    important truth. The first twelve in the list here given are
    intended to teach the following lessons, respectively: (1) Good
    and evil in life and judgment. (2) Value of the gospel. (3)
    Seeking salvation. (4) The visible church of Christ. (5) Truths
    new and old. (6) Duty of forgiving others. (7) Call at various
    epochs. (8) Insincerity and repentance. (9) Need of righteousness.
    (10) Watchful and careful profession. (11) Use of abilities. (12)
    Final separation of good and bad.


Christ’s Parables

Parables                 Locality       Matt.       Mark        Luke
I. Recorded in only
one Gospel
The Tares                Gennesaret     13:24-30
The hid treasure                        13:44
The goodly pearl                        13:45,46
The draw-net                            13:47-50
Householder and                         13:52
treasure
The unmerciful servant   Capernaum      18:23-35
Laborers in the          Jerusalem      20:1-16
vineyard
The two sons                            21:28-32
Marriage of the king’s   Mt. of         22:1-14
son                      Olives
The ten virgins                         25:1-13
The ten talents                         25:14-30
The sheep and goats                     25:31-46
The seed growing         Gennesaret                 4:26-29
secretly
Householder and                                     13:34-37
servants
The two debtors          Galilee                                7:40-47
The good Samaritan       Jerusalem                              10:25-37
The friend at midnight                                          11:5-13
The rich fool                                                   12:16-21
The wedding-feast                                               12:35-40
The wise steward                                                12:42-48
The barren fig-tree                                             13:6-9
The seat to take                                                14:7-11
The great supper                                                14:15-24
Tower; king going to                                            14:28-33
war
The piece of money                                              15:8-10
The prodigal son                                                15:11-32
The unjust steward                                              16:1-12
Rich man and Lazarus                                            16:19-31
The unprofitable                                                17:7-10
servant
The importunate widow                                           18:1-8
Pharisee and publican                                           18:9-14
The pounds                                                      19:11-27
II. Recorded in two
Gospels
House on rock and sand   Galilee        7:24-27                 6:47-49
The leaven in meal       Gennesaret     13:33                   13:20,21
The lost sheep           Jerusalem      18:12-14                15:3-7
III. Recorded in three
Gospels
New cloth on old         Capernaum      9:16        2:21        5:36
garment
New wine in old                         9:17        2:22        5:37
bottles
The sower                Gennesaret     13:3-9      4:3-9       8:4-15
The mustard-seed                        13:31,32    4:30-32     13:18,19
The wicked husbandmen    Jerusalem      21:33-43    12:1-9      20:9-16
The fig-tree             Mt. of         24:32,33    13:28,29    21:29-31
                         Olives



Miracles Of Christ


                             [Illustration.]

Healing The Lunatic. "A man approved of God ... by miracles and wonders."
                                Acts 2:22.


1. What testimony did the chief priests and Pharisees bear concerning
Christ’s work?

“Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council, and said,
What do we? for _this man doeth many miracles_.” John 11:47.

2. By what did Peter, on the day of Pentecost, say that Christ had been
approved by God?

“Ye men of Israel, hear these words; Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of
God among you _by miracles and wonders and signs, which God did by Him in
the midst of you_, as ye yourselves also know.” Acts 2:22.

3. By what means did Christ claim to cast out devils?

“But if I _with the finger of God_ cast out devils, no doubt the kingdom
of God is come upon you.” Luke 11:20. Matt. 12:28 says “by the _Spirit_ of
God.”


    NOTE.—Under the third plague in Egypt,—that of turning the dust
    into lice,—the magicians, failing to duplicate it, said to
    Pharaoh, “This is the finger of God.” Ex. 8:18, 19.


4. Upon what ground did Nicodemus rest his belief that Christ was a
teacher from God?

“Rabbi, we know that Thou art a teacher come from God: _for no man can do
these miracles that Thou doest, except God be with him_.” John 3:2.

5. After the healing of the blind man, upon what charge did some of the
Pharisees seek to prove that Christ was not of God?

“Therefore said some of the Pharisees, This man is not of God, _because He
keepeth not the Sabbath day_.” John 9:16, first part.


    NOTE.—This was a false charge. Christ did keep the Sabbath, but
    not according to the Pharisees’ idea of Sabbath-keeping. See
    reading on “Christ and the Sabbath,” page 430.


6. What question did others raise in opposition to this view?

“Others said, _How can a man that is a sinner do such miracles?_ And there
was a division among them.” Same verse, last part.

7. What was the result of Christ’s working miracles at His first Passover?

“Now when He was in Jerusalem at the Passover, in the feast-day, _many
believed in His name, when they saw the miracles which He did_.” John
2:23.

8. What question did the performing of these miracles lead many to ask?

“And many of the people believed on Him, and said, _When Christ cometh,
will He do more miracles than these which this man hath done?_” John 7:31.

9. Why were many attracted to Christ?

“A great multitude followed Him, _because they saw His miracles which He
did on them that were diseased_.” John 6:2.


    NOTE.—A miracle is the display of divine or superhuman power in
    some unusual or extraordinary manner; hence its nature to attract
    attention. Christ fed the five thousand with the multiplied loaves
    and fishes, and all men wondered. Every day God feeds millions of
    humanity with the multiplied fruits of the earth, and no one
    marvels. Christ, by a shortened process, changed water into wine,
    and everybody was astonished; but every year God does this in the
    usual way—through the vine—in almost limitless quantities, and no
    one is astonished. A divine miracle, therefore, whenever
    performed, is wrought to heal and to save, and to call attention
    to the source of divine power.


10. What did the people say when they saw these things?

“_He hath done all things well_: He maketh both the deaf to hear, and the
dumb to speak.” Mark 7:37.

11. What kinds of disease and sickness did Jesus cure?

“And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and
preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and _healing all manner of sickness
and all manner of disease among the people_.” “Great multitudes followed
Him, and _He healed them all_.” Matt. 4:23; 12:15.

                             [Illustration.]

 Miraculous Draft Of Fishes. "Launch out into the deep, and let down your
                             nets." Luke 5:4.


12. Who were brought to Him for healing?

“And they brought unto Him _all sick people that were taken with divers
diseases and torments_, and those which were _possessed with devils_, and
those which were _lunatic_, and those that had the _palsy_; and He healed
them.” Matt. 4:24.

13. To the woman who had been healed by touching His garment, what did
Christ say made her whole?

“_Thy faith_ hath made thee whole.” Matt. 9:22.

14. What did He say to the two blind men as He healed them?

“According to your _faith_ be it unto you.” Verse 29.

15. To another whose sight He had restored, what did Christ say?

“_Thy faith_ hath saved thee.” Luke 18:42.

16. Why did not Christ work many miracles in His own country?

“And He did not many mighty works there _because of their unbelief_.”
Matt. 13:58.

17. What lesson did Christ design to teach in healing the man sick of the
palsy?

“But _that ye may know that the Son of man hath power upon earth to
forgive sins_, (He said unto the sick of the palsy,) I say unto thee,
Arise, and take up thy couch, and go into thine house.” Luke 5:24.


    NOTE.—By His miracles, therefore, Christ designed to teach faith
    in the power of God not only to _restore the body_, but to _heal
    the soul_.


18. What effect did Christ’s miracles have upon the individuals restored,
and the people who witnessed them?

“And immediately he received his sight, and followed Him, _glorifying God:
and all the people, when they saw it, gave praise unto God_.” “And all the
people _rejoiced_ for all the glorious things that were done by Him.” Luke
18:43; 13:17.

19. What message did Christ send to John the Baptist while John was in
prison, to strengthen his wavering faith?

“Go and show John again those things which ye do hear and see: _The blind
receive their sight, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the
deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the gospel preached
to them._ And blessed is he, whosoever shall not be offended in Me.” Matt.
11:4-6.

20. In what miracle did Christ bring to a climax His works on earth?

“And when He thus had spoken, He cried with a loud voice, _Lazarus, come
forth_. And he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with
grave-clothes: and his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus saith
unto them, Loose him, and let him go.” John 11:48, 44.

21. What was the result of this great miracle?

“Then _many of the Jews_ which came to Mary, and had seen the things which
Jesus did, _believed on Him_.” Verse 45.

22. Because of the interest which this miracle created in Him, what did
the Pharisees say?

“Behold, _the world is gone after Him_.” John 12:19.

23. What did Jesus present to the people as a basis of confidence in Him?

“If I do not the works of My Father, believe Me not. But if I do, though
ye believe not Me, _believe the works_: that ye may know, and believe,
that the Father is in Me, and I in Him.” “Believe Me that I am in the
Father, and the Father in Me: or else _believe Me for the very works’
sake_.” John 10:37, 38; 14:11.

24. Did Jesus ever make use of ordinary means in performing His miracles?

“When He had thus spoken, He spat on the ground, and made clay of the
spittle, and He _anointed the eyes of the blind man with the clay_, and
said unto him, Go, _wash in the pool of Siloam_, (which is by
interpretation, Sent). He went his way therefore, and washed, and came
seeing.” John 9:6, 7. See also Mark 7:33-35; 8:23-25; 2 Kings 5:1-14.

25. Why were the miracles of Christ recorded by the inspired writers?

“And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of His disciples,
which are not written in this book: but _these are written, that ye might
believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye
might have life through His name_.” John 20:30, 31.

Christ’s Miracles

Miracle                    Matt.       Mark        Luke        John
I. Recorded in only one
Gospel
Two blind men healed       9:27-31
A dumb demoniac healed     9:32, 33
Piece of money in mouth    17:24-27
of fish
Deaf and dumb man healed               7:31-37
A blind man healed                     8:22-26
Passed through throng                              4:28-31
unseen
Draft of fishes                                    5:1-11
Raising the widow’s son                            7:11-17
Healing woman with                                 13:11-17
infirmity
Healing man with dropsy                            14:1-6
Healing ten lepers                                 17:11-19
Healing ear of Malchus                             22:50, 51
Turning water into wine                                        2:1-11
Healing nobleman’s son                                         4:46-54
Healing impotent man                                           5:1-16
Healing man born blind                                         9
Raising of Lazarus                                             11:1-46
Draft of fishes                                                21:1-11
II. Recorded in two
Gospels
Healing centurion’s        8:5-13                  7:1-10
servant
Blind demoniac healed      12:22-30                11:14-26
Healing Syrophenician      15:21-28    7:24-30
maiden
Feeding the four           15:32-39    8:1-9
thousand
Cursing the fig-tree       21:17-22    11:12-14
Demoniac in synagogue                  1:23-28     4:33-37
healed
III. Recorded in three
Gospels
Healing the leper          8:2, 3      1:40-42     5:12, 13
Healing Peter’s            8:14, 15    1:30, 31    4:38, 39
mother-in-law
Stilling the storm         8:23-27     4:35-41     8:22-25
Legion of devils cast      8:28-34     5:1-20      8:26-37
out
Healing man sick of        9:1-8       2:3-12      5:18-26
palsy
Healing woman with issue   9:20-22     5:25-34     8:43-48
Raising Jairus’s           9:18-26     5:22-43     8:41-56
daughter
Healing man’s withered     12:10-13    3:1-5       6:6-10
hand
Walking on the sea         14:22-33    6:48-51                 6:16-21
Curing demoniac child      17:14-21    9:14-29     9:38-42
Curing blind Bartimæus     20:30-34    10:46-52    18:35-43
IV. Recorded in four
Gospels
Feeding the five           14:15-21    6:35-44     9:12-17     6:5-14
thousand



Sufferings Of Christ


                             [Illustration.]

   Christ In The Garden. "There appeared an angel unto Him from heaven
                     strengthening Him." Luke 22:43.


1. For what purpose did Christ come into the world?

“This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ
Jesus came into the world _to save sinners_; of whom I am chief.” 1 Tim.
1:15.

2. What constrained God to give His Son to die for man?

“For _God so loved the world_, that He gave His only begotten Son, that
whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”
John 3:16. See 1 John 4:9, 10; Rom. 5:8.

3. What did the prophet say Christ would be called to endure?

“He was _oppressed_, and He was _afflicted_, yet He opened not His mouth:
He is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her
shearers is dumb, so He openeth not His mouth. He was taken from prison
and from judgment: and who shall declare His generation? for He was _cut
off out of the land of the living_: for the transgression of My people was
He stricken.” Isa. 53:7, 8.

4. Did Christ know beforehand the treatment He was to receive?

“Then He took unto Him the twelve, and said unto them, _Behold, we go up
to Jerusalem, and all things that are written by __ the prophets
concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished_. For He shall be
delivered unto the Gentiles, and shall be _mocked_, and _spitefully
entreated_, and _spitted on_: and they shall _scourge Him_, and _put Him
to death_.” Luke 18:31-33.

5. How heavy was the burden which rested on His soul on the night of His
betrayal?

“And He took with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be
sorrowful and very heavy. Then saith He unto them, _My soul is exceeding
sorrowful, even unto death_: tarry ye here, and watch with Me.” Matt.
26:37, 38.

6. What prayer of Christ shows that the redemption of a lost world
trembled in the balance in that terrible hour?

“And He went a little farther, and fell on His face, and prayed, saying,
_O My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from Me_: nevertheless
not as I will, but as Thou wilt.” Verse 39.

7. How great was the agony of His soul?

“And being in an agony He prayed more earnestly: and His sweat was as it
were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.” Luke 22:44.

8. After He had prayed this remarkable prayer three times, what occurred?

“And while He yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas,
one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss Him.
But Jesus said unto him, Judas, _betrayest thou the Son of man with a
kiss_?” Verses 47, 48.

9. To what place was Christ taken?

“Then took they Him, and led Him, and brought Him _into the high priest’s
house_. And Peter followed afar off.” Verse 54.

10. While at the high priest’s house, how did Peter deny Him?

“Another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was
with Him: for he is a Galilean. And Peter said, _Man, I know not what thou
sayest_. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew. And the Lord
turned, and looked upon Peter.” Verses 59-61.

11. To what insults was Christ subjected at the house of the high priest?

“And _the men that held Jesus mocked Him, and smote Him_. And when they
had blindfolded Him, _they struck Him on the face_, and asked Him, saying,
Prophesy, who is it that smote Thee?” Verses 63, 64.

12. Where was Christ next taken?

“And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people and the chief priests
and the scribes came together, and _led Him into their council_.” Verse
66.

13. What admission did they secure from Him as the basis of condemning
Him?

“Then said they all, Art Thou then the Son of God? And He said unto them,
_Ye say that I am_. And they said, What need we any further witness? for
we ourselves have heard of His own mouth.” Verses 70, 71.

14. What was the next step in their plan to secure lawful authority to
carry out their unlawful purpose?

“And the whole multitude of them arose, and _led Him unto Pilate_.” Luke
23:1.

15. When Pilate desired Christ released, how did they remonstrate?

“And _they were the more fierce_, saying, _He stirreth up the people_,
teaching throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this place.”
Verse 5.


    NOTE.—This has ever been a favorite accusation of the enemies of
    truth against the work of true reformers. The Romans at this very
    time had a law forbidding the teaching of any new religion
    “whereby the minds of men may be _disturbed_.”


16. When Pilate heard that Christ was from Galilee, what did he do?

“And as soon as he knew that He belonged unto Herod’s jurisdiction, _he
sent Him to Herod_, who himself also was at Jerusalem at that time.” Verse
7.

17. Who appeared to accuse Christ before Herod?

“And _the chief priests and scribes_ stood and vehemently accused Him.”
Verse 10.

18. To what indignities did Herod subject the Saviour?

“And Herod with his men of war _set Him at naught_, and _mocked Him_, and
_arrayed Him in a gorgeous robe_, and sent Him again to Pilate.” Verse 11.

19. What did Pilate propose to do when Christ was again brought before
him?

“I have found no cause of death in Him: _I will therefore chastise Him,
and let Him go_.” Verse 22.

                             [Illustration.]

The Crucifixion. "There was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth
                            hour." Luke 23:44.


20. Instead of consenting to His release, what did Christ’s accusers now
demand?

“And _they were instant_ [_earnest_] _with loud voices, requiring that He
might be crucified_. And the voices of them and of the chief priests
prevailed.” Verse 23.

21. Although Pilate had declared his belief in Christ’s innocence, yet
what cruel punishment did he inflict upon Him?

“Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and _scourged Him_.” John 19:1.

22. What shameful treatment did Christ receive from the soldiers?

“And _when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon His head_,
and a reed in His right hand: and they bowed the knee before Him, and
mocked Him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews! _And they spit upon Him, and
took the reed, and smote Him on the head._” Matt. 27:29, 30.

23. After bringing Him to the place of crucifixion, what drink was offered
Christ to stupefy Him?

“They gave Him _vinegar to drink mingled with gall_: and when He had
tasted thereof, He would not drink.” Verse 34.

24. In what prayer for those who crucified Him did Christ manifest the
true spirit of the gospel,—love for sinners?

“Then said Jesus, _Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do_.”
Luke 23:34.

25. With what words did the chief priests and others mock Jesus while on
the cross?

“Likewise also the chief priests mocking Him, with the scribes and elders,
said, _He saved others; Himself He cannot save_. If He be the King of
Israel, let Him now come down from the cross, and we will believe Him.”
Matt. 27:41, 42.


    NOTE.—In their blindness they could not see that Christ could not
    save others and save Himself at the same time.


26. As He cried out in agony on the cross, and said, “I thirst,” what was
given Him?

“And straightway one of them ran, and _took a sponge, and filled it with
vinegar_, and put it on a reed, and _gave Him to drink_.” Verse 48. See
John 19:28, 29.

27. What closed this terrible scene?

“When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, He said It is finished:
_and He bowed His head, and gave up the ghost_.” John 19:30.

28. By what miracle, and phenomenon in nature did God indicate the
character of the deed which was being committed?

“And it was about the sixth hour [noon], and _there was a darkness over
all the earth_ until the ninth hour. And _the sun was darkened_, and _the
veil of the temple was rent in the midst_.” Luke 23:44, 45.

29. What divine purpose was wrought out in the sufferings of Christ?

“For it became Him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things,
in bringing many sons unto glory, _to make the Captain of their salvation
perfect through sufferings_.” Heb. 2:10.

30. For whom did Christ suffer all these things?

“He was _wounded for our transgressions_, He was _bruised for our
iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon Him; and with His
stripes we are healed_.” Isa. 53:5.

31. How much was included in the gift of Christ for the salvation of man?

“He that spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, _how
shall He not with Him also freely give us all things?_” Rom. 8:32.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    ’Tis midnight; and on Olives’ brow
      The star is dimmed that lately shone:
    ’Tis midnight; in the garden, now,
      The suffering Saviour prays alone.

    ’Tis midnight; and from all removed,
      The Saviour wrestles lone with fears;
    E’en that disciple whom He loved
      Heeds not His Master’s grief and tears.

    ’Tis midnight; and for others’ guilt
      The Man of Sorrows weeps in blood;
    Yet He who hath in anguish knelt,
      Is not forsaken by His God.

    ’Tis midnight; and from ether plains
      Is borne the song that angels know;
    Unheard by mortals are the strains
      That sweetly soothe the Saviour’s woe.

    WILLIAM B. TAPPAN.



The Resurrection Of Christ


                             [Illustration.]

The Visit To The Sepulcher. "He is not here: for He is risen, as He said."
                               Matt. 28:6.


1. In what psalm was the resurrection of Christ foretold?

“For Thou wilt not leave My soul in hell [Heb., _Sheol_, the grave]:
neither wilt Thou suffer Thine Holy One to see corruption.” Ps. 16:10.

2. In what way was Jonah a type of Christ?

“For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly; so
shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the
earth.” Matt. 12:40.

3. In what plain words did Christ foretell His resurrection?

“From that time forth began Jesus to show unto His disciples, how that He
must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief
priests and scribes, and be killed, _and be raised again the third day_.”
Matt. 16:21. “And while they abode in Galilee, Jesus said unto them, The
Son of man shall be betrayed into the hands of men: and they shall kill
Him, _and the third day He shall be raised again_.” Matt. 17: 22, 23. “The
Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and
chief priests and scribes, and be slain, _and be raised the third day_.”
Luke 9:22. See also Matt. 20:17-19; Mark 8:31; 9:31, 32; 10:32-34; Luke
18:31-34.

4. When asked by the Jews for a sign of His Messiahship, what did Jesus
say?

“Jesus answered and said unto them, _Destroy this temple, and in three
days I will raise it up_.” John 2:19.

5. To what temple did He refer?

“Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and
wilt Thou rear it up in three days? But _He spake of the temple of His
body_.” Verses 20, 21.

6. After His resurrection, what effect had this prediction upon His
disciples?

“When therefore He was risen from the dead, His disciples remembered that
He had said this unto them; and _they believed the scripture, and the word
which Jesus had said_.” Verse 22.

7. How did the chief priests and Pharisees seek to prevent the fulfilment
of Christ’s words concerning His resurrection?

“Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, the chief
priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate, saying, Sir, we remember
that that deceiver said, while He was yet alive, After three days I will
rise again. _Command therefore that the sepulcher be made sure until the
third day_, lest His disciples come by night, and steal Him away, and say
unto the people, He is risen from the dead: so the last error shall be
worse than the first.” Matt. 27:62-64.

8. How did Pilate comply with their request?

“Pilate said unto them, Ye have a watch: go your way, _make it as sure as
ye can_. So they went, and made the sepulcher sure, sealing the stone, and
setting a watch.” Verses 65, 66.

9. How futile was all this?

“In the end of the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of
the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulcher.
And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord
descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door,
and sat upon it. His countenance was like lightning, and his raiment white
as snow: and for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became as dead
men. And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye: for I
know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified. He is not here: for _He is
risen, as He said_. Come, see the place where the Lord lay. And go
quickly, and tell His disciples that _He is risen from the dead_.” Matt.
28:1-7. See also Mark 16:1-16; Luke 24:1-8, 44-46; John 20:1-9.

10. Was it possible for Christ to be holden of death?

“Him being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God,
ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain: whom God hath
raised up, having loosed the pains of death: _because it was not possible
that He should be holden of it_.” Acts 2:23,24.

                             [Illustration.]

  The Resurrection. "Go quickly, and tell His disciples that He is risen
                       from the dead." Matt. 28:7.


11. How does Paul speak of the resurrection of Christ?

“For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how
that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures; and that He was
buried, and that _He rose again the third day according to the
Scriptures_.” 1 Cor. 15:3, 4.

12. Who does the apostle say saw Christ after He was risen?

“He was seen of _Cephas_, then of _the twelve_: after that, He was seen of
_above five hundred brethren at once_; ... after that, He was seen of
_James_; then of _all the apostles_. And last of all He was seen of _me_
also, as of one born out of due time.” Verses 5-8.

13. What importance is attached to Christ’s resurrection?

“If Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is
also vain.... Ye are yet in your sins. Then they also which are fallen
asleep in Christ are perished.” Verses 14-18.

14. What positive assurance of the resurrection is given?

“But _now is Christ risen from the dead_, and become the first-fruits of
them that slept.” Verse 20.

15. What great truth therefore follows?

“As in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.” Verse 22.

16. What cheering message has Christ sent to His people touching His
resurrection?

“I am He that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, _I am alive forevermore_,
Amen; _and have the keys of hell and of death_.” Rev. 1:18.

17. What is the measure of the power of God which believers may experience
in their daily lives?

“That ye may know ... the exceeding greatness of His power to us ward who
believe, _according to the working of His mighty power, which He wrought
in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead_.” Eph. 1:18-20.

18. What Christian ordinance has been given as a memorial of Christ’s
burial and resurrection?

Baptism, the symbol of the new birth. Rom. 6:3-5.



A Sinless Life


                             [Illustration.]

A Teacher Of Righteousness. "He was in all points tempted like as we are,
                       yet without sin." Heb. 4:15.


1. What testimony is borne concerning Christ’s life on earth?

“_Who did no sin_, neither was guile found in His mouth.” 1 Peter 2:22.

2. What is true of all other members of the human family?

“_For all have sinned_, and come short of the glory of God.” Rom. 3:23.

3. With what question did Christ challenge His enemies?

“Which of you convinceth Me of sin?” John 8:46.

4. To what extent was Christ tempted?

“[He] was _in all points tempted like as we are_, yet without sin.” Heb.
4:15.

5. In His humanity, of what nature did Christ partake?

“Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, _He also
Himself likewise took part of the same_; that through death He might
destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil.” Heb. 2:14.

6. How fully did Christ share our common humanity?

“Wherefore _in all things it behooved Him to be made like unto His
brethren_, that He might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things
pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.”
Verse 17.


    NOTE.—In His humanity Christ partook of our sinful, fallen nature.
    If not, then He was not “made like unto His brethren,” was not “in
    all points tempted like as we are,” did not overcome as we have to
    overcome, and is not, therefore, the complete and perfect Saviour
    man needs and must have to be saved. The idea that Christ was born
    of an immaculate or sinless mother, inherited no tendencies to
    sin, and for this reason did not sin, removes Him from the realm
    of a fallen world, and from the very place where help is needed.
    On His human side, Christ inherited just what every child of Adam
    inherits—a sinful nature. On the divine side, from His very
    conception He was begotten and born of the Spirit. And all this
    was done to place mankind on vantage-ground, and to demonstrate
    that _in the same way_ every one who is “born of the Spirit” may
    gain like victories over sin in his own sinful flesh. Thus each
    one is to overcome _as Christ overcame_. Rev. 3:21. Without this
    birth there can be no victory over temptation, and no salvation
    from sin. John 3:3-7.


7. Where did God, in Christ, condemn sin, and gain the victory for us over
temptation and sin?

“For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God
sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin,
_condemned sin in the flesh_.” Rom. 8:3.


    NOTE.—God, in Christ, condemned sin, not by pronouncing against it
    merely as a judge sitting on the judgment-seat, but by coming and
    living _in the flesh, in sinful flesh_, and yet without sinning.
    In Christ, He demonstrated that it is possible, by His grace and
    power, to resist temptation, overcome sin, and _live a sinless
    life in sinful flesh_.


8. By whose power did Christ live the perfect life?

“I can of Mine own self do nothing.” John 5:30. “The words that I speak
unto you I speak not of Myself: but _the Father that dwelleth in Me, He
doeth the works_.” John 14:10.


    NOTE.—In His humanity Christ was as dependent upon divine power to
    do the works of God as is any man to do the same thing. He
    employed no means to live a holy life that are not available to
    every human being. Through Him, every one may have God dwelling in
    him and working in him “to _will_ and to _do_ of His good
    pleasure.” 1 John 4:15; Phil. 2:13.


9. What unselfish purpose did Jesus ever have before Him?

“For I came down from heaven, _not to do Mine own will, but the will of
Him that sent Me_.” John 6:38.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Have I need of aught, O Saviour!
      Aught on earth but Thee?
    Have I any in the heavens,
      Any one but Thee?

    Though I have of friends so many,
      Love, and gold, and health,
    If I have not Thee, my Saviour,
      Hold I any wealth?
                              CORIE F. DAVIS.



Our Pattern


                             [Illustration.]

Sea Of Tiberias. "Leaving us an example, that ye should follow His steps."
                              1 Peter 2:21.


1. In whose steps should we follow?

“For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us,
_leaving us an example, that ye should follow His steps_.” 1 Peter 2:21.

2. How should the Christian walk?

“He that saith he abideth in Him ought himself also so to walk, even as
_He walked_.” 1 John 2:6. See Col. 2:6.

3. What mind should be in us?

“Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus.” Phil. 2:5.


    NOTE.—The mind of Christ was characterized by humility (verses
    6-8); dependence upon God (John 5:19, 30); a determination to do
    only the Father’s will (John 5:30; 6:38); thoughtfulness of others
    (Acts 10:38); and a willingness to sacrifice and suffer, and even
    to die, for the good of others (2 Cor. 8:9; Rom. 5:6-8; 1 Peter
    2:24).


4. As a child, what example did Christ set in the matter of obeying His
parents?

“And He went down with them, and came to Nazareth, and _was subject unto
them_.” Luke 2:51.

5. How are His childhood and youth described?

“And Jesus _increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and
man_.” Verse 52.

6. What example did He set concerning baptism?

“Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto John, _to be baptized of
him_. But John forbade Him, saying, I have need to be baptized of Thee,
and comest Thou to me? And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be
so now: for _thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness_. Then he
suffered Him.” Matt. 3:13-15.

7. How did Christ teach the prayerful life?

“He went out into a mountain to pray, and continued all night in prayer to
God.” Luke 6:12. “He took Peter and John and James, and went up into a
mountain to pray.” Luke 9:28.

8. To what kind of work did Jesus devote His life?

“Who went about _doing good_.” Acts 10:38.

9. For whom and why did Christ leave the riches of heaven?

“For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, though He was rich,
_yet for your sakes He became poor, that ye through His poverty might be
rich_.” 2 Cor. 8:9.

10. When reviled and mistreated, what did He do?

“Who when He was reviled, _reviled not again_; when He suffered, _He
threatened not_; but committed Himself to Him that judgeth righteously.” 1
Peter 2:23.

11. How did He pray for those who crucified Him?

“Then said Jesus, _Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do_.”
Luke 23:34. See Acts 3:17.

12. What is the inspired testimony concerning Him?

“_Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity_; therefore God, even
Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows.”
Heb. 1:9.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Majestic sweetness sits enthroned
      Upon the Saviour’s brow;
    His head with radiant light is crowned,
      His lips with grace o’erflow.

    No mortal can with Him compare,
      Among the sons of men;
    Fairer is He than all the fair
      That fill the heavenly train.
                              SAMUEL STENNETT.



Our Helper And Friend


                             [Illustration.]

Stilling The Tempest. "He arose, and rebuked the winds ... and there was a
                         great calm." Matt. 8:26.


1. Through Christ, what has been opened to the house of David?

“In that day there shall be _a fountain_ opened to the house of David and
to the inhabitants of Jerusalem _for sin and for uncleanness_.” Zech.
13:1.

2. Who has borne our sins, and stands ready to help us?

“I that speak in righteousness, _mighty to save_.” Isa. 63: 1. last part.

3. For what purpose did Christ come to this world?

“For the Son of man is come _to seek and to save that which was lost_.”
Luke 19:10.

4. Through what was Christ made a complete and perfect Saviour?

“For it became Him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things,
in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the Captain of their salvation
perfect _through sufferings_.” Heb. 2:10.

5. Because of this, what is Christ able to do?

“For in that He Himself hath suffered being tempted, _He is able to succor
them that are tempted_.” Verse 18.

6. How complete a Saviour is He?

“Wherefore _He is able also to save them to the uttermost that __ come
unto God by Him_, seeing He ever liveth to make intercession for them.”
Heb. 7:25.

7. From what is He able to keep us?

“Now unto Him that is able _to keep you from falling_, and to present you
faultless before the presence of His glory with exceeding joy, to the only
wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now
and ever. Amen.” Jude 24, 25.

8. What does He call those who accept Him?

“Henceforth I call you not servants; ... I have called you _friends_.”
John 15:15.

9. What kind of friend is He?

“There is _a friend that sticketh closer than a brother_.” Prov. 18:24.

10. What is the mark of a true friend?

“_A friend loveth at all times_, and a brother is born for adversity.”
Prov. 17:17.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    I will sing the wondrous story
      Of the Christ who died for me,
    How He left His home in glory,
      For the cross on Calvary.

    I was lost, but Jesus found me,
      Found the sheep that went astray;
    Threw His loving arms around me,
      Drew me back into His way.

    I was bruised, but Jesus healed me,
      Faint was I from many a fall,
    Sight was gone, and fears possessed me,
      But He freed me from them all.

    Days of darkness still come o’er me,
      Sorrow’s paths I often tread,
    But the Saviour still is with me,
      By His hand I’m safely led.

    Yes, I’ll sing the wondrous story
      Of the Christ who died for me,
    Sing it with the saints in glory,
      Gathered by the crystal sea.
                              FRANCIS H. ROWLEY.



PART V. THE HOLY SPIRIT


                             [Illustration.]

Outpouring Of The Spirit At Pentecost. "It shall come to pass in the last
    days ... I will pour out of My Spirit upon all flesh." Acts 2:17.



The Holy Spirit And His Work


                             [Illustration.]

 The Ascension Of Christ. "I will pray the Father, and He shall give you
                     another Comforter." John 14:16.


1. What precious promise did Jesus make to His disciples shortly before
His crucifixion?

“I will pray the Father, and _He shall give you another Comforter_, that
He may abide with you forever.” John 14:16.

2. Who is the Comforter, and what was He to do?

“But the Comforter, even _the Holy Spirit_, whom the Father will send in
My name, _He shall teach you all things_, and bring to your remembrance
all that I said unto you.” Verse 26, R. V.

3. Why cannot the world receive Him?

“Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, _because it
seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him_.” Verse 17.

4. How intimate is His union with believers?

“But ye know Him; for _He dwelleth with you_, and shall be _in you_.” Same
verse.

5. Whose presence does the Holy Spirit bring to the believers?

“I will not leave you comfortless: _I will come to you_.” Verse 18.

6. What promise is thus fulfilled?

“Lo, _I am with you alway_, even unto the end of the world.” Matt. 28:20.
See also John 14:21-23.

7. What threefold union is thus established?

“At that day ye shall know that _I am in My Father_, and _ye in Me_, and
_I in you_.” Verse 20.


    NOTE.—Rom. 8:9 shows the Spirit of each of the three persons of
    the Godhead to be one and the same Spirit.


8. How does Jesus, through the Spirit, seek an entrance to every heart?

“Behold, _I stand at the door, and knock_: if any man hear My voice, and
open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with
Me.” Rev. 3:20.

9. Why was it necessary for Christ to go away?

“Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go
away: for _if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you_; but if
I depart, I will send Him unto you.” John 16:7.

10. What was the Comforter to do when He came?

“And when He is come, He will _reprove_ [margin, _convince_] the world of
_sin_, and of _righteousness_, and of _judgment_.” Verse 8.

11. By what other title is the Comforter designated?

“But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the
Father, even _the Spirit of truth_, which proceedeth from the Father, He
shall testify of Me.” John 15:26.

12. What did Jesus say the Spirit of truth would do?

“Howbeit when He, the Spirit of truth, is come, _He will guide you into
all truth_: for He shall not speak of Himself; but whatsoever He shall
hear, that shall He speak: and _He will show you things to come_.” John
16:13.


    NOTE.—The Spirit _speaks_ (1 Tim. 4:1); _teaches_ (1 Cor. 2:3);
    _bears witness_ (Rom. 8:16); _makes intercession_ (Rom. 8:26);
    _distributes the gifts_ (1 Cor. 12:11); and _invites the sinner_
    (Rev. 22:17).


13. Whom did Christ say the Holy Spirit would glorify?

“He shall glorify _Me_: for He shall receive of Mine, and shall show it
unto you.” Verse 14.


    NOTE.—It is plain from these scriptures that the Holy Spirit is
    the personal representative of Christ upon the earth, abiding in
    the church by dwelling in the hearts of the believers. It follows
    that any attempt to make a man the vicegerent of Christ in the
    place of the third person of the Godhead is an attempt to put man
    in the place of God. Thus does the fundamental principle of the
    Papacy set aside the person and work of the Holy Spirit.


14. How has God revealed to us the hidden things of the kingdom?

“But God hath revealed them unto us _by His Spirit_: for the Spirit
searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.” 1 Cor. 2:10.

15. Who moved upon the prophets to give their messages?

“For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of
God spake as they were moved by the _Holy Ghost_.” 2 Peter 1:21.

16. After Pentecost, how was the gospel preached?

“With the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven.” 1 Peter 1:12.

17. How are believers sealed?

“In whom also after that ye believed, ye were _sealed with that Holy
Spirit of promise_.” Eph. 1:13.

18. What warning is therefore given?

“_Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God_, whereby ye are sealed unto the day
of redemption.” Eph. 4:30.

19. Is there a limit to the strivings of God’s Spirit?

“And the Lord said, My Spirit shall not always strive with man.” Gen. 6:3.


    NOTE.—The limit is determined by the creature rather than by the
    Creator. It is when there is an utter abandonment to evil, and
    further appeals would be without avail. God foreknowing all
    things, may designate a definite period of probation for man, as
    in the case of the one hundred and twenty years before the flood
    (Gen. 6:3); but His Spirit never ceases to strive with man as long
    as there is hope of his salvation.


20. For what did David pray?

“Cast me not away from Thy presence; and _take not Thy Holy Spirit from
me_.” Ps. 51:11.

21. How willing is God to give to us the Holy Spirit?

“If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children:
how much more shall your Heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that
ask Him?” Luke 11:13.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    O for that flame of living fire?
      Which shone so bright in saints of old;
    Which bade their souls to heaven aspire,
      Calm in distress, in danger bold!

    Remember, Lord, the ancient days;
      Renew Thy work, Thy grace restore;
    And while to Thee our hearts we raise,
      On us Thy Holy Spirit pour.
                            WM. H. BATHURST.



Fruit Of The Spirit


                             [Illustration.]

    David And Jonathan. "The fruit of the Spirit is love." Gal. 5:22.


1. What is the fruit of the Spirit?

“The fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness,
goodness, faith, meekness, temperance.” Gal. 5:22, 23.

2. What are the works of the flesh?

“Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery,
fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred,
variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings,
murders, drunkenness, revelings, and such like.” Verses 19-21.


    NOTE.—The evils here mentioned are a close parallel to the lists
    found in Matt. 15:18, 19; Mark 7:20-23; Rom. 1:29-31; and 2 Tim.
    3:1-5.


3. How may the works of the flesh be avoided?

“_Walk in the Spirit_, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.”
Gal. 5:16.

4. By what is the love of God shed abroad in the heart?

“The love of God is shed abroad in our hearts _by the Holy Ghost_ which is
given unto us.” Rom. 5:5.

5. What is love declared to be?

“And above all these things put on love, which is the _bond of
perfectness_.” Col. 3:14, R. V.

6. By what does genuine faith work?

“For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth anything, nor
uncircumcision; but _faith which worketh by love_.” Gal. 5:6.

7. What does love do?

“Hatred stirreth up strifes: but _love covereth all sins_.” Prov. 10:12.
“Have fervent charity among yourselves: for _charity shall cover the
multitude of sins_.” 1 Peter 4:8.

8. Of what does the kingdom of God consist?

“For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but _righteousness_, and
_peace_, and _joy_ in the Holy Ghost.” Rom. 14:17.


    NOTE.—It is the Christian’s privilege to have righteousness,
    peace, and joy,—a righteousness which is of God by faith (Rom.
    3:21, 22); a peace that passeth understanding (Phil. 4:7), which
    the world can neither give nor take away; and a joy that rejoices
    evermore (1 Thess. 5:16; Phil. 4:4).


9. In what way does love manifest itself?

“Love suffereth long, and is kind; love envieth not; love vaunteth not
itself, is not puffed up, does not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not its
own, is not provoked, taketh not account of evil.” 1 Cor. 13:4, 5, R. V.

10. What does God’s gentleness do for us?

“Thy gentleness hath _made me great_.” Ps. 18:35.

11. What spirit should we show toward others?

“And the servant of the Lord must not strive; but _be gentle unto all
men_.” 2 Tim. 2:24.

12. What does the goodness of God do?

“Or despisest thou the riches of His goodness and forbearance and
long-suffering; not knowing that _the goodness of God leadeth thee to
repentance_?” Rom. 2:4.

13. How should we treat those who have wronged us?

“Dearly beloved, _avenge not yourselves_, but rather give place unto
wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.
Therefore _if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink:
for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head_.” Rom. 12:19,
20.

14. How does faith determine our standing with God?

“But _without faith it is impossible to please Him_: for he that cometh to
God must believe that He is, and that He is a rewarder of them that
diligently seek Him.” Heb. 11:6.

15. How does God regard the meek and quiet spirit?

“Whose adorning ... let it be the hidden man of the heart, ... even the
ornament of _a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God of
great price_.” 1 Peter 3:3, 4.

16. In our Christian growth and experience, what is to accompany faith,
courage, and knowledge?

“Add to your faith virtue [courage]; and to virtue knowledge; and to
knowledge _temperance_.” 2 Peter 1:5, 6.


    NOTE.—One of the briefest and best definitions of temperance is
    _self-control_. The word in the text means much more than mere
    abstinence from intoxicating drinks,—the limited sense now
    frequently given to it. It means control, strength, power, or
    ascendency over exciting and evil passions of all kinds. It
    denotes the self-rule which the overcomer or converted man has
    over the evil propensities of his nature. Commenting on this
    passage, Dr. Albert Barnes says: “The influences of the Holy
    Spirit on the heart make a man _moderate_ in all indulgences;
    teach him to restrain his passions, and to govern himself.”


17. How highly is he commended who controls his spirit?

“He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and _he that ruleth
his spirit than he that taketh a city_.” Prov. 16:32.

18. What is said of all these different virtues?

“Against such there is no law.” Gal. 5:23, last clause.


    NOTE.—The law condemns sin. But all these things, being virtues,
    are in harmony with the law. They are produced by the Spirit; and
    the law, which is spiritual, cannot, therefore, condemn them.


19. From what condemnation does Spirit-leading save us?

“But if ye be led of the Spirit, _ye are not under the law_.” Verse 18.

20. To what unity are Christians exhorted?

“Endeavoring to keep _the unity of the Spirit_ in the bond of peace.” Eph.
4:3.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Spirit of life, and light, and love,
      Thy heavenly influence give;
    Quicken our souls, our guilt remove,
      That we in Christ may live.

    His love within us shed abroad,
      Life’s ever-springing well;
    Till God in us, and we in God,
      In love eternal dwell.
                          THOMAS HAWEIS.



Gifts Of The Spirit


                             [Illustration.]

 Healing The Leper. "He led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men."
                                Eph. 4:8.


1. Concerning what subject ought we to be informed?

“Now _concerning spiritual gifts_, brethren, I would not have you
ignorant.” 1 Cor. 12:1.

2. When Christ ascended, what did He give to men?

“Wherefore He saith, When He ascended on high, He led captivity captive
[margin, a multitude of captives], and _gave gifts unto men_.” Eph. 4:8.

3. What were these gifts that Christ gave to men?

“And He gave some, _apostles_; and some, _prophets_; and some,
_evangelists_; and some, _pastors_ and _teachers_.” Verse 11.

4. How are these gifts elsewhere spoken of?

“And God hath set some in the church, first _apostles_, secondarily
_prophets_, thirdly _teachers_, after that _miracles_, then _gifts of
healing, helps, governments, diversities of tongues_.” 1 Cor. 12:28.

5. For what purpose were these gifts bestowed upon the church?

“_For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the
edifying of the body of Christ_: ... that we henceforth be no more
children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of
doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness, whereby they lie
in wait to deceive; but speaking the truth in love, may grow up into Him
in all things, which is the head, even Christ.” Eph. 4:12-15.

6. What result is to be obtained by the exercise of the gifts in the
church?

“_Till we all come in_ [_into_, margin] _the unity of the faith_, and of
the knowledge of the Son of God, _unto a perfect man_, unto the measure of
the stature of the fulness of Christ.” Verse 13.

7. How is unity preserved in the diversities of gifts?

“Now there are diversities of gifts, but _the same Spirit_.” 1 Cor. 12:4.

8. For what purpose is the manifestation of this one Spirit given?

“But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man _to profit
withal_. For to one is given by the Spirit the word of _wisdom_; to
another the word of _knowledge_ by the same Spirit; to another _faith_ by
the same Spirit; to another the gifts of _healing_ by the same Spirit; to
another the _working of miracles_; to another _prophecy_; to another
_discerning of spirits_; to another _divers kinds of tongues_; to another
the _interpretation of tongues_.” Verses 7-10.

9. Who controls the distribution of the gifts of the Spirit?

“But all these worketh that one and _the selfsame Spirit_, dividing to
every man severally _as He will_.” Verse 11.

10. Was it God’s design that all should possess the same gifts?

“Are all apostles? are all prophets? are all teachers? are all workers of
miracles? have all the gifts of healing? do all speak with tongues? do all
interpret?” Verses 29, 30.

11. Were the gifts of the Spirit to continue forever?

“Whether there be prophecies, _they shall be done away_; whether there be
tongues, _they shall cease_; whether there be knowledge, _it shall be done
away_.” 1 Cor. 13:8, R. V.

12. When will the gifts of the Spirit be no longer needed?

“_When that which is perfect is come_, then that which is in part shall be
done away.” Verse 10.



The Gift Of Prophecy


                             [Illustration.]

 Writing The Prophecies. "And He sent and signified it by His angel unto
                       His servant John." Rev. 1:1.


1. How did God communicate with man in Eden?

“And the Lord God _called unto Adam, and said unto him_, Where art thou?”
Gen. 3:9.

2. Since the fall, by what means has God generally made known His will to
man?

“I have also spoken _by the prophets_, and I have multiplied visions, and
used similitudes, _by the ministry of the prophets_.” Hosea 12:10.

3. What things belong to God, and what to us?

“_The secret things_ belong unto the Lord our God; but _those things which
are revealed_ belong unto us and to our children forever.” Deut. 29:29.

4. How fully and to whom does God reveal His purposes?

“Surely the Lord God will do _nothing_, but _He revealeth His secret unto
His servants the prophets_.” Amos 3:7.

5. Can the wise men of the world foretell the future?

“Daniel answered before the king, and said, The secret which the king hath
demanded can neither wise men, enchanters, magicians, nor soothsayers,
show unto the king.” Dan. 2:27, R. V. See notes on page 202.

6. Who did Daniel say could reveal secrets?

“But _there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets_, and maketh known
to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days.” Verse 28.

7. How did the prophet Daniel acknowledge the insufficiency of human
wisdom?

“_As for me, this secret is not revealed to me for any wisdom that I have
more than any living_, but for their sakes that shall make known the
interpretation to the king, and that thou mightest know the thoughts of
thy heart.” Verse 30.

8. After revealing and interpreting the dream, what did Daniel say?

“The great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass
_hereafter_.” Verse 45.

9. How does God show His foreknowledge?

“Behold, the former things are come to pass, and _new things do I declare:
before they spring forth I tell you of them_.” Isa. 42:9.

10. How does the Lord reveal Himself to His prophets?

“If there be a prophet among you, I the Lord will make Myself known unto
him in a _vision_, and will speak unto him in a _dream_.” Num. 12.6.

11. Under what influence did the prophets of old speak?

“For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of
God spake _as they were moved by the Holy Ghost_.” 2 Peter 1:21. See 2
Sam. 23:2.

12. How are both the origin of prophecy and the means of communicating it
still further shown?

“The revelation of Jesus Christ, _which God gave unto Him_, to show unto
His servants things which must shortly come to pass; and _He sent and
signified it by His angel unto His servant John_.” Rev. 1:1.

13. What angel revealed to Daniel his visions and dreams?

“Whiles I was speaking in prayer, even the man _Gabriel_, whom I had seen
in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me
about the time of the evening oblation. And _he informed me, and talked
with me, and said_, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee skill and
understanding.” Dan. 9:21, 22. See also chapter 10, and Rev. 22:9, 10.

14. What Spirit was in the prophets inditing their utterances?

“O which salvation the prophets have inquired and searched diligently, who
prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: searching what, or what
manner of time _the Spirit of Christ which was in them_ did signify, when
it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that
should follow.” 1 Peter 1:10, 11.

                             [Illustration.]

 The Anointing Of Christ. "I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a
                 dove, and it abode upon Him." John 1:32.


15. How were the Lord’s words to the prophets preserved?

“Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed: then _he wrote
the dream_, and told the sum of the matters.” Dan. 7:1. See Jer. 51:60;
Rev. 1:10, 11.

16. By whom has God spoken to us in these last days?

“God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto
the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us _by
His Son_.” Heb. 1:1, 2.

17. What was one of the offices to be filled by the Messiah?

“The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee _a Prophet_ from the midst of
thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto Him ye shall harken.” Deut.
18:15.

18. What was foretold through the prophet Joel?

“And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my Spirit upon
all flesh; _and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men
shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions_.” Joel 2:28.

19. When did this prediction begin to be fulfilled?

“But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel; And it shall come
to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of My Spirit upon all
flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men
shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams.” Acts 2:16, 17.

20. What were some of the gifts Christ gave to His church?

“When He ascended up on high, He led captivity captive, and gave gifts
unto men.... And He gave some, _apostles_; and some, _prophets_; and some,
_evangelists_; and some, _pastors_ and _teachers_.” Eph. 4:8-11.

21. By what means did God deliver and preserve Israel?

“_By a prophet_ the Lord brought Israel out of Egypt, and _by a prophet_
was he preserved.” Hosea 12:13.

22. When Moses complained of his slowness of speech, what did God say
Aaron should be to him?

“And he shall be thy _spokesman_ unto the people: and he shall be, even he
shall be to thee instead of a _mouth_, and thou shalt be to him instead of
God.” Ex. 4:16.

23. What did God afterward call Aaron?

“And the Lord said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh: and
Aaron thy brother shall be _thy prophet_.” Ex. 7:1.

24. What is one test by which to detect false prophets?

“When a prophet speaketh in the name of the Lord, _if the thing follow
not, nor come to pass_, that is the thing which the Lord hath not spoken,
but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of
him.” Deut. 18:22.

25. What other test should be applied in determining the validity of the
claims of a prophet?

“If there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and giveth
thee a sign or a wonder, and the sign or the wonder come to pass, whereof
he spake unto thee, saying, _Let us go after other gods_, which thou hast
not known, and _let us serve them_; thou shalt not harken unto the words
of that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams: for the Lord your God proveth
you, to know whether ye love the Lord your God with all your heart and
with all your soul. _Ye shall walk after the Lord your God, and fear Him,
and keep His commandments, and obey His voice_, and ye shall serve Him,
and cleave unto Him.” Deut. 13:1-4.


    NOTE.—From these scriptures it will be seen that, in the first
    place, if a prophet’s words do not prove to be true, it is
    evidence that God has not sent that prophet. On the other hand,
    even though the thing predicted comes to pass, if the pretended
    prophet seeks to lead others to break God’s commandments, this,
    regardless of all signs, should be positive evidence that he is
    not a true prophet.


26. What rule did Christ give for distinguishing between true and false
prophets?

“_By their fruits_ ye shall know them.” Matt. 7:20.

27. What general rule is laid down for testing all prophets?

“_To the law and to the testimony_: if they speak not according to this
word, it is because there is no light in them.” Isa. 8:20.

28. How did God’s prophets anciently use the words of former prophets in
exhorting the people to obedience?

“_Should ye not hear the words which the Lord hath cried by the former
prophets_, when Jerusalem was inhabited and in prosperity?” Zech. 7:7.

29. What is the promised result of believing God’s prophets?

“Believe in the Lord your God, so shall ye be established; _believe His
prophets, so shall ye prosper_.” 2 Chron. 20:20.

30. What admonition is given regarding the gift of prophecy?

“_Despise not prophesyings._ Prove all things; hold fast that which is
good.” 1 Thess. 5:20, 21.

31. What will characterize the last, or remnant, church?

“And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the
remnant of her seed, _which keep the commandments of God, and have the
testimony of Jesus Christ_.” Rev. 12:17.

32. What is the “testimony of Jesus”?

“The testimony of Jesus is _the spirit of prophecy_.” Rev. 19:10. See Rev.
1:9.

33. What results when this gift is absent?

“Where there is no vision, _the people perish_: but he that keepeth the
law, happy is he.” Prov. 29:18. See also Ps. 74:9.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    What poor, despised company
      Of travelers are these,
    Who walk in yonder narrow way,
      Along the rugged maze?

    Ah! these are of a royal line,
      All children of a King,
    Heirs of immortal crowns divine;
      And lo! for joy they sing.

    Why do they, then, appear so mean,
      And why so much despised?
    Because of their rich robes unseen
      The world is not apprized.

    But why keep they that narrow road,—
      That rugged, thorny maze?
    Why, that’s the way their Leader trod,
      They love and keep His ways.

    Why do they shun the pleasing path
      That worldlings love so well?
    Because that is the road to death,
      The open road to hell.

    What! is there then no other road
      To Salem’s happy ground?
    Christ is the only way to God,
      No other can be found.



The Outpouring Of The Spirit


                             [Illustration.]

Peter Preaching On The Day Of Pentecost. "This is that which was spoken by
                      the prophet Joel." Acts 2:16.


1. For what did Christ, just before His ascension, tell His disciples to
wait?

“And, behold, I send the promise of My Father upon you: but tarry ye in
the city of Jerusalem, _until ye be endued with power from on high_.” Luke
24:49.

2. With what did He say they would be baptized?

“Ye shall be baptized _with the Holy Ghost_ not many days hence.” Acts
1:5.


    NOTE.—John the Baptist had foretold this baptism. He said: “I
    indeed baptize you with water unto repentance: but He that cometh
    after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear:
    He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire.” Matt.
    3:11.


3. For what work was this baptism to prepare them?

“But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you:
and _ye shall be witnesses unto Me_ both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea,
and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.” Acts 1:8.

4. What were some of the results of the preaching of the gospel under the
outpouring of the Spirit?

“Now when they heard this, _they were pricked in their heart_, and said
... Men and brethren, what shall we do? Then Peter said unto them, Repent,
and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the
remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost....
Then they that gladly received his word were baptized: _and the same day
there were added unto them about three thousand souls_.” Acts 2:37-41.
“And by the hands of the apostles were many signs and wonders wrought
among the people; ... _and believers were the more added to the Lord_,
multitudes both of men and women.” Acts 5:12-14. “And the word of God
increased; and _the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem
greatly_; and a great company of the priests were obedient to the faith.”
Acts 6:7.

5. How did persecution affect the preaching of the gospel?

“And at that time there was a great persecution against the church which
was at Jerusalem; and they were all scattered abroad throughout the
regions of Judea and Samaria, except the apostles.... _Therefore they that
were scattered abroad went everywhere preaching the word._” Acts 8:1-4.


    NOTE.—“Persecution has only had a tendency to extend and establish
    the faith which it was designed to destroy.... There is no lesson
    which men have been so slow to learn as that to oppose and
    persecute men is the very way to confirm them in their opinions,
    and to spread their doctrines.”—_Dr. Albert Barnes, on Acts 4:4._


6. What words of Peter seem to indicate another outpouring of the Spirit?

“Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out,
_when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord_.”
Acts 3:19.

7. What event does he speak of as immediately following these times of
refreshing?

“_And He shall send Jesus Christ_, which before was preached unto you:
whom the heaven must receive [Syriac, retain] until the times of
restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all His
holy prophets since the world began.” Verses 20, 21.


    NOTE.—From this it seems evident that we may look for another
    outpouring of the Spirit for a final proclamation of the gospel to
    all the world just before Christ’s second advent and the
    restitution of all things.


8. What prophecy was fulfilled in the Pentecostal outpouring of the Spirit
in the time of the apostles?

“But Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice, and said,
... These are not drunken, as ye suppose, ... but _this is that which was
spoken by the prophet Joel_; And it shall come to pass in the last days,
saith God, I will pour out My Spirit upon all flesh: and your sons and
your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and
your old men shall dream dreams: and on my servants and on my handmaidens
I will pour out in those days of My Spirit, and they shall prophesy.” Acts
2:14-18. See Joel 2:28, 29.

9. What expressions in the prophecy of Joel seem to imply a double
fulfilment of this outpouring of the Spirit?

“Be glad then, ye children of Zion, and rejoice in the Lord your God: for
He hath given you the _former rain_ moderately, and He will cause to come
down for you the rain, the _former rain_, and the _latter rain_ in the
first month.” Joel 2:23. See also Hosea 6:3.


    NOTE.—In Palestine the early rains prepare the soil for the seed
    sowing, and the latter rains ripen the grain for the harvest. So
    the early outpouring of the Spirit prepared the world for the
    extensive sowing of the gospel seed, and the final outpouring will
    come to ripen the golden grain for the harvest of the earth, which
    Christ says is “the end of the world.” Matt. 13:37-39; Rev. 14:14,
    15.


10. For what are we told to pray at this time?

“_Ask ye of the Lord rain in the time of the latter rain_; so the Lord
shall make bright clouds, and give them showers of rain, to every one
grass in the field.” Zech. 10:1.


    NOTE.—Before the apostles received the baptism of the Spirit in
    the early rain on the day of Pentecost, they all “continued with
    one accord in prayer and supplication.” Acts 1:14. During this
    time they confessed their faults, put away their differences,
    ceased their selfish ambitions and contentions for place and
    power, so that when the time for the outpouring came, “they were
    all _with one accord_ in one place,” ready for its reception. To
    be prepared for the final outpouring of the Spirit, all sin and
    selfish ambition must again be put away, and a like work of grace
    wrought upon the hearts of God’s people.


11. How is the closing work of the gospel under the outpouring of the
Spirit described by the revelator?

“After these things I saw another angel come down from heaven, having
great power; and _the earth was lightened with his glory_.” Rev. 18:1.

12. What does this angel say?

“And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, _Babylon the great is
fallen, is fallen_, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold
of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.” Verse
2.


    NOTE.—The religious world will then be in much the same condition
    as was the Jewish nation after it had rejected Christ at His first
    advent. See 2 Tim. 3:1-5.


13. What did Peter on the day of Pentecost tell his hearers to do?

“And with many other words did he testify and exhort, saying, _Save
yourselves from this untoward generation_.” Acts 2:40.

14. What similar call and appeal will be made under the final outpouring
of the Spirit?

“And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, _Come out of her, My
people_, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of
her plagues. For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath
remembered her iniquities.” Rev. 18:4, 5.


    NOTES.—A great work will be accomplished in a short time under the
    final outpouring of the Spirit. Many voices all over the earth
    will sound the warning cry. Signs and wonders will be wrought by
    the believers, and, as at Pentecost, thousands will be converted
    in a day.

    Those who fail to heed this final gospel call, like the
    unbelieving Jews, will be doomed to destruction. The seven last
    plagues will overtake them, as war, famine, death, and destruction
    overtook the Jews, who, not believing in Christ, failed to heed
    His call to flee, and shut themselves up in Jerusalem to their
    doom. Those who heed the call, and separate themselves from sin
    and from sinners, will be saved.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Come, Holy Spirit, come,
      Let Thy bright beams arise,
    Dispel the sorrow from our minds,
      The darkness from our eyes.

    Convince us all of sin,
      Then lead to Jesus’ blood,
    And to our wondering view reveal
      The mercies of our God.

    Revive our drooping faith,
      Our doubts and fears remove,
    And kindle in our breasts the flame
      Of never-dying love.

    ’Tis Thine to cleanse the heart,
      To sanctify the soul,
    To pour fresh life in every part,
      And new-create the whole.

    Come, Holy Spirit, come,
      Our minds from bondage free;
    Then shall we know, and praise, and love
      The Father, Son, and Thee.
                              JOSEPH HART.



PART VI. THE SURE WORD OF PROPHECY


                             [Illustration.]

  Handwriting On The Wall. "In that night was Belshazzar ... slain, and
           Darius the Median took the kingdom." Dan. 5:30, 31.



Prophecy, Why Given


                             [Illustration.]

Daniel In Babylon. "Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but He revealeth
          His secret unto His servants the prophets." Amos 3:7.


1. Why were the Sacred Writings given?

“For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written _for our
learning, that we through patience and comfort of the Scriptures might
have hope_.” Rom. 15:4.

2. By what means is all scripture given?

“All scripture is given _by inspiration of God_.” 2 Tim 3:16, first part.

3. For what is it profitable?

“And is profitable for _doctrine_, for _reproof_, for _correction_, for
_instruction in righteousness_.” Same verse, last part.

4. How was the prophecy given?

“For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but _holy men
of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost_.” 2 Peter 1:21.

5. What is the Lord able to do regarding the future?

“Behold, the former things are come to pass, and new things do I declare:
_before they spring forth I tell you of them_.” Isa. 42:9.

6. How far-reaching is God’s ability to reveal the future?

“Remember the former things of old: for I am God, ... and there is none
like Me, _declaring the end from the beginning_, and from ancient times
the things that are not yet done.” Isa. 46:9, 10.


    NOTES.—In contrast with this, note the following confession of a
    noted modern historian as to man’s inability to reveal the
    future:—

    “History has yet made so slight progress toward the scientific
    basis that she is able to foretell nothing that is to be
    hereafter. As to the future, she is stone-blind. There is not a
    philosopher in the world who can forecast the historical evolution
    to the extent of a single day. The historian is as completely dumb
    before the problems of 1895 as a charlatan weather-prophet ought
    to be with respect to the meteorological conditions of the next
    season. The year will come and go. It will fulfil its purpose in
    the great calendar of man-life. Its events and issues will be
    evolved with scientific exactitude out of antecedent conditions.
    But no man living can predict what the aspect and event will be.
    The tallest son of the morning can neither foretell nor foresee
    the nature of what is to come in the year that already stands
    knocking at the door.”—_John Clark Ridpath, in Christian at Work,
    Dec. 27, 1894._

    Knowing all things, the future is present with God. More, perhaps,
    than any other one thing, the prophecies of the Bible and their
    fulfilment bear witness to its divine inspiration.


7. To whom does God reveal the secrets of the future?

“Surely the Lord God will do nothing, but He revealeth His secret unto His
servants _the prophets_.” Amos 3:7.

8. To whom do the things which have been revealed belong?

“The secret things belong unto the Lord our God: but those things which
are revealed belong _unto us and to our children forever_.” Deut. 29:29.

9. What testimony did the apostle Peter bear concerning his experience on
the mount of transfiguration?

“_For we have not followed cunningly devised fables_, when we made known
unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, _but were
eye-witnesses of His majesty_.” 2 Peter 1:16.

10. When did he say he saw the majesty of Christ, and heard the voice from
heaven?

“And this voice which came from heaven we heard, _when we were with Him in
the holy mount_.” Verse 18.

11. How does he emphasize the reliability of prophecy?

“And we have the word of prophecy _made more sure_.” Verse 19, R. V. “Now
_more confirmed_.” Boothroyd’s translation.


    NOTE.—Every fulfilment of prophecy is a confirmation of the
    truthfulness and reliability of prophecy.


12. What admonition is therefore given?

“Whereunto ye do well that ye _take heed_, as unto a lamp shining in a
dark place, until the day dawn, and the day-star arise in your hearts.”
Verse 19, last part, R. V.

13. What has ever been the theme of God’s prophets?

“Receiving the end of your faith, even _the salvation of your souls_. Of
which salvation the prophets have inquired and searched diligently, who
prophesied of the grace that should come unto you.” 1 Peter 1:9, 10.

14. Whose spirit inspired their utterances?

“Searching what, or what manner of time _the Spirit of Christ which was in
them_ did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ,
and the glory that should follow.” Verse 11.

15. In what prophecy did Christ recognize Daniel as a prophet?

“When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by
_Daniel the prophet_, stand in the holy place, (_whoso readeth, let him
understand_).” Matt. 24:15.

16. To what time were the prophecies of Daniel, as a whole, to be sealed?

“But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to _the
time of the end_: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be
increased.” Dan. 12:4.

17. What assurance was given by the angel that these prophecies would be
understood in the last days?

“And he said, Go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed
till the time of the end. Many shall be purified, and made white, and
tried; but the wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked shall
understand; _but the wise shall understand_.” Verses 9, 10.

18. What is the last book of the Bible called?

“_The Revelation of Jesus Christ_, which God gave unto Him.” Rev. 1:1.

19. What is said of those who read, hear, and keep the things contained in
this book?

“_Blessed_ is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this
prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein.” Verse 3.



Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream


                             [Illustration.]

 Daniel Interpreting The Dream. "There is a God in heaven that revealeth
                           secrets." Dan. 2:28.


1. What statement did Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, make to his wise
men whom he had assembled?

“And the king said unto them, _I have dreamed a dream, and my spirit was
troubled to know the dream_.” Dan. 2:3.

2. After being threatened with death if they did not make known the dream
and the interpretation, what did the wise men say to the king?

“The Chaldeans answered before the king, and said, _There is not a man
upon the earth that can show the king’s matter_: therefore there is no
king, lord, nor ruler, that asked such things at any magician, or
astrologer, or Chaldean. And it is a rare thing that the king requireth,
and _there is none other that can show it before the king, except the
gods, whose dwelling is not with flesh_.” Verses 10, 11.

3. After the wise men had thus confessed their inability to do what the
king required, who offered to interpret the dream?

“Then _Daniel_ went in, and desired of the king that he would give him
time, and that he would show the king the interpretation.” Verse 16.

4. After Daniel and his fellows had sought God earnestly, how were the
dream and its interpretation revealed to Daniel?

“Then was the secret revealed unto Daniel _in a night-vision_. Then Daniel
blessed the God of heaven.” Verse 19.

5. When brought before the king, what did Daniel say?

“Daniel answered in the presence of the king, and said, The secret which
the king hath demanded cannot the wise men, the astrologers, the
magicians, the soothsayers, show unto the king; but _there is a God in
heaven that revealeth secrets_, and maketh known to the king
Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days. Thy dream, and the
visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these.” Verses 27, 28.

6. What did Daniel say the king had seen in his dream?

“Thy dream, and the visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these; ... Thou,
O king, sawest, and behold _a great image_. This great image, whose
brightness was excellent, stood before thee; and the form thereof was
terrible.” Verses 28-31.

7. Of what were the different parts of the image composed?

“This image’s head was of fine _gold_, his breast and his arms of
_silver_, his belly and his thighs of _brass_, his legs of _iron_, his
feet _part of iron and part of clay_.” Verses 32, 33.

8. By what means was the image broken to pieces?

“Thou sawest till that _a stone_ was cut out without hands, which smote
the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to
pieces.” Verse 34.

9. What became of the various parts of the image?

“Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken
to pieces together, and _became like the chaff of the summer
threshing-floors; and the wind carried them away_, that no place was found
for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and
filled the whole earth.” Verse 35.

10. With what words did Daniel begin the interpretation of the dream?

“Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee
a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory. And wheresoever the children of
men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven hath He
given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler over them all. _Thou art
this head of gold._” Verses 37, 38.


    NOTE.—The character of the Babylonian Empire is fittingly
    indicated by the nature of the material composing that portion of
    the image by which it was symbolized—the head of gold. It was “the
    golden kingdom of a golden age.” The city of Babylon, its
    metropolis, according to history towered to a height never equaled
    by any of its later rivals. “Situated in the garden of the East;
    laid put in a perfect square sixty miles in circumference, fifteen
    miles on each side, surrounded by a wall three hundred and fifty
    feet high and eighty-seven feet thick, with a moat, or ditch,
    around this, of equal cubic capacity with the wall itself; divided
    into six hundred and seventy-six squares, laid out in luxuriant
    pleasure-grounds and gardens, interspersed with magnificent
    dwellings,—this city, containing in itself many things which were
    themselves wonders of the world, was itself another and still
    mightier wonder.... Such was Babylon, with Nebuchadnezzar,
    youthful, bold, vigorous, and accomplished, seated upon its
    throne.”


11. What was to be the nature of the next kingdom after Babylon?

“After thee shall arise another kingdom _inferior to thee_.” Verse 39,
first part.

12. Who was the last Babylonian king?

“In that night was _Belshazzar_ the king of the Chaldeans slain. And
Darius the Median took the kingdom, being about threescore and two years
old.” Dan. 5:30, 31. See also verses 1, 2.

13. To whom was Belshazzar’s kingdom given?

“Thy kingdom is divided, and given to _the Medes and Persians_.” Verse 28.

14. By what is the Medo-Persian Empire represented in the great image?

“The breast and arms of silver.” Dan. 2:32.

15. By what is Grecia, the kingdom succeeding Medo-Persia, represented in
the image?

“His belly and his thighs of _brass_.” Verse 32. “And another _third
kingdom of brass_, which shall bear rule over all the earth.” Verse 39.

16. What is said of the fourth kingdom?

“And the fourth kingdom _shall be strong as iron_: forasmuch as iron
breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all
these, _shall it break in pieces and bruise_.” Verse 40.

17. What scripture shows that the Roman emperors ruled the world?

“And it came to pass in those days, that _there went out a __ decree from
Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed_.” Luke 2:1.


    NOTE.—Describing the Roman conquests, Gibbon uses the very imagery
    employed in the vision of Daniel 2. He says: “The arms of the
    republic, sometimes vanquished in battle, always victorious in
    war, advanced with rapid steps to the Euphrates, the Danube, the
    Rhine, and the ocean; and the images of _gold_, or _silver_, or
    _brass_, that might serve to represent the nations and their
    kings, were successively broken by the _iron_ monarchy of
    Rome.”—_“__Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,__”__ chap. 38,
    par. I, under __“__General Observations,__”__ at the close of the
    chapter._


18. What was indicated by the mixture of clay and iron in the feet and
toes of the image?

“And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters’ clay, and
part of iron, _the kingdom shall be divided_.” Dan. 2:41.

19. In what prophetic language was the varying strength of the ten
kingdoms of the divided empire indicated?

“And as the toes of the feet were _part of iron, and part of clay_, so the
kingdom shall be _partly strong, and partly broken_ [margin, _brittle_].”
Verse 42.

20. Were any efforts to be made to reunite the divided empire of Rome?

“And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, _they shall mingle
themselves with the seed of men_: but they shall not cleave one to
another, even as iron is not mixed with clay.” Verse 43.


    NOTES.—Charlemagne, Charles V, Louis XIV, and Napoleon all tried
    to reunite the broken fragments of the Roman Empire, but failed.
    By marriage and intermarriage ties have been formed with a view to
    strengthening and cementing together the shattered kingdom; but
    none have succeeded. The element of disunion remains. Many
    political revolutions and territorial changes have occurred in
    Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D.; but its
    divided state still remains.

    This remarkable dream, as interpreted by Daniel, presents in the
    briefest form, and yet with unmistakable clearness, the course of
    world empires from the time of Nebuchadnezzar to the close of
    earthly history and the setting up of the everlasting kingdom of
    God. The history confirms the prophecy. The sovereignty of the
    world was held by Babylon from the time of this dream, B.C. 603,
    until B.C. 538, when it passed to the Medes and Persians. The
    victory of the Grecian forces at the battle of Arbela, in B.C.
    331, marked the downfall of the Medo-Persian Empire, and the
    Greeks then became the undisputed rulers of the world. The battle
    of Pydna, in Macedonia, in B.C. 168, was the last organized effort
    to withstand a world-wide conquest by the Romans, and at that time
    therefore the sovereignty passed from the Greeks to the Romans,
    and the fourth kingdom was fully established. The division of Rome
    into ten kingdoms is definitely foretold in the vision recorded in
    the seventh chapter of Daniel, and occurred between the years 351
    A.D. and 476 A.D.


21. What is to take place in the days of these kingdoms?

“And in the days of these kings shall _the God of heaven set up a kingdom,
which shall never be destroyed_: ... but it shall break in pieces and
consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand forever.” Verse 44.


    NOTE.—This verse foretells the establishment of another universal
    kingdom, the kingdom of God. This kingdom is to overthrow and
    supplant all existing earthly kingdoms, and is to stand forever.
    The time for the setting up of this kingdom was to be “in the days
    of these kings.” This cannot refer to the four preceding empires,
    or kingdoms; for they were not contemporaneous, but successive;
    neither can it refer to an establishment of the kingdom at
    Christ’s first advent, for the ten kingdoms which arose out of the
    ruins of the Roman Empire were not yet in existence. It must
    therefore be yet future.


22. In what announcement in the New Testament is the establishment of the
kingdom of God made known?

“And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven,
saying, _The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord,
and of His Christ_; and He shall reign forever and ever.” Rev. 11:15.

23. For what have we been taught to pray?

“_Thy kingdom come._ Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.” Matt.
6:10.

24. What event is closely associated with the establishment of God’s
everlasting kingdom?

“I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall
judge the quick and the dead at _His appearing_ and His kingdom.” 2 Tim.
4:1.

25. With what prayer do the Scriptures close?

“He that testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly. Amen. _Even
so, come, Lord Jesus._” Rev. 22:20.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Look for the way-marks as you journey on,
    Look for the way-marks, passing one by one:
    Down through the ages, past the kingdoms four,—
    Where are we standing? Look the way-marks o’er.

    First, Babylonia’s kingdom ruled the world,
    Then Medo-Persia’s banners were unfurled;
    And after Greece held universal sway,
    Rome seized the scepter,—where are we today?

    Down in the feet of iron and of clay,
    Weak and divided, soon to pass away;
    What will the next great, glorious drama be?—
    Christ and His coming, and eternity.

    F. E. BELDEN.



The Gospel Of The Kingdom


                             [Illustration.]

 Jerusalem And The Mount Of Olives. "In the days of these kings shall the
               God of heaven set up a kingdom." Dan. 2:44.


1. What gospel did Jesus preach?

“And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and
preaching _the gospel of the kingdom_.” Matt. 4:23.

2. How extensively did He say this should be preached?

“And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached _in all the world_ for a
witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.” Matt. 24:14.

3. What shows that it has always been God’s purpose that all the world
should hear the gospel?

“Now the Lord had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from
thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto a land that I will show
thee: and I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and
make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: and _in thee shall all
families of the earth be blessed_.” Gen. 12:1-3. “And the Scripture,
_foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith_, preached
before the gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be
blessed.” Gal. 3:8.

4. How did God warn Israel against formalism?

“Forasmuch as this people draw near Me with their _mouth_, and with their
_lips_ do honor Me, but have removed their heart far from Me, and their
fear toward Me is taught by the precept of men: therefore, behold, I will
proceed to do a marvelous work among this people: ... for the wisdom of
their wise men shall perish, and the understanding of their prudent men
shall be hid.” Isa. 29:13, 14.

5. What shows that they had substituted the ritual service of the temple
for heart service?

“Thus saith the Lord, ... Amend your ways and your doings, and I will
cause you to dwell in this place. _Trust ye not in lying words, saying,
The temple of the Lord, The temple of the Lord, The temple of the Lord,
are these._” Jer. 7:3, 4.

6. What national disaster did they bring upon themselves by their apostasy
from God?

“So all Israel were reckoned by genealogies; and, behold, they were
written in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah, _who were carried
away to Babylon for their transgression_.” 1 Chron. 9:1.


    NOTE.—From the earliest times it has been God’s purpose that those
    who receive the gospel should make it known to others. For this
    purpose He chose a special people and established them in
    Palestine, in the highway of the nations; but they shut up the
    revelation of the truth to themselves, and so lost it. A few, like
    Daniel and his companions, maintained a personal connection with
    God, although surrounded by spiritual declension and dry
    formalism, and so were chosen by God to carry out His plan that
    the gospel of the kingdom should be preached in Babylon. They were
    tested and trained in Babylon, as shown in the first chapter of
    Daniel, and then, being ready to make known the gospel, the way
    providentially opened for them by the dream of Nebuchadnezzar.


7. In interpreting Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, what kingdom did Daniel say
would follow the four world empires?

“And in the days of these kings shall _the God of heaven set up a
kingdom_, which shall never be destroyed.” Dan. 2:44.

8. What was this kingdom to do to the other kingdoms?

“The kingdom shall not be left to other people, but _it shall break in
pieces and consume all these kingdoms_.” Same verse.

9. How long is this kingdom to continue?

“And it shall _stand forever_.” Same verse, last clause.

10. What words of Christ imply the gospel’s final triumph?

“And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will
build My church; and _the gates of hell shall not prevail against it_.”
Matt. 16:18.


    NOTE.—Anciently the gates to cities were places for holding
    courts, transacting business, and deliberating on public matters.
    The word gates, therefore, is used for counsels, designs,
    machinations, and evil purposes. The gates of hell mean the
    plottings, stratagems, and designs of Satan to overthrow the
    church. But none of these are to prevail.


11. What promises to David will thus be fulfilled?

“Thine house and thy kingdom shall be established forever: ... thy throne
shall be established forever.” 2 Sam. 7:16.


    NOTE.—By uniting His divinity with humanity in becoming the Son of
    David, Christ laid the foundation upon which He built His church,
    and thus established the house of David forever. The kingdom of
    God, the house of David, and the church of Christ are so
    inseparably connected in this prophecy that the establishment of
    either involves the establishment of the other two.


12. Through whom are these promises to be fulfilled?

“He shall be great, and shall be called _the Son of the Highest_: and the
Lord God shall give unto Him the throne of His father David: and He shall
reign over the house of Jacob forever; and of His kingdom there shall be
no end.” Luke 1:32, 33.

13. In order to fulfil these promises, whose son did the Son of God
become?

“The son of _David_.” Matt. 22:42.

14. What is this union of divinity and humanity called?

“And without controversy great is _the mystery of godliness_: God was
manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached
unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.” 1
Tim. 3:16.

15. What did Jesus call this same mystery?

“And He said unto them, Unto you it is given to know _the mystery of the
kingdom of God_: but unto them that are without, all these things are done
in parables.” Mark 4:11.

16. In what confession did the wise men of Babylon deny any knowledge of
this essential doctrine of Christianity?

“And it is a rare thing that the king requireth, and there is none other
that can show it before the king, except _the gods, whose dwelling is not
with flesh_.” Dan. 2:11.


    NOTE.—The union of the divine and human in the person of Christ is
    “the mystery of godliness,” or “the mystery of the kingdom of
    God.” In the case of the seed which is sown in the field, this
    same principle is illustrated by the union of the reproducing
    power with the material form. As the seed is thus capable of
    multiplying itself, so Christ reproduces His own character in
    believers, by making them partakers of the divine nature. At His
    coming He bestows upon the subjects of the kingdom the gift of
    immortality (1 Cor. 15:51-53), and so the kingdom will stand
    forever. It is quite likely that the wise men of Babylon did not
    understand about the incarnation of God in the flesh in the coming
    Messiah, but in their statement that the dwelling of the gods was
    not with flesh they announced the fundamental error of Babylon,
    both ancient and modern, and really denied the vital principle of
    Christianity. This was the essential secret, or mystery, of the
    kingdom of God, which needed to be known in Babylon, and which is
    still to be proclaimed throughout the world.


17. Concerning what did Daniel and his companions pray?

“Then Daniel went to his house, and made the thing known to Hananiah,
Mishael, and Azariah, his companions: that they would desire mercies of
the God of heaven _concerning this secret_.” Verses 17, 18.

18. What would have been the result of failure on their part to obtain a
knowledge of this mystery?

“That Daniel and his fellows should not _perish with the rest of the wise
men of Babylon_.” Verse 18, last part.

19. How was the secret concerning the king’s dream revealed, and thus the
mystery of the kingdom of God made known in Babylon?

“Then was the secret revealed unto Daniel _in a night-vision_. Then Daniel
blessed the God of heaven.” Verse 19.


    NOTE.—The most vital truth of the gospel of the kingdom of God was
    denied in the religion of Babylon. This made it necessary that
    this very truth should be preached in Babylon. This mystery of the
    kingdom of God was the real and essential secret which the wise
    men of Babylon could not make known to the king, and which could
    be learned only by revelation. This is the mystery which “from the
    beginning of the world hath been hid in God” (Eph. 3:9); and the
    “riches of the glory of this mystery” is “Christ in you, the hope
    of glory” (Col. 1:27), or “the mystery of the gospel” (Eph. 6:19).


20. How did Nebuchadnezzar acknowledge God as the revealer, and thus
Daniel’s intimate fellowship with Him?

“The king answered unto Daniel, and said, Of a truth it is, that _your God
is a God of gods, and a Lord of kings, and a revealer of secrets, seeing
thou couldest reveal this secret_.” Verse 47.

21. When the gospel of the kingdom has been fully preached, and Christ
appears as King, what invitation will be extended to those who have
learned “the mystery of the kingdom”?

“When the Son of man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with
Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory: and before Him shall
be gathered all nations.... Then shall the King say unto them on His right
hand, _Come, ye blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you
from the foundation of the world_.” Matt. 25:31-34.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Thy kingdom come. Thus day by day
    We lift our hands to God, and pray;
    But who has ever duly weighed
    The meaning of the words He said?



Four Great Monarchies


                             [Illustration.]

 Isaiah’s Vision Of The Ruins Of Babylon. "And the dream is certain, and
               the interpretation thereof sure." Dan. 2:45.


1. At what time was Daniel’s second vision given?

“_In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon_ Daniel had a dream and
visions of his head upon his bed: then he wrote the dream, and told the
sum of the matters.” Dan. 7:1.


    NOTE.—That is, in the first year of Belshazzar’s office as
    associate king with his father Nabonadius, or 540 B.C.


2. What effect did this dream have upon Daniel?

“I Daniel was _grieved in my spirit_ in the midst of my body, and the
visions of my head _troubled me_.” Verse 15.


    NOTE.—The effect of Daniel’s dream upon him, it will be noticed,
    was similar to the effect of Nebuchadnezzar’s dreams upon him; it
    troubled him. See Dan. 2:1.


3. What did Daniel ask of one of the heavenly attendants who stood by him
in his dream?

“I came near unto one of them that stood by, _and asked him the truth of
all this_. So he told me, and made me know the interpretation of the
things.” Verse 16.

4. What did the prophet see in this vision?

“Daniel spake and said, I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, _the
four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea_.” Verse 2.

5. What was the result of this strife?

“And _four great beasts came up from the sea_, diverse one from another.”
Verse 3.

                             [Illustration.]

The Four Beasts Of Daniel 7. "These great beasts, which are four, are four
          kings, which shall arise out of the earth." Dan. 7:17.


6. What did these four beasts represent?

“These great beasts, which are four, are _four kings, which shall arise
out of the earth_.” Verse 17.


    NOTE.—The word kings here, as in Dan. 2:44, denotes kingdoms, as
    explained in verses 23 and 24 of the seventh chapter, the two
    words being used interchangeably in this prophecy.


7. In symbolic language, what is represented by winds?

Strife, war, commotion. See Jer. 25:31-33; 49:36, 37.


    NOTE.—That winds denote strife and war is evident from the vision
    itself. As a result of the striving of the winds, kingdoms rise
    and fall.


8. What, in prophecy, is symbolized by waters?

“And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest ... are _peoples_, and
_multitudes_, and _nations_, and _tongues_.” Rev. 17:15.


    NOTE.—In the second chapter of Daniel, under the figure of an
    image of man, the mere political outline of the rise and fall of
    earthly kingdoms is given, preceding the setting up of God’s
    everlasting kingdom. In the seventh chapter, earthly governments,
    are represented as viewed in the light of Heaven,—under the
    symbols of wild and ferocious beasts,—the last, in particular,
    oppressing and persecuting the saints of the Most High. Hence the
    change in the symbols used to represent these kingdoms.


9. What was the first beast like?

“_The first was like a lion_, and had eagle’s wings: I beheld till the
wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made
stand upon the feet as a man, and a man’s heart was given to it.” Dan.
7:4.


    NOTE.—The lion, the first of these four great beasts, like the
    golden head of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, represents the Babylonian
    monarchy; the lion, the king of beasts, standing at the head of
    his kind, as gold does of metals. The eagle’s wings doubtless
    denote the rapidity with which Babylon extended its conquests
    under Nebuchadnezzar, who reigned from B.C. 604 to B.C. 561. This
    kingdom was overthrown by the Medes and Persians in B.C. 538.


10. By what was the second kingdom symbolized?

“And behold another beast, _a second, like to a bear_, and it raised up
itself on one side, and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between the
teeth of it: and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh.” Verse
5.


    NOTE.—“This was the _Medo-Persian_ Empire, represented here under
    the symbol of a _bear_.... The Medes and Persians are compared to
    a bear on account of their _cruelty and thirst after blood_, a
    bear being a most voracious and cruel animal.”—_Adam Clarke, on
    Dan. 7:5._


11. By what was the third universal empire symbolized?

“After this I beheld, and lo another, _like a leopard_, which had upon the
back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and
dominion was given to it.” Verse 6.


    NOTES.—If the wings of an eagle on the back of a lion denoted
    rapidity of movement in the Babylonian, or Assyrian, Empire (see
    Hab. 1:6-8), four wings on the leopard must denote unparalleled
    celerity of movement in the Grecian Empire. This we find to be
    historically true.

    “The rapidity of Alexander’s conquests in Asia was marvelous: he
    burst like a torrent on the expiring Persian Empire, and all
    opposition was useless. The gigantic armies collected to oppose
    him melted like snow in the sunshine. The battles of Granicus,
    B.C. 334, Issus in the following year, and Arbela in B.C. 331,
    settled the fate of the Persian Empire, and established the wide
    dominion of the Greeks.”—_“__The Divine Program of the World’s
    History,__”__ by H. Grattan Guinness, page 308._

    “The beast had also four heads.” The Grecian Empire maintained its
    unity but a short time after the death of Alexander, which
    occurred in B.C. 323. Within twenty-two years after the close of
    his brilliant career, or by B.C. 301, the empire was divided among
    his four leading generals. Cassander took Macedonia and Greece in
    the west; Lysimachus had Thrace and the parts of Asia on the
    Hellespont and Bosporus in the north; Ptolemy received Egypt,
    Lydia, Arabia, Palestine, and Cœle-Syria in the south; and
    Seleucus had all the rest of Alexander’s dominions in the east.


12. How was the fourth kingdom represented?

“After, this I saw in the night-visions, and behold _a fourth beast,
dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron
teeth_: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the
feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it;
_and it had ten horns_.” Verse 7.

13. What was the fourth beast declared to be?

“Thus he said, _The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth_,
which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole
earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.” Verse 23.


    NOTES.—“This is allowed on all hands to be the Roman Empire. It
    was _dreadful_, _terrible_, and _exceeding strong_; ... and
    became, in effect, what the Roman writers delight to call it, the
    _empire of the whole world_.”—_Adam Clarke, on Dan. 7:7._

    The final overthrow of the Greeks, by the Romans, was at the
    battle of Pydna, in 168 B.C.


14. What was denoted by the ten horns?

“And the ten horns out of this kingdom are _ten kings that shall arise_.”
Verse 24.


    NOTES.—The Roman Empire was broken up into ten kingdoms between
    the years 351 A.D. and 476 A.D.

    “The historian Machiavelli, without the slightest reference to
    this prophecy, gives the following list of the nations which
    occupied the territory of the Western Empire at the time of the
    fall of Romulus Augustulus (476 A.D.), the last emperor of Rome:
    The Lombards, the Franks, the Burgundians, the Ostrogoths, the
    Visigoths, the Vandals, the Heruh, the Suevi, the Huns, and the
    Saxons: ten in all.

    “Amidst unceasing and almost countless fluctuations, the kingdoms
    of modern Europe have from their birth to the present day
    _averaged_ ten in number. They have never since the breaking up of
    old Rome been united into one single empire; they have never
    formed _one whole_ even like the United States. No scheme of proud
    ambition seeking to reunite the broken fragments has ever
    succeeded; when such have arisen, they have been invariably dashed
    to pieces.

    “And the division is as apparent now as ever. Plainly and palpably
    inscribed on the map of Europe this day, it confronts the skeptic
    with its silent but conclusive testimony to the fulfilment of this
    great prophecy. Who can alter or add to this tenfold list of the
    kingdoms now occupying the sphere of old Rome? _Italy, Austria,
    Switzerland, France, Germany, England, Holland, Belgium, Spain,
    and Portugal_—ten, and no more; ten, and no less.”—_“__The Divine
    Program of the World’s History,__”__ by H. Grattan Guinness, pages
    318-321._


15. What change did Daniel see take place in these horns?

“I considered the horns, and, behold, _there came up among them another
little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by
the roots_: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and
a mouth speaking great things.” Verse 8.

16. What inquiry on the part of Daniel shows that the fourth beast, and
especially the little horn phase of it, constitutes the leading feature of
this vision?

“Then _I would know the truth of the fourth beast_, which was diverse from
all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth were of iron, and his
nails of brass; which devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue
with his feet; _and of the ten horns_ that were in his head, and _of the
other which came up_, and _before whom three fell_; even of that horn that
had eyes, and a mouth that spake very great things, whose look was more
stout than his fellows.” Verses 19, 20.

17. When was the little horn to arise?

“And another shall rise _after them_.” Verse 24.


    NOTE.—The ten horns, as already shown, arose when Rome, the fourth
    kingdom, was divided into ten kingdoms. This division was
    completed in A.D. 476. The little-horn power was to arise after
    them.


18. What was to be the character of the little horn?

“And he shall be _diverse_ from the first, and he shall _subdue three
kings_.” Same verse, last part.


    NOTES.—That power which arose in the Roman Empire after the fall
    of Rome in A.D. 476, which was entirely different from all the ten
    kingdoms into which Rome was divided (for it demanded and
    exercised spiritual power over the other kingdoms), and before
    whom three of the other kings—the Heruli, the Vandals, and the
    Ostrogoths—fell, was the Papacy.

    Having located the place and the time of the kingdom of the little
    horn, the study of its character and work will be considered in
    the readings which follow.



The Kingdom And Work Of Antichrist


                             [Illustration.]

The Papal Tiara. "He shall speak great words against the Most High." Dan.
                                  7:25.


1. What is said of the little horn as compared with the ten horns of the
fourth beast of Daniel 7?

“He shall be _diverse_ from the first, and he shall subdue three kings.”
Dan. 7:24.


    NOTE.—The Papacy, which arose on the ruins of the Roman Empire,
    differed from all previous forms of Roman power, in that it was an
    ecclesiastical despotism claiming universal dominion over both
    spiritual and temporal affairs, especially the former. It was a
    union of church and state, with the church dominant.


2. What attitude of rivalry was the Papacy, represented by the little
horn, to assume toward the Most High?

“And he shall _speak great words against the Most High_.” Verse 25, first
clause.

3. How does Paul, speaking of the man of sin, describe this same power?

“Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that
is worshiped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing
himself that he is God.” 2 Thess. 2:4.


    NOTES.—The following extracts from authoritative works, most of
    them by Roman Catholic writers, will indicate to what extent the
    Papacy has done this:—

    “All the names which are attributed to Christ in Scripture,
    implying His supremacy over the church, are also attributed to the
    Pope.”—_Bellarmine, __“__On the Authority of Councils__”__ book 2,
    chap. 17._

    “For thou art the shepherd, thou art the physician, thou art the
    director, thou art the husbandman; finally thou art another God on
    earth.”—_From Oration of Christopher Marcellus in fourth session
    of Fifth Lateran Council, Labbe and Cossart’s __“__History of the
    Councils,__”__ published in 1672, Vol. XIV, col. 109._

    “For not man, but God, not by human but rather by divine
    authority, releases those whom, on account of the need of the
    churches or what is regarded as a benefit, the Roman pontiff (who
    is vicegerent on earth, not of mere man, but of the true God)
    separates [from their churches].”—_“__The Decretals of Gregory
    IX,__”__ book 1, title 7, chap. 3._

    “The Pope is the supreme judge of the law of the land. He is the
    vicegerent of Christ, who is not only a priest forever, but also
    King of kings and Lord of lords.”—_From the Civilta Cattolica,
    March 18, 1871, quoted in __“__Vatican Council,__”__ by Leonard
    Woolsey Bacon, American Tract Society edition, page 220._

    “Christ entrusted His office to the chief pontiff; ... but all
    power in heaven and in earth has been given to Christ; ...
    therefore the chief pontiff, who is His vicar, will have this
    power.”—_Gloss on the __“__Extravagantes Communes,__”__ book 1,
    __“__On Authority and Obedience,__”__ chap. 1, on words Porro
    Subesse Romano Pontiff. Canon law, published in 1556, Vol. III,
    __“__Extravagantes Communes,__”__ col. 29._

    “Hence the Pope is crowned with a triple crown, as king of heaven,
    and earth, and purgatory (_Infernorum_).”—_“__Prompta
    Bibliotheca,__”__ Ferraris, Vol. VI, page 26, article
    __“__Papa__”__ (the Pope)._

    “The decision of the Pope and the decision of God constitute one
    decision, just as the opinion of the Pope and his disciple are the
    same. Since, therefore, an appeal is always taken from an inferior
    judge to a superior, as no one is greater than himself, so no
    appeal holds when made from the Pope to God, because there is one
    consistory of the Pope himself and of God Himself, of which
    consistory the Pope himself is the key-bearer and the doorkeeper.
    Therefore no one can appeal from the Pope to God, as no one can
    enter into the consistory of God without the mediation of the
    Pope, who is the key-bearer and the doorkeeper of the consistory
    of eternal life; and as no one can appeal to himself, so no one
    can appeal from the Pope to God, because there is one decision and
    one curia [court] of God and of the Pope.”—_Writings of Augustinus
    de Ancona, printed without title-page or pagination, Ques. VI,
    __“__On an Appeal From the Decision of the Pope.__”_

    “All the faithful of Christ must believe that the Holy Apostolic
    See and the Roman pontiff possesses the primacy over the whole
    world, and that the Roman pontiff is the successor of the blessed
    Peter, prince of the apostles, and is true vicar of Christ, and
    the head of the whole church, and father and teacher of all
    Christians, and that full power was given him in blessed Peter to
    rule, feed, and govern the universal church by Jesus Christ our
    Lord.”—_“__Petri Privilegium,__”__ in section on __“__The Vatican
    Council and Its Definitions,__”__ by Henry Edward Manning,
    archbishop of Westminster (Roman Catholic), London, Longmans,
    Green & Co., 1871, page 214._

    “We teach and define that it is a dogma divinely revealed; that
    the Roman pontiff, when he speaks _ex cathedra_, that is, when in
    the discharge of the office of Pastor and Doctor of all
    Christians, by virtue of his supreme apostolic authority he
    defines a doctrine regarding faith or morals to be held by the
    universal church, by the divine assistance promised to him in
    blessed Peter, is possessed of that infallibility with which the
    divine Redeemer willed that His church should be endowed for
    defining doctrine regarding faith or morals; and that therefore
    such definitions of the Roman pontiff are irreformable of
    themselves, and not from the consent of the church.”—_Id., page
    218._

    “Should Jesus Christ come in person from heaven into a church to
    administer the sacrament of reconciliation, and should He say to a
    penitent, ‘I absolve thee,’ and should a priest sitting at His
    side in the tribunal of penance pronounce over a penitent the
    selfsame words, ‘I absolve thee,’ there is no question that in the
    latter case, as in the former, the penitent would be equally
    loosed from his sin.”—_“__Jesus Living in the Priest,__”__ by the
    Rev. P. Millet, S. J., English translation by the Rt. Rev. Thomas
    Sebastian Byrne, D. D., bishop of Nashville; New York, Benziger
    Brothers, printers to the Holy Apostolic See, 1901, pages 23, 24.
    Imprimatur, Michael Augustine, archbishop of New York._

    Among the twenty-seven propositions known as the “Dictates of
    Hildebrand,” who, under the name of Gregory VII, was Pope from
    1073-87, occur the following:—

    “2. That the Roman pontiff alone is justly styled universal.

    “6. That no person ... may live under the same roof with one
    excommunicated by the Pope.

    “9. That all princes should kiss his feet only.

    “12. That it is lawful for him to depose emperors.

    “18. That his sentence is not to be reviewed by any one; while he
    alone can review the decisions of all others.

    “19. That he can be judged by no one.

    “22. That the Romish Church never erred, nor will it, according to
    the Scriptures, ever err.

    “26. That no one is to be accounted a Catholic who does not
    harmonize with the Romish Church.

    “27. That he can absolve subjects from their allegiance to
    unrighteous rulers.”—_Annals of Baronius, 1076, Vol. XI, col. 506.
    See Gieseler’s __“__Ecclesiastical History,__”__ third period,
    div. 3, par. 47, note 3; and Mosheim’s __“__Ecclesiastical
    History,__”__ book 3, cen. 11, part 2, chap. 2, par. 9, note._

    “They have assumed infallibility, which belongs only to God. They
    profess to forgive sins, which belongs only to God. They profess
    to open and shut heaven, which belongs only to God. They profess
    to be higher than all the kings of the earth, which belongs only
    to God. And they go beyond God in pretending to loose whole
    nations from their oath of allegiance to their kings, when such
    kings do not please them. And they go _against_ God, when they
    give _indulgences for sin_. This is the _worst_ of all
    blasphemies.”—_Adam Clarke, on Dan. 7:25._


4. How was the little horn to treat God’s people?

“And shall _wear out the saints_ of the Most High.” Dan. 7:25.


    NOTES.—“Under these bloody maxims [previously mentioned], those
    persecutions were carried on, from the eleventh and twelfth
    centuries almost to the present day, which stand out on the page
    of history. After the signal of open martyrdom had been given in
    the canons of Orleans, there followed the extirpation of the
    Albigenses under the form of a crusade, the establishment of the
    Inquisition, the cruel attempts to extinguish the Waldenses, the
    martyrdoms of the Lollards, the cruel wars to exterminate the
    Bohemians, the burning of Huss and Jerome, and multitudes of other
    confessors, before the Reformation; and afterwards, the ferocious
    cruelties practised in the Netherlands, the martyrdoms of Queen
    Mary’s reign, the extinction by fire and sword of the Reformation
    in Spain and Italy, by fraud and open persecution in Poland, the
    massacre of Bartholomew, the persecution of the Huguenots by the
    League, the extirpation of the Vaudois, and all the cruelties and
    prejudices connected with the revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
    These are the more open and conspicuous facts which explain the
    prophecy, besides the slow and secret murders of the holy tribunal
    of the Inquisition.”—_“__The First Two Visions of Daniel,__”__
    Rev. T. R. Birks, M. A., London, 1845, pages 248, 249._

    A detailed summary of the number of the victims of the Inquisition
    in Spain, under each Inquisitor-General, is given in “The History
    of the Inquisition in Spain,” by Llorente, formerly secretary of
    the Inquisition, pages 206-208. According to this authority the
    number who were condemned and perished in the flames is 31,912.

    “The church has persecuted. Only a tyro in church history will
    deny that.... One hundred and fifty years after Constantine the
    Donatists were persecuted, and sometimes put to death....
    Protestants were persecuted in France and Spain with the full
    approval of the church authorities. We have always defended the
    persecution of the Huguenots, and the Spanish Inquisition.
    Wherever and whenever there is honest Catholicity, there will be a
    clear distinction drawn between truth and error, and Catholicity
    and all forms of error. When she thinks it good to use physical
    force, she will use it.”—_The Western Watchman (Roman Catholic),
    of St. Louis, Dec. 24, 1908._


5. What else does the prophecy say the little horn would do?

“And he shall _think to change the times and the law_.” Dan. 7:25, third
clause, R. V.


    NOTES.—“The little horn, further, shall think to change times. The
    description applies, in all its force, to the systematic
    perversion of God’s words by which all promises of millennial
    glory are wrested from their true sense, and referred to the
    dominion and grandeur of the Church of Rome. The orator of the
    Pope, for instance, in the Lateran Council, declares that in the
    submission of all nations to Leo the prophecy was fulfilled: ‘All
    kings shall fall down and worship Him; all nations shall serve and
    obey Him.’ The same antichristian feature appears in those
    advocates of the Papacy who would clear it from the guilt of
    actual idolatry, because ‘it is part of that church from which the
    idols are utterly abolished.’ Thus are the times changed; but only
    in the vain ‘thoughts’ of dreamers who see false visions and
    divine lying divinations; because the visible glory of Christ’s
    kingdom remains still to be revealed.”—_“__The First Two Visions
    of Daniel,__”__ Rev. T. R. Birks, M. A., London, 1845, pages 257,
    258._

    Although the ten commandments, the law of God, are found in the
    Roman Catholic versions of the Scriptures, as they were originally
    given, yet the faithful are instructed from the catechisms of the
    church, and not directly from the Bible. As it appears in these,
    the law of God has been changed and virtually reenacted by the
    Papacy. Furthermore, communicants not only receive the law from
    the church, but they deal with the church concerning any alleged
    infractions of that law, and when they have satisfied the
    ecclesiastical authorities, the whole matter is settled.

    The second commandment, which forbids the making of, and bowing
    down to, images, is omitted in Catholic catechisms, and the tenth,
    which forbids coveting, is divided into two.

    As evidence of the change which has been made in the law of God by
    the papal power, and that it acknowledges the change and claims
    the authority to make it, note the following from Roman Catholic
    publications:—

    “_Question._—Have you any other way of proving that the church has
    power to institute festivals of precept?

    “_Answer._—Had she not such power, she could not have done that in
    which all modern religionists agree with her,—she could not have
    substituted the observance of Sunday, the first day of the week,
    for the observance of Saturday, the seventh day, a change for
    which there is no Scriptural authority.”—_“__A Doctrinal
    Catechism,__”__ Rev. Stephen Keenan, page 174. Imprimatur, John
    Cardinal McCloskey, archbishop of New York._

    “_Ques._—How prove you that the church hath power to command
    feasts and holy days?

    “_Ans._—By the very act of changing the Sabbath into Sunday, which
    Protestants allow of; and therefore they fondly contradict
    themselves, by keeping Sunday strictly, and breaking most other
    feasts commanded by the same church.

    “_Ques._—How prove you that?

    “_Ans._—Because by keeping Sunday they acknowledge the church’s
    power to ordain feasts, and to command them under sin: and by not
    keeping the rest by her commanded, they deny again, in fact, the
    same power.”—_“__An Abridgment of the Christian Doctrine,__”__
    composed in 1649, by Rev. Henry Tuberville, D. D., of the English
    College of Douay; New York, John Doyle, 1883, page 58._

    “Is not every Christian obliged to sanctify Sunday, to abstain on
    that day from unnecessary servile work? Is not the observance of
    this law among the most prominent of our sacred duties? But you
    may read the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and you will not
    find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. The
    Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day
    which we never sanctify.”—_“__The Faith of Our Fathers,__”__ by
    James Cardinal Gibbons, Baltimore, John Murphy & Co., 1893, page
    111._

    All Roman Catholic writers agree in this teaching. See page 441.


6. Until what time were the saints, times, and laws of the Most High to be
given into the hands of the little horn?

“And they shall be given into his hand _until a time and times and the
dividing of time_.” Dan. 7:25, last clause.

7. In what other prophecies is this same period mentioned?

“And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might
fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for _a
time, and times, and half a time_, from the face of the serpent.” Rev.
12:14. “And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and
blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue [margin, to make
war] _forty and two months_.” Rev. 13:5. See also Rev. 11:2. “And the
woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God,
that they should feed her there _a thousand two hundred and threescore
days_.” Rev. 12:6.

8. In symbolic prophecy what length of time is represented by a day?

“After the number of the days in which ye searched the land, even forty
days, _each day for a year_, shall ye bear your iniquities, even forty
years.” Num. 14:34. See Eze. 4:6.


    NOTES.—A time in prophecy being the same as a year (see Dan.
    11:13, margin, and R. V.), three and one-half times would be three
    and a half years, or forty-two months, or twelve hundred and sixty
    days, since the calendar year of 360 days, or twelve months of
    thirty days each, is used in prophetic chronology. As each day
    represents a year, the period, the end of which was to mark the
    limit of the time of the supremacy of the little horn, the Papacy,
    over the saints, times, and the law, would therefore be twelve
    hundred and sixty years.

    The decree of the emperor Justinian, issued in A.D. 533,
    recognized the Pope as “head of all the holy churches.”
    (Justinian’s Code, book 1, title 1. Baronius’s Annals, A.D. 533.)
    The overwhelming defeat of the Ostrogoths in the siege of Rome,
    five years later, A.D. 538, was a death-blow to the independence
    of the Arian power then ruling Italy, and was therefore a notable
    date in the development of papal supremacy. With the period
    533-538, then, commences the twelve hundred and sixty years of
    this prophecy, which would extend to the period 1793-1798. The
    year 1793 was the year of the Reign of Terror in the French
    Revolution, and the year when the Roman Catholic religion was set
    aside in France and the worship of reason was established in its
    stead. As a direct result of the revolt against papal authority in
    the French Revolution, the French army, under Berthier, entered
    Rome, and the Pope was taken prisoner Feb. 10, 1798, dying in
    exile at Valence, France, the following year. This period,
    1793-1798, during which this death-stroke was inflicted upon the
    Papacy, fittingly and clearly marks the close of the long
    prophetic period mentioned in this prophecy. Any standard history
    of the time may be consulted in substantiation of the facts here
    stated.


9. What will finally be done with the dominion exercised by the little
horn?

“But the judgment shall sit, and they shall _take away his dominion, to
consume and to destroy it unto the end_.” Dan. 7:26.

10. To whom will the dominion finally be given?

“And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the
whole heaven, shall be given _to the people of the saints of the Most
High_, whose kingdom is _an everlasting kingdom_, and _all dominions_
shall serve and obey Him.” Verse 27.


    NOTE.—Here, as in the second chapter of Daniel, the announcement
    of the setting up of the everlasting kingdom of God in the earth
    includes a brief outline of the history of this world; and the
    prophecies of Daniel concerning the powers that would oppose the
    purpose of God, furnish additional features of this outline. The
    exact fulfilment of this outline in the history of the world since
    the time of Nebuchadnezzar constitutes an unimpeachable testimony
    to the inspiration of these prophecies, and furnishes a ground of
    confidence that the unfulfilled portion of the prophecies will be
    wrought out in the future with absolute certainty and in every
    detail.



The Vicar Of Christ


                             [Illustration.]

 St. Peter’s And The Vatican. "He as God sitteth in the temple of God." 2
                               Thess. 2:4.


1. What appeared unto Daniel in 538 B.C., the same year in which Babylon
fell?

“In the third year of the reign of King Belshazzar a _vision_ appeared
unto me, even unto me Daniel, after that which appeared unto me at the
first.” Dan. 8:1.

2. Where was Daniel at this time?

“And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was _at
Shushan_ in the palace, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in a
vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.” Verse 2.

3. What first attracted the prophet’s attention?

“Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the
river _a ram_ which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one
was higher than the other, and the higher came up last.” Verse 3.

4. What power was represented by the ram having two horns?

“The ram which thou sawest having two horns are _the kings of Media and
Persia_.” Verse 20.

5. How are the rise and work of this power described?

“I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no
beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver
out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and _became great_.”
Verse 4.

6. What symbol was next introduced in the vision?

“And as I was considering, behold, _an he goat_ came from the west on the
face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat had a
notable horn between his eyes.” Verse 5.

7. What did the goat with the notable horn represent?

“And the rough goat is _the king of Grecia_: and the great horn that is
between his eyes is _the first king_.” Verse 21.

8. How was the conquest of Medo-Persia by Grecia foretold in this symbolic
prophecy?

“And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler
against him, and _smote the ram, and brake his two horns_: and there was
no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the
ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the
ram out of his hand.” Verse 7.

9. When the he goat “was strong,” what occurred?

“Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, _the
great horn was broken_; and for it came up four notable ones toward the
four winds of heaven.” Verse 8.

10. Who was represented by “the great horn,” and what followed when it was
broken?

“And the rough goat is the king [kingdom] of Grecia: and the great horn
that is between his eyes is _the first king_. Now that being broken,
whereas four stood up for it, _four kingdoms shall stand up out of the
nation_, but not in his power.” Verses 21, 22.


    NOTES.—From the interpretation given, it is plain that the notable
    “horn” upon the he goat represented Alexander the Great, who led
    the Grecian forces in their conquest of Medo-Persia. Upon the
    death of Alexander at Babylon, B.C. 323, there followed a brief
    period of confusion in the struggle for the kingdom, but the
    succession was definitely determined by the battle of Ipsus, B.C.
    301. Alexander’s four leading generals—Cassander, Lysimachus,
    Ptolemy, and Seleucus—became his successors.

    “The vast empire created by Alexander’s unparalleled conquests was
    distracted by the wranglings and wars of his successors, and
    before the close of the fourth century before Christ, had become
    broken up into many fragments. Besides minor states, four
    well-defined and important monarchies rose out of the ruins....
    Their rulers were Lysimachus, Cassander, Seleucus Nicator, and
    Ptolemy, who had each assumed the title of king. The great horn
    was broken; and instead of it came up four notable ones toward the
    four winds of heaven.”—_Myers’s __“__History of Greece,__”__ page
    457, edition 1902._


11. What came out of one of the four horns of the goat?

“And out of one of them came forth a _little horn_, which waxed _exceeding
great_, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant
land.” Verse 9.

12. What interpretation is given to this little horn?

“And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come
to the full, _a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark
sentences, shall stand up_.” Verse 23.

13. What did this little horn do to the people of God?

“And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and _it cast down some of
the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them_.” Verse
10.

14. In what literal language is this persecution of the people of God
further described?

“And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: and he shall
destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy
the mighty and the holy people.” Verse 24.

15. How was this little horn to exalt itself against Christ and His
mediatorial work?

“Yea, it magnified itself, even to the Prince of the host, and _it took
away from Him the continual burnt offering_, and the place of His
sanctuary was cast down.” Verse 11, R. V.

16. In the interpretation of the vision, how is this self-exaltation set
forth?

“And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand;
and _he shall magnify himself in his heart_, and by peace shall destroy
many: _he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes_; but he shall
be broken without hand.” Verse 25.

17. What similar language is used by the apostle Paul in describing the
“mystery of iniquity,” or “man of sin”?

“That day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that
man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; _who opposeth and exalteth
himself above all that is called God, or that is worshiped; so that he as
God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God_.” 2
Thess. 2:3, 4.


    NOTE.—The last two scriptures evidently describe one and the same
    power,—a power which, while religious and professedly Christian,
    is anti-christian in spirit, and the very “man of sin” himself.
    Possessed with the selfish ambition of Lucifer (Isa. 14:12-14;
    Eze. 28:17), he assumes to occupy the very seat and place of Deity
    in the temple of God. Professing to be Christ’s vicar, or personal
    representative on earth, he magnifies himself against Christ, and
    “stands up,” or reigns, in the place of, and “against,” the Prince
    of princes.


18. What was given into the hands of the power represented by the little
horn?

“And _the host_ was given over to it together with _the continual burnt
offering_ through transgression.” Dan. 8:12, first clause, R. V.

19. What did this power do to the truth?

“And _it cast down truth to the ground_, and it did its pleasure and
prospered.” Same verse, last clause, R. V.


    NOTES.—The interpretation already given to this vision shows
    plainly that the power represented by the little horn is the
    successor of Medo-Persia and Grecia. In the vision of the seventh
    chapter of Daniel, which is closely related to this vision, the
    fourth beast represented the fourth kingdom, or Rome, in its
    entirety, special attention, however, being given to the “little
    horn” phase of its history. As shown by the work attributed to it,
    this little horn, which arose among the ten kingdoms into which
    Rome was divided, was to be a religio-political power, which was
    to change the times and law of God, and persecute the people of
    God. In the vision of the eighth chapter the ecclesiastical
    features of this fourth world power are especially noticed and
    emphasized, and hence the only symbol there used to represent it
    is the “little horn” which waxed “exceeding great.”

    The religion of all the four great monarchies mentioned in these
    prophecies was paganism; but the paganism of ancient Babylon was
    reproduced in pagan Rome, and then adapted and adopted by papal
    Rome. The little horn of the eighth chapter represents Rome, both
    pagan and papal, in its ecclesiastical aspect, with its union of
    paganism, and later of apostate Christianity, with the secular
    power; with its antichristian persecutions of the saints of God;
    with its perversion of the priesthood of Christ; and with its
    assertion of both temporal and spiritual power over all the world.
    It is evident that pagan Rome is introduced into this prophecy
    chiefly as a means of locating the place and work of papal Rome,
    and the ecclesiastical features of pagan Rome as typical of the
    same features accentuated in papal Rome, and that the emphasis is
    to be placed upon the fulfilment of the prophecy in the work of
    papal Rome. A careful comparison of Dan. 7:21, 25, with Dan.
    8:10-12, R. V., and 2 Thess. 2:3, 4, will amply justify this
    conclusion.

    “The Romans could not forget—never did forget—that they had once
    been masters and rulers of the world. Even after they had become
    wholly unfit to rule themselves, let alone the ruling of others,
    they still retained the temper and used the language of
    masters.... In the absence of an emperor in the West the popes
    rapidly gained influence and power, and soon built up an
    ecclesiastical empire that in some respects took the place of the
    old empire and carried on its civilizing work.”—_Myers’s
    __“__Rome; Its Rise and Fall,__”__ Boston, 1900, pages 398, 399,
    442, 443._

    The host and the stars of Dan. 8:10 are the same as the saints of
    the Most High of Dan. 7:25; and the Prince of the host of Dan.
    8:11 is the Prince of princes, or Christ. When the same being
    appeared to Joshua (Joshua 5:13-15, margin), He applies the same
    expression to Himself.

    In Dan. 8:11-13, in the Revised Version, the words “burnt
    offering” have been supplied by the translators after the word
    “continual,” but this rendering seems to place too restricted a
    meaning upon the word “continual.” The fact that no word is
    connected with “continual” in the original text, although in the
    typical service of the sanctuary it is used with “burnt offering”
    (Ex. 29:42), with “incense” (Ex. 30:8, here rendered perpetual),
    and with “showbread” (Num. 4:7), indicates that that which is
    continual represents the _continual service or mediation of Christ
    in the heavenly sanctuary_, in which all that was continual in the
    typical service found its antitype and fulfilment. See Heb. 6:19,
    20; 7:1-3, 14-16, 23-25. The action which made the Pope the vicar
    of God and the high priest of the apostasy, really took away from
    Christ, as far as human intent and power were concerned, his place
    and work as the only mediator between God and man (1 Tim. 2:5),
    and this took away from Him, as far as man could take it away, the
    continual mediation, according to the prediction in this prophecy.

    The prophecies of Daniel are cumulative and widening in their
    view, each carrying matters farther than the preceding one, and
    bringing out more explicitly and more in detail important features
    down the stream of time. In Daniel 2, under the fourth universal
    kingdom, the Papacy is not represented under any direct symbol or
    figure at all,—simply Rome in its united and divided state; in
    Daniel 7 Rome is symbolized by the “little horn” coming up among
    the ten horns representing the divided state of Rome; while in
    Daniel 8 the only figure used to represent the fourth world power
    is the “little horn” which waxed “exceeding great.”

    In each of these last two chapters the little horn is introduced
    to tell especially of the workings of the same terrible power—Rome
    papal. Both chapters deal with the same great apostasy. In the
    seventh chapter, the little horn takes away _the law of God_. In
    the eighth chapter, it takes away _the gospel_. Had it taken away
    only the law, this would have vitiated the gospel; for, with the
    law of God gone, even the _true_ gospel could not save, because
    the law is needed to convict and give a knowledge of sin. And had
    the Papacy taken away only the gospel, and left the law, salvation
    through such a system would still have been impossible, for there
    is no salvation for sinners through even the law of God itself
    apart from Christ and the gospel. But to make apostasy doubly
    sure, this power changes, vitiates, and takes away both the _law_
    and the _gospel._

    In changing the Sabbath, the Papacy struck directly at the very
    heart and seal of the law of God, just as in substituting its own
    mediatorial system for that of Christ’s it struck directly at the
    heavenly sanctuary and its service, which, in his epistle to the
    Hebrews, Paul shows to be the very heart and essence of the
    gospel.


20. What question was asked in the hearing of the prophet?

“Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain
saint which spake, _How long shall be the vision concerning the daily
sacrifice_, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the
sanctuary and the host to be trodden underfoot?” Dan. 8:13.

21. What answer was addressed to Daniel?

“And he said unto me, _Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then
shall the sanctuary be cleansed_.” Verse 14.


    NOTE.—In verse 13, R. V., the vision is clearly defined. It is
    “the vision concerning the continual burnt offering [or continual
    mediation], and the transgression that maketh desolate,” which
    results in giving both the sanctuary and the people of God to be
    trodden underfoot. The time when the vision was to have its
    special application is stated in verse 17 to be “at the time of
    the end,” or in the last days. This is additional proof that this
    prophecy was to find its complete fulfilment in papal Rome only,
    as pagan Rome passed away many centuries ago. The sanctuary and
    the twenty-three-hundred-day period here referred to are
    considered at length in succeeding readings. See pages 230, 238.


22. What prophetic period begins at the time when the continual mediation
of Christ was taken away by the Papacy?

“And from the time that the continual burnt offering shall be taken away,
and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be _a
thousand two hundred and ninety days_.” Dan. 12:11, R. V.


    NOTES.—Inasmuch as the taking away of the continual mediation of
    Christ is made the beginning of a prophetic period, there must be
    some definite act at some definite time which, in form and intent,
    takes from Christ His priestly work in the heavenly sanctuary.
    This act was the official decree of an ecclesiastical council held
    at Rome in 503 A.D., by which it was declared “that the Pope was
    judge as God’s vicar, and could himself be judged by no one.” See
    Hardouin’s “Councils,” Vol. II, page 983; Labbe and Cossart’s
    “Councils,” Vol. IV, col. 1364; and Bower’s “History of the Popes”
    (three-volume edition), Vol. I, pages 304, 305. The work of
    Clovis, king of the Franks, who earned for himself the title of
    “the eldest son of the church” by his campaigns to subdue the
    kingdoms hostile to the Papacy, contributed much toward putting
    into practical effect this claim of the Papacy, which finally
    resulted in establishing the Pope as the head of the Roman
    priesthood which has usurped the priestly work of Christ, and has
    established another system of mediation in its place. This work of
    Clovis came to its climax in the period 503-508, and this period
    therefore becomes the natural one from which to date the 1290
    years of Dan. 12:11, which would accordingly end in the period
    1793-98, at the same time as the 1260 years of Dan. 7:25. See
    notes on page 223.

    “With Rome would have fallen her bishop, had he not, as if by
    anticipation of the crisis, reserved till this hour the
    master-stroke of his policy. He now boldly cast himself upon an
    element of much greater strength than that of which the political
    convulsions of the time had deprived him; namely, that the bishop
    of Rome is the successor of Peter, the prince of the apostles,
    and, in virtue of being so, is Christ’s vicar on earth. In making
    this claim, the Roman pontiffs vaulted at once over the throne of
    kings to the seat of gods: Rome became once more the mistress of
    the world, and her popes the rulers of the earth.”—_“__The
    Papacy__”__ by J. A. Wylie, page 34._


23. What assurance was given to Daniel concerning the period of time
mentioned in verse 14?

“And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told _is true_;
wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it shall be for many days.” Dan.
8:26.


    NOTES.—By the expression “the vision of the evening and the
    morning” reference is made to the vision concerning the
    twenty-three hundred days, as may be seen by referring to the
    marginal readings of Dan. 8:14.

    The interpretation of the vision of chapter 8 closes without
    making any explanation of the long period of time which was
    mentioned to Daniel in the answer to the question, “How long shall
    be the vision?” This important feature was left to be interpreted
    later. See next reading.



A Great Prophetic Period. (The 2300 Days of Daniel 8.) Or The Time Of
Restoration And Of Judgment


                             [Illustration.]

  Artaxerxes Restoring The Vessels Of The Temple. "Unto two thousand and
  three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed." Dan. 8:14.


1. Immediately after the vision of Daniel 8, what did Daniel learn from
his study of the prophecy of Jeremiah?

“In the first year of Darius ... _I Daniel understood by books the number
of the years, whereof the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah the prophet,
that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem_.”
Dan. 9:1, 2.


    NOTE.—The first deportation to Babylon, when Daniel and his
    companions were carried captive, was in B.C. 606, and the seventy
    years of Jeremiah’s prophecy would therefore expire in B.C. 536.
    The first year of Darius was B.C. 538, and the restoration period
    was therefore only two years distant from that time.


2. What did this nearness of the time of restoration from captivity lead
Daniel to do?

“And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications,
with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes.” Verse 3.

3. What urgent petition of the prophet connects this prayer with the
vision of the taking away of the continual mediation and the desolation of
the sanctuary recorded in Daniel 8?

“Now therefore, O our God, hear the prayer of Thy servant, and his
supplications, and _cause Thy face to shine upon Thy sanctuary that is
desolate_, for the Lord’s sake.” Dan. 9:17.

4. At the conclusion of Daniel’s prayer, what assurance did Gabriel give
him?

“And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, _O Daniel, I am now
come forth to give thee skill and understanding_.” Verse 22.

5. What previous instruction connected with the vision of Daniel 8 was
thus being more fully carried out?

“And I heard a man’s voice between the banks of Ulai, which called, and
said, _Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision_.” Dan. 8:16.

6. Why was further instruction concerning this vision necessary?

“And _I Daniel fainted, and was sick certain days_; afterward I rose up,
and did the king’s business; and _I was astonished at the vision, but none
understood it_.” Verse 27.

7. To what did Gabriel now direct Daniel’s attention?

“At the beginning of thy supplications the commandment came forth, and I
am come to show thee: for thou art greatly beloved: therefore _understand
the matter_, and _consider the vision_.” Dan. 9:23.


    NOTES.—There is abundant evidence that the instruction in the
    ninth chapter of Daniel supplements and interprets the vision of
    the eighth chapter. Note the following facts:—

    (1) Daniel did not understand the vision concerning the treading
    down of his people and the sanctuary, and therefore searched the
    prophecies anew concerning the period of captivity.

    (2) He evidently made a connection between the period of seventy
    years mentioned by Jeremiah and the twenty-three hundred days of
    the vision, and he at once began to pray earnestly for the
    restoration of the city and the sanctuary.

    (3) The angel Gabriel, who appeared to him at the first, and
    interpreted all the vision with the exception of the twenty-three
    hundred days, now appears, and again directs his attention to the
    vision.

    (4) The events of the vision begin with the kingdom of the Medes
    and Persians, the era of the restoration of the Jews to their own
    land. In the absence of any instruction to the contrary, this
    would be the natural time in which to locate the beginning of the
    period of twenty-three hundred days; and this is the very time
    given for the beginning of the seventy weeks, which are clearly a
    part of the twenty-three hundred days, and thus determine the time
    of their commencement.

    (5) The seventy weeks, or four hundred and ninety years, extend
    from the restoration of literal Jerusalem and the literal temple
    to the preaching of the gospel to all the world. See Acts
    15:14-17. This special preaching of the gospel was completed in
    one generation, and was followed by the destruction of Jerusalem.

    (6) The twenty-three hundred prophetic days, or twenty-three
    hundred literal years, begin at the same time as the four hundred
    and ninety years, or seventy weeks, or in B.C. 457, when the
    commandment to restore and build Jerusalem went forth; and extend
    from the restoration of literal Jerusalem and the typical temple
    service after the captivity in ancient Babylon, in the time of the
    Medes and Persians, to 1844 A.D., the time for the restoration of
    spiritual Jerusalem and of the knowledge of the mediation of
    Christ in the heavenly sanctuary, taken away by the little horn,
    after the captivity in modern Babylon. This work of restoration is
    to be accomplished in one generation by preaching the gospel to
    all the world (Rev. 14:6-12), and this will be followed by the
    destruction of the world, or fall of all nations, of which the
    destruction of Jerusalem was a type.

                             [Illustration.]

                              The 2300 Days


    The heavy line represents the full 2300 year-day period, the
    longest prophetic period in the Bible. Beginning in B.C. 457 when
    the decree was given to restore and build Jerusalem (Ezra 7:11-26;
    Dan. 9:25), seven weeks (49 years) are measured off to indicate
    the time occupied in this work of restoration. These, however, are
    a part of the sixty-nine weeks (483 years) that were to reach to
    Messiah, the Anointed One. Christ was anointed in 27 A.D., at His
    baptism. Matt. 3:13-17; Acts 10:38. In the midst of the seventieth
    week (31 A.D.), Christ was crucified, or “cut off,” which marked
    the time when the sacrifices and oblations of the earthly
    sanctuary were to cease. Dan. 9:26, 27. The remaining three and
    one-half years of this week reach to 34 A.D., or to the stoning of
    Stephen, and the great persecution of the church at Jerusalem
    which followed. Acts 7:59; 8:1. This marked the close of the
    seventy weeks, or 490 years, allotted to the Jewish people.

    But the seventy weeks are a part of the 2300 days; and as they
    (the seventy weeks) reach to 34 A.D., the remaining 1810 years of
    the 2300-day period must reach to 1844, when the work of judgment,
    or cleansing of the heavenly sanctuary, was to begin. Rev. 14:6,
    7. Then special light began to shine upon the whole sanctuary
    subject, and Christ’s mediatorial or priestly work in it.

    Four great events, therefore, are located by this great prophetic
    period,—the first advent, the crucifixion, the rejection of the
    Jewish people as a nation, and the beginning of the work of final
    judgment.


8. What portion of the 2300 days (years) mentioned in the vision, was
allotted to the Jews?

“_Seventy weeks_ are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city.”
Verse 24, first clause.


    NOTES.—“As both the 2300 years of chapter 8 and the ‘seventy
    weeks’ of chapter 9 start from the Persian period of Jewish
    history, in other words, as they both date from the _restoration
    era_ which followed the Babylonian captivity, their
    starting-points must be either identical or closely related
    chronologically.”—_“__Light for the Last Days__”__ by H. Grattan
    Guinness, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1893, page 183._

    “There is plainly a close correspondence between the two visions
    of Daniel 8 and Daniel 9. The seventy weeks are said to be _cut
    off_ for certain distinct objects; and this implies a longer
    period from which they are separated, either the course of time in
    general, or some period distinctly revealed. Now the previous date
    (the 2300 days) includes two events,—the restoration of the
    sacrifice, and the desolation. The first of these is identical in
    character with the seventy weeks, which are a period of the
    restored polity of Jerusalem; and hence the most natural of the
    cutting off is that which refers it to the whole period of the
    former vision.”—_“__First Elements of Sacred Prophecy__”__ by T.
    R. Birks, London, 1843, pages 359, 360._


9. What was to be accomplished at the close of the seventy weeks?

“To finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make
reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness,
and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the Most Holy.” Same
verse, latter part.


    NOTE.—For “the Most Holy,” the Douay version reads, “the Saint of
    saints.”


10. What portion of this period was to reach to Christ, the Messiah, or
Anointed One?

“Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the
commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto Messiah the Prince
shall be _seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks_.” Verse 25, first
part.


    NOTE.—The word Messiah means anointed, and Jesus was anointed with
    the Holy Spirit (Acts 10:38) at His baptism in 27 A.D. Matt. 3:16.


11. At the end of this time, what was to be done to Messiah?

“And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be _cut off_.” Verse 26,
first part.

                             [Illustration.]

Rebuilding Of Jerusalem. "And they builded, and finished it, according to
            the commandment of the God of Israel." Ezra 6:14.


12. How was the destruction of Jerusalem and the sanctuary by the Romans
then foretold?

“And the people of the prince that shall come shall _destroy the city and
the sanctuary_; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the
end of the war desolations are determined.” Same verse, last part.

13. What was Messiah to do during the seventieth week?

“And He shall _confirm the covenant_ with many for one week.” Verse 27,
first clause. See Matt. 26:26-28.

14. What was He to take away in the midst of this week?

“And in the midst of the week He shall cause the _sacrifice and the
oblation to cease_.” Same verse, next clause.


    NOTE.—Ancient Babylon took away the typical service by the
    destruction of the temple at the capture of Jerusalem. This
    service was restored at the rebuilding of Jerusalem, but was
    perverted into mere formalism by the Jews, and was taken away by
    Christ at the first advent, when He blotted out the handwriting of
    ordinances, and “took it out of the way, nailing it to His cross.”
    Col. 2:14. He then became “a minister of the sanctuary, and of the
    true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man.” Heb. 8:2.
    Thus He established the service in the heavenly sanctuary. The
    little horn, the Papacy, as far as was within its power, took away
    from the people the mediation of Christ in the heavenly sanctuary,
    and substituted for it the Roman priesthood, with the Pope as
    Pontifex Maximus, or high priest. Power over this truth of the
    gospel and over the people of God was allowed to the Papacy
    because of transgression (Dan. 8:12, R. V.), just as the people of
    Jerusalem were given into the hand of the king of ancient Babylon
    for the same reason. 1 Chron. 9:1. Thus has the Papacy “cast down
    the truth to the ground,” and has trodden underfoot the sanctuary
    and the people of God.


15. How are the judgments upon Jerusalem again foretold?

“And for the overspreading of abominations He shall make it desolate, even
until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the
desolate.” Remainder of verse 27.


    NOTE.—Seventy weeks would be four hundred and ninety days; and as
    a day in prophecy represents a year (Num. 14:34; Eze. 4:6), this
    period would be four hundred and ninety years. The commandment to
    restore and build Jerusalem was brought to its completion by
    Artaxerxes Longimanus in the seventh year of his reign (Ezra 6:14;
    7:7, 8), which, as already noted, was B.C. 457. From this date the
    sixty-nine weeks, or four hundred and eighty-three years, would
    extend to the baptism of Christ in 27 A.D., and the whole period
    to 34 A.D., when the martyrdom of Stephen occurred, and the gospel
    began to be preached to the Gentiles. Before the end of that
    generation Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans, 70 A.D. The
    twenty-three hundred years would extend from B.C. 457 to 1844
    A.D., when began the great second advent movement, which calls
    upon all to come out of modern Babylon, and to prepare for the
    next great event, the coming of Christ and the destruction of the
    world by fire.


16. What question was asked in the vision of Daniel 8?

“Then I heard a holy one speaking; and another holy one said unto that
certain one which spake, _How long shall be the vision concerning the
continual burnt offering, and the transgression that maketh desolate, to
give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden underfoot_?” Dan. 8:13.


    NOTES.—Literal Jerusalem was given into the hands of ancient
    Babylon, and the typical service in the earthly sanctuary was thus
    taken away. Dan. 1:1, 2. This was prophetic of the experience of
    spiritual Jerusalem in modern Babylon, foretold in the prophecies
    of Daniel and John, and of the taking away of the mediation of
    Christ in the heavenly sanctuary. Dan. 7:25; 8:13. These two
    visions expose the work of modern Babylon, the Papacy, and
    determine the limit of its permitted power over the people of God,
    and of its perversion of the gospel of Christ in substituting
    another mediatorial system for the work of Christ in the heavenly
    sanctuary.

    The general theme upon which the book of Daniel treats is Babylon,
    both ancient and modern. Chapters 1-6, inclusive, present certain
    historical facts leading up to the fall of ancient Babylon, and an
    attempt to destroy the prophet Daniel himself and the final
    attempt to destroy the people of God,—a brief historical outline,
    which is in itself a prophecy of modern Babylon. Chapters 7-12,
    inclusive, contain prophecies relating especially to modern
    Babylon, which supplement the historical prophecy of the previous
    chapters, and which enable us to draw a very exact and striking
    parallel between ancient and modern Babylon. A brief outline of
    this parallel may be stated thus:—

    (1) In the religion of ancient Babylon, image-worship found a
    prominent place. The same is true of modern Babylon.

    (2) Ancient Babylon affirmed that the gods (or God) dwelt not in
    the flesh. By the dogma of the immaculate conception of the Virgin
    Mary (that is, that she herself was born without the taint of
    original sin), modern Babylon teaches that God, in the person of
    His Son, did not take the same flesh with us; that is, sinful
    flesh.

    (3) Ancient Babylon persecuted those who refused to accept her
    dogmas and worship according to her laws. Modern Babylon has done
    the same.

    (4) The king of ancient Babylon set himself above God, and
    attempted to make his kingdom an everlasting kingdom. So does
    modern Babylon.

    (5) Ancient Babylon rejected the true gospel as taught to
    Nebuchadnezzar, and the fall of Babylon came in consequence.
    Modern Babylon has done the same in her rejection of the true
    gospel as brought to her in the Reformation, and her fall is
    inevitable and impending.

    (6) The fall of ancient Babylon came just at the time when it was
    giving expression to its contempt of all its enemies, and its
    confidence in its own permanence. This experience will be repeated
    in the history of modern Babylon.


17. What prophetic period, therefore, extends to the deliverance of God’s
people from the captivity in modern Babylon, and the restoration to them
of the mediation of Christ?

“And he said unto me, _Unto two thousand and three hundred days_; then
shall the sanctuary be cleansed.” Verse 14.


    NOTE.—The earthly sanctuary was a type of the heavenly sanctuary
    (Heb. 9:23, 24; Lev. 16:29, 30, 33); the cleansing of the earthly
    sanctuary was typical of the cleansing in the heavenly sanctuary;
    and this cleansing of the sanctuary accomplished on the great day
    of atonement is the closing work of Christ in His mediation for
    sin. And the commencement of the cleansing of the heavenly
    sanctuary marks the beginning of a new era in the experience of
    the people of God on earth; namely, the deliverance from the power
    of modern Babylon, the restoration to them of the knowledge of the
    mediation of Christ for them in the heavenly sanctuary, and a
    cleansing from sin in preparation for the second advent of Christ.
    The cleansing of the heavenly sanctuary involves the investigative
    judgment, which will be followed by the plagues, and Christ’s
    coming. This period, therefore, determines the time of restoration
    and of judgment.


18. What is said of those who live to see the deliverance from modern
Babylon, and the restoration of the true gospel?

“Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and
five and thirty days.” Dan. 12:12.


    NOTE.—The 1335 days (years) of Dan. 12:12 are evidently a
    continuation of the 1290 days (years) of the previous verse, which
    commence with the taking away of the mediation of Christ, in the
    period 503-508 A.D. See under question 22 in reading on “The Vicar
    of Christ,” page 229. The 1335 days, or years, would therefore
    extend to the period 1838-43, the time of the preaching of the
    judgment-hour, in preparation for the cleansing of the sanctuary,
    and the accompanying work at the end of the 2300 days, or years,
    of Dan. 8:14. At that time special blessings were to come upon
    those who were delivered from the errors and bondage of Rome, and
    had their minds directed anew to the mediation of Christ as the
    great High Priest in the heavenly sanctuary.

    GENERAL NOTE ON THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL.—The second chapter of
    Daniel presents in brief outline the divine program of history
    leading up to the establishment of the everlasting kingdom of God.
    The seventh chapter of Daniel presents somewhat more in detail the
    history of those earthly kingdoms which were to precede the
    establishment of the kingdom of God, the objective point of the
    prophecy being the little horn and its effort to change the laws
    and ordinances of God, and to destroy the subjects of the heavenly
    kingdom. The period allotted to the supremacy of this power, the
    Papacy (the 1260 years), is also indicated. The prophecy of the
    eighth chapter of Daniel covers the period from the restoration
    era in the time of the Persian kings and the establishment of the
    people of God in their own land, to the restoration era just
    preceding the second advent of Christ and the setting up of His
    everlasting kingdom. In this chapter the leading theme is the
    effort of the Papacy to substitute its own mediatorial system for
    the mediatorial work of Christ, and the announcement of a
    prophetic period (the 2300 years), at the end of which the
    counterfeit system introduced by the Papacy was to be fully
    exposed. The remaining chapters of Daniel supplement the
    prophecies of the second, seventh, and eighth chapters, and show
    that at the end of the first portion of the 2300-year period (the
    70 weeks, or 490 years) Messiah was to appear and be cut off,
    following which would come the destruction of Jerusalem. In the
    closing chapter two new periods are introduced (the 1290 years and
    the 1335 years), at the end of which, as with the 2300 years, was
    to come the movement preparatory to the setting up of God’s
    everlasting kingdom in the earth, in harmony with the prophecies
    of the second and seventh chapters.



The Atonement In Type And Antitype


                             [Illustration.]

 The Tabernacle In The Wilderness. "Which was a figure for the time then
                           present." Heb. 9:9.


1. What did God, through Moses, command Israel to make?

“And let them make Me _a sanctuary_; that I may dwell among them.” Ex.
25:8.

2. What was offered in this sanctuary?

“In which were offered _both gifts and sacrifices_.” Heb. 9:9.

3. Besides the court, how many parts had this sanctuary?

“And the veil shall divide unto you between the _holy place_ and the _most
holy_.” Ex. 26:33.

4. What was in the first apartment, or holy place?

“For there was a tabernacle made; the first, wherein was the
_candlestick_, and the _table_, and the _showbread_; which is called the
sanctuary.” Heb. 9:2. “And he put _the golden altar_ in the tent of the
congregation before the veil.” Ex. 40:26. See also Ex. 30:1-6.

5. What was contained in the second apartment?

“And after the second veil, the tabernacle which is called the holiest of
all; which had _the golden censer, and the ark of the covenant_ overlaid
round about with gold, wherein was ... _the tables of the covenant_” Heb.
9:3, 4. See also Ex. 40:20, 21.

6. By what name was the cover of the ark known?

“And thou shalt put _the mercy-seat_ above upon the ark; and in the ark
thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee.” Ex. 25:21.

7. Where was God to meet with Israel?

“And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee _from above
the mercy-seat, from between the two cherubim which are upon the ark of
the testimony_.” Verse 22.

8. What was in the ark, under the mercy-seat?

“And He wrote on _the tables_, according to the first writing, _the ten
commandments_.... And I turned myself and came down from the mount, and
_put the tables in the ark_ which I had made.” Deut. 10:4, 5.

9. When did the priest minister in the first apartment of the sanctuary?

“Now these things having been thus prepared, the priests go in
_continually_ into the first tabernacle, accomplishing the services.” Heb.
9:6, R. V.

10. Who alone went into the second apartment, how often, and for what
purpose?

“But into the second went _the high priest alone once every year, not
without blood, which he offered for himself, and for the errors of the
people_.” Verse 7.

11. What were sinners desiring pardon instructed to do?

“And if any one of the common people sin through ignorance, while he doeth
somewhat against any of the commandments of the Lord ... then he shall
bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a female without blemish, for his
sin which he hath sinned. And _he shall lay his hand upon the head of the
sin-offering, and slay the sin-offering in the place of the burnt
offering_.” Lev. 4:27-29.


    NOTE.—According to this, if a man sinned in Israel, he violated
    one of the ten commandments that were in the ark under the
    mercy-seat. These commandments are the foundation of God’s
    government. To violate them is to commit sin, and so become
    subject to death. 1 John 3:4; Rom. 6:23. But there was a
    mercy-seat reared above these holy and just commandments. In the
    dispensation of His mercy, God grants the sinner the privilege of
    confessing his sins, and bringing a substitute to meet the demands
    of the law, and thus of obtaining mercy.


12. What was done with the blood of the offering?

“And the priest shall take of the blood thereof with his finger, and put
it upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and _shall pour out all
the blood thereof at the bottom of the altar_.” Verse 30.


    NOTE.—After a person discovered his sin by the law which demanded
    the death of the transgressor, he first brought his offering, then
    he confessed his sin while laying his hands on the head of the
    victim, thus, in figure, transferring his sin to the victim; the
    victim was next slain in the court, or outer part of the
    sanctuary, and its blood put on the horns of the altar and poured
    at the foot of the altar. In this way sins were pardoned, and, in
    the typical service, transferred to the sanctuary.


13. After the accumulation of the sins of the year in this way, what
service took place on the tenth day of the seventh month of each year?

“And this shall be a statute forever unto you: that in the seventh month,
on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, ... for _on
that day shall the priest make an atonement for you, to cleanse you, that
ye may be clean from all your sins before the Lord_.” Lev. 16:29, 30.

14. How was the sanctuary itself to be cleansed, and how were the sins of
the people to be finally disposed of?

“And he [the high priest] shall take of the congregation of the children
of Israel two kids of the goats for a sin-offering.... And he shall take
the two goats, and present them before the Lord at the door of the
tabernacle of the congregation. And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two
goats, one lot _for the Lord_, and the other lot _for the scapegoat_.”
Verses 5-8.


    NOTE.—The Hebrew word for scapegoat is Azazel. See margin of verse
    8. It is used as a proper name, and, according to the opinion of
    the most ancient Hebrews and Christians, refers to Satan, or the
    angel who revolted and persisted in rebellion and sin.


15. What was done with the blood of the goat upon which the Lord’s lot
fell?

“Then shall he kill the goat of the sin-offering, that is for the people,
and bring his blood within the veil, ... _and sprinkle it upon the
mercy-seat_, and before the mercy-seat.” Verse 15.

16. Why was it necessary to make this atonement?

“And he shall make an atonement for the holy place, _because of the
uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions
in all their sins_: and so shall he do for the tabernacle of the
congregation, that remaineth among them in the midst of their
uncleanness.” Verse 16.


    NOTE.—Sins were conveyed into the sanctuary during the year by the
    blood of the personal sin-offerings offered daily at the door of
    the tabernacle. Here they remained until the day of atonement,
    when the high priest went into the most holy place with the blood
    of the goat on which the Lord’s lot fell; and, bearing the
    accumulated sins of the year in before the mercy-seat, he there,
    in type, atoned for them, and so cleansed the sanctuary.


17. After having made atonement for the people in the most holy place,
what did the high priest next do?

“And when he hath made an end of reconciling the holy place, and the
tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar, he shall bring the live
goat: and Aaron shall _lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat,
and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all
their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the head of the
goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a fit man into the
wilderness_.” Verses 20, 21.


    NOTE.—The offering of the Lord’s goat cleansed the sanctuary. By
    this offering the sins of the people, transferred there during the
    year, were, in type, atoned for; but they were not by this
    offering finally disposed of, or destroyed. The scapegoat,
    symbolizing Satan, the great tempter and originator of sin, was
    brought to the sanctuary, and upon his head were placed all these
    sins which Satan had tempted God’s people to commit.


18. What final disposition was made of the sins of the people?

“And _the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land not
inhabited_: and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness.” Verse 22.

                             [Illustration.]

The Scapegoat. "And Aaron shall ... confess over him all the iniquities of
                   the children of Israel." Lev. 16:21.


19. What was this earthly sanctuary and its round of service?

“Which was _a figure_ for the time then present.” Heb. 9:9.

20. Of what sanctuary, or tabernacle, is Christ the minister?

“A minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, _which the Lord
pitched, and not man_.” Heb. 8:2.

21. Of what was the blood of all the sacrifices of the former dispensation
only a type?

“Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but _by His own blood_ He
entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption
for us.” Heb. 9:12. See Eph. 5:2.


    NOTE.—Through the sacrifices and offerings brought to the altar of
    the earthly sanctuary, the penitent believer was to lay hold of
    the merits of Christ, the Saviour to come. In this way, and in
    this way only, was there any virtue connected with them.


22. At the death of Christ, what miraculous occurrence signified that the
priestly work and services of the earthly sanctuary were finished?

“Jesus, when He had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost.
And, behold, _the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the
bottom_.” Matt. 27:50, 51.


    NOTES.—Type had met antitype; the shadow had reached the
    substance. Christ, the great sacrifice, had been slain, and was
    about to enter upon His final work as our great high priest in the
    sanctuary in heaven. The priestly work in the earthly sanctuary
    was typical of the work of Christ in the heavenly sanctuary. In
    the earthly, the atonement was performed on the last day of the
    ceremonial year. All who did not then have their sins atoned for
    were “cut off,” and the camp was cleansed from sin. The atonement
    day was virtually a day of judgment for Israel, and the people
    whose sins had been atoned for were free from sin, and could enter
    upon the services of the new year clean in the sight of God. This
    work was kept up year after year. In the heavenly sanctuary, the
    sacrifice is offered but once; and but one atonement, or cleansing
    of the heavenly sanctuary, can be made, which must take place at
    the time assigned of God for it. And when the great atonement, or
    cleansing, of the heavenly sanctuary has been made, God’s people
    will be forever free from sin, and the fate of all will be forever
    sealed. See Rev. 22:11. This, as in the type, will be a day of
    judgment.

    The round of service in the earthly sanctuary was God’s service.
    It had to do with the sins of the people; not that the blood of
    the sacrifices offered there could in itself take away their sins,
    for it is expressly said that it could not. Heb. 10:4. It could,
    however, show their _faith_ in the efficacy of _Christ’s blood_
    yet to be spilled, and to which the sanctuary work was intended
    constantly to direct their minds. The work there was a type, or
    shadow, of Christ’s atoning work, and, as such, carries with it a
    significance that cannot be overestimated. Upon a correct
    understanding of the type depends a correct understanding of the
    antitype. The entire sanctuary service was an object-lesson of
    most important and vital gospel truth,—that of man’s salvation and
    the atonement of sin.


23. What relation does the earthly sanctuary sustain to the heavenly?

“Who serve unto the _example_ and _shadow_ of heavenly things, as Moses
was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See,
saith He, that thou make all things according to the _pattern_ showed to
thee in the mount.” Heb. 8:5.

24. By what comparison is it shown that the heavenly sanctuary will be
cleansed?

“It was therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens
should be purified with these; _but the heavenly things themselves with
better sacrifices than these_.” Heb. 9:23.

25. When Christ has finished His priestly mediatorial work in the heavenly
sanctuary, what decree will go forth?

“He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let
him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still:
and he that is holy, let him be holy still.” Rev. 22:11.

26. What event is directly connected with the blotting out of sin and the
final refreshing from God’s presence?

“Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out,
when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord; and
_He shall send Jesus Christ_, which before was preached unto you: whom the
heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which
God hath spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world
began.” Acts 3:19-21.

27. According to the view of the judgment presented to Daniel, what is to
be given to Christ while still before the Father?

“I saw ... and, behold, one like the Son of man came ... to the Ancient of
days, and they brought Him near before Him. And there was given Him
_dominion_, and _glory_, and _a kingdom_, that all people, nations, and
languages, should serve Him.” Dan. 7:13, 14.

28. What will occur when the Lord descends from heaven?

“For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the
voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and _the dead in Christ
shall rise first: then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up
together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air_: and so
shall we ever be with the Lord.” 1 Thess. 4:16, 17.

29. What statement immediately following the announcement mentioned in
Rev. 22:11, indicates that a judgment work had been in progress before
Christ comes?

“And, behold, I come quickly; and _My reward is with Me, to give every man
according as his work shall be_.” Rev. 22:12.


    NOTE.—The typical sanctuary service is fully met in the work of
    Christ. As the atonement day of the former dispensation was really
    a day of judgment, so the atonement work of Christ will include
    the investigation of the cases of His people prior to His coming
    the second time to receive them unto Himself.


30. Is there a specified time for the cleansing of the heavenly sanctuary?

“And he said unto me, _Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then
shall the sanctuary be cleansed_.” Dan. 8:14.

31. How may one know that this does not refer to the earthly sanctuary?

“He said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for _at the time of the end
shall be the vision_.” Verse 17.


    NOTE.—The prophetic period of 2300 days (years) extends to 1844
    A.D., while the divinely appointed services of the earthly
    sanctuary ceased at the cross (Dan. 9:27; Matt. 27:50, 51), and
    the sanctuary itself was destroyed in 70 A.D., when Titus captured
    Jerusalem. For explanation of the period here mentioned, see the
    preceding reading.



The Judgment


                             [Illustration.]

The Investigative Judgment. "The books were opened: ... and the dead were
 judged out of those things which were written in the books." Rev. 20:12.


1. What assurance have we that there will be a judgment?

“God ... hath appointed a day, in the which He will judge the world.” Acts
17:30, 31.

2. Was the judgment still future in Paul’s day?

“As he reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and _judgment to come_,
Felix trembled.” Acts 24:25.

3. How many must meet the test of the judgment?

“I said in mine heart, God shall judge _the righteous and the wicked_.”
Eccl. 3:17 “_For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ_;
that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that
he hath done, whether it be good or bad.” 2 Cor. 5:10.

4. What reason did Solomon give for urging all to fear God and keep His
commandments?

“_For God shall bring every work into judgment_, with every secret thing,
whether it be good, or whether it be evil.” Eccl. 12:14.

5. What view of the judgment scene was given Daniel?

“I beheld till the thrones were cast down [placed, R. V.], and the Ancient
of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of His head
like the pure wool: His throne was like the fiery flame, and His wheels as
burning fire. A fiery stream issued and came forth from before Him:
thousand thousands ministered unto Him, and ten thousand times ten
thousand stood before Him: the judgment was set, and the books were
opened.” Dan. 7:9, 10.

6. Out of what will all be judged?

“And _the books were opened_: and another book was opened, which is the
book of life: and _the dead were judged out of those things which were
written in the books_, according to their works.” Rev. 20:12.

7. For whom has a book of remembrance been written?

“Then they that feared the Lord spake often one to another: and the Lord
harkened, and heard it, and a book of remembrance was written before Him
_for them that feared the Lord, and that thought upon His name_.” Mal.
3:16. See Rev. 20:12.

8. Who opens the judgment and presides over it?

“I beheld till the thrones were cast down [placed], and _the Ancient of
days did sit_.” Dan. 7:9.

9. Who minister to God, and assist in the judgment?

“Thousand thousands [of angels] ministered unto Him, and ten thousand
times ten thousand stood before Him.” Verse 10. See Rev. 5:11.

10. Who is brought before the Father at this time?

“I saw in the night-visions, and, behold, _one like the Son of man_ came
with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they
brought Him near before Him.” Dan. 7:13.

11. What does Christ as the advocate of His people confess before the
Father and His angels?

“He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment; and I
will not blot out his name out of the book of life, but _I will confess
his name before My Father, and before His angels_.” Rev. 3:5. See Matt.
10:32, 33; Mark 8:38.


    NOTE.—During this judgment scene, both the righteous and the
    wicked dead are still in their graves. The record of each one’s
    life, however, is in the books of heaven, and by that record their
    characters and deeds are well known. Christ is there to appear in
    behalf of those who have chosen Him as their advocate. 1 John 2:1.
    He presents His blood, as He appeals for their sins to be blotted
    from the books of record. As the place of judgment is in heaven,
    where God’s throne is, and as Christ is present in person, it
    follows that the work of judgment is also in heaven. All are
    judged by the record of their lives, and thus answer for the deeds
    done in the body. This work will not only decide forever the cases
    of the dead, but will also close the probation of all who are
    living, after which Christ will come to take to Himself those who
    have been found loyal to Him.


12. After the subjects of the kingdom have been determined by the
investigative judgment, what is given to Christ?

“And there was given Him _dominion_, and _glory_, and _a kingdom_, that
all people, nations, and languages, should serve Him.” Dan. 7:14.

13. When He comes the second time, what title will He bear?

“And He hath on His vesture and on His thigh a name written, _King of
kings_, and _Lord of lords_.” Rev. 19:16.

14. What will He then do for each one?

“For the Son of man shall come in the glory of His Father with His angels;
and _then He shall reward every man according to his works_.” Matt. 16:27.
See also Rev. 22:12.

15. Where will Christ then take His people?

“_In My Father’s house are many mansions_: if it were not so, I would have
told you. I go to prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place
for you, _I will come again, and receive you unto Myself; that where I am,
there ye may be also_.” John 14:2, 3.

16. How many of the dead will be raised?

“For the hour is coming, in the which _all that are in the graves_ shall
hear His voice, and shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the
resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection
of damnation.” John 5:28, 29. See also Acts 24:15.

17. What time intervenes between the two resurrections?

“And I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus,
and for the word of God, and which had not worshiped the beast, neither
his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their
hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. _But the
rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished._”
Rev. 20:4, 5.

18. What work did Daniel see finally assigned to the saints?

“I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed
against them; until the Ancient of days came, and _judgment was given to
the saints of the Most High_; and the time came that the saints possessed
the kingdom.” Dan. 7:21, 22.

19. How long will the saints engage in this work of judgment?

“And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and _judgment was given unto
them: ...and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years_.” Rev.
20:4.

                             [Illustration.]

  Lot Fleeing From Sodom. "Turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah into
                           ashes." 2 Peter 2:6.


20. Who will thus be judged by the saints?

“Do ye not know that _the saints shall judge the world_? and if the world
shall be judged by you, are ye unworthy to judge the smallest matters?
Know ye not that _we shall judge angels_? how much more things that
pertain to this life?” 1 Cor. 6:2, 3.

21. How will the decisions of the judgment be executed?

“And out of His [Christ’s] mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it He
should smite the nations: and He shall rule them with a rod of iron: and
He treadeth the wine-press of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.”
Rev. 19:15.

22. Why is the _execution_ of the judgment given to Christ?

“For as the Father hath life in Himself; so hath He given to the Son to
have life in Himself; and hath given Him authority to execute judgment
also, _because He is the Son of man_.” John 5:26, 27.

23. How was the opening of the judgment to be made known to the world?

“And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the
everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to
every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, saying with a loud
voice, _Fear God, and give glory to Him; for the hour of His judgment is
come_.” Rev. 14:6, 7.


    NOTE.—There are three phases of the judgment mentioned in the
    Scriptures,—the investigative judgment, preceding the second
    advent; the judgment of the lost world and wicked angels by Christ
    and the saints during the one thousand years following the second
    advent; and the executive judgment, or punishment of the wicked at
    the close of this period. The investigative judgment takes place
    in heaven before Christ comes, in order to ascertain who are
    worthy to be raised in the first resurrection, at His coming, and
    who among the living are to be changed in the twinkling of an eye,
    at the sound of the last trump. It is necessary for this to take
    place before the second advent, as there will be no time for such
    a work between the coming of Christ and the raising of the
    righteous dead. The executive judgment on the wicked occurs after
    their cases have been examined by the saints during the thousand
    years. Rev. 20:4, 5; 1 Cor. 6:1-3. The investigative judgment is
    that which is announced to the world by the angel’s message of
    Rev. 14:6, 7.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Thou Judge of quick and dead,
      Before whose bar severe,
    With holy joy or guilty dread,
      We all shall soon appear,—
    Our cautioned souls prepare
      For that tremendous day,
    And fill us now with watchful care,
      And stir us up to pray.

    CHARLES WESLEY.


                             [Illustration.]

The Wise Men Of The East. "We have seen His star in the east." Matt. 2:2.



The Judgment-Hour Message


                             [Illustration.]

  The First Angel. "Fear God, and give glory to Him; for the hour of His
                      judgment is come." Rev. 14:7.


1. What prophetic view of the judgment was given Daniel?

“I beheld till the thrones were cast down [placed], and the Ancient of
days did sit: ... thousand thousands ministered unto Him, and ten thousand
times ten thousand stood before Him: the judgment was set, and the books
were opened.” Dan. 7:9, 10.

2. What assurance has God given of the judgment?

“Because _He hath appointed a day, in the which He will judge the world_
in righteousness by that man whom He hath ordained; whereof He hath given
assurance unto all men, _in that He hath raised Him from the dead_.” Acts
17:31.

3. What message announces the judgment-hour come?

“And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the
everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to
every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, saying with a loud
voice, Fear God, and give glory to Him; for _the hour of His judgment is
come_: and worship Him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the
fountains of waters.” Rev. 14:6, 7.

4. In view of the judgment-hour, what is proclaimed anew?

“_The everlasting gospel._” Verse 6, first part.

5. How extensively is this message to be proclaimed?

“To _every nation_, and _kindred_, and _tongue_, and _people_.” Verse 6,
first part.

6. What is the whole world called upon to do?

“_Fear God, and give glory to Him._” Verse 7.

7. What special reason is given for this?

“For _the hour of His judgment is come_.” Same verse.

8. Whom are all called upon to worship?

“_Him that made heaven, and earth._” Same verse.


    NOTE.—There is only one gospel (Rom. 1:16, 17; Gal. 1:8), first
    announced in Eden (Gen. 3:15), preached to Abraham (Gal. 3:8) and
    to the children of Israel (Heb. 4:1, 2), and proclaimed anew in
    every generation. In its development, the gospel meets the needs
    of every crisis in the world’s history. John the Baptist in his
    preaching announced the kingdom of heaven at hand (Matt. 3:1, 2),
    and prepared the way for the first advent. John 1:22, 23. Christ
    Himself in His preaching of the gospel announced the fulfilment of
    a definite-time prophecy (the sixty-nine weeks, or 483 years, of
    Dan. 9:25), and called the people to repentance, in view of the
    coming of the predicted Messiah. Mark 1:14, 15. So when the time
    of the judgment comes, and Christ’s second advent is near, a
    world-wide announcement of these events is to be made in the
    preaching of the everlasting gospel adapted to meet the need of
    the hour.


9. What prophetic period extends to the time of the cleansing of the
sanctuary, or the investigative judgment?

“And he said unto me, Unto _two thousand and three hundred days_; then
shall the sanctuary be cleansed.” Dan. 8:14.

10. When did this long period expire?

In A.D. 1844. See reading on page 230.


    NOTE.—Our Lord based His preaching of the gospel upon the
    fulfilment of the first part of the 2300 days, or years (Mark
    1:14, 15), a prophecy which determined the time of the first
    advent. The whole period extends to the time of the judgment, just
    preceding the second advent, and at its expiration a special
    gospel message is sent to all the world proclaiming the
    judgment-hour at hand, and calling upon all to worship the
    Creator. The facts of history answer to this interpretation of the
    prophecy: for at this very time (1844) just such a message was
    being proclaimed in various parts of the world. This was the
    beginning of the great second advent message which is now being
    proclaimed throughout the world.


11. How is the true God distinguished from all false gods?

“Thus shall ye say unto them, _The gods that have not made the heavens and
the earth_, even they shall perish from the earth.... _He [the true God]
hath made the earth by His power, He hath established the world by His
wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by His discretion._” Jer.
10:11, 12.

12. For what reason is worship justly due to God?

“For the Lord is a great God, and a great King above all gods.... _The sea
is His, and He made it: and His hands formed __ the dry land_. O come, let
us worship and bow down: let us kneel before the Lord our _Maker_.” Ps.
95:3-6.

13. Why do the inhabitants of heaven worship God?

“The four and twenty elders fall down before Him, ... saying, Thou art
worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honor and power: _for Thou hast
created all things_, and for Thy pleasure they are and were created.” Rev.
4:10, 11.

14. What memorial did God establish of His creative power?

“Remember _the Sabbath day_, to keep it holy.... _For in six days the Lord
made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is_, and rested the
seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.”
Ex. 20:8-11.

15. What place has the Sabbath in the work of salvation?

“Moreover also I gave them My Sabbaths, to be _a sign_ between Me and
them, that they might know that I am the Lord that _sanctify_ them.” Eze.
20:12.

16. How many are concerned in the judgment?

“For we must _all_ appear before the judgment-seat of Christ; that _every
one_ may receive the things done in his body, _according to that he hath
done, whether it be good or bad_.” 2 Cor. 5:10.

17. What will be the standard in the judgment?

“For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he
is guilty of all. For He that said, Do not commit adultery; said also, Do
not kill. Now if thou commit no adultery, yet if thou kill, thou art
become a transgressor of the law. So speak ye, and so do, as they that
shall be judged _by the law of liberty_.” James 2:10-12.

18. In view of the judgment, what exhortation is given?

“Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: _Fear God, and keep His
commandments_: for this is the whole duty of man. For God shall bring
every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or
whether it be evil.” Eccl. 12:13, 14.


    NOTE.—A comparison of Rev. 14:7 with Eccl. 12:13, 14, suggests
    that the way to give glory to God is to keep His commandments, and
    that in giving the judgment-hour message, the duty of keeping the
    commandments would be emphasized. This is plainly shown in the
    description given of the people who are gathered out of every
    nation, kindred, tongue, and people as the result of the preaching
    of this message, in connection with the other messages which
    immediately follow and accompany it. Of this people it is said,
    “Here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of
    Jesus.” Rev. 14:12.



The Fall Of Modern Babylon


                             [Illustration.]

       The Second Angel. "Babylon is fallen, is fallen." Rev. 14:8.


1. What announcement immediately follows the judgment-hour message of Rev.
14:6, 7?

“And there followed another angel, saying, _Babylon is fallen, is fallen_,
that great city.” Rev. 14:8, first part.

2. What reason is assigned for the fall of Babylon?

“Because _she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her
fornication_.” Same verse, last part.

3. How was the overthrow of ancient Babylon foretold?

“And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees’
excellency, shall be _as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah_.” Isa.
13:19.

4. What call was made to come out of Babylon?

“_Flee out of the midst of Babylon, and deliver every man his soul: be not
cut off in her iniquity_; for this is the time of the Lord’s vengeance; He
will render unto her a recompense.” Jer. 51:6.

5. What did ancient Babylon do to all the nations?

“Babylon hath been a golden cup in the Lord’s hand, that _made all the
earth drunken_: the nations have drunken of her _wine_; therefore the
nations are _mad_.” Verse 7.

6. What was the effect of this apostasy?

“Babylon is _suddenly fallen and destroyed_: howl for her; take balm for
her pain, if so be she may be healed.” Verse 8.

7. Just before the fall of Babylon, what did her king do?

“Belshazzar the king _made a great feast_ to a thousand of his lords, and
_drank wine_ before the thousand.” Dan. 5:1.

8. By what command did the king repudiate the religion taught in Babylon
by Daniel and others who feared God?

“Belshazzar, whiles he tasted the wine, commanded to bring the golden and
silver vessels which his father Nebuchadnezzar had taken out of the temple
which was in Jerusalem; that the king, and his princes, his wives, and his
concubines, might drink therein.” Verse 2.

9. What marked the climax of Babylon’s apostasy?

“Then they brought the golden vessels that were taken out of the temple of
the house of God which was at Jerusalem; and the king, and his princes,
his wives, and his concubines, drank in them.” Verse 3.

10. While drinking the wine, what gods did they honor?

“They drank wine, and _praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass,
of iron, of wood, and of stone_.” Verse 4.

11. What immediately followed this complete apostasy?

“In that night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans slain. And Darius
the Median took the kingdom, being about threescore and two years old.”
Verses 30, 31.


    NOTE.—The gospel of the kingdom was preached in Babylon (see
    reading on “The Gospel of the Kingdom,” page 209), and
    Nebuchadnezzar was brought to acknowledge and to worship the true
    God. But after the death of Nebuchadnezzar, Babylon relapsed into
    idolatry again, and this apostasy was rendered hopeless when
    Belshazzar used the sacred vessels from the house of God,
    dedicated to the worship of God, in which to drink the wine of
    Babylon while worship was offered to the false gods. Then came the
    handwriting on the wall, and the fall of ancient Babylon.


12. In the visions of John, what interpretation is given to the woman who
sat upon many waters?

“And the woman which thou sawest _is that great city_, which reigneth over
the kings of the earth.” Rev. 17:18.


    NOTE.—The great city which reigned over the kings of the earth in
    John’s time was Rome, and that city has given its name to the
    church which is represented by the woman, the Church of Rome, or
    the Papacy.


13. In this same prophecy, how is the Church of Rome, the Papacy,
designated as the antitype of ancient Babylon?

“And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE
MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.” Verse 5.

14. What specific statement emphasizes this identification?

“With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the
inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her
fornication.” Verse 2. See verse 4.


    NOTES.—The Church of Rome is called Babylon, and its religion is a
    revival of the religion of ancient Babylon. She claims a
    priesthood with exceptional powers and privileges, just as did
    ancient Babylon. Through the dogma of the immaculate conception of
    the Virgin Mary, she denies that God in Christ dwelt in the same
    flesh as fallen man has, just as ancient Babylon did. See Dan.
    2:11. She claims universal spiritual jurisdiction, and demands
    submission under pains and penalties, just as ancient Babylon did.
    See Daniel 3. She repudiates the fundamental gospel truth of
    justification by faith, and boasts of works, just as ancient
    Babylon did. See Dan. 4:30. A careful comparison of the ritual of
    ancient and modern Babylon shows that the latter is copied from
    the former; and it is easy to trace the connection historically
    through the paganism of political Rome.

    On the overthrow of Babylon by the Persians, who nourished a
    traditional hatred for its idolatry, the Chaldean priesthood fled
    to Pergamos, in Asia Minor, and made it the headquarters of their
    religion.... The last pontiff king of Pergamos was Attalus III,
    who at his death bequeathed his dominions and authority to the
    Roman people, 133 B.C., and from that time the two lines of
    Pontifex Maximus were merged in the Roman one.—_“__The False
    Christ,__”__ J. Garnier, London, George Allen, 1900, Vol. II,
    pages 94, 95._ Thus did the religion of ancient Babylon become the
    religion of modern Babylon.


15. What did Jesus say of the sacramental wine?

“This cup is the new covenant in My blood.” Luke 22:20, R. V.

16. What is the essential teaching of the new covenant?

“For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after
those days, saith the Lord; _I will put My laws into their mind, and write
them in their hearts_: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to
Me a people.” Heb. 8:10.

17. When Christ thus ministers the law in the heart, what does it become?

“For _the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus_ hath made me free
from the law of sin and death. For what the law could not do, in that it
was weak through the flesh, God sending His own Son in the likeness of
sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh: that the
righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the
flesh, but after the Spirit.” Rom. 8:2-4.

18. In what other statement is this same truth expressed?

“It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words
that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.” John 6:63.

19. What kind of teaching have men substituted for the words which are
spirit and life?

“Howbeit in vain do they worship Me, _teaching for doctrines the
commandments of men_.... And He said unto them, Full well ye reject the
commandment of God, that ye may keep your own _tradition_.” Mark 7:7-9.


    NOTES.—There are two cups, the cup of the Lord and the cup of
    Babylon. The wine in the Lord’s cup represents the living truth,
    “as the truth is in Jesus;” the wine in the cup of Babylon
    represents her false doctrines, her substitution of human
    tradition for the living word and law of God, and the illicit
    connection which she has made between the church and the secular
    power, depending upon political power to enforce her teachings,
    rather than upon the power of God. By this very thing, while
    maintaining a form of godliness, she denies the power thereof. 2
    Tim. 3:1-5.

    The following quotation states the position of that church in
    regard to tradition: “Though these two divine streams [the Bible
    and tradition] are in themselves, on account of their divine
    origin, of equal sacredness, and are both full of revealed truths,
    still, of the two, tradition is to us more clear and
    safe.”—_“__Catholic Belief,__”__ Rev. Joseph Faa Di Bruno, D. D.
    (Roman Catholic), page 45._

    The substitution of the law of the church for the law of God, in
    fulfilment of the prophecy in Dan. 7:25, testifies to the complete
    subordination of the Word of God to the authority of the church.
    The world-wide teaching of these doctrines in place of the pure
    gospel has led the world astray, and has made all the nations
    drink of the wine of her fornication. The Reformation of the
    sixteenth century was an effort to return to the pure truths of
    God’s Word. In this the Reformers denied the supremacy of
    tradition over the Bible.


20. What relation does the Church of Rome sustain to other apostate
churches?

“And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT,
_THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS_ AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.” Rev. 17:5.


    NOTES.—In the creed of Pope Pius IV, an authoritative statement of
    Roman Catholic belief, is found this statement: “I acknowledge the
    Holy Catholic Apostolic Church for _the mother and mistress of all
    churches_.”—_Article 10._ When the professed Protestant churches
    repudiate the fundamental principle of Protestantism by setting
    aside the authority of God’s Word, and accepting tradition and
    human speculation in its place, they adopt the fundamental
    principle of modern Babylon, and may be regarded as the daughters
    of Babylon. Their fall is then included in the fall of Babylon,
    and calls for a proclamation of the fall of modern Babylon.

    Many representatives of modern Protestantism have, in one way or
    another, rejected many fundamental doctrines of the Bible, such
    as,—

    The fall of man.
    The Bible doctrine of sin.
    The infallibility of the Scriptures.
    The sufficiency of the Scriptures as a rule of faith and practise.
    The Deity of Christ, and His consequent headship over the church.
    The miraculous conception and the virgin birth of our Lord.
    The resurrection of Christ from the grave.
    The vicarious, expiatory, and propitiatory atonement of Christ.
    Salvation by grace through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.
    Regeneration by the power of the Holy Ghost.
    The efficacy of the all-prevailing name of Christ in prayer.
    The ministration and guardianship of holy angels.
    Miracles as the direct manifestation and interposition of God’s
                power.

    Although many leaders of modern Protestantism known as higher
    critics have not formally adopted the creed of the Church of Rome,
    and have not become an organic part of that body, yet they belong
    to the same class in rejecting the authority of God’s Word, and
    accepting in its place the product of their own reasonings. There
    is just as much apostasy in the one case as in the other, and both
    must therefore be included in Babylon, and both will go down in
    the fall of Babylon. The warning message applies with equal force
    to both classes.


21. To what extent is the apostasy, or fall, of modern Babylon, the
mother, and of her daughters, to be carried?

“And after these things I saw another angel come down from heaven, having
great power; and the earth was lightened with his glory. And he cried
mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is
fallen, and _is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every
foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird_. For all
nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the
kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants
of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.” Rev.
18:1-3.


    NOTE.—In its largest sense, Babylon includes all false
    religions—all apostasy. The gospel message announcing her final
    overthrow should be a cause of rejoicing to every lover of truth
    and righteousness.


22. What final call to come out of Babylon is to go forth?

“And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, _Come out of her, My
people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of
her plagues_. For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath
remembered her iniquities.” Verses 4, 5.

23. How complete is to be the fall of modern Babylon?

“And _a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it
into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be
thrown down, and shall be found no more at all_.... And in her was found
the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the
earth.” Verses 21-24.

24. What song of triumph follows the overthrow of Babylon?

“Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth. Let us be glad and
rejoice, and give honor to Him.” Rev. 19:6, 7.



The Closing Gospel Message. A Warning Against False Worship


                             [Illustration.]

The Third Angel. "If any man worship the beast and his image, ... the same
       shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God." Rev. 14:9, 10.


1. What indicates that the messages of the judgment-hour and the fall of
Babylon are two parts of a threefold message?

“And _the third angel followed them_, saying with a loud voice.” Rev.
14:9, first clause.

2. What apostasy from the worship of God is named in this message?

“If any man _worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark_ in his
forehead, or in his hand.” Same verse, last part.

3. What is to be the fate of those who, instead of worshiping God, engage
in this false worship?

“_The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured
out without mixture into the cup of His indignation_; and he shall be
tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and
in the presence of the Lamb: and the smoke of their torment ascendeth up
forever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the
beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name.” Verses
10, 11. See Isa. 33:13-17; 34:1-10; 1 Cor. 3:13; Heb. 12:29.

4. How are those described who heed this warning?

“Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the
commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.” Verse 12.

5. What description is given of the beast against whose worship this
closing warning message is given?

“And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the
sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and
upon his heads the name of blasphemy. And the beast which I saw was like
unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as
the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and
great authority.” Rev. 13:1, 2.


    NOTE.—In this composite beast from the sea are combined the
    symbols of the seventh chapter of Daniel, representing Greece,
    Medo-Persia, and Babylon. The blasphemous words spoken by it, its
    persecution of the saints, and the time allotted to it (verses
    5-7) show that this beast, under one of its seven-headed
    manifestations, is identical with the little horn of the vision of
    the seventh chapter of Daniel, modern Babylon, the Papacy. See
    reading on “The Kingdom and Work of Antichrist,” page 218. The
    false worship here mentioned, the worship of the beast, is the
    rendering of that homage to the Papacy which is due to God alone.
    The system of religion enforced by the Papacy is the paganism of
    Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome, indicated by the composite
    character of the beast (verse 2), disguised under the forms and
    names of Christianity. The Pontifex Maximus of the ancient pagan
    religions was continued in the Pope, who is the head of the Roman
    priesthood, and who, in the exercise of his priestly functions,
    took away the mediation of Christ, and substituted a system of
    human mediation in its place, thus fulfilling the prophecy
    recorded in the eighth chapter of Daniel. See reading on “The
    Vicar of Christ,” page 224.


6. What challenge is made by those who worship the beast?

“And they worshiped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they
worshiped the beast, saying, _Who is like unto the beast? who is able to
make war with him?_” Verse 4.

7. Whose sovereignty is thus challenged?

“Forasmuch as _there is none like unto Thee, O Lord_; Thou art great, and
Thy name is great in might.” Jer. 10:6. See also Ps. 71:19; 86:8; 89:6, 8.

8. What specifications of “the man of sin” are thus fully met?

“Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except
there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son
of perdition; _who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called
God, or that is worshiped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God,
showing himself that he is God_.”  2 Thess. 2:3, 4. See pages 218-220.

                             [Illustration.]

Noah Preaching. "By faith Noah, being warned of God ... prepared an ark."
                                Heb. 11:7.


9. What did Babylon give to the nations to drink?

“She made all nations drink of _the wine of the wrath of her
fornication_.” Rev. 14:8, last part. See pages 256, 257.

10. What are those to drink who accept the teachings of Babylon, and thus
render homage to the beast?

“The same shall drink of _the wine of the wrath of God_, which is poured
out without mixture into the cup of His indignation.” Verse 10, first
part.


    NOTE.—The cup of the Lord, which contains the new covenant in the
    blood of Christ, and the cup of the wine of the wrath of Babylon
    are both offered to the world. To drink of the former, that is, to
    accept the teaching of the true gospel, is to receive everlasting
    life; but to drink of the wine of Babylon, that is, to accept the
    false gospel taught by the Papacy, will result in drinking of the
    wine of the wrath of God from the cup of His indignation. The true
    gospel means everlasting life; the false gospel means everlasting
    death.


11. Under what threatened penalty is the worship of the image of the beast
enforced?

“And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image
of the beast should both speak, and _cause [decree] that as many as would
not worship the image of the beast should be killed_.” Rev. 13:15.


    NOTE.—For an explanation of the image of the beast, see reading on
    “Making an Image to the Beast,” page 271.


12. What universal boycott is to be employed, in an attempt to compel all
to receive the mark of the beast?

“And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond,
to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: and _that no
man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the
beast, or the number of his name_.” Verses 16, 17.


    NOTE.—Regarding the mark of the beast, see reading on “The Seal of
    God and the Mark of Apostasy,” page 416.


13. Who is the real power operating through the beast and his image, and
demanding worship?

“The _dragon_ gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.”
Verse 2, last part.

14. Who is this dragon?

“And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the _Devil_,
and _Satan_, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the
earth, and his angels were cast out with him.” Rev. 12:9.

15. How did the devil seek to induce Jesus to worship him?

“And the devil, taking Him up into an high mountain, showed unto Him all
the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. And the devil said unto
Him, _All this power will I give Thee_, and the glory of them: for that is
delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it. _If Thou therefore
wilt worship me, all shall be Thine._” Luke 4:5-7.

16. How did Jesus show His loyalty to God?

“And Jesus answered and said unto him, _Get thee behind Me, Satan: for it
is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou
serve_.” Verse 8.


    NOTE.—The threefold message of Rev. 14:6-12 is proclaimed in
    connection with the closing scenes of the great controversy
    between Christ and Satan. Lucifer has sought to put himself in the
    place of God (Isa. 14:12-14), and to secure to himself the worship
    which is due God alone. The final test comes over the commandments
    of God. Those who acknowledge the supremacy of the beast by
    yielding obedience to the law of God as changed and enforced by
    the Papacy, when the real issue has been clearly defined, will, in
    so doing, worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark.
    Such will take the side of Satan in his rebellion against the
    authority of God.


17. How many will yield to the demand to worship the beast?

“And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not
written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the
world.” Rev. 13:8.

18. In the judgment-hour message, whom are all called upon to fear,
glorify, and worship?

“Saying with a loud voice, _Fear God, and give glory to Him_; for the hour
of His judgment is come: and _worship Him that made heaven, and earth, and
the sea, and the fountains of waters_.” Rev. 14:7.

19. Who will sing the song of Moses and the Lamb on the sea of glass?

“And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire: and _them that had
gotten the victory over the beast, and over his image, and over his mark,
and over the number of his name_, stand on the sea of glass, having the
harps of God. And they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the
song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvelous are Thy works, Lord God
Almighty; just and true are Thy ways, Thou King of saints. Who shall not
fear Thee, O Lord, and glorify Thy name? for Thou only art holy: for all
nations shall come and worship before Thee; for Thy judgments are made
manifest.” Rev. 15:2-4.



Satan’s Warfare Against The Church


                             [Illustration.]

 The Death Of Christ. "He [Satan] persecuted the woman [the church] that
                brought forth the man child." Rev. 12:13.


1. Under what figure was the Christian church represented to the apostle
John?

“And there appeared a great wonder [margin, sign] in heaven; _a woman_
clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a
crown of twelve stars.” Rev. 12:1.


    NOTES.—Frequently in the Scriptures a woman is used to represent
    the church. See Jer. 6:2; 2 Cor. 11:2. The sun represents the
    light of the gospel with which the church was clothed at the first
    advent (1 John 2:8); the moon under her feet, the waning light of
    the former dispensation; and the twelve stars, the twelve
    apostles.

    “Woman in her innocence was attacked by ‘that old serpent, called
    the Devil, and Satan.’ ... At the end of that first crafty assault
    and speedy victory the dragon met with his rebuff, in words like
    these: ‘The seed of the woman shall bruise thy head, and thou
    shalt bruise His heel.’ ... In the Revelation the scene is changed
    from Eden to the heavens, and before you stand again the woman and
    the serpent, in the same position of antagonism as before, the
    serpent still the assailant, only this time more openly so.... The
    woman is no longer a simple, childlike personage, but _a wonder_;
    she walks not among the trees and flowers, but amid the orbs of
    heaven. She is clothed with the sun, the moon is under her feet,
    and upon her head is a coronet of twelve stars. In her you see the
    great cause of truth and righteousness embodied—she is, in fact,
    the church of God in all ages, the woman whose Seed blesses all
    the nations of the earth.”—_C. H. Spurgeon, in The Tabernacle
    Pulpit, March 15, 1896._


2. How is the church at the first advent described?

“And she being with child cried, travailing in birth, and pained to be
delivered.” Verse 2.


    NOTE.—The church is in labor and pain while she brings forth
    Christ and her children, in the midst of afflictions and
    persecutions. See Rom. 8:19, 22; 1 John 3:1, 2; 2 Tim. 3:12.


3. How are the birth, work, and ascension of Christ briefly described?

“And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod
of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and to His throne.” Verse
5.


    NOTE.—Specifically this must refer to Christ (see Ps. 2:7-9); but
    through Him is also prefigured the experience of the people of
    God, who finally in the judgment are to share with Christ in
    ruling the nations with a rod of iron (Rev. 2:26, 27), and, like
    Him, when their work on earth is accomplished be “caught up,” at
    His appearing, to God and to His throne. 1 Thess. 4:15-17.


4. What other sign, or wonder, appeared in heaven?

“And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold _a great red
dragon_, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his
heads. And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did
cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was
ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as in was born.”
Verses 3, 4.

5. Who is this dragon said to be?

“And the great dragon was cast out, _that old serpent_, called the
_Devil_, and _Satan_, which deceiveth the whole world.” Verse 9.


    NOTE.—Primarily the dragon represents Satan, the great enemy and
    persecutor of the church in all ages. But Satan works through
    principalities and powers in his efforts to destroy the people of
    God. It was through a Roman king, King Herod, that he sought to
    destroy Christ as soon as He was born. Matt. 2:16. Rome must
    therefore be symbolized by the dragon. The seven heads of the
    dragon are interpreted by some to refer to the “seven hills” upon
    which the city of Rome is built; by others, to the seven forms of
    government through which Rome passed; and by still others, and
    more broadly, to the seven great monarchies which have oppressed
    the people of God; namely, Egypt, Assyria, Chaldea, Persia,
    Greece, pagan Rome, and papal Rome, in either of which Rome is
    represented and included. See page 269. The ten horns, as in the
    fourth beast of Daniel 7, evidently refer to the ten kingdoms into
    which Rome was finally divided, and thus again identify the dragon
    with the Roman power.


6. How is the conflict between Christ and Satan described?

“And there was war in heaven; Michael and His angels fought against the
dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, and prevailed not; neither
was their place found any more in heaven. And the great dragon was cast
out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the
whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out
with him.” Verses 7-9.


    NOTE.—This conflict, begun in heaven, continues on earth. Near the
    close of Christ’s ministry, He said, “I beheld Satan as lightning
    _fall from heaven_.” Luke 10:18. “Now is the judgment of this
    world: now shall the prince of this world be _cast out_.” John
    12:31. From the councils of the representatives of the various
    worlds to which Satan, as the prince of this world, was formerly
    admitted (Job 1:6, 7; 2:1, 2), he was cast out when he crucified
    Christ, the Son of God.


7. What shout of triumph was heard in heaven following the victory gained
by Christ?

“And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, _Now is come salvation, and
strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of His Christ_: for
the accuser of our brethren is _cast down_, which accused them before our
God day and night.... Therefore rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in
them.” Verses 10-12.

8. Why was woe at this same time proclaimed to the world?

“Woe to the inhabiters of the earth and of the sea! _for the devil is come
down unto you, having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a
short time_.” Verse 12, last part.


    NOTE.—This not only shows that, since the crucifixion of Christ,
    Satan knows that his doom is sealed, and that he has but a limited
    time in which to work, but that his efforts are largely if not
    wholly now confined to this world, and concentrated upon its
    inhabitants. Better than many professed Christians, Satan knows
    that time is short.


9. What did the dragon do when cast to the earth?

“And when the dragon saw that he was cast unto the earth, _he persecuted
the woman_ which brought forth the man child.” Verse 13.


    NOTE.—The persecution of Christians began under pagan Rome, but
    was carried on far more extensively under papal Rome. Matt. 24:21,
    22.


10. What definite period of time was allotted to this great persecution of
God’s people under papal Rome?

“And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might
fly into the wilderness, unto her place, where she is nourished for _a
time, and times, and half a time_, from the face of the serpent.” Verse
14.


    NOTE.—This is the same period as that mentioned in Dan. 7:25, and,
    like the ten horns, identifies the dragon with the fourth beast of
    Daniel 7, and its later work with the work of the little horn of
    that same beast. In Rev. 13:5 this period is referred to as
    “forty-two months,” and in Rev. 12:6 as 1260 days, each
    representing 1260 literal years, the period allotted to the
    supremacy of papal Rome. Beginning in 538 A.D., it ended in 1798,
    when the Pope was taken prisoner by the French. See notes on page
    223. The woman fleeing into the wilderness fittingly describes the
    condition of the church during those times of bitter persecution.


11. What was Satan’s design in thus persecuting the church?

“And the serpent cast out of his mouth water as a flood after the woman,
_that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood_.” Verse 15.

12. How was the flood stayed, and Satan’s design defeated?

“_And the earth helped the woman_, and the earth opened her mouth, and
swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast out of his mouth.” Verse 16.


    NOTE.—The mountain fastnesses, quiet retreats, and secluded
    valleys of southwestern Europe for centuries shielded many who
    refused allegiance to the Papacy. Here, too, may be seen the
    results of the work of the Reformation of the sixteenth century,
    when many of the governments of Europe came to the help of the
    cause of reform, by staying the hand of persecution and protecting
    the lives of those who dared to take their stand for the right.
    The discovery of America, and the opening up of this country as an
    asylum for the oppressed of Europe at this time, may also be
    included in the “help” here referred to.


13. What did Christ say would be the result if the days of persecution
were not shortened?

“Except those days should be shortened, _there should no flesh be saved_:
but for the elect’s sake those days shall be shortened.” Matt. 24: 22.

14. Still bent on persecution, how does Satan manifest his enmity against
the remnant church?

“And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and _went to make war with the
remnant of her seed_, which keep the commandments of God, and have the
testimony of Jesus Christ.” Rev. 12:17.


    NOTE.—To the very end, Satan will persecute and seek to destroy
    the people of God. Against the remnant, or last portion of the
    church, he is especially to make war. Their obedience to God’s
    commandments, and their possession of the testimony of Jesus, or
    spirit of prophecy (Rev. 19:10), are especially offensive to him,
    and excite his intense ire.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Soldiers of Christ, arise,
      And put your armor on;
    Fight, for the battle will be ours;
      We fight to win a crown.

    We fight not against flesh,
      We wrestle not with blood;
    But principalities and powers,
      And for the truth of God.

    CHARLES WESLEY.



A Great Persecuting Power (The Ten-Horned Beast of Revelation 13)


                             [Illustration.]

 Early Christian Martyrs. "He shall ...  wear out the saints of the Most
                            High." Dan. 7:25.


1. What is the first symbol of Revelation 13?

“And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw _a beast rise up out of the
sea, having seven heads and ten horns_, and upon his horns ten crowns and
upon his heads the name of blasphemy.” Rev. 13:1.


    NOTES.—As already learned from studying the book of Daniel, a
    beast in prophecy represents some great earthly power or kingdom;
    a head, a governing power; horns, a number of kingdoms; crowned
    heads or crowned horns, political rulership; waters, “peoples, and
    multitudes, and nations, and tongues.” Rev. 17:15.

    “The beasts of Daniel and John are empires. The ten-horned beast
    is the Roman power.... The head is the governing power of the
    body. The heads of this beast represent successive
    governments.”—_“__Romanism and the Reformation,__”__ by H. Grattan
    Guinness, pages 144, 145._


2. How is this beast further described?

“And the beast which I saw was _like unto a leopard_, and his feet were as
_the feet of a bear_, and his mouth as _the mouth of a lion_.” Verse 2,
first part.


    NOTES.—These are the characteristics of the first three symbols of
    Daniel 7,—the _lion_, _bear_, and _leopard_ there representing the
    kingdoms of _Babylon_, _Medo-Persia_, and _Grecia_,—and suggest
    this beast as representing or belonging to the kingdom symbolized
    by the _fourth beast_ of Daniel 7, or _Rome_. Both have ten horns.
    Like the dragon of Revelation 12, it also has seven heads; but as
    the dragon symbolized Rome in its entirety, particularly in its
    pagan phase, this, like the “little horn” coming up among the ten
    horns of the fourth beast of Daniel 7, represents Rome in its
    later or papal form. Both it and the little horn have “a mouth”
    speaking great things; both make war upon the saints; both
    continue for the same length of time.

    Allowing a very broad meaning to the symbol, the Douay or Catholic
    Bible, in a note on Rev. 13:1, explains the seven heads of this
    beast as follows: “The seven heads are seven kings, that is, seven
    principal kingdoms or empires, which have exercised, or shall
    exercise, tyrannical power over the people of God: of these, five
    were then fallen, viz., the Egyptian, Assyrian, Chaldean, Persian,
    and Grecian monarchies; one was present, viz., the empire of Rome;
    and the seventh and chiefest was to come, viz., the great
    Antichrist and his empire.” That the seventh head represents
    Antichrist there can be little doubt. See page 265.


3. What did the dragon give this beast?

“And the dragon gave him his _power_, and his _seat_, and _great
authority_.” Verse 2, latter part.


    NOTE.—It is an undisputed fact of history that under the later
    Roman emperors, beginning with Constantine, the religion of the
    Roman government was changed from pagan to papal; that when
    Constantine removed the seat of his empire from Rome to
    Constantinople in 330 A.D., the city of Rome was given up to the
    bishop of Rome, who, from Constantine and succeeding emperors,
    received rich gifts and great authority; that after the fall of
    Rome, in 476 A.D., the bishop of Rome became the ruling power in
    Western Rome, and by decree of Justinian, March 15, 533, was
    declared “head of all the holy churches,” and in a letter of the
    same year he was designated as “corrector of heretics.” See note
    on page 223. Thus Rome pagan became Rome papal; the seat of pagan
    Rome became the seat of papal Rome; church and state were united;
    and the persecuting power of the dragon was conferred upon the
    professed head of the church of Christ, or papal Rome. As Dr. H.
    Grattan Guinness, in his “Romanism and the Reformation,” page 152,
    says, “The power of the Cæsars lived again in the universal
    dominion of the popes.”


4. How are the character, work, period of supremacy, and great power of
the beast described?

“And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and
blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two
months. And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme His
name, and His tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven. And it was given
unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was
given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.” Verses 5-7.


    NOTE.—All these specifications have been fully and accurately met
    in the Papacy, and identify this beast as representing the same
    power as that represented by the little horn phase of the fourth
    beast of Daniel 7, and the little horn of Daniel 8, in its chief
    and essential features and work. See Dan. 7:25; 8:11, 12, 24, 25,
    and readings on pages 218, 224. For an explanation of the time
    period mentioned, see pages 223, 229.


5. What was to be inflicted upon one of the heads of this beast?

“And I saw _one of his heads as it were wounded to death_; and his deadly
wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast.” Verse 3.


    NOTE.—This wound was inflicted upon the papal head of this beast
    when the French, in 1798, entered Rome, and took the Pope
    prisoner, and for a time, it seemed, abolished the Papacy. But in
    1800 another Pope was placed upon the papal throne, and the deadly
    wound began to be healed. Temporal dominion was taken away from
    the Papacy in 1870, but nevertheless its power and influence among
    the nations have been increasing since then. “In that year,” says
    Mr. Guinness in his work “Romanism and the Reformation,” page 156,
    “the Papacy assumed the highest exaltation to which it could
    aspire, that of infallibility.” To such a position of influence
    over the nations is the Papacy finally to attain that just before
    her complete overthrow and destruction she will say, “I sit a
    queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow.” Rev. 18:7. See
    Isa. 47:7-15; Rev. 17:18.


6. What is said concerning the captivity and downfall of the Papacy?

“He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth
with the sword must be killed with the sword.” Verse 10. See Ps. 18:25,
26; 109:17; Jer. 50:29; Rev. 16:4-6.

7. What questions asked by its worshipers indicate the great station to
which this beast-power was to attain?

“And they worshiped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they
worshiped the beast, saying, _Who is like unto the beast? who is able to
make war with him?_” Rev. 13:4.

8. How universal is the worship of this power to become?

“And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not
written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the
world.” Verse 8.

9. What did John say was to be the end of this beast?

“And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought
miracles before him.... _These both were cast alive into a lake of fire
burning with brimstone._” Rev. 19:20. See Isa. 47:7-15; 2 Thess. 2:3-8;
Rev. 17:16, 17; 18:4-8.

10. In what similar language is the fate of the fourth beast of Daniel 7
described?

“I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the horn
spake: I beheld even till the beast was _slain_, and his body _destroyed_,
and _given to the burning flame_.” Dan. 7:11.



Making An Image To The Beast. The Prophecy Of Revelation 13


                             [Illustration.]

    Landing Of The Pilgrim Fathers. The vanguard of Protestantism, who
    established "a Church without a pope, and a State without a king."


1. When was the papal head of the first beast of Revelation 13 wounded?

In 1793-98, by the French Revolution, and the temporary overthrow of the
Papacy in the latter year.

2. What did the prophet see coming up at this time?

“And I beheld _another beast coming up out of the earth_; and he had two
horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.” Rev. 13:11.


    NOTES.—Mr. Wesley, in his notes on Revelation 13, written in 1754,
    says of the two-horned beast: “He is not yet come, though he
    cannot be far off; for he is to appear at the end of the forty-two
    months of the first beast.”

    The previous beast came up out of the “sea,” which indicates its
    rise among the peoples and nations of the world then in existence
    (Rev 17: 15); while this one comes up out of the “earth.” This
    would indicate that the latter beast would arise where there had
    not before been “peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and
    tongues.” In 1798, when the papal power received its deadly wound,
    the government of the United States, located in the western
    continent, was the only great and independent nation then coming
    into prominence in territory not previously occupied by peoples,
    multitudes, and nations. Only nine years preceding this (1789),
    the United States adopted its national Constitution.

    It is within the territory of the United States, therefore, that
    we may look, according to the prophecy, for an ecclesiastical
    movement to arise, and exercise a dominating control, not only in
    the civil government of this country, but also in the other
    nations of the whole world as well.


                             [Illustration.]

Signing The Declaration Of Independence. "Proclaim liberty throughout all
         the land unto all the inhabitants thereof." Lev. 25:10.


3. What is the character of this new power?

“He had _two horns like a lamb_.” Rev. 13:11.


    NOTE.—The Pilgrim Fathers were the vanguard of a great multitude
    of Protestants, who, when persecuted and outlawed in the lands of
    their birth, sought refuge in the New World, where they developed
    rapidly under the protection of a government founded on the great
    Christian principles of civil and religious freedom. The two horns
    may well symbolize these two fundamental principles.


4. Notwithstanding the lamblike appearance of this power, what is it
ultimately to do?

“And he _spake as a dragon_.” Rev. 13:11.


    NOTE.—The voice of the dragon is the voice of intolerance and
    persecution. This indicates that the ecclesiastical development
    dealt with in this prophecy, obtaining a foothold for its initial
    power and influence in the government of the United States, will
    repudiate the mild and lamblike principles of civil and religious
    liberty, and become like the beast before it, a world-wide
    persecuting power. This is why in Rev. 19:20 it is called “the
    false prophet.” Born of the Reformation, it will repudiate
    Reformation principles.


5. How much power will this beast exercise?

“And _he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him_, and
causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast,
whose deadly wound was healed.” Verse 12.


    NOTE.—The “first beast before him” (papal Rome) exercised the
    power of persecuting and putting to death all who differed from it
    in religious matters. The only way the _earth_ can be made to
    worship is by causing work to cease on it through voluntary or
    enforced rest, or sabbath-keeping. “For as long as she [the land]
    lay desolate she _kept sabbath_.” 2 Chron. 36:21. Enforced Sunday
    observance is evidently implied here.


6. What means will be employed to lead the people back into this false
worship?

“And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth _by the means of those
miracles which he had power to do_ in the sight of the beast.” Verse 14,
first part.

7. What will this power propose that the people shall do?

“Saying to them that dwell on the earth, _that they should make an image
to the beast, which had the wound by a sword; and did live_.” Verse 14,
latter part.


    NOTE.—The beast “which had the wound by a sword, and did live,” is
    the Papacy. That was a church dominating the civil power. In other
    words, it was a union of church and state, and enforced its
    religious dogmas by the civil power, under pain of confiscation of
    goods, imprisonment, and death. An image to this beast would be
    another ecclesiastical organization clothed with civil
    power—another union of church and state—to enforce religious
    dogmas by law.


8. Is there any evidence that such an image will be made?

Large and influential organizations, such as the National Reform
Association, the International Reform Bureau, the Lord’s Day Alliance of
the United States, and the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in
America, have been formed, by professed Protestants, and for years have
been persistently working to that end. Many Roman Catholic societies
recently formed in the United States, such as the Knights of Columbus and
the American Federation of Catholic Societies, are looking to a like
end—that of making America Catholic.

9. What, according to its constitution, is the avowed object of the
National Reform Association?

“To secure such an amendment to the Constitution of the United States as
shall ... indicate that this is a Christian nation, and place all the
Christian laws, institutions, and usages of the government on an
undeniable legal basis in the fundamental law of the land.”—_Article II of
Constitution._


    NOTES.—Upon the question of making this a “Christian nation,”
    Bishop Earl Cranston, D. D., of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in
    an address delivered in Foundry Methodist Episcopal Church,
    Washington, D. C., March 13, 1910, made the following
    observation:—

    “Suppose this were to be declared a Christian nation by a
    Constitutional interpretation to that effect. What would that
    mean? Which of the two contending definitions of Christianity
    would the word Christian indicate?—The Protestant idea, of course,
    for under our system majorities rule, and the majority of
    Americans are Protestants. Very well. But suppose that by the
    addition of certain contiguous territory with twelve or more
    millions of Roman Catholics, the annexation of a few more islands
    with half as many more, and the same rate of immigration as now,
    the majority some years hence should be Roman Catholics,—who
    doubts for a moment that the reigning Pope would assume control of
    legislation and government? He would say, with all confidence and
    consistency, ‘This is a Christian nation. It was so claimed from
    the beginning and so declared many years ago. A majority defined
    then what Christianity was, the majority will define now what
    Christianity now is and is to be.’ That ‘majority’ would be the
    Pope.”—“_The Church and the Government_,” page 7.

    The National Reformers in their attempts to justify the legal
    establishment of Christianity as the national religion, have
    erroneously declared that the statement of Justice Brewer of the
    Supreme Court of the United States in 1892, “This is a Christian
    nation,” is a decision of the court, whereas it was only a
    statement in the argument leading up to the decision of the court.

    In a sermon at the centenary of the establishment of the Roman
    Catholic hierarchy in the United States, in 1889, Archbishop
    Ireland said: “Our work is to make America Catholic.... Our cry
    shall be, ‘God wills it,’ and our hearts shall leap with crusader
    enthusiasm.”

    The theory of the National Reformers is thus expressed: “Every
    government by equitable laws, is a government of God; a republic
    thus governed is of Him, and is as truly and really a _theocracy_
    as the commonwealth of Israel.”—“_Cincinnati National Reform
    Convention_,” page 28.


10. How does this association regard the Catholic Church on this point?

“We cordially, gladly, recognize the fact that in South American
republics, in France and other European countries the Roman Catholics are
the recognized advocates of national Christianity, and stand opposed to
all the proposals of secularism.... _Whenever they are willing to
cooperate in resisting the progress of political atheism, we will gladly
join hands with them_ in a world’s conference for the promotion of
national Christianity, which ought to be held at no distant day. Many
countries could be represented only by Roman Catholics.”—_Christian
Statesman, Dec. 11, 1884, official organ of the National Reform
Association._

11. What has the Pope commanded all Catholics to do?

“First and foremost, it is the duty of all Catholics worthy of the name
and wishful to be known as most loving children of the church ... to
endeavor to bring back all civil society to the pattern and form of
Christianity which we have described.”—_Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII,
__“__Immortale Dei__”__ Nov. 1, 1885, __“__The Great Encyclical Letters of
Leo XIII,__”__ page 132._


    NOTE.—The prophecy says that this power will make an image to the
    Papacy. In the days of Constantine and his successors, the church
    made use of the civil power to carry out her aims: through this
    means the Papacy was developed. In our own day the same theory is
    advocated, and prominent men in the nation, in both church and
    state, are doing all they can to bring about the same result,
    which, when their work is completed, cannot fail to fulfil the
    specifications of the prophecy. The climax will be an image of the
    Papacy.


12. What is the object of the International Reform Bureau?

“The Reform Bureau is the first ‘Christian lobby’ established at our
national capital to speak to government in behalf of all
denominations.”—“_History of the International Reform Bureau_,” by its
founder and superintendent, Rev. W. F. Crafts, page 2.


    NOTE.—The securing of compulsory Sunday legislation is one of the
    chief objects of this and other like organizations. See pages 61
    and 65 of the above-named work.


13. What are the objects of the Lord’s Day Alliance of the United States?

“(1) To preserve the Lord’s day [Sunday] for America; (2) to secure an
active Alliance in every State not yet organized; (3) to induce the
general government as far as possible to set the example of Sabbath
observance; (4) to press the rest-day feature of the fourth commandment,
until every toiler in the land has guaranteed unto him fifty-two full rest
days a year.”—_From leaflet published by the Alliance._


    NOTE.—By all of which is meant the securing, as far as possible,
    of compulsory State and national Sunday legislation,—the very
    means by which the church gained control of the state and by which
    church and state were united in the fourth and fifth centuries of
    the Christian era.


14. What is the purpose of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ
in America?

“That the great Christian bodies of our country should stand together” in
dealing with “questions like those of marriage and divorce, Sabbath
desecration, social evils.” etc.—“_Report of Federal Council_” (1908),
pages 5, 6.

15. How does it propose that the matter of “Sabbath desecration” shall be
dealt with?

“That all encroachments upon the claims and the sanctities of the Lord’s
day should be _stoutly resisted_ through the press, the Lord’s day
associations and alliances, _and by such legislation as may be secured to
protect and preserve this bulwark of our American Christianity_.”—_Id._,
page 103.


    NOTE.—Thus it will be seen that the securing of laws for the
    enforcement of Sunday observance is a prominent feature in all
    these organizations in their efforts to “Christianize” the nation.
    In doing this many fail to see that they are repudiating the
    principles of Christianity, of Protestantism, and of the United
    States government, and playing directly into the hand of that
    power which originated the Sunday sabbath, and gained control of
    the civil power through Sunday legislation—the Papacy.


16. What action of the American Federation of Catholic Societies indicates
that Catholics will gladly “join hands” with Protestants in enforcing
Sunday observance by law?

“Our societies in the various parts of the United States have been urging
the abolition of Sunday labor, and have indorsed and assisted the movement
of closing the post-office on Sunday.”—_Tenth Annual Convention of
American Federation of Catholic Societies, Columbus, Ohio, Aug. 20-24,
1911._


    NOTES.—With the active cooperation of the Lord’s Day Alliance of
    the United States, a Protestant organization, a proviso was
    attached to the post-office appropriation bill, 1912, requiring
    that “hereafter post-offices of the first and second classes shall
    not be opened on Sundays for the purpose of delivering mail to the
    general public.”

    The following resolution was adopted by the Boston Archdiocesan
    Federation of Catholic Societies:—

    “We are unalterably opposed to any relaxation of the Sunday laws.
    Sunday is a day of rest to be devoted to the praise and service of
    God. We hold the safest public policy at present is to adhere to
    the rigid observance of the laws now safeguarding the sanctity of
    the Lord’s day.”—_Boston Pilot, official organ of Cardinal
    O’Connell, March 16, 1912._


17. What complaint is made against Sunday trains and Sunday newspapers?

“They get a great many passengers, and so break up a great many
congregations.” “The laboring classes are apt to rise late on Sunday
morning, read the Sunday papers, and _allow the hour of worship to go by
unheeded_.”—_Elgin_ (_Ill._) _Sunday-law Convention, November, 1887_.


    NOTES.—In the fourth century, Sunday games and Sunday theaters, it
    was complained, “hindered” the “devotion” of the “faithful,”
    because many of the members attended them in preference to the
    church services. The church, therefore, demanded that the state
    should interfere, and enforce Sunday observance by law. “In this
    way,” says Neander, “the church received help from the state for
    the furtherance of her ends.” In this way church and state were
    united, and the Papacy was placed in power. The same course
    pursued now will produce the same results.

    It is proper and right for the church to teach Sabbath observance,
    and to decry Sabbath desecration; but it should not attempt to
    secure Sabbath observance through compulsory legislation; nor
    should it seek to fasten upon the people by any means the
    observance of a day which God has never enjoined, and for which,
    as is admitted on all hands, there is no Scriptural command. See
    admissions on pages 441, 442, 455, 456, 560.


18. What does the prophet say the two-horned-beast power will attempt to
enforce upon all the people?

“And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond,
to receive _a mark_ in their right hand, or in their foreheads.” Rev.
13:16.


    NOTES.—This mark is the mark of the beast, or the false sabbath.
    See Rev. 14:9, 10, and reading on page 446. God’s seal, or mark,
    is set in the forehead (Rev. 7:3; 14:1), the seat of the mind, the
    Lord accepting only the worship of conviction and conscience. The
    mark of the beast, however, is said to be received in the hand or
    forehead. Some are deceived and give assent to the false teaching
    with their minds, receiving the mark in the forehead; others,
    coerced or indifferent, give formal, outward consent, and so
    receive the mark in the hand.

    Let the reader note this twofold aspect of the Sunday sabbath, as
    expressed by one of the most ardent and active Sunday-law
    advocates in the United States: “We, the Sabbath Union, W. C. T.
    U., all the churches, and the Y. M. C. A., are laboring with all
    our might to carry the _religious_ sabbath with our right arm, and
    the _civil_ sabbath with our left. Hundreds of thousands will
    receive it as a religious institution, and all the rest will
    receive it as a civil institution, and thus we will sweep in the
    whole nation.”—_Rev. W. F. Crafts, in Sunday Union Convention,
    Wichita, Kans., Sept. 20, 1889._


19. What means will be employed to compel all to receive this mark?

“And _that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark_, or the
name of the beast, or the number of his name.” Verse 17.


    NOTE.—That is, all who refuse to receive this mark will be
    boycotted, or denied the rights and privileges of business and
    trade, or the ordinary means of gaining a livelihood. Already this
    spirit has begun to manifest itself in the movement to enforce
    Sunday observance. In a sermon preached in Burlington, Kans.,
    Sunday, Jan. 31, 1904, Rev. Bascom Robins said:—

    “In the Christian decalogue the first day was made the Sabbath by
    divine appointment. But there is a class of people who will not
    keep the Christian sabbath unless they are forced to do so. But
    that can be easily done. We have twenty million of men, besides
    women and children, in this country, who want this country to keep
    the Christian sabbath. If we would say we will not sell anything
    to them, we will not buy anything from them, we will not work for
    them, or hire them to work for us, the thing could be wiped out,
    and all the world would keep the Christian sabbath.”


20. By what authority was Sunday sabbath-keeping instituted?

By the authority of the Catholic Church. See page 439.

21. Why were the ancient Sunday laws demanded?

“That the day might be devoted with less interruption to the purposes of
devotion.” “That the devotion of the faithful might be free from all
disturbance.”—_Neander’s __“__Church History,__”__ Vol. II, pages 297,
301._


    NOTE.—In short, it was to secure the enforced observance of the
    day, and through this means church attendance, and control over
    the people in religious things.


22. Why are they demanded now?

“Give us good Sunday laws, well enforced by men in local authority, and
our churches will be full of worshipers, and our young men and women will
be attracted to the divine service. A mighty combination of the churches
of the United States could win from Congress, the State legislatures, and
municipal councils, all legislation essential to this splendid
consummation.”—_Rev. S. V. Leech, D. D., in Homiletic Review, November,
1892._

23. Who is responsible for the present State Sunday laws of the United
States?

“During nearly all our American history _the churches_ have influenced the
States to make and improve Sabbath laws.”—_Rev. W. F. Crafts, in Christian
Statesman, July 3, 1890._


    NOTES.—“These Sunday laws are a survival of the complete union of
    church and state which existed at the founding of the
    colony.”—_Boston Post, April 14, 1907._

    “Such laws [as the Maryland Sunday law of 1723] were the outgrowth
    of the system of religious intolerance that prevailed in many of
    the colonies.”—_Decision of Court of Appeals of the District of
    Columbia, Jan. 21, 1908._

    The first Sunday law in America, that of Virginia, in 1610,
    required church attendance, and prescribed the death penalty for
    the third offense. See “American State Papers,” edition 1911, page
    33.


24. Why is a national Sunday law demanded?

“The national law is needed to make the State laws complete and
effective.”—_Christian Statesman, April 11, 1889._

25. Since the Sunday sabbath originated with the Roman power (the beast),
to whom will men yield homage when, knowing the facts, they choose to
observe Sunday, instead of the Bible Sabbath, in deference to compulsory
Sunday laws?

“Know ye not, that _to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his
servants ye are to whom ye obey_?” Rom. 6:16.


    NOTES.—“The observance of Sunday by the Protestants is an homage
    they pay, in spite of themselves, to the authority of the
    [Catholic] church.”—“_Plain Talk About the Protestantism of
    Today_,” page 213.

    The conscientious observance of Sunday as the Sabbath on the part
    of those who hitherto have supposed it to be the Sabbath, has,
    without doubt, been accepted of God as Sabbath-keeping. It is only
    when light comes that sin is imputed. John 9:41; 15:22; Acts
    17:30. See page 700.


26. What does Christ say about our duty to the state?

“Render therefore unto _Cæsar_ the things which are _Cæsar’s_; and unto
_God_ the things that are _God’s_.” Matt. 22:21.


    NOTE.—The Sabbath belongs to God. Its observance, therefore,
    should be rendered only to Him.


27. What special miracle is finally to be performed to deceive men, and
fasten them in deception?

“And he doeth great wonders, so that _he maketh fire come down from heaven
on the earth in the sight of men_.” Rev. 13:13.


    NOTE.—In the time of Elijah, in the controversy over Baal-worship,
    this was the test as to who was the true God,—the God that
    answered by fire. 1 Kings 18:24. Now, as a counterfeit test, fire
    will be made to come down from heaven to confirm men in an
    idolatrous and false worship.


28. To what length will this effort to enforce the worship of the image of
the beast be carried?

“And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image
of the beast should both speak, and cause [decree] that as many as would
not worship the image of the beast _should be killed_.” Verse 15.

29. What deliverance will God finally bring to His people in this
controversy?

“And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire: and _them that had
gotten the victory over the beast, and over his image, and over his mark,
and over the number of his name_, stand on the sea of glass, having the
harps of God.” Rev. 15:2.

30. What song will they sing?

“And they sing _the song of Moses_ the servant of God, and _the song of
the Lamb_.” Verse 3.

31. What was the song of Moses?

A song of deliverance from oppression. See Exodus 15.



The Seven Churches


                             [Illustration.]

 John On Patmos. "What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the
                       seven churches." Rev. 1:11.


1. What title is given the last book of the Bible?

“The Revelation of Jesus Christ.” Rev. 1:1.

2. To whom do those things which are revealed belong?

“The secret things belong unto the Lord our God: but _those things which
are revealed belong unto us and to our children forever_.” Deut. 29:29.

3. For what purpose was the Revelation given?

“The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto Him _to show unto His
servants things which must shortly come to pass_.” Rev. 1:1.

4. What great event, according to this book, is imminent?

“_Behold, He cometh with clouds_; and every eye shall see Him and they
also which pierced Him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because
of Him.” Verse 7.


    NOTE.—This book not only opens and closes with the subject of
    Christ’s second coming, but its eight lines of prophecy all reach
    down to this as the great culminating event to the church and the
    world.


5. What encouragement is given to study this book?

“_Blessed is he that readeth_, and they that _hear_ the words of this
prophecy, and _keep_ those things which are written therein: for the time
is at hand.” Verse 3.

6. To whom was the book dedicated?

“John _to the seven churches which are in Asia_.” Verse 4.

7. What were the names of these seven churches?

“What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches
which are in Asia; unto _Ephesus_, and unto _Smyrna_, and unto _Pergamos_,
and unto _Thyatira_, and unto _Sardis_, and unto _Philadelphia_, and unto
_Laodicea_.”  Verse 11.


    NOTE.—These seven churches, and the messages addressed to them,
    apply to seven periods or states of the church reaching from the
    first to the second advent of Christ. “Under this emblematical
    representation of the seven churches of Asia,” says Vitringa, in
    the “Comprehensive Commentary,” “the Holy Spirit has delineated
    seven different states of the Christian church, which would appear
    in succession, extending to the coming of our Lord and the
    consummation of all things.” Their good qualities and their
    defects are pointed out, with admonitions, exhortations, and
    warnings suitable for each, all of which are also applicable to
    individual Christian experience.


8. By what title is the first state of the church distinguished?

“Unto the angel of the church of _Ephesus_ write.” Rev. 2:1.


    NOTE.—The meaning of Ephesus is _desirable_, and fitly describes
    the character and condition of the church in its first state, when
    its members received the doctrine of Christ in its purity, and
    enjoyed the benefits and blessings of the gifts of the Holy
    Spirit. This applies to the first century, or during the lifetime
    of the apostles. See dates in the accompanying diagram, showing
    the beginning and close of the seven periods.


                             [Illustration.]

                           The Seven Churches.


9. After commending this church for their good works, what charge did the
Lord bring against them?

“Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because _thou hast left thy
first love_. Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and _repent,
and do the first works_.”  Verses 4, 5.


    NOTE.—The “first love” is the love of the truth, and the desire of
    making it known to others. The “first works” are the fruit of this
    love.


10. What name is given to the second state of the church?

“Unto the angel of the church in _Smyrna_ write.”  Verse 8.


    NOTE.—The meaning of Smyrna is _myrrh_, or _sweet-smelling savor_,
    and applies to the period of time when many of the saints of God
    suffered martyrdom under pagan Rome.


11. How is the closing period of tribulation of the church during this
time referred to?

“Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer: behold, _the devil
shall cast some of you into prison_, that ye may be tried; and _ye shall
have tribulation ten days_: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give
thee a crown of life.” Verse 10.


    NOTE.—The most severe of what is commonly known as “the ten
    persecutions” under pagan Rome, began under the emperor
    Diocletian, and continued from 303 A.D. to 313 A.D., a period of
    ten prophetic days.


12. What name is given to the third state of the church?

“To the angel of the church in _Pergamos_ write.” Verse 12.


    NOTE.—The meaning of Pergamos is _height_, or _elevation_, and
    fitly represents that period of the Christian church, beginning
    with the reign of the emperor Constantine in 313 A.D., when the
    power which had put the Christians to death espoused the cause of
    the church, and by rewards, edicts, and promised promotions to
    office in the government, sought to induce the people to become
    Christians, thus bringing a flood of worldliness and corruption
    into the church. Many of the heathen rites and ceremonies
    previously introduced into the Christian religion, including the
    heathen festival, _Sunday_ (sun’s day), were then established by
    law, resulting in the first day of the week taking the place of
    the Sabbath of the Bible.


13. How was the faithfulness of this church commended?

“I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan’s seat is:
and _thou holdest fast My name, and hast not denied My faith_, even in
those days wherein Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among
you, where Satan dwelleth.” Verse 13.


    NOTE.—_Antipas_ comes from two Latin words, _anti_, opposed to,
    and _papas_, father, or pope, and denotes a class of people who
    were opposed to papal rule. Regarding _Pergamos_, see note on page
    256.


14. What title was given to the fourth state of the church?

“Unto the angel of the church in _Thyatira_ write.” Verse 18.


    NOTE.—Thyatira means _song of labor_, or _sacrifice of
    contrition_, and points out the condition of God’s people during
    the long, dark period of 1260 years, beginning with the
    establishment of papal supremacy in 538 A.D., and closing with the
    downfall of that power in 1798. See notes on page 223. During that
    time, millions of the saints of God were put to death in the most
    cruel manner that wicked men and demons could invent. Christ
    referred to this time in His wonderful prophecy recorded in
    Matthew 24, in these words: “For then shall be great tribulation,
    such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no,
    nor ever shall be. And except those days should be shortened there
    should no flesh be saved: but for the elect’s sake those days
    shall be shortened.” The tribulation of the 1260 years was cut
    short through the influence of the Reformation.


15. What promise did God leave for these persecuted ones?

“But that which ye have already hold fast till I come. And he that
overcometh, and keepeth My words unto the end, _to him will I give power
over the nations_: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the
vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers: even as I received of
My Father.” Verses 25-27.

16. By what name is the fifth state of the church addressed?

“Unto the angel of the church in _Sardis_ write.” Rev. 3:1.


    NOTE.—Sardis means _song of joy_, or _that which remains_. A cause
    for _joy_ at that time was the fact that the great tribulation of
    the people of God was at an end. It was only as a result of the
    Reformation that any of God’s people were left _remaining_. See
    Matt. 24:21, 22, and note under question 14. The Sardis church
    continued from the close of the papal power, 1798 A.D., until the
    beginning of the great advent movement in 1833, which was marked
    by the falling of the stars on November 13 of that year, as
    foretold by Christ in Matt. 24:29.


17. What endearing title is given the sixth church?

“To the angel of the church in _Philadelphia_ write.” Rev. 3:7.


    NOTE.—Philadelphia means _brotherly love_, and applies to the
    church under the judgment-hour message. See page 251.


18. What words to this church show the second advent near?

“_Behold, I come quickly_: hold fast that which thou hast, that no man
take thy crown.” Verse 11.

19. What is Christ’s message to the last church?

“Unto the angel of the church of the _Laodiceans_ write; ... I know thy
works, that thou art neither cold nor hot.... Because thou sayest, I am
rich, and increased in goods, and have need of nothing; ... I counsel thee
to buy of Me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich; and white
raiment, that thou mayest be clothed.... As many as I love, I rebuke and
chasten: be zealous therefore, and repent.” Verses 14-19.


    NOTE.—Laodicea signifies _the judging of the people_, or,
    according to Cruden, a _just people_. This church exists in the
    time of the judgment and the proclamation of the final warning
    messages preceding Christ’s second coming. See Rev. 14:6-16, and
    readings on cages 251-263. This is a time of great profession,
    with but little vital godliness and true piety.


20. What encouragement is given to heed this message?

“Behold, I stand at the door, and knock: if any man hear My voice, and
open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with
Me.” Verse 20.


    NOTE.—The pointed, searching messages to the seven churches
    contain most important lessons of admonition, encouragement, and
    warning for all Christians in all ages. The seven promises to the
    overcomer found in this line of prophecy (Rev. 2:7, 11, 17, 26-28;
    3:5, 12, 21), with the eighth or universal promise recorded in
    Rev. 21:7, form a galaxy of promises as precious, as comforting,
    and as inspiring as any recorded in the Scriptures. See pages 558,
    762.



The Seven Seals


                             [Illustration.]

The Lisbon Earthquake. "When He had opened the sixth seal, ... there was a
                      great earthquake." Rev. 6:12.


1. What did John the revelator see in the right hand of Him who sat on the
throne?

“And I saw in the right hand of Him that sat on the throne _a book_
written within, and on the back side _sealed with seven seals_.” Rev. 5:1.

2. What did the Lamb do with this book?

“And He came and took the book out of the right hand of Him that sat on
the throne.” Verse 7.

3. Why was Christ declared worthy to open these seals?

“Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: _for
Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by Thy blood_ out of every
kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation.” Verse 9.

4. What was shown upon the opening of the first seal?

“And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, ... _a white horse_: and
He that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went
forth conquering, and to conquer.” Rev. 6:1, 2.


    NOTE.—The number _seven_ in the Scriptures denotes completion or
    perfection. The seven seals embrace the whole of a class of events
    in which is narrated the history of the church from the beginning
    of the Christian era to the second coming of Christ. The white
    horse, with his rider going forth to conquer, fitly represents the
    early Christian church in its purity, going into all the world
    with the gospel message of salvation.


5. What appeared upon the opening of the second seal?

“And when He had opened the second seal, ... there went out _another horse
that was red_: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace
from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given
unto him a great sword.” Verses 3, 4.


    NOTE.—As whiteness in the first horse denoted the purity of the
    gospel which its rider propagated, so the color of the second
    horse would show that corruption had begun to creep in when this
    symbol applies. It is true that such a state of things did succeed
    the apostolic church. Speaking of the second century, Wharey, in
    his “Church History,” page 39, says: “Christianity began already
    to wear the garb of heathenism. The seeds of most of those errors
    that afterwards so entirely overran the church, marred its beauty,
    and tarnished its glory, were already beginning to take root.”
    Worldliness came in. The church sought alliance with the secular
    power, and trouble and commotion were the result. This symbol
    extends from the close of the first century to the time of
    Constantine, when a complete union of church and state was
    effected.


6. What was the color of the symbol under the third seal?

“When He had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and
see. And I beheld, and lo _a black horse_; and he that sat on him had a
pair of balances in his hand.” Verse 5.


    NOTE.—The “black” horse fitly represents the spiritual darkness
    that characterized the church from the time of Constantine till
    the establishment of papal supremacy in 538 A.D. Of the condition
    of things in the fourth century, Wharey (page 54) says:
    “Christianity had now become popular, and a large proportion,
    perhaps a large majority, of those who embraced it, only assumed
    the name, received the rite of baptism, and conformed to some of
    the external ceremonies of the church, while at heart and in moral
    character they were as much heathen as they were before. Error and
    corruption now came in upon the church like a flood.”


7. What were the color and character of the fourth symbol?

“And when He had opened the fourth seal, ... behold _a pale horse_: and
his name that sat on him was _Death_, and _Hell_ [Greek, _Hades_, the
_grave_] _followed with him_. And power was given unto them over the
fourth part of the earth, _to kill with sword_, and with _hunger_, and
with _death_, and with the _beasts of the earth_.” Verses 7, 8.


    NOTE.—This is an unnatural color for a horse. The original denotes
    the _pale_ or _yellowish_ color seen in blighted plants. The
    symbol evidently refers to the work of persecution and death
    carried on by the Roman Church against the people of God from the
    time of the beginning of papal supremacy in 538 A.D. to the time
    when the Reformers commenced their work of exposing the true
    character of the Papacy, and a check was placed upon this work of
    death.


8. On opening the fifth seal, what was seen under the altar?

“And when He had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar _the souls
of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which
they held_.” Verse 9.


    NOTE.—When the Reformers exposed the work of the Papacy, it was
    then called to mind how many martyrs had been slain for their
    faith.


9. What were these martyrs represented as doing?

“And _they cried with a loud voice_, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and
true, dost Thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the
earth?” Verse 10.


    NOTE.—The cruel treatment which they had received cried for
    vengeance, just as Abel’s blood cried to God from the ground. Gen.
    4:10. They were not in heaven, but under the altar on which they
    had been slain. On this point Dr. Adam Clarke says: “The altar is
    upon earth, not in heaven.” See note under next question.


10. What was given these martyrs?

“And _white robes were given unto every one of them_; and it was said unto
them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellow
servants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they were,
should be fulfilled [have fulfilled their course, R. V.].” Verse 11.


    NOTE.—These had been slain during the hundreds of years covered by
    the preceding seal. Their persecutors, most of them, at least, had
    died. And if they had at death passed to their punishment, as is
    by some supposed, why should the martyred ones still importune for
    their punishment? In this, as in other parts of the Bible, the
    figure of personification is used, in which inanimate objects are
    represented as alive and speaking, and things that are not as
    though they were. See Judges 9:8-15; Heb. 2:11; Rom. 4:17. These
    martyrs had gone down as heretics under the darkness and
    superstition of the preceding seal, covered with ignominy and
    shame. Now, in the light of the Reformation, their true character
    appears, and they are seen to have been righteous, and hence are
    given “white robes.” “The fine linen [white robes] is the
    righteousness of saints.” Rev. 19:8. Righteousness is ascribed to
    them; and when they have rested a little longer where they
    are,—under the altar,—till all others who are to fall for their
    faith have followed them, then together they will be raised to
    life and immortality.


11. What was first seen on the opening of the sixth seal?

“And I beheld when He had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was _a
great earthquake_.” Verse 12, first part.


    NOTE.—This doubtless refers to the great earthquake of Nov. 1,
    1755, commonly known as the Lisbon earthquake, the effects of
    which were felt over an area of 4,000,000 square miles. Lisbon,
    Portugal, a city containing 150,000 inhabitants, was almost
    entirely destroyed. The shock of the earthquake, says Mr. Sears,
    in his “Wonders of the World,” page 200, “was instantly followed
    by the fall of every church and convent, almost all the large
    public buildings, and one fourth of the houses. In about two hours
    afterward, fires broke out in different quarters, and raged with
    such violence for the space of nearly three days that the city was
    completely desolated. The earthquake happened on a holy day, when
    the churches and convents were full of people, very few of whom
    escaped.... The terror of the people was beyond description.
    Nobody wept: it was beyond tears. They ran hither and thither,
    delirious with horror and astonishment, beating their faces and
    breasts, crying, ‘_Misericordia! the world’s at an end!_’ Mothers
    forgot their children, and ran about loaded with crucifixed
    images. Unfortunately, many ran to the churches for protection;
    but in vain was the sacrament exposed; in vain did the poor
    creatures embrace the altars; images, priests, and people were
    buried in one common ruin.... Ninety thousand persons are supposed
    to have been lost on that fatal day.”


12. What was to follow the great earthquake?

“And _the sun became black_ as sackcloth of hair, and _the moon became as
blood_.” Same verse, latter part.


    NOTE.—This refers to the dark day and night of May 19, 1780, when
    the darkness and gloom were such as to give the general impression
    that the day of judgment was at hand. See readings on pages 311,
    319.


13. What other event is mentioned under this seal?

“And _the stars of heaven fell unto the earth_, even as a fig-tree casteth
her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind.” Verse 13.


    NOTES.—This was fulfilled in the wonderful meteoric shower of Nov.
    13, 1833. Describing the scene in the vicinity of Niagara Falls,
    one writer says: “No spectacle so terribly grand and sublime was
    ever before beheld by man as that of the firmament descending in
    fiery torrents over the dark and roaring cataract.”—_“__Our First
    Century,__”__ page 330; also The American Cyclopedia, edition
    1881, article __“__Meteor.__”_ See readings just referred to.

    A contributor, writing for the _Journal of Commerce_ of Nov. 14,
    1833, in regard to the falling stars of Nov. 13, 1833, said: “Were
    I to hunt through nature for a simile, I could not find one so apt
    to illustrate the appearance of the heavens as that which St. John
    uses in the prophecy. The falling stars did not come as if from
    several trees shaken, but as from _one_; those which appeared in
    the east, fell toward the east; those which appeared in the west,
    fell toward the west; and those which appeared in the south, fell
    toward the south. And they fell not as the _ripe_ fruit falls,—far
    from it,—but they flew, they were _cast_, like the unripe fruit
    which at first refuses to leave the branch; and when, under a
    violent pressure, it does break its hold, it flies swiftly,
    _straight_ off, descending; and in the multitude falling, some
    cross the track of others, as they are thrown with more or less
    force; but each one falls on its own side of the tree.” See page
    321.


14. What is the next event mentioned in the prophecy?

“And _the heaven departed as a scroll_ when it is rolled together; and
every mountain and island were moved out of their places.” Verse 14.


    NOTE.—This event is still future, and will take place in
    connection with Christ’s second coming. We are now standing
    between the two events,—the last of the signs in the heavens, and
    the parting of the heavens and removal of earthly things out of
    their places. The great signs here mentioned which mark the
    approach of Christ’s second coming and the dissolution of all
    earthly things, are all in the past, and the world awaits the
    sound of the last trump as the closing scene in earth’s drama.


15. How will this great event affect the world?

“And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the
chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every freeman,
hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains; and said to
the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of Him that
sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb: for the great day
of His wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?” Verses 15-17.

16. After the sealing work brought to view in Revelation 7, which takes
place under the sixth seal, how is the seventh seal introduced?

“And when He had opened the seventh seal, _there was silence in heaven_
about the space of half an hour.” Rev. 8:1.


    NOTE.—The sixth seal introduced the events connected with the
    second coming of Christ. The seventh seal most naturally,
    therefore, would refer to that event, or to some accompanying
    result of it. When Christ comes, all the holy angels will
    accompany Him (Matt. 25:31); and it follows that silence will
    necessarily, therefore, reign in heaven during their absence. A
    half-hour of prophetic time would be about seven days. The seven
    seals, therefore, bring us down to the second coming of Christ.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    It may be at morn, when the day is awaking,
    When sunlight through darkness and shadow is breaking,
    That Jesus will come in the fulness of glory
    To receive from the world His own.

    It may be at midday, it may be at twilight,
    It may be, perchance, that the blackness of midnight
    Will burst into light in the blaze of His glory,
    When Jesus receives His own.

    O joy! O delight! should we go without dying,
    No sickness, no sadness, no dread, and no crying,
    Caught up through the clouds with our Lord into glory,
    When Jesus receives His own.

    H. L. TURNER.



The Seven Trumpets


                             [Illustration.]

 Symbols Of War. "The nations were angry, and Thy wrath is come, and the
        time of the dead, that they should be judged." Rev. 11:18.


1. Following the seven seals, under what symbols was the next series of
thrilling events shown the apostle John?

“And I saw the seven angels which stood before God; and to them were given
_seven trumpets_.” Rev. 8:2.

2. With what do these trumpets deal?

With the wars, commotions, and political upheavals which result in the
breaking up and downfall of the Roman Empire,—the first four with the
downfall of Western Rome, the fifth and sixth with the downfall of Eastern
Rome, and the seventh with the final downfall of Rome in its broadest
sense, or all the kingdoms of the world. See Revelation 8 and 9 and
11:14-19. A trumpet is a symbol of war. Jer. 4:19, 20; Joel 2:1-11.

3. Under what figures is the first trumpet described?

“The first angel sounded, and there followed _hail_ and _fire_ mingled
with _blood_, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of
trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up.” Rev. 8:7.


    NOTES.—“Twice, at least, before the Roman Empire became divided
    permanently into the two parts, the Eastern and the Western, there
    was a tripartite division of the empire. The first occurred 311
    A.D., when it was divided between Constantine, Licinius, and
    Maximin; the other, 337 A.D., on the death of Constantine, when it
    was divided between his three sons, Constantine, Constans, and
    Constantius.”—_Albert Barnes, on Rev. 12:4._ To Constantius was
    given Constantinople and the East; to Constans, Italy, Illyricum,
    and northern Africa; and to Constantine II, Britain, Gaul, and
    Spain.

    This trumpet describes the first great invasion upon Western or
    ancient Rome, by the Goths, under Alaric, from 395 A.D. to 410
    A.D. In 408 he descended upon Italy, the middle “third part,”
    pillaging and burning cities, and slaughtering their inhabitants.
    Says Gibbon, in his “Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,”
    chapter 33, closing sentence, “The union of the Roman Empire was
    dissolved; its genius was humbled in the dust; and armies of
    unknown barbarians, issuing from the frozen regions of the North,
    had established their victorious reign over the fairest provinces
    of Europe and Africa.”


4. What striking figure is used to describe the destruction wrought under
the second trumpet?

“And the second angel sounded, and as it were _a great mountain burning
with fire was cast into the sea_: and the third part of the sea became
blood; and the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had
life, died; and the third part of the ships were destroyed.” Verses 8, 9.


    NOTE.—This describes the invasions and conquests of the Vandals
    under the terrible Genseric—first of Africa and later of
    Italy—from 428 to 476 A.D. His conquests were largely by sea. In a
    single night, near Carthage, he destroyed, by fire and sword, more
    than half of the Roman fleet, consisting of 1,113 ships and over
    100,000 men. See Gibbon’s “Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,”
    chapter 36.


5. What was to take place under the third trumpet?

“And the third angel sounded, and _there fell a great star from heaven,
burning as it were a lamp_, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers,
and upon the fountains of waters; and the name of the star is called
_Wormwood_: and the third part of the waters became wormwood; _and many
men died of the waters_, because they were made bitter.” Verses 10, 11.


    NOTES.—The harassing invasions and conquests of Attila, the Hun,
    are foretold here. His conquests were characterized by fire;
    sword, and pillage along the Rhine, in Gaul, and northern Italy.
    He claimed descent from Nimrod, styled himself the “Scourge of
    God” and the “Dread of the World,” and boasted that grass would
    never grow again where his horse had trod. His greatest battle was
    at Chalons, in Gaul, 451 A.D., where of his 700,000 men from
    100,000 to 300,000 are said to have been left dead on the field.
    See Gibbon’s Rome, chapter 35, and “Fifteen Decisive Battles of
    the World,” by Sir Edward Creasy, chapter 6.

    Says Gibbon (chapter 34), “In the reign of Attila, the Huns again
    became the terror of the world;” and he proceeds to describe “the
    character and actions of that formidable barbarian, who,” he says,
    “alternately insulted and invaded the East and the West, and urged
    the rapid downfall of the Roman Empire.”


6. What was to occur under the fourth trumpet?

“And the fourth angel sounded, and _the third part of the sun was smitten,
and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars_; so as
the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third
part of it, and the night likewise.” Verse 12.


    NOTE.—This trumpet brings us to the fall of Western Rome, in 476
    A.D., when the Herulian barbarians, under the leadership of
    Odoacer, took possession of the city and scepter of Rome; and the
    great empire which had hitherto been the empress of the world was
    reduced to a poor dukedom, tributary to the exarch of Ravenna. Its
    luminaries, or civil rulers, were smitten, and ceased to shine.
    “Italy now became in effect a province of the empire of the East.
    The Roman Empire in the West had come to an end, after an
    existence from the founding of Rome of 1,229 years.”—_Myers’s
    __“__General History,__”__ page 348._


7. What was to be the character of the last three trumpets?

“And I beheld, and heard an angel flying through the midst of heaven,
saying with a loud voice, _Woe, woe, woe_, to the inhabiters of the earth
by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels, which
are yet to sound!” Verse 13.

                             [Illustration.]

                           The Seven Trumpets.


8. After the fall of Western Rome, what power in the East arose to harass
and overrun the Roman world, East and West?

Mohammedanism, commonly known as the Turkish or Ottoman power, which arose
in Arabia, with Mohammed, in 622 A.D.

9. How is the fifth trumpet, or first woe, introduced?

“And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw _a star fall from heaven unto the
earth_: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit. And he opened
the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke
of a great furnace; _and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of
the smoke of the pit_. And there came out of the smoke _locusts_ upon the
earth: and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have
power.” Rev. 9:1-3.


    NOTES.—Attila is symbolized by the star of the third trumpet (Rev.
    8:10, 11); Mohammed, by the star of this trumpet. The bottomless
    pit doubtless refers to the wastes of the Arabian desert, from
    which came forth the Mohammedans, or Saracens of Arabia, like
    swarms of locusts. The darkening caused by the smoke from this pit
    fitly represents the spread of Mohammedanism and its doctrines
    over Asia, Africa, and portions of Europe. Their power as
    scorpions is strikingly seen in their vigorous and speedy attacks
    upon, and overthrow of, their enemies.

    “Over a large part of Spain, over north Africa, Egypt, Syria,
    Babylonia, Persia, north India, and portions of Central Asia were
    spread—to the more or less perfect exclusion of native customs,
    speech, and worship—the manners, the language, and the religion of
    the Arabian conquerors.”—_Myers’s __“__General History,__”__ page
    401._


10. What command was given these locusts?

“And it was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the
earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which
have not the seal of God in their foreheads.” Verse 4.


    NOTES.—When the Arabian tribes were gathered for the conquest of
    Syria, 633 A.D., the caliph Abu-Bekr, the successor of Mohammed,
    instructed the chiefs of his army not to allow their victory to be
    “stained with the blood of women and children;” to “destroy no
    palm-trees, nor burn any fields of corn;” to “cut down no
    fruit-trees, nor do any mischief to cattle;” and to spare those
    religious persons “who live retired in monasteries, and propose to
    themselves to serve God in that way;” but, he said, “you will find
    another sort of people that belong to the synagogue of Satan, who
    have shaven crowns: be sure you cleave their skulls and give them
    no quarter till they either turn Mohammedan or pay tribute.” In
    this, Mohammedanism, itself a false religion, is revealed as a
    scourge to apostate Christianity.

    “In a short time they [the Mohammedan Saracens] had taken from the
    Aryans all the principal old Semitic lands,—Palestine, Syria,
    Mesopotamia, Assyria, and Babylonia. To these was soon added
    Egypt.”—_Encyclopedia Britannica, article __“__Mohammedanism.__”_


11. What were these locusts said to have over them?

“And they had _a king_ over them, which is the angel of the bottomless
pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue
hath his name Apollyon [margin, a destroyer].” Verse 11.


    NOTES.—For hundreds of years the Mohammedans and invading Tartar
    tribes, like the locusts (Prov. 30:27), had no general government
    or king over them, but were divided into bands, or factions, under
    separate leaders. But in the twelfth century Temuljin, king of the
    Mongols, or Moguls, who is described as “the most terrible scourge
    that ever afflicted the human race,” built up an empire “at the
    cost,” it is estimated, says Myers in his “General History,” page
    461, of “fifty thousand cities and towns and five million lives.”
    This was followed by the more permanent Tartar empire founded by
    Othman a century later, commonly known as the Ottoman Empire, and
    ruled by the sultan.

    From the first, the great characteristic of the Turkish government
    has been that of a “destroyer.” Speaking of a war by the Turks
    upon the Byzantine Empire in 1050, Gibbon (chapter 57) says: “The
    myriads of Turkish horse overspread a frontier of six hundred
    miles from Tauris to Erzeroum, and the blood of one hundred and
    thirty thousand Christians was a grateful sacrifice to the Arabian
    prophet.”

    In 1058 the Turks wrested the Holy Land from the Saracens,
    desecrated the holy places, and treated the pilgrims to Jerusalem
    with cruelty. This brought on the nine unsuccessful crusades of
    the next two centuries for the recovery of the Holy Land.


12. What definite period is mentioned under this trumpet?

“And they had tails like unto scorpions, and there were stings in their
tails: and their power was to hurt men _five months_.” Verse 10. See also
verse 5.


    NOTES.—“It was on the twenty-seventh of July, in the year 1299,”
    says Gibbon, “that Othman first invaded the territory of
    Nicomedia,” in Asia Minor, “and the singular accuracy of the
    date,” he adds, “seems to disclose some foresight of the rapid and
    destructive growth of the monster.”—_“__Decline and Fall of the
    Roman Empire,__”__ chap. 64, par. 14_ This, then, we take to be
    the beginning of the period referred to.

    A Bible month consists of thirty days; five months would be 150
    days. Allowing a day for a year, 150 years from July 27, 1299,
    would reach to July 27, 1449. During this period the Turks were
    engaged in almost constant warfare with the Greek Empire, and yet
    without conquering it.


13. With what statement does the fifth trumpet close?

“One woe is past; and, behold, there come two woes more hereafter.” Verse
12.

14. What command is given under the sixth trumpet?

“And the sixth angel sounded, and I heard a voice from the four horns of
the golden altar which is before God, saying to the sixth angel which had
the trumpet, _Loose the four angels which are bound in the great river
Euphrates_.” Verses 13, 14.


    NOTES.—These four angels are understood to refer to the four
    leading Turkish sultanies—Aleppo, Iconium, Damascus, and Bagdad—of
    which the Ottoman Empire was composed, situated in the country
    watered by the river Euphrates.

    As a striking parallel it may be noted that under the sixth plague
    (Rev. 16:12-16), the four angels of Rev. 7:1-3 will loose the
    winds of war, the waters of the river Euphrates (the Turkish
    Empire) will be dried up, and the armies of the nations will
    assemble for the battle of Armageddon.


15. What warlike scene is given under this trumpet?

“The number of the armies of the horsemen was _twice ten thousand times
ten thousand_: ... and the heads of the horses are as the heads of lions;
and _out of their mouths proceedeth fire and smoke and brimstone_.” Verses
16, 17, R. V.


    NOTES.—“In the year 1453, Mohammed II, the Great, sultan of the
    Ottomans, laid siege to the capital [Constantinople], with an army
    of over 200,000 men. After a short investment, the place was taken
    by storm. The cross, which since the time of Constantine the Great
    had surmounted the dome of St. Sophia, was replaced by the
    crescent, which remains to this day.”—_Myers’s __“__General
    History,__”__ edition 1902, pages 462, 463._

    Thus Constantinople, the eastern seat of the Roman Empire since
    the days of Constantine, was captured by the Turks.

    Reference also seems to be made here to the use of firearms, which
    began to be employed by the Turks toward the close of the
    thirteenth century, and which, discharged from horseback, would
    give the appearance of fire and smoke issuing from the horses’
    mouths. In the battle of Armageddon, to which allusion may here be
    made, an army of “twice ten thousand times ten thousand,” or two
    hundred million, will doubtless be assembled.


16. What was the result of this warfare by means of “fire and smoke and
brimstone”?

“By these three was the third part of men killed.” Verse 18.


    NOTE.—This shows the deadly effect of this new means of warfare.
    “Constantinople was subdued, her empire subverted, and her
    religion trampled in the dust by the Moslem
    conquerors.”—_Elliott’s __“__Horæ Apocalypticæ,__”__ Vol. I, page
    484._


17. What definite period is mentioned under this trumpet?

“And the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for an _hour_, and a
_day_, and a _month_; and a _year_, for to slay the third part of men.”
Verse 15.


    NOTE.—An hour in prophetic time is equal to fifteen days; a day
    stands for a year, a month for thirty years, a year for 360 years.
    Added together, these amount to 391 years and fifteen days, the
    time allotted for the Ottoman supremacy. Commencing July 27, 1449,
    the date of the close of the fifth trumpet, this period would end
    Aug. 11, 1840. In exact fulfilment of the words of inspiration,
    this date marks the fall of the Ottoman Empire as an independent
    power. His empire wasted beyond hope of recovery in a war with
    Mohammed Ali, pasha of Egypt, the sultan of Turkey submitted to
    the dictates of the then four great powers of Europe, and his
    minister, Rifat Bey, on that very day, Aug. 11, 1840, reached
    Alexandria, bearing, not the sultan’s ultimatum, but that of the
    powers, to place in the hands of the rebellious pasha. Since then
    Turkey has existed only by the help or sufferance of the great
    powers of Europe, and has commonly been referred to as “the Sick
    Man of the East.”


18. With what announcement does the sixth trumpet close?

“The second woe is past; and, behold, _the third woe cometh quickly_.”
Rev. 11:14.


    NOTE.—The definite period under the sixth trumpet brings us to
    1840, when Turkey lost her independence. Her final downfall, we
    understand, will come at the opening of the seventh trumpet.


19. What is to be finished when the seventh trumpet is about to sound?

“But in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he is about to
sound, then is finished _the mystery of God_, according to the good
tidings which He declared to His servants the prophets.” Rev. 10:7, R. V.


    NOTE.—The mystery of God is the gospel. Eph. 3:3-6; Gal. 1:11, 12,
    When this trumpet is about to sound, therefore, the gospel will
    close, and the end will come. The “time of trouble,” of Dan. 12:1,
    and the seven last plagues and the battle of Armageddon, spoken of
    in Revelation 16, will take place when this trumpet begins to
    sound.


20. What event marks the sounding of the seventh trumpet?

“And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven,
saying, _The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord,
and of His Christ; and He shall reign forever and ever._ And the four and
twenty elders, which sat before God on their seats, fell upon their faces,
and worshiped God, saying, We give Thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which
art, and wast, and art to come; because Thou hast taken to Thee Thy great
power, and hast reigned.” Rev. 11:15-17.


    NOTE.—The seventh trumpet, therefore, brings us to the setting up
    of God’s everlasting kingdom.


21. What is the condition of the nations, and what other events are due or
impending at this time?

“And _the nations were angry_, and _Thy wrath is come_, and _the time of
the dead, that they should be judged_, and that Thou shouldest _give
reward unto Thy servants the prophets, and to the saints_, and them that
fear Thy name, small and great; and shouldest _destroy them which destroy
the earth_.” Verse 18.


    NOTES.—The closing scenes of this world’s history and the judgment
    are clearly brought to view here. Ever since the loss of
    independence by the Ottoman Empire in 1840, the nations have been
    preparing for war as never before, in view of international
    complications and a world war which all fear is inevitable upon
    the dissolution of Turkey and the final disposition of its
    territory. Towering above all others, the Eastern question has
    been the one of paramount concern to them.

    The investigative judgment began in heaven in 1844, at the close
    of the prophetic period of 2300 days. See readings on pages
    230-253. When this is finished, the time of reward will have
    arrived, the end will have come, and the saints will themselves
    sit in judgment. See Rev. 20:4; 1 Cor. 6:1-3.


22. What scene in heaven was presented to the prophet as the seventh
trumpet was about to sound?

“And _the temple of God was opened in heaven_, and there was seen in His
temple _the ark of His testament_: and there were lightnings, and voices,
and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.” Rev. 11:19.


    NOTES.—This forcibly calls attention to the closing work of Christ
    in the second apartment, or most holy place, of the sanctuary in
    heaven, which began in 1844. See readings referred to in preceding
    note. The reference to the ark of God’s testament is a forcible
    reminder also of that which is to be the standard in the
    judgment,—the law of God, or ten commandments. See Eccl. 12:13,
    14; Rom. 2:12, 13; James 2:8-12.

    From its closing words—the reference to “great hail”—the seventh
    trumpet evidently embraces the seven last plagues (see Rev. 16:17,
    18); and from its opening words—“the kingdoms of this world are
    become the kingdoms of our Lord”—it marks the setting up of God’s
    everlasting kingdom.



The Eastern Question


                             [Illustration.]

 The Bosporus. "He shall come to his end, and none shall help him." Dan.
                                  11:45.


1. What, briefly stated, is the Eastern question?

The driving out of Turkey from Europe, and the final extinction of the
Turkish Empire, with the world-embracing events that follow. It has been
otherwise described as “the driving of the Turk into Asia, and a scramble
for his territory.”

2. What scriptures are devoted to the Turkish power?

Dan. 11:40-45; Revelation 9; and Rev. 16:12.


    NOTE.—In the eleventh chapter of Daniel, Turkey is dealt with
    under the title of the “king of the north;” in Revelation 9, under
    the sounding of the fifth and sixth “trumpets;” and in Revelation
    16, under the symbol of the drying up of the water of the chief
    river of the Turkish Asiatic possessions, “the great river
    Euphrates.” The actual drying up of the river Euphrates was the
    signal for the overthrow of ancient Babylon.


3. When did Turkey take Constantinople, and thus the northern division of
ancient Greece and Rome?

In A.D. 1453, under Mohammed II. See pages 293, 294.


    NOTE.—After the death of Alexander the Great, the Grecian Empire
    was divided by his four leading generals, Cassander, Lysimachus,
    Seleucus, and Ptolemy, into four parts,—east, west, north, and
    south,—the first three of which were shortly afterward absorbed
    into one kingdom, the kingdom of the north, Egypt remaining the
    king, or kingdom, of the south. In the breaking up of the Roman
    Empire, the Turks gained possession of the Holy Land in A.D. 1058,
    and finally of Constantinople, and considerable portions of
    eastern Europe,—the kingdom of the north,—in 1453, to which, with
    varying fortunes and shrinking geographical boundaries, it has
    held ever since.


4. How has Turkey been regarded by European nations?

“The Turks have ever remained quite insensible to the influences of
European civilization, and their government has been a perfect blight and
curse to the countries subject to their rule. They have always been looked
upon _as intruders_ in Europe, and their presence there has led to several
of the most sanguinary wars of modern times. Gradually they have been
pushed out from their European possessions, and the time is probably not
very far distant when they will be driven back across the
Bosporus.”—_Myers’s __“__General History,__”__ edition 1902, page 468._

5. When did the independence of Turkey cease?

In 1840, at the close of a two years’ war between Turkey and Egypt, when
the fate of Turkey was placed in the hands of four great powers of
Europe,—England, Russia, Austria, and Prussia. See page 294, under
question 19.

6. What is one of the last predictions of the prophecy of Daniel
concerning the king of the north?

“But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him:
therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to
make away many.” Dan. 11:44.


    NOTE.—Upon this, Dr. Adam Clarke, writing in 1825, said: “If the
    Turkish power be understood, as in the preceding verses, it may
    mean that the Persians on the _east_ and the Russians on the
    _north_ will at some time greatly embarrass the Ottoman
    government.” Such indeed was the case, and these conditions
    brought on the Crimean war of 1853-56, between Russia and Turkey.
    In this war England and France came to the help of Turkey, and
    prevented Russia from grasping Constantinople, her coveted prize,
    and thus gaining access to the Dardanelles and the Mediterranean
    and so possessing herself of the gateway of commerce between
    Europe Asia. Without an outlet to the sea, Russia cannot be a
    strong naval power. In his celebrated will, Peter the Great of
    Russia (1672-1725) admonished his countrymen thus: “Take every
    possible means of gaining Constantinople and the Indies, for,”
    said he, “he who rules there will be the true sovereign of the
    world; excite war continually in Turkey and Persia; ... get
    control of the sea by degrees; ... advance to the Indies, which
    are the great depot of the world. Once there, we can do without
    the gold of England.” The authenticity of this will has been
    questioned, but it outlines a policy which Russia has quite
    faithfully pursued.


7. What since 1840 has saved Turkey from complete overthrow?

The help and interference of various European powers.


    NOTE.—“It is not too much to say that England has twice saved
    Turkey from complete subjection since 1853. It is
    largely—mainly—due to our action that she now exists at all as an
    independent power. On both these occasions we dragged the powers
    of Europe along with us in maintaining the Ottoman
    government.”—_Duke of Argyle (1895), in __“__The Turkish-Armenian
    Question,__”__ page 17._


8. Why have these powers thus helped Turkey?

Not from love for Turkey, but for fear of the international complications
that its downfall might entail.


    NOTES.—In his Mansion House speech, Nov. 9, 1895, Lord Salisbury,
    responding to a wide-spread demand for the overthrow of the
    Turkish power, said: “Turkey is in that remarkable condition that
    it has now stood for half a century, mainly because the great
    powers of the world have resolved that _for the peace of
    Christendom it is necessary that the Ottoman Empire should stand_.
    They came to that conclusion nearly half a century ago. I do not
    think they have altered it now. _The danger_, if the Ottoman
    Empire fall, would not merely be the danger that would threaten
    the territories of which that empire consists; _it would be the
    danger that the fire there lit should spread to other nations, and
    should involve all that is most powerful and civilized in Europe
    in a dangerous and calamitous contest_. That was a danger that was
    present to the minds of our fathers when they resolved to make the
    integrity and independence of the Ottoman Empire a matter of
    European treaty, _and that is a danger_ WHICH HAS NOT PASSED
    AWAY.”

    “The Balkan, or Near Eastern, question has been one of the most
    complicated political problems of the world’s history for half a
    century. ... For four centuries and a half, or ever since the
    conquering Turk crossed the Bosporus and took Constantinople, the
    grim contest has been on to dislodge him by war and
    diplomacy.”—_American Review of Reviews, November, 1912._

    Nearly a century ago, Napoleon, while a prisoner on St. Helena,
    explained that when emperor of France, he would not consent for
    Alexander, the czar of Russia, to have Constantinople, “foreseeing
    that the equilibrium of Europe would be destroyed.”


9. What is the divine prediction regarding the future and final downfall
of the king of the north?

“And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas _in the
glorious holy mountain: yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help
him_.” Dan. 11:45.


    NOTE.—It would seem natural that the Ottoman government should
    make its last stand at Jerusalem. Around the city of the Holy
    Sepulcher and the tombs of the “saints” has been waged for long
    years a war between the followers of Islam and the believers in
    the Christian religion. In this place, many Bible students
    believe, Turkey will come to her end in fulfilment of this
    scripture.


10. Under which of the seven last plagues is the water of the Euphrates
(Turkey) to be dried up, and for what purpose?

“And _the sixth angel_ poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates;
and the water thereof was _dried up, that the way of the kings of the East
might be prepared_.” Rev. 16:12.


    NOTE.—For years the drying-up process of the Turkish Empire has
    been in progress, as may be seen from the following:—

    (1) In 1783 Turkey was compelled to surrender to Russia the
    territory of the Crimea, including all the countries east of the
    Caspian Sea.

    (2) In 1828 Greece secured her independence.

    (3) In 1830 Algeria was ceded to France.

    (4) In 1867 Turkey was forced to recognize the independence of
    Egypt.

    (5) In the same year Turkey lost possession of Servia and Bosnia.

    (6) In 1878 the Treaty of Berlin granted autonomous government to
    Bulgaria, and independence to Roumelia, Roumania, and Montenegro.

    (7) In 1912 Tripoli was taken over by Italy.

    (8) In 1912 and 1913 the Balkan States and Greece dispossessed
    Turkey of nearly all of her remaining territory in Europe.


11. Under this plague, what incites the nations to war?

“And I saw _three unclean spirits_ like frogs come out of the mouth of the
dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the
false prophet. For they are _the spirits of devils_, working miracles,
which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, _to
gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty_.” Verses 13,
14.

12. At this time, what event is near at hand?

“_Behold, I come as a thief._ Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his
garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.” Verse 15.

13. To what place will the nations be gathered for battle?

“And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue
_Armageddon_.” Verse 16.


    NOTE.—Armageddon consists of a great triangular plain in northern
    Palestine, twelve by fifteen by eighteen miles, extending
    southeast from Mt. Carmel, otherwise known as the plain of
    Esdraelon, or valley of Jezreel. It has been the scene of many
    great battles, such as that of Gideon’s overthrow of the
    Midianites (Judges 6, 7), when “the Lord set every man’s sword
    against his fellow;” of Saul’s defeat by the Philistines (1 Sam.
    29: 1; 1 Chronicles 10); and of Josiah’s defeat by Pharaoh Necho
    (2 Kings 23:29, 30; 2 Chron. 35:20-24): and, as this scripture
    indicates, it is the place where, under the influence of evil
    spirits just preceding Christ’s second coming, the great armies of
    the world will be gathered for their final struggle and utter
    destruction under the seventh plague.


14. When the king of the north comes to his end, what, according to the
prophecy, is to take place?

“And _at that time shall Michael stand up_, the great Prince which
standeth for the children of thy people: and _there shall be a time of
trouble, such as never was since there was a nation_ even to that same
time: and _at that time thy people shall be delivered_, every one that
shall be found written in the book.” Dan. 12:1.


    NOTE.—The expression “stand up” occurs eight times in this line of
    prophecy (Daniel 11 and 12), and in each case means _to reign_.
    See Dan. 11:2, 3, 4, 7, 14, 20, 21; 12:1. Michael is Christ, as
    will be seen by comparing Jude 9, 1 Thess. 4:16, and John 5:25.
    When the Turkish Empire is brought to an end, therefore, the time
    will have come for Christ to receive His kingdom (Luke 19:11-15),
    and begin His reign. This great change will be ushered in by the
    downfall, not only of Turkey, but of all nations (Rev. 11:15); by
    the time of trouble here spoken of; by the seven last plagues
    described in Revelation 16; and by the deliverance of all God’s
    people,—those whose names are found written in the book of life
    (Rev. 3:5; 20:12),—which shows that probation and the
    investigative judgment will then be past.


15. What will take place at this time?

“And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to
everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.” Verse 2.


    NOTES.—At the resurrection of Christ there was a special
    resurrection, when many of the saints were raised from the dead,
    were seen of many, and were taken to heaven with Christ at His
    ascension. Matt. 27:52, 53; Eph. 4:8. So, just prior to Christ’s
    second coming and the general resurrection of the righteous, many
    of the sleeping saints, and some colossal sinners (those that
    “pierced Him,” Rev. 1:7), it seems, will be raised to witness His
    coming, and hear God’s covenant of peace with His people.

    This line of prophecy, therefore, brings us down to the
    resurrection of the righteous, which takes place at the second
    advent.


16. What false message will go forth before destruction comes upon those
unprepared for Christ’s coming and kingdom?

“For yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord so cometh as a
thief in the night. _For when they shall say, Peace and safety; then
sudden destruction cometh upon them_, ... and they shall not escape.” 1
Thess. 5:2, 3.


    NOTE.—The so-called Christian nations will not go to Palestine
    merely to expel the Turks from the land. As in the crusades of the
    twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the idea will be to rescue the
    Holy Land from the Mohammedans, and make Jerusalem the center of a
    glorious kingdom, with Christ as king. The Papacy itself, it is
    thought by some, will at this time remove its seat to Jerusalem,
    and issue a great peace proclamation, directing the nations to
    beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into
    pruning-hooks, and calling upon all to come up to the mountain of
    the Lord, as described in Isa. 2:2-5 and Micah 4:1-5. Infatuated
    by the doctrine of a temporal millennium, many nations will join
    in the call, and say, “For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and
    the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.” Isa. 2:3. But this will be
    but the signal for the battle of Armageddon and the “sudden
    destruction” that is to overtake the world and bring to an end the
    present order of things. See Rev. 19:17-21; Eze. 38:14-23;
    39:17-22. Toward this consummation passing events all indicate we
    are rapidly hastening.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Watchman on the walls of Zion,
      What, O tell us, of the night?
    Is the day-star now arising?
      Will the morn soon greet our sight?
      O’er your vision shine there now some rays of light?

    Tell, O tell us, are the landmarks
      On our voyage all passed by?
    Are we nearing now the haven?
      Can we e’en the land descry?
      Do we truly see the heavenly kingdom nigh?



The Seven Last Plagues


                             [Illustration.]

  Marshaling Of The Nations. "And he gathered them together into a place
                   called ... Armageddon." Rev. 16:16.


1. What is God’s final warning against false worship?

“If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his
forehead, or in his hand, _the same shall drink of the wine of the wrath
of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of His
indignation_; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the
presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb.” Rev. 14:9,
10.


    NOTE.—During probationary time God’s wrath is always tempered, or
    mingled, with mercy. Thus the prophet Habakkuk prays, “In wrath
    remember mercy.” Hab. 3:2. God’s wrath unmixed with mercy is
    visited only when mercy has done its final work and evil has gone
    to the limit, so that there is “no remedy.” See Gen. 6:3; 15:16;
    19:12, 13; 2 Chron. 36:16; Matt. 23:37, 38; Luke 19:42-44; 2 Peter
    2:6; Jude 7.


2. In what is the wrath of God filled up?

“And I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvelous, seven angels
having _the seven last plagues_; for _in them is filled up the wrath of
God_.” Rev. 15:1.

3. How does Joel describe the day of the Lord?

“Alas for the day! for the day of the Lord is at hand, and as a
destruction from the Almighty shall it come.” “For the day of the Lord is
great and very terrible; and who can abide it?” Joel 1:15; 2:11.

4. What has Daniel said of this time?

“And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a
nation even to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be
delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book.” Dan. 12:1.
See Eze. 7:15-19.


    NOTE.—The seven last plagues will be the most terrible scourges
    ever visited upon man. As Ahab accused Elijah of being the cause
    of Israel’s calamities (1 Kings 18:17, 18), so, in the time of
    trouble, the wicked and those who have departed from God will be
    enraged at the righteous, will accuse them as being the cause of
    the plagues, and will seek to destroy them as did Haman the Jews.
    See Esther 3:8-14. But God will miraculously deliver His people at
    this time as He did then.


5. What will be the first plague, and upon whom will it fall?

“And the first went, and poured out his vial upon _the earth_; and _there
fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the mark of the
beast, and upon them which worshiped his image_.” Rev. 16:2.

6. What will constitute the second plague?

“And the second angel poured out his vial upon _the sea_; and _it became
as the blood of a dead man: and every living soul died in the sea_.” Verse
3.

7. What will be the third plague?

“And the third angel poured out his vial upon _the rivers and fountains of
waters_; and _they became blood_.” Verse 4.


    NOTE.—The second plague affects the sea. The third plague comes
    closer to the habitations of men, and affects the land. The water
    supplies are contaminated.


8. Why, under these plagues, does the Lord give men blood to drink?

“_For they have shed the blood of saints and prophets_, and Thou hast
given them blood to drink; for they are worthy.” Verse 6.


    NOTE.—In this is shown God’s abhorrence of oppression and
    persecution. The plagues are God’s rebukes against colossal forms
    of sin.


9. What will be the fourth plague?

“And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon _the sun_; and _power was
given unto him to scorch men with fire_.” Verse 8. See Joel 1:16-20.


    NOTE.—Sun-worship is the most ancient and wide-spread of all forms
    of idolatry. In this plague God manifests His displeasure at this
    form of idolatry. That which men have worshiped as a god, becomes
    a plague and tormentor. Thus it was in the plagues of Egypt. Those
    things which the Egyptians had worshiped became scourges to them
    instead of benefactors and blessings. See “The Philosophy of the
    Plan of Salvation,” by “An American Citizen,” chapter 3.


10. Will even this terrible judgment lead men to repent?

“And men were scorched with great heat, and _blasphemed the name of God_,
which hath power over these plagues: and _they repented not to give Him
glory_.” Verse 9.

11. What will be the fifth plague?

“And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon _the seat of the beast_; and
_his kingdom was full of darkness_; and they gnawed their tongues for
pain.” Verse 10.


    NOTE.—This plague strikes at the very seat of the great apostasy
    of the latter days, the Papacy. It will doubtless be similar in
    effect to the like plague in Egypt, which was a darkness that
    could “be felt.” Ex. 10:21-23. By this plague that iniquitous,
    haughty, and apostate spiritual despotism which has set itself up
    as possessing all truth, and as being the light of the world, is
    enshrouded in midnight darkness.


12. What takes place under the sixth plague?

“And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river _Euphrates_;
and _the water thereof was dried up_, that the way of the kings of the
East might be prepared.” Verse 12.


    NOTE.—This, we understand, refers to the drying up of the Turkish
    Empire by the great world powers preparatory to the battle of
    Armageddon. See preceding reading.


13. What gathers the nations to the battle of Armageddon?

“And I saw _three unclean spirits_ like frogs come out of the mouth of the
dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the
false prophet. For they are _the spirits of devils_, working miracles,
which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to
gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.... And he
gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue
Armageddon.” Verses 13-16.


    NOTE.—This scripture shows that it is the spirit of Satan which
    incites men to war, and explains why the great nations of the
    world are now making such preparations for war. The dragon
    represents paganism; the beast, the Papacy; and the false prophet,
    apostate Protestantism,—the three great religious apostasies since
    the flood. The plain Esdraelon, in southwestern Galilee, is the
    Armageddon here referred to. See note on page 99.


14. At this time what event is imminent?

“_Behold, I come as a thief._ Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his
garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.” Verse 15.

15. What takes place under the seventh plague?

“And the seventh angel poured out his vial into _the air_.... And there
were _voices_, and _thunders_, and _lightnings_; and _there was a great
earthquake_, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an
earthquake, and so great. And the great city was divided into three parts,
_and the cities of the nations fell_.” Verses 17-19.

16. What accompanies the earthquake?

“And there fell upon men _a great hail out of heaven_, every stone about
the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of
the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.” Verse 21. See Job
38:22, 23; Ps. 7:11-13.

17. What will the Lord be to His people at this time?

“The Lord also shall roar out of Zion, and utter His voice from Jerusalem;
and the heavens and the earth shall shake: _but the Lord will be the hope
of His people, and the strength of the children of Israel_.” Joel 3:16.
See Jer. 25:30, 31; Haggai 2:21; Heb.12:26; Ps. 91:5-10.


    NOTE.—To prepare His people and the world for these terrible
    judgments, the Lord, as in the days of Noah, sends a warning
    message to every nation, kindred, tongue, and people. See Rev.
    14:6-10.


18. Just before the pouring out of the plagues, what call does God send to
His people still in Babylon?

“And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, _Come out of her, My
people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of
her plagues_. For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath
remembered her iniquities.” Rev. 18:4, 5. See Gen. 19:12-17; Jer. 51:6;
and page 254.


    NOTE.—As before the flood, many of God’s people will doubtless be
    laid away to rest shortly before the time of trouble. See Isa.
    57:1; Rev. 14:13. Referring to the time before the flood, an
    ancient book says: “And all men who walked in the ways of the
    Lord, died in those days, before the Lord brought the evil upon
    man which He had declared, for this was from the Lord, that they
    should not see the evil which the Lord spoke of concerning the
    sons of men.”—_Book of Jasher 4:20._ See also chapter 5:21 of the
    same book.


19. How suddenly will the plagues come upon modern Babylon?

“Therefore shall her plagues come _in one day_, death, and mourning, and
famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the Lord
God who judgeth her.... For in _one hour_ is thy judgment come.” Rev.
18:8-10.

20. What famine will come at this time upon those who have rejected God’s
messages of mercy?

“Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that _I will send a famine in the
land; not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the
words of the Lord_: and they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the
north even to the east, they shall run to and fro to seek the word of the
Lord, and shall not find it.” Amos 8:11, 12. See Luke 13:25; Prov.
1:24-26; Heb. 12:15-17.

21. What announcement is made under the seventh plague?

“And there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the
throne, saying, _It is done_.” Rev. 16:17.


    NOTE.—God made man to bless him. Gen. 1:28. When His blessings are
    abused, He withholds them, to teach men their source and their
    proper use. Haggai 1:7-11. Judgments are sent that men may “learn
    righteousness.” Isa. 25:9; 1 Kings 17:1. That men do not repent
    under the plagues is no evidence that God has ceased to be
    merciful and forgiving. They simply demonstrate that all have
    determined their destiny, and that even the severest judgments of
    God will not move the ungodly and impenitent to repentance.


22. Just preceding Christ’s second coming, what solemn decree will go
forth showing that the cases of all have been decided?

“He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let
him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still:
and he that is holy, let him be holy still. And, behold, I come quickly;
and My reward is with Me, to give every man according as his work shall
be.” Rev. 22:11, 12.

23. What psalms seem to have been written especially for the comfort and
encouragement of God’s people during the time of the seven last plagues?

Psalms 91 and 46. See also Isa. 33:13-17.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    The great decisive day is at hand!
      The day when Christ will come,
      To call His children home
      And to seal the sinner’s doom,
            Is at hand.

    Where will the sinner hide in that day?
      It will be in vain to call,
    “Ye mountains on us fall,”
      For His hand will find out all
            In that day.



The Mystery Of God Finished


                             [Illustration.]

 Watchman, What Of The Night? "The kingdoms of this world are become the
          kingdoms of our Lord, and of His Christ." Rev. 11:15.


1. Following his description of the sixth trumpet, what did John see?

“And I saw _another mighty angel come down from heaven_, clothed with a
cloud: and a rainbow was upon his head, and his face was as it were the
sun.” Rev. 10:1.

2. What did he have in his hand?

“And he had in his hand _a little book open_.” Verse 2.


    NOTE.—The book of Daniel, which was to be “sealed,” or closed,
    till the time of the end, is doubtless referred to here. See Dan.
    12:4, 9.


3. What solemn announcement did this angel make?

“And the angel which I saw ... lifted up his hand to heaven, and sware by
Him that liveth forever and ever, who created heaven, and the things that
therein are, ... _that there should be time no longer_.” Rev. 10:5, 6.


    NOTE.—Not literal nor probationary time, but prophetic time. The
    2300-day period, which ended in 1844, must be alluded to here. See
    page 230. No prophetic period in the Bible reaches beyond this.


4. What did the angel say was to be finished when the seventh trumpet was
about to sound?

“But in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he shall begin to
sound, _the mystery of God_ should be finished, as He hath declared to His
servants the prophets.” Verse 7.


    NOTE.—The mystery of God is the gospel. Eph. 3:1-6; Gal. 1:11, 12.
    The gospel, then, is to be finished as the seventh trumpet is
    about to sound.


5. What was John told to do with the little book?

“Go and take the little book which is open in the hand of the angel ...
and _eat it up_.” Verses 8, 9.

6. What was to be the result of the eating of this book?

“It shall _make thy belly bitter_, but it shall be _in thy mouth sweet as
honey_.” Verse 9, last part.

7. What does the apostle say of his experience in this matter?

“And I took the little book out of the angel’s hand, and ate it up; and it
was in my mouth _sweet as honey_: and as soon as I had eaten it, my belly
was _bitter_.” Verse 10.


    NOTE.—In this is most strikingly foretold the experience of those
    who proclaimed the advent and judgment-hour message of 1843-44.
    Joyous in the hope that Christ was coming then, like the early
    disciples regarding His first advent (Luke 24:21; Acts 1:6, 7),
    they were bitterly disappointed, and found that there was still a
    work on earth for them to do, as did the early disciples following
    the crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension of Christ.


8. What words of the angel to John show that both literal and probationary
time were to continue yet for a time, and that God had a still further
message for the world?

“And he said unto me, _Thou must prophesy again_ before many peoples, and
nations, and tongues, and kings.” Verse 11.


    NOTE.—The message of Revelation 10 is the same as that of Rev.
    14:6, 7; and the later messages of Rev. 14:8-12 answer to the
    instruction, “Thou must _prophesy again_,” of Rev. 10:11. But all
    are last-day messages, and indicate that the end of all things is
    near at hand.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    How long, O Lord our Saviour,
      Wilt Thou remain away?
    Our hearts are growing weary
      Of Thy so long delay.
    O when shall come the moment
      When, brighter far than morn,
    The sunshine of Thy glory
      Shall on Thy people dawn?

    How long, O gracious Master,
      Wilt Thou Thy household leave?
    So long hast Thou now tarried,
      Few Thy return believe.
    Immersed in sloth and folly,
      Thy servants, Lord, we see;
    And few of us stand ready
      With joy to welcome Thee.

    O, wake Thy slumbering people;
      Send forth the solemn cry;
    Let all the saints repeat it,—
      “The Saviour draweth nigh!”
    May all our lamps be burning,
      Our loins well girded be,
    Each longing heart preparing
      With joy Thy face to see.



Great Lines of Prophecy


*The Great Image of Daniel 2.* This prophecy, written over twenty-five
hundred years ago, is one of the greatest, briefest, and most
comprehensive prophecies in the Bible. Under the symbol of a great
metallic image, the rise and fall of nations is outlined till the end of
time and the setting up of God’s everlasting kingdom. See reading on page
204.

*The Four Beasts of Daniel 7.* This line of prophecy covers the same
ground as that of Daniel 2, but with additional features introduced,
especially that concerning the development and work of the “little horn”
power of the fourth beast, under which God’s people were to be oppressed
until delivered and placed in possession of the kingdom “forever and
ever.” See reading on page 213.

*The 2300 Days of Daniel 8.* This prophecy, after tracing the course of
empire down through Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome, introduces the longest
prophetic period in the Bible, reaching from the beginning of the movement
to restore and build Jerusalem before Christ’s first advent, to a similar
work to be performed by God’s people in the last days preparatory to
Christ’s second advent. See reading on page 230.

*The Seventy Weeks of Daniel 9.* This prophecy fixes the date of the
beginning of the 2300 days, of which the seventy weeks are a part;
definitely marks the time of Christ’s first advent; and briefly refers to
the “consummation” and the overthrow of the last of earthly kingdoms. See
pages 232-236.

*The Standing Up of Michael—Daniel 11 and 12.* A literal prophecy tracing
the rise and fall of kings and kingdoms from the early rulers of Persia in
the sixth century B.C., to the overthrow of Turkey, the “king of the
north,” and the “standing up,” or reign, of Michael, the Great Prince,
which is Christ. See page 296.

*The Prophecies of the Revelation.* These are supplemental to the
prophecies of Daniel. Under the Seven Churches, the Seven Seals, the Seven
Trumpets, the Great Red Dragon, the Leopard Beast, and the Two-Horned
Beast, the history and experience of the church and of earthly kingdoms
are traced during the Christian era, to the end of the age. See pages
301-310.

*Christ’s Great Prophecy.* Christ’s claim to being a prophet, and the
greatest of all prophets, is fully established by His prophecy recorded in
Matthew 24, Mark 13, and Luke 21. In this He depicts minutely the
destruction of Jerusalem, the great tribulation of the Dark Ages, and the
signs that were to herald His second coming. See pages 311-325.



PART VII. COMING EVENTS AND SIGNS OF THE TIMES


                             [Illustration.]

 Siege Of Jerusalem, A.D. 70. "When ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with
   armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh." Luke 21:20.



Our Lord’s Great Prophecy


                             [Illustration.]

Christ Foretelling The Destruction Of Jerusalem. "When shall these things
   be? and what shall be the sign of Thy coming, and of the end of the
                           world?" Matt. 24:3.


1. How did Christ feel concerning Jerusalem, as He was about to make His
final visit to the city before His crucifixion?

“And when He was come near, He beheld the city, and _wept over it_,
saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the
things which belong unto thy peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes.”
Luke 19:41, 42.

2. In what words did He foretell its destruction?

“For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench
about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side, and
shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee; and
they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another; because thou knewest
not the time of thy visitation.” Verses 43, 44.

3. What pitiful appeal did He make to the impenitent city?

“O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them
which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children
together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye
would not!” Matt. 23:37.

4. As He was about to leave the temple, what did He say?

“Behold, your house is left unto you _desolate_.” Verse 38.


    NOTE.—That which was to fill up their cup of iniquity was their
    final rejection and crucifixion of Christ, and their condemnation
    and persecution of His apostles and people after His resurrection.
    See Matt. 23:29-35; John 19:15; Acts 4-8.


5. Hearing these words, what questions did the disciples ask?

“Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of Thy
coming, and of the end of the world?” Matt. 24:3.


    NOTE.—Christ’s answers to these questions are worthy of the most
    careful study. The destruction of Jerusalem and the overthrow of
    the Jewish nation attending it are a type of the final destruction
    of all the cities of the world, and the overthrow of all nations.
    To some extent, therefore, the descriptions of the two great
    events seem to be blended. When Christ referred to the destruction
    of Jerusalem, His prophetic words reached beyond that event to the
    final conflagration when the Lord shall rise out of His place “to
    punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity,” and when
    the earth “shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her
    slain.” Isa. 26:21. Thus the entire discourse was given not for
    the early disciples only, but for those who were to live during
    the closing scenes of the world’s history. During the discourse
    Christ did, however, give definite signs, both of the destruction
    of Jerusalem and of His second coming.


6. In His reply, how did Christ indicate that neither the end of the world
nor of the Jewish nation was immediately at hand?

“Jesus answered and said unto them, _Take heed that no man deceive you_.
For many shall come in My name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive
many. And ye shall hear of wars and rumors of wars: see that ye be not
troubled: _for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not
yet_.” Verses 4-6.

7. What did He say of the wars, famines, pestilences, and earthquakes
which were to precede these events?

“All these are _the beginning of sorrows_.” Verse 8.


    NOTE.—These were to precede and culminate in the great calamity
    and overthrow, first, of Jerusalem, and finally of the whole
    world; for, as already noted, the prophecy has a double
    application, first, to Jerusalem and the Jewish nation, and
    secondly, to the whole world; the destruction of Jerusalem for its
    rejection of Christ at His first advent being a type of the
    destruction of the world at the end for its rejection of Christ in
    refusing to heed the closing warning message sent by God to
    prepare the world for Christ’s second advent.


8. In what language did Christ briefly describe the experiences of His
people previous to these calamities?

“Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and
ye shall be hated of all nations for My name’s sake. And then shall many
be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another. And
many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many. And because
iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold.” Verses 9-12.

9. Who did He say would be saved?

“But _he that shall endure unto the end_, the same shall be saved.” Verse
13.

10. When did Christ say the end would come?

“And _this gospel of the kingdom_ shall be _preached in all the world_ for
a _witness_ unto _all nations_; and _then shall the end come_.” Verse 14.


    NOTES.—In 60 A.D. Paul carried the gospel to Rome, which was then
    the capital of the world. In A.D. 64 he wrote of the saints of
    “Cæsar’s household” (Phil. 4:22); and the same year he says that
    the gospel had been “preached to every creature which is under
    heaven.” Col. 1:23. Very soon after this (October, 66 A.D.) the
    Romans began their attacks against Jerusalem; and three and
    one-half years later the overthrow of the city and of the Jewish
    nation followed in the notable five months’ siege under Titus, in
    the spring and summer of 70 A.D.

    Thus it was respecting the end of the Jewish nation; and thus it
    will be in the end of the world as a whole. When the gospel, or
    good news, of Christ’s coming kingdom has been preached in all the
    world for a witness unto all nations, the end of the world—of all
    nations—will come. As the end of the Jewish nation came with
    overwhelming destruction, so will come the end of the world.
    Armageddon, the battle of the nations, will be fought, and the
    world will be swept with the besom of destruction under the seven
    last plagues. See readings on pages 296, 301.


11. What sign did Christ mention by which His disciples might know when
the destruction of Jerusalem was near?

“And _when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies_, then know that
the desolation thereof is nigh.” Luke 21:20.

12. When this sign appeared, what were the disciples to do?

“When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by
Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him
understand:) then let them which be in Judea _flee into the mountains_.”
Matt. 24:15, 16.


    NOTE.—In October, 66 A.D., when Cestius came against the city, but
    for some unaccountable reason suddenly withdrew his army from it,
    the Christians discerned in this the sign foretold by Christ, and
    fled. After the departure of Cestius, Josephus, in his “Wars of
    the Jews,” chapter 20, says that “many of the most eminent of the
    Jews swam away from the city, as from a ship when it is going to
    sink.” It is a remarkable fact that in the terrible siege which
    occurred under Titus three and one-half years later, not a single
    Christian is known to have lost his life, while 1,100,000 Jews are
    said to have perished in it. Here is a most striking lesson on the
    value and importance of studying and believing the prophecies, and
    giving heed to the signs of the times. Those who believed what
    Christ had said, and watched for the sign which He had foretold,
    were saved, while the unbelieving perished. So it will be in the
    end of the world. The watchful and believing will be delivered,
    while the careless and unbelieving will be snared and taken. See
    Matt. 24:36-44; Luke 21:34-36; 1 Thess. 5:1-6.


13. When the sign appeared, how suddenly were they to flee?

“Let him which is on the housetop not come down to take anything out of
his house: neither let him which is in the field return back to take his
clothes.” Verses 17, 18.

14. Besides telling His disciples when to flee, how did Christ further
show His solicitude and tender care for them?

“But pray ye that your flight be not in _the winter_, neither on _the
Sabbath day_.” Verse 20.


    NOTES.—The winter would be an unfavorable time in which to flee,
    entailing discomfort and hardship; and an attempt to flee on the
    Sabbath day would doubtless have been met with difficulty, so
    false and pharisaical were the notions of the Jews respecting the
    true character and object of the Sabbath. See Matt. 12:1-14; Luke
    13:14-17; Mark 1:32; 2:23-28; John 5:10-18.

    The prayers of Christ’s followers were heard. Events were so
    over-*ruled that neither Jews nor Romans hindered the flight of
    the Christians. Upon the retreat of Cestius, the Jews pursued
    after his army, and the Christians thus had an opportunity to
    leave the city. The country also had been cleared of enemies who
    might have endeavored to intercept them. At the time of this
    siege, the Jews were assembled at Jerusalem to keep the Feast of
    Tabernacles, and thus the Christians of Judea were able to escape
    unmolested, and in the autumn, a most favorable time for flight.


15. What trying experience did Christ then foretell?

“For _then shall be great tribulation_, such as was not since the
beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be.” Verse 21.


    NOTES.—In paragraph 4 of his preface to his “Wars of the Jews,”
    Josephus, referring to the destruction of Jerusalem, says: “The
    misfortunes of all men, from the beginning of the world, if they
    be compared to these of the Jews, are not so considerable.” In
    this terrible calamity, the prophecy of Moses recorded in Deut.
    28:47-53, was literally fulfilled. He said, “Thou shalt eat the
    fruit of thine own body, the flesh of thy sons and of thy
    daughters, ... in the siege, and in the straitness, wherewith
    thine enemies shall distress thee.” For an account of the
    fulfilment of this, see Josephus’s “Wars of the Jews,” book 6,
    chap. 3, par. 4.

    Following the destruction of Jerusalem came the persecution of the
    early Christians under the pagan emperors during the first three
    centuries of the Christian era, that begun under Diocletian in 303
    A.D., and continuing for ten years (Rev. 2:10), being the most
    bitter and extensive persecution of God’s people the world had yet
    witnessed. Following this came the still greater and more terrible
    persecution of the saints during the long centuries of papal
    supremacy, foretold in Dan. 7:25 and Rev. 12:6. All these
    tribulations occurred under either pagan or papal Rome.


16. For whose sake did Christ say the period of papal persecution would be
shortened?

“And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be
saved: but _for the elect’s sake those days shall be shortened_.” Verse
22.


    NOTE.—Through the influence of the Reformation of the sixteenth
    century, and the movements which grew out of it, the power of the
    Papacy to enforce its decrees against those it pronounced heretics
    was gradually lessened, until persecution ceased almost wholly
    about the middle of the eighteenth century—the beginning of an
    epoch of freedom.


17. Against what deceptions did Christ then warn us?

“Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe
it not. For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall
show great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they
shall deceive the very elect.” Verses 23, 24.

18. Answering the question as to what would be the sign of His coming and
the end of the world, what did Christ say?

“_There shall be signs_ in the _sun_, and in the _moon_, and in the
_stars_; and upon the earth _distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea
and the waves roaring; men’s hearts failing them for fear, and for looking
after those things which are coming on the earth_: for the powers of
heaven shall be shaken.” Luke 21:25, 26.

19. When were the first of these signs to appear, and what were they to
be?

“_Immediately after the tribulation of those days_ shall _the sun be
darkened_, and _the moon shall not give her light_, and _the stars shall
fall from heaven_.” Matt. 24:29.

20. How is this expressed by Mark?

“But _in those days, after that tribulation_, the sun shall be darkened,
and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars of heaven shall fall,
and the powers that are in heaven shall be shaken.” Mark 13:24, 25.


    NOTE.—As already noted, papal persecution almost wholly ceased
    about the middle of the eighteenth century. Then, true to Christ’s
    words, the signs of His coming at once began to appear.


21. When was there a wonderful darkening of the sun?

On May 19, 1780.


    NOTE.—May 19, 1780, is known in history as “the dark day.” On this
    day over a large portion of the New World, upon which at this time
    the eyes of all the world were centered, there occurred, at
    midday, a remarkable darkness. “Candles were lighted in many
    houses. The birds were silent, and disappeared. The fowls retired
    to roost.” In harmony with the impression God evidently designed
    should be made by the sign, many thought the day of judgment was
    at hand. See next reading.


22. When did the moon refuse to give her light?

The night following the darkening of the sun, May 19, 1780.


    NOTE.—Although the moon had fulled only the night before, the
    darkness of this night was so intense that for a time no luminous
    body whatever appeared in the heavens, and a sheet of white paper
    could not be seen when held within a few inches of the eyes. See
    next reading.


23. What sign was to follow the darkening of the sun and the moon?

                             [Illustration.]

The Dark Day Of May 19, 1780. "Immediately after the tribulation of those
              days shall the sun be darkened." Matt. 24:29.


“And _the stars shall fall from heaven_.” Matt. 24:29.

24. When did the stars fall, as here predicted?

Nov. 13, 1833.


    NOTE.—On the morning of Nov. 13, 1833, there occurred the most
    wonderful exhibition of shooting stars the world has ever seen.
    Those who witnessed it, says Professor Olmsted, the celebrated
    astronomer of Yale College, “probably saw the greatest display of
    celestial fireworks that has ever been since the creation of the
    world, or at least within the annals covered by the pages of
    history.” The extent of this shower, he says, “was such as to
    cover no inconsiderable part of the earth’s surface.” And, like
    the darkening of the sun and moon, it was considered by many who
    saw it as “the harbinger of the coming of the Son of man.”


25. What were to be the signs on earth of Christ’s coming?

“And upon the earth _distress of nations_, with perplexity; _the sea and
the waves roaring; men’s hearts failing them for fear_, and for looking
after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven
shall be shaken.” Luke 21:25, 26.


    NOTE.—This is an exact picture of the condition of things in the
    world today. Through greed of gain, lawlessness, licentiousness,
    increasing violence, trouble between capital and labor,
    international complications, and preparations for war, the nations
    are perplexed, and men’s hearts tremble with fear as they look
    into the future. The elements are also disturbed, as seen in great
    earthquakes and storms on land and sea.


26. What did Christ say was to be the next great event following these
signs?

“And then shall they see _the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and
great glory_.” Verse 27. See Matt. 24:30.

27. When these things should _begin_ to come to pass, what did Christ tell
His people to do?

“And when these things begin to come to pass, then _look up, and lift up
your heads_; for your redemption draweth nigh.” Luke 21:28.

28. When the trees put forth their leaves, what do we know?

“Now learn a parable of the fig-tree; When his branch is yet tender, and
putteth forth leaves, _ye know that summer is nigh_.” Matt. 24:32.

29. What may be known with equal certainty when these signs have been
seen?

“So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, _know that it is
near, even at the doors_.” Verse 33. “So likewise ye, when ye see these
things come to pass, _know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at hand_.”
Luke 21:31.

30. What did Christ say of the certainty of this prophecy?

“Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these
things be fulfilled. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My word shall
not pass away.” Matt. 24:34, 35.


    NOTE.—Every one at all acquainted with history knows that what
    Christ foretold concerning the destruction of Jerusalem came true
    to the very letter. So likewise may we be assured that what He has
    said concerning the end of the world will as certainly and as
    literally be fulfilled.


31. Who alone knows the exact day of Christ’s coming?

“But of that day and hour _knoweth no man_, no, not the angels of heaven,
but _My Father only_.” Verse 36.

32. What did Christ say would be the moral condition of the world just
preceding His advent?

“But as the days of Noe were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man
be. For as in the days that were before the flood they were _eating_ and
_drinking_, _marrying_ and _giving in marriage_, until the day that Noe
entered into the ark, and knew not until the flood came, and took them all
away; _so shall also the coming of the Son of man be_.” Verses 37-39.

33. In view of the fact that we do not know the exact time of Christ’s
coming, what important admonition has He given us?

“Therefore _be ye also ready_: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son
of man cometh.” Verse 44.

34. What will be the experience of those who say in their hearts that the
Lord is not soon coming?

“But and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his
coming; and shall begin to smite his fellow servants, and to eat and drink
with the drunken; the lord of that servant shall come in a day when he
looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of, and shall cut
him asunder [cut him off, margin], and appoint him his portion with the
hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.” Verses 48-51.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    In the sun, and moon, and stars,
      Signs and wonders have appeared;
    Earth has groaned with bloody wars,
      And the hearts of men have feared.

    But, though from His awful face
      Heaven shall fade and earth shall fly,
    Fear not ye, His chosen race,
      Your redemption draweth nigh.

    REGINALD HEBER.



Signs Of The Times


                             [Illustration.]

 Falling Stars At Niagara. "And the stars shall fall from heaven." Matt.
                                  24:29.


1. For what did Christ reprove the Pharisees and Sadducees?

“O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but _can ye not
discern the signs of the times_?” Matt. 16:3.

2. What sign had been foretold by the prophet Isaiah by which Christ, at
His _first_ advent, might be known as the Messiah?

“Therefore the Lord Himself shall give you a sign; Behold, _a virgin shall
conceive, and bear a son, and shall call His name Immanuel_.” Isa. 7:14.
For fulfilment, see Matt. 1:22, 23.

3. Where had the prophet said Christ should be born?

“But thou, _Bethlehem_ Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands
of Judah, yet out of thee shall He come forth unto Me that is to be ruler
in Israel.” Micah 5:2. For fulfilment, see Matt. 2:1.

4. What prophet had foretold Christ’s ride into Jerusalem?

“Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem:
behold, thy King cometh unto thee: He is just, and having salvation;
_lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass_.”
Zech. 9:9. For fulfilment, see Matt. 21:4, 5.

5. What question did the disciples ask Christ concerning His _second_
coming?

“And as He sat upon the Mount of Olives, the disciples came unto Him
privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and _what shall be
the sign of Thy coming, and of the end of the world?_” Matt. 24:3.

6. How, according to Luke, did Christ answer this question?

“And _there shall be signs_ in the _sun_, and in the _moon_, and in the
_stars_; and upon the earth _distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea
and the waves roaring; men’s hearts failing them for fear_, and for
looking after those things which are coming on the earth.” Luke 21:25, 26.

7. What, according to Matthew’s account, did Christ say were to be the
signs in the sun, moon, and stars?

“Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be
_darkened_, and the moon shall _not give her light_, and the stars shall
_fall from heaven_.” Matt. 24:29.

8. In what language had some of the Old Testament prophets already
foretold these signs?

“And _I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth_, blood, and
fire, and pillars of smoke. _The sun shall be turned into darkness, and
the moon into blood_, before the great and the terrible day of the Lord
come.” Joel 2:30, 31. “The _sun_ and the _moon_ shall be _darkened_, and
the _stars_ shall _withdraw their shining_.” Joel 3:15. “For _the stars of
heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light: the sun
shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her
light to shine_.” Isa. 13:10. “I will cause the sun to _go down at noon_,
and I will _darken the earth in a clear day_.” Amos 8:9.

9. When were the sun and moon darkened?

May 19, 1780.


    NOTES.—“The nineteenth of May, 1780, was a remarkably dark day.
    Candles were lighted in many houses. The birds were silent, and
    disappeared. The fowls retired to roost. It was the general
    opinion that the day of judgment was at hand. The legislature of
    Connecticut was in session at Hartford, but being unable to
    transact business, adjourned.”—_President Dwight, in
    __“__Historical Collections.__”_

    “In some places persons could not see to read common print in the
    open air for several hours together. Birds sang their evening
    song, disappeared, and became silent; fowls went to roost; cattle
    sought the barn-yard; and candles were lighted in the houses. The
    obscuration began about ten o’clock in the morning, and continued
    until the middle of the next night, but with differences of degree
    and duration in different places.... The true causes of this
    remarkable phenomenon are not known.”—_Webster’s Unabridged
    Dictionary, edition 1883, page 1604, in article __“__The Dark
    Day.__”_

    Herschel, the great astronomer, says: “The dark day in Northern
    America was one of those wonderful phenomena of nature which will
    always be read with interest, but which philosophy is at a loss to
    explain.” The darkness was not caused by any eclipse of the sun by
    the moon, for the moon had fulled only the night before, and
    consequently was on the opposite side of the earth from the sun.

    “The darkness of the following evening was probably as deep and
    dense as ever had been observed since the Almighty first gave
    birth to light; it wanted only palpability to render it as
    extraordinary as that which overspread the land of Egypt in the
    days of Moses. If every luminous body in the universe had been
    shrouded in impenetrable shades, or struck out of existence, it
    was thought the darkness could not have been more complete. A
    sheet of white paper, held within a few inches of the eyes, was
    equally invisible with the blackest velvet.”—_“__Our First
    Century,__”__ by R. M. Devins, page 94._

    The darkness of the night was as supernatural as that of the
    previous day, from the fact, as stated by Dr. Adams, that “the
    moon had fulled the day before.”


10. When was there a remarkable display of falling stars?

Nov. 13, 1833.


    NOTES.—The celebrated astronomer and meteorologist, Professor
    Olmsted, of Yale College, says: “Those who were so fortunate as to
    witness the exhibition of shooting stars on the morning of Nov.
    13, 1833, probably saw the greatest display of celestial fireworks
    that has ever been since the creation of the world, or at least
    within the annals covered by the pages of history.... The extent
    of the shower of 1833 was such as to cover no inconsiderable part
    of the earth’s surface, from the middle of the Atlantic on the
    east to the Pacific on the west; and from the northern coast of
    South America to undefined regions among the British possessions
    on the north the exhibition was visible, and everywhere presented
    nearly the same appearance.”

    “At Niagara the exhibition was especially brilliant, and probably
    no spectacle so terribly grand and sublime was ever before beheld
    by man as that of the firmament descending in fiery torrents over
    the dark and roaring cataract.”—_The American Encyclopedia,
    edition 1881, article __“__Meteor.__”_

    Upon reading a statement that modern fireworks excel this greatest
    exhibition of shooting stars, Mr. Clarkson, father of the former
    editors of the paper from which the following quotation is made,
    and himself agricultural editor of it, said: “The writer of that
    sentence did not witness the glorious meteoric shower of November,
    1833, when the display was so much superior to any artistic
    display of fireworks that neither language nor any element in
    nature can furnish comparisons. The comparison of the sheet-iron
    thunder of the theaters to the electric display of Providence when
    the heavens are all on fire, and the earth trembles, would be
    tolerable. But the awful grandeur of the display on the night of
    the thirteenth of November, 1833, which made the stoutest heart
    stand in awe, and the most defiant infidel quake with fear, is
    never to be compared with the most brilliant fireworks. Those who
    witnessed the meteoric shower named saw the greatest display that
    man ever will see until the day that Peter speaks of when the
    heavens, being on fire, shall be dissolved, and the elements shall
    melt with fervent heat. The agricultural editor of the _Register_
    was out alone with a team and load of lumber all night on that
    never-to-be-forgotten night. And he cannot now consent to hear of
    human fireworks being superior to that most grand and sublime
    spectacle ever before or since beheld by man. Patent fireworks are
    no nearer this wonderful phenomenon than a lightning-bug is equal
    to the sun.”—_Iowa State Register, July 12, 1889._

    Frederick A. Douglas, in his book “My Bondage and My Freedom,”
    page 186, says: “I witnessed this gorgeous spectacle, and was
    struck with awe. The air seemed filled with bright descending
    messengers from the sky. It was about daybreak when I saw this
    sublime scene. It was not without the suggestion at that moment
    that it might be _the harbinger of the coming of the Son of man_;
    and in my state of mind I was prepared to hail Him as my friend
    and deliverer. I had read that the stars shall fall from heaven,
    and they were now falling.”

    A single star appeared to the wise men, and directed them to the
    Saviour, at His first advent. Myriads of stars have announced the
    nearness of His second advent.

    It will be seen that these signs produced the very impression that
    God evidently intended that they should,—that the day of judgment,
    Christ’s coming, and the end of the world are near at hand.


11. Have we reached the time when there is “distress of nations, with
perplexity”?

Every intelligent person knows that the world is in a state of unrest at
the present time, and that men are troubled and perplexed at the outlook
of present conditions throughout the civilized world.


    NOTES.—“Those who study the map of Europe at the present moment,
    and the condition of things in Europe, must feel that there is
    hanging over us a war-cloud greater than any that has hung over
    Europe before. It means when it bursts, and burst it will as
    surely as the sun will rise tomorrow, ... a war of extinction, of
    devastation, between great nations whose populations are armed and
    trained to fight.”—_Lord Wolseley._

    “It is impossible for any one to contemplate the present naval and
    military arrangements without the gravest forebodings.... In fact,
    we never now have any real peace; we live practically in a state
    of war.”—_Sir John Lubbock._

    “The danger, if the Ottoman Empire fall, would not merely be the
    danger that would threaten the territories of which that empire
    consists; it would be the danger that the fire there lit should
    spread to the other nations, and should involve all that is most
    powerful and civilized in Europe in a dangerous and calamitous
    contest.”—_Lord Salisbury, in Mansion House Speech, London, Nov.
    9, 1895._

    “There can be no division of either of those countries [Turkey or
    Persia] without setting all the nations of Europe at the throats
    of each other.”—_Washington Post, April 24, 1909._

    “This is the most unsettled condition of the world since the
    crucifixion of Christ. The stability of government is no longer a
    fact. Change is in the atmosphere.... Statesmen are at their wits’
    end. Philosophers speculate in vain.”—_The Late Bishop Newman._


12. Are men’s hearts now “failing them for fear, and for looking after
those things which are coming on the earth”?

Every one familiar with present-day conditions knows that this is the
case.


    NOTES.—“We are marching toward the unknown. Who knows what
    tomorrow has in store for us?”—_Signor Crispi, ex-Prime Minister
    of Italy._


                             [Illustration.]

The Falling Stars, Nov. 13, 1833. "Ye can discern the face of the sky; but
         can ye not discern the signs of the times?" Matt. 16:3.


    “In regard to the future I am filled with disquietude when I think
    how easy it is to fan these international jealousies, and how
    difficult it seems to allay them.”—_Lord Balfour, of England._

    “In this world of ours we seem to be borne down by commercial and
    spiritual controversy....  We grope in the daytime with fear and
    trembling for the future. Poor, distracted man is tossed over the
    night to a more distraught tomorrow.”—_John Wanamaker,
    ex-Postmaster-General of the United States._

    “The bonds of society are relaxed; traditional principles are
    losing their sacredness, and perils hitherto unknown are menacing
    the life of the social organism.”—_Archbishop Ireland._

    These, with forebodings of coming droughts, famines, fires,
    storms, earthquakes, tidal waves, and pestilences, are filling
    men’s hearts with fear.


13. What may be said of “the sea and the waves roaring”?

Great tidal waves and storms at sea, with cyclones and tornadoes on land,
have become fearfully frequent of late years, making men apprehensive of
still greater calamities to come.

14. What, according to the prophecy of Daniel, was to characterize the
time of the end?

“But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the
time of the end: _many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be
increased_.” Dan. 12:4.


    NOTES.—The time of the end began in 1798. See Dan. 7:25; 11:35;
    12:4, 9, and the reading “The Kingdom and Work of Antichrist,”
    page 218, under questions 5-8. Since 1798 there has been a most
    wonderful increase of all kinds of knowledge, both scientific and
    religious. Men have been “running to and fro” through both the
    world and the Word of God. The prophecies of Daniel are now
    themselves understood. Since 1798 five great Bible and tract
    societies have been organized; namely, the London Religious Tract
    Society, the British and Foreign Bible Society, the American Bible
    Society, the American Tract Society, and the International Tract
    Society, besides many smaller societies of the same kind. From
    these have gone forth to the world hundreds of millions of copies
    of the Bible, and countless pages of tracts and pamphlets,
    disseminating knowledge upon the truths of salvation. Besides
    these, millions of copies of religious papers are being circulated
    annually in the various countries of the world. Missions have been
    established in all parts of the world. All this has been
    accomplished since 1798.

    Concerning the increase of knowledge in the material, scientific,
    and intellectual worlds, see the next reading.


15. What is predicted of the moral condition of the world in the last
days?

“This know also, that in _the last days perilous times shall come_. For
men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud,
blasphemers, ... lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God; having a
form of godliness, but denying the power thereof.” 2 Tim. 3:1-5.

16. How did the apostle Peter say the message of the Lord’s coming would
be treated by some?

“Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days _scoffers_,
walking after their own lusts, and _saying, Where is the promise of His
coming? for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they
were from the beginning of the creation_.” 2 Peter 3:3, 4.

17. What will God’s faithful servants be doing at this time?

“Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler
over his household, to _give them meat in due season_?” Matt. 24:45.


    NOTE.—The “meat in due season” here spoken of evidently refers to
    the proclamation of the message based upon the signs which
    indicate the near approach of the Lord. The preaching of this
    message is what causes scoffers mockingly to ask, “Where is the
    _promise of His coming_?”


18. What are all admonished to do when these signs have appeared?

“Therefore _be ye also ready_: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son
of man cometh.” Verse 44.

19. How will Christ’s coming overtake those evil servants who say in their
hearts, “My Lord delayeth His coming”?

“The lord of that servant shall come in a day _when he looketh not for
him, and in an hour that he is not aware of_, and shall _cut him asunder,
and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites_: there shall be weeping
and gnashing of teeth.” Verses 50, 51.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    We know not the hour of the Master’s appearing,
    Yet signs all foretell that the moment is nearing
    When He shall return,—’tis a promise most cheering,—
          But we know not the hour.

    There’s light for the wise who are seeking salvation,
    There’s truth in the Book of the Lord’s revelation,
    Each prophecy points to the great consummation,—
          But we know not the hour.

    We’ll watch and we’ll pray, with our lamps trimmed and burning,
    We’ll work and we’ll wait till the Master’s returning,
    We’ll sing and rejoice, every omen discerning,—
          But we know not the hour.

    F. E. BELDEN.



Increase Of Knowledge


                             [Illustration.]

  Modern Inventions. "Many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be
                          increased." Dan. 12:4.


1. According to the words of the angel to Daniel, when might the world
look for an increase of knowledge?

“But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, _even to the
time of the end_: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be
increased.” Dan. 12:4.


    NOTE.—The prophecies of Daniel were not to be shut up till the
    _end_, for then there would be no time either to develop knowledge
    or to use the knowledge thus acquired, but until “the _time of the
    end_,” which refers to a short period just preceding the end.
    During this time there was to be a wonderful increase of
    knowledge. Especially were the prophecies of the book of Daniel to
    be unsealed, studied, and understood at this time.


2. Until what time were the saints to be persecuted under the Roman power?

“And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge,
and to make them white, _even to the time of the end: because it is yet
for a time appointed_.” Dan. 11:35.


    NOTE.—The time of the end, as shown by this text, was even then,
    in the days of Daniel, an appointed time, in the mind of God. This
    is not strange, when we learn that in the Scriptures both the
    judgment and the end itself are said to be appointed times. Acts
    17:31; Dan. 8:19. The close of the period allotted for this
    persecution (1798) was to mark the beginning of “the time of the
    end.” See page 223.


3. According to the prophecy, how long was the power represented by the
little horn, or papal Rome, to persecute the saints?

“And he shall speak great words against the Most High, and shall wear out
the saints of the Most High, ... and they shall be given into his hand
_until a time and times and the dividing of time_.” Dan. 7:25.


    NOTES.—As shown in the reading on “The Kingdom and Work of
    Antichrist,” page 218, this expression, “a time and times and the
    dividing of time,” represents 1260 years, which extend from the
    period 533-538 A.D., the time of the decree of Emperor Justinian
    recognizing the Pope as head of all the churches and the
    successful campaign against Arianism, to the period 1793-98, when,
    as a result of the French Revolution, the papal power received its
    deadly wound and the Pope was carried into captivity. This, then,
    locates the beginning of “the time of the end” in 1798. Up to that
    point the book of Daniel, as a whole, was to be closed up; in
    other words, not understood by the people. But when the power that
    had placed this embargo on the Word of God, and had tried to shut
    it away from the people, was broken, then light of all kinds,
    Biblical, scientific, inventive, and industrial, began to shine
    and penetrate in every direction.

    It is a singular and striking fact that immediately following the
    overthrow of the papal power in 1798, Bible societies, tract
    societies, and Sunday-schools sprang up in large numbers. The
    London Religious Tract Society was organized in 1799, the British
    and Foreign Bible Society in 1804, the American Bible Society in
    1816, and the American Tract Society in 1825. The Bible has now
    been translated into about four hundred and fifty languages and
    dialects, and sent to every part of the globe. Before that time
    access to the Bible was confined to comparatively few. Now the
    humblest person may possess it, and is as free to read and study
    it as is the most exalted in the land. A little more than one
    hundred years ago there was not a Sunday-school in the world, the
    first one being organized by Robert Raikes, at Gloucester,
    England, in 1784. Now there are more than 285,000 such schools,
    with over 28,000,000 officers, teachers, and pupils.


4. What may be said of the developments in the line of scientific
inventions since 1798?

These have been remarkable, phenomenal, and without parallel in the
history of the world. The people of a century and a quarter ago knew
nothing of steamships, steam and electric railways, telegraphs,
telephones, photographs, phonographs, sewing-machines, anesthetics,
submarine cables, linotypes, monotypes, motion pictures, X-rays,
aeroplanes, or wireless telegraphy. Were they to be raised from the dead,
they would be as much astonished at all these things as would the people
of four thousand years ago.


    NOTES.—“Of a verity, this is the age of invention.”—_Scientific
    American._

    “The great facts of the nineteenth century stand out so
    conspicuously above the achievements of any preceding century that
    it would be affectation of humility not to recognize and speak of
    them.”—_Union Hand-*book, 1870._

    “The most striking characteristic of our times is the rapid
    strides which the world is making in science, general
    intelligence, and inventions.”—_Chicago Republican, March 14,
    1872._

    “Never was there such activity of invention within the history of
    mankind as at the present day.”—_Phrenological Journal, April,
    1871._

    “More has been done, richer and more prolific discoveries have
    been made, grander achievements have been realized, in the course
    of the fifty years of our lifetime than in all the previous
    lifetime of the race.”—_London Spectator._

    Some of the principal inventions and discoveries of modern times
    are the following:—

    The balloon in 1798.
    Gas for lighting purposes in 1798.
    Cast-iron plow in 1800.
    Steel pen in 1803.
    Steamboat in 1807.
    Steam printing-press in 1811.
    Revolver in 1818.
    Railroad-cars in 1825.
    Lucifer-match in 1829.
    Reaper and mower in 1833.
    Electric telegraph in 1837.
    Electrotyping in 1837.
    Photography in 1839.
    Sewing-machine in 1846.
    Anesthesia by ether in 1846.
    Anesthesia by chloroform in 1847.
    Submarine cable in 1851.
    Gatling gun in 1861.
    Monitor war-ship in 1862.
    Typewriter in 1868.
    Automatic air-brake in 1872.
    Telephone in 1876.
    Phonograph in 1877.
    Electric railway in 1879.
    Modern seismograph in 1880.
    Linotype in 1885.
    Steam-turbine in 1888.
    Roentgen or X-ray in 1895.
    Wireless telegraphy in 1895.
    Motion pictures in 1895.
    Monotype in 1896.
    Radium in 1902.
    Aeroplane, first successful flying, Dec. 17, 1903.


It will be noticed that none of these inventions antedate 1798. Go back a
little over a century and we find the world about where it was in the days
of the patriarchs. For thousands of years there seemed to be scarcely any
advancement or improvement in knowledge. But suddenly with the opening of
the nineteenth century, the world awoke from its long sleep, and a new era
dawned,—the time of the end, when knowledge was to be increased.

5. What did the Saviour say should precede the end?

“And _this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a
witness unto all nations_; and then shall the end come.” Matt. 24:14.


    NOTE.—Luther, the Wesleys, and others could not, in their day,
    proclaim the Lord’s coming to be at hand, as the signs heralding
    this event had not taken place. But now, the sun and moon have
    been darkened, and the stars have fallen, as predicted by the
    Saviour knowledge has most wonderfully increased, as stated by the
    angel to Daniel; and the gospel has gone to nearly every kindred,
    tribe, and people in the world. Therefore we may know that the end
    is near.


6. When we see all these things, what are we to know?

“When ye shall see all these things, _know that it is near, even at the
doors_.” Verse 33.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Lift up the trumpet, and loud let it ring;
      Jesus is coming again!
    Cheer up, ye pilgrims, be joyful and sing;
      Jesus is coming again!

    Echo it, hilltops, proclaim it, ye plains;
      Jesus is coming again!
    Coming in glory, the Lamb that was slain;
      Jesus is coming again!
                                    JESSIE E. STROUT.



Conflict Between Capital And Labor


                             [Illustration.]

 Race For Supremacy. "Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be required of
                            thee." Luke 12:20.


1. What is one reason why the last days were to be perilous?

“Men shall be _lovers of their own selves, covetous_.” 2 Tim. 3:2.

2. When, according to prophecy, were men to amass great wealth?

“Go to now, _ye rich men_, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come
upon you. Your riches are corrupted, and your garments are moth-eaten.
Your gold and silver is cankered; and the rust of them shall be a witness
against you, and shall eat your flesh as it were fire. _Ye have heaped
treasure together for the last days._” James 5:1-3.


    NOTE.—We have reached the age of vast accumulations of wealth,
    when there seems to be a mad rush for making money quickly, and
    the millionaire and the multimillionaire are much in evidence.
    Speaking on this subject, Rev. H. W. Bowman, in his work “War
    Between Capital and Labor,” says: “Such colossal fortunes, such
    hoarding of treasures, such combinations of wealth, with such
    rapid increase in poverty, were never witnessed before. Our age
    alone fits the prophetic mold.”


3. Why did Christ, in the parable, reprove the man who hid his talent?

“Thou wicked and slothful servant, thou knewest that I reap where I sowed
not, and gather where I have not strawed: _thou oughtest therefore to have
put my money to the exchangers, and then at my coming I should have
received mine own with usury_.” Matt. 25:26, 27.


    NOTE.—“Servility to wealth,” says J. S. Mill, “is a social curse.”
    Vespasian spoke truly when he said, “Riches are well, if gotten
    well and well spent;” and Peter Cooper likewise uttered a great
    truth when he said, “A man of wealth is but a steward for the good
    of mankind.” James A. Patten, the retired Chicago millionaire
    wheat broker, announcing his intention to give away his fortune to
    charity, said: “I believe a man should give away a good share of
    his wealth while he is living. He can’t take a dollar out of the
    world with him, although I know some men who seem to believe they
    can. Personally, I mean to get rid of the most of my fortune. I
    hope to help many charitable institutions before I die. I doubt
    the advisability of leaving any great sum of money to one’s
    children. Many lives have been ruined by large bequests. The
    offspring of a rich man are better off if they are required to
    hustle for themselves.”—_Washington Times, Nov. 5, 1910._


4. What did Christ tell the rich young man to do?

“Jesus said unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, _go and sell that thou
hast, and give to the poor_, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and
come and follow Me.” Matt. 19:21.

5. What, in the parable, did God say to the rich man who thought to build
larger barns in which to store his goods?

“But God said unto him, _Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be required
of thee_: then whose shall those things be, which thou hast provided?”
Luke 12:20.

6. How does James say the rich have lived?

“_Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth, and been wanton_; ye have
nourished your hearts, as in a day of slaughter.” James 5:5.


    NOTE.—This indicates that they have lived in luxury and for
    pleasure, quite heedless of the needs of the poor and of the great
    world about them. They have lived simply to have a good time
    themselves, with no thought of their responsibility to God or to
    their fellow men.


7. Who gives men the power to get wealth?

“But thou shalt remember the Lord thy God: for _it is He that giveth thee
power to get wealth_.” Deut. 8:18.

8. How does James say the rich have treated the just?

“_Ye have condemned and killed the just_; and he doth not resist you.”
James 5:6.


    NOTE.—There is nothing more rapacious and heartless than greed, or
    covetousness. To obtain its ends, it disregards the rights, the
    welfare, and even the lives of those affected by its merciless
    schemes and intrigues. The righteous, or just, however, do not
    make forcible resistance to this unjust treatment.


9. How have the rich defrauded the laborers?

“Behold, _the hire of the laborers who have reaped down your fields, which
is of you kept back by fraud_, crieth: and the cries of them which have
reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth.” Verse 4.

10. Seeking a fair remuneration, what do many laborers do?

Form labor-unions, engage in strikes, boycotts, etc.


    NOTE.—While these means may hold matters in check for a time, and
    afford temporary relief, they cannot eradicate the evil, and bring
    about a final solution. The evil is deep-seated; it lies in the
    heart; and nothing but conversion—a change of the heart and of the
    affections—can eradicate it. It is the sin of selfishness, or
    covetousness,—a failure to love one’s neighbor as oneself. The
    conflict between capital and labor is an inevitable and an
    irrepressible conflict as long as sin and selfishness are in the
    world. And near the end it becomes the most acute and intense,
    because then sin comes to the full.


11. Do the Scriptures indicate that there will be violence manifested in
this conflict?

“Woe to him that increaseth that which is not his! how long? and to him
that ladeth himself with thick clay! _Shall they not rise up suddenly that
shall bite thee, and awake that shall vex thee, and thou shalt be for
booties unto them?_” Hab. 2:6, 7.

12. Would God have His people unite in these combinations?

“_Say ye not, A confederacy, to all them to whom this people shall say, A
confederacy_; neither fear ye their fear, nor be afraid.” Isa. 8:12.

13. Whom should we fear and dread?

“Sanctify _the Lord of hosts Himself_; and let Him be your fear, and let
Him be your dread.” Verse 13.

14. What are God’s people told to do at this time?

“_Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord._ Behold,
the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, and hath long
patience for it, until he receive the early and latter rain. _Be ye also
patient_; stablish your hearts: _for the coming of the Lord draweth
nigh_.” James 5:7, 8.

15. What commands obeyed would bring about a peaceful solution to this
wide-spread and growing conflict?

“Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.” Matt. 22:39. “Look not every
man on his own things, but every man also on the things of others.” Phil.
2:4. “Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to
them.” Matt. 7:12.



Christ’s Second Coming


                             [Illustration.]

 Christ Answering His Disciples’ Questions. "When ye shall see all these
      things, know that it is near, even at the doors." Matt. 24:33.


1. What promise did Christ make concerning His coming?

“Let not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in Me. In
My Father’s house are many mansions: if it were not so, I would have told
you. I go to prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for
you, _I will come again_, and receive you unto Myself; that where I am,
there ye may be also.” John 14:1-3.

2. Following the signs of His coming, what did Christ say would take
place?

“And then shall they see _the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and
great glory_.” Luke 21:27.

3. Will the world be prepared to meet Him?

“And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and _then
shall all the tribes of the earth mourn_, and they shall see the Son of
man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.” Matt.
24:30. “Behold, He cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see Him, and
they also which pierced Him: and _all kindreds of the earth shall wail
because of Him_.” Rev. 1:7.

4. Why will many not be prepared for this event?

“But and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, _My lord delayeth
his coming_; and shall begin to smite his fellow servants, and to eat and
drink with the drunken; the lord of that servant shall come in a day when
he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of, and shall
cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there
shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.” Matt. 24:48-51.

5. What will the world be doing when Christ comes?

“But as the days of Noe were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man
be. For as in the days that were before the flood _they were eating and
drinking, marrying and giving in marriage_, until the day that Noe entered
into the ark, and knew not till the flood came, and took them all away; so
shall also the coming of the Son of man be.” Verses 37-39. “Likewise also
as it was in the days of Lot; _they did eat, they drank, they bought, they
sold, they planted, they builded_; but the same day that Lot went out of
Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all.
Even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of man is revealed.” Luke
17:28-30.


    NOTE.—The idea is, not that it is wrong in itself to eat, drink,
    marry, buy, sell, plant, or build, but that men’s minds will be so
    taken up with these things that they will give little or no
    thought to the future life, and make no plans or preparation to
    meet Jesus when He comes.


6. Who is it that blinds men to the gospel of Christ?

“In whom _the god of this world_ hath blinded the minds of them which
believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, which is the
image of God, should shine unto them.” 2 Cor. 4:4.


    NOTES.—“To my mind this precious doctrine—for such I must call
    it—of the return of the Lord to this earth is taught in the New
    Testament as clearly as any other doctrine in it; yet I was in the
    church fifteen or sixteen years before I ever heard a sermon on
    it. There is hardly any church that does not make a great deal of
    baptism; but in all of Paul’s epistles I believe baptism is spoken
    of only thirteen times, while it speaks about the return of our
    Lord fifty times; and yet the church has had very little to say
    about it. Now I can see a reason for this. The devil does not want
    us to see this truth; for nothing would wake up the church so
    much. The moment a man takes hold of the truth that Jesus Christ
    is coming back again to receive His followers to Himself, this
    world loses its hold on him. Gas stocks, and water stocks, and
    stocks in banks and railroads are of very much less consequence to
    him then. His heart is free, and he looks for the blessed
    appearing of his Lord, who, at His coming, will take him into His
    blessed kingdom.”—_“__The Second Coming of Christ,__”__ by D. L.
    Moody, pages 6, 7._

    “ ‘This same Jesus which is taken up from you into heaven, _shall
    so come in like manner as ye have seen Him go into heaven_,’ is
    the parting promise of Jesus to His disciples, communicated
    through the two men in white apparel, as a cloud received Hun out
    of their sight. When after more than fifty years in glory He
    breaks the silence and speaks once more in the Revelation which He
    gave to His servant John, the post-ascension gospel which He sends
    opens with, ‘_Behold, He cometh with clouds_,’ and closes with,
    ‘_Surely I come quickly_.’ Considering the solemn emphasis thus
    laid upon this doctrine, and considering the great prominence
    given to it throughout the teaching of our Lord and of His
    apostles, how was it that for the first five years of my pastoral
    life it had absolutely no place in my preaching? Undoubtedly, the
    reason lay in the lack of early instruction. Of all the sermons
    heard from childhood on, I do not remember listening to a single
    one upon this subject.”—_“__How Christ Came to Church,__”__ by A.
    J. Gordon, D. D., pages 44, 45._


7. At His ascension, what assurance was given of Christ’s return?

“And while they looked steadfastly toward heaven as He went up, behold,
two men stood by them in white apparel; which also said, Ye men of
Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? _this same Jesus, which is
taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have
seen Him go into heaven_.” Acts 1:10, 11.

8. How ancient is this doctrine of Christ’s coming?

“And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying,
_Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of His saints_, to execute
judgment upon all.” Jude 14, 15.


    NOTE.—Seeking to cast reflection upon modern believers in the
    advent doctrine, a man in Hungary not long ago remarked to a
    colporteur of this faith that he had heard that the first
    Adventist preacher is still living. “Yes,” replied the colporteur,
    “the first Adventist preacher is still living, yet the Adventist
    faith is thousands of years old. The Bible says that Enoch also,
    the seventh from Adam, preached the coming of Christ in glory and
    power, and Enoch is still living. He was translated to heaven
    without seeing death, and will never die.”


9. What was Job’s confidence concerning Christ’s coming?

“For I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that He shall stand at the latter
day upon the earth: ... whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall
behold, and not another; though my reins be consumed within me.” Job
19:25-27.

10. How does David speak of Christ’s coming?

“Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence: a fire shall devour
before Him, and it shall be very tempestuous round about Him.” Ps. 50:3.
“For He cometh, for He cometh to judge the earth: He shall judge the world
with righteousness, and the people with His truth.” Ps. 96:13.

11. How does Paul give expression to this hope?

“For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the
Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ.” Phil. 3:20. “Looking for that blessed
hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus
Christ.” Titus 2:13.

12. What is Peter’s testimony regarding it?

“For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known
unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were
eye-witnesses of His majesty.” 2 Peter 1:16.

13. When are the saints to be like Jesus?

“Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we
shall be: but we know that, _when He shall appear, we shall be like Him_;
for we shall see Him as He is.” 1 John 3:2.

14. What scriptures show that Christ’s coming will be a time of reward?

“For the Son of man shall come in the glory of His Father with His angels;
and _then He shall reward every man according to his works_.” Matt. 16:27.
“And, behold, I come quickly; _and My reward is with Me_, to give every
man according as his work shall be.” Rev. 22:12.

15. To whom is salvation promised at Christ’s appearing?

“So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and _unto them that
look for Him_ shall He appear the second time without sin unto salvation.”
Heb. 9:28.

16. What influence has this hope upon the life?

“We know that, when He shall appear, we shall be like Him; for we shall
see Him as He is. And _every man that hath this hope in him purifieth
himself, even as He is pure_.” 1 John 3:2, 3.

17. To whom does Paul say a crown of righteousness is promised?

“For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at
hand. I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept
the faith: henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness,
which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to
me only, but _unto all them also that love His appearing_.” 2 Tim. 4:6-8.

18. What will the waiting ones say when Jesus comes?

“And it shall be said in that day, Lo, this is our God; we have waited for
Him, and He will save us: this is the Lord; we have waited for Him, we
will be glad and rejoice in His salvation.” Isa. 25:9.

19. Has the exact time of Christ’s coming been revealed?

“But of that day and hour _knoweth no man_, no, not the angels of heaven,
but my Father only.” Matt. 24:36.

20. In view of this fact, what does Christ tell us to do?

“_Watch therefore_: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come.” Verse
42.


    NOTE.—“In the Scriptures, the constant note, the continually
    recurring exhortation, is to be prepared for the Lord’s
    coming.”—_Dean Alford._ “The proper attitude of a Christian is to
    be always looking for his Lord’s return.”—_D. L. Moody._ See “How
    Christ Came to Church,” by A. J. Gordon, pages 49, 50.


21. What warning has Christ given that we might not be taken by surprise
by this great event?

“And take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged
with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of this life, and so that day
come upon you unawares. For as a snare shall it come on all them that
dwell on the face of the whole earth. Watch ye therefore, and pray always,
that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come
to pass, and to stand before the Son of man.” Luke 21:34-36.

22. What Christian grace are we exhorted to exercise in our expectant
longing for this event?

“Be _patient_ therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord. Behold,
the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, and hath long
patience for it, until he receive the early and latter rain. Be ye also
_patient_; stablish your hearts: for the coming of the Lord draweth nigh.”
James 5:7, 8.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    I am waiting for the coming
      Of earth’s long-expected Lord;
    For the signs are now fulfilling
      That He gave us in His Word.
    I am watching, I am waiting,
      For that promised happy day;
    Yet I do not cease my working;
      I must work as well as pray.
                        W. S. CRUZAN.



Manner Of Christ’s Coming


                             [Illustration.]

 Coming In Glory. "Behold, He cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see
                             Him." Rev. 1:7.


1. Is Christ coming again?

“I will come _again_.” John 14:3.

2. How does Paul speak of this coming?

“Unto them that look for Him shall He appear _the second time_ without sin
unto salvation.” Heb. 9:28.

3. Did the early disciples think that death would be the second coming of
Christ?

“Peter seeing him [John] saith to Jesus, Lord, and what shall this man do?
Jesus saith unto him, If I will that he tarry _till I come_, what is that
to thee? follow thou Me. Then went this saying abroad among the brethren,
that that disciple _should not die_: yet Jesus said not unto him, He shall
not die; but, If I will that he tarry _till I come_, what is that to
thee?” John 21:21-23.


    NOTES.—From this it is evident that the early disciples regarded
    death and the coming of Christ as two separate events.

    “ ‘Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not
    the Son of man cometh.’ Some people say that means death; but the
    Word of God does not say it means death. Death is our enemy, but
    our Lord hath the keys of death; He has conquered death, hell, and
    the grave.... Christ is the Prince of Life; there is no death
    where He is; death flees at His coming; dead bodies sprang to life
    when He touched them or spoke to them. His coming is not death. He
    is the resurrection and the life. When He sets up His kingdom,
    there is to be no death, but life forevermore.”—_“__The Second
    Coming of Christ,__”__ by D. L. Moody, pages 10, 11._


4. At His ascension, how did the angels say Christ would come again?

                             [Illustration.]

  The Ascension. "This same Jesus ... shall so come in like manner as ye
                have seen Him go into heaven." Acts 1:11.


“And when He had spoken these things, while they beheld, He was taken up;
and _a cloud received Him out of their sight_. And while they looked
steadfastly toward heaven as He went up, behold, two men stood by them in
white apparel; which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up
into heaven? this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven,
_shall so come in like manner as ye have seen Him go into heaven_.” Acts
1:9-11.

5. How did Christ Himself say He would come?

“For the Son of man shall come _in the glory of His Father with His
angels_.” Matt. 16:27. “Then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and
they shall see the Son of man coming _in the clouds of heaven with power
and great glory_.” Matt. 24: 30. “For whosoever shall be ashamed of Me and
of My words, of him shall the Son of man be ashamed, when _He shall come
in His own glory, and in His Father’s, and of the holy angels_.” Luke
9:26.

6. How many will see Him when He comes?

“Behold, He cometh with clouds; and _every eye shall see Him_, and they
also which pierced Him.” Rev. 1:7.


    NOTE.—Christ’s second coming will be as real as was His first, and
    as visible as His ascension, and far more glorious. To
    spiritualize our Lord’s return is to pervert the obvious meaning
    of His promise, “I will come again,” and nullify the whole plan of
    redemption; for the reward of the faithful of all ages is to be
    given at this most glorious of all events.


7. What wonderful demonstration will accompany the Lord’s coming?

“The Lord Himself shall descend from heaven _with a shout, with the voice
of the Archangel, and with the trump of God_: and the dead in Christ shall
rise first.” 1 Thess. 4:16.

8. What warning has Christ given concerning false views of the manner of
His coming?

“Then if any man shall say unto you, _Lo, here is Christ, or there;
believe it not_. For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets,
and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were
possible, they shall deceive the very elect. Behold, I have told you
before. Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, He is in the
_desert_; go not forth: behold, He is in the _secret chambers_; believe it
not.” Matt. 24:23-26.

9. How visible is His coming to be?

“For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the
west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.” Verse 27.



Object Of Christ’s Coming


                             [Illustration.]

 The Transfiguration. "Behold, I come quickly; and My reward is with Me."
                               Rev. 22:12.


1. For what purpose did Christ say He would come again?

“I go to prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for you,
_I will come again, and receive you unto Myself; that where I am, there ye
may be also_.” John 14:2, 3.

2. What part will the angels have in this event?

“And He shall send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and _they
shall gather together His elect_ from the four winds, from one end of
heaven to the other.” Matt. 24:31.

3. What takes place at the sounding of the trumpet?

“For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the
voice of the Archangel, and with the trump of God: and _the dead in Christ
shall rise first_.” 1 Thess. 4:16.

4. What will be done with the righteous living?

“Then we which are alive and remain shall be _caught up together with them
in the clouds_, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with
the Lord.” Verse 17.

5. What change will then take place in both the living and the sleeping
saints?

“We shall not all sleep, but _we shall all be changed_, in a moment, in
the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound,
and the dead shall be raised _incorruptible_, and we shall be changed. For
this corruptible must put on _incorruption_, and this mortal must put on
_immortality_.” 1 Cor. 15:51-53.

6. When are the saints to be like Jesus?

“But we know that, _when He shall appear, we shall be like Him_; for we
shall see Him as He is.” 1 John 3:2.

7. How many will receive a reward when Christ comes?

“For the Son of man shall come in the glory of His Father with His angels;
and _then He shall reward every man according to his works_.” Matt. 16:27.

8. What does He say He will bring with Him when He comes?

“Behold, I come quickly; and _My reward is with Me_, to give every man
according as his works shall be.” Rev. 22:12.

9. What promise is made to those who look for Him?

“So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that
look for Him _shall He appear the second time without sin unto
salvation_.” Heb. 9:28.

10. When did Christ say the good would be recompensed?

“For thou shalt be recompensed _at the resurrection of the just_.” Luke
14:14.

11. Have the worthies of old gone to their reward?

“And these all, having obtained a good report through faith, _received not
the promise_: God having provided some better thing for us, _that they
without us should not be made perfect_.” Heb. 11:39, 40.

12. When did Paul expect to receive his crown?

“Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the
Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me _at that day_: and not to me
only, but unto all them also that love His appearing.” 2 Tim. 4:8.

13. Will this be a time of judgment?

“And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying,
Behold, _the Lord cometh with ten thousands of His saints, to execute
judgment upon all_.” Jude 14, 15.

14. How did David express himself on this point?

“_For He cometh, for He cometh to judge the earth_: He shall judge the
world with righteousness, and the people with His truth.” Ps. 96:13.

15. When did Paul say Christ would judge the living and the dead?

“I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, _who shall
judge the quick and the dead at His appearing and His kingdom_.” 2 Tim.
4:1.

16. What great separation will then take place?

“When the Son of man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with
Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory: and before Him shall
be gathered all nations: and _He shall separate them one from another, as
a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats_.” Matt. 25:31, 32.

17. What will He say to those on His right hand?

“Then shall the King say unto them on His right hand, _Come, ye blessed of
My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the
world_.” Verse 34.

18. What will He say to those on the left?

“Then shall He say also unto them on the left hand, _Depart from Me, ye
cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels_.”
Verse 41.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    At the sounding of the trumpet, when the saints are gathered home,
      We shall greet each other by the crystal sea;
    When the Lord Himself from heaven to His glory bids them come,
      What a gathering of the faithful that will be!

    When the angel of the Lord proclaims that time shall be no more,
      We shall gather, and the saved and ransomed see;
    Then to meet again together, on the bright, celestial shore,
      What a gathering of the faithful that will be!

    At the great and final judgment, when the hidden comes to light,
      When the Lord in all His glory we shall see;
    At the bidding of our Saviour, “Come, ye blessed, to My right,”
      What a gathering of the faithful that will be!

    When the golden harps are sounding, and the angel bands proclaim
      In triumphant strains the glorious jubilee;
    Then to meet and join to sing the song of Moses and the Lamb,
      What a gathering of the faithful that will be!

    J. H. KURZENKNABE.



The Resurrection Of The Just


                             [Illustration.]

 The Resurrection Of Christ. "I am He that liveth, and was dead; ... and
             have the keys of hell and of death." Rev. 1:18.


1. Concerning what should we not be ignorant?

“But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, _concerning them which
are asleep_, that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope.” 1
Thess. 4:13.

2. What is set forth as the basis for hope and comfort?

“For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, _even so them also
which sleep in Jesus will God bring with Him_.” Verse 14.

3. When will this resurrection of the saints take place?

“For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive
and remain unto _the coming of the Lord_ shall not prevent [precede] them
which are asleep. _For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven_ with a
shout, with the voice of the Archangel, and with the trump of God: _and
the dead in Christ shall rise first_.” Verses 15, 16.

4. What will then take place?

“Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them
in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with
the Lord.” Verse 17.

5. With what are we to comfort one another?

“Wherefore comfort one another _with these words_.” Verse 18.


    NOTE.—The hope of a resurrection from the dead to a life immortal
    is the great hope set forth in the gospel.


6. Concerning what did Christ tell us not to marvel?

“Marvel not at this: for _the hour is coming, in the which all that are in
the graves shall hear His voice, and shall come forth_; they that have
done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil,
unto the resurrection of damnation.” John 5:28, 29.

7. What is said of those embraced in the first resurrection?

“Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such
the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God and of
Christ, and shall reign with Him a thousand years.” Rev. 20:6.

8. Upon what one fact does Paul base the Christian hope?

“Now if Christ be preached that He rose from the dead, how say some among
you that there is no resurrection of the dead? But _if there be no
resurrection of the dead, then is Christ not risen: and if Christ be not
risen, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain_. Yea, and
we are found false witnesses of God; because we have testified of God that
_He raised up Christ_: whom He raised not up, if so be that the dead rise
not. For _if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised: and if Christ
be not raised, your faith is vain; ye are yet in your sins_. Then they
also which are fallen asleep in Christ are _perished_. If in this life
only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable.” 1 Cor.
15:12-19.

9. What positive declaration does the apostle then make?

“_But now is Christ risen from the dead_, and become the first-fruits of
them that slept. For since by man came death, by man came also the
resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall
all be made alive.” Verses 20-22.


    NOTE.—The resurrection of Christ is in many respects the most
    significant fact in history. It is the great and impregnable
    foundation and hope of the Christian church. Every fundamental
    truth of Christianity is involved in the resurrection of Christ.
    If this could be overthrown, every essential doctrine of
    Christianity would be invalidated. The resurrection of Christ is
    the pledge of our resurrection and future life.


10. What does Christ proclaim Himself to be?

“_I am the resurrection and the life_: he that believeth in Me, though he
were dead, yet shall he live: and whosoever liveth and believeth in Me
shall never die.” John 11:25, 26. “_I am He that liveth, and was dead_;
and, behold, _I am alive forevermore_, Amen; _and have the keys of hell
and of death_.” Rev. 1:18.


    NOTE.—Christ changed death into a _sleep_. Absolute death knows no
    waking; but through Christ all who have fallen under the power of
    death will be raised, some to a life unending, some to everlasting
    death.


11. What question does Job ask and answer?

“_If a man die, shall he live again?_ all the days of my appointed time
will I wait, till my change come. _Thou shalt call, and I will answer
Thee_: Thou wilt have a desire to the work of Thine hands.” Job 14:14, 15.

12. Why did Job wish that his words were written in a book, graven with an
iron pen and lead in the rock forever?

“_For I know that My Redeemer liveth_, and that He shall stand at the
latter day upon the earth: and though after my skin worms destroy this
body, yet _in my flesh shall I see God_.” Job 19:25, 26.

13. How does Paul say the saints will be raised?

“Behold, I show you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be
changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for
the trumpet shall sound, and _the dead shall be raised incorruptible_.” 1
Cor. 15:51, 52.

14. What great change will then take place in their bodies?

“So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is _sown in corruption_; it
is _raised in incorruption_: it is _sown in dishonor; it is raised in
glory_: it is _sown in weakness_; it is _raised in power_: it is _sown a
natural body_; it is _raised a spiritual body_.” Verses 42-44.

15. What saying will then be brought to pass?

“O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?” Verse 55.

16. When did David say he would be satisfied?

“As for me, I will behold Thy face in righteousness: I shall be satisfied,
_when I awake, with Thy likeness_.” Ps. 17:15.

17. What comforting promise has God made concerning the sleeping saints?

“I will _ransom them from the power of the grave_; I will _redeem them
from death_: O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy
destruction.” Hosea 13:14.

18. What else has He promised to do?

“And God _shall wipe away all tears_ from their eyes; and there shall be
no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more
pain: for the former things are passed away.” Rev. 21:4. See pages
759-785.

                             [Illustration.]

 The Deluge. "And knew not until the flood came, and took them all away."
                               Matt. 24:39.



The World’s Conversion


                             [Illustration.]

    After The Flood. "Evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse,
               deceiving, and being deceived." 2 Tim. 3:13.


1. What did Christ say would be the condition of the world at His second
coming?

“_As it was in the days of Noe_, so shall it be also in the days of the
Son of man.” Luke 17:26. See also verses 27-30.

2. How was it in the days of Noah?

“And God saw that _the wickedness of man was great in the earth_, and that
_every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil
continually_.... And _the earth was filled with violence_.” Gen. 6:5-11.


    NOTE.—In a sermon delivered at Savannah, Ga., Dec. 2 1912, Bishop
    A. W. Wilson (Methodist) said: “Old Rome in her worst days never
    harbored such conditions of vice as are prevalent in our highest
    social circles. Never at any period of the world’s history has the
    moral stratum been so thin or so low.”


3. How did Paul characterize the last days?

“This know also, that in the last days _perilous times shall come_.” 2
Tim. 3:1.

4. What did he say would make those times perilous?

“For men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud,
blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, without natural
affection, truce-breakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers
of those that are good, traitors, heady, high-minded, lovers of pleasures
more than lovers of God; having a form of godliness, but denying the power
thereof.” Verses 2-5.

5. Are things to grow better or worse before the Lord comes?

“_But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse_, deceiving, and
being deceived.” Verse 13.


    NOTE.—“Even to the end of time there will still be occasion for
    the same complaint; the world will grow no better, no, not when it
    is drawing toward its period. Bad it is, and bad it will be, and
    _worst of all_ just before Christ’s coming.”—_Matthew Henry, on
    Luke 18:8._


6. According to the parable of the wheat and the tares, how long are the
good and bad to remain together?

“The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom;
but the tares are the children of the wicked one; the enemy that sowed
them is the devil.” “_Let both grow together until the harvest_: and in
the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first
the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them.” Matt. 13:38, 39, 30.

7. When does the harvest come?

“The harvest is _the end of the world_.” Verse 39.


    NOTES.—Thus it is plain that the wicked (the tares) live with the
    righteous (the wheat) till the end of the world. There is, then,
    no time before Christ’s coming for a sinless state, in which all
    men will be converted and turn to God.

    Harper’s “Book of Facts,” edition 1906, article “Religion,”
    classifies the population of the globe religiously as follows:—

    Non-Christian                       Christian
    Buddhists           400,000,000     Roman           175,000,000
                                        Catholics
    Brahmans            250,000,000     Protestants     110,000,000
    Mohammedans         180,000,000     Greek Church    90,000,000
    Fetish-worshipers   150,000,000     Various         25,000,000
    Jews                8,000,000
    Various             62,000,000
                        1,050,000,000                   400,000,000

    From this it will be seen that only about one fourth of the
    world’s population are even nominal Christians.


8. For what purpose did Christ say the gospel was to be preached in all
the world?

“And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world _for a
witness unto all nations_; and then shall the end come.” Matt. 24:14.


    NOTES.—He did not say that all would _receive_ the gospel, but
    that the gospel was to be _preached_ in all the world _for a
    witness_ unto all nations, and that _then_ the end would come.

    Commenting on Rev. 20:2, Dr. Adam Clarke says: “Probably no such
    time shall ever appear, in which evil shall be wholly banished
    from the earth, till after the day of judgment, when, the earth
    having been burned up, a new heaven and a new earth shall be
    produced out of the ruins of the old, by the mighty power of God;
    righteousness alone shall dwell in them.”—_Clarke’s Commentary,
    edition 1860._


9. When is the “man of sin,” or “mystery of iniquity,” called also “that
Wicked,” to come to an end?

“And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with
the spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of His
coming.” 2 Thess. 2:8.

10. How long was the little horn of Dan. 7:25 to make war with the saints?

“I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed
against them; _until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to
the saints of the Most High; and the time came that the saints possessed
the kingdom_.” Dan. 7:21, 22.

11. How will the day of the Lord come upon the world?

“For yourselves know perfectly that _the day of the Lord so cometh as a
thief in the night_. For when they shall say, Peace and safety; then
sudden destruction cometh upon them, ... and they shall not escape. But
ye, brethren, are not in darkness, that that day should overtake you as a
thief.” 1 Thess. 5:2-4.


    NOTE.—There will be but two classes in the world then: those in
    darkness, who are looking for a time of peace and safety, and
    those not in darkness, who are looking for the day of the Lord,—a
    day of waste and destruction,—the coming of Christ and the end of
    the world. See Jer. 7:1-19; Dan. 12:1; Joel 2:1-11; Zephaniah 1.


12. What will some who are in darkness say when they hear about the Lord’s
coming?

“Knowing this first, that _there shall come in the last days scoffers_,
walking after their own lusts, and saying, _Where is the promise of His
coming?_ for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they
were from the beginning of the creation.” 2 Peter 3:3, 4.

13. What will be popularly taught in the last days?

“But in the last days ... _many nations shall come, and say_, Come, and
let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of
Jacob; ... and He shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations
afar off; _and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their
spears into pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift up a sword against
nation, neither shall they learn war any more_.” Micah 4:1-3. See also
Isa. 2:2-5.


    NOTE.—Notice, this is not what the _Lord_ says, but what the Lord
    says _many nations_ shall say in the last days. And this is the
    very message now heard in every land,—a great world’s peace
    movement; a call for all nations to disarm, to go to war no more,
    and to profess religion.


14. What message indicates the true condition of things?

“Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles; _Prepare war, wake up the mighty
men, let all the men of war draw near; let them come up: beat your
plowshares into swords, and your pruning-hooks into spears: let the weak
say, I am strong_.” Joel 3:9, 10.


    NOTE.—On this question of preparing for war, note the following:—

    Armies of the World

                             Regular           National Army
                             Standing Army     Including
                             (1909)            Reserves
    Austria-Hungary                409,000         5,840,000
    Belgium                         45,000           125,000
    British Empire                 250,000         1,050,000
    China                           60,000         1,000,000
    Denmark                         14,000            68,000
    France                         630,000         4,350,000
    Germany                        617,000         3,000,000
    Greece                          28,000           178,000
    Italy                          264,000         3,200,000
    Japan                          225,000           600,000
    Netherlands                     40,000           500,000
    Norway                          30,000            95,000
    Persia                          24,500           105,000
    Portugal                        30,000           175,000
    Russia                       1,100,000         5,200,000
    Servia                          35,000           353,000
    Spain                          100,000         1,000,000
    Sweden                          62,000           500,000
    Switzerland                    140,000           275,000
    Turkey                         350,000         1,500,000
    United States                   89,128           208,054
    Total                        4,542,628        29,322,054

    Naval Expenditures of the Great Powers for Ten Years—1902-11.

                          Expenditure      New
                                           Construction
    Great Britain      $1,761,500,000      $589,875,000
    Germany               737,695,000       351,010,000
    France                660,695,000       236,430,000
    Russia                556,730,000       164,280,000
    Italy                 301,145,000        82,750,000
    Austria               154,070,000        74,165,000
    United States       1,150,680,000       367,050,000
    Japan                 288,505,000        76,155,000
    Total              $5,611,320,000    $1,941,715,000

    Thus in only ten years these eight great powers spent over seven
    and one-half billion dollars on their navies.

    “The immense armies maintained by European countries have come to
    be a terrific drain upon their respective nations.”—_Nelson’s
    Encyclopedia, article __“__Army.__”_


15. While making these war preparations, what are men saying?

“They have healed also the hurt of the daughter of My people slightly,
_saying, Peace, peace; when there is no peace_.” Jer. 6:14.


    NOTE.—Every one conversant with existing conditions in the world
    today knows this is true. While the message of peace is being
    proclaimed, the nations are arming as never before; wars are in
    progress almost continually; international complications are
    constantly arising; and a world war is feared as imminent, and
    constantly looming in sight. The world today is a vast armed camp.


16. But does not the Bible say that the heathen are to be given to the
Lord for an inheritance?

“Ask of Me, and _I shall give Thee the heathen for Thine inheritance_, and
the uttermost parts of the earth for Thy possession.” Ps. 2:8.

17. What will the Lord do with them?

“Thou shalt _break them with a rod of iron_; Thou shalt _dash them in
pieces_ like a potter’s vessel.” Verse 9. “And out of His mouth goeth a
sharp sword, that with it He should _smite the nations_: and He shall
_rule them with a rod of iron_: and _He treadeth the wine-press of the
fierceness and wrath of Almighty God_.” Rev. 19:15.


    NOTE.—How suddenly surprised those who have been preaching peace
    and safety will be when the end comes is indicated in the text
    already quoted: “For yourselves know perfectly that the day of the
    Lord so cometh as a thief in the night. For when they shall say,
    Peace and safety; then _sudden destruction cometh upon them_.” 1
    Thess. 5:2, 3. All heedless of the signs of the times, and
    indifferent to the future, the world will come up to the day of
    the Lord unprepared. As a thief in the night, coming with
    stealthy, muffled tread, this day will take all unawares who are
    not looking, watching, and waiting for their Lord’s return.
    Instead of looking for the world’s conversion, we should be
    looking for Christ’s coming.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    The coming King is at the door,
    Who once the cross for sinners bore,
    But now the righteous ones alone
    He comes to gather home.

    The signs that show His coming near
    Are fast fulfilling year by year,
    And soon we’ll hail the glorious dawn
    Of heaven’s eternal morn.

    Look not on earth for strife to cease,
    Look not below for joy and peace,
    Until the Saviour comes again
    To banish death and sin.

    Then in the glorious earth made new
    We’ll dwell the countless ages through;
    This mortal shall immortal be,
    And time, eternity.

    F. E. BELDEN.



The Gathering Of Israel


                             [Illustration.]

 Wailing Place Of The Jews. "The Lord shall set His hand again the second
         time to recover the remnant of His people." Isa. 11:11.


1. Because of disobedience, what experience came to Israel?

“I will make you to be removed into all the kingdoms of the earth.” Jer.
34:17. See Jer. 25:8-11.

2. What prophecy spoke of their return from captivity?

“For I know the thoughts that I think toward you, saith the Lord, thoughts
of peace, and not of evil, to give you an expected end.... And ye shall
seek Me, and find Me, when ye shall search for Me with all your heart. And
I will be found of you, saith the Lord: and _I will turn away your
captivity, and I will gather you from all the nations, and from all the
places whither I have driven you_, saith the Lord; and I will bring you
again into the place whence I caused you to be carried away captive.” Jer.
29:11-14. See also Jer. 23:3.


    NOTE.—The first dispersion of the Jews occurred B.C. 606-588,
    under Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. In B.C. 457, under
    Artaxerxes, the Persian king, large numbers of Jews returned to
    Palestine, their home land.


3. How had Moses spoken of another and greater dispersion?

“The Lord shall bring a nation against thee from far, from the end of the
earth, ... and he shall besiege thee in all thy gates, until thy high and
fenced walls come down, wherein thou trustedst, ... and the Lord shall
scatter thee among all people, from the one end of the earth even unto the
other.” Deut. 28:49-64.


    NOTE.—This calamity and dispersion occurred in 70 A.D., under
    Titus, the Roman general. Says the Popular and Critical Bible
    Encyclopedia, Vol. II, article “Jerusalem,” page 932: “Jerusalem
    seems to have been raised to this greatness as if to enhance the
    misery of its overthrow. So soon as the Jews had set the seal to
    their formal rejection of Christ, by putting Him to death, and
    invoking the responsibility of His blood upon the heads of
    themselves and of their children (Matt. 27:25), the city’s doom
    went forth. Titus, a young, brave, and competent Roman general,
    with an army of sixty thousand trained, victorious warriors,
    appeared before the city in April, 70 A.D., and the most
    disastrous siege of all history began.” See pages 313, 314.


4. Under what striking symbol was all this foretold?

“Thus saith the Lord, Go and get _a potter’s earthen bottle_, and ...
break the bottle ... and ... say unto them, Thus saith the Lord of hosts;
_Even so will I break this people and this city, as one breaketh a
potter’s vessel, that cannot be made whole again_.” Jer. 19:1-11.


    NOTE.—“No city on the globe has suffered more from war and sieges
    than Jerusalem.... Storming legions, battering-rams, and catapults
    have razed it again and again. And yet, the general outline of the
    city has always been preserved. Zion and Mt. Moriah remain in full
    view from Olivet, and there, on those hills, stretching away
    toward the west, city after city has come and gone in the passing
    ages.”—_Popular and Critical Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. II, article
    __“__Jerusalem__”__ pages 928, 929._


5. How long was Jerusalem to be trodden down of the Gentiles?

“And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away
captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the
Gentiles, _until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled_.” Luke 21:24.


    NOTE.—Jerusalem stands for the people, the truth, and the true
    worship of God. It is first mentioned in the Bible as Salem (Gen.
    14:18); is spoken of figuratively as a mother bringing forth the
    children of God (Gal. 4:26, 27); and is a type of the holy city,
    New Jerusalem, which is to be the metropolis of the new earth. In
    Rev. 11:2 it is used as a type of God’s people during the long
    period of 1260 years of papal persecution, who are there referred
    to as “the holy city,” which the Gentiles “tread underfoot forty
    and two months.”


6. What will terminate the “times” allotted to the Gentiles?

“And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a
witness unto all nations; and _then shall the end come_.” Matt. 24:14.

7. Why was the gospel to be preached to the Gentiles?

“Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, _to
take out of them a people for His name_.” Acts 15:14.

8. What false idea of this gathering were some to hold?

“And many nations shall come, and say, Come, and let us go up to the
mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will
teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths: for the law shall go
forth of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.” Micah 4:2.

9. For what will the heathen be assembled in Palestine?

“Let the heathen be wakened, and come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat....
Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision [margin, concision, or
threshing; i.e., war]: for the day of the Lord is near in the valley of
decision.” Joel 3:12-14.

10. Under whose influence are the nations to be assembled?

“And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the
dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the
false prophet. For they are _the spirits of devils_, working miracles,
which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to
gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.” Rev. 16:13,
14.


    NOTE.—Infatuated by the doctrine of the world’s conversion and a
    temporal millennium of peace, prosperity, and good will among men,
    the deluded nations will aim to make Jerusalem the center of a
    glorious kingdom, at which place they will doubtless expect Christ
    will come and take up His reign as their king. This was the
    favorite idea of the crusaders in the dark ages. But the crusaders
    were mistaken in their conception, and sorely disappointed. So
    also will the modern crusaders be mistaken and disappointed; for
    one object of Christ’s second coming will be to “smite the
    nations” and to destroy these armies assembled. Rev. 19:15.


11. Unto whom are God’s people to be gathered?

“The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his
feet, until _Shiloh_ come; and _unto Him shall the gathering of the people
be_.” Gen. 49:10.

12. How did Christ speak of the gathering of the Gentiles?

“Other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring,
and they shall hear My voice; and there shall be one fold, and one
shepherd.” John 10:16.

13. What great gathering yet awaits God’s people?

“And it shall come to pass in that day, that _the Lord shall set His hand
again the second time to recover the remnant of His people_.... And He
shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall _assemble the outcasts
of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four
corners of the earth_.” Isa. 11:11, 12. “And He shall send His angels with
a great sound of a trumpet, and _they shall gather together His elect from
the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other_.” Matt. 24:31.



The Millennium


                             [Illustration.]

  The Binding Of Satan. "And he laid hold on ... Satan, and bound him a
                       thousand years." Rev. 20:2.


1. What text definitely brings the millennium to view?

“And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and _judgment was given unto
them_: ... and _they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years_.”
Rev. 20:4.

2. Whom does Paul say the saints are to judge?

“Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the
unjust, and not before the saints? _Do ye not know that the saints shall
judge the world?... Know ye not that we shall judge angels?_” 1 Cor.
6:1-3.


    NOTE.—From these scriptures it is plain that the saints of all
    ages are to be engaged with Christ in a work of “judgment” during
    the millennium, or one thousand years.


3. What prophecy had Paul upon which to base his statement?

“I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed
against them; until the Ancient of days came, and _judgment was given to
the saints of the Most High_.” Dan. 7:21, 22.

                             [Illustration.]

                             The Millennium.


    The millennium is the closing period of God’s great week of time—a
    great sabbath of rest to the earth and to the people of God.

    It follows the close of the gospel age, and precedes the setting
    up of the everlasting kingdom of God on earth.

    It comprehends what in the Scriptures is frequently spoken of as
    “the day of the Lord.”

    It is bounded at each end by a resurrection.

    Its beginning is marked by the pouring out of the seven last
    plagues, the second coming of Christ, the resurrection of the
    righteous dead, the binding of Satan, and the translation of the
    saints to heaven; and its close, by the descent of the New
    Jerusalem, with Christ and the saints, from heaven, the
    resurrection of the wicked dead, the loosing of Satan, and the
    final destruction of the wicked.

    During the one thousand years the earth lies desolate; Satan and
    his angels are confined here; and the saints, with Christ, sit in
    judgment on the wicked, preparatory to their final punishment.

    The wicked dead are then raised; Satan is loosed for a little
    season, and he and the host of the wicked encompass the camp of
    the saints and the holy city, when fire comes down from God out of
    heaven and devours them. The earth is cleansed by the same fire
    that destroys the wicked, and, renewed, becomes the eternal abode
    of the saints.

    The millennium is one of “the ages to come.” Its close will mark
    the beginning of the new earth state.


4. How many resurrections are there to be?

“Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in
the graves shall hear His voice, and shall come forth; they that have done
good, unto _the resurrection of life_; and they that have done evil, unto
_the resurrection of damnation_.” John 5:28, 29.

5. What class only have part in the first resurrection?

“_Blessed and holy_ is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on
such the second death hath no power.” Rev. 20:6.

6. What will Christ do with the saints when He comes?

“I will come again, and _receive you unto Myself_; that where I am, there
ye may be also.” John 14:3.


    NOTE.—In other words, Christ will take them to heaven, there to
    live and reign with Him during the one thousand years.


7. Where did John, in vision, see the saints?

“After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could
number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, _stood
before the throne, and before the Lamb_, clothed with white robes, and
palms in their hands.” Rev. 7:9.


    NOTE.—This scripture shows plainly that the righteous are all
    taken to heaven immediately after the first resurrection. This
    accords with the words of Christ in John 14:1-3, where He says, “I
    go to prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for
    you, I will come again, and _receive you unto Myself; that where I
    am, there ye may be also_.” Peter desired to accompany Christ to
    those mansions; but Jesus answered, “Thou canst not follow Me now;
    _but thou shall follow Me afterwards_.” John 13:36. This makes it
    clear that when Christ returns to earth to receive His people, He
    takes them to the Father’s house in heaven.


8. What becomes of the living wicked when Christ comes?

“_As it was in the days of Noe_, so shall it be also in the days of the
Son of man. They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given
in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark, and _the flood
came, and destroyed them all. Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot_;
... the same day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone
from heaven, and _destroyed them all. Even thus shall it be in the day
when the Son of man is revealed_.” Luke 17:26-30.

9. What does the apostle Paul say concerning this?

“When they shall say, Peace and safety; _then sudden destruction cometh
upon them_, ... and they shall not escape.” 1 Thess. 5:3.


    NOTE.—When Christ comes, the righteous will be delivered and taken
    to heaven, and all the living wicked will be suddenly destroyed,
    as they were at the time of the flood. For further proof see 2
    Thess. 1:7-9; Rev. 6:14-17; 19:11-21; Jer. 25:30-33. There will be
    no general resurrection of the wicked until the end of the one
    thousand years. This will leave the earth desolate and without
    human inhabitant during this period.


10. What description does the prophet Jeremiah give of the earth during
this time?

“I beheld the earth, and, lo, it was _without form, and void_; and the
heavens, and they had no light. I beheld the mountains, and, lo, they
trembled, and all the hills moved lightly. I beheld, and, lo, _there was
no man_, and all the birds of the heavens were fled. I beheld, and, lo,
the _fruitful place was a wilderness, and all the cities thereof were
broken down_ at the presence of the Lord, and by His fierce anger.” Jer.
4:23-26.


    NOTE.—At the coming of Christ the earth is reduced to a chaotic
    state—to a mass of ruins. The heavens depart as a scroll when it
    is rolled together; mountains are moved out of their places; and
    the earth is left a dark, dreary, desolate waste. See Isa. 24:1-3;
    Rev. 6:14-17.


11. How does Isaiah speak of the wicked at this time?

“It shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall punish the host of
the high ones that are on high, and the kings of the earth upon the earth.
And they shall be gathered together, as prisoners are gathered in the pit,
and _shall be shut up in prison_, and after many days shall they be
visited.” Isa. 24:21, 22.

12. How long is Satan to be imprisoned on this earth?

“I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless
pit and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold on the dragon, that
old serpent, which is the devil, and Satan, and _bound him a thousand
years_, and cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a
seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the
thousand years should be fulfilled.” Rev. 20:1-3.


    NOTE.—The word rendered “bottomless pit” in this text is _abusos_,
    the Greek term employed by the Septuagint in Gen. 1:2, as the
    equivalent of the Hebrew word rendered “deep” in our English
    versions. A more literal translation would be “abyss.” It is a
    term applied to the earth in its desolate, waste, chaotic, dark,
    uninhabited condition. In this condition it will remain during the
    one thousand years. It will be the dreary prison-house of Satan
    during this period. Here, in the midst of the moldering bones of
    wicked dead, slain at Christ’s second coming, the broken-down
    cities, and the wreck and ruin of all the pomp and power of this
    world, Satan will have opportunity to reflect upon the results of
    his rebellion against God. But the prophecy of Isaiah says, “After
    many days shall they be visited.”


13. The righteous dead are raised at Christ’s second coming. When will the
rest of the dead, the wicked, be raised?

“The rest of the dead lived not again _until the thousand years were
finished_.” Verse 5.


    NOTES.—From this we see that the beginning and the close of the
    millennium, or one thousand years, are marked by the two
    resurrections. The word millennium is from two Latin words,
    _mille_, meaning a thousand, and _annus_, year—a thousand years.
    It covers the time during which Satan is to be bound and wicked
    men and angels are to be judged. This period is bounded by
    distinct events. Its beginning is marked by the close of
    probation, the pouring out of the seven last plagues, the second
    coming of Christ, and the resurrection of the righteous dead. It
    closes with the resurrection of the wicked, and their final
    destruction in the lake of fire. See diagram on page 356.


14. What change is made in Satan’s condition at the close of the one
thousand years?

“After that _he must be loosed a little season_.” Verse 3.


    NOTE.—At the close of the one thousand years, Christ, accompanied
    by the saints, comes to the earth again, to execute judgment upon
    the wicked, and to prepare the earth, by a re-creation, for the
    eternal abode of the righteous. At this time, in answer to the
    summons of Christ, the wicked dead of all ages awake to life. This
    is the second resurrection, the resurrection unto damnation. The
    wicked come forth with the same rebellious spirit which possessed
    them in this life. Then Satan is loosed from his long period of
    captivity and inactivity.


15. As soon as the wicked are raised, what does Satan at once proceed to
do?

“When the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his
prison, and shall go out to _deceive the nations_ which are in the four
quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, _to gather them together to battle_:
the number of whom is as the sand of the sea.” Verses 7, 8.

16. Against whom do the wicked go to make war, and what is the outcome?

“They went up on the breadth of the earth, and _compassed the camp of the
saints about, and the beloved city_; and _fire came down from God out of
heaven, and devoured them_.” Verse 9.


    NOTES.—This is the last act in the great controversy between
    Christ and Satan. The whole human race meet here for the first and
    last time. The eternal separation of the righteous from the wicked
    here takes place. At this time the judgment of God is executed
    upon the wicked in the lake of fire. This is the second death.
    This ends the great rebellion against God and His government. Now
    is heard the voice of God as He sits upon His throne, speaking to
    the saints, and saying, “Behold, I make all things new;” and out
    of the burning ruins of the old earth there springs forth before
    the admiring gaze of the millions of the redeemed, “a new heaven
    and a new earth,” in which they shall find an everlasting
    inheritance and dwelling-place.

    The millennium is a great sabbath of rest, both for the earth and
    for God’s people. For six thousand years the earth and its
    inhabitants have been groaning under the curse of sin. The
    millennium, the seventh thousand, will be a sabbath of rest and
    release; for, says the prophet concerning the land, “as long as
    she lay desolate she kept _sabbath_.” 2 Chron. 36:21. “There
    remaineth therefore a _rest_ [margin, _keeping of a sabbath_] to
    the people of God.” Heb. 4:9. This precedes the new earth state.



Length Of The Day Of The Lord


                             [Illustration.]

The Last Great Earthquake. "For the great day of His wrath is come." Rev.
                                  6:17.


1. What is the character of the “day of the Lord”?

“The great day of the Lord is near, it is near, and hasteth greatly, even
the voice of the day of the Lord: the mighty man shall cry there bitterly.
_That day is a day of wrath, a day of trouble and distress._” Zeph. 1:14,
15.

2. Under which of the seven seals does this day begin?

“And I beheld _when He had opened the sixth seal_, and, lo, there was a
great earthquake, ... for _the great day of His wrath is come_; and who
shall be able to stand?” Rev. 6:12-17.

3. What signs were to appear under this seal?

“The sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood;
and the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig-tree casteth
her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind.” Verses 12, 13.


    NOTE.—For dates and fulfilment of these signs, see readings on
    pages 311, 319. The Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (page 286) should
    not be confounded with that to take place under the seventh
    plague. Rev. 16:18.


4. Under which seal will the Lord come?

“And when He had _opened the seventh seal_, there was silence in heaven
about the space of half an hour.” Rev. 8:1.


    NOTE.—This silence in heaven is the result of Christ and the
    angels leaving heaven to come to this earth. See page 288.


5. With what is the day of wrath to open?

“And I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvelous, seven angels
having _the seven last plagues; for in them is filled up the wrath of
God_.” Rev. 15:1.


    NOTE.—These plagues immediately precede Christ’s coming. See Rev.
    16:12-15, and reading on page 301.


6. What great event will take place at Christ’s coming?

“For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven: ... and _the dead in
Christ shall rise first_.” 1 Thess. 4:16.

7. How long after this will the wicked dead be raised?

“But _the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were
finished_.” Rev. 20:5.

8. As they gather around the holy city, what will take place?

“And fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them.” Verse 9.

9. What is this destruction called?

“But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and
whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have
their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is
_the second death_.” Rev. 21:8.

10. Unto what are the present heavens and earth reserved?

“But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept
in store, reserved _unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of
ungodly men_.” 2 Peter 3:7.


    NOTE.—When the fire from heaven destroys the wicked, the earth
    itself will also be burned and purified.


11. Does the day of the Lord include this burning day?

“But _the day of the Lord_ will come as a thief in the night; in the which
the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and _the elements shall
melt with fervent heat, the earth also_ and the works that are therein
shall be burned up.” Verse 10.


    NOTE.—The day of the Lord, therefore, begins with the seven last
    plagues and the coming of Christ, and continues for one thousand
    years, or till the wicked are destroyed, and the earth is renewed
    and given to the saints.



Elijah The Prophet


                             [Illustration.]

   Mt. Carmel. "How long halt ye between two opinions?" 1 Kings 18:21.


1. What promise, through the prophet Malachi, does the Lord make
concerning Elijah?

“Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great
and dreadful day of the Lord.” Mal. 4:5.

2. What will this prophet do when he comes?

“And he shall _turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the
heart of the children to their fathers_, lest I come and smite the earth
with a curse.” Verse 6.

3. Whom did Christ indicate as fulfilling this prophecy?

“And His disciples asked Him, saying, Why then say the scribes that Elias
must first come? And Jesus answered and said unto them, Elias truly shall
first come, and restore all things. But I say unto you, That _Elias is
come already_, and they knew him not, but have done unto him whatsoever
they listed. Likewise shall also the Son of man suffer of them. Then the
disciples understood that He spake unto them of _John the Baptist_.” Matt.
17:10-13.

4. When John the Baptist was asked if he were Elijah, what did he say?

“And he said, _I am not_.” John 1:21.

5. Who did he say he was?

“He said, _I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness_. Make straight
the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias.” Verse 23.

                             [Illustration.]

Translation Of Elijah. "Behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, ... and
        Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." 2 Kings 2:11.


6. In what sense does the angel Gabriel explain John the Baptist to be the
Elijah of Mal. 4:5?

“Many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God. And
he shall go before Him [Christ] _in the spirit and power of Elias_, to
turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the
wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.” Luke
1:16, 17.


    NOTE.—John went forth “_in the spirit and power of Elias_,” and,
    in preparing a people for Christ’s first advent, did a work
    similar to that done by Elijah the prophet in Israel centuries
    before. See 1 Kings 17 and 18. In this sense, and in this sense
    only, he was the Elijah of Mal. 4:5.


7. Near the close of the three and one-half years’ drought in Israel,
brought about as a judgment through the intercessions of Elijah (James
5:17) in consequence of Israel’s apostasy, what accusation did King Ahab
bring against Elijah?

“And it came to pass, when Ahab saw Elijah, that Ahab said unto him, _Art
thou he that troubleth Israel?_” 1 Kings 18:17.

8. What answer did Elijah make?

“And he answered, _I have not troubled Israel; but thou, and thy father’s
house, in that ye have forsaken the commandments of the Lord, and thou
hast followed Baalim_.” Verse 18.


    NOTE.—Israel had departed from God, forsaken His commandments, and
    gone off into idolatry. Jezebel, Ahab’s wicked and idolatrous
    wife, had “cut off the prophets of the Lord” (verse 4), was
    supporting hundreds of the prophets of Baal, and was seeking
    Elijah to slay him. Elijah called for a famine on the land, and
    said to Ahab, “As the Lord God of Israel liveth, before whom I
    stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according
    to my word.” 1 Kings 17:1. Elijah’s message was a call to
    repentance and obedience to God’s commandments.


9. What plain proposition did he submit to all Israel?

“And Elijah came unto all the people, and said, _How long halt ye between
two opinions? if the Lord be God, follow Him: but if Baal, then follow
him_.” 1 Kings 18:21.


    NOTE.—The result of the test by fire which followed on Mt. Carmel,
    can be read in the remainder of this wonderful chapter. There was
    a great turning to God, the people saying, “The Lord, He is the
    God; the Lord, He is the God.” Verse 39.


10. What was the burden of the message of John the Baptist?

“_Repent ye_: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.” “Bring forth
therefore _fruits_ meet for repentance.” Matt. 3:2, 8.

11. What was the result of this message?

“Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judea, and all the region round
about Jordan, and _were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their
sins_.” Verses 5, 6.


    NOTE.—There was a genuine work of repentance and reform. John was
    not satisfied with a mere profession of religion. He told the
    Pharisees and Sadducees who came to his baptism, to “bring forth
    fruits” answerable to an “amendment of life.” He wished to see
    religion in the life, the heart, the home. Thus he prepared a
    people for Christ’s first advent.


12. But when, according to the prophecy, was Elijah to be sent?

“Before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord.” Mal. 4:5.

13. How is this great and dreadful day described in this same prophecy?

“For, behold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven; and all the
proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble: and the day that
cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord of hosts, that it shall leave
them neither root nor branch.” Verse 1.


    NOTE.—This day is yet future. It cannot be, therefore, that the
    work done by John the Baptist at Christ’s first advent is all that
    was contemplated in the prophecy concerning the sending of Elijah
    the prophet. It must be that there is to be another and greater
    fulfilment of it, to precede Christ’s _second advent_, and to
    prepare, or “make ready,” a people for that great event.


14. What is the burden of the threefold message of Rev. 14:6-10?

“Fear God, and give glory to Him; for the hour of His judgment is come:
and worship Him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the
fountains of waters.... Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city,
because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her
fornication.... If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive
his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, the same shall drink of the wine
of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of
His indignation.” Rev. 14:6-10.


    NOTE.—Like the messages of Elijah and John, this is a call to
    repentance and reform,—a call to forsake false, idolatrous
    worship, and to turn to God, and worship Him, and Him alone. The
    first part of this threefold message points out the true God, the
    Creator, in language very similar to that found in the fourth, or
    Sabbath, commandment. This is the message now due the world, and
    that is now being proclaimed to the world. See readings on pages
    251-263. Those who are proclaiming these messages constitute the
    Elijah for this time, as John and his colaborers did at the time
    of Christ’s first advent.


15. How are the people described who are developed by the threefold
message here referred to?

“Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the
commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.” Verse 12.


    NOTE.—These will be the ones who will be ready to meet Jesus when
    He comes. They have heeded the Elijah-call to repentance and
    reform. They have become concerned, not only for their own
    individual salvation, but for the salvation of their friends and
    relatives. By this message the hearts of the fathers are turned to
    the children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers.
    Each becomes burdened for the conversion and salvation of the
    other. There can be little religion in the heart of one who cares
    not for the eternal interests of his loved ones. When this message
    has done its work, God will smite the earth with a curse; the
    seven last plagues will fall, and usher in the great day of the
    Lord described in the preceding reading.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Light is beaming, day is coming!
      Let us sound aloud the cry;
    We behold the day-star rising
      Pure and bright in yonder sky!
            Saints, be joyful;
      Your redemption draweth nigh.

    We have found the chart and compass,
      And are sure the land is near;
    Onward, onward, we are hasting.
      Soon the haven will appear;
            Let your voices
      Sound aloud your holy cheer.



PART VIII. THE LAW OF GOD



The Law of God


I

Thou shalt have no other gods before Me.

II

Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of
anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that
is in the water under the earth: thou shalt not bow down thyself to them,
nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the
iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth
generation of them that hate Me; and showing mercy unto thousands of them
that love Me, and keep My commandments.

III

Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain; for the Lord
will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain.

IV

Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labor, and
do all thy work: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God:
in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy
man servant, nor thy maid servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that
is within thy gates: for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the
sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the
Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.

V

Honor thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land
which the Lord thy God giveth thee.

VI

Thou shalt not kill.

VII

Thou shalt not commit adultery.

VIII

Thou shalt not steal.

IX

Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.

X

Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s house, thou shalt not covet thy
neighbor’s wife, nor his man servant, nor his maid servant, nor his ox,
nor his ass, nor anything that is thy neighbor’s.



The Law Of God


                             [Illustration.]

  Mt. Sinai. "The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul." Ps.
                                  19:7.


1. When God brought His people out of Egypt, how did He republish His law?

“And the Lord spake unto you out of the midst of the fire: ye heard the
voice of the words, but saw no similitude; only ye heard a voice. And _He
declared unto you His covenant, which He commanded you to perform, even
ten commandments; and He wrote them upon two tables of stone_.” Deut.
4:12, 13. See also Neh. 9:13, 14.

2. Where are the ten commandments recorded?

In Ex. 20:2-17.

3. How comprehensive are these commandments?

“Fear God, and keep His commandments: for _this is the whole duty of
man_.” Eccl. 12:13.

4. What inspired tribute is paid to the law of God?

“_The law of the Lord is perfect_, converting the soul: the testimony of
the Lord is _sure_, making wise the simple. The statutes of the Lord are
_right_, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the Lord is _pure_,
enlightening the eyes.” Ps. 19:7, 8.

5. What blessing does the psalmist say attends the keeping of God’s
commandments?

“Moreover by them is Thy servant warned: and _in keeping of them there is
great reward_.” Verse 11.

6. What did Christ state as a condition of entering into life?

“If thou wilt enter into life, _keep the commandments_.” Matt. 19:17.

7. Can man of himself, unaided by Christ, keep the law?

“I am the vine, ye are the branches: he that abideth in Me, and I in him,
the same bringeth forth much fruit: for _without Me ye can do nothing_.”
John 15:5. See also Rom. 7:14-19.

8. What provision has been made so that we may keep God’s law?

“For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God
sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin,
condemned sin in the flesh: that the righteousness of the law might be
fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.” Rom.
8:3, 4.

9. What is the nature of God’s law?

“For we know that _the law is spiritual_: but I am carnal, sold under
sin.” Rom. 7:14.


    NOTE.—In His comments on the sixth and seventh commandments,
    recorded in Matt. 5:21-28, Christ demonstrated the spiritual
    nature of the law, showing that it relates not merely to outward
    actions, but that it reaches to the thoughts and intents of the
    heart. See also Heb. 4:12. The tenth commandment forbids lust, or
    all unlawful desire. Rom. 7:7. Obedience to this law, therefore,
    requires not merely an outward compliance, but genuine heart
    service. This can be rendered only by a regenerated soul.


10. How is the law further described?

“Wherefore the law is _holy_, and the commandment _holy_, and _just_, and
_good_.” Verse 12.

11. What is revealed in God’s law?.

“And knowest _His_ [_God’s_] _will_, and approvest the things that are
more excellent, being instructed out of the law.” Rom. 2:18.

12. When Christ came to this earth, what was His attitude toward God’s
will, or law?

“Then said I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of Me,
_I delight to do Thy will, O My God: yea, Thy law is within My heart_.”
Ps. 40:7, 8. See Heb. 10:5, 7.

13. Who did He say would enter the kingdom of heaven?

“Not every one that saith unto Me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the
kingdom of heaven; but _he that doeth the will of My Father which is in
heaven_.” Matt. 7:21.

14. What did He say of those who should break one of God’s commandments,
or should teach men to do so?

“Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and
shall teach men so, _he shall be called the least in the kingdom of
heaven_.” Matt. 5:19, first part.

15. Who did He say would be called great in the kingdom?

“But _whosoever shall do and teach them_, the same shall be called great
in the kingdom.” Same verse, last part.

16. How did Christ estimate the righteousness of the scribes and
Pharisees?

“For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the
righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, _ye shall in no case enter
into the kingdom of heaven_.” Verse 20.

17. For what did Christ reprove the Pharisees?

“But He answered and said unto them, _Why do ye also transgress the
commandment of God by your tradition?_” Matt. 15:3.

18. How had they done this?

“For God commanded, saying, Honor thy father and mother.... But ye say,
Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift, ... and
honor not his father or his mother, he shall be free. Thus have ye made
the commandment of God of none effect by your tradition.” Verses 4-6.

19. In consequence of this, what value did Christ place upon their
worship?

“But _in vain they do worship Me_, teaching for doctrines the commandments
of men.” Verse 9.

20. What is sin declared to be?

“Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for _sin is the
transgression of the law_.” 1 John 3:4.

21. By what is the knowledge of sin?

“For _by the law is the knowledge of sin_.” Rom. 3:20. See Rom. 7:7.

22. How many of the commandments is it necessary to break in order to
become a transgressor of the law?

“For _whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he
is guilty of all_. For He that said, Do not commit adultery, said also, Do
not kill. Now if thou commit no adultery, and yet if thou kill, thou art
become a transgressor of the law.” James 2:10, 11.


    NOTE.—This shows that the ten commandments are a complete whole,
    and together constitute but one law. Like a chain of ten links,
    all are inseparably connected together. If one link is broken, the
    chain is broken.


23. How may we be freed from the guilt of our sins, or our transgressions
of God’s law?

“_If we confess our sins_, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins,
and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.” 1 John 1:9.

24. Why are we admonished to fear God and keep His commandments?

“Fear God, and keep His commandments: for this is the whole duty of man.
_For God shall bring every work into judgment_, with every secret thing,
whether it be good, or whether it be evil.” Eccl. 12:13, 14.

25. What will be the standard in the judgment?

“So speak ye, and so do, as they that shall be _judged by the law of
liberty_.” James 2:12.

26. What is said of those who love God’s law?

“_Great peace have they which love Thy law_: and nothing shall offend
them.” Ps. 119:165.

27. What would obedience to God’s commandments have insured to ancient
Israel?

“O that thou hadst harkened to My commandments! _then had thy peace been
as a river, and thy righteousness as the waves of the sea_.” Isa. 48:18.

28. What is another blessing attending the keeping of God’s commandments?

“The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom: a _good understanding
have all they that do His commandments_.” Ps. 111:10.

29. In what does the man delight whom the psalmist describes as blessed?

“Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor
standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful.
But _his delight is in the law of the Lord; and in His law doth he
meditate day and night_.” Ps. 1:1, 2. See Rom. 7:22.

30. Why is the carnal mind enmity against God?

“Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: _for it is not subject to
the law of God, neither indeed can be_.” Rom. 8:7.

31. How do those with renewed hearts and minds regard the commandments of
God?

“For this is the love of God, that we keep His commandments: and _His
commandments are not grievous_.” 1 John 5:3.

32. What is the essential principle of the law of God?

“Love worketh no ill to his neighbor: therefore _love_ is the fulfilling
of the law.” Rom. 13:10.

33. In what two great commandments is the law of God briefly summarized?

“Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy
soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And
the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. On
these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.” Matt. 22:37-40.


    NOTE.—“Does any man say to me, ‘You see, then, instead of the ten
    commandments, we have received the two commandments, and these are
    much easier’? I answer that this reading of the law is not in the
    least easier. Such a remark implies a want of thought and
    experience. Those two precepts comprehend the ten at their fullest
    extent, and cannot be regarded as the erasure of a jot or tittle
    of them. Whatever difficulties surround the commands are equally
    found in the two, which are their sum and substance. If you love
    God with all your heart, you must keep the first table; and if you
    love your neighbor as yourself, you must keep the second
    table.”—_“__The Perpetuity of the Law of God,__”__ by C. H.
    Spurgeon, page 6._


34. What is said of one who professes to know the Lord, but does not keep
His commandments?

“He that saith, I know Him, and keepeth not His commandments, is _a liar_,
and _the truth is not in him_.” 1 John 2:4.

35. What promise is made to the willing and obedient?

“If ye be willing and obedient, _ye shall eat the good of the land_.” Isa.
1:19.

36. How does God regard those who walk in His law?

“_Blessed_ are the undefiled in the way, who walk in the law of the Lord.”
Ps. 119:1.



Perpetuity Of The Law


                             [Illustration.]

 Christ Expounding The Law. "Think not that I am come to destroy the law,
                      or the prophets." Matt. 5:17.


1. How many lawgivers are there?

“There is _one lawgiver_, who is able to save and to destroy.” James 4:12.

2. What is said of the stability of God’s character?

“For I am the Lord, _I change not_.” Mal. 3:6.

3. How enduring are His commandments?

“The works of His hands are verity and judgment; _all His commandments are
sure. They stand fast forever and ever_, and are done in truth and
uprightness.” Ps. 111:7, 8.

4. Did Christ come to abolish or to destroy the law?

“Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: _I am not
come to destroy, but to fulfil_.” Matt. 5:17.


    NOTES.—_The law_; broadly, the writings of Moses; specifically,
    the ten commandments, or moral law, from which the writings of
    Moses primarily derived their name. _The prophets_; that is, the
    writings of the prophets. Neither of these Christ came to destroy,
    but rather to fulfil, or meet their design.

    “The laws of the Jews are commonly divided into moral, ceremonial,
    and judicial. The moral laws are such as grow out of the nature of
    things, which cannot, therefore, be changed,—such as the duty of
    loving God and His creatures. These cannot be abolished, as it can
    never be made right to hate God, or to hate our fellow men. Of
    this kind are the ten commandments; and these our Saviour neither
    abolished nor superseded. The ceremonial laws are such as are
    appointed to meet certain states of society, or to regulate the
    religious rites and ceremonies of a people. These can be changed
    when circumstances are changed, and yet the moral law be
    untouched.”—_Dr. Albert Barnes, on Matt. 5:18._

    “Jesus did not come to change the law, but He came to explain it,
    and that very fact shows that it remains; for there is no need to
    explain that which is abrogated.... By thus explaining the law He
    confirmed it; He could not have meant to abolish it, or He would
    not have needed to expound it.... That the Master did not come to
    alter the law is clear, because after having embodied it in His
    life, He willingly gave Himself up to bear its penalty, though He
    had never broken it, bearing the penalty for us, even as it is
    written, ‘Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being
    made a curse for us.’ ... If the law had demanded more of us than
    it ought to have done, would the Lord Jesus have rendered to it
    the penalty which resulted from its too severe demands? I am sure
    He would not. But because the law asked only what it ought to ask,
    namely, perfect obedience, and exacted of the transgressor only
    what it ought to exact, namely, death as the penalty for
    sin,—death under divine wrath,—therefore the Saviour went to the
    tree, and there bore our sins, and purged them once for
    all.”—_“__The Perpetuity of the Law of God,__”__ by C. H.
    Spurgeon, pages 4-7._

    “The moral law contained in the ten commandments, and enforced by
    the prophets, He did not take away. It was not the design of His
    coming to revoke any part of this.... Every part of this law must
    remain in force upon all mankind and in all ages, as not depending
    either on time or place, or any other circumstance liable to
    change, but on the nature of God, and the nature of man, and their
    unchangeable relation to each other.”—_John Wesley, in his
    __“__Sermons,__”__ Vol. I, No. 25, pages 221, 222._


5. When used with reference to prophecy, what does the word _fulfil_ mean?

To fill up; to accomplish; to bring to pass; as, “that it might be
_fulfilled_ which was spoken by Esaias the prophet.” Matt. 4:14.

6. What does it mean when used with reference to law?

To perform, to keep, or to act in accordance with; as, “Bear ye one
another’s burdens, and so _fulfil_ the law of Christ.” Gal. 6:2. See also
Matt. 3:15; James 2:8, 9.

7. How did Christ treat His Father’s commandments?

“I have _kept_ My Father’s commandments, and abide in His love.” John
15:10.

8. If one professes to abide in Christ, how ought he to walk?

“He that saith he abideth in Him _ought himself also so to walk, even as
He walked_.” 1 John 2:6.

9. What is sin?

“Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for _sin is the
transgression of the law_.” 1 John 3:4.


    NOTE.—This text does not say that sin _was_ the transgression of
    the law, but that it _is_ this, thus demonstrating that the law is
    still in force in the gospel dispensation. “Whosoever” likewise
    shows the universality of its binding claims. Whoever of any
    nation, race, or people commits sin, transgresses the law.


                             [Illustration.]

  The Great Sacrifice. "Do we then make void the law through faith? God
              forbid: yea, we establish the law." Rom. 3:31.


10. In what condition are all men?

“For _all have sinned_, and come short of the glory of God.” Rom. 3:23.

11. How many are included in the “all” who have sinned?

“What then? are we better than they? No, in no wise: for we have before
proved _both Jews and Gentiles_, that _they are all under sin_.” Verse 9.

12. By what are all men proved guilty?

“Now we know that _what things soever the law saith_, it saith to them who
are under the law: _that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may
become guilty before God_.” Verse 19.


    NOTE.—It is what the law says, and not what one may interpret it
    to mean, that proves the sinner guilty. Moreover, God is no
    respecter of persons, but treats Jew and Gentile alike. Measured
    by the law, _all the world_ are guilty before God.


13. Does faith in God make void the law?

“Do we then make void the law through faith? _God forbid: yea, we
establish the law_.” Verse 31.

14. What, more than all else, proves the perpetuity and immutability of
the law of God?

“For _God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son_, that
whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”
John 3:16. “Christ died for our sins.” 1 Cor. 15:3.


    NOTE.—Could the law have been abolished, and sin been disposed of
    in this way, Christ need not have come and died for our sins. The
    gift of Christ, therefore, more than all else, proves the
    immutability of the law of God. Christ must come and die, and
    satisfy the claims of the law, or the world must perish. The law
    could not give way. Says Spurgeon in his sermon on “The Perpetuity
    of the Law of God,” “Our Lord Jesus Christ gave a greater
    vindication of the law by dying because it had been broken than
    all the lost can ever give by their miseries.” The fact that the
    law is to be the standard in the judgment is another proof of its
    enduring nature. See Eccl. 12:13, 14; James 2:8-12.


15. What relation does a justified person sustain to the law?

“For not the hearers of the law are just before God, but _the doers of the
law shall be justified_.” Rom. 2:13.

16. Who has the promise of being blessed in his doing?

“But he that looketh into the perfect law, the law of liberty, and so
continueth, being not a hearer that forgetteth, but _a doer that worketh_,
this man shall be blessed in his doing.” James 1:25, R. V.

17. By what may we know that we have passed from death unto life?

“We know that we have passed from death unto life, _because we love the
brethren_.” 1 John 3:14.

18. And how may we know that we love the brethren?

“By this we know that we love the children of God, _when we love God, and
keep His commandments_.” 1 John 5:2.

19. What is the love of God?

“For this is the love of God, _that we keep His commandments_.” Verse 3.

20. How are those described who will be prepared for the coming of Christ?

“Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the
commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.” Rev. 14:12.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    O that the Lord would guide my ways
      To keep His statutes still!
    O that my God would grant me grace
      To know and do His will!

    O send Thy Spirit down to write
      Thy law upon my heart,
    Nor let my tongue indulge deceit,
      Nor act the liar’s part.

    From vanity turn off my eyes,
      Let no corrupt design
    Nor covetous desire arise
      Within this soul of mine.

    Order my footsteps by Thy word,
      And make my heart sincere;
    Let sin have no dominion, Lord,
      But keep my conscience clear.

    Make me to walk in Thy commands,
      ’Tis a delightful road;
    Nor let my head, nor heart, nor hands
      Offend against my God.
                                ISAAC WATTS.



Why The Law Was Given At Sinai


                             [Illustration.]

 Moses With The Tables Of The Law. "By the law is the knowledge of sin."
                                Rom. 3:20.


1. How does Nehemiah describe the giving of the law at Sinai?

“Thou earnest down also upon mount Sinai, and spakest with them from
heaven, and gavest them right judgments, and true laws, good statutes and
commandments: and madest known unto them Thy holy Sabbath, and commandedst
them precepts, statutes, and laws, by the hand of Moses Thy servant.” Neh.
9:13, 14.

2. What is declared to be the chief advantage possessed by the Jews?

“What advantage then hath the Jew? or what profit is there of
circumcision? Much every way: _chiefly, because that unto them were
committed the oracles of God_.” Rom. 3:1, 2.


    NOTE.—The law was not spoken at this time exclusively for the
    benefit of the Hebrews. God honored them by making them the
    guardians and keepers of His law, but He intended that it should
    be held by them as a sacred trust for the whole world. The
    precepts of the decalogue are adapted to all mankind, and they
    were given for the instruction and government of all. “Ten
    precepts, brief, comprehensive, and authoritative, cover the duty
    of man to God and to his fellow men;” and all are based upon the
    great fundamental principle of love. “Thou shalt love the Lord thy
    God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy
    strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbor as thyself.”
    Luke 10:27. In the ten commandments these principles are carried
    out in detail, and are made applicable to the condition and
    circumstances of man.


3. Before the giving of the law at Sinai, what did Moses say when Jethro
asked him concerning his judging the people?

“When they have a matter, they come unto me; and I judge between one and
another, and _I do make them know the statutes of God, and His laws_.” Ex.
18:16.

4. What explanation did Moses give the rulers of Israel concerning the
withholding of the manna on the seventh day in the wilderness of Sin,
before they reached Sinai?

“And he said unto them, This is that which the Lord hath said, _Tomorrow
is the rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord_.... Six days ye shall
gather it; but on the seventh day, _which is the Sabbath_, in it there
shall be none.” Ex. 16:23-26.

5. When some went out to gather manna on the seventh day, what did the
Lord say to Moses?

“And the Lord said unto Moses, _How long refuse ye to keep My commandments
and My laws_?” Verse 28.


    NOTE.—It is evident therefore that the Sabbath and the law of God
    existed before the law was given at Sinai.


6. What question does Paul ask concerning the law?

“Wherefore then serveth the law?” Gal. 3:19.


    NOTE.—That is, of what use or service was the law announced at
    Sinai? What special purpose had God in view in giving it then?


7. What answer is given to this question?

“_It was added, because of transgressions_, till the seed should come to
whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a
mediator.” Same verse.


    NOTES.—The Greek word here translated “added” is the same one that
    is translated “spoken” in Heb. 12:19.

    “The meaning is that _the law was given to show the true nature of
    transgressions_, or _to show what sin is_. It was not to reveal a
    way of justification, but it was _to disclose the true nature of
    sin_; to deter men from committing it; to declare its penalty; _to
    convince men of it_, and thus to be ancillary to, and preparatory
    to, the work of redemption through the Redeemer. This is the true
    account of the law of God as given to apostate man, and this use
    of the law still exists.”—_Dr. Albert Barnes, on Gal. 3:19._


8. How is this same truth again expressed?

“Wherefore the law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good.
Was then that which is good made death unto me? God forbid. _But sin, that
it might appear sin, working death in me by that which is good; that sin
by the commandment might become exceeding sinful._” Rom. 7:12, 13.

9. For what purpose did the law enter?

“Moreover the law entered, _that the offense might abound_.” Rom. 5:20.


    NOTE.—By the giving of the law at Sinai, then, God designed, not
    to increase or multiply sin, but that men might, through a new
    revelation of Him and of His character and will, as expressed in a
    _plainly spoken_ and _plainly written_ law, the better see _the
    awful sinfulness of sin_, and thus _their utter helplessness_ and
    _undone condition_. While in Egypt, surrounded as they were with
    idolatry and sin, and as the result of their long bondage and hard
    servitude, Israel even, the special people of God, had largely
    forgotten God and lost sight of His requirements. Until one
    realizes that he is a sinner, he cannot see his need of a Saviour
    from sin. Hence the entering, or republication, of the law to the
    world through Israel at Sinai.


10. By what is the knowledge of sin?

“_By the law_ is the knowledge of sin.” Rom. 3:20. See also Rom. 7:7.

11. Under what condition is the written law good?

“But we know that the law is good, _if a man use it lawfully_.” 1 Tim.
1:8.

12. And what is indicated as the lawful use of the law?

“Knowing this, that _the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the
lawless and disobedient_, for the _ungodly_ and for _sinners_, for
_unholy_ and _profane_, for _murderers_ of fathers and _murderers_ of
mothers, for _manslayers_, for _whoremongers_, for them that _defile
themselves with mankind_, for _menstealers_, for _liars_, for _perjured
persons_, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound
doctrine.” Verses 9, 10.


    NOTE.—In other words, the lawful use of the written law is to show
    what sin is, and to convince sinners that they are sinners, and
    that they need a Saviour. God’s design, then, in giving the law at
    Sinai was to shut men up under sin, and thus lead them to Christ.


13. Who does Christ say need a physician?

“They that be whole need not a physician, but _they that are sick_.” Matt.
9:12.


    NOTE.—Speaking of how to deal with those “who are not stricken of
    their sins,” and “have no deep conviction of guilt,” D. L. Moody,
    in his “Sermons, Addresses, and Prayers,” says: “Just bring the
    law of God to bear on these, and show them themselves in their
    true light.... Don’t try to heal the wound before the hurt is
    felt. Don’t attempt to give the consolation of the gospel until
    your converts see that they have sinned—see it and feel it.”


14. Whom does Christ say He came to call to repentance?

“For I am not come to call the righteous, but _sinners_ to repentance.”
Verse 13.

15. What is the strength of sin?

“The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is _the law_.” 1 Cor.
15:56.

16. What are the wages of sin?

“For _the wages of sin is death_; but the gift of God is eternal life
through Christ Jesus our Lord.” Rom. 6:23.

17. Could a law which condemns men give them life?

“Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for _if there
had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness
should have been by the law_.” Gal. 3:21.

18. What, therefore, was the purpose, or special design, of the giving of
the law at Sinai?

“Wherefore _the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ_, that we
might be justified by faith.” Verse 24.


    NOTES.—“What is the law of God for? for us to keep in order to be
    saved by it?—Not at all. It is sent in order to show us that we
    cannot be saved by works, and to shut us up to be saved by grace.
    But if you make out that the law is altered so that a man can keep
    it, you have left him his old legal hope, and he is sure to cling
    to it. You need a perfect law that shuts man right up to
    hopelessness apart from Jesus, puts him into an iron cage, and
    locks him up, and offers him no escape but by faith in Jesus; then
    he begins to cry, ‘Lord, save me by grace, for I perceive that I
    cannot be saved by my own works.’ This is how Paul describes it to
    the Galatians: ‘The Scripture hath concluded all under sin, that
    the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that
    believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut
    up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore
    the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we
    might be justified by faith.’  I say you have deprived the gospel
    of its ablest auxiliary when you set aside the law. You have taken
    away from it the schoolmaster that is to bring men to Christ. They
    will never accept grace till they tremble before a just and holy
    law. Therefore the law serves a most necessary and blessed
    purpose, and it must not be removed from its place.”—_“__The
    Perpetuity of the Law of God,__”__ by C. H. Spurgeon, pages 10,
    11._

    “And let it be observed that the law did not answer this end
    merely among the Jews, in the days of the apostles: it is just as
    necessary to the Gentiles, to the present hour. Nor do we find
    that true repentance takes place where the moral law is not
    preached and enforced. Those who preach only the gospel to
    sinners, at best only heal the hurt of the daughter of My people
    slightly.”—_Dr. Adam Clarke, on Rom. 7:13 (edition 1860)._

    Commenting on Gal. 3:23, Mr. Spurgeon, in his “Sermon Notes,”
    CCXII, says: “Here we have a condensed history of the world before
    the gospel was fully revealed by the coming of our Lord Jesus....
    The history of each saved soul is a miniature likeness of the
    story of the ages.” That is, in his experience, each individual
    that is saved is first in darkness; he then comes to Sinai and
    learns that he is a sinner; this leads him to Calvary for the
    pardon of his sins, and so to full and final salvation.



Penalty For Transgression


                             [Illustration.]

  Destruction Of Korah, Dathan, And Abiram. "The wages of sin is death."
                                Rom. 6:23.


1. What is the wages of sin?

“For the wages of sin is _death_.” Rom. 6:23.

2. What did God tell Adam and Eve would be the result if they
transgressed, and partook of the forbidden fruit?

“But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of
it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof _thou shalt surely die_.” Gen.
2:17.

3. Who does God say shall die?

“_The soul that sinneth_, it shall die.” Eze. 18:4.

4. How did death enter the world?

“Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and _death by sin_;
and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned.” Rom. 5:12.

5. Why did God destroy the antediluvian world?

“And _God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth_.... And
the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the
earth.” Gen. 6:5-7.

6. While God is merciful, does this clear the guilty?

“The Lord is long-suffering, and of great mercy, forgiving iniquity and
transgression, and _by no means clearing the guilty_.” Num. 14:18. See
also Ex. 34:5-7.

                             [Illustration.]

 The Tower Of Babel. "The Lord did there confound the language of all the
                           earth."  Gen. 11:9.


7. What is the result of wilful sin?

“For _if we sin wilfully_ after that we have received the knowledge of the
truth, _there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins_, but a certain fearful
looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the
adversaries.” Heb. 10:26, 27.

8. Under the theocracy, how were the rebellious or wilful transgressors
treated?

“He that despised Moses’ law _died without mercy_ under two or three
witnesses.” Verse 28.

9. What awaits those who despise the means of grace?

“_Of how much sorer punishment_, suppose ye, _shall he be thought worthy,
who hath trodden underfoot the Son of God_, and hath counted the blood of
the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done
despite unto the Spirit of grace?” Verse 29.

10. Is it the duty of gospel ministers to execute vengeance?

“Now then _we are ambassadors for Christ_, as though God did beseech you
by us.” 2 Cor. 5:20. See 2 Tim. 2:24-26.

11. To whom does vengeance belong?

“_Vengeance is Mine; I will repay_, saith the Lord.” Rom. 12:19.

12. To whom has execution of judgment been committed?

“For as the Father hath life in Himself; so hath He given to the Son to
have life in Himself; and _hath given Him authority to execute judgment
also_.” John 5:26, 27. See Jude 14, 15.

13. Because evil is not punished immediately, what presumptuous course do
many pursue?

“Because sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily,
_therefore the heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil_.”
Eccl. 8:11.

14. What message has God commissioned His ministers to bear to men?

“Say ye to the righteous, that _it shall be well with him_: for they shall
eat of the fruit of their doings. _Woe unto the wicked! it shall be ill
with him_: for the reward of his hands shall be given him.” Isa. 3:10, 11.



The Law Of God In The Patriarchal Age


                             [Illustration.]

     Obedience Of Abraham. "Abraham obeyed My voice, and kept ... My
                        commandments." Gen. 26:5.


1. Can there be sin where there is no law?

“Because the law worketh wrath: _for where no law is, there is no
transgression_.” “_Sin is not imputed when there is no law._” Rom. 4:15;
5:13.

2. Through what is the knowledge of sin obtained?

“For _by the law_ is the knowledge of sin.” “I had not known sin, but _by
the law_.” Rom. 3:20; 7:7.

3. What statement shows that sin was in the world before the law was given
on Mt. Sinai?

“_For until the law sin was in the world_: but sin is not imputed when
there is no law.” Rom. 5:13.


    NOTE.—The fact that sin was imputed before the law was given at
    Sinai is conclusive proof that the law existed before that event.


4. When did sin and death enter the world?

“Wherefore, as _by one man [Adam] sin entered into the world_, and death
by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned.” Verse
12.

5. With what words did God admonish Cain?

“If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? and if thou doest not
well, _sin lieth at the door_.” Gen. 4:7.

6. What shows that God imputed sin to Cain?

“And He said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth
unto Me from the ground. And _now art thou cursed from the earth_, which
hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother’s blood from thy hand.”
Verses 10, 11.

7. What was the difference between Cain’s and Abel’s characters?

“Not as Cain, who was of that wicked one, and slew his brother. And
wherefore slew he him? _Because his own works were evil, and his brother’s
righteous._” 1 John 3:12.


    NOTE.—There must, therefore, have been a standard at that time by
    which the characters of men were weighed. That standard must have
    defined the difference between right and wrong, and pointed out
    man’s duty. But this is the province of the law of God. Hence the
    law of God must have existed at that time.


8. In what condition was the world before the flood?

“The earth also was _corrupt before God_, and the earth was _filled with
violence_.” Gen. 6:11.

9. What did God purpose to do with the people of that day?

“And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before Me; for the
earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, _I will destroy
them with the earth_.” Verse 13.

10. What is Noah called?

“And spared not the old world, but saved Noah the eighth person, _a
preacher of righteousness_.” 2 Peter 2:5.


    NOTE.—Noah must have warned the antediluvians against sin, and
    preached repentance and that obedience of faith which brings the
    life into harmony with the law of God.


11. Why did the Lord destroy Sodom?

“The men of Sodom were _wicked_ and _sinners_ before the Lord
_exceedingly_.” Gen. 13:13.

12. What was the character of their deeds?

“And delivered just Lot, vexed with the filthy conversation of the wicked:
(for that righteous man dwelling among them, in seeing and hearing, vexed
his righteous soul from day to day with their _unlawful deeds_).” 2 Peter
2:7, 8.


    NOTE.—Their deeds would not have been _unlawful_ had there been no
    law then in existence. _Unlawful_ means “contrary to law.”


13. What did Joseph, in Egypt, say when tempted to sin?

“How then can I do this great wickedness, and _sin against God_?” Gen.
39:9.

14. What did God say to Abraham concerning the Amorites?

“In the fourth generation they [Israel] shall come hither again: for _the
iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full_.” Gen. 15:16.

15. Of what sin were the Amorites specially guilty?

“And he [Ahab] did very abominably in _following idols, according to all
things as did the Amorites_, whom the Lord cast out before the children of
Israel.” 1 Kings 21:26.

16. Why did the Lord abhor the Canaanites?

“Ye shall therefore keep all My statutes, and all My judgments, and do
them: that the land, whither I bring you to dwell therein, spew you not
out. And ye shall not walk in the manners of the nation, which I cast out
before you: _for they committed all these things_, and therefore I
abhorred them.” Lev. 20:22, 23.


    NOTE.—The statement that “they committed all these things” refers
    to what had been previously forbidden to the Israelites. Among
    these things was idolatrous worship (Lev. 20:1-5), showing that
    the Gentiles, as well as the Jews, were amenable to the law of
    God, and were abhorred of God for violating it.


17. Why did God make His promise to the seed of Abraham?

“Because Abraham obeyed My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My
statutes, and My laws.” Gen. 26:5.


    NOTE.—Then God’s commandments and laws existed in the time of
    Abraham.


18. Before giving the law at Sinai, what did God say because some of the
people went out to gather manna on the seventh day?

“And the Lord said unto Moses, _How long refuse ye to keep My commandments
and My laws?_” Ex. 16:28.

19. Had the Lord spoken regarding the Sabbath previous to this time?

“This is that which the Lord _hath said_, Tomorrow is the rest of the holy
Sabbath.” Verse 23.

20. Before coming to Sinai, what had Moses taught Israel?

“When they have a matter, they come unto me; and I judge between one and
another, and _I do make them know the statutes of God, and His laws_.” Ex.
18:16.


    NOTE.—All this shows that the law of God existed from the
    beginning, and was known and taught in the world before it was
    proclaimed at Sinai.



The Law Of God In The New Testament


                             [Illustration.]

  Paul Preaching To The Thessalonians. "This is the love of God, that we
                   keep His commandments." 1 John 5:3.


1. By what means did the Jews know God’s will?

“Behold, thou art called a Jew, and restest in the law, and makest thy
boast of God, and knowest His will, ... _being instructed out of the
law_.” Rom. 2:17, 18.

2. What did they have in the law?

“Which hast _the form of knowledge and of the truth_ in the law.” Verse
20.


    NOTE.—The written law presents the _form_ of knowledge and of the
    truth. Grace and truth, or grace and the reality or realization of
    that which the written law demands, came by Jesus Christ. He was
    the law in life and action.


3. What did Jesus say of His attitude toward the law?

“Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: _I am not
come to destroy, but to fulfil_.” Matt. 5:17.


    NOTE.—By the expression “the law” here is meant the five books of
    Moses; and by “the prophets,” the writings of the prophets. Christ
    did not come to set aside or to destroy either of these, but to
    fulfil both. The ceremonialism of types and shadows contained in
    the books written by Moses He fulfilled by meeting them as their
    great Antitype. The moral law, the great basic fabric underlying
    all of Moses’ writings, Christ fulfilled by a life of perfect
    obedience to all its requirements. The prophets He fulfilled in
    His advent as the Messiah, Prophet, Teacher, and Saviour foretold
    by them.


4. What did He teach concerning the stability of the law?

“For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one
tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.” Verse
18.

5. In what instruction did He emphasize the importance of keeping the law?

“Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and
shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven:
but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in
the kingdom of heaven.” Verse 19.

6. What did Christ tell the rich young man to do in order to enter into
life?

“If thou wilt enter into life, _keep the commandments_.” Matt. 19:17.

7. When asked which commandments, what did Jesus say?

“Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou
shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Honor thy father and
thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.” Verses 18, 19.


    NOTE.—While not quoting all of the ten commandments, Jesus quoted
    sufficient of them to show that He referred to the moral law. In
    quoting the second great commandment He called attention to the
    great principle underlying the second table of the law,—love to
    one’s neighbor,—which the rich young man, in his covetousness, was
    not keeping.


8. Does faith render the law void?

“Do we then make void the law through faith? _God forbid: yea, we
establish the law._” Rom. 3:31.

9. How is the law fulfilled?

“Owe no man anything, but to love one another: for _he that loveth another
hath fulfilled the law_. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou
shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness,
Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment [touching our
duty to our fellow men], it is briefly comprehended in this saying,
namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. Love worketh no ill to
his neighbor: therefore _love is the fulfilling of the law_.” Rom.
13:8-10.

10. What is of more importance than any outward ceremony?

“Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing, but _the keeping
of the commandments of God_.” 1 Cor. 7:19.

11. What kind of mind is not subject to the law of God?

“Because _the carnal mind_ is enmity against God: for it is not subject to
the law of God, neither indeed can be.” Rom. 8:7.

12. What proves that the law is an undivided whole?

“_For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he
is guilty of all._ For He that said [margin, _that law which said_], Do
not commit adultery, said also, Do not kill. Now if thou commit no
adultery, yet if thou kill, thou art become a transgressor of the law. So
speak ye, and so do, as they that shall be judged by the law of liberty.”
James 2:10-12.

13. How is sin defined?

“Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for _sin is the
transgression of the law_.” 1 John 3:4.

14. How may we know that we love the children of God?

“By this we know that we love the children of God, _when we love God, and
keep His commandments_.” 1 John 5:2.

15. What is the love of God declared to be?

“For _this is the love of God, that we keep His commandments_: and His
commandments are not grievous.” Verse 3.

16. How is the church of the last days described?

“And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the
remnant of her seed, _which keep the commandments of God, and have the
testimony of Jesus Christ_.” “Here is the patience of the saints: _here
are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus_.” Rev.
12:17; 14:12.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    How blest the children of the Lord,
      Who, walking in His sight,
    Make all the precepts of His Word
      Their study and delight!

    What precious wealth shall be their dower,
      Which cannot know decay;
    Which moth and rust shall ne’er devour,
      Or spoiler take away.

    HARRIET AUBER.



Love the Fulfilling of the Law


“If the love of God is shed abroad in your heart,” says Mr. Moody, “you
will be able to fulfil the law.” Paul reduces the commandments to one:
“Thou shalt love,” and says that “love is the fulfilling of the law.” This
truth may be demonstrated thus:—


    1. Love to God will admit no other god.
    2. Love will not debase the object it adores.
    3. Love to God will never dishonor His name.
    4. Love to God will reverence His day.
    5. Love to parents will honor them.
    6. Hate, not love, is a murderer.
    7. Lust, not love, commits adultery.
    8. Love will give, but never steal.
    9. Love will not slander nor lie.
    10. Love’s eye is not covetous.


Principles Underlying the Ten Commandments

1. Faith and loyalty. Heb. 11:6; Matt. 4:8-10.

2. Worship. Jer. 10:10-12; Ps. 115:3-8; Rev. 14:6, 7.

3. Reverence. Ps. 111:9; 89:7; Heb. 12:28; 2 Tim. 2:19.

4. Holiness, or sanctification, and consecration. 1 Peter 1:15, 16; Heb.
12:14; Ex. 31:13; Eze. 20:12; 1 Cor. 1:30; Prov. 3:6.

5. Obedience, or respect for authority. Eph. 6:1-3; Col. 3:20; 2 Kings
2:23, 24.

6. Love. Lev. 19:17; 1 John 3:15; Matt. 5:21-26, 43-48.

7. Purity. Matt. 5:8; Eph. 5:3, 4; Col. 3:5, 6; 1 Tim. 5:22; 1 Peter 2:11.

8. Honesty. Rom. 12:17; Eph. 4:28; 2 Thess. 3:10-12.

9. Truthfulness. Eph. 4:25; Col. 3:9; Prov. 6:16-19; 12:19; Rev. 21:27;
22:15.

10. Contentment and unselfishness. Eph. 5:5; Col. 3:5; 1 Tim. 6:6-11; Heb.
13:5.



The Moral And Ceremonial Laws


                             [Illustration.]

The Law Written And Engraven In Stones. The Law Of Commandments Contained
                              In Ordinances.


1. What title of distinction is given the law of God?

“If ye fulfil _the royal law_ according to the scripture, Thou shalt love
thy neighbor as thyself, ye do well: but if ye have respect of persons, ye
commit sin, and are convinced of the law as transgressors.” James 2:8, 9.

2. By what law is the knowledge of sin?

“I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the
law had said, Thou shalt not covet.” Rom. 7:7.


    NOTE.—The law which says, “Thou shalt not covet,” is the ten
    commandments.


3. By what are all men to be finally judged?

“Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and _keep His
commandments_: for this is the whole duty of man. For God shall bring
every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or
whether it be evil.” Eccl. 12:13, 14. “So speak ye, and so do, as they
that shall be judged by _the law of liberty_.” James 2:12.


    NOTE.—The law which is here called “the law of liberty,” is the
    law which says, “Do not commit adultery” and “Do not kill,” for
    these commandments had just been quoted in the verse immediately
    preceding. In verse 8, this same law is styled “the royal law;”
    that is, the kingly law. This is the law by which men are to be
    judged.


4. What system was established on account of man’s transgression of the
law of God?

The sacrificial system, with its rites and ceremonies pointing to Christ.

5. Why did the patriarch Job offer burnt offerings?

“And his sons went and feasted in their houses, every one his day; and
sent and called for their three sisters to eat and to drink with them. And
it was so, when the days of their feasting were gone about, that Job sent
and sanctified them, and rose up early in the morning, and _offered burnt
offerings_ according to the number of them all: for Job said, _It may be
that my sons have sinned_, and cursed God in their hearts. Thus did Job
continually.” Job 1:4, 5.

6. How early was this sacrificial system known?

“By faith _Abel_ offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by
which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his
gifts.” Heb. 11:4. See Gen. 4:3-5; 8:20.

7. By whom was the ten commandment law proclaimed?

“And _the Lord spake unto you out of the midst of the fire_: ye heard the
voice of the words, but saw no similitude; only ye heard a voice. And _He
declared unto you His covenant, which He commanded you to perform, even
ten commandments_; and He wrote them upon two tables of stone.” Deut.
4:12, 13.

8. How was the ceremonial law made known to Israel?

“And the Lord called unto Moses, ... saying, _Speak unto the children of
Israel, and say unto them_, If any man of you bring _an offering_,” etc.
Lev. 1:1, 2. “_This is the law of the burnt offering, of the
meat-offering, and of the sin-offering, and of the trespass-offering, and
of the consecrations, and of the sacrifice of the peace-offering_; which
the Lord commanded Moses in mount Sinai, in the day that He commanded the
children of Israel to offer their oblations unto the Lord, in the
wilderness of Sinai.” Lev. 7:37, 38.

9. Were the ten commandments a distinct and complete law by themselves?

“_These words the Lord spake_ unto all your assembly in the mount out of
the midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness, with a
great voice: _and He added no more_. And He wrote them in two tables of
stone, and delivered them unto me.” Deut. 5:22. “And the Lord said unto
Moses, Come up to Me into the mount, and be there: and I will give thee
_tables of stone_, and _a law_, and _commandments_ which I have written.”
Ex. 24:12.

10. Was the ceremonial law a complete law in itself?

“_The law_ of commandments _contained in ordinances_.” Eph. 2:15.

11. On what did God write the ten commandments?

“And He declared unto you His covenant, which He commanded you to perform,
even ten commandments; and _He wrote them upon two tables of stone_.”
Deut. 4:13.

12. In what were the laws or commandments respecting sacrifices and burnt
offerings written?

“And they removed the burnt offerings, that they might give according to
the divisions of the families of the people, to offer unto the Lord, as it
is written in _the book of Moses_.” 2 Chron. 35:12.

13. Where were the ten commandments placed?

“And he took and put the testimony _into the ark_, ... and put the
mercy-seat above upon the ark.” Ex. 40:20.

14. Where did Moses command the Levites to put the book of the law which
he had written?

“Moses commanded the Levites, which bare the ark of the covenant of the
Lord, saying, Take this book of the law, and _put it in the side of the
ark_ of the covenant of the Lord your God.” Deut. 31:25, 26.

15. What is the nature of the moral law?

“The law of the Lord is _perfect_, converting the soul.” Ps. 19:7. “For we
know that the law is _spiritual_.” Rom. 7:14.

16. Could the offerings commanded by the ceremonial law satisfy or make
perfect the conscience of the believer?

“Which was a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both
gifts and sacrifices, _that could not make him that did the service
perfect, as pertaining to the conscience_.” Heb. 9:9.

17. Until what time did the ceremonial law impose the service performed in
the worldly sanctuary?

“Which stood only in meats and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal
ordinances, _imposed on them until the time of reformation_.” Verse 10.

18. When was this time of reformation?

“But _Christ being come_ an high priest of good things to come, by a
greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say,
not of this building; neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by His
own blood He entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal
redemption for us.” Verses 11, 12.

19. How did Christ’s death affect the ceremonial law?

“_Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances_ that was against us, which
was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to His cross.”
Col. 2:14. “Having _abolished_ in His flesh the enmity, even _the law of
commandments contained in ordinances_.” Eph. 2:15.

20. Why was the ceremonial law taken away?

“For there is a disannulling of a foregoing commandment because of its
weakness and unprofitableness (for the law made nothing perfect), and a
bringing in thereupon of a better hope, through which we draw nigh unto
God.” Heb. 7:18, 19, R. V.

21. What miraculous event occurred at the death of Christ, signifying that
the sacrificial system was forever at an end?

“Jesus, when He had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost.
And, behold, _the veil of the temple was rent in twain_ from the top to
the bottom.” Matt. 27:50, 51.

22. In what words had the prophet Daniel foretold this?

“And He shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and _in the
midst of the week He shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to
cease_.” Dan. 9:27.

23. How enduring is the moral law?

“Concerning Thy testimonies, I have known of old that _Thou hast founded
them forever_.” Ps. 119:152.

The Two Laws Contrasted

The Moral Law                        The Ceremonial Law
Is called the “royal law.” James     Is called “the law ... contained
2:8.                                 in ordinances.” Eph. 2:15.
Was spoken by God. Deut. 4:12, 13.   Was spoken by Moses. Lev. 1:1-3.
Was written by God on tables of      Was “the handwriting of
stone. Ex. 24:12.                    ordinances.” Col. 2:14.
Was written “with the finger of      Was written by Moses in a book. 2
God.” Ex. 31:18.                     Chron. 35:12.
Was placed in the ark. Ex. 40:20;    Was placed in the side of the ark.
1 Kings 8:9; Heb. 9:4.               Deut. 31:24-26.
Is “perfect.” Ps. 19:7.              “Made nothing perfect.” Heb. 7:19.
Is to “stand fast forever and        Was nailed to the cross. Col.
ever.” Ps. 111:7, 8.                 2:14.
Was not destroyed by Christ. Matt.   Was abolished by Christ. Eph.
5:17.                                2:15.
Was to be magnified by Christ.       Was taken out of the way by
Isa. 42:21.                          Christ. Col. 2:14.
Gives knowledge of sin. Rom. 3:20;   Was instituted in consequence of
7:7.                                 sin. Leviticus 3-7.



The Two Covenants


                             [Illustration.]

  Abraham Sending Away Hagar. "Cast out the bondwoman and her son." Gal.
                                  4:30.


1. What two covenants are contrasted in the Bible?

“In that He saith, A _new_ covenant, He hath made the first _old_. Now
that which decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away.” Heb. 8:13.

2. By what other terms are these covenants designated?

“For if that _first_ covenant had been faultless, then should no place
have been sought for the _second_.” Verse 7.

3. In connection with what historical event was the old covenant made?

“Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day
_when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt_;
because they continued not in My covenant, and I regarded them not, saith
the Lord.” Verse 9. See Ex. 19:3-8.

4. When God was about to proclaim His law to Israel, of what did He tell
Moses to remind them?

“Tell the children of Israel; Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians,
and how I bare you on eagles’ wings, and brought you unto Myself.” Ex.
19:3, 4.

5. What proposition did He submit to them?

“Now therefore, _if ye will obey My voice indeed, and keep My covenant,
then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto Me above all people_: for all
the earth is Mine: and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and an
holy nation.” Verses 5, 6.

6. What response did the people make to this proposition?

“And all the people answered together, and said, _All that the Lord hath
spoken we will do_. And Moses returned the words of the people unto the
Lord.” Verse 8.

7. In this covenant with Israel, what obligation was imposed upon the
people?

“Now therefore, if ye will _obey My voice_ indeed, and _keep My
covenant_.” Verse 5, first part.

8. What was the Lord’s covenant which they were to keep as their part of
this covenant?

“And He declared unto you _His covenant_, which He commanded you to
perform, even _ten commandments_; and He wrote them upon two tables of
stone.” Deut. 4:13.


    NOTE.—The ten commandments were the “covenant” to which the Lord
    referred, when, in proposing to make a covenant with Israel, He
    said, “If ye will obey _My voice_ indeed, and keep _My covenant_,”
    etc. Ex. 19:5. The ten commandments were termed God’s covenant
    before the covenant was made with Israel: hence they cannot be the
    old covenant itself. They were not an agreement made, but
    something which God commanded them to perform, and promised
    blessings upon condition they were kept. Thus the ten
    commandments—God’s covenant—became the _basis_ of the covenant
    here made with Israel. The old covenant was made _concerning_ the
    ten commandments; or, as stated in Ex. 24:8, “concerning all these
    words.” A covenant means a solemn pledge or promise based on
    conditions.


9. After the law had been proclaimed from Sinai, what did the people again
say?

“And all the people answered with one voice, and said, _All the words
which the Lord hath said will we do_.” Ex. 24:3.

10. That there might be no misunderstanding, what did Moses do?

“And Moses wrote all the words of the Lord, ... and he took the book of
the covenant, and read in the audience of the people.” Verses 4-7.

11. What did the people once again promise to do?

“And they said, _All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be
obedient_.” Verse 7.

12. How was this covenant then confirmed and dedicated?

“And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt
offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the Lord. And Moses
took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he
sprinkled on the altar. And he took the book of the covenant, and read in
the audience of the people: and they said, All that the Lord hath said
will we do, and be obedient. And _Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it
on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the Lord
hath made with you concerning all these words_.” Verses 5-8.

13. How does Paul describe this dedication of the covenant?

“For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people according to
the law, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water, and scarlet
wool, and hyssop, and _sprinkled both the book, and all the people_,
saying, This is the blood of the testament which God hath enjoined unto
you.” Heb. 9:19, 20.


    NOTE.—We here have the complete account of the making of the first
    or old covenant. God promised to make them His peculiar people on
    condition that they would keep His commandments. Three times they
    promised to obey. The agreement was then ratified, or sealed, with
    blood.


14. Within less than forty days after the making of this covenant, while
Moses tarried in the mount, what did the people say to Aaron?

“_Up, make us gods, which shall go before us_; for as for this Moses, the
man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become
of him.” Ex. 32:1.

15. When Moses came down from Sinai, what did he see?

“And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw
_the calf_, and _the dancing_: and Moses’ anger waxed hot, and he cast the
tables out of his hands, and brake them beneath the mount.” Verse 19.


    NOTE.—The great object and secret of the old covenant is revealed
    here. The people did not realize the weakness and sinfulness of
    their own hearts, or their need of divine grace and help to keep
    the law; and so, in their ignorance, they readily pledged
    obedience to it. But almost immediately they began to commit
    idolatry, and thus to break the law of God, or the very conditions
    laid down as their part of the covenant. In themselves the
    conditions were good; but in their own strength the people were
    unable to fulfil them. The great object of the old covenant
    therefore was to teach the people their weakness, and their
    inability to keep the law without the help of God. Like the law
    itself, over which the old covenant was made, this covenant was
    designed to shut them up to the provisions of the new or
    everlasting covenant, and lead them to Christ. Gal. 3:23, 24. And
    the lesson which Israel as a nation had to learn in this, each
    individual now must learn before he can be saved. There is no
    salvation for any one while trusting in self. Unaided, no one can
    keep the law. Only in Christ is there either remission of sins or
    power to keep from sinning. The breaking of the tables of the law
    signified that the terms of the covenant had been broken; the
    renewing of the tables (Ex. 34:1, 28), God’s patience and
    long-suffering with His people.


16. Wherein does the new covenant differ from and excel the old?

“But now hath He obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much also He
is the mediator of _a better covenant_, which was established upon _better
promises_.” Heb. 8:6.

17. What are the “better promises” upon which the new covenant was
established?

“This shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel;
After those days, saith the Lord, _I will put My law in their inward
parts, and write it in their hearts; ... I will forgive their iniquity,
and I will remember their sin no more_.” Jer. 31:33, 34. See Heb. 8:8-12.


    NOTE.—These are simply the blessings of the gospel through Christ.
    They are promised upon condition of repentance, confession, faith,
    and acceptance of Christ, the Mediator of the new covenant, which
    means salvation and obedience. In the old covenant there was no
    provision for pardon and power to obey. It is true there was
    pardon _during the time of the old covenant_, but not by _virtue_
    of it. Pardon then, as now, was through the provisions of the new
    covenant, the terms of which are older than the old covenant.


18. In what statement was Christ promised as a Saviour and Deliverer of
the race as soon as sin entered?

“And the Lord God said unto the serpent, ... I will put enmity between
thee and the woman, and between thy seed and _her seed_; it shall bruise
thy head, and thou shalt bruise His heel.” Gen. 3:14, 15.


    NOTE.—The covenant of grace, with its provisions of pardon and
    peace, dates from the foundation of the world.


19. To whom was this covenant-promise later renewed?

“And God said unto _Abraham_, ... Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son
indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish My
covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with _his seed_ after
him.” “I will make thy seed to multiply as the stars of heaven, ... and in
_thy seed_ shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.” Gen. 17:15-19;
26:4.

20. Who was the seed here referred to?

“Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to
seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, _which is Christ_.”
Gal. 3:16.

                             [Illustration.]

Moses Breaking The Tables Of The Law. "Moses said unto the people, Ye have
                     sinned a great sin." Ex. 32:30.


21. What shows that the new or second covenant and the Abrahamic covenant
are virtually the same?

“And if ye be Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to
the promise.” Verse 29.


    NOTE.—No one should allow himself to be confused by the terms
    _first covenant_ and _second covenant_. While the covenant made at
    Sinai is called the first covenant, it is by no means the first
    covenant that God ever made with man. Long before this He made a
    covenant with Abraham; He also made a covenant with Noah, and with
    Adam. Neither must it be supposed that the first or old covenant
    existed for a time as the _only_ covenant with mankind, and that
    this must serve its purpose and pass away before any one could
    share in the promised blessings of the second or new covenant. Had
    this been the case, then during that time there would have been no
    pardon for any one. What is called the new or second covenant
    virtually existed before the covenant made at Sinai; for the
    covenant with Abraham was confirmed in Christ (Gal. 3:17), and it
    is only through Christ that there is any value to the new or
    second covenant. There is no blessing that can be gained by virtue
    of the new covenant that was not promised to Abraham. And we, with
    whom the new covenant is made, can share the inheritance which it
    promises only by being children of Abraham, and sharing in his
    blessing. Gal. 3:7, 9. And since no one can have anything except
    as a child of Abraham, it follows that there is nothing in what is
    called the new or second covenant that was not in the covenant
    made with Abraham. The second covenant existed in every essential
    feature, except its ratification, long before the first, even from
    the days of Adam. It is called second because its ratification
    occurred after the covenant made and ratified at Sinai.


22. What is necessary where there is a covenant?

“For where a covenant is, there must also of necessity be _the death of
that which establishes it_. For a covenant is made firm over the dead
victims; whereas it is of no force while that which establisheth it
liveth.” Heb. 9:16, 17, Boothroyd’s translation.

23. With whose blood was the new covenant dedicated?

“And [He took] the cup in like manner after supper, saying, This cup is
the new covenant in _My blood_, even that which is poured out for you.”
Luke 22:20, R. V.

24. What power is there in the blood of this covenant?

“Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus,
that great Shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting
covenant, _make you perfect in every good work_ to do His will.” Heb.
13:20, 21.

25. Through which covenant only is there remission of sins?

“How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit
offered Himself without blemish unto God, cleanse your conscience from
dead works to serve the living God? And for this cause He is the mediator
of a _new covenant_, that a death having taken place for the redemption of
the transgressions that were under the first covenant, they that have been
called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance.” Heb. 9:14, 15,
R. V.


    NOTE.—The fact that Christ, as mediator of the second covenant,
    died for the remission of the transgressions that were under the
    first covenant, shows that there was no forgiveness _by virtue_ of
    the first covenant.


26. Under the old covenant, what did the people promise?

To keep the law of God in their own strength.


    NOTE.—Under this covenant the people promised to keep all the
    commandments of God in order to be His peculiar people, and this
    without help from any one. This was virtually a promise to make
    themselves righteous. But Christ says, “Without Me ye can do
    nothing.” John 15:5. And the prophet Isaiah says, “All our
    righteousnesses are as filthy rags.” Isa. 64:6. The only perfect
    righteousness is God’s righteousness, and this can be obtained
    only through faith in Christ. Rom. 3:20-26. The only righteousness
    that will insure an entrance into the kingdom of God is “the
    righteousness which is of God by faith.” Phil. 3:9. Of those who
    inherit the kingdom of God, the Lord says, “Their righteousness is
    of Me” (Isa. 54:17); and the prophet Jeremiah says of Christ,
    “This is His name whereby He shall be called, The Lord Our
    Righteousness.” Jer. 23:6.


27. Under the new covenant, what does God promise to do?

“I will put My law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts.”
Jer. 31:33.


    NOTE.—The new covenant is an arrangement for bringing man again
    into harmony with the divine will, and placing him where he can
    keep God’s law. Its “better promises” bring forgiveness of sins,
    grace to renew the heart, and power to obey the law of God. The
    dissolution of the old covenant and the making of the new in no
    wise abrogated the law of God.


28. Where was the law of God written under the old covenant?

“And I made an ark of shittim-wood, and hewed _two tables of stone.... And
He wrote on the tables ... the ten commandments_, which the Lord spake
unto you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the
assembly: and the Lord gave them unto me.” Deut. 10:3, 4.

29. Where is the law of God written under the new covenant?

“But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel;
After those days, saith the Lord, _I will put My law in their inward
parts, and write it in their hearts_.” Jer. 31:33.

30. What reason is given for making the new covenant?

“For if that first covenant had been _faultless_, then should no place
have been sought for the second. For _finding fault with them_, he saith,
Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant.”
Heb. 8:7, 8.


    NOTE.—The chief fault in connection with the old covenant lay with
    _the people_. They were not able, in themselves, to fulfil their
    part of it, and it provided them no help for so doing. There was
    no Christ in it. It was of _works_ and not of _grace_. It was
    valuable only as a means of impressing upon them their sinfulness
    and their need of divine aid.


31. What unites all believers under the new covenant?

“Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who
are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the
flesh made by hands; that at that time ye were without Christ, being
aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants
of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world: _but now in
Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of
Christ_.” Eph. 2:11-13.

Similarities Between The Two Covenants

1. Both are called covenants.
2. Both were ratified with blood.
3. Both were made concerning the law of God.
4. Both were made with the people of God.
5. Both were established upon promises.

Dissimilarities Between The Two Covenants

Old Covenant                     New Covenant
Called the old covenant.         Called the new covenant.
Called the first covenant.       Called the second covenant.
A temporary compact.             An everlasting covenant.
Dedicated with the blood of      Ratified with the blood of
animals.                         Christ.
Was faulty.                      Is a better covenant.
Was established upon the         Is established upon the
promises of the people.          promises of God.
Had no mediator.                 Has a mediator.
Had no provision for the         Provides for the forgiveness
forgiveness of sins.             of sins.
Under this, the law was          Under this, the law is written
written on tables of stone.      in the heart.
Was of works.                    Is of grace.
Conditions: Obey and live;       Conditions: Repent and be
disobey and die.                 forgiven; believe and be
                                 saved.
_If._ If _ye_. If ye _will_.     _I._  I _will_. I will _do_.
If ye will _do_.
If ye will do _all_.             I will do _all_.
If ye will do all, _then_—ye     I will do all, _and_—will be
shall be My people, _and_ I      your God, _and_ ye shall be My
will be your God.                people.



What Was Abolished By Christ


                             [Illustration.]

  The Veil Rent In Twain. "Having abolished in His flesh ... the law ...
                   contained in ordinances." Eph. 2:15.


1. How did Christ’s death on the cross affect the whole sacrificial
system?

“After threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off.... And He shall
confirm the covenant with many for one week: and _in the midst of the week
He shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease_.” Dan. 9:26, 27.

2. What did Christ nail to His cross?

“Blotting out _the handwriting of ordinances_ that was against us, which
was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, _nailing it to His
cross_.” Col. 2:14.

3. What did He thus abolish?

“Having abolished in His flesh the enmity, even _the law of commandments
contained in ordinances_; for to make in Himself of twain one new man, so
making peace; and that He might reconcile both unto God in one body by the
cross, having slain the enmity thereby.” Eph. 2:15, 16.

4. To what did the ordinances pertain that were thus abolished?

“Let no man therefore judge you in _meat_, or in _drink_, or in respect of
an _holy day_, or of the _new moon_, or of the _sabbath days: which are a
shadow of things to come_; but the body is of Christ.” Col. 2:16, 17.

5. From what statement do we learn that these ordinances related to the
sacrificial system?

“For the law _having a shadow of good things to come_, and not the very
image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered
year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.” Heb. 10:1.

6. What occurred at the time of the crucifixion which indicated that the
typical system had been taken away by Christ?

“And, behold, _the veil of the temple was rent in twain_ from the top to
the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent.” Matt. 27:51.

7. In what language is this clearly stated?

“Then said He, Lo, I come to do Thy will, O God. _He taketh away the
first, that He may establish the second._” Heb. 10:9.

8. What is the first which He took away?

“Above when He said, _Sacrifice_ and _offering_ and _burnt offerings_ and
_offering for sin_ thou wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure therein;
which are offered by the law.” Verse 8.


    NOTES.—“He taketh away the first.” The connection plainly
    indicates that what Christ took away was ceremonialism as
    expressed in the typical service of sacrifices and offerings, and
    that what He established, by giving Himself to do the will of God,
    was the experience of doing the will of God on the part of the
    believer. Thus He made possible the answer to the petition which
    He taught His disciples, “Thy will be done in earth, as it is in
    heaven.” Instead of abolishing the moral law, Christ made such
    provision that every believer in Him may become a doer of that
    law.

    “The word _first_ here refers to sacrifices and offerings. He
    takes _them_ away; that is, He shows that they are of no value in
    removing sin. He states their inefficacy, and declares His purpose
    to abolish them. ‘_That He may establish the second_’—to wit, the
    doing of the will of God.... If they had been efficacious, there
    would have been no need of His coming to make an atonement.”—_Dr.
    Albert Barnes, on Heb. 10:9._


9. In what statement to the woman at Jacob’s well did Jesus intimate that
the ceremonial system of worship would be abolished?

“Jesus saith unto her, Woman, believe Me, the hour cometh, when ye shall
neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father.” John
4:21.


    NOTE.—The worship of the Jews centered in the typical system, or
    ritual service, of the temple, “at Jerusalem,” while the
    Samaritans had instituted a rival service “in this mountain,” Mt.
    Gerizim. In His statement to the woman of Samaria, Jesus therefore
    indicated that the time was at hand when the whole typical system
    would be done away.


10. What test case arose in the time of the apostles over this question?

“And certain men which came down from Judea taught the brethren, and said,
_Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved_.”
Acts 15:1.

11. What requirement was made by these teachers from Judea concerning the
ceremonial law?

“Forasmuch as we have heard, that certain which went out from us have
troubled you with words, subverting your souls, saying, _Ye must be
circumcised, and keep the law_: to whom we gave no such commandment.”
Verse 24.

12. After conferring over this matter, what decision was reached by the
apostles?

“For it seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no
greater burden than these necessary things; _that ye abstain from meats
offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from
fornication_: from which if ye keep yourselves, ye shall do well. Fare ye
well.” Verses 28, 29.

13. What charge was made against Stephen concerning his attitude toward
the ceremonial law?

“And set up false witnesses, which said, This man ceaseth not to speak
blasphemous words against _this holy place_, and _the law_: for we have
heard him say, that this Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy this place, and
shall _change the customs which Moses delivered us_.” Acts 6:13, 14.

14. What similar charge was brought against the apostle Paul?

“This fellow persuadeth men to worship God _contrary to the law_.” Acts
18:13.

15. What statement did Paul make concerning his faith and manner of
worship?

“But this I confess unto thee, that after the way which they call
_heresy_, so worship I the God of my fathers, _believing all things which
are written in the law and in the prophets_.” Acts 24:14.


    NOTE.—The charge against Stephen and Paul was not based upon any
    violation of the moral law, but upon their teaching concerning the
    ceremonial law; and Paul’s admission that he was guilty of what
    they called heresy meant simply that he differed from them as to
    the obligation to observe any longer the precepts of the law which
    was imposed upon them “until the time of reformation.” The simple
    fact that such charges were preferred against these able exponents
    and teachers of the gospel shows that in their view the ceremonial
    law had been abolished by the death of Christ, and that, like the
    giving of the moral law at Sinai it was designed to lead men to
    Christ.


16. What is one of the offices of the moral law?

“Wherefore the law was _our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we
might be justified by faith_.” Gal. 3:24.

17. How is this same teaching expressed in another place?

“For _Christ is the end of the law for righteousness_ to every one that
believeth.” Rom. 10:4.


    NOTE.—Murdock’s translation of the Syriac New Testament renders
    this passage: “For Messiah is the _aim_ of the law, for
    righteousness, unto every one that believeth in Him.”


18. In what statement is there a similar use of the word end?

“Receiving _the end of your faith_, even the salvation of your souls.” 1
Peter 1:9. See also 1 Tim. 1:5; James 5:11.


    NOTE.—In the ceremonial law there was “a shadow of good things to
    come,” a type of the mediatorial work of Christ, our great High
    Priest. The moral law makes known sin, places the sinner under
    condemnation, and forces him to Christ for pardon and cleansing.
    The ceremonial law was abolished by the work of Christ, but the
    moral law was established by both His life and death.


19. What testimony did Christ bear concerning His relation to the law and
the prophets?

“Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not
come to destroy, but to fulfil.” Matt. 5:17.


    NOTE.—“Christ kept the law. If He had ever broken it, He would
    have had to die for Himself; but because He was a Lamb without
    spot or blemish, His atoning death is efficacious for you and me.
    He had no sin of His own to atone for, and so God accepted His
    sacrifice. Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every
    one that believeth. We are righteous in God’s sight because the
    righteousness of God which is by faith in Jesus Christ is unto all
    and upon all them that believe.”—_“__Weighed and Wanting,__”__ by
    D. L. Moody, pages 123, 124._ See also notes on pages 374, 375,
    382, and 389.



The Law And The Gospel


                             [Illustration.]

   Sinai And The Cross. "The law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto
                           Christ." Gal. 3:24.


1. What is one of the uses of the law?

“Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in
His sight: for _by the law is the knowledge of sin_.” Rom. 3:20.

2. In thus making known sin, and the consequent need of a Saviour, what
part does the law act?

“Wherefore the _law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ_, that we
might be justified by faith.” Gal. 3:24.

3. What is the gospel declared to be?

“For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is _the power of God
unto salvation to every one that believeth_; to the Jew first, and also to
the Greek.” Rom. 1:16.

4. What is the significance of the name bestowed by the angel upon the
Saviour before His birth?

“And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call His name _Jesus_:
for _He shall save His people from their sins_.” Matt. 1:21.

5. In whom is this power to save from sin revealed?

“But we preach Christ crucified, unto the Jews a stumbling-*block, and
unto the Greeks foolishness; but unto them which are called, both Jews and
Greeks, _Christ the power of God_, and the wisdom of God.” 1 Cor. 1:23,
24.

6. What was foretold concerning Christ’s attitude toward the law of God?

“Then said I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of Me,
_I delight to do Thy will, O My God: yea, Thy law is within My heart_.”
Ps. 40:7, 8.

7. What is the first promise of the new covenant?

“For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after
those days, saith the Lord; _I will put My laws into their mind, and write
them in their hearts_.” Heb. 8:10.

8. What is Christ’s relation to this new covenant?

“But now hath He obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much also He
is the _mediator_ of a better covenant, which was established upon better
promises.” Verse 6.

9. How is this same work for man otherwise described?

“For every high priest is ordained to offer gifts and sacrifices:
wherefore _it is of necessity that this Man have somewhat also to offer_.
For if He were on earth, He should not be a priest, seeing that there are
priests that offer gifts according to the law.” Verses 3, 4.

10. What is necessary on the part of the individual in order to receive
the benefit of Christ’s work?

“With the heart man _believeth_ unto righteousness; and with the mouth
_confession_ is made unto salvation.” Rom. 10:10.

11. For what did the apostle Paul trust Christ?

“Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of the
knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord: for whom I have suffered the loss of
all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win Christ, and be
found in Him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but
that which is through the faith of Christ, _the righteousness which is of
God by faith_.” Phil. 3:8, 9.

12. What relation does the law sustain to this righteousness?

“But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, _being
witnessed by the law_ and the prophets.” Rom. 3:21.

13. Does the faith which brings righteousness abolish the law?

“Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, _we
establish the law_.” Verse 31.


    NOTE.—The law reveals the perfection of character required, and so
    gives a knowledge of sin; but it is powerless to confer the
    character demanded. In the gospel, the law, first written in the
    heart of Christ, becomes “the law of the Spirit of life in Christ
    Jesus,” and is thus transferred to the heart of the believer, in
    whose heart Christ dwells by faith. Thus the new covenant promise
    is fulfilled that the law shall be written in the heart. This is
    the genuine experience of righteousness by faith,—a righteousness
    which is witnessed by the law, and revealed in the life in harmony
    with the law. The gospel is thus seen to be the provision for
    restoring the law to its place in the heart and life of the one
    who believes on Christ, and accepts His mediatorial work. Such
    faith, instead of making void the law, establishes it in the heart
    of the believer. The gospel is not against the law, therefore, but
    upholds, maintains, and presents the law to us in Christ.


14. What did Christ take away?

“The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb
of God, which taketh away _the sin of the world_.” John 1:29.

15. What has Christ abolished?

“But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ,
who hath _abolished death_, and hath brought life and immortality to light
through the gospel.” 2 Tim. 1:10.

16. What change is brought about through the gospel?

“But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord,
are _changed into the same image_ from glory to glory, even as by the
Spirit of the Lord.” 2 Cor. 3:18.


    NOTE.—It is sometimes claimed that Christ changed, abolished, or
    took away the law, and put the gospel in its place; but this shows
    a misapprehension of the real work of Christ. The individual
    believer is changed by beholding the glory revealed in the gospel
    (2 Cor. 4:4; John 1:14); death has been abolished through the
    death of Christ; and sin has been taken away by the great
    Sin-bearer; but the law of God still remains unchanged as the very
    foundation of His throne. See note on page 98.


17. What spiritual interpretation did Christ give to the sixth
commandment?

“Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill;
and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment: but I say
unto you, That _whosoever is angry with his brother_ without a cause shall
be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother,
_Raca_, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, _Thou
fool_, shall be in danger of hell-fire.” Matt. 5:21, 22.

18. How did He interpret the seventh commandment?

“Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit
adultery: but I say unto you, That _whosoever looketh on a woman to lust
after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart_.” Verses
27, 28.

19. Of what prophecy was this teaching a fulfilment?

“The Lord is well pleased for His righteousness’ sake; _He will magnify
the law, and make it honorable_.” Isa. 42:21.


    NOTE.—Christ not only gave a spiritual interpretation to the law,
    and Himself observed it according to that interpretation, but He
    showed the holiness and the immutable nature of the law by dying
    on the cross to pay the penalty of its transgression. In this way,
    above all, He magnified the law, and showed its far-reaching,
    immutable, and imperishable nature.


20. In what promise was the gospel preached to Abraham?

“And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through
faith, preached before _the gospel_ unto Abraham, saying, _In thee shall
all nations be blessed_.” Gal. 3:8.

21. On what basis was Abraham accounted righteous?

“For what saith the scripture? _Abraham believed God, and it was counted
unto him for righteousness._” Rom. 4:3.

22. What scripture cuts off all hope of justification by works?

“Therefore _by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in
His sight_: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.” Rom. 3:20.

23. In what way are all believers in Jesus justified?

“Being _justified freely by His grace_ through the redemption that is in
Christ Jesus.” Verse 24.

24. After this work of grace has been accomplished, is the believer
expected to go on in sin?

“What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound?
God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein?”
Rom. 6:1, 2.


    NOTE.—Even in the days of Abraham the same gospel of righteousness
    by faith was preached as now, while the law made known sin, and
    witnessed to the righteousness obtained through faith, just as it
    has done since the cross. From this it is evident that the
    relation between the law and the gospel has always been the same.


25. What was Christ’s personal attitude toward the law?

“Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: _I am not
come to destroy, but to fulfil_.” Matt. 5:17. “If ye keep My commandments,
ye shall abide in My love; even as _I have kept My Father’s commandments_,
and abide in His love.” John 15:10.

26. What scripture shows that God’s remnant people will have a right
conception of the proper relation between the law and the gospel?

“Here is the patience of the saints: _here are they that keep the
commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus_.” Rev. 14:12.



PART IX. THE SABBATH


                             [Illustration.]

 In The Corn-Field On The Sabbath Day. "The Sabbath was made for man, and
                   not man for the Sabbath." Mark 2:27.



Institution Of The Sabbath


                             [Illustration.]

The Garden Of Eden. "God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it." Gen.
                                   2:3.


1. When and by whom was the Sabbath made?

“Thus the heavens and the earth, were finished, and all the host of them.
And _on the seventh day God ended His work_ which He had made; _and He
rested on the seventh day_ from all His work which He had made.” Gen. 2:1,
2.

2. After resting on the seventh day, what did God do?

“And God _blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it_: because that in it
He had rested from all His work which God created and made.” Verse 3.

3. By what three distinct acts, then, was the Sabbath made?

God _rested_ on it; He _blessed_ it; He _sanctified_ it.


    _Sanctify_: “To make sacred or holy; to set apart to a holy or
    religious use.”—_Webster._


4. Did Christ have anything to do with creation and the making of the
Sabbath?

“All things were made _by Him_; and _without Him was not anything made
that was made_.” John 1:3. See also Eph. 3:9; Col. 1:16; Heb. 1:2.


    NOTE.—Christ, being the active agent in creation, must have rested
    on the seventh day with the Father. It is therefore His rest day
    as well as the Father’s.


5. For whom does Christ say the Sabbath was made?

“And He said unto them, _The Sabbath was made for man_, and not man for
the Sabbath.” Mark 2:27.


    NOTE.—It was not made for the Jews alone. The Jews derive their
    name from Judah, one of the twelve sons of Jacob, from whom they
    are descended. The Sabbath was made more than two thousand years
    before there was a Jew. When Paul says, “Neither was the man
    created for the woman; but the woman for the man” (1 Cor. 11:9),
    we understand him to mean that marriage was ordained of God for
    all men. So likewise with the Sabbath. It was made for the race.


6. What does the Sabbath commandment require?

“_Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy._ Six days shalt thou labor,
and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy
God: _in it thou shalt not do any work_, thou, nor thy son, nor thy
daughter, thy man servant, nor thy maid servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy
stranger that is within thy gates.” Ex. 20:8-10.

7. What reason is given in the commandment for keeping the Sabbath day
holy?

“_For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in
them is, and rested the seventh day_: wherefore the Lord blessed the
Sabbath day, and hallowed it.” Verse 11.


    NOTE.—The Sabbath is the memorial of creation, and the sign of
    God’s creative power. Through the keeping of it God designed that
    man should forever remember Him as the true and living God, the
    Creator of all things.


8. Did God bless and sanctify the seventh day while He was resting upon
it, or when His rest on that day was past?

“And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: _because that in it
He __HAD__ rested from all His work_ which God created and made.” Gen.
2:3.


    NOTES.—God blessed and sanctified the seventh day then future,
    answering to the day on which He had just rested. The acts of
    blessing and sanctifying involve the idea of a future use of those
    things which are blessed and sanctified. Past time cannot be used.
    It is gone forever. The blessing and sanctification of the day,
    therefore, must have related to the future—to all the future
    seventh days.

    In Joel 1:14 we read: “Sanctify [i.e., appoint] ye a fast, call a
    solemn assembly, gather the elders and all the inhabitants of the
    land into the house of the Lord.” Wherever used in the Bible, the
    word sanctify means to appoint, to proclaim, or to set apart, as
    in the margin of Joshua 20:7; 2 Kings 10:20, 21; Zeph. 1:7. So
    when the Sabbath was sanctified, as the last act by which it was
    made for man, an appointment, or proclamation, of the Sabbath was
    given. See Ex. 19:23.

    “If we had no other passage than this of Gen. 2:3, there would be
    no difficulty in deducing from it a precept for the universal
    observance of a Sabbath, or seventh day, to be devoted to God as
    holy time, by all of that race for whom the earth and its nature
    were specially prepared. The first men must have known it. The
    words _He hallowed it_ can have no meaning otherwise. They would
    be a blank unless in reference to some who were required to keep
    it holy.”—_Lange’s Commentary, Vol. I, page 197._


9. How did God prove Israel in the wilderness?

“Then said the Lord unto Moses, Behold, _I will rain bread from heaven for
you_; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day,
_that I may prove them, whether they will walk in My law, or no_.” Ex.
16:4.

10. On which day was a double portion of manna gathered?

“And it came to pass, that _on the sixth day they gathered twice as much
bread_, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the congregation came
and told Moses.” Verse 22.

11. What reply did Moses make to the rulers?

“And he said unto them, _This is that which the Lord hath said, Tomorrow
is the rest of the holy Sabbath_ unto the Lord.” Verse 23.


    NOTE.—This was a full month and more before they came to Sinai.


12. _When_ had God _said_ this?

In the beginning, when He sanctified the Sabbath. Gen. 2:3.


    NOTE.—In the wilderness of Sin, before Israel came to Sinai, Moses
    said to Jethro, his father-in-law, “I do make them know the
    _statutes_ of God, and His _laws_” (Ex. 18:16), which shows that
    these statutes and laws existed before they were proclaimed on
    Sinai.


13. What did some of the people do on the seventh day?

“It came to pass, that _there went out some of the people on the seventh
day for to gather_, and they found none.” Ex. 16:27.

14. How did God reprove their disobedience?

“And the Lord said unto Moses, _How long refuse ye to keep My commandments
and My laws?_” Verse 28.

15. Why was double manna given on the sixth day?

“See, _for that the Lord hath given you the Sabbath, therefore He giveth
you on the sixth day the bread of two days_; abide ye every man in his
place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.” Verse 29.

16. How, then, did the Lord prove the people (verse 4) whether they would
keep His law, or not?

Over the keeping of the Sabbath.


    NOTE.—Thus we see that the Sabbath commandment was a part of God’s
    law before this law was spoken from Sinai; for this incident
    occurred in the wilderness of Sin, before the children of Israel
    came to Sinai, where the law was given. Both the Sabbath and the
    law existed from creation.



God’s Memorial


                             [Illustration.]

Christ The Word. "He hath made His wonderful works to be remembered." Ps.
                                  111:4.


1. What is to endure throughout all generations?

“Thy name, O Lord, endureth forever; and _Thy memorial, O Lord; throughout
all generations_.” Ps. 135:13.


    _Memorial_: “Anything intended to preserve the memory of a person
    or event; something which serves to keep some person or thing in
    remembrance, as a monument or a practise.”—_Webster._


2. What illustration of this is given in the Bible?

“And _these stones shall be for a memorial_ unto the children of Israel
forever.” Joshua 4:7.

3. What were these stones to commemorate?

“And he spake unto the children of Israel, saying, When your children
shall ask their fathers in time to come, saying, What mean these stones?
then _ye shall let your children know, saying, Israel came over this
Jordan on dry land_.” Verses 21, 22.


    NOTE.—These stones were to be a standing memorial, or reminder, of
    Israel’s coming dry-shod over the Jordan.


4. What was another memorial instituted to commemorate another signal
providence in behalf of the Israelites?

“And _this day shall be unto you for a memorial_; and ye shall keep it a
feast to the Lord throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by
an ordinance forever.” Ex. 12:14.


    NOTE.—This, the Passover, was a _periodical_ memorial, to be
    observed on the fourteenth day of the first month of each year,
    the day on which the Israelites were delivered from Egyptian
    bondage, and its celebration was to be, with the seven days’ feast
    of unleavened bread following and connected with it, in
    commemoration of that event. See Ex. 13:3-9.


5. Does God design that His great work of creating the heavens and the
earth shall be remembered?

“The works of the Lord are great, sought out of all them that have
pleasure therein. His work is honorable and glorious: and His
righteousness endureth forever. _He hath made His wonderful works to be
remembered._” Ps. 111:2-4.

6. What has He commanded men to observe in memory of this great work?

“_Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy_; ... for in six days the Lord
made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the
seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.”
Ex. 20:8-11.

7. Of what was this memorial to be a sign?

“And hallow My Sabbaths; and they shall be _a sign_ between Me and you,
_that ye may know that I am the Lord your God_.” Eze. 20:20.

8. How long was the Sabbath to be a sign of the true God?

“_It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel forever_: for in six
days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day He rested, and
was refreshed.” Ex. 31:17.


    NOTE.—It is manifest that if the object of the Sabbath was to keep
    God as the Creator in mind, and it had been faithfully kept from
    the first, there would not now be a heathen or an idolater on the
    face of the earth.


9. What besides creation were Israel to remember when they kept the
Sabbath?

“_And remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and that the
Lord thy God brought thee out thence through a mighty hand and by a
stretched-out arm_: therefore the Lord thy God commanded thee to keep the
Sabbath day.” Deut. 5:15.


    NOTE.—There is a deep significance to this scripture not apparent
    to those unacquainted with the facts. In Egypt, through oppression
    and idolatrous surroundings, the keeping of the Sabbath had become
    not only almost obsolete, but well-nigh impossible. See reading on
    “Reasons for Sabbath-Keeping,” under questions 9 and 10, page 423.
    Their deliverance from bondage was in order that they might keep
    God’s law (Ps. 105:43-45), and particularly the Sabbath, the great
    seal, sign, and memorial-institution of the law. The recollection
    of their bondage and oppressed condition in Egypt was to be an
    additional incentive for keeping the Sabbath in the land of
    freedom. The Sabbath, therefore, besides being a memorial of
    creation, was to be to them a memorial of their deliverance from
    bondage, and of the great power of God as manifested in this
    deliverance. And as Egypt stands as a symbol of the condition of
    every one in the world under the slavery of sin, so the Sabbath is
    to be kept by every saved soul as a memorial of the deliverance
    from this slavery by the mighty power of God through Christ.


10. Of what else does God say He gave the Sabbath to His people to be a
sign, or reminder?

“Moreover also I gave them My Sabbaths, to be _a sign_ between Me and
them, _that they might know that I am the Lord that sanctify them_.” Eze.
20:12.


    NOTE.—Sanctification is a work of redemption,—of making holy
    sinful or unholy beings. Like the work of creation itself, this
    requires creative power. See Ps. 51:10; John 3:3, 6; Eph. 2:10.
    And as the Sabbath is the appropriate sign or memorial of the
    creative power of God wherever displayed, whether in creation,
    deliverance from human bondage, or deliverance from the slavery of
    sin, it is to be kept as a sign of the work of sanctification.
    This will be one great reason for the saints’ keeping it
    throughout eternity. It will remind them not only of their own
    creation and the creation of the universe, but also of their
    redemption.


11. Through whom do we have sanctification?

“But of Him are ye in _Christ Jesus_, who of God is made unto us wisdom,
and righteousness, and _sanctification_, and redemption.” 1 Cor. 1:30.


    NOTE.—Then, as the Sabbath is a sign or memorial of
    sanctification, and as Christ is the one through whom the work of
    sanctification is accomplished, the Sabbath is a sign or memorial
    of what Christ is to the believer. Through the Sabbath, therefore,
    God designed that the believer and Christ should be very closely
    linked together.


12. What statement of the redeemed shows that they will remember God’s
creative power?

“Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honor and power: _for Thou
hast created all things_, and for Thy pleasure they are and were
_created_.” Rev. 4:11.

13. How often will they congregate to worship the Lord?

“For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall remain
before Me, saith the Lord, so shall your seed and your name remain. And it
shall come to pass, that _from one new moon to another_, and _from one
Sabbath to another_, shall all flesh come to worship before Me, saith the
Lord.” Isa. 66:22, 23.


    NOTE.—The Sabbath, which is the memorial of God’s creative power,
    will never cease to exist. When this sinful state of things shall
    give way to the sinless new earth, the fact upon which the Sabbath
    institution is based will still remain; and those who shall be
    permitted to live in the new earth will still commemorate the
    creative power of God, while singing the song of Moses and the
    Lamb. Rev. 15:3. See Rev. 22:1, 2.



Reasons For Sabbath-Keeping


                             [Illustration.]

 Mt. Sinai--Where The Law Was Given. "That ye may know that I am the Lord
                          your God." Eze. 20:20.


1. What is the one great feature by which the true God is distinguished
from all false gods?

“The Lord is the true God, He is the living God, and an everlasting
king.... _The gods that have not made the heavens and the earth_, even
they shall perish from the earth, and from under these heavens. _He hath
made the earth by his power_, He hath established the world by His wisdom,
and hath stretched out the heavens by His discretion.” Jer. 10:10-12.

2. When Paul wished to preach the true God to the idolatrous Athenians,
how did he describe Him?

“Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, Him declare I unto you. _God that
made the world and all things therein._” Acts 17:23, 24.

3. What did the apostles say to the idolaters at Lystra?

“We ... preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities unto _the
living God, which made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that
are therein_.” Acts 14:15. See also Rev. 10:6; 14:6, 7.

4. What reason is given in the fourth commandment for keeping the Sabbath
day holy?

“For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in
them is, and rested the seventh day.” Ex. 20:11.


    NOTES.—The Sabbath is the great memorial of creation and of God’s
    creative power, a constant reminder of the true and living God.
    God’s design in making the Sabbath, and in commanding that it be
    kept holy, was that man might never forget Him, the Creator of all
    things.

    “The original Sabbath being a perpetual memorial of God, the
    Creator calling man to imitate God in the observance of the same,
    man could not keep the original Sabbath and forget God.”—_Prof. E.
    W. Thomas, M. A., in Herald of Gospel Liberty, June 19, 1890._

    When we remember that two thirds of the world’s inhabitants today
    are idolaters, and that since the fall, idolatry, with its train
    of associated and resultant evils, has ever been a prevailing sin,
    and then think that the observance of the Sabbath, as God ordained
    it, would have prevented all this, we can better appreciate the
    value of the Sabbath institution, and the importance of
    Sabbath-keeping.


5. What does God say the Sabbath will be to those who hallow it, or keep
it holy?

“And hallow My Sabbaths; and _they shall be a sign between Me and you,
that ye may know that I am the Lord your God_.” Eze. 20:20.

6. How important is it that we know God?

“And _this is life eternal_, that they might know Thee the only true God,
and Jesus Christ, whom Thou hast sent.” John 17:3.

7. Is there any danger of God’s chosen people forgetting Him?

“_Beware that thou forget not the Lord thy God_, in not keeping His
commandments, and His judgments, and His statutes.” Deut. 8:11.

8. What other reason is given for keeping the Sabbath?

“Verily My Sabbaths ye shall keep: _for it is a sign between Me and you_
throughout your generations; _that ye may know that I am the Lord that
doth __SANCTIFY__ you_.” Ex. 31:13.


    NOTE.—To sanctify is to make holy, or to set apart for a holy use.
    The sanctification, or making holy, of sinful beings can be
    wrought only by the creative power of God through Christ by the
    Holy Spirit. In 1 Cor. 1:30 we are told that Christ is made unto
    us “sanctification;” and in Eph. 2:10 it is said that “we are His
    workmanship, _created_ in Christ Jesus unto good works.” The
    Sabbath, therefore, is a sign of sanctification, and thus of what
    Christ is to the believer, because it is a reminder of the
    creative power of God as manifested in the work of regeneration.
    It is the sign of the power of God, therefore, in both creation
    and redemption. To the believer, it is the evidence, or sign, that
    he knows the true God, who, through Christ, created all things,
    and who, through Christ, redeems the sinner and makes him whole.


9. What special reason did the Israelites have for keeping the Sabbath?

“_And remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and that the
Lord thy God brought thee out thence through a mighty hand and by a
stretched-out arm_: therefore the Lord thy God commanded thee to keep the
Sabbath day.” Deut. 5:15.


    NOTE.—In their bondage the Israelites had to some extent lost the
    knowledge of God, and departed from His precepts. The Sabbath came
    to be greatly disregarded by them; and in consequence of the
    oppression of the Pharaohs, especially the Pharaoh of the exodus,
    as witnessed by the rigorous exactions made upon them by this
    latter king through their taskmasters, its observance was made
    apparently impossible. See Ex. 5:1-19. The special point, both of
    reform and of conflict, just preceding their deliverance from
    bondage, was over the matter of Sabbath observance. Moses and
    Aaron had shown them that obedience to God was the first condition
    of deliverance. Their efforts to restore the observance of the
    Sabbath among the Israelites had come to the notice of Pharaoh;
    hence his accusation against them, “Wherefore do ye, Moses and
    Aaron, _let_ [hinder] the people from their works? get you unto
    your burdens.... Behold, the people of the land are many, and ye
    make them _rest_ [Heb., _Shabbath_] from their burdens.” Ex. 5:4,
    5. Deliverance from this oppression was indeed, therefore, an
    additional and special reason for their keeping the Sabbath. But
    Egypt and Egyptian bondage simply represent sin and the bondage of
    sin. See Rev. 11:8; Hosea 11:1; Matt. 2:15; Zech. 10:10. Every
    one, therefore, who has been delivered from sin has the same
    reason for keeping the Sabbath as had the Israelites who were
    released from Egyptian bondage.


10. What does the psalmist say was the reason why God brought His people
out of Egypt, and placed them in Canaan?

“And He brought forth His people with joy, and His chosen with gladness:
and gave them the lands of the heathen: ... _that they might observe His
statutes, and keep His laws_.” Ps. 105:43-45.


    NOTE.—Their deliverance from Egyptian bondage was a reason for the
    keeping not only of the fourth commandment, but of every precept
    of God’s law. This is indicated by the preface or preamble to the
    law as given on Sinai: “I am the Lord thy God, which have brought
    thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou
    shalt have no other gods before Me,” etc. Ex. 20:2, 3. See also
    Lev. 19:35-37; Deut. 10:19; 15:12-15; 24:17, 18. Likewise, every
    one who, through Christ, has been delivered from the bondage of
    sin, God calls to obedience, not only in the matter of
    Sabbath-keeping, but to every precept of His holy law. “Blessed is
    the man that doeth this, and the son of man that layeth hold on
    it; that _keepeth the Sabbath_ from polluting it, and keepeth his
    hand from doing _any_ evil.” Isa. 56:2.


11. What is the meaning of the word sabbath?

Rest.


    NOTE.—Previous to the fall, God designed that man’s time should be
    occupied with pleasant, invigorating, but not wearisome labor.
    Gen. 2:15. Laborious, wearisome toil came in consequence of sin.
    Gen. 3:17-19. While under the fall the Sabbath, therefore, may
    bring physical rest to both man and the beasts of burden (Ex.
    23:12) in a way not originally intended, physical rest was not its
    original and primary design or purpose. Cessation from the
    ordinary labors and occupations of the week was ordained, not
    because these are wrong or sinful in themselves, but that man
    might have an appointed time and a frequently recurring period for
    the contemplation of the Creator and His works. Under the gospel,
    the Sabbath is a sign of spiritual rest and freedom from sin. So
    we read, “For he that is entered into His rest, he also hath
    ceased from his own works, as God did from His.” Heb. 4:10.


12. Who gives this rest from sin?

“Come unto Me, all ye that labor and are heavy-laden, and _I will give you
rest_. Take My yoke upon you, and learn of Me; for I am meek and lowly in
heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls.” Matt. 11:28, 29.


    NOTE.—The Sabbath, then, is the sign of the soul-rest which Christ
    gives to the weary and ladened with sin.


13. Was the Sabbath intended as a day for public worship?

“Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of rest,
_an holy convocation_.” Lev. 23:3.


    NOTE.—A convocation is an assembly of people.


14. Does the New Testament teach the same duty?

“Let us consider one another to provoke unto love and to good works: _not
forsaking the assembling of ourselves together_, as the manner of some is;
but exhorting one another: and so much the more, as ye see the day
approaching.” Heb. 10:24, 25.

15. What does Malachi say of those that fear the Lord?

“Then they that feared the Lord _spake often one to another_: and the Lord
harkened, and heard it, and a book of remembrance was written before Him
for them that feared the Lord, and that thought upon His name. And they
shall be Mine, saith the Lord of hosts, in that day when I make up My
jewels; and I will spare them, as a man spareth his own son that serveth
him.” Mal. 3:16, 17.

16. Will the Sabbath be observed as a day of worship in the new earth?

“For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall remain
before Me, saith the Lord, so shall your seed and your name remain. And it
shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and _from one
Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before Me, saith the
Lord_.” Isa. 66:22, 23.


    NOTE.—“Thou hast made us for Thyself, and our heart is restless
    till it find its rest in Thee.”—_St. Augustine._



Manner Of Observing The Sabbath


                             [Illustration.]

 Sabbath Morning. "Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy." Ex. 20:8.


1. What is first commanded in the Sabbath commandment?

“_Remember_ the Sabbath _day_.” Ex. 20:8.

2. Which day is the Sabbath?

“_The seventh day_ is the Sabbath.” Verse 10.

3. For what purpose are we to remember the Sabbath day?

“Remember the Sabbath day, _to keep it holy_.” Verse 8.


    NOTE.—All through the week the keeping holy of the Sabbath day is
    to be remembered, or borne in mind. No business contracts or
    arrangements are to be made, no manner of living indulged in,
    which will prevent or interfere with the proper or holy observance
    of the day when it comes. The keeping of this commandment,
    therefore, is in the interests of, and with a view to, holy living
    _all the time_. The _commandment itself_ enjoins a duty, and is to
    be kept, all through the week; the _Sabbath_ is to be kept when it
    comes. The Sabbath commandment, therefore, like every other
    precept of the decalogue, but contrary to the conception of many,
    is to be kept _all the time_, and not simply one day in the week.
    In this matter we should distinguish between the _Sabbath_ and the
    Sabbath _commandment_.


4. Who made the Sabbath day holy?

“Wherefore the _Lord_ blessed the Sabbath day, and _hallowed it_.” Verse
11.


    NOTE.—God _made_ the Sabbath day holy; we are to _keep_ it holy.


5. What is it that makes a thing holy?

God’s _presence_ in it. See Ex. 3:5; 29:43-46; Joshua 5:13-15.

6. Then in order to keep the Sabbath day holy, what must be recognized?

God’s _presence_ in the day; His _blessing_ upon it; and His
_sanctification_ of it.

7. When, according to the Bible, does the Sabbath begin?

“And the _evening_ and the morning were the first day.” “And the _evening_
and the morning were the second day,” etc. See Gen. 1:5, 8, 13, 19, 23,
31.


    NOTE.—The evening begins “at the going down of the sun.” See Deut.
    16:6; Mark 1:32; Deut. 23:11; 1 Kings 22:35,36; 2 Chron. 18:34.


8. Does the Bible recognize this as the proper time for beginning and
ending the Sabbath?

“_From even unto even_, shall ye celebrate your Sabbath.” Lev. 23:32.


    NOTE.—One great advantage of keeping the Sabbath according to the
    Bible method of reckoning the day, that is, from sunset to sunset,
    over keeping it according to the Roman reckoning, or from midnight
    to midnight, is that by the former one is awake to welcome and to
    bid adieu to the day when it comes and goes, while by the latter
    he is asleep when the day begins and ends. God’s ways are always
    best. The setting of the sun is a great natural sign for marking
    the division of time into days.


9. What kind of labor is to be done through the week?

“Six days shalt thou labor, and do all _thy work_.” Ex. 20:9.

10. Is any of this kind of work to be done on the Sabbath?

“In it thou shalt not do _any work_.” Verse 10.


    NOTE.—If the Sabbath is to be kept “holy,” mere physical rest one
    day in seven cannot be the great object of the Sabbath
    institution.


11. How does the Lord, through the prophet Isaiah, indicate what is true
Sabbath-keeping?

“If thou _turn away thy foot from the Sabbath_, from doing _thy pleasure_
on My holy day; and _call the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord,
honorable_; and shalt _honor Him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding
thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words_: then shalt thou
_delight thyself in the Lord_; and I will cause thee to ride upon the high
places of the earth, and feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father:
for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.” Isa. 58:13, 14.


    NOTE.—“Whether the Sabbath becomes a delight or a burden depends
    upon the spirit with which a man meets it. Indeed, the spirit of
    the man settles the question as to the benefits to come from any
    duty he may perform. One man cannot understand why his neighbor
    should prefer the park or the ball ground to the church, simply
    because his spirit is different. He has cultivated the higher
    nature until he loves spiritual things above all others, and to
    him the Sabbath is indeed a delight. It comes to his weary soul as
    a reminder of God, and brings him nearer to heaven in heart and
    mind than does any other day.”—_Sabbath Recorder, Dec. 12, 1910._


12. What is the character of God, and how only can He be truly worshiped?

“_God is a Spirit_: and they that worship Him must worship Him _in spirit
and in truth_.” John 4:24.


    NOTE.—This is one reason why the attempt to produce
    Sabbath-keeping by human Sabbath laws is altogether out of place.
    Such laws can never produce true Sabbath-keeping, for that is
    _spiritual_, and must be of the _mind_ and from the _heart_, and
    not _perfunctory_, _mechanical_, nor of _force_.


13. What is one thing for which God has given the Sabbath to be a sign?

That He _sanctifies_ His people, or makes them _holy_. See Ex. 31:13; Eze.
20:12; and page 420.

14. What does the “psalm for the Sabbath day” suggest as proper acts and
themes for thought and meditation on the Sabbath?

“It is a good thing to _give thanks unto the Lord_, and to _sing praises
unto Thy name, O Most High_: to show forth _Thy loving-kindness_ in the
morning, and _Thy faithfulness_ every night, _upon an instrument of ten
strings_, and upon the _psaltery_; upon the _harp_ with a solemn sound.
For Thou, Lord, hast made me glad _through Thy work_: I will triumph in
_the works of Thy hands_. O Lord, _how great are Thy works_! and _Thy
thoughts are very deep_.” Ps. 92:1-5.

15. What do the works of God declare?

“The heavens declare _the glory of God_; and the firmament showeth _His
handiwork_. Day unto day uttereth _speech_, and night unto night _showeth
knowledge_. There is no speech nor language, where _their voice_ is not
heard.” Ps. 19:1-3. See margin.


    NOTE.—God designed that the Sabbath should direct the minds of men
    to His created works, and through these to Him, the Creator.
    Nature itself speaks to our senses, telling us that there is a
    God, the Creator and Supreme Ruler of the universe. The Sabbath,
    ever pointing to God through nature, was designed to keep the
    Creator constantly in mind. The proper keeping of it, therefore,
    must naturally tend to prevent idolatry, atheism, agnosticism,
    infidelity, irreligion, and irreverence; and, being promotive of
    the knowledge and fear of God, must of necessity be a deterrent to
    sin. In this may its value and importance be seen.


16. Was the Sabbath designed to be a day for public worship?

“Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of rest,
_an holy convocation_.” Lev. 23:3.


    NOTE.—The word convocation means “a calling together,” and is
    always used in the Bible with reference to meetings of a religious
    character.


                             [Illustration.]

Gathering The Manna. "On the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread."
     "But on the seventh day ... there shall be none." Ex. 16:22, 26.


17. What example did Christ set in Sabbath observance?

“And as His custom was, _He went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day,
and stood up for to read_.” Luke 4:16.

18. What else did Jesus do on the Sabbath?

“And it was the Sabbath day when Jesus _made the clay, and opened his
eyes_.” John 9:14.


    NOTE.—A large share of Christ’s ministry consisted of miracles and
    acts of mercy performed for the relief of suffering humanity; and
    not a few of these were done on the Sabbath. On this day, as on
    other days, He “went about doing good.” See next reading.


19. With what words did He justify acts of mercy on the Sabbath day?

“Wherefore it is _lawful_ to do well on the Sabbath days.” Matt. 12:12.


    NOTE.—Not a little of Christ’s earthly ministry was devoted to
    up-lifting the Sabbath, and showing the beneficent character of
    the Sabbath institution. It was not meant to be a day of sorrow,
    austerity, or gloom. Disinterested works of love and mercy toward
    man or beast are always in place on the Sabbath. _Lawful_ means
    “according to law.”


20. What day is especially indicated as the day to prepare for the
Sabbath?

“And that day [the sixth day] was _the preparation_, and the Sabbath drew
on.” Luke 23:54. See also Ex. 16:22, 23.


    NOTE.—In order to keep the Sabbath day holy, it must be remembered
    all through the week; and on the sixth day, or the day just before
    the Sabbath, special preparation should be made _to be ready_ to
    welcome and observe the day when it comes.


21. How did the Israelites in the wilderness on the sixth day prepare for
the Sabbath?

“And it came to pass, that _on the sixth day they gathered twice as much
bread_, two omers for one man.” Ex. 16:22.


    NOTES.—The Sabbath should not be a day of either ordinary labor,
    idleness, or amusement, but one of rest, reflection, holy joy,
    worship, and helpfulness. It should be the happiest, the
    brightest, and the best of all the week. Such it should be made
    for young and old. Very early the children can be taught the
    stories of creation and redemption, and taken out amid the
    handiworks of God and taught to see Him and to commune with Him
    through nature. Preparation for the Sabbath, therefore, is an
    essential to its proper observance. God’s blessing is upon the
    first moments of the Sabbath as well as upon the last; and, as far
    as possible, everything should be got in readiness so that the
    entire day may be devoted to God and humanity in the manner
    indicated.

    In making the Sabbath, God rested upon, blessed, and sanctified
    the day. Ex. 20:11. Whoever, then, keeps the Sabbath aright, may
    expect that there will be brought into his life God’s _rest_,
    _blessing_, and _sanctification_.



Christ And The Sabbath


                             [Illustration.]

  Healing On The Sabbath Day. "Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the
                       Sabbath days." Matt. 12:12.


1. Of what did Christ say the Son of man is Lord?

“The Son of man is Lord even _of the Sabbath day_.” Matt. 12:8. See also
Mark 2:28.

2. Who made the Sabbath?

“All things were made _by Him_ [_Christ, the Word_]; and without Him was
not anything made that was made.” John 1:3.

3. Did Christ, while on earth, keep the Sabbath?

“As His custom was, _He went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and
stood up for to read_.” Luke 4:16.

4. Although Lord, Maker, and an observer of the Sabbath, how was He
watched and spied upon by the scribes and Pharisees on this day?

“And the scribes and Pharisees watched Him, _whether He would heal on the
Sabbath day_; that they might find an accusation against Him.” Luke 6:7.

5. With what question did Christ meet their false ideas and reasonings
regarding Sabbath-keeping?

“Then said Jesus unto them, I will ask you one thing; _Is it lawful on the
Sabbath days to do good, or to do evil? to save life, or to destroy it?_”
Verse 9.

6. How did they manifest their displeasure at His healing the man with the
withered hand on the Sabbath?

“And they were _filled with madness_; and _communed one with another what
they might do to Jesus_.” Verse 11. “And the Pharisees went forth, and
straightway _took counsel with the Herodians against Him, how they might
destroy Him_.” Mark 3:6.


    NOTE.—They were angry because, notwithstanding the fact that by
    the miracle performed Christ had given evidence that He was from
    God, He had shown no respect for _their views of Sabbath-keeping_,
    but, on the contrary, had shown these to be _wrong_. Wounded
    pride, obstinacy, and malice, therefore, combined to fill them
    with _madness_; and they went out immediately and held council
    with the Herodians,—their political enemies with whom they
    disagreed in the matter of paying tribute to a foreign power,—for
    the purpose of accomplishing His death.


7. Because Jesus healed a man on the Sabbath day, and told him to take up
his bed and walk, what did the Jews do?

“Therefore did the Jews _persecute Jesus_, and _sought to slay Him_,
because He had done these things on the Sabbath day.” John 5:16.


    NOTE.—It is a fact worthy of note that over the question of proper
    Sabbath observance the Jews not only _persecuted_ Jesus, but
    _first took counsel to kill Him_. Not the least of the malice
    which finally culminated in His crucifixion, was engendered over
    this very question of Sabbath observance. Christ did not keep the
    Sabbath according to their ideas of Sabbath-keeping, and so they
    sought to kill Him. And they are not alone. Many today are
    cherishing this same spirit. Because some do not agree with their
    ideas regarding the Sabbath, or Sabbath observance, they seek to
    persecute and oppress them,—seek laws, and alliances with
    political powers, to compel respect for their views.


8. How did Jesus answer them?

“But Jesus answered them, _My Father worketh hitherto, and I work_.” Verse
17.


    NOTE.—The ordinary operations of nature, as manifested in God’s
    almighty, upholding, beneficent, and healing power, go on on the
    Sabbath the same as on other days; and to cooperate with God and
    nature in the work of healing, relieving, and restoring on the
    Sabbath, cannot, therefore, be out of harmony with God’s will, nor
    a violation of His Sabbath law.


9. What effect did this answer have upon the Jews?

“Therefore the Jews _sought the more to kill Him_, because He not only had
broken the Sabbath [i.e., in their estimation], but said also that God was
His Father, making Himself equal with God.” Verse 18.

10. Because the disciples plucked a few ears of corn on the Sabbath day to
satisfy hunger, what accusation did the Pharisee make against them to
Christ?

“And the Pharisees said unto Him, _Behold, why do they on the Sabbath day
that which is not lawful?_” Mark 2:24.

11. What was Christ’s reply?

“And He said unto them, Have ye never read what David did, when he had
need, and was an hungered, he, and they that were with him? how he went
into the house of God in the days of Abiathar the high priest, and did eat
the showbread, which is not lawful to eat but for the priests, and gave
also to them which were with him? And He said unto them, _The Sabbath was
made for man, and not man for the Sabbath_.” Verses 25-27.

12. Because of Christ’s healing a woman of an infirmity on the Sabbath,
what did the ruler of a certain synagogue say?

“And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation, because that
Jesus had healed on the Sabbath day, and said unto the people, _There are
six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed,
and not on the Sabbath day_.” Luke 13:14.

13. How did Christ answer him?

“The Lord then answered him, and said, Thou hypocrite, doth not each one
of you on the Sabbath loose his ox or his ass from the stall, and lead him
away to watering? and ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham,
whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond
on the Sabbath day?” Verses 15, 16.

14. What effect did Christ’s answers have upon the people?

“And when He had said these things, _all His adversaries were ashamed: and
all the people rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by
Him_.” Verse 17.

15. By what method of reasoning did Christ justify acts of mercy on the
Sabbath day?

“Which of you shall have an ass or an ox fallen into a pit, and will not
straightway pull him out on the Sabbath day? And they could not answer Him
again to these things.” Luke 14:5, 6. “What man shall there be among you,
that shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the Sabbath day,
will he not lay hold on it, and lift it out? How much then is a man better
than a sheep? Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the Sabbath days.”
Matt. 12:11, 12.

                             [Illustration.]

  Healing Impotent Man On The Sabbath. "Therefore did the Jews persecute
  Jesus, and sought to slay Him, because He had done these things on the
                         Sabbath day." John 5:16.


16. Into what perplexity did Christ’s working of miracles on the Sabbath
throw the Pharisees?

“Therefore said some of the Pharisees, _This man is not of God, because He
keepeth not the Sabbath day_. Others said, _How can a man that is a sinner
do such miracles?_ And _there was a division among them_.” John 9:16.


    NOTE.—The working of these wonderful, beneficent, and gracious
    miracles on the Sabbath was an evidence that Christ was from God,
    and that His views of Sabbath-keeping were right. By these
    miracles God was setting the seal of His approval to Christ’s
    views and teachings respecting the Sabbath, and to His manner of
    observing it, and thus condemning the narrow and false views of
    the Pharisees. Hence the division.


17. According to Isaiah, what was Christ to do with the law?

“He will _magnify_ the law, and _make it honorable_.” Isa. 42:21.


    NOTES.—In nothing, perhaps, was this more strikingly fulfilled
    than in the matter of Sabbath observance. By their traditions,
    numerous regulations, and senseless restrictions the Jews had made
    the Sabbath a burden, and anything but a delight. Christ removed
    all these, and by His life and teachings put the Sabbath back in
    its proper place and setting, as a day of worship and beneficence,
    a day for doing acts of charity and mercy, as well as engaging in
    contemplation of God and in acts of devotion. Thus He magnified it
    and made it honorable. One of the most prominent features of
    Christ’s whole ministry was this great work of _Sabbath reform_.
    Christ did not _abolish_ the Sabbath, nor _change_ the Sabbath;
    but He did rescue it from the rubbish of tradition, the false
    ideas, and the superstitions with which it had been buried, and by
    which it had been degraded and turned aside from the channel of
    blessing and practical service to man designed by its Maker. The
    Pharisees had placed the institution _above_ man, and _against_
    man. Christ reversed the order, and said, “The Sabbath was made
    _for man_, and not man _for the Sabbath_.” He showed that it was
    to minister to the happiness, the comfort, and the well-being of
    both man and beast.

    Because of the false ideas which the Jews held concerning the
    Sabbath and its observance, and the conflict which Christ had with
    them in consequence, many of the professed followers of Christ a
    little later were led into the error of rejecting the Sabbath
    itself as Jewish, and, without any divine command or Scripture
    warrant, to substitute another day in its place.


18. Knowing that the unbelieving Jews would still cling to their false
ideas respecting the Sabbath, and that flight from Jerusalem and Judea on
that day would be attended with difficulty, for what, in view of the
coming destruction and desolation of the city and people, did Christ tell
His disciples to pray?

“But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, _neither on the
Sabbath day_.” Matt. 24:20.


    NOTE.—Christ’s experience with the Jews, the chosen and professed
    people of God at that time, respecting the Sabbath is but a type
    of what, according to prophecy, is to occur in the last days.
    Already it is beginning to find its parallel in the movement to
    enforce Sunday observance by law. See readings on pages 271, 484,
    488.



The Sabbath In The New Testament


                             [Illustration.]

 Paul On The Way To Assos. "And they ... rested the Sabbath day according
                     to the commandment." Luke 23:56.


1. According to the New Testament, what day immediately precedes the first
day of the week?

“In the end of _the Sabbath_, as it began to dawn toward the first day of
the week.” Matt. 28:1.


    NOTE.—According to the New Testament, therefore, the Sabbath had
    passed when the first day of the week began.


2. After the crucifixion, what day was kept by the women who followed
Jesus?

“And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and _rested the
Sabbath day according to the commandment_.” Luke 23:56.

3. What day is the Sabbath, “according to the commandment”?

“But _the seventh day is the Sabbath_ of the Lord thy God.” Ex. 20:10.

4. What was Christ’s custom respecting the Sabbath?

“And He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up: and, as His custom
was, _He went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day and stood up for to
read_.” Luke 4:16.

5. In what instruction to His disciples did Christ recognize the existence
of the Sabbath long after His ascension?

“But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, _neither on the
Sabbath day_.” Matt. 24:20.


    NOTE.—The destruction of Jerusalem under Titus occurred in the
    spring and summer of 70 A.D. The flight of the Christians took
    place three and one-half years earlier, or late in October, 66
    A.D., following the arrival and sudden withdrawal of Cestius and
    his army. See pages 313, 314.


6. On what day did the Jews meet for worship?

“Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in
the synagogues every _Sabbath day_.” Acts 15:21.

7. On what day did Paul and Barnabas preach at Antioch?

“They came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went into the synagogue on _the
Sabbath day_.” Acts 13:14.

8. When did the Gentiles request that Paul should repeat the sermon he had
preached at Antioch on the Sabbath?

“And when the Jews were gone out of the synagogue, the Gentiles besought
that these words might be preached to them _the next Sabbath_.” Verse 42.

9. On what day did Paul and his companions preach to the devout women at
Philippi?

“And _on the Sabbath_ we went out of the city by a riverside, where prayer
was wont to be made; and we sat down, and spake unto the women which
resorted thither.” Acts 16:13.

10. What was Paul’s manner respecting the Sabbath?

“They came to Thessalonica, where was a synagogue of the Jews: and Paul,
_as his manner was, went in unto them, and three Sabbath days reasoned
with them out of the Scriptures_.” Acts 17:1, 2.


    NOTE.—It was Paul’s manner, as it was Christ’s custom (Luke 4:16),
    to attend religious services on the Sabbath.


11. How did the apostle spend the working days of the week when at
Corinth?

“After these things Paul departed from Athens, and came to Corinth; and
found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy,
with his wife Priscilla; ... and because he was of the same craft, he
abode with them, and _wrought_: for by their occupation they were
_tent-makers_.” Acts 18:1-3. See Eze. 46:1.

12. What did he do on the Sabbath days?

“And _he reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath_, and persuaded the Jews
and the Greeks.” Acts 18:4.

13. How long did he continue this work there?

“And he continued there _a year and six months_, teaching the word of God
among them.” Verse 11.


    NOTE.—Here, then, were seventy-eight Sabbaths on which Paul
    preached in one city. The record further says that he worked at
    his trade, and we may justly infer that Paul worked at tent-making
    just as many Sundays as he preached Sabbaths. If to these
    seventy-eight Sabbaths we add the three he spent at Thessalonica,
    the one at Philippi, and the two at Antioch, we have a record of
    eighty-four Sabbaths on which the apostle held religious services,
    while, so far as the record shows, he held only one meeting on the
    first day of the week, and that a night meeting, immediately
    following the Sabbath. See Acts 20. Evidently Sunday was not the
    Sabbath in Paul’s day.


14. On what day was John in the Spirit?

“I was in the Spirit _on the Lord’s day_.” Rev. 1:10.

15. Who is Lord of the Sabbath?

“_The Son of man is Lord also of the Sabbath._” Mark 2:28.

16. What, through the prophet Isaiah, does the Lord call the Sabbath?

“If thou turn away thy foot from the Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on
_My holy day_.” Isa. 58:13.

17. Why does the Lord call the Sabbath His day?

“For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in
them is, and _rested the seventh day_: wherefore the Lord _blessed_ the
Sabbath day, and _hallowed_ it.” Ex. 20:11.

18. Through whom did God create the world?

“God ... hath in these last days spoken unto us by _His Son, ... by whom
also He made the worlds_.” Heb. 1:1, 2.


    NOTES.—From beginning to end, the Bible recognizes but one weekly
    Sabbath,—the day upon which God rested in the beginning; which was
    made known to Israel at Sinai (Neh. 9:13, 14); was observed by
    Christ and His apostles; and is to be kept by the redeemed in the
    world to come. Isa. 66:22, 23.

    The terms Sabbath, Sabbaths, and Sabbath days occur sixty times in
    the New Testament, and in every case but one refer to the seventh
    day. In Col. 2:16, 17, reference is made to the annual sabbaths
    connected with the three annual feasts observed by Israel before
    the first advent of Christ.

    The first day of the week is mentioned but eight times in the New
    Testament, six of which are found in the four Gospels, and refer
    to the day on which Christ arose from the dead. See Matt. 28:1;
    Mark 16:2, 9; Luke 24:1; John 20:1, 19. The other two (Acts 20:7;
    1 Cor. 16:2) refer to the only religious meeting held on the first
    day of the week after the ascension, in apostolic times, recorded
    in the New Testament, and to a systematic accounting and laying by
    in store at home on that day for the poor saints in Judea and
    Jerusalem.

    It is evident, therefore, that the Sabbath of the New Testament is
    the same as the Sabbath of the Old Testament, and that there is
    nothing in the New Testament setting aside the seventh-day
    Sabbath, and putting the first day of the week in its place.



The Law of God


As Given By Jehovah                  As Changed By Man
I                                    I
Thou shalt have no other gods        I am the Lord thy God: thou shalt
before me.                           not have strange gods before Me.
II
Thou shalt not make unto thee any
graven image, or any likeness of
anything that is in heaven above,
or that is in the earth beneath,
or that is in the water under the
earth: thou shalt not bow down
thyself to them, nor serve them:
for I the Lord thy God am a
jealous God, visiting the iniquity
of the fathers upon the children
unto the third and fourth
generation of them that hate Me;
and showing mercy unto thousands
of them that love Me, and keep My
commandments.
III                                  II
Thou shalt not take the name of      Thou shalt not take the name of
the Lord thy God in vain; for the    the Lord thy God in vain.
Lord will not hold him guiltless
that taketh His name in vain.
IV                                   III
Remember the Sabbath day, to keep    Remember that thou keep holy the
it holy. Six days shalt thou         Sabbath day.
labor, and do all thy work: but
the seventh day is the Sabbath of
the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt
not do any work, thou, nor thy
son, nor thy daughter, thy man
servant, nor thy maid servant, nor
thy cattle, nor thy stranger that
is within thy gates: for in six
days the Lord made heaven and
earth, the sea, and all that in
them is, and rested the seventh
day: wherefore the Lord blessed
the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.
V                                    IV
Honor thy father and thy mother:     Honor thy father and thy mother.
that thy days may be long upon the
land which the Lord thy God giveth
thee.
VI                                   V
Thou shalt not kill.                 Thou shalt not kill.
VII                                  VI
Thou shalt not commit adultery.      Thou shalt not commit adultery.
VIII                                 VII
Thou shalt not steal.                Thou shalt not steal.
IX                                   VIII
Thou shalt not bear false witness    Thou shalt not bear false witness
against thy neighbor.                against thy neighbor.
X                                    IX
Thou shalt not covet thy             Thou shalt not covet thy
neighbor’s house, thou shalt not     neighbor’s wife.
covet thy neighbor’s wife, nor his
man servant, nor his maid servant,
nor his ox, nor his ass, nor
anything that is thy neighbor’s.
                                     X
                                     Thou shalt not covet thy
                                     neighbor’s goods.
Ex. 20:3-17.                         Butler’s Catechism, page 28.



The Change Of The Sabbath


                             [Illustration.]

 Changing The Law. "He shall think to change the times and the law." Dan.
                               7:25, R. V.


1. Of what is the Sabbath commandment a part?

The law of God. See Ex. 20:8-11.

2. What, according to prophecy, was to be Christ’s attitude toward the
law?

“The Lord is well pleased for His righteousness’ sake; _He will magnify
the law, and make it honorable_.” Isa. 42:21.

3. In His first recorded discourse, what did Christ say of the law?

“Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not
come to destroy, but to fulfil.” Matt. 5:17.

4. How enduring did He say the law is?

“For verily I say unto you. Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one
tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.” Verse
18.

5. What did He say of those who should break one of the least of God’s
commandments, and teach men so to do?

“Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and
shall teach men so, _he shall be called the least in the kingdom of
heaven_.” Verse 19.


    NOTE.—From this it is evident that the entire code of ten
    commandments is binding in the Christian dispensation, and that
    Christ had no thought of changing any of them. One of these
    commands the observance of the seventh day as the Sabbath. But the
    practise of most Christians is different; they keep the first day
    of the week instead, many of them believing that Christ changed
    the Sabbath. But, from His own words, we see that He came for no
    such purpose. The responsibility for this change must therefore be
    looked for elsewhere.


6. What did God, through the prophet Daniel, say the power represented by
the “little horn” would think to do?

“And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the
saints of the Most High: and _he shall think to change the times and the
law_.” Dan. 7:25, R. V.


    NOTE.—For a full explanation of this symbol, see readings on “The
    Kingdom and Work of Antichrist” and “The Vicar of Christ,” pages
    218, 224.


7. What did the apostle Paul say the “man of sin” would do?

“For that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and
that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; _who opposeth and
exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshiped_.” 2
Thess. 2:3, 4.


    NOTE.—There is only one way by which any power could exalt itself
    above God, and that is by assuming to change the law of God, and
    to require obedience to its own law instead of God’s law.


8. What power has claimed authority to change the law of God?

The Papacy.

9. What part of the law of God especially has the Papacy thought to
change?

The fourth commandment.


    NOTES.—“They [the Catholics] allege the Sabbath changed into
    Sunday, the Lord’s day, contrary to the decalogue, as it appears;
    neither is there any example more boasted of than the changing of
    the Sabbath day. Great, say they, is the power and authority of
    the church, since it dispensed with one of the ten
    commandments.”—_Augsburg Confession, Art. XXVIII._

    “It [the Roman Catholic Church] has _reversed_ the fourth
    commandment, doing away with the Sabbath of God’s Word, and
    instituting Sunday as a holy day.”—_N. Summerbell, in __“__History
    of the Christians,__”__ page 418._


10. Why did God command Israel to hallow the Sabbath?

“And hallow My Sabbaths; and they shall be a sign between Me and you,
_that ye may know that I am the Lord your God_.” Eze. 20:20.


    NOTE.—As the Sabbath was given that man might keep God in mind as
    Creator, it can be readily seen that a power endeavoring to exalt
    itself above God would first try to cover up or remove that which
    calls man’s special attention to his Creator. This could be done
    in no other way so effectually as by setting aside God’s
    memorial—the seventh-day Sabbath. To this work of the Papacy
    Daniel had reference when he said, “And he shall ... think to
    change _times_ and _laws_.” Dan. 7:25.


11. Does the Papacy acknowledge that it has changed the Sabbath?

It does.


    NOTE.—“_Question._—How prove you that the church hath power to
    command feasts and holy days?

    “_Answer._—By the very act of changing the Sabbath into Sunday,
    which Protestants allow of; and therefore they fondly contradict
    themselves by keeping Sunday strictly, and breaking most other
    feast days commanded by the same church.”—_“__Abridgment of
    Christian Doctrine,__”__ by Rev. Henry Tuberville, D. D., of Douay
    College, France (1649), page 58._

    “_Ques._—Have you any other way of proving that the church has
    power to institute festivals of precept?

    “_Ans._—Had she not such power, she could not have done that in
    which all modern religionists agree with her,—she could not have
    substituted the observance of Sunday, the first day of the week,
    for the observance of Saturday, the seventh day, a change for
    which there is no Scriptural authority.”—_“__A Doctrinal
    Catechism,__”__ by Rev. Stephen Keenan, page 174._

    “The Catholic Church of its own infallible authority created
    Sunday a holy day to take the place of the Sabbath of the old
    law.”—_Kansas City Catholic, Feb. 9, 1893._

    “The Catholic Church, ... by virtue of her divine mission, changed
    the day from Saturday to Sunday.”—_Catholic Mirror, official organ
    of Cardinal Gibbons, Sept. 23, 1893._

    “_Ques._—Which is the Sabbath day?

    “_Ans._—Saturday is the Sabbath day.

    “_Ques._—Why do we observe Sunday instead of Saturday?

    “_Ans._—We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic
    Church, in the Council of Laodicea (A.D. 336), transferred the
    solemnity from Saturday to Sunday.”—_“__The Convert’s Catechism of
    Catholic Doctrine,__”__ by Rev. Peter Geiermann, C. SS. R., page
    50, third edition, 1913, a work which received the __“__apostolic
    blessing__”__ of Pope Pius X, Jan. 25, 1910._

    What was done at the Council of Laodicea was but one of the steps
    by which the change of the Sabbath was effected. See under
    questions 17-21. The date usually given for this council is 364
    A.D.


12. Do Catholic authorities acknowledge that there is no command in the
Bible for the sanctification of Sunday?

They do.


    NOTE.—“You may read the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and you
    will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of
    Sunday. The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of
    Saturday, a day which we never sanctify.”—_Cardinal Gibbons, in
    __“__The Faith of Our Fathers,__”__ edition 1892, page 111._

    “Sunday is a Catholic institution, and its claims to observance
    can be defended only on Catholic principles.... From beginning to
    end of Scripture there is not a single passage that warrants the
    transfer of weekly public worship from the last day of the week to
    the first.”—_Catholic Press (Sydney, Australia), Aug. 25, 1900._


13. Do Protestant writers acknowledge the same?

They do.


    NOTE.—“Is there no express commandment for observing the first day
    of the week as Sabbath, instead of the seventh day?—None whatever.
    Neither Christ, nor His apostles, nor the first Christians
    celebrated the first day of the week instead of the seventh as the
    Sabbath.”—_New York Weekly Tribune, May 24, 1900._

    “The Scriptures nowhere call the first day of the week the
    Sabbath.... There is no Scriptural authority for so doing, nor of
    course any Scriptural obligation.”—_The Watchman (Baptist)._

    “The observance of the first instead of the seventh day rests on
    the testimony of the church, and the church _alone_.”—_Hobart
    Church News (Episcopalian), July 2, 1894._

    For additional testimonies, see reading on page 454.


14. How did this change in observance of days come about, suddenly or
gradually?

Gradually.


    NOTES.—“The Christian church made no formal, but a gradual and
    almost unconscious transference of the one day to the
    other.”—_“__The Voice From Sinai,__”__ by Archdeacon F. W. Farrar,
    page 167._

    This of itself is evidence that there was no divine command for
    the change of the Sabbath.


15. For how long a time was the seventh-day Sabbath observed in the
Christian church?

For many centuries. In fact, its observance has never wholly ceased in the
Christian church.


    NOTES.—Mr. Morer, a learned clergyman of the Church of England,
    says: “The primitive Christians had a great veneration for the
    Sabbath, and spent the day in devotion and sermons. And it is not
    to be doubted that they derived this practise from the apostles
    themselves.”—_“__Dialogues on the Lord’s Day,__”__ page 189._

    Prof. E. Brerwood, of Gresham College, London (Episcopal), says:
    “The Sabbath was religiously observed in the Eastern church three
    hundred years and more after our Saviour’s passion.”—_“__Learned
    Treatise of the Sabbath,__”__ page 77._

    Lyman Coleman, a careful and candid historian, says: “Down even to
    the fifth century the observance of the Jewish Sabbath was
    continued in the Christian church, but with a rigor and solemnity
    gradually diminishing until it was wholly
    discontinued.”—_“__Ancient Christianity Exemplified,__”__ chap.
    26, sec. 2._

    The historian Socrates, who wrote about the middle of the fifth
    century, says: “Almost all the churches throughout the world
    celebrate the sacred mysteries on the Sabbath of every week, yet
    the Christians of Alexandria and at Rome, on account of some
    ancient tradition, refuse to do this.”—_“__Ecclesiastical
    History,__”__ book 5, chap. 22._

    Sozomen, another historian of the same period, writes: “The people
    of Constantinople, and of several other cities, assemble together
    on the Sabbath as well as on the next day; which custom is never
    observed at Rome.”—_“__Ecclesiastical History,__”__ book 7, chap.
    19._

    All this would have been inconceivable and impossible had there
    been a divine command given for the change of the Sabbath. The
    last two quotations also show that Rome led in the apostasy and in
    the change of the Sabbath.


16. What striking testimony is borne by Neander, the noted church
historian, regarding the origin of the Sunday sabbath?

“Opposition to Judaism introduced the particular festival of Sunday very
early, indeed, into the place of the Sabbath.... The festival of Sunday,
like all other festivals, was always only a human ordinance, and it was
far from the intentions of the apostles to establish a divine command in
this respect, far from them, and from the early apostolic church, to
transfer the laws of the Sabbath to Sunday. Perhaps at the end of the
second century a false application of this kind had begun to take place;
for men appear by that time to have considered laboring on Sunday as a
sin.”—_Neander’s __“__Church History__”__ Rose’s translation, page 186._

17. Who first enjoined Sunday-keeping by law?

Constantine the Great.


    NOTES.—“The earliest recognition of the observance of Sunday as a
    legal duty is a constitution of Constantine in 321 A.D., enacting
    that all courts of justice, inhabitants of towns, and workshops
    were to be at rest on Sunday (_venerabili die Solis_), with an
    exception in favor of those engaged in agricultural
    labor.”—_Encyclopedia Britannica, ninth edition, article
    __“__Sunday.__”_

    “Constantine the Great made a law for the whole empire (321 A.D.)
    that Sunday should be kept as a day of rest in all cities and
    towns; but he allowed the country people to follow their
    work.”—_Encyclopedia Americana, article __“__Sabbath.__”_

    “Unquestionably the first law, either ecclesiastical or civil, by
    which the Sabbatical observance of that day is known to have been
    ordained, is the edict of Constantine, 321 A.D.”—_Chambers’s
    Encyclopedia, article __“__Sabbath.__”_


18. What did Constantine’s law require?

“Let all the judges and town people, and the occupation of all trades rest
on the venerable day of the sun; but let those who are situated in the
country, freely and at full liberty, attend to the business of
agriculture; because it often happens that no other day is so fit for
sowing corn and planting vines; lest the critical moment being let slip,
men should lose the commodities granted by heaven.”—_Edict of March 7, 321
__A.D.__, Corpus Juris Civilis Cod., lib. 3, tit. 12, 3._


    NOTE.—This edict, issued by Constantine, under whom the Christian
    church and the Roman state were first united, in a manner supplied
    the lack of a divine command for Sunday observance, and may be
    considered the original Sunday law, and the model after which all
    Sunday laws since then have been patterned. It was one of the
    important steps in bringing about and establishing the change of
    the Sabbath.


19. What testimony does Eusebius (270-338), a noted bishop of the church,
a flatterer of Constantine, and the reputed father of ecclesiastical
history, bear upon this subject?

“All things whatsoever that it was duty to do on the Sabbath, these _we_
have transferred to the Lord’s day.”—_“__Commentary on the Psalms,__”__
Cox’s __“__Sabbath Literature__”__ Vol. I, page 361._


    NOTE.—The change of the Sabbath was the result of the combined
    efforts of church and state, and it was centuries before it was
    fully accomplished.


20. When and by what church council was the observance of the seventh day
forbidden, and Sunday observance enjoined?

“The seventh-day Sabbath was ... solemnized by Christ, the apostles, and
primitive Christians, till _the Laodicean Council_ did, in a manner, quite
abolish the observation of it. ... The Council of Laodicea [A.D. 364] ...
first settled the observation of the Lord’s day.”—_Prynne’s
__“__Dissertation on the Lord’s Day Sabbath,__”__ page 163._

21. What did this council, in its twenty-ninth canon, decree concerning
the Sabbath and Christians who continued to observe it?

“Christians shall not Judaize and be idle on Saturday [Sabbath], but shall
work on that day.... If, however, they are found Judaizing, _they shall be
shut out from Christ_.”—_Hefele’s __“__History of the Councils of the
Church,__”__ Vol. II, page 316._


    NOTES.—Some of the further steps taken by church and state
    authorities in bringing about this change may be noted as
    follows:—

    “In 386, under Gratian, Valentinian, and Theodosius, it was
    decreed that all litigation and business should cease [on
    Sunday]....

    “Among the doctrines laid down in a letter of Pope Innocent I,
    written in the last year of his papacy (416), is that Saturday
    should be observed as a fast-day....

    “In 425, under Theodosius the Younger, abstinence from theatricals
    and the circus [on Sunday] was enjoined....

    “In 538, at a council at Orleans, ... it was ordained that
    everything previously permitted on Sunday should still be lawful;
    but that work at the plow, or in the vineyard, and cutting,
    reaping, threshing, tilling, and hedging should be abstained from,
    that people might more conveniently attend church....

    “About 590 Pope Gregory, in a letter to the Roman people,
    denounced as the prophets of Antichrist those who maintained that
    work ought not to be done on the seventh day.”—_“__Law of
    Sunday__”__ by James T. Ringgold, pages 265-267._

    The last paragraph of the foregoing quotation indicates that even
    as late as 590 A.D. there were those in the church who observed
    and who taught the observance of the Bible Sabbath, the seventh
    day.


22. What determines whose servants we are?

“Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, _his
servants ye are to whom ye obey_?” Rom. 6:16.

23. When tempted to bow down and worship Satan, what reply did Christ
make?

“_Get thee hence, Satan_: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord
thy God, and _Him only shalt thou serve_.” Matt. 4:10, 11.

24. What do Catholics say of the observance of Sunday by Protestants?

“It was the Catholic Church which, by the authority of Jesus Christ, has
transferred this rest to the Sunday in remembrance of the resurrection of
our Lord. Thus _the observance of Sunday by the Protestants is an homage
they pay, in spite of themselves, to the authority of the [Catholic]
church_.”—_“__Plain Talk About the Protestantism of Today,__”__ by Mgr.
Segur, page 213._

25. What kind of worship does the Saviour call that which is not according
to God’s commandments?

“But _in vain they do worship Me_, teaching for doctrines _the
commandments of men_.” Matt. 15:9.

26. When Israel had apostatized, and were almost universally worshiping
Baal, what appeal did Elijah make to them?

“How long halt ye between two opinions? _if the Lord be God, follow Him:
but if Baal, then follow him._” 1 Kings 18:21.


    NOTE.—In times of ignorance God winks at that which otherwise
    would be sin; but when light comes He commands men everywhere to
    repent. Acts 17:30. The period during which the saints, times, and
    the law of God were to be in the hands of the Papacy has expired
    (Dan. 7:25); the true light on the Sabbath question is now
    shining; and God is sending a message to the world, calling upon
    men to fear and worship Him, and to return to the observance of
    His holy rest day, the seventh-day Sabbath. Rev. 14:6-12; Isa.
    56:1; 58:1, 12-14. See pages 259, 446, 463, 547.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Who is on the Lord’s side
        Always true?
    There’s a right and wrong side,
        Where stand you?

    Thousands on the wrong side
        Choose to stand,
    Still ’tis not the strong side,
        True and grand.

    Come and join the Lord’s side:
        Ask you why?—
    ’Tis the only safe side
        By and by.
              F. E. BELDEN.



The Seal Of God And The Mark Of Apostasy


                             [Illustration.]

  The Angel With The Seal. "Bind up the testimony, seal the law among My
                          disciples." Isa. 8:16.


1. What does the Bible present as the object of a sign, or seal?

“Now, O king, _establish_ the decree, and _sign the writing, that it be
not changed_.” Dan. 6:8.


    NOTE.—That is, affix the signature of royalty, that it may have
    the proper authority, and thus be of force. Anciently it was
    customary for kings to use a ring, containing their name,
    initials, or monogram, for this purpose. Jezebel, the wife of
    Ahab, “wrote letters in Ahab’s _name_, and sealed them with his
    _seal_.” 1 Kings 21:8. Of the decree issued under Ahasuerus for
    the slaying of all the Jews throughout the Persian Empire, it is
    said that “in the _name_ of King Ahasuerus was it written, and
    sealed with the king’s _ring_.” Esther 3:12.


2. What are the three essentials to an official seal?

To be complete, an official seal must show three things: (1) The name of
the lawgiver; (2) his official position, title, or authority, and so his
right to rule; and (3) his kingdom, or the extent of his dominion and
jurisdiction. Thus: “Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States,”
“George IV, King of Great Britain,” “Nicholas II, Czar of Russia.”

3. With what is God’s seal connected?

“Bind up the testimony, _seal_ THE LAW _among My disciples_.” Isa. 8:16.

4. Does the first commandment show who the author of the law is?

“Thou shalt have no other gods before _Me_.” Ex. 20:3.


    NOTE.—Who the “me” here spoken of is, the commandment itself does
    not state. Such a prohibition might come from any source. Any
    heathen could claim it as a command from his god, and, so far as
    the commandment itself goes, no one could disprove his claim.


5. Does the second, third, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, or tenth
commandment indicate the author of the decalogue?

No; none of them.


    NOTE.—The second commandment forbids the making of and bowing down
    to images, but does not in itself reveal who the true God is. The
    third commandment says, “Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord
    thy God in vain,” but it likewise fails to reveal the true God and
    giver of the law. A worshiper of the sun might say he kept this
    commandment so far as it itself reveals what god is meant. So of
    the other commandments here referred to. In the last five
    commandments the name of God is not even mentioned.


6. Which commandment alone of the decalogue reveals the true God and
Author of the law?

“Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labor, and
do all thy work: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God:
in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy
man servant, nor thy maid servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that
is within thy gates: for in six days _the Lord made heaven and earth, the
sea, and all that in them is_, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the
Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.” Verses 8-11.


    NOTE.—The fourth commandment alone reveals the _name_,
    _authority_, and _dominion_ of the Author of this law. In six
    days, (1) the _Lord_ (name); (2) _made_ (office, Creator); (3)
    _heaven and earth_ (dominion). This commandment alone, therefore,
    contains “the _seal_ of the living God.” By what is revealed in
    this commandment is shown what God is referred to in the other
    commandments. By the great truth revealed here all other gods are
    shown to be false gods. The Sabbath commandment, therefore,
    contains the seal of God; and the Sabbath itself, the observance
    of which is enjoined by the commandment, is inseparably connected
    with this seal; it is to be kept in memory of the fact that God is
    the Creator of all things; and it is itself called a “sign” of the
    knowledge of this great truth. Ex. 31:17; Eze. 20:20.


7. What reason does God give for the Sabbath being an everlasting sign
between Him and His people?

“It is _a sign_ between Me and the children of Israel forever: _for in six
days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day He rested, and
was refreshed_.” Ex. 31:17.


    NOTE.—The Sabbath is the sign, or mark, or seal, of the true God,
    the Creator.


8. Of what does God say the keeping or hallowing of the Sabbath is a sign?

“And hallow My Sabbaths; and they shall be _a sign_ between Me and you,
_that ye may know that I am the Lord your God_.” Eze. 20:20.

9. Of what besides a knowledge of God as Creator, is the Sabbath a sign?

“Verily My Sabbaths ye shall keep: for it is _a sign_ between Me and you
throughout your generations; _that ye may know that I am the Lord that
doth_ SANCTIFY _you_.” Ex. 31:13.


    NOTE.—The Sabbath is the great sign of God’s creative power
    wherever and however manifested, whether in creation or
    redemption; for redemption is creation—_re_-creation. It requires
    the same power to _redeem_ that it does to _create_. “_Create_ in
    me a clean heart.” Ps. 51:10. “For we are His workmanship,
    _created_ in Christ Jesus unto good works.” Eph. 2:10. At each
    recurrence of the Sabbath, God designs that it shall call Him to
    mind as the One who created us, and whose grace and sanctifying
    power are working in us to fit us for His eternal kingdom.


10. What scripture shows that a special sealing work is to take place just
before the letting loose of the winds of destruction upon the earth?

“And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners of
the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not
blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree. And I saw another
angel ascending from the east, _having the seal of the living God_: and he
cried with a loud voice to the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt
the earth and the sea, saying, _Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor
the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God in their
foreheads_. And I heard the number of them which were sealed: and there
were sealed an hundred and forty and four thousand of all the tribes of
the children of Israel.” Rev. 7:1-4. See Eze. 9:1-6.

11. Where did the apostle see this same company a little later, and what
did they have in their foreheads?

“And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood _on the mount Sion_, and with Him an
hundred forty and four thousand, _having His Father’s name written in
their foreheads_.” Rev. 14:1.


    NOTE.—The _seal of God_ and the Father’s _name_ must refer to the
    same thing. The seal is the sign or stamp of perfection, and God’s
    name stands for His character, which is perfection. And the
    Sabbath of God, kept as God ordained it to be kept, holy, and in
    holiness, is _a sign_ of this same thing—perfection of character.
    When this seal is finally placed upon God’s people, it will be an
    evidence that His grace and His sanctifying power have done their
    work, and fitted them for heaven. In the world to come, all will
    keep the Sabbath, and will therefore have this seal or mark of
    sanctification, holiness, and perfection of character. Isa. 66:22,
    23.


12. What is said of the character of these sealed ones?

“And in their mouth was found no guile: for _they are without fault before
the throne of God_.” Verse 5.

13. How is the remnant church described?

“Here is the _patience_ of the saints: here are they that _keep the
commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus_.” Verse 12.

14. Against what three things does the third angel of Revelation 14 warn
men?

“And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man
_worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or
in his hand_, the same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God.”
Verses 9, 10.


    NOTE.—The beast represents the Papacy; the image to the beast
    represents another ecclesiastical body dominating civil power. See
    readings on pages 268, 271. And over against the seal of God
    stands the mark of the beast, the mark of apostasy. Against this
    false and idolatrous worship and the reception of this mark, God
    sends this solemn warning.


15. What power mentioned in the thirteenth chapter of Revelation is to
enforce this mark?

“And _he_ [the two-horned beast] causeth all, both small and great, rich
and poor, free and bond, to receive _a mark_ in their right hand, or in
their foreheads.” Rev. 13:16.


    NOTE.—The two-horned beast is understood to represent the United
    States of America. See reading on page 271. As this nation
    repudiates her principles of civil and religious liberty, and
    becomes a persecuting power, other nations will follow her example
    in oppressing those who refuse to yield their allegiance to God.


16. What does the Papacy set forth as the mark, or sign, of its power and
authority?

“_Question._—How prove you that the church hath power to command feasts
and holy days?

“_Answer.—By the very act of changing the Sabbath into Sunday_, which
Protestants allow of.”—_“__Abridgment of Christian Doctrine,__”__ by Rev.
Henry Tuberville, D. D., page 58._


    NOTES.—In a letter written in November, 1895, Mr. H. F. Thomas,
    chancellor to Cardinal Gibbons, replying to an inquiry as to
    whether the Catholic Church claims to have changed the Sabbath,
    said: “Of course the Catholic Church claims that the change was
    her act, ... and the act is a mark of her ecclesiastical authority
    in religious things.” For other statements concerning this, see
    pages 441, 444, 464.

    The true Sabbath being a sign of loyalty to the true God, it is
    but natural that the false sabbath should be regarded as a sign of
    allegiance to apostasy. And such we find to be the case.


17. What do papal authorities say of the observance of Sunday by
Protestants?

“The observance of _Sunday_ by the Protestants is an homage they pay, in
spite of themselves, to the authority of the [Catholic] church.”—_“__Plain
Talk About the Protestantism of Today,__”__ by Monsignor Segur, page 213._


    NOTE.—The statement here made is true, and a full realization of
    the fact will lead those who honestly, but ignorantly, have
    heretofore been observing Sunday as the Sabbath, to refuse longer
    to pay homage to apostasy, and return to the observance of that
    which is the sign of loyalty to heaven,—the only weekly day of
    rest which God, in His Word, has commanded men to keep holy, the
    seventh day.


18. What will be the dragon’s attitude toward the remnant people who keep
the commandments of God?

“And the dragon _was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the
remnant of her seed_, which keep the commandments of God, and have the
testimony of Jesus Christ.” Rev. 12:17.

19. How strongly will this false worship and the enforcement of this mark
be urged?

“That the image of the beast should both speak, and cause [decree] that as
many as would not worship the image of the beast _should be killed_. And
he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to
receive _a mark_ in their right hand, or in their foreheads: and _that no
man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark_.” Rev. 13:15-17. See
note under question 19, on page 227.

20. Over what do the people of God finally gain the victory?

“And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire: and them that had
gotten the victory _over the beast, and over his image, and over his mark,
and over the number of his name_, stand on the sea of glass, having the
harps of God.” Rev. 15:2.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    The God that made the earth,
      And all the worlds on high,
    Who gave all creatures birth,
      In earth, and sea, and sky,
    After six days in work employed,
    Upon the seventh a rest enjoyed.

    The Sabbath day was blessed,
      Hallowed, and sanctified;
    It was Jehovah’s rest,
      And so it must abide;
    ’Twas set apart before the fall,
    ’Twas made for man, ’twas made for all.
                                R. F. COTTRELL.



The Lord’s Day


                             [Illustration.]

  John’s Vision On Patmos. "I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day." Rev.
                                  1:10.


1. From what time was Christ, the Word, associated with God, the Father?

“_In the beginning_ was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word
was God. The same was in the beginning with God.” John 1:1, 2.

2. By whom were all things created?

“Which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, _who created
all things by Jesus Christ_.” Eph. 3:9.

3. By whom were the worlds made?

“God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto
the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by
_His Son, ... by whom also He made the worlds_.” Heb. 1:1, 2.

4. How does Paul again express this same truth?

“For _by Him were all things created_, that are in heaven, and that are in
earth, visible and invisible, ... _all things were created by Him_, and
for Him: and He is before all things, and by Him all things consist.” Col.
1:16, 17.

5. Was there anything made without Christ?

“All things were made by Him; and _without Him was not anything made that
was made_.” John 1:3.

6. Was the Sabbath “made”?

“And He said unto them, _The Sabbath was __MADE__ for man_.” Mark 2:27.

7. Then by whom was the Sabbath made?

By Christ.


    NOTE.—This conclusion is inevitable. If all things were made by
    Christ, and without Him was not anything made that was made, and
    the Sabbath was one of the things that was made, then it follows
    that the Sabbath must have been made by Christ. This being so, the
    Sabbath must be the Lord’s day.


8. What did God do in the beginning on the seventh day?

“And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had made; and _He
rested on the seventh day_ from all His work which He had made.” Gen. 2:2.


    NOTE.—If all things were made by Jesus Christ, then He, with the
    Father, rested on the first seventh day from all His labor in the
    work of creation.


9. After resting on the seventh day, what did God do?

“And God _blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it
He had rested_ from all His work which God created and made.” Verse 3.


    NOTE.—And inasmuch as this blessing and this sanctification of the
    day were a part of the _making_ of the Sabbath, as well as the
    _resting_ upon the day, these also must have been done by Christ;
    for the Sabbath was _made_ by Him.


10. How much honor is due to Christ?

“That all men should honor the Son, _even as they honor the Father_.” John
5:23. “I and My Father are _one_.” John 10:30.


    NOTE.—In keeping the Sabbath, then, we honor Christ equally with
    the Father.


11. Did Christ keep the Sabbath?

“And He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up: and, _as His
custom was, He went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up
for to read_.” Luke 4:16. “_I have kept My Father’s commandments._” John
15:10.

12. Did Christ’s followers keep the Sabbath after His death?

“And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; _and rested the
Sabbath day according to the commandment_.” Luke 23:56.

13. Did they observe it after His resurrection?

“And Paul, _as his manner was_, went in unto them, _and three Sabbath days
reasoned with them out of the Scriptures_.” Acts 17:2. See also Acts
13:14, 42, 44; 16:13; 18:1-4, 11.

14. On what day does John say he was in the Spirit?

“I was in the Spirit on _the Lord’s day_.” Rev. 1:10.

15. What day does the commandment say is the Lord’s?

“_The seventh day_ is the Sabbath of the Lord.” Ex. 20:10.

16. By whose Spirit did the prophets write?

“_The Spirit of Christ_ which was in them.” 1 Peter 1:11.

17. What does the prophet Isaiah, speaking for God through this Spirit of
Christ, call the seventh-day Sabbath?

“My holy day.” Isa. 58:13.

18. Does Christ anywhere in the Scriptures ever claim any other day of the
week than the seventh as His?

He does not.


    NOTE.—We do not need to speculate as to what day is the Lord’s, if
    we will but take the Word of God for our guide, for loyalty to
    which John was banished to the isle of Patmos. See Rev. 1:9.


19. If John, therefore, referred to a day of the week, on what day must he
have been in the Spirit?

The seventh day.


    NOTE.—No other day of the week in all the Bible is claimed by God
    as His day. During the second, third, and fourth centuries of the
    Christian era, when apostasy came in like a flood, men, without
    any warrant or command of Scripture, thinking to do honor to
    Christ and despite to the Jews who crucified Christ, began to
    neglect the Sabbath of the fourth commandment, and to honor the
    day of the week on which Christ rose from the dead, the first day,
    as “the Lord’s day,” until finally the Sabbath was almost wholly
    lost sight of, and the Sunday quite generally took its place. But
    there was no more warrant for this change in the divine and
    unchangeable law of God than there was for other errors and
    changes which crept into the professed Christian church during
    this same time, such as abstaining from meat on Friday in honor of
    the crucifixion; Mariolatry, or the worship of the Virgin Mary;
    the mass; purgatory; indulgences; prayers for the dead;
    saint-worship; and the human vicarship of Christ. There was no
    more divine authority for one than for the others. All came in
    through apostasy. The Bible knows but one true and living God, one
    Lawgiver, one Mediator between God and man, one Lord and Saviour
    Jesus Christ, one body, one Spirit, one hope, one faith, one
    baptism, and _one Sabbath_. See Jer. 10:10-12; Rev. 14:6, 7; 1
    Tim. 2:5; Eph. 4:4-6; Ex. 20:8-11.



Walking As He Walked


                             [Illustration.]

  Jesus In The Synagogue On The Sabbath. "Leaving us an example, that ye
                 should follow His steps." 1 Peter 2:21.


1. The way of the Christian life was set for us by Jesus Himself.

“He that saith he abideth in Him ought himself also so to _walk, even as
He walked_.” 1 John 2:6. “Leaving us an example, that ye should _follow
His steps_.” 1 Peter 2:21.

2. The footprints that Jesus set for us to follow, lead unvaryingly along
the way of God’s commandments.

“_I have kept My Father’s commandments_, and abide in His love.” John
15:10. “For this is the love of God, _that we keep His commandments_.” 1
John 5:3.

3. The pathway is the same today as when Jesus walked in Judea.

“Jesus Christ _the same yesterday, and today, and forever_.” Heb. 13:8.

4. When it is shown that Jesus kept the seventh day holy as our example,
many ask, “Why have not scholar and churchmen found out that there is no
Bible authority for first-day sacredness?”

The answer is, They have found it so, and have freely declared the fact.



Testimony Of Eminent Men


5. The extracts that follow are from noted clergymen, scholars, and
eminent writers, all of whom doubtless kept the Sunday as a matter of
church custom. But they nevertheless bear witness that there is no Bible
command for it.

Church Of England Writers


    Archdeacon Farrar: “The Sabbath is Saturday, the seventh day of
    the week.” “The Christian church made no formal, but a gradual and
    almost unconscious transference of the one day to the
    other.”—_“__The Voice From Sinai,__”__ pages 163, 167._

    Canon Eyton (of Westminster): “There is no word, no hint, in the
    New Testament about abstaining from work on Sunday.” “The
    observance of Ash Wednesday or Lent stands exactly on the same
    footing as the observance of Sunday.” “Constantine’s decree was
    the first public step in establishing the first day of the week as
    a day on which there should be secular rest as well as religious
    worship.... Into the rest of Sunday no divine law enters.”—_“__The
    Ten Commandments,__”__ Trubners & Co._

    Canon Knox-Little, replying to those who quote the example of
    Christ against the High-church ritualism, says:—

    “It is certain that our Lord when on earth _did_ observe Saturday,
    and did _not_ observe Sunday.” “If they are consistent, as I have
    said, they must keep Saturday, not Sunday, as the day of
    rest.”—_“__Sacerdotalism,__”__ Longman Company._

    Sir William Domville: “Centuries of the Christian era passed away
    before the Sunday was observed by the Christian church as a
    Sabbath.”—_“__Examination of Six Texts,__”__ chap. 8, page 291._


Writers Of Other Churches


    Bishop Grimelund, of Norway (Lutheran): “The Christians in the
    ancient church very soon distinguished the first day of the week,
    Sunday; however, not as a sabbath, but as an assembly day of the
    church, to study the Word of God together.”—_“__Geschichte des
    Sonntags,__”__ page 60._

    Dr. R. W. Dale (British Congregationalist): “It is quite clear
    that however rigidly or devotedly we may spend Sunday, we are not
    keeping the Sabbath.... The Sabbath was founded on a specific,
    divine command. We can plead no such command for the observance of
    Sunday.... There is not a single line in the New Testament to
    suggest that we incur any penalty by violating the supposed
    sanctity of Sunday.”—_“__The Ten Commandments,__”__ Hodder and
    Stoughton, pages 106, 107._

    Dr. Lyman Abbott (American Congregationalist): “The current notion
    that Christ and His apostles authoritatively substituted the first
    day for the seventh, is absolutely without any authority in the
    New Testament.”—_Christian Union, June 26, 1890._

    Dr. Edward T. Hiscock (Baptist): “There was and is a commandment
    to ‘keep holy the Sabbath day,’ but that Sabbath was not Sunday.
    It will, however, be readily said, and with some show of triumph,
    that the Sabbath was transferred from the seventh to the first day
    of the week.... Where can the record of such a transaction be
    found? Not in the New Testament—absolutely not.”—_The New York
    Examiner, Nov. 16, 1893._

    Dr. D. H. Lucas (Disciple): “There is no direct Scriptural
    authority for designating the first day the Lord’s
    day.”—_Christian Oracle, Jan. 23, 1890._

    Cardinal Gibbons (Roman Catholic): “You may read the Bible from
    Genesis to Revelation, and you will not find a single line
    authorizing the sanctification of Sunday.”—_“__Faith of Our
    Fathers,__”__ edition 1892, page 111._

    Prize Essay of American Sunday-school Union: “Up to the time of
    Christ’s death, no change had been made in the day.... So far as
    the record shows, they [the apostles] did not give any explicit
    command enjoining the abandonment of the seventh-day Sabbath, and
    its observance on the first day of the week.”—_“__Lord’s Day,__”__
    pages 185, 186._


Encyclopedias And Church Manuals


    “Dictionary of Christian Antiquities:” “The notion of a formal
    substitution by apostolic authority of the Lord’s day [meaning
    Sunday] for the Jewish Sabbath, and the transference to it,
    perhaps in a spiritualized form, of the Sabbatical obligation
    established by the promulgation of the fourth commandment, has no
    basis whatever, either in the Holy Scriptures or in Christian
    antiquity.”—_Article __“__Sabbath,__”__ Smith and Cheetham._

    “Cyclopedia of Biblical Theology:” “It must be confessed that
    there is no law in the New Testament concerning the first
    day.”—_Article __“__Sabbath,__”__ McClintock and Strong._

    Methodist Episcopal “Theological Compend,” by Amos Binney: “It is
    true, there is no positive command for infant baptism.... Nor is
    there any for keeping holy the first day of the week.”—_Pages 180,
    181._

    Protestant Episcopal “Manual of Christian Doctrine:” “Is there any
    command in the New Testament to change the day of weekly rest from
    Saturday?—None.”—_Page 127._

    Protestant Episcopal “Explanation of Catechism:” “The day is now
    changed from the seventh to the first day; ... but as we meet with
    _no Scriptural direction for the change_, we may conclude it was
    done by the authority of the church.”


6. What influence do the Bible and history show working in the church
immediately after apostolic days?

“Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to
draw away disciples after them.” Acts 20:30.


    NOTE.—“In the interval between the days of the apostles and the
    conversion of Constantine, the Christian commonwealth changed its
    aspect.... Rites and ceremonies of which neither Paul nor Peter
    ever heard, crept silently into use, and then claimed the rank of
    divine institutions.”—_Dr. W. D. Killen’s (Presbyterian) __“__The
    Ancient Church,__”__ Preface._


7. What did Christ say of worship based upon the commandments of men?

“_In vain they do worship Me_, teaching for doctrines the commandments of
men.” Matt. 15:9.

8. What did He say should be done with every plant not planted by God?

“Every plant, which My Heavenly Father hath not planted, _shall be rooted
up_.” Verse 13.



The Sabbath In History


                             [Illustration.]

 Israel In Captivity. "To fulfil the word of the Lord, ... until the land
                had enjoyed her sabbaths." 2 Chron. 36:21.


1. When and by what acts was the Sabbath made?

“And on _the seventh day_ God ended His work which He had made; and He
_rested_ on the seventh day from all His work which He had made. And God
_blessed_ the seventh day, and _sanctified_ it: because that in it He had
rested from all His work which God created and made.” Gen. 2:2, 3.

2. What division of time is marked off by the Sabbath?

The week.


    NOTES.—“One of the most striking collateral confirmations of the
    Mosaic history of the creation is the general adoption of the
    division of time into _weeks_, which extends from the Christian
    states of Europe to the remote shores of Hindustan, and has
    equally prevailed among the Hebrews, the Egyptians, Chinese,
    Greeks, Romans, and northern barbarians,—nations some of whom had
    little or no intercourse with others, and were not even known by
    name to the Hebrews.”—_Horne’s __“__Introduction to the Critical
    Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures,__”__ Vol. I, page 69,
    edition 1841._

    “Seven has been the ancient and honored number among the nations
    of the earth. They have measured their time by weeks from the
    beginning. The original of this was the Sabbath of God, as Moses
    has given the reasons for it in his writings.”—_“__Brief
    Dissertation on the First Three Chapters of Genesis,__”__ by Dr.
    Lyman Coleman, page 26._

    Gen. 7:4, 10; 8:10, 12, show that the week was known at the time
    of the flood.


3. How widely recognized is the seventh-day Sabbath in the different
languages of the world today?

It is very generally so recognized.


    NOTE.—Some years ago the late Dr. William Mead Jones, of London,
    published a “Chart of the Week,” showing the style of the weekly
    cycle and the designations of the different days of the week in
    one hundred and sixty different languages. This chart shows very
    vividly that the seven-day period, or week, was known from the
    most ancient times, and that in no fewer than one hundred and
    eight of these languages the seventh day is designated as the
    Sabbath, or holy day. The following is from this chart:—

    English           The seventh day   The Sabbath
    Hebrew            Shabbath          Sabbath
    Greek             Sabbaton          Sabbath
    Latin             Sabbatum          Sabbath
    Arabic            Assabt            The Sabbath
    Persian           Shambin           Sabbath
    Armenian          Shapat            Sabbath
    Turkish           Yomessabt         Day the Sabbath
    Abyssinian        Sanbat            Sabbath
    Russian           Subbota           Sabbath
    Polish            Sobota            Sabbath
    Hindustani        Shamba            Sabbath
    Malay             Ari-Sabtu         Day Sabbath
    Afghan            Shamba            Sabbath
    German            Samstag           Sabbath
    Prussian          Sabatico          Sabbath
    French            Samedi            Sabbath day
    Italian           Sabbato           Sabbath
    Spanish           Sabado            Sabbath
    Portuguese        Sabbado           Sabbath


4. What reason did God assign at Sinai for having blessed and set apart
the seventh day as a day of holy rest?

“For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in
them is, and rested the seventh day.” Ex. 20:11.

5. What promise did God make to Israel, through Jeremiah, if they would
keep the Sabbath?

“And it shall come to pass, if ye diligently harken unto Me, saith the
Lord, to bring in no burden through the gates of this city on the Sabbath
day, but hallow the Sabbath day, to do no work therein; _then shall there
enter into the gates of this city kings and princes sitting upon the
throne of David_, riding in chariots and on horses, they, and their
princes, the men of Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem: and _this
city shall remain forever_.” Jer. 17:24, 25.

6. What did He say would happen if they did not hallow the Sabbath day?

“But _if ye will not harken unto Me to hallow the Sabbath day_, and not to
bear a burden, even entering in at the gates of Jerusalem on the Sabbath
day; _then will I kindle a fire in the gates thereof, and it shall devour
the palaces of Jerusalem, and it shall not be quenched_.” Verse 27.

7. What befell the city of Jerusalem when it was captured by
Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, in 588 B.C.?

“And all the vessels of the house of God ... he brought to Babylon. And
_they burnt the house of God, and brake down the wall of Jerusalem, and
burnt all the palaces thereof with fire_.” 2 Chron. 36:18, 19.

8. Why was this done?

“To fulfil the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land
had enjoyed her sabbaths: for as long as she lay desolate she kept
sabbath.” Verse 21.


    NOTE.—Israel’s Babylonish captivity, under Nebuchadnezzar and his
    sons, was seventy years long because that for 420 years, or for
    six times seventy years,—from the days of Solomon to
    Nebuchadnezzar’s time,—they had largely neglected to keep the
    Sabbath. See Eze. 22:8, 26; Jer. 25:8-11; 17:24, 27; 2 Chron.
    36:15-21. The seventy years’ desolation made up for the 420 years
    of Sabbath desecration. So during the millennium, or the one
    thousand years after Christ’s second advent, the whole earth will
    lie desolate, or keep sabbath, for one thousand years, because
    that for six thousand years the world’s inhabitants have
    disregarded the Sabbath. See this period and condition pointed out
    in Rev. 20:1-4; Isa. 24:1-6; Jer. 4:23-27. The periods of rest and
    desolation of the land are divinely appointed sabbatical
    compensations for man’s irreligion, as manifested in Sabbath
    desecration. They are impressive lessons on the importance of
    keeping the seventh-day Sabbath, and the results of breaking and
    disregarding it.


9. After Israel’s restoration from the Babylonian captivity, what did
Nehemiah say was the reason for their punishment?

“Then I contended with the nobles of Judah, and said unto them, What evil
thing is this that ye do, and _profane the Sabbath day? Did not your
fathers thus, and did not our God bring all this evil upon us, and upon
this city?_ yet ye bring more wrath upon Israel _by profaning the
Sabbath_.” Neh. 13:17, 18.

10. How does he speak of God’s giving the Sabbath to Israel?

“Thou camest down also upon mount Sinai, and spakest with them from
heaven, and _gavest them right judgments, and true laws, good statutes and
commandments: and madest known unto them Thy holy Sabbath_.” Neh. 9:13,
14.


    NOTE.—Let it be noted that this text does not say that God _made_
    the Sabbath then, but simply that He made it _known_ to Israel
    then. They had largely forgotten it while in Egypt. See pages 419,
    423.


11. How did Christ, while on earth, regard the Sabbath?

“And He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up: and, _as His
custom was, He went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day_, and stood up
for to read.” Luke 4:16.

12. By what did Christ recognize the Sabbath law?

“And He said unto them, ... It is _lawful_ to do well on the Sabbath
days.” Matt. 12:11, 12.


    NOTES.—William Prynne says: “It is certain that Christ Himself,
    His apostles, and the primitive Christians for some good space of
    time, did constantly observe the seventh-day
    Sabbath.”—_“__Dissertation on the Lord’s Day Sabbath,__”__ page
    33._

    Morer, a learned clergyman of the Church of England, says: “The
    primitive Christians had a great veneration for the Sabbath, and
    spent the day in devotion and sermons. And it is not to be doubted
    that they derived this practise from the apostles themselves, as
    appears by several scriptures to that purpose.”—_Morer’s
    __“__Dialogues on the Lord’s Day,__”__ page 189._

    The historian Neander says: “Opposition to Judaism introduced the
    particular festival of Sunday very early, indeed, into the place
    of the Sabbath.... The festival of Sunday, like all other
    festivals, was always only a human ordinance, and it was far from
    the intentions of the apostles to establish a divine command in
    this respect,—far from them, and from the early apostolic church,
    to transfer the laws of the Sabbath to Sunday. Perhaps at the end
    of the second century a false application of this kind had begun
    to take place; for men appear by that time to have considered
    laboring on Sunday as a sin.”—_Neander’s __“__Church History,__”__
    Rose’s translation, page 186._

    Dr. Lyman Abbott says: “The current notion that Christ and His
    apostles authoritatively substituted the first day of the week for
    the seventh, is absolutely without any authority in the New
    Testament.”—_Christian Union, June 26, 1890._

    Archdeacon Farrar says: “The Christian church made no formal, but
    a gradual and almost unconscious transference of the one day to
    the other.”—_“__The Voice From Sinai,__”__ page 167._


13. What was the first effort of the Roman Church in behalf of the
recognition of Sunday?

In 196 A.D., Victor, bishop of Rome, attempted to impose on all the
churches the Roman custom of having the Passover, or Easter, as it is
commonly called, celebrated every year on Sunday. See Bower’s “History of
the Popes,” Vol. I, pages 18, 19.


    NOTE.—This, Dr. Bower, in his “History of the Popes,” Vol. I, page
    18, styles “the first essay of papal usurpation.”


14. What was one of the principal reasons for convoking the Council of
Nice?

“_The question relating to the observance of Easter_, which was agitated
in the time of Anicetus and Polycarp, and afterward in that of Victor, was
still undecided. It was one of the principal reasons for convoking the
Council of Nice, being the most important subject to be considered after
the Arian controversy.”—_Boyle’s __“__Historical View of the Council of
Nice,__”__ page 23, edition 1836._

15. How was the matter finally decided?

“Easter day was fixed on the Sunday immediately following the full moon
which was nearest after the vernal equinox.”—_Id., page 24._

16. In urging the observance of this decree on the churches, what reason
did Constantine assign for it?

“Let us have nothing in common with the most hostile rabble of the
Jews.”—_Id., page 52._

17. What had Constantine already done, in 321 A.D., to help forward Sunday
to a place of prominence?

He issued an edict requiring “the judges and town people, and the
occupation of all trades” to rest on “the venerable day of the sun.” See
Encyclopedia Britannica, article “Sunday;” and this work, page 443.

18. Who did Eusebius, bishop of Cæsarea, and one of Constantine’s most
ardent supporters, say had transferred the obligations of the Sabbath to
Sunday?

“All things whatsoever that it was duty to do on the Sabbath, _these
__WE__ have transferred to the Lord’s day_.”—_Eusebius’s __“__Commentary
on the Psalms,__”__ quoted in Cox’s __“__Sabbath Literature,__”__ Vol. I,
page 361._

19. What did Sylvester, bishop of Rome, 314 A.D. to 337 A.D., do for the
Sunday institution by his “apostolic authority”?

He officially changed the title of the first day, calling it the LORD’S
DAY. See “Historia Ecclesiastica,” by M. Ludovicum Lucium, cent. 4, cap.
10, pages 739, 740, edition Basilea, 1624.

20. What did the Council of Laodicea decree in 364 A.D.?

Canon 29. “Christians shall not Judaize and be idle on Saturday [Sabbath],
but shall work on that day; but the Lord’s day they shall especially
honor.”—_“__A History of the Councils of the Church,__”__ Charles Joseph
Hefele, Vol. II, page 316._

21. How late did Christians keep the Sabbath?

“Down even to the fifth century, the observance of the Jewish Sabbath was
continued in the Christian church.”—_Lyman Coleman’s __“__Ancient
Christianity Exemplified,__”__ chap. 26, sec. 2._

22. How generally does the historian Socrates, who wrote about the middle
of the fifth century, say the Sabbath was observed by the Christian
churches of his time?

“Although almost all churches throughout the world celebrate the sacred
mysteries on the Sabbath of every week, yet the Christians of Alexandria
and at Rome, on account of some ancient tradition, refuse to do
this.”—_Socrates’s __“__Ecclesiastical History,__”__ book 5, chap. 22._

23. What day was observed in the dark ages by some of the Waldenses?

“They kept the Sabbath day, observed the ordinance of baptism according to
the primitive church, instructed their children in the articles of the
Christian faith and the commandments of God.”—_Jones’s __“__Church
History,__”__ Vol. II, chap. 5, sec. 4._

24. Who among the early Reformers raised this question of Sabbath
observance?

“Carlstadt held to the divine authority of the Sabbath from the Old
Testament.”—_“__Life of Luther,__”__ by Dr. Barnes Sears, page 402._

25. What did Luther say of Carlstadt’s Sabbath views?

“Indeed, if Carlstadt were to write further about the Sabbath, Sunday
would have to give way, and the Sabbath—that is to say, Saturday—must be
kept holy.”—_Luther, Against the Celestial Prophets, quoted in __“__Life
of Martin Luther in Pictures,__”__ page 147._

26. What claim is now made by the Roman Church concerning the change of
the Sabbath to Sunday?

“_Question._—Have you any other way of proving that the church has power
to institute festivals of precept?

“_Answer._—Had she not such power, she could not have done that in which
all modern religionists agree with her,—she could not have substituted the
observance of Sunday, the first day of the week, for the observance of
Saturday, the seventh day, a change for which there is no Scriptural
authority.”—_“__Doctrinal Catechism,__”__ by Rev. Stephen Keenan, page
174._


    NOTE.—Through want of sufficient light and investigation, and
    because of the efforts of some who opposed the Sabbath during the
    Reformation, Sunday was brought from Catholicism into the
    Protestant church, and is now cherished as an institution of the
    Lord. It is clear, however, that it is none of His planting, but
    rather the work and result of apostasy. But a message is now going
    forth to revive the truth on this point, and calling for a genuine
    reformation upon it. See pages 251-263, and next reading.



Sabbath Reform


                             [Illustration.]

 The House Of Prayer. "If thou turn away thy foot from the Sabbath, from
             doing thy pleasure on My holy day." Isa. 58:13.


1. What kind of worship does Christ say results from doctrines based on
the commandments of men?

“_But in vain they do worship Me_, teaching for doctrines the commandments
of men.” Matt. 15:9.

2. What commandment did Christ say the Pharisees had made void by their
teaching?

“For _God commanded, saying, Honor thy father and mother_.... But ye say,
Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift, by
whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; and honor not his father or
his mother, he shall be free.” Verses 4-6.

3. What was the result of their course?

“Thus have ye _made the commandment of God of none effect_ by your
tradition.” Verse 6.


    NOTE.—By a gift or dedication of property to the temple service,
    they taught that a man might be freed from the duties enjoined by
    the fifth commandment.


4. What question did the disciples soon afterward ask Christ?

“_Knowest Thou that the Pharisees were offended_, after they heard this
saying?” Verse 12.

5. What answer did the Saviour make?

“But He answered and said, _Every plant, which My Heavenly Father hath not
planted, shall be rooted up_.” Verse 13.


    NOTE.—What is true of the fifth commandment is true of every other
    commandment. If through tradition men set aside any other of God’s
    commandments, the words of Christ to the Pharisees are equally
    applicable to them. They are guilty of making void the commandment
    of God, and of instituting vain worship.


6. When, and by whom, was the Sabbath “planted”?

“For in six days _the Lord_ made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that
in them is, and _rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the
Sabbath day, and hallowed it_.” Ex. 20:11.

7. Who claims to have planted the Sunday institution?

“_Question._—Has _the [Catholic] church_ power to make any alterations in
the commandments of God?

“_Answer._—... Instead of the seventh day, and other festivals appointed
by the old law, the church has prescribed the Sundays and holy days to be
set apart for God’s worship; and these we are now obliged to keep in
consequence of God’s commandment, instead of the ancient
Sabbath.”—_“__Catholic Christian Instructed,__”__ by the Rt. Rev. Dr.
Challoner, page 211._


    NOTE.—“We Catholics, then, have precisely the same authority for
    keeping Sunday holy, instead of Saturday, as we have for every
    other article of our creed; namely, the authority of ‘_the church_
    of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth’ (1 Tim.
    3:15); whereas, you who are Protestants have really no authority
    for it whatever; for _there is no authority for it in the Bible_,
    and you will not allow that there _can be_ authority for it
    anywhere else. Both you and we do, in fact, follow _tradition_ in
    this matter; but _we_ follow it, believing it to be a part of
    God’s word, and the church to be its divinely appointed guardian
    and interpreter; _you_ follow it, denouncing it all the time as a
    fallible and treacherous guide, which often ‘makes the commandment
    of God of none effect.’ ”—_“__Clifton Tracts,__”__ Vol. IV,
    article __“__A Question for All Bible Christians,__”__ page 15._

    For further quotations on this, see pages 441, 444, 455, 456.


8. When is final salvation to be brought to God’s people?

“Who are kept by the power of God through faith _unto salvation ready to
be revealed in the last time_.” 1 Peter 1:5.

9. When God’s salvation is _near to come_, upon whom does He pronounce a
blessing?

“Thus saith the Lord, Keep ye judgment, and do justice: for My salvation
is near to come, and My righteousness to be revealed. _Blessed is the man
that doeth this, and the son of man that layeth hold on it; that keepeth
the Sabbath from polluting it_, and keepeth his hand from doing any evil.”
Isa. 56:1, 2.

10. Is this promised blessing confined to any one class?

“_Also the sons of the_ STRANGER that join themselves to the Lord, to
serve Him, and to love the name of the Lord, to be His servants, _every
one that keepeth the Sabbath from polluting it_, and taketh hold of My
covenant; _even them will I bring to My holy mountain, and make them
joyful in My house of prayer_.” Verses 6, 7.


    NOTE.—It is evident from these scriptures that in the last day,
    when men are waiting for the Saviour to appear, there will be a
    call for those who really love the Lord to separate themselves
    from the world, to observe the Lord’s true Sabbath, and to depart
    from all evil.


11. What does God tell His ministers to do at this time?

“_Cry aloud, spare not_, lift up thy voice like a trumpet, and _show My
people their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins_.” Isa.
58:1.

12. What message of Sabbath reform does He send?

“If thou _turn away thy foot from the Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on
My holy day_; and call the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord,
honorable; and shalt honor Him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding
thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words: then shalt thou delight
thyself in the Lord; and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places of
the earth, and feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father: for the
mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.” Verses 13, 14.


    NOTE.—The Sabbath of Jehovah is not now, by the majority even of
    professed Christians, called holy and honorable. By many it is
    stigmatized as “Jewish.” The Lord foresaw how this would be in
    this age, and inspired the prophet to write as he did. “_If thou
    turn away thy foot from the Sabbath._” This is a strong
    expression, indicating that many would be trampling upon God’s
    day, and doing their own pleasure upon it, instead of seeking God,
    and honoring Him by keeping the Sabbath holy.


13. What will those be called who engage in this reformation?

“And thou shalt be called, _The repairer of the breach, The restorer of
paths to dwell in_.” Verse 12.

14. What does another prophet say professed teachers among God’s people
have done?

“Her priests have _violated My law_, and have _profaned Mine holy things_:
they have _put no difference between the holy and profane_; neither have
they shown difference between the unclean and the clean, _and have hid
their eyes from My Sabbaths_, and I am profaned among them.” Eze. 22:26.

15. What have they done to maintain their theories?

“And her prophets have _daubed them with untempered mortar_, seeing
vanity, and divining lies unto them, saying, _Thus saith the Lord God,
when the Lord hath not spoken_.” Verse 28.


    NOTES.—Untempered mortar is that which is improperly worked, and
    will not therefore hold together or stand the test. Thus it is
    with the reasons advanced for keeping Sunday instead of the Bible
    Sabbath, the seventh day. They are not only unsound and untenable
    in themselves, but are utterly inconsistent, contradictory, and
    destructive one of the other, among themselves. They are like the
    witnesses employed by the Jewish leaders to condemn Christ. Of
    these the record says: “The chief priests and all the council
    sought for witness against Jesus to put Him to death; and found
    none. For many bare _false witness_ against Him, but _their
    witness agreed not together_.” Mark 14:55, 56. The lack of
    _agreement_ among them was evidence in itself of the _falsity_ of
    their testimony. In nothing, perhaps, is a lack of agreement
    better illustrated than in the reasons assigned for
    Sunday-keeping. Note the following:—

    One says the Sabbath has been _changed_ from the seventh to the
    first day of the week.

    Another says that the Sabbath commandment requires only one day of
    rest after six of labor, and hence _there has been no change_.

    Some reason that all ought to keep Sunday, because although, as
    they affirm, God did not appoint a _particular_ day, yet
    _agreement_ is necessary; and to have any or every day a sabbath
    would be equal to no sabbath at all.

    Others, to avoid the claims of God’s law, assert that the Sabbath
    precept is one of those ordinances which was _against us, contrary
    to us, blotted out, and nailed to the cross_. Still, they admit
    that a day of rest and convocation is necessary, and therefore the
    day of Christ’s resurrection, they say, has been chosen.

    Another class say they believe it is impossible to know which is
    the _seventh day_, although they have no difficulty in
    ascertaining which is the _first_.

    Some are so bold even as to declare that _Sunday is the original
    seventh day_.

    Others, with equal certainty, say that those who keep the seventh
    day are endeavoring to be _justified by the law_, and are _fallen
    from grace_.

    Another class, with more liberal views, say they believe that
    every one should be fully persuaded in his own mind, whether he
    keep this day, or that, or none at all.

    Still again, as if having found the great desideratum or missing
    link in the argument, men credited with even more than ordinary
    intelligence, will sometimes declare that it is _impossible to
    keep the seventh day on a round and rolling earth_; and yet,
    strange to say, they find no difficulty in keeping _Sunday
    anywhere_, and believe that this day should be observed _the world
    over_!

    Lastly, and more terrible and presumptuous than all the rest,
    some, like Herod of old in slaying all the children of Bethlehem
    in order to make sure of killing Christ, have gone so far as to
    teach that _all ten commandments have been abolished_, in order to
    avoid the duty enjoined in the _fourth_. But as in the case of
    Herod, God’s Anointed escaped the murderous blow of this wicked
    king, so in the judgment such will have to meet God over His
    broken law, and will find that the Sabbath precept stands there
    unchanged with the rest.

    Said Christ, “Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least
    commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least
    in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them,
    the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.” Matt.
    5:19.


16. What does the Lord say will become of this wall thus daubed with
untempered mortar?

“Say unto them which daub it with untempered mortar, that _it shall fall_:
there shall be an overflowing shower; and ye, _O great hailstones, shall
fall; and a stormy wind shall rend it_.” Eze. 13:11.

17. When are these hailstones to fall?

“Hast thou entered into the treasures of the snow? or hast thou seen _the
treasures of the hail, which I have reserved against the time of trouble,
against the day of battle and war_?” Job 38:22, 23.

18. Under which of the seven last plagues will this hail fall?

“And _the seventh angel_ poured out his vial into the air; ... and the
cities of the nations fell: ... and every island fled away, and the
mountains were not found. And there fell upon men _a great hail_ out of
heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent.” Rev. 16:17-21.

19. In order to prepare His people for that terrible time, what does God
expect His ministers to do?

“Ye have not _gone up into the gaps_, neither _made up the hedge_ for the
house of Israel to stand in the battle in the day of the Lord.” Eze. 13:5.

20. Instead of trying to close up this breach made in God’s law [the loss
of the Sabbath], and so make up the hedge, what have they done?

“They have seen vanity and lying divination, _saying, The Lord saith: and
the Lord hath not sent them_: and they have made others to hope that they
would confirm the word.” Verse 6.

21. During these closing scenes, what message is God sending to the world
to turn men from false worship to the worship of the true and living God?

“Fear God, and give glory to Him; for the hour of His judgment is come:
and worship Him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the
fountains of waters.... Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city,
because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her
fornication.... If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive
his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, the same shall drink of the wine
of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of
His indignation.” Rev. 14:7-10.


    NOTE.—This is the last gospel message to be sent to the world
    before the Lord comes. Under it will be developed two classes of
    people, one having the mark of the beast (the Papacy), and the
    other keeping the commandments of God, and having His seal, the
    Sabbath of the fourth commandment. See readings on pages 259, 446.


22. What, besides attending and taking part in religious services (Luke
4:16), did Christ do on the Sabbath day?

“Who _went about doing good_.” Acts 10:38. See Matt. 8:14-17; 12:1-15;
Mark 2:23-28; 3:1-6; Luke 6:1-11; 13:11-17; 14:1-6; John 5:1-18; 9:1-41.


    NOTE.—When we come to study the life of Christ, we find that He
    did not make the Sabbath a day of idleness, nor even a day
    confined wholly to public and private worship, but one of active
    service in blessing others. On this day especially He went about
    doing good, ministering to the sick, and bringing relief to those
    long bound by Satan. Luke 13:15, 16; John 5:5, 6. And as He is our
    pattern in all things, we, too, like Him, should seek to make the
    Sabbath a day for helping and blessing others. To loose the bands
    of wickedness, undo the heavy burdens, deal bread to the hungry,
    clothe the naked, and let the oppressed go free, is the fast which
    God has chosen, and the Sabbath-keeping most acceptable to Him.
    Isa. 58:1-12. In this kind of work and ministry there is room for
    a world-wide Sabbath reform.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


              Brother! up to the breach
              For God’s freedom and truth;
              Let us act as we teach,
    With the wisdom of age, and the vigor of youth.
              Heed not their cannon-balls;
              Ask not who stands or falls;
              Grasp the sword of the Lord,
              And—Forward!



PART X. CHRISTIAN LIBERTY


                             [Illustration.]

   Christ And The Tribute-Money. "Render to Caesar the things that are
       Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s." Mark 12:17.



The Author Of Liberty


                             [Illustration.]

 Peter Delivered From Prison. "I am the Lord thy God, which have brought
             thee ... out of the house of bondage." Ex. 20:2.


1. How is the bondage of Israel in Egypt described?

“And the children of Israel _sighed_ by reason of the bondage, and they
_cried_, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage.” Ex.
2:23. Compare with James 5:1-4.

2. Who heard their groaning?

“_God_ heard their groaning, and God remembered His covenant with Abraham,
with Isaac, and with Jacob.” Verse 24.

3. What did God say to Moses?

“Now therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come unto Me:
and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them.
Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest
bring forth My people the children of Israel out of Egypt.” Ex. 3:9, 10.

4. In giving Israel His law, how did God describe Himself?

“I am the Lord thy God, which have _brought thee out of_ the land of
Egypt, out of _the house of bondage_.” Ex. 20:2.

5. What provision did God make against slavery and oppression in Israel?

“And if thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee,
and serve thee six years; then _in the seventh year thou shall let him go
free_ from thee. And when thou sendest him out free from thee, _thou shall
not let him go away empty_: thou shalt furnish him liberally out of thy
flock, and out of thy floor, and out of thy wine-press: of that wherewith
the Lord thy God hath blessed thee thou shalt give unto him. And _thou
shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in the land of Egypt_, and the
Lord thy God redeemed thee: therefore I command thee this thing today.”
Deut. 15:12-15. “_Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him_: for
ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.” Ex. 22:21. See 2 Cor. 1:3, 4.

6. What was one reason assigned why Israel should keep the Sabbath?

“And _remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt_, and that
the Lord thy God brought thee out thence through a mighty hand and by a
stretched-out arm: _therefore the Lord thy God commanded thee to keep the
Sabbath day_.” Deut. 5:15.


    NOTE.—This would suggest the idea that in their servitude and
    oppression in Egypt they had had difficulty regarding the
    observance of the Sabbath, which is a fact. From the accusation
    brought against Moses and Aaron by Pharaoh, as recorded in Ex.
    5:5,—“Ye make them _rest_ [Heb., _Shabbath_] from their
    burdens,”—it is plain that the Sabbath had been denied them, that
    they had been required to work on the Sabbath, and that Moses and
    Aaron were teaching them to keep it. Where individual rights and
    religious liberty are recognized, Sabbath observance is neither
    denied nor required by civil law.


7. What proclamation was to be made throughout the land of Israel every
fifty years?

“And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and _proclaim liberty throughout
all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof_: it shall be a jubilee unto
you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall
return every man unto his family.” Lev. 25:10.

8. Because Israel failed to do this, became oppressive, and disregarded
and misused the Sabbath, what did God do?

“Therefore thus saith the Lord; Ye have not harkened unto Me, in
proclaiming liberty, every one to his brother, and every man to his
neighbor: behold, I proclaim a liberty for you, saith the Lord, to the
_sword_, to the _pestilence_, and to the _famine_; and _I will make you to
be removed into all the kingdoms of the earth_.” Jer. 34:17. See also Jer.
17:24-27; 2 Chron. 36:19-21.

9. What fault did God find with the way in which Israel came to celebrate
her fasts and seasons of worship?

“Behold; in the day of your fast ye _find pleasure_, and _exact __ all
your labors_. Behold, ye fast for _strife_ and _debate_, and to _smite
with the fist of wickedness_.” Isa. 58:3, 4.

10. What does God set forth as the acceptable fast to Him?

“Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to _loose the bands of
wickedness_, to _undo the heavy burdens_, and to _let the oppressed go
free_, and that ye _break every yoke_? Is it not to _deal thy bread to the
hungry_, and that thou _bring the poor that are cast out to thy house_?
when thou seest the naked, that thou _cover him_; and that thou hide not
thyself from thine own flesh?” Verses 6, 7.


    NOTE.—All this shows that God loves liberty, and hates bondage and
    oppression.


11. What was Christ’s mission to this world?

“The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, because He hath anointed Me to preach
the gospel to the poor; He hath sent Me _to heal_ the broken-hearted, _to
preach deliverance_ to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind,
_to set at liberty_ them that are bruised.” Luke 4:18.


    NOTE.—The Gospels show that a large part of Christ’s time even on
    the Sabbath was devoted to relieving the oppressed and distressed.


12. In what condition are those who commit sin?

“Whosoever committeth sin is _the servant of sin_.” John 8:34.

13. Why was Christ’s name to be called Jesus?

“And thou shalt call His name Jesus: _for He shall save His people from
their sins_.” Matt. 1:21.

14. What lies at the root of all sin?

“When _lust_ hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin.” James 1:15. “I had
not known _lust_, except the law had said, Thou shalt not _covet_.” Rom.
7:7.


    NOTE.—Lust, covetousness, and unlawful desire are only different
    names for _selfishness_. Selfishness lies at the root of all sin;
    and selfishness is simply the love of self to the disregard of the
    equal rights of others.


15. By what scripture is the equality of rights clearly shown?

“Thou shalt love thy neighbor _as thyself_.” Lev. 19:18.

16. What rule of conduct has Christ laid down in harmony with this
command?

“Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them.”
Matt. 7:12.


    NOTE.—Selfishness, then, must be uprooted from men’s hearts before
    they will recognize the equal rights of their fellow men.


17. Who alone can cleanse men’s hearts from selfishness?

“Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name
under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.” Acts 4:12. See
also 1 John 1:9.

18. Who alone, then, can give men real freedom?

“If _the Son_ therefore shall make you free, ye shall be _free indeed_.”
John 8:36.

19. What was Christ’s attitude toward unbelievers?

“If any man hear My words, and believe not, _I judge him not_: for I came
not to _judge_ the world, but to _save_ the world.” John 12:47.

20. What spirit did Christ say should control His disciples?

“But Jesus called them to Him, and saith unto them, Ye know that they
which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise _lordship_ over
them; and their great ones exercise _authority_ upon them. But _so shall
it not be among you_: but whosoever will be great among you, shall be your
_minister_: and whosoever of you will be the chiefest, shall be _servant
of all_. For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to
minister, and to give His life a ransom for many.” Mark 10:42-45.

21. What is present where the Spirit of the Lord is?

“Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there
is _liberty_.” 2 Cor. 3:17.

22. What kind of worship only is acceptable to God?

“But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshipers shall worship
the Father _in spirit and in truth_: for the Father seeketh such to
worship Him. God is a Spirit: and they that worship Him must worship Him
in spirit and in truth.” John 4:23, 24.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Freedom and reason make brave men;
    Take these away, what are they then?—
    Mere groveling brutes, and just as well
    The beasts may think of heaven or hell.

    Know, then, that every soul is free
    To choose his life, and what he’ll be;
    For this eternal truth is given:
    That God will force no man to heaven.

    He’ll call, persuade, direct him right,
    Bless him with wisdom, love, and light,
    In nameless ways be good and kind,
    But never force the human mind.



The Powers That Be


                             [Illustration.]

Worship Interfered With By The State. Christians surprised by troops while
                         worshiping in a cavern.


1. Who should be subject to civil government?

“Let _every soul_ be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power
but of God.” Rom. 13:1.

2. By whom are the powers that be ordained?

“The powers that be are ordained of _God_.” Same verse.

3. What does one resist, who resists civil authority?

“Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth _the ordinance of
God_: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation.” Verse
2.


    NOTE.—“That is, they who rise up against _government itself_, who
    seek anarchy and confusion, who oppose the regular execution of
    the laws. It is implied, however, that those laws shall not be
    such as violate the rights of conscience or oppose the law of
    God.”—_Dr. Albert Barnes, on Rom. 13:2._


4. What do the Scriptures indicate as the proper sphere and legitimate
work of civil authority?

“For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the _evil_.... If thou
do that which is _evil_, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain:
for he is the minister of God, _a revenger to execute wrath upon him that
doeth evil_.” Verses 3, 4.

5. For whom is law made?

“Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but _for the
lawless and disobedient_.” 1 Tim. 1:9.

6. How are Christians admonished to respect civil authority?

“Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey
magistrates, to be ready to every good work.” Titus 3:1. “Submit
yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake: whether it be to
the king, as supreme; or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him
for the punishment of evil-doers, and for the praise of them that do
well.... Honor all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the king.” 1
Peter 2: 13-17. “For this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God’s
ministers, attending continually upon this very thing. Render therefore to
all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom;
fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor.” Rom. 13:6, 7.

7. In what words does Christ show that there is another realm outside of
Cæsar’s, or civil government?

“Render therefore unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar’s; _and unto God
the things that are God’s_.” Matt. 22:21.

8. To whom alone did He say worship is to be rendered?

“Thou shalt worship _the Lord thy God_, and _Him only shalt thou serve_.”
Matt. 4:10.

9. What decree did King Nebuchadnezzar once make respecting worship?

“To you it is commanded, O people, nations, and languages, that at what
time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery,
dulcimer, and all kinds of music, ye _fall down and worship the golden
image_ that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up. And whoso falleth not
down and worshipeth shall the same hour be cast into the midst of a
burning fiery furnace.” Dan. 3:4-6.


    NOTE.—This decree was in direct conflict with the second
    commandment of God’s law, which forbids making, bowing down to,
    and serving images. It was religious, idolatrous, and persecuting
    in character.


10. What answer did the three Hebrew captives, Shadrach, Meshach, and
Abed-nego, return when asked by the king why they had not fallen down and
worshiped the golden image, as he had commanded?

“Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, answered and said to the king, O
Nebuchadnezzar, we are not careful to answer thee in this matter. If it be
so, our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from the burning fiery
furnace, and He will deliver us out of thine hand, O king. But if not, be
it known unto thee, O king, that _we will not serve thy gods, nor worship
the golden image which thou hast set up_.” Verses 16-18.

11. What did Nebuchadnezzar then do?

“Then was Nebuchadnezzar full of fury, and the form of his visage was
changed against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego: ... and he commanded the
most mighty men that were in his army to bind Shadrach, Meshach, and
Abed-nego, and to _cast them into the burning fiery furnace_.” Verses 19,
20.

12. After their miraculous deliverance, what did Nebuchadnezzar say?

“Then Nebuchadnezzar spake, and said, Blessed be the God of Shadrach,
Meshach, and Abed-nego, who hath sent His angel, and delivered His
servants that trusted in Him, and have changed the king’s word, and
yielded their bodies, that they might not serve nor worship any god,
except their own God.” Verse 28.


    NOTE.—By preserving these men in the fire, and thus changing the
    king’s word, God was demonstrating before all the world, through
    this greatest of then-existing earthly kingdoms, that with the
    question of religion civil governments can of right have nothing
    whatsoever to do; that religion is a realm outside the legitimate
    sphere of civil authority; and that every individual should be
    left free to worship, or not to worship, according to the dictates
    of his own conscience. The lesson to be learned from this is that,
    although ordained of God, civil governments are not ordained to
    direct or oppress men in religious matters.


13. How only did the envious princes and rulers under King Darius conclude
that they could effect the downfall of Daniel?

“Then said these men, We shall not find any occasion against this Daniel,
except we find it against him _concerning the law of his God_.” Dan. 6:5.

14. To this end, what decree did they prevail upon the king to make and
sign?

“That whosoever shall ask a petition of any God or man for thirty days,
_save of thee, O king_, he shall be cast into the den of lions.” Verse 7.


    NOTE.—Unlike the decree of Nebuchadnezzar, this decree forbade the
    worship of the true God, and was therefore in direct conflict with
    the first commandment, which forbids the worship of any other than
    the true God. Like it, however, it was religious and persecuting
    in character.


15. How did Daniel regard this decree?

“Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house;
and his windows being open in his chamber toward Jerusalem, _he kneeled
upon his knees three times a day, __ and prayed, and gave thanks before
his God, as he did aforetime_.” Verse 10.

                             [Illustration.]

Daniel Praying In Babylon. "When Daniel knew that the writing was signed,
... he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, ... as he did
                          aforetime." Dan. 6:10.


16. What was finally done with Daniel?

“Then the king commanded, and they brought Daniel, and _cast him into the
den of lions_.” Verse 16.

17. What did Darius say to Daniel the next morning when he came to the
lions’ den?

“The king spake and said to Daniel, O Daniel, servant of the living God,
is thy God, whom thou servest continually, able to deliver thee from the
lions?” Verse 20.

18. What was Daniel’s reply?

“Then said Daniel unto the king, O king, live forever. My God hath sent
His angel, and hath shut the lions’ mouths, that they have not hurt me:
forasmuch as before Him innocency was found in me; and also before thee, O
king, have I done no hurt.” Verses 21, 22.


    NOTE.—Here again was demonstrated by a most remarkable miracle,
    wrought in the face of the greatest nation then in existence, that
    with the directing, prescribing, proscribing, or interfering with
    religion or its free exercise, civil governments can of right have
    nothing whatever to do; that religion is an individual matter, and
    should be left to the dictates of each one’s own conscience.


19. Before leaving His disciples, what command did Christ give them?

“Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.” Mark
16:15.

20. What counter-command did the Jewish Sanhedrin soon afterward give
them?

“And they called them, and commanded them not to speak at all nor teach in
the name of Jesus.” Acts 4:18.

21. What reply did Peter and John make?

“But Peter and John answered and said unto them, _Whether it be right in
the sight of God to harken unto you more than unto God, judge ye_. For we
cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard.” Verses 19, 20.

22. For continuing to preach Jesus, what did the Jewish rulers do to the
apostles?

“Then the high priest rose up, and all they that were with him, (which is
the sect of the Sadducees,) and were filled with indignation, and _laid
their hands on the apostles, and put them in the common prison_.” Acts
5:17, 18.

23. What did an angel of God then do?

“But the angel of the Lord by night _opened the prison doors, and brought
them forth_, and said, _Go, stand and speak in the temple to the people
all the words of this life_.” Verses 19, 20.


    NOTE.—Here once again is demonstrated the fact that men have no
    right to interfere with the free exercise of religion, and that
    when the laws of men conflict with the law and Word of God, we are
    to obey the latter, whatever the consequences may be. God Himself
    has set the seal of His approval to such a course. John Bunyan was
    imprisoned for twelve years for daring to preach the gospel
    contrary to law.


24. Upon the apostles being called before the council again, what question
did the high priest ask them?

“_Did not we straitly command you that ye should not teach in this name?_
and, behold, ye have filled Jerusalem with your doctrine, and intend to
bring this man’s blood upon us.” Verse 28.

25. What reply did the apostles make?

“Then Peter and the other apostles answered and said, _We ought to obey
God rather than men_.” Verse 29.


    NOTE.—“Obedience is to be rendered to all human governments, in
    subordination to the will of God. These governments are a
    recognized necessity, in the nature of the case, and their
    existence is manifestly in accordance with the divine will. Hence
    the presumption is always in favor of the authority of civil law,
    and any refusal to obey must be based on the moral proof that
    obedience will be sin.... It is still true that obedience to human
    law often involves sin against God and man. There are cases so
    clear that no one can question the duty to refuse obedience. In
    all times and in all lands such cases have arisen.” “It is too
    obvious to need discussion, that the law of God, the great
    principle of benevolence, is supreme, and that ’we ought to obey
    God rather than men’ in any case of conflict between human law and
    the divine.”—_“__Moral Philosophy,__”__ by James H. Fairchild,
    pages 178-181._


26. Who is higher than the “higher powers”?

“If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and violent perverting of
judgment and justice in a province, marvel not at the matter: for _He that
is higher than the highest_ regardeth; and _there be higher than they_.”
Eccl. 5:8.


    NOTE.—In attempting to defend the right of civil government to
    enforce religious observances by law, some still ask, “Shall we
    not obey the powers that be?” We answer, “Yes, when they are in
    harmony with the higher powers that be. God made His law for all
    the universe. He created man; He gives the bounteous provisions of
    nature, and holds our breath and life in His hand. He is to be
    recognized, His law honored, before all the great men and the
    highest earthly powers.”


27. Because Mordecai refused to bow down to Haman in accordance with the
command of King Ahasuerus (Esther 3:1-6), what decree did Haman succeed in
having the king issue and send to every province throughout the Persian
Empire?

“And the letters were sent by posts into all the king’s provinces, _to
destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old,
little children and women, in one day_, even upon the thirteenth day of
the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them
for a prey. The copy of the writing for a commandment to be given in every
province was published unto all people, that they should be ready against
that day.” Esther 3:13, 14.


    NOTES.—By an overruling of Providence the carrying out of this
    terrible decree was averted, and Haman was hanged on the very
    gallows which he had erected for the execution of Mordecai. See
    Esther 7:9, 10.

    God has placed the sword (civil authority) in the hands of Cæsar
    (civil government) for the punishment of evil-doers; but when the
    sword is raised to slay the _innocent_, as in the case of the
    children of Bethlehem (Matt. 2:16); or to _enforce idolatrous
    worship_, as in the case of the three Hebrews (Daniel 3); or to
    _prohibit the worship of the true God_, as in the case of Daniel
    (Daniel 6); or to slay _all of God’s people_, as in the time of
    Esther; or to _enforce the observance of a false sabbath_, as in
    the case of all Sunday laws, it is an _abuse_ of civil authority,
    and not a proper or justifiable use of it; and God honors those
    who, under such circumstances, in the face of persecution,
    oppression, and death, remain loyal and true to Him.

    “Government is never the gainer in the execution of a law that is
    manifestly unjust.... Conscientious men are not the enemies, but
    the friends, of any government but a tyranny. They are its
    strength, and not its weakness. Daniel, in Babylon, praying
    contrary to the law, was the true friend and supporter of the
    government; while those who, in their pretended zeal for the law
    and the constitution, would strike down the good man, were its
    real enemies. It is only when government transcends its sphere
    that it comes in conflict with the consciences of men.

    “But it is objected that the example is corrupting,—that a bad man
    will violate a good law, because the good man refuses to obey a
    wicked law. The cases are just as unlike as right and wrong, and
    any attempt to justify the one by the other is gross dishonesty.
    Unquestionably, the principle can be abused by the wicked, and so
    can any truth whatever; but the principle of unquestioning
    obedience to human law is false, and needs no perversion to make
    it mischievous....

    “It should always be remembered that the great end of government
    is human well-being, that law and authority are nothing in
    themselves, and that all their sacredness arises from the uses
    which they serve. The machinery of government is valuable only for
    the work it does; in itself, it has no value.... The most grievous
    of all imperfections in government is the failure to secure the
    just and good result.... Injustice and oppression are not made
    tolerable by being in strict accordance with the law. Nothing is
    surer, in the end, than the reaction of such wrong to break down
    the most perfectly constituted government.”—_“__Moral
    Philosophy,__”__ by James H. Fairchild, pages 184-186._

    God is above all earthly rulers, and His law above all human laws.
    He made us, and we therefore owe allegiance to Him before any
    earthly power, potentate, or tribunal. And this is saying nothing
    in disparagement of civil authority exercised in its rightful
    domain—civil things.



Individual Accountability


                             [Illustration.]

Esther At The Banquet. "We are sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, to
                  be slain, and to perish." Esther 7:4.


1. What is religion?

“The recognition of God as an object of worship, love, and
obedience.”—_Webster._ Other definitions equally good are: “The duty which
we owe to our Creator, and the manner of discharging it.” “Man’s personal
relation of faith and obedience to God.”

2. In religious things, whom alone did Christ say we should recognize as
Father?

“And call no man your father upon the earth: _for one is your Father,
which is in heaven_.” Matt. 23:9.

3. When tempted to fall down and worship Satan, what Scripture command did
Christ cite in justification of His refusal to do this?

“Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written,
_Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve_.”
Matt. 4:10. See Deut. 6:13; 10:20.

4. To whom alone, then, is each one accountable in religious things?

“So then every one of us shall give account of himself _to God_.” Rom.
14:12.


    NOTE.—With this agree the words of Washington: “Every man who
    conducts himself as a good citizen, is accountable alone to God
    for his religious faith, and should be protected in worshiping God
    according to the dictates of his own conscience.”—_Reply to
    Virginia Baptists, in 1789._


5. What do those do, therefore, who make men accountable to them in
religious affairs?

They put themselves in the place of God. See 2 Thess. 2:3, 4.

6. Why, in religious matters, did Christ say men should not be called
masters?

“Neither be ye called masters: _for one is your Master, even Christ_.”
Matt. 23:10.


    NOTE.—Every one, therefore, who acts as master in Christ’s church,
    or lords it over God’s heritage (1 Peter 5:3), puts himself in the
    place of Christ.


7. To whom, then, as servants, are we responsible in matters of faith and
worship?

“Who art thou that judgest another man’s servant? _to his own master he
standeth or falleth_.” Rom. 14:4.

8. Whose servants are we not to be?

“Ye are bought with a price; _be not ye the servants of men_.” 1 Cor.
7:23.


    NOTE.—“Satan’s methods ever tend to one end,—to make men the
    slaves of men,” and thus separate them from God, destroy faith in
    God, and so expose men to temptation and sin. Christ’s work is to
    set men free, to renew faith, and to lead to willing and loyal
    obedience to God. Says Luther: “It is contrary to the will of God
    that man should be subject to man in that which pertains to
    eternal life. Subjection in _spirituals_ is a real worship, and
    should be rendered only to the Creator.”—_D’Aubigne’s __“__History
    of the Reformation,__”__ edited by M. Laird Simons, book 7, chap.
    11._


9. Where must all finally appear to render up their account?

“For we must all appear _before the judgment-seat of Christ_; that every
one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath
done, whether it be good or bad.” 2 Cor. 5:10.


    NOTE.—Inasmuch, then, as religion is an individual matter, and
    each individual must give account of himself to God, it follows
    that there should be no human constraint nor compulsion in
    religious affairs.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Dare to be a Daniel,
      Dare to stand alone;
    Dare to have a purpose firm,
      Dare to make it known.

    P. P. BLISS.



Union Of Church And State


                             [Illustration.]

Paul And Silas In Prison. "These men, being Jews, ... teach customs, which
   are not lawful for us ... to observe, being Romans." Acts 16:20, 21.


1. What was already at work in the church in Paul’s day?

“For _the mystery of iniquity_ doth already work.” 2 Thess. 2:7.

2. What class of men did he say would arise in the church?

“For I know this, that after my departing shall _grievous wolves_ enter in
among you, not sparing the flock. _Also of your own selves shall men
arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them._” Acts
20:29, 30.

3. Through what experience was the church to pass, and what was to develop
in the church, before Christ’s second coming?

“Let no man deceive you by any means: for _that day shall not come, except
there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed_, the son
of perdition.” 2 Thess. 2:3.

4. In what was shown the first tangible evidence of this “falling away”
from the truth of God?

The adoption of heathen rites and customs in the church.


    NOTE.—“The bishops augmented the number of religious rites in the
    Christian worship, by way of accommodation to the infirmities and
    prejudices, both of Jews and heathen, in order to facilitate their
    conversion to Christianity.... For this purpose, they gave the
    name of _mysteries_ to the institutions of the gospel, and
    decorated particularly the holy sacrament with that solemn title.
    They used in that sacred institution, as also in that of baptism,
    several of the terms employed in the heathen mysteries, and
    proceeded so far, at length, as even to adopt some of the rites
    and of the ceremonies of which those renowned mysteries
    consisted.”—_Mosheim’s __“__Ecclesiastical History__”__
    (Maclaine’s translation), cent. 2, part 2, chap. 4, pars. 2-5._


5. How early was this tendency manifested?

“This imitation began in the eastern provinces; but, after the time of
Adrian [emperor 117-138 A.D.], who first introduced the mysteries among
the Latins, it was followed by the Christians who dwelt in the western
parts of the empire.”—_Id._, par. 5.

6. What has been one great characteristic of the Papacy?

A union of church and state, or the religious power dominating the civil
power to further its ends.

7. When was the union of church and state formed from which the Papacy
grew?

During the reign of Constantine, 313-337 A.D.

8. What was the character and the work of many of the bishops at that
time?

“_Worldly-minded bishops_, instead of caring for the salvation of their
flocks, were often but too much inclined to travel about, and _entangle
themselves in worldly concerns_.”—_Neander’s __“__History of the Christian
Religion and Church__”_ (Torrey’s translation), Vol. II, page 16.

9. What did the bishops determine to do?

“This theocratical theory was already the prevailing one in the time of
Constantine; and ... the bishops voluntarily made themselves dependent on
him by their disputes, _and by their determination to make use of the
power of the state for the furtherance of their aims_.”—_Id._, page 132.


    NOTE.—The “theocratical theory” was that of a government
    administered by God through the church, particularly through the
    church bishops.


10. What was the date of Constantine’s famous Sunday law?

A.D. 321.

11. When and by whom was the Council of Nice convened?

By the emperor Constantine, 325 A.D.

12. Under what authority were its decrees published?

“The decrees ... were published under the _imperial authority_, and thus
obtained a political importance.”—_Id._, page 133.

13. What was one principal object in calling this council?

“The question relating to _the observance of Easter_, which was agitated
in the time of Anicetus and Polycarp, and afterward in that of Victor, was
still undecided. It was one of the principal reasons for convoking the
Council of Nice, being the most important subject to be considered after
the Arian controversy.”

“It appears that the churches of Syria and Mesopotamia continued to follow
the custom of the Jews, and celebrated Easter on _the fourteenth day of
the moon_, whether falling on Sunday or not. All the other churches
observed that solemnity _on Sunday only_, namely; those of Rome, Italy,
Africa, Lydia, Egypt, Spain, Gaul, and Britain; and all Greece, Asia, and
Pontus.”—_Boyle’s __“__Historical View of the Council of Nice,__”_ page
23, edition 1836.

14. How was the matter finally decided?

“_Easter day was fixed on the Sunday_ immediately following the full moon
which was nearest after the vernal equinox.”—_Id._, page 24.

15. What was decreed by the Council of Laodicea, A.D. 364?

That Christians should keep the Sunday, and that if they persisted in
resting on the Sabbath, “they shall be shut out from Christ.” See Hefele’s
“History of the Councils of the Church,” Vol. II, page 316.

16. What imperial law was issued in A.D. 386?

“By a law of the year 386, those older changes effected by Constantine
were more vigorously enforced; and, in general, civil transactions of
every kind on Sunday were strictly forbidden.”—_Neander’s __“__Church
History,__”_ Vol. II, page 300.

17. What petition was made to the emperor by a church convention of
bishops in A.D. 401?

“That the public shows might be transferred from the Christian Sunday and
from the feast-days to some other days of the week.”—_Ib._


    NOTE.—The desired law was secured in 425 A.D. See pages 444, 489.


18. What was the object of the church bishops in securing these Sunday
laws?

“That the day might be devoted with less interruption to the purposes of
devotion.” “That the devotion of the faithful might be free from all
disturbance.”—_Id._, pages 297, 301.

19. How was the “devotion” of the “faithful” disturbed?

“Church teachers ... were, in truth, often forced to complain that _in
such competitions the theater was vastly more frequented than the
church_.”—_Id._, page 300.

20. What does Neander say of the securing of these laws?

“In this way the church received help from the state for the furtherance
of her ends.”—_Id._, page 301.


    NOTE.—In this way, more perhaps than in any other, church and
    state were united. In this way the church gained control of the
    civil power, which she later used as a means of carrying on most
    bitter and extensive persecutions. In this way she denied Christ
    and the power of godliness.


21. When the church had received help from the state to this extent, what
more did she demand?

That the civil power should be exerted to compel men to serve God as the
church should dictate.

22. What did Augustine, the father of this theocratical or
church-and-state theory, teach concerning it?

“Who doubts but what it is better to be led to God by instruction than by
fear of punishment or affliction? But because the former, who will be
guided only by instruction, are better, the others are still not to be
neglected.... Many, like bad servants, must often be reclaimed to their
Master by the rod of temporal suffering, ere they can attain to this
highest stage of religious development.”—_Id._, pages 214, 215.

23. What is Neander’s conclusion regarding this theory?

“It was by Augustine, then, that a theory was proposed and founded, which,
tempered though it was, in its practical application, by his own pious,
philanthropic spirit, nevertheless contained the germ of that whole system
of spiritual despotism, of intolerance and persecution, which ended in the
tribunals of the Inquisition.” “He did not give precedence to the
question, What is _right_? over the question, What is _expedient_? But a
theory which overlooks these distinctions leaves room for any despotism
which would make holy ends a pretext for the use of unholy means.”—_Id._,
pages 217, 249, 250.


    NOTE.—It was thus that the union of church and state was formed,
    out of which was developed “the beast,” or Papacy, of the
    Apocalypse, which made “war with the saints” and overcame them. A
    like course cannot fail to produce like results today. Dr. Philip
    Schaff, in his work on “Church and State,” page 11, well says:
    “Secular power has proved a satanic gift to the church, and
    ecclesiastical power has proved an engine of tyranny in the hands
    of the state.”



Sabbath Legislation


                             [Illustration.]

 Christ Reproving The Pharisees. "For the Son of man is Lord even of the
                        Sabbath day." Matt. 12:8.


1. Who made the Sabbath?

“In six days _the Lord_ made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in
them is, and _rested the seventh day_; wherefore _the Lord blessed the
Sabbath day, and hallowed it_.” Ex. 20:11.

2. To whom does the Sabbath belong?

“The seventh day is the Sabbath of _the Lord thy God_.” Verse 10.

3. To whom, then, should its observance be rendered?

“Render to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar’s, and _to God the things that
are God’s_.” Mark 12:17.


    NOTE.—When men make Sabbath laws, therefore, they require Sabbath
    observance to be rendered to the _government_, or, presumably, by
    indirection, to God _through the government_, which amounts to the
    same thing.


4. In religious things, to whom alone are we accountable?

“So then every one of us shall give account of himself _to God_.” Rom.
14:12.


    NOTE.—But when men make compulsory Sabbath laws, they make men
    accountable to the _government_ for Sabbath observance.


5. How does God command us to keep the Sabbath day?

“Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it _holy_.” Ex. 20:8.

6. What does He indicate as one of its purposes?

“Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of rest,
_an holy convocation_; ye shall do no work therein: it is the Sabbath of
the Lord in all your dwellings.” Lev. 23:3.

7. Seeing, then, that the Sabbath is _holy_, is to be _kept holy_, and is
a day for _holy convocations_, what must be its character?

It must be _religious_.

8. What, then, must be the nature of all Sabbath legislation?

It is _religious legislation_.

9. When the state enacts religious laws, what is effected?

A union of church and state.

10. What has always been the result of religious legislation, or a union
of church and state?

Religious intolerance and persecution.

11. What was Constantine’s Sunday law of March 7, 321?

“Let all the judges and town people, and the occupation of all trades rest
on the venerable day of the sun; but let those who are situated in the
country, freely and at full liberty, attend to the business of
agriculture; because it often happens that no other day is so fit for
sowing corn and planting vines; lest the critical moment being let slip,
men should lose the commodities granted by heaven.”—_Corpus Juris Civilis
Cod., lib. 3, tit. 12, 3._

12. What further imperial legislation in behalf of Sunday observance was
issued in 386?

“By a law of the year 386, those older changes effected by the emperor
Constantine were more rigorously enforced, and, in general, civil
transactions of every kind on Sunday were strictly forbidden.”—_Neander’s
__“__Church History,__”_ Vol. II, page 300, edition 1852.

13. At the instance of church bishops, what still further law was secured
under Theodosius the Younger, in 425?

“In the year 425, the exhibition of spectacles on Sunday and on the
principal feast-days of the Christians was forbidden, in order that the
devotion of the faithful might be free from all disturbance.”—_Id._, pages
300, 301.

14. What does the historian say of this legislation?

“_In this way the church received help from the state for the furtherance
of her ends_.... But had it not been for that confusion of spiritual and
secular interests, had it not been for the vast number of mere _outward
conversions_ thus brought about, she would have needed no such
help.”—_Id._, page 301.

15. What did Charlemagne’s Sunday law of 800 require?

“We decree ... that servile works should not be done on the Lord’s day,
... that is, that neither should men do field work, either in cultivating
the vineyards or by plowing in the fields, by cutting or drying hay, or by
placing a fence, or by making clearings in the woods or felling trees or
working on stones or constructing houses or working in the garden; neither
should they come together to decide public matters nor be engaged in the
hunt.... Women may not do any textile work nor cut out clothes nor sew nor
make garments.... But let them come together from all sides to church to
the solemnities of the mass, and let them praise God for all things which
he does for us on that day.”—_“__Historical Chronicles of Germany,__”_
Sec. 2, Vol. I, 22 General admonition, 789, M. Martio 23, page 61, par.
81.

16. How does the Sunday law of Charles II, of 1676, read?

“For the better observation and keeping holy the Lord’s day, commonly
called Sunday: be it enacted ... that all the laws enacted and in force
concerning the observation of the day, and repairing to the church
thereon, be carefully put in execution; and that all and every person and
persons whatsoever shall on every Lord’s day apply themselves to the
observation of the same, by exercising themselves thereon in the duties of
piety and true religion, publicly and privately.”—_“__Revised Statutes of
England From 1235-1685 __A.D.__”__ (London, 1870), pages 779, 780; cited
in __“__A Critical History of Sunday Legislation,__”_ by A. H. Lewis, D.
D., pages 108, 109.

17. What did the first Sunday law enacted in America, that of Virginia, in
1610, require?

“_Every man and woman shall repair in the morning to the divine service
and sermons preached upon the Sabbath day, and in the afternoon to divine
service, and catechizing_, upon pain for the first fault to _lose their
provision and the allowance for the whole week following_; for the second,
to _lose the said allowance and also be whipped_; and for the third to
_suffer death_.”—_Articles, Laws, and Orders, Divine, Politique, and
Martial, for the Colony in Virginia: first established by Sir Thomas
Gates, Knight, Lieutenant-General, the 24th of May, 1610._


    NOTES.—These are the original Sunday laws, after which all the
    Sunday laws of Europe and America have been modeled. Church
    attendance is not generally required by the Sunday laws of the
    present day, nor was it required, in terms, by the earliest Sunday
    laws; but that is and ever has been the chief object of all Sunday
    legislation from Constantine’s time on, and it is as much out of
    place today as it ever was.



Who Persecute And Why


                             [Illustration.]

The Stoning Of Stephen. "Yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you
            will think that he doeth God service." John 16:2.


1. Because Jesus had not kept the Sabbath according to their ideas, what
did the Jews do?

“_Therefore did the Jews persecute Jesus, and sought to slay Him_, because
He had done these things on the Sabbath day.” John 5:16.

2. What kind of fast is most acceptable to God?

“Is not this the fast that I have chosen? _to loose the bands of
wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free,
and that ye break every yoke?_” Isa. 58:6.


    NOTE.—This is what Jesus did. He, the Author and Lord of the
    Sabbath, in addition to attending and taking part in religious
    services (Luke 4:16), went about doing good, healing the sick,
    relieving the oppressed, and restoring the impotent, lame, and
    blind, on the Sabbath day. But this, while in perfect accord with
    the law of God, the great law of love, was contrary to the
    traditions and perverted ideas of the Jews respecting the Sabbath.
    Hence they persecuted Him, and sought to slay Him.


3. Why did Cain kill Abel?

“For this is the message that ye have heard from the beginning, that we
should love one another. Not as Cain, who was of that wicked one, and slew
his brother. And wherefore slew he him? _Because his own works were evil,
and his brother’s righteous._” 1 John 3:11, 12.


    NOTE.—The following comment upon this passage by M. de Chesnais, a
    Catholic priest of New Zealand, is well put: “If you would read
    the Word of God, you would find that from the beginning all good
    people were persecuted because they were good. Abel was slain by
    his brother because he was good, and Cain could not endure the
    sight of him.”—_Kaikoura (New Zealand) Star, April 10, 1884._


                             [Illustration.]

 The Fiery Furnace. "Our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from the
                    burning fiery furnace." Dan. 3:17.


4. Commenting upon the treatment of Isaac, the son of Sarah, by Ishmael,
the son of the bondwoman, what principle does the apostle Paul lay down?

“But as then, _he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was
born after the Spirit_, even so it is now.” Gal. 4:29.

5. What other instances of persecution mentioned in the Bible, demonstrate
the correctness of this principle?

_a._ Esau, who sold his birthright, persecuted Jacob, who vowed his
loyalty to God. Gen. 25:29-34; 27:41; 32:6.

_b._ The wayward and envious sons of Jacob persecuted Joseph, who feared
God. Genesis 37; Acts 7:9.

_c._ The idolatrous Egyptians persecuted the Hebrews, who worshiped the
true God. Exodus 1 and 5.

_d._ The Hebrew who did his neighbor wrong thrust Moses, as mediator,
aside. Ex. 2:13, 14; Acts 7:26, 27.

_e._ Saul, who disobeyed God, persecuted David, who feared God. 1 Samuel
15, 19, 24.

_f._ Israel, in their apostasy, persecuted Elijah and Jeremiah, who were
prophets of God. 1 Kings 19:9, 10; Jer. 36:20-23; 38:1-6.

_g._ Nebuchadnezzar, while an idolater, persecuted the three Hebrew
captives for refusing to worship idols. Daniel 3.

_h._ The envious and idolatrous princes under Darius, persecuted Daniel
for daring to pray to the God of heaven. Daniel 6.

_i._ The murderers of Christ persecuted the apostles for preaching Christ.
Acts 4 and 5.

_j._ Paul, before his conversion, persecuted the church of God. Acts 8:1;
9:1, 2; 22:4, 5, 20; 26:9-11; Gal. 1:13; 1 Tim. 1:12, 13.


    NOTE.—The history of all the religious persecutions since Bible
    times is but a repetition of this same story,—the wicked persecute
    the righteous. And thus it will continue to be until the conflict
    between good and evil is ended.


6. Who does Paul say shall suffer persecution?

“Yea, and _all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer
persecution_.” 2 Tim. 3:12.

7. What is essential to extensive religious persecution?

Ecclesiastical control of the civil power, or a union of church and state.

8. Since persecution is invariably wrong, and the persecutor is generally
in the wrong on religious subjects, what must be true of persecuting
governments?

They likewise must be in the wrong.


    NOTES.—“There are many who do not seem to be sensible that all
    violence in religion is irreligious, and that, whoever is wrong,
    the persecutor cannot be right.”—_Thomas Clarke._

    “Have not almost all the governments in the world always been in
    the wrong on religious subjects?”—_Macaulay._

    “Do not the Scriptures clearly show that they who persecute are
    generally in the wrong, and they who suffer persecution in the
    right,—that the majority has always been on the side of falsehood,
    and the minority only on the side of truth?”—_Luther._

    “Religion was intended to bring peace on earth and good will
    towards men, and whatever tends to hatred and persecution, however
    correct in the letter, must be utterly wrong in the
    spirit.”—_Henry Varnum._

    God never forces the will or the conscience; but, in order to
    bring men under sin, Satan resorts to force. To accomplish his
    purpose, he works through religious and secular rulers,
    influencing them to enact and enforce human laws in defiance of
    the law of God.


9. Under what terrible deception did Christ say men would persecute His
followers?

“These things have I spoken unto you, that ye should not be offended. They
shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the time cometh, that _whosoever
killeth you will think that he doeth God service_.” John 16:1, 2.

10. Who is the original murderer?

“Ye are of your father _the devil_, and the lusts of your father ye will
do. _He was a murderer from the beginning_, and abode not in the truth,
because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of
his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.” John 8:44.

11. When James and John wished to call down fire from heaven to consume
the Samaritans who did not receive Christ, what did Christ say to them?

“He turned, and rebuked them, and said, _Ye know not what manner of spirit
ye are of. For the Son of man is not come to destroy men’s lives, but to
save them_.” Luke 9:55, 56.


    NOTES.—Some of the reasons given in justification of persecution
    may be noted in the following quotations:—

    “The state cannot afford to permit religious liberty. We hear a
    great deal about religious tolerance, but we are only tolerant in
    so far as we are not interested. A person may be tolerant toward a
    religion if he is not religious.... Intolerance means fervor and
    zeal. The best the state can do is to establish a limited
    religious liberty; but beyond a certain degree of tolerance the
    state cannot afford to admit the doctrine.”—_Monsignor Russell
    (Catholic), quoted in Washington Post, May 5, 1910._

    “The church has persecuted. Only a tyro in church history will
    deny that.... We have always defended the persecution of the
    Huguenots, and the Spanish Inquisition. When she thinks it good to
    use physical force, she will use it.... But will the Catholic
    Church give bond that she will not persecute at all? Will she
    guarantee absolute freedom and equality of all churches and all
    faiths? The Catholic Church gives no bonds for her good
    behavior.”—_Editorial in Western Watchman (Catholic), of St.
    Louis, Mo., Dec. 24, 1908._

    “The Inquisition was a very merciful tribunal; I repeat it, almost
    a compassionate tribunal.... A man was only allowed to be racked
    once, which no one can deny was a most wonderful leniency in those
    times.”—_Catholic Mirror, official organ of Cardinal Gibbons, Aug.
    29, 1896._

    “We confess that the Roman Catholic Church is intolerant; that is
    to say, that it uses all the means in its power for the
    extirpation of error and sin; but this intolerance is the logical
    and necessary consequence of her infallibility. _She alone has the
    right to be intolerant, because she alone has the truth._ The
    church tolerates heretics where she is obliged to do so, but she
    hates them mortally, and employs all her force to secure their
    annihilation.”—_Shepherd of the Valley (St. Louis, Mo.), 1876._

    This erroneous position has been well refuted by Lord Macaulay in
    the following words: “The doctrine which, from the very first
    origin of religious dissensions, has been held by all bigots of
    all sects, when condensed into few words and stripped of
    rhetorical disguise, is simply this: I am in the right, and you
    are in the wrong. When you are the stronger, you ought to tolerate
    me; for it is your duty to tolerate truth. But when I am the
    stronger, I shall persecute you; for it is my duty to persecute
    error.”—_Essay on __“__Sir James Mackintosh.__”_

    Benjamin Franklin well said: “When religion is good it will take
    care of itself; when it is not able to take care of itself, and
    God does not see fit to take care of it, so that it has to appeal
    to the civil power for support, it is evidence to my mind that its
    cause is a bad one.”—_Letter to Dr. Price._

    John Wesley gave the following Christian advice: “Condemn no man
    for not thinking as you think. Let every one enjoy the full and
    free liberty of thinking for himself. Let every man use his own
    judgment, since every man must give an account of himself to God.
    Abhor every approach, in any kind or degree, to the spirit of
    persecution. If you cannot reason nor persuade a man into the
    truth, never attempt to force a man into it. If love will not
    compel him to come, leave him to God, the Judge of all.”


12. What does Christ say of those who are persecuted for righteousness’
sake?

“Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake: for theirs
is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and
persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for
My sake. Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in
heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.” Matt.
5:10-12. See Rev. 2:10; 6:9-11.


    “In the furnace God may prove thee,
      Thence to bring thee forth more bright;
    But He can never cease to love thee;
      Thou art precious in His sight:
    God is with thee,—
      God, thine everlasting light.”


13. What divine precepts received and obeyed would do way with all
oppression and persecution?

“Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.” Matt. 22:39. “All things
whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them.”
Matt. 7:12.

14. What does love not do?

“_Love worketh no ill to his neighbor_: therefore love is the fulfilling
of the law.” Rom. 13:10.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    The Bigot’s Creed

    Believe as I believe—no more, no less;
    That I am right, and no one else, confess;
    Feel as I feel, think only as I think;
    Eat what I eat, and drink but what I drink;
    Look as I look, do always as I do;
    And, only then, I’ll fellowship with you.

    That I am right, and always right, I know,
    Because my own convictions tell me so;
    And to be right is simply this: to be
    Entirely and in all respects like me.
    To deviate a jot, or to begin
    To question, doubt, or hesitate, is sin.

    Let sink the drowning man, if he’ll not swim
    Upon the plank that I throw out to him;
    Let starve the famishing, if he’ll not eat
    My kind and quantity of bread and meat;
    Let freeze the naked, too, if he’ll not be
    Supplied with garments such as made for me.

    ’Twere better that the sick should die than live,
    Unless they take the medicine I give;
    ’Twere better sinners perish than refuse
    To be conformed to my peculiar views;
    ’Twere better that the world stood still than move
    In any way that I do not approve.



PART XI. LIFE ONLY IN CHRIST


                             [Illustration.]

 The Open Grave At Hanover, Germany. "This grave, purchased for eternity,
          must never be opened."—German Princess. See page 515.



Origin, History, And Destiny Of Satan


                             [Illustration.]

 The Temptation. "How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the
                          morning!" Isa. 14:12.


1. Have any others than the human family sinned?

“God spared not _the angels that sinned_, but cast them down to hell, and
delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment.” 2
Peter 2:4.

2. What is the name of the one who led the angels to sin?

“Depart from Me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for _the
devil_ and his angels.” Matt. 25:41.

3. By what other names is he known?

“And the great _dragon_ was cast out, that old _serpent_, called the
Devil, and _Satan_, which deceiveth the whole world.” Rev. 12:9. See also
Isa. 14:12, where he is called “Lucifer.”

4. What was Satan’s condition when created?

“_Thou wast perfect_ in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till
iniquity was found in thee.” Eze. 28:15.

5. What description is given of him by the prophet Ezekiel?

“Thus saith the Lord God; _Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and
perfect in beauty_. Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every
precious stone was thy covering, ... the workmanship of thy tabrets and of
thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created. Thou art
the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon
the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the
stones of fire.” Verses 12-14.


    NOTE.—From this it is evident that Satan was a high and exalted
    angel before he fell, a masterpiece of wisdom and beauty. From the
    reference to his “tabrets” and “pipes” it seems probable that he
    was chorister of heaven, and led the angelic host in song. In the
    earthly sanctuary the cherubim overshadowed the mercy-seat. Ex.
    25:16-22; Heb. 9:3-5; Ps. 99:1.


6. What unholy, ambitious spirit took possession of Satan, and led to his
fall?

“For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will
exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of
the congregation, in the sides of the north: I will ascend above the
heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High.” Isa. 14:13, 14.

7. Did pride also contribute to his fall?

“_Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty_, thou hast corrupted
thy wisdom by reason of thy _brightness_.” Eze. 28:17.

8. What does Solomon say precedes destruction and a fall?

“_Pride_ goeth before destruction, and _an haughty spirit_ before a fall.”
Prov. 16:18.

9. How does the prophet Isaiah describe Satan’s fall?

“How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art
thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!” Isa. 14:12.

10. Why was Satan cast from his high position?

“By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee
with violence, _and thou hast sinned_: therefore I will cast thee as
profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering
cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.” Eze. 28:16.

11. When cast out of the mountain of God, to what place were Satan and his
angels banished, to be kept till the judgment?

“For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but _cast them down to
hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness_, to be reserved unto
judgment.” 2 Peter 2:4.


    NOTE.—This, we understand, is the darkness surrounding this world,
    and is symbolic of the darkness of utter hopelessness and despair
    in rebellion and sin. When Satan led man to sin, darkness was
    brought upon this world. But God did not leave man to
    hopelessness. In His mercy and great love He caused “the light of
    the glorious gospel of Christ” to shine, to call men “out of
    darkness into His marvelous light.” That Satan and the angels who
    fell with him had a period of probation and opportunity to repent,
    there can be no doubt. Their fate is the result of stubborn
    rebellion and persistence in sin in spite of the overtures of
    mercy and the offers of pardon. For this they were cast out of
    heaven. The wicked angels are kept in everlasting chains of
    darkness.


12. How is the conflict which took place in heaven between Christ and
Satan described by the revelator?

“And there was war in heaven: Michael and His angels fought against the
dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, and prevailed not; neither
was their place found any more in heaven. And the great dragon was cast
out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the
whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out
with him.” Rev. 12:7-9.

13. In what terms did Christ refer to Satan’s fall?

“And He said unto them, _I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven_.”
Luke 10:18.

14. Has Satan ever appeared before God since his fall?

“Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves
before the Lord, _and Satan came also among them_.” Job 1:6. See also
chapter 2:1.

15. When asked whence he came, what was Satan’s reply?

“Then Satan answered the Lord, and said, _From going to and fro in the
earth, and from walking up and down in it_.” Job 1:7. See Job 2:2.


    NOTE.—By tempting man to sin, Satan usurped man’s dominion over
    the earth. Rom. 6:16; 2 Peter 2:19. This he now claims as his
    kingdom (Luke 4:6); hence the temptation in offering the kingdoms
    of this world to Christ. As the “god” and ruler of this world,
    Satan, for four thousand years before the crucifixion of Christ,
    appeared before God among the representatives of other worlds, as
    the representative of this world. After accomplishing the death of
    Christ, the Son of God, the sinless One, Satan was cast out of
    this council, or assembly, and has not been permitted to enter it
    since. This was his second fall, and the one, doubtless, to which
    Christ, just before His crucifixion, alluded when he said, “Now is
    the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be
    _cast out_.” John 12:31. His final fall and destruction are still
    future.


16. What has been the character of Satan since his fall?

“He that committeth sin is of the devil; for _the devil sinneth from the
beginning_.” 1 John 3:8.

17. Was he ever in the truth?

“Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do.
He was a murderer from the beginning, and _abode not in the truth_,
because there is no truth in him.” John 8:44.


    NOTE.—The expression “_abode_ not in the truth” implies that Satan
    was once _in_ the truth, but that he did not _remain_ there.


18. What is the only “beginning” of which we have record?

“In the beginning God _created the heaven and the earth_.” Gen. 1:1.

19. What besides a _murderer_ did Christ say Satan is?

“When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for _he is a liar, and
the father of it_.” John 8:44.

20. What did God tell Adam and Eve would be the result if they
transgressed by partaking of the forbidden fruit?

“Thou shalt _surely die_.” Gen. 2:17.

21. What did Satan say to Eve concerning this?

“And the serpent said unto the woman, _Ye shall __NOT__ surely die_.” Gen.
3:4.


    NOTE.—This, as far as the record shows, was _the first lie_,—a
    direct denial of the word of God. By persuading Eve to accept and
    believe it, Satan led our first parents to _commit sin_; and, as
    “the wages of sin is _death_,” by it, also, he caused their
    _death_, and so became, in reality, _the first murderer_. A lie,
    therefore, is a twin brother to murder, and one of the most
    hateful things to God, the “God of _truth_.” See Prov. 6:16-19.
    “The lip of truth shall be established forever: but a lying tongue
    is but for a moment.” Prov. 12:19. “All liars shall have their
    part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone.” Rev.
    21:8. See also Rev. 21:27; 22:15.


22. What has been the result of sin’s entrance into the world?

“By one man sin entered into the world, and _death by sin_.” Rom. 5:12.
“By one man’s disobedience _many were made sinners_.” Verse 19. “_The
whole world lieth in wickedness._” 1 John 5:19. “In Adam _all die_.” 1
Cor. 15:22.

23. When Christ came to redeem man, what did Satan do?

“And immediately the Spirit driveth Him into the wilderness. And He was
there in the wilderness forty days, _tempted of Satan_.” Mark 1:12, 13.
See also Matt. 4:1-11.

24. How severely was Christ tempted of Satan?

“For we have not an High Priest which cannot be touched with the feeling
of our infirmities; but was _in all points tempted like as we are_, yet
without sin.” Heb. 4:15.

25. What has the church suffered since the days of Christ?

“And when the dragon [Satan] saw that he was cast unto the earth, _he
persecuted the woman_ [_the church_].” Rev. 12:13.


    NOTE.—Many millions of the people of God have been put to death
    since the beginning of the Christian era, under pagan and papal
    persecutions, all of which have been instigated by Satan. See
    Buck’s Theological Dictionary, any commentary or church history on
    the subject of persecution, and the readings on pages 218, 264,
    268, 491.


26. Is the remnant church to feel his wrath, and why?

“And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the
remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the
testimony of Jesus Christ.” Verse 17.

27. How will Satan deceive men in the last days?

“And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth _by the means of those
miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast_.” Rev. 13:14.


    NOTE.—This, we understand, refers to Spiritualistic manifestations
    and miracles to be wrought to fasten men in error and deception.
    See readings on pages 530, 533.


28. What will influence the nations to gather for the great battle of
Armageddon?

“They are _the spirits of devils_, working miracles, which go forth unto
the kings of the earth and of the whole world, _to gather them to the
battle of that great day of God Almighty_.” Rev. 16:14.

29. Why will men be allowed thus to fall under the delusion of Satan?

“_Because they received not the love of the truth_, that they might be
saved. _And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they
should believe a lie_: that they all might be damned who believed not the
truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.” 2 Thess. 2:10-12. See 1 Kings
22:20-23.

30. For how long is Satan to be bound at the second advent?

“And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the
bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold on the
dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and _bound him a
thousand years_.” Rev. 20:1, 2.

31. What is to take place at the close of the thousand years?

“And when the thousand years are expired, _Satan shall be loosed out of
his prison_, and shall _go out to deceive the nations_ which are in the
four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, _to gather them together to
battle_: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea.” Verses 7, 8.


    NOTE.—Satan’s evil career began in rebellion against God in
    heaven, and ends in rebellion against Him on earth.


32. As Satan and his host compass the camp of the saints, what will take
place?

“And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of
the saints about, and the beloved city: and _fire came down from God out
of heaven, and devoured them_.” Verse 9.

33. What is to be Satan’s final doom?

“_I will bring thee to ashes upon the earth_ in the sight of all them that
behold thee. All they that know thee among the people shall be astonished
at thee: thou shalt be a terror, and _never shalt thou be any more_.” Eze.
28:18, 19.


    NOTE.—A gladsome thought! Satan, sin, and sinners are finally to
    come to an end, and be no more. Then God will have a clean
    universe.


34. Why did Christ partake of our nature?

“Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, He also
Himself likewise took part of the same; _that through death He might
destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil_.” Heb. 2:14.

35. What exhortations are given to Christians in view of Satan’s hatred
against God and all that is good?

“_Be sober, be vigilant_; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring
lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour: whom _resist steadfast in
the faith_.” 1 Peter 5:8, 9. “_Resist the devil_, and he will flee from
you.” James 4:7.

36. With what weapon did Christ successfully meet Satan’s temptations?

The Word of God. “_It is written, ... It is written, ... It is written._”
Matt. 4:4-10.


    NOTE.—The Word of God is the “sword of the Spirit.” Eph. 6:17. If
    Christ met and vanquished the enemy with this, so also may we. But
    no one can use it who is unfamiliar with it. How important, then,
    that we search, study, and know it! See first readings in this
    book, and reading on “Importance of Sound Doctrine,” page 127.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Gracious Father, guard Thy children
      From the foe’s destructive power;
    Save, O save them, Lord, from falling
      In this dark and trying hour!
    Thou wilt surely prove Thy people,
      All our graces must be tried;
    But Thy Word illumes our pathway,
      And in God we still confide.



What Is Man?


                             [Illustration.]

Sea Of Galilee. "And the Lord ... breathed into his nostrils the breath of
              life; and man became a living soul." Gen. 2:7.


1. In what condition was man created?

“Thou madest him _a little lower than the angels_.” Ps. 8:5.

2. What will be the final condition of the righteous?

“_Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels_; and
are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.” Luke
20:35, 36.

3. What are angels called?

“And of the angels He saith, Who maketh His angels _spirits_, and His
ministers a flame of fire.” Heb. 1:7.

4. What is the difference between the two Adams?

“The first man Adam was made _a living soul_; the last Adam was made _a
quickening spirit_.” 1 Cor. 15:45.

5. Are our present bodies natural or spiritual?

“Howbeit that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural;
and afterward that which is spiritual.” Verse 46.

6. When will the righteous have spiritual bodies?

“It is sown a natural body; _it is raised a spiritual body_. There is a
natural body, and there is a spiritual body.” Verse 44.

7. To what does the sowing here spoken of refer?

“That which thou sowest is not quickened, except it _die_.” Verse 36.


    NOTE.—Man does not now possess the undying, spiritual nature of
    the angels, except as he holds it by faith in Christ; nor will he
    until the resurrection. Then, if righteous, he will be made
    immortal, and he cannot die any more (Luke 20:36), because he will
    be “_equal unto the angels_.”


8. How is man’s nature defined?

“Shall _mortal man_ be more just than God?” Job 4:17.


    _Mortal_: “Subject to death.”—_Webster._


9. What is God’s nature?

“Now unto the King _eternal, immortal, invisible_, the only wise God, be
honor and glory forever and ever. Amen.” 1 Tim. 1:17.


    _Immortal_: “Exempt from liability to die.”—_Webster._


10. Of what was man formed in the beginning?

“And the Lord God formed man _of the dust of the ground_.” Gen. 2:7, first
part.

11. What act made him a living soul?

“And [God] _breathed into his nostrils the breath of life_; and man became
a living soul.” Same verse, last part.


    NOTES.—The living soul was not put _into_ the man; but the breath
    of _life_ which was put into man, made _him_—the man, made of the
    earth—a _living_ soul, or creature.

    The original for “living soul” in this text is _nephesh chaiyah_.
    On the use of this expression in Gen. 1:24, translated “living
    creature,” Dr. Adam Clarke says: “A general term to express all
    creatures endued with animal life, in any of its infinitely varied
    gradations, from the half-reasoning elephant down to the stupid
    potto, or lower still, to the polyp, which seems equally to share
    the vegetable and animal life.”


12. Are other creatures besides man called “living souls”?

“And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea; and it became as
the blood of a dead man: and _every living soul died in the sea_.” Rev.
16:3. See also Gen. 1:30, margin.

13. Do others besides man have the “breath of life”?

“And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of _fowl_, and of
_cattle_, and of _beast_, and of _every creeping thing_ that creepeth upon
the earth, and every man: _all in whose nostrils was the breath of life_.”
Gen. 7:21, 22.

14. Is their breath the same as man’s?

“As the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, _they have all one breath_; so
that a man hath no preeminence above a beast: for all is vanity.” Eccl.
3:19.


    NOTE.—That is, here men, as well as beasts, die. This present
    life, with them, as with the rest of the animal creation, is
    dependent upon their breath. When this is gone, they, the same as
    beasts, die. In this respect they have no preeminence over beasts.
    But men have a future unending life held out before them, and may,
    if they will, die in hope of eternal life, which is a very great
    preeminence over the rest of the animal creation.


15. What does Job call that which God breathed into man’s nostrils?

“All the while my breath is in me, and _the spirit of God is in my
nostrils_.” Job 27:3.

16. When man gives up this spirit, what becomes of it?

“Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: and _the spirit shall
return unto God who gave it_.” Eccl. 12:7.


    NOTE.—That is, the spirit of life by which man lives, and which is
    only lent him of God, at death goes back to the great Author of
    life. Having come from Him, it belongs to God, and man can have it
    eternally only as a gift from God, through Jesus Christ. Rom.
    6:23. When the spirit goes back to God, the dust, from which man
    was made a “living soul” in the beginning, goes back _as it was_,
    to the earth, and the individual no longer exists as a living,
    conscious, thinking being, except as he exists in the mind, plan,
    and purpose of God through Christ and the resurrection. In this
    sense “all live unto Him” (Luke 20:38), for all are to be raised
    from the dead. See John 5:28, 29; Acts 24:15; Rom. 4:17.


17. Who only have hold of the life eternal?

“_He that hath the Son hath life_; and _he that hath not the Son of God
hath not life_.” 1 John 5:12.


    NOTE.—The veriest sinner has this temporal life; but when he
    yields up this life, he has no prospect nor promise of the life
    eternal. That can be received only through Christ.


18. Why was Adam driven from the garden of Eden and excluded from the tree
of life?

“And now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life,
and eat, and _live forever_.” Gen. 3:22.

19. What was done to keep man away from the tree of life?

“So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden
cherubim, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of
the tree of life.” Verse 24.

20. How are all men in the natural state regarded?

“We all ... were by nature _the children of wrath_, even as others.” Eph.
2:3.

21. If the wrath of God _abides_ on a person, of what does it deprive him?

“He that believeth not the Son _shall not see life_; but the wrath of God
abideth on him.” John 3:36.

22. Through whom is the sinner saved from wrath?

“Much more then, being now justified by His blood, we shall be saved from
wrath _through Him_.” Rom. 5:9.

23. With whom is the Christian’s future life hid?

“For ye are dead [to sin], and your life is _hid with Christ in God_.”
Col. 3:3.

24. When will this life be bestowed upon the believer?

“_When Christ, who is our life, shall appear_, then shall ye also appear
with Him in glory.” Verse 4.


    NOTE.—The word _immortal_ occurs but once in the English Bible (1
    Tim. 1:17), and is there applied to God.


25. Who only possesses inherent immortality?

“Who is the blessed and only potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of
lords; _who only hath immortality_.” 1 Tim. 6:15, 16.


    NOTE.—God is the only Being who possesses original life or
    immortality in Himself. All others must receive it from God. See
    John 5:26; 6:27; 10:10, 27, 28; Rom. 6:23; 1 John 5:11.


26. Through whom has immortality been brought to light?

“But is now made manifest by the appearing of _our Saviour Jesus Christ,
who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light
through the gospel_.” 2 Tim. 1:10.

27. To whom is eternal life promised?

“To them who by patient continuance in well-doing _seek for glory and
honor and immortality_, eternal life.” Rom. 2:7.


    NOTE.—One does not need to seek for a thing which he already
    possesses. The fact that we are to seek for immortality is proof
    in itself that we do not now possess it.


28. When will the faithful be changed to immortality?

“Behold, I show you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but _we shall all
be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump_:
for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible,
and we shall be changed.” 1 Cor. 15:51, 52.

29. What is then to be swallowed up?

“So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal
shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying
that is written, _Death is swallowed up in victory_.” Verse 54. See verse
57.



Life Only In Christ


                             [Illustration.]

 Moses Smiting The Rock. "They drank of that spiritual Rock that followed
                           them." 1 Cor. 10:4.


1. What is the wages of sin?

“The wages of sin is _death_.” Rom. 6:23.

2. Through whom only is there salvation from sin?

“_Neither is there salvation in any other_: for there is none other name
under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.” Acts 4:12.


    NOTE.—If men do not die, why should Christ die to save them from
    death? And what need of the resurrection and the second advent?


3. Why did God send His only begotten Son to this world?

“That whosoever believeth in Him should not _perish_, but have
_everlasting life_.” John 3:16.

4. What does Christ declare Himself to be?

“I am the way, the truth, and _the life_.” John 14:6.

5. What does He say He gives to those who follow Him?

“My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me: and _I give
unto them eternal life_; and they shall never perish, neither shall any
man pluck them out of My hand.” John 10:27, 28.

6. Upon what is the possession of this life conditioned?

“Except ye _eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood_, ye have
no life in you.” John 6:53.

7. In whom is the life eternal?

“And this is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, _and this
life is in His Son_.” 1 John 5:11.

8. Who only have this life?

“_He that hath the Son hath life_; and he that hath not the Son of God
hath not life.” Verse 12. “_He that heareth My word, and believeth on Him
that sent Me, hath everlasting life_, and shall not come into
condemnation; but is passed from death unto life.” John 5:24.

9. What is Christ therefore fittingly called?

“When Christ, who is _our life_, shall appear, then shall ye also appear
with Him in glory.” Col. 3:4.

                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    There is a fountain filled with blood,
      Drawn from Immanuel’s veins;
    And sinners plunged beneath that flood
      Lose all their guilty stains.

    The dying thief rejoiced to see
      That fountain in his day;
    And there may I, though vile as he,
      Wash all my sins away.

    Thou dying Lamb! Thy precious blood
      Shall never lose its power,
    Till all the ransomed church of God
      Are saved, to sin no more.

    E’er since by faith I saw the stream
      Thy flowing wounds supply,
    Redeeming love has been my theme,
      And shall be till I die.

    Lord, I believe Thou hast prepared,
      Unworthy though I be,
    For me a blood-bought, free reward—
      Eternal life for me.

    There in a nobler, sweeter song,
      I’ll sing Thy power to save,
    When this poor lisping, stam’ring tongue
      Is ransomed from the grave.

    WILLIAM COWPER.



The Intermediate State


                             [Illustration.]

  The Burial Of Sarah. "If I wait, the grave is mine house." Job 17:13.


1. By what figure does the Bible represent death?

“But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which
are _asleep_, that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope.” 1
Thess. 4:13. See also 1 Cor. 15:18, 20; John 11:11-14.


    NOTE.—In sound sleep one is wholly lost to consciousness; time
    goes by unmeasured; and the mental functions which are active
    during consciousness are suspended for the time being.


2. Where do the dead sleep?

“And many of them that _sleep in the dust of the earth_ shall awake.” Dan.
12:2. See also Eccl. 3:20; 9:10.

3. How long will they sleep there?

“So man lieth down, and riseth not: _till the heavens be no more_, they
shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep.” Job 14:12.

4. For what did Job say he would wait after death?

“If a man die, shall he live again? all the days of my appointed time will
I wait, _till my change come_.” Verse 14.

5. Where did he say he would wait?

“_If I wait, the grave is mine house_: I have made my bed in the
darkness.” Job 17:13.

6. While in this condition, how much does one know about those he has left
behind?

“His sons come to honor, and _he knoweth it not_; and they are brought
low, but _he perceiveth it not of them_.” Job 14:21.

7. What becomes of man’s thoughts at death?

“His breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth; _in that very day his
thoughts perish_.” Ps. 146:4.

8. Do the dead know _anything_?

“For the living know that they shall die: _but the dead know not
anything_, neither have they any more a reward; for the memory of them is
forgotten.” Eccl. 9:5.

9. Do they take any part in earthly things?

“Also their _love_, and their _hatred_, and their _envy_, is now
_perished; neither have they any more a portion forever in anything that
is done under the sun_.” Verse 6.


    NOTE.—If one continued in consciousness after death, he would know
    of the promotion or dishonor of his sons. But Job says he does not
    know this. Not only so, but in death one loses all the attributes
    of mind,—love, hatred, envy, etc. Thus it is plain that his
    thoughts have perished, and that he can have nothing more to do
    with the things of this world. But if, as taught and held by some,
    man’s powers of thought continue after death, he _lives_; and if
    he lives, he must be _somewhere_. Where is he? Is he in heaven, or
    in hell? If he goes to either place at death, what then is the
    need of a future judgment, or of a resurrection, or of the second
    coming of Christ? If the judgment does not take place at death,
    but men go to their reward at death, then their _rewards_ precede
    their _awards_, and there would arise the possibility that some
    have at death gone to the wrong place, and must needs be sent to
    the other, after having been in bliss or torment for ages,
    perhaps.


10. What does the psalmist say about the dead praising God?

“_The dead praise not the Lord_, neither any that go down into silence.”
Ps. 115:17.

11. How much does one know of God when dead?

“For in death _there is no remembrance of Thee_.” Ps. 6:5.


    NOTE.—There is not even a remembrance of God. As already seen, the
    Bible everywhere represents the dead as _asleep_. If they were in
    heaven or in hell, would it be fitting to represent them thus? Was
    Lazarus, whom Jesus loved, in heaven when the Saviour said, “Our
    friend Lazarus _sleepeth_”? John 11:11. If so, calling him to life
    was really robbing him of the bliss of heaven that rightly
    belonged to him. The parable of the rich man and Lazarus, recorded
    in Luke 16, was given to teach, not consciousness in death, but
    that in the judgment riches will avail nothing unless rightly and
    beneficently used, and that poverty will not keep one out of
    heaven.


12. But are not the righteous dead in heaven?

“For _David is not ascended into the heavens_.” Acts 2:34.

13. What must take place before the dead can praise God?

“Thy dead men shall live, together with My dead body shall they arise.
_Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust_: for thy dew is as the dew of
herbs, and the earth shall cast out the dead.” Isa. 26:19.

14. When did David say he would be satisfied?

“As for me, I will behold Thy face in righteousness: I shall be satisfied,
_when I awake, with Thy likeness_.” Ps. 17:15.

15. Were there to be no resurrection of the dead, what would be the
condition of those fallen asleep in Christ?

“For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised: and if Christ be not
raised, your faith is vain; ye are yet in your sins. _Then they also which
are fallen asleep in Christ are perished._” 1 Cor. 15:16-18.

16. When is the resurrection of the righteous to take place?

“For _the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven_ with a shout, with the
voice of the Archangel, and with the trump of God: _and the dead in Christ
shall rise first_.” 1 Thess. 4:16.


    NOTES.—If, as stated in Eccl. 9:5, the dead know not anything,
    then they have no knowledge of the lapse of time. “Six thousand
    years in the grave to a dead man is no more than a wink of the eye
    to the living.” To them, consciousness, our only means of
    measuring time, is gone; and it will seem to them when they awake
    that absolutely no time has elapsed. And herein lies a most
    comforting thought in the Bible doctrine of the sleep of the dead,
    that in death there is no consciousness of the passing of time. To
    those who sleep in Jesus, their sleep, whether long or short,
    whether one year, one thousand years, or six thousand years, will
    be but as if the moment of sad parting were followed instantly by
    the glad reunion in the presence of Jesus at His glorious
    appearing and the resurrection of the just.

    It ought also to be a comforting thought to those whose lives have
    been filled with anxiety and grief for deceased loved ones who
    persisted in sin, to know that they are not now suffering in
    torments, but, with all the rest of the dead, are quietly sleeping
    in their graves. Job 3:17.

    Again, it would mar the felicity of one’s enjoyment in heaven
    could he look upon earth and see his friends and relatives
    suffering from persecution, want, cold, or hunger, or sorrowing
    for the dead. God’s way is best,—that all sentient life,
    animation, activity, thought, and consciousness should cease at
    death, and that all should wait till the resurrection for their
    future life and eternal reward. See Heb. 11:39, 40.


                  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐


    Sleep on, beloved! sleep, and take thy rest;
    Lay down thy head upon thy Saviour’s breast.
    We love thee well, but Jesus loves thee best—
                Good night.



The Two Resurrections


                             [Illustration.]

            Christ’s Second Coming. Descent Of The Holy City.


1. What comes to all men as the result of the fall?

“In Adam _all die_.” 1 Cor. 15:22. See also Rom. 5:12.

2. Where do all go at death?

“All go unto _one place_; all are of _the dust_, and _all turn to dust
again_.” Eccl. 3:20.

3. In what condition is man while in the grave?

“Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might; for _there is no
work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave, whither thou
goest_.” Eccl. 9:10.


    NOTE.—That is, man, when dead, has no use of the powers of mind or
    body. He cannot, therefore, while in the grave, praise God, or
    even think of Him (Ps. 6:5); for in the day he dies his thoughts
    perish. Ps. 146:2-4. See preceding reading.


4. What has been promised in order that man may be redeemed from this
condition?

“_I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from
death_: O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy
destruction.” Hosea 13:14.

5. Through whom will come this redemption from the grave?

“For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the
dead. For as in Adam all die, _even so in Christ shall all be made
alive_.” 1 Cor. 15:21, 22.

6. What would have been the result to the dead had not Christ procured
their release from the grave?

“For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised: and if Christ be not
raised, your faith is vain; ye are yet in your sins. Then _they also which
are fallen asleep in Christ are perished_.” Verses 16-18.

7. Why did God give His only begotten Son to the world?

“For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, _that
whosoever believeth in Him should not perish_, but have everlasting life.”
John 3:16.

8. What did the Sadducees in Christ’s time deny?

“Then came to Him certain of the Sadducees, _which deny that there is any
resurrection_.” Luke 20:27.

9. How did Christ, from the Old Testament Scriptures, prove the
resurrection?

“Now that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he
calleth the Lord the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of
Jacob. For He is not a God of the dead, but of the living: for all live
unto Him.” Verses 37, 38.


    NOTE.—That is, in view of the resurrection—of the fact that there
    is to be a resurrection—all live unto God. In His purpose, all are
    alive. It is in this sense that Paul speaks of God as the one “who
    quickeneth the dead, and _calleth those things which be not as
    though they were_.” Rom. 4:17.


10. Under what illustration from nature are the resurrection and the final
salvation of the righteous taught?

“_That which thou sowest_ is not quickened, except it die.” 1 Cor. 15:36.
“Verily, verily, I say unto you, _Except a corn of wheat fall into the
ground and die_, it abideth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth much
fruit.” John 12:24.


    NOTES.—The seed dies to spring forth into new life. In this we are
    taught the lesson of the resurrection. All who love God will
    spring forth to life, and live again through endless ages in the
    earth made new.

    _The Open Grave._—The truth of the resurrection has been forcibly
    illustrated by the following incident: In the city of Hanover,
    Germany, is a grave known as “The open grave.” It is that of a
    woman, an infidel German princess, who died over one hundred years
    ago, and who, on her death-bed, gave orders that her grave should
    be covered with a great marble slab, weighing perhaps a ton,
    surmounting solid blocks of stone firmly bound together with
    clasps of iron, with this inscription placed on the lowermost
    stone of the tomb: “This grave purchased for eternity, must never
    be opened.” But no human device can thwart the plans of God, or
    hinder the workings of life from Him. It happened, providentially
    no doubt, that a birch-tree seed was buried with the princess.
    Soon it began to sprout. Its tiny shoot, soft and pliable at
    first, found its way up through the ponderous stones of the
    massive masonry. Slowly and imperceptibly, but with irresistible
    power, it grew, until at last it burst the bands of iron asunder,
    and opened this never-to-be-opened grave, leaving not a single
    stone in its original position. See illustration on page 498. What
    a rebuke to infidelity! and what a mute but striking promise that,
    erelong, in God’s own time, all graves shall be opened, and the
    sleeping ones awake from their dusty beds!


                             [Illustration.]

The Raising Of Lazarus. "I am the Resurrection, and the Life." John 11:25.


11. Where are the dead when they hear the voice of Christ calling them to
life?

“Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are _in
the graves_ shall hear His voice, and shall come forth.” John 5:28, 29.

12. How many distinct classes will have a resurrection?

“There shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the _just_ and
_unjust_.” Acts 24:15.

13. By what terms did Christ refer to the two resurrections?

“All that are in the graves shall hear His voice, and shall come forth;
they that have done good, unto _the resurrection of life_; and they that
have done evil, unto _the resurrection of damnation_.” John 5:28, 29.

14. When will the resurrection of the just occur?

“For _the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout_, with the
voice of the Archangel, and with the trump of God: _and the dead in Christ
shall rise first_.” 1 Thess. 4:16. See also 1 Cor. 15:23.

15. When are the righteous to be recompensed?

“For thou shalt be recompensed _at the resurrection of the just_.” Luke
14:14.

16. In what condition did David expect to rise?

“As for me, I will behold Thy face in righteousness: I shall be satisfied,
_when I awake, with Thy likeness_.” Ps. 17:15.

17. What great contrast will be seen between the present body and the one
to be put on in the resurrection?

“So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in _corruption_; it
is raised in _incorruption_: it is sown in _dishonor_; it is raised in
_glory_: it is sown in _weakness_; it is raised in _power_: it is sown a
_natural body_; it is raised a _spiritual body_.” 1 Cor. 15:42-44.

18. After whose body will these resurrected ones be fashioned?

“We look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ: who shall change our vile
body, that it may be fashioned _like unto His glorious body_.” Phil. 3:20,
21.

19. What will the righteous do upon rising from the grave?

“Thy dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall they arise.
_Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust_: for thy dew is as the dew of
herbs, and the earth shall cast out the dead.” Isa. 26:19.

20. In what words will their triumph over death and the grave be
expressed?

“O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?” 1 Cor.
15:55.

21. How long will they live?

“_Neither can they die any more_: for they are equal unto the angels; and
are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.” Luke
20:36.

22. How long do the other class wait after the first resurrection before
they are raised?

“And they [the righteous] lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.
_But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were
finished._” Rev. 20:4, 5.

23. What is to be their fate?

“And fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them.” Verse 9.

24. Who are to share this fate?

“But the _fearful_, and _unbelieving_, and the _abominable_, and
_murderers_, and _whoremongers_, and _sorcerers_, and _idolaters_, and
_all liars_, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and
brimstone: which is the second death.” Rev. 21:8.

25. What is the last enemy to be destroyed?

“The last enemy that shall be destroyed is _death_.” 1 Cor. 15:26. See
Rev. 20:13, 14.

26. How will the righteous ever afterward appear?

“Then shall the righteous _shine forth as the sun_ in the kingdom of their
Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.” Matt. 13:43.



Fate Of The Transgressor


                             [Illustration.]

 The Giving Of The Law. "Sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death."
                               James 1:15.


1. What question does Peter ask regarding the wicked?

“For the time is come that judgment must begin at the house of God: and if
it first begin at us, _what shall the end be of them that obey not the
gospel of God_?” 1 Peter 4:17.

2. What does the Bible say is the wages of sin?

“For the wages of sin is _death_.” Rom. 6:23. “The soul that sinneth, it
shall _die_.” Eze. 18:4.


    _Die_: “To pass from physical life; to suffer a total and
    irreparable loss of action of the vital functions; to become dead;
    to expire; perish.”—_Webster._


3. What will be the character of this death?

“Who shall be punished wit