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Title: Trees of the Northern United States - Their Study, Description and Determination
Author: Apgar, A. C. (Austin Craig), 1838-1908
Language: English
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"Trees are God's Architecture."--_Anonymous._
"A Student who has learned to observe and describe so simple a
matter as the form of a leaf has gained a power which will be
of lifetime value, whatever may be his sphere of professional
employment."--_Wm. North Rice._


Copyright, 1892, by the

W. P. 3.


This book has been prepared with the idea that teachers generally would
be glad to introduce into their classes work dealing with the real
objects of nature, provided the work chosen were of a character that
would admit of its being studied at all seasons and in all localities,
and that the subject were one of general interest, and one that could be
taught successfully by those who have had no regular scientific

The trees of our forests, lawns, yards, orchards, streets, borders, and
parks give us just such a department. Though many consider a large part
of the vegetable kingdom of little importance, and unworthy of any
serious study, there are few who do not admire, and fewer still who do
not desire to know, our trees, the monarchs of all living things.

The difficulty in tree study by the aid of the usual botanies lies
mainly in the fact that in using them the first essential parts to be
examined are the blossoms and their organs. These remain on the trees a
very short time, are often entirely unnoticed on account of their small
size or obscure color, and are usually inaccessible even if seen. In
this book the leaves, the wood, the bark, and, in an elementary way, the
fruit are the parts to which the attention is directed; these all can be
found and studied throughout the greater part of the year, and are just
the parts that must be thoroughly known by all who wish to learn to
recognize trees.

Though every teacher is at liberty to use the book as he thinks best,
the author, who has been a class teacher for over twenty years, is of
the opinion that but little of Part I. need be thoroughly studied and
recited, with the exception of Chapter III. on leaves. The object of
this chapter is not to have the definitions recited (the recitation of
definitions in school work is often useless or worse than useless), but
to teach the pupil to use the terms properly and to make them a portion
of his vocabulary. The figures on pages 38-43 are designed for class
description, and for the application of botanical words. The first time
the chapter is studied the figure illustrating the term should be
pointed out by the pupil; then, as a review of the whole chapter, the
student should be required to give a full description of each leaf.

After this work with Chapter III., and the careful reading of the whole
of Part I., the pupils can begin the description of trees, and, as the
botanical words are needed, search can be made for them under the proper
heads or in the Glossary.

The Keys are for the use of those who know nothing of scientific botany.
The advanced botanist may think them too artificial and easy; but let
him remember that this work was written for the average teacher who has
had no strictly scientific training. We can hardly expect that the great
majority of people will ever become scientific in any line, but it is
possible for nearly every one to become interested in and fully
acquainted with the trees of his neighborhood.

The attainment of such botanical knowledge by the plan given in this
volume will not only accomplish this useful purpose, but will do what is
worth far more to the student, _i.e._, teach him to employ his own
senses in the investigation of natural objects, and to use his own
powers of language in their description.

With hardly an exception, the illustrations in the work are taken from
original drawings from nature by the author. A few of the scales of
pine-cones were copied from London's "Encyclopædia of Trees"; some of
the Retinospora cones were taken from the "Gardener's Chronicle"; and
three of the illustrations in Part I. are from Professor Gray's works.

The size of the illustration as compared with the specimen of plant is
indicated by a fraction near it; ¼ indicates that the drawing is one
fourth as long as the original, 1/1 that it is natural size, etc. The
notching of the margin is reduced to the same extent; so a margin which
in the engraving looks about entire, might in the leaf be quite
distinctly serrate. The only cases in which the scale is not given are
in the cross-sections of the leaves among the figures of coniferous
plants. These are uniformly three times the natural size, except the
section of Araucaria imbricata, which is not increased in scale.

The author has drawn from every available source of information, and in
the description of many of the species no attempt whatever has been made
to change the excellent wording of such authors as Gray, Loudon, etc.

The ground covered by the book is that of the wild and cultivated trees
found east of the Rocky Mountains, and north of the southern boundary of
Virginia and Missouri. It contains not only the native species, but all
those that are successfully cultivated in the whole region; thus
including all the species of Ontario, Quebec, etc., on the north, and
many species, both wild and cultivated, of the Southern States and the
Pacific coast. In fact, the work will be found to contain so large a
proportion of the trees of the Southern States as to make it very useful
in the schools of that section.

Many shrubby plants are introduced; some because they occasionally grow
quite tree-like, others because they can readily be trimmed into
tree-forms, others because they grow very tall, and still others because
they are trees in the Southern States.

In nomenclature a conservative course has been adopted. The most
extensively used text-book on the subject of Botany, "Gray's Manual,"
has recently been rewritten. That work includes every species, native
and naturalized, of the region covered by this book, and the names as
given in that edition have been used in all cases.

Scientific names are marked so as to indicate the pronunciation. The
vowel of the accented syllable is marked by the grave accent (`) if
long, and by the acute (´) if short.

In the preparation of this book the author has received much valuable
aid. His thanks are especially due to the authorities of the Arnold
Arboretum, Boston, Massachusetts, and of the Missouri Botanical Garden,
St. Louis, for information in regard to the hardiness of species; to Mr.
John H. Redfield, of the Botanical Department of the Philadelphia
Academy of Natural Sciences, for books, specimens from which to make
illustrations, etc.; and to Dr. A. C. Stokes, of Trenton, New Jersey,
for assistance in many ways, but especially for the accurate manner in
which he has inked the illustrations from the author's pencil-drawings.

The author also wishes to acknowledge the help received from many
nurserymen in gathering specimens for illustration and in giving
information of great value. Among these, special thanks are due to Mr.
Samuel C. Moon, of Morrisville Nurseries, who placed his large
collection of living specimens at the author's disposal, and in many
other ways gave him much intelligent aid.



  CHAPTER I. Roots                                                     9

  CHAPTER II. Stems and Branches                                      11

  CHAPTER III. Leaves                                                 17

  CHAPTER IV. Flowers and Fruit                                       24

  CHAPTER V. Winter Study of Trees                                    29

  CHAPTER VI. The Preparation of a Collection                         35

  CHAPTER VII. Figures to be used in Botanical Description            38



       *       *       *       *       *


INDEX TO PART III                                                213-224






Though but little study of the roots of trees is practicable, some
knowledge of their forms, varieties, and parts is important.

The great office of the roots of all plants is the taking in of food
from the soil. Thick or fleshy roots, such as the radish, are stocks of
food prepared for the future growth of the plant, or for the production
of flowers and fruit. The thick roots of trees are designed mainly for
their secure fastening in the soil. The real mouths by which the food is
taken in are the minute tips of the hair-like roots found over the
surface of the smaller branches. As trees especially need a strong
support, they all have either a _tap-root_--one large root extending
from the lower end of the trunk deep down into the ground; or _multiple
roots_--a number of large roots mainly extending outward from the base
of the trunk.

Trees with large tap-roots are very hard to transplant, and cannot with
safety be transferred after they have attained any real size. The
Hickories and Oaks belong to this class.

Trees having multiple roots are readily transplanted, even when large.
The Maples and Elms are of this class.

Roots that grow from the root-end of the embryo of the seed are called
_primary roots_; those growing from slips or from stems anywhere are
_secondary roots_.

Some trees grow luxuriantly with only secondary roots; such trees can
readily be raised from stems placed in the ground. The Willows and
Poplars are good examples of this group. Other trees need all the
strength that primary roots can give them; these have to be raised from
seed. Peach-trees are specially good examples, but practically most
trees are best raised from seed.

A few trees can be easily raised from root-cuttings or from suckers
which grow up from roots. The Ailanthus, or "Tree of Heaven," is best
raised in this way. Of this tree there are three kinds, two of which
have disagreeable odors when in bloom, but the other is nearly odorless.
By using the roots or the suckers of the third kind, only those which
would be pleasant to have in a neighborhood would be obtained. One of
the large cities of the United States has in its streets thousands of
the most displeasing of these varieties and but few of the right sort,
all because the nurseryman who originally supplied the city used
root-cuttings from the disagreeable kind.

If such trees were raised from the seed, only about one third would be
desirable, and their character could be determined only when they had
reached such a size as to produce fruit, when it would be too late to
transplant them. Fruit-trees, when raised from the seed, have to be
grafted with the desired variety in order to secure good fruit when they
reach the bearing age.


_Stems and Branches._

The stem is the distinguishing characteristic of trees, separating them
from all other groups of plants. Although in the region covered by this
book the trees include all the very large plants, size alone does not
make a tree.

A plant with a single trunk of woody structure that does not branch for
some distance above the ground, is called a _tree_. Woody plants that
branch directly above the soil, even though they grow to the height of
twenty feet or more, are called _shrubs_, or, in popular language,
_bushes_. Many plants which have a tendency to grow into the form of
shrubs may, by pruning, be forced to grow tree-like; some that are
shrubs in the northern States are trees further south.

All the trees that grow wild, or can be cultivated out of doors, in the
northern States belong to one class, the stems having a separable bark
on the outside, a minute stem of pith in the center, and, between these,
wood in annual layers. Such a stem is called _exogenous_
(outside-growing), because a new layer forms on the outside of the wood
each year.

Another kind of tree-stem is found abundantly in the tropics; one, the
Palmetto, grows from South Carolina to Florida. While in our region
there are no trees of this character, there are plants having this kind
of stem, the best illustration being the corn-stalk. In this case there
is no separable bark, and the woody substance is in threads within the
pithy material. In the corn-stalk the woody threads are not very
numerous, and the pith is very abundant; in most of the tropical trees
belonging to this group the threads of wood are so numerous as to make
the material very durable and fit for furniture. A stem of this kind is
called _endogenous_ (inside-growing). Fig. 1 represents a longitudinal
and a cross section of an exogenous stem, and Fig. 2 of an endogenous

[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.]

Since all the stems with which we have to deal are exogens, a particular
description of that class will here be given. Fig. 1 shows the
appearance of a section of an Ash stem six years old. The central
portion, which is about as thick as wrapping-twine, is the _pith_; from
this outward toward the bark can be seen the six annual layers of the
_wood_; and then comes the _bark_, consisting of two portions. First
there is an inside layer of greenish material, the fresh-growing
portion, and lastly the outer or dead matter. This outer portion must
crack open, peel off, or in some way give a chance for the constant
growth of the trunk. The different kinds of trees are readily known by
the appearance of the bark of the trunk, due to the many varieties of
surface caused by the allowance for growth. None of the characteristics
of trees afford a better opportunity for careful observation and study
than the outer bark.

The Birches have bark that peels off in thin horizontal layers--the
color, thinness, and toughness differing in the different species; the
Ashes have bark which opens in many irregular, netted cracks moderately
near each other; the bark of the Chestnut opens in large longitudinal
cracks quite distant from one another. The color of the bark and the
character of the scales are quite different in the White and the Black

In the woody portion radiating lines may be seen; these are the _silver
grain_; they are called by the botanist _medullary rays_.

The central portion of the wood of many large stems is darker in color
than the rest. This darker portion is dead wood, and is called
_heart-wood_; the outer portion, called _sap-wood_, is used in carrying
the sap during the growing season. The heart-wood of the Walnut-tree is
very dark brown; that of the Cherry, light red; and that of the Holly,
white and ivory-like. The heart-wood is the valuable part for lumber.

If examined under a magnifying glass, the _annual layers_ will be seen
to consist of minute tubes or cells. In most trees these tubes are much
larger in the portion that grew early in the season, while the wood
seems almost solid near the close of the annual layer; this is
especially true in the Ashes and the Chestnut; some trees, however, show
but little change in the size of the cells, the Beech being a good
example. In a cross-section, the age of such trees as the Chestnut can
readily be estimated, while in the Beech it is quite difficult to do
this. Boxwood, changing least in the character of its structure, is the
one always used for first-grade wood-engravings.

When wood is cut in the direction of the silver grain, or cut
"quartering" as it is called by the lumbermen, the surface shows this
cellular material spread out in strange blotches characteristic of the
different kinds of wood. Fig. 16 shows an Oak where the blotches of
medullary rays are large. In the Beech the blotches are smaller; in the
Elm quite small. Lumber cut carefully in this way is said to be
"quartered," and with most species its beauty is thereby much increased.

Any one who studies the matter carefully can become acquainted with all
the useful and ornamental woods used in a region; the differences in the
color of the heart-wood, the character of the annual layers, and the
size and the distribution of the medullary rays, afford enough
peculiarities to distinguish any one from all others.

BRANCHING.--The regular place from which a branch grows is the _axil_ of
a leaf, from what is called an _axillary bud_; but branches cannot grow
in the axils of all leaves. A tree with opposite leaves occasionally has
opposite branches; while a tree with alternate leaves has all its
branches alternate.

Most branches continue their growth year after year by the development
of a bud at the end, called a _terminal bud_. Many trees form this bud
for the next year's growth so early in the year that it is seldom or
never killed by the winter weather; such trees grow very regularly and
are symmetrical in form. Most evergreens are good examples. Fig. 3
represents a good specimen. The age of such trees, if not too great, can
be readily ascertained by the regularity of each year's growth. The tree
represented is sixteen years old. The branches that started the fifth
year, about the age at which regular growth begins, are shown by their
scars on the trunk.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.]

The terminal buds of many trees are frequently killed by the frosts of
winter; such trees continue their growth by the development of axillary
buds; but as growth from an axillary bud instead of a terminal one will
make a branch crooked, such trees are irregular in their branching and
outline. Just which axillary buds are most apt to grow depends upon the
kind of tree, but trees of the same variety are nearly uniform in this
respect. Most trees are therefore readily recognized by the form of
outline and the characteristic branching. A good example of a tree of
very irregular growth is the Catalpa (Indian Bean), shown in Fig. 4. The
tendency to grow irregularly usually increases with age. The Buttonwood,
for example, grows quite regularly until it reaches the age of thirty to
forty years; then its new branches grow in peculiarly irregular ways.
The twigs of a very old and a young Apple-tree illustrate this change
which age produces.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.]

There are great differences in the color and surface of the bark of the
twigs of different species of trees; some are green (Sassafras), some
red (Peach, on the sunny side), some purple (Cherry). Some are smooth
and dotless, some marked with dots (Birch), some roughened with corky
ridges (Sweet Gum), etc.

The taste and odor of the bark are characteristics worthy of notice: the
strong, fragrant odor of the Spice-bush; the fetid odor of the Papaw;
the aromatic taste of the Sweet Birch; the bitter taste of the Peach;
the mucilaginous Slippery Elm; the strong-scented, resinous, aromatic
Walnut, etc.

The branches of trees vary greatly in the thickness of their tips and in
their tendency to grow erect, horizontal, or drooping. Thus the delicate
spray of the Birches contrasted with the stout twigs of the Ailanthus,
or the drooping twigs of the Weeping Willow with the erect growth of the
Lombardy Poplar, give contrasts of the strongest character. In the same
way, the directions the main branches take in their growth from the
trunk form another distinctive feature. Thus the upward sloping branches
of the Elm form a striking contrast to the horizontal or downward
sloping branches of the Sour Gum, or, better still, to certain varieties
of Oaks.

When the main trunk of a tree extends upward through the head to the
tip, as in Fig. 3, it is said to be _excurrent_. When it is soon lost in
the division, as in Fig. 4, it is said to be _deliquescent_.



Leaves are the lungs of plants. The food taken in by the roots has to
pass through the stem to the leaves to be acted upon by the air, before
it becomes sap and is fit to be used for the growth of the plant. No
portion of a plant is more varied in parts, forms, surface, and duration
than the leaf.

No one can become familiar with leaves, and appreciate their beauty and
variety, who does not study them upon the plants themselves. This
chapter therefore will be devoted mainly to the words needed for leaf
description, together with their application.

THE LEAF.--In the axil of the whole leaf the bud forms for the growth of
a new branch. So by noting the position of the buds, all the parts
included in a single leaf can be determined. As a general thing the leaf
has but one blade, as in the Chestnut, Apple, Elm, etc.; yet the
Horse-chestnut has 7 blades, the Common Locust often has 21, and a
single leaf of the Honey-locust occasionally has as many as 300. Figs.
17-58 (Chapter VII.) are all illustrations of single leaves, except Fig.
43, where there are two leaves on a twig. A number of them show the bud
by which the fact is determined (Figs. 25, 26, 31, 33, 34, 36, 40,
etc.); others show branches which grew from the axillary buds, many of
them fruiting branches (Figs. 37, 42, 43, 50, and 54), one (Fig. 51) a
thorny branch.

The cone-bearing plants (Figs. 59-67) have only simple leaves. Each
piece, no matter how small and scale-like, may have a branch growing
from its axil, and so may form a whole leaf. A study of these figures,
together with the observation of trees, will soon teach the student
what constitutes a leaf.

ARRANGEMENT.--There are several different ways in which leaves are
arranged on trees; the most common plan is the _alternate_;
[Illustration] in this only one leaf occurs at a joint or node on the
stem. The next in frequency is the _opposite_, [Illustration] where two
leaves opposite each other are found at the node. A very rare
arrangement among trees, though common in other plants, is the
_whorled_, [Illustration] where more than two leaves, regularly arranged
around the stem, are found at the node. When a number of leaves are
bundled together,--a plan not rare among evergreens,--they are said to
be _fasciculated_ or in _fascicles_. [Illustration] The term _scattered_
is used where alternate leaves are crowded on the stem. This plan is
also common among evergreens.

CAUTION.--In some plants the leaves on the side shoots or spurs of a
twig are so close together, the internodes being so short, that at first
sight they seem opposite. In such cases, the leaf-scars of the preceding
years, or the arrangement of the branches, is a better test of the true
arrangement of the leaves. The twig of Birch shown in Fig. 5 has
alternate leaves.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.]

[Illustration: Fig. 6.]

There is one variety of alternation, called _two-ranked_, which is quite
characteristic of certain trees; that is, the leaves are so flattened
out as to be in one plane on the opposite sides of the twig (Fig. 6).
The Elm-trees form good examples of two-ranked alternate leaves, while
the Apple leaves are alternate without being two-ranked. Most leaves
spread from the stem, but some are _appressed_, as in the Arbor-vitæ
(Fig. 7). In this species the _branches_ are _two-ranked_.

PARTS OF LEAVES.--A _complete leaf_ [Illustration] consists of three
parts: the _blade_, the thin expanded portion; the _petiole_, the
leafstalk; and the _stipules_, a pair of small blades at the base of the
petiole. The petiole is often very short and sometimes wanting. The
stipules are often absent, and, even when present, they frequently fall
off as soon as the leaves expand; sometimes they are conspicuous. Most
Willows show the stipules on the young luxuriant growths.

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]

VEINING.--The leaves of most trees have a distinct framework, the
central line of which is called a _midrib_; sometimes the leaf has
several other lines about as thick as the midrib, which are called
_ribs_; the lines next in size, including all that are especially
distinct, are called _veins_, the most minute ones being called
_veinlets_ (Fig. 8).

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

KINDS.--Leaves are _simple_ when they have but one blade; [Illustration]
_compound_ when they have more than one. Compound leaves are _palmate_
when all the blades come from one point, as in the Horse-chestnut;
[Illustration] _pinnate_ when they are arranged along the sides, as in
the Hickory. Pinnate leaves are of two kinds: _odd-pinnate_,
[Illustration] when there is an odd leaflet at the end, as in the Ash,
and _abruptly pinnate_ [Illustration] when there is no end leaflet.

Many trees have the leaves _twice pinnate_; they are either _twice
odd-pinnate_ [Illustration] or _twice abruptly pinnate_. [Illustration]
The separate blades of a compound leaf are called _leaflets_. Leaves or
leaflets are _sessile_ when they have no stems, and _petiolate_ when
they have stems.

When there are several ribs starting together from the base of a blade,
it is said to be _radiate-veined_ or _palmate-veined_.[Illustration]
When the great veins all branch from the midrib, the leaf is
_feather-veined_ or _pinnate-veined_. [Illustration] If these veins are
straight, distinct, and regularly placed, the leaf is said to be
_straight-veined_. The Chestnut is [Illustration] a good example. Leaves
having veinlets joining each other like a net are said to be
_netted-veined_. All the trees with broad leaves in the northern United
States, with one exception, have netted-veined foliage. A leaf having
its veinlets parallel to one another is said to be _parallel-veined_ or
_-nerved_. [Illustration] The Ginkgo-tree, the Indian Corn, and the
Calla Lily have parallel-veined leaves. The narrow leaves of the
cone-bearing trees are also parallel-veined.

FORMS.--Leaves can readily be divided into the three following groups
with regard to their general outline:

1. _Broadest at the middle._ _Orbicular_, [Illustration] about as broad
as long and rounded. _Oval_, [Illustration] about twice as long as wide,
and regularly curved. _Elliptical_, [Illustration] more than twice as
long as wide, and evenly curved. _Oblong_, [Illustration] two or three
times as long as wide, with the sides parallel. _Linear_, [Illustration]
elongated oblong, more than three times as long as wide. _Acerose_,
[Illustration] needle-shaped, like the leaf of the Pine-tree.

2. _Broadest near the base._ _Deltoid_, [Illustration] broad and
triangular. _Ovate_, [Illustration] evenly curved, with a broad, rounded
base. _Heart-shaped_ or _cordate_, [Illustration] similar to ovate, but
with a notch at the base. _Lanceolate_, [Illustration] shaped like the
head of a lance. _Awl-shaped_, [Illustration] shaped like the
shoemaker's curved awl. _Scale-shaped_, [Illustration] short, rounded,
and appressed to the stem. The Arbor-vitæ has both awl-shaped and
scale-shaped leaves.

3. _Broadest near the apex._ _Obovate_, [Illustration] same as ovate,
but with the stem at the narrow end. _Obcordate_, [Illustration] a
reversed heart-shape. _Oblanceolate_, [Illustration] a reversed
lanceolate. _Wedge-shaped_ or _cuneate_, [Illustration] having a
somewhat square end and straight sides like a wedge.

These words are often united to form compound ones when the form of the
leaf is somewhat intermediate. The term which most nearly suits the
general form is placed at the end; thus _lance-ovate_ indicates a leaf
between lanceolate and ovate, but nearer ovate than lanceolate; while
_ovate-lanceolate_ indicates one nearer lanceolate.

BASES.--Oftentimes leaves are of some general form, but have a peculiar
base, one that would not be expected from the statement of shape. An
ovate leaf which should have a rounded base might have a tapering one;
it would then be described as ovate with a _tapering base_.
[Illustration] A lanceolate leaf should naturally have a tapering base,
but might have an _abrupt_ one. [Illustration] Many leaves, no matter
what their general form may be, have more or less notched bases; such
bases are called _cordate_, [Illustration] _deeply_ or _slightly_, as
the case may be; and if the lobes at base are elongated, _auriculate_.
[Illustration] If the basal lobes project outward, the term
_halberd-shaped_ [Illustration] is used. Any form of leaf may have a
base more or less _oblique_. [Illustration]

POINTS.--The points as well as the bases of leaves are often peculiar,
and need to be described by appropriate terms. _Truncate_ [Illustration]
indicates an end that is square; _retuse_, [Illustration] one with a
slight notch; _emarginate_, one with a decided notch; _obcordate_, with
a still deeper notch; _obtuse_, [Illustration] angular but abrupt;
_acute_, [Illustration] somewhat sharpened; _acuminate_, [Illustration]
decidedly sharp-pointed; _bristle-pointed_ and _awned_, [Illustration]
with a bristle-like tip; _spiny-pointed_, with the point sharp and stiff
(Holly); _mucronate_, [Illustration] with a short, abrupt point.

MARGINS.--_Entire_, [Illustration] edge without notches; _repand_,
[Illustration] slightly wavy; _sinuate_, [Illustration] decidedly wavy;
_dentate_, [Illustration] with tooth-like notches; _serrate_,
[Illustration] with notches like those of a saw; _crenate_,
[Illustration] with the teeth rounded; _twice serrate_, [Illustration]
when there are coarse serrations finely serrated, as on most Birch
leaves; _serrulate_, with minute serrations; _crenulate_, with minute
crenations. Leaves can be _twice crenate_ or _sinuate-crenate_.
_Revolute_ indicates that the edges are rolled over.

When a leaf has a few great teeth, the projecting parts are called
_lobes_, and the general form of the leaf is what it would be with the
notches filled in. In the description of such leaves, certain terms are
needed in describing the plan of the notches, and their depth and form.

Leaves with palmate veining are _palmately lobed_ [Illustration] or
_notched_; those with pinnate veining are _pinnately lobed_
[Illustration] or _notched_. While the term _lobe_ is applied to all
great teeth of a leaf, whether rounded or pointed, long or short, still
there are four terms sometimes used having special signification with
reference to the depth of the notches. _Lobed_ indicates that the
notches extend about one fourth the distance to the base or midrib;
_cleft_, that they extend one half the way; _parted_, about three
fourths of the way; and _divided_, that the notches are nearly deep
enough to make a compound leaf of separate leaflets.

So leaves may be palmately lobed, cleft, parted or divided, and
pinnately lobed, cleft, parted or divided. The term _pinnatifid_
[Illustration] is often applied to pinnately cleft leaves. The terms
_entire_, _serrate_, _crenate_, _acute-pointed_, etc., are applied to
the lobes as well as to the general margins of leaves.

SURFACE.--The following terms are needed in describing the surface of
leaves and fruit.

_Glabrous_, smooth; _glaucous_, covered with a whitish bloom which can
be rubbed off (Plum); _rugous_, wrinkled; _canescent_, so covered with
minute hairs as to appear silvery; _pubescent_, covered with fine, soft,
plainly seen hairs; _tomentose_, densely covered with matted hairs;
_hairy_, having longer hairs; _scabrous_, covered with stiff, scratching
points; _spiny_, having stiff, sharp spines; _glandular-hairy_, having
the hairs ending in glands (usually needing a magnifying glass to be

TEXTURE.--_Succulent_, fleshy; _scarious_, dry and chaffy; _punctate_,
having translucent glands, so that the leaf appears, when held toward
the light, as though full of holes; _membranous_, thin, soft, and rather
translucent; _thick_, _thin_, etc.

DURATION.--_Evergreen_, hanging on the tree from year to year. By
noticing the color of the different leaves and their position on the
twigs, all evergreen foliage can readily be determined at any time
during the year. _Deciduous_, falling off at the end of the season.
_Fugacious_, falling early, as the stipules of many leaves.


_Flowers and Fruit._

The author hopes that those who use this work in studying trees will
become so much interested in the subject of Botany as to desire more
information concerning the growth and reproduction of plants than can
here be given. In Professor Asa Gray's numerous works the additional
information desired may be obtained: "How Plants Grow" contains an
outline for the use of beginners; "The Elements of Botany" is a more
advanced work; while the "Botanical Text Book", in several volumes, will
enable the student to pursue the subject as far as he may wish. In this
small book the barest outline of the parts of flowers and fruit and of
their uses can be given.

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]

FLOWERS.--Parts. The flowers of the Cherry or Apple will show the four
kinds of organs that belong to a complete flower. Fig. 9 represents an
Apple-blossom. The _calyx_ is the outer row of leaves, more or less
united into one piece. The _corolla_ is the row of leaves within the
calyx; it is usually the brightest and most conspicuous part of the
flower. The _stamens_ [Illustration] are the next organs; they are
usually, as in this case, small two-lobed bodies on slender, thread-like
stalks. The enlarged parts contain a dust-like material called
_pollen_. The last of the four kinds of parts is found in the center of
the flower, and is called the _pistil_. It is this part which forms the
fruit and incloses the seed.

The stamens and the pistil are the _essential_ organs of a flower,
because they, and they only, are needed in the formation of seeds. The
pollen from the stamen, acting on the pistil, causes the _ovules_ which
are in the pistil to grow into _seeds_.

The calyx and corolla are called _enveloping organs_, since they
surround and protect the essential parts.

The pieces of which the calyx is composed are called _sepals_. The
Apple-blossom has five sepals.

The pieces that compose the corolla are called _petals_.

KINDS OF FLOWERS.--When the petals are entirely separate from each
other, as in the Apple-blossom, the flower is said to be _polypetalous_;
when they grow together more or less, as in the Catalpa (Fig. 10),
_monopetalous_; and when the corolla is wanting, as in the flowers of
the Oak, _apetalous_.

[Illustration: Fig. 10.]

When all sides of a flower are alike, as in the Apple-blossom, the
flower is _regular_; when one side of the corolla differs from the other
in color, form, or size, as in the Common Locust, or Catalpa, the flower
is _irregular_.

In trees the stamens and pistils are often found in separate flowers; in
that case the blossoms containing stamens are called _staminate_, and
those containing pistils _pistillate_; those that contain both are
called _perfect_. Staminate and pistillate flowers are usually found on
the same tree, as in the Oaks, Birches, Chestnut, etc.; in that case the
plant is said to be _monoecious_, and all trees of this kind produce
fruit. Sometimes, however, the staminate and pistillate flowers are on
separate trees, as in the Willows, which are _dioecious_; and then
only a portion of the trees--those with pistillate flowers--produce

ARRANGEMENT OF FLOWERS.--Flowers, either solitary or clustered, grow in
one of two ways; either at the end of the branches, being then called
_terminal_, or in the axils of the leaves, then called _axillary_. The
stem of a solitary flower or the main stem of a cluster is called a
_peduncle_; the stems of the separate blossoms of a cluster are called
_pedicels_. When either the flowers or the clusters are without stems,
they are said to be _sessile_.

_Clusters with Pedicellate Flowers._

_Raceme_, [Illustration] flowers on pedicels of about equal length,
scattered along the entire stem. Locust-tree.

_Corymb_, [Illustration] like a raceme except that the lower flowers
have longer stems, making the cluster somewhat flat-topped; the outer
flowers bloom first. Hawthorn.

_Cyme_, [Illustration] in appearance much like a corymb, but it differs
in the fact that the central flower blooms first. Alternate-leaved

_Umbel_, [Illustration] stems of the separate flowers about equal in
length, and starting from the same point. Garden-cherry.

_Panicle_, [Illustration] a compound raceme. Catalpa.

_Thyrsus_, a compact panicle. Horse-chestnut.

_Clusters with Sessile or Nearly Sessile Flowers._

_Catkin_, [Illustration] bracted flowers situated along a slender and
usually drooping stem. This variety of cluster is very common on trees.
The Willows, Birches, Chestnuts, Oaks, Pines, and many others have their
flowers in catkins.

_Head_, [Illustration] the flowers in a close, usually rounded cluster.
Flowering Dogwood.

FRUIT.--In this book a single fruit will include all the parts that grow
together and contain seeds, whether from a single blossom or a cluster;
there will be no rigorous adherence to an exact classification; no
attempt made to distinguish between fruits formed from a simple pistil
and those from a compound one; nor generally between those formed from a
single and those formed from a cluster of flowers. The fruit and its
general classification, determined by the parts easily seen, is all that
will be attempted.

As stated before, it is hoped that this volume will not end the
student's work in the investigation of natural objects, but that the
amount of information here given will lead to the desire for much more.

_Berry_ will be the term applied to all fleshy fruits with more than one
seed buried in the mass. Persimmon, Mulberry, Holly. The _pome_ or
_Apple-pome_ differs from the berry in the fact that the seeds are
situated in cells formed of hardened material. Apple, Mountain-ash. The
_Plum_ or _Cherry drupe_ includes all fleshy fruits with a single
stony-coated part, even if it contains more than one seed. Peach,
Viburnum, China-tree. In some cases, when there is but one seed in the
flesh and that not stony-coated, it will be called a _drupe-like berry_.

The _dry drupe_ is like the Cherry drupe except that the flesh is much
harder. The fruit of the Walnut, Hickory, and Sumac.

[Illustration: Fig. 11.]

The inner hard-coated parts of these and some others will be called
_nuts_. If the nut has a partial scaly covering, as in the Oaks, the
whole forms an _acorn_. [Illustration] If the coating has spiny hairs,
as in the Chestnut and Beechnut, the whole is a _bur_. The coating in
these cases is an _involucre_. If the coating or any part of the fruit
has a regular place for splitting open, it is _dehiscent_ (Chestnut,
Hickory-nut); if not, _indehiscent_ (Black Walnut).

[Illustration: Fig. 12.]

Dry fruits with spreading, wing-like appendages, as in the Ash (Fig.
11), Maple (Fig. 12), Elm (Fig. 13), and Ailanthus, are called _samaras_
or _keys_.

Dry fruits, usually elongated, containing generally several seeds, are
called _pods_. If there is but one cell and the seeds are fastened along
one side, _Pea-like pods_, or _legumes_. Locust. The term _capsule_
indicates that there is more than one cell. Catalpa, Hibiscus.

[Illustration: Fig. 13.]

All the dry, scaly fruits, usually formed by the ripening of some sort
of catkin of flowers, will be included under the term _cone_. Pine,
Alder, [Illustration] Magnolia. If the appearance of the fruit is not
much different from that of the cluster of flowers, as in the Hornbeams,
Willows, and Birches, the term _catkin_ will be retained for the fruit
also. The scales of a cone may lap over each other; they are then said
to be _imbricated_ or _overlapping_, [Illustration] (Pine); or they may
merely touch at their edges, when they are _valvate_ [Illustration]
(Cypress). When cones or catkins hang downward, they are _pendent_. If
the scales have projecting points, these points are _spines_ if strong,
and _prickles_ if weak. The parts back of the scales are _bracts_; these
often project beyond the scales, when they are said to be _exserted_.
[Illustration] Sometimes the exserted bracts are bent backward; they are
then said to be _recurved_ or _reflexed_.


_Winter Study of Trees._

Many of the peculiarities of trees can be studied much better during the
winter and early spring than at any other time of the year. The plan of
branching, the position, number, size, form, color, and surface of buds,
as well as the arrangement of the leaves within the bud and the
peculiarities of the scales that cover them, are points for winter

GENERAL PLAN OF BRANCHING.--There are two distinct and readily
recognized systems of branching. 1. The main stem is _excurrent_ (Fig.
3) when the trunk extends as an undivided stem throughout the tree to
the tip; this causes the spire-like or conical trees so common among
narrow-leaved evergreens. 2. The main stem is _deliquescent_ (Fig. 4)
when the trunk divides into many, more or less equal divisions, forming
the broad-topped, spreading trees. This plan is the usual one among
deciduous trees. A few species, however, such as the Sweet Gum and the
Sugar-maple, show the excurrent stem while young, yet even these have a
deliquescent stem later in life. The English Maple and the Apple both
have a deliquescent stem very early.

All the narrow-leaved evergreens, and many of the broad-leaved trees as
well, show what is called _definite_ annual growths; that is, a certain
amount of leaf and stem, packed up in the winter bud, spreads out and
hardens with woody tissue early in the year, and then, no matter how
long the season remains warm, no additional leaves or stem will grow.
The buds for the next year's growth then form and often become quite
large before autumn.

There are many examples among the smaller plants, but rarely one among
the trees, of _indefinite_ annual growth; that is, the plant puts forth
leaves and forms stems throughout the whole growing-season. The common
Locust, the Honey-locust, and the Sumacs are illustrations.

BUDS.--Buds are either undeveloped branches or undeveloped flowers. They
contain within the scales, which usually cover them, closely packed
leaves; these leaves are folded and wrinkled in a number of different
ways that will be defined at the end of this chapter.

[Illustration: Fig. 14.]

POSITION AND NUMBER.--While the axils of the leaves and the ends of the
stems are the ordinary places for the buds, there are many peculiarities
in regard to their exact position, number, etc., that render them very
interesting for winter study. Sometimes there are several to the single
leaf. In the Silver Maple there are buds on each side of the true
axillary one; these are flower-buds, and during the winter they are
larger than the one which produces the branch. The Butternut (Fig. 14)
and the Walnut have several above each other, the upper one being the
largest and at quite a distance from the true axil. In these cases the
uppermost is apt to grow, and then the branch is said to be
_extra-axillary_. In the Sycamore the bud does not show while the leaf
remains on the tree, as it is in the hollow of the leafstalk. In the
winter the bud has a ring-like scar entirely around it, instead of the
moon-shaped scar below as in most trees. The Common Locust has several
buds under the leafstalk and one above it in the axil. This axillary
bud may grow during the time the leaf remains on the tree, and afterward
the growth of the strongest one of the others may give the tree two
branches almost together.

Some plants form extra buds especially when they are bruised or injured;
those which have the greatest tendency to do so are the Willows,
Poplars, and Elms. Such buds and growths are called _adventitious_. By
cutting off the tops or _pollarding_ such trees, a very great number of
adventitious branches can be made to grow. In this way the Willow-twigs
used for baskets are formed. Adventitious buds form the clusters of
curious thorns on the Honey-locust and the tufts of whip-like branches
on the trunks and large limbs of the Elms.

In trees the terminal bud and certain axillary ones, differing according
to the species or variety of tree, are, during the winter, much larger
than the rest. These are the ones which naturally form the new growth,
and upon their arrangement the character of branching and thus the form
of the tree depend. Each species has some peculiarity in this regard,
and thus there are differences in the branching of all trees. In
opposite-leaved plants the terminal bud may be small and weak, while the
two buds at its side may be strong and apt to grow. This causes a
forking of the branches each year. This plan is not rare among shrubs,
the Lilac being a good example.

BUD-SCALES.--The coverings of buds are exceedingly varied, and are well
worthy of study and investigation. The large terminal buds of the
Horse-chestnut, with their numerous scales, gummy on the outside to keep
out the dampness, and hairy within to protect them from sudden changes
of temperature, represent one extreme of a long line; while the small,
naked, and partly buried buds of the Honey-locust or the Sumac represent
the other end.

The scales of many buds are merely extra parts formed for their
protection, and fall immediately after the bursting of the buds; while
other buds have the stipules of the leaves as bud-scales; these remain
on the twigs for a time in the Tulip-tree, and drop immediately in the

FORMS OF BUDS.--The size of buds varies greatly, as before stated, but
this difference in size is no more marked than the difference in form.
There is no better way to recognize a Beech at any time of the year than
by its very long, slender, and sharp-pointed buds. The obovate and
almost stalked buds of the Alders are also very conspicuous and
peculiar. In the Balsam Poplar the buds are large, sharp-pointed, and
gummy; in the Ailanthus they cannot be seen.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.]

All the things that might be learned from a small winter twig cannot be
shown in an engraving, but the figures here given illustrate some of the
facts easily determined from such specimens. The first twig (Ash) had
opposite leaves and is 3 years old (the end of each year's growth is
marked by dotted lines on all the figures); the year before last it had
6 leaves on the middle portion; last year it had 8 leaves on the end
portion and 12 on the side shoots of the middle portion. The buds near
the end of the annual growth are strongest and are most apt to grow.
The specimen illustrated was probably taken from the end of a branch of
a rather young and luxuriantly growing tree. Thus the Ash must have
quite a regular growth and form a regularly outlined tree.

The second twig (Sweet Gum) shows 7 years' growth and is probably a side
shoot from more or less within the tree-top. It is stunted in its growth
by the want of light and room. The leaves were alternate.

The third twig (Sycamore) also had alternate leaves; the pointed buds
must have been under the leafstalks, as the leaf-scars show as rings
around the buds. The larger branch grew three years ago. From the
specimen one judges that the Sycamore is quite an irregularly formed
tree. The twig had 11 leaves last year.

The fourth twig (Silver Maple) shows that the plant had opposite leaves,
and supernumerary buds at the sides of the true axillary ones; the true
axillary buds are smaller than those at the sides. It would, in such
cases, be reasonable to suppose that the supernumerary buds were floral
ones, and that the plant blooms before the leaves expand. The annual
growths are quite extended; two years and a part of the third make up
the entire twig. If it was cut during the winter of 1891-92, it must
have had leaves on the lower part in 1889 and 12 leaves on the middle
portion in 1890, as well as probably 4 on the lower portion on the side
shoots. Last year it had 14 leaves on the end portion, two at least on
each side shoot below, making 24 in all.

_Folding of Leaves in the Bud._

There are some peculiarities in the arrangement of leaves in the bud
which can be investigated only in the early spring. The common plans
among trees are--_Inflexed_: blade folded crosswise, thus bringing it
upon the footstalk. Tulip-tree. _Conduplicate_: blade folded along the
midrib, bringing the two halves together. Peach. _Plicate_: folded
several times lengthwise, like a fan. Birch. _Convolute_: rolled
edgewise from one edge to the other. Plum. _Involute_: both edges rolled
in toward the midrib on the upper side. Apple. _Revolute_: both edges
rolled backward. Willow. _Obvolute_: folded together, but the opposite
leaves half inclosing each other. Dogwood.


_The Preparation of a Collection._

[Illustration: Fig. 16.]

Three specimens are needed of each kind of tree: one, a branch showing
the flowers; another, showing the fruit--one of these, and in many cases
both, will show the leaves. The third specimen, cut from a large limb or
trunk, shows the bark and the wood. This should be a specimen with a
surface so cut as to show the wood in the direction of the silver grain,
_radial section_; with another surface cut in the direction of the
annual layers, _tangential section_; and with a third cut across the
grain, _cross-section_. It should be a specimen old enough to show the
change of color in the heart-wood. By taking a limb or trunk 8 inches in
diameter, all these points can be secured. A specimen cut as shown in
the figure will illustrate all the desired points. Side E F G shows
sap-and heart-wood in tangential section; side A B D C shows the same in
radial section; end A B F E, in cross-section; and B F G D shows the
bark. The central pith is at I; the heart-wood extends from C to J; the
sap-wood from J to D. The silver grain is well shown at the end, and the
blotches formed by it on the radial section.

By having the piece made smooth, and the upper part down to the center
(H) varnished, the appearance of the wood in furniture or inside finish
will be illustrated.

The specimens should be as nearly uniform in size as possible. If a limb
8 inches in diameter be taken and a length of 6 inches be cut off, the
section A B D C should pass through the line of pith; the section E F G
should be parallel with this at a distance from it of two inches; and
two inches from the line of pith, the section A E C should be made. The
whole specimen will then be 6 inches wide and long, and 2 inches thick.

The twigs containing leaves, flowers and fruit need to be pressed while
drying in order that they may be kept in good form and made tough enough
to be retained as specimens. The plants should be placed between a large
supply of newspapers, or, better still, untarred building-felt, while
drying. A weight of from 40 to 80 pounds is needed to produce the
requisite pressure. The weight is placed upon a board covering the pile
of plants and paper. On account of the size of many leaves and
flower-clusters, these pressed specimens of trees should not be shorter
than from 12 to 15 inches, and even a length of 18 inches is an
advantage. The pads or newspapers should be about 12 by 18 inches. A
transfer of the plants into dry pads each day for a few days will hasten
the drying and increase the beauty of the specimens. The specimens of
twigs can be mounted on cardboard by being partly pasted and partly
secured by narrow strips of gummed cloth placed across the heavier
portions. The cardboard should be uniform in size. One of the regular
sizes of Bristol-board is 22 by 28 inches; this will cut into four
pieces 11 by 14. Specimens not over 15 inches in length can readily be
mounted on these, and for most collectors this might be a very
convenient size. Another regular size is 22 by 32 inches, cutting well
into pieces 11 by 16. Specimens 15 to 18 inches long can be mounted on

Some kinds of Evergreens, the Spruces especially, tend to shed their
leaves after pressing. Such kinds can in most cases be made to form good
specimens without pressing. Fasten the fresh specimens on pillars of
plaster in boxes or frames 2 to 3 inches deep, so that they touch
nothing but the column of plaster. Mix calcined plaster in water (as
plasterers do), and build up a column high enough to support the branch.
Place the specimen on the top of the pillar already formed, and pour
over the whole some quite thin plaster till a rounded top is formed
completely fastening the specimen. If the leaves are not touched at all,
after they are dry, they will hang on for a long time, making specimens
that will show the tree characteristics better than pressed specimens
possibly could.


_Figures to be used in Botanical Description._

[Illustration: Fig. 17.]

[Illustration: Fig. 18.]

[Illustration: Fig. 19.]

[Illustration: Fig. 20.]

[Illustration: Fig. 21.]

[Illustration: Fig. 22.]

[Illustration: Fig. 23.]

[Illustration: Fig. 24.]

[Illustration: Fig. 25.]

[Illustration: Fig. 26.]

[Illustration: Fig. 27.]

[Illustration: Fig. 28.]

[Illustration: Fig. 29.]

[Illustration: Fig. 30.]

[Illustration: Fig. 31.]

[Illustration: Fig. 32.]

[Illustration: Fig. 33.]

[Illustration: Fig. 34.]

[Illustration: Fig. 35.]

[Illustration: Fig. 36.]

[Illustration: Fig. 37.]

[Illustration: Fig. 38.]

[Illustration: Fig. 39.]

[Illustration: Fig. 40.]

[Illustration: Fig. 41.]

[Illustration: Fig. 42.]

[Illustration: Fig. 43.]

[Illustration: Fig. 44.]

[Illustration: Fig. 45.]

[Illustration: Fig. 46.]

[Illustration: Fig. 47.]

[Illustration: Fig. 48.]

[Illustration: Fig. 49.]

[Illustration: Fig. 50.]

[Illustration: Fig. 51.]

[Illustration: Fig. 52.]

[Illustration: Fig. 53.]

[Illustration: Fig. 54.]

[Illustration: Fig. 55.]

[Illustration: Fig. 56.]

[Illustration: Fig. 57.]

[Illustration: Fig. 58.]

[Illustration: Fig. 59.]

[Illustration: Fig. 60.]

[Illustration: Fig. 61.]

[Illustration: Fig. 62.]

[Illustration: Fig. 63.]

[Illustration: Fig. 64.]

[Illustration: Fig. 65.]

[Illustration: Fig. 66.]

[Illustration: Fig. 67.]



All pupils should be required to write some form of composition on the
trees of the region. As far as possible, these compositions should be
the result of personal investigation. It is not what a pupil can read
and redescribe in more or less his own words, but how accurately he can
see and, from the information conveyed by his own senses, describe in
his own way the things he has observed, that makes the use of such a
book as this important as an educational aid. Some information in regard
to trees, in a finished description, must be obtained from books, such
as hardiness, geographical distribution, etc. Pupils generally should be
required to include only those things which they can give from actual

There are four distinct forms of tree descriptions that might be
recognized by the teacher and occasionally called for as work from the
pupil. 1st. A bare skeleton description, written by aid of a topical
outline, from the observation of a single tree and its parts. 2d. A
connected description, conveying as many facts given in the outline as
can well be brought into good English sentences. This again is the
description of a single tree. 3d. A connected, readable description of a
certain kind of tree, made up from the observation of many trees of the
same species to be found in the neighborhood. 4th. The third description
including information to be obtained from outside sources in regard to
the origin, geographical distribution, hardiness, character of wood,
habits, durability, etc. These four plans of description are more or
less successive methods to be introduced as the work of a class. Pupils
should be induced to carry on their own investigations as far as
possible before going to printed sources for information. A good part of
class work should be devoted to the first three of the methods given,
but the work might finally include the fourth form of composition. The
first two methods should follow each other with each of the trees
studied; that is, one week let a mere outline be written, to be followed
the next week with as clear and connected a description as the ability
of the pupil will allow, and containing as much of the information given
in the outline as possible.


_The tree as a whole_: size, general form, trunk, branching, twigs,
character of bark, color of bark on trunk, branches, and fine spray.

_Leaves_: parts, arrangement, kinds, size, thickness, form, edges,
veining, color, surface, duration.

_Buds_: position, size, form, covering, number, color.

_Sap_ and _juice_.

_Flowers_: size, shape, color, parts, odor, position, time of blooming,

_Fruit_: size, kind, form, color when young and when ripe, time of
ripening, substance, seeds, duration, usefulness.

_Wood_ (often necessarily omitted): hardness, weight, color, grain,
markings, durability.

_Remarks_: the peculiarities not brought out by the above outline.


The height of a tree can be readily determined by the following plan.
Measure the height you can easily reach from the ground in feet and
inches. Step to the trunk of the tree you wish to measure and, reaching
up to this height, pin a piece of white paper on the tree. Step back a
distance equal to three or four times the height of the tree; hold a
lead-pencil upright between the thumb and forefinger at arm's-length.
Fix it so that the end of the pencil shall be in line with the paper on
the trunk; move the thumb down the pencil till it is in line with the
ground at the base of the tree; move the arm and pencil upward till the
thumb is in line with the paper, and note where the end of the pencil
comes on the tree. Again move the pencil till the thumb is in line with
the new position, and so continue the process till the top of the tree
is reached. The number of the measures multiplied by the height you can
reach will give quite accurately the height of the tree.

The width of the tree can be determined in the same manner, the pencil,
however, being held horizontally.

In giving the forms of trees, it is well to accompany the description
with a penciled outline.

The distance from the ground at which the trunk begins to branch and the
extent of the branching should be noted. The direction taken by the
branches, as well as the regularity and the irregularity of their
position, should also be observed and described.

Although most twigs are cylindrical, still there are enough exceptions
to make it necessary to examine them with reference to their form.

Under leaves, it will be well to make drawings, both of the outline and
of the veining.

Crushed leaves will give the odor, and the sap can best be noticed at
the bases of young leaves. The differences in sap and juice need the
following words for their description: _watery_, _milky_,
_mucilaginous_, _aromatic_, _spicy_, _sweet_, _gummy_, _resinous_.

Pupils should not always be expected to find out much about the flowers
of a tree, as they are frequently very evanescent, and usually difficult
to reach.

The fruit lasts a greater length of time and, usually dropping
spontaneously, gives a much better chance for investigation.

Specimens of most of the common woods may be obtained from
cabinet-makers and carpenters. In cases where these specimens are at
hand, description of the wood should be required. If the school has such
specimens as are described in Chapter VI., Part I., the wood in all its
peculiarities can be described.


_Taxodium distichum (Bald Cypress)._

_(Atterbury's Meadow.)_

_No. 1._

Tree eighty-four feet tall, thirty feet wide near base, ovate, conical,
pointed; trunk seven feet in circumference near base and ridged
lengthwise, but only four feet at the height of six feet from the
ground, where it becomes round or nearly so, then gradually tapering to
the top; branches small, very numerous, beginning six feet from the
ground, sloping upward from the trunk at an angle of nearly forty-five
degrees; twigs very slender, numerous, pendulous, two, three or even
more growing together from supernumerary buds around the old scars; bark
brownish, quite rough, thick and soft on the trunk, smoother on the
branches, greenish on the young spray.


Leaves about sessile, without stipules, alternate, crowded, two-ranked,
thin, linear, entire, parallel-veined, with midrib, dark green, smooth,

Buds show in the axils of only a few of the leaves, and are very small;
but there are several supernumerary buds around many of the clusters of
the shoots of the year.

Sap clear and slightly sticky with resin.


Flowers looked for, but not seen; must have been small, or have bloomed
before my examination in the spring.

Fruit one inch in diameter, cone globular, brown in the autumn; did not
notice it before; fifteen six-sided scales, two seeds under each, still
hanging on, though the leaves have dropped; only to produce seeds, I

The wood I do not know about.

_Remarks._ Around the base, at some distance from the trunk, there are
four peculiar knobs, seemingly coming from the roots, one being nearly a
foot high and nine inches through.

_No. 2._

The Bald Cypress standing near a small ditch in Atterbury's meadow is a
very beautiful, tall, conical tree, over 80 feet high, with an excurrent
trunk which is very large and ridged near the ground. It tapers rapidly
upward, so that the circumference is only about half as great at the
height of 6 feet, where the branches begin. The branches are very
numerous and, considering the size of the trunk, very small; the largest
of them being only about 2 inches through. They all slope upward
rapidly, but the tip and fine spray show a tendency to droop; the fine
thread-like branchlets, bearing the leaves of the year, are almost all

The bark is very rough, thick and soft, as I found in pinning on the bit
of paper to measure the height of the tree, when I could easily press
the pin in to its head.

The leaves are very small and delicate, and as they extend out in two
ranks from the thread-like twigs, look much like fine ferns. The small
linear leaves and the spray drop off together in the autumn, as I can
find much of last year's foliage on the ground still fastened to the
twigs. I could not see any flowers, though I looked from early in the
spring till the middle of the summer; then I saw a few of the globular
green cones, almost an inch in diameter, showing that it had bloomed.
Next spring I shall begin to look for the blossoms before the leaves
come out.

On the ground, about 6 feet from the tree, there are four very strange
knobs which I did not notice till I stumbled over one of them. They seem
to grow from the roots, and are quite soft and reddish in color.

_No. 3._

I have found twenty-two Bald Cypresses in Trenton; they are all
beautiful conical trees, and seem to grow well in almost any soil, as I
have found some in very wet places and some in dry, sandy soil. They
look from their position as though they had been planted out, and as I
have found none in the woods around the town, they are probably not
native in this region. They are from 50 to nearly 100 feet tall. I found
one 96 feet high. They are all of a very symmetrical, conical form, and
pointed at the top; in no case has the trunk divided into branches, and
on the old trees the trunk enlarges curiously near the ground, the lower
portion being very rough with ridges. The bark is very thick and rough,
and is so soft that a pin can readily be pushed through it to the wood.
The branches are very numerous and small, and are not regularly arranged
in whorls like most of the narrow-leaved trees. These branches all slope
upward from the trunk, the ends having a tendency to bend downward and
make delicate drooping spray, with very small, linear, entire leaves
only ½ inch long. Four of the largest trees show fruit, and each of
these has only about a half-dozen of the globular cones. Only a few of
the trees--those in the wettest places--have the knobs on the ground
near the base.

_No. 4._

The Bald Cypress (_Taxodium distichum_) is a common tree, a native of
the Gulf States, growing very abundantly in the wettest swamps of that
region. The northern limit of the tree in its wild state is said to be
central Delaware and southern Illinois, but it can be successfully
cultivated in the region around Boston. There are several named
varieties, one with the leaves but slightly spreading from the spray,
and the whole of the branches showing a decided weeping tendency, so
that it is called the Weeping Cypress. The knobs from the roots, called
Cypress-knees, grow very abundantly around all the trees in the southern
swamps. These grow to the height of from 2 to 4 feet, and are very
thick, sometimes as much as 5 feet. They are hollow, and are
occasionally used for bee-hives.

It is said to be a broad, flat-topped tree, spreading its top over other
trees. This seems very strange, as none of those in Trenton, N. J., show
such a tendency, but are quite spire-shaped. The wood is light, soft,
straight-grained, and is said to be excellent for shingles and for other
purposes. It generally has a dark reddish or brownish hue. It is a large
tree, growing to the height of 140 feet. The trunk is sometimes 12 feet
through near the ground. The flowers of the tree are in small catkins,
blooming before the leaves expand in the early spring; in February, in
South Carolina.



_Method of Using the Key._

First read _all_ the statements following the stars (*) at the beginning
of the Key; decide which one of the statements best suits the specimen
you have. At the end of the chosen one there is a letter in parenthesis
( ). Somewhere below, this letter is used two or more times. Read
carefully _all_ the statements following this letter; at the end of the
one which most nearly states the facts about your specimen, you will
again be directed by a letter to another part of the Key. Continue this
process till, instead of a letter, there is a number and name. The name
is that of the genus, and forms the first part of the scientific name of
the plant. Turn to the descriptive part of the book, where this number,
in regular order, is found. Here descriptions of the species of the
genus are given. If there are many species, another Key will lead to the
species. While the illustrations are intended to represent
characteristic specimens, too much dependence must not be placed upon
them; the leaves even of the same plant vary considerably, and the
different varieties, especially of a cultivated plant, vary widely. Read
the whole description before deciding.

The fractions beside the figures indicate the scale of the drawing as
compared with the natural size of the part: 1/1 indicates natural size;
2/1, that the drawing is twice the length of the object; ¼, that the
drawing is one fourth the length of the object, etc.

In the description of leaves the dimensions given refer to the blade.


  * Leaves narrow linear, needle, scale or awl shaped,
       usually but not always evergreen. (=GG.=) page 60.

  * Leaves broad, flat, usually deciduous, occasionally
       evergreen, rarely over 5 times as long as wide.

    =A.= Leaves alternate,[1] simple. (=B.=)

    =A.= Leaves alternate, compound. (=m.=) page 57.

    =A.= Leaves opposite or whorled on the stem. (=u.=) page 58.

  =B.= Leaves with a midrib, netted-veined. (=C.=)

  =B.= Leaves without a midrib, parallel-veined       109. _Salisburia._

    =C.= With radiating ribs, and including those which have
         the lower ribs longer and more branching than those
         above them. (=f.=) page 56.

    =C.= With distinct and definite feather-veining. (=D.=)

  =D.= Margin entire, or so nearly so as to appear entire,
       sometimes slightly angulated but not lobed. (=V.=)

  =D.= Once or twice serrate or crenate or wavy-edged, but not
       lobed. (=E.=)

  =D.= Distinctly lobed. (=S.=)
       (If the notches are over 10 on a side, look under =E.=)

    =E.= Straight-veined. (=M.=)

    =E.= Not distinctly and evenly straight-veined. (=F.=)

  =F.= Leaves evergreen with either revolute or spiny-tipped
       margins                                               18. _Ilex._

  =F.= Leaves evergreen, lanceolate-oblong, minutely serrate;
       flowers white, 4 in. in diameter                   8. _Gordonia._

  =F.= Leaves deciduous. (=G.=)

    =G.= Fruit with fleshy and often edible pulp. (=K.=)

    =G.= Fruit a dry and more or less rounded pod. (=H.=)

    =G.= Fruit and flowers in dry catkins; leaves, in most
         species, 3 or more times as long as wide, finely
         serrate to entire, with free stipules, in many
         species remaining on the young twigs, in others shown
         by a rounded scar on the sides of the stem; wood
         soft; the Willows                                  91. _Salix._

    =G.= Fruit dry akenes with silky pappus, in small heads;
         whole plant whitened with scurf; leaves broadened and
         coarsely notched near tip; a broad spreading bush
                                                        49. _Baccharis._

  =H.= Flowers conspicuous, 1 in. or more in size, white.

  =H.= Flowers quite small. (=I.=)

    =I.= Flowers and fruit in large panicles; leaves
         elongated, peach-like in shape, sour          50. _Oxydendrum._

    =I.= Flowers in terminal, erect racemes; fruit small,
         three-celled pods; leaves oval, 3-7 in. long,
         pointed, thin, finely serrate; plant hardly a tree
                                                          53. _Clethra._

    =I.= Fruit rounded, small, with calyx adhering to the
         lower part, one-seeded, in clusters of 3-many; leaves
         1-3 in. long.                                     56. _Styrax._

    =I.= Fruit hairy, in long, hanging panicles, tipped with
         long, persistent style, one-seeded           57. _Pterostyrax._

  =J.= Flowers bell-shaped, 1 in. long; leaves widest below
       the middle; fruit winged pods                      58. _Halesia._

  =J.= Flowers spreading, 2 in. broad; leaves about twice as
       long as wide, widest near the center               7. _Stuartia._

  =J.= Flowers spreading, 3 in. broad; leaves about 3 times as
       long as wide, widest near tip                      8. _Gordonia._

    =K.= Fruit a plum-like drupe with a single bony stone;
         plant sometimes thorny                            36. _Prunus._

    =K.= Fruit berry-like, ending in a conspicuous spreading
         calyx; plant generally quite thorny             38. _Cratægus._

    =K.= Fruit berry-like, black when ripe, small, without
         calyx, with usually 3 cartilaginous coated seeds
                                                          20. _Rhamnus._

    =K.= Fruit berry-like, red when ripe, small, without
         calyx, with usually 4-6 hard-coated, grooved nutlets
                                                             18. _Ilex._

    =K.= Fruit a small or large apple-like pome, with the
         seeds in horny cells. (=L.=)

  =L.= Fruit about ½ in. in diameter, sweet, in drooping
       racemes                                        39. _Amelanchier._

  =L.= Fruit either sour or much larger, and not in elongated
       racemes                                              37. _Pyrus._

    =M.= Leaves harsh to the touch; somewhat oblique at base;
         quite distinctly two-ranked; large trees           74. _Ulmus._

    =M.= Leaves decidedly oblique at base; margin wavy; small
         tree, usually a shrub                          40. _Hamamelis._

    =M.= Fruit berry-like, ending in a conspicuous spreading
         calyx; plant generally quite thorny             38. _Cratægus._

    =M.= Leaves not regularly oblique at base; plant not
         thorny. (=N.=)

  =N.= Leaves thin and light, not harsh to the touch; spray
       light; bark smooth, in two species somewhat rough on
       the trunk. (=Q.=)

  =N.= Leaves thick; edge wavy, almost lobed; fruit an acorn.
                                                          88. _Quercus._

  =N.= Leaves broad for the length, generally doubly serrate
       or wavy and serrate; shrubs, rarely tall enough for
       trees. (=P.=)

  =N.= Not included in the above. (=O.=)

    =O.= Leaves 3 or more times as long as wide, widest near
         the center; fruit a round, prickly bur with 1-3
         horny-coated nuts                               89. _Castanea._

    =O.= Leaves widest near the sharply serrate tip, narrow
         and entire near the base; fruit small pods in
         terminal racemes; small tree or shrub            53. _Clethra._

    =O.= Leaves widest near the base, usually small; bark
         scaling off like the Buttonwood; fruit axillary,
         solitary, small (¼ in.) roundish, dry drupes. A
         cultivated species, has rather large leaves, widest
         near the center                                  75. _Planera._

  =P.= Fruit an open oval woody catkin or cone, remaining on
       the plant through the winter                         84. _Alnus._

  =P.= Fruit a rounded stony nut, in green leafy edged bracts;
       shrubs or small trees                              85. _Corylus._

    =Q.= Usually aromatic; bark dotted on the spray and with
         horizontal marks on the trunk, peeling off in thin,
         often papery layers                               83. _Betula._

    =Q.= Bark not peeling off in thin layers. (=R.=)

  =R.= Leaf-buds long and slender; fruit a small prickly bur
       with two triangular, horny-coated nuts; large trees
                                                            90. _Fagus._

  =R.= Fruit an elongated catkin with large leaf-like bracts;
       bark close, gray, on a grooved trunk              87. _Carpinus._

  =R.= Fruit a hop-like catkin; bark brownish, finely furrowed
                                                           86. _Ostrya._

    =S.= Plant more or less thorny; shrub or small tree;
         fruit rounded berries ending in persistent
         calyx-lobes                                     38. _Cratægus._

    =S.= Plant not thorny. (=T.=)

  =T.= Leaf deeply pinnatifid, usually with the basal lobes
       completely separated; cultivated                     37. _Pyrus._

  =T.= End of leaf as though cut off; sides with one large
       lobe; margin entire; large tree                2. _Liriodendron._

  =T.= Lower leaves three-lobed, heart-shaped at base, upper
       merely ovate, margin entire; small tree or shrub
                                                     66. _Clerodendron._

  =T.= Not as above; leaves usually many-lobed. (=U.=)

    =U.= Leaves thin; bark of trunk peeling off in thin
         horizontal strips                                 83. _Betula._

    =U.= Leaves thin; leaf-buds long, slender, sharp-pointed;
         bark smooth, not peeling; cultivated               90. _Fagus._

    =U.= Leaves thickish; bark roughish; fruit an oval woody
         cone, remaining on through the year                84. _Alnus._

    =U.= Leaves thick; fruit an acorn                     88. _Quercus._

  =V.= Leaves evergreen, small, 2-3 in. long, thick, with
       revolute margins; fruit an acorn                   88. _Quercus._

  =V.= Leaves evergreen, oval to lance-oval, usually large;
       small trees, almost shrubs. (=d.=) page 56.

  =V.= Leaves deciduous (some are evergreen in the Southern
       States). (=W.=)

    =W.= Plant more or less spiny. (=c.=)

    =W.= Plant not at all spiny. (=X.=)

  =X.= Leaf-blade thin, long, pointed, with curved parallel
       veins or ribs                                       45. _Cornus._

  =X.= Leaf-blade thin, circular or broadly oval in outline,
       with blunt, almost rounded apex; veins not regularly
       parallel                                              27. _Rhus._

  =X.= Leaf quite elongated, 5 or more times as long as wide.

  =X.= Leaves with none of the above peculiarities. (=Y.=)

    =Y.= Deciduous bud-scales (stipules), leaving a scar or
         mark completely around the stem at the base of the
         leaves.                                          1. _Magnolia._

    =Y.= Leaves covered on one or both sides with silvery
         scales                                          71. _Elæagnus._

    =Y.= No such ring around the stem, or silvery scales on
         the leaves. (=Z.=)

  =Z.= Leaves distinctly straight-veined, thin              90. _Fagus._

  =Z.= Leaves thick, obtuse; fruit an acorn               88. _Quercus._

  =Z.= Leaves 6 in. or more long; crushed leaves with a rank,
       fetid odor                                          5. _Asimina._

  =Z.= Leaves 3-5 in. long; twigs and leaves very spicy; shrub
       rather than tree                                   70. _Lindera._

  =Z.= Leaves about 2 in. long, oval, on twigs which have
       ridges extending down from the sides of the leafstalk;
       small tree, almost a shrub, with beautiful flowers
                                                    43. _Lagerstroemia._

  =Z.= Leaves not as above. (=a.=)

    =a.= Fruit a large (½-1½ in.) rounded pulpy berry with a
         heavy calyx at the base                        55. _Diospyros._

    =a.= Fruit small (¼ in.), fleshy, drupe-like, with a
         striate stone; limbs branching horizontally, often
         descending                                         46. _Nyssa._

    =a.= Fruit a black, juicy berry (1/3-½ in.), with about 3
         seeds                                            20. _Rhamnus._

    =a.= Fruit an ovoid dry drupe (½ in.); leaves
         sweet-tasting                                  59. _Symplocos._

    =a.= Fruit an apple-like pome (Quince)                  37. _Pyrus._

  =b.= Wood soft; both kinds of flowers in catkins in spring;
       with either stipules or stipular sears               91. _Salix._

  =b.= Wood hard; leaves thick; fruit an acorn            88. _Quercus._

    =c.= Fruit a 2-4-seeded small berry; juice not milky
                                                          20. _Rhamnus._

    =c.= Fruit large, orange-like in size and color when ripe;
         juice milky                                      77. _Maclura._

    =c.= Fruit small, black when ripe, cherry-like; juice
         milky                                            54. _Bumelia._

  =d.= Aromatic; berries dark blue on red stalks           68. _Persea._

  =d.= Not aromatic; leaves nearly 1 ft. long; flowers large
       and solitary.                                      1. _Magnolia._

  =d.= Not aromatic; leaves 1-4 in. long; flowers very small;
       fruit small dark-colored berries, with 2-4 seeds   20. _Rhamnus._

  =d.= Not aromatic; flowers large, in showy clusters. (=e.=)

    =e.= Leaves 5 in. or more long                   52. _Rhododendron._

    =e.= Leaves less than 4 in. long                       51. _Kalmia._

  =f.= Leaves decidedly aromatic, usually somewhat
       irregularly lobed, margin entire, base tapering  69. _Sassafras._

  =f.= Leaves usually deltoid, sometimes heart-shaped with
       serrate margin and gummy buds, rarely palmately lobed.
       All have either the petiole flattened sidewise, the
       leaf-blade densely silvery-white beneath, or gummy
       aromatic buds                                      92. _Populus._

  =f.= Leaves broadly heart-shaped; margin entire; small tree
       with abundance of red flowers in early spring; fruit a
       pea-like pod.                                       32. _Cercis._

  =f.= Leaves not as above given. (=g.=)

    =g.= Leaves broadly heart-shaped, with a serrate margin
         and a petiole about as long as the blade, sometimes
         longer; base of leaf not oblique                   4. _Idesia._

    =g.= Leaves broadly heart-shaped, those on the suckers
         much lobed; base not oblique; margin serrate; juice
         milky; bark very tough. (=l.=)

    =g.= Leaves broadly heart-shaped, with an oblique base;
         margin regularly serrate; juice not milky          11. _Tilia._

    =g.= Leaves slightly if at all heart-shaped at base,
         usually somewhat oblique, with neither milky juice
         nor lobes. (=j.=)

    =g.= Leaves decidedly and quite regularly lobed. (=h.=)

  =h.= Leaves with 3-5 large lobes, the margin entire or
       slightly angulated.                              10. _Sterculia._

  =h.= Leaves star-shaped, with 5-9 pointed, serrate lobes.

  =h.= Leaves large, irregularly margined; leaf-stem covering
       the bud; large tree                               80. _Platanus._

  =h.= Plant quite thorny; fruit berry-like, ending in a
       conspicuous spreading calyx; small trees or shrubs with
       apple-like blossoms.                              38. _Cratægus._

  =h.= Leaves with a tapering base; small tree, almost a
       shrub, with large Hollyhock-like flowers; plant not
       thorny                                             9. _Hibiscus._

    =i.= Large tree, with fruit 1 in. in diameter, dry,
         rough, hanging on a long stem                41. _Liquidambar._

    =i.= Small tree with few branches and the trunk usually
         quite prickly; fruit berry-like in large clusters 44. _Aralia._

  =j.= Fruit small berries, with 3 flattened seeds, in
       clusters in the axils of the leaves, which are
       decidedly 3-ribbed from the base                   21. _Hovenia._

  =j.= Fruit small drupes, with 1 seed, either solitary or in
       pairs in the axils of the leaves. (=k.=)

    =k.= Plant without prickles; leaves decidedly oblique at
         base                                              76. _Celtis._

    =k.= Plant with prickles; leaves narrow, decidedly
         3-ribbed, and 2-ranked on green twigs           22. _Zizyphus._

  =l.= Fruit not very edible; leaves rough above, very hairy
       below, on some of the twigs opposite          79. _Broussonetia._

  =l.= Fruit edible; leaves not very hairy, never opposite  78. _Morus._

    =m.= Leaves of 3 entire-edged leaflets; fruit a pea-like
         pod                                             28. _Laburnum._

    =m.= Leaves of 3 quite regularly serrate,
         transparent-dotted leaflets                       13. _Ptelea._

    =m.= Leaves once or twice pinnate; the leaflets entire.

    =m.= Leaves once or twice pinnate; the leaflets with
         margins more or less serrate or notched. (=n.=)

  =n.= Leaves irregularly once to twice, in one case three
       times, pinnate. (=r.=)

  =n.= Leaves regularly once pinnate. (=o.=)

    =o.= Leaves less than 1 ft. long, on a small, quite
         prickly plant; fruit very small pods (¼ in. long)
                                                      12. _Xanthoxylum._

    =o.= Leaves less than 1 ft. long; leaflets 3 in. or less
         long; fruit bright-colored, berry-like pomes in
         clusters, persistent through the autumn; plant not
         thorny; branches not heavy-tipped.                 37. _Pyrus._

    =o.= Leaves usually larger on the small tree or almost a
         shrub; juice in most cases milky; branches
         heavy-tipped                                        27. _Rhus._

    =o.= Leaves 1-2 ft. long; leaflets 3 in. or more long;
         fruit a bony nut with green fleshy coat; large trees.

    =o.= Leaves very large, 2 ft. or more long on the
         rapid-growing branches; branches heavy-tipped; odor
         of bruised leaves quite strong; leaflets 15 or more
         in number; large trees; juice not milky. (=p.=)

  =p.= Leaflets with 1-3 glandular notches at the base  17. _Ailanthus._

  =p.= Leaflets entire at base, but very slightly serrate near
       the tip                                            16. _Cedrela._

    =q.= Coat of fruit more or less dehiscent into 4 valves;
         nut smoothish; leaflets, except in one species, not
         over 11 in number, usually 5-7                     82. _Carya._

    =q.= Coat of fruit not regularly dehiscent; nut, in the
         wild species, rough-coated; leaflets, except in a
         cultivated species, over 11 in number            81. _Juglans._

  =r.= Leaves quite regularly twice odd-pinnate; leaflets
       about 1 in. long; juice not milky; fruit rounded
       berries in large clusters; plant not prickly;
       branchlets not heavy-tipped                          15. _Melia._

  =r.= Leaves once to twice irregularly odd-pinnate; the
       leaflets very irregularly and coarsely toothed; a
       small, round-headed tree with bladdery pods   24. _Koelreuteria._

  =r.= Leaves irregularly about twice odd-pinnate; the
       leaflets lanceolate; quite a low plant with few
       heavy-tipped branches; plant without prickles         27. _Rhus._

  =r.= Leaves 2 (sometimes 3) times odd-pinnate; tree-stem
       with prickles; small tree or shrub, with few branches
                                                           44. _Aralia._

  =r.= Leaves once to twice abruptly pinnate; large tree with
       slender-tipped branches, usually very thorny   34. _Gleditschia._

    =s.= Leaves very large (2 ft. or more long), about twice
         abruptly pinnate; leaflets broad and often 2 in.
         long; branches blunt; no thorns              33. _Gymnocladus._

    =s.= Leaves and leaflets much smaller, leaves quite
         irregularly once or twice abruptly pinnate; branches
         slender-tipped; large tree, usually very thorny
                                                      34. _Gleditschia._

    =s.= Leaves twice abruptly pinnate; leaflets over 400 in
         number, with midrib near the upper edge         35. _Albizzia._

    =s.= Leaves regularly once pinnate, not over 2 ft. long.

  =t.= Leaves abruptly pinnate, not over 5 in. long; leaflets
       8-12, small, mucronate-pointed                    29. _Caragana._

  =t.= Leaves odd-pinnate; shrub or small tree, with few,
       heavy-tipped branches; no spines or prickles          27. _Rhus._

  =t.= Leaves odd-pinnate; leaflets large (3-5 in. long), not
       usually over 11 in number; round-topped tree    30. _Cladrastis._

  =t.= Leaves odd-pinnate; leaflets less than 3 in. long,
       frequently 11-21 in number; often with spines at the
       bases of the leaves in the place of stipules
                                     12. _Xanthoxylum_ or 31. _Robinia._

    =u.= Leaves palmately compound. (=CC.=)

    =u.= Leaves pinnately compound. (=BB.=)

    =u.= Leaves simple, evergreen, sessile, in whorls around
         the stem, which they completely cover       (98a. _Araucaria._)

    =u.= Leaves simple, opposite, evergreen, entire, over 2
         in. long                                       61. _Osmanthus._

    =u.= Leaves simple, opposite, evergreen, entire, under 1
         in. long                                           73. _Buxus._

    =u.= Leaves simple, deciduous. (=v.=)

  =v.= Branches ending in thorns; small trees, or shrubs.

  =v.= Plants not thorny. (=w.=)

    =w.= Leaves palmately lobed (one variety, rarely
         cultivated, lacks lobes, but is heart-shaped with a
         serrate margin), the lobes over 3 in number, or with
         notches or serrations; fruit dry, winged            25. _Acer._

    =w.= Lower leaves palmately 3-lobed, and heart-shaped at
         base, upper ones ovate, all with entire margin; fruit
         with juicy pulp covering the 4 seeds        66. _Clerodendron._

    =w.= Leaves palmately lobed; fruit small, one-seeded,
         berry-like drupes in large clusters, with flattened
         stones, or large rounded clusters of flowers without
         stamens or pistils; shrubs rather than trees    47. _Viburnum._

    =w.= Leaves heart-shaped, entire or slightly angulated;
         not lobed. (=DD.=)

    =w.= Leaves irregularly serrate, somewhat straight-veined;
         fruit single-winged; large cultivated tree      60. _Fraxinus._

    =w.= Leaves neither heart-shaped nor lobed; small trees,
         almost shrubs. (=x.=)

  =x.= Leaves entire. (=z.=)

  =x.= Leaves serrate or dentate, ovate or oval. (=y.=)

    =y.= Fruit rounded drupes in large clusters, with single
         flattened stones                                47. _Viburnum._

    =y.= Fruit lobed pods, which burst open in the autumn;
         branchlets somewhat 4-sided                     19. _Euonymus._

  =z.= Leaves small, lanceolate; flowers and fruit large and
       beautiful                                           42. _Punica._

  =z.= Leaves broad, thin, with curved parallel veins or ribs.
                                                           45. _Cornus._

  =z.= Leaves large, broad, oval, without either curved or
       straight parallel ribs                         63. _Chionanthus._

    =AA.= Leaves entire and covered on both sides with
         silvery, peltate scales                       72. _Shepherdia._

    =AA.= Leaves ovate, small, minutely serrate           20. _Rhamnus._

  =BB.= Leaves large, 18 in. or more long; leaflets 11 or
       more, very finely serrated                   14. _Phellodendron._

  =BB.= Leaves smaller; leaflets entire or quite evenly
       toothed, usually over 5 in number                 60. _Fraxinus._

  =BB.= Leaflets coarsely and quite irregularly toothed, 3-5
       (rarely 7) in number                               26. _Negundo._

    =CC.= Leaflets slender-lanceolate, almost entire; shrub
         or small tree, 5-10 ft. high                       67. _Vitex._

    =CC.= Leaflets broader and serrate; usually large trees.
                                                          23. _Æsculus._

  =DD.= Leaves with radiating ribs. (=FF.=)

  =DD.= Leaves with feather-veining. (=EE.=)

    =EE.= Leaves 2-6 in. long; flowers small, in large,
         dense, terminal clusters                         62. _Syringa._

    =EE.= Leaves 1-4 in. long; flowers in pairs          48. _Lonicera._

  =FF.= Leaves large, 6 in. or more long; two almost hidden
       buds, one above the other, in the axils of the leaves
       on the rapid-growing branches; flowers large, purple,
       blooming in early spring; fruit rounded pods     64. _Paulownia._

  =FF.= Leaves large, 6 in. or more long; flowers large,
       white, blooming in June; fruit long pods           65. _Catalpa._

  =FF.= Leaves 2-4 in. long, with red stems         3. _Cercidiphyllum._

    =GG.= Leaves scattered singly over the stem, not in
         bundles or clusters. (=JJ.=)

    =GG.= Leaves in large or small clusters. (=HH.=)

  =HH.= Clusters in whorls of many leaves around the stem
       like an umbrella                              100. _Sciadopitys._

  =HH.= Leaves clustered in bundles of 2-6                  93. _Pinus._

  =HH.= Leaves clustered in bundles of over 8. (=II.=)

    =II.= Leaves deciduous, soft                            97. _Larix._

    =II.= Leaves evergreen, rigid                          98. _Cedrus._

  =JJ.= Leaves hardly evergreen; spray quite slender.

  =JJ.= Leaves fully evergreen. (=KK.=)

    =KK.= Leaves awl or scale shaped, and mainly appressed to
         the stem. (=WW.=)

    =KK.= Leaves linear or needle shaped, and decidedly
         spreading from the stem, though sometimes with a
         decurrent base. (=LL.=)

  =LL.= Leaves narrowed to a distinct though short stem.

  =LL.= Leaves sessile; if narrowed, not so abruptly as to
       form a petiole. (=MM.=)

    =MM.= Leaves opposite or whorled on the stem. (=PP.=)

    =MM.= Leaves rather spirally arranged around the stem, not
         just opposite. (=NN.=)

  =NN.= Leaves linear to lanceolate, flattened, spreading
       quite squarely from the stem. (=OO.=)

  =NN.= Leaves not flattened but 4-sided, curved, gradually
       enlarging from the tips to the bases, which are
       decurrent, and on the young twigs completely cover the
       stem; cones rounded; the scales not lapping   105. _Cryptomeria._

    =OO.= Leaves about linear in form, of nearly the same
         width throughout, and usually fastened to the
         cylindrical stem by a distinct disk-like base; cones
         erect; scales lapping.                             96. _Abies._

    =OO.= Leaves about 2 in. long and gradually widening from
         the acute tips to the broad (1/8 in.) bases, which
         are decurrent on the stem                   99. _Cunninghamia._

    =OO.= Leaves ½-1 in. long, sharp-pointed, very flat,
         two-ranked, somewhat lanceolate in form; base
         narrowed almost to a petiole                    102. _Sequoia._

  =PP.= Leaves not decurrent, usually in whorls of three
       around the stem, sometimes opposite, acute-pointed;
       fruit small (1/8 in.), rounded, dark-colored berries
                                                       106. _Juniperus._

  =PP.= Leaves decurrent on the stem, less than ½ in. long.

    =QQ.= Fruit small, globular cones; the scales not lapping
                                                    104. _Chamæcyparis._

    =QQ.= Fruit small, elongated cones of few, lapping scales
                                                           103. _Thuya._

  =RR.= Leaves usually but little flattened, but jointed to a
       short, brown petiole which is attached to a somewhat
       grooved twig; cones pendent, of lapping scales       94. _Picea._

  =RR.= Leaves decidedly flattened, not jointed, but narrowed
       to a petiole which is usually green or greenish in
       color. (=SS.=)

    =SS.= Leaves rounded or obtuse at the tip, distinctly
         two-ranked, usually less than 1 in. long; cones
         oval, 1 in. or less long, of lapping scales        95. _Tsuga._

    =SS.= Leaves acute at the tip; fruit (found only on a
         portion of the plants, as the flowers are
         dioecious) drupe-like, with a single nut-like seed.

  =TT.= Leaves not two-ranked, over 2 in. long        108. _Podocarpus._

  =TT.= Leaves quite regularly two-ranked. (=UU.=)

    =UU.= Leaves marked by two longitudinal lines; bruised or
         burned leaves with a very disagreeable odor  (107a. _Torreya._)

    =UU.= Leaves with the midrib forming a distinct ridge,
         odor not disagreeable. (=VV.=)

  =VV.= Leaves usually less than an inch long              107. _Taxus._

  =VV.= Leaves usually more than an inch long    (107b. _Cephalotaxus._)

    =WW.= Spray decidedly two-ranked, fan-like. (=YY.=)

    =WW.= Spray branching in an irregular way, not two-ranked. (=XX.=)

  =XX.= Fruit a purplish berry; bark shreddy           106. _Juniperus._

  =XX.= Fruit a cone of thick, pointed, not lapping scales
                                                         102. _Sequoia._

    =YY.= Cones elongated, of lapping scales               103. _Thuya._

    =YY.= Cones globular, of peltate, valvate
        scales                                      104. _Chamæcyparis._

  =ZZ.= Leaves very broad at base, half clasping the stem and
       rapidly narrowed to an acute tip; hardly at all
       spreading from the thread-like twigs; flowers pinkish,
       in spike-like clusters                              6. _Tamarix._

  =ZZ.= Leaves more elongated, quite even in width, not
       clasping the stem                                101. _Taxodium._

[Footnote 1: Look on the elongated branches for the arrangement of the
leaves; they are too closely clustered on the short side shoots. See
page 18.]


Plants with a pistil consisting of a closed ovary, which contains the
ovules and forms the fruit.


Trees or shrubs, mainly of tropical regions, including, in our section,
the three following genera:


Trees and tall shrubs with alternate, thick, smooth, entire leaves with
deciduous stipules which form the bud-scales, and are attached entirely
around the stem, leaving a ridge, as in Liriodendron.

Flowers very large (3 to 10 in. in diameter), usually white, solitary.

Fruit a large cone from which the seeds, drupe-like, usually red, hang
out on long threads during the autumn.

  * Blooming with or before the opening of the leaves. (=A.=)

    =A.= Flowers entirely white                                   9, 10.

    =A.= Flowers dark purple                                         11.

    =A.= Flowers mixed purple and white. A large number of
       hybrids from China and Japan.

  * Blooming after the leaves expand. (=B.=)

    =B.= Leaves evergreen, more than 8 in. long                       1.

    =B.= Leaves evergreen, not 6 in. long                             2.

    =B.= Leaves deciduous. (=C.=)

  =C.= Leaves decidedly auriculate or cordate at the base. (=D.=)

    =D.= Leaves very large (1 to 3 ft. long)                          5.

    =D.= Leaves smaller and much clustered at the tips of the
       flowering branches                                             6.

  =C.= Leaves not conspicuously cordate at base. (=E.=)

    =E.= Leaves clustered at the tips of the flowering branches       7.

    =E.= Leaves scattered along the branches. (=F.=)

      =F.= Base of leaf abrupt                                     3, 4.

      =F.= Base of leaf tapering. (=G.=)

        =G.= Leaves quite large, about 1 ft. long; a very erect
           growing tree                                               8.

        =G.= Leaves smaller, medium thick, glossy above               2.
                           medium thin (5 to 10 in. long)             3.

[Illustration: M. grandiflòra.]

1. =Magnòlia grandiflòra=, L. (LARGE-FLOWERED MAGNOLIA. SOUTHERN
EVERGREEN MAGNOLIA.) Leaves evergreen, thick, oval-oblong; upper surface
glossy, under surface somewhat rusty. Flowers large, 6 to 10 in. wide,
white, fragrant. In spring. Fruit oval, 3 to 4 in. long, ripe in
October. Seeds scarlet. Splendid evergreen tree (50 to 80 ft.) in the
Southern States; half hardy, and reduced to a shrub (10 to 20 ft.) when
cultivated in the Middle States.

[Illustration: M. glaùca.]

2. =Magnòlia glaùca=, L. (SWEET-BAY. SWAMP-MAGNOLIA.) Leaves quite
thick, oblong-oval, obtuse, smooth and glossy above, white or rusty
pubescent beneath; evergreen in the Southern States. Leaf-buds silky.
Flowers globular, white, and very fragrant. June to August. Fruit about
1½ in. long, ripe in autumn. Shrub, 4 to 20 ft. high, in the swamps of
the Atlantic States from Massachusetts southward. Slender tree, 15 to 30
ft. high, when cultivated in good damp soil.

[Illustration: M. acuminàta.]

3. =Magnòlia acuminàta=, L. (CUCUMBER-TREE.) Leaves thin, green above,
paler beneath, oblong, usually pointed at both ends, 5 to 10 in. long.
Leaf-buds silky. Flowers pale yellowish-green, 3 in. wide, late in
spring. Fruit irregular-oblong (2 to 3 in. long), rose-colored when
ripe, with a few hard, bony, black seeds, coated with red pulp, ripe in
autumn. Large (50 to 90 ft.) noble forest tree, wild in western New York
and southward. Wood rather soft, yellowish-white, quite durable, and
extensively used for pump logs. Occasionally cultivated; fine for

[Illustration: M. cordàta.]

4. =Magnòlia cordàta=, Michx. (YELLOW CUCUMBER-TREE.) Leaves broadly
ovate or oval, rarely cordate at base, smooth above, white-downy
beneath, 4 to 6 in. long. Flowers lemon-yellow slightly streaked with
red. June. Fruit nearly 3 in. long, red when ripe in autumn. A rather
small, broad-headed tree (20 to 50 ft.), wild in the Southern States,
but hardy as far north as Boston; not often cultivated. Probably an
upland variety of the preceding.

[Illustration: M. macrophýlla.]

5. =Magnòlia macrophýlla=, Michx. (GREAT-LEAVED MAGNOLIA.) Leaves very
large, sometimes 3 ft. long, crowded at the summit of the branches,
obovate-oblong, cordate at the narrowed base, glaucous-white beneath,
green above; twigs whitish pubescent. Flowers very large (12 in. broad),
white with a purple spot near the base; fragrant. Fruit cylindrical, 4
in. long, deep rose-colored when ripe in autumn. A medium-sized (30 to
40 ft.), spreading tree; wild from Kentucky south, hardy and cultivated
as far north as New York City.

[Illustration: M. Fràseri.]

6. =Magnòlia Fràseri=, Walt. (EAR-LEAVED UMBRELLA-TREE.) Leaves crowded
at the ends of the flowering branches, obovate or spatulate, auriculate
at base, smooth (1 ft. long). Leaf-buds smooth. Flowers (6 in. wide)
white, slightly scented. April to May. Fruit 3 to 4 in. long,
rose-colored, ripe in autumn. Medium-sized, rather slender tree (30 to
50 ft.), with soft yellowish-white wood. Virginia and southward. Hardy
and extensively cultivated as far north as New York City.

[Illustration: M. umbrélla.]

7. =Magnòlia umbrélla=, Lam. (UMBRELLA TREE.) Leaves clustered at the
ends of the branches, obovate-lanceolate, pointed at both ends, 1 to 2
ft. long; downy beneath when young, but soon becoming smooth. Flowers
white, 6 to 8 in. broad. May. Fruit oblong, 4 to 6 in. long, rather
rose-colored when ripe in autumn. A small, rather straggling tree, 20 to
40 ft. high; common in the Southern States, and wild as far north as New
York State; cultivated throughout.

[Illustration: M. hypoleùca.]

8. =Magnòlia hypoleùca=, S. & Z. (JAPAN MAGNOLIA.) Leaves large (1 ft.
long), somewhat purple-tinted above, white and glaucous beneath. Midrib
and leafstalk often red. Flowers cream-white, fragrant, appearing after
the leaves in June. Twigs stout and polished. A medium-sized, very
erectly growing tree; from Japan.

[Illustration: M. conspícua.]

9. =Magnòlia conspícua,= Salisb. (YULAN OR CHINESE WHITE MAGNOLIA.)
Leaves deciduous, obovate, abruptly acuminate, pubescent when young.
Flowers large (4 in.), cream-white, very fragrant, appearing very early
(May), before any of the leaves. Fruit rarely formed, with few (1 to 3,
rarely more) seeds to a cone. Bark dark brown on the young branches;
terminal winter buds over ½ in. long. Small tree (10 to 30 ft.) with
spreading habit and stout branches; very extensively cultivated for its
abundant early bloom; from China.

[Illustration: M. Kòbus.]

10. =Magnòlia Kòbus.= (THURBER'S JAPAN MAGNOLIA.) Leaves similar to the
preceding, but smaller. Flowers also similar, but pure white. Fruit
abundantly formed, with several (2 to 12) seeds to the cone. Bark green
on the young growth; terminal winter-buds under ½ in. long. Small tree
(15 to 40 ft.) with erect habit and slender branches. A beautiful tree
of recent introduction from Japan.

[Illustration: M. purpùrea.]

11. =Magnòlia purpùrea=, Sims. (PURPLE JAPAN MAGNOLIA.) Leaves obovate,
pointed at both ends, dark green. Flowers erect, of 3 sepals and 6
obovate, purple petals; blooming about as the leaves expand. A low tree,
or usually merely a shrub, from Japan; often cultivated.

Besides the Magnolias here given, there are quite a number of varieties
and hybrids in cultivation, from China and Japan, most of them blooming
before the leaves expand in spring.


Trees with alternate, deciduous, smooth, stipulate, 4-lobed leaves, the
stipules large, attached entirely around the stem, and leaving a ridge
when they drop off, as in the genus Magnolia. Flowers tulip-shaped,
large (3 in.), greenish-yellow. May to June. Fruit a pointed cone, 3 in.
long, hanging on the tree till autumn.

[Illustration: L. tulipífera.]

=Liriodéndron tulipífera=, L. (TULIP-TREE.) Leaves large, smooth on
both sides, somewhat 3-lobed, the end one seemingly cut off, leaving a
shallow notch; stipules light-colored, large, oblong, attached all
around the stem, often remaining on through half the season. A very
large (80 to 150 ft. high), beautiful, rapidly growing tree, with soft,
straight-grained, greenish wood, of great use for inside work. Southern
New England and southward. Especially abundant and large in the Western
States. Also cultivated.


Shrubs or trees with opposite, rarely subalternate, simple, deciduous
leaves. Fruit short-stemmed, with divergent pods, 2-4 in number,
splitting open on the outer edges; each one-celled, with one row of
lapping, pendulous seeds with membranous wings.

[Illustration: C. Japónicum.]

=Cercidiphýllum Japónicum.= (KATSURA-TREE.) Leaves broadly heart-shaped,
palmately veined with 5-7 ribs, and with an apparently entire margin,
dark green above, somewhat glaucous beneath. Under a magnifying glass
the margin will be found to have pellucid crenulations. Leafstalk dark
red and jointed above the base, the veins somewhat red-tinted. A
beautiful, upright tree with birch-like, dotted, brown bark; of recent
introduction from Japan, and probably completely hardy throughout the


A rather small order of mostly tropical trees or shrubs, with alternate,
simple leaves.


Large trees with terminal and axillary panicles of very small flowers
and berries.

[Illustration: I. polycárpa.]

=Idèsia polycárpa=, Hook. Leaves large, heart-shaped, serrate, palmately
veined with 5 ribs; leafstalk very long, red, with two glands near the
base; twigs also glandular; berries very small (¼ inch), with many
seeds. A large tree recently introduced from Japan, which may prove
hardy from Pennsylvania south, but is killed by the climate of



An order of tropical trees and shrubs except the following genus:


Small trees or shrubs with simple, deciduous, alternate, entire,
pinnately-veined leaves. Flowers large, dull purplish, solitary in the
axils of last year's leaves. Fruit a large, oblong, several-seeded,
pulpy berry.

[Illustration: A. tríloba.]

=Asímina tríloba=, Dunal. (COMMON PAPAW.) Leaves large (8 to 12 in.
long), oblong-obovate, acuminate, thin, lapping over each other in such
a manner as to give the plant a peculiar imbricated appearance. Flowers
1 in. broad, appearing before the leaves. Fruit 3 in. long, 1½ in.
thick, yellowish, fragrant, about 8-seeded, ripe in the autumn. Small
(10 to 20 ft. high), beautiful tree with dark-brown twigs. All parts
have a rank, fetid smell. Wild in New York and southward along streams;


A small order, consisting mostly of shrubs (from the Old World) with
minute leaves.


Leaves simple, very small, alternate, clasping; old ones almost
transparent at the apex. Flowers in spike-like panicles, small, red, or
pink, rarely white.

[Illustration: T. Gállica.]

=Támarix Gállica=, L. (FRENCH TAMARISK.) Leaves very small, acute; spray
very slender, abundant. A sub-evergreen shrub or small tree, 5 to 20 ft.
high; with very small pinkish flowers, in spike-like clusters, blooming
from May to October. A very beautiful and strange-looking plant, which,
rather sheltered by other trees, can be successfully grown throughout.



An order of showy-flowered trees and shrubs of tropical and subtropical
regions, here represented by the following genera:


Shrubs or low trees with alternate, simple, exstipulate, ovate,
serrulate leaves, soft downy beneath. Flowers large (2 in.), white to
cream-color, solitary and nearly sessile in the axils of the leaves;
blooming in early summer. Fruit a 5-celled capsule with few seeds; ripe
in autumn.

[Illustration: S. pentágyna.]

1. =Stuártia pentágyna=, L'Her. (STUARTIA.) Leaves thick, ovate,
acuminate, acute at base, obscurely mucronate, serrate, finely
pubescent, 3 to 4 in. long, one half as wide. Flowers whitish
cream-colored, one petal much the smallest; stamens of the same color.
Pod 5-angled.

Handsome shrub or small tree (10 to 15 ft.), wild south in the
mountains, and hardy and cultivated as far north as New York City
without protection. In Massachusetts it needs some sheltered position.

[Illustration: S. Virgínica.]

2. =Stuártia Virgínica=, Cav. (VIRGINIA STUARTIA.) Leaves
elliptic-ovate, acuminate at both ends, 2 in. long, 1 in. wide, thin,
serrate, silky pubescent beneath. Flowers white with purple filaments
and blue anthers. Pod globular and blunt; ripe in October. A beautiful
shrub rather than tree (8 to 12 ft.), wild in Virginia and south; hardy
as far north as Washington.


Shrubs or small trees with alternate, simple, feather-veined leaves.
Flowers large (3 to 4 in. wide), white, showy, solitary in the axils of
the leaves. Blooming in summer. Fruit a dry, dehiscent, conical-pointed,
5-celled capsule with 10 to 30 seeds, ripe in the autumn.

[Illustration: G. Lasiánthus.]

1. =Gordònia Lasiánthus=, L. (LOBLOLLY BAY.) Leaves thick, evergreen,
lanceolate-oblong, minutely serrate, nearly sessile, smooth and shining
on both sides. The large, solitary, sweet-scented, axillary flowers on
peduncles half as long as the leaves. A large tree (30 to 70 ft. high)
in the south (wild in southern Virginia), and cultivated as far north as
central Pennsylvania, without protection; at St. Louis and Boston it
needs protection. Wood of a reddish color, light and brittle.

[Illustration: G. pubéscens.]

2. =Gordònia pubéscens=, L'Her. Leaves thin, deciduous, obovate-oblong,
sharply serrate, white beneath. Flowers nearly sessile. A small tree or
shrub of the south (30 ft. high in Georgia), hardy, and rarely
cultivated as far north as Philadelphia, or still farther north if
slightly sheltered.


A large family, mainly of herbs, found in tropical and temperate
regions. One cultivated species, almost a tree, is included in this


Herbs or shrubs; one sometimes tree-like, with simple, deciduous,
alternate, stipulate, usually lobed leaves. Flowers large, showy,
5-parted (Hollyhock-shaped), in late summer. Fruit a 5-celled,
many-seeded pod, ripe in autumn.

[Illustration: H. Syrìacus.]

=Hibíscus Syrìacus=, L. (TREE HIBISCUS.) The only woody and sometimes
tree-like species; has ovate, wedge-shaped, 3-lobed, toothed leaves, and
large (3 in.) white, purple, red, or variegated flowers. Usually a
shrub, 6 to 15 ft. high, often cultivated throughout; introduced from


Trees or shrubs (a few are herbs), with alternate leaves, and the
stamens united into a tube. A large order of tropical plants.


Leaves alternate, simple, usually lobed, ovaries more or less divided
into 5 carpels, each 2- to many-lobed; fruit when ripe forming a star of
5 distinct pods.

[Illustration: S. platanifòlia.]

=Stercùlia platanifòlia=, L. (CHINESE PARASOL.) Leaves large, deciduous,
alternate, palmately 3- to 5-lobed, deeply heart-shaped at base, the
margin entire, the lobes acute; smooth or slightly hairy; leafstalk
about as long as the blade. Flowers green, in axillary panicles; fruit
star-shaped. A small, beautiful tree from China; probably not hardy
north of Washington.


An order, mainly of trees, abundant in the tropics; here represented by
a single genus:


Trees with alternate, deciduous, obliquely heart-shaped, serrate leaves,
about as broad as long. Leaves two-ranked on the stem. Flowers small,
cream-colored, fragrant, in clusters on a peculiar, oblong, leaf-like
bract. Fruit small (1/8 in.), globular, woody, in clusters from the same
bract. Wood white and soft; inner bark very fibrous and tough.

  * Flowers with petal-like scales among the stamens; American
  species. (=A.=)

    =A.= Leaves very large, 6 to 8 in.                                  3.

    =A.= Leaves medium, 4 to 6 in.                                      1.

    =A.= Leaves small, 2 to 3 in.                                       2.

  * Flowers with no petal-like scales among the stamens.                4.

[Illustration: T. Americàna.]

1. =Tília Americàna=, L. (BASSWOOD. WHITEWOOD. LINDEN.) Leaves large, 4
to 6 in. long, green and smooth, or very nearly so, thickish. Fruit
ovoid, somewhat ribbed, ¼ in. broad, greenish when ripe in October, on a
bract which is usually tapering to the base. Tall tree, 60 to 80 ft.
high, wild in rich woods and often cultivated.

[Illustration: T. pubéscens.]

2. =Tília pubéscens=, Ait. (SMALL-LEAVED BASSWOOD.) Leaves smaller, 2 to
3 in. long, thinner and rather pubescent beneath. Fruit globose, 1/5
in. broad, on a bract usually quite rounded at base.

This is usually considered as a variety of the last-named species. It is
found from New York south and west.

[Illustration: T. heterophýlla.]

3. =Tília heterophýlla=, Vent. (WHITE BASSWOOD.) Leaves large, often 8
in. broad, smooth and bright green above, silvery white and downy
beneath, with darker, purplish veins. A large tree; wild in
Pennsylvania, west and south, and often cultivated.

[Illustration: T. Europæa.]

4. =Tília Europæa=, Mill. (EUROPEAN LINDEN.) Leaves twice as long as
the petioles, and smooth except a woolly tuft in the axils of the veins
beneath. Small and large leaved varieties are in cultivation. The
flowers have no petal-like scales among the stamens, while the American
species have. An ornamental tree with dense foliage; often cultivated
from Europe. The twigs are more numerous and more slender than those of
the American species. Nearly a score of named varieties are in
cultivation. Var. _laciniata_ has deeply cut and twisted leaves.


Shrubs and trees, rarely herbs, in most cases with transparent-dotted,
heavy-scented foliage. A rather large order in warm climates.


Shrubs or trees with mostly odd-pinnate, alternate leaves. The stem and
often the leaflets prickly; flowers small, greenish or whitish; fruit
dry, thick pods, with 1 to 2 seeds.

[Illustration: X. Americànum.]

1. =Xanthóxylum Americànum=, Mill. (NORTHERN PRICKLY-ASH.
TOOTHACHE-TREE.) Leaves and flowers in sessile, axillary, umbellate
clusters; leaflets 5 to 9, ovate-oblong, downy when young. Flowers
appear before the leaves. Shrub, scarcely at all tree-like, with bark,
leaves, and pods very pungent and aromatic. Common north, and sometimes

[Illustration: X. Clàva Hércules.]

2. =Xanthóxylum Clàva Hércules=, L. (SOUTHERN PRICKLY-ASH.) Leaflets 7
to 17, ovate to ovate-oblong, oblique at base, shining above. Flowers
appear after the leaves. A small tree with very sharp prickles. Sandy
coast of Virginia and southward; occasionally cultivated in the north.


Shrub with compound leaves of three leaflets, greenish-white flowers in
terminal cymes, and 2-seeded fruit with a broad-winged margin, somewhat
like the Elm, only larger.

[Illustration: P. trifoliàta.]

=Ptèlea trifoliàta=, L. (HOP-TREE. SHRUBBY TREFOIL.) Leaflets ovate,
pointed, downy when young. Flowers with a disagreeable odor; fruit
bitter, somewhat like hops. A tall shrub, often, when cultivated,
trimmed into a tree-like form. Wild, in rocky places, in southern New
York and southward.


Leaves opposite, odd-pinnate. Flowers dioecious; so only a portion of
the trees bear the small, odoriferous, 5-seeded, drupe-like fruit.

[Illustration: P. Amurénse.]

=Phellodéndron Amurénse.= (CHINESE CORK-TREE.) Leaves opposite,
odd-pinnate, 1½ to 3 ft. long; leaflets 9 to many, lanceolate, sharply
serrate, long-acuminate. Flowers inconspicuous, dioecious, in
loose-spreading clusters at the ends of the branches. The pistillate
flowers form small, black, pea-shaped fruit, in loose, grape-like
clusters, thickly covered with glands containing a bitter, aromatic oil,
and remaining on the tree in winter. Medium-sized tree (20 to 40 ft.),
with Ailanthus-like leaves which turn bright red in autumn, and remain
long on the tree. Hardy as far north as central Massachusetts.


Tropical trees, including the Mahogany; represented in the south by the


Trees with alternate, bipinnate leaves. The flowers are conspicuous and
beautiful, in large panicles, in the spring. Fruit in large clusters of
berry-like drupes, with a 5-celled stone.

[Illustration: M. Azédarach.]

=Mèlia Azédarach, L.= (CHINA-TREE. PRIDE OF INDIA.) Leaves very large,
doubly pinnate, with many obliquely lance-ovate, acuminate, smooth,
serrate leaflets. Flowers small, lilac-colored, deliciously fragrant, in
large axillary clusters. Fruit globular, as large as cherries, yellow
when ripe in autumn; hanging on through the winter. A rather small (20
to 40 ft. high), rapidly growing, round-headed, popular shade-tree in
the south, and hardy as far north as Virginia. Introduced from Persia.


Leaves large, alternate, deciduous, odd-pinnate. Flowers with separate
petals, fragrant, white, in large clusters. Fruit 5-celled dehiscent
pods, with many pendulous, winged seeds.

[Illustration: C. Sinénsis.]

=Cedréla Sinénsis.= (CHINESE CEDRELA.) Leaves large, odd-pinnate,
alternate, appearing much like those of the Ailanthus, but with slight
serrations near the tips of the leaflets, and no glands near the base.
Bruised leaves with a strong odor; footstalk and stout-tipped branches
with glands. Large tree, seemingly hardy in New Jersey, but dies to the
ground in winter in Massachusetts. Recently introduced from China.


Eastern trees and shrubs, here represented by a single tree:


Large trees to shrubs, with alternate, odd-pinnate leaves. Flowers
small, greenish, in large terminal panicles. Fruit broadly winged, like
the Ash, but with the seed in the center.

[Illustration: A. glandulòsus.]

=Ailánthus glandulòsus=, Desf. (TREE OF HEAVEN.) Leaves very large, 2 to
5 ft. long on the younger growths; leaflets obliquely lanceolate,
coarsely toothed at the base, with a gland on the lower side at the
point of each tooth; point of leaflets entire. Young twigs thick, rusty
brown; buds very small in the axils. Only some of the trees have fruit,
as some have only staminate flowers. The staminate flowers are very
ill-scented. A rapid-growing tree, with useful hard wood; cultivated and
naturalized; hardy throughout. See page 10.


A small order of trees and shrubs, including for our purpose only one


Trees or shrubs with simple, alternate, thick, mostly evergreen leaves.
Flowers rather inconspicuous, mostly in clusters. Fruit berry-like,
small (¼ to ½ in.), with 4 to 6 nutlets; hanging on the plants late in
the autumn or through the winter.

  * Leaves evergreen. (=A.=)

    =A.= Leaves with spiny teeth                                      1.

    =A.= No spiny teeth                                               2.

  * Leaves deciduous                                                  3.

[Illustration: I. opàca.]

1. =Ìlex opàca=, Ait. (AMERICAN HOLLY.) Leaves evergreen, oval, acute,
thick, smooth, with scattered spiny teeth. Flowers white; May. The
bright-red berries, found only on some of the trees, remain on through
the greater part of the winter. Small tree, 15 to 40 ft. high, with very
hard white wood; wild in southern New England and southward. A beautiful
broad-leaved, evergreen tree which should be more extensively
cultivated. North of latitude 41° it needs a protected situation.

[Illustration: I. Dahòon.]

2. =Ìlex Dahòon=, Walt. (DAHOON HOLLY.) Leaves 2 to 3 in. long,
evergreen, oblanceolate or oblong, entire or sharply serrate toward the
apex, with revolute margins, not spiny. Young branches and lower
surface of the leaves, especially on the midrib, pubescent. Small tree,
10 to 30 ft. high; Virginia and south, with very hard, white,
close-grained wood. Rarely cultivated.

[Illustration: I. montícola.]

3. =Ìlex montícola=, Gray. Leaves deciduous, ovate to lance-oblong, 3 to
5 in. long, taper-pointed, thin, smooth, sharply serrate. Fruit red, on
short stems, with the seeds many-ribbed on the back. Usually a shrub but
sometimes tree-like; damp woods in the Catskills and in the Alleghany


Shrubs with simple leaves and small, regular flowers, forming a fruit
with ariled seeds.


Shrubs somewhat tree-like, with 4-sided branchlets, opposite, serrate
leaves, and loose cymes of angular fruit which bursts open in the

[Illustration: E. atropurpùreus.]

1. =Euónymus atropurpùreus=, Jacq. (BURNING-BUSH. WAHOO.) Leaves
petioled, oval-oblong, pointed; parts of the dark-purple flowers
commonly in fours; pods smooth, deeply lobed, when ripe, cinnamon in
color and very ornamental. Tall shrub, 6 to 20 ft. high; wild in
Wisconsin to New York, and southward; often cultivated.

[Illustration: E. Europæus.]

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, serrate, smooth; flowers and fruit commonly in
threes on compressed stems; fruit usually 4-lobed, the lobes acute;
flowers greenish-white; May; fruit abundant, scarlet, ripe in
September. Generally a shrub, though sometimes tall enough (4 to 20
ft.) and trimmed so as to appear tree-like; twigs smooth, green or
reddish-green. Extensively cultivated; from Europe.



An order mainly of shrubs, but including in the north-eastern United
States two or three small trees.


Shrubs or small trees with deciduous (rarely evergreen), usually
alternate (rarely opposite), pinnately veined leaves. Flowers small,
4-parted, inconspicuous, in clusters in the axils of the leaves. Fruit
berry-like, with 2 to 4 seed-like nuts.

  * Branches terminating in thorns                                    1.

  * Plant without thorns. (=A.=)

     =A.= Leaves deciduous                                            2.

     =A.= Leaves evergreen                                            3.

[Illustration: R. cathártica.]

1. =Rhámnus cathártica, L.= (COMMON BUCKTHORN.) Leaves ovate, minutely
serrate, alternate or many of them opposite; branchlets terminating in
thorns. Flowers greenish. Fruit globular, 1/3 in. in diameter, black
with a green juice, and 3 or 4 seeds; ripe in September. A shrub or
small tree, 10 to 15 ft. high, from Europe; cultivated for hedges, and
found wild in a few places, where it forms a small tree.

[Illustration: R. Caroliniàna.]

2. Rhámnus Caroliniàna, Walt. (CAROLINA BUCKTHORN.) Leaves 3 to 5 in.
long, alternate, oblong, wavy and obscurely serrulate, nearly smooth, on
slender pubescent petioles. Flowers greenish, 5-parted, solitary or in
umbellate clusters in the axils. Fruit berry-like, globular, the size of
peas, 3-seeded, black when ripe in September. A thornless shrub or small
tree, 5 to 20 ft. high. New Jersey, south and west. Usually a shrub
except in the Southern States.

[Illustration: R. Califòrnicus.]

3. =Rhámnus Califòrnicus=, Esch. (CALIFORNIA BUCKTHORN.) Leaves
evergreen, oval-oblong to elliptical, 1 to 4 in. long, rather obtuse,
sometimes acute, generally rounded at base, serrulate or entire. Fruit
blackish purple, with thin pulp, ¼ in., 2- to 3-seeded. A spreading
shrub, 5 to 18 ft. high, without thorns; from California.


Leaves alternate, deciduous, simple, oblique at base. Fruit an obscurely
3-lobed, 3-celled, 3-seeded pod in dichotomous clusters, both axillary
and terminal.

[Illustration: H. dúlcis]

=Hovènia dúlcis=, Thunb. Leaves long-petioled, more or less ovate to
cordate, serrate, palmately 3-ribbed, much darker on the upper surface;
both sides slightly roughened with scattered hairs. Fruit sweet, edible,
in clusters in the axils of the leaves; seeds lens-shaped, with a ridge
on the inner side. Flowers white; in July. A large, broad-topped tree,
introduced from Japan. Hardy at Washington, but dies to the ground in
the Arnold Arboretum, Massachusetts.


Leaves simple, alternate, deciduous, 3-ribbed. Flowers axillary,
5-petaled. Fruit fleshy, drupe-like, containing a 1- to 2-celled nut.

[Illustration: Z. vulgàris.]

=Zìzyphus vulgàris=, Lam. (JUJUBE.) Leaves ovate-lanceolate, obtuse,
serrate, smooth, and glossy green on both sides, upper side quite dark;
slightly hairy beneath on the veins; prickles twin, one recurved,
sometimes none. New growth of the year green, and resembling a
once-pinnate compound leaf and usually dropping off in the autumn like
one. Leaves 10 to 20 on a twig, 2-ranked; flowers and drupes nearly
sessile in the axils; fruit small (¼ in.), blood-red when ripe. A small
tree (10 to 30 ft. high), of recent introduction from Syria; hardy at
Philadelphia, but needing some protection at the Arnold Arboretum,


A large order represented in all countries, and so varied in its
characteristics as to form several sub-orders.


Deciduous trees or sometimes shrubs, with opposite, palmately compound
leaves with serrated, straight-veined leaflets. Flowers usually
conspicuous in dense terminal panicles. Fruit large, leathery-coated,
often rough, with one or few large Chestnut-like but bitter seeds. Fruit
large in midsummer, hanging on the tree until frost.

  * Fruit prickly. (=A.=)

      =A.= Leaflets usually 7; flowers widely spreading               1.

      =A.= Leaflets 5-7, red-spotted and rough; flowers rosy red
                                                _Æsculus rubicunda_ (1).

      =A.= Leaflets usually 5; flowers not much spreading             2.

  * Fruit smooth or nearly so. (=B.=)

      =B.= Flowers bright red                                         3.

      =B.= Flowers yellow, purplish or pinkish                        4.

      =B.= Flowers white, in long, slender, erect clusters            5.

[Illustration: Æ. Hippocástanum.]

1. =Æsculus Hippocástanum.= (COMMON HORSE-CHESTNUT.) Leaves of 7
obovate, abruptly pointed, serrated leaflets. Flowers very showy in
large clusters, with 5 white, purple and yellow spotted, broadly
spreading petals. A variety with double flowers is in cultivation. May
or June. Fruit large, covered with prickles. Seeds large,
chestnut-colored. Tree of large size, with brown twigs; cultivated
everywhere; from Asia.

[Illustration: Æ. rubicúnda.]

_Æsculus rubicunda_ (Red-flowering Horse-chestnut) is frequent in
cultivation; leaflets 5 to 7, red-spotted and rough; flowers rosy red.
It is probably a hybrid between the common Horse-chestnut and one of the

[Illustration: Æ glàbra.]

2. =Æsculus glàbra=, Willd. (OHIO BUCKEYE.) Leaves with 5 oval-oblong,
acuminate, serrate, smooth leaflets. Flowers not showy, yellowish-white,
with 4 somewhat irregular, slightly spreading petals. June. Fruit small,
1 in. in diameter, covered with prickles, at least when young; ripe in
autumn. Small to large tree, wild in the basin of the Ohio River, along
river-banks. Sometimes cultivated.

[Illustration: Æ. Pàvia.]

3. =Æsculus Pàvia=, L. (RED BUCKEYE.) Leaves of 5 to 7
oblong-lanceolate, finely serrate, generally smooth leaflets, of a
shining green color, with purple veins and petioles. Flowers (corolla
and calyx) bright red, with included stamens; corolla of 4 petals, not
spreading; calyx tubular. Fruit smooth, oblong-obovate, 1 in. long.
Small tree or shrub, 10 to 20 ft. high, with purple twigs. Virginia west
and south, and occasionally cultivated throughout.

[Illustration: Æ. flàva.]

4. =Æsculus flàva=, Ait. (SWEET BUCKEYE.) Leaves with 5 to 7 serrulate,
elliptical, acuminate leaflets, usually smooth, sometimes minutely
pubescent beneath; the pubescent petiole flattish toward the base.
Flowers yellow, not spreading. Spring. Fruit globose, uneven but not
prickly, 2 in. in diameter. Seeds large (1 in.), 1 or 2 in number,
mahogany-colored; ripe in autumn. Often a large tree, sometimes only a
shrub, 6 to 70 ft. high, in rich woods; Virginia to Indiana, and
southward. Cultivated occasionally throughout.

Var. _purpurascens_ of this species has flesh-colored or dull-purple
flowers, and leaflets quite downy beneath.

[Illustration: Æ. macrostàchya.]

5. Æsculus macrostàchya, Mx. (LONG-RACEMED BUCKEYE.) Leaflets 5 to 7,
ovate, acuminate, serrate, velvety with hairs beneath. Flowers white, in
long, slender, erect clusters; July; petals 4, spreading; stamens very
long. A beautiful, widely spreading shrub. 5 to 18 ft. high; from the
Southern States; often cultivated. Probably hardy throughout.


A small tree with alternate, once to twice irregularly pinnate leaves
with many coarsely toothed leaflets. Flowers conspicuous, yellow, in
terminal panicles. In summer. Fruit rounded, bladdery, 3-celled,
few-seeded pods; ripe in autumn.

[Illustration: K. paniculàta.]

=Koelreutèria paniculàta=, Laxm. Leaflets thin and very irregularly
toothed. Clusters 6 to 12 in. long, of many irregular flowers, ½ in.
wide; through the summer. Fruit an ovate, bladdery capsule, ripening in
autumn. A fine, small, round-headed tree, 20 to 40 ft. high; from China.
Probably hardy throughout.


Trees, or rarely shrubs, with simple, opposite, and almost always
palmately lobed leaves, which, in our species, are always deciduous.
Flowers small and usually dull-colored, in clusters. Fruit double-winged
and 2-seeded, in some species hanging on the tree till the leaves have
fallen; in others dropping off early in the spring. The species differ
much in the spreading of the wings of the fruit. Wood light-colored and
medium hard; bark rather smoothish, but in large trees with longitudinal

  * Leaves slightly or not lobed                                     13.

  * Leaves about 3-lobed (rarely 5-lobed); shrubs or small trees.

    =A.= Leaves serrate                                            1, 2.

    =A.= Leaves somewhat sinuate, not at all serrate; juice milky.   10.

  * Leaves 5-, rarely 3-lobed. (=B.=)

    =B.= The lobes acute, irregularly but quite fully serrate;
       juice not milky. (=C.=)

      =C.= The fruit in corymbs, dropping early; American
         species. (=D.=)

        =D.= Leaf-notches somewhat rounded; tree large; limbs
                  drooping on old trees                               3.

        =D.= Leaf-notches acute; tree small                           4.

      =C.= Fruit in hanging racemes, remaining on the tree till
         autumn; leaves thickish                                      5.

    =B.= The lobes acute; sparingly or not at all serrate. (=E.=)

      =E.= Juice not milky                                            6.

      =E.= Juice milky at the bases of the leaves                  8, 9.

    =B.= The lobes obtuse and sinuate                                10.

  * Leaves 5- to 7-lobed. (=F.=)

    =F.= Lobes fully serrate                                         11.

    =F.= Lobes sparingly serrate. (=G.=)

      =G.= Juice milky                                             8, 9.

      =G.= Juice not milky; leaves 8 to 10 in. broad                  7.

    =F.= Lobes somewhat sinuate, not serrate; juice milky            10.

  * Leaves with 7 or more lobes                                  11, 12.

[Illustration: À. spicàtum.]

1. =Àcer spicàtum=, Lam. (MOUNTAIN MAPLE.) Leaves with 3 (rarely 5)
coarsely serrated, taper-pointed lobes, with slightly cordate base;
downy beneath. Flowers greenish-yellow, in erect, slender racemes or
panicles, blooming in June. Wings of the small fruit at about a right
angle. Small tree, 6 to 10 ft. high, or usually a shrub, with brown
twigs. Native; growing in moist woods; rarely cultivated.

[Illustration: À. Pennsylvánicum.]

2. =Àcer Pennsylvánicum=, L. (STRIPED MAPLE.) Leaves large, thin,
3-lobed at the end, cordate at base, finely and sharply doubly serrate.
Flowers greenish, in drooping, elongated, loose racemes appearing after
the leaves in spring. Fruit with large diverging wings. A small, slender
tree, with light green bark striped with dark red. Wild throughout and

[Illustration: À. dasycárpum.]

3. =Àcer dasycárpum=, Ehrh. (SILVER OR WHITE MAPLE.) Leaves large,
truncated at base, 5-lobed, with blunt notches, the lobes irregularly
serrated and notched, silvery white, and, when young, downy beneath.
Flowers light yellowish-purple, preceding the leaves, in crowded umbels
along the branches. Wings of fruit large and forming about a right
angle; ripe early in June. A rather large, rapidly growing, and usually
somewhat weeping tree, with soft white wood. Special cut-leaved and
weeping varieties are sold at the nurseries. Wild along river-banks, and
extensively cultivated in the streets of cities.

[Illustration: À. rùbrum.]

4. =Àcer rùbrum=, L. (RED MAPLE.) Leaves cordate at base and cleft into
3 to 5 acute-notched, irregularly toothed lobes, whitish beneath,
turning a bright crimson in early autumn. Flowers usually scarlet,
rarely yellowish, in close clusters along the branches, appearing before
the leaves in the spring. Fruit often reddish, small, with the wings at
about a right angle. A rather small, somewhat spreading tree with
reddish branches; wild in wet places and often cultivated.

[Illustration: À. Pseudoplátanus.]

5. =Àcer Pseudoplátanus=, L. (SYCAMORE-MAPLE.) Leaves thickish, cordate,
downy beneath, with 5 rather crenately toothed lobes, on long, often
reddish petioles. Flowers in long pendulous racemes, appearing after the
leaves. Fruit hanging on the tree till after the leaves fall in the
autumn, the wings forming about a right angle. A rather large, spreading
tree, 30 to 80 ft. high, with reddish-brown twigs. Cultivated; from
Europe. Many varieties of this species are sold by the nurserymen; among
them may be mentioned the Purple-leaved, Golden-leaved, Silver-leaved,
Tricolored, etc.

[Illustration: À. saccharìnum.]

6. =Àcer saccharìnum=, Wang. (SUGAR OR ROCK MAPLE.) Leaves deeply 3- to
5-lobed, with rounded notches; lobes acute, few-toothed; base
heart-shaped, smooth above, glaucous beneath. Flowers hanging in
umbel-like clusters at the time the leaves are expanding in the spring.
Fruit with wings not quite forming a right angle. A large (50 to 100 ft.
high), very symmetrical tree, ovate in form, with whitish-brown twigs.
Wild throughout, and extensively cultivated in the streets of cities.

Var. _nigrum_, Torr. and Gray. (Black Sugar-maple.) Leaves scarcely
paler beneath, but often minutely downy; lobes wider, often shorter and
entire; notch at the base often closed (the under leaf in the figure).
Found with the other Sugar-maple, and quite variable.

[Illustration: À. macrophýllum.]

7. =Àcer macrophýllum=, Ph. (LARGE-LEAVED OR CALIFORNIA MAPLE.) Leaves
very large, 8 to 10 in. broad; 5-, sometimes 7-lobed, with deep, rounded
notches; lobes themselves somewhat 3-lobed and repand-notched; pubescent
beneath. Flowers yellow, in erect panicles, fragrant, blooming after the
leaves are expanded. Fruit large, with the seeded portion hairy; wings
at about a right angle. Tree very large (100 ft. high); wood soft,
whitish, beautifully veined. Twigs brown; buds green. Cultivated; from
the Pacific coast, but not hardy north of 40° N. latitude.

[Illustration: À. platanoìdes.]

8. =Àcer platanoìdes=, L. (NORWAY MAPLE.) Leaves large, smooth, 5-,
rarely 7-cleft, with cordate base; lobes acute, with few coarse, sharp
teeth, bright green both sides. The leaves resemble those of the
Sycamore (Platanus). Flowers a little later than the leaves in spring,
in stalked corymbs, less drooping than the Sugar-maple (No. 6). Fruit
with wings diverging in a straight line. A medium-sized, broad, rounded
tree with brown twigs and milky juice, best seen at the bases of the
young leaves. Cultivated throughout.

[Illustration: À. Lætum.]

9. =Àcer Lætum.= (COLCHICUM-LEAVED MAPLE.) Leaves 5- to 7-lobed,
scarcely heart-shaped at base, smooth and green on both sides; juice
milky; the lobes usually without any notches or irregularities,
sometimes with about three winding sinuations. Flowers in erect corymbs.
Differs from Acer platanoides in having the lobes of the leaves more
nearly entire, and the fruit much smaller with wings not so broadly

[Illustration: À. campéstre.]

10. =Àcer campéstre=, L. (ENGLISH OR CORK-BARK MAPLE.) Leaves cordate,
with usually 5 roundish lobes, sparingly crenate or rather undulated;
juice milky. Racemes of flowers erect, appearing after the leaves in
spring. Wings of the fruit broadly spreading; fruit ripening very late.
A low (15 to 30 ft. high), round-headed tree, with the twigs and smaller
branches covered with corky bark. Occasionally cultivated; from Europe.

Var. _variegatum_ has white blotched leaves.

[Illustration: À. palmàtum.]

11. =Àcer palmàtum=, Thunb. (PALMATE-LEAVED JAPAN MAPLE.) Leaves small,
smooth, palmately parted into 5 to 9 quite regularly serrated lobes.
Flowers in small umbels. A very low tree, almost a shrub; cultivated;
from Japan; probably hardy throughout. There are a great number of Japan
Maples, many of them probably varieties of this species, others hybrids.
The leaves of some are so divided and dissected as to form merely a
fringe or feather. In color they range from pure green to the richest

[Illustration: À. circinàtum.]

12. =Àcer circinàtum=, Pursh. (ROUND-LEAVED OR VINE MAPLE.) Leaves
orbicular, with 7 to 11 serrated, acute lobes, a heart-shaped base,
reddish-green color, and both surfaces smooth. Corymbs of purplish
flowers, small and hanging on long peduncles; appearing after the
leaves. Wings of the fruit diverging in a straight line. A small tree or
tall shrub, 10 to 30 ft. high, of spreading habit, with smooth bark, and
pale brown twigs; cultivated; from the Pacific coast of North America.

[Illustration: À. Tartáricum.]

13. =Àcer Tartáricum=, L. (TARTARIAN MAPLE.) Leaves ovate, slightly
cordate, rarely lobed, serrated, light-colored, expanding very early in
the spring. Panicle of greenish-yellow flowers erect, blooming after the
leaves have expanded. Wings of the fruit parallel or sometimes touching.
A small tree, sometimes shrubby in growth, of irregular form, with brown
twigs; rarely cultivated; from Europe.


Leaves pinnate, of 3 to 5 leaflets. Flowers rather inconspicuous. Fruit
a two-winged key as in Acer, in drooping racemes.

[Illustration: N. aceroìdes.]

=Negúndo aceroìdes=, Moench. (ASH-LEAVED MAPLE. BOX-ELDER.) Leaves
pinnate, of 3 to 5 (rarely 7) coarsely and sparingly toothed leaflets.
Flowers staminate and pistillate on separate trees, in drooping clusters
rather earlier than the leaves. Fruit on only a portion of the trees;
wings forming less than a right angle. A rather small (30 to 60 ft.
high), rapidly growing tree, with light pea-green twigs; wild from
Pennsylvania and south, and cultivated throughout.

Var. _Californicum_, Torr. and Gray (the under drawing in the figure),
has leaflets more deeply cut, thicker, and quite hairy; it is
occasionally cultivated.



Trees and shrubs, mainly of the tropical regions, here represented by
only one genus:


Low trees or shrubs with acrid, often poisonous, usually milky juice,
and dotless, alternate, usually pinnately compound leaves. Flowers
greenish-white or yellowish, in large terminal panicles. Fruit small
(1/8 in.), indehiscent, dry drupes in large clusters, generally
remaining on through the autumn.

  * Leaves simple, rounded, entire                                 6, 7.

  * Leaves once-pinnate. (=A.=)

    =A.= Twigs very hairy; rachis not winged; leaflets 11 to 31       1.

    =A.= Twigs downy; rachis wing-margined; leaflets entire or
              nearly so                                               3.

    =A.= Twigs smooth. (=B.=)

      =B.= Rachis of leaf broadly winged; leaflets serrate            5.

      =B.= Rachis not winged. (=C.=)

        =C.= Leaflets 11 to 31, serrate; fruit hairy                  2.

        =C.= Leaflets 7 to 13, entire; fruit smooth; poisonous        4.

  * Leaves twice-pinnate; variety under                               2.

[Illustration: R. týphina.]

1. =Rhús týphina=, L. (STAG-HORN SUMAC.) Leaflets 11 to 31,
oblong-lanceolate, pointed, serrate (rarely laciniate), pale beneath.
Branches and footstalks densely hairy. Fruit globular, in large, dense,
erect panicles, covered with crimson hairs. Shrub or tree, 10 to 30 ft.
high. It is very common along fences and on hillsides. The wood is
orange-colored and brittle.

[Illustration: R. glàbra.]

2. =Rhús glàbra=, L. (SMOOTH SUMAC.) Leaflets 11 to 31,
lanceolate-oblong, pointed, serrate, smooth, glaucous white beneath.
Branches not hairy. Fruit globular, in a rather open, spreading cluster,
covered densely with crimson hairs. A shrubby plant, 2 to 12 ft. high,
found quite abundantly in rocky or barren soil throughout.

[Illustration: R. laciniàta.]

Var. _laciniata_ is frequently planted for ornament. It has very
irregularly twice-pinnate leaves drooping gracefully from the branches.

[Illustration: R. copallìna.]

3. =Rhús copallìna=, L. (DWARF MOUNTAIN SUMAC.) Branches and stalks
downy; leafstalk wing-margined between the 9 to 21 oblong-lanceolate,
usually entire leaflets, which are oblique at base and smooth and
shining above. Wild in rocky hills throughout; often cultivated. North,
a beautiful shrub; south, a tree. 2 to 25 ft. high.

[Illustration: R. venenàta.]

Leaflets 7 to 13, obovate-oblong, entire, abruptly pointed, smooth or
nearly so. Fruit small, globular, smooth, dun-colored, in loose
axillary panicles hanging on late in winter; the stone striate. This is
a very poisonous species (to the touch), 6 to 18 ft. high, growing in
swamps. Rarely at all tree-like.

[Illustration: R. Osbéckii.]

5. =Rhús Osbéckii=, DC. (CHINESE SUMAC.) Leaves very large, pinnate,
assuming in autumn a rich reddish-fawn or orange color; the leafstalk
broadly winged between the leaflets; leaflets serrate. A small
ornamental tree, 10 to 25 ft. high; cultivated; from China; quite hardy
in the Northern States.

[Illustration: R. Cótinus.]

6. =Rhús Cótinus=, L. (SMOKE-TREE. VENETIAN SUMAC.) Leaves smooth,
obovate, entire, on slender petioles. Flowers greenish, minute, in
terminal or axillary panicles. Fruit seldom found. Usually most of the
flowers are abortive, while their pedicels lengthen, branch, and form
long feather-like hairs, making large cloud-like branches that look
somewhat like smoke (whence the name). A shrub or small tree, 6 to 10
ft. high, often planted for ornament; from Europe.

[Illustration: R. cotinoìdes.]

7. =Rhús cotinoìdes=, Nutt. (AMERICAN SMOKE-TREE.) Leaves thin, oval,
obtuse, entire, acute at base, 3 to 6 in. long, smooth or nearly so.
Flowers and fruit like those of the cultivated species (Rhus Cotinus). A
tree 20 to 40 ft. high; stem sometimes a foot or more in diameter in the
Southern States; wild in Tennessee, west and south. Rare in


A very large order of plants, mainly herbaceous; found in all climates.
A few are shrubby, and others are from small to large trees.


Low trees or shrubs with alternate, palmate leaves of three leaflets.
Flowers conspicuous, pea-blossom-shaped, in long hanging racemes, in
late spring. Fruit pea-pod-shaped, dark brown, and many-seeded; ripe in

[Illustration: L. vulgàre.]

petiolate, with 3 ovate-lanceolate leaflets, pubescent beneath. Flowers
bright yellow, nearly 1 in. long, in long (1 ft.), pendulous, simple
racemes; in late spring. Pods 2 in. long, linear, many-seeded, covered
with closely appressed pubescence; one edge thick; ripe in autumn. A
low, very ornamental tree, 10 to 20 ft. high, often cultivated; from
Switzerland. Varieties with reddish, purple, and white flowers are also
in cultivation.

Var. _alpinus_ has smooth pods.


Leaves alternate, deciduous, abruptly once-pinnate; leaflets mucronate;
stipules usually spinescent. Flowers pea-flower-shaped, mostly yellow.
Trees or shrubs of Asia.

[Illustration: C. arboréscens.]

=Caragàna arboréscens=, Larn. (PEA-TREE.) Leaves with 4 to 6 pairs of
oval-oblong, mucronate-pointed, hairy leaflets; petioles unarmed;
stipules spinescent. Flowers yellow, blooming in May. Pods brown, ripe
in August. A low, stiff, erect tree, 10 to 15 ft. high; in poor soil a
bush. From Siberia; frequent in cultivation.


Small tree with alternate, odd-pinnate leaves, the base of the petiole
hollow, and inclosing the leaf-buds of the next year. Flowers large,
pea-blossom-like in shape, in large clusters. Fruit pea-pod-like in
shape and size. Wood light yellow, firm and hard.

[Illustration: C. tinctòria.]

=Cladrástis tinctòria=, Raf. (YELLOW-WOOD.) Leaflets 7 to 11, oval to
ovate, 3 to 4 in. long, beautiful light green in color. Flowers 1 in.
long, white, not so fragrant as the common Locust, in hanging panicles
10 to 20 in. long; blooming in June. Pods 2 in. long, ripe in August.
Wild but rare in Kentucky and south. A beautiful tree, 20 to 50 ft.
high, with very smooth grayish bark; rarely cultivated.


Trees or shrubs with alternate, odd-pinnate leaves, having spines on
each side of the stalk in place of stipules. Leafstalk thickened near
the base, and covering 2 to 3 buds for the growth of a branch for the
next year. An axillary bud also found that may produce a branch the same
year as the leaf. Flowers large, pea-blossom-shaped, in large clusters.
Fruit a pea-shaped pod.

  * Branchlets and leafstalks not sticky                              1.

  * Branchlets and leafstalks sticky                                  2.

[Illustration: R. Pseudacácia.]

1. =Robínia Pseudacácia=, L. (COMMON LOCUST.) Leaflets 9 to 19, small,
oblong-ovate, entire, thin. Twigs purplish-brown, slender, smooth, not
sticky. Flowers white, fragrant, in hanging racemes, 3 to 6 in. long.
June. Pods flat, smooth, purplish-brown, ripe in September. An
irregularly growing, slender tree, 70 to 80 ft. high, with white or
greenish-yellow, very durable wood, and on old trees very rough bark
with long, deep furrows. Native; Pennsylvania, west and south, and
extensively planted and naturalized throughout. A number of varieties,
some of which are thornless, are in cultivation.

[Illustration: R. viscòsa.]

2. =Robínia viscòsa=, Vent. (CLAMMY LOCUST.) Leaflets 11 to 25,
ovate-oblong, sometimes slightly heart-shaped at base, tipped with a
short bristle. Twigs and leafstalks sticky to the touch. Flowers in a
short, rather compact, upright raceme, rose-colored and inodorous. A
small tree, 30 to 40 ft. high; native south, and has been quite
extensively cultivated north.

3. =Robínia híspida=, L. (BRISTLY LOCUST. ROSE-ACACIA.), with bristly
leafstalks and branchlets, and large rose-colored flowers, is only a
bush. Often cultivated. Wild from Virginia and south.


Small trees or shrubs, with alternate, simple, heart-shaped leaves.
Flowers in umbel-like clusters along the branches, appearing before the
leaves, and shaped like pea-blossoms. Fruit pea-like pods, remaining on
the tree throughout the year. Wood hard, heavy, and beautifully blotched
or waved with black, green, and yellow, on a gray ground.

[Illustration: C. Canadénsis.]

1. =Cércis Canadénsis=, L. (JUDAS-TREE. REDBUD.) Leaves acutely pointed,
smooth, dark green, glossy. Flowers bright red-purple. Pods nearly
sessile, 3 to 4 in. long, brown when ripe in August. A small ornamental
tree, 10 to 30 ft. high, with smooth bark and hard apple-tree-like wood;
wild from Central New York southward, and often cultivated.

2. =Cércis siliquástrum= (EUROPEAN JUDAS-TREE.), from Europe, with
obtusely pointed, somewhat kidney-shaped leaves, and white to purple
flowers, is sometimes cultivated. It is not so tall or tree-like as the
American species.


Tall trees with alternate, very large (2 to 4 ft. long), unequally
twice-pinnate leaves. Flowers white, conspicuous, in racemes at the ends
of the branches. Fruit a large pea-like pod. Some trees are without
fruit through the abortion of the pistils.

[Illustration: G. Canadénsis.]

=Gymnócladus Canadénsis=, Lam. (KENTUCKY COFFEE-TREE.) Leaves 2 to 3 ft.
long, often with the lower pinnæ simple and the upper pinnate. Leaflets
ovate, of a dull bluish-green color. Shoots cane-like, blunt and stubby,
quite erect. Bark exceedingly rough. Pod large, 6 to 10 in. long, 2 in.
broad, with seeds over ½ in. across. A large (50 to 80 ft. high) tree
with compact, tough, reddish wood. Wild from western New York
southwestward, and occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree.


Usually thorny trees with alternate, once to twice abruptly pinnate
leaves. Flowers inconspicuous, greenish, in small spikes. Summer. Fruit
a small or large pea-like pod, with one to many seeds; ripe in autumn,
but often hanging on the trees through the winter.

[Illustration: G. triacánthos.]

1. =Gledítschia triacánthos=, L. (HONEY-LOCUST.) Leaflets
lanceolate-oblong, somewhat serrate. Pods linear, 1 to 1½ ft. long,
often twisted, filled with sweet pulp between the seeds. A large,
handsome, clean tree, with usually many stout, much-branched thorns,
especially abundant on bruised portions of the trunk and large branches;
thorns compressed at base. Wild from Pennsylvania southward and
westward, and extensively cultivated throughout.

A variety without thorns is frequently met with (var. _inermis_), also
one with drooping foliage (var. _Bujotii pendula_).

[Illustration: G. aquática.]

2. =Gledítschia aquática=, Marsh. (WATER-LOCUST.) Leaflets ovate or
oblong. Pods oval, 1 to 4 in. long, 1- to few-seeded, without pulp. A
small tree with few slender, usually simple thorns; in swamps in
southern Illinois and south. Occasionally planted for ornament. This
species is quite similar to the preceding one, but the leaves are
somewhat smaller, the thorns, though occasionally branching, do not
branch so extensively, and the pod is very short and rounded.

[Illustration: G. sinénsis.]

3. =Gledítschia sinénsis=, Lam. (CHINESE HONEY-LOCUST.) A tree with
stouter and more conical thorns, broader and more oval leaflets. A
medium-sized or small tree, often cultivated. This species, like the
others, has a thornless variety.


Trees or shrubs with abruptly pinnate leaves. Fruit a broad-linear
straight pod.

[Illustration: A. julibríssin.]

=Albízzia julibríssin=, Boivin. (SILK-TREE.) Leaves twice abruptly
pinnate, of many (over 400) leaflets; leaflets semi-oblong, curved,
entire, acute, with the midrib near the upper edge. Flowers in globose
heads forming panicles. Fruit plain pods on short stems. A very
beautiful small tree, introduced from Japan; probably not hardy north of
Washington. The figure shows only one of the lowest and shortest side
divisions (pinnæ) of the leaf. The pinnæ increase in length and number
of leaflets to the end of the leaf.


A large and very useful order of trees, shrubs, and herbs of temperate


Trees or shrubs with simple, alternate, deciduous, usually serrate,
stipulate leaves, without lobes. The stems produce gum when injured.
Foliage and nuts have flavor of peach-leaves. Flowers conspicuous,
usually white, or light pink, often in clusters, peach-blossom-shaped;
in early spring. Fruit in size from pea to peach, a rounded drupe with
one stony-coated seed.

  * Drupe large, soft velvety on the surface; stone rough (Peach,
    Apricot)                                                          1.

  * Drupe medium, covered with a bloom; stone smooth, flattened
  (Plums). (=A.=)

    =A.= Usually thorny; wild, rarely cultivated. (=B.=)

       =B.= Leaves acuminate                                       2, 3.

       =B.= Leaves not acuminate                                   4, 5.

    =A.= Not thorny; cultivated                                       6.

  * Drupe medium to small, smooth, without bloom (Cherries).

    =C.= Drupes clustered in umbels, ½-1 in. in diameter. (=D.=)

       =D.= Small cultivated tree; drupe globose, rather large,
          very sour                                                   9.

       =D.= Large cultivated tree; drupe large, somewhat pitted
          at the stem                                                 8.

       =D.= Rather small, native tree; drupe small, flesh thin        7.

    =C.= Drupes clustered in racemes, 1/8 - 1/3 in. in diameter.

       =E.= Tall shrubs rather than trees; racemes short             11.

       =E.= Trees; racemes quite elongated. (=F.=)

          =F.= Stone of fruit somewhat roughened                     12.

          =F.= Stone smooth                                          10.

[Illustration: P. Pérsica.]

1. =Prùnus Pérsica=, L. (COMMON PEACH.) Leaves lanceolate, serrate.
Flowers rose-colored, nearly sessile, very early in bloom. Fruit clothed
with velvety down, large; stone rough-wrinkled. A small tree, 15 to 30
ft. high, cultivated in numberless varieties for its fruit. Var. _lævis_
(Nectarine) has smooth-skinned fruit.

[Illustration: P. Americàna.]

2. =Prùnus Americàna=, Marsh. (WILD YELLOW OR RED PLUM.) Leaves ovate or
somewhat obovate, conspicuously pointed, coarsely or doubly serrate,
very veiny, smooth when mature. Fruit with little or no bloom, ½ to 1
in. in diameter, yellow, orange, or red; skin tough and bitter. Stone
with two sharp edges. A small, thorny tree, 8 to 20 ft. high, common in
woodlands and on river-banks. Many improved varieties, some thornless,
are in cultivation. Wood reddish color.

[Illustration: P. Alleghaniénsis.]

3. =Prùnus Alleghaniénsis=, Porter. (ALLEGHANY PLUM.) Leaves lanceolate
to oblong-ovate, often long-acuminate, finely and sharply serrate,
softly pubescent when young, smooth when old; fruit globose-ovoid, under
½ in., very dark purple, with a bloom; stone turgid, a shallow groove on
one side and a broad, flat ridge on the other. A low, straggling bush,
occasionally a tree, 3 to 15 ft. high. Mountains of Pennsylvania.

[Illustration: P. Chicàsa.]

4. =Prùnus Chicàsa=, Michx. (CHICASAW PLUM.) Leaves long, narrow, almost
lanceolate, acute, finely serrate, thin. Flowers on short stalks. Fruit
globular, ½ to 2/3 in. in diameter, thin-skinned, without bloom,
yellowish-red, pleasant to taste. Stone globular, without sharp edges. A
thorny shrub or small tree, 6 to 15 ft. high; wild in New Jersey, west
and south, and often cultivated.

[Illustration: P. spinòsa.]

5. =Prùnus spinòsa=, L. (SLOE. BLACKTHORN. BULLACE PLUM.) Leaves
obovate-oblong to lance-oblong, sharply serrate, soon smooth; leafstalk
smooth; fruit small, globular, black, with a bloom; the stone rounded,
acute at one edge; flesh greenish, astringent. A low tree with thorny
branches; it is becoming naturalized along roadsides and waste places;
from Europe. Var. _instititia_ (Bullace Plum) is less thorny, and has
the leafstalk and lower side of the leaves pubescent.

[Illustration: P. doméstica.]

6. =Prùnus doméstica=, L. (COMMON GARDEN PLUM.) Leaves 1 to 3 in. long,
oval or ovate-lanceolate, acute to obtuse. Flowers white, nearly
solitary. Drupe globular, obovoid to ovoid, of many colors (black,
white, etc.), covered with a rich glaucous bloom. A small tree, 10 to 20
ft. high, in cultivation everywhere for its fruit. Over a hundred
varieties are named in the catalogues.

[Illustration: P. Pennsylvánica.]

7. =Prùnus Pennsylvánica=, L. f. (WILD RED CHERRY.) Leaves
oblong-lanceolate, pointed, finely and sharply serrate, shining green,
smooth on both sides. Flowers many in an umbel on long stems. Fruit
round, light red, quite small, ¼ in. in diameter, sour. A small tree, 20
to 30 ft. high, in rocky woods; common north and extending southward
along the Alleghanies to North Carolina.

[Illustration: P. àvium.]

8. =Prùnus àvium=, L. (BIRD-CHERRY OR ENGLISH CHERRY.) Leaves
oval-lanceolate, sharp-pointed, coarsely or doubly serrate. Flowers in
sessile umbels, opening when the leaves appear. Fruit of various colors,
somewhat heart-shaped. This is the Cherry tree, 30 to 50 ft. high, of
which there are many named varieties usually cultivated for the fruit.

[Illustration: P. Cérasus.]

9. =Prùnus Cérasus=, L. (GARDEN RED CHERRY. MORELLO CHERRY.) Leaves
obovate and lance-ovate, serrate, on slender spreading branches. Flowers
rather large. Fruit globular, bright red to dark purple, very sour; in
sessile umbels. A small, round-headed tree, 10 to 30 ft. high, often
cultivated. The preceding species and this one are the parents of most
of the Cherry trees in cultivation.

[Illustration: P. serótina.]

10. =Prùnus serótina=, Ehrh. (WILD BLACK CHERRY.) Leaves oblong or
lance-oblong, thickish, smooth, usually taper-pointed, serrate, with
incurved, short, thick teeth. Flowers in long racemes. June. Fruit as
large as peas, purple-black, bitter; ripe in autumn. A fine tree, 15 to
60 ft. high, with reddish-brown branches. Wood reddish and valuable for
cabinet-work. Common in woodlands and along fences.

[Illustration: P. Virginiàna.]

11. =Prùnus Virginiàna=, L. (CHOKE-CHERRY.) Leaves thin, oval-oblong or
obovate, abruptly pointed, very sharply, often doubly serrate, with
slender teeth. Racemes of flowers and fruit short and close. Fruit dark
crimson, stone smooth. Flowers in May; fruit ripe in August; not edible
till fully ripe. A tall shrub, sometimes a tree, with grayish bark.
River-banks, common especially northward.

[Illustration: P. Pàdus.]

12. =Prùnus Pàdus=, L. (SMALL BIRD-CHERRY.) Like Prunus Virginiana,
excepting that the racemes are longer and drooping, and the stone is
roughened. Occasionally planted for ornament.


Trees and shrubs, with alternate, stipulate, simple, or pinnately
compound leaves. Flowers conspicuous, white to pink,
apple-blossom-shaped (5 petals); in spring. Fruit a fleshy pome, with
the cells formed by papery or cartilaginous membranes within juicy

  * Leaves deeply pinnatifid or fully pinnate (Mountain Ashes)

    =A.= Leaf deeply pinnatifid, sometimes fully divided at
       the base.                                                      6.

    =A.= Leaf once-pinnate throughout. (=B.=)

       =B.= Leaf-buds pointed, smooth and somewhat glutinous          7.

       =B.= Leaf-buds more or less hairy                           8, 9.

  * Leaves simple and not pinnatifid. (=C.=)

    =C.= Leaves entire; fruit solitary (Quinces)                      5.

    =C.= Leaves serrate; fruit clustered. (=D.=)

       =D.= Fruit large, sunken at both ends (Apples)                 1.

      =D.= Fruit small (½-1 in.), sour, much sunken at the stem end
         and but little at the other (Crab-apples). (=E.=)

         =E.= Leaves very narrow; fruit ½ in.                         2.

         =E.= Leaves broad; fruit 1 in.                               3.

      =D.= Fruit usually obovate, not sunken at the stem end (Pears). 4.

[Illustration: P. Màlus.]

1. =Pyrus Màlus=, L. (COMMON APPLE-TREE.) Leaves simple, ovate,
evenly crenate or serrate, smooth on the upper surface and woolly on the
lower. Flowers large (1 in.), white, tinged with pink, in small corymbs.
May. Fruit large, sunken at both ends, especially at base; ripe from
August to October, according to variety. A flat-topped tree, 20 to 40
ft. high, cultivated in hundreds of named varieties; from Europe.

[Illustration: P. angustifòlia.]

2. =Pyrus angustifòlia=, Ait. (NARROW-LEAVED CRAB-APPLE.) Leaves
simple, lanceolate or oblong, often acute at base, mostly serrate,
smooth. Flowers large (2/3 in.), rose-colored, fragrant, in small,
simple, umbel-like clusters. Fruit very sour, small (½ in.). Twigs
lead-colored and speckled. A small tree, 12 to 20 ft. high. Pennsylvania
and southward.

[Illustration: P. coronària.]

3. =Pyrus coronària=, L. (AMERICAN OR GARLAND CRAB-APPLE.) Leaves
simple, ovate, often rather heart-shaped, cut-serrate, often 3-lobed,
soon smooth. Flowers large (¾ in.), few, in a cluster, rose-colored,
very fragrant. Fruit very sour and astringent, flattened, broad, 1 in.
or more in diameter, yellowish green. Small tree, 10 to 25 ft. high; New
York, west and south, also frequently cultivated.

[Illustration: P. commùnis.]

4. =Pyrus commùnis=, L. (COMMON PEAR-TREE.) Leaves simple, ovate,
serrate, smooth on both sides, at least when mature. Flowers large (over
1 in.), white, with purple anthers. April and May. Fruit large, usually
obovate and mainly sunken at the large end; ripe July to October,
according to the variety. A pyramidal-shaped tree, 30 to 70 ft. high,
with smooth bark and often somewhat thorny branches. Of several hundred
named varieties, native to Europe. Cultivated for its fruit. Wood
slightly tinged with red; strong, and of fine grain.

[Illustration: P. vulgàris.]

5. =Pyrus vulgàris.= (QUINCE. COMMON QUINCE-TREE.) Leaves ovate,
obtuse at base, entire, hairy beneath. Flowers solitary, large, 1 in.,
white or pale rose-color. Fruit large, hard, orange-yellow, of peculiar
sour flavor; seeds mucilaginous; ripens in October. A low tree, 10 to 20
ft. high, with a crooked stem and rambling branches; from Europe.
Several varieties in cultivation.

[Illustration: P. pinnatífida.]

6. =Pyrus pinnatífida=, Ehrh. (OAK-LEAVED MOUNTAIN-ASH.) Leaves
pinnately cleft and often fully pinnate at base, hairy beneath. Pome
globose, ¼ in., scarlet, ripe in autumn. A cultivated tree, 20 to 30 ft.
high; from Europe.

[Illustration: P. Americàna.]

7. =Pyrus Americàna=, DC. (AMERICAN MOUNTAIN-ASH.) Leaflets 13 to 15,
lanceolate, bright green, nearly smooth, taper-pointed, sharply serrate
with pointed teeth. Leaf-buds pointed, glabrous and somewhat glutinous.
Flowers white, 1/3 in., in large, flat, compound cymes. In June. Fruit
berry-like pomes, the size of small peas, bright scarlet when ripe in
September, and hanging on the tree till winter. A tall shrub or tree, 15
to 30 ft. high, in swamps and mountain woods; more abundant northward.
Often cultivated for the showy clusters of berries in autumn.

[Illustration: P. sambucifòlia.]

8. =Pyrus sambucifòlia=, Cham. & Schlecht. (ELDER-LEAVED
MOUNTAIN-ASH.) Leaflets oblong, oval or lance-ovate, obtuse (sometimes
abruptly sharp-pointed), usually doubly serrate with rather spreading
teeth, generally pale beneath. Leaf-buds somewhat hairy. Flowers and
berries larger, but in smaller clusters, than the preceding species. The
berries globose when ripe, 1/3 in. broad, bright red. This species, much
like Pyrus Americana, is found wild in northern New England and

[Illustration: P. aucupària.]

9. =Pyrus aucupària=, Gaertn. (EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN-ASH, OR ROWAN-TREE.)
Much like Pyrus Americana, but the leaflets are paler and more obtuse,
with their lower surface downy. Leaf-buds blunter and densely covered
with hairs. Flowers larger, ½ in. or more in diameter. Fruit also much
larger, sometimes nearly ½ in. in diameter. Beautiful tree, 20 to 30 ft.
high, often cultivated.


Thorny shrubs or small trees with simple, alternate, serrate, doubly
serrate or lobed leaves. Flowers cherry-like blossoms, usually white in
color and growing in corymbs, generally on the ends of side shoots; in
spring. Fruit a berry or drupe with 1 to 5 bony stones, tipped with the
5 persistent calyx-teeth; ripe in autumn.

  * Calyx, stipules, bracts, etc., often glandular. (=A.=)

    =A.= Flowers and fruit often over 6 in a cluster. (=B.=)

       =B.= Leaves usually abrupt at base                             1.

       =B.= Leaves usually attenuate at base                          2.

    =A.= Flowers and fruit few, 1 to 6 in a cluster                  10.

  * Calyx, etc., without glands (No. 4 has glandular teeth to the
      calyx); flowers many in a cluster. (=C.=)

    =C.= Leaves more or less tapering at base. (=D.=)

       =D.= Leaves generally lobed; cultivated, rarely escaped        3.

       =D.= Leaves rarely lobed; native. (=E.=)

          =E.= Leaves small, shining, crenate at the end              5.

          =E.= Leaves villous or pubescent, at least when young       9.

          =E.= Leaves smooth or only downy at the axils,
             acutely serrate. South                                   7.

    =C.= Leaves usually abrupt at base, sometimes cordate. (=F.=)

       =F.= Leaves downy when young. (=G.=)

          =G.= Leaves usually lobed                                   4.

          =G.= Leaves rarely lobed; veins very prominent              8.

       =F.= Leaves quite smooth                                       6.

[Illustration: C. coccínea.]

1. =Cratægus coccínea=, L. (SCARLET-FRUITED THORN.) Leaves bright
green, smooth, thin, roundish-ovate, sharply cut-toothed or lobed, on
slender petioles. Branches reddish, villous-pubescent; spines stout,
chestnut-brown. Flowers large, ½ to 2/3 in., many in a corymb, on
glandular peduncles. May to June. Fruit scarlet, round or pear-shaped, ½
in.; ripe in September, with from 1 to 5 cells and seeds. Tall shrub or
low tree, 10 to 25 ft. high, in hedges and woods; common from Canada to

Var. _mollis_ has the shoots densely pubescent; leaves large,
slender-petioled, cuneate, cordate or truncate at base, usually with
acute narrow lobes, often rough above, and more or less densely
pubescent beneath. Flowers large, 1 in.; fruit light scarlet with a
light bloom, 1 in. broad.

[Illustration: C. Crus-gálli.]

2. =Cratægus Crus-gálli=, L. (COCKSPUR THORN.) Leaves smooth, thick,
shining above, wedge-obovate, finely serrate above the middle, with a
short petiole. There are broad and narrow-leaved varieties. Flowers
large and numerous, in lateral corymbs. May to June. Fruit globular, 1/3
in. broad, dull red; ripe in September and October. A small tree with a
flat, bushy head, horizontal branches, and long, sharp thorns. Wild and
common throughout, and often planted.

[Illustration: C. oxyacántha.]

3. =Cratægus oxyacántha.= (ENGLISH HAWTHORN.) Leaves obovate, smooth,
wedge-shaped at base, cut-lobed and toothed above. No glands. Flowers
medium-sized, ½ in., single or double, white, rose, or pink-red,
numerous in corymbs. In spring. Fruit coral-red, 1/3 in.; ripe in
autumn. A small tree or shrub, fine for lawn; from Europe; also escaped
in some places.

[Illustration: C. apiifólia.]

4. =Cratægus apiifólia=, Michx. (PARSLEY-LEAVED THORN.) Leaves small,
ovate, with a broad truncate or heart-shaped base, pinnatifid into 5 to
7 crowded, irregularly toothed lobes; white and soft-downy when young,
smoothish when grown; petioles slender. Flowers medium-sized, ½ in.,
many in a corymb, white. May to June. Fruit small, 1/3 in., coral-red,
ripe in autumn. A handsome, low (10 to 20 ft. high), spreading tree,
with flexible branches and white-downy twigs. Virginia and south, in
moist woods.

[Illustration: C. spathulàta.]

5. =Cratægus spathulàta=, Michx. (SPATULATE-LEAVED THORN.) Leaves
almost evergreen, thick, shining, spatulate, crenate toward the apex and
nearly sessile, those on the young downy branches somewhat cut or lobed.
Flowers small, ½ in., in large clusters. May. Fruit small, ¼ in., bright
red; ripe in October. A small tree, 12 to 25 ft. high; Virginia and

[Illustration: C. cordàta.]

6. =Cratægus cordàta=, Ait. (WASHINGTON THORN.) Leaves broadly
triangular-ovate, somewhat heart-shaped, thin, deep shining green,
smooth, often 3- to 5-lobed and serrate, on slender petioles. Flowers
small, 2/5 in., many in terminal corymbs, white. May, June. Fruit
scarlet, about the size of peas; ripe in September. A compact,
close-headed, small tree, 15 to 25 ft. high, with many slender thorns.
Virginia, Kentucky, and southward. Sometimes planted in the North for

[Illustration: C. víridis.]

7. =Cratægus víridis=, L. (TALL HAWTHORN.) Leaves ovate to
ovate-oblong, or lanceolate, or oblong-obovate, mostly acute at both
ends, on slender petioles; acutely serrate, often somewhat lobed and
often downy in the axils. Flowers numerous, in large clusters. Fruit
bright red, or orange, ovoid, small, ¼ in. broad. A small tree, 20 to 30
ft. high, with few large thorns or without thorns. Southern Illinois and
Missouri, along the Mississippi and in the Southern States.

[Illustration: C. tomentòsa.]

8. =Cratægus tomentòsa=, L. (BLACK OR PEAR HAWTHORN.) Leaves
downy-pubescent on the lower side (at least when young), thickish,
rather large, oval or ovate-oblong, sharply toothed and often cut-lobed
below, abruptly narrowed into a margined petiole, the upper surface
impressed along the main veins or ribs. Branches gray. Flowers
ill-scented, many in a corymb. Fruit ½ in. long, obovate to globose,
dull red. Shrub or tree, 10 to 30 ft. high, wild in western New York,
west and south.

[Illustration: C. punctàta.]

9. =Cratægus punctàta.= (DOTTED-FRUITED HAWTHORN.) Leaves rather
small, mostly wedge-obovate, attenuate and entire below, unequally
toothed above, rarely lobed, villous-pubescent, becoming smooth but
dull, the veins prominent beneath and impressed above. Fruit globose,
large, 1 in. broad, red to bright yellow; peduncles not glandular. Shrub
to tree, 10 to 20 ft. high, with horizontal branches; Canada to Georgia.

[Illustration: C. flàva.]

10. =Cratægus flàva=, Ait. (YELLOW OR SUMMER HAW.) Leaves small,
wedge-obovate, unequally toothed and cut above the middle; on short
petioles; the teeth, stipules and petioles glandular. Flowers mostly
solitary, white, large (¾ in). May. Fruit usually pear-shaped, quite
large (¾ in. long), yellow or greenish-yellow, sometimes tinged or
spotted with red, pleasant-flavored. Ripe in autumn. A low spreading
tree, 15 to 20 ft. high. Virginia, south and west, in sandy soil.

Var. _pubescens_ is downy-or villous-pubescent when young, and has
thicker leaves and larger and redder fruit.


Small trees or shrubs with simple, deciduous, alternate, sharply serrate
leaves; cherry-blossom-like, white flowers, in racemes at the end of the
branches, before the leaves are fully expanded. Fruit a small apple-like
pome; seeds 10 or less, in separate cartilaginous-coated cells.

[Illustration: A. Canadénsis.]

=Amelánchier Canadénsis=, Torr. & Gray. (SHAD-BUSH. SERVICE-BERRY.) A
very variable species with many named varieties. The leaves, 1 to 3½ in.
long, vary from narrow-oblong to roundish or cordate; bracts and
stipules silky-ciliate. Flowers large, in drooping racemes, in early
spring, with petals from 2 to 5 times as long as wide. Fruit globular, ½
in. broad, purplish, sweet, edible; ripe in June. It varies from a low
shrub to a middle-sized tree, 5 to 30 ft. high.



A small family of trees and shrubs represented in most countries.


Tall shrubs, rarely tree-like, with alternate, straight-veined,
2-ranked, oval, wavy-margined leaves. Flowers conspicuous, yellow,
4-parted; blooming in the autumn while the leaves are dropping, and
continuing in bloom through part of the winter. Fruit rounded capsules
which do not ripen till the next summer.

[Illustration: H. Virginiána.]

=Hamamèlis Virginiána=, L. (WITCH-HAZEL.) The only species; 10 to 30 ft.
high; rarely grows with a single trunk, but usually forms a slender,
crooked-branched shrub. Flowers sessile, in small clusters of 3 to 4, in
an involucre in the axils of the leaves.


Trees with alternate, simple, palmately cleft leaves. Flowers
inconspicuous; in spring. Fruit a large (1 in.), globular, long-stalked,
dry, open, rough catkin, hanging on the tree through the winter.

[Illustration: L. Styracíflua.]

=Liquidámbar Styracíflua=, L. (SWEET GUM. BILSTED.) Leaves rounded,
deeply 5- to 7-cleft, star-shaped, dark green, smooth and shining,
glandular-serrate. Twigs often covered with corky ridges. A large,
beautiful tree, 30 to 70 ft. high, with deeply furrowed bark.
Connecticut, west and south; abundant south of 40° N. Lat. Well worthy
of more extensive cultivation than it has yet received.



A small order of shrubs, herbs, or trees; mainly tropical.


Leaves simple, usually opposite, deciduous; flowers scarlet, with 5
petals and numerous stamens; fruit a many-seeded berry.

[Illustration: P. granàtum.]

=Pùnica granàtum=, L. (POMEGRANATE-TREE.) Leaves opposite, lanceolate,
smooth, entire; flowers large, both calyx and corolla scarlet and very
ornamental; the fruit as large as an orange, fine-flavored. A
tree-shaped plant, growing to the height of 20 ft. in the Southern
States. If given some protection, it can be grown as far north as
Washington. It has been cultivated from the earliest times, and is
probably a native of western Asia.


Flowers with 6 long-clawed petals inserted on the broadly spreading
calyx; fruit 3- to 6-celled pods with many winged seeds.

[Illustration: L. Índica.]

=Lagerstroemia Índica=, L. (CRAPE-MYRTLE.) Leaves roundish-ovate,
thick, smooth, short-petiolate; branches winged; flowers in terminal
clusters with large, delicately crisped, long-stemmed petals of pink,
purple, and other colors. A beautiful small tree, or usually a shrub,
from India; often cultivated in the North in conservatories; hardy as
far north as Washington.


A small order of herbs, shrubs, and trees, here represented by the
following genus:


Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with pinnately or palmately compound leaves;
here including Acanthopanax with palmately cleft leaves. Flowers whitish
or greenish, in umbels, often forming large panicles. Fruit small,
berry-like, several-celled, several-seeded.

  * Leaves 2 to 3 times odd-pinnate (Aralia proper)                1, 2.

  * Leaves simple, palmately cleft (Acanthopanax)                     3.

[Illustration: A. spinòsa.]

1. =Aràlia spinòsa=, L. (ANGELICA-TREE. HERCULES'-CLUB.) Leaves large,
crowded at the summit of the stem, twice or sometimes thrice
odd-pinnate, usually prickly, with sessile, ovate, acuminate, deeply
serrate leaflets, glaucous beneath. Large panicles of small whitish
flowers in umbels, with involucres of few leaves. Berry small, ¼ in.,
5-ribbed, crowned with the remains of the calyx. A tree-like plant, 8 to
12 ft. high, or in the Gulf States 30 ft. high, with the stem covered
with numerous prickles. Usually dies to the ground after flowering. Wild
in damp woods, Pennsylvania and south, and cultivated in the North.

[Illustration: A. Chinénsis.]

2. =Aràlia Chinénsis.= Leaves more or less fully twice-pinnate; leaflets
ovate-oblong, oblique at base, acuminate, sharply serrate, hairy.
Flowers and fruit in large, branching, hairy panicles; thorns few,
straight. A small tree, 10 to 15 ft. high; occasionally cultivated; from

[Illustration: A. Maximowíczii.]

3. =Aràlia (Acanthópanax) Maximowíczii.= Leaves long-petioled, simple,
thick, palmately cleft, with 7 serrate lobes; old leaves smooth, the
young with woolly bases. Panicles of flowers and fruit terminal; the
berries striated. Tree-trunk usually quite prickly. This species is said
to grow 50 ft. high in Japan. It has been recently introduced, and
proves perfectly hardy in Massachusetts.


A small order of shrubs and trees (rarely herbs) of temperate regions.


Small trees or shrubs (one species an herb) with simple, entire,
curved-veined, and (except in one species) opposite leaves. The curved
parallel ribs of the leaves in all the species are quite peculiar and
readily recognized. Flowers small, of 4 petals, in some species rendered
very conspicuous by large bracts. Fruit small, usually bright-colored
drupes in clusters; ripe from August to October. There are but 3 species
that grow at all tree-like.

  * Leaves opposite. (=A.=)

    =A.= Fruit in close head-like clusters, red when ripe             1.

    =A.= Fruit in open clusters. (=B.=)

       =B.= Branches bright red; fruit white                          2.

       =B.= Branches brownish; fruit bright red                       3.

  * Leaves alternate; fruit blue                                      4.

[Illustration: C. flórida.]

1. =Córnus flórida=, L. (FLOWERING DOGWOOD.) Leaves ovate, pointed,
acutish at base. Flowers in a head surrounded by 4 white bracts, making
the whole cluster look like a single large flower 3 in. broad. Abundant
in May and June. Fruit a small, bright red drupe with a single 2-seeded
nut. Ripe in August. A large shrub or low tree 15 to 40 ft. high, with
broad, roundish head. Common on high ground throughout, and one of the
finest small trees in cultivation. A variety with the bracts quite red
is also cultivated.

[Illustration: C. álba.]

2. =Córnus álba=, L. (SIBERIAN RED-STEMMED CORNEL.) Leaves broadly
ovate, acute, densely pubescent beneath; drupes white; branches
recurved, bright red, rendering the plant a conspicuous object in the
winter. A shrub rather than a tree, cultivated from Siberia; hardy

[Illustration: C. máscula.]

3. =Córnus máscula=, Dur. (CORNELIAN CHERRY.) Leaves opposite,
oval-acuminate, rather pubescent on both surfaces. Flowers small,
yellow, in umbels from a 4-leaved involucre, blooming before the leaves
are out in spring. Fruit oval, ½ in. long, cornelian-colored, ripe in
autumn, rather sweet, used in confectionery. A large shrub or low tree,
8 to 15 ft. high, with hard, tough, flexible wood, sometimes cultivated
for its early flowers and late, beautiful fruit.

[Illustration: C. alternifòlia.]

4. =Córnus alternifòlia=, L. f. (ALTERNATE-LEAVED CORNEL.) Leaves
alternate, clustered at the ends of the branches, ovate or
oval-acuminate, tapering at base, whitish with minute pubescence
beneath. Cymes of flowers and fruit broad and open. Fruit deep blue on
reddish stalks. Shrub, though occasionally tree-like, 8 to 25 ft. high;
on hillsides throughout; rarely cultivated.


Trees with deciduous, alternate, exstipulate, usually entire leaves,
mostly acute at both ends. Flowers somewhat dioecious, i.e. staminate
and pistillate flowers on separate trees. The staminate flowers are
quite conspicuous because so densely clustered. April and May. Fruit on
but a portion of the trees, consisting of one or two small (¼ to ½ in.),
drupes in the axils of the leaves. Stone roughened with grooves. Ripe in

  * Fruit usually clustered                                        1, 2.

  * Fruit solitary                                                    3.

[Illustration: N. sylvática.]

1. =Nýssa sylvática=, Marsh. (PEPPERIDGE. BLACK OR SOUR GUM.) Leaves
oval to obovate, pointed, entire (sometimes angulate-toothed beyond the
middle), rather thick, shining above when old, 2 to 5 in. long. The
leaves are crowded near the ends of the branches and flattened so as to
appear 2-ranked, like the Beech; turning bright crimson in the autumn.
Fruit ovoid, bluish-black, about ½ in. long, sour. Medium-sized tree
with mainly an excurrent trunk and horizontal branches. Wood firm,
close-grained and hard to split. Rich soil, latitude of Albany and
southward. Difficult to transplant, so it is rarely cultivated.

2. =Nýssa biflòra=, Walt. (SOUR GUM.) Leaves 1 to 3 in. long, smaller
than in N. sylvatica; fertile flowers and fruit 1 to 3, in the axils;
stone decidedly flattened and more strongly furrowed. New Jersey to
Tennessee and southward. Too nearly like the last to need a drawing. All
the species of Nyssa may have the margin of the leaves somewhat
angulated, as shown in the next.

[Illustration: N. uniflòra.]

3. =Nýssa uniflòra=, Wang. (LARGE TUPELO.) Leaves much larger, 4 to 12
in. long, sometimes slightly cordate at base, entire or angularly
toothed, downy beneath. Fruit solitary, oblong, blue, 1 in. or more in
length. Wood soft, that of the roots light and spongy and used for
corks. In water or wet swamps; Virginia, Kentucky, and southward.



Shrubs (rarely herb or tree-like plants) of temperate regions.


Shrubs or small trees with opposite, simple, petioled leaves. Flowers
light-colored, small but in large, conspicuous, flat-topped clusters at
the ends of the branches; blooming in early summer. Fruit small,
1-seeded drupes with flattened stones; ripe in autumn.

  * Leaves distinctly palmately lobed                                 1.

  * Leaves pinnately veined and not lobed. (=A.=)

    =A.= Coarsely dentated                                            2.

    =A.= Finely serrated. (=B.=)

      =B.= Leaves long-acuminated                                     3.

      =B.= Obtuse or slightly pointed                                 4.

[Illustration: V. Ópulus.]

1. =Vibúrnum Ópulus=, L. (CRANBERRY-TREE.) Leaves palmately veined and
strongly 3-lobed, broadly wedge-shaped or truncate at base, the
spreading lobes mostly toothed on the sides and entire in the notches;
petiole with 2 glands at the apex. Fruit in peduncled clusters, light
red and quite sour (whence the name "Cranberry-tree"). A nearly smooth,
small tree or shrub, 4 to 12 ft. high; wild along streams, and
cultivated under the name of Snowball-tree or Guelder Rose. In this
variety the flowers have all become sterile and enlarged. =Vibúrnum
acerifòlium= (ARROW-WOOD) has also lobed leaves, and is much more
common. This species never forms a tree, and has dark-colored berries.

[Illustration: V. dentàtum.]

2. =Vibúrnum dentàtum=, L. (ARROW-WOOD.) Leaves, pale green, broadly
ovate, somewhat heart-shaped at base, coarsely and sharply dentated,
strongly veined and often with hairy tufts in the axils; petioles rather
long and slender. Fruit ¼ in. long, in peduncled clusters, blue or
purple; a cross-section of the stone between kidney-and
horseshoe-shaped. A shrub or small tree, 5 to 15 ft. high, with
ash-colored bark; in wet places.

[Illustration: V. Lentàgo.]

3. =Vibúrnum Lentàgo=, L. (SWEET VIBURNUM OR SHEEP-BERRY.) Leaves broad,
ovate, long-pointed, 2 to 3 in. long, closely and sharply serrated;
petioles long and with narrow, curled margins; entire plant smooth.
Fruit in sessile clusters of 3 to 5 rays, oval, large, ½ in. long,
blue-black, edible, sweet; ripe in autumn. A small tree, 10 to 30 ft.
high; found wild throughout, in woods and along streams.

[Illustration: V. prunifòlium.]

4. =Vibúrnum prunifòlium=, L. (BLACK HAW.) Leaves oval, obtuse or
slightly pointed, 1 to 2 in. long, finely and sharply serrated. Blooming
early, May to June. Fruit oval, large (½ in. long), in sessile clusters
of 3 to 5 rays, black or blue-black, sweet. A tall shrub or small tree,
6 to 12 ft. high; in dry soil or along streams; New York, south and


Leaves entire, opposite; corolla 5-lobed; berry several-seeded.

[Illustration: L. Tartárica.]

=Lonícera Tartárica=. (TARTARIAN HONEY-SUCKLE.) Leaves deciduous, oval,
heart-shaped; flowers in pairs, showy, pink to rose-red; in spring;
berries formed of the two ovaries, bright red; ripe in summer. A shrub,
often planted and occasionally trimmed to a tree-like form, and growing
to the height of nearly 20 ft.


This, the largest order of flowering plants, is made up almost
exclusively of herbaceous plants, but contains one shrub or low tree
which is hardy from Boston southward near the Atlantic coast.


Leaves simple, deciduous; heads of flowers small, many-flowered;
receptacle naked; pappus of hairs.

[Illustration: B. halimifòlia.]

=Báccharis halimifòlia=, L. (GROUNDSEL-TREE.) Leaves obovate,
wedge-shaped, crenately notched at end, light grayish in color, with
whitish powder; branches angled; flowers white with a tint of purple,
blooming in the autumn. A broad, loose-headed, light-colored bush rather
than a tree, 8 to 15 ft. high; wild on sea-beaches, Massachusetts and
south, and occasionally cultivated. The plant is dioecious; the
fertile specimens are rendered quite conspicuous in autumn by their very
long, white pappus.


A large order, mainly of shrubs, though a few species are herbs, and
fewer still are tall enough to be considered trees.


Trees with deciduous, alternate, oblong-lanceolate, pointed, serrate,
sour-tasting leaves. Flowers small, in large panicles at the ends of the
branches. In summer. Fruit small, dry capsules, with 5 cells and many

[Illustration: O. arbòreum.]

=Oxydéndrum arbòreum=, DC. (SORREL-TREE. SOURWOOD.) Leaves in size and
shape much like those of Peach trees. Flowers small, urn-shaped.
Small-sized tree, 15 to 50 ft. high; wild in rich woods, Pennsylvania
and southward, mainly in the mountains. Rare in cultivation, but very
beautiful, especially in autumn, when its leaves are brilliantly
colored, and the panicles of fruit still remain on the trees. It is
perfectly hardy both at the Arnold Arboretum, Boston, and the Missouri
Botanical Garden, St. Louis.


Evergreen shrubs with alternate, entire, thick, smooth leaves. Flowers
large, beautiful, cup-shaped, in showy clusters. Fruit a small,
5-celled, many-seeded capsule.

[Illustration: K. latifòlia.]

=Kálmia latifòlia=, L. (MOUNTAIN-LAUREL. CALICO-BUSH.) The only species
which grows at all tree-like has ovate-lanceolate or elliptical, smooth,
petioled leaves, tapering at both ends and green on both sides. Flowers
in terminal corymbs, clammy-pubescent, white to pink. June. Pod
depressed, glandular. Shrub or small tree, 4 to 25 ft. high, with
reddish twigs; wild in rocky hills and damp soils through out;
occasionally planted. Wood very hard and close-grained.


Shrubs or low trees with usually alternate, entire leaves and showy
flowers in umbel-like clusters from large, scaly-bracted, terminal buds.
Fruit a dry 5-celled pod with many seeds.

[Illustration: R. máximum.]

=Rhododéndron máximum=, L. (GREAT LAUREL.) Leaves thick, 4 to 10 in.
long, elliptical-oblong or lance-oblong, acute, narrowed toward the
base, very smooth, with somewhat revolute margins. Flowers large (1
in.), with an irregular bell-shaped corolla and sticky stems, in large
clusters, white or slightly pinkish with yellowish dots. July. Evergreen
shrub or tree, 6 to 20 ft. high, throughout the region, especially in
damp swamps in the Alleghany Mountains; occasionally cultivated.


Shrubs or trees with alternate, simple, deciduous, exstipulate, serrate
leaves. Flowers (July and August) conspicuous, white, in elongated
terminal racemes which are covered with a whitish powder. Fruit 3-celled
pods with many seeds, covered by the calyx.

  * Leaves thin, large, 3 to 7 in. long, pale beneath                 1.

  * Leaves thickish, smaller, green both sides                        2.

[Illustration: C. acuminàta.]

1. =Clèthra acuminàta=, Michx. (ACUMINATE-LEAVED CLETHRA. SWEET
PEPPER-BUSH.) Leaves 3 to 7 in. long, oval to oblong, pointed, thin,
abruptly acute at base, finely serrate, on slender petioles, smooth
above and glaucous below. Racemes drooping, of sweet-scented flowers,
with the bracts longer than the flowers. Filaments and pod hairy. A
small tree or shrub, 10 to 20 ft. high, in the Alleghanies, Virginia,
and south. Not often in cultivation, but well worthy of it.

[Illustration: C. alnifòlia.]

2. =Clèthra alnifòlia=, L. (COMMON SWEET PEPPER-BUSH.) Leaves
wedge-obovate, sharply serrate near the apex, entire near the base,
straight-veined, smooth, green on both sides. Racemes erect, often
compound, with bracts shorter than the flowers and with smooth
filaments. This is a shrub rather than a tree; abundant in wet places
east of the Alleghanies. Occasionally cultivated for its sweet-scented



A small order, mainly of tropical plants, here including one genus found
only in the southern part of our range.


Leaves simple, alternate, entire, sub-evergreen, exstipulate; branches
often spiny. Flowers small, whitish, usually crowded in fascicles. Fruit
a black cherry-like drupe with a 2- to 3-celled nut. Shrubs and trees of
the Southern States. Two species (although hardly trees) are found far
enough north to be included in this work.

  * Leaves rusty-woolly beneath                                       1.

  * Leaves smooth or slightly silky beneath                           2.

[Illustration: B. lanuginòsa.]

1. =Bumèlia lanuginòsa=, Pers. (WOOLLY-LEAVED BUCKTHORN.) Leaves
oblong-obovate, obtuse, entire, smooth above and rusty-woolly beneath,
but not silky; spiny, with downy branchlets. Clusters 6- to 12-flowered,
pubescent; flowers greenish-yellow. Fruit globular and quite large (½
in.), black, edible. A small tree, 10 to 40 ft. high, of the woods of
southern Illinois and southward. With slight protection it can be
cultivated in Massachusetts.

[Illustration: B. lycioìdes.]

2. =Bumèlia lycioìdes=, Pers. (SOUTHERN BUCKTHORN.) Leaves 2 to 4 in.
long, oval-lanceolate, usually bluntish with a tapering base and entire
margin, deciduous, a little silky beneath when young. Clusters densely
many-flowered (20 to 30); flowers small (1/6 in.), smooth,
greenish-white. May, June. A spiny shrub or tree, 10 to 25 ft. high, in
moist ground, Virginia, west and south. About as hardy as the preceding


A small order of mostly tropical trees and shrubs.


Trees or shrubs with alternate, simple, entire, feather-veined leaves.
Flowers small, inconspicuous, mostly dioecious. Fruit a globose berry
with the 5-lobed thick calyx at the base, and with 8 to 12, occasionally
1 to 5, rather large seeds; ripe after frost.

[Illustration: D. Virginiàna.]

=Diospyros Virginiàna=, L. (COMMON PERSIMMON.) Leaves 4 to 6 in.
long, ovate-oblong, acuminate, rather thick, smooth, dark, shining
above, a little pale beneath. Bark dark-colored and deeply furrowed in a
netted manner with rather small meshes. Flowers yellowish, rather small,
somewhat dioecious; the staminate ones urn-shaped with mouth nearly
closed; the pistillate ones more open. June. Fruit large, 1 in.; very
astringent when young, yellow and pleasant-tasting after frost. A
handsome, ornamental tree, 20 to 60 ft. high, with very hard,
dark-colored wood and bright foliage. Southern New England to Illinois
and south; also cultivated. =Diospyros Lòtus= (DATE-PLUM), with
leaves very dark green above, much paler and downy beneath, and fruit
much smaller (2/3 in.), and =Diospyros Kàki= (JAPAN PERSIMMON), with
large, leathery, shining leaves and very large fruit (2 in.), are
successfully cultivated from Washington, D. C., southward. The under
leaf represents D. Lotus, the upper one a small specimen of D. Kaki.

[Illustration: D. Lòtus and D. Kàki.]



A small order of shrubs and trees, mostly of warm countries.


Shrubs or small trees with commonly deciduous leaves, and axillary, or
racemed, white, showy flowers on drooping stems. Pubescence scurfy or
stellate; fruit a globular dry drupe, its base covered with the
persistent calyx, forming a 1- to 3-seeded nut.

[Illustration: S. Americàna.]

1. =Styrax Americàna=, Lam. (AMERICAN STORAX.) Shrub or small tree (4
to 10 ft.), with oblong, alternate leaves acute at both ends, 1 to 3
inches long, smooth or very nearly so; fruit ½ in. long, in racemes of
3-4. Wild along streams, Virginia and south; occasionally cultivated,
and probably hardy throughout.

[Illustration: S. Japónica.]

2. =Styrax Japónica=, Sieb. (JAPAN STORAX.) Leaves alternate,
membranaceous, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, serrate or crenate, ½ to 3 in.
long, smooth or with short stellate hairs; flowers and fruit in long
racemes. A beautiful low tree, 6 to 12 ft. high; from Japan. Hardy as
far north as Philadelphia, but needing a little protection in
Massachusetts and Missouri.


Similar to Styrax, but with the fruit in panicles, 5-winged, conical,
and crowned with the persistent base of the style.

[Illustration: P. corymbòsum.]

=Pterostyrax corymbòsum=, Sieb. Leaves deciduous, 2 to 5 in. long,
feather-veined, petioled, ovate, rarely cordate at base, sharply
serrate, with stellate hairs. Shrub or small tree, 10 to 12 ft. high,
cultivated from Japan; with ashy-gray bark, and white flowers turning
yellowish or purplish with age; blooming in May, fruit ripe in August.
Not perfectly hardy in Massachusetts.


Small trees or shrubs with alternate, simple, deciduous, serrate leaves.
Flowers large, 1 in. long, conspicuous, white, hanging, bell-shaped,
monopetalous, 4-lobed; blooming in spring. Fruit with a single, rough,
elongated, bony nut surrounded by a 2- to 4-winged coat; ripe in autumn.

Wood light-colored, very hard and fine-grained.

[Illustration: H. díptera.]

1. =Halèsia díptera, L.= (TWO-WINGED SILVERBELL TREE.) Leaves large (4
to 5 in. long), ovate, acute, serrate, softly pubescent. Fruit with 2
conspicuous, broad wings, sometimes with 2 intermediate narrow ridges. A
small tree or a large shrub, wild in the south, and cultivated as far
north as New York City.

[Illustration: H. tetráptera.]

2. =Halèsia tetráptera, L.= (FOUR-WINGED SILVERBELL TREE.) Leaves
smaller (2 to 4 in.), oblong-ovate, finely serrate. Fruit smaller, with
4 nearly equal wings. A small, beautiful tree, 10 to 30 ft. high, more
hardy than Halesia diptera, and therefore cultivated occasionally
throughout. Wild in Virginia and south.


Shrubs or small trees, with leaves furnishing a yellow dye.

[Illustration: S. tinctòria.]

=Sýmplocos tinctòria=, L'Her. (HORSE-SUGAR. SWEETLEAF.) Leaves simple,
alternate, thick, 3 to 5 in. long, elongate-oblong, acuminate, nearly
entire, almost persistent, pale beneath, with minute pubescence,
sweet-tasting. Flowers 6 to 14, in close-bracted, axillary clusters,
5-parted, sweet-scented, yellow; in early spring. Fruit a dry drupe,
ovoid, ½ in. long. A shrub or small tree, 10 to 20 ft. high. Delaware
and south.


An order of trees and shrubs, mainly of temperate regions.


Trees with petioled, opposite, odd-pinnate leaves (one cultivated
variety has simple leaves). Flowers often inconspicuous, in large
panicles before the leaves in spring. Fruit single-winged at one end
(samara or key-fruit), in large clusters; ripe in autumn. Some trees,
owing to the flowers being staminate, produce no fruit. Wood
light-colored, tough, very distinctly marked by the annual layers. The
leaves appear late in the spring, and fall early in the autumn.

  * Flowers with white corolla; a cultivated small tree               8.

  * Flowers with no corolla. (=A.=)

    =A.= Leaves pinnate; leaflets petiolate; calyx small,
       persistent on the fruit. (=B.=)

      =B.= Fruit broad-winged, ¾ in. wide. South                      5.

      =B.= Wings much narrower. (=C.= )

        =C.= Branchlets round and pubescent                           2.

        =C.= Branchlets round and smooth. (=D.=)

          =D.= Leaflets nearly entire                                 1.

          =D.= Leaflets serrate near tip, entire below                3.

        =C.= Branchlets, on vigorous growths, square                  4.

    =A.= Leaves pinnate; leaflets sessile; no calyx. (=E.=)

      =E.= Native; wing of fruit rounded at tip                       6.

      =E.= Cultivated from Europe; wing notched at tip                7.

    =A.= Leaves simple; variety under                                 7.

[Illustration: F. Americàna.]

1. =Fráxinus Americàna=, L. (WHITE ASH.) Leaflets 7 to 9 (usually 7),
stalked, ovate or lance-oblong, pointed, shining above, pale and either
smooth or pubescent beneath, somewhat toothed or entire. Flowers almost
always dioecious (May), thus the fruit is found on but a portion of
the trees. The fruit (August to September) terete and marginless below,
abruptly dilated into the wing, which is 2 to 3 times as long as the
terete portion; entire fruit about 1½ in. long. A common large
forest-tree, 60 to 80 ft. high, with gray, furrowed bark, smooth,
grayish-green branchlets, and rusty-colored buds. Extensively

[Illustration: F. pubéscens.]

2. =Fráxinus pubéscens=, Lam. (RED ASH.) Like the White Ash, but to be
distinguished from it by the down on the young, green or olive-green
twigs, and on the footstalks and lower surface of the leaves. Fruit
acute, 2-edged at base, gradually dilated into the wings as in Fraxinus
viridis. A smaller and more slender tree than the White Ash; growing in
about the same localities, but rare west of the Alleghanies; heart-wood

[Illustration: F. víridis.]

3. =Fráxinus víridis=, Michx. f. (GREEN ASH.) Smooth throughout;
leaflets 5 to 9, bright green on both sides, ovate or oblong-lanceolate,
often wedge-shaped at base and serrate above. Fruit acute and 2-edged or
margined at base and gradually spreading into an oblanceolate or
linear-spatulate wing as in the Red Ash. Small to middle-sized trees
(like the Red Ash), found throughout, but common westward.

[Illustration: F. quadrangulàta.]

4. =Fráxinus quadrangulàta=, Michx. (BLUE ASH.) Leaflets 7 to 9,
short-stalked, oblong-ovate or lanceolate, pointed, sharply serrate,
green on both sides. Fruit narrowly oblong, blunt, of the same width at
both ends, or slightly narrowed at the base. A large tree, 60 to 80 ft.
high, with smooth square twigs on the vigorous growths. Wisconsin to
Ohio and Kentucky.

[Illustration: F. platycárpa.]

5. =Fráxinus platycárpa=, Michx. (WATER-ASH.) Leaflets 5 to 7, 3 to 5
in. long, ovate or oblong, acute at both ends, short-stalked, slightly
serrate. Branchlets terete, smooth to pubescent. Fruit broadly winged, ¾
in. wide, often 3-winged, tapering to the base. A medium-sized tree in
deep river-swamps, Virginia and south.

[Illustration: F. sambucifòlia.]

6. =Fráxinus sambucifòlia=, Lam. (BLACK ASH.) Leaflets 7 to 11, sessile,
oblong-lanceolate, tapering to a point, serrate, obtuse or rounded at
base, green and smooth on both sides; when young, with some rusty hairs
along the midrib. Fruit without calyx at base and with wing all around
the seed-bearing part, blunt at both ends. A slender tree, 40 to 70 ft.
high, with dark-blue or black buds.

[Illustration: F. excélsior.]

[Illustration: Var. monophýlla.]

7. =Fràxinus excélsior=, L. (EUROPEAN ASH.) Leaflets 11 to 13 (in some
cultivated varieties reduced to 1 to 5), almost sessile,
lanceolate-oblong, acuminate, serrate, wedge-shaped at base. Flowers
naked, somewhat dioecious, and so the fruit does not form on all the
trees. Keys linear-oblong, obtuse, obliquely notched at apex. This
species in its very numerous varieties is common in cultivation. One of
the most interesting is the Weeping Ash (var. _pendula_). The most
remarkable is the one with simple, from pinnatifid to entire leaves
(var. _monophylla_).

[Illustration: F. òrnus.]

8. =Fráxinus òrnus.= (FLOWERING ASH.) Leaflets 7 to 9, lanceolate or
elliptical, attenuated, serrated, entire at the stalked bases, villous
or downy beneath. Flowers fringe-like, white, in large terminal drooping
clusters, of 4 or 2 petals. May to June. Fruit small, lance-linear,
obtuse, attenuate at each end. A small tree, 15 to 30 ft. high, planted
in parks. Not hardy north of New York City without some protection.


Shrub or small tree with opposite, thick, evergreen, nearly entire
leaves. Flowers small, white, in panicles or corymbs in late spring.
Fruit a spherical drupe, ½ in. long, with a 2-seeded stone; hanging on
during the winter.

[Illustration: O. Americàna.]

=Osmánthus Americàna, L.= (DEVIL-WOOD.) Leaves thick, evergreen,
oblong-lanceolate, entire, acute, narrowed to a petiole, 4 to 5 in.
long. Flowers dioecious, very small. May. Fruit globular, about ½ in.
in diameter, violet-purplish; ripe in autumn, and remaining on the tree
through the winter. A small tree, 15 to 20 ft. high, from southern
Virginia southward, in moist woods.


Leaves simple, entire, opposite; flowers ornamental, in large, dense
clusters. The Lilacs are all beautiful, but form mere shrubs, except the

[Illustration: S. Japónica.]

=Syrínga Japónica.= (JAPAN LILAC. GIANT TREE LILAC.) Leaves deciduous,
opposite, oval to cordate, thick, dark green, glossy; flowers white,
4-parted, odorless, in very large, dense, erect, terminal clusters,
blooming in summer; fruit dry 2-celled pods with 2 to 4 seeds. A
magnificent small tree, 20 to 30 ft. high; from Japan; probably hardy


Low trees or shrubs with simple, deciduous, opposite, entire, thick,
smooth, petioled leaves. Flowers 4-parted, with long, slender, delicate
white lobes, drooping in clusters from the lower side of the branches
and forming a fringe; in early summer. Fruit a purple drupe.

[Illustration: C. Virgínica.]

=Chionánthus Virgínica, L.= (FRINGE-TREE). Leaves smooth, thickish,
large (3 to 6 in. long), oval or obovate, entire. The leaves are
occasionally somewhat alternate and thin; they resemble those of the
Magnolia. Drupe ovoid, ¾ in. long, covered with a bloom. A beautiful
small tree or shrub, 8 to 30 ft. high, wild along streams, southern
Pennsylvania and southward, and generally cultivated north for its
delicate fringe-like flowers. Hardy.

A variety (var. _angustifolia_) with long, narrow leaves is occasionally



A large order of plants, almost entirely herbaceous; found in all
climates; it includes one cultivated tree in this region.


Tree with opposite (sometimes in whorls of three), large, deciduous,
palmately veined, heart-shaped leaves. Leaf-stem often hollow; minute
cup-shaped glands, separated from one another, situated on many portions
of the leaf, but quite abundant on the upper side at the branching of
the veins. Flowers large, in immense panicles; in spring, before the
leaves expand. Fruit a dry, ovate, pointed capsule, 1½ in. long, with
innumerable flat-winged seeds; hanging on the tree throughout the

[Illustration: P. imperiàlis.]

=Paulòwnia imperiàlis=, (IMPERIAL PAULOWNIA.) Leaves 7 to 14 in. long,
sometimes somewhat lobed, usually very hairy beneath; 2 buds, almost
hidden under the bark, above each other in the axil. Flowers purple,
nearly 2 in. long, with a peculiar, thick, leather-like calyx. A broad
flat-headed tree, of rapid growth when young. Cultivated; from Japan;
and hardy throughout, but the flower-buds are winter-killed quite
frequently north of New York City.



An order of woody plants abundant in South America; here including one
genus of trees:


Trees or shrubs with large, simple, opposite (or whorled in threes),
heart-shaped, pointed leaves. Flowers irregular, showy, in large
panicles; blooming in June. Fruit long pods with many, winged seeds,
hanging on till spring. Branches coarse and stiff. Wood light and

  * Flowers bright-spotted; wings of seeds narrowed                   1.

  * Flowers nearly pure white; wings of seeds broad                   2.

[Illustration: C. bignonioìdes.]

1. =Catálpa bignonioìdes=, Walt. (INDIAN BEAN. SOUTHERN CATALPA.) The
large heart-shaped leaf has connected scaly glands in the axils of the
large veins on the lower side; usually entire though sometimes
angulated, generally opposite though sometimes in whorls of threes, very
downy beneath when young, 6 to 12 in. long. Flowers much spotted with
yellow and purple, and with the lower lobe entire. Pod thin, 10 in. or
more in length. A medium-sized, wide-spreading tree, 20 to 40 ft. high,
of rapid growth, with soft, light wood and thin bark; wild in the
Southern States, and extensively cultivated as far north as Albany.

[Illustration: C. speciósa.]

2. =Catálpa speciósa=, Warder. (INDIAN BEAN. WESTERN CATALPA.) Leaves
large (5 to 12 in. long), heart-shaped, long-pointed. Flowers 2 in.
long, nearly white, faintly spotted, the lower lobes somewhat notched.
Pod thick. A large, tall tree, 40 to 60 ft. high, with thick bark; wild
in low, rich woodlands, southern Indiana, south and west.

[Illustration: C. Kæmpferi.]

=Catálpa Kæmpferi= and =Catálpa Búngei= are dwarf forms from Japan,
the latter growing to the height of from 4 to 8 ft., and the former
rarely reaching the height of 18 ft. The leaf of C. Kæmpferi is
figured. It is more apt to have its margin angulated, though all the
species occasionally have angulated leaves.


Herbs, shrubs, rarely small trees, with opposite leaves, irregular
flowers and dry 2- to 4-celled fruits.


Shrubby trees or climbing shrubs with opposite or whorled, usually
entire leaves; flowers with an almost regular, 5-parted corolla
surrounded by a bell-shaped calyx; fruit drupe-like, with 4 seeds.

[Illustration: C. trichótomum.]

=Clerodéndron trichótomum=, Thunb. (FATE-TREE.) Leaves opposite,
long-petioled, cordate, thin, entire, glandular-dotted above, very
veiny; lower leaves largest and three-lobed, the upper ovate,
long-pointed, all 3-ribbed. Flowers in large, terminal clusters; fruit
with juicy pulp covering the 4 seeds. A small tree from Japan; hardy at
Washington and south. The figure represents one of the upper leaves.


Shrubs or low trees with opposite, usually palmate leaves, panicled
clusters of flowers and drupe-like fruit.

[Illustration: V. Agnus-cástus.]

=Vítex Agnus-cástus, L.= (CHASTE-TREE.) Leaves long-petioled, palmate,
with 5 to 7 lanceolate, acute, nearly entire leaflets, whitened beneath;
with an aromatic though unpleasant odor. Branches obtusely 4-sided,
hairy; flowers pale lilac, in interrupted panicles, agreeably
sweet-scented in late summer. Shrub or small tree, 5 to 10 ft. high,
cultivated from southern Europe; hardy at Washington and south. If
cultivated further north, it needs protection, at least when young.


An order of aromatic trees and shrubs, chiefly tropical.


Aromatic, evergreen trees with alternate, entire, feather-veined leaves.
Flowers small, in small close panicles. Fruit small (½ in.) 1-seeded

[Illustration: P. Carolinénsis.]

=Pérsea Carolinénsis=, Nees. (RED BAY.) Leaves 2 to 5 in. long, oblong,
entire, covered with a fine down when young, soon smooth above. Flowers
silky, in small rounded clusters on short stems. May. Fruit an ovate,
pointed, 1-seeded, deep-blue drupe, ½ in. long, on a red stalk; ripe in
autumn. Usually a small tree, 15 to 70 ft. high, wild in swamps,
Delaware, Virginia, and south. Wood reddish, beautiful, hard, strong,


Aromatic trees or shrubs with alternate, simple, deciduous, often lobed
leaves. Juice of bark and leaves mucilaginous. Flowers yellowish-green,
in clusters; blooming in early spring. Fruit a small bluish drupe on a
thick reddish stem. Ripe in September. Twigs greenish-yellow.

[Illustration: S. officinàle.]

=Sássafras officinàle=, Nees. (SASSAFRAS.) Leaves very variable in form,
ovate, entire, or some of them 2- to 3-lobed, soon smooth. Flowering as
the leaves are putting forth. Tree 15 to 100 ft. high, common in rich
woods. The aromatic fragrance is strongest in the bark of the roots.
Wood reddish, rather hard and durable.


Shrubs with deciduous, alternate, aromatic leaves and small, yellow
flowers in close clusters along the branches. Fruit a drupe on a
not-thickened stalk.

[Illustration: L. Benzòin.]

=Líndera Benzòin=, Blume. (SPICE-BUSH. BENJAMIN-BUSH.) Leaves alternate,
oblong-ovate, entire, pale beneath, very spicy in odor and taste; twigs
green; leaf-buds scaly; drupes red, ripe in autumn. Flowers 4 to 5
together in sessile umbels; in early spring, before the leaves expand.
Common in damp woods throughout.



A small order of shrubs or small trees, with the leaves covered with
silvery scurf.


Leaves alternate, entire; flowers axillary, stemmed; fruit drupe-like
with an 8-grooved stone.

[Illustration: E. lóngipes.]

=Elæágnus lóngipes.= (SILVER-LEAVED ELÆAGNUS.) Leaves almost evergreen,
rather thick, ovate-oblong, rather blunt, entire, smooth and dark green
above, but silvery below. Flowers inconspicuous. Fruit about ½ in. long,
bright red, with silvery scales, very abundant and beautiful; ripe in
July; juicy and edible, with a pungent flavor. Shrub from Japan; hardy


Small trees or shrubs with opposite, deciduous, entire, silvery-scaled
leaves. Flowers very small, dioecious. Fruit small, berry-like,
translucent, 1-seeded.

[Illustration: S. argéntea.]

=Shephérdia argéntea=, Nutt. (BUFFALO-BERRY. RABBIT-BERRY.) Leaves
opposite, oblong-ovate, tapering at base, silvery on both sides, with
small peltate scales. Branches often ending in sharp thorns. Fruit,
scarlet berries the size of currants, forming continuous clusters on
every branch and twig, but found only on the pistillate plants. They are
juicy, somewhat sour, pleasant-tasting, and make excellent jelly; ripe
in September. A small handsome tree, 5 to 20 ft. high, wild in the Rocky
Mountains, and sometimes cultivated east. Its thorny-tipped branches
make it a good hedge-plant. Hardy.



A large order of mainly herbaceous and shrubby plants of warm countries,
with usually milky juice.


Shrubs or trees with opposite, evergreen, entire leaves and small
flowers. The fruit 3-celled, 6-seeded pods.

[Illustration: B. sempérvirens.]

=Búxus sempérvirens=, L. (BOXWOOD.) Leaves ovate, smooth, dark green;
leaf-stems hairy at edge. This plant is a native of Europe, and in its
tree form furnishes the white wood used for wood-engraving.

Var. _subfruticosa_ (dwarf boxwood) grows only a foot or two high, and
is extensively used for edgings in gardens. The tree form is more rare
in cultivation, and is of slow growth, but forms a round-topped tree.


A large order of herbs, shrubs and trees, mainly tropical.


Tall umbrella-shaped trees with watery juice and alternate, 2-ranked,
simple, deciduous, obliquely ovate to obliquely heart-shaped, strongly
straight-veined, serrate leaves, harsh to the touch, often rough.
Flowers insignificant, appearing before the leaves. Fruit a flattened,
round-winged samara; ripe in the spring and dropping early from the
trees. Bark rough with longitudinal ridges.

  * Leaves very rough on the upper side. (=A.=)

    =A.= Leaves 4 to 8 in. long; buds rusty-downy; inner bark very
       mucilaginous                                                   1.

    =A.= Leaves smaller; buds not downy; cultivated. (=B.=)

       =B.= Wide-spreading tree; twigs drooping; fruit slightly
          notched                                                     2.

       =B.= Tree rather pyramidal; twigs not usually drooping; fruit
          deeply notched                                              3.

  * Leaves not very rough on the upper side. (=C.=)

    =C.= Buds and branchlets pubescent; twigs often with corky
       ridges                                                         4.

    =C.= Buds and branchlets free from hairs, or very nearly so.

       =D.= Twigs with corky wings                                    5.

       =D.= Twigs often with corky ridges; cultivated              2, 3.

       =D.= Branchlets never corky                                    6.

[Illustration: U. fúlva.]

1. =Úlmus fúlva=, Michx. (SLIPPERY OR RED ELM.) Leaves large, 4 to 8
in., very rough above, ovate-oblong, taper-pointed, doubly serrate,
soft-downy beneath; branchlets downy; inner bark very mucilaginous;
leaves sweet-scented in drying; buds in spring soft and downy with rusty
hairs. Fruit with a shallow notch in the wing not nearly reaching the
rounded nut. A medium-sized tree, 45 to 60 ft. high, with tough and very
durable reddish wood; wild in rich soils throughout.

[Illustration: U. montàna.]

2. =Úlmus montàna=, Bauh. (SCOTCH OR WITCH ELM.) Leaves broad, obovate,
abruptly pointed and doubly serrated. Fruit rounded, with a slightly
notched wing, naked. Branches drooping at their extremity, their bark
smooth and even. A medium-sized tree, 50 to 60 ft. high, with spreading
or often drooping branches; extensively cultivated under a dozen
different names, among the most peculiar being the White-margined (var.
_alba marginata_), the Crisped-leaved (var. _crispa_), and the Weeping
(var. _pendula_) Elms.

[Illustration: U. campéstris.]

3. =Úlmus campéstris=, L. (ENGLISH OR FIELD ELM.) Leaves much smaller
and of a darker color than the American Elm, obovate-oblong, abruptly
sharp-pointed, doubly serrated, rough. Fruit smooth, with the wing
deeply notched. A tall and beautiful cultivated tree, with the branches
growing out from the trunk more abruptly than those of the American Elm,
and thus forming a more pyramidal tree. A score of named varieties are
in cultivation in this country, some with very corky bark, others with
curled leaves, and still others with weeping branches.

[Illustration: U. racemòsa.]

4. =Úlmus racemòsa=, Thomas. (CORK OR ROCK ELM.) Leaves 2 to 4 in. long,
obovate-oblong, abruptly pointed, often doubly serrated, with very
straight veins; twigs and bud-scales downy-ciliate; branches often with
corky ridges. Fruit large (½ in. or more long), with a deep notch;
hairy. A large tree with fine-grained, heavy and very tough wood.
Southwest Vermont, west and south, southwestward to Missouri, on

[Illustration: U. alàta.]

5. =Úlmus alàta=, Michx. (WAHOO OR WINGED ELM.) Leaves small, 1 to 2 in.
long, ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acute, thickish, downy beneath
and nearly smooth above, sharply serrate. Bud-scales and branchlets
nearly smooth. Notch in the wing of the fruit deep. A small tree, 30 to
40 ft. high, the branches having corky wings. Wild, Virginia, west and
south; rarely cultivated.

[Illustration: U. Americàna.]

6. =Úlmus Americàna=, L. (AMERICAN OR WHITE ELM.) Leaves 2 to 4 in.
long, obovate-oblong or oval, abruptly sharp-pointed, sharply and often
doubly serrated, soft-pubescent beneath when young, soon quite smooth;
buds and branchlets smooth. Fruit ½ in. long, its sharp points incurved
and closing the deep notch; hairy only on the edges. A large ornamental
tree, usually with spreading branches and drooping branchlets, forming a
very wide-spreading top. Wild throughout in rich, moist soil; common in


Trees or tall shrubs with alternate, simple, pointed, 2-ranked,
feather-veined, toothed leaves. Flowers inconspicuous, with the leaves
in spring. Fruit a small, nut-like, scaly, globular drupe, ripe in
autumn. Bark scaling off like that of the Sycamore.

[Illustration: P. aquática.]

1. =Plánera aquática=, Gmel. (AMERICAN PLANER-TREE.) Leaves
ovate-oblong, small, 1 to 1½ in. long, on short stems, sharp-pointed,
serrate with equal teeth, smooth, green above and gray below, not
oblique at base. Flowers minute, in small heads, appearing before the
leaves. Fruit a scaly, roughened nut, ¼ in., raised on a stalk in the
calyx; ripe in September. A small tree, 20 to 50 ft. high; wet banks,
Kentucky and southward; hardy as far north as Philadelphia.

[Illustration: P. acuminàta.]

2. =Plánera acuminàta.= (KIAKA ELM OR JAPAN PLANER-TREE.) Leaves large,
glossy, smooth, deeply notched, on red stems; young shoots also red.
This is a larger, more hardy, and finer tree than the American
Planer-tree, and should be more extensively cultivated.

The Caucasian Planer-tree (_Planera parvifolia_), with very small
leaves, is also occasionally cultivated.


Trees or shrubs with alternate, simple, 2-ranked, oblique, serrate
leaves. Flowers inconspicuous, greenish, axillary. Fruit berry-like,
sweet, edible drupes, about the size of a currant, with one seed; color
dark; ripe in autumn.

  * Leaves usually sharply serrate                                    1.

  * Leaves almost entire                                              2.

[Illustration: C. occidentàlis.]

1. =Céltis occidentàlis=, L. (SUGARBERRY. HACKBERRY.) Leaves ovate,
obliquely subcordate to truncate at base, long-acuminate, serrate (at
least near the apex), rough above and hairy beneath. Fruit a
single-seeded, ¼ in., globular drupe, solitary on a peduncle, 1 in.
long, in the axils of the leaves; purple when ripe in autumn.

Shrub (var. _pumila_) to large tree, 6 to 50 ft. high; throughout; rare
north, abundant south. Sometimes cultivated. The branches are numerous,
slender, horizontal, giving the tree a wide-spreading, dense top.

[Illustration: C. Mississippiénsis.]

2. =Céltis Mississippiénsis=, Bosc. Leaves almost entire, with a very
long, tapering point, a rounded and mostly oblique base, thin and
smooth. Fruit smaller than that of the preceding species. A small tree
with rough, warty bark. Illinois and southward.


Trees or shrubs with milky juice and simple, alternate, entire,
deciduous leaves, generally having a sharp spine by the side of the bud
in the axils. Flowers inconspicuous; in summer. Fruit large, globular,
orange-like in appearance.

[Illustration: M. aurantìaca.]

=Maclùra aurantìaca=, Nutt. (OSAGE ORANGE. BOW-WOOD.) Leaves rather
thick, ovate to ovate-oblong, almost entire, smooth and shining above,
strong-veined and paler beneath, 4 in. long by 2 in. wide; spines
simple, about 1 in. long. Fruit as large as an orange, golden-yellow
when ripe. A medium-sized tree, 20 to 50 ft. high; native west of the
Mississippi. Extensively cultivated for hedges, and also for ornament,


Trees with milky juice and alternate, deciduous, exstipulate, broad,
heart-shaped, usually rough leaves. Flowers inconspicuous; in spring.
Fruit blackberry-like in shape and size; in summer.

  * Leaves rough; fruit dark-colored                                  1.

  * Leaves smooth and shining; fruit white to black                   2.

[Illustration: M. rùbra.]

1. =Mòrus rùbra=, L. (RED MULBERRY.) Leaves broad, heart-shaped, 4 to 6
in. long, serrate, rough above and downy beneath, pointed; on the young
shoots irregularly lobed. Fruit dark red, almost purple when ripe,
cylindrical; not found on all the trees, as the flowers are somewhat
dioecious; ripe in July. Wood yellow, heavy and durable. Usually a
small tree, 15 to 60 ft. high; wild throughout, also cultivated.

[Illustration: M. álba.]

2. =Mòrus álba=, L. (WHITE MULBERRY.) Leaves obliquely heart-ovate,
pointed, serrate, smooth and shining; lobed on the younger growths; 2 to
7 in. long. Fruit whitish, oval to oblong; ripe in July. A small tree
from China, planted for feeding silkworms, but now naturalized

Var. _multicaulis_ has large leaves, and is considered better for
silkworm food than the usual form. It is not very hardy, as it is
frequently winter-killed in the latitude of New York City.

Var. _Downingii_ (Downing's everbearing Mulberry) has large leaves and
very large, dark red or black fruit, of excellent flavor, which does not
ripen all at once as most Mulberries do.


Trees with milky juice and alternate, deciduous, stipulate, broad, very
hairy leaves. Flowers dioecious. Fruit (only on a portion of the
plants) similar to the common Mulberry.

[Illustration: B. papyrífera.]

=Broussonètia papyrífera=, L. (PAPER-MULBERRY.) Leaves ovate to
heart-shaped, variously lobed, deeply so on the young suckers, serrate,
very rough above and quite soft-downy beneath; leaves on the old trees
almost without lobes; bark tough and fibrous. Flowers in catkins,
greenish; in spring. Fruit club-shaped, dark scarlet, sweet and insipid;
ripe in August. Small cultivated tree, 10 to 35 ft. high, hardy north to
New York; remarkable for the great variety in the forms of its leaves on
the young trees.



A very small order, containing but one genus:


Trees with alternate, simple, large, palmately lobed leaves. The base of
the petiole is hollowed to cover the bud. Flowers inconspicuous; in
early spring. Fruit a large, dry ball, hanging on a long peduncle, and
remaining on the tree through the winter. Large tree with white bark
separating into thin, brittle plates.

[Illustration: P. occidentàlis.]

1. =Plátanus occidentàlis=, L. (AMERICAN SYCAMORE. BUTTONWOOD.) Leaves
large (6 to 10 in. broad), roundish heart-shaped, angularly
sinuate-lobed, the short lobes sharp-pointed, scurfy-downy till old.
Fruit globular, solitary, 1 in. in diameter, hanging on long, 4-in.
peduncles; remaining on the tree through the winter. A large, well-known
tree, 80 to 100 ft. high; found on river-banks throughout; also
cultivated. Wood brownish, coarse-grained; it cannot be split, and is
very difficult to smooth. The marking of the grain on the quartered
lumber is very beautiful.

[Illustration: P. orientàlis.]

2. =Plátanus orientàlis=, L. (ORIENTAL PLANE.) Leaves more deeply cut,
smaller, and sooner smooth than those of the American Sycamore. Fruit
frequently clustered on the peduncles. This tree is similar to the
American Sycamore, and in many ways better for cultivation.



A small order of useful nut-and timber-trees.


Trees with alternate, odd-pinnate leaves, of 5 to 17 leaflets, with 2 to
4 axillary buds, the uppermost the largest. Flowers inconspicuous, the
sterile ones in catkins. May. Fruit a large, bony, edible nut surrounded
by a husk that has no regular dehiscence. The nut, as in the genus
Carya, has a bony partition between the halves of the kernel.

  * Leaflets 13 to 17, strongly serrate; husk of the fruit not
      separating from the very rough, bony nut; native. (=A.=)

    =A.= Upper axillary bud cylindrical, whitish with hairs; nut
       elongated                                                      1.

    =A.= Upper axillary bud ovate, pointed; nut globular              2.

  * Leaflets 5 to 9; husk of the fruit separating when dry from the
      smoothish, thin-shelled nut; cultivated                         3.

[Illustration: J. cinèrea.]

1. =Jùglans cinèrea=, L. (BUTTERNUT. WHITE WALNUT.) Leaflets 11 to 17,
lanceolate, rounded at base, serrate with shallow teeth; downy,
especially beneath; leafstalk sticky or gummy. Buds oblong,
white-to-mentose. Fruit oblong, clammy, pointed. A thick-shelled nut,
deeply sculptured and rough with ragged ridges; ripe in September. A
widely spreading, flat-topped tree, 30 to 70 ft. high, with gray bark
and much lighter-colored wood than that of the Juglans nigra.

[Illustration: J. nìgra.]

2. =Jùglans nìgra=, L. (BLACK WALNUT.) Leaflets 13 to 21,
lanceolate-ovate, taper-pointed, somewhat heart-shaped and oblique at
base, smooth above and very slightly downy beneath. Fruit globular,
roughly dotted; the thick-shelled nut very rough; ripe in October. A
large handsome tree, 50 to 120 ft. high, with brown bark; more common
west than east of the Alleghanies; often planted. Wood dark

[Illustration: J. règia.]

3. =Jùglans règia=, L. (MADEIRA NUT. ENGLISH WALNUT.) Leaflets 5 to 9,
oval, smooth, obscurely serrate. Fruit oval, with a thin-shelled oval
nut not nearly so rough as that of Juglans cinerea, or of Juglans nigra.
When ripe the husk becomes very brittle and breaks open to let out the
nut. Tree intermediate in size, 40 to 60 ft. high, hardy as far north as
Boston in the East, but needs protection at St. Louis. It should be more
extensively cultivated. Introduced from Persia.


Hard-wooded trees with alternate, odd-pinnate leaves having
straight-veined leaflets. The leaflets are opposite each other, and the
terminal pair and end leaflet are usually much the largest. The sterile
flowers are in hanging catkins, the fertile ones minute, forming a
large, rounded, green-coated, dry drupe, with a roughened nut having a
bony partition. The drupes hang on till frost, when they open more or
less and usually allow the nut to drop out. Wood hard and tough.

  * Bark shaggy and scaly; kernel very good. (=A.=)

    =A.= Leaflets usually 5 (5 to 7)                                  1.

    =A.= Leaflets 7 to 9                                              2.

  * Bark rough, deeply furrowed but not shaggy; kernel edible.

    =B.= Leaflets 7 to 9, usually 7                                   3.

    =B.= Leaflets 5 to 7, usually 5                                   4.

  * Bark smooth; kernel bitter. (=C.=)

    =C.= Leaflets 5 to 7, usually 7, smooth                           5.

    =C.= Leaflets 7 to 11, serrate with deep teeth                    6.

  * Bark smooth; nut thin-shelled; kernel sweet; leaflets 13 to 15    7.

[Illustration: C. álba.]

1. =Cárya álba=, Nutt. (SHELLBARK OR SHAGBARK HICKORY.) Leaflets 5, the
lower pair much smaller, all oblong-lanceolate, taper-pointed, finely
serrate, downy beneath when young. Fruit globular, depressed at the top,
splitting readily into 4 wholly separate valves. Nut white, sweet,
compressed, 4-angled. Husk quite thin for the Hickories. Tree 70 to 90
ft. high, with very shaggy bark, even on quite small trees. Wild
throughout, and cultivated.

[Illustration: C. sulcàta.]

2. =Cárya sulcàta=, Nutt. (BIG SHELLBARK. KINGNUT.) Leaflets 7 to 9,
obovate-acuminate, sharply serrate, the odd one attenuate at base and
nearly sessile; downy beneath (more so than Carya alba). Fruit large,
oval, 4-ribbed above the middle, with 4 intervening depressions. Husk
very thick, entirely separating into 4 valves. Nut large, 1¼ to 2 in.
long, dull-whitish, thick-shelled, usually strongly pointed at both
ends. Kernel sweet and good. Tree 60 to 90 ft. high, with a shaggy bark
of loose, narrow strips on large trees. Quite common west of the

[Illustration: C. tomentòsa.]

3. =Cárya tomentòsa=, Nutt. (MOCKERNUT. WHITE-HEART HICKORY.) Leaflets 7
to 9 (mostly 7), lance-obovate, pointed, obscurely serrate or almost
entire, the lower surface as well as the twigs and the catkins tomentose
when young. Fruit globular or ovoid, usually with a very hard, thick
husk slightly united at base. Nut somewhat hexagonal, with a very thick
shell and well-flavored kernel. A tall, slender tree, 60 to 100 ft.
high, with a rough deeply furrowed, but not shaggy bark. Common on dry
hillsides throughout.

[Illustration: C. microcárpa.]

4. =Cárya microcárpa=, Nutt. (SMALL MOCKERNUT.) Leaflets about 5 (5 to
7), oblong-lanceolate, long-pointed, finely serrate, smooth, glandular
beneath; buds small, ovate. Fruit small, subglobose, with a thin husk;
nut not sharply angled, with a thin shell; edible. A large tree, 70 to
90 ft. high; New York, Pennsylvania, and westward.

[Illustration: C. porcìna.]

5. =Cárya porcìna=, Nutt. (PIGNUT. BROOM-HICKORY.) Leaflets 5 to 7
(usually 7), oblong-ovate, acuminate, serrate, smooth. Fruit pear-shaped
to oval, somewhat rough, splitting regularly only about half-way. Nut
large (1½ to 2 in. long), brownish, somewhat obcordate, with a thick,
hard shell, and poor, bitter kernel. Tall tree, 70 to 80 ft. high, with
dark-colored heart-wood, and rather smooth bark. Common on ridges.

[Illustration: C. amàra.]

6. =Cárya amàra=, Nutt. (BITTERNUT. SWAMP-HICKORY.) Leaflets 7 to 11,
lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, serrate with deep teeth. Fruit
roundish-ovate, regularly separable only half-way, but friable at
maturity. Nut small, white, subglobose, with a very thin shell and an
extremely bitter kernel. Large tree with orange-yellow winter buds, and
firm, not scaly, bark. Wild throughout, and sometimes cultivated.

[Illustration: C. olivæfórmis.]

7. =Cárya olivæfórmis=, Nutt. (PECAN-NUT.) Leaflets 13 to 15,
ovate-lanceolate, serrate; lateral ones nearly sessile and decidedly
curved. Fruit oblong, widest above the middle, with 4 distinct valves.
Nut oblong, 1¼ in., nearer smooth than the other edible Hickory-nuts,
the shell thin, but rather too hard to be broken by the fingers. The
kernel is full, sweet, and good. A tall tree, 80 to 90 ft. high. Indiana
and south; also cultivated, but not very successfully, as far north as
New York City.


This order contains more species of trees and shrubs in temperate
regions than any other, except the Coniferæ. The genus Quercus (Oak)
alone contains about 20 species of trees in the region covered by this


Trees or shrubs with simple, alternate, mostly straight-veined, thin,
usually serrate leaves. Flowers in catkins, opening in early spring, in
most cases before the leaves. Fruit a leafy-scaled catkin or cone,
hanging on till autumn. Twigs usually slender, the bark peeling off in
thin, tough layers, and having peculiar horizontal marks. Many species
have aromatic leaves and twigs.

  * Trunks with chalky white bark. (=A.=)

    =A.= Native. (=B.=)

       =B.= Small tree with leafstalks about ½ as long as the blades  1.

       =B.= Large tree; leafstalks about 1/3 as long as the blades    2.

    =A.= Cultivated; from Europe; many varieties                      3.

  * Bark not chalky white, usually dark. (=C.=)

    =C.= Leaves and bark very aromatic. (=D.=)

       =D.= Bark of trunk yellowish and splitting into filmy layers   5.

       =D.= Bark not splitting into filmy layers                      4.

    =C.= Leaves not very aromatic; bark brownish and loose and
       shaggy on the main trunk; growing in or near the water         6.

[Illustration: B. populifòlia.]

1. =Bétula populifòlia=, Ait. (AMERICAN WHITE OR GRAY BIRCH.) Leaves
triangular, very taper-pointed, and usually truncate or nearly so at the
broad base, irregularly twice-serrate; both sides smooth and shining,
when young glutinous with resinous glands; leafstalks half as long as
the blades and slender, so as to make the leaves tremulous, like those
of the Aspen. Fruit brown, cylindrical, more or less pendulous on
slender peduncles. A small (15 to 30 ft. high), slender tree with an
ascending rather than an erect trunk. Bark chalky or grayish white, with
triangular dusky spaces below the branches; recent shoots brown, closely
covered with round dots.

[Illustration: B. papyrífera.]

2. =Bétula papyrífera=, Marsh. (PAPER OR CANOE BIRCH.) Leaves 2 to 4 in.
long, ovate, taper-pointed, heart-shaped, abrupt or sometimes
wedge-shaped at the base, sharply and doubly serrate, smooth and green
above, roughly reticulated, glandular-dotted and slightly hairy beneath;
footstalk not over 1/3 the length of the blade. Fruit long-stalked and
drooping. A large tree, 60 to 75 ft. high, with white bark splitting
freely into very thin, tough layers. A variety, 5 to 10 ft. high (var.
_minor_), occurs only in the White Mountains. Young shoots reddish or
purplish olive-green deepening to a dark copper bronze. New England and
westward, also cultivated.

[Illustration: B. álba.]

3. =Bétula álba=, L. (EUROPEAN WHITE BIRCH.) Leaves ovate, acute,
somewhat deltoid, unequally serrate, often deeply cut, nearly smooth; in
var. _pubescens_ covered with white hairs. Fruit brown, cylindric,
drooping. A tree, 30 to 60 ft. high, with a chalky-white bark; from
Europe, extensively cultivated in this country, under many names, which
indicate the character of growth or foliage; among them may be mentioned
_pendula_ (weeping), _laciniata_ (cut-leaved), _fastigiata_ (pyramidal),
_atropurpurea_ (purple-leaved), and _pubescens_ (hairy-leaved).

[Illustration: B. lénta.]

4. =Bétula lénta=, L. (SWEET, BLACK OR CHERRY BIRCH.) Leaves and bark
very sweet, aromatic. Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, with more or less
heart-shaped base, very acute apex, and doubly and finely serrate
margin, bright shining green above, smooth beneath, except the veins,
which are hairy. Fruit 1 to 1¼ in. long, cylindric, with spreading lobes
to the scales. A rather large tree, 50 to 70 ft. high, with bark of
trunk and twigs in appearance much like that of the garden Cherry, and
not splitting into as thin layers as most of the Birches. Wood
rose-colored, fine-grained. Moist woods, rather common throughout; also

[Illustration: B. lùtea.]

5. =Bétula lùtea=, Michx. f. (YELLOW OR GRAY BIRCH.) A species so like
the preceding (Betula lenta) as to be best described by stating the
differences. Leaves and bark are much less aromatic. Leaves 3 to 5 in.
long, not so often nor so plainly heart-shaped at base, usually
narrowed; less bright green above, and more downy beneath; more coarsely
serrate. Fruit not so long, and more ovate, with much larger and thinner
scales, the lobes hardly spreading. A large tree, 50 to 90 ft. high,
with yellowish or silvery-gray bark peeling off into very thin, filmy
layers from the trunk. Wood whiter, and not so useful. Rich, moist
woodlands, especially northward; also cultivated.

[Illustration: B. nìgra.]

6. =Bétula nìgra=, L. (RIVER OR RED BIRCH.) Leaves 2½ to 3½ in. long,
rhombic-ovate, acute at both ends, distinctly doubly serrate, bright
green above; glaucous beneath when young; on petioles only 1/6 their
length. Twigs brown to cinnamon-color, and downy when young. A
medium-sized tree, 30 to 50 ft. high, usually growing on the edges of
streams, the old trunks having a very shaggy, loose, torn, reddish-brown
bark. Wild in Massachusetts, south and west; often cultivated.


Shrubs or small trees with deciduous, alternate, simple, straight-veined
leaves with large stipules that remain most of the season. Flowers in
catkins. Fruit a small, scaly, open, woody cone, remaining on the plant
throughout the year.

  * Native species; growing in wet places. (=A.=)

    =A.= Leaves rounded at base; whitened beneath; found north of
       41° N. Lat                                                     1.

    =A.= Leaves acute or tapering at base; southward. (=B.=)

       =B.= Flowering in the spring                                   2.

       =B.= Flowering in the autumn                                   3.

  * Cultivated species; from Europe; will grow in dry places       4, 5.

[Illustration: A. incàna.]

1. =Álnus incàna=, Willd. (SPECKLED OR HOARY ALDER.) Leaves 3 to 5 in.
long, broadly oval or ovate, rounded at base, sharply serrate, often
coarsely toothed, whitened and mostly downy beneath; stipules lanceolate
and soon falling. Fruit orbicular or nearly so. A shrub or small tree, 8
to 20 ft. high, with the bark of the trunk a polished reddish green;
common along water-courses north of 41° N. Lat.; sometimes cultivated.

[Illustration: A. serrulàta.]

2. =Álnus serrulàta=, Willd. (SMOOTH ALDER.) Leaves 2 to 4½ in. long,
thickish, obovate, acute at base, sharply and finely serrate, green both
sides, smooth or often downy beneath; stipules yellowish green, oval,
and falling after 2 or 3 leaves have expanded above them. Fruit ovate.
Rather a shrub than a tree, 6 to 12 ft. high, common along streams south
of 41° N. Lat. In the Southern States it sometimes forms a tree 30 ft.

[Illustration: A. marítima.]

3. =Álnus marítima=, Muhl. (SEASIDE ALDER.) Smooth; leaves oblong-ovate
to obovate, with a tapering base, sharply serrulate; petiole slender;
color bright green, somewhat rusty beneath. Flowering in the autumn.
Fruiting catkin large, ¾ to 1 in. long, ½ in. thick, usually solitary,
ovoid to oblong. A small tree, 15 to 25 ft. high. Southern Delaware and
eastern Maryland, near the coast.

[Illustration: A. glutinòsa.]

4. =Álnus glutinòsa=, L. (EUROPEAN ALDER.) Leaves roundish,
wedge-shaped, wavy-serrated, usually abrupt at tip, glutinous; sharply
and deeply incised in some varieties. Fruit oval, ½ in. long. A
medium-sized tree, 25 to 60 ft. high, of rapid growth, often cultivated
under several names; the most important being vars. _laciniata_
(cut-leaved), _quercifolia_ (oak-leaved), and _rubrinervis_

[Illustration: A. cordifòlia.]

5. =Álnus cordifòlia=, Ten. (HEART-LEAVED ALDER.) Leaves heart-shaped,
dark green and shining. Flowers greenish-brown, blooming in March and
April, before the leaves expand. A large and very handsome Alder, 15 to
20 ft. high, growing in much dryer soil than the American species.
Cultivated from southern Europe. Hardy after it gets a good start, but
often winter-killed when young.


Low trees and large shrubs with simple, alternate, deciduous, doubly
serrate, straight-veined leaves. Flowers insignificant, in catkins in
early spring. Fruit an ovoid-oblong bony nut, inclosed in a thickish
involucre of two leaves with a lacerated frilled border; ripe in autumn.

  * Leafy bracts of fruit forming a bottle-shaped involucre           2.

  * Leafy bracts not bottle-shaped. (=A.=)

    =A.= Involucre much longer than the nut                           1.

    =A.= Involucre but little longer than the nut                     3.

[Illustration: C. Americàna.]

1. =Córylus Americàna=, Walt. (WILD HAZELNUT.) Leaves roundish
heart-shaped, pointed, doubly serrate; stipules broad at base, acute,
and sometimes cut-toothed; twigs and shoots often hairy. Involucre of
the fruit open to the globose nut, the two leaf-like bracts very much
cut-toothed at the margin and thick and leathery at the base. Merely a
shrub, 5 to 6 ft. high; quite common throughout.

[Illustration: C. rostràta.]

2. =Córylus rostràta=, Ait. (BEAKED HAZELNUT.) Leaves but little or not
at all heart-shaped; stipules linear-lanceolate. The involucre,
extending beyond the nut in a bract like a bottle, is covered with
stiff, short hairs. Shrub, 4 to 5 ft. high. Wild in the same region as
Corylus Americana, but not so abundant.

[Illustration: C. Avellàna.]

3. =Córylus Avellàna=, L. (EUROPEAN HAZEL. FILBERT.) Leaves
roundish-cordate, pointed, doubly serrate, nearly sessile, with
ovate-oblong, obtuse stipules; shoots bristly. Involucre of the fruit
not much larger than the large nut (1 in.), and deeply cleft. A small
tree or shrub, 6 to 12 ft. high, from Europe; several varieties in


Slender trees with very hard wood, brownish, furrowed bark, and
deciduous, alternate, simple, exstipulate, straight-veined leaves.
Flowers inconspicuous, in catkins. Fruit hop-like in appearance, at the
ends of side shoots of the season, hanging on through the autumn.

[Illustration: O. Virgínica.]

1. =Óstrya Virgínica=, Willd. (IRON-WOOD. AMERICAN HOP-HORNBEAM.) Leaves
oblong-ovate, taper-pointed, very sharply doubly serrate, downy beneath,
with 11 to 15 straight veins on each side of the midrib; buds acute. The
hop-like fruit 2 to 3 times as long as wide; full grown and pendulous, 1
to 3 in. long, in August, when it adds greatly to the beauty of the
tree. A small, rather slender tree, 30 to 50 ft. high, with the bark on
old trees somewhat furrowed; wood white and very hard and heavy; common
in rich woods, and occasionally cultivated.

[Illustration: O. vulgàris.]

2. =Óstrya vulgàris=, Willd. (EUROPEAN HOP-HORNBEAM.) This species from
Europe is much like the American one, but has longer, more slender, more
pendulous fruit-clusters. Occasionally cultivated.


Trees or tall shrubs with alternate, simple, straight-veined leaves, and
smooth and close gray bark. Flowers in drooping catkins, the sterile
flowers in dense cylindric ones, and the fertile flowers in a loose
terminal one forming an elongated, leafy-bracted cluster with many,
several-grooved, small nuts, hanging on the tree till late in the

[Illustration: C. Caroliniàna.]

1. =Carpìnus Caroliniàna=, Walt. (AMERICAN HORNBEAM. BLUE OR WATER
BEECH.) Leaves ovate-oblong, pointed, sharply doubly serrate, soon
nearly smooth. Fruit with the scales obliquely halberd-shaped and
cut-toothed, ¾ in. long, nuts 1/8 in. long. A tree or tall shrub, 10 to
25 ft. high, with a peculiarly ridged trunk; the close, smooth gray bark
and the leaves are much like those of the Beech. The wood is very hard
and whitish. Common along streams; sometimes cultivated.

[Illustration: C. Bétulus.]

2. =Carpìnus Bétulus=, L. (EUROPEAN HORNBEAM.) This cultivated species
is quite similar to the American, but can be distinguished by the scales
of the fruit, which are wholly halberd-shaped, having the basal lobes
nearly equal in size, as shown in the cut; while the American species
has scales only half halberd-shaped.


Large trees to shrubs, with simple, alternate, deciduous or evergreen,
entire to deeply lobed leaves. The leaves are rather thick and woody,
and remain on the tree either all winter or at least until nearly all
other deciduous leaves have fallen. Flowers insignificant; the staminate
ones in catkins; blooming in spring. Fruit an acorn, which in the White,
Chestnut, and Live Oaks matures the same year the blossoms appear; while
in the Red, Black, and Willow Oaks the acorns mature the second year.
They remain on the tree until late in autumn. The Oaks, because of their
large tap-roots, can be transplanted only when small. Most of the
species are in cultivation. The species are very closely related, and a
number of them quite readily hybridize; this is especially true of those
of a particular group, as the White Oaks, Black Oaks, etc.

There is no attempt in the Key to characterize the hybrids, of which
some are quite extensively distributed. _Quercus heterophylla_, Michx.
(Bartram's Oak), supposed to be a hybrid between _Quercus Phellos_ and
_Quercus rubra_, is found quite frequently from Staten Island southward
to North Carolina.

  * Cultivated Oaks from the Old World; bark rough; leaves more or
     less sinuated or lobed. (=A.=)

    =A.= Acorn cup not bristly                                       20.

    =A.= Acorn cup more or less bristly                              21.

  * Wild species, occasionally cultivated. (=B.=)

    =B.= Leaves entire or almost entire, or merely 3- (rarely 5-)
       lobed at the enlarged summit. (=C.=)

       =C.= Ends about equal, petioles very short. (=D.=)

          =D.= Leaves small (2 to 4 in. long), evergreen, bark
             smooth, black (Live-oaks)                               10.

          =D.= Leaves not evergreen in the North, somewhat awned
             when young, bark very smooth, black and never cracked
             (Willow-oaks). (=E.=)

             =E.= Down on the under side quite persistent            18.

             =E.= Under side soon smooth                             19.

       =C.= Widened near the tip, somewhat obovate and the end
          usually 3-lobed; bark quite black, smooth or furrowed,
          but never scaly (Black-oaks). (=F.=)

          =F.= Leaves acute at base                                  16.

          =F.= Leaves abrupt or cordate at base                      17.

    =B.= Leaves distinctly straight-veined, sinuate rather than
       lobed, the teeth generally rounded and never awned; bark
       white, rough and scaling (Chestnut-oaks). (=G.=)

       =G.= Lobes rounded                                       5, 6, 7.

       =G.= Lobes rather acute                                     8, 9.

    =B.= Leaves coarsely lobed, the lobes usually rounded, never
       awned; bark white or whitish-brown, cracking and scaling
       off in thin laminæ (White Oaks). (=H.=)

       =H.= Leaves crowded at the ends of the branchlets              4.

       =H.= Leaves not crowded                                  1, 2, 3.

    =B.= Leaves more or less lobed, the lobes and teeth acute and
       bristle-pointed; petiole slender; base rather abrupt; bark
       dark-colored, smooth or furrowed, but never scaly (Red
       Oaks). (=I.=)

       =I.= Leaves smooth both sides, at least when mature   11, 12, 13.

       =I.= Leaves soft-downy beneath                            14, 15.

[Illustration: Q. álba.]

1. =Quércus álba=, L. (AMERICAN WHITE OAK.) Leaves short-stemmed, acute
at base, with 3 to 9 oblong, obtuse, usually entire, oblique lobes, very
persistent, many remaining on the tree through the winter; pubescent
when young, soon smooth, bright green above. Acorns in the axils of the
leaves of the year, ovoid-oblong, 1 in., in a shallow, rough cup, often
sweet and edible. A large tree, 60 to 80 ft. high, with stem often 6 ft.
in diameter; wood light-colored, hard, tough and very useful. Common

[Illustration: Q. stellàta]

2. =Quércus stelláta=, Wang. (POST-OAK. ROUGH OR BOX WHITE OAK.) Leaves
4 to 6 in. long, sinuately cut into 5 to 7 roundish, divergent lobes,
the upper ones much larger and often 1- to 3-notched, grayish-or
yellowish-downy beneath, and pale and rough above. Acorn ovoid, about ½
in. long, one third to one half inclosed in a deep, saucer-shaped cup;
in the axils of the leaves of the year. A medium-sized tree, 40 to 50
ft. high, with very hard, durable wood, resembling that of the White
Oak. Massachusetts, south and west.

[Illustration: Q. macrocárpa.]

3. =Quércus macrocárpa=, Michx. (BUR-OAK. MOSSY-CUP.) Leaves obovate or
oblong, lyrately pinnatifid or deeply sinuate-lobed or nearly parted,
the lobes sparingly and obtusely toothed or entire. Acorn broadly ovoid,
1 in. or more long, one half to almost entirely inclosed in a thick and
woody cup with usually a mossy fringed border formed of the upper awned
scales; cup very variable in size, ¾ to 2 in. across. A handsome,
middle-sized tree, 40 to 60 ft. high. Western New England to Wisconsin,
and southwestward.

[Illustration: Q. lyràta.]

4. =Quércus lyràta=, Walt. (SWAMP POST-OAK.) Leaves crowded at the ends
of the branchlets, very variable, obovate-oblong, more or less deeply 7-
to 9-lobed, white-to-mentose beneath when young, becoming smoothish; the
lobes triangular to oblong, acute or obtuse, entire or sparingly
toothed. Acorn about ¾ in. long, nearly covered by the round, ovate,
thin, rugged, scaly cup. A large tree with pale flaky bark. River-swamps
in southern Indiana to Wisconsin, and southward.

[Illustration: Q. bícolor.]

5. =Quércus bícolor=, Willd. (SWAMP WHITE OAK.) Leaves obovate or
oblong-obovate, wedge-shaped at base, coarsely sinuate-crenate, and
often rather pinnatifid than toothed, whitish, soft-downy beneath. Main
primary veins 6 to 8 pairs. Acorns, nearly 1 in., oblong-ovoid, set in a
shallow cup often mossy fringed at the margin, on a peduncle about as
long as the acorn, much longer than the petioles of the leaves; in the
axils of the leaves of the year. A large tree, 60 to 80 ft. high, stem 5
to 8 ft. in diameter. Most common in the Northern and Western States, in
swamps, but found in moist soil in the mountains of the South.

[Illustration: Q. Michaùxii.]

6. =Quércus Michaùxii=, Nutt. (BASKET-OAK or COW-OAK.) Leaves 5 to 6 in.
long, oval to obovate, acute, obtuse, or even cordate at base, regularly
but usually not deeply sinuate, rather rigid, usually very tomentose
beneath. Acorn large, 1-1/3 in. long, sweet and edible; cup shallow and
roughened with coarse, acute scales; no fringe. A large and valuable Oak
with gray and flaky bark.

[Illustration: Q. Prìnus]

7. =Quércus Prìnus=, L. (CHESTNUT-OAK.) Leaves obovate or oblong,
coarsely undulately toothed, with 10 to 16 pairs of straight, prominent
ribs beneath; surface minutely downy beneath, and smooth above. Acorn
ovoid, 1 in. long, covered nearly half-way with a thick, mostly
tuberculated cup; in the axils of the leaves of the year; kernel
sweetish and edible. A middle-sized or small tree, with reddish,
coarse-grained wood. Found throughout, but common only southward.

[Illustration: Q. Muhlenbérgii.]

8. =Quércus Muhlenbérgii=, Engelm. (YELLOW CHESTNUT-OAK.) Leaves usually
thin, 5 to 7 in. long, 1½ to 2 in. broad, oblong-lanceolate, rather
sharply notched, mostly obtuse or roundish at base, sometimes broadly
ovate or obovate, and two thirds as wide as long. The leaves are usually
more like those of the Chestnut than any other Oak; the primary veins
very straight, impressed above, prominent beneath. Acorn 2/3 to ¾ in.
long, inclosed in a thin, hemispherical cup with small, appressed
scales. A middle-sized tree with flaky, pale, thin, ash-colored bark,
and tough, very durable, yellowish or brownish wood. Western New
England, westward and south.

[Illustration: Q. prinoìdes.]

9. =Quércus prinoìdes=, Willd. (DWARF CHESTNUT-OAK.) Much like the last,
but generally grows only 2 to 4 ft. high in the Eastern States. The
leaves are more wavy-toothed, on shorter stems. It seems to be only a
variety of Quercus Muhlenbergii, especially in the West, where it grows
much taller and runs into that species.

[Illustration: Q. vìrens.]

10. =Quércus vìrens=, Ait. (LIVE-OAK.) Leaves thick, evergreen, 2 to 4
in. long, oblong, obtuse, and somewhat wrinkled; smooth and shining
above, hairy beneath, the margin revolute, usually quite entire, rarely
spiny-toothed. Acorns pedunculate, 1 to 3 in a cluster, oblong-ovate,
with top-shaped nut. A mere shrub to a large tree, with yellowish wood
of excellent grain and durability. Virginia and south.

[Illustration: Q. rùbra.]

11. =Quércus rùbra, L.= (RED OAK.) Leaves rather thin, smooth, oblong,
moderately pinnatifid, sometimes deeply so, into 8 to 12 entire or
sharply toothed lobes, turning dark red after frost. Acorn oblong-ovoid,
1 in. or less long, set in a shallow cup of fine scales, with a narrow
raised border, ¾ to 1 in. in diameter; sessile or nearly so. A large
tree, 60 to 90 ft. high, with reddish, very coarse-grained wood. Common

[Illustration: Q. coccínea.]

12. =Quércus coccínea=, Wang. (SCARLET OAK.) Leaves, in the ordinary
form on large trees, bright green, shining above, turning red in autumn,
oval or oblong, deeply pinnatifid, the 6 to 8 lobes divergent, and
sparingly cut-toothed, notches rounded. Acorn ½ to ¾ in. long, roundish,
depressed, one half or a little more inclosed in a top-shaped, coarsely
scaled cup; in the axils of the leaf-scars of the preceding year. A
large handsome tree, 60 to 80 ft. high, with grayish bark not deeply
furrowed, interior reddish; coarse-grained reddish wood. Moist or dry
soil. Common.

[Illustration: Var. tinctória.]

Var. _tinctoria_. (Quercitron. Yellow-barked or Black Oak.) Leaves,
especially on young trees, often less deeply pinnatifid, sometimes
barely sinuate. Foliage much like that of Quercus rubra. Acorn nearly
round, ½ to 2/3 in. long, set in a rather deep, conspicuously scaly cup.
Bark of trunk thicker, rougher, darker-colored and with the inner color
orange. Rich and poor soil. Abundant east, but rare west.

[Illustration: Q. palústris.]

13. =Quércus palústris=, Du Roi. (SWAMP, SPANISH, OR PIN OAK.) Leaves
oblong, deeply pinnatifid, with divergent, sharply toothed,
bristle-tipped lobes and rounded notches, and with both sides bright
green. Acorn globular, hardly ½ in. long, cup shallow and saucer-shaped,
almost sessile, in the axils of last year's leaf-scars. A handsome,
medium-sized tree; wood reddish, coarse-grained. In low ground. Common

[Illustration: Q. falcàta.]

14. =Quércus falcàta=, Michx. (SPANISH OAK.) Leaves obtuse or roundish
at base, 3- to 5-lobed above, the lobes prolonged, mostly narrow, and
the end ones more or less scythe-shaped, bristle-tipped, entire or
sparingly cut-toothed, soft-downy beneath. Foliage very variable. Acorn
1/3 to ½ in. long, globose, half inclosed in the hemispherical cup;
nearly sessile. A tree, 30 to 70 ft. high, large and abundant in the
South; bark thick and excellent for tanning; wood coarse-grained, dark
brown or reddish. New Jersey, south and west.

[Illustration: Q. ilicifòlia.]

15. =Quércus ilicifòlia=, Wang. (BEAR OR BLACK SCRUB-OAK.) Leaves
obovate, wedge-shaped at base, angularly about 5-lobed (3 to 7),
white-downy beneath, 2 to 4 in. long, thickish, with short, triangular
bristle-tipped lobes. Acorn ovoid, globular, ½ in. long. A dwarfed,
straggling bush, 3 to 10 ft. high. Sandy barrens and rocky hills. New
England to Ohio, and south.

[Illustration: Q. aquática.]

16. =Quércus aquática=, Walt. (WATER-OAK.) Leaves thick, sub-evergreen,
obovate-wedge-shaped, smooth, tapering at the base, sometimes obscurely
3-lobed at the tip; on the seedlings and the young rapid-growing shoots
often incised or sinuate-pinnatifid, and then bristle-pointed. Acorn
small, globular-ovoid, downy, in a saucer-shaped cup, very bitter; in
the axils of leaf-scars of the previous year. A very variable tree, 30
to 40 ft. high, with smooth bark. Wet ground. Maryland, west and south.

[Illustration: Q. nìgra.]

17. =Quércus nìgra=, L. (BLACK OAK OR BARREN OAK.) Leaves large, 5 to 10
in. long, thick, wedge-shaped, broadly dilated above, and truncate or
slightly 3-lobed at the end, bristle-awned, smooth above, rusty-downy
beneath. Acorn oblong-ovate, ½ to ¾ in. long, in the axils of the leaves
of the preceding year, one third or one half inclosed in the top-shaped,
coarse-scaled cup. A small tree, 10 to 25 ft. high, with rough, very
dark-colored bark. New York, south and west, in dry, sandy barrens.

[Illustration: Q. imbricària.]

18. =Quércus imbricària=, Michx. (LAUREL-OR SHINGLE-OAK.) Leaves
lanceolate-oblong, entire, tipped with an abrupt, sharp point,
pale-downy beneath. Acorn globular, 5/8 in. long, cup with broad,
whitish, close-pressed scales, covering about one third of the nut. A
stout tree, 30 to 50 ft. high, found in barrens and open woodlands. Wood
extensively used in the West for shingles. New Jersey to Wisconsin, and

[Illustration: Q. Phéllos.]

19. =Quércus Phéllos=, L. (WILLOW-OAK.) Leaves 2 to 4 in. long, thick,
linear-lanceolate, narrowed at both ends, entire or very nearly so, soon
smooth, light green, bristle-tipped, willow-like, scurfy when young.
Acorns about sessile, globular, small (½ in.), in a shallow saucer
shaped cup; on the old wood. Tree 30 to 50 ft. high, with smooth, thick
bark, and reddish, coarse-grained wood, of little value. Borders of
swamps, New Jersey, south and west; also cultivated.

[Illustration: Q. Ròbur.]

20. =Quércus Ròbur=, L. (ENGLISH OAK.) Leaves on short footstalks,
oblong, smooth, dilated upward, sinuately lobed, hardly pinnatifid.
Acorns in the axils of the leaves of the year, ovate-oblong, over 1 in.,
about one third inclosed in the hemispherical cup; sessile in var.
_sessiliflora_; clustered and long-peduncled in var. _pedunculata_.
Trees 50 to 100 ft. high, extensively cultivated; from Europe; the
nursery catalogues name as many as a score or more varieties.

One var., _fastigiata_ (Pyramidal Oak), is a peculiar upright tree like
the Lombardy Poplar; var. _pendula_ (Weeping Oak) has long, slender,
drooping branches.

[Illustration: Q. Cérris.]

21. =Quércus Cérris=, L. (TURKEY OAK.) Leaves on very short stalks,
oblong, deeply and unequally pinnatifid, hairy beneath; lobes
lanceolate, acute, somewhat angular. Acorns in the axils of the leaves
of the year, ovate, with a hemispherical, bristly or mossy cup. Several
varieties of this species, from Europe, are cultivated in this country.
They form tall, round-headed, symmetrical trees.


Trees or shrubs with alternate, simple, straight-veined, elongated,
pointed leaves. Sterile flowers in long, drooping, conspicuous catkins,
blooming in June or July; the fertile ones rather inconspicuous, but
forming prickly-coated burs which hang on till the frost, when they
split open and let out the brown, horny-coated nuts. Wood light,

  * Large tree with burs having 1 to 3 nuts                           1.

  * Small tree with burs having 1 rounded nut                         2.

[Illustration: C. satìva.]

1. =Castànea satìva=, Mill. (CHESTNUT.) Leaves oblong-lanceolate,
pointed, coarsely serrate, with usually awned teeth; smooth on both
sides, 6 to 9 in. long, 1½ to 2¼ in. wide. Burs large, very prickly,
inclosing 1 to 3 large, ovoid, brown nuts, ripe after frost, which opens
the bur into 4 valves. A common large tree, with light, coarse-grained
wood, and bark having coarse longitudinal ridges on the old trees. Many
varieties of this species are in cultivation, varying in the size and
sweetness of the nuts, the size of the trees, and the size and the
margins of the leaves, some of which are almost entire. The wild species
is var. _Americana_.

[Illustration: C. pùmila.]

2. =Castànea pùmila=, Mill. (CHINQUAPIN.) Leaves lance-oblong, strongly
straight-veined, coarsely serrate, usually with awned tips;
whitish-downy beneath, 3 to 5 in. long, 1¼ to 2 in. wide. Bur small,
prickly, with a single small, rounded, sweet, chestnut-colored nut. A
handsome small tree, or in the wild state usually a shrub, 6 to 40 ft.
high. Central New Jersey, southern Ohio and southward, and cultivated
successfully as far north as New York City.


Trees with alternate, strongly straight-veined, almost entire to deeply
pinnatifid leaves. Flowers inconspicuous, appearing with the leaves.
Fruit a prickly bur, inclosing 2 triangular, sharp-ridged nuts, the bur
hanging on the trees during the greater part of the winter. Leaf-buds
very elongated, slender, sharp-pointed.

  * The straight veins all ending in the teeth; native                1.

  * Margin varying from entire to deeply pinnatifid, the straight
      veins occasionally ending in the notches                        2.

[Illustration: F. ferrugínea.]

1. =Fàgus ferrugínea=, Ait. (AMERICAN BEECH.) Leaves thin, oblong-ovate,
taper-pointed, distinctly and often coarsely toothed; petioles and
midrib ciliate with soft silky hairs when young, soon almost naked. The
very straight veins run into the teeth. Prickles of the fruit mostly
recurved or spreading. Large tree, 60 to 100 ft. high, with
grayish-white, very smooth bark, and firm, light-colored, close-grained
wood. Wild throughout, and frequently cultivated.

[Illustration: F. sylvática.]

2. =Fàgus sylvática=, L. (EUROPEAN BEECH.) Leaves often similar to those
of the American Beech, but usually shorter and broader; the border,
often nearly entire, is wavy in some varieties, and in others deeply
pinnatifid. The bark in most varieties is darker than in the American.
This Beech, with its numerous varieties, is the one usually cultivated.
Among the most useful varieties are _atropurpurea_ (Purple Beech), with
the darkest foliage of any deciduous tree, and almost entire-margined
leaves; _laciniata_ (Cut-leaved Beech), with very deeply cut leaves; and
_argentea variegata_ (Silver Variegated Beech), having in the spring
quite distinctly variegated leaves.


A small order of soft-wooded trees and shrubs, abundantly distributed in
the northern temperate and frigid zones.


Soft-wooded trees or shrubs growing in damp places, with alternate,
usually quite elongated, pointed, deciduous leaves, without lobes.
Stipules often large, leaf-like, and more or less persistent through the
summer; sometimes scale-like and dropping early. The stipules are always
free from the leafstalk and attached to the twig at small spots just
below the leafstalk. Even if the stipules have dropped off, the small
scars remain. Flowers staminate and pistillate on separate trees
(dioecious), in elongated catkins in early spring. Fruit consists of
catkins of small pods with numerous seeds having silky down at one end.
The seeds usually drop early. Among the Willows there are so many
hybrids and peculiar varieties as to render their study difficult, and
their classification, in some cases, impossible. The following Key will
probably enable the student to determine most specimens. No attempt has
been made to include all the cultivated forms.

  * Spray decidedly weeping                                           5.

  * Spray not decidedly weeping. (=A.=)

    =A.= Rather small Willows, 10 to 30 ft. high, with broad
       leaves, usually not over twice as long as wide;
       cultivated. (=B.=)

      =B.= Leaves glossy dark green on the upper side,
         taper-pointed                                                7.

      =B.= Leaves with white cottony hairs beneath                   10.

      =B.= Leaves rough-veiny beneath                                13.

    =A.= Rather large Willows, 12 to 80 ft. high, with the
       bark of the trunk very rough; leaves more elongated.

      =C.= Petioles of the leaves not glandular; tree 10 to
         40 ft. high. (=D.=)

        =D.= Leaves green on both sides when mature                   1.

        =D.= Leaves glaucous beneath                                  2.

      =C.= Petioles of the leaves usually glandular; tree
         50 to 80 ft. high. (=E.=)

        =E.= Young leaves green above and glaucous beneath            3.

        =E.= Young leaves ashy gray or silvery white on both sides    4.

    =A.= Small trees or almost shrubs, under 18 ft. high; bark of
      trunk rather smooth. (=F.=)

      =F.= Leaves ovate rather than lanceolate, sometimes truncate
        or even cordate at base. (=G.=)

        =G.= Leaves quite broad, shining on both sides. (=H.=)

          =H.= Leaves bright green; twigs polished green              6.

          =H.= Leaves very dark green, strongly fragrant when
            bruised                                                   7.

        =G.= Leaves pale-downy beneath, often cordate at base         8.

      =F.= Leaves usually wider near the acute or acuminate tip,
        glaucous beneath. (=I.=)

        =I.= Branches very twiggy; leaves often opposite; twigs
          olive-color or reddish                                      9.

        =I.= Branches not very twiggy; leaves all alternate      11, 12.

      =F.= Leaves very long and slender, almost linear               14.

[Illustration: S. nìgra]

1. =Sàlix nìgra=, Marsh. (BLACK WILLOW.) Leaves narrowly lanceolate,
tapering at the ends, serrate, smooth except on the petiole and midrib,
green on both sides; stipules small (large in var. _falcata_), dentate,
dropping early. Branches very brittle at base. A small tree, 15 to 35
ft. high, with rough black bark. Common along streams, southward, but
rare in the northern range of States.

[Illustration: S. amygdaloìdes.]

2. =Sàlix amygdaloìdes=, Anderson. (WESTERN BLACK WILLOW.) Leaves 2 to 4
in. long, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, attenuate-cuspidate, pale or
glaucous beneath, with long slender petioles; stipules minute and soon
falling. A small tree, 10 to 40 ft. high, from central New York
westward. It is the common Black Willow of the streams of Ohio to

[Illustration: S. frágilis.]

3. =Sàlix frágilis=, L. (BRITTLE WILLOW. CRACK-WILLOW.) Leaves
lanceolate, taper-pointed, smooth, glaucous beneath (slightly silky when
young), serrate throughout; stipules half heart-shaped, usually large.
Branches smooth and polished, very brittle at base. A tall (50 to 80 ft.
high) handsome Willow, with a bushy head and salmon-colored wood;
cultivated from Europe for basket-work, and extensively naturalized.
Many varieties, hybrids between this species and the next, are very
common. Among them may be mentioned the following:

Var. _decipiens_, with dark-brown buds; var. _Russelliana_, with more
slender, brighter, and more sharply serrate leaves, the annual shoots
silky-downy toward autumn; var. _viridis_, with tough, pendulous
branchlets, and firmer, bright green leaves.

[Illustration: S. álba.]

4. =Sàlix álba=, L. (WHITE WILLOW.) Leaves lanceolate or
elliptical-lanceolate, pointed, serrate, covered more or less with white
silky hairs, especially beneath; var. _cærulea_ has nearly smooth
leaves, at maturity of a bluish tint; stipules small and quite early
deciduous. Catkins of flowers long and loose, on a peduncle; stamens
usually 2; stigmas nearly sessile, thick, and recurved. May, June. A
quite large tree, 50 to 80 ft. high, with thick, rough bark, usually
having yellow twigs (var. _vitellina_); introduced from Europe and now
quite common throughout. Branches very brittle at base.

[Illustration: S. Babylónica.]

5. =Sàlix Babylónica=, Tourn. (WEEPING WILLOW.) Leaves
linear-lanceolate, acuminate, finely serrate, smooth, glaucous beneath;
stipules small, roundish, oblique, acuminate; branches pendulous.

A large, gracefully drooping tree, so extensively cultivated for
ornament as to seem native; from Europe.

Var. _annularis_ (Ring-leaved Willow. Curled Willow) has the leaves
coiled round into rings and spirals.

[Illustration: S. lùcida.]

6. =Sàlix lùcida=, Mühl. (SHINING OR AMERICAN BAY WILLOW.) Leaves
thickish, ovate-lanceolate, with a rounded base, a very long acuminate
point, and a glandular petiole; when mature, smooth and shining on both
sides. Twigs rather stout, polished, and dark green. Bark of trunk
smooth. Fruiting catkins quite persistent. A beautiful small tree or
shrub, 6 to 15 ft. high, of bushy form. New Jersey, north and westward.

[Illustration: S. pentándra.]

7. =Sàlix pentándra, L.= (LAUREL-LEAVED OR BAY WILLOW.) Leaves ovate,
taper-pointed, crenate, glandular, smooth, glossy, bright deep green on
both sides, strongly fragrant when bruised. Catkins large, fragrant,
golden-yellow, with 4 to 12 (commonly 5) stamens to each flower. June,
after the leaves are expanded. A small handsome tree, 15 to 20 ft. high,
from Europe, which should be more extensively cultivated in damp soils,
as its form, flowers, and foliage are all beautiful.

[Illustration: S. cordàta. Var. rufescens.]

8. =Sàlix cordàta, Mühl.= (HEART-LEAVED WILLOW.) Leaves lanceolate or
ovate-lanceolate, heart-shaped, truncate or sometimes acute at base,
taper-pointed, sharply serrate, smooth above, pale-downy beneath;
stipules often large, kidney-shaped, and toothed, sometimes small and
entire. Catkins appearing with or before the leaves along the sides of
the stem; stamens 2; scales dark or black, hairy, persistent. Shrub or
small tree, 8 to 20 ft. high, very common in low and wet places. Many
named varieties are found.

Var. _rigida_ has large, thick, coarse-toothed leaves; vars.
_myricoides_ and _angustata_ have narrower, finely serrate leaves,
almost or fully acute at base.

[Illustration: S. purpùrea.]

9. =Sàlix purpùrea, L.= (PURPLE WILLOW.) Leaves lanceolate, pointed,
partly opposite, minutely serrate, smooth. Twigs olive-color or
reddish. Catkins cylindric, with leafy bracts at base, and apparently 1
stamen to each flower (the filaments are united). A shrub or small tree,
3 to 12 ft. high; from Europe. In low ground; often cultivated for the
twigs, which are used in basket-making.

[Illustration: S. càprea.]

10. =Sàlix càprea, L.= (GOAT-WILLOW.) Leaves large, roundish, ovate,
pointed, serrate, wavy, deep green above, pale and downy with soft,
white-cottony hairs beneath; stipules somewhat crescent-shaped. Catkins
large, oval, numerous, almost sessile, blooming much before the leaves
appear, and of a showy yellow color. A moderate-sized tree, 15 to 30 ft.
high, with spreading, brown or purplish branches. Frequent in
cultivation; from Europe; growing well in dry places. The Goat-willow is
the one generally used for the stock of the artificial umbrella-formed
"Kilmarnock Willow." The growth of shoots from these stocks is rendering
the Goat-willow quite common.

[Illustration: S. rostràta.]

11. =Sàlix rostràta, Richards.= (BEAKED WILLOW.) Leaves oblong to
obovate-lanceolate, acute, usually obscurely toothed, sometimes crenate
or serrate, downy above, prominently veined, soft-hairy and somewhat
glaucous beneath. Twigs downy. Catkins appearing with the leaves.
Fruit-capsules tapering to a long slender beak, pedicels long and
slender. A small, tree-shaped shrub, 4 to 15 ft. high, common in both
moist and dry ground. New England, west and north.

[Illustration: S. díscolor.]

12. =Sàlix díscolor, Mühl.= (GLAUCOUS OR BOG WILLOW.) Leaves lanceolate
or ovate-lanceolate, acute, remotely serrate at the base, finely serrate
along the middle, and almost entire near the tip; smooth and bright
green above, soon smooth and somewhat glaucous beneath; stipules, on the
vigorous shoots, equaling the petiole, more frequently small and
inconspicuous. Catkins sessile, 1 in. long, appearing before the leaves
in the spring; scales dark red or brown, becoming black, covered with
long glossy hairs. Fruit in catkins, 2½ in. long, the capsules very
hairy, with short but distinct style. A very variable species, common in
low meadows and on river-banks; usually a shrub, but occasionally 15 ft.

[Illustration: S. cinèrea.]

13. =Sàlix cinèrea, L.= (GRAY OR ASH-COLORED WILLOW.) Leaves
obovate-lanceolate, entire to serrate; glaucous-downy and reticulated
with veins beneath; stipules half heart-shaped, serrate. Flowers yellow;
ovary silky, on a stalk half as long as the bracts. A shrub to
middle-sized tree, 10 to 30 ft. high, with an erect trunk; occasionally
cultivated; from Europe.

[Illustration: S. longifòlia.]

14. =Sàlix longifòlia=, Mühl. (LONG-LEAVED WILLOW.) Leaves
linear-lanceolate, very long, tapering at each end, nearly sessile,
remotely notched with projecting teeth, clothed with gray hairs when
young; stipules small, lanceolate, toothed. Branches brittle at base. A
shrub or small tree, 2 to 20 ft. high, common, especially westward,
along river-banks.


Trees with alternate, deciduous, broad-based leaves. Flowers in long and
drooping catkins, appearing before the leaves are expanded in the
spring. Fruit small, dry pods in catkins, having seeds, coated with
cottony down, which early in the season escape and float in the wind. On
this account the trees are called Cottonwoods in the West. Trees with
light-colored, rather soft wood.

  * Leaves always white-hairy underneath; more or less deeply
      lobed; buds not gummy                                           1.

  * Leaves smooth beneath, at least when old. (=A.=)

    =A.= Leafstalk decidedly flattened laterally. (=B.=)

      =B.= Buds not covered with sticky gum. (=C.=)

        =C.= Leaves roundish heart-shaped; bark on trunk
           greenish-white,                                            2.

        =C.= Leaves large, ovate, with large, irregular,
           sinuate teeth,                                             3.

      =B.= Buds covered with aromatic, glutinous resin. (=D.=)

        =D.= Tree tall, spire-shaped,                                 5.

        =D.= Not very spire-shaped; young twigs sharply angled or
            winged, leaves 6 to 10 in. long, broadly deltoid,
            serrate with incurved teeth,                              6.

        =D.= Not spire-shaped; young twigs not angular,               7.

    =A.= Leafstalk not decidedly flattened; leaf-margin crenate.

      =E.= Buds not glutinous; leaves white-woolly beneath when
           young,                                                     4.

      =E.= Buds very glutinous; leaves large, shining green on both
           sides,                                                     8.

[Illustration: P. álba.]

1. =Pópulus álba=, L. (WHITE POPLAR OR ABELE TREE.) Leaves roundish,
slightly heart-shaped, wavy toothed or lobed, soon green above, very
white-cottony beneath even when old; buds without the sticky coating
common in the genus. Branches very white with down when young. Root
creeping and producing numerous suckers. A large tree, 50 to 80 ft.
high, of rapid growth, often cultivated; from Europe. Leaves and
branches very variable, forming several named varieties in the
catalogues of the nurseries.

[Illustration: P. tremuloìdes.]

2. =Pópulus tremuloìdes=, Michx. (QUAKING-ASP. AMERICAN ASPEN.) Leaves
roundish heart-shaped, with a short sharp point, and small, quite
regular teeth; downy when young, but soon smooth on both sides; margins
downy. Leafstalk long, slender, compressed, causing the leaves to
tremble continually in the slightest breeze. Leaf with 2 glands at the
base on the upper surface; buds varnished. A medium-sized tree, 30 to 60
ft. high; bark greenish-white outside, yellow within, quite brittle.
Common both in forests and in cultivation.

[Illustration: P. grandidentàta.]

3. =Pópulus grandidentàta=, Michx. (LARGE-TOOTHED ASPEN.) Leaves large,
3 to 5 in. long, roundish-ovate, with large, irregular, sinuate teeth;
and when young densely covered with white, silky wool, but soon becoming
smooth on both sides; leaf, when young, reddish-yellow; petiole
compressed. A large tree, 60 to 80 ft. high, with rather smoothish gray
bark. Woods; common northward, rare southward, except in the
Alleghanies. Wood soft and extensively used for paper-making.

[Illustration: P. heterophýlla.]

4. =Pópulus heterophýlla=, L. (DOWNY-LEAVED POPLAR.) Leaves heart-shaped
or roundish-ovate with small, obtuse, incurved teeth; white-woolly when
young, but soon becoming smooth on both sides except on the veins
beneath. Leafstalk slightly compressed. Shoots round, tomentose. Buds
not glutinous. A large tree, 70 to 80 ft. high, not very common; found
from western New England to Illinois, and southward.

[Illustration: P. dilatàta.]

5. =Pópulus dilatàta=, L. (LOMBARDY POPLAR.) Leaves deltoid, wider than
long, crenulated all round, both sides smooth from the first; leafstalk
compressed; buds glutinous. A tall tree, 80 to 120 ft. high; spire-like,
of rapid growth, with all the branches erect; the trunk twisted and
deeply furrowed. Frequently planted a century ago, but now quite rare in
the eastern United States. From Europe. It is thought to be a variety of
Populus nigra (No. 7).

[Illustration: P. monilífera.]

6. =Pópulus monilífera=, Ait. (COTTONWOOD. CAROLINA POPLAR.
NECKLACE-POPLAR.) Leaves large, broadly heart-shaped or deltoid, serrate
with cartilaginous, incurved, slightly hairy teeth. The rapid-growing
young twigs very angular and bearing very large (6 to 9 in. long)
leaves. A very large (80 to 100 ft. high) tree, common in the
Mississippi valley, but found in western New England and often planted.

[Illustration: P. nìgra.]

7. =Pópulus nìgra=, L. (BLACK POPLAR.) Leaves rather large, deltoid,
pointed, serrate with glandular teeth, smooth on both sides even when
young. Leafstalk somewhat compressed. Buds very sticky. A very variable,
large (50 to 80 ft. high), rapidly growing tree with spreading branches.
Occasionally planted. From Europe.

[Illustration: P. balsamífera.]

8. =Pópulus balsamífera=, L. (BALSAM-POPLAR. TACAMAHAC. BALM OF GILEAD.)
Leaves very large, ovate, gradually acuminate, sometimes heart-shaped,
finely serrate, smooth, bright green and shining on both sides;
leafstalk nearly round; leaves in spring rich yellow. Branches ridged
below the leaves; buds large and covered with very fragrant resin. A
medium-sized tree, 40 to 70 ft. high, pyramidal in form. Wild in the
North and often cultivated.

Var. _candicans_, or Balm of Gilead, has larger and more or less
heart-shaped leaves (the larger figure in the cut).


Plants in which the pistil is represented by an open scale instead of a
body with a closed ovary, as in Class I.


As far as the number of species is concerned, this is the largest order
of trees and shrubs of temperate and cold-temperate regions. The order
is of the greatest importance, both on account of the valuable timber it
furnishes and for its resinous secretions, turpentine and resin.


Leaves needle-shaped, 1 to 15 in. long, almost cylindric, 2, 3, or 5
together in clusters, with a sheath, more or less persistent, at the
base. Flowers monoecious, both staminate and pistillate in catkins,
usually insignificant and unnoticeable. In spring. Fruit a cone,
persistent and formed of more or less woody, overlapping scales.

  * Leaves usually 5 together in bundles. (=A.=)

    =A.= Leaves 6 in. or more long, glaucous green and very
       pendulous                                                      1.

    =A.= Leaves under 4 in. long. (=B.=)

      =B.= Cones over 10 in. long, on stalks 3 in. long,
         pendulous when ripe                                          2.

      =B.= Cones 4 to 10 in. long. (=C.=)

        =C.= Scales of cones thin, unarmed                         3, 4.

        =C.= Scales of cones thick and woody, obtuse, 1 in. broad     5.

      =B.= Cones under 4 in. long; scales slightly hooked but
         pointless                                                    6.

  * Leaves usually in threes, rarely in twos; scales of cones with
      spines or prickles. (=D.=)

    =D.= Scales of cones with short, rigid, straight spines;
   leaves 6 to 10 in. long                                            7.

    =D.= Scales with sharp, bent prickles. (=E.=)

      =E.= Leaves over 5 in. long, sometimes 15 in. long           8, 9.

      =E.= Leaves 3 to 5 in. long, rigid and flattened, from short
         sheaths,                                                    10.

  * Leaves usually in twos; cones rarely over 3 in. long. (=F.=)

    =F.= Leaves over 3 in. long. (=G.=)

      =G.= Cone-scales with dull spines                              11.

      =G.= With small or minute, persistent prickles         12, 13, 14.

      =G.= With no prickles, or small ones, early deciduous      15, 16.

    =F.= Leaves 3 in. or less long. (=H.=)

      =H.= Cone-scales with straight or slightly curved, rigid
         spines                                                      17.

      =H.= Cone-scales with stout, recurved spines               18, 19.

      =H.= Cone-scales with small prickles which are early deciduous 20.

      =H.= Cone-scales without spines or prickles                21, 22.

[Illustration: P. excélsa.]

1. =Pìnus excélsa=, Wallich. (BHOTAN PINE.) Leaves in fives, from short,
fugacious, overlapping, membranaceous sheaths, 6 to 7 in. long, very
slender, of a glaucous-green color, and very pendulous. Cones 6 to 9 in.
long, and 2 in. in diameter, drooping and clustered, with broad, thick,
wedge-shaped scales. A large beautiful tree from southern Asia, much
subject to blight when planted in this country. Owing to its peculiar
drooping branches it has been called the Weeping Fir.

[Illustration: P. Lambertiàna.]

2. =Pìnus Lambertiàna=, Douglas. (LAMBERT'S or SUGAR PINE.) Leaves in
fives, 3 to 4 in. long, from short, deciduous sheaths. Cones 12 to 18
in. long and 3 to 4 in. in diameter, gradually tapering to a point, on
stalks 3 in. long, brown and pendulous when ripe, without resin; seeds
large, oval, nearly 1 in. long, edible. A very large tree (100 to 300
ft. high in California and northward), and seemingly hardy and well
worth cultivation in the East. Wood white and soft like that of the
White Pine.

[Illustration: P. Stróbus.]

3. =Pìnus Stróbus=, L. (WHITE PINE. WEYMOUTH PINE.) Leaves in fives, 3
to 4 in. long, from a loose, deciduous sheath; slender, soft, and
whitish on the under side. Cones 4 to 6 in. long, cylindric, usually
curved, with smooth, thin, unarmed scales. Tall (100 to 150 ft. high),
very useful tree, of white, soft wood nearly free from resin and more
extensively used for lumber than any other American tree. Has been
common throughout, but is getting scarce on account of its consumption
for lumber.

[Illustration: P. montícola.]

4. =Pìnus montícola=, Dougl. (MOUNTAIN-PINE.) Leaves in fives, 3 to 4
in. long, from short, overlapping, very deciduous sheaths; smooth,
glaucous green. Cones 7 in. long and 1¾ in. in diameter, cylindric,
smooth, obtuse, short-peduncled, resinous, with loosely overlapping,
pointless scales. A large tree, 60 to 80 ft. high, resembling the White
Pine, and often considered a variety of it, but the foliage is denser;
Pacific coast.

[Illustration: P. fléxilis.]

5. =Pìnus fléxilis=, James. (WESTERN WHITE PINE.) Leaves 2 to 3 in.
long, rigid, entire, acute, densely crowded, sharp-pointed, of a rich
dark green color, 5 together in lanceolate, deciduous sheaths. Cones 4
to 6 in. long and half as wide, subcylindric, tapering to the end,
semipendulous, clustered. Scales thick, woody, obtuse, loose, 1¼ in.
broad, yellowish brown. Seeds rather large, with rigid margins instead
of wings. A handsome hardy tree from the Pacific Highlands, occasionally
cultivated. It resembles the eastern White Pine, but is more compact and
of a darker color.

[Illustration: P. Cémbra.]

6. =Pìnus Cémbra=, L. (CEMBRA PINE. SWISS STONE-PINE.) Leaves 3 to 4 in.
long, from a medium-sized deciduous sheath; triangular, rigid, slender,
straight, crowded, dark green with a glaucous surface; 5 together. Cones
2½ in. by 2 in., ovate, erect, with obtuse, slightly hooked, but
pointless scales. Seeds as large as peas and destitute of wings. A
slow-growing, cultivated tree, 40 to 80 ft. high. Forms a regular cone;
branches to the ground; Europe; hardy throughout.

[Illustration: P. Tæda.]

7. =Pìnus Tæda=, L. (LOBLOLLY OR OLD-FIELD PINE.) Leaves in twos and
threes, 6 to 10 in. long, with elongated, close sheaths; slender and of
a light green color. Cones in pairs or solitary, lateral, 3 to 4 in.
long, oblong, conical; the scales having short, rigid, straight spines.
A large tree, 50 to 130 ft. high, wild from Delaware, south and west, in
swamps and old fields.

[Illustration: P. ponderòsa.]

8. =Pìnus ponderòsa=, Dougl. (WESTERN YELLOW OR HEAVY-WOODED PINE.)
Leaves in threes, 5 to 10 in. long, from short sheaths; broad, coarse,
twisted, flexible, of a deep green color; branchlets thick, reddish
brown. Cones 3 to 4 in. long, ovate, reflexed, clustered on short stems.
Scales long, flattened, with small, sharp, recurved prickles. A large
Pacific coast species, 100 to 300 ft. high, with rather coarse-grained,
hard and heavy, whitish wood, and thick, deeply furrowed bark; beginning
to be cultivated east.

[Illustration: P. paltústris.]

9. =Pìnus palústris=, Mill. (LONG-LEAVED OR SOUTHERN YELLOW PINE.)
Leaves 3 together in bundles, 10 to 15 in. long, from a long, lacerated,
light-colored sheath, of a bright green color, and crowded in dense
clusters at the ends of the branches. Cones 6 to 10 in. long, usually
cylindric, of a beautiful brown color, with thick scales, armed with
very small, slightly recurved prickles. A rather tall pine, 75 ft. high,
wild in the Southern States, and cultivated as far north as New Jersey,
in sheltered situations.

[Illustration: P. rígida.]

10. =Pìnus rígida=, Mill. (PITCH-PINE.) Leaves in threes, 3 to 5 in.
long, from short sheaths; rigid and flattened. Cones ovate, 1 in. to
nearly 4 in. long, sometimes in clusters; scales with a short, recurved
prickle. A medium-sized tree, 40 to 70 ft. high, with hard,
coarse-grained, very resinous wood; found east of the Alleghanies
throughout; more abundant in swamps.

[Illustration: P. Austrìaca.]

11. =Pìnus Austrìaca=, Höss. (AUSTRIAN OR BLACK PINE.) Leaves long, 3 to
5 in., rigid, slender, incurved, sharply mucronate, of a dark green
color; from short sheaths; 2 together. Cones 2½ to 3 in. long, regularly
conical, slightly recurved, of a light brown color; scales smooth,
shining, with a dull spine in the center. A large cultivated tree, 60 to
80 ft. high, hardy throughout. Europe.

[Illustration: P. Larício.]

12. =Pìnus Larício=, Poir. (CORSICAN PINE.) Leaves 4 to 6 in. long,
slender, very wavy, dark green; 2 together in a sheath. Cones 2 to 3 in.
long, conical, somewhat curved, often in pairs. Scales with very small
prickles. Seeds rather large with broad wings. A tall, open, pyramidal,
rapid-growing tree, 60 to 100 ft. high, with the branches in regular
whorls, spreading and very resinous. Often cultivated. Europe.

[Illustration: P. Massoniàna.]

13. =Pìnus Massoniàna=, Sieb. (MASSON'S PINE.) Leaves in twos, 4 to 6
in. long, rather stiff, concave on one side and convex on the other,
twisted but not curved; sharp-pointed, of a fresh, bright green color.
Cones 1 to 1½ in. long, conical, incurved, solitary but numerous, with
closely overlapping scales terminating in slender prickles. An upright,
compact tree, 40 to 50 ft. high, from Japan; sometimes cultivated. Hardy
at Boston.

[Illustration: P. mìtis.]

14. =Pìnus mìtis=, Michx. (COMMON YELLOW PINE.) Leaves sometimes in
threes, usually in twos, from long sheaths; slender, 3 to 5 in. long,
dark green, rather soft. Cones ovate to oblong-conical, hardly 2 in.
long; the scales with minute weak prickles. A large tree with an erect
trunk, 50 to 100 ft. high. Staten Island, south and west. The western
form has more rigid leaves, and more spiny cones.

[Illustration: P. densiflòra.]

15. =Pìnus densiflòra=, Siebold. (JAPAN PINE.) Leaves about 4 in. long,
from short, fringed, scale-like sheaths; rigid, convex above, concave
beneath and somewhat serrulate on the margin, very smooth, sharp-pointed
and crowded, shining green and somewhat glaucous; falling when one to
two years old; 2 in a sheath. Cones abundant; 1½ in. long,
short-peduncled, conical, obtuse, terminal, somewhat pendent; scales
linear-oblong, woody, with a small prickle which soon falls off. A
beautiful small tree, 30 to 40 ft. high; from Japan; hardy throughout.

[Illustration: P. resinòsa.]

16. =Pìnus resinòsa=, Ait. (RED PINE.) Leaves 5 to 6 in. long, in twos,
from long sheaths; rigid, straight, dark green. Cones 2 in. long,
ovate-conical, smooth, their scales without points, slightly thickened,
usually growing in clusters. A tall tree, 60 to 80 ft. high, with rather
smooth, reddish bark and hard light-colored wood; branchlets also having
smooth reddish bark. Pennsylvania, north and west.

[Illustration: P. ínops.]

17. =Pìnus ínops=, Ait. (JERSEY OR SCRUB PINE.) Leaves short, 1½ to 3
in. long, rigid; usually 2, rarely 3, in a short sheath. Cones solitary,
2 to 3 in. long, ovate-oblong, curved, on a short stalk. Scales tipped
with a straight, rigid spine. A small tree, 15 to 30 ft. high, growing
wild in sections where the soil is poor and sandy; having straggling
flexible branches with rough, dark bark; New Jersey, south and west.
Rarely cultivated.

[Illustration: P. púngens.]

18. =Pinus púngens=, Michx. f. (TABLE-MOUNTAIN PINE.) Leaves in twos,
sometimes in threes, stout, short, 1¼ to 2½ in. long, crowded, bluish;
the sheath short (very short on old foliage). Cones 3 in. or more long,
hanging on for a long time; the scales armed with a stout, hooked spine,
¼ in. long. A rather small tree, 20 to 60 ft. high. New Jersey and south
westward, along the mountains.

[Illustration: P. sylvéstris.]

19. =Pìnus sylvéstris=, L. (SCOTCH PINE, wrongly called SCOTCH FIR.)
Leaves in twos, 1½ to 2½ in. long, from short, lacerated sheaths,
twisted, rigid, of a grayish or a glaucous-green color. Cones 2 to 3 in.
long, ovate-conical, of a grayish-brown color, ripening the second year,
the scales having 4-sided, recurved points. A large and very valuable
tree of central Europe. Many varieties are in cultivation in this
country. It forms the Red and Yellow Deal so extensively used for lumber
in Europe.

[Illustration: P. contórta.]

20. =Pìnus contórta=, Dougl. (TWISTED-BRANCHED PINE.) Leaves 2 in. long,
numerous, rigid, sharply mucronate, from a short, dark, overlapping
sheath; 2 to a sheath. Cones from 2 to 2½ in. long, ovate, smooth,
clustered. Scales furnished with a point which is soon shed. A small
cultivated tree, 30 to 40 ft. high, from the Pacific coast of the United
States. As it has an irregular shape, and crooked branches, it is not
often planted.

[Illustration: P. Banksiàna.]

21. =Pìnus Banksiàna=, Lambert. (GRAY OR NORTHERN SCRUB PINE.) Leaves in
twos, short, 1 in. long, oblique, divergent from a close sheath. Cones
lateral, conical, oblong, usually curved, 1½ to 2 in. long, the scales
thickened at the end and without points. A straggling shrub, sometimes a
low tree, found wild in the extreme Northern States.

[Illustration: P. édulis.]

[Illustration: P. monophýlla.]

22. =Pìnus édulis=, Engelm. (PIÑON OR NUT-PINE.) Leaves mostly in pairs,
rarely in threes, 1 to 1½ in. long, from short sheaths, light-colored,
rigid, curved or straightish, spreading; cones sessile, globose or
nearly so, 2 in. long; tips of scales thick, conical-truncate, no awns
or prickles; seeds large, nut-like, wingless, edible. A low,
round-topped tree, branching from near the base, 10 to 25 ft. high; from
the Rocky Mountains. A fine small pine; cultivated in the East. It needs
some protection at Boston. The figure shows the seed. =Pìnus
monophýlla=, Torr. and Frem., from the mountain regions farther west,
has its leaves in ones and twos; when in ones, round and very rigid;
when in pairs, flat on the inner side; leaves on the young shoots
bluish, glaucous green, or silvery. This is probably only a variety of
P. edulis. The seeds of both are so large and nutritious that they are
extensively used for food by the Indians.


Leaves evergreen, scattered (pointing in every direction),
needle-shaped, keeled above and below, thus making them somewhat
4-sided. Fertile catkins and cones terminal; cones maturing the first
year, pendulous; scales thin, without prickles, persistent, the cone
coming off the tree whole.

  * Leaves very short, usually ¼ to ½ in. long, obtuse             7, 8.

  * Leaves usually ½ in. or more long, acute. (=A.=)

    =A.= Cones over 3 in. long; cultivated. (=B.=)

      =B.= Leaves dark green; large tree, common                      3.

      =B.= Leaves bright or pale green                          4, 5, 6.

    =A.= Cones 2 in. or less long; large native trees              1, 2.

[Illustration: P. nìgra.]

1. =Pìcea nìgra=, Link. (BLACK OR DOUBLE SPRUCE.) Leaves about ½ in.
long, erect, stiff, somewhat 4-sided, very dark green or whitish-gray;
branchlets pubescent. Cones persistent, 1 to 1½ in. long, ovate or
ovate-oblong, changing from dark purple to dull reddish-brown; scales
very thin, roundish, with toothed or uneven edges. A conical-shaped
tree, 40 to 80 ft. high; wild in the North and along the Alleghanies;
often cultivated. Bark dark brown; branches horizontal; wood light

Var. _rubra_ has larger, darker leaves, and larger, brighter-colored

[Illustration: P. álba.]

2. =Pìcea álba=, Link. (WHITE OR SINGLE SPRUCE.) Leaves ½ to ¾ in. long,
rather slender, needle-shaped, sharp-pointed, incurved, pale- or
glaucous-green; branchlets smooth. Cones deciduous, 2 in. long,
oblong-cylindrical, with entire, thin-edged scales. Tree 25 to 100 ft.
high, of beautiful, compact, symmetrical growth when young, and such
light-colored foliage as to make it a fine species for cultivation.
Wild in the North, and cultivated throughout. There are varieties with
bluish-green (var. _cærulea_) and with golden (var. _aurea_) foliage in

[Illustration: P. excélsa.]

3. =Pìcea excélsa=, Link. (NORWAY SPRUCE.) Leaves ¾ to 1 in. long,
rigid, curved, dark green. Cones 5 to 7 in. long, and pendent at
maturity, with the scales slightly incurved. A large tree, 70 to 120 ft.
high, of vigorous growth, with numerous, stout, drooping branches;
abundant in cultivation. A score of named varieties are sold at the
nurseries, some quite dwarf, others so very irregular in shape as to be

[Illustration: P. políta.]

4. =Pìcea políta=, Carr. (TIGER'S-TAIL SPRUCE.) Leaves ½ to ¾ in. long,
strong, rigid, sharp-pointed, somewhat curved, glabrous, bright green,
on stout branches with prominent buds. Leaves persistent for 7 years;
not 2-ranked. Cones 4 to 5 in. long, spindle-shaped elliptical, rounded
at the ends. Tree of slow growth, with horizontal, yellowish-barked
branches. As it is a tree of recent introduction (1865) from Japan,
there are no large specimens. Hardy at Boston.

[Illustration: P. púngens.]

5. =Pìcea púngens=, Eng. (SILVER SPRUCE.) Leaves ½ to 1 in. long, broad,
rigid, stout, sharply acute, usually curved, pale green above,
silvery-glaucous beneath, on smooth and shining branchlets. Cones very
abundant, 3 to 5 in. long, cylindric, with elongated, undulated, retuse
scales. A strictly conical tree with spreading branches and thick,
smooth, gray bark. Sometimes cultivated; from the Rocky Mountains.

[Illustration: P. Morínda.]

6. =Pìcea Morínda=, Link. (HIMALAYAN SPRUCE.) Leaves 1 to 2 in. long,
very sharply acute, pale green color, spreading, 4-sided, straight,
rigid, slightly glaucous beneath; branches horizontal; branchlets
remotely verticillate, numerous, drooping, with light-colored bark.
Cones 6 to 7 in. long, ovate-oblong; scales light brown, oblong, entire,
smooth, loosely imbricated. A tall tree, cultivated from eastern Asia
and not hardy north of Washington except in sheltered positions.

[Illustration: P. Alcóquina.]

7. =Pìcea Alcóquina=, Lindl. (ALCOCK'S SPRUCE.) Leaves ¼ to ¾ in. long,
crowded, somewhat 4-sided, flattish, recurved, obtusely rounded at tip,
deep green above, whitish or yellowish below. Cones 2 to 3 in. long, 1
in. in diameter, reddish fawn-color, with very persistent scales; scales
wedge-shaped at base, rounded at tip. A large tree from Japan; fully
hardy as far north as Mass.

[Illustration: P. orientàlis.]

8. =Pìcea orientàlis=, L. (EASTERN OR ORIENTAL SPRUCE.) Leaves very
short, ½ in. long, 4-sided, rigid, stout, rather obtuse, dark shining
green, entirely surrounding the branches. Cones 2½ to 3 in. long,
cylindrical, with soft, thin, loose, rounded scales, uneven on the
edges. A beautiful, conical, slow-growing, compact tree, reaching the
height of 75 ft.; often cultivated; from the Black Sea. Hardy.


Leaves evergreen, scattered, flat, narrowed to a green petiole,
appearing 2-ranked by the direction they take, whitened beneath. Fertile
catkins and cones on the end of last year's branchlets. Cones pendulous,
maturing the first year; scales thin, persistent.

[Illustration: T. Canadénsis.]

1. =Tsùga Canadénsis=, Carr. (COMMON HEMLOCK.) Leaves short-petioled,
linear, ½ in. long, obtuse, dark green above and white beneath; the
young leaves in the spring a very light green. Cones oval, ½ to ¾ in.
long, pendent, of few (20 to 40) scales. A large, very beautiful tree,
50 to 80 ft. high, abundant in rocky woods, and cultivated throughout;
spray light and delicate.

[Illustration: T. Caroliniàna.]

2. =Tsùga Caroliniàna=, Engelm. (MOUNTAIN-HEMLOCK.) This is similar to
the last; its leaves are larger, glossier, more crowded; its cones are
larger, and have wider and more spreading scales; the tree is smaller,
rarely growing 40 ft. high. Wild, but scarce, in the higher Alleghanies,
south; beginning to be cultivated north, and probably hardy throughout.

[Illustration: T. Siebòldii.]

3. =Tsùga Siebòldii.= (JAPAN HEMLOCK.) Leaves ½ to ¾ in. long, linear,
obtuse to notched at the tip, smooth, thick, dark green above, with two
white lines below. Cones scarcely 1 in. long, elliptical, solitary,
terminal, obtuse, quite persistent; scales pale brown. A beautiful small
tree, 20 to 30 ft. high, with an erect trunk, dark-brown bark, and
numerous, pale, slender branchlets. Introduced from Japan, and probably
hardy throughout.


Leaves evergreen, flat, scattered, generally whitened beneath, appearing
somewhat 2-ranked by the directions they take. Fertile catkins and cones
erect on the upper side of the spreading branches. Cones ripening the
first year; their scales thin and smooth, and the bracts generally
exserted; scales and bracts breaking off at maturity and falling away,
leaving the axis on the tree. A great number of species and varieties
have been planted in this country, but few if any besides those here
given do at all well in our dry and hot climate.

  * Cones 6 to 8 in. long; leaves blunt at tip. (=A.=)

    =A.= Leaves over an inch long                                10, 11.

    =A.= Leaves an inch or less long                                 12.

  * Cones 3½ to 6 in. long. (=B.=)

    =B.= Leaves 2 in. or more long, 2-ranked                          9.

    =B.= Leaves 1 in. or less long. (=C.=)

      =C.= Leaves acute at tip                                     7, 8.

      =C.= Leaves blunt or notched at tip. (=D.=)

        =D.= Two-ranked                                               4.

        =D.= Not 2-ranked                                             3.

  * Cones 1 to 3½ in. long. (=E.=)

    =E.= Leaves an inch or more long                               5, 6.

    =E.= Leaves less than an inch long                             1, 2.

[Illustration: A. balsàmea.]

1. =Àbies balsàmea=, Mill. (COMMON BALSAM-FIR.) Leaves narrow, linear, ½
to ¾ in. long, and much crowded, silvery beneath; those on the
horizontal branches spreading into 2 ranks. Bark yielding Canada balsam
from blisters. Cones erect, on spreading branches, 2 to 4 in. long and 1
in. thick, cylindric, violet-colored, with mucronate-pointed bracts
extending beyond the scales and not reflexed. Wild in cold, wet grounds;
20 to 45 ft. high, with numerous horizontal branches. Has been
cultivated quite extensively, although there are better Firs for
ornamental purposes.

[Illustration: A. Fràseri.]

2. =Àbies Fràseri=, Lindl. (FRASER'S OR SOUTHERN BALSAM-FIR.) Leaves ½
to ¾ in. long, somewhat 2-ranked, linear, flattened, obtuse, emarginate,
whitish beneath, the lower ones curved and the upper ones erect. Cones
oblong, 1 to 2 in. long, with sharp-pointed bracts half exserted and
reflexed. A rare, small tree, 30 to 40 ft. high, growing wild in the
mountains, from Virginia south. A hardy tree and handsome when young.

[Illustration: A. Nordmanniàna.]

3. =Àbies Nordmanniàna=, Link. (NORDMANN'S SILVER FIR.) Leaves very
numerous, crowded, broad, linear, blunt or erose-dentate at the ends,
somewhat curved, of unequal length, 1 in. or less long, deep green above
and whitened beneath. Cones large, 5 in. long, ovate, erect, with very
obtuse scales; bracts exserted and recurved. A beautiful large tree, 50
to 80 ft. high, occasionally cultivated; with numerous horizontal
branches and smooth bark.

[Illustration: A. fírma.]

4. =Àbies fírma=, S. and Z. (JAPAN SILVER FIR.) Leaves ¾ to 1 in. long,
very closely 2-ranked, slightly twisted, linear, somewhat notched at the
end, smooth and dark above, somewhat silvery below. Cones 3 to 4½ in.
long, 1 to 1½ in. in diameter, straight, cylindric, with broad, downy,
leathery, crenulated scales; bracts exserted, with acute, slightly
recurved points. A beautiful tall tree with somewhat the habit of the
common Silver Fir; recently introduced from Japan, and hardy as far
north as central New York.

[Illustration: A. grándis.]

5. =Àbies grándis=, Lindl. (GREAT SILVER FIR.) Leaves 1 to 1½ in. long,
mostly curved, deep green above and silvery below, not 2-ranked. Cones 3
in. long and about 2 in. broad, obtuse, solitary, chestnut-brown in
color. A very large (200 to 300 ft. high), handsome tree from the
Pacific coast. Hardy at Washington; needs protection north.

[Illustration: A. Píchta.]

6. =Àbies Píchta=, Fisch. (SIBERIAN SILVER FIR.) Leaves 1 in. long,
linear, flat, obtuse, incurved at the apex, mostly scattered, very dark
green above, paler beneath. Cones 3 in. long, ovate, cylindric, obtuse,
with rounded, entire scales and hidden bracts. A small to medium-sized
cultivated tree, 25 to 50 ft. high, with horizontal, somewhat pendulous
branches and dense compact growth. It is peculiar in its very dark
foliage; very hardy.

[Illustration: A. Cephalónica.]

7. =Àbies Cephalónica=, Loud. (CEPHALONIAN SILVER FIR.) Leaves ¾ in.
long, very stiff, sharp-pointed, spreading broadly from the branches in
all directions, dark green above and white beneath; petioles very short,
dilated lengthwise at the point of attachment of the branches. Cones
very erect, 4 to 6 in. long, 1-1/3 in. in diameter; projecting scales
unequally toothed and reflexed at the point. A beautiful, cultivated
tree, 30 to 60 ft. high, with bright brown bark and resinous buds.

[Illustration: A. Pinsàpo.]

8. =Àbies Pinsàpo=, Bois. (PINSAPO FIR.) Leaves less than 1 in. long
(usually ½ in.), rigid, straight, scattered regularly around the
branches, and pointing in all directions; disk-like bases large;
branches in whorls, and branchlets very numerous. Cones 4 to 5 in. long,
oval, sessile; scales rounded, broad, entire; bracts short. A very
handsome tree from Spain, and reported hardy at the Arnold Arboretum.

[Illustration: A. cóncolor.]

9. =Àbies cóncolor=, Lindl. (WHITE FIR.) Leaves 2 to 3 in. long, mostly
obtuse, but on young trees often long-pointed, 2-ranked, not crowded on
the stem, pale green or silvery. Cones oblong-cylindric, 3 to 5 in.
long, 1½ in. in diameter; scales twice as broad as long; bracts short,
not projecting. A large tree, 75 to 150 ft. high; bark rough, grayish.
Native in the Rocky Mountains; hardy at the Arnold Arboretum,
Massachusetts, but needs some protection at St. Louis.

[Illustration: A. Cilícica.]

10. =Àbies Cilícica=, Carr. (CILICIAN SILVER FIR.) Leaves flat, linear,
1 to 1¾ in. long and 1/12 in. broad, somewhat 2-ranked but rather
irregularly scattered around the young shoots; shining dark green above
and whitish beneath. Cones 7 to 8 in. long, nearly 2 in. in diameter,
cylindric, obtuse, erect, with thin and entire scales, and short and
hidden bracts. A very conical tree, 50 ft. high, with branches in
whorls, and numerous, small, slender branchlets. Bark light gray;
recently cultivated from Asia.

[Illustration: A. nóbilis.]

11. =Àbies nóbilis=, Lindl. (NOBLE SILVER FIR.) Leaves 1 to 2 in. long,
linear, much curved, the base extending a short distance upward along
the branch, then spreading squarely from it, crowded, compressed, deep
green above, glaucous below; base of the leaf much less disk-like than
in most of the Firs; branches horizontal, spreading, numerous. Cones 6
to 7 in. long and nearly 2 in. in diameter, cylindric, sessile, with
large, entire, incurved scales; bracts large, exserted, reflexed,
spatulate, with terminal, awl-shaped points. A very large, beautiful
tree, from the Pacific coast, where it grows 200 ft. high. Hardy in
Pennsylvania, but needs some protection in Massachusetts.

[Illustration: A. pectinàta.]

12. =Àbies pectinàta=, DC. (EUROPEAN OR COMMON SILVER FIR.) Leaves ½ to
1 in. long, linear, obtuse, occasionally with an incurved point,
polished green above, two white lines below, rigid, straight; branches
horizontal and in whorls. Cones 6 to 8 in. long, cylindric, brown when
ripe; scales broad, thin, rounded; bracts long, exserted, with an acute
reflexed tip. Introduced from Europe. Good specimens can be found as far
north as Massachusetts, though our climate is not fitted to give them
either long life or perfect form.


Leaves deciduous, all foliaceous, the primary ones scattered, but most
of them in bundles of numerous leaves from lateral globular buds. Cones
usually small (in one cultivated species 3 in. long), ovoid, erect, with
smooth scales.

  * Cones less than 1 in. long, of not more than 25 scales            1.

  * Cones 1 to 2 in. long, of from 40 to 60 scales                 2, 3.

  * Cones 2 to 3 in. long, with thick, woody, somewhat divergent
      deciduous scales. (Pseudolarix)                                 4.

[Illustration: L. Americàna.]

Leaves less than 1 in. long, thread-like, linear, slender, light
bluish-green. Cones ½ to ¾ in. long, ovoid, of a reddish color. A tree
of large size, 50 to 100 ft. high, growing wild in all the northern
portion of our region, and frequent in cultivation, although not quite
so fine a tree as Larix Europæa.

[Illustration: L. Europæa.]

2. =Lárix Europæa=, DC. (EUROPEAN LARCH.) Leaves 1 in. long, linear,
obtuse, flat, soft, numerous, and bright green in color. Cones sometimes
more than 1 in. long, with oval, erect, very persistent scales. A
beautiful tree with horizontal branches and drooping branchlets;
abundant in cultivation.

Var. _pendula_ has long, pendent branches, and forms a very fine weeping

[Illustration: L. Leptolépsis.]

3. =Làrix Leptolépsis=, Gordon. (JAPAN LARCH.) Leaves 1 to 1½ in. long,
slender, pale green. Cones 1-1/3 in. long, and half as wide, of about 60
scales, reflexed at the margin, pale brown in color; bracts lanceolate,
acute, entire, thin, one half the length of the scales; seeds obovate,
compressed, with long, obtuse, thin wings. A small tree from northern
Japan, where it grows 40 ft. high. It is a handsome, erect-growing tree,
with slender, smooth, ash-colored branches, and rather rigid, spreading

[Illustration: L. Kæmpferi]

4. =Làrix Kæmpferi=, Lamb. (GOLDEN LARCH.) Leaves from 1 to 2½ in.
long, flat, linear, sword-shaped, somewhat soft, pale pea-green in the
spring, golden-yellow in the autumn. Cones 2 to 3 in. long, with
flattish, divergent scales which are very deciduous. A beautiful large
tree, over 100 ft. high, from China, which proves hardy as far north as
central New York. It is often placed in a new genus (Pseudolarix)
because of the deciduous scales to the cones.


Leaves linear, simple, evergreen, in large, alternate clusters. Cones
large, erect, solitary, with closely appressed scales; seeds adhering to
the base of their lacerated, membranous wings. Large, spreading-branched
trees from southern Asia and northern Africa. Occasionally successfully
grown from New York City southward.

  * Leaves 1 in. or less long                                      1, 2.

  * Leaves over 1 in. long, light glaucous-green                      3.

[Illustration: C. Libàni.]

1. =Cèdrus Libàni=, Barr. (CEDAR OF LEBANON.) Leaves ¾ to 1 in. long,
acuminate, needle-form, rigid, few in a fascicle, deep green in color.
Cones 3 to 5 in. long, oval, obtuse, very persistent, grayish-brown in
color; scales thin, truncate, slightly denticulate; seeds quite large
and irregular in form. A cultivated tree with wide-spreading, whorled,
horizontal branches covered with rough bark. Somewhat tender when young
in the Middle States, but forming a grand tree in proper positions.

[Illustration: C. Atlántica.]

2. =Cèdrus Atlántica=, Manetti. (MT. ATLAS, SILVER, OR AFRICAN CEDAR.)
Leaves ½ to ¾ in. long, mostly cylindric, straight, rigid, mucronate,
crowded, and of a beautiful glaucous-green color. Cones 2½ to 3 in.
long, ovate, glossy. This beautiful tree has been considered a silvery
variety of Cedrus Libani. They are about alike in hardiness and in
general form. Cedrus Atlantica has more slender branches, denser and
more silvery foliage. From Africa.

[Illustration: C. Deodàra.]

3. =Cèdrus Deodàra=, Lindl. (DEODAR OR INDIAN CEDAR.) Leaves 1 to 2 in.
in length, 3- or usually 4-sided, rigid, acute, very numerous (about 20
in a fascicle), bright green, covered with a glaucous bloom. Cones 4 to
5 in. long, ovate, obtuse, very resinous, rich purple when young, and
brown when old; the scales separating from the axis at maturity. Seeds
wedge-shaped, with large, bright brown wings. A beautiful pyramidal
tree, with graceful drooping branches and light silvery foliage. Not
hardy north of Philadelphia; from India.


[Illustration: A. imbricàta.]

=Araucària imbricàta=, Pavon. (CHILE PINE.) Leaves 1 to 2 in. long,
ovate-lanceolate, sessile, rigid, acute, very persistent, closely
overlapping, completely covering the thick stems, in whorls of 6 to 8,
deep glossy green; branches horizontal, in whorls of 6 to 8, with
ascending tips, covered with resinous, corky bark. Flowers dioecious;
cones (on only a portion of the trees) large, roundish, about 7 in. in
diameter, erect, solitary; seeds wedge-shaped, 1 to 2 in. long. A large,
peculiar, beautiful, conical tree, with much the appearance of a cactus;
not fitted to our climate, although a few specimens may be found growing
quite well near the coast south of Philadelphia. From the mountains of


A genus of but one species. The cone-scales are very small, but the
bracts are large, thick, and serrate.

[Illustration: C. Sinénsis.]

=Cunninghàmia Sinénsis=, R. Br. (CUNNINGHAMIA.) Leaves 1½ to 2½ in.
long, flat, rigid, numerous, alternate, somewhat serrulate; the leaf
gradually increases in width from the acute tip to the base, which is
decurrent on the stem and about 1/8 in. wide. Cones 1 to 1½ in. long,
nearly globular, erect, very persistent, mostly clustered, sessile; the
scale is a mere transverse ridge, but the bract is large and prominent,
like a triangular-hastate, dilated leaf. A very handsome tree, from
China, which does not succeed very well in this region except in
protected situations.


Cones elliptical or cylindrical, large, obtuse. Leaves evergreen,
somewhat flattened, arranged in distant whorls around the stems, and
spreading in all directions.

[Illustration: S. verticillàta.]

=Sciadópitys verticillàta=, S. and Z. (UMBRELLA-PINE.) Leaves 2 to 4 in.
long, 1/6 in. wide, linear, obtuse, smooth, persistent, sessile, entire,
in whorls of 30 to 40 at the nodes and extremity of the branches. Cones
3 by 1½ in. Scales wedge-shaped, corrugated, overlapping, coriaceous,
persistent; bracts adherent, broad, and smooth. A beautiful, tall,
conical, slow-growing tree, with the branches whorled. Recently
introduced; hardy in the New England States.


Leaves deciduous, spreading, in 2 ranks. Flowers monoecious on the
same branch, the staminate ones in spikes, and the pistillate ones in
pairs below. Cones globular; the scales peltate, angular, thick, firmly
closed till ripe, with 2 angular seeds under each.

[Illustration: T. dístichum.]

=Taxòdium dístichum=, Richard. (SOUTHERN OR BALD CYPRESS.) Leaves
deciduous, flat, linear, ½ to ¾ in. long, in 2 rows on the slender
branchlets, forming feather-like spray of a light green color. This
whole spray usually falls off in the autumn as though a single leaf.
Cones round, closed, hard, 1 in. in diameter. A fine, tall (100 to 125
ft. high), slender, spire-shaped tree with a large, spreading, rigid
trunk, 6 to 9 ft. thick, and peculiar conical excrescences (called
knees) growing up from the roots. Wild from Maryland south, and
cultivated and hardy in the Middle and many of the Northern States.

[Illustration: Var. pendulum.]

Var. _pendulum_, with horizontal branches and drooping branchlets, has
the leaves but slightly spreading from the stems, especially when young.
Very beautiful; hardy as far north as Massachusetts.


Flowers monoecious, terminal, solitary, catkins nearly globular. Seeds
winged, 3 to 5 under each scale.

[Illustration: S. gigántea.]

1. =Sequóia gigántea=, Torr. (BIG OR GREAT TREE OF CALIFORNIA.) Leaves
on the young shoots spreading, needle-shaped, sharp-pointed, scattered
spirally around the branchlets; finally scale-shaped, overlapping,
mostly appressed, with generally an acute apex, light green in color.
Cones oval, 2 to 3 in. long, of about 25 scales. The largest tree known,
300 ft. high, with a trunk nearly 30 ft. through, found in California
and occasionally planted east, though with no great success, as it is
almost certain to die after a few years.

[Illustration: S. sempérvirens.]

2. =Sequóia sempérvirens=, Endl. (REDWOOD.) Leaves from ½ to 1 in. long,
linear, smooth, 2-ranked, flat, acute, dark shining green, glaucous
beneath; branches numerous, horizontal, spreading. Cones 1 in. long,
roundish, solitary, terminal; scales numerous, thick, rough, furnished
with an obtuse point. A magnificent tree from California, where it grows
200 to 300 ft. high. In the East it can be kept alive but a few years
even at Washington.


Small, evergreen trees with flat, 2-ranked, fan-like spray and closely
overlapping, small, appressed leaves of two shapes on different
branchlets, one awl-shaped and acute, the other scale-like, usually
blunt and close to the branch. Fertile catkins of few, overlapping
scales fixed by the base; at maturity, dry and spreading. There are
scores of named varieties of Arbor-vitae sold by the nurserymen under 3
different generic names, Thuya, Biota, and Thuyopsis. There are but
slight differences in these groups, and they will in this work be placed
together under Thuya. Some that in popular language might well be called
Arbor-vitæ (the Retinosporas) will, because of the character of the
fruit, be included in the next genus.

  * Scales of the cones pointless, thin, straight. (Thuya)         1, 2.

  * Scales reflexed and wedge-shaped. (Thuyopsis)                     3.

  * Scales thick, with horn-like tips. (Biota)                        4.

[Illustration: T. occidentàlis.]

1. =Thùya occidentàlis=, L. (AMERICAN ARBOR-VITÆ. WHITE CEDAR.) Leaves
in 4 rows on the 2-edged branchlets, having a strong aromatic odor when
bruised. Cones oblong, 1/3 in. long, with few (6 to 10) pointless
scales. A small tree, 20 to 50 ft. high, or in cultivation 1 to 50 ft.
high, with pale, shreddy bark, and light, soft, but very durable wood.
Wild north, and extensively cultivated throughout under more than a
score of named varieties. Their names--_alba_, _aurea_, _glauca_,
_conica_, _globosa_, _pyramidalis_, _pendula_, etc.--will give some idea
of the variations in color, form, etc.

[Illustration: T. gigantèa.]

2. =Thùya gigantèa=, Nutt. (GIANT ARBOR-VITÆ.) Leaves scale-shaped,
somewhat 4-sided, closely overlapping, sharp-pointed, slightly
tuberculate on the back; cones more or less clustered and nearly ½ in.
long. A very large and graceful tree, 200 ft. high, with white, soft
wood; from the Pacific coast; introduced but not very successfully grown
in the Atlantic States.

[Illustration: T. dolabràta.]

3. =Thùya dolabràta=, L. (HATCHET-LEAVED ARBOR-VITÆ.) Leaves large,
sometimes ¼ in. long, very blunt, in 4 rows on the flattened spray.
Cones quite small, ovate, sessile, with jagged edges; scales reflexed
and wedge-form. A small conical tree with horizontal branches and
drooping branchlets; which, because of its large leaves (for an
Arbor-vitæ) and flexible branchlets, is quite unique and interesting. In
shaded and moist places it has done quite well as far north as New York.

[Illustration: T. orientàlis.]

4. =Thùya orientàlis=, L. (EASTERN OR CHINESE ARBOR-VITÆ.) Leaves small,
in 4 opposite rows, appressed, acute, on the numerous 2-edged
branchlets. Cones large, roundish, with thick leathery scales having
recurving, horn-like tips. Of this species there are as many varieties
sold as of number one, and nearly the same varietal names are used; but
it is not so good a species for general cultivation in this country.

Var. _flagelliformis_, Jacq. (Weeping Arbor-vitæ), has very slender,
elongated, weeping branches, curving gracefully to the ground. It is a
beautiful variety, often cultivated (a single stem is shown in the


Strong-scented, evergreen trees with very small, scale-like or somewhat
awl-shaped, closely appressed (except in some cultivated varieties),
overlapping leaves and 2-ranked branchlets, almost as in Thuya. Cones
globular, with peltate, valvate scales, firmly closed till ripe; the
scales thick and pointed at the center.

  * Native trees; leaves light glaucous-green.                        1.

  * Cultivated trees from Western America; leaves dark green.

    =A.= No tubercle on the backs of the leaves.                      2.

    =A.= Usually a tubercle on the back                               3.

  * Cultivated small trees and shrubs from Japan (called Retinospora) 4.

[Illustration: C. sphæroídea.]

1. =Chamæcýparis sphæroídea=, Spach. (WHITE CEDAR.) Leaves very small,
triangular, awl-shaped, regularly and closely appressed in 4 rows, of a
light glaucous-green color, often with a small gland on the back. Cones
very small, 1/3 in. in diameter, of about 6 scales, clustered. Tree 30
to 90 ft. high, wild in low grounds throughout; abundant in Middle
States. With reddish-white wood and slender, spreading and drooping
sprays; bark fibrous, shreddy; sometimes cultivated.

[Illustration: C. Nutkænsis.]

2. =Chamæcýparis Nutkænsis=, Lambert. (NOOTKA SOUND CYPRESS.) Leaves
only 1/8 in. long, sharp-pointed, and closely appressed, of a very
dark, rich green color; very slightly glaucous, without tubercles on the
back. Cones small, globular, solitary, with a fine, whitish bloom;
scales 4, rough and terminating in a sharp straight point. Tree 100 ft.
high in Alaska, and would make a fine cultivated tree for this region if
it could stand our hot, dry summers.

[Illustration: C. Lawsoniàna.]

3. =Chamæcýparis Lawsoniàna=, Park. (LAWSON'S CYPRESS.) Leaves small,
deep green, with a whitish margin when young, forming with the twigs
feathery-like, flat spray of a bluish-green color; leaves usually with a
gland on the back. Cones scarcely ¼ in. in diameter, of 8 to 10 scales.
A magnificent tree in California, and where it is hardy (in rather moist
soil, New York and south) it forms one of our best cultivated
evergreens. The leading shoot when young is pendulous.

[Illustration: R. obtùsa.]

4. =Chamæcýparis= (=Retinóspora=) =obtùsa=, Endl. (JAPANESE ARBOR-VITÆ.)
Leaves scale-formed, obtuse, closely appressed and very persistent.
Cones of 8 or 10 hard, light brown, wedge-shaped scales. Beautiful small
trees or generally shrubs (in this country), of a score of named
varieties of many colors and forms of plant and foliage.

There are probably a number of species of Japanese and Chinese
Chamæcyparis (Retinospora), but till their size, hardiness, and origin
have been more fully determined, it would be impossible to make an
entirely satisfactory list for such a work as this. Figures are given of
the common, so-called, species cultivated in this country; under each of
these, several varieties are sold by the nurserymen. The three twigs of
Retinospora squarrosa were all taken from a single branch; this shows
how impossible it is to determine the varieties or species; the twig at
the left represents the true _squarrosa_; the others, the partial return
to the original. Most of the forms shown in the figures have purple,
golden, silvery, and other colored varieties.

[Illustration: Retinospora filifera.]

[Illustration: Retinospora pisifera.]

[Illustration: Retinospora squarrosa.]

[Illustration: Retinospora Lycopoides.]

[Illustration: Retinospora plumosa.]


A genus of evergreens containing only the following species:

[Illustration: C. Japónica.]

=Cryptomèria Japónica=, Don. (JAPAN CEDAR.) Leaves about ½ in. long, not
flattened, but about equally 4-sided, curved and tapering quite
gradually from the tip to the large, sessile base; branches spreading,
mostly horizontal, with numerous branchlets. Cones ½ to ¾ in. in
diameter, globular, terminal, sessile, very persistent, with numerous,
loose, not overlapping scales. A beautiful tree from Japan, 50 to 100
ft. high. Not very successfully grown in our climate. North of
Washington, D. C., it needs a sheltered position, and should have a
deep, but not very rich soil.


Leaves evergreen, awl-shaped or scale-like, rigid, often of two shapes
on the same plant. Spray not 2-ranked. Flowers usually dioecious.
Fertile catkins rounded, of 3 to 6 fleshy, coalescent scales, forming in
fruit a bluish-black berry with a whitish bloom, but found on only a
portion of the plants.

  * Leaves rather long, ½ in., in whorls of threes                    1.

  * Leaves smaller; on the old branches mostly opposite               2.

[Illustration: J. commùnis.]

1. =Juníperus commùnis=, L. (COMMON JUNIPER.) Leaves rather long, ½ in.,
linear, awl-shaped, in whorls of threes, prickly-pointed, upper surface
glaucous-white, under surface bright green. Fruit globular, ¼ in. or
more in diameter, dark purple when ripe, covered with light-colored
bloom. A shrub or small tree with spreading or pendulous branches;
common in dry, sterile soils. There are a great many varieties of this
species in cultivation, but few of them grow tall enough to be
considered trees.

Var. _Hibernica_ (Irish Juniper) grows erect like a column. Var.
_Alpina_ is a low creeping plant. Var. _hemispherica_ is almost like a
half-sphere lying on the ground.

[Illustration: J. Virginiàna.]

2. =Juníperus Virginiàna=, L. (RED CEDAR.) Leaves very small and
numerous, scale-like on the older branches, but awl-shaped and somewhat
spreading on the young shoots; dark green. Fruit small, 1/5 in.,
abundant on the pistillate plants, dark purple and covered with fine,
glaucous bloom. Trees from 20 to 80 ft. high (sometimes only shrubs),
with mostly horizontal branches, thin, scaling bark, dense habit of
growth, and dark foliage. Wood light, fine-grained, durable; the
heart-wood of a handsome dark red color. Wild throughout; several
varieties are found in cultivation. Many other species from China,
Japan, California, etc., are occasionally cultivated, but few are large
enough to be called trees, and those that are large enough are not of
sufficient importance to need specific notice.


Leaves evergreen, flat, linear, mucronate, rigid, scattered, appearing
more or less 2-ranked. Fertile flowers and the fruit solitary; the
fruit, a nut-like seed in a cup-shaped, fleshy portion formed from a
disk; red.

[Illustration: T. baccàta.]

=Táxus baccàta=, L. (COMMON EUROPEAN YEW.) Leaves evergreen, 2-ranked,
crowded, linear, flat, curved, acute. Fruit a nut-like seed within a cup
1/3 in. in diameter; red when ripe in the autumn. As this species is
somewhat dioecious, a portion of the plants will be without fruit. A
widely spreading shrub rather than a tree, extensively cultivated under
nearly a score of named varieties. We have a closely related wild
species, =Táxus Canadénsis= (THE GROUND-HEMLOCK), which is merely a low
straggling bush.


[Illustration: T. taxifòlia.]

The Torreyas are much like the Yews, but their leaves have two
longitudinal lines, and a remarkably disagreeable odor when burned or
bruised. =Torrèya taxifòlia=, Arn., from Florida, and =Torrèya
Califòrnica=, Torr., from California, have been often planted. They form
small trees, but probably cannot be grown successfully in the region.
The figure shows a twig of T. taxifolia.


[Illustration: C. Fortùnii.]

=Cephalotáxus Fortùnii=, Hook., does not form a tree in this section,
but a wide-spreading bush growing sometimes to the height of 10 ft., and
spreading over a spot 15 ft. wide. Leaves flat, with the midrib forming
a distinct ridge on both sides, linear, sometimes over 2 in. long,
glossy green on the upper side, slightly whitened beneath. Fruit very
large, 1 in. or more long, elliptical, with a single, thin-shelled
nut-like seed covered with purplish, pulpy, thin flesh. Branches
spreading, drooping, long, slender; buds small, covered with many
sharp-pointed, overlapping scales; twigs green, somewhat grooved. From
Japan; about hardy in New Jersey.


Leaves one-nerved, opposite, alternate, or scattered, linear or oblong.
Flowers axillary and mostly dioecious; fruit drupe-like, with a
bony-coated stone.

[Illustration: P. Japónica.]

=Podocárpus Japónica=, Sieb. (JAPAN PODOCARPUS.) Leaves alternate,
crowded, flat, linear-lanceolate, elongated, quite sharp-pointed,
narrowed to a short though distinct petiole, and continued down the stem
by two ridges; leaves not 2-ranked, large, 4 to 8 in. long and ½ in.
wide when growing in perfection; in specimens grown in this region, 2 to
5 in. long and ¼ in. wide; midrib forms a ridge on both sides; upper
side dark glossy green; lower side with two broad whitish lines. A
beautiful, erect-growing, small tree; from Japan; about hardy in central
New Jersey; needs some protection in Massachusetts.


Leaves broad, simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous, deeply cut or
lobed at the apex, alike on both surfaces, with long petioles. Flowers
dioecious; staminate ones in catkins, pistillate ones either solitary
or in clusters of a few each. Fruit a nut with a drupaceous covering.

[Illustration: S. adiantifòlia.]

=Salisbùria adiantifòlia=, Sm. (GINKGO TREE.) Leaves parallel-veined,
fan-shaped, with irregular lobes at the end, thick, leathery, with no
midrib. Fruit globular or ovate, 1 in. long, on long, slender stems. A
very peculiar and beautiful large tree, 50 to 100 ft. high; from Japan.
Hardy throughout, and should be more extensively cultivated than it


The numbers refer to the pages where the illustrations appear or where
fuller definitions of the words are given.

_Abortive._ Defective or barren; not producing seeds.

_Abrupt base of leaf_, 21.

_Abruptly pinnate._ Pinnate, without an odd leaflet at the end;
even-pinnate, 20.

_Acerose._ Slender; needle-shaped, 20.

_Acorn_, 27.

_Acuminate._ Taper-pointed, 22.

_Acute._ Terminating in a well-defined angle, usually less than a right
angle, 22.

_Adventitious buds_, 31.

_Alternate._ Not opposite each other; as the leaves of a stem when
arranged one after the other along the branch, 18.

_Angulated._ Edge with such sudden bends as to form angles.

_Annual layer of wood_, 13.

_Anther._ The essential part of a stamen of a flower; the part which
contains the pollen, 24.

_Apetalous._ Said of a flower which has no corolla, 25.

_Apex._ The point or summit, as the point of a leaf.

_Apple-pome._ A fruit like the apple, with seeds in horny cells, 27.

_Appressed._ Pressed close to the stem or other part, 19.

_Ariled._ Seed with a somewhat membranous appendage, sometimes
surrounding it, and attached to one end.

_Aromatic._ With an agreeable odor.

_Arrangement of flowers_, 26; of leaves, 18.

_Astringent._ That which contracts or draws together muscular fiber; the
opposite of laxative.

_Auriculate._ Furnished with ear-shaped appendages, 21.

_Awl-shaped._ Like a shoemaker's curved awl; subulate, 21.

_Awned._ Furnished with a bristle-shaped appendage, 22.

_Axil._ The angle between the leafstalk and the twig, 14.

_Axillary._ Situated in the axil; as a bud, branch, or flower-cluster
when in the axil of a leaf, 14, 26, 30.

_Bark_, 12.

_Bases of leaves_, 21.

_Berry._ Used in this work to include any soft, juicy fruit with several
(at least more than one), readily separated seeds buried in the mass,

_Bipinnate._ Twice-pinnate, 20.

_Bladdery._ Swollen out and filled with air.

_Blade._ The thin, spreading portion, as of a leaf, 19.

_Bract._ A more or less modified leaf belonging to a flower or fruit;
usually a small leaf in the axil of which the separate flower of a
cluster grows, 28.

_Branch._ A shoot or stem of a plant, 11.

_Branching_, general plan of, 29.

_Branchlet._ A small branch.

_Bristle-pointed._ Ending in a stiff, roundish hair, 22.

_Bud._ Undeveloped branch or flower, 30; forms of, 32; bud-scales, 31.

_Bur._ Rough-prickly covering of the seeds or fruit, 27.

_Bush._ A shrub, 11.

_Calyx._ The outer leafy part of a flower, 24.

_Canescent._ With a silvery appearance, 23.

_Capsule._ A dry, pod-like fruit which has either more than one cell,
or, if of one cell, not such a pod as that of the pea with the seeds
fastened on one side on a single line, 28.

_Carpel._ That part of a fruit which is formed of a simple pistil, or
one member of a compound pistil; often shown by a single seed-bearing
line or part. A fruit has as many carpels as it has seed-bearing lines
on its outer walls, or as it had stigmas when it was a pistil, or as it
had leaves at its origin.

_Catkin._ A scaly, usually slender and pendent cluster of flowers, 26,

_Ciliate._ Fringed with hairs along its edge.

_Cleft._ Cut to about the middle, 22.

_Cluster._ Any grouping of flowers or fruit on a plant, so that more
than one is found in the axil of a leaf, or at the end of a stem, 26.

_Complete._ Having all the parts belonging to an organ; a _complete
leaf_ has blade, leafstalk, and stipules, 19; a _complete flower_ has
calyx, corolla, stamen, and pistil, 24.

_Compound._ Composed of more than one similar part united into a whole;
a _compound leaf_ has more than one blade, 19.

_Conduplicate._ Folded on itself lengthwise, 33.

_Cone._ A hard, scaly fruit, as that of a pine-tree, 28.

_Conical._ With a circular base and sloping sides gradually tapering to
a point; more slender than pyramidal.

_Convolute._ In a leaf, the complete rolling from edge to edge, 34.

_Cordate._ Heart-shaped, the stem and point at opposite ends, 21.

_Coriaceous._ Leathery in texture or substance.

_Corolla._ The inner, usually the bright-colored, row of floral leaves,
often grown together, 24.

_Corymb._ A flat-topped or rounded flower-cluster; in a strict use it is
applied only to such clusters when the central flower does not bloom
first. See _cyme_, 26.

_Crenate._ Edge notched with rounded teeth, 22.

_Crenulate._ Finely crenated, 22.

_Crisped._ Having an undulated or curled edge.

_Cross-section of wood_, 35.

_Cuneate._ Wedge-shaped, 21.

_Cylindric._ With an elongated, rounded body of uniform diameter.

_Cyme._ A flat-topped flower-cluster, the central flower blooming first,

_Deciduous._ Falling off; said of leaves when they fall in autumn, and
of floral leaves when they fall before the fruit forms, 23.

_Decurrent leaf._ A leaf which extends down the stem below the point of

_Definite annual growth_, 29.

_Dehiscence._ The regular splitting open of fruits, anthers, etc.

_Dehiscent._ Opening in a regular way, 27, 28.

_Deliquescent_, 16, 29.

_Deltoid._ Triangular, 21.

_Dentate._ Edge notched, with the teeth angular and pointing outward,

_Denticulate._ Minutely dentate.

_Dichotomous._ Forking regularly by twos, as the branches of the Lilac.

_Dilated._ Spreading out; expanding in all directions.

_Dioecious._ With stamens and pistils on different plants, 25.

_Distichous._ Two-ranked; spreading on opposite sides in one plane; as
_leaves_, 18; or _branches_, 19.

_Divergent._ Spreading apart.

_Divided._ Separated almost to the base or midrib, 23.

_Drupe._ A fleshy fruit with a single bony stone. In this book applied
to all fruits which, usually juicy, have a single seed, even if not
bony, or a bony stone, even if the stone has several seeds, 27.

_Dry drupe._ Used when the material surrounding the stone is but
slightly fleshy, 27.

_Duration of leaves_, 23.

_Elliptical._ Having the form of an elongated oval, 20.

_Emarginate._ With a notched tip, 22.

_Endogenous._ Inside-growing; growing throughout the substance of the
stem, 12.

_Entire._ With an even edge; not notched, 22.

_Enveloping organs._ In a flower, the calyx and corolla which cover the
stamens and pistil, 25.

_Essential organs._ In a flower, the organs needed to produce seeds; the
stamens and pistil, 25.

_Evergreen._ Retaining the leaves (in a more or less green condition)
through the winter and till new ones appear, 23.

_Excurrent._ With the trunk continued to the top of the tree, 16, 29.

_Exogenous._ Outside-growing; growing by annual layers near the surface,

_Exserted._ Projecting beyond an envelope, as the stamens from a
corolla, or the bracts beyond the scales of a cone, 28.

_Exstipulate._ Without stipules, 19.

_Extra-axillary buds_, 30.

_Fasciculated._ In clusters or fascicles, 18.

_Feather-veined._ With the veins of a leaf all springing from the sides
of the midrib, 20.

_Fibrous._ Composed of fine threads or fibers.

_Filament._ The stalk of a stamen, 24; any thread-like body.

_Flowering._ Having flowers.

_Flowers_, 24; clusters of, 26; kinds of, 25.

_Folding of leaves in the bud_, 33.

_Foliaceous._ Like a leaf in texture or appearance.

_Footstalk._ The stem of a leaf (petiole), or the stem of a flower

_Forms of leaves_, 20.

_Fruit_, 24, 26.

_Gamopetalous._ Same as monopetalous, 25.

_Glabrous._ Having a smooth surface; free from hairs, bristles, or any
pubescence, 23.

_Glands._ Small cellular organs which secrete oily, aromatic, or other
products. They are sometimes sunk in the leaves, etc., as on the
Prickly-ash; sometimes on the surface as small projections; sometimes on
the ends of hairs. The word is also used to indicate small swellings,
whether there is a secretion or not.

_Glandular._ Having glands. _Glandular-hairy._ With glandular-tipped
hairs, 23.

_Glaucous._ Covered with a fine white powder that rubs off, 23.

_Globose._ Spherical in form. _Globular._ Nearly globose.

_Glutinous._ Covered with a sticky gum.

_Hairy._ Having rather long hairs, 23.

_Halberd-shaped_, 21.

_Head._ A compact, rounded cluster of flowers or fruit, 26.

_Heart-shaped._ Ovate, with a notched base; cordate, 21.

_Heart-wood_, 13, 35.

_Herbaceous._ Without woody substance in the stem; like an herb; soft
and leaf-like.

_Hybrid._ An intermediate form of plant between two nearly related
species; formed by the action of the pollen of one upon the pistil of
the other.

_Imbricated._ Overlapping one another like the shingles on a roof, 28.

_Incised._ Irregularly and deeply cut, as the edge of a leaf.

_Incurved._ Gradually curving inward.

_Indefinite annual growth_, 30.

_Indehiscent._ Not splitting open.

_Inflexed._ Bent inward, 33.

_Involucre._ A whorl or set of bracts around a flower, a cluster of
flowers, or fruit, 27.

_Involute._ Rolled inward from the edges, 34.

_Irregular._ Said of a flower which has its corolla of different sized,
shaped, or colored pieces, 25.

_Kernel._ The substance contained within the shell of a nut or the stone
of a fruit.

_Key._ A fruit furnished with a wing, or leaf-like expansion, 28.

_Kidney-shaped._ Broadly heart-shaped, with the apex and basal notch
somewhat rounded.

_Lacerated._ With a margin irregularly notched or apparently torn.

_Laciniate._ Cut into narrow lobes; slashed.

_Lance-shaped._ _Lanceolate._ Like a lance-head in shape, 21.

_Leaf_, 17; arrangement of leaves, 18; bases of, 21; forms of, 20; kinds
of, 19; margins of, 22; parts of, 19; points of, 22; veining, 19.

_Leaflet._ A separate blade of a compound leaf, 20.

_Leafstalk._ The stem of a leaf; petiole, 19.

_Legume._ A pea-like pod, 28.

_Lensform._ _Lenticular._ Thickest in the center, with the edges
somewhat sharp; like a double-convex lens.

_Linear._ Long and narrow, with the edges about parallel, 20.

_Lobe._ The separate, projecting parts of an irregularly edged leaf if
few in number, 22.

_Lobed._ Having lobes along the margin, 22.

_Margin of leaves_, 22.

_Medullary rays_, 13.

_Membranous._ Thin and rather soft, and more or less translucent, 23.

_Midrib._ The central or main rib of a leaf, 19.

_Monoecious._ With both pistillate and staminate flowers on the same
plant, 25.

_Monopetalous._ With the corolla more or less grown together at the
base; gamopetalous, 25.

_Mucronate._ Tipped with a short abrupt point, 22.

_Multiple roots_, 9.

_Nerved._ Parallel-veined, as the leaves of some trees, 20.

_Netted-veined._ With branching veins, forming a network as in the
leaves of most of our trees, 20.

_Node._ The part of a stem to which a leaf is attached, 18.

_Nut._ A hard, unsplitting, usually one-seeded fruit, 27.

_Nutlet._ A small nut.

_Obcordate._ Heart-shaped, with the stem at the pointed end, 21, 22.

_Oblanceolate._ Lanceolate, with the stem at the more pointed end, 21.

_Oblong._ Two to four times as long as wide, with the sides somewhat
parallel, 20.

_Oblique._ Applied to leaves when the sides are unequal, 21.

_Obovate._ A reversed ovate, 21.

_Obovoid._ A reversed ovoid; an egg form, with stem at the smaller end.

_Obscurely._ Not distinctly; usually needing a magnifying-glass to

_Obtuse._ Blunt or rounded at tip, 22.

_Obvolute_, 34.

_Odd-pinnate._ Pinnate, with an end leaflet, 20.

_Once-pinnate._ A compound leaf, with but a single series of leaflets
along the central stem, 19.

_Opposite._ With two leaves on opposite sides of a stem at a node, 18.

_Orbicular._ Circular in outline, 20.

_Oval._ Broadly elliptical, 20.

_Ovary._ The part of the pistil of a flower containing the ovules or
future seeds.

_Ovate._ Shaped like a section of an egg, with the broader end near the
stem, 21.

_Overlapping._ One piece spreading over another.

_Ovoid._ Ovate or oval in a solid form, like an egg.

_Ovules._ The parts within the ovary which may form seeds, 25.

_Palmate._ A compound leaf, with the leaflets all starting from the end
of the petiole, 19.

_Palmately lobed_, 22.

_Palmately veined._ With three or more main ribs, or veins of a leaf,
starting from the base, 20.

_Panicle._ An open, much branched cluster of flowers or fruit, 26.

_Pappus._ The down, hairs, or teeth on the end of the fruit in
Compositæ, as the thistle-down.

_Parallel-veined._ With the veins of the leaf parallel; nerved, 20.

_Parted._ Edge of a blade separated three fourths of the distance to the
base or midrib, 23.

_Pedicel._ The stem of each flower of a cluster, 26.

_Peduncle._ The stem of a solitary flower, or the main stem of a
cluster, 26.

_Pellucid._ Almost or quite transparent.

_Peltate._ Applied to a leaf or other part when the stem or stalk is
attached within the margin on the side.

_Pendent._ Hanging downward, 28.

_Pendulous._ Hanging or drooping.

_Perfect._ Said of a flower with both stamen and pistil, 25.

_Petal._ A leaf of the corolla of a flower, 25.

_Petiole._ The stalk or stem of a leaf, 19.

_Petiolate._ Said of a leaf which has a stem, 20.

_Pinnæ._ The first divisions of a bipinnate or tripinnate leaf.

_Pinnate leaf._ A compound leaf with the leaflets arranged along the
sides of the stem, 19.

_Pinnately lobed_, 22; _Pinnate-veined_, 20.

_Pinnatifid._ A leaf deeply notched along the sides in a pinnate manner,

_Pistil._ The central essential organ of a flower, 25.

_Pistillate._ A flower with pistil but no stamens, 25.

_Pith_, 12.

_Plicate._ Folded like a fan, 34.

_Pod._ A dry dehiscent fruit like that of the pea, 28.

_Points of leaves_, 22.

_Pollarding trees_, 31.

_Pollen._ The dust or fertilizing material contained in the anther, 24.

_Polypetalous._ Having a corolla of separate petals, 25.

_Pome._ An apple-like fruit with the seeds in horny cells, 27.

_Preparation of a collection_, 35.

_Pressing plants_, 36.

_Prickles._ Sharp, spine-like elevations on the bark, leaf or fruit, 28.

_Primary root_, 10.

_Pubescent._ Hairy or downy, especially with fine soft hairs or
pubescence, 23.

_Pulp._ The soft flesh of such fruits as the apple or cherry.

_Punctate._ With translucent glands, 23.

_Pyramidal._ With sloping sides like a pyramid, but with a circular
base; broad-conical.

_Raceme._ A flower-cluster with one-flowered stems arranged along the
peduncle, 26.

_Radial section of wood_, 35.

_Radiating ribs._ The ribs of a leaf when several start together at or
near the base. A leaf having such ribs is said to be radiately or
palmately veined, 20.

_Rapier-shaped._ Narrow, pointed, and curved like a sword.

_Recurved_ or _reflexed_. Bent backward, 28.

_Regular._ Said of a flower which has its enveloping organs alike on all
sides, 25.

_Repand._ Wavy-margined, 22.

_Retuse._ With a slightly notched tip, 22.

_Revolute._ Rolled backward, as the edges of many leaves, 22, 34.

_Ribbed._ With prominent ribs, often somewhat parallel.

_Ribs._ The strong veins of a leaf, 19.

_Root_, 9.

_Rugous._ Having an irregularly ridged surface, 23.

_Samara._ A winged fruit; a key fruit, 28.

_Sap-wood_, 13.

_Scabrous._ Rough or harsh to the touch, 23.

_Scale-shaped_, 21.

_Scarious._ Thin, dry, and membranous, 23.

_Scattered leaves_, 18.

_Secondary roots_, 10.

_Section of wood_, 35.

_Seedling._ A young plant raised from a seed.

_Seeds_, 25.

_Sepal._ A division of a calyx, 25.

_Serrate._ Having a notched edge, with the teeth pointing forward, 22.

_Serration._ A tooth of a serrated edge.

_Serrulate._ Finely serrate, 22.

_Sessile._ Without stem; sessile leaf, 20; sessile flower, 26.

_Sheath._ A tubular envelope.

_Shoot._ A branch.

_Shrub._ A bush-like plant; one branching from near the base, 11.

_Silver grain._ _Medullary rays_, 13, 36.

_Simple leaf._ One with but a single blade, 19.

_Sinuate._ With a margin strongly wavy, 22.

_Sinuation._ One of the waves of a sinuate edge.

_Spatulate._ Gradually narrowed downward from a rounded tip.

_Spike._ An elongated cluster of flowers with the separate blossoms
about sessile.

_Spine._ A sharp, rigid outgrowth from the wood of a stem; sometimes
applied to sharp points not so deeply seated which should be considered
as prickles, 28.

_Spinescent_ or _spiny_. Having spines, 22, 23.

_Spray._ A collection of small shoots or branches of a plant.

_Stamen._ One of the pollen-bearing or fertilizing parts of a flower,

_Staminate._ Said of flowers which have stamens but no pistil, 25.

_Stellate._ Branching, star-like.

_Stems and branches_, 11.

_Stipules._ Small blades at the base of a leafstalk, 19.

_Straight-veined._ Feather-veined with the veins straight and parallel,

_Striate._ Marked with fine longitudinal lines or ridges.

_Sub._ A prefix applied to many botanical terms, and indicating nearly.

_Subulate._ Awl-shaped, 21.

_Succulent._ Thick and fleshy, 23.

_Suckers._ Shoots from a subterranean part of a plant.

_Surface of leaves and fruit_, 23.

_Tangential section of wood_, 35.

_Tapering._ Gradually pointed; gradually narrowed, 21.

_Tap-root._ A simple root with a stout tapering body, 9.

_Terete._ Cylindric, but tapering as the twigs of a tree.

_Terminal._ Belonging to the extremity of a branch, as a _terminal bud_,
14; or _terminal flower-cluster_, 26.

_Texture of leaves_, 23.

_Thyrsus._ A compact, much-branched flower- or fruit-cluster, 26.

_Tomentose._ Covered with matted, woolly hairs, 23.

_Toothed._ With teeth or short projections.

_Tree._ A plant with a woody trunk which does not branch near the
ground, 11.

_Truncate._ With a square end as though cut off, 22.

_Twice-pinnate._ Applied to a leaf which is twice divided in a pinnate
manner, 20.

_Twice-serrate_, 22. _Twice-crenate_, 22.

_Two-ranked._ Applied to leaves when they are flattened out in two ranks
on opposite sides of a stem, 18; also applied to spray when it branches
out in one plane, 19.

_Umbel._ A cluster of flowers or fruit having stems of about equal
length, and starting from the same point, 26.

_Umbellate._ Like an umbel.

_Valvate._ Touching edge to edge, 28.

_Veining of leaves_, 19.

_Veinlets._ The most minute framework of a leaf, 19.

_Veins._ The smaller lines of the framework of a leaf, 19.

_Wedge-shaped._ Shaped like a wedge; cuneate, 21.

_Whorl._ In a circle around the stem, as the leaves of a plant, 18.

_Wings._ A blade or leaf-like expansion bordering a part, as a fruit or
stem, 28.

_Winged._ With wing-like membranes.

_Winter study of trees_, 29.

_Wood_, 12.


  Abele-tree, 168.

  Abies, 183-187.

  Acanthopanax, 110.

  Acer, 84-88.

  Acuminate-leaved Clethra, 117.

  Æsculus, 81-83.

  African Cedar, 190.

  Ailanthus, 76.

  Albizzia, 96.

  Alcock's Spruce, 181.

  Alder, 147, 148.

  Alleghany Plum, 98.

  Alnus, 147, 148.

  Alternate-leaved Cornel, 112.

  Amelanchier, 107.

  Anacardiaceæ, 89.

  Angelica-tree, 109.

  Angiospermæ, 62.

  Anonaceæ, 68.

  Apple, 101.

  Aralia, 109, 110.

  Araliaceæ, 109.

  Araucaria, 190.

  Arbor-vitæ, American, 194.
    Chinese, 194.
    Eastern, 194.
    Giant, 194.
    Hatchet-leaved, 194.
    Japanese, 196.
    Weeping, 195.

  Arrow-wood, 114.

  Ash, Black, 124.
    Blue, 124.
    European, 124.
    Flowering, 125.
    Green, 123.
    Red, 123.
    Water, 124.
    Weeping, 125.
    White, 123.

  Ash-colored Willow, 167.

  Ash-leaved Maple, 89.

  Asimina, 68.

  Aspen, 168.

  Austrian Pine, 175.

  Baccharis, 115.

  Bald Cypress, 192.

  Balm of Gilead, 170.

  Balsam-fir, 183, 184.

  Balsam-poplar, 170.

  Barren Oak, 158.

  Bartram's Oak, 152.

  Basket-oak, 154.

  Basswood, 72, 73.

  Bay, Red, 130.

  Bay Willow, 164, 165.

  Beaked Hazelnut, 149.

  Beaked Willow, 166.

  Bean-trefoil Tree, 92.

  Bear Scrub Oak, 157.

  Beech, American, 161.
    Blue, 151.
    Cut-leaved, 161.
    European, 161.
    Purple, 161.
    Silver Variegated, 161.
    Water, 151.

  Benjamin-bush, 131.

  Betula, 144-147.

  Bhotan Pine, 172.

  Bignoniaceæ, 127.

  Bignonia Family, 127.

  Big Shellbark, 142.

  Big Tree of California, 192.

  Bilsted, 108.

  Biota, 193.

  Birch, American White, 145.
    Black, 146.
    Canoe, 145.
    Cherry, 146.
    Cut-leaved, 146.
    European White, 146.
    Gray, 145, 146.
    Hairy-leaved, 146.
    Paper, 145.
    Purple-leaved, 146.
    Pyramidal, 146.
    Red, 147.
    River, 147.
    Sweet, 146.
    Weeping, 146.
    Yellow, 146.

  Bird-cherry, 99, 100.

  Bitternut, 143.

  Bixineæ, 67.

  Black Ash, 124.
    Birch, 146.
    Cherry, 99.
    Gum, 112.
    Haw, 114.
    Hawthorn, 106.
    Oak, 156, 158.
    Pine, 175.
    Poplar, 170.
    Scrub Oak, 157.
    Spruce, 179.
    Sugar-maple, 86.
    Walnut, 141.
    Willow, 163.

  Blackthorn, 98.

  Blue Ash, 124.
    Beech, 151.

  Bog Willow, 166.

  Bow-wood, 137.

  Box Elder, 89.
    White Oak, 153.

  Boxwood, 133.

  Bristly Locust, 94.

  Brittle Willow, 163.

  Broom-hickory, 143.

  Buckeye, 82, 83.

  Buckthorn, California, 80.
    Carolina, 79.
    Common, 79.
    Southern, 119.
    Woolly-leaved, 118.

  Buckthorn Family, 79.

  Buffalo-berry, 132.

  Bullace Plum, 98.

  Bumelia, 118, 119.

  Burning-bush, 78.

  Bur-Oak, 153.

  Butternut, 140.

  Buttonwood, 139.

  Buxus, 132, 133.

  Calico-bush, 116.

  California Buckthorn, 80.
    Maple, 86.

  Camellia Family, 69.

  Canoe Birch, 145.

  Caprifoliaceæ, 113.

  Caragana, 92.

  Carolina Buckthorn, 79.
    Poplar, 169.

  Carpinus, 150, 151.

  Carya, 141-144.

  Cashew Family, 89.

  Castanea, 159, 160.

  Catalpa, 128, 129.

  Caucasian Planer-tree, 136.

  Cedar, African, 190.
    Deodar, 190.
    Indian, 190.
    Japan, 198.
    Lebanon, 189.
    Mt. Atlas, 190.
    Red, 199.
    Silver, 190.
    White, 194, 195.

  Cedrela, 76.

  Cedrus, 189, 190.

  Celastraceæ, 78.

  Celtis, 136, 137.

  Cembra Pine, 173.

  Cephalonian Silver Fir, 185.

  Cephalotaxus, 200.

  Cercidiphyllum, 67.

  Cercis, 94.

  Chaste-tree, 130.

  Cherry, 99, 100.

  Cherry Birch, 146.

  Cherry, Cornelian, 111.

  Chestnut, 160.

  Chestnut-oak, 154, 155.

  Chickasaw Plum, 98.

  Chile Pine, 190.

  China-tree, 75.

  Chinese Arbor-vitæ, 194.
    Cedrela, 76.
    Cork-tree, 74.
    Honey-locust, 96.
    Parasol, 72.
    Sumac, 91.
    White Magnolia, 65.

  Chinquapin, 160.

  Chionanthus, 126.

  Choke-cherry, 100.

  Cilician Silver Fir, 186.

  Cladrastis, 93.

  Clammy Locust, 94.

  Clerodendron, 129.

  Clethra, 117, 118.

  Club, Hercules', 109.

  Cockspur Thorn, 104.

  Coffee-tree, Kentucky, 95.

  Colchicum-leaved Maple, 87.

  Compositæ, 115.

  Coniferæ, 170.

  Cork-bark Maple, 87.

  Cork Elm, 134.

  Cork-tree, Chinese, 74.

  Cornaceæ, 110.

  Cornel, 111, 112.

  Cornelian Cherry, 111.

  Cornus, 110-112.

  Corsican Pine, 175.

  Corylus, 149.

  Cottonwood, 169.

  Cow-oak, 154.

  Crab-apple, 101.

  Crack-willow, 163.

  Cranberry-tree, 114.

  Crape-myrtle, 109.

  Cratægus, 103-106.

  Crisped-leaved Elm, 134.

  Cryptomeria, 198.

  Cucumber-tree, 63, 64.

  Cunninghamia, 191.

  Cupuliferæ, 144.

  Custard-apple Family, 68.

  Cut-leaved Birch, 146.
    Alder, 148.

  Cypress, Bald, 192.
    Lawson's, 196.
    Nootka Sound, 195.
    Southern, 192.

  Dahoon Holly, 77.

  Date-plum, 120.

  Deodar Cedar, 190.

  Devil-wood, 125.

  Diospyros, 119, 120.

  Dogwood, Flowering, 111.
    Poison, 90.

  Dotted-fruited Hawthorn, 106.

  Double Spruce, 179.

  Downy-leaved Poplar, 169.

  Dwarf Chestnut-oak, 155.

  Dwarf Mountain Sumac, 90.

  Ear-leaved Umbrella-tree, 64.

  Eastern Spruce, 181.

  Ebenaceæ, 119.

  Ebony Family, 119.

  Elæagnaceæ, 131.

  Elæagnus, 131, 132.

  Elder-leaved Mountain Ash, 102.

  Elder, Poison, 90.

  Elm, American, 135.
    Cork, 134.
    Crisped-leaved, 134.
    English, 134.
    Field, 134.
    Kiaka, 136.
    Red, 134.
    Rock, 134.
    Scotch, 134.
    Slippery, 134.
    Wahoo, 135.
    Weeping, 134.
    White, 135.
    White-margined, 134.
    Winged, 135.
    Witch, 134.

  English Elm, 134.
    Cherry, 99.
    Hawthorn, 104.
    Maple, 87.
    Oak, 158.
    Walnut, 141.

  Ericaceæ, 116.

  Euonymus, 78.

  Euphorbiaceæ, 132.

  Fagus, 160, 161.

  Fate-tree, 129.

  Field Elm, 134.

  Figwort Family, 127.

  Filbert, 149.

  Fir, Balsam, 183, 184.
    Cephalonian Silver, 185.
    Cilician Silver, 186.
    European Silver, 187.
    Fraser's Balsam, 184.
    Great Silver, 185.
    Japan Silver, 184.
    Noble Silver, 187.
    Nordmann's Silver, 184.
    Pinsapo, 186.
    Scotch, 177.
    Siberian Silver, 185.
    Silver, 184-187.
    Southern Balsam, 184.
    White, 186.

  Flowering Ash, 125.
    Dogwood, 111.

  Four-winged Silverbell Tree, 121.

  Fraser's Balsam-fir, 184.

  Fraxinus, 122-125.

  French Tamarisk, 69.

  Fringe-tree, 126.

  Garden Plum, 99.
    Red Cherry, 99.

  Garland Crab-apple, 101.

  Giant Arbor-vitæ, 194.
    Tree Lilac, 126.

  Ginkgo-tree, 201.

  Gleditschia, 95, 96.

  Goat-willow, 166.

  Golden-chain, 92.

  Golden Larch, 189.

  Gordonia, 70.

  Gray Birch, 145, 146.
    Pine, 178.
    Willow, 167.

  Great Laurel, 117.

  Great-leaved Magnolia, 64.

  Great Silver Fir, 185.
    Tree of California, 192.

  Green Ash, 123.

  Groundsel-tree, 115.

  Gum, Black, 112.
    Sour, 112, 113.
    Sweet, 108.

  Gymnocladus, 95.

  Gymnospermæ, 170.

  Hackberry, 136.

  Hackmatack, 188.

  Halesia, 121.

  Hamamelideæ, 107.

  Hamamelis, 107.

  Hatchet-leaved Arbor-vitæ, 194.

  Haw, Black, 114.
    Summer, 106.
    Yellow, 106.

  Hawthorn, Black, 106.
    Dotted-fruited, 106.
    English, 104.
    Pear, 106.
    Tall, 105.

  Hazel, 149.

  Hazelnut, 149.

  Heart-leaved Alder, 148.
    Willow, 165.

  Heath Family, 116.

  Heavy-wooded Pine, 174.

  Hemlock, Common, 182.
    Ground, 199.
    Japan, 182.
    Mountain, 182.

  Hercules'-Club, 109.

  Hibiscus, 71.

  Hickory, Big Shellbark, 142.
    Broom, 143.
    Shagbark, 142.
    Shellbark, 142.
    Swamp, 143.
    White-heart, 142.

  Himalayan Spruce, 181.

  Hoary Alder, 147.

  Holly, 77.

  Holly Family, 77.

  Honey-locust, 95, 96.

  Honeysuckle Family, 113.

  Hop-hornbeam, 150.

  Hop-tree, 74.

  Hornbeam, 151.

  Horse-chestnut, 81, 82.

  Horse-sugar, 122.

  Hovenia, 80.

  Idesia, 67.

  Ilex, 77, 78.

  Ilicineæ, 77.

  Imperial Paulownia, 127.

  Indian Bean, 128.
    Cedar, 190.

  Irish Juniper, 199.

  Iron-wood, 150.

  Japan Arbor-vitæ, 196.
    Cedar, 198.
    Hemlock, 182.
    Larch, 188.
    Lilac, 126.
    Magnolia, 65.
    Maple, 88.
    Persimmon, 120.
    Planer-tree, 136.
    Pine, 176.
    Podocarpus, 201.
    Silver Fir, 184.
    Storax, 120.

  Jersey Pine, 177.

  Judas-tree, 94.

  Juglandaccæ, 140.

  Juglans, 140, 141.

  Jujube, 80.

  Juniper, 198, 199.

  Juniperus, 198, 199.

  Kalmia, 116.

  Katsura-tree, 67.

  Kentucky Coffee-tree, 95.

  Kiaka Elm, 136.

  Kilmarnock Willow, 166.

  Kingnut, 142.

  Koelreuteria, 83.

  Laburnum, 92.

  Lagerstroemia, 109.

  Lambert's Pine, 172.

  Larch, American, 188.
    European, 188.
    Golden, 189.
    Japan, 188.

  Large-flowered Magnolia, 63.

  Large-leaved Maple, 86.

  Large-toothed Aspen, 168.

  Large Tupelo, 113.

  Larix, 187-189.

  Lauraceæ, 130.

  Laurel, 116, 117.

  Laurel Family, 130.

  Laurel-leaved Willow, 165.

  Laurel-oak, 158.

  Lawson's Cypress, 196.

  Lebanon Cedar, 189.

  Leguminosæ, 92.

  Lilac, 126.

  Linden, 72, 73.

  Linden Family, 72.

  Lindera, 131.

  Liquidambar, 108.

  Liriodendron, 66.

  Live-oak, 155.

  Loblolly Bay, 70.
    Pine, 174.

  Locust, Bristly, 94.
    Clammy, 94.
    Common, 93.
    Honey, 95, 96.

  Lombardy Poplar, 169.

  Long-leaved Pine, 174.
    Willow, 167.

  Long-racemed Buckeye, 83.

  Lonicera, 115.

  Loosestrife Family, 108.

  Lythraceæ, 108.

  Maclura, 137.

  Madeira Nut, 141.

  Magnolia, Chinese White, 65.
    Great-leaved, 64.
    Japan, 65.
    Large-flowered, 63.
    Purple Japan, 66.
    Southern Evergreen, 63.
    Swamp, 63.
    Thurber's Japan, 66.

  Magnoliaceæ, 62.

  Magnolia Family, 62.

  Mallow Family, 71.

  Malvaceæ, 71.

  Maple, Ash-leaved, 89.
    California, 86.
    Colchicum-leaved, 87.
    Cork-bark, 87.
    English, 87.
    Japan, 88.
    Large-leaved, 86.
    Mountain, 84.
    Norway, 87.
    Palmate-leaved, 88.
    Red, 85.
    Rock, 86.
    Round-leaved, 88.
    Silver, 85.
    Striped, 85.
    Sugar, 86.
    Sycamore, 86.
    Tartarian, 88.
    Vine, 88.
    White, 85.

  Masson's Pine, 175.

  Melia, 75.

  Meliaceæ, 75.

  Melia Family, 75.

  Mockernut, 142, 143.

  Morello Cherry, 99.

  Morus, 137, 138.

  Mossy-cup Oak, 153.

  Mountain Ash, 102, 103.
    Hemlock, 182.
    Laurel, 116.
    Maple, 84.
    Pine, 173, 177.
    Sumac, 90.

  Mount Atlas Cedar, 190.

  Mulberry, 138.
    Paper, 138.

  Myrtle, Crape, 109.

  Narrow-leaved Crab-apple, 101.

  Necklace-poplar, 169.

  Negundo, 88, 89.

  Noble Silver Fir, 187.

  Nootka Sound Cypress, 195.

  Nordmann's Silver Fir, 184.

  Northern Prickly Ash, 73.
    Scrub Pine, 178.

  Norway Maple, 87.
    Spruce, 180.

  Nut, Bitter, 143.
    Hickory, 142, 143.
    King, 142.
    Mocker, 142, 143.
    Pecan, 144.
    Pig, 143.

  Nut-pine, 178.

  Nyssa, 112, 113.

  Oak, American White, 153.
    Barren, 158.
    Bartram's, 152.
    Basket, 154.
    Bear Scrub, 157.
    Black, 156, 158.
    Black Scrub, 157.
    Box White, 153.
    Bur, 153.
    Chestnut, 154, 155.
    Cow, 154.
    English, 158.
    Laurel, 158.
    Live, 155.
    Mossy-cup, 153.
    Pin, 156.
    Post, 153, 154.
    Pyramidal, 159.
    Quercitron, 156.
    Red, 156.
    Rough, 153.
    Scarlet, 156.
    Scrub, 157.
    Shingle, 158.
    Spanish, 156, 157.
    Swamp, 154, 156.
    Turkey, 159.
    Water, 157.
    Weeping, 159.
    White, 153, 154.
    Willow, 158.
    Yellow, 155, 156.

  Oak Family, 144.

  Oak-leaved Alder, 148.
    Mountain-ash, 102.

  Ohio Buckeye, 82.

  Old-field Pine, 174.

  Oleaceæ, 122.

  Oleaster Family, 131.

  Olive Family, 122.

  Orange, Osage, 137.

  Oriental Plane, 139.
    Spruce, 181.

  Osage Orange, 137.

  Osmanthus, 125.

  Ostrya, 150.

  Oxydendrum, 116.

  Palmate-leaved Japan Maple, 88.

  Papaw, 68.

  Paper Birch, 145.
    Mulberry, 138.

  Parsley-leaved Thorn, 105.

  Paulownia, 127.

  Peach, 97.

  Pear Hawthorn, 106.

  Pear-tree, 101.

  Pea-tree, 92.

  Pecan-nut, 144.

  Pepperbush, 117, 118.

  Pepperidge, 112.

  Persea, 130.

  Persimmon, 119, 120.

  Phellodendron, 74.

  Picea, 179-181.

  Pignut, 143.

  Pine, Austrian, 175.
    Bhotan, 172.
    Black, 175.
    Cembra, 173.
    Chile, 190.
    Corsican, 175.
    Gray, 178.
    Heavy-wooded, 174.
    Japan, 176.
    Jersey, 177.
    Lambert's, 172.
    Loblolly, 174.
    Long-leaved, 174.
    Masson's, 175.
    Mountain, 173, 177.
    Nut, 178.
    Old-field, 174.
    Piñon, 178.
    Pitch, 174.
    Red, 176.
    Scotch, 177.
    Scrub, 177, 178.
    Stone, 173.
    Sugar, 172.
    Swiss Stone, 173.
    Table-Mountain, 177.
    Twisted-branched, 177.
    Umbrella, 191.
    Weymouth, 172.
    White, 172, 173.
    Yellow, 174,176.

  Pine Family, 170.

  Pin-oak, 156.

  Piñon Pine, 178.

  Pinsapo Fir, 186.

  Pitch-pine, 174.

  Pinus Austriaca, 175.
    Banksiana, 178.
    Cembra, 173.
    contorta, 177.
    densiflora, 176.
    edulis, 178.
    excelsa, 172.
    flexilis, 173.
    inops, 177.
    Lambertiana, 172.
    Laricio, 175.
    Massoniana, 175.
    mitis, 176.
    monophylla, 178.
    monticola, 173.
    palustris, 174.
    ponderosa, 174.
    pungens, 177.
    resinosa, 176.
    rigida, 174.
    strobus, 172.
    sylvestris, 177.
    Tæda, 174.

  Plane, Oriental, 139.

  Planera, 135, 136.

  Planer-tree, 136.

  Plane-tree Family, 139.

  Platanaceæ, 139.

  Platanus, 139.

  Plum, 98, 99.

  Plum, Date, 120.

  Podocarpus, 200, 201.

  Poison Dogwood, 90.
    Elder, 90.
    Sumac, 90.

  Pomegranate-tree, 108.

  Populus, 167-170.

  Poplar, Balsam, 170.
    Black, 170.
    Carolina, 169.
    Downy-leaved, 169.
    Lombardy, 169.
    Necklace, 169.
    White, 168.

  Post-oak, 153, 154.

  Prickly Ash, 73, 74.

  Pride of India, 75.

  Prunus, 97-100.

  Ptelea, 74.

  Pterostyrax, 121.

  Pulse Family, 92.

  Punica, 108.

  Purple Japan Magnolia, 66.

  Purple-leaved Birch, 146.

  Purple Willow, 165.

  Pyramidal Birch, 146.
    Oak, 159.

  Pyrus, 100-103.

  Quaking-asp, 168.

  Quassia Family, 76.

  Quercitron Oak, 156.

  Quercus alba, 153.
    aquatica, 157.
    bicolor, 154.
    Cerris, 159.
    coccinea, 156.
    falcata, 157.
    fastigiata, 159.
    heterophylla, 152.
    ilicifolia, 157.
    imbricaria, 158.
    lyrata, 154.
    macrocarpa, 153.
    Michauxii, 154.
    Muhlenbergii, 155.
    nigra, 158.
    palustris, 156.
    pedunculata, 159.
    pendula, 159.
    Phellos, 152, 158.
    prinoides, 155.
    Prinus, 154.
    Robur, 158.
    rubra, 152, 156.
    sessiliflora, 159.
    stellata, 153.
    tinctoria, 156.
    virens, 155.

  Quince-tree, 102.

  Rabbit-berry, 132.

  Red Ash, 123.
    Bay, 130.
    Birch, 147.
    Buckeye, 82.
    Cedar, 199.
    Cherry, 99.
    Elm, 134.
    Horse-chestnut, 82.
    Maple, 85.
    Mulberry, 138.
    Oak, 156.
    Pine, 176.
    Plum, 98.

  Redbud, 94.

  Red-leaved Alder, 148.

  Redwood, 193.

  Retinospora, 193, 196, 197.

  Rhamnaceæ, 79.

  Rhamnus, 79, 80.

  Rhododendron, 117.

  Rhus, 89-91.

  River Birch, 147.

  Robinia, 93, 94.

  Rock Elm, 134.
    Maple, 86.

  Rosaceæ, 97.

  Rose-acacia, 94.

  Rose Family, 97.

  Rough Oak, 153.

  Round-leaved Maple, 88.

  Rowan-tree, 103.

  Rue Family, 73.

  Rutaceæ, 73.

  Salicaceæ, 161.

  Salisburia, 201.

  Salix Alba, 164.
    amygdaloides, 163.
    angustata, 165.
    annularis, 164.
    Babylonica, 164.
    caprea, 166.
    cinerea, 167.
    cordata, 165.
    decipiens, 164.
    discolor, 166.
    falcata, 163.
    fragilis, 163.
    longifolia, 167.
    lucida, 164.
    myricoides, 165.
    nigra, 163.
    pentandra, 165.
    purpurea, 165.
    rigida, 165.
    rostrata, 166.
    rufescens, 165.
    Russelliana, 164
    viridis, 164.
    vitellina, 164.

  Sapindaceæ, 81.

  Sapodilla Family, 118.

  Sapotaceæ, 118.

  Sassafras, 130, 131.

  Scarlet-fruited Thorn, 104.

  Scarlet Oak, 156.

  Sciadopitys, 191.

  Scotch Elm, 134.
    Fir, 177.
    Pine, 177.

  Scrophulariaceæ, 127.

  Scrub Oak, 157.
    Pine, 177, 178.

  Seaside Alder, 148.

  Sequoia, 192, 193.

  Service-berry, 107.

  Shad-bush, 107.

  Shagbark Hickory, 142.

  Sheep-berry, 114.

  Shellbark Hickory, 142.

  Shepherdia, 132.

  Shingle Oak, 158.

  Shining Willow, 164.

  Shrubby Trefoil, 74.

  Siberian Cornel, 111.
    Silver Fir, 185.

  Silk-tree, 96.

  Silverbell-tree, 121.

  Silver Cedar, 190.
    Fir, 184-187.
    Maple, 85.
    Spruce, 181.

  Silver-leaved Elæagnus, 132.

  Simarubaceæ, 76.

  Single Spruce, 179.

  Slippery Elm, 134.

  Sloe, 98.

  Smoke-tree, 91.

  Smooth Alder, 148.
    Sumac, 90.

  Soapberry Family, 81.

  Sorrel-tree, 116.

  Sour Gum, 112, 113.

  Sourwood, 116.

  Southern Cypress, 192.

  Spanish Oak, 156, 157.

  Speckled Alder, 147.

  Spice-bush, 131.

  Spindle-tree, 78.

  Spruce, Alcock's, 181.
    Black, 179.
    Double, 179.
    Eastern, 181.
    Himalayan, 181.
    Norway, 180.
    Oriental, 181.
    Silver, 181.
    Single, 179.
    Tiger's-tail, 180.
    White, 179.

  Spurge Family, 132.

  Stag-horn Sumac, 90.

  Sterculia, 71.

  Sterculiaceæ, 71.

  Stone-pine, 173.

  Storax, 120.

  Storax Family, 120.

  Striped Maple, 85.

  Stuartia, 69, 70.

  Styracaceæ, 120.

  Styrax, 120.

  Sugarberry, 136.

  Sugar Maple, 86.
    Pine, 172.

  Sumac, 90, 91.

  Summer Haw, 106.

  Swamp Hickory, 143.
    Magnolia, 63.
    Oak, 156.
    Post-oak, 154.
    White Oak, 154.

  Sweet Bay, 63.
    Birch, 146.
    Buckeye, 82.
    Gum, 108.
    Pepper-bush, 117, 118.
    Viburnum, 114.

  Sweetleaf, 122.

  Swiss Stone-pine, 173.

  Sycamore, American, 139.

  Sycamore-maple, 86.

  Symplocos, 122.

  Syringa, 126.

  Table-Mountain Pine, 177.

  Tacamahac, 170.

  Tamarack, 188.

  Tamariscineæ, 68.

  Tamarisk, 69.

  Tamarix, 69.

  Tartarian Honeysuckle, 115.
    Maple, 88.

  Taxodium, 192.

  Tea Family, 69.

  Ternstroemiaceæ, 69.

  Thorn, 104, 105.

  Thurber's Japan Magnolia, 66.

  Thuya, 193, 194.

  Thuyopsis, 193.

  Tiger's-tail Spruce, 180.

  Tilia, 72, 73.

  Tiliaceæ, 72.

  Toothache-tree, 73.

  Torreya, 200.

  Tree Hibiscus, 71.

  Tree of Heaven, 76.

  Trefoil, 74.

  Tsuga, 182.

  Tulip-tree, 66.

  Tupelo, 113.

  Turkey Oak, 159.

  Ulmus, 133-135.

  Umbrella-pine, 191.

  Umbrella-tree, 65.

  Urticaceæ, 133.

  Venetian Sumac, 91.

  Verbenaceæ, 129.

  Viburnum, 113, 114.

  Vine Maple, 88.

  Vitex, 129, 130.

  Wahoo, 78, 135.

  Walnut, 140, 141.

  Walnut Family, 140.

  Washington Thorn, 105.

  Water Ash, 124.
    Beech, 151.
    Locust, 96.
    Oak, 157.

  Weeping Ash, 125.
    Birch, 146.
    Elm, 134.
    Oak, 159.
    Willow, 164.

  White Ash, 123.
    Basswood, 73.
    Birch, 145, 146.
    Cedar, 194, 195.
    Elm, 134, 135.
    Fir, 186.
    Maple, 85.
    Mulberry, 138.
    Oak, 153, 154.
    Poplar, 168.
    Spruce, 179.
    Willow, 164.

  White-heart Hickory, 142.

  Whitewood, 72.

  Willow, American Bay, 164.
    Ash-colored, 167.
    Bay, 164, 165.
    Beaked, 166.
    Black, 163.
    Bog, 166.
    Brittle, 163.
    Crack, 163.
    Glaucous, 166.
    Goat, 166.
    Gray, 167.
    Heart-leaved, 165.
    Kilmarnock, 166.

  Willow, Laurel-leaved, 165.
    Long-leaved, 167.
    Purple, 165.
    Shining, 164.
    Weeping, 164.
    White, 164.

  Willow Family, 161.

  Willow-oak, 158.

  Winged Elm, 135.

  Witch-elm, 134.

  Witch-hazel, 107.

  Witch-hazel Family, 107.

  Xanthoxylum, 73.

  Yellow-barked Oak, 156.

  Yellow Birch, 146.
    Cucumber-tree, 64.
    Haw, 106.
    Plum, 98.

  Yellow-wood, 93.

  Yew, 199.

  Yulan, 65.

  Zizyphus, 80.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Trees of the Northern United States - Their Study, Description and Determination" ***

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