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Title: De re coquinaria. English - Cookery and Dining in Imperial Rome
Author: Apicius
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's Note

The original text used a Prescription Take symbol, ℞, to indicate
recipe numbers. There are also some characters with a macron or
overline (straight line) above them. You may need to adjust your
font settings for these to display properly.

The many inconsistencies in hyphenation and use of accents and
ligatures have been preserved as printed, with a few exceptions.
Variable and archaic spelling has also been preserved. A full
list of amendments and other notes follow the end of the book.

A considerable number of the recipe and page numbers in the
index are incorrect; however, they have been preserved as
printed.



                        APICIUS

          COOKERY AND DINING IN IMPERIAL ROME

 A Bibliography, Critical Review and Translation of the
    Ancient Book known as _Apicius de re Coquinaria_

      NOW FOR THE FIRST TIME RENDERED INTO ENGLISH

                          BY
                JOSEPH DOMMERS VEHLING

  _With a Dictionary of Technical Terms, Many Notes,
  Facsimiles of Originals, and Views and Sketches of
     Ancient Culinary Objects Made by the Author_

        INTRODUCTION BY PROF. FREDERICK STARR
       _Formerly of the University of Chicago_



{Transcription:

  APICII LIBRI X

  QVI DICVNTVR DE OBSONIIS
  ET CONDIMENTIS SIUE ARTE
  COQVINARIA QVÆ EXTANT


  NVNC PRIMVM ANGLICE REDDIVIT PROŒMIO
  BIBLIOGRAPHICO ATQVE INTERPRETATIONE
  DEFENSIT UARIISQVE ANNOTATIONIBVS
  INSTRVXIT ITA ET ANTIQVÆ CVLINÆ
  VTENSILIARVM EFFIGIIS EXORNAUIT
  INDICEM DENIQVE ETYMOLOGICVM ET
  TECHNICVM ARTIS MAGIRICÆ ADIECIT


  IOSEPHVS DOMMERS UEHLING

  INTRODVCIT FRIDERICVS STARR

  {Illustration}}



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                     TO

              ARNOLD SHIRCLIFFE
  STEWARD, GASTRONOMER, AUTHOR AND BIBLIOPHILE

 AS THE ACTORS SHAKESPEARE AND MOLIÈRE CREATED
   THE BEST DRAMA, SO THE BEST IN GASTRONOMIC
   LITERATURE EMANATED FROM WITHIN THE RANKS

                  THE AUTHOR



{Illustration: SYMPOSION. FROM AN ANCIENT VASE}



CONTENTS


                                                                  PAGE
    INTRODUCTION                                                    xi

    PREFACE                                                       xvii

    THE BOOK OF APICIUS
      A critical review of its times, its authors,
      and their sources, its authenticity and
      practical usefulness in modern times                           1

    THE RECIPES OF APICIUS AND THE EXCERPTS FROM
    APICIUS BY VINIDARIUS
      Original translation from the most reliable
      Latin texts, elucidated with notes and comments               41

    APICIANA
      A bibliography of Apician manuscript books and
      printed editions                                             251

    DICTIONARY OF CULINARY TERMS AND INDEX                         275



ILLUSTRATIONS


A--FACSIMILES

Made from originals and reproductions in the author's collection

                                                                  PAGE
    1 BREVIS PIMENTORUM, Excerpts of Vinidarius, 8th Century       234
    2 INCIPIT CONDITUM PARADOXUM, Vatican MS, 9th Century          253
    3 COLOPHON, Signerre Edition, Milan, 1498                      260
    4 TITLE PAGE, Tacuinus Edition, Venice, 1503                   262
    5 OPENING CHAPTER, same                                        232
    6 TITLE PAGE, Schola Apitiana, Antwerp, 1535                   206
    7 TITLE PAGE, Torinus Edition, Basel, 1541                     220
    8 TITLE PAGE, Torinus Edition, Lyons, 1541                     263
    9 TITLE PAGE, Humelbergius Edition, Zürich, 1542               265
   10 TITLE PAGE, Lister Edition, London, 1705                     267
   11 VERSO of Title Page, Lister Edition, London, 1705            268
   12 TITLE PAGE, Lister Edition, Amsterdam, 1709                  250
   13 FRONTISPICE, Lister Edition, Amsterdam, 1709                 156
   14 BANQUET SCENE, from an ancient vase                   (opposite)


B--PEN AND INK DRAWINGS BY THE AUTHOR

Sketched from scenes and objects at Pompeii, Naples, Berlin and
Chicago. Most of the ancient objects are in the National Museum of
Naples with many replicas in the Field Museum, Chicago. The treasure
found in 1868 near Hildesheim is in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in
Berlin

                                                                  PAGE

   15 APICII LIBRI X, Latin title of present edition,
      hand-lettered                                     (facing title)

   16 DIAGRAM of Apicius manuscripts and printed editions          252

   17 GREAT CRATER, Hildesheim Treasure                            140

   18 THERMOSPODIUM, plain, Naples                                  90

   19 THERMOSPODIUM, elaborate, Naples                              72

   20 DESSERT or Fruit Dish, Shell, Naples                         125

   21 DESSERT or Fruit Bowl, fluted                                 61

   22 TABLE, square, adjustable, Naples                            138

   23 TABLE, round, Naples                                         122

   24 PAN, Frying, round, Naples                                   155

   25 PAN, Frying, oval, Naples                                    159

   26 PAN, Service Saucepan, with decorated handle, Hildesheim      73

   27 SERVICE DISH, oval, with two handles, Hildesheim Treasure     43

   28 PAN, Saucepan, with handle, Hercules motif, Naples           222

   29 PLATTER for Roast, Hildesheim Treasure                       219

   30 PLATTER, The Great Pallas Athene Dish, Hildesheim            158

   31 TRIPOD for Crater, Hildesheim Treasure                        40

   32 EGG SERVICE DISH, Hildesheim Treasure                         93

   33 WINE DIPPER, Naples                                            3

   34 DIONYSOS CUP, Hildesheim Treasure                            141

   35 CANTHARUS, Theatrical Decoration, Hildesheim Treasure        231

   36 CANTHARUS, Bacchic Decoration, Hildesheim Treasure           274

   37 COLANDER, Naples                                              58

   38 WINE PITCHER, Diana handle, Naples                           208

   39 WINE PRESS, Reconstruction in Naples                          92

   40 GONG for Slaves, Naples                                       42

   41 WINE STOCK ROOM, Pompeii                                     124

   42 CASA DI FORNO, Pompeii                                         2

   43 SLAVES operating hand mill, reconstruction in Naples          60

   44 STEW POT, No. 1, Caccabus, Naples                            183

   45 STEW POT, No. 2, Caccabus, Naples                            209

   46 STEW POT, No. 3, Caccabus, Naples                            223

   47 STEW POT, No. 4, Caccabus, Naples                            235

   48 CRATICULA, combination broiler and stove, Naples             182

   49 "LIBRO COMPLETO"                                   (End of Book)



EXPLANATION OF TYPESETTING, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYSTEM OF NUMBERING


TEXT AND HEADINGS

The original ancient text as presented and rendered in the present
translation is printed in capital letters.

Matter in parenthesis () is original. Matter in square brackets [] is
contributed by the translator.

In most of the early originals the headings or titles of the formulæ
are invariably part of the text. In the present translation they are
given both in English and in the Latin used by those originals which
the translator considered most characteristic titles.

They have been set in prominent type as titles over each formula,
whereas in the originals the formulæ of the various chapters run
together, in many instances without distinct separation.


NUMBERING OF RECIPES

A system of numbering the recipes has therefore been adopted by the
translator, following the example of Schuch, which does not exist in
the other originals but the numbers in the present translation do not
correspond to those adopted by Schuch for reasons which hereafter
become evident.


NOTES AND COMMENTS BY THE TRANSLATOR

The notes, comments and variants added to each recipe by the
translator are printed in upper and lower case and in the same type as
the other contributions by the translator, the Apiciana, the Critical
Review and the Vocabulary and Index.

For the sake of convenience, to facilitate the study of each recipe
and for quick reference the notes follow in each and every case such
ancient recipe as they have reference to.


ABBREVIATIONS

    NY--The New York Codex (formerly Cheltenham), Apiciana, I
    Vat.--The Vatican Codex, Apiciana, II.
    Vin.--The Codex Salmasianus, Excerpta a Vinidario, Apiciana, III.
    B. de V.--Edition by Bernardinus, Venice, n.d., Apiciana, No. 1.
    Lan.--Edition by Lancilotus, Milan, 1498, Apiciana, Nos. 2-3.
    Tac.--Edition by Tacuinus, Venice, 1503, Apiciana, No. 4.
    Tor.--Edition by Torinus, Basel (and Lyons), 1541, Apiciana,
          Nos. 5-6.
    Hum.--Edition by Humelbergius, Zürich, 1542, Apiciana, No. 7.
    List.--Edition by Lister, London, 1705, Amst., 1709, Apiciana,
           Nos. 8-9.
    Bern.--Edition by Bernhold, Marktbreit, etc., Apiciana,
           Nos. 10-11.
    Bas.--Edition by Baseggio, Venice, 1852, Apiciana, No. 13.
    Sch.--Edition by Schuch, Heidelberg, 1867/74, Apiciana,
          Nos. 14-15.
    Goll.--Edition by Gollmer, Leipzig, 1909, Apiciana, No. 16.
    Dann.--Edition by Danneil, Leipzig, 1911, Apiciana, No. 17.
    G.-V.--Edition by Giarratano-Vollmer, Leip. 1922, Apiciana,
           No. 19.
    V.--The present translation.
    Giarr.--Giarratano; Voll.--F. Vollmer; Bran.--Edward Brandt.



INTRODUCTION

BY

FREDERICK STARR

_Formerly Professor of Anthropology at the University of Chicago_


No translation of Apicius into English has yet been published. The
book has been printed again and again in Latin and has been translated
into Italian and German. It is unnecessary to here give historic
details regarding the work as Mr. Vehling goes fully and admirably
into the subject. In 1705 the book was printed in Latin at London,
with notes by Dr. Martinus Lister. It caused some stir in the England
of that time. In a very curious book, The Art of Cookery, in Imitation
of Horace's Art of Poetry, with Some Letters to Dr. Lister and Others,
Dr. Wm. King says:

    "The other curiosity is the admirable piece of Cœlius
    Apicius, '_De Opsoniis et condimentis sive arte
    coquinaria, Libri decem_' being ten books of soups and
    sauces, and the art of cookery, as it is excellently
    printed for the doctor, who in this important affair, is
    not sufficiently communicative....

    "I some days ago met with an old acquaintance, of whom I
    inquired if he has seen the book concerning soups and
    sauces? He told me he had, but that he had but a very
    slight view of it, the person who was master of it not
    being willing to part with so valuable a rarity out of
    his closet. I desired him to give me some account of it.
    He says that it is a very handsome octavo, for, ever
    since the days of Ogilvy, good paper and good print, and
    fine cuts, make a book become ingenious and brighten up
    an author strangely. That there is a copious index; and
    at the end a catalogue of all the doctor's works,
    concerning cockles, English beetles, snails, spiders,
    that get up into the air and throw us down cobwebs; a
    monster vomited up by a baker and such like; which if
    carefully perused, would wonderfully improve us."

More than two hundred years have passed and we now have an edition of
this curious work in English. And our edition has nothing to lose by
comparison with the old one. For this, too, is a handsome book, with
good paper and good print and fine cuts. And the man who produces it
can equally bear comparison with Dr. Lister and more earlier
commentators and editors whom he quotes--Humelbergius and Caspar
Barthius.

The preparation of such a book is no simple task and requires a rare
combination of qualities. Mr. Vehling possesses this unusual
combination. He was born some forty-five years ago in the small town
of Duelken on the German-Dutch frontier--a town proverbial for the
dullness of its inhabitants. There was nothing of dullness about the
boy, however, for at the age of fourteen years, he had already four
years study of Latin and one of Greek to his credit. Such was his
record in Latin that his priest teachers attempted to influence him
toward the priesthood. His family, however, had other plans and
believing that he had enough schooling, decided that he should be a
cook. As he enjoyed good food, had a taste for travel and
independence, and was inclined to submit to family direction, he
rather willingly entered upon the career planned for him. He learned
the business thoroughly and for six years practiced his art in
Germany, Belgium, France, England and Scandinavia. Wherever he went,
he gave his hours of freedom to reading and study in libraries and
museums.

During his first trip through Italy and on a visit to Pompeii he
conceived the idea of depicting some day the table of the Romans and
of making the present translation. He commenced to gather all the
necessary material for this work, which included intensive studies of
the ancient arts and languages. Meanwhile, he continued his hotel work
also, quite successfully. At the age of twenty-four he was assistant
manager of the fashionable Hotel Bristol, Vienna.

However, the necessities of existence prevented his giving that time
and study to art, which is necessary if it was to become a real
career. In Vienna he found music, drama, languages, history,
literature and gastronomy, and met interesting people from all parts
of the globe. While the years at Vienna were the happiest of his life,
he had a distaste for the "superheated, aristocratic and military
atmosphere." It was at that city that he met the man who was
responsible for his coming to America. Were we writing Mr. Vehling's
biography, we would have ample material for a racy and startling
narrative. We desire only to indicate the remarkable preparation for
the work before us, which he has had. A Latin scholar of exceptional
promise, a professional cook of pronounced success, and an artist
competent to illustrate his own work! Could such a combination be
anticipated? It is the combination that has made this book possible.

The book has claims even upon our busy and practical generation. Mr.
Vehling has himself stated them:

    "The important addition to our knowledge of the
    ancients--for our popular notions about their table are
    entirely erroneous and are in need of revision.

    "The practical value of many of the ancient formulæ--for
    'In Olde Things There is Newnesse.'

    "The human interest--because of the amazing mentality
    and the culinary ingenuity of the ancients revealed to
    us from an altogether new angle.

    "The curious novelty and the linguistic difficulty, the
    philological interest and the unique nature of the task,
    requiring unique prerequisites--all these factors
    prompted us to undertake this translation."

One word as to Mr. Vehling's work in America. He was for five years
manager of catering at the Hotel Pfister in Milwaukee; for two and a
half years he was inspector and instructor of the Canadian Pacific
Railway; he was connected with some of the leading hotels in New York
City, and with the Eppley and the Van Orman Hotels chains, in
executive capacity. He not only has the practical side of food use and
preparation, he is an authority upon the science in his field. His
printed articles on food and cookery have been read with extraordinary
interest, and his lectures upon culinary matters have been well
received. It is to be hoped that both will eventually be published in
book form.

There is no financial lure in getting out an English translation of
Apicius. It is a labor of love--but worth the doing. We have claimed
that Mr. Vehling has exceptional fitness for the task. This will be
evident to anyone who reads his book. An interesting feature of his
preparation is the fact that Mr. Vehling has subjected many of the
formulæ to actual test. As Dr. Lister in the old edition of 1705
increased the value and interest of the work by making additions from
various sources, so our editor of today adds much and interesting
matter in his supplements, notes and illustrations.

It is hardly expected that many will follow Mr. Vehling in testing the
Apician formulæ. Hazlitt in speaking of "The Young Cook's Monitor"
which was printed in 1683, says:

    "Some of the ingredients proposed for sauces seem to our
    ears rather prodigious. In one place a contemporary
    peruser has inserted an ironical calculation in MS. to
    the effect that, whereas a cod's head could be bought
    for fourpence, the condiments recommended for it were
    not to be had for less than nine shillings."

We shall close with a plagiarism oft repeated. It was a plagiarism as
long ago as 1736, when it was admitted such in the preface of Smith's
"The Compleat Housewife":

    "It being grown as fashionable for a book now to appear
    in public without a preface, as for a lady to appear at
    a ball without a hoop-petticoat, I shall conform to the
    custom for fashion-sake and not through any necessity.
    The subject being both common and universal, needs no
    argument to introduce it, and being so necessary for the
    gratification of the appetite, stands in need of no
    encomiums to allure persons to the practice of it; since
    there are but a few nowadays who love not good eating
    and drinking...."

Old Apicius and Joseph Dommers Vehling really need no introduction.

                                                 FREDERICK STARR
    Seattle, Washington, August 3, 1926.



PREFACE


The present first translation into English of the ancient cookery book
dating back to Imperial Roman times known as the Apicius book is
herewith presented to antiquarians, friends of the Antique as well as
to gastronomers, friends of good cheer.

Three of the most ancient manuscript books that exist today bearing
the name of Apicius date back to the eighth and ninth century. Ever
since the invention of printing Apicius has been edited chiefly in the
Latin language. Details of the manuscript books and printed editions
will be found under the heading of Apiciana on the following pages.

The present version has been based chiefly upon three principal Latin
editions, that of Albanus Torinus, 1541, who had for his authority a
codex he found on the island of Megalona, on the editions of Martinus
Lister, 1705-9, who based his work upon that of Humelbergius, 1542,
and the Giarratano-Vollmer edition, 1922.

We have also scrutinized various other editions forming part of our
collection of Apiciana, and as shown by our "family tree of Apicius"
have drawn either directly or indirectly upon every known source for
our information.

The reasons and raison d'être for this undertaking become sufficiently
clear through Dr. Starr's introduction and through the following
critical review.

It has been often said that the way to a man's heart is through his
stomach; so here is hoping that we may find a better way of knowing
old Rome and antique private life through the study of this cookery
book--Europe's oldest and Rome's only one in existence today.

                                                        J. D. V.
    Chicago, in the Spring of 1926.



THANKS


For many helpful hints, for access to works in their libraries and for
their kind and sympathetic interest in this work I am especially
grateful to Professor Dr. Edward Brandt, of Munich; to Professor Dr.
Margaret Barclay Wilson, of Washington, D.C., and New York City; to
Mr. Arnold Shircliffe, and Mr. Walter M. Hill, both of Chicago.

                                                        J. D. V.
    Chicago, in the Summer of 1936.



THE BOOK OF APICIUS



{Illustration: POMPEII: CASA DI FORNO--HOUSE OF THE OVEN

Ancient bakery and flour mill of the year A.D. 79. Four grain grinders
to the right. The method of operating these mills is shown in the
sketch of the slaves operating a hand-mill. These mills were larger
and were driven by donkeys attached to beams stuck in the square
holes. The bake house is to the left, with running water to the right
of the entrance to the oven. The oven itself was constructed
ingeniously with a view of saving fuel and greatest efficiency.}



{Illustration: WINE DIPPER

Found in Pompeii. Each end of the long handle takes the form of a
bird's head. The one close to the bowl holds in its bill a stout wire
which is loosely fastened around the neck of the bowl, the two ends
being interlocked. This allows the bowl to tilt sufficiently to hold
its full contents when retired from the narrow opening of the amphora.
The ancients also had dippers with extension handles to reach down to
the bottom of the deep amphora. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 73822; Field M.
24181.}



THE BOOK OF APICIUS

A STUDY OF ITS TIMES, ITS AUTHORS AND THEIR SOURCES, ITS AUTHENTICITY
AND ITS PRACTICAL USEFULNESS IN MODERN TIMES


Anyone who would know something worth while about the private and
public lives of the ancients should be well acquainted with their
table. Then as now the oft quoted maxim stands that man is what he
eats.

Much of the ancient life is still shrouded and will forever be hidden
by envious forces that have covered up bygone glory and grandeur.
Ground into mealy dust under the hoofs of barbarian armies!
Re-modeled, re-used a hundred times! Discarded as of no value by
clumsy hands! The "Crime of Ignorance" is a factor in league with the
forces of destruction. Much is destroyed by blind strokes of
fate--fate, eternally pounding this earth in its everlasting enigmatic
efforts to shape life into something, the purpose of which we do not
understand, the meaning of which we may not even venture to dream of
or hope to know.

Whatever there has been preserved by "Providence," by freaks of chance,
by virtue of its own inherent strength--whatever has been buried by
misers, fondled, treasured by loving hands of collectors and
connoisseurs during all these centuries--every speck of ancient dust,
every scrap of parchment or papyrus, a corroded piece of metal, a
broken piece of stone or glass, so eagerly sought by the archaeologists
and historians of the last few generations--all these fragmentary
messages from out of the past emphasize the greatness of their time.
They show its modernity, its nearness to our own days. They are now
hazy reminiscences, as it were, by a middle-aged man of the hopes and
the joys of his own youth. These furtive fragments--whatever they
are--now tell us a story so full and so rich, they wield so marvelous a
power, no man laying claim to possessing any intelligence may pass them
without intensely feeling the eternal pathetic appeal to our hearts of
these bygone ages that hold us down in an envious manner, begrudging us
the warm life-blood of the present, weaving invisible ties around us to
make our hearts heavy.

However, we are not here to be impeded by any sentimental
considerations. Thinking of the past, we are not so much concerned
with the picture that dead men have placed in our path like ever so
many bill boards and posters! We do not care for their "ideals"
expounded in contemporary histories and eulogies. We are hardly moved
by the "facts" such as they would have loved to see them happen, nor do
we cherish the figments of their human, very human, subconsciousness.

To gain a correct picture of the Roman table we will therefore set
aside for a while the fragments culled from ancient literature and
history that have been misused so indiscriminately and so profusely
during the last two thousand years--for various reasons. They have
become fixed ideas, making reconstruction difficult for anyone who
would gain a picture along rational lines. Barring two exceptions,
there is no trustworthy detailed description of the ancient table by
an objective contemporary observer. To be sure, there are some
sporadic efforts, mere reiterations. The majority of the ancient word
pictures are distorted views on our subject by partisan writers,
contemporary moralists on the one side, satirists on the other.
Neither of them, we venture to say, knew the subject professionally.
They were not specialists in the sense of modern writers like
Reynière, Rumohr, Vaerst; nor did they approach in technical knowledge
medieval writers like Martino, Platina, Torinus.

True there were exceptions. Athenaeus, a most prolific and voluble
magiric commentator, quoting many writers and specialists whose names
but for him would have never reached posterity. Athenaeus tells about
these gastronomers, the greatest of them, Archestratos, men who might
have contributed so much to our knowledge of the ancient world, but to
us these names remain silent, for the works of these men have perished
with the rest of the great library at the disposal of this genial host
of Alexandria.

Too, there are Anacharsis and Petronius. They and Athenaeus cannot be
overlooked. These three form the bulk of our evidence.

Take on the other hand Plutarch, Seneca, Tertullian, even Pliny,
writers who have chiefly contributed to our defective knowledge of the
ancient table. They were no gourmets. They were biased, unreliable at
best, as regards culinary matters. They deserve our attention merely
because they are above the ever present mob of antique reformers and
politicians of whom there was legion in Rome alone, under the pagan
régime. Their state of mind and their intolerance towards civilized
dining did not improve with the advent of Christianity.

The moralists' testimony is substantiated and supplemented rather than
refuted by their very antipodes, the satirists, a group headed by
Martial, Juvenal and the incomparable Petronius, who really is in a
class by himself.

There is one more man worthy of mention in our particular study,
Horace, a true poet, the most objective of all writers,
man-about-town, pet of society, mundane genius, gifted to look calmly
into the innermost heart of his time. His eyes fastened a correct
picture on the sensitive diaphragm of a good memory, leaving an
impression neither distorted nor "out of focus." His eye did not "pick
up," for sundry reasons, the defects of the objects of observation,
nor did it work with the uncanny joy of subconscious exaggeration met
with so frequently in modern writing, nor did he indulge in that
predilection for ugly detail sported by modern art.

So much for Horatius, poet. Still, he was not a specialist in our
line. We cannot enroll him among the gifted gourmets no matter how
many meals he enjoyed at the houses of his society friends. We are
rather inclined to place him among the host of writers, ancient and
modern, who have treated the subject of food with a sort of sovereign
contempt, or at least with indifference, because its study presented
unsurmountable difficulties, and the subject, _per se_, was a menial
one. With this attitude of our potential chief witnesses defined, we
have no occasion to further appeal to them here, and we might proceed
to real business, to the sifting of the trustworthy material at hand.
It is really a relief to know that we have no array of formidable
authorities to be considered in our study. We have virgin field before
us--i.e., the ruins of ancient greatness grown over by a jungle of two
thousand years of hostile posterity.


POMPEII

Pompeii was destroyed in A.D. 79. From its ruins we have obtained in
the last half century more information about the intimate domestic and
public life of the ancients than from any other single source. What is
more important, this vast wealth of information is first hand,
unspoiled, undiluted, unabridged, unbiased, uncensored;--in short,
untouched by meddlesome human hands.

Though only a provincial town, Pompeii was a prosperous mercantile
place, a representative market-place, a favorite resort for fashionable
people. The town had hardly recuperated from a preliminary attack by
that treacherous mountain, Vesuvius, when a second onslaught succeeded
in complete destruction. Suddenly, without warning, this lumbering
_force majeur_ visited the ill-fated towns in its vicinity with
merciless annihilation. The population, just then enjoying the games in
the amphitheatre outside of the "downtown" district, had had hardly
time to save their belongings. They escaped with their bare lives. Only
the aged, the infirm, the prisoners and some faithful dogs were left
behind. Today their bodies in plaster casts may be seen, mute witnesses
to a frightful disaster. The town was covered with an airtight blanket
of ashes, lava and fine pumice stone. There was no prolonged death
struggle, no perceivable decay extended over centuries as was the cruel
lot of Pompeii's mistress, Rome. There were no agonies to speak of. The
great event was consummated within a few hours. The peace of death
settled down to reign supreme after the dust had been driven away by
the gentle breezes coming in from the bay of Naples. Some courageous
citizens returned, searching in the hot ashes for the crashed-in roofs
of their villas, to recover this or that. Perhaps they hoped to salvage
the strong box in the atrium, or a heirloom from the triclinium. But
soon they gave up. Despairing, or hoping for better days to come, they
vanished in the mist of time. Pompeii, the fair, the hospitable, the
gay city, just like any individual out of luck, was and stayed
forgotten. The Pompeians, their joys, sorrows, their work and play,
their virtues and vices--everything was arrested with one single
stroke, stopped, even as a camera clicks, taking a snapshot.

The city's destruction, it appears, was a formidable opening blow
dealt the Roman empire in the prime of its life, in a war of
extermination waged by hostile invisible forces. Pompeii makes one
believe in "Providence." A great disaster actually moulding, casting a
perfect image of the time for future generations! To be exact, it took
these generations eighteen centuries to discover and to appreciate the
heritage that was theirs, buried at the foot of Vesuvius. During these
long dark and dusky centuries charming goat herds had rested unctuous
shocks of hair upon mysterious columns that, like young giant
asparagus, stuck their magnificent heads out of the ground. Blinking
drowsily at yonder villainous mountain, the summit of which is
eternally crowned with a halo of thin white smoke, such as we are
accustomed to see arising from the stacks of chemical factories, the
confident shepherd would lazily implore his patron saint to enjoin
that unreliable devilish force within lest the _dolce far niente_ of
the afternoon be disturbed, for siestas are among the most important
functions in the life of that region. Occasionally the more
enterprising would arm themselves with pick-axe and shovel, made bold
by whispered stories of fabulous wealth, and, defying the evil spirits
protecting it, they would set out on an expedition of loot and
desecration of the tomb of ancient splendor.

Only about a century and a half ago the archaeological conscience
awoke. Only seventy-five years ago energetic moves made possible a
fruitful pilgrimage to this shrine of humanity, while today not more
than two-thirds but perhaps the most important parts of the city have
been opened to our astonished eyes by men who know.

And now: we may see that loaf of bread baked nineteen centuries ago,
as found in the bake shop. We may inspect the ingenious bake oven
where it was baked. We may see the mills that ground the flour for the
bread, and, indeed find unground wheat kernels. We see the oil still
preserved in the jugs, the residue of wine still in the amphorae, the
figs preserved in jars, the lentils, the barley, the spices in the
cupboard; everything awaits our pleasure: the taverns with their
"bars"; the ancient guests' opinion of Mine Host scribbled on the
wall, the kitchens with their implements, the boudoirs of milady's
with the cosmetics and perfumes in the compacts. There are the
advertisements on the walls, the foods praised with all the _eclat_ of
modern advertising, the election notices, the love missives, the bank
deposits, the theatre tickets, law records, bills of sale.

Phantom-like yet real there are the good citizens of a good town,
parading, hustling, loafing--sturdy patricians, wretched plebeians,
stern centurios, boastful soldiers, scheming politicians, crafty
law-clerks, timid scribes, chattering barbers, bullying gladiators,
haughty actors, dusty travelers, making for Albinus', the famous host
at the _Via della Abbondanza_ or, would he give preference to Sarinus,
the son of Publius, who advertised so cleverly? Or, perhaps, could he
afford to stop at the "Fortunata" Hotel, centrally located?

There are, too, the boorish hayseeds from out of town trying to sell
their produce, unaccustomed to the fashionable Latin-Greek speech of
the city folks, gaping with their mouths wide open, greedily at the
steaks of sacrificial meat displayed behind enlarging glasses in the
cheap cook shop windows. There they giggle and chuckle, those wily
landlords with their blasé habitués and their underlings, the greasy
cooks, the roguish "good mixers" at the bar and the winsome if
resolute _copæ_--waitresses--all ready to go, to do business. So
slippery are the cooks that Plautus calls one _Congrio_--sea eel--so
black that another deserves the title _Anthrax_--coal.

There they are, one and all, the characters necessary to make up what
we call civilization, chattering agitatedly in a lingo of
Latin-Greek-Oscan--as if life were a continuous market day.

It takes no particular scholarship, only a little imagination and
human sympathy to see and to hear the ghosts of Pompeii.

There is no pose about this town, no _mise-en-scène_, no
stage-setting. No heroic gesture. No theatricals, in short, no lies.
There is to be found no shred of that vainglorious cloak which humans
will deftly drape about their shoulders whenever they happen to be
aware of the camera. There is no "registering" of any kind here.

Pompeii's natural and pleasant disposition, therefore, is ever so much
more in evidence. Not a single one of this charming city's movements
was intended for posterity. Her life stands before our eyes in clear
reality, in naked, unadorned truth. Indeed, there were many things
that the good folks would have loved to point to with pride. You have
to search for these now. There are, alas and alack, a few things they
would have hidden, had they only known what was in store for them. But
all these things, good, indifferent and bad, remained in their places;
and here they are, unsuspecting, real, natural, charming like Diana
and her wood nymphs.

Were it not quite superfluous, we would urgently recommend the study
of Pompeii to the students of life in general and to those of
Antiquity in particular. Those who would know something about the
ancient table cannot do without Pompeii.


THREE ANCIENT WRITERS: ANACHARSIS, APICIUS, PETRONIUS

To those who lay stress upon documentary evidence or literary
testimony, to those trusting implicitly in the honesty and reliability
of writers of fiction, we would recommend Petronius Arbiter.

His _cena Trimalchionis_, Trimalchio's dinner, is the sole surviving
piece from the pen of a Roman contemporary, giving detailed
information on our subject. It is, too, the work of a great writer
moving in the best circles, and, therefore, so much more desirable as
an expert. Petronius deserves to be quoted in full but his work is too
well-known, and our space too short. However, right here we wish to
warn the student to bear in mind in perusing Petronius that this
writer, in his _cena_, is not depicting a meal but that he is
satirizing a man--that makes all the difference in the world as far
as we are concerned. Petronius' _cena_ is plainly an exaggeration, but
even from its distorted contours the student may recognize the true
lines of an ancient meal.

There is, not so well-known a beautiful picture of an Athenian dinner
party which must not be overlooked, for it contains a wealth of
information. Although Greek, we learn from it much of the Roman
conditions. Anacharsis' description of a banquet at Athens, dating
back to the fourth century B.C. about the time when the Periclean
régime flourished, is worth your perusal. A particularly good version
of this tale is rendered by Baron Vaerst in his book "Gastrosophie,"
Leipzig, 1854, who has based his version on the original translation
from the Greek, entitled, _Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grèce vers le
milieu du quatrième siècle avant l'ère vulgaire par J. J. Barthélemy_,
Paris, 1824. Vaerst has amplified the excerpts from the young
traveler's observations by quotations from other ancient Greek writers
upon the subject, thus giving us a most beautiful and authentic ideal
description of Greek table manners and habits when Athens had reached
the height in culture, refinement and political greatness.

Anacharsis was not a Hellene but a Scythian visitor. By his own
admission he is no authority on Grecian cookery, but as a reporter he
excels.

This truly Hellenic discussion of the art of eating and living at the
table of the cultured Athenians is the most profound discourse we know
of, ancient or modern, on eating. The wisdom revealed in this tale is
lasting, and, like Greek marble, consummate in external beauty and
inner worth.

We thus possess the testimony of two contemporary writers which
together with the book of Apicius and with what we learn from
Athenaeus should give a fair picture of ancient eating and cookery.

Apicius is our most substantial witness.

Unfortunately, this source has not been spared by meddlesome men, and
it has not reached us in its pristine condition. As a matter of fact,
Apicius has been badly mauled throughout the centuries. This book has
always attracted attention, never has it met with indifference. In the
middle ages it became the object of intensive study, interpretation,
controversy--in short it has attracted interest that has lasted into
modern times.

When, with the advent of the dark ages, it ceased to be a practical
cookery book, it became a treasure cherished by the few who preserved
the classical literature, and after the invention of printing it
became the object of curiosity, even mystery. Some interpreters waxed
enthusiastic over it, others who failed to understand it, condemned it
as hopeless and worthless.

The pages of our Apiciana plainly show the lasting interest in our
ancient book, particularly ever since its presence became a matter of
common knowledge during the first century of printing.

The Apicius book is the most ancient of European cookery books.
However, Platina's work, _de honesta uolvptate_, is the first cookery
book to appear in print. Platina, in 1474, was more up-to-date. His
book had a larger circulation. But its vogue stopped after a century
while Apicius marched on through centuries to come, tantalizing the
scholars, amusing the curious gourmets if not educated cooks to the
present day.


APICIUS, THE MAN

Who was Apicius? This is the surname of several renowned gastronomers
of old Rome. There are many references and anecdotes in ancient
literature to men bearing this name. Two Apicii have definitely been
accounted for. The older one, Marcus A. lived at the time of Sulla
about 100 B.C. The man we are most interested in, M. Gabius Apicius,
lived under Augustus and Tiberius, 80 B.C. to A.D. 40. However, both
these men had a reputation for their good table.


ATHENAEUS ON APICIUS

It is worth noting that the well-read Athenaeus, conversant with most
authors of Antiquity makes no mention of the Apicius book. This
collection of recipes, then, was not in general circulation during
Athenaei time (beginning of the third century of our era), that,
maybe, it was kept a secret by some Roman cooks. On the other hand it
is possible that the Apicius book did not exist during the time of
Athenaeus in the form handed down to us and that the monographs on
various departments of cookery (most of them of Greek origin, works of
which indeed Athenaeus speaks) were collected after the first quarter
of the third century and were adorned with the name of Apicius merely
because his fame as a gourmet had endured.

What Athenaeus knows about Apicius (one of three known famous eaters
bearing that name) is the following:

    "About the time of Tiberius [42 B.C.-37 A.D.] there
    lived a man, named Apicius; very rich and luxurious, for
    whom several kinds of cheesecake called Apician, are
    named [not found in our present A.]. He spent myriads of
    drachmas on his belly, living chiefly at Minturnæ, a
    city of Campania, eating very expensive crawfish, which
    are found in that place superior in size to those of
    Smyrna, or even to the crabs of Alexandria. Hearing,
    too, that they were very large in Africa, he sailed
    thither, without waiting a single day, and suffered
    exceedingly on his voyage. But when he came near the
    coast, before he disembarked (for his arrival made a
    great stir among the Africans) the fishermen came
    alongside in their boats and brought him some very fine
    crawfish; and he, when he saw them, asked if they had
    any finer; and when they said that there were none finer
    than those which they had brought, he, recollecting
    those at Minturnæ ordered the master of the ship to sail
    back the same way into Italy, without going near the
    land....

    "When the emperor Trajan [A.D. 52 or 53-117] was in
    Parthia [a country in Asia, part of Persia?] at a
    distance of many days from the sea, Apicius sent him
    fresh oysters, which he had kept so by a clever
    contrivance of his own; real oysters...."

(The instructions given in our Apicius book, Recipe 14, for the
keeping of oysters would hardly guarantee their safe arrival on such
a journey as described above.)

Athenaeus tells us further that many of the Apician recipes were
famous and that many dishes were named after him. This confirms the
theory that Apicius was not the author of the present book but that
the book was dedicated to him by an unknown author or compiler.
Athenaeus also mentions one Apion who wrote a book on luxurious
living. Whether this man is identical with the author or patron of our
book is problematic. Torinus, in his _epistola dedicatoria_ to the
1541 edition expresses the same doubt.

Marcus Gabius (or Gavius) Apicius lived during Rome's most interesting
epoch, when the empire had reached its highest point, when the seeds
of decline, not yet apparent, were in the ground, when in the quiet
villages of that far-off province, Palestine, the Saviour's doctrines
fascinated humble audiences--teachings that later reaching the very
heart of the world's mistress were destined to tarnish the splendor of
that autocrat.

According to the mention by various writers, this man, M. Gabius
Apicius, was one of the many ancient gastronomers who took the subject
of food seriously. Assuming a scientific attitude towards eating and
food they were criticised for paying too much attention to their
table. This was considered a superfluous and indeed wicked luxury when
frugality was a virtue. These men who knew by intuition the importance
of knowing something about nutrition are only now being vindicated by
the findings of modern science.

M. Gabius Apicius, this most famous of the celebrated and much
maligned bon-vivants, quite naturally took great interest in the
preparation of food. He is said to have originated many dishes
himself; he collected much material on the subject and he endowed a
school for the teaching of cookery and for the promotion of culinary
ideas. This very statement by his critics places him high in our
esteem, as it shows him up as a scientist and educator. He spent his
vast fortune for food, as the stories go, and when he had only a
quarter million dollars left (a paltry sum today but a considerable
one in those days when gold was scarce and monetary standards in a
worse muddle than today) Apicius took his own life, fearing that he
might have to starve to death some day.

This story seems absurd on the face of it, yet Seneca and Martial tell
it (both with different tendencies) and Suidas, Albino and other
writers repeat it without critical analysis. These writers who are
unreliable in culinary matters anyway, claim that Apicius spent one
hundred million _sestertii_ on his appetite--_in gulam_. Finally when
the hour of accounting came he found that there were only ten million
_sestertii_ left, so he concluded that life was not worth living if
his gastronomic ideas could no longer be carried out in the accustomed
and approved style, and he took poison at a banquet especially
arranged for the occasion.

In the light of modern experience with psychology, with economics,
depressions, journalism, we focus on this and similar stories, and we
find them thoroughly unreliable. We cannot believe this one. It is too
melodramatic, too moralistic perhaps to suit our modern taste. The
underlying causes for the conduct, life and end of Apicius have not
been told. Of course, we have to accept the facts as reported. If only
a Petronius had written that story! What a story it might have been!
But there is only one Petronius in antiquity. His Trimalchio, former
slave, successful profiteer and food speculator, braggard and
drunkard, wife-beater--an upstart who arranged extravagant banquets
merely to show off, who, by the way, also arranged for his funeral at
his banquet (Apician fashion and, indeed, Petronian fashion! for
Petronius died in the same manner) and who peacefully "passed out"
soundly intoxicated--this man is a figure true to life as it was then,
as it is now and as it probably will continue to be. Last but not
least: Mrs. Trimalchio, the resolute lady who helped him "make his
pile"--these are human characters much more real, much more
trustworthy than anything and everything else ever depicted by any
ancient pen; they bring out so graphically the modernity of antiquity.
Without Petronius and Pompeii the antique world would forever remain
at an inexplicably remote distance to our modern conception of life.
With him, and with the dead city, the riddles of antiquity are cleared
up.


THE BOOK

Many dishes listed in Apicius are named for various celebrities who
flourished at a later date than the second Apicius. It is noteworthy,
however, that neither such close contemporaries as Heliogabalus and
Nero, notorious gluttons, nor Petronius, the arbiter of fashion of the
period, are among the persons thus honored. Vitellius, a later
glutton, is well represented in the book. It is fair to assume, then,
that the author or collector of our present Apicius lived long after
the second Apicius, or, at least, that the book was augmented by
persons posterior to M. Gabius A. The book in its present state was
probably completed about the latter part of the third century. It is
almost certain that many recipes were added to a much earlier edition.


PROBABLY OF GREEK PARENTAGE

We may as well add another to the many speculations by saying that it
is quite probable for our book to originate in a number of Greek
manuals or monographs on specialized subjects or departments of
cookery. Such special treatises are mentioned by Athenaeus (cf.
Humelbergius, quoted by Lister). The titles of each chapter (or book)
are in Greek, the text is full of Greek terminology. While
classification under the respective titles is not strictly adhered to
at all times, it is significant that certain subjects, that of fish
cookery, for instance, appear twice in the book, the same subject
showing treatment by widely different hands. Still more significant is
the absence in our book of such important departments as
desserts--_dulcia_--confections in which the ancients were experts.
Bakery, too, even the plainest kind, is conspicuously absent in the
Apician books. The latter two trades being particularly well
developed, were departmentalized to an astonishing degree in ancient
Greece and Rome. These indispensable books are simply wanting in our
book if it be but a collection of Greek monographs. Roman culture and
refinement of living, commencing about 200-250 years before our era
was under the complete rule of Hellas. Greek influence included
everybody from philosophers, artists, architects, actors, law-makers
to cooks.

"The conquered thus conquered the conquerors."

Humelbergius makes a significant reference to the origin of Apicius.
We confess, we have not checked up this worthy editor nor his
successor, Dr. Lister, whom he quotes in the preface as to the origin
of our book. With reference to Plato's work, Humelbergius says:

    "_Que res tota spectat medicinæ partem, quæ diaitetike
    appelatur, et victu medetur: at in hac tes diaitetikes
    parte totus est Apicius noster._"

In our opinion, unfounded of course by positive proof, the Apicius
book is somewhat of a gastronomic bible, consisting of ten different
books by several authors, originating in Greece and taken over by the
Romans along with the rest of Greek culture as spoils of war. These
books, or chapters, or fragments thereof, must have been in vogue long
before they were collected and assembled in the present form.
Editions, or copies of the same must have been numerous, either singly
or collectively, at the beginning of our era. As a matter of fact, the
Excerpts by Vinidarius, found in the _codex Salmasianus_ prove this
theory and give rise to the assumption that the Apicius book was a
standard work for cookery that existed at one time or other in a far
more copious volume and that the present Apicius is but a fragment of
a formerly vaster and more complete collection of culinary and medical
formulæ.

Thus a fragmentary Apicius has been handed down to us in manuscript
form through the centuries, through the revolutionary era of Christian
ascendancy, through the dark ages down to the Renaissance. Unknown
agencies, mostly medical and monastic, stout custodians of antique
learning, reverent lovers of good cheer have preserved it for us until
printing made possible the book's wide distribution among the
scholars. Just prior to Gutenberg's epoch-making printing press there
was a spurt of interest in our book in Italy, as attested to by a
dozen of manuscripts, copied in the fourteenth and the fifteenth
centuries.

Apicius may justly be called the world's oldest cookery book; the very
old Sanscrit book, Vasavarayeyam, unknown to us except by name, is
said to be a tract on vegetarian cookery.

The men who have preserved this work for future generations, who have
made it accessible to the public (as was Lister's intention) have
performed a service to civilization that is not to be underestimated.
They have done better than the average archaeologist with one or
another find to his credit. The Apicius book is a living thing,
capable of creating happiness. Some gastronomic writers have pointed
out that the man who discovers a new dish does more for humanity than
the man who discovers a new star, because the discovery of a new dish
affects the happiness of mankind more pleasantly than the addition of
a new planet to an already overcrowded chart of the universe. Viewing
Apicius from such a materialistic point of view he should become very
popular in this age of ours so keen for utilities of every sort.


CŒLIUS-CÆLIUS

The name of another personality is introduced in connection with the
book, namely that of Cœlius or Cælius. This name is mentioned in
the title of the first undated edition (ca. 1483-6) as Celius.
Torinus, 1541, places "Cælius" before "Apicius"; Humelbergius, 1542,
places "Cœlius" after A. Lister approves of this, berating Torinus
for his willful methods of editing the book: "_En hominem in
conjecturis sane audacissimus!_" If any of them were correct about
"Cœlius," Torinus would be the man. (Cf. Schanz, Röm. Lit. Gesch.,
Müller's Handbuch d. klass. Altertums-Wissenschaft, V III, 112, p.
506.) However, there is no _raison d'être_ for Cœlius.

His presence and the unreality thereof has been cleared up by Vollmer,
as will be duly shown. The squabble of the medieval savants has also
given rise to the story that Apicius is but a joke perpetrated upon
the world by a medieval savant. This will be refuted also later on.
Our book is a genuine Roman. Medieval savants have made plenty of
Roman "fakes," for sundry reasons. A most ingenious hoax was the
"completion" of the Petronius fragment by a scholar able to hoodwink
his learned contemporaries by an exhibition of Petronian literary
style and a fertile imagination. Ever so many other "fakers" were
shown up in due time. When this version of Petronius was pronounced
genuine by the scientific world, the perpetrator of the "joke"
confessed, enjoying a good laugh at the expense of his colleagues. But
we shall presently understand how such a "joke" with Apicius would be
impossible. Meanwhile, we crave the indulgence of the modern reader
with our mention of Cœlius. We desire to do full justice to the
ancient work and complete the presentation of its history. The
controversies that have raged over it make this course necessary.

Our predecessors have not had the benefit of modern communication,
and, therefore, could not know all that is to be known on the subject.
We sympathize with Lister yet do not condemn Torinus. If Torinus ever
dared making important changes in the old text, they are easily
ascertained by collation with other texts. This we have endeavored to
do. Explaining the discrepancies, it will be noted that we have not
given a full vote of confidence to Lister.

Why should the mysterious Cœlius or Cælius, if such an author or
compiler of a tome on cookery existed affix the name of "Apicius" to
it? The reason would be commercial gain, prestige accruing from the
name of that cookery celebrity. Such business sense would not be
extraordinary. Modern cooks pursue the same method. Witness the
innumerable à la soandsos. Babies, apartment houses, streets, cities,
parks, dogs, race horses, soap, cheese, herring, cigars, hair
restorers are thus named today. "Apicius" on the front page of any
ancient cookery book would be perfectly consistent with the ancient
spirit of advertising. It has been stated, too, that Cœlius had
more than one collaborator. Neither can this be proven.

The copyists have made many changes throughout the original text.
Misspelling of terms, ignorance of cookery have done much to obscure
the meaning. The scribes of the middle ages had much difficulty in
this respect since medieval Latin is different from Apician language.

The very language of the original is proof for its authenticity. The
desire of Torinus to interpret to his medieval readers the ancient
text is pardonable. How much or how little he succeeded is attested to
by some of his contemporary readers, former owners of our copies.
Scholars plainly confess inability to decipher Apicius by groans
inscribed on the fly leaves and title pages in Latin, French and other
languages. One French scholar of the 16th century, apparently "kidded"
for studying an undecipherable cook book, stoically inscribes the
title page of our Lyon, 1541, copy with: "This amuses me. Why make fun
of me?" This sort of message, reaching us out of the dim past of
bygone centuries is among the most touching reading we have done, and
has urged us on with the good though laborious and unprofitable work.

Notwithstanding its drawbacks, our book is a classic both as to form
and contents. It has served as a prototype of most ancient and modern
books. Its influence is felt to the present day.

The book has often been cited by old writers as proof of the
debaucheries and the gluttony of ancient Rome. Nothing could be
further from the truth because these writers failed to understand the
book.

The Apicius book reflects the true condition (partly so, because it is
incomplete) of the kitchen prevailing at the beginning of our era when
the mistress of the Old World was in her full regalia, when her ample
body had not yet succumbed to that fatty degeneration of the interior
so fatal to ever so many individuals, families, cities and nations.

We repeat, our Apicius covers Rome's healthy epoch; hence the
importance of the book. The voluptuous concoctions, the fabulous
dishes, the proverbial excesses that have made decent people shudder
with disgust throughout the ages are not known to Apicius. If they
ever existed at all in their traditional ugliness they made their
appearance after Apicius' time. We recall, Petronius, describing some
of these "stunts" is a contemporary of Nero (whom he satirizes as
"Trimalchio"). So is Seneca, noble soul, another victim of Cæsarean
insanity; he, too, describes Imperial excesses. These extremely few
foolish creations are really at the bottom of the cause for this
misunderstanding of true Roman life. Such stupidity has allowed the
joy of life which, as Epikuros and Platina believe, may be indulged in
with perfect virtue and honesty to become a byword among all good
people who are not gastronomers either by birth, by choice or by
training.

With due justice to the Roman people may we be permitted to say that
proverbial excesses were exceedingly rare occurrences. The follies and
the vices of a Nero, a boy Heliogabalus, a Pollio, a Vitellius and a
few other notorious wasters are spread sporadically over a period of
at least eight hundred years. Between these cases of gastronomic
insanity lie wellnigh a thousand years of everyday grind and drudgery
of the Roman people. The bulk was miserably fed as compared with
modern standards of living. Only a few patricians could afford "high
living." Since a prosperous bourgeoisie (usually the economic and
gastronomic background of any nation) was practically unknown in Rome,
where the so-called middle classes were in reality poor, shiftless and
floating freedmen, it is evident that the bulk of the population
because of the empire's unsettled economic conditions, its extensive
system of slavery (precluding all successful practice of trades by
freemen), the continuous military operations, the haphazard financial
system, was forced to live niggardly. The contrast between the middle
classes and the upper classes seemed very cruel. This condition may
account for the many outcries against the "extravagances" of the few
privileged ones who could afford decent food and for the exaggerated
stories about their table found in the literature of the time.

The seemingly outlandish methods of Apician food preparation become
plain and clear in the light of social evolution. "Evolution" is
perhaps not the right word to convey our idea of social perpetual
motion.

Apicius used practically all the cooking utensils in use today. He
only lacked gas, electricity and artificial refrigeration, modern
achievements while useful in the kitchen and indispensable in
wholesale production and for labor saving, that have no bearing on
purely gastronomical problems. There is only one difference between
the cooking utensils of yore and the modern products: the old ones are
hand-made, more individualistic, more beautiful, more artistic than
our machine-made varieties.

Despite his strangeness and remoteness, Apicius is not dead by any
means. We have but to inspect (as Gollmer has pointed out) the table
of the Southern Europeans to find Apician traditions alive. In the
Northern countries, too, are found his traces. To think that Apicius
should have survived in the North of Europe, far removed from his
native soil, is a rather audacious suggestion. But the keen observer
can find him in Great Britain, Scandinavia and the Baltic provinces
today. The conquerors and seafarers coming from the South have carried
the pollen of gastronomic flowers far into the North where they
adjusted themselves to soil and climate. Many a cook of the British
isles, of Southern Sweden, Holstein, Denmark, Friesland, Pomerania
still observes Apicius rules though he may not be aware of the fact.

We must realize that Apicius is only a book, a frail hand-made record
and that, while the record itself might have been forgotten, its
principles have become international property, long ago. Thus they
live on. Like a living thing--a language, a custom, they themselves
may have undergone changes, "improvements," alterations, augmentation,
corruption. But the character has been preserved; a couple of thousand
years are, after all, but a paltry matter. Our own age is but the
grandchild of antiquity. The words we utter, in their roots, are those
of our grandfathers. And so do many dishes we eat today resemble those
once enjoyed by Apicius and his friends.

Is it necessary to point the tenacity of the spirit of the Antique,
reaching deep into the modern age? The latest Apicius edition in the
original Latin is dated 1922!

The gastronomic life of Europe was under the complete rule of old Rome
until the middle of the seventeenth century. Then came a sudden change
for modernity, comparable to the rather abrupt change of languages
from the fashionable Latin to the national idioms and vernacular, in
England and Germany under the influence of literary giants like
Luther, Chaucer, Shakespeare.

All medieval food literature of the continent and indeed the early
cookery books of England prior to La Varenne (Le Cuisinier François,
1654) are deeply influenced by Apicius. The great change in eating,
resulting in a new gastronomic order, attained its highest peak of
perfection just prior to the French revolution. Temporarily suspended
by this social upheaval, it continued to flourish until about the
latter part of last century. The last decades of this new order is
often referred to as the classical period of gastronomy, with France
claiming the laurels for its development. "Classic" for reasons we do
not know (Urbain Dubois, outstanding master of this period wrote "La
Cuisine classique") except that its precepts appeal as classical to
our notion of eating. This may not correspond to the views of
posterity, we had therefore better wait a century or two before
proclaiming our system of cookery "classical."

Disposing of that old "classic," Apicius, as slowly as a conservative
cooking world could afford to do, the present nations set out to
cultivate a taste for things that a Roman would have pronounced unfit
for a slave. Still, the world moves on. Conquest, discovery of foreign
parts, the New World, contributed fine things to the modern
table,--old forgotten foods were rediscovered--endless lists of
materials and combinations, new daring, preposterous dishes that made
the younger generation rejoice while old folks looked on gasping with
dismay, despair, contempt.

Be it sufficient to remark that the older practitioners of our own
days, educated in "classic" cuisine again are quite apprehensive of
their traditions endangered by the spirit of revolt of the young
against the old. Again and again we hear of a decline that has set in,
and even by the best authorities alarmist notes are spread to the
effect that "we have begun our journey back, step by step to our
primitive tree and our primitive nuts" (Pennell. Does Spengler
consider food in his "Decline of the West?").

It matters not whether we share this pessimism, nor what we may have
to say _pro_ or _con_ this question of "progress" or "retrogression"
in eating (or in anything else for that matter). In fact we are not
concerned with the question here more than to give it passing
attention.

If "classic" cookery is dying nowadays, if it cannot reassert itself
that would be a loss to mankind. But this classic cookery system has
so far only been the sole and exclusive privilege of a dying
aristocracy. It seems quite in order that it should go under in the
great _Götterdämmerung_ that commenced with the German peasants wars
of the sixteenth century, flaring up (as the second act) in the French
revolution late in the eighteenth century, the Act III of which drama
has been experienced in our own days.

The common people as yet have never had an active part in the
enjoyment of the classic art of eating. So far, they always provided
the wherewithal, and looked on, holding the bag. Modern hotels,
because of their commercial character, have done little to perpetuate
it. They merely have commercialized the art. Beyond exercising
ordinary salesmanship, our _maîtres d'hôtel_ have not educated our
_nouveaux riches_ in the mysteries and delights of gastronomy.
Hotelmen are not supposed to be educators, they merely cater to a
demand. And our new aristocracy has been too busy with limousines,
golf, divorces and electricity to bemourn the decline of classic
cookery.

Most people "get by" without the benefit of classic cookery,
subsisting on a medley of edibles, tenaciously clinging to mother's
traditions, to things "as she used to make them," and mother's methods
still savor of Apicius. Surely, this is no sign of retrogression but
of tenacity.

The only fundamental difference between Roman dining and that of our
own times may be found in these two indisputable facts--

(First) Devoid of the science of agriculture, without any advanced
mechanical means, food was not raised in a very systematic way; if it
happened to be abundant, Roma lacked storage and transportation
facilities to make good use of it. There never were any food supplies
on any large, extensive and scientific scale, hence raw materials, the
wherewithal of a "classic" meal, were expensive.

(Second) Skilled labor, so vital for the success of any good dinner,
so imperative for the rational preparation of food was cheap to those
who held slaves.

Hence, the culinary conditions of ancient Rome were exactly the
opposite of today's state of affairs. Then, good food was expensive
while good labor was cheap. Now, good food is cheap while skilled
labor is at a premium. Somehow, good, intelligent "labor" is reluctant
to devote itself to food. That is another story. The chances for a
good dinner seemed to be in favor of the Romans--but only for a
favored few. Those of us, although unable to command a staff of
experts, but able to prepare their own meals rationally and serve them
well are indeed fortunate. With a few dimes they may dine in royal
fashion. If our much maligned age has achieved anything at all it has
at least enabled the working "slave" of the "masses" to dine in a
manner that even princes could hardly match in former days, a manner
indeed that the princes of our own time could not improve upon. The
fly in the ointment is that most modern people do not know how to
handle and to appreciate food. This condition, however, may be
remedied by instruction and education.

Slowly, the modern masses are learning to emulate their erstwhile
masters in the art of eating. They have the advantages of the great
improvements in provisioning as compared with former days, thanks
chiefly to the great lines of communication established by modern
commerce, thanks to scientific agriculture and to the spirit of
commercial enterprise and its resulting prosperity.

There are two "Ifs" in the path to humanity's salvation, at least,
that of its table. If the commercialization of cookery, i.e., the
wholesale production of ready-made foods for the table does not
completely enthrall the housewife and if we can succeed to educate the
masses to make rational, craftsmanlike use of our wonderful stores of
edibles, employing or modifying to this end the rules of classic
cookery, there really should be no need for any serious talk about our
journey back to the primitive nuts. Even Spengler might be wrong then.
Adequate distribution of our foods and rational use thereof seem to be
one of the greatest problems today.


THE AUTHENTICITY OF APICIUS

Age-old mysteries surrounding our book have not yet been cleared up.
Medieval savants have squabbled in vain. Mrs. Pennell's worries and
the fears of the learned Englishmen that Apicius might be a hoax have
proven groundless. Still, the mystery of this remarkable book is as
perplexing as ever. The authorship will perhaps never be established.
But let us forever dispel any doubt about its authenticity.

Modern writers have never doubted the genuineness. To name but a few
who believe in Apicius: Thudichum, Vollmer, Brandt, Vicaire, Rumohr,
Schuch, Habs, Gollmer.

What matters the identity of the author? Who wrote the Iliad, the
Odyssey, the Nibelungen-Lied? Let us be thankful for possessing them!

Apicius is a genuine document of Roman imperial days. There can be no
doubt of that!

The unquestionable age of the earliest known manuscripts alone
suffices to prove this.

The philologist gives his testimony, too. A medieval scholar could
never have manufactured Apicius, imitating his strikingly original
terminology. "Faking" a technical treatise requires an intimate
knowledge of technical terms and familiarity with the ramifications of
an intricate trade. We recommend a comparison of Platina's text with
Apicius: the difference of ancient and medieval Latin is convincing.
Striking examples of this kind have been especially noted in our
dictionary of technical terms.


LATIN SLANG

H. C. Coote, in his commentary on Apicius (cit. Apiciana) in speaking
of pan gravy, remarks:

    "Apicius calls this by the singular phrase of _jus de
    suo sibi_! and sometimes though far less frequently,
    _succus suus_. This phrase is curious enough in itself
    to deserve illustration. It is true old fashioned
    Plautian Latinity, and if other proof were wanting would
    of itself demonstrate the genuineness of the Apician
    text."

This scholar goes on quoting from Plautus, _Captivi_, Act I, sc. 2,
vv. 12, 13; _Amphitruo_, Act I, sc. q.v. 116 and _ibid._ v. 174; and
from _Asinaria_, Act IV, sc. 2, vv. 16 and 17 to prove this, and he
further says:

    "The phrase is a rare remnant of the old familiar
    language of Rome, such as slaves talked so long, that
    their masters ultimately adopted it--a language of which
    Plautus gives us glimpses and which the _graffiti_ may
    perhaps help to restore. When Varius was emperor, this
    phrase of the kitchen was as rife as when Plautus
    wrote--a proof that occasionally slang has been long
    lived."

Coote is a very able commentator. He has translated in the article
quoted a number of Apician formulæ; and betrays an unusual culinary
knowledge.


MODERN RESEARCH

Modern means of communication and photography have enabled scientists
in widely different parts to study our book from all angles, to
scrutinize the earliest records, the Vatican and the New York
manuscripts and the codex Salmasianus in Paris.

Friedrich Vollmer, of Munich, in his _Studien_ (cit. Apiciana) has
treated the manuscripts exhaustively, carrying to completion the
research begun by Schuch, Traube, Ihm, Studemund, Giarratano and
others with Brandt, his pupil, carrying on the work of Vollmer. More
modern scientists deeply interested in the origin of our book! None
doubting its genuineness.

Vollmer is of the opinion that there reposed in the monastery of
Fulda, Germany, an _Archetypus_ which in the ninth century was copied
twice: once in a Turonian hand--the manuscript now kept in the
Vatican--the other copy written partly in insular, partly in
Carolingian minuscle--the Cheltenham _codex_, now in New York. The
common source at Fulda of these two manuscripts has been established
by Traube. There is another testimony pointing to Fulda as the oldest
known source. Pope Nicholas V commissioned Enoche of Ascoli to acquire
old manuscripts in Germany. Enoche used as a guide a list of works
based upon observations by Poggio in Germany in 1417, listing the
Apicius of Fulda. Enoche acquired the Fulda Apicius. He died in
October or November, 1457. On December 10th of that year, so we know,
Giovanni de'Medici requested Stefano de'Nardini, Governor of Ancona,
to procure for him from Enoche's estate either in copy or in the
original the book, entitled, _Appicius de re quoquinaria_ (cf. No. 3,
Apiciana). It is interesting to note that one of the Milanese editions
of 1498 bears a title in this particular spelling. Enoche during his
life time had lent the book to Giovanni Aurispa.

It stands to reason that Poggio, in 1417, viewed at Fulda the
_Archetypus_ of our Apicius, father of the Vatican and the New York
manuscripts, then already mutilated and wanting books IX and X. Six
hundred years before the arrival of Poggio the Fulda book was no
longer complete. Already in the ninth century its title page had been
damaged which is proven by the title page of the Vatican copy which
reads:

     ___
    INCP
    API
    CÆ

That's all! The New York copy, it has been noted, has no title page.
This book commences in the middle of the list of chapters; the first
part of them and the title page are gone. We recall that the New York
manuscript was originally bound up with another manuscript, also in
the Phillipps library at Cheltenham. The missing page or pages were
probably lost in separating the two manuscripts. It is possible that
Enoche carried with him to Italy one of the ancient copies, very
likely the present New York copy, then already without a title. At any
rate, not more than twenty-five years after his book hunting
expedition we find both copies in Italy. It is strange, furthermore,
that neither of these two ancient copies were used by the fifteenth
century copyists to make the various copies distributed by them, but
that an inferior copy of the Vatican Ms. became the _vulgata_--the
progenitor of this series of medieval copies. One must bear in mind
how assiduously medieval scribes copied everything that appeared to be
of any importance to them, and how each new copy by virtue of human
fallibility or self-sufficiency must have suffered in the making, and
it is only by very careful comparison of the various manuscripts that
the original text may be rehabilitated.

This, to a large extent, Vollmer and Giarratano have accomplished.
Vollmer, too, rejects the idea invented by the humanists, that Apicius
had a collaborator, editor or commentator in the person of Cœlius
or Cælius. This name, so Vollmer claims, has been added to the book by
medieval scholars without any reason except conjecture for such
action. They have been misled by the mutilated title: Api... Cæ...;
Vollmer reconstructs this title as follows:

    API[cii artis magiri- (or) opsartyti-]
    CÆ[libri X]

Remember, it is the title page only that is thus mutilated. The ten
books or chapters bear the full name of Apicius, never at any time
does the name of Cœlius appear in the text, or at the head of the
chapters.

The _Archetypus_, with the book and the chapters carefully indexed and
numbered as they were, with each article neatly titled, the captions
and capital letters rubricated--heightened by red color, and with its
proper spacing of the articles and chapters must once have been a
representative example of the art of book making as it flourished
towards the end of the period that sealed the fate of the Roman
empire, when books of a technical nature, law books, almanacs, army
lists had been developed to a high point of perfection. Luxurious
finish, elaborate illumination point to the fact that our book (the
Vatican copy) was intended for the use in some aristocratic household.


THE EXCERPTS OF VINIDARIUS

And now, from a source totally different than the two important
manuscripts so much discussed here, we receive additional proof of the
authenticity of Apicius. In the _codex Salmasianus_ (cf. III,
Apiciana) we find some thirty formulæ attributed to Apicius, entitled:
_Apici excerpta a Vinidario vir. inl._ They have been accepted as
genuine by Salmasius and other early scholars. Schuch incorporated the
_excerpta_ with his Apicius, placing the formulæ in what he believed
to be the proper order. This course, for obvious reasons, is not to be
recommended. To be sure, the _excerpta_ are Apician enough in
character, though only a few correspond to, or are actual duplicates
of, the Apician precepts. They are additions to the stock of authentic
Apician recipes. As such, they may not be included but be appended to
the traditional text. The _excerpta_ encourage the belief that at the
time of Vinidarius (got. Vinithaharjis) about the fifth century there
must have been in circulation an Apicius (collection of recipes) much
more complete than the one handed down to us through Fulda. It is
furthermore interesting to note that the _excerpta_, too, are silent
about Cœlius.

We may safely join Vollmer in his belief that M. Gabius Apicius,
celebrated gourmet living during the reign of Tiberius was the real
author, or collector, or sponsor of this collection of recipes, or at
least of the major part thereof--the formulæ bearing the names of
posterior gourmets having been added from time to time. This theory
also applies to the two instances where the name of Varro is mentioned
in connection with the preparation of beets and onions (bulbs). It is
hardly possible that the author of the book made these references to
Varro. It is more probable that some well-versed posterior reader,
perusing the said articles, added to his copy: "And Varro prepared
beets this way, and onions that way...." (cf. Book III, [70]) Still,
there is no certainty in this theory either. There were many persons
by the names of Commodus, Trajanus, Frontinianus, such as are
appearing in our text, who were contemporaries of Apicius.

With our mind at ease as regards the genuineness of our book we now
may view it at a closer range.


OBSCURE TERMINOLOGY

Apicius contains technical terms that have been the subject of much
speculation and discussion. _Liquamen_, _laser_, _muria_, _garum_,
etc., belong to these. They will be found in our little dictionary.
But we cannot refrain from discussing some at present to make
intelligible the most essential part of the ancient text.

Take _liquamen_ for instance. It may stand for broth, sauce, stock,
gravy, drippings, even for _court bouillon_--in fact for any liquid
appertaining to or derived from a certain dish or food material. Now,
if Apicius prescribes _liquamen_ for the preparation of a meat or a
vegetable, it is by no means clear to the uninitiated what he has in
mind. In fact, in each case the term _liquamen_ is subject to the
interpretation of the experienced practitioner. Others than he would
at once be confronted with an unsurmountable difficulty. Scientists
may not agree with us, but such is kitchen practice. Hence the many
fruitless controversies at the expense of the original, at the
disappointment of science.

_Garum_ is another word, one upon which much contemptuous witticism
and serious energy has been spent. _Garum_ simply is a generic name
for fish essences. True, _garus_ is a certain and a distinct kind of
Mediterranean fish, originally used in the manufacture of _garum_; but
this product, in the course of time, has been altered, modified,
adulterated,--in short, has been changed and the term has naturally
been applied to all varieties and variations of fish essences, without
distinction, and it has thus become a collective term, covering all
varieties of fish sauces. Indeed, the corruption and degeneration of
this term, _garum_, had so advanced at the time of Vinidarius in the
fifth century as to lose even its association with any kind of fish.
Terms like _garatum_ (prepared with g.) have been derived from it.
Prepared with the addition of wine it becomes _œnogarum_,--wine
sauce--and dishes prepared with such wine sauce receive the adjective
of _œnogaratum_, and so forth.

The original _garum_ was no doubt akin to our modern anchovy sauce, at
least the best quality of the ancient sauce. The principles of
manufacture surely are alike. _Garum_, like our anchovy sauce, is the
_purée_ of a small fish, named _garus_, as yet unidentified. The fish,
intestines and all, was spiced, pounded, fermented, salted, strained
and bottled for future use. The finest _garum_ was made of the livers
of the fish only, exposed to the sun, fermented, somehow preserved. It
was an expensive article in old Rome, famed for its medicinal
properties. Its mode of manufacture has given rise to much criticism
and scorn on the part of medieval and modern commentators and
interpreters who could not comprehend the "perverse taste" of the
ancients in placing any value on the "essence from putrified
intestines of fish."

However, _garum_ has been vindicated, confirmed, endorsed, reiterated,
rediscovered, if you please, by modern science! What, pray, is the
difference in principle between _garum_ (the exact nature of which is
unknown) and the oil of the liver of cod (or less expensive fish)
exposed to the beneficial rays of ultraviolet light--artificial
sunlight--to imbue the oil with an extra large and uniform dose of
vitamin D? The ancients, it appears, knew "vitamin D" to exist. Maybe
they had a different name for "vitamins," maybe none at all. The name
does not matter. The thing which they knew, does. They knew the
nutritive value of liver, proven by many formulæ. Pollio, one of the
vicious characters of antiquity, fed murenas (sea-eel) with slaves he
threw into the _piscina_, the fish pond, and later enjoyed the liver
of the fish.

Some "modern" preparations are astonishingly ancient, and _vice
versa_. Our anchovy sauce is used freely to season fish, to mix with
butter, to be made into solid anchovy or fish paste. There are sardine
pastes, lobster pastes, fish forcemeats found in the larder of every
good kitchen--preparations of Apician character. A real platter of
_hors d'oeuvres_, an _antipasto_ is not complete unless made according
to certain Apician precepts.

_Muria_ is salt water, brine, yet it may stand for a fluid in which
fish or meat, fruits or vegetables have been pickled.

The difficulties of the translator of Apicius who takes him literally,
are unconsciously but neatly demonstrated by the work of Danneil. Even
he, seasoned practitioner, condemns _garum_, _muria_, _asa
fœtida_, because professors before him have done so, because he
forgets that these very materials still form a vital part of some of
his own sauces only in a different shape, form or under a different
name. Danneil calls some Apician recipes "incredibly absurd,"
"fabulous," "exaggerated," but he thinks nothing of the serving of
similar combinations in his own establishment every day in the year.

Danneil would take pride in serving a Veal Cutlet à la Holstein. (What
have we learned of Apicius in the Northern countries?). The ancient
Holsteiner was not satisfied unless his piece of veal was covered with
a nice fat herring. That "barbarity" had to be modified by us moderns
into a veal cutlet, turned in milk and flour, eggs and bread crumbs,
fried, covered with fried eggs, garnished with anchovies or bits of
herring, red beets, capers, and lemon in order to qualify for a
restaurant favorite and "best seller." Apicius hardly has a dish more
characteristic and more bewildering.

What of combinations of fish and meat?

_De gustibus non est disputandum._ It all goes into the same stomach.
May it be a sturdy one, and let its owner beware. What of our turkey
and oyster dressing? Of our broiled fish and bacon? Of our clam
chowder, our divine _Bouillabaisse_? If the ingredients and component
parts of such dishes were enumerated in the laconic and careless
Apician style, if they were stated without explicit instructions and
details (supposed to be known to any good practitioner) we would have
recipes just as mysterious as any of the Apician formulæ.

Danneil, like ever so many interpreters, plainly shared the
traditional belief, the egregious errors of popular history. People
still are under the spell of the fantastic and fanciful descriptions
of Roman conviviality and gastronomic eccentricities. Indeed, we
rather believe in the insanity of these descriptions than in the
insane conduct of the average Roman gourmet. It is absurd of course to
assume and to make the world believe that a Roman patrician made a
meal of _garum_, _laserpitium_, and the like. They used these
condiments judiciously; any other use thereof is physically
impossible. They economized their spices which have caused so much
comment, too. As a matter of fact, they used condiments niggardly and
sparingly as is plainly described in some formulæ, if only for the one
good and sufficient reason that spices and condiments which often came
from Asia and Africa were extremely expensive. This very reason,
perhaps, caused much of the popular outcry against their use, which,
by the way, is merely another form of political propaganda, in which,
as we shall see, the mob guided by the rabble of politicians excelled.

We moderns are just as "extravagant" (if not more) in the use of
sauces and condiments--Apician sauces, too! Our Worcestershire,
catsup, chili, chutney, walnut catsup, A I, Harvey's, Punch, Soyer's,
Escoffier's, Oscar's (every culinary coryphee endeavors to create
one)--our mustards and condiments in their different forms, if not
actually dating back to Apicius, are, at least lineal descendants from
ancient prototypes.

To readers little experienced in kitchen practice such phrases (often
repeated by Apicius) as, "crush pepper, lovage, marjoram," etc.,
etc., may appear stereotyped and monotonous. They have not survived in
modern kitchen parlance, because the practice of using spices, flavors
and aromas has changed. There are now in the market compounds,
extracts, mixtures not used in the old days. Many modern spices come
to us ready ground or mixed, or compounded ready for kitchen use. This
has the disadvantage in that volatile properties deteriorate more
rapidly and that the goods may be easily adulterated. The Bavarians,
under Duke Albrecht, in 1553 prohibited the grinding of spices for
that very reason! Ground spices are time and labor savers, however.
Modern kitchen methods have put the old mortar practically out of
existence, at the expense of quality of the finished product.


THE "LABOR ITEM"

The enviable Apicius cared naught for either time or labor. He gave
these two important factors in modern life not a single thought. His
culinary procedures required a prodigious amount of labor and effort
on the part of the cooks and their helpers. The labor item never
worried any ancient employer. It was either very cheap or entirely
free of charge.

The selfish gourmet (which gourmet is not selfish?) almost wonders
whether the abolition of slavery was a well-advised measure in modern
social and economic life. Few people appreciate the labor cost in
excellent cookery and few have any conception of the cost of good food
service today. Yet all demand both, when "dining out," at least. Who,
on the other hand, but a brute would care to dine well, "taking it out
of the hide of others?"

Hence we moderns with a craving for _gourmandise_ but minus
appropriations for skilled labor would do well to follow the example
of Alexandre Dumas who cheerfully and successfully attended to his own
cuisine. Despite an extensive fiction practice he found time to edit
"Le Grand Dictionnaire de Cuisine" and was not above writing mustard
advertisements, either.


SUMPTUARY LAWS

The appetite of the ancients was at times successfully curbed by
sumptuary laws, cropping out at fairly regular intervals. These laws,
usually given under the pretext of safeguarding the morals of the
people and accompanied by similar euphonious phrases were, like modern
prohibitions, vicious and virulent effusions of the predatory instinct
in mankind. We cannot give a chronological list of them here, and are
citing them merely to illustrate the difficulty confronting the
prospective ancient host.

During the reign of Cæsar and Augustus severe laws were passed, fixing
the sums to be spent for public and private dinners and specifying the
edibles to be consumed. These laws classified gastronomic functions
with an ingenious eye for system, professing all the time to protect
the public's morals and health; but they were primarily designed to
replenish the ever-vanishing contents of the Imperial exchequer and
to provide soft jobs for hordes of enforcers. The amounts allowed to
be spent for various social functions were so ridiculously small in
our own modern estimation that we may well wonder how a Roman host
could have ever made a decent showing at a banquet. However, he and
the cooks managed somehow. Imperial spies and informers were
omnipresent. The market places were policed, the purchases by
prospective hosts carefully noted, dealers selling supplies and cooks
(the more skillful kind usually) hired for the occasion were bribed to
reveal the "menu." Dining room windows had to be located conveniently
to allow free inspection from the street of the dainties served; the
passing Imperial food inspector did not like to intrude upon the
sanctity of the host's home. The pitiable host of those days, his
unenviable guests and the bewildered cooks, however, contrived and
conspired somehow to get up a banquet that was a trifle better than a
Chicago quick lunch.

How did they do it?

In the light of modern experience gained by modern governments
dillydallying with sumptuary legislation that has been discarded as a
bad job some two thousand years ago, the question seems superfluous.

_Difficile est satyram non scribere!_ To make a long story short: The
Roman host just broke the law, that's all. Indeed, those who made the
laws were first to break them. The minions, appointed to uphold the
law, were easily accounted for. Any food inspector too arduous in the
pursuit of his duty was disposed of by dispatching him to the rear
entrance of the festive hall, and was delivered to the tender care of
the chief cook.

Such was the case during the times of Apicius. Indeed, the Roman idea
of good cheer during earlier epochs was provincial enough. It was
simply barbaric before the Greeks showed the Romans a thing or two in
cookery. The methods of fattening fowl introduced from Greece was
something unheard-of! It was outrageous, sacrilegious! Senators,
orators and other self-appointed saviors of humanity thundered against
the vile methods of tickling the human palate, deftly employing all
the picturesque tam-tam and _élan_ still the stock in trade of ever so
many modern colleagues in any civilized parliament. The speeches, to
be sure, passed into oblivion, the fat capons, however, stayed in the
barnyards until they had acquired the saturation point of tender
luscious calories to be enjoyed by those who could afford them. How
the capon was "invented" is told in a note on the subject.

Many other so-called luxuries, sausage from Epirus, cherries from the
Pontus, oysters from England, were greeted with a studied hostility by
those who profited from the business of making laws and public
opinion.

Evidently, the time and the place was not very propitious for
gastronomic over-indulgence. Only when the ice was broken, when the
disregard for law and order had become general through the continuous
practice of contempt for an unpopular sumptuary law, when corruption
had become wellnigh universal chiefly thanks to the examples set by
the higher-ups, it was then that the torrent of human passion and
folly ran riot, exceeding natural bounds, tearing everything with
them, all that is beautiful and decent, thus swamping the great empire
beyond the hopes for any recovery.


APICIUS THE WRITER

Most of the Apician directions are vague, hastily jotted down,
carelessly edited. One of the chief reasons for the eternal
misunderstandings! Often the author fails to state the quantities to
be used. He has a mania for giving undue prominence to expensive
spices and other (quite often irrelevant) ingredients. Plainly,
Apicius was no writer, no editor. He was a cook. He took it for
granted that spices be used within the bounds of reason, but he could
not afford to forget them in his formulæ.

Apicius surely pursues the correct culinary principle of incorporating
the flavoring agents during the process of cooking, contrary to many
moderns who, vigorously protesting against "highly seasoned" and
"rich" food, and who, craving for "something plain" proceed to
inundate perfectly good, plain roast or boiled dishes with a deluge of
any of the afore-mentioned commercial "sauces" that have absolutely no
relation to the dish and that have no mission other than to grant
relief from the deadening monotony of "plain" food. Chicken or mutton,
beef or venison, finnan haddie or brook trout, eggs or oysters thus
"sauced," taste all alike--sauce! To use such ready-made sauces with
dishes cooked _à l'anglaise_ is logical, excusable, almost advisable.
Even the most ascetic of men cannot resist the insidiousness of spicy
delights, nor can he for any length of time endure the insipidity of
plain food sans sauce. Hence the popularity of such sauces amongst
people who do not observe the correct culinary principle of seasoning
food judiciously, befitting its character, without spoiling but rather
in enhancing its characteristics and in bringing out its flavor at the
right time, namely during coction to give the kindred aromas a chance
to blend well.

Continental nations, adhering to this important principle of cookery
(inherited from Apicius) would not dream of using ready-made (English)
sauces.

We have witnessed real crimes being perpetrated upon perfectly
seasoned and delicately flavored _entrées_. We have watched
ill-advised people maltreat good things, cooked to perfection, even
before they tasted them, sprinkling them as a matter of habit, with
quantities of salt and pepper, paprika, cayenne, daubing them with
mustards of every variety or swamping them with one or several of the
commercial sauce preparations. "Temperamental" chefs, men who know
their art, usually explode at the sight of such wantonness. Which
painter would care to see his canvas varnished with all the hues in
the rainbow by a patron afflicted with such a taste?

Perhaps the craving for excessive flavoring is an olfactory delirium,
a pathological case, as yet unfathomed like the excessive craving for
liquor, and, being a problem for the medical fraternity, it is only of
secondary importance to gastronomy.

To say that the Romans were afflicted on a national scale with a
strange spice mania (as some interpreters want us to believe) would be
equivalent to the assertion that all wine-growing nations were nations
of drunkards. As a matter of fact, the reverse is the truth.

Apicius surely would be surprised at some things we enjoy. _Voilà_, a
recipe, "modern," not older than half a century, given by us in the
Apician style or writing: Take liquamen, pepper, cayenne, eggs, lemon,
olive oil, vinegar, white wine, anchovies, onions, tarragon, pickled
cucumbers, parsley, chervil, hard-boiled eggs, capers, green peppers,
mustard, chop, mix well, and serve.

Do you recognize it? This formula sounds as phantastic, as "weird" and
as "vile" as any of the Apician concoctions, confusing even a
well-trained cook because we stated neither the title of this
preparation nor the mode of making it, nor did we name the ingredients
in their proper sequence. This mystery was conceived with an
illustrative purpose which will be explained later, which may and may
not have to do with the mystery of Apicius. Consider, for a moment,
this mysterious creation No. 2: Take bananas, oranges, cherries,
flavored with bitter almonds, fresh pineapple, lettuce, fresh peaches,
plums, figs, grapes, apples, nuts, cream cheese, olive oil, eggs,
white wine, vinegar, cayenne, lemon, salt, white pepper, dry mustard,
tarragon, rich sour cream, chop, mix, whip well.

Worse yet! Instead of having our appetite aroused the very perusal of
this quasi-Apician _mixtum compositum_ repels every desire to partake
of it. We are justly tempted to condemn it as being utterly
impossible. Yet every day hundreds of thousand portions of it are sold
under the name of special fruit salad with _mayonnaise mousseuse_. The
above mystery No. 1 is the justly popular tartar sauce.

Thus we could go on analyzing modern preparations and make them appear
as outlandish things. Yet we relish them every day. The ingredients,
obnoxious in great quantities, are employed with common sense. We are
not mystified seeing them in print; they are usually given in clear
logical order. This is not the style of Apicius, however.


LATIN CUNNING

We can hardly judge Apicius by what he has revealed but we rather
should try to discover what he--purposely or otherwise--has concealed
if we would get a good idea of the ancient kitchen. This thought
occurred to us at the eleventh hour, after years of study of the text
and after almost despairing of a plausible solution of its mysteries.
And it seems surprising that Apicius has never been suspected before
of withholding information essential to the successful practice of his
rather hypothetical and empirical formulæ. The more we scrutinize
them, the more we become convinced that the author has omitted vital
directions--same as we did purposely with the two modern examples
above. Many of the Apician recipes are dry enumerations of ingredients
supposed to belong to a given dish or sauce. It is well-known that in
chemistry (cookery is but applied chemistry) the knowledge of the
rules governing the quantities and the sequence of the ingredients,
their manipulation, either separately or jointly, either successively
or simultaneously, is a very important matter, and that violation or
ignorance of the process may spell failure at any stage of the
experiment. In the kitchen this is particularly true of baking and
soup and sauce making, the most intricate of culinary operations.

There may have been two chief reasons for concealing necessary
information. Apicius, or more likely the professional collectors of
the recipes, may have considered technical elaboration of the formulæ
quite superfluous on the assumption that the formulæ were for
professional use only. Every good practitioner knows, with ingredients
or components given, what manipulations are required, what effects are
desired. Even in the absence of detailed specifications, the
experienced practitioner will be able to divine correct proportions,
by intuition. As a matter of fact, in cookery the mention in the right
place of a single ingredient, like in poetry the right word, often
suffices to conjure up before the gourmet's mental eye vistas of
delight. Call it inspiration, association of ideas or what you please,
a single word may often prove a guide, a savior.

Let us remember that in Apicii days paper (parchment, papyrus) and
writing materials were expensive and that, moreover, the ability of
correct logical and literary expression was necessarily limited in the
case of a practising cook who, after all, must have been the collector
of the Apician formulæ. This is sufficiently proven by the _lingua
coquinaria_, the vulgar Latin of our old work. In our opinion, the
ancient author did not consider it worth his while to give anything
but the most indispensable information in the tersest form. This he
certainly did. A comparison of his literary performance with that of
the artistic and accomplished writer of the Renaissance, Platina, will
at once show up Apicius as a hard-working practical cook, a man who
knew his business but who could not tell what he knew.

Like ever so many of his successors, he could not refrain from
beginning and concluding many of his articles with such superfluities
as "take this" and "And serve," etc., all of which shows him up as a
genuine cook. These articles, written in the most laconic language
possible--the language of a very busy, very harassed, very hurried
man, are the literary product of a cook, or several of them.

The other chief motive for condensing or obscuring his text has a more
subtle foundation. Indeed, we are surprised that we should possess so
great a collection of recipes, representing to him who could use them
certain commercial and social value. The preservation of Apicius seems
entirely accidental. Experienced cooks were in demand in Apicii times;
the valuation of their ministrations increased proportionately to the
progress in gastronomy and to the prosperity of the nation. During
Rome's frugal era, up to 200 B.C. the primitive cooks were just slaves
and household chattels; but the development of their trade into an
art, stimulated by foreign precepts, imported principally from Greece,
Sicily and Asia Minor, opened up to the practitioners not only the
door to freedom from servitude but it offered even positions of wealth
with social and political standing, often arousing the envy, satire,
criticism of bona-fide politicians, journalists, moralists, satirists
and of the ever-present hordes of parasites and hangers-on. Some cooks
became confidants, even friends and advisors of men in high places,
emperors, (cf. life of Vitellius) and through their subtle influence
upon the mighty they may have contributed in no mean measure to the
fate of the nation. But such invisible string-pullers have not been
confined to those days alone. (Take Rasputin! Take the valet to
William I, reputed to have had more "say" than the mighty Bismarck,
who, as it developed, got "the air" while the valet died in his
berth.)

Such being the case, what potential power reposed in a greasy cookery
manuscript! And, if so, why bare such wonderful secrets to Tom, Dick
and Harry?

Weights and measures are given by Apicius in some instances. But just
such figures can be used artfully to conceal a trap. Any mediocre
cook, gaining possession of a choice collection of detailed and
itemized recipes would have been placed in an enviable position.
Experimenting for some time (at his master's expense) he would soon
reach that perfection when he could demand a handsome compensation for
his ministrations. Throughout antique times, throughout the middle
ages down to the present day (when patent laws no longer protect a
secret) strict secrecy was maintained around many useful and lucrative
formulæ, not only by cooks, but also by physicians, alchemists and the
various scientists, artisans and craftsmen. Only the favorite
apprentice would be made heir to or shareholder in this important
stock in trade after his worthiness had been proven to his master's
satisfaction, usually by the payment of a goodly sum of
money--apprentice's pay. We remember reading in Lanciani (Rodolfo L.:
Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries) how in the entire
history of Rome there is but one voice, that of a solitary,
noble-minded physician, complaining about the secrecy that was being
maintained by his colleagues as regards their science. To be sure,
those fellows had every reason in the world for keeping quiet: so
preposterous were their methods in most cases! This secrecy indeed
must have carried with it a blessing in disguise. Professional reserve
was not its object. The motive was purely commercial.

Seeing where the information given by Apicius is out of reason and
unintelligible we are led to believe that such text is by no means to
be taken very literally. On the contrary, it is quite probable that
weights and measures are not correct: they are quite likely to be of
an artful and studied unreliability. A secret private code is often
employed, necessitating the elimination or transposition of certain
words, figures or letters before the whole will become intelligible
and useful. If by any chance an uninitiated hand should attempt to
grasp such veiled directions, failure would be certain. We confess to
have employed at an early stage of our own career this same strategy
and time-honored camouflage to protect a precious lot of recipes.
Promptly we lost this unctuous manuscript, as we feared we would; if
not deciphered today, the book has long since been discarded as being
a record of the ravings of a madman.

The advent of the printing press changed the situation. With Platina,
ca. 1474, an avalanche of cookery literature started. The secrets of
Scappi, "_cuoco secreto_" to the pope, were "scooped" by an
enterprising Venetian printer in 1570. The guilds of French mustard
makers and sauce cooks (precursors of modern food firms and
manufacturers of ready-made condiments) were a powerful tribe of
secret mongers in the middle ages. English gastronomic literature of
the 16th, 17th and even the 18th century is crowded with "closets
opened," "secrets let out" and other alluring titles purporting to
regale the prospective reader with profitable and appetizing secrets
of all sorts. Kitchen secrets became commercial articles.

These remarks should suffice to illustrate the assumption that the
Apicius book was not created for publication but that it is a
collection of abridged formulæ for private use, a treasure chest as it
were, of some cook, which after the demise of its owner, collector,
originator, a curious world could not resist to play with, although
but a few experienced masters held the key, being able to make use of
the recipes.


MEAT DIET

In perusing Apicius only one or two instances of cruelty to animals
have come to our attention (cf. recipes No. 140 and 259). Cruel
methods of slaughter were common. Some of the dumb beasts that were to
feed man and even had to contribute to his pleasures and enjoyment of
life by giving up their own lives often were tortured in cruel,
unspeakable ways. The belief existed that such methods might increase
the quality, palatability and flavor of the meat. Such beliefs and
methods may still be encountered on the highways and byways in Europe
and Asia today. Since the topic, strictly speaking does not belong
here, we cannot depict it in detail, and in passing make mention of it
to refer students interested in the psychology of the ancients to such
details as are found in the writings of Plutarch and other ancient
writers during the early Christian era. It must be remembered,
however, that such writers (including the irreproachable Plutarch)
were advocates of vegetarianism. Some passages are inspired by true
humane feeling, but much appears to be written in the interest of
vegetarianism.

The ancients were not such confirmed meat eaters as the modern Western
nations, merely because the meat supply was not so ample. Beef was
scarce because of the shortage of large pastures. The cow was sacred,
the ox furnished motive power, and, after its usefulness was gone, the
muscular old brute had little attraction for the gourmet. Today lives
a race of beef eaters. Our beef diet, no doubt is bound to change
somewhat. Already the world's grazing grounds are steadily
diminishing. The North American prairies are being parcelled off into
small farms the working conditions of which make beef raising
expensive. The South American pampas and a strip of coastal land in
Australia now furnish the bulk of the world's beef supply. Perhaps
Northern Asia still holds in store a large future supply of meat but
this no doubt will be claimed by Asia. Already North America is
acclimating the Lapland reindeer to offset the waning beef, to utilize
its Northern wastes.

With the increasing shortage of beef, with the increasing facilities
for raising chicken and pork, a reversion to Apician methods of
cookery and diet is not only probably but actually seems inevitable.
The ancient bill of fare and the ancient methods of cookery were
entirely guided by the supply of raw materials--precisely like ours.
They had no great food stores nor very efficient marketing and
transportation systems, food cold storage. They knew, however, to take
care of what there was. They were good managers.

Such atrocities as the willful destruction of huge quantities of food
of every description on the one side and starving multitudes on the
other as seen today never occurred in antiquity.

Many of the Apician dishes will not appeal to the beef eaters. It is
worthy of note that much criticism was heaped upon Apicius some 200
years ago in England when beef eating became fashionable in that
country. The art of Apicius requires practitioners of superior
intellect. Indeed, it requires a superior clientèle to appreciate
Apician dishes. But practitioners that would pass the requirements of
the Apician school are scarce in the kitchens of the beef eaters. We
cannot blame meat eaters for rejecting the average _chef d'œuvre_
set before them by a mediocre cook who has learned little besides the
roasting or broiling of meats. Once the average man has acquired a
taste for the refined compositions made by a talented and experienced
cook, say, a composition of meats, vegetables or cereals, properly
"balanced" by that intuition that never fails the real artist, the
fortunate diner will eventually curtail the preponderant meat diet. A
glance at some Chinese and Japanese methods of cookery may perhaps
convince us of the probability of these remarks.

Nothing is more perplexing and more alarming than a new dish, but we
can see in a reversion to Apician cookery methods only a dietetic
benefit accruing to this so-called white race of beef eaters.

Apicius certainly excels in the preparation of vegetable dishes (cf.
his cabbage and asparagus) and in the utilization of parts of food
materials that are today considered inferior, hardly worth preparing
for the table except by the very careful and economical housekeeper.
Properly prepared, many of these things are good, often more
nutritious than the dearer cuts, and sometimes they are really
delicious.

One has but to study the methods of ancient and intelligent people who
have suffered for thousands of years under the perennial shortage of
food supplies in order to understand and to appreciate Apician
methods. Be it far from us to advocate their methods, or to wish upon
us the conditions that engendered such methods; for such practices
have been pounded into these people by dire necessity. They have
graduated from the merciless school of hunger.

Food materials, we repeat, were never as cheap and as abundant as they
are today. But who can say that they always will be so in the future?


SCIENCE CONFIRMING ANCIENT METHODS

We must not overlook the remarkable intuition displayed by the
ancients in giving preference to foods with body- and blood-building
properties. For instance, the use of liver, particularly fish liver
already referred to. The correctness of their choice is now being
confirmed by scientific re-discoveries. The young science of nutrition
is important enough to an individual who would stimulate or preserve
his health. But since constitutions are different, the most carefully
conceived dietary may apply to one particular individual only,
provided, however, that our present knowledge of nutrition be correct
and final. This knowledge, as a matter of fact, is being revised and
changed constantly.

If dietetics, therefore, were important enough to have any bearing at
all upon the well-defined methods of cookery, we might go into detail
analyzing ancient methods from that point of view. To call attention
to the "economy," the stewardship, or craftsmanship, in ancient
methods and to the truly remarkable intuition that guided the ancient
cooks is more important. Without these qualities there can be no
higher gastronomy. Without high gastronomy no high civilization is
possible. The honest and experienced nutrition expert, though perhaps
personally opposed to elaborate dining, will discover through close
study of the ancient precepts interesting pre-scientific and
well-balanced combinations and methods designed to jealously guard the
vitamins and dietetic values in dishes that may appear curiously "new"
to the layman that would nevertheless receive the unqualified approval
of modern science.

We respect the efforts of modern dietitians and food reformers; but we
are far removed from the so-called "simple" and "plain" foods
advocated by some well-meaning individuals. With the progress of
civilization we are farther and farther drifting away from it. Even
barbaric and beastly food is not "simple."

This furtive "intuition" in cookery (in the absence of scientific
facts because of the inability of cooks to transform empirical
traditions into practical rules emanating from understood principles)
still prevails today. It guides great chefs, saves time spent in
scientific study.

The much criticized "unnatural union of sugar and meats" of the
ancients still exists today in many popular examples of cookery: lamb
and mint sauce, steak and catsup, mutton and currant jelly, pork and
apples (in various forms), oyster cocktail, poultry and compôte, goose
with apple and raisin dressing, venison and Cumberland sauce, mince
pie, plum pudding--typical survivals of ancient traditions.
"Intuition" is still preceding exact science, and "unnatural unions"
as in social, political and any other form of life, seem to be the
rule rather than the exception.


DISGUISING FOODS

Apicius is often blamed for his endeavor to serve one thing under the
guise of another. The reasons for such deceptions are various ones.
Fashion dictated it. Cooks were not considered "clever" unless they
could surprise guests with a commonplace food material so skillfully
prepared that identification was difficult or impossible. Another
reason was the absence of good refrigeration, making "masking"
necessary. Also the ambition of hosts to serve a cheaper food for a
more expensive one--veal for chicken, pork for partridge, and so on.
But do we not indulge in the same "stunts" today? We either do it with
the intention of deceiving or to "show off." Have we not "Mock Turtle
Soup," _Mouton à la Chasseur_, mutton prepared to taste like venison,
"chicken" salad made of veal or of rabbit? In Europe even today much
of the traditional roast hare is caught in the alley, and it belongs
to a feline species. "Roof hare."


FOOD ADULTERATIONS

There is positive evidence of downright frauds and vicious food
adulteration in the times of Apicius. The old rascal himself is not
above giving directions for rose wine without roses, or how to make a
spoiled honey marketable, and other similar adulterations. Those of
our readers with sensitive gastronomic instinct had better skip the
paragraphs discussing the treatment of "birds with a goatish smell."
But the old food adulterators are no match for their modern
successors.

Too, some of our own shams are liable to misinterpretation. In
centuries to come our own modern recipes for "Scotch Woodcock" or
"Welsh rabbit" may be interpreted as attempts on our part to hoodwink
guests by making game birds and rabbits out of cheese and bread, like
Trimalchio's culinary artists are reputed to have made suckling pigs
out of dough, partridges of veal, chicken of tunny fish, and _vice
versa_. What indeed would a serious-minded research worker a thousand
years hence if unfamiliar with our culinary practice and traditions
make of such terms as _pette de nonne_ as found in many old French
cookery books, or of the famous _suttelties_ (subtleties)--the
confections once so popular at medieval weddings?

The ramifications of the _lingua coquinaria_ in any country are
manifold, and the culinary wonderland is full of pitfalls even for the
experienced gourmet.


REACHING THE LIMIT

Like in all other branches of ancient endeavor, cookery had reached a
state of perfection around the time of Apicius when the only chance
for successful continuation of the art lay in the conquest of new
fields, i.e., in expansion, generalization, elaboration and in
influence from foreign sources. We have witnessed this in French
cookery which for the last hundred years has successfully expanded and
has virtually captured the civilized parts of the globe, subject
however, always to regional and territorial modifications.

This desirable expansion of antique cookery did not take place. It was
violently and rather suddenly checked principally by political and
economic events during the centuries following Apicius, perhaps
principally by the forces that caused the great migration (the very
quest of food!). Suspension ensued instead. The heirs to the ancient
culture were not yet ready for their marvelous heritage. Besides their
cultural unpreparedness, the cookery of the ancients, like their
humor, did not readily appeal to the "Nordic" heirs. Both are so
subtle and they depend so much upon the psychology and the economic
conditions of a people, and they thus presented almost unsurmountable
obstacles to the invaders. Still lo! already in the fifth century, the
Goth Vinithaharjis, started to collect the Apician precepts.


OUR PREDECESSORS

The usefulness in our days of Apicius as a practical cookery book has
been questioned, but we leave this to our readers to decide after the
perusal of this translation.

If not useful in the kitchen, if we cannot grasp its moral, what,
then, is Apicius? Merely a curio?

The existing manuscripts cannot be bought; the old printed editions
are highly priced by collectors, and they are rare. Still, the few
persons able to read the messages therein cannot use them: they are
not practitioners in cookery.

None of the Apician editors (except Danneil and the writer) were
experienced practising gastronomers. Humelbergius, Lister, Bernhold
were medical men. Two serious students, Schuch and Wuestemann, gave up
academic positions to devote a year to the study of modern cookery in
order to be able to interpret Apicius. These enthusiasts overlooked,
however, two facts: Apicius cannot be understood by inquiring into
modern average cookery methods, nor can complete mastery of cookery,
practical as well as theoretical, including the historical and
physiological aspects of gastronomy be acquired in one year. Richard
Gollmer, another Apicius editor, declares that the results of this
course in gastronomy were negative. We might add here that Schuch's
edition of Apicius, apart from the unwarranted inclusion of the
_excerpta_ of Vinidarius is the least reliable of all editions.

Gollmer published a free version of Apicius in German in 1909. If he
did not render the original very faithfully and literally, it must
be said in all fairness that his methods of procedure were correct.
Gollmer attempted to interpret the ancient text for the modern
reader. Unfortunately he based his work upon that of Schuch and
Wuestemann and Lister. A year or so later Eduard Danneil published a
version of his own, also based on Schuch. This editor is a
practising _chef_,--_Hof-Traiteur_ or caterer to the court of one of
the then reigning princes of Germany. Danneil's preface is dated
1897, though the date of publication is 1911. In view of the fact
that Gollmer had covered the ground and that Danneil added nothing
new to Apician lore, his publication seems superfluous. Danneil's
translation differs in that the translator adhered literally to the
questionable Schuch version whereas Gollmer aspired to a free and
readable version for an educated public.

A comparison reveals that the one author is not a cook while the other
is not a savant.

Like the scholars who tried their hand at cookery, there are a number
of worthy and ambitious practitioners of cookery who have endeavored
to reach the heights of scholarship, among them Carême and Soyer, men
of great calibre. Unfortunately, the span of human life is short, the
capacity of the human mind is limited. Fruitful achievements in widely
different fields of endeavor by one man are rare. This is merely to
illustrate the extreme difficulty encountered by anyone bent on a
venturesome exploration of our subject and the very narrow chances of
success to extricate himself with grace from the two-thousand year old
labyrinth of philosophical, historical, linguistical and gastronomical
technicalities.

This task will become comparatively easy, however, and surely
interesting and with a foreboding of many delights and surprises if we
penetrate the jungle aided by the experience of predecessors,
steadfastly relying on the "theory of evolution" as a guide, and armed
with the indispensable equipment for gastronomical research, i.e., the
practical and technical knowledge of cookery, mastery of languages,
augmented by practical experience gathered by observations and travel
in many lands, and last but not least, if we are obsessed with the
fixed idea that so menial a subject is worth all the bother.

We have purposely refrained from presenting here a treatise in the
customary scientific style. We know, there are repetitions,
digressions, excursions into adjacent fields that may be open to
criticism. We really do not aim to make this critical review an
exhibition of scholarly attainments with all the necessary brevity,
clarity, scientific restraint and etiquette. Such style would be
entirely out of our line. Any bookish flavor attaching itself to our
work would soon replace a natural fragrance we aim to preserve, namely
our close contact with the subject. Those interested in the scholarly
work that has been contributed to this cause are referred to modern
men like Vollmer, Giarratano, Brandt and others named in the
bibliography. Of the older scientists there is Martinus Lister, a man
whose knowledge of the subject is very respectable and whose devotion
to it is unbounded, whose integrity as a scientist is above reproach.
His notes and commentaries together with those of Humelbergius, the
editor-physician of Zürich, will be enjoyed and read with profit by
every antiquary. The labors of Bernhold and Schuch are meritorious
also, the work, time, and _esprit_ these men have devoted to the
subject is enormous. As for Torinus, the opinions are divided.
Humelbergius ignores him, Gryphius pirates him, Lister scorns him, we
like him. Lister praises his brother physician, Humelbergius: _Doctus
quidem vir et modestus!_ So he is! The notes by Humelbergius alone and
his word: _Nihil immutare ausi summus!_ entitles him to all the praise
Lister can bestow. Unfortunately, the sources of his information are
unknown.

Lacking these, we have of course no means of ascertaining whether he
always lived up to his word that he is not privileged to change.
Humelbergius and Lister may have made contributions of value from a
philological point of view but their work appears to have less merit
gastronomically than that of Torinus. To us the Basel editor often
seems surprisingly correct in cases where the gastronomical character
of a formula is in doubt.

In rendering the ancient text into English we, too, have endeavored to
follow Humelbergii example; hence the almost literal translation of
the originals before us, namely, Torinus, Humelbergius, Lister,
Bernhold, Schuch and the latest, Giarratano-Vollmer which reached us
in 1925 in time for collating. We have wavered often and long whether
or not to place alongside this English version the original Latin
text, but due to the divergencies we have finally abandoned the idea,
for practical reasons alone.

In translating we have endeavored to clear up mysteries and errors;
this interpretation is a work quite apart and independent of that of
the translation. It is merely the sum and substance of our practical
experience in gastronomy. It is not to be taken as an attempt to
change the original but is presented in good faith, to be taken on its
face value. This interpretation appears in the form of notes directly
under each article, for quick reference and it is our wish that it be
of some practical service in contributing to the general understanding
and appreciation of our ancient book.

For the sake of expediency we have numbered and placed a title (in
English) on each ancient recipe, following the example of Schuch. This
procedure may be counted against us as a liberty taken with the text.
The text has remained inviolate. We have merely aimed at a rational
and legible presentation--work within the province and the duty of an
editor-translator and technical expert.

We do not claim credit for any other work connected with the task of
making this most unique book accessible to the English speaking public
and for the competition for scholastic laurels we wish to stay _hors
de combat_. We feel we are not privileged to pass final judgment upon
the excellent work done by sympathetic and erudite admirers of our
ancient book throughout the better part of four centuries, and we
cannot side with one or the other in questions philological,
historical, or of any other nature, except gastronomical. We are
deeply indebted to all of our predecessors and through conversations
and extensive correspondence with other modern researchers, Dr. Edward
Brandt and Dr. Margaret B. Wilson, we are enabled to predict new
developments in Apician research. The debates of the scientists, it
appears, are not yet closed.

As a matter of fact, the various differences of opinion in minor
questions are of little import to us as compared with the delightful
fact that we here possess an Apicius, not only a genuine Roman, but an
"honest-to-goodness" human being besides. A jolly fellow is Apicius
with a basketful of happy messages for a hungry world. We therefore
want to make this work of ours the entertainment and instruction the
subject deserves to be. If we succeed in proving that Apicius is not a
mummified, bone-dry classic but that he has "the goods," namely some
real human merit we shall have accomplished more than the savants to
whom this popularization of our hero has been denied so far.

After all, we live in a practical age, and it is the practical value,
the matter-of-fact contribution to our happiness and well-being by the
work of any man, ancient or modern, which counts in these days of
materialism.

So let us tell the truth, and let us sum up in a few words:

We do not know who Apicius is. We do not know who wrote the book
bearing his name. We do not know when it was written, or whether it
is of Greek or of Roman origin. Furthermore, we do not understand many
of its precepts!

We do know, however, that it is the oldest work dealing with the food
and the cookery of the ancient world's greatest empire, and that, as
such, it is of the utmost interest and importance to us.

In this sense we have endeavored to treat the book.


DINING IN APICIAN STYLE

Past attempts to dine à l'Apicius invariably have ended disastrously.
Eager _gourmets_, ever on the look-out for something new, and curious
scholars have attempted to prepare dishes in the manner prescribed by
Apicius. Most of such experimenters have executed the old precepts
literally, instead of trying to enter into their spirit.

"_Das Land der Griechen mit der Seele suchen!_" says Goethe. The
friends of Apicius who failed to heed this advice, also failed to
comprehend the precepts, they were cured of their curiosity, and
blamed the master for their own shortcomings. Christina, queen of
Sweden, was made ill by an attempt of this kind to regale her majesty
with a rare Apician morsel while in Italy as the guest of some noble.
But history is dark on this point. Here perhaps Apicius is blamed for
a dastardly attempt on the royal lady's life for this daughter of the
Protestant Gustavus Adolphus was in those days not the only crowned
head in danger of being dispatched by means of some tempting morsel
smilingly proffered by some titled rogue. A deadly dish under the
disguise of "Apicius" must have been particularly convenient in those
days for such sinister purposes. The sacred obligations imposed upon
"barbarians" by the virtue of hospitality had been often forgotten by
the super-refined hosts of the Renaissance.

But Apicius continued to prove unhealthful to a number of later
amateurs. Lister, with his perfectly sincere endeavor to popularize
Apicius, achieved precisely the opposite. The publication of his work
in London, 1705, was the signal for a number of people, scholars and
others, to crack jokes, not at the expense of Apicius, as they
imagined, but to expose their own ignorance. Smollet, Dr. W. King
("Poor starving wit"--Swift), Dr. Hunter and others. More recently, a
party of English dandies, chaperoned, if we remember correctly, by the
ponderous George Augustus Sala, fared likewise badly in their attempt
to stage a Roman feast, being under the impression that the days of
Tiberius and the mid-Victorian era may be joined with impunity, _à la
minute_, as it were.

Even later, in one of the (alas! not so many) good books on
gastronomy, "Kettner's Book of the Table," London, 1877, the excellent
author dismisses Roman cookery with a few lines of "warning." Kettner,
admirer of Sala, evidently was still under the baneful influence.
Twenty years later, Danneil, colleague of Kettner's, joined the chorus
of "irreverent critics." They all based their judgment on mere idle
conversation, resulting from disappointments in ill-fated attempts to
cook in the Apician style. Even the best experts, it appears, fall
victims to the mysterious spell surrounding, protecting things of
sacred antiquity, hovering like an avenging angel over them, to ward
off all "irreverent critics" and curious intruders.


THE PROOF OF THE PUDDING

After all, the proof of the pudding is in the eating. This homely
solid wisdom is literally true of our good old Apicius. We have tested
many of his precepts, and have found them practical, good, even
delightful. A few, we will say, are of the rarest beauty and of
consummate perfection in the realm of gastronomy, while some others
again are totally unintelligible for reasons sufficiently explained.
Always remembering Humelbergius, we have "laid off" of these torsos,
recommending them to some more competent commentator. Many of the
ancient formula tried have our unqualified gastronomic approval.

If our work has not differed from that of our predecessors, if it
shows the same human frailties and foibles, we have at least one mark
of distinction among the editors in that we have subjected the
original to severe practical tests as much as this is possible with
our modern food materials. We experienced difficulty in securing
certain spices long out of use. Nevertheless, the experience of
actually sampling Apician dishes and the sensation of dining in the
manners of the Cæsars are worth the trouble we took with Apicius. This
is a feeling of partaking of an entirely new dish, met with both
expectancy and with suspicion, accentuated by the hallowed traditions
surrounding it which has rewarded us for the time and expense devoted
to the subject. Ever since we have often dined in the classical
fashion of the ancients who, after all, were but "folks" like
ourselves.

If you care not for the carnal pleasures in Apician gastronomy--for
_gulam_,--if you don't give a fig for philology, there still is something
healthy, something infinitely soothing and comforting--"educational"--in
the perusal of the old book and in similar records.

When we see Apicius, the famous "epicure" descending to the very level
of a common food "fakir," giving directions for making Liburnian oil
that has never seen that country....

When we note, with a gentle shudder, that the grafters of Naples,
defying even the mighty Augustus, leveled the "White Earth Hill" near
Puteoli because an admixture of plaster paris is exceedingly
profitable to the milling profession....

When Apicius--celebrated glutton--resorts to the comparatively
harmless "stunt" of keeping fresh vegetables green by boiling them in
a copper kettle with soda....

When we behold hordes of ancient legislators, posing as dervishes of
moderation, secretly and openly breaking the prohibition laws of their
own making....

When we turn away from such familiar sights and, in a more jovial
mood, heartily laugh at the jokes of that former mill slave, Plautus
(who could not pay his bills) and when we wonder why his wise cracks
sound so familiar we remember that we have heard their modern versions
only yesterday at the Tivoli on State Street....

When, finally, in the company of our respected Horatius we hear him
say in the slang of his day: _Ab ovo usque ad mala_, and compare this
bright saying with our own dear "From Soup to Nuts."...

Then we arrive at the comforting conclusion that we moderns are either
very ancient and backward or that indeed the ancients are very modern
and progressive; and it is our only regret that we cannot decide this
perplexing situation to our lasting satisfaction.

Very true, there may be nothing new under the sun, yet nature goes on
eternally fashioning new things from old materials. Eternally
demolishing old models in a manner of an economical sculptor, nature
uses the same old clay to create new specimens. Sometimes nature
slightly alters the patterns, discarding what is unfit for her
momentary enigmatic purposes, retaining and favoring that which
pleases her whimsical fancy for the time being.

Cookery deals exclusively with nature's works. Books on cookery are
essentially books on nature's actions and reactions.

In the perpetual search for perfection, life has accomplished one
remarkable thing: the development of man, the animal which cooks.
Gradually nature has revealed herself to man principally through the
food he takes, cooks and prepares for the enjoyment of himself and his
fellow men.


THE COOKING ANIMAL

The gastronomer is the highest development of the cooking animal.

He--artist, philosopher, metaphysician, religionist--stands with his
head bared before nature: overawed, contemplating her gifts, feasting
his eyes on beauteous forms and colors, inhaling intoxicating
fragrances, aromas, odors, matching them all artistically, partaking
only of what he needs for his own subsistence--eternally marveling at
nature's inexhaustible resources and inventiveness, at her everlasting
bounty born of everlasting fierce struggles.

The gastronomer is grateful for the privilege of holding the
custodianship of such precious things, and he guards it like an office
of a sacred rite--ever gratefully, reverently adoring, cherishing the
things before him ... ever marveling ... ever alone, alone with
nature.

As for the overwhelming majority of the cooking animals, they behave
much more "naturally." They are a merry crowd, ever anticipating a
good time, ever jolly, eager, greedy. Or, they are cranky, hungry,
starved, miserable, and they turn savage now and then. Some are
gluttonous. Many contract indigestion--nature's most subtle
punishment.

If they were told that they must kill before they may cook--that might
spoil the appetite and dinner joy of many a tender-hearted devourer of
fellow-creatures.

Heaven forbid! Being real children of nature, and behaving naturally,
nature likes them, and we, too, certainly are well pleased with the
majority.

The only fly in the ointment of life is that we don't know what it is
all about, and probably never will know.


PROŒMII FINIS



{Illustration: TRIPOD FOR THE GREAT CRATER

Hildesheim Treasure}



       THE RECIPES OF APICIUS
                AND
     THE EXCERPTS FROM APICIUS
           BY VINIDARIUS

 ORIGINAL TRANSLATION FROM THE TEXTS
  OF TORINUS, HUMELBERGIUS, LISTER
       AND GIARRATANO-VOLLMER
      WITH NOTES AND COMMENTS



{Illustration: "DINNER GONG"

Heavy bronze disk and substantial "knocker" to signal slaves. Found in
Pompeii. "Hurry, fellows, the cakes are piping hot!"--Plautus. Ntl.
Mus., Naples, 78622; Field M., 24133.}



{Illustration: OVAL SERVICE DISH

With two decorated handles. Hildesheim Treas.}



THE TEN BOOKS OF APICIUS


I. THE CAREFUL EXPERIENCED COOK. II. MINCES. III. THE GARDENER. IV.
MISCELLANEOUS DISHES. V. LEGUMES. VI. POULTRY. VII. FANCY DISHES.
VIII. QUADRUPEDS. IX. SEA FOOD. X. FISH SAUCES. THE EXCERPTS OF
VINIDARIUS.

[V. The Greek titles of the ten books point to a common Greek origin,
indicating that Apicius is a collection of Greek monographs on various
branches of cookery, specialization such as highly developed
civilizations would produce. Both the literary style and the contents
of the books point to different authors, as may be seen from the very
repetitions of and similarities in subjects as in VI and VIII, and in
IX and X. The absence of books on bread and cake baking, dessert
cookery indicates that the present Apicius is not complete.]



BOOK I. THE CAREFUL EXPERIENCED COOK

_Lib. I. Epimeles_


    CHAP.     I. FINE SPICED WINE. HONEY REFRESHER FOR TRAVELERS.
    CHAP.    II. ROMAN VERMOUTH.
    CHAP.   III. ROSE WINE. VIOLET WINE. ROSE WINE WITHOUT ROSES.
    CHAP.    IV. LIBURNIAN OIL.
    CHAP.     V. TO CLARIFY MUDDY WINE.
    CHAP.    VI. TO IMPROVE A BROTH WITH A BAD ODOR.
    CHAP.   VII. TO KEEP MEATS FRESH WITHOUT SALT. TO KEEP COOKED
                 SIDES OF PORK.
    CHAP.  VIII. TO MAKE SALT MEATS SWEET.
    CHAP.    IX. TO KEEP FRIED FISH. TO KEEP OYSTERS.
    CHAP.     X. TO MAKE LASER GO A LONG WAY.
    CHAP.    XI. TO MAKE HONEY CAKES LAST. TO MAKE SPOILED HONEY GOOD.
                 TO TEST SPOILED HONEY.
    CHAP.   XII. TO KEEP GRAPES. TO KEEP POMEGRANATES. TO KEEP QUINCES.
                 TO PRESERVE FRESH FIGS. TO KEEP CITRON. TO KEEP
                 MULBERRIES. TO KEEP POT HERBS. TO PRESERVE SORREL. TO
                 KEEP TRUFFLES. TO KEEP HARD-SKINNED PEACHES.
    CHAP.  XIII. SPICED SALTS FOR MANY ILLS.
    CHAP.   XIV. TO KEEP GREEN OLIVES.
    CHAP.    XV. CUMIN SAUCE FOR SHELLFISH. ANOTHER.
    CHAP.   XVI. LASER FLAVOR. ANOTHER.
    CHAP.  XVII. WINE SAUCE FOR TRUFFLES. ANOTHER.
    CHAP. XVIII. OXYPORUM.
    CHAP.   XIX. HYPOTRIMA.
    CHAP.    XX. OXYGARUM, DIGESTIVE. ANOTHER.
    CHAP.   XXI. MORTARIA.



I


[1] FINE SPICED WINE
  _CONDITUM PARADOXUM_

THE COMPOSITION OF [this] EXCELLENT SPICED WINE [is as follows]. INTO
A COPPER BOWL PUT 6 SEXTARII [1] OF HONEY AND 2 SEXTARII OF WINE; HEAT
ON A SLOW FIRE, CONSTANTLY STIRRING THE MIXTURE WITH A WHIP. AT THE
BOILING POINT ADD A DASH OF COLD WINE, RETIRE FROM STOVE AND SKIM.
REPEAT THIS TWICE OR THREE TIMES, LET IT REST TILL THE NEXT DAY, AND
SKIM AGAIN. THEN ADD 4 OZS. OF CRUSHED PEPPER [2], 3 SCRUPLES OF
MASTICH, A DRACHM EACH OF [nard or laurel] LEAVES AND SAFFRON, 5
DRACHMS OF ROASTED DATE STONES CRUSHED AND PREVIOUSLY SOAKED IN WINE
TO SOFTEN THEM. WHEN THIS IS PROPERLY DONE ADD 18 SEXTARII OF LIGHT
WINE. TO CLARIFY IT PERFECTLY, ADD [crushed] CHARCOAL [3] TWICE OR AS
OFTEN AS NECESSARY WHICH WILL DRAW [the residue] TOGETHER [and
carefully strain or filter through the charcoal].

    [1] _Sextarii._ Tor. _partes XV_; G.-V. _pondo XV_;
    List. _partes XV ... pondo lib.... qui continent
    sextarios sex_. One sextarius (a "sixth") equals about
    1-1/2 pint English.

    [2] Pepper. _Piperis uncias IV_--ordinarily our black or
    white pepper grains, but in connection with honey,
    sweets, and so forth, the term "pepper" may just as well
    stand for our allspice, or even for any spicing in
    general.

    [3] Charcoal. Still a favorite filterer for liquors.

    List. Apicius is correct in starting his book with this
    formula, as all meals were started with this sort of
    mixed drink.

    Tor. deviates from the other texts in that he elaborates
    on the cooking process.


[2] HONEY REFRESHER FOR TRAVELERS
  _CONDITUM MELIZOMUM _[1]_ VIATORIUM_

THE WAYFARER'S HONEY REFRESHER (SO CALLED BECAUSE IT GIVES ENDURANCE
AND STRENGTH TO PEDESTRIANS) [2] WITH WHICH TRAVELERS ARE REFRESHED BY
THE WAYSIDE IS MADE IN THIS MANNER: FLAVOR HONEY WITH GROUND PEPPER
AND SKIM. IN THE MOMENT OF SERVING PUT HONEY IN A CUP, AS MUCH AS IS
DESIRED TO OBTAIN THE RIGHT DEGREE OF SWEETNESS, AND MIX SPICED WINE
NOT MORE THAN A NEEDED QUANTITY; ALSO ADD SOME WINE TO THE SPICED
HONEY TO FACILITATE ITS FLOW AND THE MIXING.

    [1] Tor. _Melirhomum_; _non extat_. G.-V. M.
    _perpetuum_, i.e., having good keeping qualities.

    [2] Tor. reads thus whereas others apply "endurance" to
    the honey itself. The honey could not be preserved
    (_perpetuum_) by the addition of pepper. Any addition,
    as a matter of fact, would hasten its deterioration
    unless the honey were boiled and sealed tight, which the
    original takes for granted.



II


[3] ROMAN VERMOUTH
  _ABSINTHIUM ROMANUM_ [1]

ROMAN VERMOUTH [or Absinth] IS MADE THUS: ACCORDING TO THE RECIPE OF
CAMERINUM [2] YOU NEED WORMWOOD FROM SANTO [3] FOR ROMAN VERMOUTH OR,
AS A SUBSTITUTE, WORMWOOD FROM THE PONTUS [4] CLEANED AND CRUSHED, 1
THEBAN OUNCE [5] OF IT, 6 SCRUPLES OF MASTICH, 3 EACH OF [nard]
LEAVES, COSTMARY [6] AND SAFFRON AND 18 QUARTS OF ANY KIND OF MILD
WINE. [Filter cold] CHARCOAL IS NOT REQUIRED BECAUSE OF THE
BITTERNESS.

    [1] G.-V. _Apsinthium_.

    [2] The mention of a name in a recipe is very
    infrequent. Camerinum is a town in Umbria.

    [3] Now Saintonge, Southern France.

    [4] Black Sea Region.

    [5] Weight of indefinite volume, from Thebæ, one of the
    several ancient cities by that name. List. thinks it is
    an Egyptian ounce, and that the author of the recipe
    must be an African.

    [6] Wanting in Tor.; G.-V. _costi scripulos senos_.



III


[4] ROSE WINE [1]
  _ROSATUM_

MAKE ROSE WINE IN THIS MANNER: ROSE PETALS, THE LOWER WHITE PART
REMOVED, SEWED INTO A LINEN BAG AND IMMERSED IN WINE FOR SEVEN DAYS.
THEREUPON ADD A SACK OF NEW PETALS WHICH ALLOW TO DRAW FOR ANOTHER
SEVEN DAYS. AGAIN REMOVE THE OLD PETALS AND REPLACE THEM BY FRESH ONES
FOR ANOTHER WEEK; THEN STRAIN THE WINE THROUGH THE COLANDER. BEFORE
SERVING, ADD HONEY SWEETENING TO TASTE. TAKE CARE THAT ONLY THE BEST
PETALS FREE FROM DEW BE USED FOR SOAKING.

    [1] Used principally as a laxative medicine. List. These
    wines compounded of roses and violets move the bowels
    strongly.


[5] VIOLET WINE
  _VIOLATIUM_

IN A SIMILAR WAY AS ABOVE LIKE THE ROSE WINE VIOLET WINE IS MADE OF
FRESH VIOLETS, AND TEMPERED WITH HONEY, AS DIRECTED.


[6] ROSE WINE WITHOUT [1] ROSES
  _ROSATUM SINE ROSA_

ROSE WINE WITHOUT ROSES IS MADE IN THIS FASHION: A PALM LEAF BASKET
FULL OF FRESH CITRUS LEAVES IS IMMERSED IN THE VAT OF NEW WINE BEFORE
FERMENTATION HAS SET IN. AFTER FORTY DAYS RETIRE THE LEAVES, AND, AS
OCCASION ARISES, SWEETEN THE WINE WITH HONEY, AND PASS IT UP FOR ROSE
WINE.

    [1] A substitute.



IV


[7] LIBURNIAN OIL
  _OLEUM LIBURNICUM_

IN ORDER TO MAKE AN OIL SIMILAR TO THE LIBURNIAN OIL PROCEED AS
FOLLOWS: IN SPANISH OIL PUT [the following mixture of] ELECAMPANE,
CYPRIAN RUSH AND GREEN LAUREL LEAVES THAT ARE NOT TOO OLD, ALL OF IT
CRUSHED AND MACERATED AND REDUCED TO A FINE POWDER. SIFT THIS IN AND
ADD FINELY GROUND SALT AND STIR INDUSTRIOUSLY FOR THREE DAYS OR MORE.
THEN ALLOW TO SETTLE. EVERYBODY WILL TAKE THIS FOR LIBURNIAN OIL. [1]

    [1] Like the above a flagrant case of food adulteration.



V


[8] TO CLARIFY MUDDY WINE
  _VINUM EX ATRO CANDIDUM FACIES_

PUT BEAN MEAL AND THE WHITES OF THREE EGGS IN A MIXING BOWL. MIX
THOROUGHLY WITH A WHIP AND ADD TO THE WINE, STIRRING FOR A LONG TIME.
THE NEXT DAY THE WINE WILL BE CLEAR [1]. ASHES OF VINES HAVE THE SAME
EFFECT.

    [1] Ex Lister whose version we prefer. He says, _Alias
    die erit candidum_ while Tor. adds white salt, saying,
    _sal si adieceris candidum_, same as Tac. This is
    unusual, although the ancients have at times treated
    wine with sea water.



VI


[9] TO IMPROVE A BROTH [1]
  _DE LIQUAMINE EMENDANDO_ [2]

IF BROTH HAS CONTRACTED A BAD ODOR, PLACE A VESSEL UPSIDE DOWN AND
FUMIGATE IT WITH LAUREL AND CYPRESS AND BEFORE VENTILATING [3] IT,
POUR THE BROTH IN THIS VESSEL. IF THIS DOES NOT HELP MATTERS [4] AND
IF THE TASTE IS TOO PRONOUNCED, ADD HONEY AND FRESH SPIKENARD [5] TO
IT; THAT WILL IMPROVE IT. ALSO NEW MUST SHOULD BE LIKEWISE EFFECTIVE
[6].

    [1] List. _Liquamen, id est, garum_. Goll. Fish sauce.

    [2] Tor. _Qui liquamen corruptum corrigatur_.

    [3] Dann. Ventilate it. Goll. Whip the sauce in fresh
    air.

    [4] List., G.-V. _si salsum fuerit_--if this makes it
    too salty--Tor. _si hoc nihil effecerit_.

    [5] Tor. _novem spicam immittas_; List. _Move spica_;
    Goll.-Dann. stir with a whip.

    [6] A classic example of Apician confusion when one
    interpreter reads "s" for "f" and "_novem_" for "_move_"
    and another reads something else. Tor. is more correct
    than the others, but this formula is beyond redemption.
    Fate has decreed that ill-smelling broths shall be
    discarded.



VII


[10] TO KEEP MEATS FRESH WITHOUT SALT FOR ANY LENGTH OF TIME
   _UT CARNES SINE SALE QUOVIS TEMPORE RECENTES SINT_

COVER FRESH MEAT WITH HONEY, SUSPEND IT IN A VESSEL. USE AS NEEDED; IN
WINTER IT WILL KEEP BUT IN SUMMER IT WILL LAST ONLY A FEW DAYS. COOKED
MEAT MAY BE TREATED LIKEWISE.


[11] TO KEEP COOKED SIDES OF PORK OR BEEF OR TENDERLOINS
   _CALLUM PORCINUM VEL BUBULUM ET UNGUELLÆ COCTÆ UT DIU DURENT_

PLACE THEM IN A PICKLE OF MUSTARD, VINEGAR, SALT AND HONEY, COVERING
MEAT ENTIRELY, AND WHEN READY TO USE YOU'LL BE SURPRISED.

    V. Method still popular today for pickling raw meats.
    The originals treat of cooked meats (Tor. _nucula
    elixa_; G.-V. _unguellæ coctæ_; Tac. _nucella cocta_).
    Dispensing with the honey, we use more spices, whole
    pepper, cloves, bay leaves, also onions and root
    vegetables. Sometimes a little sugar and wine is added
    to this preparation which the French call _marinade_ and
    the Germans _Sauerbraten-Einlage_.



VIII


[12] TO MAKE SALT MEAT SWEET
   _UT CARNEM SALSAM DULCEM FACIAS_

YOU CAN MAKE SALT MEATS SWEET BY FIRST BOILING THEM IN MILK AND THEN
FINISHING THEM IN WATER.

    V. Method still in practice today. Salt mackerel, finnan
    haddie, etc., are parboiled in milk prior to being
    boiled in water or broiled or fried.



IX


[13] TO KEEP FRIED FISH
   _UT PISCES FRICTI DIU DURENT_

IMMEDIATELY AFTER THEY ARE FRIED POUR HOT VINEGAR OVER THEM.

    Dann. Exactly as we today with fried herring and river
    lamprey.


[14] TO KEEP OYSTERS
   _OSTREA UT DIU DURENT_

FUMIGATE A VINEGAR BARREL WITH PITCH [1], WASH IT OUT WITH VINEGAR AND
STACK THE OYSTERS IN IT [2]

    [1] Tor. _vas ascernum_, corrected on margin, _ab
    aceto_. List. _vas ab aceto_, which is correct. G.-V.
    _lavas ab aceto_; V. the oysters? unthinkable! Besides
    it would do no good.

    [2] Goll. Take oysters out of the shell, place in
    vinegar barrel, sprinkle with laurel berries, fine salt,
    close tight. V. Goll's authority for this version is
    not found in our originals.

    V. There is no way to keep live oysters fresh except in
    their natural habitat--salt water. Today we pack them in
    barrels, feed them with oatmeal, put weights on them--of
    no avail. The only way English oysters could have
    arrived fresh in Imperial Rome was in specially
    constructed bottoms of the galleys.



X


[15] MAKING A LITTLE LASER GO A LONG WAY
   _UT NUCIA _[1]_ LASERIS TOTO TEMPORE UTARIS_

PUT THE LASER [2] IN A SPACIOUS GLASS VESSEL; IMMERSE ABOUT 20 PINE
KERNELS [pignolia nuts]

IF YOU NEED LASER FLAVOR, TAKE SOME NUTS, CRUSH THEM; THEY WILL IMPART
TO YOUR DISH AN ADMIRABLE FLAVOR. REPLACE THE USED NUTS WITH A LIKE
NUMBER OF FRESH ONES [3]

    [1] List. and G.-V. _uncia_--ounce. Making an ounce of
    laser go a long way. Tor. _nucea_; Tac. _nucia_. Lister,
    fond of hair-splitting, is irreconcilably opposed to
    Tor., and berates Caspar Barthius for defending Tor.
    List. _Quam futilis sit in multis labor C. Barthii ut
    menda Torini passim sustineat, vel ex hoc loco
    intelligere licet: Et enim lege modo uncia pro nucea cum
    Humelbergio, & ista omnia glossemata vana sunt._

    V. both readings, _uncia_ or _nucia_ are permissible,
    and make very little difference. We side with Tor. and
    Tac. because it takes more than an ounce of laser to
    carry out this experiment.

    [2] _Laser_, _laserpitium_, cf. dictionary.

    [3] V. This article illustrates how sparingly the
    ancients used the strong and pungent laser flavor [by
    some believed to be _asa foetida_] because it was very
    expensive, but principally because the Roman cooks
    worked economically and knew how to treat spices and
    flavors judiciously. This article alone should disperse
    for all time all stories of ancient Rome's extravagance
    in flavoring and seasoning dishes. It reminds of the
    methods used by European cooks to get the utmost use out
    of the expensive vanilla bean: they bury the bean in a
    can of powdered sugar. They will use the sugar only
    which has soon acquired a delicate vanilla perfume, and
    will replace the used sugar by a fresh supply. This is
    by far a superior method to using the often rank and
    adulterated "vanilla extract" readily bottled. It is
    more gastronomical and more economical. Most commercial
    extracts are synthetic, some injurious. To believe that
    any of them impart to the dishes the true flavor desired
    is of course ridiculous. The enormous consumption of
    such extracts however, is characteristic of our
    industrialized barbarism which is so utterly indifferent
    to the fine points in food. Today it is indeed hard for
    the public to obtain a real vanilla bean.

    Cf. also notes regarding flavoring to Nos. 276-7, 345
    and 385.



XI


[16] TO MAKE HONEY CAKES LAST
   _UT DULCIA DE MELLE DIU DURENT_

TO MAKE HONEY CAKES THAT WILL KEEP TAKE WHAT THE GREEKS CALL YEAST [1]
AND MIX IT WITH THE FLOUR AND THE HONEY AT THE TIME WHEN MAKING THE
COOKY DOUGH.

    [1] Tor. and Tac. _nechon_; G.-V. _cnecon_; Dann.
    _penion_.


[17] SPOILED HONEY MADE GOOD
   _UT MEL MALUM BONUM FACIAS_

HOW BAD HONEY MAY BE TURNED INTO A SALEABLE ARTICLE IS TO MIX ONE PART
OF THE SPOILED HONEY WITH TWO PARTS OF GOOD HONEY.

    List. _indigna fraus_! V. We all agree with Lister that
    this is contemptible business. This casts another light
    on the ancients' methods of food adulteration.


[18] TO TEST SPOILED HONEY
   _MEL CORRUPTUM UT PROBES_

IMMERSE ELENCAMPANE IN HONEY AND LIGHT IT; IF GOOD, IT WILL BURN
BRIGHTLY.



XII


[19] TO KEEP GRAPES
   _UVÆ UT DIU SERVENTUR_

TAKE PERFECT GRAPES FROM THE VINES, PLACE THEM IN A VESSEL AND POUR
RAIN WATER OVER THEM THAT HAS BEEN BOILED DOWN ONE THIRD OF ITS
VOLUME. THE VESSEL MUST BE PITCHED AND SEALED WITH PLASTER, AND MUST
BE KEPT IN A COOL PLACE TO WHICH THE SUN HAS NO ACCESS. TREATED IN
THIS MANNER, THE GRAPES WILL BE FRESH WHENEVER YOU NEED THEM. YOU CAN
ALSO SERVE THIS WATER AS HONEY MEAD TO THE SICK.

ALSO, IF YOU COVER THE GRAPES WITH BARLEY [bran] YOU WILL FIND THEM
SOUND AND UNINJURED.

    V. We keep grapes in cork shavings, bran and saw dust.


[20] TO KEEP POMEGRANATES
   _UT MALA GRANATA DIU DURENT_ [1]

STEEP THEM INTO HOT [sea] WATER, TAKE THEM OUT IMMEDIATELY AND HANG
THEM UP. [Tor.] THEY WILL KEEP.

    [1] Tor. _conditura malorum Punicorum_; Tac. _mala
    granata_; G.-V. _mala et mala granata_.


[21] TO KEEP QUINCES
   _UT MALA CYDONIA DIU SERVENTUR_

PICK OUT PERFECT QUINCES WITH STEMS [1] AND LEAVES. PLACE THEM IN A
VESSEL, POUR OVER HONEY AND DEFRUTUM [2] AND YOU'LL PRESERVE THEM FOR
A LONG TIME [3].

    [1] V. Excellent idea, for the stems, if removed, would
    leave a wound in the fruit for the air to penetrate and
    to start fermentation. Cf. also the next formula.

    [2] G.-V. _defritum_, from _defervitum_; _defrutum_ is
    new wine, spiced, boiled down to one half of its volume.

    [3] This precept would not keep the fruit very long
    unless protected by a closefitting cover and
    sterilization. Cf. No. 24.


[22] TO PRESERVE FRESH FIGS, APPLES, PLUMS, PEARS AND CHERRIES
   _FICUM RECENTEM, MALA, PRUNA, PIRA, CERASIA UT DIU SERVES_

SELECT THEM ALL VERY CAREFULLY WITH THE STEMS ON [1] AND PLACE THEM IN
HONEY SO THEY DO NOT TOUCH EACH OTHER.

    [1] See the preceding formula.


[23] TO KEEP CITRON
   _CITRIA UT DIU DURENT_ [1]

PLACE THEM IN A GLASS [2] VESSEL WHICH IS SEALED WITH PLASTER AND
SUSPENDED.

    [1] Tor. _conditura malorum Medicorum quæ et citria
    dicuntur_. V. Not quite identified. Fruit coming from
    Asia Minor, Media or Persia, one of the many varieties
    of citrus fruit. Probably citron because of their size.
    Goll. Lemon-apples; Dann. lemons (oranges). List.
    _Scilicet mala, quæ Dioscorides Persica quoque & Medica,
    & citromala, Plinius item Assyria appellari dicit_.

    [2] G.-V. _vas vitreum_; Tac. and Tor. _vas citrum_; V.
    a glass vessel could not be successfully sealed with
    plaster paris, and the experiment would fail; cf. note 3
    to No. 21.


[24] TO KEEP MULBERRIES
   _MORA UT DIU DURENT_

MULBERRIES, IN ORDER TO KEEP THEM, MUST BE LAID INTO THEIR OWN JUICE
MIXED WITH NEW WINE [boiled down to one half] IN A GLASS VESSEL AND
MUST BE WATCHED ALL THE TIME [so that they do not spoil].

    V. This and the foregoing formulæ illustrate the
    ancients' attempts at preserving foods, and they betray
    their ignorance of "processing" by heating them in
    hermetically sealed vessels, the principle of which was
    not discovered until 1810 by Appert which started the
    now gigantic industry of canning.


[25] TO KEEP POT HERBS
   [_H_]_OLERA UT DIU SERVENTUR_

PLACE SELECTED POT HERBS, NOT TOO MATURE, IN A PITCHED VESSEL.


[26] TO PRESERVE SORREL OR SOUR DOCK
   _LAPÆ _[1]_ UT DIU SERVENTUR_

TRIM AND CLEAN [the vegetable] PLACE THEM TOGETHER SPRINKLE MYRTLE
BERRIES BETWEEN, COVER WITH HONEY AND VINEGAR.

ANOTHER WAY: PREPARE MUSTARD HONEY AND VINEGAR ALSO SALT AND COVER
THEM WITH THE SAME.

    [1] The kind of vegetable to be treated here has not
    been sufficiently identified. List. and G.-V.
    _rapæ_--turnips--from _rapus_, seldom _rapa_,--a rape,
    turnip, navew. Tac. and Tor. _Lapæ_ (_lapathum_), kind
    of sorrel, monk's rhubarb, dock. Tor. explaining at
    length: _conditura Rumicis quod lapathon Græci, Latini
    Lapam quoque dicunt_.

    V. Tor. is correct, or nearly so. Turnips, in the first
    place, are not in need of any special method of
    preservation. They keep very well in a cool,
    well-ventilated place; in fact they would hardly keep
    very long if treated in the above manner. These
    directions are better applied to vegetables like dock or
    monk's rhubarb. Lister, taking Humelbergii word for it,
    accepts "turnips" as the only truth; but he has little
    occasion to assail Torinus as he does: _Torinus lapam
    legit, & nullibi temeritatem suam atque inscientiam
    magis ostendit._

    Now, if Torinus, according to Lister, "nowhere displays
    more nerve and ignorance" we can well afford to trust
    Torinus in cases such as this.


[27] TO KEEP TRUFFLES
   _TUBERA UT DIU SERVENTUR_

THE TRUFFLES WHICH MUST NOT BE TOUCHED BY WATER ARE PLACED ALTERNATELY
IN DRY SAWDUST; SEAL THE VESSEL WITH PLASTER AND DEPOSIT IT IN A COOL
PLACE.

    Dann. Clean [peel] the truffles ... in another vessel
    place the peelings, seal the vessels.... V. this would
    be the ruin of the truffles, unless they were
    "processed" in the modern way. Our originals have
    nothing that would warrant this interpretation.


[28] TO KEEP HARD-SKINNED PEACHES
   _DURACINA PERSICA UT DIU DURENT_

SELECT THE BEST AND PUT THEM IN BRINE. THE NEXT DAY REMOVE THEM AND
RINSING THEM CAREFULLY SET THEM IN PLACE IN A VESSEL, SPRINKLE WITH
SALT AND SATURY AND IMMERSE IN VINEGAR.



XIII


[29] SALTS FOR MANY [ILLS]
   _SALES CONDITOS AD MULTA_

THESE SPICED SALTS ARE USED AGAINST INDIGESTION, TO MOVE THE BOWELS,
AGAINST ALL ILLNESS, AGAINST PESTILENCE AS WELL AS FOR THE PREVENTION
OF COLDS. THEY ARE VERY GENTLE INDEED AND MORE HEALTHFUL THAN YOU
WOULD EXPECT. [Tor. MAKE THEM IN THIS MANNER]: 1 LB. OF COMMON SALT
GROUND, 2 LBS. OF AMMONIAC SALT, GROUND [List. AND G.-V. 3 OZS. WHITE
PEPPER, 2 OZS. GINGER] 1 OZ. [Tor. 1-1/2 OZ.] OF AMINEAN BRYONY, 1 OF
THYME SEED AND 1 OF CELERY SEED [Tor. 1-1/2 OZ.] IF YOU DON'T WANT TO
USE CELERY SEED TAKE INSTEAD 3 OZS. OF PARSLEY [SEED] 3 OZS. OF
ORIGANY, 1 OZ. OF SAFFRON [List. and G.-V. ROCKET] 3 OZS. OF BLACK
PEPPER [1] 1-1/2 OZS. ROCKET SEED, 2 OZS. OF MARJORAM [List. and G.-V.
CRETAN HYSSOP] 2 OZS. OF NARD LEAVES, 2 OZS. OF PARSLEY [SEED] AND 2
OZS. OF ANISE SEED.

    [1] In view of the white pepper as directed above, this
    seems superfluous. White pepper and ginger omitted by
    Tor.

    This is one of the few medical formulæ found in Apicius.

    Edward Brandt, _op. cit._, Apiciana No. 29, points out
    the similarity of this formula with that of the
    physician, Marcellus, who lived at Rome under Nero,
    Marcell. med. 30, 51.



XIV


[30] TO KEEP GREEN OLIVES
   _OLIVAS VIRIDES SERVARE_

TO KEEP OLIVES, FRESH FROM THE TREE, IN A MANNER ENABLING YOU TO MAKE
OIL FROM THEM ANY TIME YOU DESIRE JUST PLACE THEM [in brine]. [1]
HAVING BEEN KEPT THUS FOR SOME TIME THE OLIVES MAY BE USED AS IF THEY
HAD JUST COME OFF THE TREE FRESH IF YOU DESIRE TO MAKE GREEN OIL OF
THEM.

    [1] The original does not state the liquid in which the
    olives are to be placed.

    Hum. _in illud, legendum puto, in muriam_.

    Hum. is correct. Olives are preserved in brine to this
    day.

    Schuch's version of this formula (his No. 27) follows
    our No. 28, together with his own No. 28, To Keep
    Damascene Plums [etc.] which is wanting in List., G.-V.,
    and all the earlier editions because it is from the
    codex Salmasianus and will be found among the Excerpts
    of Vinidarius at the end of the Apician recipes.



XV

    [CUMINATUM. Hum., List. and G.-V.--Tac. and Tor. at the
    end of Book I.]



XVI


[31] LASER FLAVOR
   _LASERATUM_

[Tor.] LASER IS PREPARED IN THIS MANNER: LASER (WHICH IS ALSO CALLED
LASERPITIUM BY THE ROMANS, WHILE THE GREEKS CALL IT SILPHION) FROM
CYRENE [1] OR FROM PARTHIA [2] IS DISSOLVED IN LUKEWARM MODERATELY
ACID BROTH; OR PEPPER, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, LASER ROOT, HONEY, VINEGAR
AND BROTH [are ground, compounded and dissolved together].

    [1] Cyrene, a province in Africa, reputed for its fine
    flavored laser.

    [2] Parthia, Asiatic country, still supplying _asa
    fœtida_.

    The African root furnishing laser was exterminated by
    the demand for it. Cf. Laser in Index.


[32] ANOTHER [LASER]
   _ALITER_

[ANOTHER LASER FLAVOR WHICH TAKES] PEPPER, CARAWAY, ANISE, PARSLEY,
DRY MINT, THE LEAVES [1] OF SILPHIUM, MALOBATHRUM [2] INDIAN
SPIKENARD, A LITTLE COSTMARY, HONEY, VINEGAR AND BROTH.

    [1] Tor. _Silphij folium_; List. _Sylphium, folium_;
    G.-V. _Silfi, folium_, the latter two interpretations
    meaning _silphium_ (laser) _and leaves_ (either nard or
    bay leaves) while both Tor. and Tac. (_silfii folium_)
    mean the leaves of _silphium_ plant.

    [2] _Malobathrum_, _malobatrum_, _malabathrum_--leaves
    of an Indian tree, wild cinnamon.



XVII


[33] WINE SAUCE FOR TRUFFLES
   _ŒNOGARUM _[1]_ IN TUBERA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, RUE, BROTH, HONEY AND A LITTLE OIL.

ANOTHER WAY: THYME, SATURY, PEPPER, LOVAGE, HONEY, BROTH AND OIL.

    [1] Also _Elæogarum_.

    V. Directions wanting whether the above ingredients are
    to be added to the already prepared _garum_, which see
    in dictionary. Gollmer gives the following direction for
    _garum_: Boil a _sextarium_ of anchovies and 3
    _sextarii_ of good wine until it is thick _purée_.
    Strain this through a hair sieve and keep it in glass
    flask for future use. This formula, according to Goll.
    should have followed our No. 9; but we find no authority
    for it in the original.

    _Oenogarum_ proper would be a _garum_ prepared with
    wine, but in this instance it is the broth in which the
    truffles were cooked that is to be flavored with the
    above ingredients. There is no need and no mention of
    _garum_ proper. Thus prepared it might turn out to be a
    sensible sauce for truffles in the hands of a good
    practitioner.

    Note the etymology of the word "garum," now serving as a
    generic name for "sauce" which originally stood for a
    compound of the fish _garus_.

    Cf. _Garum_ in index.



XVIII


[34] OXYPORUM
   _OXYPORUM_

[Tor. OXYPORUM (WHICH SIGNIFIES "EASY PASSAGE") SO NAMED BECAUSE OF
ITS EFFECT, TAKES] 2 OZS. OF CUMIN, 1 OZ. OF GINGER [List. 1 OZ. OF
GREEN RUE] 6 SCRUPLES OF SALTPETER, A DOZEN SCRUPLES OF PLUMP DATES, 1
OZ. OF PEPPER AND 11 [List. 9] OZS. OF HONEY. THE CUMIN MAY BE EITHER
ÆTHIOPIAN, SYRIAN OR LYBIAN, MUST BE FIRST SOAKED IN VINEGAR, BOILED
DOWN DRY AND POUNDED. AFTERWARDS ADD YOUR HONEY. THIS COMPOUND, AS
NEEDED, IS USED AS OXYPORUM.

    Cf. No. 111, A Harmless Salad.

    Bran. _op. cit._, p. 25-6, of Greek origin.



XIX


[35] HYPOTRIMA [1]
   _HYPOTRIMA_

[Tor. HYPOTRIMA, MEANING IN LATIN A PERFECT MESS OF POTAGE, REQUIRES
THIS]: PEPPER, LOVAGE, DRY MINT, PIGNOLIA NUTS, RAISINS, DATE WINE,
SWEET CHEESE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, WINE, OIL, MUST OR REDUCED MUST
[2]

    [1] List. and G.-V. _Hypotrimma_.

    V. This formula, lacking detailed instructions, is of
    course perfectly obscure, and it would be useless to
    debate over it.

    [2] Tor. and Tac. _cariotam_; Sch. _cariotum_; List. and
    G.-V. _carœnum_. This (_carenum_) is new wine boiled
    down one half of its volume. _Cariotum_ is a palm wine
    or date wine.



XX


[36] OXYGARUM, AN AID TO DIGESTION
   _OXYGARUM DIGESTIBILE_

[Tor. OXYGARUM (WHICH IS SIMILAR TO GARUM OR RATHER AN ACID SAUCE) IS
DIGESTIBLE AND IS COMPOSED OF]: 1/2 OZ. OF PEPPER, 3 SCRUPLES OF
GALLIC SILPHIUM, 6 SCRUPLES OF CARDAMOM, 6 OF CUMIN, 1 SCRUPLE OF
LEAVES, 6 SCRUPLES OF DRY MINT. THESE [ingredients] ARE BROKEN SINGLY
AND CRUSHED AND [made into a paste] BOUND BY HONEY. WHEN THIS WORK IS
DONE [or whenever you desire] ADD BROTH AND VINEGAR [to taste].

    Cf. Note to No. 33.


[37] ANOTHER [OXYGARUM] [1]
   _ALITER_

1 OZ. EACH OF PEPPER, PARSLEY, CARRAWAY, LOVAGE, MIX WITH HONEY. WHEN
DONE ADD BROTH AND VINEGAR.

    [1] Wanting in Torinus.



XXI


[38] MORTARIA [1]
   _MORTARIA_

MORTARIA ARE PREPARATIONS MADE IN THE MORTAR. PLACE IN THE MORTAR
[Tor.] MINT, RUE, CORIANDER AND FENNEL, ALL FRESH AND GREEN AND CRUSH
THEM FINE. LOVAGE, PEPPER, HONEY AND BROTH [2] AND VINEGAR [3] TO BE
ADDED WHEN THE WORK IS DONE.

    Ex Tor. first sentence wanting in other texts.

    [1] List. and G.-V. _moretaria_, from _moretum_.

    [2] Dann. calls this "_Kalte Schale_" which as a rule is
    a drink or a cold refreshing soup, popular on the
    Continent in hot weather. Not a bad interpretation if
    instead of the broth the original called for wine or
    fruit juices.

    V. _Mortaria_ are ingredients crushed in the mortar,
    ready to be used in several combinations, similar to
    the ground fine herbs, _remoulade_, in French cuisine
    that may be used for various purposes, principally for
    cold green sauces.

    [3] Wanting in Tor.



[XV]


[39] CUMIN SAUCE FOR SHELLFISH
   _CUMINATUM IN OSTREA ET CONCHYLIA_

[Tor. CUMIN SAUCE (SO CALLED BECAUSE CUMIN IS ITS CHIEF INGREDIENT)
FOR OYSTERS AND CLAMS IS MADE OF] PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT,
MALABAR LEAVES, QUITE SOME CUMIN, HONEY, VINEGAR, AND BROTH.


[40] ANOTHER [CUMIN SAUCE] [1]
   _ALITER_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, PLENTY OF CUMIN, HONEY, VINEGAR AND
BROTH.

    [1] wanting in List.

    The cumin sauce formulæ are under chap. XV in G.-V.,
    following our No. 30.


END OF BOOK I

_EXPLICIT APICII EPIMELES LIBER PRIMUS_ [Tac.]



{Illustration: COLANDER FOR STRAINING WINE

The intricate design of the perforation denotes that this strainer was
used for straining wine. Various other strainers of simpler design,
with and without handles, were used in the kitchen and bakery. Ntl.
Mus., Naples, 77602; Field M., 24307.}



APICIUS

Book II



{Illustration: SLAVES OPERATING A HAND-MILL

Reconstruction in Naples, in the new section of the National Museum.}



{Illustration: FRUIT OR DESSERT BOWL

Round bowl, fluted symmetrically, with three claw feet, resting on
molded bases. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 74000; Field M., 24028.}



BOOK II. MINCES

_Lib. II. Sarcoptes_ [1]


    CHAP.   I. FORCEMEATS, SAUSAGE, MEAT PUDDINGS, MEAT LOAVES.
    CHAP.  II. HYDROGARUM, SPELT PUDDING AND ROUX [2].
    CHAP. III. SOW'S MATRIX, BLOOD SAUSAGE.
    CHAP.  IV. LUCANIAN SAUSAGE.
    CHAP.   V. SAUSAGE.

    [1] Tor. _Artoptes_; Tac. _Artoptus_. This may have been
    derived from _artopta_--a vessel in which bread and
    pudding are baked. However, Sarcoptes is the better
    word, which is Greek, meaning "chopped meats."

    [2] Tac. _Ambolatum_, and so in Tor. p. 15, _De
    Ambolato_. Cap. IIII. cf. our note following No. 58.



I


[41] MINCED DISHES
   _ISICIA_

THERE ARE MANY KINDS OF MINCED DISHES [1] SEAFOOD MINCES [2] ARE MADE
OF SEA-ONION, OR SEA CRAB-FISH, LOBSTER, CUTTLE-FISH, INK FISH, SPINY
LOBSTER, SCALLOPS AND OYSTERS [3]. THE FORCEMEAT IS SEASONED WITH
LOVAGE [4], PEPPER, CUMIN AND LASER ROOT.

    [1] Tor. Sentence wanting in other texts. V. Forcemeats,
    minced meats, sausage. Tor. _Hysitia_, from _Isicia_.
    This term is derived from _insicium_, from _salsicium_,
    from _salsum insicium_, cut salt meat; old French
    _salcisse_, _saulcisse_, modern French _saucisse_,
    meaning sausage. This is a confirmation of the meaning
    of the word _salsum_--meaning primarily salt meat, bacon
    in particular. It has survived in modern French
    terminology in _salés_ more specially _petits
    salés_--small rashers of bacon. _Salsum_ has caused much
    confusion in some later formulæ. Cf. notes to Nos. 148,
    150, 152.

    [2] V. fish forcemeats, fish balls, fish cakes and
    similar preparations.

    [3] Scallops and oysters wanting in List. and G.-V.

    [4] Wanting in List.


[42] CUTTLE-FISH CROQUETTES
   _ISICIA DE LOLLIGINE_ [1]

THE MEAT IS SEPARATED FROM BONES, SKIN [and refuse] CHOPPED FINE AND
POUNDED IN THE MORTAR. SHAPE THE FORCEMEAT INTO NEAT CROQUETTES [2]
AND COOK THEM IN LIQUAMEN [3].

THEY ARE DISPLAYED NICELY ON A LARGE DISH.

    V. This formula plainly calls for fish balls braised or
    stewed in broth. Ordinarily we would boil the fish first
    and then separate the meat from the bones, shred or chop
    it fine, bind with cream sauce, flour and eggs; some add
    potatoes as a binder, and fry.

    [1] G.-V. _lolligine_; Tor. _loligine_, which is
    correctly spelled.

    [2] Tac. and Tor. _in pulmento tundes_. G.-V. _fulmento_
    which is wrong. _Pulmentum_, abbreviated for
    _pulpamentum_, from _pulpa_. It means a fleshy piece of
    fish or meat, a tid-bit.

    [3] The original says _in liquamine fricatur_--fry in
    l., which is impossible in the sense of the word,
    frying. Either "frying" here stands for cooking,
    stewing, braising, poaching, or else the so mysterious
    _liquamen_ must here mean deep fat. Most likely these
    fish forcemeat balls were fried in olive oil. Cf. ℞
    No. 46.


[43] LOBSTER OR CRABMEAT CROQUETTES
   _ISICIA DE SCILLIS VEL DE CAMMARIS AMPLIS_ [1]

THE SHELLS OF THE LOBSTERS OR CRABS [which are cooked] ARE BROKEN, THE
MEAT EXTRACTED FROM THE HEAD AND POUNDED IN THE MORTAR WITH PEPPER AND
THE BEST KIND OF BROTH. THIS PULP [is shaped into neat little cakes
which are fried] AND SERVED UP NICELY [2].

    [1] _Scilla_ or _squilla_, squill, sea-onion, also a
    crab, _cammarus amplus_, large lobster, langouste, spiny
    lobster.

    [2] The original omits the mode of cooking the fish. A
    case where it is taken for granted that the shellfish is
    boiled in water alive. The broth (_liquamen_) is a thick
    fish sauce in this case, serving as a binder for the
    meat, conforming to present methods.

    Dann. Fill this into sausage casing. There is no
    authority for this.


[44] LIVER KROMESKIS
   _OMENTATA_ [1]

OMENTATA ARE MADE IN THIS MANNER: [lightly] FRY PORK LIVER, REMOVE
SKIN AND SINEWS FIRST [2]. CRUSH PEPPER AND RUE IN A MORTAR WITH [a
little] BROTH, THEN ADD THE LIVER, POUND AND MIX. THIS PULP SHAPE INTO
SMALL SAUSAGE, WRAP EACH IN CAUL AND LAUREL LEAVES AND HANG THEM UP TO
BE SMOKED. WHENEVER YOU WANT AND WHEN READY TO ENJOY THEM TAKE THEM
OUT OF THE SMOKE, FRY THEM AGAIN, AND ADD GRAVY [3].

    [1] From _omentum_--caul, the membrane enclosing the
    bowels. Hence "omen." Minced meats wrapped in caul and
    fried are kromeskis in kitchen terminology.

    [2] First--an after thought so characteristic in
    culinary literature, proof enough that this formula
    originated in a kitchen. The _ante tamen_ of the
    original belongs to this sentence, not to the next, as
    the editors have it.

    [3] Wanting in G.-V. The original continues without
    interruption to the next, an entirely new formula.


[45] [BRAIN SAUSAGE]
   [_ISICIA DE CEREBELLIS_] [1]

PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE AND ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND
RUB; ADD COOKED BRAINS AND MIX DILIGENTLY SO THAT THERE BE NO LUMPS.
INCORPORATE FIVE EGGS AND CONTINUE MIXING WELL TO HAVE A GOOD
FORCEMEAT WHICH YOU MAY THIN WITH BROTH. SPREAD THIS OUT IN A METAL
PAN, COOK, AND WHEN COOKED [cold] UNMOULD IT ONTO A CLEAN TABLE. CUT
INTO HANDY SIZE. [Now prepare a sauce] PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER,
LOVAGE AND ORIGANY, CRUSH, MIX WITH BROTH PUT INTO A SAUCE PAN, BOIL,
THICKEN AND STRAIN. HEAT THE PIECES OF BRAIN PUDDING IN THIS SAUCE
THOROUGHLY, DISH THEM UP, SPRINKLED WITH PEPPER, IN A MUSHROOM DISH
[2].

    [1] The Original has no title for this dish.

    [2] List. and G.-V. here start the next formula, but
    Tor. continues without interruption. Cf. Note 2 to No.
    46.


[46] A DISH OF SCALLOPS
   _ISICIA EX SPONDYLIS_ [1]

[Lightly] COOK SCALLOPS [or the firm part of oysters] REMOVE THE HARD
AND OBJECTIONABLE PARTS, MINCE THE MEAT VERY FINE, MIX THIS WITH
COOKED SPELT AND EGGS, SEASON WITH PEPPER, [shape into croquettes and
wrap] IN CAUL, FRY, UNDERLAY A RICH FISH SAUCE AND SERVE AS A
DELICIOUS ENTRÉE [2].

    [1] Sch. _sfondilis_; G.-V. _sphondylis_; List.
    _spongiolis_. According to Lister, this is a dish of
    mushrooms, but he is wrong. He directs to remove sinews
    when mushrooms haven't any, but shellfish have. Torinus
    is correct. Gollmer makes the same mistake, believing
    _spondyli_ to be identical with _spongioli_. He and
    Danneil take _elixata_ for "choice" when this plainly
    means "cooked." If one were not sure of either word, the
    nature of the subject would leave no room for any doubt.
    Cf. note 1 to Nos. 115-121.

    [2] We may find a reason for the combination of these
    last three distinctly different formulæ into one article
    in the following explanation. It is possible that these
    dishes were served together as one course, even on one
    platter, thus constituting a single dish, as it were.
    Such a dish would strongly resemble platters of
    "_fritures_" and "_fritto misto_" (mixed fried foods)
    esteemed in France and Italy. We, too, have "Shore
    Dinners" and other "Combination Platters" with lobster,
    crabs, scallops, shrimps, mushrooms, tomatoes--each
    article prepared separately, but when served together
    will form an integral part of ONE dish.

    The above formulæ, though somewhat incomplete, are good
    and gastronomically correct. A combination of these
    _isicia_ such as we here suggest would be entirely
    feasible and would in fact make a dish of great
    refinement, taxing the magiric artist's skill to the
    utmost. We would class them among the _entremets chauds_
    which are often used on a buffet table or as hot _hors
    d'œuvres_.


[47] ANOTHER KIND OF KROMESKIS [1]
   _ALITER ISICIA OMENTATA_

FINELY CUT PULP [of pork] IS GROUND WITH THE HEARTS [2] OF WINTER
WHEAT AND DILUTED WITH WINE. FLAVOR LIGHTLY WITH PEPPER AND BROTH AND
IF YOU LIKE ADD A MODERATE QUANTITY OF [myrtle] BERRIES ALSO CRUSHED,
AND AFTER YOU HAVE ADDED CRUSHED NUTS AND PEPPER [3] SHAPE THE
FORCEMEAT INTO SMALL ROLLS, WRAP THESE IN CAUL, FRY, AND SERVE WITH
WINE GRAVY.

    [1] Wanting in Lister.

    [2] Fine wheat flour, cream of wheat.

    [3] Either pepper corns or allspice.

    The original leaves us in doubt as to the kind of meat
    to be used, if any.



II


[48] DUMPLINGS OF PHEASANT
   _ISICIA PLENA_

[Lightly roast choice] FRESH PHEASANTS [cut them into dice and mix
these with a] STIFF FORCEMEAT MADE OF THE FAT AND THE TRIMMINGS OF THE
PHEASANT, SEASON WITH PEPPER, BROTH AND REDUCED WINE, SHAPE INTO
CROQUETTES OR SPOON DUMPLINGS, AND POACH IN HYDROGARUM [water seasoned
with garum, or even plain salt water].


[49] DUMPLINGS AND HYDROGARUM
   _HYDROGARATA ISICIA_

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND JUST A SUSPICION OF PELLITORY, MOISTEN WITH
STOCK AND WELL WATER, ALLOW IT TO DRAW, PLACE IT IN A SAUCE PAN, BOIL
IT DOWN, AND STRAIN. POACH YOUR LITTLE DUMPLINGS OF FORCEMEAT IN THIS
LIQUOR AND WHEN THEY ARE DONE SERVE IN A DISH FOR ISICIA, TO BE SIPPED
AT THE TABLE.


[50] CHICKEN FORCEMEAT
   _ISICIA DE PULLO_

[Raw] CHICKEN MEAT, 1 LB. OF DARNEL [1] MEAL, ONE QUARTER PINT OF
STOCK AND ONE HALF OUNCE OF PEPPER.

    [1] Tor. _lolæ floris_; Hum.-List. and G.-V. _olei
    floris_--virgin olive oil?--first choice flour? Goll.
    olive (violet?) flowers; Dann. Olive oil.

    The suggestion of oil is plausible because of the lack
    of fat in chicken meat, but the quantity--1 lb.--is out
    of question. Moreover, the binder would be lacking. This
    is found in the Torinus rendering.

    His _lolæ floris_ should read _lolii_--from
    _lolium_--darnel rye grass or ray grass which was
    supposed to have intoxicating qualities, injurious to
    the eye sight.--Ovid and Plautus. The seeds of this
    grass were supposed to possess narcotic properties but
    recent researches have cast doubt upon this theory.

    A little butter, fresh cream and eggs are the proper
    ingredients for chicken forcemeat. Any kind of flour for
    binding the forcemeat would cheapen the dish. Yet some
    modern forcemeats (sausage) contain as much as fifty
    percent of some kind of meal. The most effective is that
    of the soya bean which is not starchy.


[51] CHICKEN BROTH ANOTHER STYLE
   _ALITER DE PULLO_

CHICKEN MEAT, 31 PEPPERCORNS CRUSHED, 1 CHOENIX [1] FULL OF THE VERY
BEST STOCK, A LIKE AMOUNT OF BOILED MUST AND ELEVEN MEASURES [2] OF
WATER. [Put this in a sauce pan] PLACE IT UPON THE FIRE TO SEETH AND
EVAPORATE SLOWLY.

    [1] V. 2 _sextarii_; Tor. _chœnicem, cenlicem_; List.
    _calicem_.

    [2] _chœnices_?--left in doubt.

    This seems to be a chicken broth, or essence for a sauce
    or perhaps a medicine. Torinus mentions the chicken
    meat, the others do not.

    The original without interruption continues to describe
    the _isicium simplex_ which has nothing to do with the
    above.


[52] PLAIN DUMPLING WITH BROTH
   _ISICIUM SIMPLEX_

TO 1 ACETABULUM [1] OF STOCK [2] ADD 7 OF WATER, A LITTLE GREEN
CELERY, A LITTLE SPOONFUL OF GROUND PEPPER, AND BOIL THIS WITH THE
SAUSAGE MEAT OR DUMPLINGS. IF YOU INTEND TAKING THIS TO MOVE THE
BOWELS THE SEDIMENT SALTS [3] OF HYDROGARUM HAVE TO BE ADDED [4].

    [1] A measure, 15 Attic drachms.

    [2] _liquamen_.

    [3] Tor. _pectines, alias peces hydrogaro conditi_;
    List. _sales_; G.-V. _fæces_.

    [4] V. The formula is unintelligible, like No. 52 and
    others, perhaps just another example of medicinal
    cookery, dishes not only intended to nourish the body
    but to cure also certain ills. Authors like Hannah
    Wolley (The Queen-like Closet, London, 1675) and as late
    as the middle of the 18th century pride themselves in
    giving such quasi-Apician formulæ.


[53] [Rank of] DISHES
   _ISICIA_

[Entrées of] PEACOCK OCCUPY THE FIRST RANK, PROVIDED THEY BE DRESSED
IN SUCH MANNER THAT THE HARD AND TOUGH PARTS BE TENDER. THE SECOND
PLACE [in the estimation of the Gourmets] HAVE DISHES MADE OF RABBIT
[1] THIRD SPINY LOBSTER [2] FOURTH COMES CHICKEN AND FIFTH YOUNG PIG.

    [1] List. and G.-V. Pheasant.

    [2] Wanting in the above. Dann. Crane fourth.

    _Isicia_, like in the foregoing formula, commences to
    become a generic term for "dishes."


[54] POTTED ENTRÉES
   _ISICIA AMULATA AB AHENO_ [1]

GROUND PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, VERY LITTLE SILPHIUM, A PINCH OF
GINGER AND A TRIFLE OF HONEY AND A LITTLE STOCK. [Put on the fire,
and when boiling] ADD THE ISICIA [sausage, meat balls and so forth] TO
THIS BROTH AND COOK THOROUGHLY. FINALLY THICKEN THE GRAVY WITH ROUX
[2] BY SOWING IT IN SLOWLY AND STIRRING FROM THE BOTTOM UP [3].

    [1] Tor. _multa ab alieno_; Brandt _[a]mul[a]ta ab
    aheno_; List. _amylata_--French: _liés_. _Ab aheno_--out
    of the pot.

    [2] French, for a mixture of wheat or rice flour with
    fats or liquids to thicken fluids. _Amylum_, or _amulum_
    which hereafter will occur frequently in the original
    does not cover the ground as well as the French term
    _roux_. The quality of the "binder" depends upon the
    material in hand. Sometimes the fat and flour are
    parched, sometimes they are used raw. Sometimes the
    flour is diluted with water and used in that form.

    [3] List. and G.-V. _sorbendum_; Tor. _subruendum_.


[55] ANOTHER [THICK ENTRÉE GRAVY]
   _ALITER_

GRIND PEPPER WHICH HAS BEEN SOAKED OVERNIGHT, ADD SOME MORE STOCK AND
WORK IT INTO A SMOOTH PASTE; THEREUPON ADD QUINCE-APPLE CIDER, BOILED
DOWN ONE HALF, THAT IS WHICH HAS EVAPORATED IN THE HEAT OF THE SUN TO
THE CONSISTENCY OF HONEY. IF THIS IS NOT AT HAND, ADD FIG WINE [1]
CONCENTRATE WHICH THE ROMANS CALL "COLOR" [2]. NOW THICKEN THE GRAVY
WITH ROUX OR WITH SOAKED RICE FLOUR AND FINISH IT ON A GENTLE FIRE.

    [1] Tor. _cammarum_, which should read _caricarum_--wine
    of Carica figs.

    [2] V. the Roman equivalent for "_singe_," "monkey,"
    "_Affe_,"--(the _vulgo_ French is literally translated
    into and in actual use in other languages) caramel color
    made of burnt sugar to give gravies a palatable
    appearance. Cf. No. 73.

    The reference by the original to "which the Romans call
    'color'" indicates, according to Brandt, that this
    formula is NOT of ROMAN origin but probably a
    translation into Latin from a Greek cookery book.

    This is an interesting suggestion, and it could be
    elaborated on to say that the entire Apicius is NOT of
    Roman origin. But why should the Greeks who in their
    balmy days were so far in advance of Rome in culinary
    matters go there for such information?

    It is more likely that this reference to Rome comes from
    the Italian provinces or the colonies, regions which
    naturally would look to Rome for guidance in such
    matters.


[56] ANOTHER AMULATUM
   _AMULATUM ALITER_

DISJOINT A CHICKEN AND BONE IT. PLACE THE PIECES IN A STEW PAN WITH
LEEKS, DILL AND SALT [water or stock] WHEN WELL DONE ADD PEPPER AND
CELERY SEED, THICKEN WITH RICE [1] ADD STOCK, A DASH OF RAISIN WINE OR
MUST, STIR WELL, SERVE WITH THE ENTRÉES.

    [1] G.-V. _oryzam_; Tor. ditto (and on margin) _oridam_;
    Hum. _oridiam legendum orindam_--a kind of bread. Dann.
    and Goll. rice flour.

    In a general way the ancient formula corresponds exactly
    to our present chicken fricassée.


[57] SPELT OR FARINA PUDDING
   _APOTHERMUM_

BOIL SPELT WITH [Tor. PIGNOLIA] NUTS AND PEELED ALMONDS [1] [G.-V.
AND] IMMERSED IN [boiling] WATER AND WASHED WITH WHITE CLAY SO THAT
THEY APPEAR PERFECTLY WHITE, ADD RAISINS, [flavor with] CONDENSED WINE
OR RAISIN WINE AND SERVE IT IN A ROUND DISH WITH CRUSHED [2] [nuts,
fruit, bread or cake crumbs] SPRINKLED OVER IT [3].

    [1] V. We peel almonds in the same manner; the white
    clay treatment is new to us.

    G.-V. and--which is confusing.

    [2] The original: _confractum_--crushed, but what? G.-V.
    pepper, for which there is neither authority nor reason.
    A wine sauce would go well with it or crushed fruit.
    List. and Goll. Breadcrumbs.

    [3] This is a perfectly good pudding--one of the very
    few desserts in Apicius. With a little sweetening
    (supplied probably by the condensed wine) and some
    grated lemon for flavor it is quite acceptable as a
    dessert.


[58] DE AMBOLATO CAP. IIII

    Ex Torinus, not mentioned by the other editors. The
    sense of this word is not clear. It must be a recipe or
    a chapter the existence of which was known to Torinus,
    for he says: "This entire chapter is wanting in our
    copy."



III


[59] A DISH OF SOW'S MATRIX
   _VULVULÆ BOTELLI_ [1]

ENTRÉES [2] OF SOW'S MATRIX [3] ARE MADE THUS: CRUSH PEPPER AND CUMIN
WITH TWO SMALL HEADS OF LEEK, PEELED, ADD TO THIS PULP RUE, BROTH [and
the sow's matrix or fresh pork] CHOP, [or crush in mortar very fine]
THEN ADD TO THIS [forcemeat] INCORPORATING WELL PEPPER GRAINS AND
[pine] NUTS [4] FILL THE CASING [5] AND BOIL IN WATER [with] OIL AND
BROTH [for seasoning] AND A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND DILL.

    [1] G.-V. _Vulvulæ Botelli_; Sch. _Vulvulæ isiciata_;
    Tor. _De Vulvulis et botellis_. See note No. 3.

    [2] V. "_Entrées_" out of respect for the ancients who
    used them as such; today we would class such dishes
    among the "_hors d'œuvres chauds_."

    [3] V. _Vulvula_, dim. for _vulva_, sow's matrix. Cf.
    _vulva_ in dictionary. Possible, also possible that
    _volva_ is meant--a meat roll, a croquette.

    [4] V. Combinations of chopped nuts and pork still in
    vogue today; we use the green pistachios.

    [5] V. The casings which were filled with this forcemeat
    may have been the sow's matrices, also caul. The
    original is vague on the point.


[60] LITTLE SAUSAGE
   _BOTELLUM_ [1]

BOTELLUM IS MADE OF [2] HARD BOILED YOLKS OF EGG [3] CHOPPED PIGNOLIA
NUTS, ONION AND LEEKS, RAW GROUND PINE [4] FINE PEPPER, STUFF IN
CASINGS AND COOK IN BROTH AND WINE [5].

    [1] V. _Botelli_, or _botuli_, are sausage of various
    kind; (French, Boudin, English, Pudding). Originally
    made of raw blood, they are in fact, miniature blood
    sausage. The absence of meat in the present formula
    makes me believe that it is not complete, though hard
    boiled yolk when properly seasoned and mixed with the
    right amount of fat, make a tasty forcemeat for sausage.

    [2] Tor. _Botellum sic fades ex oui_; Sch. and G.-V.
    _sex ovi_--the number of eggs is immaterial.

    [3] Dann. Calf's Sweetbreads.

    [4] Goll. _Thus crudum_--raw blood. _Thus_ or _tus_ is
    either frankincense or the herb, ground-pine. Dann.
    Rosemary. Hum. _Thus crudum lege jus crudum_--jus or
    broth which would make the forcemeat soft. There is no
    reason for changing "_thus_" into "_jus_!"

    [5] G.-V. _Adicies liquamen et vinum, et sic coques_.
    Tor. & _vino decoquas_.



IV


[61] LUCANIAN SAUSAGE
   _LUCANICÆ_

LUCANIAN SAUSAGE [or meat pudding] ARE MADE SIMILAR TO THE ABOVE:
CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, SAVORY, RUE, PARSLEY, CONDIMENT, LAUREL BERRIES
AND BROTH; MIX WITH FINELY CHOPPED [fresh Pork] AND POUND WELL WITH
BROTH. TO THIS MIXTURE, BEING RICH, ADD WHOLE PEPPER AND NUTS. WHEN
FILLING CASINGS CAREFULLY PUSH THE MEAT THROUGH. HANG SAUSAGE UP TO
SMOKE.

    V. Lister's interesting remarks about the makers of
    these sausages are given in the dictionary. Cf. Longano.



V


[62] SAUSAGE
   _FARCIMINA_

POUND EGGS AND BRAINS [eggs raw, brains cooked] PINE NUTS [chopped
fine] PEPPER [whole] BROTH AND A LITTLE LASER WITH WHICH FILL THE
CASINGS. FIRST PARBOIL THE SAUSAGE THEN FRY THEM AND SERVE.

    V. The directions are vague enough, but one may
    recognize in them our modern brain sausage.


[63] ANOTHER SAUSAGE
   _ALITER_

WORK COOKED SPELT AND FINELY CHOPPED FRESH PORK TOGETHER, POUND IT
WITH PEPPER, BROTH AND PIGNOLIA NUTS. FILL THE CASINGS, PARBOIL AND
FRY WITH SALT, SERVE WITH MUSTARD, OR YOU MAY CUT THE SAUSAGE IN
SLICES AND SERVE ON A ROUND DISH.


[64] ANOTHER SAUSAGE
   _ALITER_

WASH SPELT AND COOK IT WITH STOCK. CUT THE FAT OF THE INTESTINES OR
BELLY VERY FINE WITH LEEKS. MIX THIS WITH CHOPPED BACON AND FINELY
CHOPPED FRESH PORK. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND THREE EGGS AND MIX ALL IN
THE MORTAR WITH PIGNOLIA NUTS AND WHOLE PEPPER, ADD BROTH, FILL
CASINGS. PARBOIL SAUSAGE, FRY LIGHTLY, OR SERVE THEM BOILED.

    Tor. and Tac. Serve with pheasant gravy. In the early
    editions the following formula which thus ends is
    wanting.


[65] ROUND SAUSAGE
   _CIRELLOS ISICIATOS_

FILL THE CASINGS WITH THE BEST MATERIAL [forcemeat] SHAPE THE SAUSAGE
INTO SMALL CIRCLES, SMOKE. WHEN THEY HAVE TAKEN ON (VERMILLION) COLOR
FRY THEM LIGHTLY. DRESS NICELY GARNISHED ON A PHEASANT WINE GRAVY,
FLAVORED, HOWEVER, WITH CUMIN.

    V. In Tor. and in the earliest edition this formula has
    been contracted with the preceding and made one formula.


END OF BOOK II

_EXPLICIT LIBER SECUNDUS APICII ARTOPTUS_ [Tac.]



APICIUS

Book III



{Illustration: ELABORATE THERMOSPODIUM

A heater for the service of hot foods and drinks in the dining room.
Hot drinks were mixed and foods were served from apparatus of this
kind. The fuel was charcoal. There were public places, specializing in
hot drinks, called Thermopolia. This specimen was found at Stabiæ, one
of the ill-fated towns destroyed by eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. Ntl.
Mus., Naples, 72986; Field M., 24307.}



{Illustration: SERVICE PAN

Round, with decorated handle. This and the pan with the Hercules head
on handle used in connection with the plain Thermospodium to serve hot
foods in the dining room. Hildesheim Treas.}



BOOK III. THE GARDENER

_Lib. III. Cepuros_


    CHAP.     I. TO BOIL ALL VEGETABLES GREEN.
    CHAP.    II. VEGETABLE DINNER, EASILY DIGESTED.
    CHAP.   III. ASPARAGUS.
    CHAP.    IV. PUMPKIN, SQUASH.
    CHAP.     V. CITRUS FRUIT, CITRON.
    CHAP.    VI. CUCUMBERS.
    CHAP.   VII. MELON GOURD, MELON.
    CHAP.  VIII. MALLOWS.
    CHAP.    IX. YOUNG CABBAGE, SPROUTS, CAULIFLOWER.
    CHAP.     X. LEEKS.
    CHAP.    XI. BEETS.
    CHAP.   XII. POT HERBS.
    CHAP.  XIII. TURNIPS, NAVEWS.
    CHAP.   XIV. HORSERADISH AND RADISHES.
    CHAP.    XV. SOFT CABBAGE.
    CHAP.   XVI. FIELD HERBS.
    CHAP.  XVII. NETTLES.
    CHAP. XVIII. ENDIVE AND LETTUCE.
    CHAP.   XIX. CARDOONS.
    CHAP.    XX. COW-PARSNIPS.
    CHAP.   XXI. CARROTS AND PARSNIPS.



I


[66] VEGETABLES, POT HERBS
   _DE HOLERIBUS_

TO KEEP ALL VEGETABLES GREEN.
  _UT OMNE HOLUS SMARAGDINUM FIAT._

ALL VEGETABLES WILL REMAIN GREEN IF BOILED WITH COOKING SODA [1].

    [1] _Nitrium._ Method still in use today, considered
    injurious to health if copper vessel is used, but the
    amount of copper actually absorbed by the vegetable is
    infinitesimal, imperceptible even by the taste. Copper,
    to be actually harmful would have to be present in such
    quantity as to make enjoyment impossible.



II


[67] VEGETABLE DINNER, EASILY DIGESTED
   _PULMENTARIUM AD VENTREM_ [1]

ALL GREEN VEGETABLES ARE SUITED FOR THIS PURPOSE [2] VERY YOUNG [3]
BEETS AND WELL MATURED LEEKS ARE PARBOILED; ARRANGE THEM IN A BAKING
DISH, GRIND PEPPER AND CUMIN, ADD BROTH AND CONDENSED MUST, OR
ANYTHING ELSE TO SWEETEN THEM A LITTLE, HEAT AND FINISH THEM ON A SLOW
FIRE, AND SERVE.

    [1] V. _Ad ventrem_, "for the belly," simple home
    laxative.

    [2] V. This sentence in Torinus only. Possibly a
    contraction of the foregoing formula, No. 66.

    [3] V. _minutas_, "small," i.e., young.


[68] A SIMILAR DISH
   _SIMILITER_

PARBOIL POLYPODY [1] ROOT SO AS TO SOFTEN THEM, CUT THEM INTO SMALL
PIECES, SEASON WITH GROUND PEPPER AND CUMIN, ARRANGE IN A BAKING DISH,
FINISH ON THE FIRE AND SERVE [2].

    [1] V. Roots of the fern herb.

    [2] V. Although these instructions for vegetable dinners
    are rather vague, they resemble primitive
    _chartreuses_--fancy vegetable dishes developed by the
    Carthusian monks to whom flesh eating was forbidden.
    Elsewhere in Apicius we shall find the _chartreuse_
    developed to a remarkable degree.


[69] ANOTHER LAXATIVE
   _ALITER AD VENTREM_ [1]

SCRUB AND WASH BUNDLES OF BEETS BY RUBBING THEM WITH A LITTLE SODA
[2]. TIE THEM IN INDIVIDUAL BUNDLES, PUT INTO WATER TO BE COOKED, WHEN
DONE, SEASON WITH REDUCED MUST OR RAISIN WINE AND CUMIN, SPRINKLE
WITH PEPPER, ADD A LITTLE OIL, AND WHEN HOT, CRUSH POLYPODY AND NUTS
WITH BROTH, ADD THIS TO THE RED-HOT PAN, INCORPORATING IT WITH THE
BEETS, TAKE OFF THE FIRE QUICKLY AND SERVE.

    [1] This formula wanting in Tor.

    [2] V. Ingenious method to skin tender root vegetables,
    still in vogue today. We remove the skin of tender young
    root vegetables, carrots, beets, etc., by placing them
    in a towel, sprinkling them with rock salt and shaking
    them energetically. The modern power vegetable peeler is
    really built on the same principle, only instead of salt
    (which soon melts) carborundum or rough concrete
    surfaces are used, against which surfaces the vegetables
    are hurled by the rotary motion; often enough, too much
    of the skin is removed, however.


[70] BEETS À LA VARRO
   _BETACEOS VARRONIS_ [1]

VARRO BEETS, THAT IS, BLACK ONES [2] OF WHICH THE ROOTS MUST BE
CLEANED WELL, COOK THEM WITH MEAD AND A LITTLE SALT AND OIL; BOIL THEM
DOWN IN THIS LIQUOR SO THAT THE ROOTS ARE SATURATED THEREBY; THE
LIQUID ITSELF IS GOOD DRINKING. IT IS ALSO NICE TO COOK A CHICKEN IN
WITH THEM.

    [1] G.-V. _Betacios_; Tor. _B. Varrones_. Probably named
    for Varro, the writer on agriculture.

    [2] Roots on the order of parsnips, salsify,
    oysterplant.


[71] ANOTHER LAXATIVE
   _ALITER AD VENTREM_

ANOTHER VEGETABLE DISH, PROMOTING GOOD HEALTH; WASH CELERY, GREENS AND
ROOTS, AND DRY IT IN THE SUN: THEN ALSO COOK THE TENDER PART AND HEAD
OF LEEKS IN A NEW [1] POT, ALLOWING THE WATER TO BOIL DOWN ONE THIRD
OF ITS VOLUME. THEREUPON GRIND PEPPER WITH BROTH AND HONEY IN EQUAL
AMOUNTS PROPERLY MEASURED, MIX IT IN THE MORTAR WITH THE WATER OF THE
COOKED CELERY, STRAIN, BOIL AGAIN AND USE IT TO MASK THE [cooked]
CELERY WITH. IF DESIRED, ADD [the sliced root of the] CELERY TO IT
[2].

    [1] V. "new," i.e., cook leeks in a separate sauce pan;
    NOT together with the celery, which, as the original
    takes for granted, must be cooked also.

    [2] V. We would leave the honey out, make a cream sauce
    from the stock, or, adding bouillon, tie same with a
    little flour and butter, and would call the dish Stewed
    Celery and Leeks. The ancient method is entirely
    rational because the mineral salts of the vegetables are
    preserved and utilized (invariably observed by Apicius)
    which today are often wasted by inexperienced cooks who
    discard these precious elements with the water in which
    vegetables are boiled.



III


[72] ASPARAGUS
   _ASPARAGOS_

ASPARAGUS [Tor. IN ORDER TO HAVE IT MOST AGREEABLE TO THE PALATE] MUST
BE [peeled, washed and] DRIED [1] AND IMMERSED IN BOILING WATER
BACKWARDS [2] [3].

    [1] V. Must be dried before boiling because the cold
    water clinging to the stalks is likely to chill the
    boiling water too much in which the asparagus is to be
    cooked. Apicius here reveals himself as the consummate
    cook who is familiar with the finest detail of physical
    and chemical changes which food undergoes at varying
    temperatures.

    The various editions all agree: _asparagos siccabis_;
    Schuch, however, says: "For the insane _siccabis_ I
    substitute _siciabis_, _isiciabis_, prepare with _sicio_
    [?] and cook." He even goes on to interpret it _cucabis_
    from the Greek _kouki_, cocoanut milk, and infers that
    the asparagus was first cooked in cocoanut milk and then
    put back into water, a method we are tempted to
    pronounce insane.

    [2] V. Backwards! G.-V. _rursum in calidam_; Tac.
    _rursus in aquam calidam_; Tor. _ac rursus ..._

    This word has caused us some reflection, but the ensuing
    discovery made it worth while. _Rursus_ has escaped the
    attention of the other commentators. In this case
    _rursus_ means backwards, being a contraction from
    _revorsum_, h.e. _reversum_. The word is important
    enough to be observed.

    Apicius evidently has the right way of cooking the fine
    asparagus. The stalks, after being peeled and washed
    must be bunched together and tied according to sizes,
    and the bunches must be set into the boiling water
    "backwards," that is, they must stand upright with the
    heads protruding from the water. The heads will be made
    tender above the water line by rising steam and will be
    done simultaneously with the harder parts of the stalks.
    We admit, we have never seen a modern cook observe this
    method. They usually boil the tender heads to death
    while the lower stalks are still hard.

    Though this formula is incomplete (it fails to state the
    sauce to be served, also that the asparagus must be
    peeled and bunched, that the water must contain salt,
    etc.) it is one of the neatest formulæ in Apicius. It is
    amusing to note how the author herein unconsciously
    reveals what a poor litérateur but what a fine cook he
    is. This is characteristic of most good practitioners.
    One may perfectly master the vast subject of cookery,
    yet one may not be able to give a definition of even a
    single term, let alone the ability to exactly describe
    one of the many processes of cookery. Real poets often
    are in the same predicament; none of them ever explained
    the art satisfactorily.

    [3] G.-V. add to the formula _callosiores reddes_--give
    back [eliminate] the harder ones. This sentence belongs
    to the next article. And Torinus, similar to
    Humelbergius, renders this sentence _ut reddas ad gustum
    calliores_--to render the harder ones palatable--the
    squash and pumpkin namely--and we are inclined to agree
    with him.



IV


[73] PUMPKIN, SQUASH
   _CUCURBITAS_

TO HAVE THE HARDER ONES PALATABLE, DO THIS: [1] [Cut the fruit into
pieces, boil and] SQUEEZE THE WATER OUT OF THE BOILED FRUIT AND
ARRANGE [the pieces] IN A BAKING DISH. PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, CUMIN
AND SILPHIUM, THAT IS, A VERY LITTLE OF THE LASER ROOT AND A LITTLE
RUE, SEASON THIS WITH STOCK, MEASURE A LITTLE VINEGAR AND MIX IN A
LITTLE CONDENSED WINE, SO THAT IT CAN BE STRAINED [2] AND POUR THIS
LIQUID OVER THE FRUIT IN THE BAKING DISH; LET IT BOIL THREE TIMES,
RETIRE FROM THE FIRE AND SPRINKLE WITH VERY LITTLE GROUND PEPPER.

    [1] Cf. note 3 to No. 72.

    [2] List. _Ut coloretur_--to give it color; Tor. _ut ius
    coletur_--from _colo_--to strain, to filter.

    Cf. also note 2 to No. 55.


[74] PUMPKIN LIKE DASHEENS
   _ALITER CUCURBITAS IURE COLOCASIORUM_ [1]

BOIL THE PUMPKIN IN WATER LIKE COLOCASIA; GRIND PEPPER, CUMIN AND RUE,
ADD VINEGAR AND MEASURE OUT THE BROTH IN A SAUCEPAN. THE PUMPKIN
PIECES [nicely cut] WATER PRESSED OUT [are arranged] IN A SAUCEPAN
WITH THE BROTH AND ARE FINISHED ON THE FIRE WHILE THE JUICE IS BEING
TIED WITH A LITTLE ROUX. BEFORE SERVING SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [2].

    [1] V. _Colocasia Antiquorum_ belonging to the dasheen
    or taro family, a valuable tuber, again mentioned in No.
    172, 216, 244 and 322. Cf. various notes, principally
    that to No. 322. Also see U. S. Dept. of Agr. Farmer's
    Bulletin No. 1396, p. 2. This is a "new" and
    commercially and gastronomically important root
    vegetable, the flavor reminding of a combination of
    chestnuts and potatoes, popularly known as "Chinese
    potatoes" which has been recently introduced by the
    U. S. Government from the West Indies where it received
    the name, Dasheen, derived from _de Chine_--from China.

    [2] Tor. continues without interruption into the next
    formula.


[75] PUMPKIN, ALEXANDRINE STYLE
   _ALITER CUCURBITAS MORE ALEXANDRINO_

PRESS THE WATER OUT OF THE BOILED PUMPKIN, PLACE IN A BAKING DISH,
SPRINKLE WITH SALT, GROUND PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, GREEN MINT
AND A LITTLE LASER ROOT; SEASON WITH VINEGAR. NOW ADD DATE WINE AND
PIGNOLIA NUTS GROUND WITH HONEY, VINEGAR AND BROTH, MEASURE OUT
CONDENSED WINE AND OIL, POUR THIS OVER THE PUMPKIN AND FINISH IN THIS
LIQUOR AND SERVE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER BEFORE SERVING.


[76] BOILED PUMPKIN
   _ALITER CUCURBITAS ELIXATAS_

[Boiled Pumpkin] STEWED IN BROTH WITH PURE OIL.


[77] FRIED PUMPKIN
   _ALITER CUCURBITAS FRICTAS_

[Fried pumpkin served with] SIMPLE WINE SAUCE AND PEPPER.


[78] ANOTHER WAY, BOILED AND FRIED
   _ALITER CUCURBITAS ELIXATAS ET FRICTAS_

BOILED PUMPKIN FRIED IS PLACED IN A BAKING PAN. SEASON WITH CUMIN
WINE, ADD A LITTLE OIL; FINISH ON THE FIRE AND SERVE.


[79] ANOTHER WAY, MASHED
   _CUCURBITAS FRICTAS TRITAS_

FRIED [1] PUMPKIN, SEASONED WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, ORIGANY,
ONION, WINE BROTH AND OIL: STEW THE PUMPKIN [in this] IN A BAKING
DISH, TIE THE LIQUID WITH ROUX [mash] AND SERVE IN THE DISH.

    [1] V. Baking the fruit reduces the water contents,
    renders the purée more substantial. G.-V.
    _Tritas_--mashed. Tor. connects _tritas_ up with pepper,
    hence it is doubtful whether this dish of pumpkin is
    mashed pumpkin.


[80] PUMPKIN AND CHICKEN
   _CUCURBITAS CUM GALLINA_

[Stew the pumpkin with a hen, garnish with] HARD-SKINNED PEACHES,
TRUFFLES; PEPPER, CARRAWAY, AND CUMIN, SILPHIUM AND GREEN HERBS, SUCH
AS MINT, CELERY, CORIANDER, PENNYROYAL, CRESS, WINE [1] OIL AND
VINEGAR.

    [1] Tor. _Vinum vel oleum_; List. _vinum_, _mel_,
    _oleum_.



V


[81] CITRON
   _CITRIUM_ [1]

FOR THE PREPARATION OF CITRON FRUIT WE TAKE SILER [2] FROM THE
MOUNTAINS, SILPHIUM, DRY MINT, VINEGAR AND BROTH.

    [1] List. _Citrini_--a lemon or cucumber squash.

    [2] Tor. _Silerem_; List. _sil_, which is hartwort, a
    kind of cumin or mountain fennel.



VI


[82] CUCUMBERS
   _CUCUMERES_

[Stew the] PEELED CUCUMBERS EITHER IN BROTH [1] OR IN A WINE SAUCE;
[and] YOU WILL FIND THEM TO BE TENDER AND NOT CAUSING INDIGESTION.

    [1] Usually cucumbers are parboiled in water and then
    finished in broth; most often after being parboiled they
    are stuffed with forcemeat and then finished in broth.


[83] CUCUMBERS ANOTHER WAY
   _ALITER CUCUMERES RASOS_

[Peeled cucumbers are] STEWED WITH BOILED BRAINS, CUMIN AND A LITTLE
HONEY. ADD SOME CELERY SEED, STOCK AND OIL, BIND THE GRAVY WITH EGGS
[1] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] Tor. _bis obligabis_--tie twice--for which there is
    no reason, except in case the sauce should curdle. List.
    _oleo elixabis_--fry in oil--obviously wrong, as the
    materials for this stew are already cooked. Sch. _ovis
    obligabis_--bind with eggs--which is the thing to do in
    this case.


[84] ANOTHER CUCUMBER RECIPE
   _ALITER CUCUMERES_

CUCUMBERS, PEPPER, PENNYROYAL, HONEY OR CONDENSED MUST, BROTH AND
VINEGAR; ONCE IN A WHILE ONE ADDS SILPHIUM.

    Sounds like a fancy dressing for raw sliced cucumbers,
    though there are no directions to this effect.



VII


[85] MELON-GOURD AND MELONS
   _PEPONES ET MELONES_

PEPPER, PENNYROYAL, HONEY OR CONDENSED MUST, BROTH AND VINEGAR; ONCE
IN A WHILE ONE ADDS SILPHIUM.

    Same as 84; which confirms above theory. It is quite
    possible that melons were eaten raw with this fancy
    dressing. Many people enjoy melons with pepper and salt,
    or, in salad form with oil and vinegar. Gourds, however,
    to be palatable, must be boiled and served either hot or
    cold with this dressing.



VIII


[86] MALLOWS
   _MALVAS_

THE SMALLER MALLOWS [are prepared] WITH GARUM [1], STOCK [2] OIL AND
VINEGAR; THE LARGER MALLOWS [prepare] WITH A WINE SAUCE, PEPPER AND
STOCK, [adding] CONDENSED WINE OR RAISIN WINE.

    [1] Tor. _Garum_; List. _Oenogarum_.

    [2] _Liquamen_--depending upon the mode of serving the
    mallows, hot or cold.



IX


[87] YOUNG CABBAGE, SPROUTS [1]
   _CYMAS ET CAULICULOS_ [2]

[Boil the] SPROUTS; [1] [season with] CUMIN [3], SALT, WINE AND OIL;
IF YOU LIKE [add] PEPPER, LOVAGE, MINT, RUE, CORIANDER; THE TENDER
LEAVES OF THE STALKS [stew] IN BROTH; WINE AND OIL BE THE SEASONING.

    [1] Including, perhaps, cauliflower and broccoli.

    [2] List. _Cimæ & Coliculi. Nunc crudi cum condimentis
    nunc elixati inferentur._ Served sometimes raw with
    dressing, sometimes boiled.

    [3] Cumin or carraway seed is still used today in the
    preparation of the delicious "Bavarian" cabbage which
    also includes wine and other spices.


[88] ANOTHER WAY
   _ALITER_

CUT THE STALKS IN HALF AND BOIL THEM. THE LEAVES ARE MASHED AND
SEASONED WITH CORIANDER, ONION, CUMIN, PEPPER, RAISIN WINE, OR
CONDENSED WINE AND A LITTLE OIL.

    Very sensible way of using cabbage stalks that are
    usually thrown away. Note the almost scientific
    procedure: the stalks are separated from the leaves,
    split to facilitate cooking; they are cooked separately
    because they require more time than the tender greens.

    Our present method appears barbarous in comparison. We
    quarter the cabbage head, and either boil it or steam
    it. As a result either the tender leaves are cooked to
    death or the stems are still hard. The overcooked parts
    are not palatable, the underdone ones indigestible. Such
    being the case, our boiled cabbage is a complete loss,
    unless prepared the Apician way.


[89] ANOTHER WAY
   _ALITER_

THE COOKED [1] STALKS ARE PLACED IN A [baking] DISH; MOISTEN WITH
STOCK AND PURE OIL, SEASON WITH CUMIN, SPRINKLE [2] WITH PEPPER,
LEEKS, CUMIN, AND GREEN CORIANDER [all] CHOPPED UP.

    [1] Tor. _Coliculi assati_--_sauté_, fried; (Remember:
    _Choux de Bruxelles sauté_) List. _elixati_--boiled.
    G.-V. _Cauliculi elixati_.

    [2] Tor. _Superasperges_; G.-V. _piper asperges_.

    Sounds like a salad of cooked cabbage. The original
    leaves us in doubt as to the temperature of the dish.


[90] ANOTHER WAY
   _ALITER_

THE VEGETABLE, SEASONED AND PREPARED IN THE ABOVE WAY IS STEWED WITH
PARBOILED LEEKS.


[91] ANOTHER WAY
   _ALITER_

TO THE SPROUTS OR STALKS, SEASONED AND PREPARED AS ABOVE, ARE ADDED
GREEN OLIVES WHICH ARE HEATED LIKEWISE.


[92] ANOTHER WAY
   _ALITER_

PREPARE THE SPROUTS IN THE ABOVE WAY, COVER THEM WITH BOILED SPELT AND
PINE NUTS [1] AND SPRINKLE [2] WITH RAISINS.

    [1] The nuts should not astonish us. The French today
    have a delicious dish, _Choux de Bruxelles aux
    Marrons_--Brussels Sprouts with Chestnuts. Sprouts and
    chestnuts are, of course, cooked separately; the lightly
    boiled sprouts are _sauté_ in butter; the chestnuts
    parboiled, peeled, and finished in stock with a little
    sugar or syrup, tossed in butter and served in the
    center of the sprouts.

    The Apician formula with cereal and raisins added is too
    exotic to suit our modern taste, but without a question
    is a nutritious dish and complete from a dietetic point
    of view.

    [2] Tor. _Superasperges_; G.-V. _piper asperges_.



X


[93] LEEKS
   _PORROS_

WELL MATURED LEEKS [1] ARE BOILED WITH A PINCH OF SALT [2] IN
[combined] WATER AND OIL [3]. THEY ARE THEN STEWED IN OIL AND IN THE
BEST KIND OF BROTH, AND SERVED.

    [1] Tor. _Poros bene maturos_; G.-V. _maturos fieri_.

    [2] One of the rare instances where Apicius mentions
    salt in cookery, i.e., salt in a dry form. _Pugnum
    salis_--a fist of salt--he prescribes here. Usually it
    is _liquamen_--broth, brine--he uses.

    [3] Tor. is correct in finishing the sentence here.
    G.-V. continue _et eximes._, which is the opening of the
    next sentence, and it makes a difference in the formula.


[94] ANOTHER WAY TO COOK LEEKS
   _ALITER PORROS_

WRAP THE LEEKS WELL IN CABBAGE LEAVES, HAVING FIRST COOKED THEM AS
DIRECTED ABOVE [1] AND THEN FINISH THEM IN THE ABOVE WAY.

    [1] Tor. _in primis_--first; List., G.-V. _in
    prunis_--hot embers.


[95] ANOTHER WAY
   _ALITER PORROS_

COOK THE LEEKS WITH [laurel] BERRIES [1], [and otherwise treat them]
AND SERVE AS ABOVE.

    [1] Tor. _Porros in bacca coctos_; List. _in
    cacabo_--cooked in a casserole; Sch. _bafa
    embama_--steeped, marinated (in oil); G.-V. _in baca
    coctos_. Another way to read this: _baca et fabæ_--with
    beans--is quite within reason. The following formula,
    96, is perhaps only a variant of the above.

    Brandt: with olives, referring to No. 91 as a precedent.


[96] LEEKS AND BEANS
   _ALITER PORROS_

AFTER HAVING BOILED THE LEEKS IN WATER, [green string] BEANS WHICH
HAVE NOT YET BEEN PREPARED OTHERWISE, MAY BE BOILED [in the leek
water] [1] PRINCIPALLY ON ACCOUNT OF THE GOOD TASTE THEY WILL ACQUIRE;
AND MAY THEN BE SERVED WITH THE LEEKS.

    [1] Apicius needed no modern science of nutrition to
    remind him of the value of the mineral salts in
    vegetables.



XI


[97] BEETS
   _BETAS_

TO MAKE A DISH OF BEETS THAT WILL APPEAL TO YOUR TASTE [1] SLICE [the
beets, [2] with] LEEKS AND CRUSH CORIANDER AND CUMIN; ADD RAISIN WINE
[3], BOIL ALL DOWN TO PERFECTION: BIND IT, SERVE [the beets] SEPARATE
FROM THE BROTH, WITH OIL AND VINEGAR.

    [1] Sentence in Tor.; wanting in List. _et al._

    [2] List. No mention of beets is made in this formula;
    therefore, it may belong to the foregoing leek recipes.
    V. This is not so. Here the noun is made subject to the
    first verb, as is practiced frequently. Moreover, the
    mode of preparation fits beets nicely, except for the
    flour to which we object in note 3, below. To cook beets
    with leeks, spices and wine and serve them (cold) with
    oil and vinegar is indeed a method that cannot be
    improved upon.

    [3] Tac., Tor., List., G.-V. _uvam passam_,
    _Farinam_--raisins and flour--for which there is no
    reason. Sch. _varianam_--raisin wine of the Varianian
    variety; Bas. _Phariam_. V. inclined to agree with Sch.
    and Bas.


[98] ANOTHER WAY
   _ALITER BETAS ELIXAS_

COOK THE BEETS WITH MUSTARD [seed] AND SERVE THEM WELL PICKLED IN A
LITTLE OIL AND VINEGAR.

    V. Add bay leaves, cloves, pepper grains, sliced onion
    and a little sugar, and you have our modern pickled
    beets.



XII


[99] GREEN VEGETABLES, POT HERBS
   _OLISERA_ [1]

[The greens] TIED IN HANDY BUNDLES, COOKED AND SERVED WITH PURE OIL;
ALSO PROPER WITH FRIED FISH.

    [1] Tac. _Olisera_; Tor. _Olifera_ (_sev mauis olyra_)
    Tor. is mistaken. Hum., List. _Olisatra_; (old Ms. note
    in our Hum. copy: "_Alessandrina uulgò_") from
    _olusatrum_--_olus_--pot herbs, cabbage, turnips. G.-V.
    _Holisera_, from _holus_, i.e. _olus_ and from _olitor_
    one who raises pot herbs.



XIII


[100] TURNIPS OR NAVEWS
    _RAPAS SIVE NAPOS_

[Turnips are] COOKED [soft, the water is] SQUEEZED [out; then] CRUSH A
GOOD AMOUNT OF CUMIN AND A LITTLE RUE, ADD PARTHICAN [1] LASER OR [2]
VINEGAR, STOCK, CONDENSED WINE AND OIL [3] HEAT MODERATELY AND SERVE.

    [1] i.e. Persian laser; List. _laser, Parthicum_; (the
    comma makes a difference!) Sch. _particum_--a part.

    [2] Tac., Tor. _vel acetum_; List. G.-V. _mel, acetum_.
    Another comma; and "honey" instead of "or." V. We doubt
    this: the vinegar is an alternative, for it takes the
    place of the more expensive Persian _laser_ (which was
    an essence of the _laser_ root, often diluted with
    vinegar).

    [3] List., G.-V. _oleum modice_: _fervere_; Tor. _&
    oleum, quæ modice fervere facias_. Again note Lister's
    punctuation here and in the foregoing notes. The
    misplaced commas and colons raise havoc with the formulæ
    everywhere. Torinus, who in his preface complains that
    his authority has no punctuation whatsoever and thereby
    indicates that it must have been a very ancient copy,
    (at least prior to the 1503 Tac. ed.) is generally not
    far from the mark. It is also doubtful that the variants
    are by him, as is claimed by List. In this instance,
    indeed, Tor. is again correct.


[101] ANOTHER WAY [1]
    _ALITER RAPAS SIVE NAPOS_

[The turnips are] BOILED, SERVED DRESSED WITH OIL, TO WHICH, IF
DESIRED, YOU MAY ADD VINEGAR [2].

    [1] Tor. _ad delitias_--delightful.

    [2] V. Presumably served cold, as a salad; cf. No. 122.



XIV


[102] RADISHES
    _RAPHANOS_

PEPPER THE RADISHES WELL; OR, EQUALLY WELL: GRATE IT WITH PEPPER AND
BRINE.

    Sch., G.-V. _Rafanos_; _Raphanos agria_,--a kind of
    horseradish; Plinius: h.e. _raphanus sylvestris_.



XV


[103] SOFT CABBAGE
    _OLUS MOLLE_

THE CABBAGE IS COOKED WITH POT HERBS IN SODA WATER; PRESS [the water
out] CHOP IT VERY FINE: [now] CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, DRY SATURY WITH
DRY ONIONS, ADD STOCK, OIL AND WINE.


[104] ANOTHER MASHED GREEN VEGETABLE
    _ALTER OLUS MOLLE_ [_EX APIO_]

COOK CELERY IN SODA WATER, SQUEEZE [water out] CHOP FINE. IN THE
MORTAR CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, ONION [and mix with] WINE AND
STOCK, ADDING SOME OIL. COOK THIS IN THE BOILER [1] AND MIX THE
CELERY WITH THIS PREPARATION.

    [1] _in pultario_. The _pultarius_ is a pot in which
    cereals were boiled; from _puls_--porridge, pap.


[105] ANOTHER MASHED VEGETABLE
    _ALITER OLUS MOLLE_ [_EX LACTUCIS_]

COOK THE LETTUCE LEAVES WITH ONION IN SODA WATER, SQUEEZE [the water
out] CHOP VERY FINE; IN THE MORTAR CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED,
DRY MINT, ONION; ADD STOCK, OIL AND WINE.


[106] TO PREVENT MASHED VEGETABLES FROM TURNING
    _OLUS MOLLE NE ARESCAT_ [1]

IT WILL BE REQUIRED ABOVE ALL TO CLEAN THE VEGETABLES WELL, TO CUT OFF
ALL DECAYED PARTS AND TO COVER [the cooked vegetables] WITH WORMWOOD
WATER.

    [1] Tor. _ne ... exarescat_, the difference in the
    meaning is immaterial.



XVI


[107] FIELD HERBS
    _HERBÆ RUSTICÆ_

FIELD AND FOREST [1] HERBS ARE PREPARED [2] [either raw] WITH STOCK
[3] OIL AND VINEGAR [as a salad, [4]] OR AS A COOKED DISH [5] BY
ADDING PEPPER, CUMIN AND MASTICH BERRIES.

    [1] Tor. _ac sylvestres_; V. German, _Feldsalat_.

    [2] Tor. _parantur_; wanting in other editions.

    [3] _Liquamine_, here interpreted as brine.

    [4] Tac., Sch., _et al._ _a manu_; Tor. _vel
    manu_--because eaten with the hand.

    [5] Tor. _vel in patina_.



XVII


[108] NETTLES
    _URTICÆ_

THE FEMALE NETTLES, WHEN THE SUN IS IN THE POSITION OF THE ARIES, IS
SUPPOSED TO RENDER VALUABLE SERVICES AGAINST AILMENTS OF VARIOUS KINDS
[1].

    [1] Tac., List., Sch., _et al._ _adversus ægritudinem_.

    Barthius: _Quam ægritudinem?_ etc., etc.

    Tor. _plurifarias_!

    Reinsenius: _ad arcendum morbum_, etc., etc.

    Hum. _scilicet quamcunque hoc est ..._ etc., etc., etc.

    G.-V. _si voles_.

    V. This innocent little superstition about the curative
    qualities of the female nettle causes the savants to
    engage in various speculations.

    Nettles are occasionally eaten as vegetables on the
    Continent.



XVIII


[109] ENDIVES AND LETTUCE
    _INTUBA ET LACTUCÆ_

ENDIVES [are dressed] WITH BRINE, A LITTLE OIL AND CHOPPED ONION,
INSTEAD OF THE REAL LETTUCE [1] IN WINTER TIME THE ENDIVES ARE TAKEN
OUT OF THE PICKLE [2] [and are dressed] WITH HONEY OR VINEGAR.

    [1] Hum. _pro lactucis uere_; Tor. _p. l. accipint_;
    G.-V. _p. l. vero_ (separated by period)--all indicating
    that endives are a substitute for lettuce when this is
    not available.

    [2] Cf. ℞ No. 27, also Nos. 22 and 23.


[110] LETTUCE SALAD, FIELD SALAD
    _AGRESTES LACTUCÆ_ [1]

[Dress it] WITH VINEGAR DRESSING AND A LITTLE BRINE STOCK; WHICH HELPS
DIGESTION AND IS TAKEN TO COUNTERACT INFLATION [2].

    [1] Tor. _sic_; Hum. _agri l._; Tac. _id._; Sch. and
    G.-V. have _acri_ as an adjective to vinegar, the last
    word in the preceding formula.

    [2] List. and Hum. continuing: "And this salad will not
    hurt you"; but Tor., Sch. and G.-V. use this as a
    heading for the following formula.


[111] A HARMLESS SALAD
    _NE LACTUCÆ LÆDANT_

[And in order that the lettuce may not hurt you take (with it or after
it) the following preparation] [1] 2 OUNCES OF GINGER, 1 OUNCE OF
GREEN RUE, 1 OUNCE OF MEATY DATES, 12 SCRUPLES OF GROUND PEPPER, 1
OUNCE OF GOOD HONEY, AND 8 OUNCES OF EITHER ÆTHIOPIAN OR SYRIAN CUMIN.
MAKE AN INFUSION OF THIS IN VINEGAR, THE CUMIN CRUSHED, AND STRAIN. OF
THIS LIQUOR USE A SMALL SPOONFUL MIX IT WITH STOCK AND A LITTLE
VINEGAR: YOU MAY TAKE A SMALL SPOONFUL AFTER THE MEAL [2].

    [1] Tac. and Tor. _Ne lactucæ lædant_ [take it] _cum
    zingiberis uncijs duabus_, etc. Hum., List., G.-V.
    _cumini unc. II._ They and Sch. read the _cum_ of Tac.
    and Tor. for _cumini_, overlooking the fact that the
    recipe later calls for Aethopian or Syrian cumin as
    well. This shifts the weights of the various ingredients
    from the one to the other, completely upsetting the
    sense of the formula.

    [2] Goll. ignores this passage completely.

    V. This is another of the medical formulæ that have
    suffered much by experimentation and interpretation
    through the ages. It seems to be an aromatic vinegar for
    a salad dressing, and, as such, a very interesting
    article, reminding of our present tarragon, etc.,
    vinegars. To be used judiciously in salads.

    Again, as might be expected, the medicinal character of
    the formula inspires the medieval doctors to profound
    meditation and lively debate.

    Cf. ℞ Nos. 34 and 108.



XIX


[112] CARDOONS
    _CARDUI_

CARDOONS [are eaten with a dressing of] BRINY BROTH, OIL, AND CHOPPED
[hard] EGGS.

    V. Precisely as we do today: French dressing and hard
    boiled eggs. We do not forget pepper, of course. Perhaps
    the ancient "briny broth" contained enough of this and
    of other ingredients, such as fine condiments and spices
    to make the dressing perfect.


[113] ANOTHER [Dressing for] CARDOONS
    _ALITER CARDUOS_

RUE, MINT, CORIANDER, FENNEL--ALL GREEN--FINELY CRUSHED; ADD PEPPER,
LOVAGE, AND [1] BRINE AND OIL [2].

    [1] Tac. and Tor. _vel._; List., Sch., G.-V.
    _mel_--honey--which would spoil this fine _vinaigrette_
    or cold _fines herbes dressing_. However, even nowadays,
    sugar is quite frequently added to salad dressings.

    [2] Gollmer claims that this dressing is served with
    cooked cardoons, the recipe for which follows below.
    This is wanting in Tor.


[114] BOILED CARDOONS
    _ALITER CARDUOS ELIXOS_

[Are served with] PEPPER, CUMIN, BROTH AND OIL.



XX


[115] (COW-) PARSNIPS [?]
    _SPONDYLI VEL FONDULI_ [1]

COW-PARSNIPS ARE FRIED [and eaten] WITH A SIMPLE WINE SAUCE.

    [1] Tac. _Spondili uel fonduli_ and _Sphon ..._; Tor. as
    above; Hum. _Spongioli uel funguli_; List., _id._; Sch.
    _Sfondili uel funguli_; G.-V. _Sphondyli uel funduli_.

    Cf. note to Nos. 46, 121, 122.


[116] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

BOIL THE PARSNIPS IN SALT WATER [and season them] WITH PURE OIL [1],
CHOPPED GREEN CORIANDER AND WHOLE PEPPER.

    [1] Tac. _Oleo mero_; Other editors: _Oleo, mero_. V.
    The comma is misplaced.


[117] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

PREPARE THE BOILED PARSNIPS WITH THE FOLLOWING SAUCE: CELERY SEED,
RUE, HONEY, GROUND PEPPER, MIXED WITH RAISIN WINE, STOCK AND A LITTLE
OIL; BIND THIS WITH ROUX [bring to a boiling point, immerse parsnips]
SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.


[118] ANOTHER WAY [Purée of Parsnips] [1]
    _ALITER_

MASH THE PARSNIPS, [add] CUMIN, RUE, STOCK, A LITTLE CONDENSED
WINE, OIL, GREEN CORIANDER [and] LEEKS AND SERVE; GOES WELL WITH
SALT PORK [2].

    [1] Again faulty punctuation obscures the text.
    Carefully compare the following: Tac. and Tor.
    _Spondylos teres, cuminum_, etc. Hum., List. and G.-V.
    _S. teres cuminum_, i.e. crush the cumin. Sch. _S.
    tores_--dry, parch!

    [2] _Inferes pro salso_--serve with salt pork or bacon,
    or, instead of--_Salsum_--salt pork. Dann. Well seasoned
    with salt! Sch. _infares pro salsa_. For further
    confirmation of _salsum_ cf. ℞ Nos. 148-152.


[119] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

BOIL THE PARSNIPS [sufficiently, if] HARD [1] [then] PUT THEM IN A
SAUCE PAN AND STEW WITH OIL, STOCK, PEPPER, RAISIN WINE, STRAIN [2]
AND BIND WITH ROUX.

    [1] Tor. _præduratos_; List. _prædurabis_. How can they
    be hardened? It may perhaps stand for "parboil." We
    agree with Tor. that the hard ones (_præduratos_) must
    be cooked soft.

    [2] Tor. and Tac. _Colabis_--strain; List. and G.-V.
    _Colorabis_--color. No necessity for coloring the gravy,
    but straining after the binding with roux is important
    which proves Tor. correct again. Cf. note 1 to ℞ No.
    73 and note 2 to ℞ No. 55.


[120] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_ [1]

FINISH [marinate] THE PARSNIPS IN OIL AND BROTH, OR FRY THEM IN OIL,
SPRINKLE WITH SALT AND PEPPER, AND SERVE.

    [1] Ex G.-V. wanting in Tor. and List. Found in Sch.
    also. V. Procedure quite in accordance with modern
    practice. We envelope the p. in flour or frying batter.


[121] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_ [1]

BRUISE THE BOILED PARSNIPS [scallops, muscular part of shellfish]
ELIMINATE THE HARD STRINGS; ADD BOILED SPELT AND CHOPPED HARD EGGS,
STOCK AND PEPPER. MAKE CROQUETTES OR SAUSAGE FROM THIS, ADDING
PIGNOLIA NUT AND PEPPER, WRAP IN CAUL [or fill in casings] FRY AND
SERVE THEM AS AN ENTRÉE DISH IN A WINE SAUCE.

    [1] V. This formula is virtually a repetition of ℞ No.
    46, all the more bewildering because of the divergence
    of the term (Cf. ℞ No. 115), which stands for
    "scallops" or the muscular part of any bivalve, at least
    in the above formula.

    The Græco-Latin word for cow-parsnip is _spondylium_,
    _sphondylium_, _spondylion_. It is almost certain that
    the preceding parsnips formulæ are in the right place
    here. They are in direct line with the other vegetables
    here treated--the shellfish--_spondylus_--would be out
    of place in this chapter, Book III, The Gardener. All
    the recipes, with the exception of the above, fit a
    vegetable like parsnips. Even Lister's and Humelberg's
    interpretation of the term, who read
    _spongioli_--mushrooms--could be questioned under this
    heading, Book III.

    It is barely possible that this entire series of
    formulæ, _Spondyli uel fonduli_ (℞ Nos. 115-121) does
    belong to Book II among the scallop _hysitia_, though we
    are little inclined to accept this theory.

    Cf. ℞ No. 122 which appears to be a confirmation of
    the view expressed above.



XXI


[122] CARROTS AND PARSNIPS
    _CAROTÆ ET PASTINACÆ_

CARROTS OR PARSNIPS ARE FRIED [and served] WITH A WINE SAUCE.

    V. Exactly like ℞ No. 115, which may be a
    confirmation that _spondyli_ stands for cow-parsnips.


[123] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

THE CARROTS [are cooked] SALTED [and served] WITH PURE OIL AND
VINEGAR.

    V. As a salad. "Italian Salad" consists of a variety of
    such cooked vegetables, nicely dressed with oil and
    vinegar, or with mayonnaise. Cf. ℞ No. 102.


[124] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

THE CARROTS [are] BOILED [and] SLICED, STEWED WITH CUMIN AND A LITTLE
OIL AND ARE SERVED. AT THE SAME TIME [1] [here is your opportunity]
MAKE A CUMIN SAUCE [from the carrot juice] FOR THOSE WHO HAVE THE
COLIC [2].

    [1] Ex Tor. wanting elsewhere.

    [2] Tac. _coliorum_; Tor. _cuminatum colicorum_; List.
    _c. coloratum_--colored; G.-V. _c. colorium_.


END OF BOOK III

_EXPLICIT APICII CEPURICA DE OLERIBUS LIBER TERTIUS_ [Tac.]



{Illustration: THERMOSPODIUM OF PLAIN DESIGN

Water and food heater for everyday purposes. Charcoal fuel. Foods were
kept on top in pans, dishes or pots, and were thus carried from the
kitchen into the dining room. They were also used for food service in
hotel rooms, supplied from adjacent tavern kitchens, as some hotels
had no food preparation facilities. This handy apparatus was designed
for general utility, as it also served as a portable stove on chilly
days in living rooms that were not heated from the central heating
plant found in larger houses. Ntl. Mus. Naples, 73882; Field M.
24179.}



APICIUS

Book IV



{Illustration: ROMAN WINE PRESS

Reconstruction in Naples, in the new section of the National Museum.}



{Illustration: A DISH FOR THE SERVICE OF EGGS

Hildesheim Treasure}



BOOK IV. MISCELLANEA

_Lib. IV. Pandecter_ [1]


    CHAP.   I. BOILED DINNERS.
    CHAP.  II. DISHES OF FISH, VEGETABLES, FRUITS, AND SO FORTH.
    CHAP. III. FINELY MINCED DISHES, OR _ISICIA_.
    CHAP.  IV. PORRIDGE, GRUEL.
    CHAP.   V. APPETIZING DISHES.



I


[125] BOILED DINNER
    _SALACATTABIA_ [2]

PEPPER, FRESH MINT, CELERY, DRY PENNYROYAL, CHEESE [3], PIGNOLIA NUTS,
HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, YOLKS OF EGG, FRESH WATER, SOAKED BREAD AND THE
LIQUID PRESSED OUT, COW'S CHEESE AND CUCUMBERS ARE ARRANGED IN A DISH,
ALTERNATELY, WITH THE NUTS; [also add] FINELY CHOPPED CAPERS [4],
CHICKEN LIVERS [5]; COVER COMPLETELY WITH [a lukewarm, congealing]
BROTH, PLACE ON ICE [and when congealed unmould and] SERVE UP [6].

    [1] Read: _Pandectes_--embracing the whole science.

    [2] Read: _Salacaccabia_--from _salsa_ and
    _caccabus_--salt meat boiled in the pot. Sch. _Sala
    cottabia_; G.-V. _cattabia_.

    [3] Sch. _casiam_ instead of _caseum_.

    [4] Sch. _Copadiis porcinis_--small bits of pork; List.
    _cepas aridas puto_--"shallots, I believe"; Lan.
    _capparis_; Vat., G.-V. _id._

    [5] Dann. Chicken meat.

    [6] This dish if pork were added (cf. Sch. in note 4
    above) would resemble our modern "headcheese"; the
    presence of cheese in this formula and in our word
    "headcheese" is perhaps not accidental; the cheese has
    been eliminated in the course of time from dishes of
    this sort while the name has remained with us. "Cheese"
    also appears in the German equivalent for
    custard--_Eierkäse_.


[126] APICIAN JELLY
    _SALACATTABIA APICIANA_

PUT IN THE MORTAR CELERY SEED, DRY PENNYROYAL, DRY MINT, GINGER, FRESH
CORIANDER, SEEDLESS RAISINS, HONEY, VINEGAR, OIL AND WINE; CRUSH IT
TOGETHER [in order to make a dressing of it]. [Now] PLACE 3 PIECES OF
PICENTIAN BREAD IN A MOULD, INTERLINED WITH PIECES OF [cooked]
CHICKEN, [cooked] SWEETBREADS OF CALF OR LAMB, CHEESE [1], PIGNOLIA
NUTS, CUCUMBERS [pickles] FINELY CHOPPED DRY ONIONS [shallots]
COVERING THE WHOLE WITH [jellified] BROTH. BURY THE MOULD IN SNOW UP
TO THE RIM; [unmould] SPRINKLE [with the above dressing] AND SERVE
[2].

    [1] List. _caseum Vestinum_--a certain cheese from the
    Adriatic coast.

    [2] The nature of the first passage of this formula
    indicates a dressing for a cold dish. The dish was
    probably unmoulded when firm, and the jelly covered with
    this dressing, though the original does not state this
    procedure. In that case it would resemble a highly
    complicated chicken salad, such as we make
    today--_mayonnaise de volaille en aspic_, for instance.
    We recall the artistic molds for puddings and other
    dishes which the ancients had which were nicely suited
    for dishes such as the above.

    The Picentian bread--made of spelt--was a celebrated
    product of the bakeries of Picentia, a town of lower
    Italy, near the Tuscan sea, according to Pliny.

    Cf. ℞ No. 141.


[127] OTHER SALACACCABIA
    _ALITER_

HOLLOW OUT AN ALEXANDRINE LOAF OF BREAD, SOAK THE CRUMBS WITH POSCA [a
mixture of water, wine, vinegar or lemon juice] AND MAKE A PASTE OF
IT. PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, HONEY [1] MINT, GARLIC, FRESH CORIANDER,
SALTED COW'S CHEESE, WATER AND OIL. WINE [2] POURED OVER BEFORE
SERVING [3].

    [1] Wanting in Tor.

    [2] G.-V. _insuper nivem_--chilled on snow (like the
    preceding formula). Tac. _insuper vinum_; Sch. _id._

    [3] A panada as is found in every old cookery book.
    Today it remains as a dressing for roast fowl, etc.
    Quoting from "A Collection of Receipts in Cookery,
    Physick and Surgery," London, 1724:

    "Panada for a Sick or Weak Stomach. Put the crumbs of a
    Penny White-Loaf grated into a Quart of cold Water, set
    both on the Fire together with a blade of Mace: When
    'tis boil'd smooth, take it off the fire and put in a
    bit of Lemon-peel, the juice of a Lemon, a glass of Sack
    [Spanish Wine] and Sugar to your Taste. This is very
    Nourishing and never offends the Stomach. Some season
    with butter and Sugar, adding Currants which on some
    occasions are proper; but the first is the most grateful
    and innocent."

    Mrs. Glasse, a quarter century later, in her famous book
    [The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy, London, 1747,
    1st ed.] omits the wine, but Mrs. Mason, at about the
    same time, insists on having it with panada.

    The imaginary or real relation between the sciences of
    cookery and medicine is illustrated here.



II

DISHES OF FISH, VEGETABLES, FRUITS AND SO FORTH
  _PATINÆ PISCIUM, HOLERUM & POMORUM_


[128] EVERYDAY DISH
    _PATINA QUOTIDIANA_ [1]

MAKE A PASTE OF STEWED BRAINS [calf's, pig's, etc.] SEASON WITH
PEPPER, CUMIN, LASER, BROTH, THICKENED WINE, MILK AND EGGS [2] POACH
IT OVER A WEAK FIRE OR IN A HOT WATER [BATH].

    [1] Tac. _quottidiana_; List. _cottidiana_.

    [2] List. _ovis_--with eggs, which is correct. Tor.
    _holus_; Lan. _olus_--herbs, cabbage.

    Cf. ℞ No. 142.


[129] ANOTHER DISH, WHICH CAN BE TURNED OVER [A Nut Custard]
    _ALITER PATINA VERSATILIS_

THE DISH, CALLED TURN-OVER, IS THUS MADE [1] CRUSH VERY FINE WALNUTS
AND HAZELNUTS [2] TOAST THEM AND CRUSH WITH HONEY, MIX IN PEPPER,
BROTH, MILK AND EGGS AND A LITTLE OIL [3].

    [1] Tor.

    [2] List. _torres eas_--toast them (wanting in Tor.)
    which is the thing to do. Cf. No. 143, practically a
    repetition of this. Cf. 301.

    [3] This laconic formula indicates a custard poached,
    like in the preceding, in a mould, which, when cooled
    off, is unmoulded in the usual way. This _patina
    versatilis_ is in fact the modern _crême renversée_,
    with nuts.

    It is characteristic of Apicius for incompleteness and
    want of precise directions, without which the experiment
    in the hands of an inexperienced operator would result
    in failure.


[130] ANOTHER
    _ALITER PATINA_

ANOTHER DISH IS MADE OF THE [1] STRUNKS OF LETTUCE CRUSHED WITH
PEPPER, BROTH, THICKENED WINE, [add] WATER AND OIL, AND COOK THIS;
BIND WITH EGGS, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [2].

    [1] Tor.

    [2] Very much like a modern soup, purée of lettuce.


[131] VEGETABLE AND BRAIN PUDDING
    _PATINA FRISILIS_ [1]

TAKE VEGETABLES, CLEAN AND WASH, SHRED [2] AND COOK THEM [3] COOL THEM
OFF AND DRAIN THEM. TAKE 4 [calf's] BRAINS, REMOVE [the skin and]
STRINGS AND COOK THEM [4] IN THE MORTAR PUT 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER,
MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND CRUSH FINE; THEN ADD THE BRAINS, RUB AGAIN AND
MEANWHILE ADD THE VEGETABLES, RUBBING ALL THE WHILE, AND MAKE A FINE
PASTE OF IT. THEREUPON BREAK AND ADD 8 EGGS. NOW ADD A GLASSFUL [5] OF
BROTH, A GLASSFUL OF WINE, A GLASSFUL OF RAISIN WINE, TASTE THIS
PREPARATION. OIL THE BAKING DISH THOROUGHLY [put the mixture in the
dish] AND PLACE IT IN THE HOT PLATE, (THAT IS ABOVE THE HOT ASHES) [6]
AND WHEN IT IS DONE [unmould it] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [7].

    [1] List. _frictilis_; Vat. Ms. _fusilis_; G.-V. _id._;
    Lan. _frisilis_.

    _Patina frisilis_ remains unexplained. None of the
    various readings can be satisfactorily rendered. If the
    vegetables had remained whole the dish might be compared
    to a _chartreuse_, those delightful creations by the
    Carthusian monks who compelled by the strictest rules of
    vegetarianism evolved a number of fine vegetable dishes.
    On the other hand, the poached mixture of eggs and
    brains is akin to our _farces_ and _quenelles_; but in
    modern cookery we have nothing just like this _patina
    frisilis_.

    [2] Wanting in List.

    [3] and [4] Wanting in Tor.

    [5] _Cyathum._

    [6] Sentence in () ex Tor.

    [7] This and some of the following recipes are
    remarkable for their preciseness and completeness.


[132] ANOTHER COLD ASPARAGUS [and Figpecker] DISH
    _ALITER PATINA DE ASPARAGIS FRIGIDA_

COLD ASPARAGUS PIE IS MADE IN THIS MANNER [1] TAKE WELL CLEANED
[cooked] ASPARAGUS, CRUSH IT IN THE MORTAR, DILUTE WITH WATER AND
PRESENTLY STRAIN IT THROUGH THE COLANDER. NOW TRIM, PREPARE [i.e. cook
or roast] FIGPECKERS [2] [and hold them in readiness]. 3 [3] SCRUPLES
OF PEPPER ARE CRUSHED IN THE MORTAR, ADD BROTH, A GLASS OF WINE, PUT
THIS IN A SAUCEPAN WITH 3 OUNCES OF OIL, HEAT THOROUGHLY. MEANWHILE
OIL YOUR PIE MOULD, AND WITH 6 EGGS, FLAVORED WITH ŒNOGARUM, AND
THE ASPARAGUS PREPARATION AS DESCRIBED ABOVE; THICKEN THE MIXTURE ON
THE HOT ASHES. THEREUPON ARRANGE THE FIGPECKERS IN THE MOULD, COVER
THEM WITH THIS PURÉE, BAKE THE DISH. [When cold, unmould it] SPRINKLE
WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] Tor.

    [2] Lan. and Tac. _ficedulas curtas tres_; Tor. _curtas_
    f.--three figpeckers cut fine. G.-V. _F. curatas. Teres
    in ..._ (etc.)--Prepared _F._

    [3] List. six; G.-V. _id._


[133] ANOTHER ASPARAGUS CUSTARD
    _ALIA PATINA DE ASPARAGIS_

ASPARAGUS PIE IS MADE LIKE THIS [1] PUT IN THE MORTAR ASPARAGUS TIPS
[2] CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, SAVORY AND ONIONS; CRUSH,
DILUTE WITH WINE, BROTH AND OIL. PUT THIS IN A WELL-GREASED PAN, AND,
IF YOU LIKE, ADD WHILE ON THE FIRE SOME BEATEN EGGS TO IT TO THICKEN
IT, COOK [without boiling the eggs] AND SPRINKLE WITH VERY FINE
PEPPER.

    [1] Tor.

    [2] Reference to wine wanting in Tor. We add that the
    asparagus should be cooked before crushing.


[134] A DISH OF FIELD VEGETABLES
    _PATINA EX RUSTICIS_ [1]

BY FOLLOWING THE ABOVE INSTRUCTIONS YOU MAY MAKE [2] A PIE OF FIELD
VEGETABLES, OR OF THYME [3] OR OF GREEN PEPPERS [4] OR OF CUCUMBERS OR
OF SMALL TENDER SPROUTS [5] SAME AS ABOVE, OR, IF YOU LIKE, MAKE ONE
UNDERLAID WITH BONELESS PIECES OF FISH OR OF CHICKEN [combined with
any of the above vegetables] [6].

    [1] Tor. _Patina ex oleribus agrestibus_.

    [2] Tor. wanting in other texts.

    [3] Sch., G.-V. _tamnis_--wild wine; List. _cymis
    cuminis_; Lan., Tac. _tinis_; Vat. Ms. _tannis_. Thyme
    is hardly likely to be the chief ingredient of such a
    dish; the chances are it was used for flavoring and that
    the above enumerated vegetables were combined in one
    dish.

    [4] List., G.-V., Goll.--mustard; Dann. green mustard.
    Tor. _sive pipere viridi_--green peppers, which we
    accept as correct, gastronomically at least.

    [5] Goll., Dann. cabbage, the originals have
    _coliculis_--small tender sprouts on the order of
    Brussels sprouts or broccoli, all belonging to the
    cabbage family.

    [6] _Pulpa_--boneless pieces of meat, also fruit purée;
    _pulpamentum_--dainty bits of meat.


[135] ELDERBERRY CUSTARD OR PIE
    _PATINA DE SAMBUCO_ [1]

A DISH OF ELDERBERRIES, EITHER HOT OR COLD, IS MADE IN THIS MANNER [2]
TAKE ELDERBERRIES [3] WASH THEM; COOK IN WATER, SKIM AND STRAIN.
PREPARE A DISH IN WHICH TO COOK THE CUSTARD [4] CRUSH 6 SCRUPLES OF
PEPPER WITH A LITTLE BROTH; ADD THIS TO THE ELDERBERRY PULP WITH
ANOTHER GLASS OF BROTH, A GLASS OF WINE, A GLASS OF RAISIN WINE AND AS
MUCH AS 4 OUNCES OF OIL. PUT THE DISH IN THE HOT BATH AND STIR THE
CONTENTS. AS SOON AS IT IS GETTING WARM, QUICKLY BREAK 6 EGGS AND
WHIPPING THEM, INCORPORATE THEM, IN ORDER TO THICKEN THE FLUID. WHEN
THICK ENOUGH SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE UP.

    [1] G.-V. _Sabuco_.

    [2] Tor. wanting in other texts.

    [3] Hum. _semen de sambuco_--E. seed.

    [4] List. Place the berries in a dish; to their juice
    add pepper, (etc.).


[136] ROSE PIE, ROSE CUSTARD OR PUDDING
    _PATINA DE ROSIS_

TAKE ROSES FRESH FROM THE FLOWER BED, STRIP OFF THE LEAVES, REMOVE THE
WHITE [from the petals and] PUT THEM IN THE MORTAR; POUR OVER SOME
BROTH [and] RUB FINE. ADD A GLASS OF BROTH AND STRAIN THE JUICE
THROUGH THE COLANDER. [This done] TAKE 4 [cooked calf's] BRAINS, SKIN
THEM AND REMOVE THE NERVES; CRUSH 8 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER MOISTENED WITH
THE JUICE AND RUB [with the brains]; THEREUPON BREAK 8 EGGS, ADD 1 [1]
GLASS OF WINE, 1 GLASS OF RAISIN WINE AND A LITTLE OIL. MEANWHILE
GREASE A PAN, PLACE IT ON THE HOT ASHES [or in the hot bath] IN WHICH
POUR THE ABOVE DESCRIBED MATERIAL; WHEN THE MIXTURE IS COOKED IN THE
_BAIN MARIS_ [2] SPRINKLE IT WITH PULVERIZED PEPPER AND SERVE [3].

    [1] List., G.-V. 1-1/2 glass.

    [2] Hot water bath.

    [3] Tor. continues ℞ No. 135 without interruption or
    caption, and describes the above recipe. He reads: _De
    thoris accipies rosas_, but List. insists that _de
    thoris_ be read _de rosis_; Lan., Tac. _de toris_; V.
    _de thoris_ may be read "fresh from the flower bed."

    Cf. ℞ Nos. 167 and 171 in which case the "rose" may
    stand for rosy apple, or "Roman Beauty" apple. "Rose
    apple" also is a small pimento, size of a plum.


[137] PUMPKIN PIE
    _PATINA DE CUCURBITIS_ [1]

AND PUMPKIN PIE IS MADE THUS [2] STEWED AND MASHED PUMPKIN IS PLACED
IN THE PAN [or pie dish] SEASONED WITH A LITTLE CUMIN ESSENCE. ADD A
LITTLE OIL; HEAT [bake] AND SERVE [3].

    [1] Dann. Cucumber Dish.

    [2] Tor. Wanting in other texts.

    [3] Modern English recipes for stewed pumpkin resemble
    this Apician precept, but America has made a really
    palatable dish from pumpkin by the addition of eggs,
    cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger--spices which the insipid
    pumpkin needs. The ancient original may have omitted the
    eggs because Apicius probably expected his formula to be
    carried out in accordance with the preceding formulæ.
    Perhaps this is proven by the fact that Tor. continues
    the Rose Pie recipe with _et cucurbita patina sic fiet_.


[138] SPRATS OR SMELTS AU VIN BLANC
    _PATINA DE APUA_ [1]

CLEAN THE SMELTS [or other small fish, filets of sole, etc. of white
meat] MARINATE [i.e. impregnate with] IN OIL, PLACE IN A SHALLOW PAN,
ADD OIL, BROTH [2] AND WINE. BUNCH [3] [fresh] RUE AND MARJORAM AND
COOK WITH THE FISH. WHEN DONE REMOVE THE HERBS, SEASON THE FISH WITH
PEPPER AND SERVE [4].

    [1] Ex List. and G.-V. wanting in Tor.

    [2] _Liquamen_, which in this case corresponds to _court
    bouillon_, a broth prepared from the trimmings of the
    fish, herbs, and wine, well-seasoned and reduced.

    [3] Our very own _bouquet garni_, a bunch of various
    aromatic herbs, inserted during coction and retired
    before serving.

    [4] Excellent formula for fish in white wine, resembling
    our ways of making this fine dish.

    This again illustrates the laconic style of the ancient
    author. He omitted to say that the fish, when cooked,
    was placed on the service platter and that the juices
    remaining in the sauce pan were tied with one or two egg
    yolks, diluted with cream, or wine, or _court bouillon_,
    strained and poured over the fish at the moment of
    serving. This is perhaps the best method of preparing
    fish with white meat of a fine texture. Pink or darker
    fish do not lend themselves to this method of
    preparation.


[139] SMELT PIE, OR, SPRAT CUSTARD
    _PATINA DE ABUA SIVE APUA_ [1]

BONELESS PIECES OF ANCHOVIES OR [other small] FISH, EITHER ROAST
[fried] BOILED, CHOP VERY FINE. FILL A CASSEROLE GENEROUSLY WITH THE
SAME [season with] CRUSHED PEPPER AND A LITTLE RUE, ADD SUFFICIENT
BROTH AND SOME OIL, AND MIX IN, ALSO ADD ENOUGH RAW EGGS SO THAT THE
WHOLE FORMS ONE SOLID MASS. NOW CAREFULLY ADD SOME SEA-NETTLES BUT
TAKE PAIN THAT THEY ARE NOT MIXED WITH THE EGGS. NOW PUT THE DISH INTO
THE STEAM SO THAT IT MAY CONGEAL [but avoid boiling] [2]. WHEN DONE
SPRINKLE WITH GROUND PEPPER AND CARRY INTO THE DINING ROOM. NOBODY
WILL BE ABLE TO TELL WHAT HE IS ENJOYING [3].

    [1] Tac., Tor. _sic_. List., G.-V. _p. de apua sine
    apua_--a dish of anchovies (or smelts) without
    anchovies. Tor. formula bears the title _patina de
    apua_, and his article opens with the following
    sentence: _patin de abua sive apua sic facies_. He is
    therefore quite emphatic that the dish is to be made
    with the _abua_ or _apua_ (an anchovy) and not without
    _apua_, as List. has it. Lan. calls the dish: P. _de
    apabadiade_, not identified.

    [2] Tor. _impones ad uaporem ut cum ouis meare
    possint_--warning, get along with the eggs, i.e. beware
    of boiling them for they will curdle, and the experiment
    is hopelessly lost. List. however, reads _meare possint_
    thus: _bullire p._--boil (!) It is quite plain that Tor.
    has the correct formula.

    [3] _et ex esu nemo agnoscet quid manducet._ Dann.
    renders this sentence thus: "Nobody can value this dish
    unless he has partaken of it himself." He is too
    lenient. We would rather translate it literally as we
    did above, or say broadly, "And nobody will be any the
    wiser." List. dwells at length upon this sentence; his
    erudite commentary upon the _cena dubia_, the doubtful
    meal, will be found under the heading of _cena_ in our
    vocabulary. List. pp. 126-7. List. undoubtedly made the
    mistake of reading _sine_ for _sive_. He therefore
    omitted the _apua_ from his formula. The above boastful
    sentence may have induced him to do so.

    The above is a fish forcemeat, now seldom used as an
    integral dish, but still popular as a dressing for fish
    or as quenelles. The modern fish forcemeat is usually
    made of raw fish, cream and eggs, with the necessary
    seasoning. The material is poached or cooked much in the
    same manner as prescribed by the ancient recipe.


[140] A RICH ENTRÉE OF FISH, POULTRY AND SAUSAGE IN CREAM
    _PATINA EX LACTE_

SOAK [pignolia] NUTS, DRY THEM, AND ALSO HAVE FRESH SEA-URCHINS [1]
READY. TAKE A DEEP DISH [casserole] IN WHICH ARRANGE THE FOLLOWING
THINGS [in layers]: MEDIUM-SIZED MALLOWS AND BEETS, MATURE LEEKS,
CELERY, STEWED TENDER GREEN CABBAGE, AND OTHER BOILED GREEN VEGETABLES
[2], A DISJOINTED [3] CHICKEN STEWED IN ITS OWN GRAVY, COOKED [calf's
or pig's] BRAINS, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE, HARD BOILED EGGS CUT INTO HALVES,
BIG TARENTINIAN SAUSAGE [4] SLICED AND BROILED IN THE ASHES, CHICKEN
GIBLETS OR PIECES OF CHICKEN MEAT. BITS OF FRIED FISH, SEA NETTLES,
PIECES OF [stewed] OYSTERS AND FRESH CHEESE ARE ALTERNATELY PUT
TOGETHER; SPRINKLE IN BETWEEN THE NUTS AND WHOLE PEPPER, AND THE JUICE
AS IS COOKED FROM PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED AND SILPHIUM. THIS
ESSENCE, WHEN DONE, MIX WITH MILK TO WHICH RAW EGGS HAVE BEEN ADDED
[pour this over the pieces of food in the dish] SO THAT THE WHOLE IS
THOROUGHLY COMBINED, STIFFEN IT [in the hot water bath] AND WHEN DONE
[garnish with] FRESH MUSSELS [sea-urchins, poached and chopped fine]
SPRINKLE PEPPER OVER AND SERVE.

    [1] Sea-urchins, wanting in Tor.

    [2] Sentence wanting in G.-V.

    [3] _Pullum raptum_, in most texts; G.-V. _p.
    carptum_--plucked. Of course! Should _raptum_ be
    translated literally? A most atrocious way of killing
    fowl, to be sure, but anyone familiar with the habits of
    the ancients, particularly with those of the less
    educated element, should not wonder at this most bestial
    fashion, which was supposed to improve the flavor of the
    meat, a fashion which, as a matter of fact still
    survives in the Orient, particularly in China.

    [4] Vat. Ms. _Tarentino farsos_; Tor. cooks the sausage
    in the ashes--_coctos in cinere_; List. _in cinere
    legendum jecinora_--chicken giblets. Lister's
    explanation of the Tarentinian sausage is found in the
    vocabulary, _v. Longano_.


[141] APICIAN DISH
    _PATINA APICIANA_ [1]

THE APICIAN DISH IS MADE THUS: TAKE SMALL PIECES OF COOKED SOW'S BELLY
[with the paps on it] PIECES OF FISH, PIECES OF CHICKEN, THE BREASTS
OF FIGPECKERS OR OF THRUSHES [slightly] COOKED, [and] WHICHEVER IS
BEST. MINCE ALL THIS VERY CAREFULLY, PARTICULARLY THE FIGPECKERS [the
meat of which is very tender]. DISSOLVE IN OIL STRICTLY FRESH EGGS;
CRUSH PEPPER AND LOVAGE, POUR OVER SOME BROTH AND RAISIN WINE, PUT IT
IN A SAUCEPAN TO HEAT AND BIND WITH ROUX. AFTER YOU HAVE CUT ALL IN
REGULAR PIECES, LET IT COME TO THE BOILING POINT. WHEN DONE, RETIRE
[from the fire] WITH ITS JUICE OF WHICH YOU PUT SOME IN ANOTHER DEEP
PAN WITH WHOLE PEPPER AND PIGNOLIA NUTS. SPREAD [the ragout] OUT IN
SINGLE LAYERS WITH THIN PANCAKES IN BETWEEN; PUT IN AS MANY PANCAKES
AND LAYERS OF MEAT AS IS REQUIRED TO FILL THE DISH; PUT A FINAL COVER
OF PANCAKE ON TOP AND SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AFTER THOSE EGGS HAVE BEEN
ADDED [which serve] TO TIE THE DISH. NOW PUT THIS [mould or dish] IN A
BOILER [steamer, hot water bath, allow to congeal] AND DISH IT OUT [by
unmoulding it]. AN EXPENSIVE SILVER PLATTER WOULD ENHANCE THE
APPEARANCE OF THIS DISH MATERIALLY.

    [1] Cf. ℞ No. 126.


[142] AN EVERY-DAY DISH
    _PATINA QUOTIDIANA_ [1]

PIECES OF COOKED SOW'S UDDER, PIECES OF COOKED FISH, CHICKEN MEAT AND
SIMILAR BITS, MINCE UNIFORMLY, SEASON WELL AND CAREFULLY [2]. TAKE A
METAL DISH [for a mould]. BREAK EGGS [in another bowl] AND BEAT THEM.
IN A MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE AND ORIGANY [3], WHICH CRUSH; MOISTEN
[this] WITH BROTH, WINE, RAISIN WINE AND A LITTLE OIL; EMPTY IT INTO
THE BOWL [with the beaten eggs, mix] AND HEAT IT [in the hot water
bath]. THEREUPON WHEN [this is] THICKENED MIX IT WITH THE PIECES OF
MEAT. NOW PREPARE [alternately] LAYERS OF STEW AND PANCAKES,
INTERSPERSED WITH OIL [in the metal mould reserved for this purpose]
UNTIL FULL, COVER WITH ONE REAL GOOD PANCAKE [4], CUT INTO IT A VENT
HOLE FOR CHIMNEY ON THE SURFACE [bake in hot water bath and when done]
TURN OUT UPSIDE DOWN INTO ANOTHER DISH. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND
SERVE.

    [1] List. _cottidiana_; G.-V. _cotidiana_. Everyday
    Dish, in contrast to the foregoing Apician dish which is
    more sumptuous on account of the figpeckers or thrushes.
    In the originals these two formulæ are rolled into one.
    Cf. ℞ No. 128.

    [2] G.-V. _Hæc omnia concides_; Tor. _condies_; List.
    _condies lege concides_ which we dispute.
    _Condies_--season, flavor--is more correct in this
    place; _concides_--mince--is a repetition of what has
    been said already.

    [3] Origany wanting in G.-V.

    [4] List. _superficie versas in discum insuper in
    superficium pones_; Sch. _a superficie versas indusium
    super focum pones_; G.-V. _in discum_; Tor. _unum uerò
    laganum fistula percuties à superficie uersas in discum
    in superficiem præterea pones_--which we have translated
    literally above, as we believe Tor. to be correct in
    this important matter of having a chimney on top of such
    a pie.


[143] NUT CUSTARD TURN-OVER [1]
    _PATINA VERSATILIS VICE DULCIS_

PIGNOLIA NUTS, CHOPPED OR BROKEN NUTS [other varieties] ARE CLEANED
AND ROASTED AND CRUSHED WITH HONEY. MIX IN [beat well] PEPPER, BROTH,
MILK, EGGS, A LITTLE HONEY [2] AND OIL. [Thicken slowly on fire
without boiling, fill in moulds, taking care that the nuts do not sink
to the bottom, bake in hot water bath, when cold unmould].

    [1] Practically the only recipe in Apicius fairly
    resembling a modern "dessert." This is practically a
    repetition of ℞ No. 129, which see.

    [2] Tor. _modico melle_; List. _m. mero_--pure wine and
    also pure honey, i.e. thick honey for sweetening. Wine
    would be out of place here. This is an excellent example
    of nut custard, if the "pepper" and the "broth"
    (_liquamen_), of the original, in other words spices and
    brine, or salt, be used very sparingly. For "pepper"
    nutmeg or allspice may be substituted, as is used today
    in such preparations. The oil seems superfluous, but it
    is taking the place of our butter. This very incomplete
    formula is characteristic because of the absence of
    weights and measures and other vital information as to
    the manipulation of the materials. None but an
    experienced practitioner could make use of this formula
    in its original state.

    Goll. adds toasted raisins, for which there is no
    authority.

    The text now proceeds without interruption to the next
    formula.


[144] TYROTARICA [1]
    _PATELLA THIROTARICA_ [2]

TAKE ANY KIND OF SALT FISH [3] COOK [fry or broil it] IN OIL, TAKE THE
BONES OUT, SHRED IT [and add] PIECES OF COOKED BRAINS, PIECES OF
[other, fresh (?)] FISH, MINCED CHICKEN LIVERS [4] AND [cover with]
HOT SOFT [i.e. liquefied] CHEESE. HEAT ALL THIS IN A DISH; [meanwhile]
GRIND PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, SEEDS OF RUE WITH WINE, HONEY WINE AND
OIL; COOK ALL ON A SLOW FIRE; BIND [this sauce] WITH RAW EGGS; ARRANGE
[the fish, etc.]. PROPERLY [incorporate with the sauce] SPRINKLE WITH
CRUSHED CUMIN AND SERVE [5].

    [1] G.-V., List., Vat. Ms. _Thyrotarnica_; cf. notes to
    ℞ Nos. 427, 428.

    [2] Tor.

    [3] Tor. Wanting in other texts.

    [4] List., G.-V. here add hard boiled eggs, which is
    permissible, gastronomically.

    [5] Modern fish _au gratin_ is made in a similar way.
    Instead of this wine sauce a spiced cream sauce and
    grated cheese are mixed with the bits of cooked fish,
    which is then baked in the dish.

    Brains, chicken, etc., too, are served _au gratin_, but
    a combination of the three in one dish is no longer
    practiced. However, the Italian method of baking fish,
    etc., _au gratin à l'Italienne_ contains even more herbs
    and wine reduction than the above formula.


[145] SALT FISH BALLS IN WINE SAUCE [1]
    _PATELLA ARIDA_ [2]

DRY PIECES OF SALT TURSIO [3] ARE BONED, CLEANED [soaked in water,
cooked] SHREDDED FINE AND SEASONED WITH GROUND PEPPER, LOVAGE,
ORIGANY, PARSLEY, CORIANDER, CUMIN, RUE SEEDS AND DRY MINT. MAKE FISH
BALLS OUT OF THIS MATERIAL AND POACH THE SAME IN WINE, BROTH AND OIL;
AND WHEN COOKED, ARRANGE THEM IN A DISH. THEN MAKE A SAUCE [utilizing
the broth, the _court bouillon_ in which the balls were cooked] SEASON
WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE, SATURY, ONIONS AND WINE AND VINEGAR, ALSO ADD
BROTH AND OIL AS NEEDED, BIND WITH ROUX [4] [pour over the balls]
SPRINKLE WITH THYME AND GROUND PEPPER [5].

    [1] Reminding us of the Norwegian _fiske boller_ in wine
    sauce, a popular commercial article found canned in
    delicatessen stores.

    [2] List. _patella sicca_--dry, perhaps because made of
    dried fish.

    [3] List. _isicia de Tursione_; G.-V. _Thursione_.
    Probably a common sturgeon, or porpoise, or dolphin.
    List. describes it as "a kind of salt fish from the
    Black Sea; a malicious fish with a mouth similar to a
    rabbit"; Dann. thinks it is a sturgeon, but in Goll. it
    appears as tunny. The ancients called the sturgeon
    _acipenser_; but this name was gradually changed into
    _styrio_, _stirio_ and _sturio_, which is similar to
    _tursio_ (cf. _styrio_ in the vocabulary). The fish in
    question therefore may have been sturgeon for which the
    Black Sea is famous.

    [4] List., G.-V. _ovis obligabis_--tie with
    eggs--certainly preferable to the Tor. version.

    [5] Tor. thyme.

    The above is an excellent way of making fish balls, it
    being taken for granted, of course, that the salt fish
    be thoroughly soaked and cooked in milk before shaping
    into balls. The many spices should be used very
    moderately, some to be omitted entirely. We read between
    the lines of the old formula that the _Tursio_ had a
    long journey from Pontus to Rome; fish however dry
    acquires a notorious flavor upon such journeys which
    must be offset by herbs and spices.

    It is quite possible that the ancients made a
    _réduction_ of the herbs and spices mentioned in this
    formula; in fact, the presence of vinegar leads us to
    believe this, in which case this formula would be
    nothing but a very modern sauce. The herbs and spices in
    a _réduction_ are crushed and boiled down in vinegar and
    wine, and strained off, they leave their finest flavor
    in the sauce.


[146] VEGETABLE DINNER
    _PATELLA EX OLISATRO_ [1]

[Any kind of vegetables or herbs] BLANCHED OFF IN WATER WITH [a
little] SODA; SQUEEZE [out the water] ARRANGE IN A SAUCEPAN. GRIND
PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, SATURY, ONION WITH WINE, BROTH, VINEGAR AND
OIL; ADD [this] TO THE VEGETABLES, STEW [all until nearly done] AND
TIE WITH ROUX. SPRINKLE WITH THYME, FINELY GROUND PEPPER AND SERVE.
ANY KIND OF VEGETABLE [2] MAY BE PREPARED IN THE ABOVE MANNER, IF YOU
WISH.

    [1] Wanting in Tac. and Tor. G.-V. _patellam ex
    holisatro_.

    [2] It is worth noting that Tor. and Tac. omit this
    recipe entirely and that Tor. concludes the preceding
    formula with the last sentence of the above formula,
    except for the difference in one word. Tor. _et de
    quacunque libra_ [List. _et al._ _herba_] _si volueris
    facies ut demonstratum est suprà_. This might mean that
    it is optional (in the preceding formula) to shape the
    fish into one pound loaves instead of the small fish
    balls, which is often done in the case of forcemeats, as
    in veal, beef, ham loaves, or fish pie.

    We are inclined to accept the reading of Torinus, for
    the above way of preparing "any kind of vegetables or
    herbs" is somewhat farfetched. Furthermore, the
    vegetable dish would more properly belong in Book III.

    Just another example of where readings by various
    editors are different because of the interpretations of
    one word. In this case one group reads _libra_ whereas
    the other reads _herba_.


[147] A DISH OF SARDINES
    _PATELLA DE APUA_ [1]

SARDINE LOAF (OR OMELETTE) IS MADE IN THIS MANNER [2] CLEAN THE
SARDINES [of skin and bones]; BREAK [and beat] EGGS AND MIX WITH [half
of the] FISH [3]; ADD TO THIS SOME STOCK, WINE AND OIL, AND FINISH
[the composition] BY HEATING IT. WHEN DONE TO A POINT, ADD [the
remaining part of the] SARDINES TO IT, LET IT STAND A WHILE [over a
slow fire to congeal] CAREFULLY TURN OVER [dish it up] MASK WITH A
WARM [4] WINE SAUCE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] G.-V. _Patina de apua fricta_--same as _aphya_,
    fried fresh small fish of the kind of anchovies,
    sardines, sprats.

    In experimenting with this formula we would advise to
    use salt and oil judiciously if any at all. We have no
    knowledge of the ancient _apua fricta_ other than our
    making of modern sardines which is to fry them in oil as
    quickly as possible after the fish has left the water,
    for its meat is very delicate. For an omelette, our
    modern sardines, including kippered smelts, sprotten,
    and similar smoked and processed fish, contain
    sufficient salt and fat to season the eggs of an
    omelette.

    [2] Tor. Sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] Tor. _cum aqua_; List., G.-V. _cum apua_. Perhaps a
    typographical error in Tor. A little water is used to
    dilute the eggs of an omelette, but Apicius already
    prescribes sufficient liquids (stock or brine, wine) for
    that purpose.

    [4] Tor. _et in calore œnogarum perfundes_; List.,
    G.-V. _ut coloret_--to keep the omelette in the pan long
    enough to give it "color." We prefer the Torinus version
    because an omelette should have no or very little color
    from the fire (the eggs thus browned are indigestible)
    and because hot _œnogarum_ (wine-fish sauce, not in
    List.) is accompanying this dish, to give additional
    savour and a finishing touch.


[148] FINE RAGOUT OF BRAINS AND BACON
    _PATINA EX LARIDIS _[1]_ ET CEREBELLIS_

THE DISH OF BACON AND BRAINS IS MADE IN THIS MANNER [2] STRAIN [or
chop fine] HARD BOILED EGGS [3] WITH PARBOILED BRAINS [calf's or
pig's] THE SKIN AND NERVES OF WHICH HAVE BEEN REMOVED; ALSO COOK
CHICKEN GIBLETS, ALL IN PROPORTION TO THE FISH [4] PUT THIS AFORESAID
MIXTURE IN A SAUCEPAN, PLACE THE COOKED BACON IN THE CENTER, GRIND
PEPPER AND LOVAGE AND TO SWEETEN ADD A DASH OF MEAD, HEAT, WHEN HOT
STIR BRISKLY WITH A RUE WHIP AND BIND WITH ROUX.

    [1] G.-V. _lagitis_; Tor. _laridis_ and _largitis_; Vat.
    Ms. _lagatis_; List. _pro lagitis ... legendum
    Lacertis_. The _lacertus_, according to List., is a much
    esteemed salt fish; not identified. List. _et al._ seem
    to be mistaken in their reading of _lacertis_ for
    _laridis_. This work stands for salt pork, from
    _laridum_ and _lardum_ (French, _lard_; the English
    _lard_ is applied to the rendered fat of pork in
    general). Cf. notes to ℞ No. 41.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] _oua dura_; Sch. _o. dua_--two eggs.

    [4] This formula would be intelligible and even
    gastronomically correct were it not for this word
    "fish." However, we cannot accept Lister's reading
    _lacertis_. We prefer the reading, _laridis_, bacon. The
    French have another term for this--_petits salés_. Both
    this and the Torinus term are in the plural. They are
    simply small strips of bacon to which Torinus again
    refers in the above formula, _salsum, coctum in media
    pones_--put the bacon, when done, in the center (of the
    dish). Regarding _salsum_ also see note to ℞ No. 41.

    The above dish resembles _ragoût fin en coquille_, a
    popular Continental dish, although its principal
    ingredients are sweetbreads instead of brains.


[149] BROILED MULLET
    _PATINA EX PISCIBUS MULLIS_ [1]

A DISH OF MULLET CONSISTS OF [2] SCALED SALT MULLET PLACED IN A CLEAN
PAN WITH ENOUGH OIL [3] AS IS NECESSARY FOR COOKING; WHEN DONE ADD [a
dash of honey-] WINE OR RAISIN WINE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] List., G.-V. _mullorum loco salsi_--salt mullet.

    [2] Tor. wanting in other texts.

    [3] List. _liquamen_--broth, brine, which would be worse
    than carrying owls to Athens. As a matter of fact, the
    mullet if it be what List. says, _loco salsi_--salted on
    the spot, i.e. as caught, near the sea shore, requires
    soaking to extract the salt.


[150] A DISH OF ANY KIND OF SALT FISH
    _PATINA EX PISCIBUS QUIBUSLIBET_ [1]

ANOTHER FISH DISH IS THUS MADE [2] FRY ANY KIND OF CURED [3] FISH,
CAREFULLY TREATED [soaked and cleaned] PLACE IN A PAN, COVER WITH
SUFFICIENT OIL, LAY [strips of] COOKED SALT [4] [pork or
bacon--_petits salés_] OVER THE CENTER, KEEP IT HOT, WHEN REAL HOT,
ADD A DASH OF HONEY WINE TO THE GRAVY AND STIR IT UP [5].

    [1] Ex Tor.; G.-V. _P. piscium loco salsi_.

    [2] Tor.; sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] Tor. _duratos_--_hard_--no sense here, probably a
    misprint of the d. List. _curatos_--carefully treated,
    "cured," processed.

    [4] _Salsum coctum_, cf. notes to ℞ No. 148; Goll.,
    Dann.--sprinkle [the fish] with salt.... Like Lister's
    error in the preceding formula it would be a great
    blunder to add salt to a cured fish already saturated
    with salt to the utmost. Cf. also note 2 to ℞ Nos.
    41, 148.

    [5] Virtually a repetition of ℞ No. 149, except for
    the addition of the pork.


[151] ANOTHER FISH DISH, WITH ONIONS
    _ALIA PISCIUM PATINA_

ANOTHER FISH DISH MAKE AS FOLLOWS [1] CLEAN ANY KIND OF FISH AND PLACE
IT PROPERLY IN A SAUCEPAN WITH SHREDDED DRY ASCALONIAN ONIONS
[shallots] OR WITH ANY OTHER KIND OF ONIONS, THE FISH ON TOP. ADD
STOCK AND OIL AND COOK. WHEN DONE, PUT BROILED BACON IN THE CENTER,
GIVE IT A DASH OF VINEGAR, SPRINKLE WITH [finely chopped] SAVORY AND
GARNISH WITH [the] ONIONS.

    [1] Tor., sentence wanting in other texts.


[152] A LUCRETIAN DISH
    _PATINA LUCRETIANA_ [1]

CLEAN YOUNG ONIONS, REJECTING THE GREEN TOPS, AND PLACE [2] THEM IN A
SAUCEPAN WITH A LITTLE BROTH, SOME OIL AND WATER, AND, TO BE COOKED
[with the onions] PLACE SALT PORK [3] IN THE MIDST [of the scallions].
WHEN NEARLY DONE, ADD A SPOON OF HONEY [4] A LITTLE VINEGAR AND
REDUCED MUST, TASTE IT, IF INSIPID ADD MORE BRINE [broth] IF TOO
SALTY, ADD MORE HONEY, AND SPRINKLE WITH SAVORY [5].

    [1] Dann. Named for Lucretius Epicuræus, a contemporary
    of Cicero. List. _ab authore cui in usu fuit sic
    appellata_.

    [2] G.-V. _concides_. Not necessary.

    [3] _salsum crudum_--salt pork, i.e. not smoked or cured
    bacon. Dann. raw salt; Goll. salt. Impossible, of
    course! Cf. notes to ℞ Nos. 41, 147, 149.

    [4] To glaze the pork, no doubt; reminding us of our own
    use of sugar to glaze ham or bacon, and of the molasses
    added to pork (and beans).

    [5] G.-V. _coronam bubulam_. In experimenting with this
    formula omit salt completely. Instead of honey we have
    also added maple syrup once. To make this a perfect
    luncheon dish a starch is wanting; we have therefore
    added sliced raw potatoes and cooked with the rest, to
    make it a balanced meal, by way of improving upon
    Lucretius. Since the ancients had no potatoes we have,
    on a different occasion, created another version by
    added sliced dasheens (_colocasia_, cf. ℞ Nos. 74,
    216, 244, 322). It is surprising that the ancients who
    used the _colocasium_ extensively did not combine it
    with the above dish.


[153] STEWED LACERTUS FISH
    _PATINA DE LACERTIS_ [1]

CLEAN AND WASH [soak] THE FISH [2] [cook and flake it] BREAK AND BEAT
EGGS, MIX THEM WITH THE FISH, ADD BROTH, WINE AND OIL. PLACE THIS ON
THE FIRE, WHEN COOKED [scrambled] ADD SIMPLE FISH WINE SAUCE [3] TO
IT, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [4].

    [1] Ex List. wanting in Tor. G.-V. _P. de lagitis_; cf.
    note to ℞ No. 148.

    [2] Remembering that List. reads _lagitis_ for
    _lacertis_, this formula appears to be an antique
    "Scrambled Eggs and Bacon." Cf. notes to ℞ Nos. 42,
    148-150.

    [3] _Oenogarum_, cf. ℞ No. 147, the Sardine Omelette.

    [4] To cook the eggs as described above would be
    disastrous. The fish, if such was used, was probably
    first poached in the broth, wine and oil, and when done,
    removed from the pan. The _fond_, or remaining juice or
    gravy, was subsequently tied with the egg yolks, and
    this sauce was strained over the fish dressed on the
    service platter, the _œnogarum_ sparingly sprinkled
    over the finished dish. This would closely resemble our
    modern _au vin blanc_ fish dishes; the _œnogarum_
    taking the place of our meat glacé.

    Another interpretation of this vexatious formula is that
    if fish was used, the cooked fish was incorporated with
    the raw beaten eggs which were then scrambled in the
    pan. In that event this formula resembles closely the
    sardine omelette.


[154] A FISH STEW
    _PATINA ZOMORE_ [1]

THE ZOMORE FISH DISH IS MADE AS FOLLOWS [2] TAKE RAW GANONAS [3] AND
OTHER [fish] WHICHEVER YOU LIKE, PLACE THEM IN A SAUCE PAN, ADDING
OIL, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, A BUNCH [4] OF LEEKS AND [green] CORIANDER;
WHILE THIS COOKS, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND A BUNCH OF ORIGANY WHICH
CRUSH BY ITSELF AND DILUTE WITH THE JUICE [5] OF THE FISH. NOW
DISSOLVE [break and beat egg yolks for a _liaison_] PREPARE AND TASTE
THE DISH, BINDING [the sauce with the yolks] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND
SERVE.

    [1] List. _Zomoteganite_--"a dish of fish boiled in
    their own liquor"; G.-V. _zomoteganon_; Lan.
    _zomoreganonas_; Vat. Ms. _zomonam Ganas_.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] _ganonas crudas_--an unidentified fish.

    [4] "Bouquet garni."

    [5] _ius de suo sibi_--old Plautian latinity. Cf. H. C.
    Coote, cit. Apiciana; the proof of the antiquity and the
    genuineness of Apicius.


[155] SOLE IN WHITE WINE
    _PATINA EX SOLEIS_ [1]

A DISH OF SOLE IS THUS MADE [2] BEAT THE SOLE [3] PREPARE [4] AND
PLACE THEM IN A [shallow] SAUCE PAN, ADD OIL, BROTH AND WINE, AND
POACH THEM THUS; NOW CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY AND ADD OF THE FISH
JUICE; THEN BIND THE SAUCE WITH RAW EGGS [yolks] TO MAKE A GOOD CREAMY
SAUCE OF IT; STRAIN THIS OVER THE SOLE, HEAT ALL ON A SLOW FIRE [to
fill it with live heat] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [5].

    [1] G.-V. _P. solearum_.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] Beat, to make tender, to be able to remove the skin.

    [4] Tor. _curatos_--trim, skin, remove entrails, wash.

    [5] One of the best of Apician accomplishments. Exactly
    like our modern _sole au vin blanc_, one of the most
    aristocratic of dishes. Cf. ℞ No. 487, Excerpta, XIX.


[155a] FISH LIQUOR
     _PATINA EX PISCIBUS_

A LIQUOR [in which to cook fish] IS MADE BY TAKING [1] ONE OUNCE OF
PEPPER, ONE PINT OF REDUCED WINE, ONE PINT OF SPICED WINE AND TWO
OUNCES OF OIL.

    [1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.


[156] A DISH OF LITTLE FISH
    _PATINA DE PISCICULIS_ [1]

TAKE RAISINS, PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, ONIONS, WINE, BROTH AND OIL,
PLACE THIS IN A PAN; AFTER THIS HAS COOKED ADD TO IT THE COOKED SMALL
FISH, BIND WITH ROUX AND SERVE.

    [1] Smelts, anchovies, whitebait.


[157] A DISH OF TOOTH FISH, DORY OR SEA MULLET AND OYSTERS
    _PATINA DE PISCIBUS DENTICE, AURATA ET MUGILE_ [1]

TAKE THE FISH, PREPARE [clean, trim, wash] AND HALF BROIL OR FRY THEM;
THEREUPON SHRED THEM [in good-sized] PIECES: NEXT PREPARE OYSTERS; PUT
IN A MORTAR 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND CRUSH. ADD A
SMALL GLASS OF BROTH, ONE OF WINE TO IT; PUT IN A SAUCE PAN 3 OUNCES
OF OIL AND THE [shelled] OYSTERS AND LET THEM POACH WITH WINE SAUCE.
WHEN THEY ARE DONE, OIL A DISH ON WHICH PLACE THE ABOVE MENTIONED FISH
PIECES AND STEWED OYSTERS, HEAT AGAIN, AND WHEN HOT, BREAK 40 [2] EGGS
[whip them] AND POUR THEM OVER THE OYSTERS, SO THAT THEY CONGEAL.
SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE. [3].

    [1] _dentex_--"tooth-fish"; _aurata_--"gilt"--dory, red
    snapper; _mugilis_--Sea Mullet, according to some.

    [2] G.-V. _ova XI_--11 eggs. Tac. _ova Xl_, which may be
    read XL--forty.

    [3] This dish may be allowed to congeal slowly; if done
    quickly it may become a dish of scrambled eggs with fish
    and oysters.


[158] SEA BASS, OR BARRACUDA
    _PATINA DE LUPO_ [1]

GRIND PEPPER, CUMIN, PARSLEY, RUE, ONIONS, HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE
AND DROPS OF OIL [2].

    [1] G.-V. _p. de pisce lupo_--wolf, because of its
    voracity; a sea fish, sea pike, or sea bass; perhaps
    akin to our barracuda, wolfish both in appearance and
    character. Sch. _Perca labrax_ Lin.

    [2] The cleaned fish is cut into convenient portions or
    fillets, placed in an oiled pan, the ingredients spread
    over; it is either poached in the oven or cooked under
    the open fire.

    Schuch here inserts his ℞ Nos. 153 to 166 which more
    properly belong among the Excerpta of Vinidarius and
    which are found at the end Book X by Apicius.


[159] A DISH OF SORB-APPLE, HOT OR COLD
    _PATINA DE SORBIS CALIDA ET FRIGIDA_

TAKE MEDLARS, CLEAN THEM; CRUSH THEM IN THE MORTAR AND STRAIN THROUGH
COLANDER. 4 COOKED [calf's or pork] BRAINS, SKINNED AND FREED FROM
STRINGY PARTS, PUT IN THE MORTAR WITH 8 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, DILUTE
WITH STOCK AND CRUSH, ADDING THE MEDLAR PULP AND COMBINE ALL; NOW
BREAK 8 EGGS AND ADD A SMALL GLASS OF BROTH. OIL A CLEAN PAN AND PLACE
IT IN THE HOT BATH OR IN THE HOT ASHES; AFTER YOU HAVE FILLED IT WITH
THE PREPARATION, MAKE SURE THAT THE PAN GETS ENOUGH HEAT FROM BELOW;
LET IT CONGEAL, AND WHEN DONE SPRINKLE WITH A LITTLE FINE PEPPER AND
SERVE.

    Sch. ℞ No. 166.


[160] A DISH OF PEACHES [1]
    _PATINA DE PERSICIS_

CLEAN HARD-SKINNED PEACHES AND SLICE, STEW THEM; ARRANGE IN A DISH,
SPRINKLE WITH A LITTLE OIL AND SERVE WITH CUMIN-FLAVORED WINE [2].

    [1] Tor. is not sure whether this is a Persian fish or
    peaches--_persica_.

    [2] Dann. Pepper, for which there is no authority.

    Sch. ℞ No. 167.


[161] A DISH OF PEARS
    _PATINA DE PIRIS_

A DISH OF PEARS IS MADE THIS WAY: [1] STEW THE PEARS, CLEAN OUT THE
CENTER [remove core and seeds] CRUSH THEM WITH PEPPER, CUMIN, HONEY,
RAISIN WINE, BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL; MIX WITH EGGS, MAKE A PIE
[custard] OF THIS, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    Sch. ℞ No. 168.


[162] A DISH OF SEA-NETTLES
    _PATINA DE URTICA_ [1]

A DISH OF SEA-NETTLES, EITHER HOT OR COLD, IS MADE THUS: [2] TAKE
SEA-NETTLES, WASH AND DRAIN THEM ON THE COLANDER, DRY ON THE TABLE AND
CHOP FINE. CRUSH 10 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD 2
SMALL GLASSES OF BROTH AND 6 OUNCES OF OIL. HEAT THIS IN A SAUCE PAN
AND WHEN COOKED TAKE IT OUT AND ALLOW TO COOL OFF. NEXT OIL A CLEAN
PAN, BREAK 8 EGGS AND BEAT THEM; COMBINE THESE WITH THE ABOVE
PREPARATIONS, PLACE THE PAN ON HOT ASHES TO GIVE IT HEAT FROM BELOW,
WHEN DONE [congealed] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] G.-V. _p. urticarum calida et frigida_.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.


[163] A DISH OF QUINCES
    _PATINA DE CYDONIIS_ [1]

A DISH OF QUINCES IS MADE AS FOLLOWS: [2] QUINCES ARE COOKED WITH
LEEKS, HONEY AND BROTH, USING HOT OIL, OR THEY ARE STEWED IN HONEY
[3].

    [1] G.-V. _p. de Cydoneis_.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] This latter method would appeal to our modern notion
    of preparing fruits of this sort; we use sugar syrup to
    cook them in and flavor with various spices, adding
    perhaps a little wine or brandy.



III

OF FINELY CHOPPED, MINCED MEATS
  _DE MINUT ALIBUS_ [1]


[164] A MINCE OF SEA FOOD
    _MINUTAL MARINUM_

PLACE THE FISH IN SAUCE PAN, ADD BROTH OIL AND WINE [and poach it].
ALSO FINELY CHOP LEEK HEADS [the white part only of leeks] AND [fresh]
CORIANDER. [When cool, mince the fish fine] FORM IT INTO SMALL CAKES
[2] ADDING CAPERS [3] AND SEA-NETTLES WELL CLEANED. THESE FISH CAKES
COOK IN A LIQUOR OF PEPPER, LOVAGE AND ORIGANY, CRUSHED, DILUTED WITH
BROTH AND THE ABOVE FISH LIQUOR WHICH SKIM WELL, BIND [with roux or
eggs] STIR [strain] OVER THE CAKES, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] G.-V. _minutal de piscibus vel Isiciis_.

    [2] Tac. G.-V. _isiciola ... minuta_--resembling our
    modern _quenelles de poisson_--tiny fish dumplings.

    [3] Tac. _cum caparis_; Tor. _c. capparibus_; Vat. Ms.
    _concarpis_; List. G.-V. _concerpis_.


[165] TARENTINE MINUTAL
    _MINUTAL TARENTINUM_ [1]

FINELY CHOP THE WHITE PART OF LEEKS AND PLACE IN A SAUCE PAN; ADD OIL
[fry lightly] AND BROTH; NEXT ADD SMALL SAUSAGE TO BE COOKED LIKEWISE.
TO HAVE A GOOD TARENTINE DISH, THEY MUST BE TENDER. THE MAKING OF
THESE SAUSAGE WILL BE FOUND AMONG THE ISICIA [Nos. 60-66] [2]. ALSO
MAKE A SAUCE IN THE FOLLOWING MANNER: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND
ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD OF THE ABOVE [sausage] GRAVY, WINE,
RAISIN WINE; PUT IN A SAUCE PAN TO BE HEATED, WHEN BOILING, SKIM
CAREFULLY, BIND, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] G.-V. _Terentinum_, for which there is no reason.
    Tarentum, town of lower Italy, now Taranto, celebrated
    for its wine and luxurious living.

    [2] Such references to other parts of the book are very
    infrequent.


[166] APICIAN MINUTAL
    _MINUTAL APICIANUM_

THE APICIAN MINUTAL IS MADE AS FOLLOWS: [1] OIL, BROTH WINE, LEEK
HEADS, MINT, SMALL FISH, SMALL TIDBITS [2] COCK'S FRIES OR CAPON'S
KIDNEYS [3] AND PORK SWEETBREADS; ALL OF THESE ARE COOKED TOGETHER [4]
NOW CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, OR SEEDS, MOISTENED WITH
BROTH; ADD A LITTLE HONEY, AND OF THE OWN LIQUOR [5] OF THE ABOVE
MORSELS, WINE AND HONEY TO TASTE; BRING THIS TO A BOILING POINT SKIM,
BIND, STIR WELL [strain, pour over the morsels] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER
AND SERVE [6].

    [1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [2] _isitia_--_quenelles_, dumplings of some kind,
    mostly fine forcemeats.

    [3] _testiculi caponum_; the capon has no _testiculi_,
    these organs having been removed by an operation when
    the cock is young. This operation is said to have been
    first performed by a Roman surgeon with the intention of
    beating the _Lex Fannia_, or Fannian law, sponsored by a
    fanatic named Fannius. It prohibited among other
    restrictions the serving of any fowl at any time or
    repast except a hen, and this hen was not to be
    fattened. Note the cunning of the law: The useful hen
    and her unlaid eggs could be sacrificed while the
    unproductive rooster was allowed to thrive to no
    purpose, immune from the butcher's block. This set the
    shrewd surgeon to thinking; he transformed a rooster
    into a capon by his surgical trick. The emasculated bird
    grew fat without his owner committing any infraction of
    the Roman law against fattening chickens. Of course the
    capon, being neither hen nor rooster, was perfectly safe
    to eat, for he was within the law. Thus he became a huge
    success as an ancient "bootleg" chicken.

    [4] These integral parts must be prepared and poached
    separately and merely heated together before the final
    service.

    [5] Again the Plautian colloquialism _ius de suo sibi_.

    [6] This dish is worthy of Apicius. It is akin to our
    _Ragoût Financière_, and could pass for _Vol-au-vent à
    la Financière_ if it were served in a large fluffy crust
    of puff paste.


[167] MINUTAL À LA MATIUS [1]
    _MINUTAL MATIANUM_

PUT IN A SAUCE PAN OIL, BROTH FINELY CHOPPED LEEKS, CORIANDER, SMALL
TID-BITS, COOKED PORK SHOULDER, CUT INTO LONG STRIPS INCLUDING THE
SKIN, HAVE EVERYTHING EQUALLY HALF DONE. ADD MATIAN APPLES [2]
CLEANED, THE CORE REMOVED, SLICED LENGTHWISE AND COOK THEM TOGETHER:
MEANWHILE CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, GREEN CORIANDER, OR SEEDS, MINT, LASER
ROOT, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, HONEY AND BROTH AND A LITTLE REDUCED
MUST, ADD TO THIS THE BROTH OF THE ABOVE MORSELS, VINEGAR TO TASTE,
BOIL, SKIM, BIND [strain over the morsels] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND
SERVE.

    [1] Named for Matius, ancient author, or because of the
    Matian apples used in this dish, also named for the same
    man. Plinius, Nat. Hist. lib. XV, Cap. 14-15, Columella,
    De re Rustica, lib. XII, Cap. XLIIII.

    This is not the first instance where fruits or
    vegetables were named for famous men. Beets, a certain
    kind of them were named for Varro, writer on
    agriculture. Matius, according to Varro, wrote a book on
    waiters, cooks, cellar men and food service in general,
    of which there is no trace today. It was already lost
    during Varro's days.

    [2] Cf. note 1, above. This illustrates the age-old
    connection of pork and apples.


[168] SWEET MINUTAL
    _MINUTAL DULCE_ [1]

IN A SAUCE PAN PUT TOGETHER OIL, BROTH, COCTURA [2] FINELY CUT LEEK
HEADS AND GREEN CORIANDER, COOKED PORK SHOULDER, SMALL TID-BITS. WHILE
THIS IS BEING COOKED, CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER OR [its] SEEDS,
GREEN RUE, LASER ROOT, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST AND THE
GRAVY OF THE ABOVE MORSELS; ADD VINEGAR TO TASTE: WHEN THIS [sauce] IS
COOKED, HOLLOW OUT CITRON SQUASH [3] CUT IN DICE, BOIL AND PLACE THEM
TOGETHER WITH THE REST IN THE DISH, SKIM, BIND [strain] THE SAUCE
[pour it over the morsels] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] G.-V. _m. ex citriis_.

    [2] At this late point Apicius commences to use the term
    _coctura_ which does not designate any particular
    ingredient but rather stands for a certain process of
    cookery, depending upon the ingredients used in the
    dish. We would here interpret it as the frying of the
    leeks in oil, etc. In another instance _coctura_ may
    mean our modern _réduction_.

    [3] The fruit to be used here has not been
    satisfactorily identified. The texts have _citrium_ and
    _citrum_--a sweet squash or cucumber--perhaps even a
    melon, but not the citron, the _mala citrea_ as read by
    List. This specimen is hard to identify because of the
    many varieties in the cucumber, squash and the citrus
    families. _Citrus_, as a matter of fact, is but a
    corruption of _cedrus_, the cedar tree.

    We are not sure whether this fruit is to be stuffed with
    the ragout and then baked, as is often the custom to do
    with such shells; the texts prescribes distinctly to
    hollow out the fruit.

    The title, implying a "sweet dish" is obviously wrong.

    It may be remarked here that Apicius makes no mention of
    that marvelous citrus fruit, the lemon, nor of the
    orange, both of which are indispensable to modern
    cookery.


[169] MINUTAL OF FRUIT
    _MINUTAL EX PRÆCOQUIS_

IN A SAUCE PAN PUT OIL, BROTH AND WINE, FINELY CUT SHALLOTS, DICED
COOKED PORK SHOULDER. WHEN THIS IS COOKED, CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, DRY
MINT, DILL, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE [and] A LITTLE
VINEGAR, SOME OF THE GRAVY OF THE ABOVE MORSELS, ADD FRUITS THE SEEDS
OF WHICH HAVE BEEN TAKEN OUT, LET BOIL, WHEN THOROUGHLY COOKED, SKIM,
BIND, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [1].

    [1] This, rather than ℞ No. 168, deserves the title,
    Sweet Minutal, for it is practically the same, with the
    addition of the fruit.


[170] MINUTAL OF HARE'S LIVERS
    _MINUTAL LEPORINUM_

THE WAY TO MAKE A MINUTAL OF HARE'S GIBLETS MAY BE FOUND AMONG THE
HARE RECIPES [1].

[170a] IN A SAUCE PAN PUT OIL, BROTH AND WINE, FINELY CUT SHALLOTS,
DICED COOKED PORK SHOULDER. WHEN THIS IS COOKED, CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN,
DRY MINT, DILL, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE [and] A LITTLE
VINEGAR, SOME OF THE GRAVY OF THE ABOVE MORSELS, ADD SEEDLESS FRUITS,
LET BOIL, WHEN THOROUGHLY COOKED, SKIM, BIND, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND
SERVE.

    [1] ℞ No. 386, Book VIII is one of these recipes.
    This is one of the few instances where the ancient
    original makes any reference to any other part of the
    Apicius book.* After this bare reference, the original
    proceeds to repeat the text of the preceding formula
    verbatim.

    * Cf. ℞ No. 165.

    Brandt suggests a new title for [170a] ANOTHER SWEET
    MINUTAL.

    The G.-V. version differs but little from ℞ No. 169.


[171] RED APPLE MINUTAL
    _MINUTAL EX ROSIS_ [1]

MAKE THIS THE SAME WAY AS DESCRIBED IN THE FOREGOING, ONLY ADD MORE
RAISIN WINE.

    [1] List. Roses; Tor. _Rosatium_; this term, medieval
    Latin, does not exist in the ancient language.

    Sch. _mala rosea_--rosy or red apple, most likely to be
    the correct interpretation. Cf. ℞ Nos. 136 and 167.

    The above title has led to the belief that the ancients
    made pies, etc., of roses, an idea that was much
    ridiculed in England after the publication of Lister's
    work in 1705.

    We concur with Schuch's interpretation that rosy apples
    were used, remembering, however, that the fruit of the
    rose tree, the hip, dog-briar, eglantine is also made
    into dainty confections on the Continent today. It is
    therefore entirely possible that this recipe calls for
    the fruit of the rose tree.



IV

GRUELS
  _TISANAM VEL SUCUM_


[172] BARLEY BROTH, PAP, PORRIDGE, GRUEL
    _TISANA SIVE CREMORE_ [1]

CRUSH BARLEY, SOAKED THE DAY BEFORE, WELL WASHED, PLACE ON THE FIRE
TO BE COOKED [in a double boiler] WHEN HOT ADD ENOUGH OIL, A BUNCH OF
DILL, DRY ONION, SATURY AND COLOCASIUM [2] TO BE COOKED TOGETHER
BECAUSE FOR THE BETTER JUICE, ADD GREEN CORIANDER AND A LITTLE SALT;
BRING IT TO A BOILING POINT. WHEN DONE TAKE OUT THE BUNCH [of dill]
AND TRANSFER THE BARLEY INTO ANOTHER KETTLE TO AVOID STICKING TO THE
BOTTOM AND BURNING, MAKE IT LIQUID [by addition of water, broth, milk]
STRAIN INTO A POT, COVERING THE TOPS OF THE COLOCASIA. NEXT CRUSH
PEPPER, LOVAGE, A LITTLE DRY FLEA-BANE, CUMIN AND SYLPHIUM [3] STIR IT
WELL AND ADD VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST AND BROTH; PUT IT BACK INTO THE
POT, THE REMAINING COLOCASIA FINISH ON A GENTLE FIRE [4].

    [1] Tor. _ptisana siue Cremore_.

    [2] G.-V. _Colœfium_; Tor. _colœsium_ and
    _colesium_ (the different readings perhaps on account of
    the similarity of the "long" s with the f). Tor. spells
    this word differently every time he is confronted with
    it. Tac., Lan. _coledium_--unidentified. List.
    _colocasium_, which see in notes to ℞ Nos. 74, 200,
    216, 244, and 322, also Sch. p. 95.

    [3] List. _sil frictum_; Tor. _silphium f._

    [4] Tor. continuing without interruption. This formula
    is reported in ℞ No. 200.


[173] ANOTHER TISANA
    _TISANA TARICHA_ [1]

THE CEREAL [2] IS SOAKED; CHICKPEAS, LENTILS AND PEAS ARE CRUSHED AND
BOILED WITH IT; WHEN WELL COOKED, ADD PLENTY OF OIL. NOW CUT GREEN
HERBS, LEEKS, CORIANDER, DILL, FENNEL, BEETS, MALLOWS, CABBAGE
STRUNKS, ALL SOFT AND GREEN AND FINELY CUT, AND PUT IN A POT. THE
CABBAGE COOK [separately. Also] CRUSH FENNEL SEED, ORIGANY, SYLPHIUM
AND LOVAGE, AND WHEN CRUSHED, ADD BROTH TO TASTE, POUR THIS OVER THE
PORRIDGE, STIR IT TOGETHER AND USE SOME FINELY CHOPPED CABBAGE STEMS
TO SPRINKLE ON TOP [2].

    [1] Variants: _barrica_, _farrica_; List. _legendum,
    puto, Taricam; id. est Salsam_. Cf. ℞ 144, 149,
    426-8. Lan., Tor., G.-V. _barricam_, not identified.
    Sch. _farrica_--corn spelt; probably not far from the
    mark. We would venture to suggest that our "farina" is
    the thing here used, or any ordinary corn meal.

    [2] This formula is repeated in ℞ No. 201.



V

HORS D'ŒUVRES, APPETIZERS, RELISHES
  _GUSTUM_


[174] "MOVEABLE" APPETIZERS
    _GUSTUM VERSATILE_

THE MOVEABLE [1] APPETIZERS ARE THUS MADE: [2] SMALL WHITE BEETS,
MATURE LEEKS, CELERY ROOTS [3] STEWED COCKLES [4] GINGER [5] CHICKEN
GIBLETS, SMALL FOWL [6] SMALL MORSELS COOKED IN THEIR OWN LIQUOR [7].
OIL A PAN, LINE IT WITH MALLOW LEAVES AND A COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT
VEGETABLES, AND, IF YOU HAVE ROOM ENOUGH, BULBS, DAMASCUS PLUMS,
SNAILS, TID-BITS [8] SHORT LUCANIAN SAUSAGE SLICED; ADD BROTH, OIL,
WINE, VINEGAR PUT ON THE FIRE TO HEAT AND SO COOK THEM. MEANWHILE
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GINGER, A LITTLE TARRAGON, MOISTEN IT AND LET IT
COOK. BREAK SEVERAL EGGS IN A DISH, USE THE REMAINING LIQUOR IN THE
MORTAR TO MIX IT WITH THE SAUCE IN THE DISH AND TO BIND IT. WHEN THIS
IS DONE, MAKE A WINE SAUCE FOR IT AS FOLLOWS: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE,
MOISTENED WITH BROTH, RAISIN WINE TO TASTE; IN A SMALL SAUCE PAN PUT A
LITTLE OIL [with the other ingredients] HEAT, AND BIND WITH ROUX WHEN
HOT. NOW [unmould] UPSET THE DISH ON A PLATTER, REMOVE THE MALLOW
LEAVES, POUR OVER THE WINE SAUCE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [9].

    [1] Moveable, either because it is one show piece that
    is carried from one guest to another, or, as here
    indicated, a dish that is to be unmoulded or turned out
    of its mould or pan before service.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] Celery roots, i.e. the thick bulbs. G.-V. _apios,
    bulbos_--celery, onions; note the comma after _apios_.

    [4] Periwinkles, also snails.

    [5] Tac., Lan. _gingibera_; Tor. _zinziber_; Vat. Ms.
    _gibera_; G.-V. _Gigeria_; Hum. _id._--giblets. Wanting
    in List.

    [6] List. _avicellas_; Vat. Ms. _aucellare_ and
    _scellas_; Tac., Lan. _id._; Tor. _pullorum
    axillas_--chicken wings (?); G.-V. _ascellas_.

    [7] _ex iure._

    [8] _isitia_--quenelles of forcemeat, etc.

    [9] An extremely complicated composition of varied
    morsels, definite instructions lacking, however. It is
    not clear whether the dish was served hot (in which case
    the dish would not stand up long) or whether served
    cold, jellyfied. Moreover, the title _gustum_--_hors
    d'œuvres_--is not consistent either with similar
    creations by Apicius or with our own notions of such
    dishes. This title may merely suggest that such a dish
    was to be served at the beginning of a repast. This
    recipe presents an instance of the difficulty to render
    the text and its variants in a manner acceptable to our
    modern palates.

    We are of the opinion that the above recipe is a
    contraction of two or more formulæ, each of which,
    separately, might make acceptable hot appetizers.


[175] VEGETABLE RELISH [1]
    _GUSTUM DE OLERIBUS_ [2]

FOR THIS VEGETABLE DISH BOIL BULBS [3] [in] BROTH, OIL, AND WINE; WHEN
DONE [add] LIVER OF SUCKLING PIG [4] CHICKEN LIVERS AND FEET AND SMALL
BIRDS [5] CUT IN HALVES, ALL TO BE COOKED WITH THE BULBS. WHEN DONE,
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, MOISTENED WITH BROTH, WINE, RAISIN WINE TO
SWEETEN IT. ADD OF THE OWN LIQUOR OF THE MORSELS, RETIRE THE ONIONS,
WHEN DONE [group the morsels together in the service dish] BIND [the
sauce] WITH ROUX IN THE LAST MOMENT [strain over the morsels] AND
SERVE.

    [1] An entremet of fowl and livers.

    [2] a misnomer, as vegetables play the least part in
    this dish.

    [3] Onions, etc.

    [4] _jecinora porcelli_; Sch. _iscinera porcellum_.

    [5] Tor. _axillas_ and _scellas_; see note 6 to ℞
    174.


[176] STUFFED PUMPKIN FRITTERS
    _GUSTUM DE CUCURBITIS FARSILIBUS_

A DISH OF STUFFED PUMPKIN [1] IS MADE THUS: [2] PEEL AND CUT THE
PUMPKIN LENGTHWISE INTO OBLONG PIECES WHICH HOLLOW OUT AND PUT IN A
COOL PLACE. THE DRESSING FOR THE SAME MAKE IN THIS WAY: CRUSH PEPPER,
LOVAGE AND ORIGANY, MOISTENED WITH BROTH; MINCE COOKED BRAINS AND BEAT
RAW EGGS AND MIX ALL TOGETHER TO FORM A PASTE; ADD BROTH AS TASTE
REQUIRES. STUFF THE ABOVE PREPARED PIECES OF PUMPKIN THAT HAVE NOT
BEEN FULLY COOKED WITH THE DRESSING; FIT TWO PIECES TOGETHER AND CLOSE
THEM TIGHT [holding them by means of strings or skewers]. [Now poach
them and] TAKE THE COOKED ONES OUT AND FRY THEM [3]. [The proper] WINE
SAUCE [for this dish] MAKE THUS: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE MOISTENED WITH
WINE, RAISIN WINE TO TASTE, A LITTLE OIL, PLACE IN PAN TO BE COOKED;
WHEN DONE BIND WITH ROUX. COVER THE FRIED PUMPKIN WITH THIS SAUCE,
SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE [4].

    [1] Dann. cucumbers, for which there is no authority.
    Cucumbers lend themselves equally well for a dish of
    this kind; they are often stuffed with a forcemeat of
    finely minced meats, mushrooms, eggs, breadcrumbs, or
    simply with raw sausage meat, cooked as above, and
    served as a garnish with _entrées_.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] Presumably in deep fat or oil, a procedure which
    would require previous breading in bread crumbs or
    enveloping in frying batter.

    [4] Whether you like pumpkin and brains or not--Apicius
    in this dish reveals himself as the consummate master of
    his art that he really is--a cook for cooks; Moreover,
    the lucidity of his diction in this instance is equally
    remarkable. It stands out in striking contrast to his
    many other formulæ which are so obscured. Many of them
    perhaps were precepts of likewise striking originality
    as this one just cited.


[177] COMPÔTE OF EARLY FRUIT
    _GUSTUM DE PRÆCOQUIS_

CLEAN HARD-SKINNED EARLY FRUITS [1] REMOVE THE SEEDS AND KEEP THEM
COLD IN A PAN. CRUSH PEPPER [2] DRY MINT, MOISTENED WITH BROTH, ADDING
HONEY, RAISIN WINE, WINE AND VINEGAR; POUR THIS OVER THE FRUIT IN THE
PAN, ADDING A LITTLE OIL. STEW SLOWLY ON A WEAK FIRE, THICKEN [the
juice] WITH ROUX [rice flour or other starch diluted with water]
SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [2] AND SERVE [3].

    [1] Lister praises the early green fruit and the use
    thereof, and, as a physician, recommends imitation of
    the above as follows: _In aliis plurimis locis hujus
    fructus mentio fit; ususque mirabilis fuit; & certe
    propter salubritatem, nostram imitationem meretur._

    [2] We do not like the "pepper" in this connection and
    we venture to suggest that in this case the term
    probably stands for some other kind of aromatic seed
    less pungent than the grain known to us as "pepper" and
    one more acceptable to the fine flavor of fruit, namely
    pimiento, allspice for instance, or clove, or nutmeg, or
    a mixture of these. "Pepper" formerly was a generic term
    for all of these spices but was gradually confined to
    the grain pepper of black and white varieties.

    [3] We concur with Lister's idea of the use of early
    fruits. The use of early and unripe fruit for this and
    similar purposes is excellent. The above formula is a
    good example of our own "spiced" peaches, pears, etc.,
    usually taken as a relish. Of course, we use sugar
    instead of honey for sweetening, and brandy instead of
    wine; but the underlying principles are alike.

    This is a good illustration of and speaks well for the
    economy and the ingenuity of the ancients.


END OF BOOK IV

_EXPLICIT APICII PANDECTER, LIBER QUARTUS_ [Tac.]



{Illustration: ROUND TABLE

Claw-footed bronze legs on triangular base, consisting of three molded
cylindrical supports, connected by cross-bars. Near the top the legs
take on a greyhound design, with a three-armed brace connecting them.
The round top is of marble. Pompeii. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 78613; Field
M., 24281.}



APICIUS

Book V



{Illustration: POMPEII: WINE STOCK ROOM OF A TAVERN

Wine was kept in these great jugs, tightly sealed with plaster and
pitch, properly dated and labeled, often remaining for many years.
Some writers mention wine thus kept for a hundred years; the porosity
of the earthen crocks, often holding fifty gallons or more, allowed
evaporation, so that the wine in time became as thick as oil or honey,
which necessitated diluting with water.

Smaller amphoræ, with various vintages readily mixed, were kept cool
in "bars" very similar to our present ice cream cabinets, ready for
service for the guests in tavern rooms.

Elaborate dippers (see our illustration) were used to draw the wine
from the amphoræ.}



{Illustration: FRUIT OR DESSERT DISH, SEA-SHELL SHAPE

The curved handle ends in the head of a griffin. Ntl. Mus., Naples,
76303; Field M. 24298.}



BOOK V. LEGUMES

_Lib. V. Osprion_ [1]


    CHAP.    I. PULSE, MEAL MUSH, PORRIDGE, ETC.
    CHAP.   II. LENTILS.
    CHAP.  III. PEAS.
    CHAP.   IV. BEANS OR PEAS IN THE POD.
    CHAP.    V. BARLEY BROTH.
    CHAP.   VI. GREEN BEANS, BAIÆAN BEANS.
    CHAP.  VII. FENUGREEK.
    CHAP. VIII. GREEN STRING BEANS AND CHICK-PEAS.



I

MEAL MUSH, MUSH, PULSE, PAP, PORRIDGE, POLENTA
  _DE PULTIBUS_ [2]


[178] JULIAN MEAL MUSH
    _PULTES JULIANÆ_ [3]

JULIAN PULSES ARE COOKED THUS: SOAK WELL-CLEANED SPELT, PUT IT ON THE
FIRE; WHEN COOKED, ADD OIL. IF IT THREATENS TO BECOME THICK, CAREFULLY
THIN IT DOWN. TAKE TWO COOKED BRAINS AND HALF A POUND OF MEAT GROUND
AS FOR FORCEMEAT, CRUSH THIS WITH THE BRAINS AND PUT IN A POT. CRUSH
PEPPER, LOVAGE AND FENNEL SEED, MOISTENED WITH BROTH, A LITTLE WINE
AND PUT IT ON TOP OF THE BRAIN AND MEAT. WHEN THIS FORCEMEAT IS HEATED
SUFFICIENTLY, MIX IT WITH THE SPELT [finish boiling] TRANSFER INTO
SERVICE DISH, THINNED. THIS MUST HAVE THE CONSISTENCY OF A HEAVY JUICE
[4].

    [1] List. _Osprios_; G.-V. _Ospreon_--cookery of
    leguminous plants.

    [2] _Puls_--formerly a simple porridge of various kinds
    of cereals or legumes, eaten by the Romans before bread
    came into use. _Puls_ remained in use after the
    introduction of bread only as a food of the poor. It was
    also used at sacrifices. The _pultes_ and _pulticulæ_
    given by Apicius are illustrations of the ever-present
    desire to improve--to glorify, as it were, a thing which
    once was or still is of vital importance in the daily
    life of humans. The _nouveaux-riches_ of the ancient and
    the modern world cannot find it easy to separate
    themselves from their traditions nor are they wont to
    put up with their plainness, hence the fancy trimmings.
    The development of the American pie is a curious analogy
    in this respect. We see in this the intricate working of
    human culture, its eternal strife for perfection. And
    perfection is synonymous with decay. The fare of the
    Carthusian monks, professed, stern vegetarians,
    underwent the same tortuous evolution.

    [3] Named for Didius Julianus, the emperor who was a
    vegetarian. Of course, his majesty could not live on a
    plain porridge, hence the Apician artistry. The _pultes_
    were popular with the many professed vegetarians though
    the obliging cooks mixed finely ground meat in this and
    other porridges.

    Our various cream soups and legume purées--those most
    salubrious creations of modern cookery are no doubt
    lineal descendants from the Apician _pultes_. They are
    so scarce comparatively because they require all the
    ingenuity and resourcefulness of a gifted cook to be
    perfect.

    [4] Dann. remarks that this formula is wanting in List.
    Both Lister's first and second editions have it.


[179] GRUEL AND WINE
    _PULTES ŒNOCOCTI_

PORRIDGE AND WINE IS THUS MADE: [1] FLAVOR THE PULSE WELL WITH WINE
[2] AND IMMERSE IN THE JUICE DAINTY MORSELS [3].

    [1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [2] Tor. _Oenogari_; G.-V. _Oenococti_.

    [3] Tor. _cupedias_; _copadia_.


[180] SIMILAR
    _SIMILAM_ [1]

OR FLAVOR COOKED SPELT WITH THE LIQUOR OF DAINTY PIECES OF PORK, OR
CAPON [2] COOKED IN WINE [3].

    [1] Tac. _inulam_; Tor. _mulam_--misreading.

    [2] Tor.; List. _apponis_.

    [3] For practical reasons we have separated the text of
    ℞ Nos. 179 and 180 which appears as one in the texts.


[181] MILK TOAST
    _PULTES TRACTOGALATÆ_ [1]

PUT A PINT OF MILK AND SOME WATER ON THE FIRE IN A NEW [clean] POT;
BREAK ROUND BREAD INTO IT [2] DRY, STIR WELL TO PREVENT BURNING; ADD
WATER AS NECESSARY [3].

    [1] Tor. _pulticula tractogala_.

    [2] List. _tres orbiculos tractæ_; Tor. _teres
    sorbiculos tractæ_.

    _Tractum_ is a piece of pastry, a round bread or roll in
    this case, stale, best suited for this purpose.

    [3] The text continues without interruption.


[182] HONEY PAP
    _SIMILITER_

HONEY AND MEAD ARE TREATED SIMILARLY, MIXED WITH MILK, WITH THE
ADDITION OF SALT AND A LITTLE OIL.


[178-183] PULSE
        _PULTES_ [1]

    [1] Tor. _Alia pulticula_.

    This is a verbatim repetition of ℞ No. 178.



II

LENTILS
  _LENTICULA_ [1]


[183] LENTILS AND COW-PARSNIPS
    _LENTICULA EX SPONDYLIS SIVE FONDYLIS_ [2]

PUT THE LENTILS IN A CLEAN SAUCE PAN [and cook with salt]. IN THE
MORTAR CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, MINT, RUE, AND FLEA-BANE,
MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, ADD HONEY AND BROTH AND REDUCED MUST, VINEGAR
TO TASTE AND PUT THIS IN A SAUCE PAN. THE COOKED COW-PARSNIPS CRUSH,
HEAT [mix with the lentils] WHEN THOROUGHLY COOKED, TIE, ADD GREEN
[fresh olive] OIL AND SERVE IN AN APPROPRIATE DISH [3].

    [1] Tor. _De Lenticula et Castaneis_.

    [2] List. again: _ex spongiolis sive fungulis_. See
    notes to ℞ Nos. 115-120 and 431.

    [3] _Boletar_--a "mushroom" dish. G.-V. _in boletari_;
    Tac. _insuper oleum uiridem mittis_; Tor.
    _inuolutari_--unidentified.


[184] LENTILS [1] AND CHESTNUTS
    _LENTICULAM DE CASTANEIS_ [2]

TAKE A NEW SAUCE PAN, PLACE THEREIN THE CHESTNUTS CAREFULLY CLEANED
[3] ADD WATER AND A LITTLE SODA AND PLACE ON THE FIRE TO BE COOKED.
THIS DONE, CRUSH IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, MINT,
RUE, LASER ROOT AND FLEA-BANE MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, HONEY AND BROTH;
ADD VINEGAR TO TASTE AND POUR THIS OVER THE COOKED CHESTNUTS, ADD OIL
AND ALLOW TO BOIL. WHEN DONE CRUSH IT IN THE MORTAR [4]. TASTE TO SEE
IF SOMETHING IS MISSING AND IF SO, PUT IT IN, AND AT LAST ADD GREEN
[fresh virgin] OIL.

    [1] Lentils are omitted in this formula; therefore see
    the following formula.

    [2] Thus G.-V.; Tor. Chestnuts.

    [3] i.e. peeled and skinned. To do this easily, boil the
    chestnuts with the skin, whereupon the outer brown shell
    and the inner membrane are easily removed.

    [4] To make a purée of the chestnuts which strain
    through the colander.


[184a] ANOTHER WAY [1]
     _ALITER LENTICULAM_

COOK THE LENTILS, SKIM THEM [strain] ADD LEEKS, GREEN CORIANDER; CRUSH
CORIANDER SEED, FLEA-BANE, LASER ROOT, MINT SEED AND RUE SEED
MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR; ADD HONEY, BROTH, VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST TO
TASTE, THEN OIL, STIRRING [the purée] UNTIL IT IS DONE, BIND WITH
ROUX, ADD GREEN OIL, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] It is evident that ℞ No. 184 and the above are
    really one formula, the former dealing with the cooking
    of the maroons, the latter describing the lentils.
    Presumably the two purées are to be mixed, or to be
    served as integral parts of one dish.



III


[185] PEAS
    _DE PISIS_

COOK THE PEAS, WHEN SKIMMED, LAY LEEKS, CORIANDER AND CUMIN ON TOP.
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, DILL AND GREEN BASILICA, WINE AND BROTH
TO TASTE, MAKE IT BOIL; WHEN DONE STIR WELL, PUT IN WHAT PERCHANCE
SHOULD BE MISSING AND SERVE [1].

    [1] This reminds us of _Petits Pois à la Française_,
    namely green peas (often very young ones with the pods)
    cooked in broth, or _bouillon_, with shredded bacon,
    lettuce, parsley, onions (or leeks, as above) fresh
    mint, pepper, salt and other fresh herbs such as
    chervil. Which is a very delectable way of preparing the
    tender pea. Some of its refreshing green color is
    sacrificed by this process, but this loss is amply
    offset by the savour of the dish.


[186] PEAS [supreme style]
    _PISA FARSILIS_ [1]

COOK THE PEAS WITH OIL AND A PIECE OF SOW'S BELLY [2] PUT IN A SAUCE
PAN BROTH, LEEK HEADS [the lower white part] GREEN CORIANDER AND PUT
ON THE FIRE TO BE COOKED. OF TID-BITS [3] CUT LITTLE DICE. SIMILARLY
COOK THRUSHES OR OTHER SMALL [game] BIRDS, OR TAKE SLICED CHICKEN AND
DICED BRAIN, PROPERLY COOKED. FURTHER COOK, IN THE AVAILABLE LIQUOR OR
BROTH, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE AND BACON; COOK LEEKS IN WATER; CRUSH A PINT
OF TOASTED PIGNOLIA NUTS; ALSO CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY AND
GINGER, DILUTE WITH THE BROTH OF PORK, TIE [4] TAKE A SQUARE BAKING
DISH SUITABLE FOR TURNING OVER WHICH OIL WELL AND LINE WITH CAUL [5]
SPRINKLE [on the bottom] A LAYER OF CRUSHED NUTS UPON WHICH PUT SOME
PEAS, FULLY COVERING THE BOTTOM OF THE SQUASH DISH; ON TOP OF THIS
ARRANGE SLICES OF THE BACON [6] LEEKS AND SLICED LUCANIAN SAUSAGE;
AGAIN COVER WITH A LAYER OF PEAS AND ALTERNATE ALL THE REST OF THE
AVAILABLE EDIBLES IN THE MANNER DESCRIBED UNTIL THE DISH IS FILLED,
CONCLUDING AT LAST WITH A LAYER OF PEAS, UTILIZING EVERYTHING. BAKE
THIS DISH IN THE OVEN, OR PUT IT INTO A SLOW FIRE [covering it with
live coal] SO THAT IT MAY BE BAKED THOROUGHLY. [Next make a sauce of
the following] PUT YOLKS OF HARD BOILED EGGS IN THE MORTAR WITH WHITE
PEPPER, NUTS, HONEY, WHITE WINE AND A LITTLE BROTH; MIX AND PUT IT
INTO A SAUCE PAN TO BE COOKED; WHEN [the sauce is] DONE, TURN OUT THE
PEAS INTO A LARGE [silver dish] AND MASK THEM WITH THIS SAUCE WHICH IS
CALLED WHITE SAUCE [7].

    [1] List. _Pisa farsilis_; Tor. _p. farsilia_; Tac.,
    G.-V. _pisam farsilem_--same as _fartilis_, from
    _farcio_--fattened, stuffed, or crammed, or as full as
    it can hold, metaphorically perhaps "supreme style,"
    "most sumptuous," etc.

    [2] This meat being fat enough, the oil seems
    superfluous.

    [3] _isicia_, formerly called Greek _hysitia_--any fine
    forcemeats, cut into or cooked in tiny dumplings.

    [4] _Liaison_ wanting in Tor.

    [5] Tor. makes no mention of the square dish and its
    caul lining. Caul is the abdominal membrane.

    [6] _petasonis pulpas_; Dann. ham, which is not quite
    correct. The _petaso_ is the shoulder part of pork,
    either cured or fresh, generally fresh. The cooked pork
    shoulder here is cut into small pieces. Nothing is said
    about the utilization of the sow's belly mentioned at
    the opening of the formula. We assume that the _petaso_
    can take its place in the dish.

    [7] There is nothing just like this dish in the history
    of gastronomy, considering both the comparatively cheap
    materials and the refinement of the gastronomic idea
    which it embodies. The _chartreuses_ of Carême are the
    nearest thing to it. Lister waxes enthusiastic about it.


[187] INDIAN PEAS
    _PISAM INDICAM_ [1]

COOK PEAS; WHEN SKIMMED, PUT IN THE SAUCE PAN FINELY CHOPPED LEEKS AND
CORIANDER TO BE COOKED [with the peas]. TAKE SMALL CUTTLE FISH, MOST
DESIRABLE BECAUSE OF THE BLACK LIQUOR AND COOK THEM ALSO. ADD OIL,
BROTH AND WINE, A BUNCH OF LEEK AND [green] CORIANDER AND MAKE IT
BOIL. WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, A LITTLE WILD CUMIN
[2] MOISTEN WITH THE JUICE [of the peas] ADD WINE AND RAISIN WINE TO
TASTE; MINCE THE FISH VERY FINE, INCORPORATE IT WITH THE PEAS, AND
SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [3].

    [1] Tor. _pisum Indicum_.

    [2] Tor., Tac. _casei modicum_; other texts, _carei_.

    [3] The texts continues without interruption to the next
    formula.


[188] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

COOK THE PEAS, WORK WELL [to make a purée] PLACE IN THE COLD, STIRRING
UNTIL THEY HAVE COOLED OFF. FINELY CHOP ONIONS AND THE WHITES OF HARD
BOILED EGGS, SEASON WITH SALT AND A LITTLE VINEGAR; THE YOLKS PRESS
THROUGH A COLANDER INTO AN ENTRÉE DISH, SEASON WITH FRESH OIL AND
SERVE [1].

    [1] The texts fail to state that the whites, yolks,
    onions, vinegar and oil must eventually be combined into
    a dressing very similar to our own modern _vinaigrette_;
    for decorative and other gastronomic reasons the
    separate treatment of the whites and the yolks is both
    ingenious and excellent, and is very often practised in
    good kitchens today.


[189] PEAS OR BEANS À LA VITELLIUS
    _PISAM VITELLIANAM SIVE FABAM_ [1]

PEAS OR BEANS WITH YOLKS ARE MADE THUS: [2] COOK THE PEAS, SMOOTHEN
[3] THEM; CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GINGER, AND ON THE CONDIMENTS PUT HARD
BOILED YOLKS, 3 OUNCES OF HONEY, ALSO BROTH, WINE AND VINEGAR; [mix
and] PLACE ALL IN A SAUCE PAN; THE FINELY CHOPPED CONDIMENTS WITH OIL
ADDED, PUT ON THE STOVE TO BE COOKED; WITH THIS FLAVOR THE PEAS WHICH
MUST BE SMOOTH; AND IF THEY BE TOO HARSH [in taste] ADD HONEY AND
SERVE [4].

    [1] List. _Pisa Vitelliana_--named for Vitellius, ninth
    Roman emperor, notorious glutton, according to Hum. who
    says that V. invented this dish: _ab auctore Vitellio
    Imperatore luxui deditissimo_. But Tor. differs; his
    _pisum uitellinum_ stands for peas with
    yolks--_vitellum_--yolk, (also calf) dim. _vitellinum_;
    Tac. _v----am_. Cf. ℞ No. 193.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] _lias_--to make a purée by crushing and straining.
    Tor. _lævigabis_, from _levigo_--meaning the same.

    [4] If Vitellius never invented any other dish than this
    one, his gluttony was overrated. As a gastronomer he may
    be safely relegated to the vast multitude of ill-advised
    people whose craving for carbohydrates (which is perhaps
    pathological) causes them to accumulate a surplus of
    fat. This was fatal to Vitellius and his faithful court
    baker who is said to have stuck to his master to the
    last. The poor emperor's _embonpoint_ proved cumbersome
    when he fled the infuriated mob. Had he been leaner he
    might have effected a "getaway." He was dragged through
    the streets and murdered, Dec. 21 or 22, A.D. 69.


[190] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER PISAM SIVE FABAM_

WHEN [the peas or beans are] SKIMMED MIX BROTH, HONEY, MUST, CUMIN,
RUE, CELERY SEED, OIL AND WINE, STIR [1]. SERVE WITH CRUSHED PEPPER
AND SAUSAGE [2].

    [1] G.-V. _tudiclabis_; Tor. _misceas_.

    [2] _cum isiciis_--bits of forcemeat.


[191] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER PISAM SIVE FABAM_

WHEN [the peas or beans are] SKIMMED FLAVOR THEM WITH CRUSHED PERSIAN
[1] LASER, BROTH AND MUST; POUR A LITTLE OIL OVER AND SERVE.

    [1] Parthian, from _Parthia_, a country of Asia.


[192] A TEMPTING DISH OF PEAS
    _PISAM ADULTERAM _[1]_ VERSATILEM_

THIS ADROIT, TEMPTING DISH OF PEAS IS PREPARED IN THIS MANNER: [2]
COOK PEAS; BRAINS OR SMALL BIRDS, OR BONED THRUSHES, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE,
CHICKEN LIVERS AND GIBLETS--ALL OF WHICH ARE PUT IN A SAUCE PAN;
BROTH, OIL AND A BUNCH OF LEEKS, GREEN CORIANDER FINELY CHOPPED, COOK
WITH THE BRAINS; CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE AND BROTH [3].

    [1] Sch., Dann. crafty, i.e. not genuine. _Adulteram_
    cannot here be used in its most accepted sense, because
    the peas are genuine, and no attempt is made to
    adulterate or "fake" this dish in any way, shape or
    form. Never before have we applied the term "seductive"
    to any dish, but this is just what _adultera_ means.
    "Tempting" of course is quite common.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] This formula is incomplete or mutilated, the last
    sentence breaks off in the middle--very likely a
    description of the sauce or condiments belonging to the
    peas.

    Each and every component of this (really tempting) dish
    must be cooked separately; they are then composed in a
    dish, nicely arranged, with the peas in the center,
    surrounded by the several morsels, with an appropriate
    gravy made from the natural liquor or juices of the
    component parts poured over the dish.


[193] PEAS À LA VITELLIUS
    _PISAM SIVE FABAM VITELLIANAM_ [1]

PEAS OR BEANS IN THE STYLE OF VITELLIUS PREPARE THUS: [2] [The peas or
beans] ARE COOKED, WHEN CAREFULLY SKIMMED, ADD LEEKS, CORIANDER AND
MALLOW FLOWERS [3]: WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, AND
FENNEL SEED MOISTENED WITH BROTH [and put it] INTO A SAUCE PAN WITH
WINE [4], ADDING OIL, HEAT THOROUGHLY AND WHEN BOILING STIR WELL; PUT
GREEN OIL ON TOP AND SERVE.

    [1] Named for the inventor, Emperor Vitellius; cf. notes
    to ℞ No. 189. Tor. _Vitellianum_.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] Wanting in Dann.

    [4] Tor.



IV


[194] BEANS IN THE POD
    _CONCHICLA_ [1]

COOK THE BEANS [2]; MEANWHILE CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, GREEN
CORIANDER, MOISTENED WITH BROTH AND WINE, AND ADD [more] BROTH TO
TASTE, PUT INTO THE SAUCE PAN [with the beans] ADDING OIL; HEAT ON A
SLOW FIRE AND SERVE.

    [1] Tor. _Concicla_--_conchis_--_conchicula_--young,
    immature beans, string or wax, boiled in the shell or
    pod.

    [2] _conchiclam cum faba_--young string beans and (dry,
    white or kidney) beans, cooked separately of course and
    mixed when done, ready for service.


[195] PEAS IN THE POD APICIAN STYLE
    _CONCHICLAM APICIANAM_

FOR PEAS IN THE POD [1] APICIAN STYLE TAKE: [2] A CLEAN EARTHEN POT IN
WHICH TO COOK THE PEAS; TO THE PEAS ADD FINELY CUT LUCANIAN SAUSAGE,
LITTLE PORK CAKES [3], PIECES OF MEAT [4] AND PORK SHOULDER [5]. CRUSH
PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, DILL, DRY ONIONS [6] GREEN CORIANDER
MOISTENED WITH BROTH, WINE, AND ADD [more] BROTH TO TASTE; UNITE THIS
WITH THE PEAS IN THE EARTHEN POT TO WHICH ADD OIL IN SUFFICIENT
QUANTITY TO BE ABSORBED BY THE PEAS; FINISH ON A SLOW FIRE TO GIVE IT
LIVE HEAT AND SERVE.

    [1] Peas in the pod are likewise called _conchicla_;
    hence perhaps any legumes cooked in the shells.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] _isiciola porcina._

    [4] _pulpas_--in this case no specific meat.

    [5] _petaso_; Dann. pieces of ham

    [6] _cepam siccam_--ordinary dry onions, not shallots.


[196] SIMPLE DISH OF PEAS IN THE POD
    _CONCHICLA DE PISA SIMPLICI_ [1]

COOK THE PEAS [in the pods] WHEN SKIMMED ADD A BUNCH [2] OF LEEKS AND
GREEN CORIANDER. WHILE BEING COOKED CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, AND
[the above] BUNCH [of herbs] [3] MOISTEN WITH ITS OWN JUICE, WINE [4]
ENOUGH TO SUIT YOUR TASTE, THEN ADD OIL AND FINISH ON A SLOW FIRE [5].

    [1] Thus G.-V.; Tor. _Concicla Pisorum_.

    [2] Sch. _feniculum_ instead of _fasciculum_.

    [3] G.-V. _de suo sibi fricabis_; Tor. _seorsim f._

    [4] G.-V. wine wanting in Tor.

    [5] Brandt, referring to ℞ No. 154, suggests that the
    things crushed in a mortar be placed on top of the peas.


[197] PEAS IN THE POD À LA COMMODUS [1]
    _CONCHICLA COMMODIANA_

MAKE PEAS COMMODIAN STYLE THUS: [2] COOK THE PEAS, WHEN SKIMMED, CRUSH
PEPPER, LOVAGE, DILL, SHALLOTS MOISTENED WITH BROTH; ADD WINE AND
BROTH TO TASTE: STIR IN A SAUCE PAN [with the peas] TO COMBINE; FOR
EACH SEXTARIUS OF PEAS BEAT 4 EGGS, AND COMBINE THEM WITH THE PEAS,
PLACE ON THE FIRE TO THICKEN [avoiding ebullition] AND SERVE.

    [1] Hum. Named for Commodus, the emperor; List. for
    Commodus Antonius, son of the philosopher Marcus.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.


[198] ANOTHER STYLE
    _ALITER CONCHICLAM SIC FACIES_ [1]

CUT [raw] CHICKEN INTO SMALL PIECES, ADD BROTH, OIL AND WINE, AND STEW
IT. CHOP ONIONS AND CORIANDER FINE AND ADD BRAINS [calf's or pork,
parboiled] THE SKIN AND NERVES REMOVED, TO THE CHICKEN. WHEN THIS IS
COOKED TAKE [the chicken] OUT AND BONE IT. THE PEAS COOK SEPARATELY,
WITHOUT SEASONING, ONLY USING CHOPPED ONIONS AND CORIANDER AND THE
BROTH OF THE CHICKEN; STRAIN [part of] THE PEAS AND ARRANGE THEM
ALTERNATELY [in a dish with the pieces of chicken, brains and the
unstrained peas] THEN CRUSH PEPPER AND CUMIN, MOISTENED WITH CHICKEN
BROTH. IN THE MORTAR BEAT 2 EGGS WITH BROTH TO TASTE, POUR THIS OVER
THE CHICKEN AND PEAS, FINISH ON A SLOW FIRE [1], DISH OUT ON A HEAP OF
PEAS, GARNISH WITH PINE NUTS AND SERVE.

    [1] By congealing in a mould, which is unmoulded on a
    heap of peas. Danneil directs to stuff the whole chicken
    with the pea preparation, brains, etc., and to poach it
    in a square pan.


[199] STUFFED CHICKEN OR SUCKLING PIG
    _CONCHICLATUS PULLUS VEL PORCELLUS_ [1]

BONE [either] CHICKEN [or suckling pig] FROM THE CHICKEN REMOVE THE
BREAST BONE AND THE [upper joint bones of the] LEGS; HOLD IT TOGETHER
BY MEANS OF WOODEN SKEWERS, AND MEANWHILE [2] PREPARE [the following
dressing in this manner]: ALTERNATE [inside of the chicken or pig]
PEAS WITH THE PODS [washed and cooked], BRAINS, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE, ETC.
NOW CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY AND GINGER, MOISTENED WITH BROTH,
RAISIN WINE AND WINE TO TASTE, MAKE IT BOIL, WHEN DONE, USE IT
MODERATELY FOR SEASONING AND ALTERNATELY WITH THE OTHER DRESSING; WRAP
[the chicken, or pig] IN CAUL, PLACE IT IN A BAKING DISH AND PUT IT IN
THE OVEN TO BE COOKED SLOWLY, AND SERVE.

    [1] G.-V., Tor. _Concicla farsilis_.

    [2] Tor. here splits the formula, using the above title.



V

GRUELS
  _TISANAM ET ALICAM_ [1]


[200] BARLEY BROTH
    _ALICAM VEL SUCCUM TISANÆ SIC FACIES_ [2]

CRUSH WELL WASHED BARLEY, SOAKED THE DAY BEFORE, PLACE ON THE FIRE TO
BE COOKED. WHEN HOT ADD PLENTY OIL, A SMALL BUNCH OF DILL, DRY ONION,
SATURY AND COLOCASIUM, TO BE COOKED TOGETHER BECAUSE THIS GIVES A
BETTER JUICE; ADD GREEN CORIANDER AND A LITTLE SALT; BRING IT TO A
BOILING POINT. WHEN WELL HEATED TAKE OUT THE BUNCH [dill] AND TRANSFER
THE BARLEY INTO ANOTHER VESSEL TO AVOID BURNING ON THE BOTTOM OF THE
POT; THIN IT OUT [with water, broth, milk] AND STRAIN INTO A POT,
COVERING THE TIPS OF THE COLOCASIA [2]. NEXT CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, A
LITTLE DRY FLEA-BANE, CUMIN AND SYLPHIUM, STIR WELL, ADD VINEGAR,
REDUCED MUST AND BROTH; PUT IT BACK IN THE POT; THE REMAINING
COLOCASIA FINISH ON A GENTLE FIRE.

    [1] A repetition of Book IV, Chap. IV, _Tisanam vel
    sucum_, our ℞ No. 172

    [2] Tor. still has difficulties with the vegetable
    called by Lister _colocasium_. He reads here _colonium_
    and _colosium_. G.-V. _colœfium_. Cf. Note 1 to ℞
    No. 172 and Note to Nos. 74, 216, 244 and 322.


[201] ANOTHER GRUEL
    _ALITER TISANAM_ [1]

SOAK CHICK-PEAS, LENTILS AND PEAS, CRUSH BARLEY AND COOK WITH THE
LEGUMES, WHEN WELL COOKED ADD PLENTY OF OIL. NOW CUT GREENS, LEEKS,
CORIANDER, DILL, FENNEL, BEETS, MALLOWS, CABBAGE STRUNKS, ALL SOFT AND
GREEN AND VERY FINELY CUT, AND PUT IN A POT. THE CABBAGE COOK
[separately; also] CRUSH FENNEL SEED, PLENTY OF IT, ORIGANY, SILPHIUM,
AND LOVAGE, AND WHEN GROUND, ADD BROTH TO TASTE, POUR THIS OVER THE
PORRIDGE, STIR, AND USE SOME FINELY CHOPPED CABBAGE STEMS TO SPRINKLE
ON TOP.

    [1] A repetition of ℞ No. 173.



VI

GREEN BEANS
  _FABACIÆ VIRIDES ET BAIANÆ_ [1]


[202] GREEN BEANS
    _FABACIÆ VIRIDES_

GREEN BEANS ARE COOKED IN BROTH, WITH OIL, GREEN CORIANDER, CUMIN AND
CHOPPED LEEKS, AND SERVED.

    [1] Beans grown in Baiæ, also called _bajanas_ or
    _bacanas_; beans without skin or pods.


[203] BEANS SAUTÉ
    _ALITER: FABACIÆ FRICTÆ_

FRIED BEANS ARE SERVED IN BROTH.


[204] MUSTARD BEANS
    _ALITER: FABACIÆ EX SINAPI_

[The beans previously cooked are seasoned with] CRUSHED MUSTARD SEED,
HONEY, NUTS, RUE, CUMIN, AND SERVED WITH VINEGAR.


[205] BAIÆAN BEANS
    _BAIANAS_ [1]

COOKED BEANS FROM BAIÆ ARE CUT FINE [and finished with] RUE, GREEN
CELERY, LEEKS, VINEGAR [2] A LITTLE MUST OR RAISIN WINE AND SERVED
[3].

    [1] Named for Baiæ, a town of Campania, noted for its
    warm baths; a favorite resort of the Romans.

    [2] Wanting in Tor.

    [3] These apparently outlandish ways of cooking beans
    compel us to draw a modern parallel in a cookery book,
    specializing in Jewish dishes. To prove that Apicius is
    not dead "by a long shot," we shall quote from Wolf,
    Rebekka: Kochbuch für Israelitische Frauen, Frankfurt,
    1896, 11th edition. As a matter of fact, Rebekka Wolf is
    outdoing Apicius in strangeness--a case of _Apicium in
    ipso Apicio_, as Lister sarcastically remarks of
    Torinus.

    Rebekka Wolf: ℞ No. 211--wash and boil the young
    beans in fat _bouillon_ (Apicius: _oleum et liquamen_)
    adding a handful of chopped pepperwort (A.: _piper,
    ligusticum_) and later chopped parsley (A.:
    _petroselinum_) some sugar (A.: _mel pavo_--little
    honey) and pepper. Beans later in the season are cooked
    with potatoes. The young beans are tied with flour
    dissolved in water, or with roux.

    _Id. ibid._, ℞ No. 212, Beans Sweet-Sour. Boil in
    water, fat, salt, add vinegar, sugar or syrup, "English
    aromatics" and spices, lemon peel, and a little pepper;
    bind with roux.

    _Id. ibid._, ℞ No. 213, Cut Pickled Beans
    (_Schneidebohnen_) prepare as ℞ No. 212, but if you
    would have them more delicious, take instead of the roux
    grated chocolate, sugar, cinnamon, lemon peel and lemon
    juice, and some claret. If not sour enough, add vinegar,
    but right here you must add more fat; you may lay on top
    of this dish a bouquet of sliced apples.

    _Id. ibid._, ℞ No. 214, Beans and Pears. Take cut and
    pickled beans and prepare as above. To this add peeled
    fresh pears, cut into quarters; then sugar, lemon peel
    cut thin, cinnamon, "English" mixed spices, and at last
    the roux, thinned with broth. This dish must be sweet
    and very fat.

    As for exotic combinations, Apicius surely survives
    here, is even surpassed by this Jewish cookery book
    where, no doubt, very ancient traditions have been
    stored away.



VII


[206] THE HERB FENUGREEK
    _FŒNUM GRÆCUM_ [1]

FENUGREEK [is prepared] IN BROTH, OIL AND WINE.

    [1] Tor. or _fenum_; G.-V. _Fænum_.



VIII


[207] GREEN STRING BEANS AND CHICK-PEAS
    _PHASEOLI _[1]_ VIRIDES ET CICER_

ARE SERVED WITH SALT, CUMIN, OIL, AND A LITTLE PURE WINE.

    [1] Tor. _Faseolus_, the bean with a long, sabre-like
    pod; a phasel, kidney bean, when ripened.


[208] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER FASEOLUS ET CICER_

[Beans or chick-peas] ARE COOKED IN A WINE SAUCE AND SEASONED WITH
PEPPER [1].

    [1] Dann. and Goll.: "roasted" beans.


[209] BOILED, SUMPTUOUSLY
    _ET ELIXATI, SUMPTO_ [1]

AND COOK THE BEANS, IN A RICH MANNER, REMOVE THE SEEDS AND SERVE [as a
Salad [2]], WITH HARD EGGS, GREEN FENNEL, PEPPER, BROTH, A LITTLE
REDUCED WINE AND A LITTLE SALT, OR SERVE THEM IN SIMPLER WAYS, AS YOU
MAY SEE FIT.

    [1] The original continues with the preceding formula.

    [2] For a salad we would add finely chopped onion,
    pepper, and some lemon juice.

    The purpose of removing the seeds is obscure. G.-V.
    reads _semine cum ovis_; Tac. _semie_; Hum. _s. cum
    lobis_. The passage may mean to sprinkle (sow) with hard
    boiled (and finely chopped) eggs, which is often done on
    a salad and other dishes.


END OF BOOK V

_EXPLICIT APICII OSPRION LIBER QUINTUS_ [Tac.]



{Illustration: ADJUSTABLE TABLE

Polychrome marble in bronze frame. Four elaborately designed bronze
legs, braced and hinged, so that the table may be raised or lowered.
The legs end in claw feet resting on a molded base. Above they are
encircled with leaves, from which emerge young satyrs, each holding a
rabbit under the left arm. The legs below the acanthus leaves are
ornamented with elaborate floral patterns, inlaid, with other inlaid
patterns on the connecting braces and around the frame of the marble
top. Bronze and marble tables that could be folded and taken down
after banquets were used by the Babylonians centuries before this
table was designed in Pompeii. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 72994; Field M.
24290.}



APICIUS

Book VI



{Illustration: THE GREAT CRATER

Found at Hildesheim in 1868. This and a number of other pieces form
the collection known as The Hildesheim Treasure, now at the Kaiser
Friedrich Museum, Berlin.

This wine crater is entirely of silver, a piece of supreme workmanship
of Roman origin. Very delicate decoration, anticipating the
Renaissance: Winged griffins and other monsters, half ox, half lion,
at the base; aquatic animals, genii angling and spearing fish.

There is a second vessel inside, acting as a liner, to take the weight
of the fluid off the decorated bowl. The complete weight is 9451.8
gr., but the inner liner is stamped CVM BASI PONDO XXXXI--41 pounds
with the base. The weight of silver pieces was inscribed as a check on
the slaves.

The bowl is 0.36 meter (about 14-1/4 inches) in height and 0.353 meter
in diameter. It stands on the tripod which is depicted separately.}



{Illustration: THE DIONYSOS CUP

The Dionysos head in the center and the two satyrs are modeled
realistically by a most able artist. Lion and lioness heads on the
other side. Hildesheim Treasure.}



BOOK VI. FOWL

_Lib. VI. Aëropetes_ [1]


    CHAP.    I. OSTRICH.
    CHAP.   II. CRANE OR DUCK, PARTRIDGE, DOVES, WOOD PIGEON, SQUAB
                AND DIVERS BIRDS.
    CHAP.  III. THRUSH [2].
    CHAP.   IV. FIGPECKER [2].
    CHAP.    V. PEACOCK [2].
    CHAP.   VI. PHEASANT [2].
    CHAP.  VII. GOOSE.
    CHAP. VIII. CHICKEN.

    [1] Tac., Tor. _Trophetes_; probably an error in their
    rendering. List. _Aëroptes_, Greek for Fowl.

    [2] The titles of these chapters and the classification
    is not adhered in the text of Book VI. The chapters are
    actually inscribed as follows:

    Chap. I, Ostrich; II, Crane or Duck, Partridge, Turtle
    Dove, Wood Pigeon, Squab and divers birds; III,
    Partridge, Heathcock (Woodcock), Turtle Dove; IV, Wood
    Pigeon, Squab [Domestic Fattened Fowl, Flamingo]; V,
    Sauce for divers birds; VI, Flamingo; VII, In Order That
    Birds May Not Be Spoiled; VIII, Goose; IX, Chicken.



I

OSTRICH
  _IN STRUTHIONE_


[210] BOILED OSTRICH
    _IN STRUTHIONE ELIXO_

[A stock in which to cook ostrich] PEPPER, MINT, CUMIN, LEEKS [1],
CELERY SEED, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, RAISIN WINE, BROTH, A LITTLE OIL.
BOIL THIS IN THE STOCK KETTLE [with the ostrich, remove the bird when
done, strain the liquid] THICKEN WITH ROUX. [To this sauce] ADD THE
OSTRICH MEAT CUT IN CONVENIENT PIECES, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER. IF YOU
WISH IT MORE SEASONED OR TASTY, ADD GARLIC [during coction].

    [1] G.-V. _Cuminum_; Tor. _C., porrum_, which is more
    likely.


[211] ANOTHER OSTRICH STEW
    _ALITER [in] STRUTHIONE ELIXO_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, ALSO SATURY, HONEY, MUSTARD, VINEGAR, BROTH AND
OIL.



II

CRANE, DUCK, PARTRIDGE, DOVE, WOOD PIGEON, SQUAB, AND DIVERS BIRDS
  _IN GRUE VEL ANATE PERDICE TURTURE PALUMBO COLUMBO ET DIVERSIS AVIBUS_


[212] CRANE OR DUCK
    _GRUEM VEL ANATEM_

WASH [the fowl] AND DRESS IT NICELY [1] PUT IN A STEW POT, ADD WATER,
SALT AND DILL, PARBOIL [2] SO AS TO HAVE THEM HALF DONE, UNTIL THE
MEAT IS HARD, REMOVE THEM, PUT THEM IN A SAUCE PAN [to be finished by
braising] WITH OIL, BROTH, A BUNCH OF ORIGANY AND CORIANDER; WHEN
NEARLY DONE, ADD A LITTLE REDUCED MUST, TO GIVE IT COLOR. MEANWHILE
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CORIANDER, LASER ROOT, RUE [moistened
with] REDUCED WINE AND SOME HONEY, ADD SOME OF THE FOWL BROTH [3] TO
IT AND VINEGAR TO TASTE; EMPTY [the sauce] INTO A SAUCE PAN, HEAT,
BIND WITH ROUX, AND [strain] THE SAUCE OVER THE FOWL IN AN ENTRÉE
DISH.

    [1] _Lavas et ornas_, i.e., singe, empty carcass of
    intestines, truss or bind it to keep its shape during
    coction, and, usually, lard it with either strips or
    slices of fat pork and stuff the carcass with greens,
    celery leaves, etc.

    [2] _Dimidia coctura decoques._ Apicius here pursues the
    right course for the removable of any disagreeable taste
    often adhering to aquatic fowl, feeding on fish or food
    found in the water, by parboiling the meat. Cf. ℞ No.
    214.

    [3] Again, as so often: _ius de suo sibi_; here the
    liquor of the braising pan, for stock in which the fowl
    is parboiled cannot be used for reasons set forth in
    Note 2.


[213] ANOTHER WAY OF COOKING CRANE, DUCK OR CHICKEN
    _ALITER IN GRUE [VEL] IN ANATE VEL IN PULLO_

PEPPER, SHALLOTS, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, PRUNES OR DAMASCUS PLUMS
STONES REMOVED, FRESH MUST, VINEGAR [1] BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND OIL.
BOIL THE CRANE; WHILE COOKING IT TAKE CARE THAT ITS HEAD IS NOT
TOUCHED BY THE WATER BUT THAT IT REMAINS WITHOUT. WHEN THE CRANE IS
DONE, WRAP IT IN A HOT TOWEL, AND PULL THE HEAD OFF SO THAT THE SINEWS
FOLLOW IN A MANNER THAT THE MEAT AND THE BONES REMAIN; FOR ONE CANNOT
ENJOY THE HARD SINEWS [2].

    [1] Dann. mead.

    [2] Remarkable ingenuity! Try this on your turkey legs.
    Danneil is of the opinion that the head and its feathers
    were to be saved for decorative purposes, in style
    during the middle ages when game bird patties were
    decorated with the fowl's plumage, a custom which
    survived to Danneil's time (ca. 1900). But this is not
    likely to be the case here, for it would be a simple
    matter to skin the bird before cooking it in order to
    save the plumage for the taxidermist.


[214] CRANE OR DUCK WITH TURNIPS
    _GRUEM VEL ANATEM EX RAPIS_ [1]

TAKE OUT [remove entrails, [2]] CLEAN WASH AND DRESS [the bird] AND
PARBOIL [2] IT IN WATER WITH SALT AND DILL. NEXT PREPARE TURNIPS AND
COOK THEM IN WATER WHICH IS TO BE SQUEEZED OUT [3]. TAKE THEM OUT OF
THE POT AND WASH THEM AGAIN [4]. AND PUT INTO A SAUCE PAN THE DUCK
WITH OIL, BROTH, A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER; THE TURNIPS CUT INTO
SMALL PIECES; THESE PUT ON TOP OF THE [duck] IN ORDER TO FINISH
COOKING. WHEN HALF DONE, TO GIVE IT COLOR, ADD REDUCED MUST. THE SAUCE
IS PREPARED SEPARATELY: PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER, LASER ROOT MOISTENED
WITH VINEGAR AND DILUTED WITH ITS OWN BROTH [of the fowl]; BRING THIS
TO A BOILING POINT, THICKEN WITH ROUX. [In a deep dish arrange the
duck] ON TOP OF THE TURNIPS [strain the sauce over it] SPRINKLE WITH
PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] Duck and Turnips, a dish much esteemed on the
    Continent today. Only few prepare it correctly as does
    Old Apicius; hence it is not popular with the multitude.

    [2] Tac., Tor. _excipies_; Hum. _legendum: ex rapis_.

    [3] G.-V. _ut exbromari possint_; Tor. _expromi_; Hum.
    _expromari_; all of which does not mean anything. To
    cook the turnips so that they can be squeezed out
    (_exprimo_, from _ex_ and _premo_) is the proper thing
    to do from a culinary standpoint.

    [4] The turnips are cooked half, the water removed, and
    finished with the duck, as prescribed by Apicius. It is
    really admirable to see how he handles these food
    materials in order to remove any disagreeable flavor,
    which may be the case both with the turnips (the small
    white variety) and the duck. Such careful treatment is
    little known nowadays even in the best kitchens. Cf.
    Note 2 to ℞ No. 212.


[215] ANOTHER [SAUCE FOR] CRANE OR DUCK
    _ALITER IN GRUEM VEL ANATEM ELIXAM_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, DRY CORIANDER, MINT, ORIGANY, PINE NUTS, DATES,
BROTH, OIL, HONEY, MUSTARD AND WINE [1].

    [1] Supposedly the ingredients for a sauce in which the
    parboiled fowl is braised and served.


[216] ROAST CRANE OR DUCK
    _ALITER GRUEM VEL ANATEM ASSAM_

POUR OVER [the roast bird] THIS GRAVY: CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY
WITH BROTH, HONEY, A LITTLE VINEGAR AND OIL; BOIL IT WELL, THICKEN
WITH ROUX [strain] IN THIS SAUCE PLACE SMALL PIECES OF PARBOILED
PUMPKIN OR COLOCASIUM [1] SO THAT THEY ARE FINISHED IN THE SAUCE; ALSO
COOK WITH IT CHICKEN FEET AND GIBLETS (all of which) SERVE IN A
CHAFING DISH, SPRINKLE WITH FINE PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] Cf. ℞ Nos. 74, 216, 244, 322.


[217] BOILED CRANE OR DUCK IN ANOTHER MANNER
    _ALITER IN GRUE VEL ANATE ELIXA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, ROCKET, OR CORIANDER, MINT, DATES, HONEY,
VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND MUSTARD. LIKEWISE USED FOR FOWL ROAST
[braised] IN THE POT.



III

WAYS TO PREPARE PARTRIDGE, HEATH-COCK OR WOODCOCK, AND BOILED TURTLE-DOVE
  _IN PERDICE ET ATTAGENA ET IN TURTURE ELIXIS_


[218] PARTRIDGE
    _IN PERDICE_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, MINT, MYRTLE BERRIES, ALSO RAISINS, HONEY
[1] WINE, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND OIL. USE IT COLD [2] THE PARTRIDGE IS
SCALDED WITH ITS FEATHERS, AND WHILE WET THE FEATHERS ARE TAKEN OFF;
[the hair singed] IT IS THEN COOKED IN ITS OWN JUICE [braised] AND
WHEN DONE WILL NOT BE HARD IF CARE IS TAKEN [to baste it]. SHOULD IT
REMAIN HARD [if it is old] YOU MUST CONTINUE TO COOK IT UNTIL IT IS
TENDER.

    [1] Honey wanting in Tor.

    [2] G.-V. _Aliter_. This is one formula.


[219] [SAUCE] FOR PARTRIDGE, HEATH-COCK AND TURTLE-DOVE
    _IN PERDICE ET ATTAGENA ET IN TURTURE_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, MINT, RUE SEED, BROTH, PURE WINE, AND OIL, HEATED.



IV

WOOD PIGEONS, SQUABS, FATTENED FOWL, FLAMINGO
  _IN PALUMBIS COLUMBIS AVIBUS IN ALTILE ET IN FENICOPTERO_


[220] FOR ROASTS: PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, CARRAWAY,
      SHALLOTS, MINT, YOLKS OF EGG, DATES, HONEY,
      VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL AND WINE.


[221] ANOTHER [sauce] FOR BOILED [birds]
    _ALITER IN ELIXIS_

TO THE BOILED FOWL ADD [1] PEPPER, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, PARSLEY,
CONDIMENTS, MORTARIA [2] DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, OIL AND MUSTARD.

    [1] Tor. wanting in other texts.

    [2] _Mortaria_: herbs, spices, things pounded in the
    "mortar." Cf. ℞ No. 38.


[222] ANOTHER [sauce]
    _ALITER_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, CELERY SEED, RUE, PINE NUTS, DATES, HONEY,
VINEGAR, BROTH, MUSTARD AND A LITTLE OIL.


[223] ANOTHER [sauce]
    _ALITER_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, LASER, WINE [1] MOISTENED WITH BROTH. ADD WINE AND
BROTH TO TASTE. MASK THE WOOD PIGEON OR SQUAB WITH IT. SPRINKLE WITH
PEPPER [2] AND SERVE.

    [1] Tac., Tor. _laserum, vinum_; G.-V. _l. vivum_.

    [2] Wanting in Tor.



V


[224] SAUCE FOR DIFFERENT BIRDS
    _IUS IN DIVERSIS AVIBUS_

PEPPER, DRY CUMIN, CRUSHED. LOVAGE, MINT, SEEDLESS RAISINS OR DAMASCUS
PLUMS, LITTLE HONEY, MYRTLE WINE TO TASTE, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND OIL.
HEAT AND WHIP IT WELL WITH CELERY AND SATURY [1].

    [1] For centuries sauce whips were made of dry and green
    twigs, the bark of which was carefully peeled off.


[225] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR FOWL
    _ALITER IUS IN AVIBUS_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, FENNEL BLOSSOMS [1] MOISTENED WITH
WINE; ADD ROASTED NUTS FROM PONTUS [2] OR ALMONDS, A LITTLE HONEY,
WINE, VINEGAR, AND BROTH TO TASTE. PUT OIL IN A POT, AND HEAT AND STIR
THE SAUCE, ADDING GREEN CELERY SEED, CAT-MINT; CARVE THE FOWL AND
COVER WITH THE SAUCE [3].

    [1] Dann. _Cnecus_.

    [2] Turkish hazelnuts.

    [3] Tor. continuing without interruption.


[226] WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED FOWL
    _IUS CANDIDUM IN AVEM ELIXAM_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, TOASTED NUTS FROM PONTUS, OR
ALMONDS, ALSO SHELLED PINE NUTS, HONEY [1] A LITTLE BROTH, VINEGAR AND
OIL.

    [1] Tor. _vel_; List. _mel_.


[227] GREEN SAUCE FOR FOWL
    _IUS VIRIDE IN AVIBUS_

PEPPER, CARRAWAY, INDIAN SPIKENARD, CUMIN, BAY LEAVES, ALL KINDS OF
GREEN HERBS, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, LITTLE BROTH, AND OIL.


[228] WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED GOOSE
    _IUS CANDIDUM IN ANSERE ELIXO_

PEPPER, CARRAWAY, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, THYME, ONION, LASER ROOT,
TOASTED NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL [1]

    [1] A "sweet-sour" white sauce with herbs and spices is
    often served with goose in northern Germany.


[229] TREATMENT OF STRONG SMELLING BIRDS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION
    _AD AVES HIRCOSAS _[1]_ OMNI GENERE_

FOR BIRDS OF ALL KINDS THAT HAVE A GOATISH [1] SMELL [2] PEPPER,
LOVAGE, THYME, DRY MINT, SAGE, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH,
OIL, REDUCED MUST, MUSTARD. THE BIRDS WILL BE MORE LUSCIOUS AND
NUTRITIOUS, AND THE FAT PRESERVED, IF YOU ENVELOP THEM IN A DOUGH OF
FLOUR AND OIL AND BAKE THEM IN THE OVEN [3].

    [1] Probably game birds in an advanced stage of "_haut
    goût_" (as the Germans use the antiquated French term),
    or "_mortification_" as the French cook says. Possibly
    also such birds as crows, black birds, buzzards, etc.,
    and fish-feeding fowl. Moreover, it must be borne in
    mind that the refrigeration facilities of the ancients
    were not too good and that fresh goods spoiled quickly.
    Hence, perhaps, excessive seasoning, at least, as
    compared to our modern methods.

    List. _aves piscivoras_; Hum. thinks the birds to be
    downright spoiled: _olidas, rancidas, & grave olentes_.

    [2] Tor. Sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] For birds with a goatish smell Apicius should have
    repeated his excellent formula in ℞ No. 212, the
    method of parboiling the birds before final coction, if,
    indeed, one cannot dispense with such birds altogether.
    The above recipe does not in the least indicate how to
    treat smelly birds. Wrapping them in dough would vastly
    increase the ill-savour.

    As for game birds, we agree with most connoisseurs that
    they should have just a suspicion of "_haut goût_"--a
    condition of advanced mellowness after the _rigor
    mortis_ has disappeared.


[230] ANOTHER TREATMENT OF ODOR
    _ALIUD CONTRA UIROSUM ODOREM_ [1]

[IF THE BIRDS SMELL, [1]] STUFF THE INSIDE WITH CRUSHED FRESH OLIVES,
SEW UP [the aperture] AND THUS COOK, THEN RETIRE THE COOKED OLIVES.

    [1] Tor.; other texts _aliter avem_, i.e. that the olive
    treatment is not necessarily confined to ill smelling
    birds alone.



VI


[231] FOR FLAMINGO [and Parrot]
    _IN PHŒNICOPTERO_

SCALD [1] THE FLAMINGO, WASH AND DRESS IT, PUT IT IN A POT, ADD WATER,
SALT, DILL, AND A LITTLE VINEGAR, TO BE PARBOILED. FINISH COOKING WITH
A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER, AND ADD SOME REDUCED MUST TO GIVE IT
COLOR. IN THE MORTAR CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER, LASER ROOT, MINT,
RUE, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, ADD DATES, AND THE FOND OF THE BRAISED
BIRD, THICKEN, [strain] COVER THE BIRD WITH THE SAUCE AND SERVE.
PARROT IS PREPARED IN THE SAME MANNER.

    [1] Prior to removing the feathers; also singe the fine
    feathers and hair.


[232] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

ROAST THE BIRD. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, SESAM [1] PARSLEY,
MINT, SHALLOTS, DATES, HONEY, WINE, BROTH, VINEGAR, OIL, REDUCED MUST
TO TASTE.

    [1] Tor. _sesamum, defrutum_; G.-V. _s. frictum_.



VII


[233] TO PREVENT BIRDS FROM SPOILING
    _AVES OMNES NE LIQUESCANT_

SCALDED WITH THE FEATHERS BIRDS WILL NOT ALWAYS BE JUICY; IT IS BETTER
TO FIRST EMPTY THEM THROUGH THE NECK AND STEAM THEM SUSPENDED OVER A
KETTLE WITH WATER [1].

    [1] Dry picking is of course the best method. Apicius is
    trying to overcome the evils of scalding fowl with the
    feathers. This formula is mutilated; the various texts
    differ considerably.



VIII

[FOR GOOSE]
  [_IN ANSERE_]


[234] BOILED GOOSE WITH COLD APICIAN SAUCE
    _ANSEREM ELIXUM EX IURE APICIANO FRIGIDO_

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER SEED [1] MINT, RUE, MOISTEN WITH BROTH
AND A MODERATE AMOUNT OF OIL. TAKE THE COOKED GOOSE OUT OF THE POT AND
WHILE HOT WIPE IT CLEAN WITH A TOWEL, POUR THE SAUCE OVER IT AND
SERVE.

    [1] G.-V.; Tor. (fresh) coriander, more suited for a
    cold sauce.



IX

[FOR CHICKEN]
  [_IN PULLO_]


[235] RAW SAUCE FOR BOILED CHICKEN
    _IN PULLO ELIXO IUS CRUDUM_

PUT IN THE MORTAR DILL SEED, DRY MINT, LASER ROOT, MOISTEN WITH
VINEGAR, FIG WINE, BROTH, A LITTLE MUSTARD, OIL AND REDUCED MUST, AND
SERVE [1] [Known as] DILL CHICKEN [2].

    [1] This and the preceding cold dressings are more or
    less variations of our modern cold dressings that are
    used for cold dishes of all kinds, especially salads.

    [2] Tor. heads the following formula _præparatio pulli
    anethi_--chicken in dill sauce, which is the correct
    description of the above formula. Tac., G.-V. also
    commence the next with _pullum anethatum_, which is not
    correct, as the following recipe contains no dill.


[236] ANOTHER CHICKEN
    _ALITER PULLUS_ [1]

A LITTLE HONEY IS MIXED WITH BROTH; THE COOKED [parboiled] CHICKEN IS
CLEANED [skin taken off, sinews, etc., removed] THE CARCASS DRIED WITH
A TOWEL, QUARTERED, THE PIECES IMMERSED IN BROTH [2] SO THAT THE
SAVOUR PENETRATES THOROUGHLY. FRY THE PIECES [in the pan] POUR OVER
THEIR OWN GRAVY, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER, SERVE.

    [1] Hum., List. cf. Note 2 to ℞ No. 235.

    [2] Marinated; but the nature of this marinade is not
    quite clear; a spicy marinade of wine and herbs and
    spices would be appropriate for certain game birds, but
    chicken ordinarily requires no marinade except some oil
    before frying. It is possible that Apicius left the
    cooked chicken in the broth to prevent it from drying
    out, which is good.


[237] CHICKEN PARTHIAN STYLE
    _PULLUM PARTHICUM_ [1]

DRESS THE CHICKEN CAREFULLY [2] AND QUARTER IT. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE
AND A LITTLE CARRAWAY [3] MOISTENED WITH BROTH, AND ADD WINE TO TASTE.
[After frying] PLACE THE CHICKEN IN AN EARTHEN DISH [4] POUR THE
SEASONING OVER IT, ADD LASER AND WINE [5] LET IT ASSIMILATE WITH THE
SEASONING AND BRAISE THE CHICKEN TO A POINT. WHEN DONE SPRINKLE WITH
PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] Lister is of the opinion that the _pullus Parthicus_
    is a kind of chicken that came originally from Asia,
    Parthia being a country of Asia, the present Persia or
    northern India, a chicken of small size with feathers on
    its feet, i.e., a bantam.

    [2] Pluck, singe, empty, wash, trim. The texts: _a
    navi_. Hum. _hoc est, à parte posteriore ventris, qui ut
    navis cavus & figuræ ejus non dissimile est_. Dann.
    takes this literally, but _navo_ (_navus_) here simply
    means "to perform diligently."

    [3] Tor. _casei modicum_; List. _carei_--more likely
    than cheese.

    [4] _Cumana_--an earthenware casserole, excellent for
    that purpose.

    [5] G.-V. _laser [et] vivum_.


[238] CHICKEN SOUR
    _PULLUM OXYZOMUM_

A GOOD-SIZED GLASS OF OIL, A SMALLER GLASS OF BROTH, AND THE SMALLEST
MEASURE OF VINEGAR, 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, PARSLEY AND A BUNCH OF
LEEKS.

    G.-V. _[laseris] satis modice_.

    These directions are very vague. If the raw chicken is
    quartered, fried in the oil, and then braised in the
    broth with a dash of vinegar, the bunch of leeks and
    parsley, seasoned with pepper and a little salt, we have
    a dish gastronomically correct. The leeks may be served
    as a garnish, the gravy, properly reduced and strained
    over the chicken which like in the previous formula is
    served in a casserole.


[239] GUINEA HEN
    _PULLUM NUMIDICUM_

PREPARE [1] THE CHICKEN [as usual; par-] BOIL IT; CLEAN IT [2]
SEASONED WITH LASER AND PEPPER, AND FRY [in the pan; next] CRUSH
PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, LASER ROOT, RUE, FIG DATES AND NUTS,
MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, HONEY, BROTH AND OIL TO TASTE [3] WHEN BOILING
THICKEN WITH ROUX [strain] POUR OVER THE CHICKEN, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER
AND SERVE.

    [1] _Curas._

    [2] Remove skin, tissues, bones, etc., cut in pieces
    and marinate in the pickle.

    [3] Immerse the chicken pieces in this sauce and braise
    them to a point.


[240] CHICKEN WITH LASER
    _PULLUM LASERATUM_

DRESS THE CHICKEN CAREFULLY [1] CLEAN, GARNISH [2] AND PLACE IN AN
EARTHEN CASSEROLE. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, LASER MOISTENED WITH WINE [3]
ADD BROTH AND WINE TO TASTE, AND PUT THIS ON THE FIRE; WHEN DONE SERVE
WITH PEPPER SPRINKLED OVER.

    [1] _a navi._ cf. Note 2 to ℞ No. 237.

    [2] G.-V. _lavabis_, _ornabis_, with vegetables, etc.

    [3] G.-V. _laser vivum_.


[241] ROAST CHICKEN
    _PULLUM PAROPTUM_

A LITTLE LASER, 6 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, A GLASS OF OIL, A GLASS OF
BROTH, AND A LITTLE PARSLEY.

    [1] _Paropsis_, _parapsis_, from the Greek, a platter,
    dish.

    A most incomplete formula. It does not state whether the
    ingredients are to be added to the sauce or the
    dressing. We have an idea that the chicken is pickled in
    this solution before roasting and that the pickle is
    used in making the gravy.


[242] BOILED CHICKEN IN ITS OWN BROTH
    _PULLUM ELIXUM EX IURE SUO_

CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, A LITTLE THYME, FENNEL SEED, MINT, RUE, LASER
ROOT, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, ADD FIG DATES [1] WORK WELL AND MAKE IT
SAVORY WITH HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL TO TASTE: THE BOILED CHICKEN
PROPERLY CLEANED AND DRIED [with the towel] IS MASKED WITH THIS SAUCE
[2].

    [1] Goll. cloves--_cariophyllus_; the originals have
    _caryotam_ and _careotam_.

    [2] Apparently another cold sauce of the vinaigrette
    type similar to ℞ No. 235.


[243] CHICKEN AND PUMPKIN
    _PULLUM ELIXUM CUM CUCURBITIS ELIXIS_

TO THE ABOVE DESCRIBED DRESSING ADD MUSTARD, POUR OVER [1] AND SERVE.

    [1] G.-V. _Perfundes_; Tor. _piper fundes_.

    The pumpkin, not mentioned here, is likewise served cold
    boiled, seasoned with the same dressing. It is perhaps
    used for stuffing the chicken and cooked simultaneously
    with the same.


[244] CHICKEN AND DASHEENS [1]
    _PULLUM ELIXUM CUM COLOCASIIS ELIXIS_

THE ABOVE SAUCE IS ALSO USED FOR THIS DISH. STUFF THE CHICKEN WITH
[peeled] DASHEENS AND [stoned] GREEN OLIVES, THOUGH NOT TOO MUCH SO
THAT THE DRESSING MAY HAVE ROOM FOR EXPANSION, TO PREVENT BURSTING
WHILE THE CHICKEN IS BEING COOKED IN THE POT. HOLD IT DOWN WITH A
SMALL BASKET, LIFT IT UP FREQUENTLY [2] AND HANDLE CAREFULLY SO THAT
THE CHICKEN DOES NOT BURST [3].

    [1] Dasheens are the equivalent of the ancient
    colocasium; at least they are very close relatives. Cf.
    Notes to ℞ Nos. 74, 216, 244, 322.

    [2] For inspection. G.-V. _levas_; Tor. _lavabis_, for
    which there is no reason.

    [3] Dann. and Goll., not knowing the colocasium or
    dasheen have entirely erroneous versions of this
    formula. The dasheen is well adapted for the stuffing of
    fowl. Ordinarily the dasheen is boiled or steamed,
    mashed, seasoned and then stuffed inside of a raw
    chicken which is then roasted. Being very starchy, the
    dasheen readily absorbs the fats and juices of the
    roast, making a delicious dressing, akin in taste to a
    combined potato and chestnut purée.

    As the above chicken is cooked in _bouillon_ or water,
    the dasheen may be used in a raw state for filling. We
    have tried this method. Instead of confining the chicken
    in a basket, we have tied it in a napkin and boiled
    slowly until done. Serve cold, with the above dressing.


[245] CHICKEN À LA VARUS [1]
    _PULLUS VARDANUS_

COOK THE CHICKEN IN THIS STOCK: BROTH, OIL, WINE, A BUNCH OF LEEKS,
CORIANDER, SATURY; WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER, NUTS WITH 2 GLASSES OF
WATER [2] AND THE JUICE OF THE CHICKEN. RETIRE THE BUNCHES OF GREENS,
ADD MILK TO TASTE. THE THINGS CRUSHED IN THE MORTAR ADD TO THE CHICKEN
AND COOK IT TOGETHER: THICKEN THE SAUCE WITH BEATEN WHITES OF EGG [3]
AND POUR THE SAUCE OVER THE CHICKEN. THIS IS CALLED "WHITE SAUCE."

    [1] G.-V. _Vardanus_; Tor. _Vardamus_; Hum. _Vardanus
    legendum, puto, Varianus, portentuosæ luxuriæ
    Imperator_. Hum. thinks the dish is dedicated to emperor
    Varianus (?) The word may also be the adjective of
    Varus, Quintilius V., commander of colonial armies and
    glutton, under Augustus. Varus committed suicide after
    his defeat in the Teutoburg Forest by the Germans.

    [2] G.-V. broth, own stock--_ius de suo sibi_.

    [3] Strain, avoid ebullition after the eggs have been
    added. Most unusual _liaison_; usually the yolks are
    used for this purpose. The whites are consistent with
    the name of the sauce.


[246] CHICKEN À LA FRONTO [1]
    _PULLUM FRONTONIANUM_

A HALF-COOKED CHICKEN MARINADED IN A PICKLE OF BROTH, MIXED WITH OIL,
TO WHICH IS ADDED A BUNCH OF DILL, LEEKS, SATURY AND GREEN CORIANDER.
FINISH IT IN THIS BROTH. WHEN DONE, TAKE THE CHICKEN OUT [2] DRESS IT
NICELY ON A DISH, POUR OVER THE [sauce, colored with] REDUCED MUST,
SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] Named for a Roman by the name of Fronto. There is a
    sucking pig à la Fronto, too. Cf. ℞ No. 374. M.
    Cornelius Fronto was orator and author during the reign
    of Emperor Hadrian. According to Dann. a certain
    Frontone under Emperor Severus.

    [2] List., G.-V. _levabis_; Tor. _lavabis_, for which
    there is little or no occasion. He may mean to clean,
    i.e. remove skin, tissues, sinews, small bones, etc.


[247] CREAMED CHICKEN WITH PASTE [1]
    _PULLUS TRACTOGALATUS_ [2]

COOK THE CHICKEN [as follows, in] BROTH, OIL, WITH WINE ADDED, TO
WHICH ADD A BUNCH OF CORIANDER AND [green] ONIONS. WHEN DONE TAKE IT
OUT [3] [strain and save] THE BROTH, AND PUT IT IN A NEW SAUCE PAN,
ADD MILK AND A LITTLE SALT, HONEY AND A PINT [4] OF WATER, THAT IS, A
THIRD PART: PLACE IT BACK ON A SLOW FIRE TO SIMMER. FINALLY BREAK [the
paste, [1]] PUT IT LITTLE BY LITTLE INTO [the boiling broth] STIRRING
WELL SO IT WILL NOT BURN. PUT THE CHICKEN IN, EITHER WHOLE OR IN
PIECES [5] DISH IT OUT IN A DEEP DISH. THIS COVER WITH THE FOLLOWING
SAUCE [6] PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTENED WITH HONEY AND A LITTLE
REDUCED MUST. ADD SOME OF THE [chicken] BROTH, HEAT IN A SMALL SAUCE
PAN AND WHEN IT BOILS THICKEN WITH ROUX [7] AND SERVE.

    [1] Spätzle, noodles, macaroni; this dish is the ancient
    "Chicken Tetrazzini." Dann. Chicken pie or patty.

    [2] _tractum_ and _gala_, prepared with paste and milk.
    Cf. _tractomelitus_, from _tractum_ and _meli_, paste
    and honey.

    [3] Cf. Note 2 to ℞ Nos. 244 and 246.

    [4] List. _minimum_; Tor. _heminam_; Sch. _eminam_. See
    Measures. The noodle paste should be cooked separately
    in the water.

    [5] List. _vel carptum_, which is correct. Tor. _vel
    careotam_, out of place here.

    [6] This sauce seems to be superfluous. Very likely it
    is a separate formula for a sauce of some kind.

    [7] Seems superfluous, too. The noodle paste in the
    chicken gravy makes it sufficiently thick.


[248] STUFFED CHICKEN [OR PIG]
    _PULLUS FARSILIS_ [1]

EMPTY THE CHICKEN THROUGH THE APERTURE OF THE NECK SO THAT NONE OF THE
ENTRAILS REMAIN. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GINGER, CUT MEAT [2] COOKED
SPELT, BESIDES CRUSH BRAINS COOKED IN THE [chicken] BROTH, BREAK EGGS
AND MIX ALL TOGETHER IN ORDER TO MAKE A SOLID DRESSING; ADD BROTH TO
TASTE AND A LITTLE OIL, WHOLE PEPPER, PLENTY OF NUTS. WITH THIS
DRESSING STUFF EITHER A CHICKEN OR A SUCKLING PIG, LEAVING ENOUGH ROOM
FOR EXPANSION [3].

    [1] Tor. _fusilis_.

    [2] Preferably raw pork or veal.

    [3] A most sumptuous dressing; it compares favorably
    with our popular stale bread pap usually called "chicken
    dressing."


[249] STUFFED CAPON LIKEWISE
    _SIMILITER IN CAPO FACIES_ [1]

THE CAPON IS STUFFED IN A SIMILAR WAY BUT IS COOKED WITH ALL THE BONES
REMOVED [2].

    [1] Sch. _in capso_. May be interpreted thus: Cooked in
    an envelope of caul or linen, in which case it would
    correspond to our modern galantine of chicken.

    [2] Tor. _ossibus eiectis_; Hum. _omnibus e._; i.e. all
    the entrails, etc., which is not correct. The bones must
    be removed from the capon in this case.


[250] CHICKEN AND CREAM SAUCE [1]
    _PULLUS LEUCOZOMUS_ [2]

TAKE A CHICKEN AND PREPARE IT AS ABOVE. EMPTY IT THROUGH THE APERTURE
OF THE NECK SO THAT NONE OF THE ENTRAILS REMAIN. TAKE [a little] WATER
[3] AND PLENTY OF SPANISH OIL, STIR, COOK TOGETHER UNTIL ALL MOISTURE
IS EVAPORATED [4] WHEN THIS IS DONE TAKE THE CHICKEN OUT, SO THAT THE
GREATEST POSSIBLE AMOUNT OF OIL REMAINS BEHIND [5] SPRINKLE WITH
PEPPER AND SERVE [6].

    [1] The ancient version of Chicken à la Maryland, Wiener
    Backhähndl, etc.

    [2] Tor. _Leocozymus_; from the Greek _leucozomos_,
    prepared with white sauce. The formula for the cream
    sauce is lacking here. Cf. ℞ No. 245.

    [3] The use of water to clarify the oil which is to
    serve as a deep frying fat is an ingenious idea, little
    practised today. It surely saves the fat or oil,
    prevents premature burning or blackening by frequent
    use, and gives a better tasting _friture_. The above
    recipe is a mere fragment, but even this reveals the
    extraordinary knowledge of culinary principles of
    Apicius who reveals himself to us as a master of
    well-understood principles of good cookery that are so
    often ignored today. Cf. Note 5 to ℞ No. 497.

    [4] The recipe fails to state that the chicken must be
    breaded, or that the pieces of chicken be turned in
    flour, etc., and fried in the oil.

    [5] Another vital rule of deep fat frying not stated, or
    rather stated in the language of the kitchen, namely
    that the chicken must be crisp, dry, that is, not
    saturated with oil, which of course every good fry cook
    knows.

    [6] With the cream sauce, prepared separately, spread on
    the platter, with the fried chicken inside, or the sauce
    in a separate dish, we have here a very close
    resemblance to a very popular modern dish.

    (Schuch and Danneil insert here Excerpta XXIX, XXX and
    XXXI.)


END OF BOOK VI

[explicit] _TROPHETES APICII. LIBER SEXTUS_ [Tac.]



{Illustration: FRYING PAN, ROUND

Provided with a lip to pour out fluids, a convenience which many
modern pans lack. The broad flat handle is of one piece with the pan
and has a hole for suspension. On some ancient pans these handles were
hinged so as to fold over the cavity of the pan, to save room in
storing it away, particularly in a soldier's knapsack. Ntl. Mus.,
Naples, 76571; Field M. 24024.}



{Illustration: FRONTISPICE, SECOND LISTER EDITION

purporting to represent the interior of an ancient kitchen. J.
Gœree, the artist and engraver, has invented it. The general
tidiness differs from contemporary Dutch kitchens and the clothing of
the cooks reminds one of Henry VIII, who issued at Eltham in 1526 this
order: "... provide and sufficiently furnish the kitchens of such
scolyons as shall not goe naked or in garments of such vilenesse as
they doe ... nor lie in the nights and dayes in the kitchens ... by
the fire-side...."--MS. No. 642, Harleian Library.}



APICIUS

Book VII



{Illustration: THE GREAT PALLAS ATHENE DISH

One of the finest show platters in existence. Of Hellenic make. The
object in the right hand of Athene has created considerable conjecture
but has never been identified.

Hildesheim Treasure.}



{Illustration: FRYING PAN, OVAL

This oblong pan was no doubt primarily used in fish cookery. An oblong
piece of food material fitted snugly into the pan, thus saving fats
and other liquids in preparation. Around the slender handle was no
doubt one of non-heat-conducting material. The shape and the lip of
the pan indicate that it was not used for "sauter." Ntl. Mus., Naples,
76602; Field M. 24038.}



BOOK VII. SUMPTUOUS DISHES

_Lib. VII. Polyteles_


    CHAP.    I. SOW'S WOMB, CRACKLINGS, BACON, TENDERLOIN, TAILS
                AND FEET.
    CHAP.   II. SOW'S BELLY.
    CHAP.  III. FIG-FED PORK.
    CHAP.   IV. TID-BITS, CHOPS, STEAKS.
    CHAP.    V. ROASTS.
    CHAP.   VI. BOILED AND STEWED MEATS.
    CHAP.  VII. PAUNCH.
    CHAP. VIII. LOINS AND KIDNEYS.
    CHAP.   IX. PORK SHOULDER.
    CHAP.    X. LIVERS AND LUNGS.
    CHAP.   XI. HOME-MADE SWEETS.
    CHAP.  XII. BULBS, TUBERS.
    CHAP. XIII. MUSHROOMS.
    CHAP.  XIV. TRUFFLES.
    CHAP.   XV. TAROS, DASHEENS.
    CHAP.  XVI. SNAILS.
    CHAP. XVII. EGGS.

    [In addition to the above chapters two more are inserted
    in the text of Book VII, namely Chap. X, Fresh Ham and
    Chap. XI, To Cook Salt Pork; these being inserted after
    Chap. IX, Pork Shoulder, making a total of XIX
    Chapters.]



I

SOW'S WOMB, CRACKLINGS, UDDER, TENDERLOIN, TAILS AND FEET
  _VULVÆ STERILES, CALLUM LUMBELLI COTICULÆ ET UNGELLÆ_


[251] SPAYED SOW'S WOMB [1]
    _VULVÆ STERILES_

STERILE SOW'S WOMB (ALSO UDDER AND BELLY) IS PREPARED IN THIS MANNER:
TAKE [2] LASER FROM CYRENE OR PARTHIA, VINEGAR AND BROTH.

    [1] The vulva of a sow was a favorite dish with the
    ancients, considered a great delicacy. Sows were
    slaughtered before they had a litter, or were spayed for
    the purpose of obtaining the sterile womb.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.


[252] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

TAKE PEPPER, CELERY SEED, DRY MINT, LASER ROOT, HONEY, VINEGAR AND
BROTH.


[253] SPAYED SOW'S WOMB
    _VULVÆ STERILES_

WITH PEPPER, BROTH AND PARTHIAN LASER.


[254] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE [1] AND BROTH AND A LITTLE CONDIMENT.

    [1] Wanting in Lister.


[255] CRACKLINGS, PORK SKIN, TENDERLOIN, TAILS AND FEET
    _CALLUM, LUMBELLI _[1]_ COTICULÆ, UNGELLÆ_

SERVE WITH PEPPER, BROTH AND LASER (WHICH THE GREEKS CALL "SILPHION")
[2].

    [1] Tor., G.-V. _libelli_.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.


[256] GRILLED SOW'S WOMB
    _VULVAM UT TOSTAM FACIAS_

ENVELOPE IN BRAN, AFTERWARDS [1] PUT IN BRINE AND THEN COOK IT.

    [1] We would reverse the process: first pickle the
    vulva, then coat it with bran (or with bread crumbs) and
    fry.



II


[257] SOW'S BELLY
    _SUMEN_

SOW'S UDDER OR BELLY WITH THE PAPS ON IT IS PREPARED IN THIS MANNER
[1] THE BELLY BOIL, TIE IT TOGETHER WITH REEDS, SPRINKLE WITH SALT AND
PLACE IT IN THE OVEN, OR, START ROASTING ON THE GRIDIRON. CRUSH
PEPPER, LOVAGE, WITH BROTH, PURE WINE, ADDING RAISIN WINE TO TASTE,
THICKEN [the sauce] WITH ROUX AND POUR IT OVER THE ROAST.

    [1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.


[258] STUFFED SOW'S BELLY
    _SUMEN PLENUM_

FULL [1] SOW'S BELLY IS STUFFED WITH [2] CRUSHED PEPPER, CARRAWAY,
SALT MUSSELS; SEW THE BELLY TIGHT AND ROAST. ENJOY THIS WITH A BRINE
SAUCE AND MUSTARD.

    [1] Full grown, also stuffed with forcemeat.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.



III

FIG-FED PORK
  _FICATUM_ [1]

    [1] Tor. _De Sycoto, id est, Ficato_.


[259] WINE SAUCE FOR FIG-FED PORK
    _IN FICATO ŒNOGARUM_ [1]

FIG-FED PORK LIVER (THAT IS, LIVER CRAMMED WITH FIGS) IS PREPARED IN A
WINE SAUCE WITH [2] PEPPER, THYME, LOVAGE, BROTH, A LITTLE WINE AND
OIL [3].

    [1] Tor. _Ficatum, iecur suillum_.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] Reinsenius, _ficatum_ [_or sicatum_] _projecore_.

    According to the invention of Marcus Apicius, pigs were
    starved, and the hungry pigs were crammed with dry figs
    and then suddenly given all the mead they wanted to
    drink. The violent expansion of the figs in the
    stomachs, or the fermentation caused acute indigestion
    which killed the pigs. The livers were very much
    enlarged, similar to the cramming of geese for the sake
    of obtaining abnormally large livers. This latter method
    prevailed in the Strassburg District until recently when
    it was prohibited by law.


[260] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

TRIM [the liver] MARINATE IN BROTH, WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE, TWO LAUREL
BERRIES, WRAP IN CAUL, GRILL ON THE GRIDIRON AND SERVE.

    Goll. Stick figs into the liver by making apertures with
    the knife or with a needle.

    It is by no means clear that the liver is meant.



IV

TID-BITS, CHOPS, CUTLETS
  _OFFELLÆ_ [1]


[261] OSTIAN [2] MEAT BALLS
    _OFFELLÆ OSTIENSES_

PREPARE THE MEAT IN THIS MANNER [3] CLEAN THE MEAT [of bones, sinews,
etc.] SCRAPE IT AS THIN AS A SKIN [and shape it]. CRUSH PEPPER,
LOVAGE, CUMIN, CARRAWAY, SILPHIUM, ONE LAUREL BERRY, MOISTENED WITH
BROTH; IN A SQUARE DISH PLACE THE MEAT BALLS AND THE SPICES WHERE THEY
REMAIN IN PICKLING FOR TWO OR THREE DAYS, COVERED CROSSWISE WITH
TWIGS. THEN PLACE THEM IN THE OVEN [to be roasted], WHEN DONE TAKE THE
FINISHED MEAT BALLS OUT. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, WITH THE BROTH, ADD A
LITTLE RAISIN WINE TO SWEETEN. COOK IT, THICKEN WITH ROUX, IMMERSE THE
BALLS IN THE SAUCE AND SERVE.

    [1] G.-V. _Ofellæ_; apparently the old Roman "Hamburger
    Steak." The term covers different small meat pieces,
    chops, steaks, etc.

    [2] Ostia, town at the mouth of the river Tiber, Rome's
    harbour.

    [3] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.


[262] APICIAN ROULADES
    _OFFELLAS APICIANAS_

BONE THE MEAT FOR THE [roulades--a pork loin, roll it, tie it] OVEN,
SHAPE ROUND, COVER WITH OR WRAP IN RUSHES. [Roast] WHEN DONE, RETIRE,
ALLOW TO DRIP AND DRY ON THE GRIDIRON BUT SO THAT THE MEAT DOES NOT
HARDEN. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, RUSH [1], CUMIN, ADDING BROTH AND RAISIN
WINE TO TASTE. PLACE THE ROULADES WITH THIS SAUCE TOGETHER IN A SAUCE
PAN [finish by braising] WHEN DONE, RETIRE THE ROULADES AND DRY THEM.
SERVE WITHOUT THE GRAVY SPRINKLED WITH PEPPER. IF TOO FAT REMOVE THE
OUTER SKIN [2].

    [1] _Cyperis_, _--os_, _--um_, _cypirus_, variants for a
    sort of rush; probably "Cyprian Grass."

    [2] Dann. Dumplings; but this formula appears to deal
    with boneless pork chops, pork roulades or "_filets
    mignons_."


[263] PORK CUTLETS, HUNTER STYLE
    _OFFELLÆ APRUGNEO _[1]_ MORE_

IN THE SAME MANNER YOU CAN MAKE TIDBITS OF SOW'S BELLY [2] PORK CHOPS
PREPARED IN A MANNER TO RESEMBLE WILD BOAR ARE [3] PICKLED IN OIL AND
BROTH AND PLACED IN SPICES. WHEN THE CUTLETS ARE DONE [marinated] THE
PICKLE IS PLACED ON THE FIRE AND BOILED; THE CUTLETS ARE PUT BACK INTO
THIS GRAVY AND ARE FINISHED WITH CRUSHED PEPPER, SPICES, HONEY, BROTH,
AND ROUX. WHEN THIS IS DONE SERVE THE CUTLETS WITHOUT THE BROTH AND
OIL, SPRINKLED WITH PEPPER.

    [1] G.-V. _Aprugineo_; List. _Offellæ Aprugneæ_, i.e.
    wild boar chops or cutlets. Vat. Ms. _aprogneo more_;
    Tor. _pro genuino more_; Tac. _aprogeneo_--from
    _aprugnus_, wild boar.

    Mutton today is prepared in a similar way, marinated
    with spices, etc., to resemble venison, and is called
    _Mouton à la Chasseur_, hunter style.

    [2] This sentence, probably belonging to the preceding
    formula, carried over by Torinus.

    [3] This sentence only in Torinus.


[264] TIDBITS ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER OFFELLÆ_

THE BALLS OR CUTLETS ARE [1] PROPERLY FRIED IN THE PAN, NEARLY DONE.
[Next prepare the following] ONE WHOLE [2] GLASS BROTH, A GLASS OF
WATER, A GLASS OF VINEGAR AND A GLASS OF OIL, PROPERLY MIXED; PUT THIS
IN AN EARTHEN BAKING DISH [immerse meat pieces] FINISH ON THE FIRE AND
SERVE.

    [1] Tor.

    [2] Tor. _Summi_; List. _sumis_, i.e. broth of the pork.


[265] TIDBITS IN ANOTHER STYLE
    _ALITER OFFELLAS_

ALSO FRY THE CUTLETS THIS WAY: [1] IN A PAN WITH PLENTY OF WINE SAUCE,
SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE. [ANOTHER WAY] [2] THE CUTLETS
PREVIOUSLY SALT AND PICKLED IN A BROTH OF CUMIN, ARE PROPERLY FRIED
[3].

    [1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [2] The texts have two formulæ; by the transposition of
    the two sentences the formula appears as a whole and
    one that is intelligible from a culinary point of view.

    [3] The texts have: _in aqua recte friguntur_; the
    _acqua_ presumably belongs to the cumin pickle. To fry
    in water is not possible.



V

CHOICE ROASTS [1]
  _ASSATURÆ_


[266] ROASTING, PLAIN
    _ASSATURAM SIMPLICEM_ [2]

SIMPLY PUT THE MEATS TO BE ROASTED IN THE OVEN, GENEROUSLY SPRINKLED
WITH SALT, AND SERVE [it glazed] WITH HONEY [3].

    [1] Tor. _De assaturæ exquisitæ apparatu_.

    [2] Brandt adds "plain."

    [3] Corresponding to our present method of roasting;
    fresh and processed ham is glazed with sugar.

    Roasting in the oven is not as desirable as roasting on
    the spit, universally practised during the middle ages.
    The spit seems to have been unknown to the Romans. It is
    seldom used today, although we have improved it by
    turning it with electrical machinery.


[267] ANOTHER STYLE FOR ROASTS
    _ALITER ASSATURAS_

TAKE 6 SCRUPLES OF PARSLEY, OF LASER [1] JUST AS MANY, 6 OF GINGER, 5
LAUREL BERRIES, 6 SCRUPLES OF PRESERVED LASER ROOT, CYPRIAN RUSH 6, 6
OF ORIGANY, A LITTLE COSTMARY, 3 SCRUPLES OF CHAMOMILE [or pellitory],
6 SCRUPLES OF CELERY SEED, 12 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, AND BROTH AND OIL AS
MUCH AS IT WILL TAKE UP [2].

    [1] G.-V. _asareos_ [?] _Asarum_, the herb foalbit, wild
    spikenard.

    [2] No directions are given for the making of this
    compound which are essential to insure success of this
    formula. Outwardly it resembles some of the commercial
    sauces made principally in England (Worcestershire,
    etc.), which are served with every roast.


[268] ANOTHER [Condiment for] ROAST
    _ALITER ASSATURAS_

CRUSH DRY MYRTLE BERRIES WITH CUMIN AND PEPPER, ADDING HONEY ALSO
BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND OIL. HEAT AND BIND WITH ROUX. POUR THIS OVER
THE ROAST THAT IS MEDIUM DONE, WITH SALT; SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND
SERVE.


[269] ANOTHER ROAST [Sauce]
    _ALITER ASSATURAS_

6 SCRUPLES PEPPER, 6 SCRUPLES LOVAGE, 6 SCRUPLES PARSLEY, 6 SCRUPLES
CELERY SEED, 6 SCRUPLES DILL, 6 SCRUPLES LASER ROOT, 6 SCRUPLES WILD
SPIKENARD [1], 6 SCRUPLES CYPRIAN RUSH, 6 SCRUPLES CARRAWAY, 6
SCRUPLES CUMIN, 6 SCRUPLES GINGER, A PINT OF BROTH AND A SPOONFUL OIL.

    [1] Tor. _assareos_; cf. note 1 to ℞ No. 267.


[270] ROAST NECK [1]
    _ASSATURAS IN COLLARI_

PUT IN A BRAISIÈRE [2] AND BOIL PEPPER, SPICES, HONEY, BROTH; AND HEAT
THIS WITH THE MEAT IN THE OVEN. THE NECK PIECE ITSELF, IF YOU LIKE, IS
ALSO ROASTED WITH SPICES AND THE HOT GRAVY IS SIMPLY POURED OVER AT
THE MOMENT OF SERVING [3].

    [1] A piece of meat from the neck of a food animal,
    beef, veal, pork; a muscular hard piece, requiring much
    care to make it palatable, a "pot roast."

    [2] A roasting pan especially adapted for braising tough
    meats, with closefitting cover to hold the vapors.

    [3] Tor. combines this and the foregoing formula. G.-V.
    _siccum calidum_, for hot gravy. Perhaps a typographical
    error for _succum_.



VI

BOILED, STEWED MEATS, AND DAINTY FOOD
  _IN ELIXAM ET COPADIA_


[271] SAUCE FOR ALL BOILED DISHES
    _JUS IN ELIXAM OMNEM_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, RUE, SILPHIUM, DRY ONION, WINE, REDUCED WINE,
HONEY, VINEGAR, A LITTLE OIL, BOILED DOWN, STRAINED THROUGH A CLOTH
AND POURED UNDER THE HOT COOKED MEATS [1].

    [1] A very complicated sauce for boiled viands. Most of
    the ingredients are found in the Worcestershire Sauce.


[272] SAUCE FOR BOILED VIANDS
    _JUS IN ELIXAM_

MAKE IT THUS: [Tor.] PEPPER, PARSLEY, BROTH, VINEGAR, FIG-DATES,
ONIONS, LITTLE OIL, POURED UNDER VERY HOT.


[273] ANOTHER
    _JUS IN ELIXAM_

CRUSH PEPPER, DRY RUE, FENNEL SEED, ONION, FIGDATES, WITH BROTH AND
OIL.


[274] WHITE [bread] [1] SAUCE FOR BOILED VIANDS
    _JUS CANDIDUM IN ELIXAM_

WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED DISHES IS MADE THUS: [2] PEPPER, BROTH, WINE,
RUE, ONIONS, NUTS, A LITTLE SPICE, BREAD SOAKED TO THE SATURATION
POINT, OIL, WHICH IS COOKED AND SPREAD UNDER [the meat].

    [1] Our present bread sauce, somewhat simpler, but
    essentially the same as the Apician sauce, is very
    popular with roast partridge, pheasant and other game in
    England.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.


[275] ANOTHER WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED VIANDS
    _ALITER JUS CANDIDUM IN ELIXAM_

ANOTHER WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED DISHES CONTAINS: [1] PEPPER, CARRAWAY,
LOVAGE, THYME, ORIGANY, SHALLOTS, DATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND
OIL.


[276] WHITE SAUCE FOR DAINTY FOOD
    _IN COPADIIS _[1]_ JUS ALBUM_

TAKE CUMIN, LOVAGE, RUE SEED, PLUMS FROM DAMASCUS [2] SOAK IN WINE,
ADD HONEY MEAD AND VINEGAR, THYME AND ORIGANY TO TASTE [3].

    [1] Lacking definite description of the _copadia_ it is
    hard to differentiate between them and the
    _offelæ_.--_Cupedia_ (Plaut. and Goll.), nice dainty
    dishes, from _cupiditas_, appetite, desire for dainty
    fare. Hence _cupedinarius_ (Terent.) and _cupediarius_
    (Lamprid.) a seller or maker of dainties, a
    confectioner.

    [2] _Damascena_; they correspond apparently to our
    present stewed (dried) prunes. It is inconceivable how
    this sauce can be white in color, but, as a condiment
    and if taken in small quantity, it has our full
    approval.

    [3] G.-V. _agitabis_, i.e. stir the sauce with a whip of
    thyme and origany twigs. Cf. note to following.


[277] ANOTHER WHITE SAUCE FOR APPETIZERS
    _ALITER JUS CANDIDUM IN COPADIIS_

IS MADE THUS [1] PEPPER, THYME, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, FENNEL, RUE, MINT
[2], MYRTLE BERRIES, RAISINS, RAISIN WINE, AND MEAD TO TASTE; STIR IT
WITH A TWIG OF SATURY [3].

    [1] Tor.

    [2] G.-V., rue wanting.

    [3] An ingenious way to impart a very subtle flavor. The
    sporadic discoveries of such very subtle and refined
    methods (cf. notes to ℞ No. 15) should dispell once
    and for all time the old theories that the ancients were
    using spices to excess. They simply used a greater
    variety of flavors and aromas than we do today, but
    there is no proof that spices were used excessively. The
    great variety of flavors at the disposal of the ancients
    speaks well for the refinement of the olfactory sense
    and the desire to bring variety into their fare. Cf.
    ℞ Nos. 345, 369 and 385.


[278] SAUCE FOR TIDBITS
    _JUS IN COPADIIS_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, MINT, LEAVES OF SPIKENARD (WHICH THE GREEKS
CALL "NARDOSACHIOM") [_sic!_] [1] YOLKS, HONEY, MEAD, VINEGAR, BROTH
AND OIL. STIR WELL WITH SATURY AND LEEKS [2] AND TIE WITH ROUX.

    [1] Tor. [_sic!_] _spicam nardi_--sentence wanting in
    other texts. G.-V. _nardostachyum_, spikenard.

    [2] A fagot of satury and leeks! Cf. notes to ℞ Nos.
    276 and 277.


[279] WHITE SAUCE FOR TIDBITS
    _JUS ALBUM IN COPADIIS_

IS MADE THUS: [1] PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, THYME, NUTS,
WHICH SOAK AND CLEAN, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL TO BE ADDED [2].

    [1, 2] First three and last three words in Tor.


[280] SAUCE FOR TIDBITS
    _JUS IN COPADIIS_

PEPPER, CELERY SEED, CARRAWAY, SATURY, SAFFRON, SHALLOTS, TOASTED
ALMONDS, FIGDATES, BROTH, OIL AND A LITTLE MUSTARD; COLOR WITH REDUCED
MUST.


[281] SAUCE FOR TIDBITS
    _JUS IN COPADIIS_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, SHALLOTS, TOASTED ALMONDS, DATES, HONEY,
VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST AND OIL.


[282] SAUCE FOR TIDBITS
    _JUS IN COPADIIS_

CHOP HARD EGGS, PEPPER, CUMIN, PARSLEY, COOKED LEEKS, MYRTLE BERRIES,
SOMEWHAT MORE HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.


[283] RAW DILL SAUCE FOR BOILED DISH
    _IN ELIXAM ANETHATUM CRUDUM_

PEPPER, DILL SEED, DRY MINT, LASER ROOT, POUR UNDER: VINEGAR, DATE
WINE, HONEY, BROTH, AND A LITTLE MUSTARD, REDUCED MUST AND OIL TO
TASTE; AND SERVE IT WITH ROAST PORK SHOULDER.


[284] BRINY SAUCE FOR BOILED DISH
    _JUS IN ELIXAM ALLECATUM_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, THYME, SHALLOTS, DATES, FISH
BRINE [1] STRAINED HONEY, AND WINE TO TASTE; SPRINKLE WITH CHOPPED
GREEN CELERY AND OIL AND SERVE.

    [1] G.-V. _allecem_; Tor. _Halecem_.



VII

PAUNCH
  _VENTRICULA_


[285] PIG'S PAUNCH
    _VENTREM PORCINUM_

CLEAN THE PAUNCH OF A SUCKLING PIG WELL WITH SALT AND VINEGAR AND
PRESENTLY WASH WITH WATER. THEN FILL IT WITH THE FOLLOWING DRESSING:
PIECES OF PORK POUNDED IN THE MORTAR, THREE BRAINS--THE NERVES
REMOVED--MIX WITH RAW EGGS, ADD NUTS, WHOLE PEPPER, AND SAUCE TO
TASTE. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, SILPHIUM, ANISE, GINGER, A LITTLE RUE;
FILL THE PAUNCH WITH IT, NOT TOO MUCH, THOUGH, LEAVING PLENTY OF ROOM
FOR EXPANSION LEST IT BURSTS WHILE BEING COOKED. PUT IT IN A POT WITH
BOILING WATER, RETIRE AND PRICK WITH A NEEDLE SO THAT IT DOES NOT
BURST. WHEN HALF DONE, TAKE IT OUT AND HANG IT INTO THE SMOKE TO TAKE
ON COLOR; NOW BOIL IT OVER AGAIN AND FINISH IT LEISURELY. NEXT TAKE
THE BROTH, SOME PURE WINE AND A LITTLE OIL, OPEN THE PAUNCH WITH A
SMALL KNIFE. SPRINKLE WITH THE BROTH AND LOVAGE; PLACE THE PIG NEAR
THE FIRE TO HEAT IT, TURN IT AROUND IN BRAN [or bread crumbs] IMMERSE
IN [sprinkle with] BRINE AND FINISH [the outer crust to a golden
brown] [1].

    [1] The good old English way of finishing a roast joint
    called dredging.

    Lister has this formula divided into two; Danneil and Schuch
    make three different formulas out of it.



VIII

LOINS AND KIDNEYS
  _LUMBI ET RENES_


[286] ROAST LOINS MADE THUS
    _LUMBULI ASSI ITA FIUNT_

SPLIT THEM INTO TWO PARTS SO THAT THEY ARE SPREAD OUT [1] SPRINKLE THE
OPENING WITH CRUSHED PEPPER AND [ditto] NUTS, FINELY CHOPPED CORIANDER
AND CRUSHED FENNEL SEED. THE TENDERLOINS ARE THEN ROLLED UP TO BE
ROASTED; TIE TOGETHER, WRAP IN CAUL, PARBOIL IN OIL [2] AND BROTH, AND
THEN ROAST IN THE OVEN OR BROIL ON THE GRIDIRON.

    [1] "Frenched," the meat here being pork tenderloin.

    [2] G.-V. best broth and a little oil, which is more
    acceptable.



IX

HAM
  _PERNA_


[287] [Baked Picnic] HAM [Pork Shoulder, fresh or cured]
    _PERNAM_

THE HAM SHOULD BE BRAISED WITH A GOOD NUMBER OF FIGS AND SOME THREE
LAUREL LEAVES; THE SKIN IS THEN PULLED OFF AND CUT INTO SQUARE PIECES;
THESE ARE MACERATED WITH HONEY. THEREUPON MAKE DOUGH CRUMBS OF FLOUR
AND OIL [1] LAY THE DOUGH OVER OR AROUND THE HAM, STUD THE TOP WITH
THE PIECES OF THE SKIN SO THAT THEY WILL BE BAKED WITH THE DOUGH [bake
slowly] AND WHEN DONE, RETIRE FROM THE OVEN AND SERVE [2].

    [1] Ordinary pie or pastry dough, or perhaps a
    preparation similar to streusel, unsweetened.

    [2] Experimenting with this formula, we have adhered to
    the instructions as closely as possible, using regular
    pie dough to envelop the parboiled meat. The figs were
    retired from the sauce pan long before the meat was done
    and they were served around the ham as a garnish. As a
    consequence we partook of a grand dish that no inmate of
    Olympus would have sneezed at.

    In Pompeii an inn-keeper had written the following on
    the wall of his establishment: _Ubi perna cocta est si
    convivæ apponitur non gustat pernam linguit ollam aut
    caccabum._

    When we first beheld this message we took the inn-keeper
    for a humorist and clever advertiser; but now we are
    convinced that he was in earnest when he said that his
    guests would lick the sauce pan in which his hams were
    cooked.


[288] TO COOK PORK SHOULDER
    _PERNÆ _[1]_ COCTURAM_

HAM SIMPLY COOKED IN WATER WITH FIGS IS USUALLY DRESSED ON A PLATTER
[baking pan] SPRINKLED WITH CRUMBS AND REDUCED WINE, OR, STILL BETTER,
WITH SPICED WINE [and is glazed under the open flame, or with a shovel
containing red-hot embers].

    [1] _Perna_ is usually applied to shoulder of pork,
    fresh, also cured.

    _Coxa_ is the hind leg, or haunch of pork, or fresh ham.
    Cf. note 1 to ℞ No. 289.



X


[289] FRESH HAM
    _MUSTEIS _[1]_ PETASONEM_ [2]

A FRESH HAM IS COOKED WITH 2 POUNDS OF BARLEY AND 25 FIGS. WHEN DONE
SKIN, GLAZE THE SURFACE WITH A FIRE SHOVEL FULL OF GLOWING COALS,
SPREAD HONEY OVER IT, OR, WHAT'S BETTER: PUT IT IN THE OVEN COVERED
WITH HONEY. WHEN IT HAS A NICE COLOR, PUT IN A SAUCE PAN RAISIN WINE,
PEPPER, A BUNCH OF RUE AND PURE WINE TO TASTE. WHEN THIS [sauce] IS
DONE, POUR HALF OF IT OVER THE HAM AND IN THE OTHER HALF SOAK
SPECIALLY MADE GINGER BREAD [3] THE REMNANT OF THE SAUCE AFTER MOST OF
IT IS THOROUGHLY SOAKED INTO THE BREAD, ADD TO THE HAM [4].

    [1] _Musteus_, fresh, young, new; _vinum mustum_, new
    wine, must. Properly perhaps, _Petasonem ex mustaceis_;
    cf. note 3.

    [2] Hum. _verum petaso coxa cum crure_ [shank] _esse
    dicitur...._

    Plainly, we are dealing here with fresh, uncured ham.

    [3] A certain biscuit or cake made of must, spices and
    pepper, perhaps baked on laurel leaves. _Mustaceus_ was
    a kind of cake, the flour of which had been kneaded with
    must, cheese, anise, etc., the cake was baked upon
    laurel leaves.

    [4] Tor. continues without interruption. He has the
    three foregoing formulæ thrown into one.



XI


[290] BACON, SALT PORK
    _LARIDI _[1]_ COCTURA_

COVER WITH WATER AND COOK WITH PLENTY OF DILL; SPRINKLE WITH A LITTLE
OIL AND A TRIFLE OF SALT.

    [1] Lister, at this point, has forgotten his explanation
    of _laridum_, and now accepts the word in its proper
    sense. This rather belated correction by Lister
    confirms the correctness of our own earlier
    observations. Cf. note to ℞ Nos. 41 and 148.



XII

LIVERS AND LUNGS
  _JECINORA SIVE PULMONES_


[291] SHEEP LIVER
    _JECINORA HŒDINA VEL AGNINA_ [1]

COOK THUS: MAKE A MIXTURE OF WATER, MEAD, EGGS AND MILK IN WHICH
THOROUGHLY SOAK THE SLICED LIVER. STEW THE LIVER IN WINE SAUCE,
SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] G.-V. _Iecinera hœdina_.


[292] ANOTHER WAY TO COOK LUNG
    _ALITER IN PULMONIBUS_

LIVER AND LUNG ARE ALSO COOKED THIS WAY: [1] SOAK WELL IN MILK, STRAIN
IT OFF IF OFFENSIVE IN TASTE [2] BREAK 2 EGGS AND ADD A LITTLE SALT,
MIX IN A SPOONFUL HONEY AND FILL THE LUNG WITH IT, BOIL AND SLICE [3].

    [1] Tor.

    [2] Lungs of slaughtered animals are little used
    nowadays. The soaking of livers in milk is quite common;
    it removes the offensive taste of the gall.

    [3] G.-V. continue without interruption.


[293] A HASH OF LIVER
    _ALITER_

CRUSH PEPPER, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, RAISIN WINE, PURE OIL, CHOP THE
LIGHTS [1] FINE AND ADD WINE SAUCE [2].

    [1] Edible intestines, livers, lung, kidney, etc., are
    thus named.

    [2] List., Tor., G.-V. have both recipes in one. Dann.
    is in doubt whether to separate them or not.



XIII

HOME-MADE SWEET DISHES AND HONEY SWEET-MEATS
  _DULCIA DOMESTICA _[1]_ ET MELCÆ_


[294] HOME-MADE SWEETS
    _DULCIA DOMESTICA_

LITTLE HOME CONFECTIONS (WHICH ARE CALLED DULCIARIA) ARE MADE THUS:
[2] LITTLE PALMS OR (AS THEY ARE ORDINARILY CALLED) [3] DATES ARE
STUFFED--AFTER THE SEEDS HAVE BEEN REMOVED--WITH A NUT OR WITH NUTS
AND GROUND PEPPER, SPRINKLED WITH SALT ON THE OUTSIDE AND ARE CANDIED
IN HONEY AND SERVED [4].

    [1] _Dulcia_, sweetmeats, cakes; hence _dulciarius_, a
    pastry cook or confectioner.

    The fact that here attention is drawn to home-made sweet
    dishes may clear up the absence of regular baking and
    dessert formulæ in Apicius. The trade of the
    _dulciarius_ was so highly developed at that time that
    the professional bakers and confectioners supplied the
    entire home market with their wares, making it
    convenient and unprofitable for the domestic cook to
    compete with their organized business, a condition which
    largely exists in our modern highly civilized centers of
    population today. Cf. "Cooks."

    [2 + 3] Tor.

    [4] Still being done today in the same manner.


[295] ANOTHER SWEETMEAT
    _ALITER DULCIA_

GRATE [scrape, peel] SOME VERY BEST FRESH APHROS [1] AND IMMERSE IN
MILK. WHEN SATURATED PLACE IN THE OVEN TO HEAT BUT NOT TO DRY OUT;
WHEN THOROUGHLY HOT RETIRE FROM OVEN, POUR OVER SOME HONEY, STIPPLE
[the fruit] SO THAT THE HONEY MAY PENETRATE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [2]
AND SERVE.

    [1] Tor., Tac., Lan. _musteos aphros_; Vat. Ms., G.-V.
    _afros_; List. _apios_, i.e. celery, which is farthest
    from the mark. Goll. interprets this a "cider apple,"
    reminiscent, probably, of _musteos_, which is fresh,
    new, young, and which has here nothing to do with cider.

    _Aphros_ is not identified. Perhaps the term stood for
    Apricots (Old English: Aphricocks) or some other African
    fruit or plant; Lister's celery is to be rejected on
    gastronomical grounds.

    The above treatment would correspond to that which is
    given apricots and peaches today. They are peeled,
    immersed in cream and sweetened with sugar. Apicius'
    heating of the fruit in milk is new to us; it sounds
    good, for it has a tendency to parboil any hard fruit,
    make it more digestible and reduce the fluid to a creamy
    consistency.

    [2] The "pepper" again, as pointed out in several other
    places, here is some spice of agreeable taste as are
    used in desserts today.


[296] ANOTHER SWEET DISH
    _ALITER DULCIA_

BREAK [slice] FINE WHITE BREAD, CRUST REMOVED, INTO RATHER LARGE
PIECES WHICH SOAK IN MILK [and beaten eggs] FRY IN OIL, COVER WITH
HONEY AND SERVE [1].

    [1] "French" Toast, indeed!--_Sapienti sat!_


[297] ANOTHER SWEET
    _ALITER DULCIA_

IN A CHAFING-DISH PUT [1] HONEY, PURE WINE, RAISIN WINE, RUE, PINE
NUTS, NUTS, COOKED SPELT, ADD CRUSHED AND TOASTED HAZELNUTS [2] AND
SERVE.

    [1] G.-V. _Piperato mittis_. _Piperatum_ is a dish
    prepared with pepper, any spicy dish; the term may here
    be applied to the bowl in which the porridge is served.
    Tac. _Dulcia piperata mittis_.

    [2] Dann. Almonds.


[298] ANOTHER SWEET
    _ALITER DULCIA_

CRUSH PEPPER, NUTS, HONEY, RUE, AND RAISIN WINE WITH MILK, AND COOK
THE MIXTURE [1] WITH A FEW EGGS WELL WORKED IN, COVER WITH HONEY,
SPRINKLE WITH [crushed nuts, etc.] AND SERVE.

    [1] _Tractam_, probably with a starch added, or else it
    is a nut custard, practically a repetition of ℞ Nos.
    129 and 143.


[299] ANOTHER SWEET
    _ALITER DULCIA_

TAKE A PREPARATION SIMILAR [1] [to the above] AND IN THE HOT WATER
[bath or double boiler] MAKE A VERY HARD PORRIDGE OF IT. THEREUPON
SPREAD IT OUT ON A PAN AND WHEN COOL CUT IT INTO HANDY PIECES LIKE
SMALL COOKIES. FRY THESE IN THE BEST OIL, TAKE THEM OUT, DIP INTO
[hot] HONEY, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [2] AND SERVE.

    [1] This confirms the assumption that some flour or meal
    is used in ℞ No. 298 also without which this present
    preparation would not "stand up."

    [2] It is freely admitted that the word "pepper" not
    always stands for the spice that we know by this name.
    Cf. note 2 to ℞ No. 295 _et al._


[300] A STILL BETTER WAY
    _ALITER_

IS TO PREPARE THIS WITH MILK INSTEAD OF WATER.


[301] CUSTARD
    _TYROPATINAM_

ESTIMATE THE AMOUNT OF MILK NECESSARY FOR THIS DISH AND SWEETEN IT
WITH HONEY TO TASTE; TO A PINT [1] OF FLUID TAKE 5 EGGS; FOR HALF A
PINT [2] DISSOLVE 3 EGGS IN MILK AND BEAT WELL TO INCORPORATE
THOROUGHLY, STRAIN THROUGH A COLANDER INTO AN EARTHEN DISH AND COOK ON
A SLOW FIRE [in hot water bath in oven]. WHEN CONGEALED SPRINKLE WITH
PEPPER AND SERVE [3].

    [1] _Sextarium._

    [2] _ad heminam._

    [3] Dann. calls this a cheese cake, which is a
    far-fetched conclusion, although standard dictionaries
    say that the _tyropatina_ is a kind of cheese cake. It
    must be borne in mind, however, that the ancient
    definition of "custard" is "egg cheese," probably
    because of the similarity in appearance and texture.

    Cf. ℞ Nos. 129 and 143.


[302] OMELETTE SOUFFLÉE [1]
    _OVA SPHONGIA EX LACTE_

FOUR EGGS IN HALF A PINT OF MILK AND AN OUNCE OF OIL WELL BEATEN, TO
MAKE A FLUFFY MIXTURE; IN A PAN PUT A LITTLE OIL, AND CAREFULLY ADD
THE EGG PREPARATION, WITHOUT LETTING IT BOIL [2] HOWEVER. [Place it in
the oven to let it rise] AND WHEN ONE SIDE IS DONE, TURN IT OUT INTO A
SERVICE PLATTER [fold it] POUR OVER HONEY, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [3]
AND SERVE [4].

    [1] Dann. misled by the title, interprets this dish as
    "Floating Island"; he, the chef, has completely
    misunderstood the ancient formula.

    [2] Tor. _sinas bullire_--which is correct. List.
    _facies ut bulliat_--which is monstrous.

    [3] G.-V.

    [4] Tor. continues without interruption.


[303] CHEESE AND HONEY
    _MEL ET CASEUM_ [1]

PREPARE [cottage] CHEESE EITHER WITH HONEY AND BROTH [brine] OR WITH
SALT, OIL AND [chopped] CORIANDER [2].

    [1] G.-V. _Melca ... stum_; List. _mel castum_, refined
    honey; Tac. _Mel caseum_; Tor. _mel, caseum_. Cf. ℞
    No. 294.

    [2] To season cottage (fresh curd) cheese today we use
    salt, pepper, cream, carraway or chopped chives;
    sometimes a little sugar.



XIV


[304] BULBS [1]
    _BULBOS_

SERVE WITH OIL, BROTH AND VINEGAR, WITH A LITTLE CUMIN SPRINKLED OVER.

    [1] Onions, roots of tulips, narcissus. Served raw
    sliced, with the above dressing, or cooked. Cf. notes to
    ℞ No. 307.


[305] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

SOAK [1] THE BULBS AND PARBOIL THEM IN WATER; THEREUPON FRY THEM IN
OIL. THE DRESSING MAKE THUS: TAKE THYME, FLEA-BANE, PEPPER, ORIGANY,
HONEY, VINEGAR, REDUCED WINE, DATE WINE, IF YOU LIKE [2] BROTH AND A
LITTLE OIL. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] Tor. _tundes_; probably a typographical error, as
    this should read _fundis_, i.e. _infundis_. Wanting in
    the other texts.


[306] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

COOK THE BULBS INTO A THICK PURÉE [1] AND SEASON WITH THYME, ORIGANY,
HONEY, VINEGAR, REDUCED WINE, DATE WINE, BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL.

    [1] _Tundes_, i.e. mash. Practically a correction of
    ℞ No. 305, repeated by Tor.


[307] VARRO SAYS OF BULBS [1]
    _VARRO SI QUID DE BULBIS DIXIT_

COOKED IN WATER THEY ARE CONDUCIVE TO LOVE [2] AND ARE THEREFORE ALSO
SERVED AT WEDDING FEASTS, BUT ALSO SEASONED WITH PIGNOLIA NUT OR WITH
THE JUICE OF COLEWORT, OR MUSTARD, AND PEPPER.

    [1] The first instance in Apicius where the monotony and
    business-like recital of recipes is broken by some
    interesting quotation or remark.

    Brandt is of the opinion that this remark was added by a
    posterior reader.

    [2] The texts: _qui Veneris ostium quærunt_--"seek the
    mouth of Venus."

    This favorite superstition of the ancients leads many
    writers, as might be expected, into fanciful
    speculations. Humelberg, quoting Martial, says: _Veneram
    mirè stimulant, unde et salaces à Martiali vocantur._ 1.
    XIII, Ep. 34:

    _Cum sit anus conjunx, cum sint tibi mortua membra
    Nil aliud, bulbis quam satur esse potes._

    We fail to find this quotation from Varro in his works,
    M. Teren. Varronis De Re Rustica, Lugduni, 1541, but we
    read in Columella and Pliny that the buds or shoots of
    reeds were called by some "bulbs," by others "eyes,"
    and, remembering that these shoots make very desirable
    vegetables when properly cooked, we feel inclined to
    include these among the term "bulbs." Platina also adds
    the squill or sea onion to this category. Nonnus, p. 84,
    Diæteticon, Antwerp, 1645, quotes Columella as saying:
    _Jam Magaris veniant genitalia semina Bulbi._


[308] FRIED BULBS
    _BULBOS FRICTOS_

ARE SERVED WITH WINE SAUCE [Oenogarum].



XV

MUSHROOMS OR MORELS [1]
  _FUNGI FARNEI VEL BOLETI_


[309] MORELS [2]
    _FUNGI FARNEI_

MORELS ARE COOKED QUICKLY IN GARUM AND PEPPER, TAKEN OUT, ALLOWED TO
DRIP; ALSO BROTH WITH CRUSHED PEPPER MAY BE USED [to cook the
mushrooms in].

    [1] It is noteworthy that the term _spongiolus_ which
    creates so much misunderstanding in Book II is not used
    here in connection with mushrooms. Cf. ℞ No. 115.

    [2] "Ashtree-Mushrooms."


[310] FOR MORELS
    _IN FUNGIS FARNEIS_

PEPPER, REDUCED WINE, VINEGAR AND OIL.


[311] ANOTHER WAY OF COOKING MORELS
    _ALITER FUNGI FARNEI_

IN SALT WATER, WITH OIL, PURE WINE, AND SERVE WITH CHOPPED CORIANDER.


[312] MUSHROOMS
    _BOLETOS FUNGOS_

FRESH MUSHROOMS ARE STEWED [1] IN REDUCED WINE WITH A BUNCH OF GREEN
CORIANDER, WHICH REMOVE BEFORE SERVING.

    [1] Tor.


[313] ANOTHER STYLE OF MUSHROOMS
    _BOLETOS ALITER_ [1]

MUSHROOM STEMS [or buds, very small mushrooms] ARE COOKED IN BROTH.
SERVE SPRINKLED WITH SALT.

    [1] Tor. _Boletorum coliculi_; G.-V. _calyculos_.


[314] ANOTHER WAY OF COOKING MUSHROOMS
    _BOLETOS ALITER_

SLICE THE MUSHROOM STEMS [1] [stew them as directed above] AND FINISH
BY COVERING THEM WITH EGGS [2] ADDING PEPPER, LOVAGE, A LITTLE HONEY,
BROTH AND OIL TO TASTE.

    [1] _Thyrsos._

    [2] G.-V. _in patellam novam_; nothing said about eggs.
    Tor. _concisos in patellam; ovaque perfundes_; Tac. _ova
    perfundis_.

    A mushroom omelette.



XVI


[315] TRUFFLES
    _TUBERA_

SCRAPE [brush] THE TRUFFLES, PARBOIL, SPRINKLE WITH SALT, PUT SEVERAL
OF THEM ON A SKEWER, HALF FRY THEM; THEN PLACE THEM IN A SAUCE PAN
WITH OIL, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, WINE, PEPPER, AND HONEY. WHEN DONE
[retire the truffles] BIND [the liquor] WITH ROUX, DECORATE THE
TRUFFLES NICELY AND SERVE [1].

    [1] This formula clearly shows up the master Apicius.
    Truffles, among all earthly things, are the most
    delicate and most subtle in flavor. Only a master cook
    is privileged to handle them and to do them justice.

    Today, whenever we are fortunate enough to obtain the
    best fresh truffles, we are pursuing almost the same
    methods of preparation as described by Apicius.

    The commercially canned truffles bear not even a
    resemblance of their former selves.


[316] ANOTHER WAY TO PREPARE TRUFFLES
    _ALITER TUBERA_

[Par]BOIL THE TRUFFLES, SPRINKLE WITH SALT AND FASTEN THEM ON SKEWERS,
HALF FRY THEM AND THEN PLACE THEM IN A SAUCE PAN WITH BROTH, VIRGIN
OIL, REDUCED WINE, A LITTLE PURE WINE [1] CRUSHED PEPPER AND A LITTLE
HONEY; ALLOW THEM TO FINISH [gently and well covered] WHEN DONE, BIND
THE LIQUOR WITH ROUX, PRICK THE TRUFFLES SO THEY MAY BECOME SATURATED
WITH THE JUICE, DRESS THEM NICELY, AND WHEN REAL HOT, SERVE.

    [1] Preferably Sherry or Madeira.


[317] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

IF YOU WISH YOU MAY ALSO WRAP THE TRUFFLES IN CAUL OF PORK, BRAISE AND
SO SERVE THEM.


[318] ANOTHER TRUFFLE
    _ALITER TUBERA_

STEW THE TRUFFLES IN WINE SAUCE, WITH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, RUE,
BROTH, HONEY, WINE, AND A LITTLE OIL.


[319] ANOTHER WAY FOR TRUFFLES
    _ALITER TUBERA_

BRAISE THE TRUFFLES WITH PEPPER, MINT, RUE, HONEY, OIL, AND A LITTLE
WINE. HEAT AND SERVE.


[320] ANOTHER WAY FOR TRUFFLES
    _ALITER TUBERA_ [1]

PEPPER, CUMIN, SILPHIUM, MINT, CELERY, RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, OR WINE,
SALT OR BROTH, A LITTLE OIL.

    [1] Wanting in G.-V.


[321] ANOTHER WAY FOR TRUFFLES
    _ALITER TUBERA_ [1]

COOK THE TRUFFLES WITH LEEKS, SALT, PEPPER, CHOPPED CORIANDER, THE
VERY BEST WINE AND A LITTLE OIL.

    [1] Wanting in Tor.

    This, to our notion of eating truffles, is the best
    formula, save ℞ Nos. 315 and 316.



XVII

TARO, DASHEEN
  _IN COLOCASIO_


[322] COLOCASIUM [1] TARO, DASHEEN
    _COLOCASIUM_

FOR THE COLOCASIUM (WHICH IS REALLY THE COLOCASIA PLANT, ALSO CALLED
"EGYPTIAN BEAN") USE [2] PEPPER, CUMIN, RUE, HONEY, OR BROTH, AND A
LITTLE OIL; WHEN DONE BIND WITH ROUX [3] COLOCASIUM IS THE ROOT OF THE
EGYPTIAN BEAN WHICH IS USED EXCLUSIVELY [4].

    [1] Cf. notes to ℞ Nos. 74, 172, 216, 244; also the
    copious explanations by Humelberg, fol. III.

    [2] Tor. who is trying hard to explain the _colocasium_.
    His name, "Egyptian Bean" may be due to the mealiness
    and bean-like texture of the _colocasium_ tuber;
    otherwise there is no resemblance to a bean, except,
    perhaps, the seed pod which is not used for food. This
    simile has led other commentators to believe that the
    _colocasium_ in reality was a bean.

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has in recent years
    imported various specimens of that taro species
    (belonging to the _colocasia_), and the plants are now
    successfully being farmed in the southern parts of the
    United States, with fair prospects of becoming an
    important article of daily diet. The Department has
    favored us repeatedly with samples of the taro, or
    dasheen, (_Colocasium Antiquorum_) and we have made many
    different experiments with this agreeable, delightful
    and important "new" vegetable. It can be prepared in
    every way like a potato, and possesses advantages over
    the potato as far as value of nutrition, flavor, culture
    and keeping qualities are concerned. As a commercial
    article, it is not any more expensive than any good kind
    of potato. It grows where the potato will not thrive,
    and vice versa. It thus saves much in freight to parts
    where the potato does not grow.

    The ancient _colocasium_ is no doubt a close relative of
    the modern dasheen or taro. The Apician _colocasium_ was
    perhaps very similar to the ordinary Elephant-Ear,
    _colocasium Antiquorum Schott_, often called _caladium
    esculentum_, or _tanyah_, more recently called the
    "Dasheen" which is a corruption of the French "de
    Chine"--from China--indicating the supposed origin of
    this variety of taro. The dasheen is a broad-leaved
    member of the _arum_ family. The name dasheen originated
    in the West Indies whence it was imported into the
    United States around 1910, and the name is now
    officially adopted.

    Mark Catesby, in his Natural History of Carolina,
    Florida and the Bahama Islands, London, 1781, describes
    briefly under the name of _arum maximum Aegypticum_ a
    plant which was doubtless one of the tanyahs or taros.
    He says: "This was a welcome improvement among the
    negroes and was esteemed a blessing; they being
    delighted with all their African food, particularly
    this, which a great part of Africa subsists much on."

    Torinus, groping for the right name, calls it variously
    _colosium_, _coledium_, _coloesium_, till he finally
    gets it right, _colocasium_.

    [3] The root or tubers of this plant was used by the
    ancients as a vegetable. They probably boiled and then
    peeled and sliced the tubers, seasoning the pieces with
    the above ingredients, heated them in bouillon stock and
    thickened the gravy in the usual way. Since the tuber is
    very starchy, little roux is required for binding.

    [4] Afterthought by Tor. printed in italics on the
    margin of his book.



XVIII

SNAILS
  _COCHLEAS_


[323] MILK-FED SNAILS
    _COCHLEAS LACTE PASTAS_

TAKE SNAILS AND SPONGE THEM; PULL THEM OUT OF THE SHELLS BY THE
MEMBRANE AND PLACE THEM FOR A DAY IN A VESSEL WITH MILK AND SALT [1]
RENEW THE MILK DAILY. HOURLY [2] CLEAN THE SNAILS OF ALL REFUSE, AND
WHEN THEY ARE SO FAT THAT THEY CAN NO LONGER RETIRE [to their shells]
FRY THEM IN OIL AND SERVE THEM WITH WINE SAUCE. IN A SIMILAR WAY THEY
MAY BE FED ON A MILK PORRIDGE [3].

    [1] Just enough so they do not drown.

    [2] Wanting in Tor.

    [3] The Romans raised snails for the table in special
    places called _cochlearia_. Fluvius Hirpinus is credited
    with having popularized the snail in Rome a little
    before the civil wars between Cæsar and Pompey. If we
    could believe Varro, snails grew to enormous
    proportions. A supper of the younger Pliny consisted of
    a head of lettuce, three snails, two eggs, a barley
    cake, sweet wine, refrigerated in snow.

    Snails as a food are not sufficiently appreciated by the
    Germanic races who do not hesitate to eat similar
    animals and are very fond of such food as oysters,
    clams, mussels, cocles, etc., much of which they even
    eat in the raw state.


[324] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

THE SNAILS ARE FRIED WITH PURE SALT AND OIL AND [a sauce of] LASER,
BROTH, PEPPER AND OIL IS UNDERLAID; OR THE FRIED SNAILS ARE FULLY
COVERED WITH BROTH, PEPPER AND CUMIN.

    Tor. divides this into three articles.


[325] ANOTHER WAY FOR SNAILS
    _ALITER COCHLEAS_

THE LIVE SNAILS ARE SPRINKLED WITH MILK MIXED WITH THE FINEST WHEAT
FLOUR, WHEN FAT AND NICE AND PLUMP THEY ARE COOKED.



XIX

EGGS
  _OVA_


[326] FRIED EGGS
    _OVA FRIXA_

FRIED EGGS ARE FINISHED IN WINE SAUCE.


[327] BOILED EGGS
    _OVA ELIXA_

ARE SEASONED WITH BROTH, OIL, PURE WINE, OR ARE SERVED WITH BROTH,
PEPPER AND LASER.


[328] WITH POACHED EGGS
    _IN OVIS HAPALIS_

SERVE PEPPER, LOVAGE, SOAKED NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR AND BROTH.


END OF BOOK VII

_EXPLICIT APICII POLYTELES: LIBER SEPTIMUS_ [Tac.]



APICIUS

Book VIII



{Illustration: CRATICULA

Combination broiler and stove; charcoal fuel. The sliding rods are
adjustable to the size of food to be cooked thereon. Pans of various
sizes would rest on these rods. In the rear two openings to hold the
caccabus, or stewpot, of which we have four different illustrations.
The craticula usually rested on top of a stationary brick oven or
range. The apparatus, being moveable, is very ingenious. The roughness
of the surface of this specimen is caused by corrosion and lava
adhering to its metal frame. Found in Pompeii. Ntl. Mus., Naples,
121321; Field M., 26145.}



{Illustration: CACCABUS

A stewpot, marmite, kettle. The cover, rising from the circumference
to the center in a succession of steps, fits inside the mouth of the
kettle. Ntl. Mus., Naples 72766; Field M., 24178.}



BOOK VIII. QUADRUPEDS

_Lib. VIII. Tetrapus_


    CHAP.    I. WILD BOAR.
    CHAP.   II. VENISON.
    CHAP.  III. CHAMOIS, GAZELLE.
    CHAP.   IV. WILD SHEEP.
    CHAP.    V. BEEF AND VEAL.
    CHAP.   VI. KID AND LAMB.
    CHAP.  VII. PIG.
    CHAP. VIII. HARE.
    CHAP.   IX. DORMOUSE.



I


[329] WILD BOAR IS PREPARED THUS
    _APER ITA CONDITUR_

IT IS CLEANED; SPRINKLED WITH SALT AND CRUSHED CUMIN AND THUS LEFT.
THE NEXT DAY IT IS PUT INTO THE OVEN; WHEN DONE SEASON WITH CRUSHED
PEPPER. A SAUCE FOR BOAR: HONEY [1] BROTH, REDUCED WINE, RAISIN WINE.

    [1] Lan., Tor. _vel_ instead of _mel_.


[330] ANOTHER WAY TO PREPARE BOAR
    _ALITER IN APRO_

YOU BOIL THE BOAR IN SEA WATER WITH SPRIGS OF LAUREL; WHEN DONE NICE
AND SOFT, REMOVE THE SKIN, SERVE WITH SALT, MUSTARD, VINEGAR.


[331] ANOTHER WAY TO COOK [sauce for] BOAR
    _ALITER IN APRO_

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, SEEDLESS MYRTLE BERRIES, CORIANDER,
ONIONS; ADD HONEY, WINE, BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL; HEAT AND TIE WITH
ROUX. THE BOAR ROASTED IN THE OVEN, IS MASKED WITH THIS SAUCE, WHICH
YOU MAY USE FOR ANY KIND OF ROAST GAME [1].

    [1] Tor. continues without interruption.


[332] MAKE A HOT SAUCE FOR ROAST BOAR THUS
    _JURA FERVENTIA IN APRUM ASSUM FACIES SIC_ [1]

CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, MINT, THYME, SATURY, SAFFRON,
TOASTED NUTS, OR TOASTED ALMONDS, HONEY, WINE, BROTH, VINEGAR AND A
LITTLE OIL.

    [1] Tor. _In aprum uerò assum_, indicating, perhaps,
    that ordinary pork also was prepared "boar style." Cf.
    ℞ No. 362.


[333] ANOTHER HOT SAUCE FOR BOAR
    _ALITER IN APRUM ASSUM IURA FERVENTIA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, MINT, THYME, TOASTED NUTS, WINE, VINEGAR,
BROTH, AND A LITTLE OIL. WHEN THE SIMPLE BROTH [1] IS BOILING
INCORPORATE THE CRUSHED THINGS AND STIR WITH AN AROMATIC BOUQUET OF
ONIONS AND RUE. IF YOU DESIRE TO MAKE THIS A RICHER SAUCE, TIE IT WITH
WHITES OF EGG, STIRRING THE LIQUID EGG IN GENTLY. SPRINKLE WITH A
LITTLE PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] Presumably the broth or stock in which the meat was
    roasted or braised.


[334] SAUCE FOR BOILED BOAR
    _IUS IN APRUM ELIXUM_

REAL SAUCE FOR BOILED BOAR IS COMPOSED IN THIS MANNER [1] PEPPER,
LOVAGE, CUMIN, SILPHIUM, ORIGANY, NUTS, FIGDATES, MUSTARD, VINEGAR,
BROTH AND OIL.

    [1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.


[335] COLD SAUCE FOR BOILED BOAR [1]
    _IUS FRIGIDUM IN APRUM ELIXUM_

PEPPER, CUMIN, LOVAGE, CRUSHED CORIANDER SEED, DILL SEED, CELERY
SEED, THYME, ORIGANY, LITTLE ONION, HONEY, VINEGAR, MUSTARD, BROTH AND
OIL.

    [1] ℞ No. 336 precedes this formula in Tor.


[336] ANOTHER COLD SAUCE FOR BOILED BOAR
    _ALITER IUS FRIGIDUM IN APRUM ELIXUM_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, DILL SEED, THYME, ORIGANY, LITTLE SILPHIUM,
RATHER MORE MUSTARD SEED, ADD PURE WINE, SOME GREEN HERBS, A LITTLE
ONION, CRUSHED NUTS FROM THE PONTUS, OR ALMONDS, DATES, HONEY,
VINEGAR, SOME MORE PURE WINE, COLOR WITH REDUCED MUST [and add] BROTH
AND OIL [1].

    [1] Strongly resembling our _vinaigrette_.


[337] ANOTHER [sauce] FOR BOAR
    _ALITER [ius] IN APRO_

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT, CUMIN, FENNEL
SEED, RUE, BROTH, WINE, RAISIN WINE; HEAT, WHEN DONE TIE WITH ROUX;
COVER THE MEAT WITH THIS SAUCE SO AS TO PENETRATE THE MEAT AND SERVE.


[338] SHOULDER OF BOAR IS STUFFED IN THIS MANNER
    _PERNA APRUNA ITA IMPLETUR_ [1]

LOOSEN THE MEAT FROM THE BONES BY MEANS OF A WOODEN STICK IN ORDER TO
FILL THE CAVITY LEFT BY THE BONES WITH DRESSING WHICH IS INTRODUCED
THROUGH A FUNNEL. [The dressing season with] CRUSHED PEPPER, LAUREL
BERRIES AND RUE; IF YOU LIKE, ADD LASER, THE BEST KIND OF BROTH,
REDUCED MUST AND SPRINKLE WITH FRESH OIL. WHEN THE FILLING IS DONE,
TIE THE PARTS THUS STUFFED IN LINEN, PLACE THEM IN THE STOCK POT IN
WHICH THEY ARE TO BE COOKED AND BOIL THEM IN SEA WATER, WITH A SPRIG
OF LAUREL AND DILL [2].

    [1] G.-V. _Terentina_, referring to a place in the
    Campus Martius, where the _ludi seculares_ were
    celebrated. Tor. _recentia_, fresh.

    [2] The dressing consisted principally of pork or veal
    pounded fine, seasoned as directed above, and tied with
    eggs, as is often prescribed by Apicius.

    To verify how little high class cookery methods have
    changed consult one of the foremost of modern
    authorities, Auguste Escoffier, of the Carlton and Ritz
    hotels, London and Paris, who in his "Guide Culinaire"
    presents this dish under its ancient Italian name of
    _Zampino_.



II

VENISON [Stag]
  _IN CERVO_


[339] SAUCE FOR STAG
    _IUS IN CERVUM_

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY [1] ORIGANY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT,
FENNEL SEED, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE [2] RAISIN WINE AND A LITTLE
OIL. WHEN BOILING BIND WITH ROUX; THE COOKED MEAT IMMERSE IN THIS
SAUCE [braise] TO PENETRATE AND TO SOFTEN, AND SERVE. FOR BROAD HORN
DEER AS WELL AS FOR OTHER VENISON FOLLOW SIMILAR METHODS AND USE THE
SAME CONDIMENTS.

    [1] Tor. _carenum_; Hum. _legendum: careum_.

    [2] Wanting in Tor.


[340] ANOTHER WAY [1]
    _ALITER_

PARBOIL AND BRAISE THE VENISON. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY
SEED, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL; HEAT, BIND WITH ROUX
AND POUR OVER THE ROAST.

    [1] Tor. Another little sauce for venison.


[341] VENISON SAUCE
    _IUS IN CERVO_

MIX PEPPER, LOVAGE, ONION, ORIGANY, NUTS, FIGDATES, HONEY, BROTH,
MUSTARD, VINEGAR, OIL [1].

    [1] Resembling a _vinaigrette_, except for the nuts and
    dates.


[342] PREPARATION OF VENISON
    _CERVINÆ CONDITURA_

PEPPER, CUMIN, CONDIMENTS, PARSLEY, ONION, RUE, HONEY, BROTH, MINT,
RAISIN WINE, REDUCED WINE, AND A LITTLE OIL; BIND WITH ROUX WHEN
BOILING.


[343] HOT SAUCE FOR VENISON
    _IURA FERVENTIA IN CERVO_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, CUMIN, TOASTED NUTS OR ALMONDS, HONEY,
VINEGAR, WINE, A LITTLE OIL; ADD BROTH AND STIR WELL.


[344] MARINADE FOR ROAST VENISON
    _EMBAMMA [1] IN CERVINAM ASSAM_

PEPPER, NARD LEAVES, CELERY SEED, DRY ONIONS, GREEN RUE, HONEY,
VINEGAR, BROTH, ADD DATES, RAISINS AND OIL.

    [1] Tor. _Intinctus_, same; a _marinade_, a pickle or
    sauce in which to preserve or to flavor raw meat or
    fish.


[345] ANOTHER HOT SAUCE FOR VENISON
    _ALITER IN CERVUM ASSUM IURA FERVENTIA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, STEWED DAMASCUS PRUNES, WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR,
BROTH, A LITTLE OIL; STIR WITH A FAGOT OF LEEKS AND SATURY [1].

    [1] A fagot of herbs; regarding this method of
    flavoring. Cf. notes to ℞ No. 277 _seq._

    A sauce resembling our Cumberland, very popular with
    venison which is sweetened with currant jelly instead of
    the above prunes.



III

CHAMOIS, GAZELLE
  _IN CAPREA_


[346] SAUCE FOR WILD GOAT
    _IUS IN CAPREA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CUMIN, PARSLEY, RUE SEED, HONEY, MUSTARD,
VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.


[347] SAUCE FOR ROAST WILD GOAT
    _IUS IN CAPREA ASSA_

PEPPER, HERBS, RUE, ONION, HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE, A LITTLE OIL,
BIND WITH ROUX.


[347a] STILL ANOTHER
     _ALITER_

AS ABOVE IS MADE WITH PARSLEY AND MARJORAM [1].

    [1] Wanting in G.-V.


[347b] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR WILD GOAT
     _ALITER IUS IN CAPREA_

PEPPER, SPICES, PARSLEY, A LITTLE ORIGANY, RUE, BROTH, HONEY, RAISIN
WINE, AND A LITTLE OIL; BIND WITH ROUX [1].

    [1] Wanting in Tor.



IV

WILD SHEEP
  _IN OVIFERO (HOC EST OVIS SILVATICA)_ [1]


[348] SAUCE FOR MOUNTAIN SHEEP
    _IUS IN OVIFERO FERVENS_

[THAT IS, (ROAST) THE MEAT, PREPARE A SAUCE OF] [2] PEPPER, LOVAGE,
CUMIN, DRY MINT [3], THYME, SILPHIUM, MOISTEN WITH WINE, ADD STEWED
DAMASCUS PRUNES, HONEY, WINE, BROTH, VINEGAR, RAISIN WINE,--ENOUGH TO
COLOR--AND STIR WITH A WHIP OF ORIGANY AND DRY MINT [3].

    [1] G.-V., List. _in ovi fero_; Dann. "wild eggs," i.e.,
    the eggs of game birds, and he comes to the conclusion
    that game birds themselves are meant to be used in this
    formula, as no reference to "eggs" is made.

    There can be no doubt but what this formula deals with
    the preparation of sheep; Torinus says expressly:
    _oviferum, hoc est, carnem ovis sylvestris_--the meat of
    sheep from the woods, mountain sheep. _Ferum_ is "wild,"
    "game," but it also means "pregnant." For this double
    sense the formula may be interpreted as dealing with
    either wild sheep, or with pregnant sheep, or, more
    probably, with unborn baby lamb, which in antiquity as
    today is often killed principally for its skin.

    [2] Tor.

    [3] Mint is still associated with lamb; the above sauce
    appears to be merely an elaborate Roman ancestor of our
    modern mint sauce, served with lamb, the chief
    ingredients of which are mint, vinegar and sugar, served
    both hot and cold.


[349] SAUCE FOR ALL KINDS OF GAME, BOILED OR ROAST
    _IUS IN VENATIONIBUS OMNIBUS ELIXIS ET ASSIS_ [1]

8 SCRUPLES OF PEPPER, RUE, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, JUNIPER, THYME, DRY
MINT, 6 SCRUPLES IN WEIGHT [each] 3 SCRUPLES OF FLEA-BANE; REDUCE ALL
THIS TO THE FINEST POWDER, PUT IT TOGETHER IN A VESSEL WITH SUFFICIENT
HONEY AND USE IT WITH VINEGAR AND GARUM.

    [1] Tor. _Jusculum omni venationi competens_.


[350] COLD SAUCE FOR WILD SHEEP
    _IUS FRIGIDUM IN OVIFERO_ [1]

PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, CUMIN, CRUSHED TOASTED NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR,
BROTH, AND OIL; SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER.

    [1] List. _omni fero_; which Dann. interprets, "All kind
    of game." Cf. note 1 to ℞ No. 348.



V

BEEF OR VEAL
  _BUBULA SIVE VITELLINA_


[351] VEAL STEAK
    _VITELLINA FRICTA_ [1]

[FOR A SAUCE WITH FRIED BEEF OR VEAL TAKE] [2] PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY
SEED, CUMIN, ORIGANY, DRY ONION, RAISINS, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH,
OIL, AND REDUCED MUST.

    [1] Evidently a beef or veal steak _sauté_. Beef did not
    figure very heavily on the dietary of the ancients in
    contrasts to present modes which make beef the most
    important meat, culinarily speaking. The above sauce,
    save for the raisins and the honey, resembles the modern
    _Bordelaise_, often served with beef steaks _sauté_, in
    contrast to the grilled steaks which are served with
    _maître d'hôtel_ butter.


[352] VEAL OR BEEF WITH LEEKS
    _VITULINAM [1] SIVE BULULAM CUM PORRIS_

[or] WITH QUINCES [2] OR WITH ONIONS, OR WITH DASHEENS [3] [use]
BROTH, PEPPER, LASER AND A LITTLE OIL.

    [1] G.-V. same as _vitellinam_.

    [2] Tor. _cydoniis_; List. _succidaneis_.

    [3] Cf. ℞ No. 332 _et al._


[353] FRICASSÉE OF VEAL
    _IN VITULINAM ELIXAM_

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, MOISTEN WITH HONEY,
VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL; HEAT, BIND WITH ROUX AND COVER THE MEAT.


[354] ANOTHER VEAL FRICASSÉE
    _ALITER IN VITULINA EXLIXA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, FENNEL SEED, ORIGANY, NUTS, FIGDATES, HONEY, VINEGAR,
BROTH, MUSTARD AND OIL.



VI

KID OR LAMB
  _IN HÆDO VEL AGNO_


[355] DAINTY DISHES OF KID OR OF LAMB
    _COPADIA HÆDINA SIVE AGNINA_

COOK WITH PEPPER AND BROTH, ALSO WITH VARIOUS ORDINARY BEANS [1]
BROTH, PEPPER AND LASER, CUMIN, DUMPLINGS [2] AND A LITTLE OIL [3].

    [1] _cum faseolis_, green string beans.

    [2] Tor. _imbrato_; G.-V. _inbracto_, broken bread,
    regular dumplings.

    [3] Lamb and beans is a favorite combination, as in the
    French _haricot_, made with white beans, or boiled lamb
    with fresh string beans, quite a modern dish. Torinus
    omits the cumin, which is quite characteristic.


[356] ANOTHER LAMB STEW
    _ALITER HÆDINAM SIVE AGNINAM EXCALDATAM_

PUT [pieces of] KID OR LAMB IN THE STEW POT WITH CHOPPED ONION AND
CORIANDER. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, AND COOK WITH BROTH OIL AND
WINE. PUT IN A DISH AND TIE WITH ROUX [1].

    [1] It appears that the binding should be done before
    the stew is dished out; but this sentence illustrates
    the consummate art of Apicius. The good cook carefully
    separates the meat (as it is cooked) from the sauce,
    eliminates impurities, binds and strains it and puts the
    meat back into the finished sauce. This is the ideal way
    of making a stew which evidently was known to Apicius.


[357] ANOTHER LAMB STEW
    _ALITER HÆDINAM SIVE AGNINAM EXCALDATAM_

ADD TO THE PARBOILED MEAT THE RAW HERBS THAT HAVE BEEN CRUSHED IN THE
MORTAR AND COOK IT. GOAT MEAT IS COOKED LIKEWISE.


[358] BROILED KID OR LAMB STEAK
    _HÆDUM SIVE AGNUM ASSUM_

KID AFTER BEING COOKED IN BROTH AND OIL IS SLICED AND MARINATED [1]
WITH CRUSHED PEPPER, LASER, BROTH AND A LITTLE OIL. IT IS THEN GRILLED
ON THE BROILER AND SERVED WITH GRAVY. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE
UP.

    [1] The marinade is used to make the gravy.


[359] ROAST KID OR LAMB
    _ALITER HÆDUM SIVE AGNUM ASSUM_

[LET US ROAST THE KID OR LAMB, ADDING] [1] HALF AN OUNCE OF PEPPER, 6
SCRUPLES OF FOALBIT [2] A LITTLE GINGER, 6 SCRUPLES OF PARSLEY, A
LITTLE LASER, A PINT OF BEST BROTH AND A SPOONFUL OIL [3].

    [1] Tor.

    [2] _Asarum_; Tor. _aseros_; List. _asareos_--the herb
    foalbit, foalfoot, wild spikenard.

    [3] Tor. continues without interruption.


[360] STUFFED BONED KID OR LAMB
    _HÆDUS SIVE AGNUS SYRINGIATUS_ [1]

MILK-FED [2] KID OR LAMB IS CAREFULLY BONED THROUGH THE THROAT SO AS
TO CREATE A PAUNCH OR BAG; THE INTESTINES ARE PRESERVED WHOLE IN A
MANNER THAT ONE CAN BLOW OR INFLATE THEM AT THE HEAD IN ORDER TO EXPEL
THE EXCREMENTS AT THE OTHER END; THE BODY IS WASHED CAREFULLY AND IS
FILLED WITH A LIQUID DRESSING. THEREUPON TIE IT CAREFULLY AT THE
SHOULDERS, PUT IT INTO THE ROASTING PAN, BASTE WELL. WHEN DONE, BOIL
THE GRAVY WITH MILK AND PEPPER, PREVIOUSLY CRUSHED, AND BROTH, REDUCED
WINE, A LITTLE REDUCED MUST AND ALSO OIL; AND TO THE BOILING GRAVY ADD
ROUX. TO PLAY SAFE PUT THE ROAST IN A NETTING, BAG OR LITTLE BASKET
AND CAREFULLY TIE TOGETHER, ADD A LITTLE SALT TO THE BOILING GRAVY.
AFTER THIS HAS BOILED WELL THREE TIMES, TAKE THE MEAT OUT, BOIL THE
BROTH OVER AGAIN [to reduce it] INCORPORATE WITH THE ABOVE DESCRIBED
LIQUOR, ADDING THE NECESSARY SEASONING.

    [1] "Hollowed out like a pipe."

    [2] G.-V. _syringiatus_ (_id est mammotestus_). Tor.
    _mammocestis_. We are guessing.

    [3] We would call this a galantine of lamb if such a
    dish were made of lamb today.

    This article, like the following appears to be a
    contraction of two different formulæ.


[361] STUFFED KID OR LAMB ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER HÆDUS SIVE AGNUS SYRINGIATUS_

KID OR LAMB IS THUS PREPARED AND SEASONED: TAKE [1] 1 PINT MILK, 4
OUNCES HONEY, 1 OUNCE PEPPER, A LITTLE SALT, A LITTLE LASER, GRAVY [of
the lamb] 8 OUNCES CRUSHED DATES, A SPOONFUL OIL, A LITTLE BROTH, A
SPOONFUL HONEY [2] A PINT OF GOOD WINE AND A LITTLE ROUX.

    [1] Tor.

    [2] G.-V.


[362] THE RAW KID OR LAMB [1]
    _HÆDUS SIVE AGNUS CRUDUS_

IS RUBBED WITH OIL AND PEPPER AND SPRINKLED WITH PLENTY OF CLEAN SALT
AND CORIANDER SEED, PLACED IN THE OVEN, SERVED ROAST.

    [1] It is quite evident that this sentence belongs to
    the preceding formula; but all the texts make a distinct
    separation.


[363] KID OR LAMB À LA TARPEIUS [1]
    _HÆDUM SIVE AGNUM TARPEIANUM_

BEFORE COOKING THE LAMB TRUSS IT PROPERLY AND [marinate it in] PEPPER,
RUE, SATURY, ONIONS, AND A LITTLE THYME AND BROTH. PLACE THE ROAST IN
A PAN WITH OIL, BASTE WELL WHILE IN THE OVEN, WHEN COOKED THOROUGHLY,
FILL THE PAN WITH CRUSHED SATURY, ONIONS, RUE, DATES, BROTH, WINE,
REDUCED WINE, AND OIL; WHEN THIS GRAVY IS WELL COOKED [strain] PUT IT
UP IN A DISH, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] Tor. _Tatarpeianum_. Tarpeius, family name of
    Romans. Humelberg thinks this dish is named for the
    people who dwelled on Mount Tarpeius. This was the
    Tarpeian Rock from which malefactors were thrown.


[364] KID OR LAMB PARTHIAN STYLE
    _HÆDUM SIVE AGNUM PARTHICUM_

PUT [the roast] IN THE OVEN; CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, ONION, SATURY, STONED
DAMASCUS PLUMS, A LITTLE LASER, WINE, BROTH AND OIL. HOT WINE IS
SERVED ON THE SIDE AND TAKEN WITH VINEGAR.


[365] CREAMED KID FLAVORED WITH LAUREL [1]
    _HÆDUM LAUREATUM EX LACTE_

[The kid] DRESS AND PREPARE, BONE, REMOVE THE INTESTINES WITH THE
RENNET AND WASH. PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE, LASER ROOT, 2
LAUREL BERRIES, A LITTLE CHAMOMILE AND 2 OR 3 BRAINS, ALL OF WHICH
CRUSH. MOISTEN WITH BROTH AND SEASON WITH SALT. OVER THIS MIXTURE
STRAIN 2 PINTS [2] OF MILK, 2 LITTLE SPOONS OF HONEY. WITH THIS
FORCEMEAT STUFF THE INTESTINES AND WRAP THEM AROUND THE KID. COVER THE
ROAST WITH CAUL AND PARCHMENT PAPER TIGHTENED WITH SKEWERS, AND PLACE
IT IN THE ROASTING PAN, ADDING BROTH, OIL AND WINE. WHEN HALF DONE,
CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, MOISTEN WITH THE ROAST'S OWN GRAVY AND A LITTLE
REDUCED MUST; PUT THIS BACK INTO THE PAN AND WHEN THE ROAST IS DONE
COMPLETELY GARNISH IT AND BIND [the gravy] WITH ROUX AND SERVE.

    [1] Dann. thinks _laureatus_ stands for the best, the
    prize-winning meat, but the laurel may refer to the
    flavor used.

    List. remarks that cow's milk was very scarce in Italy;
    likewise was goat's and sheep's milk; hence it is
    possible that the kid was cooked with its mother's own
    milk.

    [2] pints--_sextarii_.



VII

PIG
  _IN PORCELLO_


[366] SUCKLING PIG STUFFED TWO WAYS
    _PORCELLUM FARSILEM DUOBUS GENERIBUS_

PREPARE, REMOVE THE ENTRAILS BY THE THROAT BEFORE THE CARCASS HARDENS
[immediately after killing]. MAKE AN OPENING UNDER THE EAR, FILL AN OX
BLADDER WITH TARENTINE [1] SAUSAGE MEAT AND ATTACH A TUBE SUCH AS THE
BIRD KEEPER USES TO THE NECK OF THE BLADDER AND SQUEEZE THE DRESSING
INTO THE EAR AS MUCH AS IT WILL TAKE TO FILL THE BODY. THEN SEAL THE
OPENING WITH PARCHMENT, CLOSE SECURELY [with skewers] AND PREPARE [the
roast for the oven].

    [1] Tor. _impensam Tarentinam_; G.-V. _Terentinam_.

    The birdkeeper's tube may be an instrument for the
    cramming of fowl.

[366a] THE OTHER DRESSING IS MADE THUS:

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, LASER ROOT, MOISTEN WITH A LITTLE
BROTH, ADD COOKED BRAINS, RAW EGGS, COOKED SPELT, GRAVY OF THE PIG,
SMALL BIRDS (IF ANY) NUTS, WHOLE PEPPER, AND SEASON WITH BROTH. STUFF
THE PIG, CLOSE THE OPENING WITH PARCHMENT AND SKEWERS AND PUT IT IN
THE OVEN. WHEN DONE, DRESS AND GARNISH VERY NICELY, GLAZE THE BODY
AND SERVE.


[367] ANOTHER SUCKLING PIG
    _ALITER PORCELLUM_

SALT, CUMIN, LASER; ADD SAUSAGE MEAT. DILUTE WITH BROTH [1] REMOVE THE
WOMB OF THE PIG SO THAT NO PART OF IT REMAINS INSIDE. CRUSH PEPPER,
LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD WINE [2] BRAINS, MIX IN 2
EGGS, FILL THE [previously] PARBOILED PIG WITH THIS FORCEMEAT, CLOSE
TIGHT, PLACE IN A BASKET AND IMMERSE IN THE BOILING STOCK POT. WHEN
DONE REMOVE THE SKEWERS BUT IN A MANNER THAT THE GRAVY REMAINS INSIDE.
SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER, SERVE.

    [1] G.-V. treats the following as a separate article
    under the heading of _porcellum liquaminatum_.

    [2] G.-V. _unum_ (one brain) instead of _uinum_.


[368] STUFFED BOILED SUCKLING PIG
    _PORCELLUM ELIXUM FARSILEM_

REMOVE THE WOMB OF THE PIG. PARBOIL. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY,
MOISTEN WITH BROTH. ADD COOKED BRAINS, AS MUCH AS IS NEEDED [1]
LIKEWISE DISSOLVE EGGS, [add] BROTH TO TASTE, MAKE A SAUSAGE [of this
forcemeat] FILL THE PIG WHICH HAS BEEN PARBOILED AND RINSED WITH
BROTH. TIE THE PIG SECURELY IN A BASKET, IMMERSE IN THE BOILING STOCK
POT. REMOVE WHEN DONE, WIPE CLEAN CAREFULLY, SERVE WITHOUT PEPPER.

    [1] To have a forcemeat of the right consistency.


[369] ROAST SUCKLING PIG WITH HONEY
    _PORCELLUM ASSUM TRACTOMELINUM_ [1]

EMPTY THE PIG BY THE NECK, CLEAN AND DRY, CRUSH ONE OUNCE PEPPER,
HONEY AND WINE, PLACE [this in a sauce pan and] HEAT; NEXT BREAK DRY
TOAST [2] AND MIX WITH THE THINGS IN THE SAUCE PAN; STIR WITH A WHIP
OF FRESH LAUREL TWIGS [3] SO THAT THE PASTE IS NICE AND SMOOTH UNTIL
SUFFICIENTLY COOKED. THIS DRESSING FILL INTO THE PIG, WRAP IN
PARCHMENT, PLACE IN THE OVEN [roast slowly, when done, glaze with
honey] GARNISH NICELY AND SERVE.

    [1] treated with honey.

    [2] Tor. _tactam siccatam_ for _tractam_.

    [3] Again this very subtle method of flavoring, so often
    referred to. This time it is a laurel whip. Cf. ℞
    Nos. 277 _seq._, 345, 369, 385.


[370] MILK-FED PIG, COLD, APICIAN SAUCE
    _PORCELLUM LACTE PASTUM ELIXUM CALIDUM IURE FRIGIDO CRUDO APICIANO_

SERVE BOILED MILK-FED PIG EITHER HOT OR COLD WITH THIS SAUCE [1] IN A
MORTAR, PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER SEED, MINT, RUE, AND CRUSH IT.
MOISTEN WITH BROTH. ADD HONEY, WINE AND BROTH. THE BOILED PIG IS WIPED
OFF HOT WITH A CLEAN TOWEL, [cooled off] COVERED WITH THE SAUCE AND
SERVED [2].

    [1] Tor.

    [2] This sentence wanting in Tor.


[371] SUCKLING PIG À LA VITELLIUS [1]
    _PORCELLUM VITELLIANUM_

SUCKLING PIG CALLED VITELLIAN STYLE IS PREPARED THUS [2] GARNISH THE
PIG LIKE WILD BOAR [3] SPRINKLE WITH SALT, ROAST IN OVEN. IN THE
MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE AND RAISIN WINE TO
TASTE, PUT THIS IN A SAUCE PAN, ADDING VERY LITTLE OIL, HEAT; THE
ROASTING PIG BASTE WITH THIS IN A MANNER SO THAT [the aroma] WILL
PENETRATE THE SKIN.

    [1] Named for Vitellius, Roman emperor.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] i.e. marinated with raw vegetables, wine, spices,
    etc. Cf. ℞ Nos. 329-30.


[372] SUCKLING PIG À LA FLACCUS
    _PORCELLUM FLACCIANUM_ [1]

THE PIG IS GARNISHED LIKE WILD BOAR [2] SPRINKLE WITH SALT, PLACE IN
THE OVEN. WHILE BEING DONE PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY,
CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT, GREEN RUE, AND CRUSH IT, MOISTEN WITH BROTH,
WINE AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE, PUT THIS IN A SAUCE PAN, ADDING A
LITTLE OIL, HEAT, BIND WITH ROUX. THE ROAST PIG, FREE FROM BONES,
SPRINKLE WITH POWDERED CELERY SEED AND SERVE.

    [1] List. named for Flaccus Hordeonius, (_puto_).
    Flaccus was a rather common Roman family name.

    [2] Cf. note 3 to ℞ No. 371, also ℞ Nos. 329-30.
    Lister is thoroughly puzzled by this procedure, but the
    problem is very simple: just treat the pig like wild
    boar.


[373] SUCKLING PIG, LAUREL FLAVOR
    _PORCELLUM LAUREATUM_

THE PIG IS BONED AND GARNISHED WITH A LITTLE WINE SAUCE [1] PARBOIL
WITH GREEN LAUREL IN THE CENTER [2] AND PLACE IT IN THE OVEN TO BE
ROASTED SUFFICIENTLY. MEANWHILE PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE,
CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT, AND LAUREL BERRIES, CRUSH THEM,
MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE. [Put this in a
sauce pan and heat] BIND [with roux; untie the pig] REMOVE THE LAUREL
LEAVES; INCORPORATE THE JUICE OF THE BONES [from which a gravy has
been made in the meantime] AND SERVE.

    [1] marinate in the ordinary way with _œnogarum_ as
    the dominant flavor.

    [2] It is presumed that the boned pig is rolled and
    tied, with the leaves in the center.


[374] SUCKLING PIG À LA FRONTO [1]
    _PORCELLUM FRONTINIANUM_

BONE THE PIG, PARBOIL, GARNISH; IN A SAUCE PAN. ADD BROTH, WINE, BIND.
WHEN HALF DONE, ADD A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND DILL, SOME REDUCED MUST. WHEN
COOKED WIPE THE PIG CLEAN, LET IT DRIP OFF; SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER,
SERVE.

    [1] List. Probably named for Julius Fronto, _prætor
    urbanus_ under Vitellius. Cornelius Fronto was an orator
    and author at the time of emperor Hadrian. Cf. ℞ No.
    246. G.-V. Frontinianus.


[375] SUCKLING PIG STEWED IN WINE
    _PORCELLUM ŒNOCOCTUM_ [1]

SCALD [parboil] THE PIG [and] MARINATE [2] PLACE IN A SAUCE PAN [with]
OIL, BROTH, WINE AND WATER, TIE A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER; [cook
(in the oven)] WHEN HALF DONE COLOR WITH REDUCED MUST. IN THE MORTAR
PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, ORIGANY, CELERY SEED, LASER ROOT AND
CRUSH THEM, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ADD THE PIG'S OWN GRAVY AND RAISIN
WINE TO TASTE. ADD THIS [to the meat in the sauce pan] AND LET IT
BOIL. WHEN BOILING BIND WITH ROUX. THE PIG, PLACED ON A PLATTER, MASK
[with the sauce] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] Tor. _vino elixatus_; G.-V. _œnococtum_.

    [2] It is presumed that the pig is prepared for coction
    as in the foregoing, namely cleaned, washed, boned, etc.
    This also applies to the succeeding recipes of pig.


[376] PIG À LA CELSINUS [1]
    _PORCELLUM CELSINIANUM_

PREPARE [as above] INJECT [the following dressing made of] PEPPER,
RUE, ONIONS, SATURY, THE PIG'S OWN GRAVY [and] EGGS THROUGH THE EAR
[2] AND OF PEPPER, BROTH AND A LITTLE WINE [make a sauce which is
served] IN THE SAUCE BOAT [3]; AND ENJOY IT.

    [1] Tor. _Cæsianus_; Tac. _cesinianum_; G.-V.
    _Celsinianum_. Lister goes far out of his way to prove
    that the man for whom this dish was named was Celsinus.
    He cites a very amusing bit of ancient humor by Petrus
    Lambecius, given below.

    [2] Really a dressing in a liquid state when raw, a
    custard syringed into the carcass, which congeals during
    coction. Eggs must be in proper proportion to the other
    liquids. The pig thus filled is either steamed, roasted
    or baked, well protected by buttered or oiled paper--all
    of which the ancient author failed to state, as a matter
    of course.

    [3] _acetabulum._

       *       *       *       *       *

    "The Porker's Last Will and Testament"
    by Petrus Lambecius

    (V. Barnab. Brissonium de Formulis lib. VII, p. 677)
    [ex Lister, 1705, p. 196; Lister, 1709, p. 236].

    "I, M. Grunter Corocotta Porker, do hereby make my last
    will and testament. Incapable of writing in my own hand,
    I have dictated what is to be set down:

    "The Chief Cook sayeth: 'Come here, you--who has upset
    this house, you nuissance, you porker! I'll deprive you
    of your life this day!'

    "Corocotta Porker sayeth: 'What, perchance, have I done?
    In what way, please, have I sinned? Have I with my feet
    perhaps smashed your crockery? I beg of you, Mr. Cook, I
    entreat you, if such be the case, kindly grant the
    supplicant a reprieve.'

    "The Chief Cook sayeth: 'Go over there, boy! Fetch me
    from the kitchen that slaughtering-knife. I'm just
    itching to give this porker a blood-bath!'

    "Mr. Porker, realizing that this is the season when
    cabbage sprouts are abundant, and visualizing himself
    potted and peppered, and furthermore seeing that death
    is inevitable, asks for time and begs of the cook
    whether it was possible to make a will. This granted, he
    calls out with a loud voice to his parents to save for
    them the food that was to have been his own in the
    future, to wit:

    "To my father, Mr. Genuine Bacon-Fat, appointed by me
    in my last will I give and bequeath: thirty measures of
    acorns; and to my mother, Mrs. Old-Timer Sow, appointed
    by me in my last will, I give and bequeath: forty
    measures of Spartan wheat; and to my sister, Cry-Baby,
    appointed by me in my last will, whose wedding, alas! I
    cannot attend, I give and bequeath: thirty measures of
    barley; and of my nobler parts and property I give and
    bequeath, to the cobbler: my bristles; to the brawlers,
    my jaw-bones; to the deaf, my ears; to the shyster
    lawyers, my tongue; to the cow-herds, my intestines; to
    the sausage makers, my thighs; to the ladies, my
    tenderloins; to the boys, my bladder; to the girls, my
    little pig's tail; to the dancers, my muscles; to the
    runners and hunters, my knuckles; to the hired man, my
    hoofs; and to the cook--though not to be named--I give
    and bequeath and transmit my belly and appendage which I
    have dragged with me from the rotten oak bottoms to the
    pig's sty, for him to tie around his neck and to hang
    himself with.

    "I wish to erect a monument to myself, inscribed with
    golden letters: 'M. Grunter Corocotta Porker lived
    nine-hundred-and-ninety-nine years, and had he lived
    another half year, a thousand years would have been
    nearly completed.'

    "I ask of you who love me best, you who live like me, I
    ask you: will not my name remain to be eulogized in all
    eternity? if you only will prepare my body properly and
    flavor it well with good condiments, nuts, pepper and
    honey!

    "My master and my relatives, all of you who have
    witnessed this execution of my last will and testament,
    you are requested to sign.

    "(Signed) Hard Sausage
              Match Maker
              Fat Bacon
              Bacon Rind
              Celsinus
              Meat Ball
              Sprout Cabbage."

       *       *       *       *       *

Thus far the story by Petrus Lambecius. The fifth of the signatories of
the Porker's Testament is Celsinus; and since the other names are
fictitious it is quite possible that Lambecius had a special purpose in
pointing out the man for whom the dish, Porcellus Celsinianus,--Suckling
Pig à la Celsinus--was named.

Celsinus was counsellor for Aurelianus, the emperor.


[377] ROAST PIG
    _PORCELLUM ASSUM_

CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, SATURY, ONIONS, HARD YOLKS OF EGG, BROTH, WINE,
OIL, SPICES; BOIL THESE INGREDIENTS, POUR OVER THE [roast] PIG IN THE
SAUCE PAN AND SERVE.


[378] PIG À LA JARDINIÈRE
    _PORCELLUM HORTOLANUM_ [1]

THE PIG IS BONED THROUGH THE THROAT AND FILLED WITH QUENELLES OF
CHICKEN FORCEMEAT, FINELY CUT [roast] THRUSHES, FIG-PECKERS, LITTLE
SAUSAGE CAKES, MADE OF THE PIG'S MEAT, LUCANIAN SAUSAGE, STONED DATES,
EDIBLE BULBS [glazed onions] SNAILS TAKEN OUT OF THE SHELL [and
poached] MALLOWS, LEEKS, BEETS, CELERY, COOKED SPROUTS, CORIANDER,
WHOLE PEPPER, NUTS, 15 EGGS POURED OVER, BROTH, WHICH IS SPICED WITH
PEPPER, AND DILUTED WITH 3 EGGS; THEREUPON SEW IT TIGHT, STIFFEN, AND
ROAST IN THE OVEN. WHEN DONE, OPEN THE BACK [of the pig] AND POUR OVER
THE FOLLOWING SAUCE: CRUSHED PEPPER, RUE, BROTH, RAISIN WINE, HONEY
AND A LITTLE OIL, WHICH WHEN BOILING IS TIED WITH ROUX [2].

    [1] Tor. _Hortulanus_; Gardener's style, the French
    equivalent _Jardinière_, a very common name for all
    dishes containing young vegetables. However, in the
    above rich formula there is very little to remind us of
    the gardener's style, excepting the last part of the
    formula, enumerating a number of fresh vegetables. It is
    unthinkable for any gourmet to incorporate these with
    the rich dressing. The vegetables should be used as a
    garnish for the finished roast. This leads us to believe
    that the above is really two distinct formulæ, or that
    the vegetables were intended for garniture.

    [2] This extraordinary and rich dressing, perfectly
    feasible and admirable when compared with our own
    "Toulouse," "Financière," "Chipolata," can be palatable
    only when each component part is cooked separately
    before being put into the pig. The eggs must be whipped
    and diluted with broth and poured over the filling to
    serve as binder. The pig must be parboiled before
    filling, and the final cooking or roasting must be done
    very slowly and carefully--procedure not stated by the
    original which it takes for granted.


[379] COLD SAUCE FOR BOILED SUCKLING PIG
    _JUS PORRO _[1]_ FRIGIDUM IN PORCELLUM ELIXUM_

CRUSH PEPPER, CARRAWAY, DILL, LITTLE ORIGANY, PINE NUTS, MOISTEN WITH
VINEGAR, BROTH [2], DATE WINE, HONEY, PREPARED MUSTARD; SPRINKLE WITH
A LITTLE OIL, PEPPER, AND SERVE.

    [1] Tor. only; _porrò_ indicating that the sauce may
    also be served with the foregoing. Wanting in List. _et
    al._

    [2] Wanting in Tor.


[380] SMOKED PIG À LA TRAJANUS
    _PORCELLUM TRAIANUM_ [1]

MAKE THUS: BONE THE PIG, TREAT IT AS FOR STEWING IN WINE [℞ No.
375, i.e. marinate for some time in spices, herbs and wine] THEREUPON
HANG IT IN THE SMOKE HOUSE [2] NEXT BOIL IT IN SALT WATER AND SERVE
THUS [3] ON A LARGE PLATTER [4].

    [1] Tor. and Tac. _traganum_.

    [2] _ad fumum suspendes_; G.-V. _et adpendeas, et
    quantum adpendeas, tantum salis in ollam
    mittes_--passage wanting in other texts, meaning,
    probably, that the more pigs are used for smoking the
    more salt must be used for pickling which is a matter of
    course, or, the heavier the pig, ...

    [3] Tor. _atque ita in lance efferes_; Tac. & _sic eum
    ..._; G.-V. _et siccum in lance inferes_.

    [4] Hum. _salso recente_, with fresh salt pork. Tor.
    _cum salsamento istoc recenti_ and Tor. continues
    without interruption, indicating, perhaps, that the
    following formula is to be served, or treated (boiled)
    like the above.


[381] MILK-FED PIG
    _IN PORCELLO LACTANTE_ [1]

ONE OUNCE OF PEPPER, A PINT OF WINE, A RATHER LARGE GLASS OF THE BEST
OIL, A GLASS OF BROTH [2], AND RATHER LESS THAN A GLASS OF VINEGAR
[3].

    [1] G.-V. _lactans_, suckling, milk-fed; other texts:
    _lactente_: Dann. wild boar.

    [2] wanting in Tac. and Tor.

    [3] a variant of the foregoing, a mild pickling solution
    for extremely young suckling pigs, prior to their
    smoking or boiling, or both, which the original does not
    state.

    Schuch and his disciple Danneil, have inserted here
    seven more pork formulæ (Sch. p. 179, ℞ Nos. 388-394)
    taken from the Excerpts of Vinidarius, found at the
    conclusion of the Apicius formulæ.



VIII

HARE
  _LEPOREM_


[382] BRAISED HARE
    _LEPOREM MADIDUM_

IS PARBOILED A LITTLE IN WATER, THEREUPON PLACE IT ON A ROASTING PAN
WITH OIL, TO BE ROASTED IN THE OVEN. AND WHEN PROPERLY DONE, WITH A
CHANGE OF OIL, IMMERSE IT IN THE FOLLOWING GRAVY: CRUSH PEPPER,
SATURY, ONION, RUE, CELERY SEED; MOISTEN WITH BROTH, LASER, WINE, AND
A LITTLE OIL. WHILE THE ROASTING [of the hare] IS BEING COMPLETED IT
IS SEVERAL TIMES BASTED WITH THE GRAVY.

    Wanting in Goll.

    A difference in the literary style from the foregoing is
    quite noticeable.


[383] THE SAME, WITH A DIFFERENT DRESSING
    _ITEM ALIA AD EUM IMPENSAM_

[The hare] MUST BE PROPERLY KEPT [i.e. aged for a few days after
killing]. CRUSH PEPPER, DATES, LASER, RAISINS, REDUCED WINE, BROTH AND
OIL; DEPOSIT [the hare in this preparation to be cooked] WHEN DONE,
SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    Wanting in Goll. Tor. continuing without interruption.


[384] STUFFED HARE
    _LEPOREM FARSUM_

WHOLE [pine] NUTS, ALMONDS, CHOPPED NUTS OR BEECHNUTS, WHOLE PEPPER
ARE MIXED WITH THE [force] MEAT OF HARE THICKENED WITH EGGS AND
WRAPPED IN PIG'S CAUL TO BE ROASTED IN THE OVEN [1]. ANOTHER FORCEMEAT
IS MADE WITH RUE, PLENTY OF PEPPER, ONION, SATURY, DATES, BROTH,
REDUCED WINE, OR SPICED WINE. THIS IS REDUCED TO THE PROPER
CONSISTENCY AND IS LAID UNDER; BUT THE HARE REMAINS IN THE BROTH
FLAVORED WITH LASER.

    [1] Reminding of the popular meat loaf, made of
    remnants: _Falscher Hase_, "Imitation Hare," as it is
    known on the Continent.

    The ancients probably used the trimmings of hare and
    other meat for this forcemeat, or meat loaf, either to
    stuff the hare with, or to make a meal of the
    preparation itself, as indicated above.

    We also recall that the ancients had ingenious baking
    moulds of metal in the shape of hares and other animals.
    These moulds, no doubt, were used for baking or the
    serving of preparations of this sort. The absence of
    table forks and cutlery as is used today made such
    preparations very appropriate and convenient in
    leisurely dining.


[385] WHITE SAUCE FOR HARE
    _IUS ALBUM IN ASSUM LEPOREM_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CELERY SEED, HARD BOILED YOLKS, PROPERLY
POUNDED, MADE INTO A PASTE. IN A SAUCE PAN BOIL BROTH, WINE, OIL, A
LITTLE VINEGAR AND CHOPPED ONIONS. WHILE BOILING ADD THE PASTE OF
SPICES, STIRRING WITH A FAGOT OF ORIGANY OR SATURY [1] AND WHEN THE
WORK IS DONE, BIND IT WITH ROUX.

    [1] Fagots, or whips made of different herbs and brushes
    are often employed by Apicius, a very subtle device to
    impart faint flavors to sauces. The custom has been in
    use for ages. With the return of mixed drinks in America
    it was revived by the use of cinnamon sticks with which
    to stir the drinks.

    The above hare formulæ are wanting in Goll.


[386] LIGHTS OF HARE [1]
    _ALITER IN LEPOREM_ [2]

A FINE HASH OF HARE'S BLOOD, LIVER AND LUNGS. PUT INTO A SAUCE PAN
BROTH AND OIL, AND LET IT BOIL WITH FINELY CHOPPED LEEKS AND
CORIANDER; NOW ADD THE LIVERS AND LUNGS, AND, WHEN DONE, CRUSH PEPPER,
CUMIN, CORIANDER, LASER ROOT, MINT, RUE, FLEA-BANE, MOISTENED WITH
VINEGAR [3].

    [1] Wanting in Goll.

    [2] Tor. _Condimentum ex visceribus leporinis_.

    [3] The various texts combine the above and the
    following formula; but we are of the opinion that they
    are two distinct preparations.


[387] LIGHTS OF HARE, ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

TO THE HARE'S LIVER ADD THE BLOOD AND POUND IT WITH HONEY AND SOME OF
THE HARE'S OWN GRAVY; ADD VINEGAR TO TASTE AND PUT IN A SAUCE PAN, ADD
THE LUNGS CHOPPED FINE, MAKE IT BOIL: WHEN DONE BIND WITH ROUX,
SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    This and the preceding formula resemble closely our
    purées or forcemeats of livers of game and fowl, which
    are spread on croutons to accompany the roast.


[388] HARE IN ITS OWN BROTH [1]
    _ALITER LEPOREM EX SUO IURE_

PREPARE THE HARE, BONE IT, GARNISH [2] PUT IT IN A STEW POT [3] AND
WHEN HALF DONE ADD A SMALL BUNCH OF LEEKS, CORIANDER, DILL; WHILE THIS
IS BEING DONE, PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, CORIANDER
SEED, LASER ROOT, DRY ONION, MINT, RUE, CELERY SEED; CRUSH, MOISTEN
WITH BROTH, ADD HONEY, THE HARE'S OWN GRAVY, REDUCED MUST AND VINEGAR
TO TASTE; LET IT BOIL, TIE WITH ROUX, DRESS, GARNISH THE ROAST ON A
PLATTER, UNDERLAY THE SAUCE, SPRINKLE AND SERVE.

    [1] Cf. Goll. ℞ No. 381.

    [2] with vegetables for braising, possibly larding.

    [3] _braisière_, for this is plainly a "potroast" of
    hare. The boned carcass should be tied; this is perhaps
    meant by or is included in _ornas_--garnish, i.e.
    getting ready for braising.


[389] HARE À LA PASSENIANUS [1]
    _LEPOREM PASSENIANUM_

THE HARE IS DRESSED, BONED, THE BODY SPREAD OUT [2] GARNISHED [with
pickling herbs and spices] AND HUNG INTO THE SMOKE STACK [3] WHEN IT
HAS TAKEN ON COLOR, COOK IT HALF DONE, WASH IT, SPRINKLE WITH SALT AND
IMMERSE IT IN WINE SAUCE. IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, AND CRUSH:
MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE AND A LITTLE OIL, HEAT; WHEN BOILING, BIND
WITH ROUX. NOW DETACH THE SADDLE OF THE ROAST HARE, SPRINKLE WITH
PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] This personage, Passenius, or Passenianus, is not
    identified.

    [2] To bone the carcass, it usually is opened in the
    back, flattened out and all the bones are easily
    removed. In that state it is easily pickled and
    thoroughly smoked.

    [3] Lan., Tac., and Tor. _suspendes ad furnum_; Hum.,
    List., and G.-V. _... ad fumum_. We accept the latter
    reading, "in the smoke," assuming that _furnum_ is a
    typographical error in Lan. and his successors, Tac. and
    Tor. Still, roasts have for ages been "hung on chains
    close to or above the open fire"; Torinus may not be
    wrong, after all, in this essential direction. However,
    a boned and flattened-out hare would be better broiled
    on the grill than hung up over the open fire.


[390] KROMESKIS OF HARE
    _LEPOREM ISICIATUM_

THE HARE IS COOKED AND FLAVORED IN THE SAME [above] MANNER; SMALL BITS
OF MEAT ARE MIXED WITH SOAKED NUTS; THIS [salpicon] [1] IS WRAPPED IN
CAUL OR PARCHMENT, THE ENDS BEING CLOSED BY MEANS OF SKEWERS [and
fried].

    [1] We call this preparation a salpicon because it
    closely resembles to our modern salpicons--a fine mince
    of meats, mushrooms, etc., although the ancient formula
    fails to state the binder of this mince--either eggs or
    a thickened sauce, or both.


[391] STUFFED HARE
    _LEPOREM FARSILEM_

DRESS THE HARE [as usual] GARNISH [marinate] IT, PLACE IN A SQUARE PAN
[1]. IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH BROTH,
ADD CHICKEN LIVERS [sauté] COOKED BRAINS, FINELY CUT MEAT [2] 3 RAW
EGGS, BROTH TO TASTE. WRAP IT IN CAUL OR PARCHMENT, FASTEN WITH
SKEWERS. HALF ROAST ON A SLOW FIRE. [Meanwhile] PUT IN THE MORTAR
PEPPER, LOVAGE: CRUSH AND MOISTEN WITH BROTH, WINE, SEASON, MAKE IT
HOT, WHEN BOILING BIND WITH ROUX; THE HALF-DONE HARE IMMERSE [finish
its cooking in this broth] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] _Quadratum imponis_, which is plain enough. The hare
    is to be roast therein. Dann. Cut in dice; Goll. Spread
    it out. Cf. illustration of square roast pan.

    [2] Presumably the trimmings of the hare or of pork.
    This forcemeat is supposed to be used for the stuffing
    of the hare; it, being boned, is rolled up, the
    forcemeat inside, the outside covered with caul or
    paper, fastened with skewers. Danneil's interpretation
    suggests the thought that the raw hare's meat is cut
    into squares which are filled with forcemeat, rolled,
    wrapped, and roast--a roulade of hare in the regular
    term.


[392] BOILED HARE
    _ALITER LEPOREM ELIXUM_

DRESS THE HARE; [boil it]. IN A FLAT SAUCE PAN POUR OIL, BROTH,
VINEGAR, RAISIN WINE, SLICED ONION, GREEN RUE AND CHOPPED THYME [a
sauce which is served on the side] AND SO SERVE IT.

    Tor. continuing without interruption.


[393] SPICED SAUCE FOR HARE
    _LEPORIS CONDITURA_

CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, ONIONS, THE HARE'S LIVER, BROTH, REDUCED WINE,
RAISIN WINE, A LITTLE OIL; BIND WITH RUE WHEN BOILING.

    Tor. _id._


[394] SPRINKLED HARE
    _LEPOREM (PIPERE) SICCO SPARSUM_ [1]

DRESS THE HARE AS FOR KID À LA TARPEIUS [℞ No. 363]. BEFORE COOKING
DECORATE IT NICELY [2]. SEASON WITH PEPPER, RUE, SATURY, ONION, LITTLE
THYME, MOISTEN WITH BROTH, ROAST IN THE OVEN; AND ALL OVER SPRINKLE
HALF AN OUNCE OF PEPPER, RUE, ONIONS, SATURY, 4 DATES, AND RAISINS.
THE GRAVY IS GIVEN PLENTY OF COLOR OVER THE OPEN FIRE, AND IS SEASONED
WITH WINE, OIL, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, FREQUENTLY STIRRING IT [basting
the hare] SO THAT IT MAY ABSORB ALL THE FLAVOR. AFTER THAT SERVE IT
IN A ROUND DISH WITH DRY PEPPER.

    [1] Tac., Tor. _succo sparsum_.

    [2] We have no proof that the ancients used the larding
    needle as we do (or did) in our days. "Decorate" may,
    therefore, also mean "garnish," i.e. marinate the meat
    in a generous variety of spices, herbs, roots and wine.
    It is noteworthy that this term, "garnish," used here
    and in the preceding formulæ has survived in the
    terminology of the kitchen to this day, in that very
    sense.


[395] SPICED HARE
    _ALITER LEPOREM CONDITUM_

[The well-prepared hare] COOK IN WINE, BROTH, WATER, WITH A LITTLE
MUSTARD [seed], DILL AND LEEKS WITH THE ROOTS. WHEN ALL IS DONE,
SEASON WITH PEPPER, SATURY, ROUND ONIONS, DAMASCUS PLUMS, WINE, BROTH,
REDUCED WINE AND A LITTLE OIL; TIE WITH ROUX, LET BOIL A LITTLE LONGER
[baste] SO THAT THE HARE IS PENETRATED BY THE FLAVOR, AND SERVE IT ON
A PLATTER MASKED WITH SAUCE.



IX

DORMICE
  _GLIRES_


[396] STUFFED DORMOUSE [1]
    _GLIRES_

IS STUFFED WITH A FORCEMEAT OF PORK AND SMALL PIECES OF DORMOUSE MEAT
TRIMMINGS, ALL POUNDED WITH PEPPER, NUTS, LASER, BROTH. PUT THE
DORMOUSE THUS STUFFED IN AN EARTHEN CASSEROLE, ROAST IT IN THE OVEN,
OR BOIL IT IN THE STOCK POT.

    [1] _Glis_, dormouse, a special favorite of the
    ancients, has nothing to do with mice. The fat dormouse
    of the South of Europe is the size of a rat, arboreal
    rodent, living in trees.

    Galen, III, de Alim.; Plinius, VIII, 57/82; Varro, III,
    describing the _glirarium_, place where the dormouse was
    raised for the table.

    Petronius, Cap. 31, describes another way of preparing
    dormouse. Nonnus, Diæteticon, p. 194/5, says that
    Fluvius Hirpinus was the first man to raise dormouse in
    the _glirarium_.

    Dormouse, as an article of diet, should not astonish
    Americans who relish squirrel, opossum, muskrat, "coon,"
    etc.


END OF BOOK VIII

_EXPLICIT APICII TETRAPUS LIBER OCTAUUS_ [Tac.]



{Illustration: TITLE PAGE

Schola Apitiana, Antwerp, 1535}

{Transcription:

  SCHOLA APITIANA, EX OPTIMIS QVIBVSDAM authoribus diligenter ac nouiter
  constructa, authore Polyonimo Syngrapheo.


  ACGESSERE DIALOGI aliquot D. Erasmi Roterodami, & alia quædam lectu
  iucundissima.

  Væneunt Antuerpiæ in ædibus Ioannis Steelsij.

  I. G. 1535.}



APICIUS

Book IX



{Illustration: WINE PITCHER, ELABORATELY DECORATED

"Egg and bead" pattern on the rim. The upper end of handle takes the
form of a goddess--Scylla, or Diana with two hounds--ending in
acanthus leaves below the waist. On the curved back of handle is a
long leaf; the lower attachment is in the form of a mask, ivy-crowned
maenad (?). Ntl. Mus., Naples, 69171; Field M., 24048.}



{Illustration: CACCABUS

Stewpot, marmite, without a base, to fit into a hole of stove. The
flat lid fits into the mouth of the pot. Found in Pompeii. Ntl. Mus.,
Naples, 74806; Field M., 24171.}



BOOK IX. SEAFOOD

_Lib. IX. Thalassa_


    CHAP.    I. SHELLFISH.
    CHAP.   II. RAY.
    CHAP.  III. CALAMARY.
    CHAP.   IV. CUTTLEFISH.
    CHAP.    V. POLYPUS.
    CHAP.   VI. OYSTERS.
    CHAP.  VII. ALL KINDS OF BIVALVES.
    CHAP. VIII. SEA URCHIN.
    CHAP.   IX. MUSSELS.
    CHAP.    X. SARDINES.
    CHAP.   XI. FISH SAUCES.
    CHAP.  XII. BAIAN SEAFOOD STEW.



I

SHELLFISH
  _IN LOCUSTA_


[397] SAUCE FOR SHELLFISH
    _IUS IN LOCUSTA ET CAPPARI_ [1]

CHOPPED SCALLIONS FRIED LIGHTLY, CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY,
CUMIN, FIGDATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH, OIL, REDUCED MUST; WHILE
BOILING ADD MUSTARD.

    [1] _locusta_, spiny lobster; Fr. _langouste_; G.-V.
    _capparus_; not clear, (_cammarus_, a crab); List.
    _carabus_--long-tailed lobster or crab, the _cancer
    cursor_ of Linnæus, according to Beckmann; mentioned by
    Plinius.


[398] BROILED LOBSTER
    _LOCUSTAS ASSAS_

MAKES THUS: IF BROILED, THEY SHOULD APPEAR IN THEIR SHELL; [which is
opened by splitting the live lobster in two] SEASON WITH PEPPER SAUCE
AND CORIANDER SAUCE [moisten with oil] AND BROIL THEM ON THE GRILL.
WHEN THEY ARE DRY [1] KEEP ON BASTING THEM MORE AND MORE [with oil or
butter] UNTIL THEY ARE PROPERLY BROILED [2].

    [1] i.e. when the soft jelly-like meat has congealed.

    [2] Same procedure as today.


[399] BOILED LOBSTER WITH CUMIN SAUCE [1]
    _LOCUSTAM ELIXAM CUM CUMINATO_

REAL BOILED LOBSTER IS COOKED WITH CUMIN SAUCE [essence] AND, BY
RIGHT, THROW IN SOME [whole] [2] PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, A
LITTLE MORE WHOLE CUMIN, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND, IF YOU LIKE, ADD
SOME [bay] LEAVES AND MALOBATHRON [3].

    [1] Cumin, mustard and other spices similar to the above
    are used for cooking crawfish today.

    [2] Sentence ex Tor. wanting in other texts.

    [3] Malabathrum, aromatic leaves of an Indian tree;
    according to Plinius the _laurus cassia_--wild cinnamon.


[400] ANOTHER LOBSTER DISH--MINCE OF THE TAIL MEAT
    _ALITER LOCUSTAM--ISICIA DE CAUDA EIUS SIC FACIES_

HAVE LEAVES READY [in which to wrap the mince croquettes] BOIL [the
lobster] TAKE THE CLUSTER OF SPAWN [from under the female's tail, and
the coral of the male] THEREUPON CUT FINE THE [boiled] MEAT OF THE
TAIL, AND WITH BROTH AND PEPPER AND THE EGGS MAKE THE CROQUETTES [and
fry].

    It is understood that hen eggs are added to bind the
    mince.


[401] BOILED LOBSTER
    _IN LOCUSTA ELIXA_

PEPPER, CUMIN, RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL.


[402] ANOTHER LOBSTER PREPARATION
    _ALITER IN LOCUSTA_

FOR LOBSTER LET US PROPERLY EMPLOY [1] PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, MINT,
RUE, NUTS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, AND WINE.

    [1] Tor. _rectè adhibemus_, sentence not in the other
    texts.



II

RAY, SKATE
  _IN TORPEDINE_ [1]


[403] [A Sauce for] RAY
    _IN TORPEDINE_

CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, SHALLOTS, [adding] HONEY, BROTH, RAISIN WINE, A
LITTLE WINE, ALSO A FEW DROPS OF OIL; WHEN IT COMMENCES TO BOIL, BIND
WITH ROUX.

    [1] _torpedo_; the _raia torpedo_ of Linnæus; a ray or
    skate.


[404] BOILED RAY
    _IN TORPEDINE ELIXA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, MINT, ORIGANY, YOLKS OF EGG, HONEY, BROTH,
RAISIN WINE. WINE, AND OIL. IF YOU WISH, ADD MUSTARD AND VINEGAR, OR,
IF DESIRED RICHER, ADD RAISINS.

    This appears to be a sauce to be poured over the boiled
    ray.

    Today the ray is boiled in water seasoned strongly and
    with similar ingredients. When done, the fish is allowed
    to cool in this water; the edible parts are then
    removed, the water drained from the meat, which is
    tossed in sizzling brown butter with lemon juice,
    vinegar and capers. This is _raie au beurre noir_, much
    esteemed on the French seaboards.



III

CALAMARY
  _IN LOLIGINE_ [1]


[405] CALAMARY IN THE PAN
    _IN LOLIGINE IN PATINA_

CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, A LITTLE HONEY, BROTH, REDUCED WINE, AND OIL TO
TASTE. WHEN COMMENCING TO BOIL, BIND WITH ROUX.

    [1] Calamary, ink-fish, cuttlefish. Cf. Chap. IV. G.-V.
    _Lolligine_.


[405a] STUFFED CALAMARY [1]
     _IN LOLIGINE FARSILI_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CORIANDER, CELERY SEED, YOLKS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH,
WINE, OIL, AND BIND [2].

    [1] Ex List., Sch., and G.-V. Evidently a sauce or
    dressing. The formula for the forcemeat of the fish is
    not given here but is found in ℞ No. 406--stuffed
    Sepia, a fish akin to the calamary.



IV

SEPIA, CUTTLEFISH
  _IN SEPIIS_


[406] STUFFED SEPIA
    _IN SEPIA FARSILI_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, CARRAWAY, HONEY, BROTH, WINE, BASIC
CONDIMENTS [1] HEAT [in water] THROW IN THE CUTTLEFISH; [when done]
SPLIT, THEN STUFF THE CUTTLEFISH [2] WITH [the following forcemeat]
BOILED BRAINS, THE STRINGS AND SKIN REMOVED, POUND WITH PEPPER, MIX IN
RAW EGGS UNTIL IT IS PLENTY. WHOLE PEPPER [to be added]. TIE [the
filled dish] INTO LITTLE BUNDLES [of linen] AND IMMERSE IN THE BOILING
STOCK POT UNTIL THE FORCEMEAT IS PROPERLY COOKED.

    [1] _Condimenta coctiva_--salt, herbs, roots.

    [2] G.-V. treat this as a separate formula.


[407] BOILED CUTTLEFISH [1]
    _SEPIAS ELIXAS AB AHENO_ [2]

ARE PLACED IN A COPPER KETTLE WITH COLD [WATER] AND PEPPER, LASER,
BROTH, NUTS, EGGS, AND [any other] SEASONING YOU MAY WISH.

    [1] List. connects this article with the foregoing.

    [2] Tor. _aheno_ for copper kettle; List. _amylo_.


[408] ANOTHER WAY TO COOK CUTTLEFISH
    _ALITER SEPIAS_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, GREEN CORIANDER, DRY MINT, YOLKS, HONEY, BROTH,
WINE, VINEGAR, AND A LITTLE OIL. WHEN BOILING BIND WITH ROUX.



V

POLYPUS [1]
  _IN POLYPO_


[409] POLYPUS
    _IN POLYPO_

[cook with] PEPPER, LOVAGE, BROTH, LASER, GINGER [2] AND SERVE.

    [1] The polypus, or eight-armed sepia, has been
    described by Plinius, Galen, Cicero, Diocles, Athenæus
    and other ancient writers. The ancients praise it as a
    food and attribute to the polypus the power of restoring
    lost vitality: _molli carne pisces, & suaves gustu sunt,
    & ad venerem conferunt_--Diocles.

    Wanting in the Vat. Ms.

    [2] Wanting in List. and G.-V. Ex Tor. p. 100.



VI

OYSTERS
  _IN OSTREIS_


[410] OYSTERS [1]
    _IN OSTREIS_

TO OYSTERS WHICH WANT TO BE WELL SEASONED ADD [2] PEPPER, LOVAGE,
YOLKS, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, AND WINE; IF YOU WISH ALSO ADD HONEY [3].

    [1] Wanting in the Vat. Ms.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in the other texts.

    [3] Cf. No. 14 for the keeping of oysters. It is not
    likely that the oysters brought from Great Britain to
    Rome were in a condition to be enjoyed from the
    shell--raw.

    The above formula appears to be a sort of oyster stew.



VII


[411] ALL KINDS OF BIVALVES
    _IN OMNE GENUS CONCHYLIORUM_ [1]

FOR ALL KINDS OF SHELLFISH USE PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, DRY MINT, A
LITTLE MORE OF CUMIN, HONEY, AND BROTH; IF YOU WISH, ADD [bay] LEAVES
AND MALOBATHRON [2].

    [1] Wanting in the Vat. Ms.

    [2] Cf. note to ℞ No. 399.

    The shellfish is cooked or steamed with the above
    ingredients.



VIII

SEA URCHINS
  _IN ECHINO_


[412] SEA URCHIN
    _IN ECHINO_

TO PREPARE SEA URCHIN TAKE A NEW EARTHEN POT, A LITTLE OIL, BROTH,
SWEET WINE, GROUND PEPPER, AND SET IT TO HEAT; WHEN BOILING PUT THE
URCHINS IN SINGLY. SHAKE THEM WELL, LET THEM STEW, AND WHEN DONE
SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    Plinius states that only a few small parts of the sea
    urchin are edible.


[413] ANOTHER METHOD
    _ALITER [IN] ECHINO_

PEPPER, A LITTLE COSTMARY, DRY MINT, MEAD, BROTH, INDIAN SPIKENARD,
AND [bay or nard] LEAVES.


[414] PLAIN BOILED
    _ALITER_

PUT THE SEA URCHINS SINGLY IN BOILING WATER, COOK, RETIRE, AND PLACE
ON A PLATTER.


[415] IN CHAFING DISH
    _IN THERMOSPODIO_ [1]

[To the meat of sea urchins, cooked as above, add a sauce made of bay]
LEAVES, PEPPER, HONEY, BROTH, A LITTLE OIL, BIND WITH EGGS IN THE HOT
WATER BATH [2] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] This formula is combined with the preceding in the
    original.

    [2] Thermospodium; in this respect resembling seafood à
    la Newburgh. The thermospodium is an elaborate food and
    drink heater, used both in the kitchen and in the dining
    room. Our drawing illustrates an elaborate specimen
    which was used to prepare dishes such as this one in
    front of the guests.


[416] SALT SEA URCHIN
    _IN ECHINO SALSO_

[The cooked meat of] SALT SEA URCHIN IS SERVED UP WITH THE BEST [fish]
BROTH, REDUCED WINE AND PEPPER TO TASTE.

    Undoubtedly a commercial article like crabmeat today.
    The sea urchins were cooked at the fisheries, picked,
    shells, refuse discarded, the meat salted and marketed.
    The fish was also salted in the shell as seen in the
    following:


[417] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

TAKE SALT SEA URCHINS, ADD THE BEST BROTH AND TREAT THEM IN A MANNER
AS TO LOOK LIKE FRESH THAT HAVE JUST COME OUT OF THE WATER.



IX

MUSSELS
  _IN MITULIS_ [1]


[418] MUSSELS
    _IN MITULIS_

BEST [2] BROTH, FINELY CUT LEEKS, CUMIN, RAISIN WINE, MUST [3] AND ADD
WATER TO MAKE A MIXTURE IN WHICH TO COOK THE MUSSELS.

    [1] Variously spelled _mytilus_, _mitylus_, _mutulus_,
    an edible mussel.

    Tor. and List. _merula_, merling, whiting, Fr. _merlan_.
    _Merula_ also is a blackbird, which is out of place here.
    The Vat. Ms. reads _in metulis_.

    [2] Tor.

    [3] Tor. _vinum mustum_; List. _v. mixtum_.



X

SARDINES, BABY TUNNY, MULLET
  _IN SARDA _[1]_ CORDULA _[2]_ MUGILE_ [3]


[419] STUFFED SARDINE
    _SARDAM FARSILEM_

PROPERLY, OUGHT TO BE TREATED IN THIS MANNER: THE SARDINE IS BONED AND
FILLED WITH CRUSHED FLEA-BANE, SEVERAL GRAINS OF PEPPER, MINT, NUTS,
DILUTED WITH HONEY, TIED OR SEWED, WRAPPED IN PARCHMENT AND PLACED IN
A FLAT DISH ABOVE THE STEAM RISING FROM THE STOVE; SEASON WITH OIL,
REDUCED MUST AND ORIGANY [4].

    [1] The freshly caught sardine.

    [2] _Cordyla_, _cordilla_, the young or the fry of
    tunny.

    [3] _Mugil_, sea-mullet.

    [4] Tor. origany; List. _alece_, with brine.


[420] ANOTHER PREPARATION OF SARDINES
    _SARDA ITA FIT_

COOK AND BONE THE SARDINES; FILL WITH CRUSHED PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME,
ORIGANY, RUE, MOISTENED WITH DATE WINE, HONEY; PLACE ON A DISH,
GARNISH WITH CUT HARD EGGS. POUR OVER A LITTLE WINE, VINEGAR, REDUCED
MUST, AND VIRGIN OIL.


[421] SAUCE FOR SARDINES
    _IUS IN SARDA_

PEPPER, ORIGANY, MINT, ONIONS, A LITTLE VINEGAR, AND OIL.

    Resembling our _vinaigrette_.


[422] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR SARDINES [1]
    _IUS ALIUD IN SARDA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, DRY MINT [2] COOKED, ONION [chopped], HONEY, VINEGAR,
DILUTE WITH OIL, SPRINKLE WITH CHOPPED HARD EGGS.

    [1] Another _Vinaigrette_.

    [2] Tac. and Tor. _mentam aridam coctam_, dry mint
    cooked, which is reasonable, to soften it. Hum., G.-V.
    dry mint, cooked onion; there is no necessity to cook
    the onion. As a matter of fact, it should be chopped raw
    in this dressing. The onion is wanting in Tac. and Tor.


[423] SAUCE FOR BROILED BABY TUNNY
    _IUS IN CORDULA ASSA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, MINT, RUE, FIGDATE [or its wine] HONEY,
VINEGAR, WINE. ALSO SUITABLE FOR SARDINES.


[424] SAUCE FOR SALT SEA-MULLET
    _IUS IN MUGILE SALSO_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, ONION, MINT, RUE, SAGE [1], DATE WINE, HONEY,
VINEGAR, MUSTARD AND OIL.

    [1] Tor. _calva_; G.-V. _calvam_. Does not exist. Hum.
    _calva legendum puto salvia_.


[425] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR SALT SEA-MULLET
    _ALITER IUS IN MUGILE SALSO_

PEPPER, ORIGANY, ROCKET, MINT, RUE, SAGE [1], DATE WINE, HONEY, OIL,
VINEGAR AND MUSTARD.

    [1] Same as above.



XI [1]


[426] SAUCE FOR CATFISH, BABY TUNNY AND TUNNY
    _IUS IN SILURO _[2]_ IN PELAMYDE _[3]_ ET IN THYNNO_ [4]

TO MAKE THEM MORE TASTY USE [5] PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, ONIONS, MINT,
RUE, SAGE [6] DATE WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, MUSTARD AND OIL.

    [1] The twelve chapters of Book IX, as shown in the
    beginning of the text are here increased to fourteen by
    G.-V., to wit, XII, _IUS IN MULLO TARICHO_ and XIII,
    _SALSUM SINE SALSO_, but these are more properly
    included in the above chapter XI, as does Tor. All of
    the above fish were salt, and probably were important
    commercial articles. The _silurus_, for instance, is
    best in the river Danube in the Balkans, while the red
    mullet, as seen in ℞ No. 427 came from the sea of
    Galilee. Cf. ℞ Nos. 144, 149.

    [2] _Silurus_, probably the sly silurus, or sheatfish,
    in the U. S. called horn-pout--a large catfish.

    [3] _Pelamis_, a tunny before it is a year old.

    [4] Tunny, Tunafish.

    [5] Tor. wanting in the others.

    [6] Cf. note 1 to ℞ No. 424.



XII


[427] SAUCE FOR SALT RED MULLET
    _IUS IN MULLO _[1]_ TARICHO_ [2]

IF IN NEED OF CONDIMENTS USE [3] PEPPER, RUE, ONIONS, DATES, GROUND
MUSTARD; MIX ALL WITH [flaked meat of] SEA URCHINS, MOISTEN WITH OIL,
AND POUR OVER THE FISH WHICH IS EITHER FRIED OR BROILED, OMITTING SALT
[4].

    [1] Tor. _mulo_, the red sur-mullet--a very esteemed
    fish.

    [2] Tarichea, town of Galilee, on the sea of Galilee.
    Salt mullet as prepared at Tarichea was known as
    _Tarichus_. This became finally a generic name for all
    kinds of salt fish, whether coming from Tarichea or from
    elsewhere. We have an interesting analogy in "Finnan
    Haddie," smoked Haddock from Findon, Scotland, corrupted
    into "Finnan," and now used for any kind of smoked
    Haddock. Cf. ℞ Nos. 144, 149.

    [3] Tor. Quite correctly, he questions the need of
    condiments for salt fish.

    [4] List. uses this last sentence as the title for the
    next formula, implying that more salt be added to the
    salt fish; Tor. is explicit in saying that no salt be
    added which of course, is correct.



XIII

ANOTHER WAY, WITHOUT SALT [PORK?]
  _ALITER, SINE SALSO_ [1]


[428] FISH LIVER PUDDING
    _SALSUM, SINE SALSO_ [2]

COOK THE LIVER [of the mullet] CRUSH [3] AND ADD PEPPER, EITHER BROTH
OR SALT [4] ADD OIL, LIVER OF HARE, OR OF LAMB [5] OR OF CHICKEN, AND,
IF YOU LIKE, PRESS INTO A FISH MOULD [6] [unmould, after baking]
SPRINKLE WITH VIRGIN OIL [7].

    [1] Tor.

    [2] G.-V. plainly, a contradiction. The possible meaning
    may be, "Salt Fish, without salt pork" as salt fish is
    frequently served with bacon.

    [3] Dann. Crush the liver, which is probably correct. A
    paste or forcemeat of the livers and fish were made.

    [4] The addition of salt would be superfluous if the
    liver of salt meat is used, excepting if the liver of
    hare, etc., predominated.

    [5] G.-V. or liver of kid, wanting in Tor.

    [6] Such fish-shape moulds existed, made of bronze,
    artistically finished, same as we possess them today;
    such moulds were made in various styles and shapes. Cf.
    ℞ No. 384.

    [7] This is an attempt to make a "fish" of livers, not
    so much with the intention to deceive as to utilize the
    livers in an attractive way. A very nutritious dish and
    a most ingenious device, requiring much skill.

    This is another good example of Roman cookery, far from
    being extravagant as it is reputed to be, it is
    economical and clever, and shows ingenuity in the
    utilization of good things which are often discarded as
    worthless.


[429] ANOTHER WAY, FOR A CHANGE!
    _ALITER VICEM GERENS SALSI_ [1]

CUMIN, PEPPER, BROTH, WHICH CRUSH, ADDING A LITTLE RAISIN WINE, OR
REDUCED WINE, AND A QUANTITY OF CRUSHED NUTS. MIX EVERYTHING WELL,
INCORPORATE WITH THE SALT [2] [fish]; MIX IN A LITTLE OIL AND SERVE.

    [1] G.-V. _Alter vice salsi_.

    [2] Tor. _& salibus imbue_; List. _& salsa redde_. There
    is no sense to Lister's version, nor can we accept G.-V.
    who have _et salari defundes_.


[430] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER SALSUM IN _[1]_ SALSO_

TAKE AS MUCH CUMIN AS YOUR FIVE FINGERS WILL HOLD; CRUSH HALF OF THAT
QUANTITY OF PEPPER AND ONE PIECE OF PEELED GARLIC, MOISTEN WITH BROTH
AND MIX IN A LITTLE OIL. THIS WILL CORRECT AND BENEFIT A SOUR STOMACH
AND PROMOTE DIGESTION [2].

    [1] Tor., G.-V. _sine_.

    [2] The title has reference to salt fish or salt pork;
    but the formula obviously is of a medicinal character
    and has no place here.



XII [XIV]


[431] BAIAN SEAFOOD STEW
    _EMBRACTUM _[1]_ BAIANUM_ [2]

MINCED [poached] OYSTERS, MUSSELS [3] [or scallops] AND SEA NETTLES
PUT IN A SAUCE PAN WITH TOASTED NUTS, RUE, CELERY, PEPPER, CORIANDER,
CUMIN, RAISIN WINE, BROTH, REDUCED WINE AND OIL.

    [1] List. _emphractum_--a caudle, a stew. Seafood stews
    of this sort are very popular in the South of Europe,
    the most famous among them being the _Bouillabaisse_ of
    Marseilles.

    [2] Baiæ, a very popular seaside resort of the ancients
    located in the bay of Naples. The stew was named after
    the place. Horace liked the place but Seneca warned
    against it.

    [3] Tor. _spondylos_; List. _sphondylos_--scallops.
    Both terms, if used in connection with the shellfish are
    correct. Lister in several places confuses this term
    with _spongiolus_--mushroom. This instance is the final
    vindication of Torinus, whose correctness was maintained
    in ℞ Nos. 41, 47, 115, _seq._; 120, 121, 183, 309,
    _seq._


END OF BOOK IX [1]

_EXPLICIT APICII THALASSA LIBER NONUS_ [2]


    [1] It appears to us that Book IX and the following,
    Book X, judging from its recipes, phraseology and from
    other appearances is by a different author than the
    preceding books. (Long after having made this
    observation, we learn from Vollmer, Studien, that Books
    IX and X were missing in the Archetypus Fuldensis.)

    [2]. Tac.



{Illustration: ROAST PLATTER

The indenture is corrugated to receive the juices of the roast.
Hildesheim Treas.}



{Illustration: TITLE PAGE, TORINUS EDITION, BASEL, 1541

Inscribed with comments by Lappius, contemporary scholar. The fly-leaf
bears the autograph of M. Tydeman, 1806, and references to the above
Lappius. There are further inscriptions by ancient hands in Latin and
French, referring to the Barnhold [_sic_] Apicius, to The Diaitetike,
to Aulus Cornelius, Celsus, Hippocrates and Galen. Also complaints
about the difficulties to decipher the Apician text.}

{Transcription:

  CAELII APITII
  SVMMI ADVLATRICIS MEDICINÆ
  artificis DE RE CVLINARIA Libri x. recens
  è tenebris eruti, & à mendis uindicati,
  typisque summa diligentia
  excusi.

  PRÆTEREA,

  P. PLATINÆ CREMONENSIS
  VIRI VNDECVNQVE DOCTISSIMI,
  De tuenda ualetudine, Natura rerum, & Popinæ
  scientia Libri x. ad imitationem C. APITII
  ad unguem facti.

  AD HÆC,

  PAVLI ÆGINETÆ DE
  FACVLTATIBVS ALIMENTORVM TRACTATVS,
  ALBANO TORINO
  INTERPRETE.

  _Cum INDICE copiosissimo._

  BASILEÆ.
  _________
  M. D. XLI.}



APICIUS

Book X



{Illustration: SHALLOW SAUCE PAN

The plain bowl is molded, the fluted handle ends in a head of the
young Hercules in a lion's skin, with the paws tied under the neck.
This corresponds somewhat to our modern chafing dish pan both in size
and in utility. This pan was used in connection with the plain
thermospodium for the service of hot foods in the dining room. Ntl.
Mus., Naples, 73438; Field M., 24032.}



{Illustration: CACCABUS

Stewpot, kettle, marmite. The cover fits over the mouth. The rings in
which the bail plays are attached by rivets to a sort of collar
encircling the neck of the pot. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 74775; Field M.,
24173.}



BOOK X. THE FISHERMAN [1]

_Lib. X. Halieus_


    CHAP.   I. DIFFERENT KINDS OF FISH.
    CHAP.  II. MURENAS.
    CHAP. III. EEL.

    The numbers of the chapters differ in the various texts.



I


[432] A SAUCE FINES HERBES FOR FRIED FISH
    _IUS DIABOTANON _[2]_ PRO _[3]_ PISCE FRIXO_

USE ANY KIND OF FISH. PREPARE [clean, salt, turn in flour] SALT [4]
AND FRY IT. CRUSH PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, LASER ROOT, ORIGANY,
AND RUE, ALL CRUSHED FINE, MOISTENED WITH VINEGAR, DATE WINE, HONEY,
REDUCED MUST, OIL AND BROTH. POUR IN A SAUCE PAN, PLACE ON FIRE, WHEN
SIMMERING POUR OVER THE FRIED FISH, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] This chapter principally deals with fish sauces.
    Apparently it is by a different author than Books
    I-VIII, which have many formulæ for fish. While we have
    no direct proof, we are inclined to believe that Book X
    is a Roman version of a Greek treatise on fish sauces, a
    monograph, of which there existed many, according to
    Athenæus, which specialized on the various departments
    of cookery.

    [2] Tor. _Diabotom_ (in Greek characters); Greek,
    relating to herbs.

    [3] Tor. G.-V. _in_.

    [4] G.-V. _salsas_.


[433] SAUCE FOR BOILED FISH
    _IUS IN PISCE ELIXO_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, SMALL ONIONS, ORIGANY, NUTS, FIGDATES, HONEY,
VINEGAR, BROTH, MUSTARD, A LITTLE OIL; HEAT THIS SAUCE, AND IF YOU
WISH [it to be richer, add] RAISINS.


[434] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BOILED FISH
    _ALITER IN PISCE ELIXO_ [1]

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, SATURY, ONION, [hard] BOILED
YOLKS, RAISIN WINE, VINEGAR, OIL AND BROTH.

    [1] Tor. _frixo_--fried fish, although his heading reads
    _elixo_.


[435] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BOILED FISH
    _ALITER IUS IN PISCE ELIXO_

PREPARE THE FISH CAREFULLY; IN THE MORTAR PUT SALT, CORIANDER SEED,
CRUSH AND MIX WELL; TURN THE FISH THEREIN, PUT IT IN A PAN, COVER IT
AND SEAL IT WITH PLASTER [1] COOK IT IN THE OVEN. WHEN DONE RETIRE
[the fish from the pan] SPRINKLE WITH STRONG VINEGAR AND SERVE.

    [1] Remarkable culinary ingenuity, resembling in
    principle the North American Indian method of cooking
    whitefish wrapped in clay. Today we use flour and water
    made into a stiff paste to seal a pan hermetically if no
    "pressure cooker" is available.

    This formula cannot be classified under "Sauce for
    Boiled Fish."


[436] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BOILED FISH
    _ALITER IUS IN PISCE ELIXO_

WHEN THE FISH IS PREPARED, PUT THE SAME IN A FLAT PAN WITH CORIANDER
SEED, WATER AND GREEN DILL; WHEN COOKED SPRINKLE WITH VINEGAR AND
SERVE [1].

    [1] Another fair example of the incompleteness, on the
    one hand, of the directions, and of the superfluity, on
    the other hand, of words such as the initial and the
    closing words, which characterizes so many of the
    formulæ. This is characteristic of ever so many culinary
    authors of all ages, who, lacking literary training,
    assume that the reader is thoroughly versed with the
    methods indicated. A versatile modern author would have
    said: "Poach the filleted fish in small water seasoned
    with coriander seed and green dill; sprinkle with
    vinegar before serving." He mentioned neither the salt
    nor the oil which he undoubtedly used.


[437] ALEXANDRINE [1] SAUCE FOR BROILED FISH
    _IUS ALEXANDRINUM IN PISCE ASSO_

PEPPER, DRY ONIONS [shallots] LOVAGE, CUMIN, ORIGANY, CELERY SEED,
STONED DAMASCUS PRUNES [pounded in the mortar] FILLED UP [2] WITH
VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST, AND OIL, AND COOK IT.

    [1] Alexandria, Egyptian city, at the mouth of the river
    Nile, third of the three great cities of antiquity
    excepting Carthage during Apicius' time a rival of Rome
    and Athens in splendor and commerce. Most important as a
    Mediterranean port, where fishing and fish eating was
    (and still is) good.

    [2] G.-V. _mulsum_, mead.


[438] ANOTHER ALEXANDRINE SAUCE FOR BROILED FISH
    _ALITER IUS ALEXANDRINUM IN PISCE ASSO_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, SEEDLESS RAISINS, WINE, RAISIN WINE,
BROTH, OIL, COOKED TOGETHER.


[439] ANOTHER ALEXANDRINE SAUCE FOR BROILED FISH
    _ALITER IUS ALEXANDRINUM IN PISCE ASSO_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, GREEN CORIANDER, ONIONS, STONED DAMASCUS PRUNES,
RAISIN WINE, BROTH, OIL AND VINEGAR, AND COOK.


[440] SAUCE FOR BROILED CONGER
    _IUS IN CONGRO ASSO_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CRUSHED CUMIN, ORIGANY, DRY ONIONS, HARD YOLKS, WINE,
MEAD, VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST, AND COOK.

    G.-V. _Gongo_.


[441] SAUCE FOR HORNED FISH [1]
    _IUS IN CORNUTAM_ [1]

PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, ONIONS, SEEDLESS RAISINS, WINE, HONEY,
VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL; AND COOK IT [2]

    [1] _Cornuta_, _cornutus_--"horned," "having horns"--an
    unidentified sea fish.

    [2] Goll. collects all succeeding formulæ for sauces
    into one.


[442] SAUCE FOR BROILED MULLET
    _IUS IN MULLOS ASSOS_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, RUE, HONEY, NUTS, VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH, A LITTLE OIL;
HEAT AND POUR OVER [1].

    [1] List. is of the opinion that this is fresh mullet,
    while salt mullet was treated in the preceding formulæ.


[443] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BROILED MULLET
    _ALITER IUS IN MULLOS ASSOS_

RUE, MINT, CORIANDER, FENNEL,--ALL OF THEM GREEN--PEPPER, LOVAGE,
HONEY, BROTH, AND A LITTLE OIL.


[444] SEASONING FOR BABY TUNNY
    _IUS IN PELAMYDE ASSA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, GREEN CORIANDER, ONION, SEEDLESS RAISINS [1],
RAISIN WINE, VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST, OIL, AND COOK.

    [1] Wanting in Tor.


[445]

THIS SAUCE IS ALSO SUITABLE FOR BOILED [tunny]; IF DESIRED ADD HONEY.


[446] SAUCE FOR PERCH
    _IUS IN PERCAM_ [1]

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CRUSHED CUMIN, ONIONS, STONED DAMASCUS PRUNES, WINE,
MEAD, VINEGAR, OIL, REDUCED MUST; COOK IT.

    [1] _Perca_, perch--sea perch or sea bass.


[447] SEASONING FOR REDSNAPPER
    _CONDIMENTUM IN RUBELLIONEM_ [1]

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, WILD THYME, CELERY SEED, DRY ONIONS, WINE,
RAISIN WINE, VINEGAR, BROTH AND OIL; BIND WITH ROUX.

    [1] _Rubellio_--a "reddish" fish; perhaps a species of
    the red-mullet or red-snapper. Hum. says the Latins
    called the fish _rubelliones_, _rubellos_ and _rubros_;
    the Greeks _erythrinos_ or _erythricos_, because of
    their reddish color. A fish, according to Athenæus
    similar to the _pager_ or _pagrus_, _phager_ or
    _phagrus_, also called _pagur_, which is not quite
    identified.



II


[448] SAUCE FOR [BROILED] MURENA
    _IUS IN MURENA [ASSA]_ [1]

PEPPER, LOVAGE, SATURY, SAFFRON [2], ONIONS, STONED DAMASCUS PRUNES,
WINE, MEAD, VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST AND OIL; COOK IT [3].

    [1] V. doubting that this is broiled.

    [2] Tor. _Crocomagma_; List. _crocum magnum_, still used
    today in some fish preparations, particularly in the
    Bouillabaisse.

    [3] The laconic style in which all these fish
    preparations are given, is very confusing to the
    uninitiated. We assume that most of these ingredients
    were used to season the water in which to boil fish; or,
    to make a _court-bouillon_, a fish-essence of the bones
    and the trimmings of the fish, in which to poach the
    sliced fish. The liquor thus gained was reduced and in
    the moment of serving was bound with roux or with yolks,
    and the fish was masked with this sauce. The exceptions
    from this rule are, of course, in cases where the fish
    was broiled or fried.


[449] SAUCE FOR BROILED MURENA
    _IUS IN MURENA ASSA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, [stoned] DAMASCUS PRUNES, WINE, MEAD, VINEGAR, BROTH,
REDUCED MUST, OIL; COOK IT.


[450] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BROILED MURENA
    _ALITER IUS IN MURENA ASSA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CATMINT [1] CORIANDER SEED, ONIONS, PINE NUTS, HONEY,
VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL; COOK IT.

    [1] _Nepeta montana_--nep.


[451] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BOILED MURENA [1]
    _ALITER IUS IN MURENA ELIXA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, DILL, CELERY SEED, CORIANDER, DRY MINT, PINE NUTS,
RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, WINE [2] BROTH, A LITTLE OIL, HEAT AND BIND WITH
ROUX.

    [1] Ex Tac. and Tor.; wanting in List. and G.-V.

    [2] Tac.; wanting in Tor.


[452] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BOILED MURENA
    _ALITER IUS IN MURENA ELIXA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, CELERY SEED [1] CORIANDER, FIGDATES,
MUSTARD, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, REDUCED WINE.

    [1] List., Sch., Dann. add here which is wanting in Tor.
    _rhus Syriacum_--Syrian Sumach.

    The originals are considerably confused on the above and
    the following formulæ.


[453] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR BOILED MURENA
    _ALITER IUS IN MURENA ELIXA_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, VINEGAR, CELERY SEED, SYRIAN SUMACH [1] FIGDATE WINE,
HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, MUSTARD, AND REDUCED MUST. SERVE [2].

    [1] See note to ℞ No. 452.

    [2] Ex Tor. It appears that this formula is a correction
    of ℞ No. 452, as this is wanting in the other
    editions. Tor. also lacks the following formula.

    In Tac. the above formula follows the next.


[454] SAUCE FOR BOILED FISH
    _IUS IN PISCE ELIXO_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, PARSLEY, ORIGANY, DRY ONIONS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH,
WINE, A LITTLE OIL, WHEN BOILING, TIE WITH ROUX AND SERVE IN A SMALL
SAUCE BOAT [1].

    [1] _in lance_; _lanx_ may also mean a large oblong
    platter on which fish would be served. Cf. illustration
    Oval Dish with Handles.

    Horace II Sat. 8--_in patina porrecta_--a special dish
    to hold the cooked _murena_ and to display it to
    advantage.

    Such special dishes are found in any good table service,
    to serve special purposes. Not so long ago special forks
    and knives were used for fish service which have been
    gradually discarded.


[455] SAUCE FOR BOILED LACERTUS FISH
    _IUS IN LACERTOS ELIXOS_ [1]

PEPPER, LOVAGE, CUMIN, GREEN RUE, ONIONS, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, A
LITTLE OIL; WHEN BOILING TIE WITH ROUX [2].

    [1] _Lacertus_, an unidentified sea fish.

    [2] Cf. note 3 to ℞ No. 448.

    In G.-V. this formula precedes the above.


[456] SAUCE FOR BROILED FISH
    _IUS IN PISCE ASSO_

A SAUCE FOR [this] BROILED FISH MAKE THUS [1] PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME,
GREEN CORIANDER, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, WINE, OIL, REDUCED MUST; HEAT
AND STIR WELL WITH A WHIP OF RUE BRANCHES, AND TIE WITH ROUX.

    [1] Tor. wanting in others.


[457] SAUCE FOR TUNNY
    _IUS IN THYNNO_

TUNNY, BY MEANS OF THIS SAUCE WILL BE MORE PALATABLE: [1] PEPPER,
CUMIN, THYME, CORIANDER, ONIONS, RAISINS, VINEGAR, HONEY, WINE, AND
OIL; HEAT, TIE WITH ROUX, AND SERVE FOR DINNER [2].

    [1] and [2] first and last sentences from Tor., wanting
    in others.


[458] SAUCE FOR BOILED TUNNY
    _IUS IN THYNNO ELIXO_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, THYME, CRUSHED HERBS [1], ONIONS, FIG DATES [or fig
wine] HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, MUSTARD AND TIE [2].

    [1] _Condimenta mortaria_--herbs crushed in the
    "mortar"; also pulverized spices.

    [2] "and tie" wanting in List. Leave it out, and you
    have an acceptable _vinaigrette_--a cold sauce for cold
    fish.


[459] SAUCE FOR BROILED TOOTH FISH
    _IUS IN DENTICE ASSO_ [1]

SAUCE FOR BROILED TOOTH [1] FISH IS MADE THUS [2] PEPPER, LOVAGE,
CORIANDER, MINT, DRY RUE, COOKED QUINCES [3], HONEY, WINE, BROTH, OIL;
HEAT AND TIE WITH ROUX.

    [1] _Dentex_; Hum. _dentex forma auratæ similis, verum
    major_--the tooth-fish is similar to the dory in shape,
    though larger.

    [2] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [3] _Malum Cydonicum._


[460] BOILED TOOTHFISH
    _IN DENTICE ELIXO_ [1]

PEPPER, DILL, CUMIN, THYME, MINT, GREEN RUE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH,
WINE, A LITTLE OIL, HEAT AND TIE WITH ROUX.

    [1] Ex List.; wanting in Tor.


[461] SAUCE FOR DORY
    _IUS IN PISCE AURATA_ [1]

A SEASONING FOR DORY IS MADE THUS [2] PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY,
ORIGANY, RUE BERRIES, MINT, MYRTLE BERRIES, YOLKS OF EGG, HONEY,
VINEGAR, OIL, WINE, BROTH; HEAT AND USE IT SO.

    [1] _Aurata_--the "golden" dory. Very esteemed fish.
    Martial, III, Ep. 90:

    _Non omnis laudem preliúmque aurate meretur:
    Sed cui solus erit concha Lucrina cibus_

    [2] Tor. wanting in other texts.


[462] SAUCE FOR BROILED DORY.
    _IUS IN PISCE AURATA ASSA_

A SAUCE WHICH WILL MAKE BROILED DORY MORE TASTY CONSISTS OF [1]
PEPPER, CORIANDER, DRY MINT, CELERY SEED, ONIONS, RAISINS, HONEY,
VINEGAR, WINE, BROTH AND OIL.


[463] SAUCE FOR SEA SCORPION [1]
    _IUS IN SCORPIONE ELIXO_

PEPPER, CARRAWAY, PARSLEY, FIGDATE WINE, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH,
MUSTARD, OIL AND REDUCED WINE.

    [1] Sea scorpion, boiled like shellfish, with the above
    ingredients; the cold meat is separated from the shell
    and is eaten with _vinaigrette_ sauce.


[464] WINE SAUCE FOR FISH
    _IN PISCE ŒNOGARUM_

CRUSH PEPPER, RUE, AND HONEY; MIX IN RAISIN WINE, BROTH, REDUCED WINE;
HEAT ON A VERY SLOW FIRE.


[465] ANOTHER WAY
    _ALITER_

THE ABOVE, WHEN BOILING, MAY BE TIED WITH ROUX.



III

EEL


[466] SAUCE FOR EEL
    _IUS IN ANGUILLAM_

EEL WILL BE MADE MORE PALATABLE BY A SAUCE WHICH HAS [1] PEPPER,
CELERY SEED, LOVAGE [2], ANISE, SYRIAN SUMACH [3], FIGDATE WINE [4],
HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, MUSTARD, REDUCED MUST.

    [1] Tor. sentence wanting in other texts.

    [2] Note the position of lovage in this formula. Usually
    it follows pepper. We have finally accounted for this
    peculiarity. Torinus, throughout the original, treats
    "pepper" and "lovage" as one spice, whereas we have kept
    the two separate. He believed it to be a certain kind of
    pepper--_piper Ligusticum_. _Piper_, as a matter of
    fact, stands for pepper, and _Ligusticum_ is the herb,
    Lovage, an umbelliferous plant, also called
    _Levisticum_. The fact that the two words are here
    separated plainly shows that Torinus has been in the
    dark about this matter almost to the end.

    One wonders why he did not change or correct this error
    in the preceding books. His marginal errata prove that
    his work was being printed as he wrote it, or furnished
    copy therefor--namely in installments. Since the
    printer's type was limited, each sheet was printed in
    the complete edition, and the type was then used over
    again for the next sheet.

    [3] Tor. _thun_.

    [4] Wanting in Tor.


[467] ANOTHER SAUCE FOR EEL
    _ALITER IUS IN ANGUILLAM_

PEPPER, LOVAGE, SYRIAN SUMACH, DRY MINT, RUE BERRIES, HARD YOLKS,
MEAD, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL; COOK IT.


END OF BOOK X THE LAST OF THE BOOKS OF APICIUS

_CELII APITII HALIEUS LIBER DECIMUS & ULTIMUS. EXPLICIT_ [Tac.]



{Illustration: CANTHARUS, WINE BOWL OR CUP

With elaborate ornamentation: Over a sacred fountain the walls of a
theatre, with emblems of a theatrical nature and garlands of flowers
and fruits, wine skins, tyrsus, torches, masks and musical
instruments. Hildesheim Treasure.}



{Illustration: OPENING CHAPTER, BOOK I, VENICE, 1503

From the Lancilotus edition, printed by Tacuinus in Venice in 1503.
Identical with the two previous editions except for very minor
variants. The rubrication is not completed here. Fine initials were
painted in the vacant spaces by hand; the small letter in the center
of the square being the cue for the rubricator. This practice, a
remnant from the manuscript books, was very soon abandoned after the
printing of books became commercialized.}

{Transcription:

  Laseratum             Oxyporum    Oxygarum digestibile
  Oenogarum in tubera   Hypotrima   Mortaria

  ¶ Ciminatum in ostrea de conchiliis.

  Apicii Celii epimeles Incipit liber primus conditum paradoxum.

  Conditi Paradoxi compositio: mellis partes. xv.
  in æneum uas mittuntur in præmissis inde sextariis
  duobus ut in cocturam mellis uinum decoques.
  quod igni lento: & aridis lignis calefactum
  comotum ferula dum coquitur. Si efferuere
  cœperit uini rore compescitur preter quod subtracto igni
  in se redit. cum perfrixerit rursus accenditur Hoc secundo ac tertio
  fiet ac tum demum remotum a foco postridie despumatur cum
  piperis unciis iiii. iam triti masticis scrupulo. iii. folii & croci
  dragmæ singulæ. dactilorum ossibus torridis quinque hisdem dactilis
  uino mollitis intercedente prius suffusione uini de suo modo ac
  numero: ut tritura lenis habeatur: his omnibus paratis supermittes
  uini lenis sextaria. xviii. carbones perfecto addere duo milia.

  ¶ Conditum meliromum.

  Ulatorum conditum meliromum perpetuum quod subministratur
  per uiam peregrinanti. pp tritum cum melle despumato in cupellam
  mittis conditi loco. & ad mouendum quantum sit bibendum
  tantum aut mellis proferas: aut uinum inferas: sed suaserit non nihil
  uini meliromo mittas adiiciendum propter exitum solutiorem.

  ¶ Absynthium romanum.

  Absynthium romanum sic facies. Conditi camerini præceptis
  utique pro absynthio cessante: in cuius uicem absynthi
  ponthici purgati terembitique unciam thebaicam dabis.
  masticis folii. iii. scrupulos senos. croci scrupulos. iii. uini
  eiusmodi sextarios. xviii. carbones amaritudo non exigit.}



THE EXCERPTS FROM APICIUS BY VINIDARIUS



{Illustration: BREVIS PIMENTORUM

Manuscript of the 8th Century. From the Codex Salmasianus, Excerpts
from Apicius by Vinidarius.}

{Transcription:

  BREVIS PIMENTORUM QUÆ IN DOMO ESSE DEBEANT
  UT CONDIMENTIS NIHIL DESIT;

  crocum, piper, zingiber, lasar, folium, baca murræ,
  costum, cariofilum, spica indica, addena, cardamomum,
  spica nardi. De seminibus hoc.
  dapaber, semen rudæ, baca rutæ, baca lauri, semen
  aneti, semen api, semen feniculi, semen ligustici,
  semen erucæ, semen coriandri, cuminum anesum,
  petro silenum, careum, sisama

  Apici excerpta. a Vinidario vir intut

  De siccis hoc
  lasaris radices, menta, nepeta, saluia, cuppressum,
  oricanum, zyniperum, cepa gentima, bacas timmi,
  coriandrum, piretrum, citri fastinaca, cepa ascalonia,
  radices iunci, anet puleium, ciperum
  alium, ospera, samsucum, innula, silpium, cardamomum.

  De liquoribus hoc.
  mel, defritum, carinum, apiperium, passum.

  De nucleis hoc.
  nuces maiores nuclos pineos ac midula aballana.

  De pomis siccis hoc.
  damascena, datilos, uva, passa, granata. hæc
  omnia in loco sicco pone ne odorem et virtutem
  perdant. Brevis cyborum.
  caccabina minore. ii. caccabina fusile. iii. ofellas
  garatas. iiii. ofellas assas. v. aliter ofellas.
  vi. ofellas graton. vii. pisces, scorpiones}



{Illustration: CACCABUS

Stewpot, marmite, or kettle. With a ring base. The cover fits over the
mouth. Ntl. Mus., Naples, 74813; Field M., 24172.}



    THE EXCERPTS FROM APICIUS
    BY VINIDARIUS
    THE ILLUSTRIOUS MAN

_Apici Excerpta A Vinidario Viro Inlustri_

FIFTH CENTURY


Vinidarius, a Goth, of noble birth or a scientist, living in Italy.
Vinithaharjis is the native name. Of his time and life very little is
known. It appears that he was a student of Apicius and that he made
certain excerpts from that book which are preserved in the uncial
codex of Salmasius, sæc. VIII, Paris, lat. 10318.

Vollmer in his Apicius commentary says that Salmasius and his
predecessors have accepted them as genuine. Schuch incorporated these
recipes in the Apicius text of his editions, in appropriate places, as
he thought. This course cannot be recommended, although the recipes
should form an integral part of any Apicius edition.

M. Ihm, who faithfully reprinted the excerpta in the Archiv f. lat.
Lex. XV, 64, ff. says distinctly: "These excerpts have nothing to do
with the ten books of Apicius, even if some recipes resemble each
other ..." and other researchers have expressed the same opinion.
Vollmer, however, does not share this view.

If I may be permitted to concur with Vollmer, I would say that the
excerpts are quite Apician in character, and that in a sense they fill
certain gaps in the Apicius text, although the language is strongly
vulgarized which may be readily expected to be the case in the age of
Vinidarius.

The recipes of Anthimus, written around A.D. 511 also confirm the
close relation existing between Vinidarius and Apicius. Anthimus was
the Greek physician to Theodoric I, (The Great), Frankish king living
in Italy. He was not acquainted with Apicius.


SUMMARY OF SPICES
  _BREVIS PIMENTORUM_ [1]

WHICH SHOULD BE IN THE HOUSE ON HAND SO THAT THERE MAY BE NOTHING
WANTING [in the line of condiments]: SAFFRON, PEPPER, GINGER, LASER,
LEAVES [laurel-bay-nard], MYRTLE BERRIES, COSTMARY, CHERVIL [2],
INDIAN SPIKENARD, ADDENA [3], CARDAMOM, SPIKENARD.

    [1] _Pigmentorum_--_specierum_--spices. The old
    _pigmentum_ is really any coloring matter; the word,
    corrupted to pimento and pimiento is now used for sweet
    red pepper and also for allspice.

    [2] _Cariofilu_--_cærefolium_--_Chærephyllon_; Fr.
    _Cerfeuille_; Ger. _Kerbel_. This should be among the
    herbs.

    [3] Not identified.


OF SEEDS [to be on hand]
  _DE SEMINIBUS HOC_

POPPY SEED, RUE SEED, RUE BERRIES, LAUREL BERRIES, ANISE SEED, CELERY
SEED, FENNEL SEED, LOVAGE SEED, ROCKET SEED, CORIANDER SEED, CUMIN,
DILL, PARSLEY SEED, CARRAWAY SEED, SESAM.


OF DRIED [herbs, etc., to be on hand]
  _DE SICCIS HOC_

LASER ROOT, MINT, CATNIP, SAGE, CYPRESS, ORIGANY, JUNIPER, SHALLOTS,
BACAS TIMMI [1], CORIANDER, SPANISH CAMOMILE, CITRON, PARSNIPS,
ASCALONIAN SHALLOTS, BULL RUSH ROOTS, DILL, FLEABANE, CYPRIAN RUSH,
GARLIC, LEGUMES [2], MARJORAM [3], INNULA [4] SILPHIUM, CARDAMOM.

    [1] Not identified. Perhaps the seed of thyme, though
    the word _bacas_ would be out of place there.

    [2] _Ospera_, i.e., _Osperios_.

    [3] _Samsucu_, i.e., _sampsuchum_ Elderberries?

    [4] Not identified; perhaps _laurus innubus_, dried
    virgin laurel leaves.


OF LIQUIDS [to be on hand]
  _DE LIQUORIBUS HOC_

HONEY, REDUCED MUST, REDUCED WINE, APIPERIU [1] RAISIN WINE.

    [1] Not identified. We take it to be honey mead, or some
    other honey preparation, maybe, _piperatum_, pepper
    sauce.


OF NUTS [to be on hand]
  _DE NUCLEIS HOC_

LARGER NUTS, PINE NUTS, ALMONDS [1] HAZELNUTS [filberts] [2].

    [1] _Acmidula_, i.e., _amygdala_.

    [2] _Aballana_--_abellana_--_abellinæ_--_avellana_; Fr.
    _avelline_.


OF DRIED FRUITS [to be on hand]
  _DE POMIS SICCIS HOC_

DAMASCUS PRUNES, DATES, RAISINS, POMEGRANATES.

ALL OF THESE THINGS STORE IN A DRY PLACE SO THAT THEY MAY LOSE NEITHER
FLAVOR NOR [other] VIRTUES.


SUMMARY OF DISHES [1]
  _BREUIS CYBORV_ [1]

         I. CASSEROLE OF VEGETABLES AND CHICKEN
          _CACCABINA MINORE_
        II. STUFFED CHARTREUSE
          _CACCABINA FUSILE_
       III. BRAISED CUTLETS
          _OFELLAS GARATAS_
        IV. ROAST MEAT BALLS
          _OFELLAS ASSAS_
         V. GLAZED CUTLETS
          _ALITER OFELLAS_
        VI. MEAT BALLS WITH LASER
          _OFELLAS GRATON_
       VII. SEA SCORPION WITH TURNIPS
          _PISCES SCORPIONES RAPULATAS_
      VIII. ANY KIND OF FISH, FRIED
          _PISCES FRIXOS CUIUSCUMQUE GENERIS_
        IX. FRIED FISH
          _ITEM PISCES FRIXOS_
         X. ROAST [Grilled] FISH
          _PISCES ASSOS_
        XI. FRIED FISH AND WINE SAUCE
          _PISCES INOTOGONON_
       XII. SARDINES, BABY TUNNY, WHITING
          _SARDAS_
      XIII. FISH STEWED IN WINE
          _ITEM PISCES INOTOGONON_
       XIV. STEWED MULLET WITH DILL
          _MULLOS ANETATOS_
        XV. MULLET, DIFFERENT STYLE
          _ALITER MULLOS_
       XVI. MURENA AND EEL
          _MURENAS ET ANGUILLAS_
      XVII. SPINY LOBSTER AND SQUILL
          _LUCUSTAS ET ISQUILLAS_
     XVIII. BOILED FISH
          _PISCES ELIXOS_
       XIX. A DISH OF SOLE AND EGGS
          _PATINAS OBORUM_
        XX. SUCKLING PIG, CORIANDER SAUCE
          _PORCELLO CORIANDRATU_
       XXI. SUCKLING PIG, WINE SAUCE
          _PORCELLO IN OCCUCTU_
      XXII. PORK, PAN GRAVY
          _PORCELLO EO IURE_
     XXIII. PORK SPRINKLED WITH THYME
          _PORCELLO TYMMO CRAPSU_
      XXIV. PICKLED PORK
          _PORCELLU EXOZOME_
       XXV. LASER [sauce for] PORK
          _PORCELLU LASARATU_
      XXVI. SAUCE FOR PORK
          _PORCELLU IUSCELLU_
     XXVII. PLAIN LAMB
          _AGNU SIMPLICE_
    XXVIII. KID AND LASER
          _HEDU LASARATU_
      XXIX. THRUSH, HEALTH STYLE
          _TURDOS APONTOMENUS_
       XXX. TURTLEDOVES
          _TURTURES_
      XXXI. SAUCE FOR PARTRIDGE
          _IUS IN PERDICES_

    [1] _Brevis cyboru_ could be nicely and appropriately
    rendered with "Menu,"--something minute, short,--but
    this list is not a menu in our modern sense. It is an
    enumeration of recipe names, a summary of dishes
    contained in the excerpts.

    There is considerable variation in the spelling of the
    names here and in the following. Syllables ending with
    "u" are invariably abbreviations of "um."



I


[468] A CASSEROLE [1] OF VEGETABLE AND CHICKEN
    _CACCABINAM MINOREM_

ARRANGE DIFFERENT KINDS OF COOKED VEGETABLES IN A CASSEROLE WITH
[cooked] CHICKEN INTERSPERSED, IF YOU LIKE; SEASON WITH BROTH AND OIL,
SET TO BOIL. NEXT CRUSH A LITTLE PEPPER AND LEAVES, AND MIX AN EGG IN
WITH THE DRESSING [add this to the vegetables] PRESS [into the
casserole, eliminating the juice] [2].

    [1] The dish resembles a chartreuse.

    [2] Juice should be extracted before the addition of the
    egg, if the dish is to be unmoulded.



Ia


[469] THE SAME, WITH ANOTHER DRESSING, A CABBAGE _CHARTREUSE_
    _ALIAS: TRITURA UNDE PERFUNDES CACCABINAM_

CRUSH WHATEVER QUANTITY OF LEAVES IS REQUIRED WITH CHERVIL AND ONE AND
A QUARTER PART OF LAUREL BERRIES, A MEDIUM-SIZED BOILED CABBAGE,
CORIANDER LEAVES, DISSOLVE WITH ITS OWN JUICE, STEAM IN THE HOT ASHES,
BUT FIRST PLACE IN A MOULD [when stiff unmould on a platter] DECORATE,
POUR UNDER A WELL-SEASONED SAUCE, AND SO SERVE [1].

    [1] Either the vegetables and chicken of ℞ No. 468
    are combined with this dressing or a purée of the above
    cabbage, etc., is made, which will make this an integral
    dish. The instructions are vague enough to leave room
    for this choice; but there can be no doubt but what we
    have here a formula for a vegetable purée or a pudding,
    a genuine "Chartreuse," such as were prepared in the
    fancy moulds so popular in old Rome. The "Chartreuse,"
    then, is not original with the vegetarian monks of the
    monastery by that name, the Carthusians.



II


[470] A STUFFED CHARTREUSE
    _CACCABINAM _[1]_ FUSILEM_

[Take cooked] MALLOWS, LEEKS, BEETS, OR COOKED CABBAGE SPROUTS [shoots
or tender strunks] THRUSHES [roast] AND QUENELLES OF CHICKEN, TIDBITS
OF PORK OR SQUAB CHICKEN AND OTHER SIMILAR SHREDS OF FINE MEATS THAT
MAY BE AVAILABLE; ARRANGE EVERYTHING ALTERNATELY IN LAYERS [in a mould
or in a casserole]. CRUSH PEPPER AND LOVAGE WITH 2 PARTS OF OLD WINE,
1 PART BROTH, 1 PART HONEY AND A LITTLE OIL. TASTE IT; AND WHEN WELL
MIXED AND IN DUE PROPORTIONS PUT IN A SAUCE PAN AND ALLOW TO HEAT
MODERATELY; WHEN BOILING ADD A PINT OF MILK IN WHICH [about eight]
EGGS HAVE BEEN DISSOLVED; [next] POUR [this spiced custard] OVER [the
layers of vegetables and meats, heat slowly without allowing to boil]
AND WHEN CONGEALED SERVE [either in the casserole, or carefully
unmould the dish on a service platter] [2].

    [1] It is interesting to note how the generic terms,
    _salacaccabia_ and _caccabina_ have degenerated here. In
    these formulas the terms have lost all resemblance to
    the former meaning, the original "salt meat boiled in a
    pot." Such changes are very often observed in the
    terminology of our modern kitchens, in every language.
    They make the definition of terms and the classification
    of subjects extremely difficult. They add much to the
    confusion among cooks and guests in public dining places
    and create misunderstandings that only an expert can
    explain.

    [2] This dish affords an opportunity for a decorative
    scheme by the arrangement of the various vegetables and
    meats in a pleasing and artistic manner, utilizing the
    various colors and shapes of the bits of food as one
    would use pieces of stone in a mosaic. Of course, such a
    design can be appreciated only if the chartreuse is
    served unmoulded, i.e. if the cook succeeds in
    unmoulding it without damaging the structure.



III


[471] BRAISED CUTLETS
    _OFELLAS GARATAS_ [1]

PLACE THE MEAT IN A STEW PAN, ADD ONE POUND [2] OF BROTH, A LIKE
QUANTITY OF OIL, A TRIFLE OF HONEY, AND THUS BRAISE [3].

    [1] Derived from _garum_ or _œnogarum_, the wine
    sauce. These are supposed to be meat balls or cutlets
    prepared with garum, but the _garum_ is not mentioned in
    the formula. This also illustrates the interesting
    etymology of the word. It is not recognized in every-day
    ancient language because it is a typical technical term,
    the much complained-of _lingua culinaria_. We find,
    therefore, that--at least in this instance--_garum_ no
    longer stands for a sauce made from the fish, _garus_,
    but that _garum_ has become a generic term for certain
    kinds of sauces. Danneil renders _garatus_ with
    _lasaratus_, which is clearly out of place.

    [2] In this instance, and in several others, and also
    according to Sueton. Cæs. fluids were weighed. What idea
    could be more practical, useful and more "modern" than
    this? Sheer commercial greed, stubbornness, indolence
    have thus far made futile all efforts towards more
    progressive methods in handling food stuffs,
    particularly in the weighing of them and in selling them
    by their weight. Present market methods are very
    chaotic, and are kept purposely so to the detriment of
    the buyer.

    [3] The original: _et sic frigis_.--_Frigo_ is
    equivalent to frying, drying, parching; the word here
    has taken on a broader meaning, because the "frying"
    process is clearly out of question here. It appears that
    the terminology of _frigo_ and that of _asso_ in the
    next formula, has not been clearly defined. As a matter
    of fact, not many modern cooks today are able to give a
    clear definition of such terms as frying, broiling,
    roasting, braising, baking, which are thus subject to
    various interpretations.



IV


[472] ROAST MEAT BALLS
    _OFELLAS ASSAS_

MEATBALLS [previously sauté], CAREFULLY PREPARED, ARRANGE IN A SHALLOW
STEW PAN AND BRAISE THEM IN WINE SAUCE; AFTERWARDS SERVE THEM IN THE
SAME SAUCE OR GRAVY, SPRINKLED WITH PEPPER.



V


[473] GLAZED CUTLETS
    _ALITER OFELLAS_

THE MEAT PIECES ARE BRAISED [1] IN BROTH AND ARE GLAZED [2] WITH HOT
HONEY [3] AND THUS SERVED.

    [1] Cf. note 3 to Excerpta III.

    [2] _unguantur._

    [3] Dann. oil; G.-V. _melle_--_honey_. It is quite
    common to use honey for glazing foods. Today we sprinkle
    meats (ham) with sugar, exposing it to the open heat to
    melt it; the sugar thus forms a glaze or crust.



VI


[474] MEAT BALLS WITH LASER
    _OFELLAS GARATAS_ [1]

LASER, GINGER, CARDAMOM, AND A DASH OF BROTH; CRUSH THIS ALL, MIX
WELL, AND COOK THE MEAT BALL THEREIN [2].

    [1] Cf. Summary of Dishes, and note 1 to Excerpta III.

    [2] Dann. adds cumin, due perhaps to the faulty reading
    of the sentence, _misces cum his omnibus tritis_, etc.



VII


[475] SEA-SCORPION WITH TURNIPS
    _PISCES SCORPIONES RAPULATOS_ [1]

COOK [the fish] IN BROTH AND OIL, RETIRE WHEN HALF DONE: SOAK BOILED
TURNIPS, CHOP VERY FINE AND SQUEEZE THEM IN YOUR HANDS SO THAT THEY
HAVE NO MORE MOISTURE IN THEM; THEN COMBINE THEM WITH THE FISH AND LET
THEM SIMMER WITH PLENTY OF OIL: AND WHILE THIS COOKS, CRUSH CUMIN,
HALF OF THAT AMOUNT OF LAUREL BERRIES, AND, BECAUSE OF THE COLOR, ADD
SAFFRON; BIND WITH RICE FLOUR TO GIVE IT THE RIGHT CONSISTENCY. ADD A
DASH OF VINEGAR AND SERVE.

    [1] _rapa_, _rapum_: white turnip, rape; "turniped."



VIII


[476] [Sauce for] ANY KIND OF FISH, FRIED MAKE THUS:
    _PISCES FRIXOS CUIUSCUMQUE GENERIS_

CRUSH PEPPER, CORIANDER SEED, LASER ROOT, ORIGANY, RUE, FIGDATES,
MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, OIL, BROTH, ADDING REDUCED MUST, ALL THIS
PREPARE AND MIX CAREFULLY, PLACE IN SMALL CASSEROLE TO HEAT. WHEN
THOROUGHLY HEATED, POUR OVER THE FRIED FISH, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND
SERVE.



IX


[477] [Sauce for] SAME FRIED FISH MAKE THUS:
    _ITEM PISCES FRIXOS_

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE [1], LAUREL BERRIES, CORIANDER, AND MOISTEN WITH
HONEY, BROTH [2], WINE, RAISIN WINE, OR REDUCED SPICED WINE; COOK
THIS ON A SLOW FIRE, BIND WITH RICE FLOUR AND SERVE.

    [1] Sch. _ligisticum_.

    [2] Wanting in Sch.



X


[478] [Sauce for] ROAST FISH [1]
    _PISCES ASSOS_

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, SATURY, DRY ONIONS, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, ADD
FIGDATES, DILL, YOLKS OF EGG, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, REDUCED
MUST; ALL THIS MIX THOROUGHLY AND UNDERLAY [the fish with it].

    [1] The fish was probably broiled on the _craticula_
    (see our illustration).

    The nature of this sauce is not quite clear. If properly
    handled, it might turn out to be a highly seasoned
    mayonnaise, or a vinaigrette, depending on the mode of
    manipulation; either would be suitable for fried or
    broiled fish.



XI


[479] FISH AND WINE SAUCE
    _PISCES ŒNOTEGANON_ [1]

FRY THE FISH; CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, RUE, GREEN HERBS, DRY ONIONS, ADD
OIL [wine] BROTH AND SERVE.

    [1] Ihm and G.-V. _œnoteganon_; _inotogono_ and in
    the Summary of Dishes _inotogonon_; Sch. _eleogaro_.
    Rather an obscure term, owing to the diversity of
    spelling. We would call it a dish stewed in or prepared
    with wine, although wine is absent in the present
    formula. However, it is given in XIII, which bears the
    same name.

    Dann. is obviously mistaken in styling this preparation
    "oil broth."



XII


[480] [Cold Sauce for] SARDINES MAKE THUS:
    _SARDAS _[1]_ SIC FACIES_

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE SEED, ORIGANY, DRY ONIONS, HARD BOILED YOLKS,
VINEGAR, OIL; THIS MUST BE COMBINED INTO ONE [2] AND UNDERLAID.

    [1] A kind of small tunny, which, like our herring, used
    to be pickled or salt, corresponding to the anchovy. A
    "sardine," from the island of Sardinia; _Sardus_, the
    inhabitant of Sardinia.

    [2] The absence of detailed instructions as to the
    manipulation of the yolks, oil and vinegar is
    regrettable; upon them depends the certainty or
    uncertainty of whether the ancients had our modern
    mayonnaise.



XIII


[481] FISH STEWED IN WINE
    _PISCES ŒNOTEGANON_ [1]

RAW FISH ANY KIND YOU PREFER, WASH [prepare, cut into handy size]
ARRANGE IN A SAUCE PAN; ADD OIL, BROTH, VINEGAR, A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND
[fresh] CORIANDER, AND COOK: [Meanwhile] CRUSH PEPPER, ORIGANY, LOVAGE
WITH THE BUNCHES OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER WHICH YOU HAVE COOKED [with
the fish] AND POUR [this preparation] INTO THE SAUCE PAN. [When the
fish is done, retire it and arrange the pieces in the serving dish,
casserole, bowl or platter] BRING THE RESIDUE IN THE SAUCE PAN TO A
BOILING POINT, ALLOW IT TO REDUCE SLOWLY TO THE RIGHT CONSISTENCY
[Strain the sauce of the fish] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] Cf. note to XI. This _œnoteganon_ resembles the
    _Bouillabaisse_, the famous Marseilles fish chowder. In
    addition to the above manner it is flavored with
    saffron. An excellent dish, especially with the
    judicious addition of onions, parsley, a suspicion of
    garlic and small sippets of toasted bread.



XIV


[482] MULLET STEWED WITH DILL MAKE THUS:
    _MULLOS ANETHATOS _[1]_ SIC FACIES_

PREPARE THE FISH [clean, wash, trim, cut into pieces] AND PLACE IN A
SAUCE PAN, ADDING OIL, BROTH, WINE, BUNCHES OF LEEKS, [fresh]
CORIANDER, [fresh dill]; PLACE ON FIRE TO COOK. [Meanwhile] PUT PEPPER
IN THE MORTAR, POUND IT, ADD OIL, AND ONE PART OF VINEGAR AND RAISIN
WINE TO TASTE. [This preparation] TRANSFER INTO A SAUCE PAN, PLACE ON
THE FIRE TO HEAT, TIE WITH ROUX, ADD TO THE FISH IN THE SAUCE PAN.
SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

    [1] From _anethus_--dill--which is omitted in formula.
    Sch. _anecatos_, i.e. _submersos_, because the original
    fails to state the dill in the formula. Such conjecture
    is not justified.



XV


[483] MULLET ANOTHER STYLE
    _ALITER MULLOS_

SCRAPE, WASH, PLACE [the fish] IN A SAUCE PAN, ADD OIL, BROTH, WINE
AND A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND [fresh] CORIANDER TO THE MESS, SET ON THE
FIRE TO COOK. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH SOME OF THE
FISH'S OWN LIQUOR [from the sauce pan] ADD RAISIN WINE TO TASTE, PUT
IT INTO A POT AND ON THE FIRE TO HEAT; TIE WITH ROUX AND PRESENTLY ADD
IT TO THE CONTENTS IN THE SAUCE PAN [1] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND
SERVE.

    [1] It appears that the _patina_ mentioned in this and
    in the foregoing formula is either a finely wrought
    metal sauce pan or chafing dish, or a plainer _cumana_,
    an earthenware casserole; either of which may be used
    for service at the table.

    It may be noticed how this manner of preparing fish has
    a tendency to preserve all the savory flavors and juices
    of the fish, a process in this respect both rational and
    economical.



XVI


[484] MURENA [1], EEL [2] OR MULLET MAKE THUS:
    _MURENAM AUT ANGUILLAS VEL MULLOS SIC FACIES_

CLEAN THE FISH AND CAREFULLY PLACE IN A SAUCE PAN. IN THE MORTAR PUT
PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MINT, DRY ONIONS, CRUSH, MOISTEN WITH A SMALL
GLASS OF WINE, HALF OF THAT OF BROTH, AND OF HONEY ONE THIRD PART, AND
A MODERATE AMOUNT OF REDUCED MUST, SAY A SPOONFUL. IT IS NECESSARY
THAT THE FISH BE ENTIRELY COVERED BY THIS LIQUOR SO THAT THERE MAY BE
SUFFICIENT JUICE DURING THE COOKING.

    [1] The ancients considered the murena one of the finest
    of fish; the best were brought from the straits of
    Sicily. Rich Romans kept them alive in their fish ponds,
    often large and elaborate marble basins called,
    _piscina_, fattened the fish, kept it ready for use.
    Pollio fattened murenas on human flesh, killing a slave
    on the slightest provocation and throwing the body into
    the fish pond; he would eat only the liver of such
    murenas. This is the only case of such cruelty on
    record, and it has often been cited and exaggerated.

    [2] Perhaps the sea-eel, or conger, according to Dann.
    Also very much esteemed. The witty Plautus names a cook
    in one of his comedies "Congrio," because the fellow was
    "slippery."



XVII


[485] [Dressing for] SPINY LOBSTER (AND SQUILL)
    _LOCUSTAM (ET SCILLAM)_ [1]

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, POUR IN VINEGAR, BROTH, YOLKS OF
[hard boiled] EGGS, MIX WELL TOGETHER [2] AND DRESS [the boiled
shellfish meat with it] AND SERVE.

    [1] Cf. Summary of Dishes.

    [2] Another of Apicii hasty and laconic formulæ. No
    indication as to how to use the ingredients named.
    According to our notion of eating, there is only one
    way: The shellfish is boiled in aromatic water, allowed
    to cool off; the meat is then taken out of the shells;
    the above named ingredients are combined in a manner of
    a mayonnaise or a vinaigrette, although the necessary
    oil is not mentioned here. The dressing is poured over
    the shellfish meat, and the result is a sort of salad or
    "cocktail" as we have today.



XVIII


[486] [Sauce] FOR BOILED FISH
    _IN PISCIBUS ELIXIS_

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, ORIGANY WHICH MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR;
ADD PINE NUTS, FIGDATES [1] IN SUFFICIENT QUANTITY, HONEY, VINEGAR,
BROTH, MUSTARD, MIX AND COMBINE PROPERLY AND BRING FORTH.

    [1] Dann. is undecided as to whether this is dates or
    date wine; Goll. thinks it is mustard seed, which is not
    so bad gastronomically; but the original leaves no room
    for any doubt.



XIX


[487] A DISH OF SOLE WITH EGGS
    _PATINA SOLEARUM EX OVIS_

SCALE [skin] CLEAN [the soles], PLACE IN A [shallow] SAUCE PAN, ADD
BROTH, OIL [white] WINE, A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER SEED, PLACE ON
FIRE TO COOK, GRIND A LITTLE PEPPER, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH THE FISH
LIQUOR [from the sauce pan]. TAKE 10 RAW EGGS, BEAT THEM AND MIX WITH
THE REMAINING LIQUOR; PUT IT ALL BACK OVER THE FISH, AND ON A SLOW
FIRE ALLOW TO HEAT [without boiling] AND THICKEN TO THE RIGHT
CONSISTENCY; SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [1].

    [1] Very similar to _Sole au vin blanc_. Cf. ℞ No.
    155.



XX


[488] SUCKLING PIG, CORIANDER SAUCE
    _PORCELLUM CORIANDRATUM_

ROAST THE PIG CAREFULLY; MAKE THUS A MORTAR MIXTURE: POUND PEPPER,
DILL, ORIGANY, GREEN CORIANDER, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, WINE, BROTH, OIL,
VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST. ALL OF THIS WHEN HOT POUR OVER [the roast]
SPRINKLE RAISINS, PINE NUTS AND CHOPPED ONIONS OVER AND SO SERVE.



XXI


[489] SUCKLING PIG, WINE SAUCE
    _PORCELLUM ÆNOCOCTUM_ [1]

TAKE THE PIG, GARNISH [with a marinade of herbs, etc.] COOK [roast] IT
WITH OIL AND BROTH. WHEN DONE, PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, RUE, LAUREL
BERRIES, BROTH, RAISIN WINE OR REDUCED WINE, OLD WINE, CRUSH ALL, MIX
AND PREPARE TO A POINT; DRESS THE PIG ON A SHOWY SERVICE [2] PLATTER
AND SERVE.

    [1] i.e. _œnococtum_, cooked or prepared in wine
    sauce.

    [2] Dann. is of the opinion that the pig is cooked in a
    copper vessel, because the instructions are to serve it
    _in patinam aheneam_.



XXII


[490] PIG, PAN GRAVY
    _PORCELLUM EO IURE_

ROAST THE PIG IN ITS OWN JUICE; [when done] RETIRE; BIND THE GRAVY
WITH ROUX; [strain] PUT IN A SAUCE BOAT AND SERVE.



XXIII


[491] PIG SPRINKLED WITH THYME
    _PORCELLUM THYMO SPARSUM_

MILK-FED PIG, KILLED ON THE PREVIOUS DAY, BOIL WITH SALT AND DILL;
TRANSFER IT INTO COLD WATER, CAREFULLY KEEPING IT SUBMERGED, TO
PRESERVE ITS WHITENESS. THEREUPON [make a cold dressing of the
following] GREEN SAVORY HERBS, [fresh] THYME, A LITTLE FLEABANE, HARD
BOILED EGGS, ONIONS, [everything] CHOPPED FINE, SPRINKLE EVERYTHING
[over the pig which has been taken out of the water and allowed to
drip off] AND SEASON WITH A PINT OF BROTH, ONE MEASURE OF OIL, ONE OF
RAISIN WINE, AND SO PRESENT IT [1].

    [1] We would first mix the liquid components of this
    dressing with the chopped ingredients and then spread
    the finished dressing over the pig. Our author, no
    doubt, had this very process in mind.



XXIV


[492] PICKLED SUCKLING PIG
    _PORCELLUM OXYZOMUM_ [1]

GARNISH [prepare and marinate] THE PIG CORRECTLY AND PLACE IT IN A
LIQUOR PREPARED AS FOLLOWS: PUT IN THE MORTAR 50 GRAINS OF PEPPER, AS
MUCH HONEY [2] AS IS REQUIRED, 3 DRY ONIONS, A LITTLE GREEN OR DRY
CORIANDER, A PINT OF BROTH, 1 SEXTARIUS OF OIL, 1 PINT OF WATER; [all
this] PUT IN A STEW PAN [braisière] PLACE THE PIG IN IT; WHEN IT
COMMENCES TO BOIL, STIR THE GRAVY QUITE FREQUENTLY [3] SO AS TO
THICKEN IT. SHOULD THE BROTH THUS BE REDUCED [by evaporation] ADD
ANOTHER PINT OF WATER. IN THIS MANNER COOK [braise] THE PIG TO
PERFECTION AND SERVE IT.

    [1] _exodionum_, and in the Summary of Dishes,
    _exozome_, i.e. _oxyzomum_. It is curious to note the
    various spellings and meanings of _oxyzomum_. This is
    supposed to be a sour sauce or an acid preparation of
    some kind, yet this recipe does not mention acids. In
    fact, the presence of honey would make it a sweet
    preparation. We take it, the "garnish" contains the
    necessary vinegar or other acids such as lemon juice,
    wine, etc. _Oxyzomum_ is properly rendered "pickle."

    [2] Dann. oil, occurring twice in his version.

    [3] _sæpius_; Dann. confusing _sæpe_ with _cæpa_,
    renders this "onions sauce." The same occurs to him in
    XXVII.



XXV


[493] PIG WITH LASER
    _PORCELLUM LASARATUM_

IN THE MORTAR POUND PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, A LITTLE CUMIN, LIVE
LASER, LASER ROOT, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, ADD PINE NUTS, FIGDATES,
HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, PREPARED MUSTARD, FINISH WITH OIL TO TASTE, AND
POUR OVER [the roast pig].



XXVI


[494] PIG IN SAUCE
    _PORCELLUM IUSCELLATUM_

IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, OR ANISE, CORIANDER, RUE, A LAUREL
BERRY, POUND [all], MOISTENING WITH BROTH, [add] LEEKS, RAISIN WINE,
OR A LITTLE HONEY, A LITTLE WINE, AND A LIKE AMOUNT OF OIL. WHEN THIS
HAS BEEN COOKED TIE WITH ROUX.



XXVII


[495] PLAIN LAMB [1]
    _AGNUM SIMPLICEM_

OF THE SKINNED LAMB MAKE SMALL CUTLETS WHICH WASH CAREFULLY AND
ARRANGE IN A SAUCE PAN, ADD OIL, BROTH, WINE, LEEKS, CORIANDER CUT
WITH THE KNIFE; WHEN IT COMMENCES TO BOIL, STIR VERY FREQUENTLY [2]
AND SERVE.

    [1] Unquestionably the ancient equivalent for "Irish
    Stew."

    [2] Cf. note 3 to ℞ 492, XXIV; the presence of onion,
    however, would do no harm here.



XXVIII


[496] KID WITH LASER
    _HÆDUM LASARATUM_

THE WELL-CLEANED GUTS OF A KID FILL WITH [a preparation of] PEPPER,
BROTH, LASER, OIL [1], AND PUT THEM BACK INTO THE CARCASS WHICH SEW
TIGHTLY AND THUS COOK [roast] THE KID [whole]. WHEN DONE PUT IN THE
MORTAR RUE, LAUREL BERRIES, AND THEN SERVE THE KID WHICH MEANWHILE HAS
BEEN RETIRED FROM THE POT WITH ITS OWN DRIPPINGS OR GRAVY.

    [1] There being only liquids for this filling of the
    guts, a more solid substance, such as pork forcemeat,
    eggs, or cereals would be required to make an acceptable
    filling for the casings of the kid. Furthermore sausage,
    for such is this in fact, must be thoroughly cooked
    before it can be used for the filling of the carcass, as
    not sufficient heat would penetrate the interior during
    the roasting to cook any raw dressing.



XXIX


[497] THRUSH "À LA SANTÉ"
    _TURDOS HAPANTAMYNOS_ [1]

CRUSH PEPPER, LASER, LAUREL BERRY, MIX IN CUMIN [2] GARUM AND STUFF
THE THRUSH [with this preparation, [3]] THROUGH THE THROAT [4], TYING
THEM WITH A STRING. THEREUPON MAKE THIS PREPARATION IN WHICH THEY ARE
COOKED: CONSISTING OF OIL, SALT, WATER [5], DILL AND HEADS OF LEEKS.

    [1] Cf. Summary of Dishes; term not identified, derived
    from the Greek, meaning to drive away all stomach ills.

    [2] We use juniper berries today instead of cumin.

    [3] Cf. note to ℞ 496, XXVIII.

    [4] Thrush and other game birds of such small size are
    not emptied in the usual way: they are cooked with the
    entrails, or, the intestines are taken out, seasoned,
    sauté, and are either put back into the carcasses, or
    are served separately on bread croutons. In this
    instance, the necessary seasoning is introduced through
    the throat, a most ingenious idea that can only occur to
    Apicius.

    [5] In other instances we have pointed out where a small
    amount of water was used to clarify the oil used for
    frying foods. The presence here of water leads us to
    believe that the thrush were not "cooked," i.e. "boiled"
    but that they were fried in a generous amount of oil;
    this would make the ancient process remarkably similar
    to the present European way of preparing thrush or
    fieldfare, or similar game birds.

    For water used to clarify oil see note 3 to ℞ No.
    250.



XXX


[498] TURTLEDOVES
    _TURTURES_

OPEN THEM, PREPARE [marinate] CAREFULLY; CRUSH PEPPER, LASER, A LITTLE
BROTH, IMMERSE THE DOVES IN THIS PREPARATION SO THAT IT WILL BE
ABSORBED BY THEM, AND THUS ROAST THEM.



XXXI


[499] SAUCE FOR PARTRIDGE [1]
    _IUS IN PERDICES_

CRUSH IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, CELERY, MINT, AND RUE; MOISTEN WITH
VINEGAR, ADD FIGDATE [wine], HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL; LET IT BOIL
LIKEWISE AND SERVE.

    [1] This formula evidently is a fragment.


END OF THE SUMMARY OF DISHES [of the Excerpts of Vinidarius]

_EXPLI [cit] BREUIS CIBORUM_

[END OF THE RECIPES OF APICIUS]



{Illustration: TITLE PAGE, LISTER EDITION, AMSTERDAM, 1709

Lister's second edition was printed at Amsterdam, 1709, by very able
printers, the Jansson-Wæsbergs. It is a very worthy book in every
respect which, as M. Græsse says in Trésor des livres rares et
précieux, may be included in the collection of the Variorum.}

{Transcription:

  APICII CŒLII
  DE
  OPSONIIS
  ET
  CONDIMENTIS,
  Sive
  ARTE COQUINARIA,
  LIBRI DECEM.
  Cum Annotationibus
  MARTINI LISTER,
  è Medicis domesticis Serenissimæ Majestatis
  Reginæ Annæ,
  ET
  Notis selectioribus, variisque lectionibus integris,
  HUMELBERGII, BARTHII, REINESII,
  A. VAN DER LINDEN, & ALIORUM,
  ut & _Variarum Lectionum_ Libello.
  EDITIO SECUNDA.
  _Longe auctior atque emendatior._

  {Decoration}

  AMSTELODAMI,
  Apud JANSSONIO-WÆSBERGIOS

  MDCCIX.}



APICIANA



{Illustration: DIAGRAM

of Apicius Manuscripts and Printed Editions, showing relation to each
other and indicating the sources of the present translation.}

{Transcription:

 +=============+     +=========================+      +===============+
 |MS           |     |MS                       |      |MS             |
 |ROME         |     |The                      |      |               |
 |Vatican Vrbin|-----|ARCHETYPUS FULDENSIS     |------|Now in         |
 |lat. 1146    |     |*                        |      |NEW YORK CITY  |
 |*            |     |Formerly in the Monastery|      |*              |
 |9th Century  |     |of Fulda. Probably       |      |formerly       |
 +=============+     |written prior to the     |      |CHELTENHAM     |
        |  \  \      |9th Century              |      |Bibl. Phillipps|
        |   \  \     |(now lost)               |      |275            |
        |    \  \    +=========================+      |9th Century    |
        |     \  \                                    +===============+
        |      \  \                                   /  |  |
    +---------+ \  \    +====================+       /   |  |
    |MS       | |  |    |MS. PARIS lat. 10318|      /    |  |
    |PARIS    | |  |    |Apici Excerpta a    |     /     |  |
    |lat. 8209| |  |    |Vinidario v.i. 8th  |    /      |  |
    |15th     | |  |    |Cent.               |   /       |  |
    |century  | |  |    +====================+  /        |  |
    +---------+ |   \                 \        /         |  |
        |        \   ------\   /---------------          |  |
        |         ---       \ /         \                |  |
 +=================+ \       |           \               |  |
 |                 | |       |            \              |  |
 |  +-----------+  | |       |             \             |  |
 |  |MS         |  | |       |              \            |  |
 |  |FLORENCE   |  | |       |               \           /  |
 |  |Laur. 73.20|  | |       |                \         /   |
 |  |15th       |  | |       |                |        /    |
 |  |century    |  | |  +---------+           |       /  +---------+
 |  +-----------+  | |  |MS       |           |      /   |The      |
 |                 | |  |MUNICH   |           |      |   |HUMELBERG|
 |  +------------+ | |  |lat. 756 |           |      |   |EDITION  |
 |  |MS          | | |  |Critinus |           |      |   |Zürich   |
 |  |ROME, Vat   | | |  |1469 A.D.|           |      |   |1542     |
 |  |lat. 1145   | | |  +---------+           |      |   +---------+
 |  |15th century| | |                        |      |      |
 |  +------------+ | |                        |      |      |
 |                 | |                        |      |      |
 |                 | |                        |      |      |
 |  +----------+   | |  +------------+        |      |      |
 |  |MS        |   | |  |EDITIO      |        |      |      |
 |  |FLORENCE  |   | |  |PRINCEPS    |        |      |   +------------+
 |  |Laur.     |   |....|Venice, ca. |        |      |   |The         |
 |  |Strozz. 67|   | |  |1485-1490   |        |      |   |LISTER      |
 |  |15th cent |   | |  |from unknown|        |      |   |EDITIONS    |
 |  +----------+   | |  |codex       |        |      |   |London, 1705|
 |                 | |  |(Honterus?) |        |      |   |Amsterdam   |
 |                 | |  +------------+        |      |   |1709        |
 |                 | |                        |      |   +------------+
 |  +---------+    | |                        |      |      |     |
 |  |MS       |    | |                        |      |      |     |
 |  |FLORENCE |    | |                        |      |      |     |
 |  |Ricc. 141|    | |                         \     /      |     |
 |  |15th     |    | |                          \   /       |     |
 |  |century  |    | |                           \ /        |     |
 |  +---------+    | |                            \         |     |
 |                 | |                           / \        |     |
 |                 | |                          /   \       |     |
 |  +---------+    | |  +-----------+          /     \     /      |
 |  |MS       |    | |  |The        |         /       \   /       |
 |  |FLORENCE |    | |  |LANCILOTUS-|        /         \ /        |
 |  |Ricc. 622|    |----|SIGNERRE   |-----------------  \         |
 |  |15th     |    | |  |EDITIONS,  |      /          \/ \        |
 |  |century  |    | |  |Milan      |\    /           /\  \       |
 |  +---------+    | |  |1490 (?)   | \  /           /  \  \      |
 |                 | |  |1498       |  \/           /    \  \     |
 |                 | |  +-----------+  /\          /      \  \    |
 |                 | |                |  \        /        \  \   |
 |  +----------+   | |                |   +---------+       |  |  |
 |  |MS        |   | |                |   |The      |       |  |  |
 |  |OXFORD    |   | |                |   |BERNHOLD |       |  |  |
 |  |Bodl. Can.|   | |                |   |Editions |       |  |  |
 |  |lat. 163  |   | |                |   |1787-1800|       |  |  |
 |  |1490      |   | |                |   +---------+       |  |  |
 |  +----------+   | |                |        |            |  |  |
 |                 | |                |        |            |  |  |
 |                 | |  +-----------+ |        |         +----------+
 |                 | |  |The        | |        |         |The       |
 |  +----------+   | |  |TORINUS    | |        |         |SCHUCH    |
 |  |MS        |   | |  |EDITIONS:  | |        |         |EDITIONS  |
 |  |OXFORD    |   |....|Basel-Lyons| |         \        |Heidelberg|
 |  |Bodl. Ad  |   | |  |1541       | |          \       |1867-1874 |
 |  |B. 110    |   | |  |from codex | |           \      +----------+
 |  |15th cent.|   | |  |found by   |------------  \            |
 |  +----------+   | |  |Torinus    | |          \  \           |
 |                 | |  +-----------+ |           \  \          |
 |                 | |                |            \  \         |
 |  +---------+    | |  +--------+    |             \  \        |
 |  |MS       |    | |  |The     |    |              \  \       |
 |  |CESENA   |    | |  |BASEGGIO|    |               \  \      |
 |  |151. mun.|    |----|Edition,|    |                \  \     |
 |  |14th     |    | |  |Venice  |    |                 \  \    |
 |  |century  |    | |  |1852    |-------------------    \  \   |
 |  +---------+    | |  +--------+    |              \    \  \  |
 |                 | |                /               \    \  \ |
 |  +---------+    | \  +-----------+/                 \ +-----------+
 |  |MS       |    |  \ |The        |                   \|The        |
 |  |ROME, Vat|    |   \|GIARRATANO-|--------------------|VEHLING    |
 |  |lat. 6803|    |    |VOLMER     |                    |TRANSLATION|
 |  |15th     |    |    |Edition    |                    |Chicago    |
 |  |century  |    |    |Leipzig    |                    |1926       |
 |  +---------+    |    |1922       |                    +-----------+
 |                 |    +-----------+
 +=================+}



{Illustration: INCIPIT CONDITUM PARADOXUM

Opening recipe No. 1, Book 1, Apicius. From the manuscript of the 9th
century in the Library of the Vatican at Rome.}



APICIANA

A Bibliography of Apician Manuscripts and Printed Editions


A. MANUSCRIPTS

SUMMARY OF MANUSCRIPTS

    LOCATION                            NO. OF MS. BOOKS
    New York, I                                   1
    Rome, II, IV and XVII                         3
    Paris, III and V                              2
    Florence, VI, VII, VIII and IX                4
    Oxford, X and XI                              2
    Cesena, XII                                   1
    Munich, XVIII                                 1
    Not accounted for, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI         4
                                                 --
    Total of manuscript books                    18

(Doubtful as to present location, the Codex Humelbergii, cf. XI,
Oxford)


DESCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS


I, 9TH CENTURY

New York, Library of the Academy of Medicine, until 1930 in
Cheltenham, Gloucester, Biblioth. Phillipps, 275, in the library of
Sir Thomas Phillipps, a codex ca. Ninth century, 4to, parchment, 275
pp., originally bound up with Phill. 386, which is said to have come
from the Benedictine Abbey of St. Ghislain, founded at the end of the
7th century in the diocese of Cambrai; partly in Continental, but
mostly in Anglo-Saxon minuscle of the 9th century, not unlike the
Anglo-Saxon minuscle of Fulda.

Title missing. Cf. Vollmer, Studien, pp. 5-6.

The writer who has hastily inspected the manuscript in 1931 is of the
opinion that three different hands wrote this book. Part of the index
is gone, too. The book commences with lib. VII of the index. Bound in
an 18th century French full leather binding. It was brought to America
by Dr. Margaret B. Wilson and presented to the library of the A. of M.
in 1931.


II, 9TH CENTURY

Rome, Vatican Library. Vat. Vrbinas, lat. 1146, Ninth century. 58
sheets, 2 blanks in the beginning and 2 at the end. Size 23.75 × 18.75
cm., heavy parchment, 20-21 lines to the page, not numbered. Sheet 1
R, illuminated by square panel in purple and gold letters (capit.
quadr.) INC̅P̅ || API || CÆ ||--Nothing else. Sheet 1 V--3 R the
title, EPIM e || LES LI || BER I, and the titles of Book I,
illuminated with columns, flowers and birds. Sheet 3 R between the
foot of the columns EXPLICIVNT CAPITVLA. Sheet 3 V a panel in purple
similar to sheet 1 R with inscription, INC̅P̅ || CONDITV̅ ||
PARADOXV̅. Sheet 4 R commences the text with the title, I, Conditum
Paradoxum. Captions, marginal figures and initials in red. The
captions are written in good uncials throughout, the first text words
usually in half uncials, continuing in an even and beautiful minuscle.
The Explicits and Incipits invariably in capitalis rustica. Sheet 58 V
end of text with EXPLICIT LIBER X.

Traube, Vollmer and others believe that this manuscript was written in
or in the vicinity of Tours in the 9th century.


III, 8TH CENTURY

Paris, lat. 10318. 8th century. Codex Salmasianus, pp. 196-203, Apici
excerpta a Vinidario vir. inl. (See illustration.)

Excerpts from Apicius, 31 formulæ not found in the traditional Apicius
and quite different in character. Cf. Notes on Vinidarius, preceding
the Excerpta which follow the end of Book X of Apicius.


IV, 15TH CENTURY

Rome, Vatican Library, Vat. Vrbinas, lat. 1145, parchment, 15th
century. 51 sheets, 20 lines to the page, title, Apicius.


V, 15TH CENTURY

Paris, lat. 8209, paper, 15th century. 131 sheets, 30 lines to the
page.


VI, 15TH CENTURY

Florence, Laur. 73, 20. 15th century. 84 sheets, 26 lines to the page.


VII, 15TH CENTURY

Florence, Laur. Strozz. 67, 15th century. 50 sheets, 23 lines to the
page. Title, Apicius.


VIII, 15TH CENTURY

Florence, Riccardianus, 141 (L III 29), paper, 179 sheets, irregular
number of lines, pp. 123-179, Apicius. 15th century.


IX, 1462

Florence, Riccardianus, 662 (M I 26), finished April 4th, 1462, paper,
79 sheets, 26 lines to the page. Pp. 41-79 Apicius, written by
Pascutius Sabinus, Bologna, 1462.


X, 1490

Oxford, Bodl. Canon, lat. 168 4to min. 78 pp. dated May 28th, 1490.
(_In fine_) scriptum per me Petrum Antonium Salandum Reginensem die
xxviii Maii MCCCCLXXXX.


XI, 15TH CENTURY

Oxford, Bodl. Add. B 110, 15th century, Italian, cf. H. Schenkl, Bibl.
Britann. I. p. 79 n. 384 and F. Madan, A Summary Catalogue of Western
Mss. in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 1905, p. 660. Vollmer says that
this Ms. belonged to a son of Humelbergius, as proven by P. Lehmann.


XII, 14TH CENTURY

Cesena, bibl. municip., 14th century.


XIII

A manuscript in the library of the Sforza brothers at Pesaro which
burned in 1514, known only from the catalogue. Cf. A. Vernarecci, La
Libreria di Gio. Sforza in Archivio storico per le Marche e l'Umbria,
III, 1886, 518, 790.


XIV

A manuscript used by Bonifaz Amerbach and Joh. Sichardus. Cf. P.
Lehman, Joh. Sichardus, Quellen und Untersuchungen, IV, 1, p. 204.


XV-XVI

The two manuscripts mentioned by Albanus Torinus, in his edition of
Apicius, Basel, 1541. In 1529 Torinus found an Apicius "codex" on the
island of Megalona (Maguellone) which he used for his edition of
Apicius. It is almost certain that this was not a very ancient
manuscript. The way Torinus speaks of it and of the (first) Venetian
printed edition in his _epistola dedicatoria_ leaves even doubt as to
whether his authority was handwritten or printed. A first edition,
printed ca. 1483, may have well been a dilapidated copy such as
Torinus describes in 1529. Torinus admits taking some liberties with
the text and failed to understand some phrases of it. Despite this
fact, his text, from a culinary point of view seems to be more
authentic than the Humelbergius and Lister versions.

The other codex according to Torinus, was found in Transsylvania by
Io. Honterus of Coronea. This codex may have served as authority for
the first edition printed ca. 1483 by Bernardinus, of Venice. No other
mention is made of this codex anywhere, which according to Torinus,
was sent to Venice from Transsylvania. The text of the Editio
Princeps, by the way, is thoroughly unreliable.


XVII, 15TH CENTURY

Ms. Rome, Vatican Library, lat. 6803, 15th Century.


XVIII, 15TH CENTURY

Munich, lat. 756. Ex bibl. Petri Victorii 49. 15th century. This codex
is particularly valuable and important for the identification of the
Apicius text. Cf. Vollmer, Studien, pp. 10 _seq._


B. PRINTED EDITIONS

SUMMARY OF PRINTED EDITIONS

  NO.    YEAR OF PUBLICATION   PLACE OF PUBLICATION       LANGUAGE
   1      ca. A.D. 1483(?)      Venice, Italy              Latin
   2          A.D. 1490(?)      Milan, Italy (doubtful)    Latin
   3          A.D. 1498         Milan, Italy               Latin
   4          A.D. 1503         Venice, Italy              Latin
   5          A.D. 1541         Basel, Switzerland         Latin
   6          A.D. 1541         Lyons, France              Latin
   7          A.D. 1542         Zürich, Switzerland        Latin
   8          A.D. 1705         London, England            Latin
   9          A.D. 1709         Amsterdam, Holland         Latin
  10          A.D. 1787         Marktbreit, Germany        Latin
  11          A.D. 1791         Lübeck, Germany            Latin
  12          A.D. 1800         Ansbach, Germany           Latin
  13          A.D. 1852         Venice, Italy              Italian
  14          A.D. 1867         Heidelberg, Germany        Latin
  15          A.D. 1874         Heidelberg, Germany        Latin
  16          A.D. 1909         Leipzig, Germany           German
  17          A.D. 1911         Leipzig, Germany           German
  18          A.D. 1922         Leipzig, Germany           Latin
  19          A.D. 1933         Paris, France              French
  20          A.D. 1936         Chicago, U. S. A.          English


COMMENTARIES ON APICIUS

  NO.    YEAR OF PUBLICATION   PLACE OF PUBLICATION       LANGUAGE
  21          A.D. 1531*        Frankfurt, Germany         Latin
  22          A.D. 1534*        Frankfurt, Germany         Latin
  23          A.D. 1535*        Antwerp, Belgium           Latin
  24          A.D. 1831         Heidelberg, Germany        German
  25          A.D. 1868         London, England            English
  26          A.D. 1912         Naples, Italy              Italian
  27          A.D. 1920         Munich, Germany            German
  28          A.D. 1921         Rome, Italy                Latin-Italian
  29          A.D. 1927         Leipzig, Germany           German

* Excerpts and adaptations have little relation to Apicius.

    Total of Printed Editions, in Latin                 15
    Total of Printed Editions, in Italian                1
    Total of Printed Editions, in German                 2
    Total of Printed Editions, in French                 1
    Total of Printed Editions, in English                1
    Total of Commentaries in all Languages               9

    Editions and Commentaries published in America       1
    Editions and Commentaries published in Belgium       1
    Editions and Commentaries published in England       2
    Editions and Commentaries published in France        2
    Editions and Commentaries published in Germany      13
    Editions and Commentaries published in Holland       1
    Editions and Commentaries published in Italy         7
    Editions and Commentaries published in Switzerland   2


BIBLIOGRAPHERS AND COLLECTORS

Albanus Torinus, 1541, describes Mss. XV and XVI.

A. Vernarecci describes Mss. XIII.

P. Lehmann describes Mss. XI and XIV.

F. Vollmer describes Mss. I-XVIII.

Dr. Margaret B. Wilson describes Ms. I.

Georges Vicaire describes editions Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11,
14, 15.

Theodor Drexel (Georg) describes editions Nos. 1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12,
13, 14, 15.

Elizabeth R. Pennell describes editions Nos. 1, 3, 9.

Bernhold describes editions Nos. 2, 10, 11, 12.

Fabricius describes edition No. 2.

Baron Pichon describes editions Nos. 3, 21.

In the author's collection are editions Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 27, 28, 29.


DESCRIPTION OF PRINTED EDITIONS

These summaries and descriptions of the known manuscript books and
printed editions of Apicius are presented with a desire to afford the
students a survey of the field treated in this volume, to illustrate
the interest that has existed throughout the past centuries in our
ancient book.

Copies of any Apicius edition and commentaries are scarce; famous
collectors pride themselves in owning one or several of them. Of the
well-known collections of cookery books the most outstanding perhaps
is that of Theodor Drexel, of Frankfurt on the Main, who owned nine
different editions of Apicius. The Drexel catalogue forms the basis of
a bibliography--Verzeichnis der Litteratur über Speise und Trank bis
zum Jahre 1887, bearbeitet von Carl Georg, Hannover, 1888, describing
some 1700 works.

The Drexel collection, combined with that of Dr. Freund, is now in the
Staatsbibliothek in Berlin and is undoubtedly the finest collection of
its kind.

Another famous collection of cookery books is described in My Cookery
Books, by Elizabeth Robins Pennell, Boston, 1903, listing three of the
Apicii.

The Pennell collection was destroyed by a flood in London while being
stored away in a warehouse during the world war.

The most important bibliography, well-known to bibliophiles, is the
Bibliographie gastronomique par Georges Vicaire, Paris, 1890. Vicaire
mentions eleven Apicius editions.

The Baron Pichon and the Georges Vicaire collections are both
dispersed.

Despite ardent efforts over a period of many years the writer has been
unable to secure either an Apicius manuscript or the editions No. 1
and 2. The existence of No. 2 on our list is doubtful. Therefore, we
do not pretend having inspected or read each and every edition
described herein, but by combining the efforts of the authorities here
cited we have gathered the following titles and descriptions in order
to present a complete survey of the Apician literature.


NO. 1 CA. A.D. 1483, VENICE

    APITII CELII DE RE COQUINARIA LIBRI DECEM || SUETONIUS
    TRĀQUILLUS DE CLARIS GRĀMATICIS. || SUETONIUS
    TRĀQUILLUS DE CLARIS RHETORIBUS || COQUINARIÆ CAPITA
    GRÆCA AB APITIO POSITA HÆC SUNT || EPIMELES, (_Etc. In
    fine_) IMPRESSUM VENETIIS PER BERNARDINUM VENETUM.

No date, but attributed to ca. 1483-6. Given as the earliest edition
by most authorities. 4to, old vellum, 30 sheets, the pages not
numbered. Georg-Drexel, No. 13; Pennell, p. 111; Vicaire, col. 29.


NO. 2, MILAN, A.D. 1490

    APICIUS CULINARIS (_sic_) (CURA BLASII LANCILOTI _In
    fine_) IMPRESSUM MEDIOLANI PER MAGISTRUM GUILIERUM DE
    SIGNERRE ROTHOMAGENSEM. ANNO DOMINI M CCCC LXXXX DIE
    VIII MENSIS JANUARII.

Large 8vo. Edition disputed by bibliographers.

Ex Bernhold, _præfatio_, p. IX, who (we are translating from his Latin
text) says, "Here is the exterior of the book as extant in the
Nuremberg library, most accurately and neatly described by the very
famous and most worthy physician of that illustrious republic, Dr.
Preus, a friend of mine for thirty years; whose integrity, of course,
is above reproach; these are his own words--The book is made in the
size called large octavo. It must be mentioned that the sheets are
indeed large, so that the size might be styled an ordinary quarto.
Fabricius, in his Bibliotheca, the newest edition, quotes a copy under
this name. The entire book consists of five parts [sheets, folded into
eight leaves--sixteen printed pages--stitched together] and two
leaves. These five parts contain the text proper; these two sheets
preceding them, are occupied by the title page, the dedication and a
kind of poetic address. The text itself commences with p. 5, I should
say, though there is no regular pagination. However, there are
nevertheless in the lower ends of the leaves, called the limp parts,
some conspicuous letters on the first four leaves of the sheets, while
the remaining four leaves though belonging to the respective parts,
are blank. For instance aI., aII., aIII., aIIII. Then follows the next
sheet or part, signed, bI., II., III., IIII. in the same manner, with
the four following leaves blank. And thus in the same manner follows
sheet c, d, e. The two leaves preceding the five parts which comprise
the text proper, contain the title of the book, Apicius Culinaris
[_sic_] nowhere, to be sure, appears a note of the place or the date
where and when the book was made, and on this whole first page, aside
from the words already noted, there is nothing else in evidence than
the picture of an angel, in the center of which there is the sign,
IHS, and around the circle the following words are read, 'Joannes de
Lagniano M.' At the feet of the angel spaces may be seen that are
inscribed with the letters, I.O.L. The next page, or the verso of the
title page, exhibits the dedication of Blasius Lancilotus, extending
to the upper part of the third page. On this very same page occurs the
poem by Ludovicus Vopiscus, addressed to Joannes Antonius Riscius,
comprising five very beautiful distichs. The remaining part of the
third page is finished off with the word, 'Finis,' while the fourth
page is entirely blank. The text of Apicius commences with the fifth,
as mentioned above, and from now on the leaves are numbered by
letters, as previously described. At the end of the text, on the last
page of the book, a poem is conspicuous, entitled, 'Antonius Mota to
the Public,' consisting of four neat distichs, followed by another
composition, containing five distichs by Joannes Salandus. And
conclusion of the entire work is made with these words, 'Printed at
Milan by Master Guiliermus de Signerre Rothomagensis, in the year of
the Lord 1490, on the 8th day of the month of January.'

"From this edition, the oldest as well as the rarest--with no other
known earlier edition--all the variants given herewith have been
collected by Goezius." Thus far Bernhold.

The existence of this edition is doubted by Brunet, according to
Vicaire. This ancient description corresponds substantially to that of
Vicaire of the following edition of 1498 which Vicaire proclaims to be
the first dated Apicius edition. It is interesting to note, however,
what Bernhold has to say of this 1498 edition.

"Without a doubt a repetition of the preceding edition," says he; and
he goes on quoting the Bibliotheca Latina Fabricio-Ernestina (Jo.
Alberti Fabricii Bibliothec. Latin. edit ab Ernesti 1708) to the
effect that two editions were printed at Milan, one of 1490 by Blasius
Lancilotus and one of 1498 by Guiliermus de Signerre Rothomagensis.

Our inquiry at the Municipal library of Nürnberg has revealed the
fact that this copy of 1490 is no longer in the possession of the
library there.


NO. 3, A.D. 1498, MILAN

    APICIUS CULINARIUS (_in fine_) IMPRESSUM MEDIOLANI PER
    MAGISTRUM GUILERUM SIGNERRE ROTHOMAGENSEM, ANNO DNI
    MCCCCLXXXXVIII, DIE XX, MENSIS IANUARII.

(Ex Pennell, p. 111) First dated edition, 4to, 40 sheets, pages not
numbered.

{Illustration: COLOPHON, MILAN EDITION, 1498

From the Lancilotus edition of Apicius, printed by Signerre, Milan,
1498, the first dated edition. The poems by Mota and Salandus are
identical with the colophon of the 1503 Venice edition.

Note the date of this colophon and observe how easily it can be read
for "the 8th day of January, 1490" which date is attributed to our
Apiciana No. 2. This edition, as is noted, is doubtful, although
several bibliographers speak about it.}

{Transcription:

  Antonius mota Ad vulgus.

  Plaudite sartores: cætari: plaudite ventres
    Plaudite mystili tecta per vncta coqui
  Pila sit albanis quæcunq; ornata lagænis
    Pingue suum copo limen obesus amet
  Occupat insubres altissimus ille nepotum
    Gurges & vndantes auget & vrget aquas
  Millia sex ventri qui fixit Apicius alto
    Inde timens: sumpsit dira venena: famem.

  Ioannes salandus lectori.

  Accipe quisquis amas irritamenta palati:
    Precepta: & leges: oxigarumq; nouum:
  Condiderat caput: & stygias penitrauerat vndas
    Celius: in lucem nec rediturus erat:
  Nunc teritur dextra versatus Apicius omni
    Vrbem habet: & tectum qui perigrinus erat:
  Acceptum motte nostro debebis: & ipsi
    Immortalis erit gratia: laus & honor:
  Per quem non licuit celebri caruisse nepote:
    Per quem dehinc fugiet lingua latina situm.


  Impressum Mediolani per magistrum Guilermum
  Signerre Rothomagensem Anno dn̅i. Mcccclxxxx
  viii.die.xx.mensis Ianuarii.}

This copy has on the fly leaf the book plate of "Georgius Klotz, M.D.
Francofurti ad Mœnum" and the autograph of John S. Blackie, 1862.

Bernhold, p. XI. Not in Georg-Drexel. Vicaire, 28; he reads Appicius
[_sic_] Culinarius. Pennell and Vicaire read Guilerum, Bernhold
Guilierum.

Vicaire's description of this edition tallies with that of Bernhold's
and his collaborator's account of the preceding edition. There are
certain copies of this edition, bearing the following titles, Apicius
de re coquinaria and Apicivs in re qvoqvinaria. Cf. Vicaire, 28-29.


NOTES TO NOS. 1, 2, AND 3

GESAMTKATALOG DER WIEGENDRUCKE, Leipzig, 1926, II, p. 510, places as
the first printed edition Apicius in re quoquinaria [_sic_] printed by
William de Signerre at Milan, on the 20th day of January, 1498. The
second place is given APICIUS DE RE COQUINARIA printed by Bernardinus
de Vitalibus at Venice, no date, circa 1500 (our No. 1). This
classification follows that of Brunet in 1840. Neither the
Gesamtkatalog nor Brunet make any mention whatsoever of the doubtful
1490 Milan edition (our No. 2).

Vicaire, col. 33, mentioning this edition citing Bernhold, quotes
Brunet as doubting the existence of this 1490 edition, but we fail to
notice this expression of doubt since our Brunet is altogether silent
on the subject, same as the other bibliographers.

Vicaire, col. 28-29, quotes Brunet as saying that the undated Apicius
(our No. 1) despite its sub-titles of Suetonius, contains only the
Apicius text, a statement confirmed by Pennell.

A search of all the available works of Joh. Alb. Fabricius--Bibliotheca
Latina [Classics], Hamburg, 1722, Bibliographia Antiquaria, ib. 1760
and the Bibliotheca Latina mediæ et infimæ [middle ages], ib. 1735, has
failed to reveal a trace of the 1490 Apicius, displayed by Bernhold, as
described by Fabricius and as seen by Preus in the Nürnberg Municipal
Library.

Our facsimile of the 1498 colophon shows how easily its date can be
mistaken for "the 8th day of January, 1490," Bernhold's very date!
Evidently an error of this kind made victims of Preus, Bernhold and
Fabricius (if, indeed, he quoted it) and caused us some ardent
searching among dusty tomes. We have therefore come to the conclusion
that either this 1490 edition disappeared between the year 1787 and
our time or else that it never existed.


NO. 4, A.D. 1503, VENICE

    APITII CELII DE RE COQUINARIA LIBRI DECEM. || COQUINARIÆ
    CAPITA GRÆCA AB APITIO POSITA HÆC SUNT. || EPIMELES:
    ARTOPTUS: CEPURICA: PANDECTER: OSPRION || TROPHETES:
    POLYTELES: TETRAPUS: THALASSA: HALIEUS || HANC PLATO
    ADULATRICEM MEDICINÆ APPELLAT || [_in fine_] IMPRESSUM
    UENETIIS P IOHANNEM DE CERETO DE TRIDINO ALIAS TACUINUM.
    M.CCCCC.III. DIE TERTIO MENSIS AUGUSTI.

4to, 32 sheets, 30 lines to the page, pages not numbered, signed a-h,
by 4.

{Illustration: TITLE PAGE, VENICE EDITION, 1503

From the Blasius Lancilotus edition, printed by Johannes de Cereto de
Tridino alias Tacuinus, Venice, 1503. This is the second dated edition
of Apicius, resembling very closely the undated edition and also the
Milan edition, printed by Signerre 1498, the first to bear a date.
Same size as the original. This is a first timid attempt at giving a
book a title page. Most books printed before this date have no title
pages.}

{Transcription:

  Apitii Celii de re Coquinaria libri decem.

  Coquinariæ capita Græca ab Apitio posita hæc sunt.
  Epimeles: Artoptus: Cepurica: Pandecter: Osprion
  Trophetes: Polyteles: Tetrapus: Thalassa: Halieus.
  Hanc Plato adulatricem medicinæ appellat.}

On the last page of our copy are the two poems mentioned in the 1490
Milan edition (No. 2) "Antonius mota ad uulgus" (4 distichs) and
"Iohannes salandi Lectori" (5 distichs). The verso of this page is
blank. The dedication, on the verso of title page, is likewise by
Blasius Lancilotus. It appears that this edition is closely related to
No. 2.

Vicaire, 30; unknown to Georg-Drexel and Pennell.

In the collection of the author.


NO. 5, A.D. 1541, BASEL

    CÆLII APITII || SVMMI ADVLATRICIS MEDI || CINÆ ARTIFICIS
    DE RE CVLINARIA LIBRI X. RE || CENS È TENEBRIS ERUTI & À
    MENDIS UINDICATI, || TYPISQUE SVMMA DILIGENTIA ||
    EXCUSI. || PRÆTEREA, || P. PLATINÆ CREMO || NENSIS VIRI
    UNDECVNQVE DO || CTISSIMI, DE TUENDA UALETUDINE, NATURA
    RERUM, & POPINÆ || SCIENTIA LIBRI X. AD IMITATIONEM C.
    API || TII AD UNGUEM FACTI. || AD HÆC, || PAVLI ÆGINETÆ
    DE || FACVLTATIBUS ALIMENTORVM TRA || CTATVS, ALBANO
    TORINO || INTERPRETE. || CUM INDICE COPIOSISSIMO. ||
    BASILEÆ || M.D.XLI. [_in fine_] BASILEÆ, MENSE MARTIO,
    ANNO M D X L I.

4to, old calf, 16 pp., containing title, dedication and index, not
numbered but signed in Greek letters. The body of the work commences
with p. 1, finishing with p. 366, the sheets are signed first in small
Roman letters a-z and numbers 1-3 and then in capital letters A-Z,
likewise numbered 1-3. The titles of the books or chapters, on verso
of the title page, under the heading of "Katalogos et Epigraphè Decem
Voluminum De Re Popinali C. Apitii" are both in Greek and Roman
characters. German names and quotations are in Gothic type (black
letter). The book is well printed, in the style of the Froschauer or
Oporinus press, but bears no printer's name or device.

The Apicius treatise is concluded on p. 110, and is followed by
"Appendicvla De Conditvris Variis ex Ioanne Damasceno, Albano Torino
Paraphraste," not mentioned on the title. This treatise extends from
p. 110 to p. 117, comprising fourteen recipes for "condimenta" and
"conditvræ"; these are followed on the same page by "De Facvltatibvs
Alimentorvm Ex Pavlo Ægineta, Albano Torino Interprete" which book is
concluded on p. 139; but with hardly any interruption nor with any
very conspicuous title on this page there follows the work of Platina:
"P. [_sic_] Platinæ Cremonensis, viri vndecvnqve doctissimi, De tuenda
ualetudine Natura rerum, & Popinæ scientia, ad amplissimum D.D.B.
Rouerellam S. Clementis presbyterum, Cardinalem, Liber I." The ten
books of Platina are concluded on p. 366; the type gracefully tapering
down with the words: "P. [_sic_] Platinæ libri decimi et vltimi
Finis" and the date, as mentioned. The last page blank.

{Illustration: TITLE PAGE, LYONS, 1541

This edition, printed in Lyons, France, in 1541, by Sebastian Gryphius
is said to have been pirated from the Torinus edition given at Basel
in the same year. Early printers stole copiously from one another,
frequently reproduced books with hundreds of illustrations with
startling speed. Gryphius corrected Torinus' spelling of "P"
[Bartholomæus] Platina, but note the spelling of "Lvg[v]dvni" (Lyons).
Inscription by a contemporary reader over the griffin: "This [book]
amuses me! Why make fun of me?"}

{Transcription:

  CÆLII
  APITII, SVMMI
  ADVLATRICUS
  MEDICINÆ ARTIFICIS,
  De re Culinaria libri
  Decem.

  {Handwriting}

  B. PLATINÆ CREMONENSIS
  _De Tuenda ualetudine, Natura rerum, & Popinæ
  scientia Libri x._

  PAVLI ÆGINETÆ DE FACULTATIBUS
  _alimentorum Tractatus,
  Albano Torino Interprete_.

  {Handwriting}

  {Decoration}

  APVD SEB. GRYPHIVM
  LVGVDVNI,
  1541.}

Strange enough, there is another edition of this work, bearing the
same editor's name, printed at Lyons, France, in the same year. This
edition, printed by Gryphius, bears the abbreviated title as follows:


NO. 6, A.D. 1541, LYONS

    CÆLII || APITII SVM || MI ADVLATRICIS || MEDICINÆ
    ARTIFICIS, || DE RE CULINARIA LIBRI || DECEM || B.
    PLATINÆ CREMONEN || SIS DE TUENDA UALETUDINE, NATURA
    RERUM & POPINÆ || SCIENTIA LIBRI X, || PAULI ÆGINETÆ DE
    FACULTATIBUS ALIMENTORUM TRACTATUS, || ALBANO TORINO
    INTER || PRETE.

The lower center of the title page is occupied by the Gryphius
printer's device, a griffin standing on a box-like pedestal, supported
by a winged globe. On the left of the device: "virtute duci," on the
right: "comite fortuna"; directly underneath: "Apvd Seb. Gryphivm,
Lvgvdvni [_sic_], 1541." Sm. 8vo. Pages numbered, commencing with
verso of title from 2-314. Sheets lettered same as Basel edition; on
verso of title "Katalogos" etc. exactly like Basel. Page 3 commences
with the same epistola dedicatoria. This dedication and the entire
corpus of the book is printed in an awkward Italic type, except the
captions which are in 6 pt. and 8 pt. Roman. The book is quite an
unpleasant contrast with the fine Antiqua type and the generous
margins of the Basel edition. Some woodcut initials but of small
interest. The index, contrary to Basel, is in the back. The last page
shows another printer's device, differing from that on the title,
another griffin.

This edition, though bearing Platina's correct initial, B., has the
fictitious title given to his work by Torinus, who probably possessed
one of the earliest editions of Platina's De honesta Voluptate,
printed without a title page.

Altogether, this Lyons edition looks very much like a hurried job, and
we would not be surprised to learn that it was pirated from the Basel
edition.

The epistola dedicatoria, in which Torinus expresses fear of pirates
and asks his patron's protection, is concluded with the date, Basileæ,
v. Idus Martias, Anno M. D. XLI., while the copy described by Vicaire
appears to be without this date. Vicaire also says that the sheets of
his copy are not numbered. He also reads on the title "Lvgdvni, 1541"
which is spelled correctly, but not in accordance with the original.
Of these two editions Vicaire says:

"Ces deux éditions portent la même date de 1541, mais celle qui a été
publiée à Bâle a paru avant celle donnée à Lyon par Seb. Gryphe. Cette
dernière, en effet, contient la dédicace datée." The title page of our
copy is inscribed by three different old hands, one the characteristic
remark: "Mulcens me, gannis?" This copy is bound in the original
vellum. Vicaire, 31, G.-Drexel, No. 12.

The work of Torinus has been subjected to a searching analysis, as
will be shown throughout the book. An appreciation of Platina will be
found in Platina, mæstro nell'arte culinaria Un'interessante studio di
Joseph D. Vehling, by Agostino Cavalcabò, Cremona, 1935.

{Illustration: TITLE PAGE, HUMELBERGIUS EDITION, ZÜRICH, 1542

The Gabriel Humelbergius edition is printed by Froschauer, one of the
great printers of the Renaissance. Showing the autograph of Johannes
Baptista Bassus. The best of the early Apicius editions.}

{Transcription:

  IN HOC OPERE CONTENTA

  APICII CÆLII

  DE OPSONIIS ET CONDIMENTIS,
  SIVE ARTE COQVINARIA
  LIBRI X.

  ITEM,

  Gabrielis Humelbergij Medici, Physici
  Isnensis in Apicij Cælij libros X.
  Annotationes.

  TIGVRI IN OFFICINA
  Froschouiana. Anno,
  M. D. XLII.

  {Handwriting}

  {Signature: Johannes Baptista Bassus.}}


NO. 7, A.D. 1542, ZÜRICH

    IN HOC OPERE CONTENTA. || APICII CÆLII || DE OPSONIIS ET
    CONDIMENTIS, || SIVE ARTE COQVINA || RIA, LIBRI X. ||
    ITEM, || GABRIELIS HUMELBERGIJ MEDICI, PHYSICI ||
    ISNENSIS IN APICIJ CÆLIJ LIBROS X. || ANNOTATIONES. ||
    TIGVRI IN OFFICINA || FROSCHOUIANA. ANNO, || M.D. XLII.

4to, 123 sheets, pagination commences with title, not numbered. On
verso of title a poem by Ioachim Egell, extolling Humelberg. Sheet 2
the dedication, dated "Isnæ Algoiæ, mense Maio, Anno à Christo nato,
M.D.XLII." Sheet 3-4 have the preface; on verso of 4 the names of the
books of Apicius. On recto of sheet 5 the chapters of Book I; on verso
commences the corpus of the work with Apicii Cælii Epimeles Liber I.

The Apicius text is printed in bold Roman, the copious notes by the
editor in elegant Italics follow each book. Very instructive notes,
fine margins, splendid printing. Altogether preferable to Torinus. Our
copy is bound in the original vellum. Inscribed in old hand by
Johannes Baptista Bassus on the title.

G.-Drexel, No. 14; Vicaire, 31; not in Pennell.


NO. 8, A.D. 1705, LONDON

    APICII CŒLII || DE || OPSONIIS || ET || CONDIMENTIS,
    || SIVE || ARTE COQUINARIA, || LIBRI DECEM. || CUM
    ANNOTATIONIBUS MARTINI LISTER, || È MEDICIS DOMESTICIS
    SERENISSIMÆ MA || JESTATIS REGINÆ ANNÆ || ET || NOTIS
    SELECTIORIBUS, VARIISQUE LECTIONIBUS INTEGRIS, ||
    HUMELBERGII, CASPARI BARTHII, || & VARIORUM. || LONDINI:
    || TYPIS GULIELMI BOWYER. MDCCV.

The first edition by Lister, limited to 120 copies.

8vo. The title in red and black. Original full calf, gilt. Pp. XIV +
231. Index 11 leaves, unnumbered. This scarce book is described by
Vicaire, 32, but unknown to the collectors Drexel and Pennell. Our
copy has on the inside front cover the label of the Dunnichen library.
Above the same in an old hand: "Liber rarissimus Hujus editionis 120
tantum exemplaria impressa sunt." On the fly leaf, in a different old
hand a six line note in Latin, quoting the medieval scholar, G. J.
Vossius, Aristarch. 1.13. p. 1336, on the authorship of Cœlius.
Directly below in still another old hand, the following note, a rather
pleasing passage, full of sentiment and affection for our subject,
that deserves to be quoted in full: "Alas! that time is wanting to
visit the island of Magellone [Megalona-Torinus] where formerly
flourished a large town, of which there are now no other remains but
the cathedral church, where, according to tradition, the beautiful
Magellone lies buried by her husband Peter of Province.* Matthison's
letters, etc. pag. 269.

    "'* Jt was in the island of Magellone that Apicius's ten books on
    cookery were rediscovered.' _Ibid._--Vide Fabric. Biblioth: Lat:
    edit. ab Ernesti. vol. 2; p. 365."

On the verso of the title page there is the printed note in Latin to
the effect that 120 copies of this edition have been printed at the
expense of eighteen gentlemen whose names are given, among them
"Isaac Newton, Esq." and other famous men.

{Illustration: TITLE PAGE, LISTER EDITION, LONDON, 1705

The first Apicius edition by Martin Lister, Court Physician to Queen
Anne. Printed in London in 1705 by the famous printer, William Bowyer.
This is one of the rarest of the Apician books, the edition being
limited to 120 copies. It has been said that the second edition
(Amsterdam, 1709) was limited to 100 copies, but there is no evidence
to that effect.}

{Transcription:

  APICIANA

  APICII CŒLII
  DE
  OPSONIIS
  ET
  CONDIMENTIS,
  Sive
  Arte Coquinaria,
  LIBRI DECEM.

  Cum Annotationibus MARTINI LISTER,
  è Medicis domesticis serenissimæ Majestatis
  Reginæ Annæ.

  ET

  Notis selectioribus, variisque lectionibus integris,
  HUMELBERGII, CASPARI BARTHII,
  & VARIORUM.

  LONDINI:
  Typis _Gulielmi Bowyer_. MDCCV.}

Lister's preface to the reader occupies pp. I-XIV; the same appears in
the 1709 (2nd) edition. The ten books of Apicius occupy pp. 1-231; the
index comprises 11 unnumbered leaves; on the verso of the 11th leaf,
the errata. One leaf for the "Catalogus" (not mentioned by Vicaire) a
bibliography of the editor's extensive writings, and works used in
this edition principally upon nature and medical subjects. This list
was ridiculed by Dr. King. Cf. Introduction by Frederick Starr to this
present work. The last leaf blank. Our copy is in the original
binding, and perfect in every respect.

{Illustration: VERSO OF TITLE PAGE

of the first Lister edition, London, 1705, giving evidence of the
edition being limited to 120 copies. This edition was done at the
expense of the men named in this list. Note particularly "Isaac
Newton, Esq.," Sir Christopher Wren and a few more names famous to
this day.}

{Transcription:

  _Hujus Libri_ centum & viginti _tantum_
  Exemplaria _impressa sunt impensis infrascriptorum_.

  Tho. _Lord A.B. of_ Canterbury.
  Ch. _Earl of_ Sunderland.
  J. _Earl of_ Roxborough, _Principal Secretary of State for_ Scotland.
  J. _Lord_ Sommers.
  Charles _Lord_ Hallifax.
  J. _Lord Bishop of_ Norwich.
  Ge. _Lord Bishop of_ Bath _and_ Wells.
  Robert Harley _Speaker, and Principal Secretary of State_.
  _Sir_ Richard Buckley, _Baronet_.
  _Sir_ Christopher Wren.
  Tho. Foley, _Esq_;
  Isaac Newton, _Esq_; _President of the Royal Society_.
  William Gore, _Esq_;
  Francis Ashton, _Esq_;
  _Mr._ John Flamstead, _Ast._ Reg.
  John Hutton,      }
  Tancred Robinson, } _M. D. D._
  Hans Sloane.      }}


NO. 9, A.D. 1709, AMSTERDAM

    APICII CŒLII || DE || OPSONIIS || ET || CONDIMENTIS,
    || SIVE || ARTE COQUINARIA, || LIBRI DECEM. || CUM
    ANNOTATIONIBUS || MARTINI LISTER, || È MEDICIS
    DOMESTICIS SERENISSIMÆ MAJE || STATIS REGINÆ ANNÆ, || ET
    || NOTIS SELECTIORIBUS, VARIISQUE LECTIONIBUS INTEGRIS,
    || HUMELBERGII, BARTHII, REINESII, || A. VAN DER LINDEN,
    & ALIORUM, || UT & VARIARUM LECTIONUM LIBELLO. || EDITIO
    SECUNDA. || LONGE AUCTIOR ATQUE EMENDATIOR. ||
    AMSTELODAMI, || APUD JANSSONIO-WÆSBERGIOS. || M D C C I
    X.

Small 8vo. Title in red and black. Dedication addressed to Martinus
Lister by Theod. Jans. [sonius] of Almeloveen; the preface, M. Lister
to the Reader, and the "Judicia et Testimonia de Apicio" by Olaus
Borrichius and Albertus Fabricius occupy seventeen leaves. The ten
books of Apicius, with the many notes by Lister, Humelberg and others,
commence with page 1 and finish on page 277. Variæ Lectiones, 9
leaves; Index, 12 leaves, none numbered.

Vicaire, 32; Pennell, p. 112; G.-Drexel, No. 164. "Edition assez
estimée. On peut l'annexer à la collection des Variorum d'après M.
Græsse, Trésor des Livres rares et précieux."--Vicaire. Our copy is
in the original full calf gold stamped binding, with the ex libris of
James Maidment.

The notes by Lister are more copious in this edition, which is very
esteemed and is said to have been printed in 100 copies only, but
there is no proof of this.

Typographically an excellent piece of work that would have done
justice the Elzevirs.


NO. 10, A.D. 1787, MARKTBREIT

    CÆLII APICII || DE || OPSONIIS || ET || CONDIMENTIS ||
    SIVE || ARTE COQUINARIA || LIBRI X || CUM || LECTIONIBUS
    VARIIS || ATQUE INDICE || EDITIT || JOANNES MICHÆL
    BERNHOLD || COMES PALATINATUS CÆSAREUS, PHIL. ET || MED.
    D. SERENISSIMO MARCHIONI BRAN ||
    DENBURGICO-ONOLDINO-CULBACENSI || A CONSILIIS AULÆ,
    PHYSICUS SUPREMA || RUM PRÆFECTURARUM VFFENHEMENSIS ||
    ET CREGLINGENSIS, ACADEMIÆ IMPERIALI || NATURÆ
    SCRUTATORUM ADSCRIPTUS.

The first edition. The title page has a conspicuously blank space for
the date etc. of the publication, but this is found at the foot of p.
81, where one reads: Marcobraitæ, Excudebat Joan. Val. Knenlein,
M. D. CC. LXXXVII. 8vo. Fine large copy, bound in yellow calf, gilt,
with dentelles on edges and inside, by J. Clarke, the binding stamped
on back, 1800. Dedication and preface, pp. XIV. The ten books of
Apicius commence with p. 1 and finish on p. 81, with the date, as
above. Index capitulum, pp. 82-85; Lectiones Variantes collectæ ex
Editione Blasii Lanciloti, pp. 86-108, at the end of same: "Sedulo hæ
Variantes ex Blasii Lanciloti editione sunt excerpta ab Andrea Gözio
Scholæ Sebaldinæ Norimbergiensis Collega." Variantes Lectiones, Lib.
I. Epimeles, pp. 109-112, with a note at the head of the same that
these variants occur in the Vatican MS. These four pages are repeated
in the next chapter, pp. 113-130, "Variæ Lectiones Manuscripti
Vaticani," headed by the same note, the text of which is herewith
given in full. Bernhold states that these Variæ Lectiones have been
taken from the second Lister edition (No. 8) where they are found
following p. 277. The first Lister edition does not contain these
Variæ, nor does Lister have the Variantes ex Blasii Lanciloti. The
following note to the Vatican variants appears in the second Lister
edition also:

    "Apicii collatio cum antiquissimo codice, literis fere
    iisdem, quibus Pandectæ Florentinæ, scripto; qui
    seruatur hodie Romæ in Bibliotheca Vaticana, inter
    libros MSS., qui fuere Ducis Vrbinatium, sed, nostris
    temporibus extincta illa familia Ducali, quæ Ducatum
    istum a Romanis Pontificibus in feudum tenuerat, Vrbino
    Romam translati, et separato loco in bibliotheca
    Vaticana respositi sunt. Contulit Henricus Volkmarus
    [Lister: Volkmas] Scherzerus, Lipsiensis. E bibliotheca
    Marquardii Gudii ad I. A. Fabricium, et, ex huius dono,
    ad Theodorum Ianssonium ab Almeloueen transmigrauere;
    qui illas suæ, Amstelodami 1709 8vo in lucem prolatæ;
    Apicii editioni inseri curauit."

On pp. 131-154 are found the Lectiones Variantes Humelbergianæ, and
on pp. 155-156 the Lectiones differentes etc. On pp. 157-228 the
Index Vocabulorum ac Rerum notabiliorum etc.; on pp. 229-30 the
Notandum adhuc. One blank leaf.

Described by Vicaire, 33, who has only seen the 1791 edition;
G.-Drexel, No. 165; Brunet I. 343. Neither Vicaire nor Georg-Drexel
have the date and place of publication, which in our copy is hidden on
p. 81.

Georg reads Apicii Cœlii instead of the above. On the fly leaf the
autograph of G. L. Fournier, Bayreuth, 1791.

Bernhold has based his edition upon Lister and on the edition by
Blasius Lancilotus, Milan, 1490, (our No. 2, which see.) Aside from
the preface in which Bernhold names this and other Apicius editions,
unknown to the bibliographers, the editor has not added any of his own
observations. Being under the influence of Lister, he joins the
English editor in the condemnation of Torinus. His work is valuable
because of the above mentioned variants.


NO. 11, A.D. 1791, LÜBECK

[Same as above] The Second Edition. Vicaire, 33. not in G.-Drexel nor
Pennell.


NO. 12, A.D. 1800, ANSBACH

APITIUS CŒLIUS DE RE CULINARIA. Ed. Bernhold. 8vo. Ansbachii, 1800.

Ex Georg, No. 1076; not in Vicaire nor in Pennell. Though listed by
Georg, it is not in the Drexel collection.


NO. 13, A.D. 1852, VENICE

APITIUS CÆLIUS DELLE VIVANDE E CONDIMENTI OVVERO DELL' ARTE DE LA
CUCINA. VOLGARIZZAMENTO CON ANNOTATIONI DI G. BASEGGIO.

8vo, pp. 238. With the original Latin text. Venezia, 1852, Antonelli.

Ex Georg-Drexel, No. 1077.


NO. 14, A.D. 1867, HEIDELBERG

APICI CÆLI || DE || RE COQUINARIA LIBRI DECEM. || NOVEM CODICUM OPE
ADIUTUS, AUXIT, RESTI || TUIT, EMENDAVIT, ET CORREXIT, VARIARUM ||
LECTIONUM PARTE POTISSIMA ORNAVIT, STRIC || TIM ET INTERIM EXPLANAVIT
|| CHR. THEOPHIL. SCHUCH. || HEIDELBERGÆ, 1867.

8vo. pp. 202.

Ex Vicaire, 33; Not in G.-Drexel, not in Pennell.


NO. 15, A.D. 1874

[The same] EDITIO SECUNDA HEIDELBERGÆ, 1874, [Winter].

Although G.-Drexel, No. 1075, reads Apitius Cœlius, our copy agrees
with the reading of Vicaire, col. 889, appendix. Not in Pennell.
Brandt (Untersuchungen [No. 29] p. 6) calls Schuch _Wunderlicher
Querkopf_. He is correct. The Schuch editions are eccentric,
worthless.


NO. 16, A.D. 1909, LEIPZIG

DAS APICIUS-KOCHBUCH AUS DER ALTRÖMISCHEN KAISERZEIT. Ins Deutsche
übersetzt und bearbeitet von Richard Gollmer. Mit Nachbildungen alter
Kunstblätter, Kopfleisten und Schlusstücke. Breslau und Leipzig bei
Alfred Langewort, 1909. 8vo. pp. 154.


NO. 17, A.D. 1911, LEIPZIG

APICIUS CÆLIUS: ALTRÖMISCHE KOCHKUNST IN ZEHN BÜCHERN. Bearbeitet und
ins Deutsche übersetzt von Eduard Danneil, Herzoglich Altenburgischer
Hoftraiteur. Leipzig: 1911: Herausgabe und Verlag: Kurt Däweritz,
Herzoglich Altenburgischer Hoftraiteur Obermeister der Innung der
Köche zu Leipzig und Umgebung. 8vo, pp. XV + 127.


NO. 18, A.D. 1922, LEIPZIG

    APICII || LIBRORVM X QVI DICVNTVR || DE RE COQVINARIA ||
    QVÆ EXTANT || EDIDERVNT || C. GIARRATANO ET FR. VOLLMER
    || LIPSIÆ IN ÆDIBVS B. G. TEVBNERI MCMXXII.


NO. 19, A.D. 1933, PARIS

LES DIX LIVRES DE CUISINE D'APICIUS traduits du latin pour la Première
fois et commentés par Bertrand Guégan. Paris René Bonnel Éditeur rue
Blanche, No. 8.

No date (_in fine_ October 16th, 1933). Three blank leaves, false
title; on verso, facing the title page (!) "_du mème auteur_"--a
full-page advertisement of the author's many-sided publications, past
and future. Title page, verso blank. On p. ix _Introduction_, a
lengthy discourse on dining in ancient times, including a mention of
Apician manuscripts and editions. This commences on p. Li with _Les
Manuscrits d'Apicius_. The _Introduction_ finishes on p. Lxxviii. On
p. 1 _Les Dix Livres d'Apicius_, on p. 2 a facsimile in black of the
_incipit_ of the Vatican manuscript, Apiciana II. On p. 3 commences
the translation into French of the Apician text, finishing on p. 308.
_Table Analytique_ (index) pp. 309-322. Follow three unnumbered
sheets, on the first page of which is the _Justification du tirage_,
with the date of printing and the printer's name, Durand of Chartres.
The copies printed are numbered from 1 to 679. The copy before us is
No. 2; copies 1 to 4 are printed on Montval vellum, 5 to 29 on Dutch
Pannekoek vellum, the rest, 30 to 679 on Vidalon vellum paper.

Unfortunately, the present work did not reach us until after ours had
gone to press. The text of this edition, the first to appear in the
French language, could not be considered in our work, for this reason.

However, a few casual remarks about it may be in order here.

A hasty perusal reveals the disconcerting fact that the editor has
been influenced by and has followed the example of Schuch by the
adoption of his system of numbering the recipes. We do not approve of
his inclusion of the excerpts of Vinidarius in the Apician text.

The observations presented in this edition are rich and varied. The
material, comprising the _Introduction_ and also the explanatory
notes to the recipes are interesting, copious and well-authenticated.
The editor reveals himself to be a better scholar, well-read in the
classics, than a practical cook, well-versed in kitchen practice.
Frequently, for instance, he confounds _liquamen_ with _garum_, the
age-old shortcoming of the Apician scholars.

The advertisement facing the title page of this work is misplaced,
disturbing.

Nevertheless, we welcome this French version which merits a thorough
study; this we hope to publish at some future date. Any serious and
new information on Apicius is welcome and much needed to clear up the
mysteries. The advent of a few additional cooks on the scene doesn't
matter. Let them give lie to the old proverb that too many cooks spoil
the broth. Apicius has been so thoroughly scrambled during the
sixteen-hundred years preceding his first printing which started the
scholars after him. So far, with the exception of a few minor
instances, they have done remarkably well. The complete unscrambling
can be done only by many new cooks, willing to devote much pain and
unremunerative, careful, patient work in discovering new evidence and
adding it to what there is already, to arrive at the truth of the
matter.


NO. 20, A.D. 1926-1936, CHICAGO

Apicius, J. D. Vehling, the present edition.


DESCRIPTION OF COMMENTARIES


NO. 21, A.D. 1531, FRANKFORT

DE RE COQUINARIA. VON SPEISEN. Natürlichen und Kreuterwein, aller
Verstandt. Vber den Zusatz viler bewerter Künst, insonders fleissig
gebessert und corrigirt aus Apitio, Platina, Varrone, Bapt. Fiera
cet.'; Francofurti, apud Egenolfum, 1531, 4to.

Ex Bernhold, p. XIV, unknown to the bibliographers. The above is
related to the following two works. Apparently, all three have little
bearing on Apicius.


NO. 22, A.D. 1534, FRANKFORT

POLYONYMI SYNGRAPHEI SCHOLA APICIANA. Ibid. 1534, 4to.

Ex Bernhold, p. XIV., unknown to the bibliographers. Copy in the Baron
Pichon collection, No. 569.


NO. 23, AD. 1535, ANTWERP

    SCHOLA || APITIANA, EX OP || TIMIS QVIBVS || DAM
    AUTHORIBUS DILIGEN || TER AC NOUITER CONSTRU || CTA,
    AUTHORE POLYO || NIMO SYNGRA || PHEO. || A C GESSERE DIA
    || LOGI ALIQUOT D. ERASMI RO || TERODAMI, & ALIA QUÆDAM
    || LECTU IUCUNDISSIMA. || VÆNEUNT ANTUERPIÆ IN ÆDI ||
    BUS IOANNIS STEELSIJ. || I. G. 1535. Small 8vo. Title in
    beautiful woodcut border. [_in fine_] TYPIS IOAN.
    GRAPHEI. M.D.XXXV.

Pagination A-I 4, on verso of I 4, device of Io. Steels, Concordia,
with doves on square and astronomical globe. On verso of title, In
Scholam Apitianam Præfatio. Sheet A3 Mensam Amititiæ Sacram esse, etc.
On sheet A6 The dialogue by Erasmus of Rotterdam between Apitivs and
Spvdvs to verso of sheet A8; follows: Conviviarvm qvis nvmervs esse
debeat [etc.] ex Aulo Gellio; Præcepta Cœnarvm by Horace; De
Ciborvm Ratione by Michæle Savonarola [Grandfather of the great
Girolamo S.]; on sheet C5 De Cibis Secvndæ Mensæ, by Paulus Aegineta;
and a number of other quotations from ancient and medieval authors,
partly very amusing. The Apician matter seems to be entirely
fictitious.

In the collection of the author. Vicaire, 701, who also describes in
detail the 1534 edition printed by Egenolph but which is not the same
as the above in text.


NO. 24, A.D. 1831, HEIDELBERG

FLORA APICIANA. Dierbach, J. H. Ein Beitrag zur näheren Kenntniss der
Nahrungsmittel der alten Römer. Heidelberg, 1831, Groos. 8vo.


NO. 25, A.D. 1868, LONDON

H. C. COOTE: THE CUISINE BOURGEOISE OF ANCIENT ROME. Archæologia, vol.
XLI.

Ex Bibliotheca A. Shircliffe.


NO. 26, A.D. 1912, NAPLES

CESARE GIARRATANO: I CODICI DEI LIBRI DE RE COQUINARIA DI CELIO.
Naples, 1912, Detken & Rocholl.


NO. 27, AD. 1920

FRIEDRICH VOLLMER: STUDIEN ZU DEM RÖMISCHEN KOCHBUCHE VON APICIUS.
Vorgetragen am 7. Februar 1920. Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen
Akademie der Wissenschaften Philosophisch-philologische und
historische Klasse Jahrgang, 1920, 6. Abhandlung. München, 1920.
Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Kommission des
G. Franzschen Verlags (J. Roth).


NO. 28, A.D. 1921

G. STERNAJOLO: CODICES VRBINATI LATINI.


NO. 29, AD. 1927

UNTERSUCHUNGEN ZUM RÖMISCHEN KOCHBUCHE Versuch einer Lösung der
Apicius-Frage von Edward Brandt, Leipzig, Dietrich'sche
Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1927. Philologus, Supplementband XIX, Heft III.
164 pp.

Dr. Edward Brandt, the philologist of Munich, is the latest of the
Apician commentators. His researches are quite exhaustive. While not
conclusive (as some of the problems will perhaps never be solved) he
has shed much new light on the vexatious questions of the origin and
the authors of our old Roman cookery book.


APICIANÆ FINIS



{Illustration: CANTHARUS, WINE CUP WITH HANDLES

Elaborate decoration of Bacchic motifs: wine leaves and masks of
satyrs. Hildesheim Treasure.}



INDEX and VOCABULARY


  A

  Abalana, Abellana, hazelnut, see Avellana

  Abbreviations, explanation of, p. xv

  ABDOMEN, sow's udder, belly, fat of lower part of belly, figur.
  Gluttony, intemperance

  ABROTANUM, --ONUM, --ONUS the herb lad's love; or, according to most
  Southernwood. ABROTONUM is also a town in Africa

  Absinth. ABSINTHIUM, the herb wormwood. The Romans used A. from
  several parts of the world. ℞ 3, also APSINTHIUM

  ABSINTHIATUS, --UM, flavored with wormwood, ℞ 3

  ABSINTHITES, wine tempered or mixed with wormwood; modern absinth
  or Vermouth, cf. ℞ 3

  ABSINTHIUM ROMANUM, ℞ 3

  ABUA, a small fish; see APUA, ℞ 138, 139, 147

  ACER, ACEO, ACIDUM, to be or to make sour, tart

  ACETABULUM, a "vinegar" cruet: a small measure, equivalent to 15
  Attic drachms; see Measures

  ACETUM, vinegar
    ---- MULSUM, mead

  ACICULA, ACUS, the needle fish, or horn-back, or horn-beak; a long
  fish with a snout sharp like a needle; the gar-fish, or sea-needle

  ACIDUM, sour; same as ACER

  ACINATICIUS, a costly raisin wine

  ACINOSUS, full of kernels or stones

  ACINUS, --UM, a grain, or grape raisin berry or kernel

  ACIPENSER, a large fish, sturgeon, ℞ 145; also see STYRIO

  ACOR, --UM, sourness, tartness; the herb sweetcane, gardenflag,
  galangale

  ACRIMONIA, acidity, tartness, sourness; harshness of taste

  ACUS, same as ACICULA

  Adjustable Table, illustration, p. 138

  ADULTERAM, "tempting" dish, ℞ 192

  Adulterations of food in antiquity, pp. 33, 39, seq. 147; ℞ 6,
  7, 9, 15, 17, 18. Also see Cookery, deceptive

  Advertising cooked ham, ℞ 287

  Advertising ancient hotels, p. 6

  Aegineta, Paulus, writer on medicine and cookery, see Apiciana,
  No. 5-6

  AENEUM, a "metal" cooking utensil, a CACCABUS, which see; AENEUM VAS,
  a mixing bowl; AENEA PATELLA, a pewter, bronze or silver service
  platter. Aeno Coctus, braised, sometimes confused with oenococtum,
  stewed in wine

  AËROPTES, fowl, birds; the correct title of Book VI, see p. 141

  Aethiopian Cumin ℞ 35

  "AFFE" (Ger.) Monkey; ℞ 55; also see Caramel Coloring

  AGITARE (OVA), to stir, to beat (eggs)

  AGNUS, IN AGNO, lamb; AGNINUS, pertaining to L. ℞ 291 seq., 355,
  364, 495
    ---- COPADIA AGNINA, ℞ 355 seq.
    ---- AGNI COCTURA, ℞ 358
    ---- ASSUS, ℞ 359
    ---- AGNUM SIMPLICEM, ℞ 495
    ---- TARPEIANUS, ℞ 363

  AGONIA, cattle sacrificed at the festivals: only little of the
  victims was wasted at religious ceremonies. The priests, after
  predicting the future from the intestines, burned them but sold the
  carcass to the innkeeper and cooks of the POPINA, hence the name.
  These eating places of a low order did a thriving business with
  cheaply bought meats which, however, usually were of the best
  quality. In Pompeii such steaks were exhibited in windows behind
  magnifying glasses to attract the rural customer

  Albino, writer, p. 10

  ALBUM, ALBUMEN, white; ---- OVORUM, the "whites" of egg; ---- PIPER,
  white pepper, etc.

  ALEX, (ALEC, HALEC), salt water, pickle, brine, fish brine. Finally,
  the fish itself when cured in A. cf. MURIA

  Alexandria, the city founded by Alexander the Great, important
  Mediterranean harbor. A. was a rival of Rome and Athens in Antiquity,
  famous for its luxury

  Alexandrine dishes ℞ 75, 348, seq.

  ALICA, spelt. ℞ 200

  ALICATUM, any food treated with ALEX, which see

  ALLIATUM, a garlic sauce, consisting of a purée of pounded garlic
  whipped up with oil into a paste of a consistency of mayonnaise, a
  preparation still popular in the Provence today; finally, anything
  flavored with garlic or leeks

  ALLIUM, garlic; also leek. Fr. AILLE

  Almonds, AMYGDALA, peeling and bleaching of A. ℞ 57

  AMACARUS, sweet-marjoram, feverfew

  AMBIGA, a small vessel in the shape of a pyramid

  AMBOLATUS, unidentified term; p. 172; ℞ 57, 59

  Amerbach Manuscript, Apiciana XIV

  AMMI, (AMMIUM, AMI, AMIUM), cumin

  AMURCA (AMUREA), the lees of oil

  AMYGDALA (--UM) Almonds, ℞ 57; OLEUM AMYGDALIUM, almond oil

  AMYLARE (AMULARE), to thicken with flour. AMYLATUM (AMULATUM) that
  which is thickened with flour. Wheat or rice flour and fats or oil
  usually were used for this purpose, corresponding to our present
  roux. However, the term was also extended to the use of eggs for
  the purpose of thickening fluids, thus becoming equivalent to the
  present liaison, used for soups and sauces. Hence AMYLUM and AMULUM,
  which is also a sort of frumenty

  Anacharsis, the Scythian, writer. He described a banquet at Athens
  during the Periclean age. pp. 3, 7

  ANAS, a duck or drake; ℞ 212-17. ANATEM, ℞ 212; ANATEM EX
  RAPIS, ℞ 214

  Anchovy, a small fish; ℞ 147; cf. APUA. ---- forcemeat, ℞ 138;
  ---- sauce and GARUM (which see) ℞ 37; ---- omelette ℞ 147

  ANET(H)ATUM, flavored with dill; ANET(H)UM, dill, also anise

  ANGUILLA, eel, ℞ 466-7, 484. cf. CONGRIO

  ANGULARUS, a "square" dish or pan

  ANISUM, anise, pimpinella

  ANSER, goose, gander; IN ANSERE, ℞ 234; ---- JUS CANDIDUM ℞ 228

  ANTIPASTO, "Before the Meal," modern Italian appetizer; the prepared
  article usually comes in cans or glasses, consisting of tunny,
  artichokes, olives, etc., preserved in oil

  APER, see APRUS

  APEXABO, a blood sausage; cf. LONGANO

  Aphricocks, ℞ 295

  APHROS, ℞ 295

  APHYA, see APUA

  Apician Cheesecakes, p. 9
    ---- cookery, influence, p. 16, 23
    ---- Archetypus, p. 19
    ---- manuscripts, p. 19, p. 253, seq.
    ---- Terminology, p. 22
    ---- dishes, compared with modern dishes, p. 23
    ---- sauces, p. 24
    ---- Style of writing, p. 26
    ---- research, p. 34 seq.

  Apiciana, Diagram of, p. 252

  Apicius, pp. 7, 9
    ---- The man, p. 9
    ---- Athenaeus on, p. 9
    ---- and Platina, p. 9
    ---- Expedition to find crawfish, p. 9
    ---- ships oysters, p. 10
    ---- school, p. 10
    ---- death, pp. 10, 11
    ---- reflecting Roman conditions, pp. 14, 15
    ---- authenticity of, pp. 18, 19
    ---- writer, p. 26, ℞ 176, 436
    ---- confirmed by modern science, p. 33
    ---- editors as cooks, p. 34 seq.

  Apion, writer, quoted by Athenaeus, p. 9

  APIUM, celery, smallage, parsley. ℞ 104

  APOTHERMA (--UM, APODERMUM) hot porridge, gruel, pudding. ℞ 57;
  cf. TISANA

  APPARATUS, preparation; ---- MENSAE, getting dinner ready

  Appetizers. ℞ 174 and others. According to Horace, eggs were the
  first dishes served. The "moveable appetizer" of Apicius is very
  elaborate, p. 210

  Appert, François, ℞ 24, father of the modern canning methods

  Apples, ℞ 22, 171

  APRUS, APRUGNUS, wild boar. ℞ 329-38. APRINA, PERNA, ℞ 338,
  also APER

  APUA (ABUA, APHYA), a small kind of fish, anchovy, sprat, whiting,
  white bait, or minnow. ℞ 138-9, 146, cf. Pliny. Apua is also a
  town in Liguria; its inhabitants APUANI

  AQUA, water; ---- CALIDA, hot w.; ---- CISTERNINA, well w.; ----
  MARINA, sea w.; ---- NITRATA, soda w. for the cooking of vegetables;
  ---- RECENS; fresh, i.e., not stale w.; ---- PLUVIALE, rain w.

  AQUALICUS lower part of belly, paunch, ventricle, stomach, maw

  Archetypus Fuldensis, manuscript, see Apiciana Diagram

  ARCHIMAGIRUS, principal cook, chef, cf. Cooks' names

  ARIDA (--US, --UM) dry; ---- MENTHA, dry mint

  ARTEMISIA, the herb mugwort, motherwort, tarragon

  ARTOCREAS, meat pie

  ARTOPTES, Torinus' title of Book II; better: SARCOPTES, minces,
  minced meats

  ARTYMA, spice; cf. CONDIMENTUM

  Asa foetida, use of ---- ℞ 15, p. 23

  ASARUM, the Herb foalbit, foalfoot, coltsfoot, wild spikenard

  ASCALONICA CEPA, "scallion," young onion

  Asparagus, ASPARAGUS, p. 188, ℞ 72, ---- and figpecker, ℞ 132,
  ---- custard pie, ℞ 133

  ASSATURA, a roast, also the process of roasting. ℞ 266-270

  ASSUS, roast

  ASTACUS, a crab or lobster

  Athenaeus, writer, pp. 3, seq.
    ---- on Apicius, p. 10

  Athene, Dish illustration, p. 158

  ATRIPLEX, the herb orage, or orach

  ATRIUM, living room in a Roman residence, formerly used for kitchen
  purposes, hence the name, "black room," because of the smoky walls.
  Like all simple things then and now, the Atrium often developed into
  a magnificently decorated court, with fountains and marble statues,
  and became a sort of parlor to receive the guests of the house

  ATTAGENA (ATAGENA), heath cock, a game bird. ℞ 218, seq.

  AURATA, a fish, "golden" dory, red snapper. ℞ 157, 461, 462

  AVELLANA, hazelnut, filbert, Fr. AVELLINE
    ---- NUX, ---- NUCLEUS, kernel of f. ℞ 297 and in the list of
      the Excerpta

  AVENA, a species of bearded grass, haver-grass, oats, wild oats

  AVIBUS, IN-- ℞ 220, 21, 24, 27

  AVICULARIUS, bird keeper, poulterer

  AVIS, bird, fowl; AVES ESCULENTAE, edible birds. ---- HIRCOSAE,
  ill-smelling birds, ℞ 229-30, ---- NE LIQUESCANT, ℞ 233


  B

  BACCA, berry, seed. ---- MYRTHEA, myrtle berry; ---- RUTAE, rue
  berry; ---- LAUREA, laurel berry, etc.

  Bacon, ℞ 285-90; see also SALSUM

  BAIAE, a town, watering place of the ancients, for which many dishes
  are named. ℞ 205. BAIANUM pertaining to BAIAE; hence EMPHRACTUM
  ----, FABAE, etc. ℞ 202, 205, 432; Baian Seafood Stew, ℞ 431

  Bakery in Pompeii, illustration, p. 2

  Bantam Chicken, ℞ 237

  Barracuda, a fish, ℞ 158

  Barley Broth, ℞ 172, 200, 247

  BARRICA, ℞ 173

  Barthélemy, J. J., writer, translator of Anacharsis, p. 8

  Baseggio, G., editor, Apiciana, No. 13, p. 270

  BASILICUM, basil

  Bavarian Cabbage, ℞ 87

  Beans, ℞ 96, 189, 194-8, 247; Green ---- ℞ 247; ---- sauté,
  ℞ 203; ---- in mustard, ℞ 204
    ---- Baian style, ℞ 202
    ---- "Egyptian," see COLOCASIUM

  Beauvilliers, A., French cook; cf. Styrio

  Beef, p. 30; shortage of ---- diet, p. 30
    ---- "Beef Eaters," p. 30
    ---- dishes, ℞ 351, seq.

  Beets, ℞ 70, 97, 98, 183
    ---- named for Varro, ℞ 70, 97, 98

  Bernardinus, of Venice, printer, p. 258

  Bernhold, J. M., editor, Apiciana, Nos. 2-3, 12-14, pp. 258, seq.

  BETA, beet, which see BETACEOS VARRONES, ℞ 70

  Bibliographers of Apicius, see Apiciana

  Birds, Book VI, ℞ 210-227; treatment of strong-smelling ---- ℞
  229, 230

  BLITUM, a pot herb, the arrack or orage, also spinach, according to
  some interpreters

  Boar, wild, ℞ 329-38, p. 314

  Boiled Dinners, ℞ 125

  BOLETAR, a dish for mushrooms, ℞ 183

  BOLETUS, mushroom, ℞ 309-14

  Bordelaise, ℞ 351

  Borrichius, Olaus, p. 268

  BOTELLUS, (dim. of BOTULUS) small sausage, ℞ 60. BOTULUS, a
  sausage, meat pudding, black pudding, ℞ 60, 61, 172

  BOUILLABAISSE, a fish stew of Marseilles, ℞ 431, 481

  Bouquet garni, ℞ 138

  BOVES, Beef cattle; cf. BUBULA

  Bowls for mixing wine, etc., see Crater
    ---- for fruit or dessert, illustration, p. 61

  Brain Sausage, ℞ 45
    ---- Custard, ℞ 128
    ---- and bacon, ℞ 148
    ---- and chicken with peas, ℞ 198

  Brandt, Edward, Editor, Commentator, ℞ 29, 170, p. 273

  BRASSICA, cabbage, kale; ---- CAMPESTRA, turnip; ---- OLERACEA,
  cabbage and kale; ---- MARINA, sea kale (?)

  Bread, Alexandrine, ℞ 126; Picentian ----, ℞ 125. The methods
  of grinding flour and baking is illustrated with our illustrations
  of the Casa di Forno of Pompeii and the Slaves grinding flour, which
  see, pp. 142, 149. Apicius has no directions for baking, an art that
  was as highly developed in his days as was cookery

  BREVIS PIMENTORUM, facsimile, p. 234

  Brissonius, writer, quoting Lambecius, ℞ 376

  Broiler and Stove, illustration, p. 182

  Broth, see LIQUAMEN; Barley ----, ℞ 172, 200, 201
    ---- How to redeem a spoiled, ℞ 9

  BUBULA, Beef, flesh of oxen, p. 30, ℞ 351, 352

  BUBULUS CASEUS, cow's cheese

  BUCCA, BUCCEA, mouth, cheek; also a bite, a morsel, a mouth-full;
  Fr. BOUCHÉE; BUCELLA (dim.) a small bite, a dainty bit, delicate
  morsel; hence probably, Ger. "Buss'l" a little kiss and "busseln,"
  to spoon, to kiss, in the Southern German dialect

  BUCCELLATUM, a biscuit, Zwieback, soldier's bread, hard tack

  BULBUS, a bulbous root, a bulb, onion, ℞ 285, 304-8

  BULBI FRICTI, ℞ 308

  BULLIRE, to boil; Fr. BOUILLIR

  BUTYRUM, butter. Was little used in ancient households, except for
  cosmetics. Cows were expensive, climate and sanitary conditions
  interfered with its use in the Southern kitchen. The Latin butyrum
  is said to derive from the German Butter


  C

  CABBAGE, ℞ 87-92, 103; p. 188
    Bavarian, ℞ 87
    Ingenious way of cooking, ℞ 88
    Chartreuse, ℞ 469

  CACABUS, CACCABUS, a cook pot, marmite; see OLLA. Illustrations, pp.
  183, 209, 223, 235. Hence: CACCABINA, dish cooked in a caccabus. See
  also SALACACCABIA, ℞ 468. I Exc. 470

  CAELIUS, see Coelius

  CAEPA, CEPA, onion; ---- ARIDA, fresh onion; ---- ROTUNDA, round
  onion; ---- SICCA, dry o.; ---- ASCALONICA, young o. "scallion;"
  ---- PALLACANA or PALLICANA, a shallot, a special Roman variety

  Calamary, cuttlefish, ℞ 405, p. 343

  CALAMENTHUM, cress, watercress

  CALLUM, CALLUS (---- PORCINUM) tough skin, bacon skin, cracklings.
  ℞ 9, 251, 255

  CAMERINUM, town in Umbria, ℞ 3, where Vermouth was made

  CAMMARUS MARINUS, a kind of crab-fish, ℞ 43

  CANABINUM, CANNABINUM, hemp, hempen

  CANCER, crab

  Canning, ℞ 23-24

  CANTHARUS, illustrations, p. 231; p. 274

  CAPON, ℞ 166, 249; CAPONUM TESTICULI, ℞ 166

  CAPPAR, caper

  CAPPARA, purslane, portulaca

  CAPPARUS, CARABUS, ℞ 397

  CAPRA, she-goat, also mountain goat, chamois; Ger. GEMSE; ℞ 346-8

  Caramel coloring, ℞ 55, 73, 119, 124, 146

  CARDAMOMUM, cardamom, aromatic seed

  CARDAMUM, nasturtium, cress

  Cardoons, ℞ 112-4

  CARDUS, CARDUUS, cardoon, edible thistle, ℞ 112-3

  Carême, Antonin, The most talented French cook of the post-revolution
  period; his chartreuses compared, ℞ 186, p. 35

  CARENUM, CAROENUM, wine or must boiled down one third of its volume
  to keep it. ℞ 35

  CAREUM, CARUM, Carraway

  CARICA (---- FICUS) a dried fig from Caria, a reduction made of the
  fig wine was used for coloring sauce, similar to our caramel color,
  which see

  CARIOTA, CARYOTA, a kind of large date, figdate; also a wine, a date
  wine; ℞ 35

  CARO, flesh of animals, ℞ 10; ---- SALSA, pickled meat

  CAROTA, CAROETA, carrot; ℞ 121-3

  Carthusian monks, inventors of the CHARTREUSE, ℞ 68, see also
  Carême

  CARTILAGO, gristle, tendon, cartilage

  CARYOPHYLLUS, clove

  Casa di Forno, Pompeii, "House of the Oven," illustration, p. 2

  CASEUS, cheese; ℞ 125, 303; ---- BUBULUS, cow's cheese; ----
  VESTINUS, ℞ 126

  CASTANEA, chestnut, ℞ 183 seq.

  Catesby, writer, ℞ 322

  Catfish, ℞ 426

  CATTABIA, see Salacaccabia

  Caul Sausage, Kromeski, ℞ 45

  CAULICULOS, ℞ 87-92; also Col-- cul-- and coliclus

  Cauliflower, ℞ 87

  Caviare, see STYRIO

  Celery, ℞ 104

  Celsinus, a Roman, ℞ 376-7

  CENA, COENA, a meal, a repast; CENULA, a light luncheon; ---- RECTA,
  a "regular" meal, a formal dinner, usually consisting of GUSTUS,
  appetizers and light ENTRÉES, the CENA proper which is the PIÈCE DE
  RESISTANCE and the MENSÆ SECUNDAE, or desserts. The main dish was
  the CAPUT CENAE; the desserts were also called BELLARIA or MENSAE
  POMORUM, because they usually finished with fruit. Hence Horace's
  saying "AB OVO USQUE AD MALA" which freely translated and modernized
  means, "Everything from soup to nuts."

    ---- AUGURALIS, ---- PONTIFICALIS, ---- CAPITOLINA, ---- PERSICA,
  ----SYBARITICA, ---- CAMPANAE, ---- CEREALIS, ---- SALIARIS,
  ----TRIUMPHALIS, ---- POLINCTURA are all names for state dinners,
  official banquets, refined private parties each with its special
  significance which is hard to render properly into our language
  except by making a long story of it

    ---- PHILOSOPHICA, ---- PLATONICA, ---- LACONICA, ---- RUSTICA,
  ----CYNICA are all more or less skimpy affairs, while the ---- ICCI
  is that of a downright miser. ---- HECATES is a hectic meal,
  ----TERRESTRIS a vegetarian dinner, ---- DEUM, a home-cooked meal,
  and a ---- SATURNIA is one without imported dishes or delicacies, a
  national dinner

    ---- NOVENDIALIS is the feast given on the ninth day after the
  burial of a dead man when his ashes were scattered while yet warm
  and fresh. ---- DUBIA, ℞ 139, is the "doubtful meal" which
  causes the conscientious physician Lister so much worry

    The CENA, to be sure, was an evening meal, the PRANDIUM, a noon-day
  meal, a luncheon, any kind of meal; the JENTACULUM, a breakfast, an
  early luncheon; the MERENDA was a snack in the afternoon between the
  meals for those who had "earned" a bite

    There are further CENAE, such as ---- DAPSILIS, ---- PELLOCIBILIS,
  ---- UNCTA, ---- EPULARIS, ---- REGALIS, all more or less generous
  affairs, and our list of classical and sonorous dinner names is by
  no means exhausted herewith. The variety of these names is the best
  proof of how seriously a meal was considered by the ancients, how
  much thought was devoted to its character and arrangements

  CEPA, same as CAEPA, onion

  CEPAEA, purslane, sea-purslane, portulaca

  CEPUROS, Gr., gardener; title of Book III

  CERASUM, cherry, Fr. CERISE; Cerasus is a city of Pontus (Black Sea)
  whence Lucullus imported the cherry to Rome

  CEREBRUM, CEREBELLUM, brains, ℞ 46

  CEREFOLIUM, CAEREFOLIUM, chervil, Ger. KERBEL, Fr. CERFEUILLE

  Cereto de Tridino, printer, see Tacuinus

  CERVUS, stag, venison, ℞ 339-45

  Cesena, a town in Italy where there is an Apicius Ms.; Apiciana XII

  CHAMAE, cockles

  Chamois, ℞ 346 seq.

  Charcoal used for filtering, ℞ 1

  CHARTREUSE, ℞ 68, 131, 145a, 186, 469-70; also see Carthusian
  monks and Carême

  "Chasseur," ℞ 263

  Cheese, cottage, ℞ 303; also see CASEUS

  Cheltenham codex, Apiciana I

  Cherries, ℞ 22, see CERASUS

  Chestnuts, ℞ 183-84a

  Chicken, PULLUS
    ---- forcemeat, ℞ 50; ---- broth, 51; ---- fricassé, 56; ----
      boiled, 235, 236, 242; ---- and dasheens, 244; ---- creamed, with
      paste, 247; ---- stuffed, 248, 199, 213-17, 235; ---- in cream,
      250; ---- disjointed, 139, note 1; ---- Bantam, 237; ---- cold, in
      its own gravy, 237; ---- fried or sauté, 236; ---- Guinea hen,
      239; ---- Fricassé Varius, 245; ---- à la Fronto, 246; ----
      Parthian style, 237; ---- and leeks, 238; ---- with laser, 240;
      ---- roast, 241; ---- and pumpkin, 243; ---- galantine, 249; ----
      fried with cream sauce, 250; ---- Maryland, Wiener Backhähndl, 250

  Chick-peas, ℞ 207-9; p. 247

  Chimneys on pies, ℞ 141

  Chipolata garniture, ℞ 378

  CHOENIX, a measure,--2 SEXTARII, ℞ 52

  Chops, ℞ 261

  CHOUX DE BRUXELLES AUX MARRONS, ℞ 92

  Christina, Queen of Sweden, eating Apician dishes, pp. 37, 38

  CHRYSOMELUM, CHRYSOMALUM, a sort of quince

  CIBARIA, victuals, provisions, food; same as CIBUS. Hence CIBARIAE
  LEGES, sumptuary laws; CIBARIUM VAS, a vessel or container for food;
  CIBARIUS, relating to food; also CIBATIO, victualling, feeding,
  meal, repast

  CIBARIUM ALBUM, white repast, white dish, blancmange. Fr. BLANC
  MANGER, "white eating." A very old dish. Platina gives a fine recipe
  for it; in Apicius it is not yet developed. The body of this dish is
  ground almonds and milk, thickened with meat jelly. Modern
  cornstarch puddings have no longer a resemblance to it; to speak of
  "chocolate" blancmange as we do, is a barbarism. Platina is proud of
  his C.A. He prefers it to any Apician dessert. We agree with him;
  the incomplete Apicius in Platina's and in our days has no desserts
  worth mentioning. A German recipe of the 13th century (in "Ein Buch
  von guter Spise") calls C.A. "Blamansier," plainly a corruption of
  the French. By the translation of C.A. into the French, the origin
  of the dish was obliterated, a quite frequent occurrence in French
  kitchen terminology

  CIBORIUM, a drinking vessel

  CIBUS, food, victuals, provender

  CICER, chick-pea, small pulse, ℞ 207-209

  Cicero, famous Roman, ℞ 409

  CICONIA, stork. Although there is no direct mention of the C. as an
  article of diet it has undoubtedly been eaten same as crane, egrets,
  flamingo and similar birds

  CINARA, CYNARA, artichoke

  CINNAMONUM, cinnamon

  CIRCELLOS ISICATOS, a sausage, ℞ 65

  CITREA MALA, citron; see CITRUM

  CITREUS, citron tree

  CITRUM, CITRIUM, the fruit of the CITREUS, citron, citrus, ℞ 23,
  81, 168. The citron tree is also MALUS MEDICA. "MALUS QUAE CITRIA
  VOCANTUR"; CONDITURA MALORUM MEDICORUM, Ap. Book I.; Lister thinks
  this is a cucumber

  CITRUS, orange or lemon tree and their fruits. It is remarkable that
  Apicius does not speak of lemons, one of the most indispensable
  fruits in modern cookery which grow so profusely in Italy today.
  These were imported into Italy probably later. The ancients called a
  number of other trees CITRUS also, including the cedar, the very
  name of which is a corruption of CITRUS

  Classic Cookery, pp. 16-17

  CLIBANUS, portable oven; also a broad vessel for bread-making, a
  dough trough

  CNECON, ℞ 16

  CNICOS, CNICUS, CNECUS, bastard saffron; also the blessed thistle

  CNISSA, smoke or steam arising from fat or meat while roasting

  COCHLEAE, snails, also sea-snails, "cockles," periwinkles, ℞
  323-25. ---- LACTE PASTAE, milk-fed snails. COCHLEARIUM, a snail
  "farm," place where snails were raised and fattened for the table.
  Also a "spoonful," a measure of the capacity of a small shell, more
  properly, however, COCHLEAR, a spoon, a spoon-full, 1/4 cyathus, the
  capacity of a small shell, also, properly, a spoon for drawing
  snails out of the shells. COCHLEOLA, a small snail

  COCOLOBIS, basil, basilica

  COCTANA, COTANA, COTTANA, COTONA, a small dried fig from Syria

  COCTIO, the act of cooking or boiling

  COCTIVA CONDIMENTA, easy of digestion, not edible without cooking.
  COCTIVUS, soon boiled or roasted

  COCTOR, cook, which see; same as COQUUS

  COCULA, same as COQUA, a female cook

  COCULUM, a cooking vessel

  COCUS, COQUUS, cook, which see

  Coelius, name of a person, erroneously attached to that of Apicius;
  also Caelius, p. 13

  COLADIUM, --EDIUM, --ESIUM, --OESIUM, variations of COLOCASIUM,
  which see

  Colander, illustration of a, p. 58

  COLICULUS, CAULICULUS, a tender shoot, a small stalk or stem,
  ℞ 87-92

  COLO, to strain, to filter, cf. ℞ 73

  COLOCASIA, COLOCASIUM, the dasheen, or taro, or tanyah tuber, of
  which there are many varieties; the root of a plant known to the
  ancients as Egyptian Bean. Descriptions in the notes to the ℞ 74,
  154, 172, 200, 244 and 322

  COLUM NIVARIUM, a strainer or colander for wine and other liquids.
  See illustration, p. 58

  COLUMBA, female pigeon; COLUMBUS, the male; COLUMBULUS, --A, squab,
  ℞ 220. Also used as an endearing term

  Columella, writer on agriculture; ---- on bulbs, ℞ 307; ----
  mentioning Matius, ℞ 167

  COLYMBADES (OLIVAE), olives "swimming" in the brine; from COLYMBUS,
  swimming pool

  Combination of dishes, ℞ 46

  Commentaries on Apicius, p. 272

  Commodus, a Roman, ℞ 197

  Compôte of early fruit, ℞ 177

  CONCHA, shellfish muscle, cockle scallop, pearl oyster; also the
  pearl itself, or mother-of-pearl; also any hollow vessel resembling
  a mussel shell (cf. illustration, p. 125) hence CONCHA SALIS PURI, a
  salt cellar. Hence also CONCHIS, beans or peas cooked "in the shell"
  or in the pod; and diminutives and variations: CONCHICLA FABA, (bean
  in the pod) for CONCHICULA, which is the same as CONCHIS and
  CONCICLA; ℞ 194-98, 411. ---- APICIANA, ℞ 195; ---- DE PISA,
  ℞ 196; ---- COMMODIANA, ℞ 197; ---- FARSILIS, ℞ 199

  CONCHICLATUS, ℞ 199

  CONCRESCO, grow together, run together, thicken, congeal, also
  curdle, etc., same as CONCRETIO, CONCRETUM

  CONDIO, to salt, to season, to flavor; to give relish or zest, to
  spice, to prepare with honey or pepper, and also (since spicing does
  this very thing) to preserve

  CONDITIO, laying up, preserving. CONDITIVUS, that which is laid up or
  preserved, same as CONDITUM

  CONDITOR, one who spices. Ger. Konditor, a pastry maker

  CONDIMENTARIUS, spice merchant, grocer

  CONDIMENTUM, condiment, sauce, dressing, seasoning, pickle, anything
  used for flavoring, seasoning, pickling ---- VIRIDE green herbs, pot
  herbs; cf. CONDITURA. ---- PRO PELAMIDE, ℞ 445; ---- PRO THYNNO,
  ℞ 446; ---- IN PERCAM, ℞ 447; ---- IN RUBELLIONEM, ℞ 448;
  ---- RATIO CONDIENDI MURENAS, ℞ 449; ---- LACERTOS, ℞ 456;
  ---- PRO LACERTO ASSO, ℞ 457; ---- THYNNUM ET DENTICEM, ℞ 458;
  ---- DENTICIS, ℞ 460; ---- IN DENTICE ELIXO, ℞ 461; ----
  AURATA, ℞ 462; ---- IN AURATAM ASSAM, ℞ 463; ---- SCORPIONES,
  ℞ 464; ---- ANGUILLAM, ℞ 466; ---- ALIUD ---- ANGUILLAE, ℞
  467

  CONDITUM, preserved, a preserve; cf. CONDIO; ---- MELIRHOMUM, ℞ 2
  ---- ABSINTHIUM ROMANUM, ℞ 3 ---- PARADOXUM, ℞ 1 ----
  VIOLARUM, ℞ 5
    ---- Paradoxum, facsimile of Vat. Ms., p. 253

  CONDITURA, a pickle, a preserve, sauce, seasoning, marinade; the
  three terms, C., CONDITUM and CONDIMENTUM are much the same in
  meaning, and are used indiscriminately. They also designate sweet
  dishes and desserts of different kinds, including many articles
  known to us as confections. Hence the German, KONDITOR, for
  confectioner, pastry cook. Nevertheless, a general outline of the
  specific meanings of these terms may be gathered from observing the
  nature of the several preparations listed under these headings,
  particularly as follows: ---- ROSATUM, ℞ 4; (cf. No. 5) ----
  MELLIS, ℞ 17; ---- UVARUM, ℞ 20; ---- MALORUM PUNICORUM, ℞
  21; ---- COTONIORUM, ℞ 19; ---- FICUUM, PRUNORUM, PIRORUM, ℞
  20; ---- MALORUM MEDICORUM, ℞ 21; ---- MORORUM, ℞ 25; ----
  OLERUM, ℞ 26; ---- RUMICIS, ℞ 27; ---- LAPAE, ℞ 27; ----
  DURACINORUM, ℞ 29; ---- PRUNORUM, etc., ℞ 30
    --in most of these instances corresponds to our modern
      "preserving"

  CONGER, CONGRIO, CONGRUS, sea-eel, conger. CONGRUM QUEM ANTIATES
  BRUNCHUM APPELLANT,--Platina, cf. ANGUILLA. Plautus uses this fish
  name to characterize a very cunning person, a "slippery" fellow. A
  cook is thus called CONGRIO in one of his plays

  CONILA, CUNILA, a species of the plant ORIGANUM, origany, wild
  marjoram. See SATUREIA

  CONYZA, the viscous elecampane

  Cook, COCUS, COQUUS is the most frequent form used, COCTOR,
  infrequent. COQUA, COCULA, female cook; though female cooks were
  few. The word is derived from COQUERE, to cook, which seems to be an
  imitation of the sound, produced by a bubbling mess

    The cook's work place (formerly ATRIUM, the "black" smoky room) was
  the CULINA, the kitchen, hence in the modern Romance tongues
  CUISINE, CUCINA, COCINA. Those who work there are CUISINIERS,
  COCINEROS, the female a CUISINIÈRE, and so forth

    The German and Swedish for "kitchen" are KÜCHE and KÖKET, but the
  words "cook" and "KOCH" are directly related to COQUUS

    A self-respecting Roman cook, especially a master of the art,
  having charge of a crew, would assume the title of MAGIRUS, or
  ARCHIMAGIRUS, chief cook. This Greek--"MAGEIROS"--plainly shows the
  high regard in which Greek cookery stood in Rome. No American CHEF
  would think of calling himself "chief cook," although CHEF means
  just that. The foreign word sounds ever so much better both in old
  Rome and in new New York. MAGEIROS is derived from the Greek
  equivalent of the verb "to knead," which leads us to the art of
  baking. Titles and distinctions were plentiful in the ancient
  bakeshops, which plainly indicates departmentisation and division of
  labor

    The PISTOR was the baker of loaves, the DULCIARIUS the cake baker,
  using honey for sweetening. Martial says of the PISTOR DULCIARIUS,
  "that hand will construct for you a thousand sweet figures of art;
  for it the frugal bee principally labors." The PANCHESTRARIUS,
  mentioned in Arnobius, is another confectioner. The LIBARIUS still
  another of the sweet craft. The CRUSTULARIUS and BOTULARIUS were a
  cookie baker and a sausage maker respectively

    The LACTARIUS is the milkman; the PLACENTARIUS he who makes the
  PLACENTA, a certain pancake, also a kind of cheese cake, often
  presented during the Saturnalia. The SCRIBLITARIUS belongs here,
  too: in our modern parlance we would perhaps call these two
  "ENTREMETIERS." The SCRIBLITA must have been a sort of hot cake,
  perhaps an omelet, a pancake, a dessert of some kind, served hot;
  maybe just a griddle cake, baked on a hot stone, a TORTILLA--what's
  the use of guessing! but SCRIBLITAE were good, for Plautus, in one
  of his plays, Poenulus, shouts, "Now, then, the SCRIBLITAE are
  piping hot! Come hither, fellows!" Not all of them did eat, however,
  all the time, for Posidippus derides a cook, saying, CUM SIS COQUUS,
  PROFECTUS EXTRA LIMEN ES, CUM NON PRIUS COENAVERIS, "What? Thou art
  a cook, and hast gone, without dinner, over the threshold?"

    From the FOCARIUS, the scullion, the FORNACARIUS, the fireman, or
  furnace tender, and the CULINARIUS, the general kitchen helper to
  the OBSONATOR, the steward, the FARTOR to the PRINCEPS COQUORUM, the
  "maître d'hôtel" of the establishment we see an organization very
  much similar to our own in any well-conducted kitchen

    The Roman cooks, formerly slaves in the frugal days of the nation,
  rose to great heights of civic importance with the spread of
  civilization and the advance of luxury in the empire. Cf. "The Rôle
  of the Mageiroi in the Life of the Ancient Greeks" by E. M. Rankin,
  Chic., 1907, and "Roman Cooks" by C. G. Harcum, Baltimore, 1914, two
  monographs on this subject

  Cookery, Apician, as well as modern c., discussed in the critical
  review of the Apicius book
    ---- examples of deceptive c. in Apicius, ℞ 6, 7, 9, 17, 229,
      230, 384, 429
    ---- of flavoring and spicing, ℞ 15, 277, 281, 369
    ---- deserving special mention for ingenuity and excellence, ℞
      15, 21, 22, 72, 88, 177, 186, 212, 213, 214, 250, 287, 315, 428
    ---- modern Jewish, resembling Apicius, ℞ 204 seq.
    ---- examples of attempts to remove disagreeable odors, ℞ 212-14,
      229, 230, 292
    ---- removing sinews from fowl, ℞ 213
    ---- utensils, p. 15

  Coote, C. T., commentator, pp. 19, 273

  COPA, a woman employed in eating places and taverns, a bar maid, a
  waitress, an entertainer, may be all that in one person. One of the
  caricatures drawn on a tavern wall in Pompeii depicts a COPA
  energetically demanding payment for a drink from a reluctant
  customer, p. 7

  COPADIA, dainties, delicate bits, ℞ 125, 179, 180, 271, 276,
  seq., 355

  Copper in Vegetable Cookery, ℞ 66

  Copyists and their work, p. 14

  COQUINA, cooking, kitchen. COQUINARIS, --IUS, relating to the kitchen.
  COQUO, --IS, COXI, COCTUM, COQUERE, to cook, to dress food, to function
  in the kitchen, to prepare food for the table. See cook

  COR, heart

  CORDYLA, CORDILLA, ℞ 419, 423

  CORIANDRUM, the herb coriander; CORIANDRATUM, flavored with c.;
  LIQUAMEN EX CORIANDRO, coriander essence or extract

  Corn, green, ℞ 99

  CORNUM, cornel berry; "CORNA QUAE VERGILIUS LAPIDOSA VOCAT"--Platina

  CORNUTUS, horn-fish, ℞ 442

  CORRUDA, the herb wild sparrage, or wild asparagus

  CORVUS, a kind of sea-fish, according to some the sea-swallow.
  Platina describes it as a black fish of the color of the raven
  (hence the name), and ranks it among the best of fish, cf. STURNUS

  COTANA, see COCTANA

  COTICULA (CAUDA?), minor cuts of pork, either spareribs, pork chops,
  or pig's tails

  COTONEA, a herb of the CUNILA family, wallwort, comfrey or black
  bryony

  COTONEUM, COTONEUS, COTONIUS, CYDONIUS, quince-apple, ℞ 163

  COTULA, COTYLA, a small measure, 1/2 sextarius

  COTURNIX, quail

  COSTUM, COSTUS, costmary; fragrant Indian shrub, the root of burning
  taste but excellent flavor

  Court-bouillon, ℞ 37, 138

  Cow-parsnips, p. 188, ℞ 115-122, 183

  COXA, ℞ 288

  Crabs, ℞ 485; crabmeat croquettes, ℞ 44

  Cracklings, p. 285, ℞ 255

  Crane, ℞ 212, 213, p. 265. Crane with turnips, ℞ 214-17

  CRATER, CRATERA, a bowl or vessel to mix wine and water; also a
  mixing bowl and oil container--see illustrations, p. 140

  CRATICULA, grill, gridiron; illustration, p. 182

  Crême renversée, ℞ 129, 143

  CREMORE, DE--, ℞ 172

  CRETICUM HYSOPUM, ℞ 29, Cretan hyssop

  CROCUS, --OS, --ON, --UM, saffron; hence CROCEUS, saffron-flavored,
  saffron sauce or saffron essence. CROCIS, a certain herb or flavor,
  perhaps saffron

  Croquettes, ℞ 42, seq.

  Cucumber, CUCUMIS, ℞ 82-84

  CUCURBITA, pumpkin, gourd, ℞ 73-80, 136

  CULINA, kitchen; CULINARIUS, man employed in the kitchen; pertaining
  to the kitchen

  CULTER, a knife for carving or killing; the blade from 9 to 13
  inches long

  CUMANA, earthen pot or dish; casserole, ℞ 237

  Cumberland sauce, ℞ 345

  CUMINUM, CYMINUM, cumin; CUMINATUM, --US, sauce or dish seasoned
  with cumin, ℞ 39, 40. Aethiopian, Libyan, and Syriac cumin are
  named, ℞ 178

  CUNICULUS, rabbit, cony

  CUNILAGO, a species of origany, flea-bane, wild marjoram, basilica

  CUPELLUM, CUPELLA, dim., of CUPA, a small cask or tun. Ger. KUFE; a
  "cooper" is a man who makes them

  CURCUMA ZEODARIA, turmeric

  Custard, brain, ℞ 27; ---- nut, ℞ 128, 142; ---- of vegetables
  and brain, ℞ 130; ---- of elderberries, ℞ 134; ---- rose, ℞
  135; see also ℞ 301

  Cutlets, ℞ 261, 471-3

  Cuttle-fish, ℞ 42, 406-8

  CYAMUS, Egyptian bean

  CYATHUS, a measure, for both things liquid and things dry, which
  according to Pliny 21.109, amounted to 10 drachms, and, according to
  Rhem. Fann. 80., was the 12th part of a SEXTARIUS, roughly one
  twelfth pint. Also a goblet, and a vessel for mixing wine, ℞ 131

  CYDONIIS, PATINA DE, ℞ 163, see also Malus

  CYMA, young sprout, of colewort or any other herb; also cauliflower,
  ℞ 87-9-92

  CYPERUS, CYPIRUS, a sort of rush with roots like ginger, see MEDIUM

  CYRENE, a city of Africa, famous for its Laser Cyrenaicum, the best
  kind of laser, which see. Also Kyrene


  D

  DACTYLIS, long, "finger-like" grape or raisin; --US, long date, fruit
  of a date tree, ℞ 30

  DAMA, a doe, deer, also a gazelle, antilope (DORCAS). In some places
  the chamois of the Alps is called DAMA

  DAMASCENA [PRUNA], plum or prune from Damascus, ℞ 30. Either fresh
  or dried

  Danneil, E., editor, pp. 33-34, 35, 271

  Dasheen, ℞ 74, 152, 172, 216, 244, 322

  Dates, stuffed, ℞ 294

  DAUCUM, --US, --ON, a carrot

  DE CHINE, see Dasheen

  "Decline of the West," p. 17

  DECOQUO, to boil down

  DEFRUTARIUS, one who boils wine; CELLA DEFRUTARIA, a cellar where
  this is done, or where such wine is kept

  DEFRUTUM, DEFRICTUM, DEFRITUM, new wine boiled down to one half of
  its volume with sweet herbs and spices to make it keep. Used to
  flavor sauces, etc., see also Caramel color

  DENTEX, a sparoid marine fish, "Tooth-Fish," ℞ 157, 459-60

  Dessert Dishes, illustrations, pp. 61, 125

  Desserts, absent, p. 43

  Desserts, Apician, ℞ 143, 294, seq.

  DIABOTANON PRO PISCE FRIXO, ℞ 432

  Diagram of Apician editions, p. 252

  Didius Julianus, ℞ 178

  Dierbach, H. J., commentator, p. 273

  Dining in Apician style, modern, p. 37
    ---- in Rome, compared with today, pp. 17, 18

  Diocles, writer, ℞ 409

  Dionysos Cup, illustration, p. 141

  Dipper, illustrated, p. 3

  DISCUS, round dish, plate or platter

  Disguising foods, ℞ 133, pp. 33-4

  Distillation, see Vinum

  Dormouse, ℞ 396

  Dory, ℞ 157, 462-5

  Doves, p. 265

  Drexel, Theodor, collector, pp. 257-8

  Dubois, Urbain, chef, p. 16

  Duck, p. 265, ℞ 212-3; ---- with turnips, ℞ 214-7

  DULCIA, sweets, cookies, confections, ℞ 16, 216, 294-6
    --RIUS, pastry cook, ℞ 294

  Dumas, Alexandre, cooking, p. 24

  Dumpling of pheasant, ℞ 48; ---- and HYDROGARUM, ℞ 49; ----
  with broth, plain, ℞ 52, 181

  DURACINUS, hard-skinned, rough-skinned fruit; ---- PERSICA, the best
  sort of peach, according to some, nectarines, ℞ 28


  E

  Early fruit, stewed, ℞ 177

  ECHINUS, sea-urchin, ℞ 412-17

  Economical methods: flavoring, ℞ 15

  EDO, to eat; great eater, gormandizer, glutton

  EDULA, chitterlings

  Eel, ℞ 466-7

  Egg Dish, illustration, p. 93

  Eggs, ℞ 326-28; ---- fried, ℞ 336; ---- boiled, ℞ 327; ----
  poached, ℞ 328; ---- scrambled with fish and oysters, ℞ 159

  Eglantine, ℞ 171

  Egyptian Bean, ℞ 322; also see CYAMUS

  EIERKÄSE, ℞ 125, 301

  ELAEOGARUM, ℞ 33

  Elderberry custard, ℞ 135

  ELIXO, to boil, boil down, reduce. --US, --UM, boiled down, sodden,
  reduced. According to Platina an ELIXUM simply is a meat bouillon as
  it is made today. ELIXATIO, a court-bouillon, liquid boiled down;
  ELIXATURA, a reduction

  EMBAMMA, a marinade, a pickle or sauce to preserve food, to give it
  additional flavor; same as INTINCTUS, ℞ 344

  EMBRACTUM, EMPHRACTUM, a dish "covered over"; a casserole of some
  kind. E. BAIANUM, ℞ 431

  Endives, ℞ 109

  Enoche of Ascoli, medieval scholar, cf. Apiciana

  Entrées, potted, ℞ 54, 55; ---- sauces, ℞ 56; ---- of fish,
  poultry and sausage, ℞ 139; ---- of fowl and livers, ℞ 175

  EPIMELES, careful, accurate; choice things. Title of Book I

  Erasmus of Rotterdam, Dialogue, p. 273

  ERUCA, the herb rocket, a colewort, a salad plant, a mustard plant

  ERVUM, a kind of pulse like vetches or tares

  ESCA, meat, food, victuals; ESCO, to eat

  Escoffier, A. modern chef, writer, ℞ 338

  ESCULENTES, things good to eat

  ESTRIX, she-glutton

  ESUS, eating

  Every Day Dishes, ℞ 128, 142

  EXCERPTA A VINIDARIO, p. 235

  Excerpts from Apicius by Vinidarius, pp. 21, 234

  EXCOQUO, to boil out, to melt, to render (fats)


  F

  FABA, bean, pulse. ---- AEGYPTIACA, ℞ 322; ---- IN FRIXORIO,
  string beans in the frying pan, Fr.: HARICOTS VERTS SAUTÉS; ----
  VITELLIANA, ℞ 189, 193

  FABACIAE VIRIDES, green bean, ℞ 202; ---- FRICTAE, ℞ 203; ----
  EX SINAPI, ℞ 204

  Fabricius, Albertus, bibliographer, pp. 258, seq., 268

  "Fakers" of manuscripts, p. 13

  FALSCHER HASE, ℞ 384

  FAR, corn or grain of any kind, also spelt; also a sort of coarse meal

  Farce, forcemeat, ℞ 131

  FARCIMEN, sausage, ℞ 62-64

  FARCIO, to fill, to stuff; also to feed by force, cram, fatten

  FARINA, meal, flour, ℞ 173; --OSUS, mealy

  FARNEI FUNGI, ℞ 309

  FARRICA, ℞ 173

  FASEOLUS, PHASEOLUS, a bean; Ger.: Fisole, ℞ 207

  FARSILIS, FARTILIS, a rich dish, something crammed or fattened,
  ℞ 131

  FARTOR, sausage maker; keeper of animals to be fattened, ℞ 166,
  366

  FARTURA, the fattening of animals; also the dressing used to stuff
  the bodies in roasting, forcemeat, ℞ 166, 366

  FATTENING FOWL, ℞ 166, 366

  FENICOPTERO, IN, ℞ 220, 231

  FENICULUM, FOENI--, fennel

  FENUM GRAECUM, FOEN--; the herb fenugreek, also SILICIA, ℞ 206

  FERCULUM, a frame or tray on which several dishes were brought in at
  once, hence a course of dishes

  FERULA, a rod or branch, fennel-giant; ---- ASA FOETIDA, same as
  LASERPITIUM

  FICATUM, fed or stuffed with figs, ℞ 259-60

  FICEDULA, small bird, figpecker, ℞ 132

  FICUS, fig, fig tree, FICULA, small fig

  Field herbs, ℞ 107; Field salad, ℞ 110; a dish of field
  vegetables, ℞ 134

  Fieldfare, a bird, ℞ 497

  Fig-fed pork, p. 285, ℞ 259

  Figpecker, a bird, ℞ 132

  Figs, to preserve, ℞ 22

  Filets Mignons, ℞ 262

  Filtering liquors, ℞ 1

  Financière garniture, ℞ 166, 378

  Fine ragout of brains and bacon, ℞ 147

  Fine spiced wine, ℞ 1

  Fish cookery, "The Fisherman," title of Book X; ---- boiled, ℞
  432, 4, 5, 6, 455; ---- fried, herb sauce, ℞ 433; ---- to
  preserve fried fish, ℞ 13; ---- with cold dressing, ℞ 486;
  ---- baked, ℞ 476-7; ---- balls in wine sauce, ℞ 145, 164;
  ---- fond, ℞ 155; a dish of any kind of ----, ℞ 149, 150, 156;
  ---- au gratin, ℞ 143; ---- loaf, ℞ 429; ---- liver pudding,
  ℞ 429; ---- pickled, spiced, marinated, ℞ 480; ---- oysters
  and eggs, ℞ 157; ---- salt, any style, ℞ 430, 431; ----
  stew, ℞ 153, 432; ---- sauce, acid, ℞ 38-9

  FISKE BOLLER, ℞ 145, 41, seq.

  Flaccus, a Roman, ℞ 372

  Flamingo, ℞ 220, 231-2

  Flavors and spices, often referred to, especially in text; instances
  of careful flavoring, ℞ 15, 276-77. Flavoring with faggots, ℞
  385, seq.

  Florence Mss. Apiciana VI, VII, VIII, IX

  FLORES SAMBUCI, elder blossoms

  Fluvius Hirpinus, Roman, ℞ 323, 396; a man interested in raising
  snails, dormice, etc., for the table

  FOCUS, hearth, range; unusually built of brick, on which the CRATICULA
  stood. Cf. illustrations, p. 182

  FOLIUM, leaf, aromatic leaves such as laurel, etc. ---- NARDI,
  several kinds, nard leaf. The Indian nard furnishes nard oil, the
  Italian lavender

  FONDULI, see SPHONDULI, ℞ 114, 121

  Food adulterations, pp. 33, 34

  Food disguising and adulteration, p. 33, ℞ 6, 7, 134, 147;
    ---- displayed in Pompeii, p. 7

  Forcemeats, ℞ 42, 172

  Fowl, p. 265; a dish of, ℞ 470; ---- and livers, ℞ 174;
  various dishes and sauce, ℞ 218, seq. Picking ----, ℞ 233;
  Removing disagreeable odors from ----, ℞ 229-30

  French Dressing, ℞ 112

  French Toast, ℞ 296

  FRETALE, FRIXORIUM, FRICTORIUM, frying pan, illustrations, pp. 355,
  366; cf. SARTAGO

  FRICTELLA, fritter; "A FRICTO DICI NULLA RATIO OBSTAT"--Platina.
  Ger. "Frikadellen" for meat balls fried in the pan. "De OFFELLIS,
  QUAS VEL FRICTELLAS LICET APPELLARE"--Platina

  FRICTORIUM, FRIXORIUM, same as FRETALE, frying pan

  FRISILIS, FRICTILIS, FUSILIS, ℞ 131

  FRITTO MISTO (It.), ℞ 46

  Friture, (Fr.) frying fat, ℞ 42, seq.

  FRIXUS, roast, fried, also dried or parched, term which causes some
  confusion in the several editions

  Frontispice, 2nd Lister Edition, illustration, p. 156

  Fronto, a Roman, ℞ 246, 374

  FRUGES, farinaceous dishes

  Fruit dishes, ℞ 64, 72; Fruits, p. 210; ---- dried, Summary, p. 370
    ---- Bowl illustration, pp. 61, 125

  FRUMENTUM, grain, wheat or barley

  Frying, ℞ 42, seq.

  Frying pans, illustrated, cf. FRETALE and SARTAGO

  Fulda Ms., cf. Apiciana

  FUNGUS, mushroom; --ULUS, small m.; see BOLETUS ---- FARNEI, ℞
  309, seq.

  FURCA, a two-pronged fork; --ULA, --ILLA (dim.) a small fork.
  FUSCINA, --ULA, a three-pronged fork. Cf. "Forks and Fingerbowls
  as Milestones in Human Progress," by the author, Hotel Bulletin and
  The Nation's Chefs, Chicago, Aug., 1933, pp. 84-87

  FURNUS, oven, bake oven. See illustration, p. 2


  G

  Galen, writer, ℞ 396, 410

  GALLINA, hen; --ULA, little hen; --ARIUS, poulterer

  GALLUS, cock

  Game of all kinds, sauce for, ℞ 349
    ---- birds, ℞ 218, seq.

  GANONAS CRUDAS, fish, ℞ 153

  GARATUM, prepared with GARUM, which see

  Gardener, The--Title of Book III, ℞ 377

  GARUM (Gr.: GARON) a popular fish sauce made chiefly of the scomber
  or mackerel, but formerly from the GARUS, hence the name, cf. p. 22,
  ℞ 10, 33, 471

    Mackerel is the oiliest fish, and plentiful, very well suited for
  the making of G.

    G. was also a pickle made of the blood and the gills of the tunny
  and of the intestines of mackerel and other fish. The intestines
  were exposed to the sun and fermented. This has stirred up
  controversies; the ancients have been denounced for the "vile
  concoctions," but garum has been vindicated by modern science as to
  its rational preparation and nutritive qualities. Codfish oil, for
  instance, has long been known for its medicinal properties,
  principally Vitamin D; this is being increased today by exposure to
  ultraviolet rays (just what the ancients did). The intestines are
  the most nutritious portions of fish

    G. still remains a sort of mystery. Its exact mode of preparation is
  not known. It was very popular and expensive, therefore was subject
  to a great number of variations in quality and in price, and to
  adulteration. For all these reasons GARUM has been the subject of
  much speculation. It appears that the original meaning of G. became
  entirely lost in the subsequent variations

    In 1933 Dr. Margaret B. Wilson sent the author a bottle of GARUM
  ROMANUM which she had compounded according to the formulae at her
  disposal. This was a syrupy brown liquid, smelled like glue and had
  to be dissolved in water or wine, a few drops of the G. to a glass
  of liquid, of which, in turn, only a few drops were used to flavor a
  fish sauce, etc.

    ---- SOCIORUM, the best kind of G.; ALEXGARI VITIUM, the cheap kind
  of G., cf. ALEX, HALEC. OENOGARUM, G. mixed with wine; HYDROGARUM G.
  mixed with water; OLEOGARUM, G. mixed with oil; OXYGARUM, G. mixed
  with vinegar

  GARUS, small fish from which the real GARUM was made

  GELO, cause to freeze, to congeal; GELU, jelly
    GELU IN PATINA, gelatine: "QUOD VULGO GELATINAM VOCAMUS"--Platina

  Georg, Carl, Bibliographer, p. 257

  Gesamt-Katalog, bibliography, p. 261

  Gesner, Conrad, Swiss scientist, bibliographer, polyhistor, see
  Schola Apitiana, p. 206

  GETHYUM, --ON, same as PALLACANA, an onion

  Giarratano, C., editor, Apiciana, pp. 18, 19, 26, 271, 273

  GINGIBER, ginger; also ZINGIBER, faulty reading of the "G" by
  medieval scribes

  GINGIDON, --IUM, a plant of Syria; according to Spengel the French
  carrot. Paulus Aegineta says: "BISACUTUM (SIC ENIM ROMANI GINGIDION
  APPELLANT) OLUS EST SCANDICI NON ABSIMILE," hence a chervil root, or
  parsnip, or oysterplant

  GLANDES, any kernel fruit, a date, a nut, etc.

  Glasse, Mrs. Hannah, writer, ℞ 127

  GLIS, pl. GLIRES, dormouse, a small rodent, very much esteemed as
  food. GLIRARIUM, cage or place where they were kept or raised, ℞
  396

  Gluttons, p. 11

  Goat, wild, ℞ 346, seq. ---- liver, ℞ 291-3

  Gollmer, R., editor, Apiciana, pp. 18, 35, 270

  GONG for slaves, illustration, p. 151

  Goose, p. 265; white sauce for, ℞ 228

  Grapes, to keep, ℞ 19

  Greek influence on Roman cookery, p. 12, seq.
    ---- Banquet, by Anacharsis, p. 8

  Greek monographs, p. 43

  Green beans, p. 247, ℞ 202, 206

  Greens, green vegetables, ℞ 99

  Grimod de la Reynière, writer, p. 4, cf. Mappa

  Gruel, p. 210; ℞ 172, 200-1, seq. ---- and wine, ℞ 179-80

  GRUS, crane; GRUEM, ℞ 212-3; ---- EX RAPIS, ℞ 215-6

  Gryphius, S., printer, Apiciana No. 6, facsimile of title, p. 263

  Guégan, Bertrand, editor, p. 271, seq.

  Guinea Hen, ℞ 239, cf. "Turkey Origin," by the author, Hotel
  Bulletin and The Nation's Chefs, for February and March, 1935,
  Chicago

  GULA, gluttony

  GUSTUS, taste; also appetizers and relishes and certain entrées of a
  meal, Hors d'oeuvres. Cf. CENA, ℞ 174-77


  H

  Habs, R., writer, p. 18

  HAEDUS, HAEDINUS, kid, ℞ 291-3, 355, seq.
    ---- SYRINGIATUS, ℞ 360; ---- PARTHICUM, ℞ 364; ----
      TARPEIANUM, ℞ 363; ---- LAUREATUM EX LACTE, ℞ 365;
      ---- LASARATUM, ℞ 496

  HALEC, see ALEC

  HALIEUS, HALIEUTICUS, pertaining to fish; title of Book X, p. 356

  Ham, fresh, p. 285, ℞ 287-9

  HAND-MILL, operated by Slaves, illustration, p. 60

  HAPANTAMYNOS, ℞ 497

  Harcum, C. G., writer, see COQUUS

  Hard-skinned peaches, to keep, ℞ 28

  Hare, B. VIII, ℞ 382, seq. ---- imitation, ℞ 384; ----
  braised, ℞ 382-3; ---- different dressings, ℞ 383; ----
  Stuffed, ℞ 384, 91; ---- white sauce for, ℞ 385; ---- lights
  of, ℞ 386-7; ---- liver, ℞ 170; ---- in its own broth, ℞
  388; ---- smoked Passenianus, ℞ 389; ---- tidbits, kromeskis,
  ℞ 390; ---- boiled, ℞ 393; ---- spiced sauce, ℞ 393;
  ---- sumptuous style, ℞ 394; ---- spiced, ℞ 395

  Haricot of lamb, ℞ 355

  HARPAGO, a meat hook for taking boiled meat out of the pot, with
  five or more prongs; hence "harpoon." Cf. FURCA

  "Haut-goût" in birds, to overcome it, ℞ 229-30

  Headcheese, ℞ 125

  Heathcock, ℞ 218, seq.

  HELENIUM, plant similar to thyme(?); the herb elecampane or starwort

  Heliogabalus, emperor, p. 11

  HEMINA, a measure, about half a pint

  Henry VIII, of England, edict on kitchens, p. 156

  HERBAE RUSTICAE, ℞ 107

  Herbs, pot herbs, to keep, ℞ 25

  Hildesheim Treasure, found in 1868, a great collection of Roman
  silverware, now in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Berlin, our
  illustrations show a number of these pieces, p. 43

  Hip, dog-briar, ℞ 171

  HIRCOSIS AVIBUS, DE, ℞ 229-30

  Hirpinus, Fluvius, Roman, ℞ 323, 396, who raised animals for
  the table

  HISPANUM, see Oleum

  HOEDUS, see HAEDUS

  HOLERA, pot herbs, ℞ 25, 66; also OLERA and HOLISERA, from HOLUS

  HOLUS, OLUS, kitchen vegetables, particularly cabbage, ℞ 99

  Home-made sweets, ℞ 294

  Honey cakes, ℞ 16

  Honey Refresher, ℞ 2; ---- cake, ℞ 16; ---- to renew spoiled,
  ℞ 17; testing quality of, ℞ 18; ---- pap, ℞ 181; see also
  Chap. XIII, Book VII

  Horace, writer, pp. 3, 4, 273, ℞ 455

  HORDEUM, barley

  Horned fish, ℞ 442

  Hors d'oeuvres, ℞ 174; cf. GUSTUS

  HORTULANUS, gardener, Hortolanus, pork, ℞ 378

  Horseradish, ℞ 102

  House of the Oven in Pompeii, illustration, p. 2

  Humelbergius, Gabriel, editor, ℞ 307; title page of his 1542
  edition, p. 265

  Hunter style, ℞ 263

  HYDROGARATA, foods, sauces prepared with GARUM (which see) and
  water, ℞ 172

  HYDROMELI, rain water and honey boiled down one third

  HYPOTRIMA, --IMMA, a liquid dish, soup, sauce, ragout, composed of
  many spiced things, ℞ 35

  HYSITIUM, ISICIUM, a mince, a hash, a sausage, forcemeat, croquette,
  ℞ 41-56. The term "croquette" used by Gollmer does not fully
  cover H.; some indeed, resemble modern croquettes and kromeskis very
  closely. The ancients, having no table forks and only a few knives
  (which were for the servants' use in carving) were fond of such
  preparations as could be partaken of without table ware. The
  reclining position at table made it almost necessary for them to eat
  H.; such dishes gave the cooks an opportunity for the display of
  their skill, inventive ability, their decorative and artistic sense.
  As "predigested" food, such dishes are decided preferable to the
  "_grosses-pièces_," which besides energetic mastication require
  skillful manipulation of fork and knife; such exercise was unwelcome
  on the Roman couches. Modern nations, featuring "_grosses-pièces_"
  do this at the expense of high-class cookery. The word, H., is
  probably a medieval graecification of INSICIUM. Cf. ISICIA

  HYSSOPUS, the herb hyssop; H. CRETICUS, marjoram. Also Hysopum
  creticum, hyssop from the island of Creta, ℞ 29


  I

  IECUR, JECUR, liver; ℞ 291-3. IECUSCULUM, small (poultry, etc.)
  liver

  Ihm, Max, writer, p. 19

  Ill-smelling fish sauce, ℞ 9; ditto birds, ℞ 229-30

  Indian peas, ℞ 187

  Ink-fish, ℞ 405

  INSICIA, chopped meat, sausage, forcemeat, dressing, stuffing for
  roasts, ℞ 42; see Hysitia and Isicia; --ARIUS, sausage maker

  INTINCTUS, a sauce, seasoning, brine or pickle in which meat, etc.,
  is dipped. See EMBAMMA, ℞ 344

  INTUBUS, INTYBUS, --UM, chicory, succory, endive, ℞ 109

  INULA HELENIUM, the herb elecampane or starwort

  ISICIA, see HYSITIA, ℞ 41-54, 145
    ---- AMULATA AB AHENO, ℞ 54; ---- DE CAMMARIS, ℞ 43; ---- DE
      CEREBELLIS, ℞ 45; ---- DE LOLLIGINE, ℞ 42; ---- DE SPONDYLIS,
      ℞ 46; ---- DE PULLO, ℞ 50; ---- DE SCILLIS, ℞ 43; ----
      HYDROGARATA, ℞ 49; ---- PLENA, ℞ 48; ---- SIMPLEX, ℞ 52;
      ---- DE TURSIONE, ℞ 145

  Italian Salad, ℞ 123

  IUS, JUS, any juice or liquid, or liquor derived from food, a broth,
  soup, sauce. IUSCELLUM, more frequently and affectionately, IUSCULUM,
  the diminutive of I.
    ---- DE SUO SIBI, pan-gravy; such latinity as this proves the
      genuineness of the Apicius text, ℞ 153; ---- IN DIVERSIS
      AVIBUS, ℞ 210-228; ---- IN ELIXAM, ℞ 271-7; ---- IN
      VENATIONIBUS, ℞ 349, seq. ---- DIABOTANON, ℞ 432; ---- IN
      PISCE ELIXO, ℞ 433-6; ---- ALEXANDRINUM, ℞ 437-9; ----
      CONGRO, ℞ 440; ---- IN CORNUTAM, ℞ 441; ---- IN MULLOS,
      ℞ 442-3; ---- PELAMYDE, ℞ 444; ---- IN PERCAM, ℞ 446;
      ---- IN MURENA, ℞ 448, 449-52; ---- IN PISCE ELIXO, ℞ 454;
      ---- IN LACERTOS ELIXOS, ℞ 455; ---- PISCE ASSO, ℞ 456;
      ---- THYNNO, ℞ 457; ---- ELIXO, ℞ 458; ---- IN DENTICE
      ASSO, ℞ 459-60; ---- IN PISCE AURATA, ℞ 461-2; ---- IN
      SCORPIONE, ℞ 463; ---- PISCE OENOGARUM, ℞ 464-5; ----
      ANGUILLAM, ℞ 466-7


  J

  Jardinière, ℞ 378

  JECINORA, ℞ 291

  Jewish Cookery, compared with Apician, ℞ 205

  Johannes de Cereto de Tridino, Venetian printer, p. 261

  John of Damascus, see Torinus edition of 1541, Basel

  Julian Meal Mush, ℞ 178


  K

  Keeping meat and fish, ℞ 10-14, seq.

  Kettner, writer, p. 38

  Kid, p. 314, ℞ 355, seq. ---- liver, ℞ 291-93; ---- stew, ℞
  355-8; ---- roast, ℞ 359-62; ---- boned, ℞ 360-1; ----
  Tarpeius, ℞ 363-4; ---- Prize, ℞ 365; ---- plain, ℞ 366;
  ---- laser, ℞ 496

  Kidney beans, ℞ 207-8

  King, Dr. W., writer, quoted: Introduction, pp. 38, 267

  Kromeskis, ℞ 44, 47, 60; cf. ISICIA and HYSITIA

  Kyrene, Cyrene, City of Northern Africa, see Laser


  L

  Labor item in cookery, pp. 18, 24

  LAC, milk; ---- FISSILE, cottage cheese

  LACERTUS, a sea-fish, not identified, ℞ 147, 152, 455-7

  LACTARIS, having milk, made of milk; --IUS, dairyman

  LACTES, small guts, chitterlings

  LACTUA, LACTUCULA, lettuce, ℞ 105, 109-11

  LAGANUM, a certain farinaceous dish; small cake made of flour and
  oil, a pan cake

  LAGENA, --ONA, --OENA, --UNA, flask, bottle

  Lamb, ℞ 291-3, 355-65, 495-6; preparations same as Kid, which see

  Lambecius, Petrus, writer, on "The Porker's Last Will," ℞ 376

  Lanciani, Rodolfo, writer, pp. 29, 30

  Lancilotus, Blasius, co-editor, 1498-1503 editions, pp. 27-30, 41
    --see also Tacuinus
    --facsimile of opening chapter, 1503, p. 232

  Langoust, ℞ 485

  LANX, broad platter, dish, charger, ℞ 455

  LAPA, LAPATHUM, LAPADON, same as RUMEX, ℞ 26

  Larding, ℞ 394

  LARIDUM, LARDUM, ℞ 147, 290; cf. SALSUM

  LASER, LASERPITIUM, --ICIUM, the juice or distillate of the herb by
  that name, also known as SILPHIUM, SYLPHIUM, Greek, SYLPHION. Some
  agree that this is our present asa foetida, while other authorities
  deny this. Some claim its home is in Persia, while others say the
  best LASER came from Cyrene (Kyrene), Northern Africa. The center
  picture of the so-called Arkesilas-Bowl of Vulci at Paris, Cab. d.
  Méd. 189, represents a picture as seen by the artist in Kyrene how
  King Arkesilas (VI. saec.) watches the weighing and the stowing away
  in the hold of a sailing vessel of a costly cargo of sylphium. It
  was an expensive and very much esteemed flavoring agent, and, for
  that reason, the plant which grew only in the wild state, was
  probably exterminated

    There is much speculation, but its true nature will not be revealed
  without additional information

    ℞ 15, 31, 32, 34, 100; p. 22

    Method of flavoring with laser-impregnated nuts, ℞ 15

  LASERATUS, LASARATUS, prepared or seasoned with LASER, or SILPHIUM

  Latin title of Vehling translation, opposite title page

  LAUREATUM, prepared with LAURUS; also in the sense of excellence in
  quality, ℞ 365, 373

  LAURUS CINNAMOMUM, cinnamon; ---- NOBILIS, laurel leaf, bay leaf

  La Varenne, French cook, p. 16

  Laws, sumptuary, p. 25, ℞ 166

  Laxatives, ℞ 4, 5, 6, 29, 34

  Leeks, p. 188, ℞ 93-6; ---- and beans, ℞ 96

  LEGUMEN, leguminous plants; all kinds of pulse-peas, beans lentils,
  etc., Book V

  LENS, LENTICULA, lentils, ℞ 183-4

  LEPIDIUM SATIVUM, watercress

  LEPOREM MADIDUM, ℞ 382, seq. ---- FARSUM, ℞ 384; ----
  PASSENIANUM, ℞ 389; ---- ISICIATUM, ℞ 390; ---- FARSILEM, ℞
  391; ---- ELIXIUM, ℞ 392; ---- SICCO SPARSUM, ℞ 394; ----
  LEPORIS CONDITURA, ℞ 393-5

  LEPUS, hare; LEPUSCULUM, young hare; LEPORARIUM, a place for keeping
  hare; LEPORINUM MINUTAL, minced hare, Hasenpfeffer, ℞ 382-395

  Lettuce, B. V, ℞ 105, 109-111; ---- and endives, ℞ 109; ----
  purée of, ℞ 130

  LEUCANTHEMIS, camomile

  LEUCOZOMUS, "creamed," prepared with milk, ℞ 250

  Lex Fannia, ℞ 166

  Liaison, lié, ℞ 54; cf. AMYLARE

  LIBELLI, little ribs, spare ribs, also loin of pork, ℞ 251

  LIBRA, weight, 1 pound (abb. "lb." still in use); LIBRAE, balances,
  scales

  LIBURNICUM, see oil, oleum

  LIGUSTICUM, lovage (from Liguria) also LEVISTICUM; identical with
  garden lovage, savory, basilica, satury, etc.

  LIQUORIBUS, DE, p. 370

  LIQUAMEN, any kind of culinary liquid, depending upon the occasion.
  It may be interpreted as brine, stock, gravy, jus, sauce, drippings,
  marinade, natural juice; it must be interpreted in the broadest
  sense, as the particular instance requires. This much disputed term
  has been illustrated also in page 22. Also see ℞ 9, 42

  Liquids, Summary of, p. 370
    ---- thickening of, by means of flour, eggs, etc., called Liaison,
      cf. AMYLARE

  Lister, Dr. Martinus, editor, edition of 1705, title page, ditto,
  verso of, ditto of 1709, p. 38; frontispice
    ---- quoted in many foot notes, ℞ 8, seq.
    ---- assailing Torinus, p. 13, ℞ 15, 26, 100, 205
    ---- edition, 1709, facsimile, p. 250

  Liver kromeskis, ℞ 44; fig-fed, of pig, ℞ 259-60; ---- and
  lungs, ℞ 291-3; ---- hash, ℞ 293; ---- of fish, see GARUM and
  Pollio

  Lobster, ℞ 398, 399, 400, 401, 2; in various ways

  LOCUSTA, a langoust, spiny lobster, large lobster without claws;
  ℞ 397-402, 485; ---- ASSAE, ℞ 398; ---- ELIXAE, ℞ 399, 401-2

  Loins, p. 285, ℞ 286

  LOLIGO, LOLLIGO, calamary, cuttle-fish, ℞ 42, 405

  LOLIUM, LOLA, darnel, rye-grass, ray-grass, meal. The seeds of this
  grass were milled, the flour or meal believed to possess some
  narcotic properties, as stated by Ovid and Plautus, but recent
  researches have cast some doubt upon its reported deleterious
  qualities. Apicius, ℞ 50, reads LOLAE FLORIS

  LONGANO, a blood sausage, ℞ 61. The LONGANONES PORCINOS EX IURE
  TARENTINO in ℞ 140 is a part of the PATINA EX LACTE; a pork
  sausage made in Tarent of the straight gut, the rectum. Lister says
  they are cooked in Tarentinian sauce and are not unlike the sausage
  called APEXABO and HILLA. These sausages were in vogue before the
  Italians learned to make them; it was in Epirus, Greece, that they
  were highly developed. Their importation into Rome caused quite a
  stir, politically. Lister, ℞ 50, p. 119, describes the sausage
  and calls the inhabitants of Tarent "most voluptuous, soft and
  delicate" because Juvenal, Sat. VI, v. 297, takes a shot at Tarent

    This part of Italy, and especially Sicily, because in close contact
  with Greece was for many years much farther advanced in art of
  cookery than the North

  Lucania, district of lower Italy whence came the Lucanian sausage,
  p. 172, ℞ 61; see also LONGANO

  LUCIUS FLUVIALIS, a river fish, perch, or pike, according to some;
  Platina also calls it LICIUS. Cf. MERULA

  Lucretian Dish, ℞ 151

  Lucullus, Roman general, proverbial glutton, has a place here
  because of his importation into Rome of the cherry, which he
  discovered in Asia Minor. He cannot be expected to be represented in
  the Apicius book because he died 57 B.C.

  LUCUSTA, see LOCUSTA

  LUMBUS, loin, (Ger. LUMMEL), ℞ 286; LUMBELLI, ℞ 255

  Lung, ℞ 291-2

  LUPINUS, lupine

  LUPUS, fish, ℞ 158


  M

  MACELLARIUS, MACELLINUS, market man, butcher

  MACELLUM, market

  MACERO, to soak, soften, steep in liquor, macerate; MACERATUM, food
  thus treated

  MACTRA, trough for kneading dough

  MAGIRUS, MAGEIROS, cook, see COQUUS

  MALABATHRUM --THRON, ℞ 32, 399

  Mallows, ℞ 86

  MALUS, fruit tree, apple tree; ---- PUNICORUM, pomegranate; ----
  ASSYRIA, ---- CITRUS DECUMANA, one of the larger citrus fruits; ----
  MEDICA, citron tree; ---- CYDONIA, quince tree

    MALUM, fruit, an apple, but quinces, pomegranates, peaches, oranges,
  lemons, and other fruits were likewise designated by this name. ℞
  18, 20. See also CITRUM

    It is remarkable that Apicius does not specifically speak of lemons
  and oranges, fruits that must have grown in Italy at his time, that
  are so indispensable to modern cookery

    MALUM PUNICUM, ℞ 20, 21; ---- CYDONIUM, ℞ 21; ---- GRANATUM,
  ℞ 20; ---- MEDICUM, ℞ 24; ---- ROSEUM, ℞ 178, 171. This name,
  which according to Schuch simply stands for a rose-colored apple,
  has led to the belief that the ancients made pies, etc., of roses.
  Today a certain red-colored apple is known as "Roman Beauty." We
  concur in Schuch's opinion, remembering, however, that the fruit of
  the rose tree, namely the hip, dog-briar, or eglantine, is made into
  dainty confections on the Continent today. It is therefore quite
  possible that MALUM ROSEUM stands for the fruit of the rose

  MANDUCO, to chew, to munch, to enjoy food by munching; a glutton

  MAPPA, table napkin (Fr. nappe). M. is a Punic word, according to
  Quintil. 1, 5, 57

    Each banquet guest brought with him from his own home such a napkin
  or cloth which he used during the banquet to wipe his mouth and
  hands. The ancients, evidently, were conscious of the danger of
  infection through the common use of napkins and table ware.
  Sometimes they used their napkins to wrap up part of the meal and to
  give it to their slaves to carry home in. Horace, Martial, Petronius
  attest to this fact. The banquet guests also employed their own
  slaves to wait on them at their Host's party. This custom and the
  individual napkin habit have survived until after the French
  revolution. Grimod de la Reynière, in his Almanach des Gourmands,
  Paris, 1803, seq., describes how guests furnished their own napkins
  and servants for their own use at parties to which they were invited

    This rather sensible custom relieved the host of much responsibility
  and greatly assisted him in defraying the expenses of the dinner. On
  the other hand it reveals the restrictions placed upon any host by
  the general shortage of table ware, table linen, laundering
  facilities in the days prior to the mechanical age

  Marcellus, a Roman physician, ℞ 29

  Marinade, pickle; a composition of spices, vegetables, herbs, and
  liquids, such as vinegar, wine, to preserve meats for several days
  and to impart to it a special flavor, ℞ 11, 236, 244, 394; cf.
  EMBAMMA

  MARJORANA, marjoram

  Marmites, illustrated, pp. 264, 284, 312, 342

  MARRUBIUM, the plant horehound

  Martial, writer, p. 10, ℞ 307, 461 (on bulbs)

  Martino, Maestro, p. 3, cf. Vehling: Martino and Platina, Exponents
  of Renaissance Cookery, Hotel Bulletin and The Nation's Chefs,
  Chicago, October, 1932, and Platina, Maestro nell'arte culinaria
  Un'interessante studio di Joseph D. Vehling, Cremona, 1935

  Mason, Mrs., a writer, ℞ 126

  MASTIX, MASTICE, MASTICHE, the sweet-scented gum of the
  mastiche-tree; hence MASTICATUS, MASTICINUS for foods treated with
  M.

  Matius, a writer, was a friend of Julius Caesar. His work is lost,
  ℞ 167; apples named after him, _ibid._

  MAYONNAISE DE VOLAILLE EN ASPIC, ℞ 126, 480

  Meal mush, Book V, ℞ 178

  Measures, liquid. The following list is confined to terms used in
  Apicius
    PARTES XV equal 1 CONGIUS
    CONGIUS I equal 6 SEXTARII (1 S. equals about 1-1/2 pt. English)
    SEXTARII II equal 1 CHOENIX
    SEXTARIUS I equal 2 HEMINAS
    HEMINA I equal 4 ACETABULA
    ACETABULUM I equal 12 CYATHI (15 Attic drachms)
    CYATHUS I equal 1/12 SEXTARIUS (a cup)
    COCHLEAR I equal 1/4 CYATHUS (a spoonful)
    COTULA, COTYLA, same as HEMINA, same as 1/2 SEXTARIUS
    QUARTARIUS I equal 1/4 pint

  Meat ball, ℞ 261, seq. ---- with laser, ℞ 472-3; meat, boiled,
  stewed, ℞ 271; keeping of, ℞ 10, 13; how to make pickled meat
  sweet, ℞ 12; to decorate or garnish, ℞ 394, (see marinade); meat
  pudding, ℞ 42; ---- loaf, ℞ 384, 172

    Meat displayed in windows, p. 73; ancient ---- diet, p. 31; ancient
  ---- supply, p. 31

  Meat diet, ancient, pp. 30, 31

  Meat supply, ancient and modern, p. 31

  Medicinal formulae in Apicius, ℞ 4, 5, 6, 29, 34, 67, 68, 68, 70,
  71, 108, 111, 307

  MEDIUM, an iris or lily root which was preserved (candied) with
  honey, same as ginger, or fruit glacé

  Medlar, ℞ 159; see MESPILA

  Megalone, place where Torinus found the Apicius codex, p. 266

  MEL, honey; MELLITUM, sweetened with honey
    ---- PRAVUM, ℞ 15; ---- PROBANDUM, ℞ 16; ---- ET CASEUM,
      ℞ 303

  MELCAE, ℞ 294, 303

  MELEAGRIS, Turkey; cf. Vehling: "Turkey Origin," Hotel Bulletin and
  The Nation's Chefs, Chicago, February-March, 1935

  MELIRHOMUM, MELIZOMUM, ℞ 2

  MELO, small melon, B. III, ℞ 85; MELOPEPO, muskmelon

  Melon, ℞ 85

  MENSA, repast, see CENA

  MENTHA, MINTHA, mint; ---- PIPERITA, peppermint

  "Menu," cf. Brevis Ciborum, Excerpts of Vinidarius, p. 235

  Merling, see MERULA

  MERULA, MERLUCIUS, cf. LUCIUS, a fish called merling, whiting, also
  smelt; Fr. MERLAN; also blackbird. Platina discussed MERULA, the
  blackbird, the eating of which he disapproves. "There is little food
  value in the meat of blackbirds and it increases melancholia," says
  he. Perhaps because the bird is "black," ℞ 419

  MERUS, MERUM, pure, unmixed, "mere," "merely"; hence MERUM VINUM,
  ---- OLEUM, pure wine, oil, etc.

  MESPILA, medlar; Ger. MISPEL

  Milan edition, Colophon, p. 260

  Milk Toast, ℞ 171

  Mill operated by slaves, illustration, p. 60

  Minced dishes, Book II

  Mineral salts in vegetables, ℞ 71, 96

  MINUTAL, a "small" dish, a "minutely" cut mince; ---- MARINUM, ℞
  164; ---- TARENTINUM, ℞ 165; ---- APICIANUM, ℞ 166; ----
  MATIANUM, ℞ 167; ---- DULCE, ℞ 168; ---- EX PRAECOQUIS, ℞
  169; ---- LEPORINUM, ℞ 170; ---- EX ROSIS, ℞ 171; ---- of
  large fruits, ℞ 169

  MITULIS, IN, ℞ 418

  Mixing bowls, see Crater

  Monk's Rhubarb, ℞ 26

  "Monkey," ℞ 55

  Moralists, ancient, see Review

  MORETUM, salad, salad dressing of oil, vinegar, garlic, parsley,
  etc., cf. ℞ 38

  Morsels, ℞ 261, seq., 309, seq.

  MORTARIA, foods prepared in the mortar, MORTARIUM, ℞ 38, 221

  MORUS, mulberry; ---- ALBA, white m. ---- NIGRA, black m. Platina,
  DE MORIS, has a very pretty simile, comparing the various stages of
  ripening and colors of the mulberry to the blushing of Thysbes, the
  Egyptian girl, ℞ 24

  Moulds, ℞ 384, 126

  MUGIL, sea-mullet, ℞ 159, 419, 424, 425

  Mulberries, ℞ 24

  Mullet, see MULLUS, ℞ 148, 428, 443-4

  MULLUS, the fish mullet, ℞ 148, 427, 442, 443, 482-4

  MULSUM, mead, honey-wine; ---- ACETUM, honey-vinegar

  Munich Ms. XVIII Apiciana

  MURENA, MURAENA, the sea fish murena, p. 356, ℞ 448-53, 484

  MUREX, shellfish, purple-fish

  MURIA, brine, salt liquor, p. 22, ℞ 30; cf. ALEC

  Mush, ℞ 178

  Mushrooms, B. III, ℞ 121, 309-14; ---- Omelette, ℞ 314

  Muskrat, ℞ 396

  Mussels, ℞ 418

  MUSTEIS PETASONEM, ℞ 289

  MUSTEOS AFROS, ℞ 295

  MUSTUM, fresh, young, new; ---- VINUM, must, new wine; ---- OLEI,
  new oil

  MYRISTICA, nutmeg

  MYRRHIS ODORATA, myrrh, used for flavoring wine

  MYRTUS, myrtle berry, often called "pepper" and so used instead of
  pepper

  MYRTUS PIMENTA, allspice


  N

  NAPKINS, individual, see MAPPA

  NAPUS, p. 188, a turnip, navew, ℞ 100-1

  NARDUS, nard, odoriferous plant; see FOLIUM

  NASTURTIUM, the herb cress

  NECHON, ℞ 16

  Neck, roast, ℞ 270

  NEPATA, cat-mint; ---- MONTANA, mountain mint; see MENTHA

  Nero, emperor, p. 11

  Nettles, ℞ 108

  New York codex, No. I, Apiciana

  Newton, Sir Isaac, scientist, Apiciana No. 8, p. 268

  NITRIUM, ℞ 66

  Nonnus, writer, ℞ 307, 396

  NOVENDIALES, see CENA

  NUCEA LASERIS, ℞ 16; also see LASER

  NUCLEUS, nut, kernel, ℞ 92

  NUCULA, dim. of NUX, small nut; also a certain muscular piece of
  meat from the hind leg of animals, Fr. NOIX DE VEAU, as of veal,
  Ger. KALBSNUSS, and a certain small part of the loin of animals, Fr.
  NOISETTE

  NUMIDICUS, PULLUS, guinea hen, which see

  Nut custard, turn-over, ℞ 129, 143; ---- porridge, ℞ 297-9;
  ---- pudding, ℞ 298, 299, 230; ---- meal mush, ℞ 300

  Nuts, Summary of, p. 236

  NUX, p. 236, a nut, both hazel nut and walnut; ---- JUGLANDIS,
  walnut; ---- PINEIS, ---- PINEA, pine nuts, pignolia; ---- MUSCATA,
  nutmeg


  O

  OBLIGABIS, ℞ 83; also see AMYLARE

  OBSONARE, to provide, to buy for the table; to prepare or to give a
  dinner; from the Greek, OPSON

  OBSONATOR, steward

  OBSONIUM, OP--, a dish, a meal, anything eaten with bread

  OCIMUM, --YMUM, --UMUM, OCINUM, basil, basilica; also a sort of
  clover

  OENOGARUM, wine and GARUM (which see), a wine sauce, ℞ 33, 146,
  465; OENOGARATUM, a dish prepared with O.

  OENOMELI, wine and honey

  OENOPOLIUM, wine shop; a wine dealer's place, who, however, did a
  retail business. The TABERNA VINARIA seems to have been the regular
  wine restaurant, while the THERMOPOLIUM specialized in hot spiced
  wines. Like today in our complicated civilization, there were in
  antiquity a number of different refreshment places, each with its
  specialties and an appropriate name for the establishment

  OENOTEGANON, ℞ 479, 81

  OFFA, OFFELLA, OFELLA, a lump or ball of meat, a "Hamburger Steak,"
  a meat dumpling, any bit of meat, a morsel, chop, small steak,
  collop, also various other "dainty" dishes, consisting principally
  of meat

    "INTER OS ET OFFAM MULTA INTERVENIUNT"--Cato; the ancient equivalent
  for our "'twixt cup and lip there is many a slip"
    ℞ 261; ---- APICIANA, ℞ 262; ---- APRUGNEA MORE, ℞ 263;
      ---- ALIAE, ℞ 264-5; ---- LASERATA, ℞ 271; ---- GARATAS,
      ℞ 471-74; ---- ASSAS, ℞ 472, 473

  Oil substitute, ℞ 9; ---- oil, to clarify for frying ℞ 250
    ---- Liburnian, ℞ 7

  OLEUM, oil, olive oil; ---- LIBURNICUM, ℞ 7; HISPANUM, Spanish
  olive oil
    OLEATUS, moistened, mixed, dressed with oil, 103; ---- MOLLE,
      vegetables strained, a purée, ℞ 103-106; also HOLUS, etc.

  OLIFERA, OLYRA, a kind of corn, spelt, ℞ 99; see OLUS

  OLIVA, olive, ℞ 30, 91; to keep olives green, ℞ 30

  OLLA, a cook pot, a terra-cotta bowl; see also CACCABUS. OLLULA, a
  small O., a casserole, or cassolette. Sp. OLLA PODRIDA, "rotten pot"

  OLUS, OLUSATRUM, OLUSTRUM, OLUSCULUM, OLERA, OLISERA, OLIFERA,
  OLISATRA, any herb, kitchen greens, pot herbs, sometimes cabbage,
  from OLITOR, the truck farmer, ℞ 25, 67, 99, 103
    OLUS ET CAULUS, cabbage and cale, ℞

  OLUSATRUM, see OLUS

  Omelette with sardines, ℞ 146; ---- with mushrooms, ℞ 314;
  ---- Soufflée, ℞ 302

  OMENTUM, caul, the abdominal membrane, used for sausage-making or to
  wrap croquettes (kromeskis) which then were OMENTATA, ℞ 43, 47

  Onions, ℞ 304-8

  OPERCULUM, a cover, lid, or dish with a cover

  Opossum, ℞ 396

  ORIGANUM MARJORANA, marjoram; ---- origany; ---- VINUM, wine
  flavored with O.

  ORYZA, rice, rice flour; see RISUM

  OSPREON, OSPREOS, OSPRION, legumes, Title of Book V

  Ostia, town, harbor of Rome; the OFFELLAE OSTIENSIS, ℞ 261, are
  the ancient "Hamburgers"; this seems to confirm the assumption that
  the population of sea-port towns have a preference for meat balls

  OSTREA, oyster, ℞ 15, 410; --RIUM, oyster bed or pit, or place
  for keeping oysters

  Ostrich, ℞ 210-11

  Oval pan, illustration, p. 159

  Oval service dish, p. 43

  Oven, ancient bakery in Pompeii, illustration, p. 2

  OVIS SYLVATICA, OVIFERO, wild sheep, ℞ 348-50

  OVUM, egg; OVA SPHONGIA EX LACTE, ℞ 302

  OXALIS, sorrel

  OXALME, acid pickle, vinegar and brine

  Oxford Mss., Apiciana X, XI

  OXYCOMIUM, pickled olive

  OXYGALA, curdled with curds

  OXYGARUM, vinegar and GARUM, which see, ℞ 36, 37

  OXYPORUS, easily digested, ℞ 34

  OXYZOMUM, seasoned with acid, vinegar, lemon, etc.

  Oyster sauce, CUMINATUM, ℞ 41

  Oysters, how to keep, ℞ 14, 410, 411
    ---- shipped by Apicius, p. 10


  P

  PALLACANA CEPA, shallot, young onion; cf. CEPA

  Pallas Athene Dish, The Great, illustration, p. 158

  PALMA, PALMITA, palm shoots

  PALUMBA, wood pigeon, ℞ 220

  Pan with decorated handle, p. 73

  Panada, ℞ 127

  PANAX, PANACEA, the herb all-heal; it contains a savory juice like
  LASER and FERULA

  PANDECTES, --ER, a book on all sorts of subjects; Title of Book IV

  PANIS, bread, PICENTINUS, ℞ 126

  Pans, kitchen, see illustrations, pp. 155, 159

  Pap, ℞ 172-3, 182

  PAPAVER, poppy-seed; ---- FICI, fig-seed

  PARADOXON, CONDITUM, ℞ 1

  Parboiling, ℞ 119

  Paris Mss., Apiciana III, IV

  Parrot, ℞ 231-2

  Parsnips, ℞ 121-3

  PARTHIA, ℞ 191, 237, 364; a country of Asia

  Partridge, ℞ 218, seq., 499

  Passenius, --anus, an unidentified Roman, ℞ 389

  PASSER, a sea-fish, turbot; also a sparrow which Platina does not
  recommend for the table

  PASSUM, raisin wine

  PASTINACA, --CEA, parsnip, carrot, ℞ 121-3; also a fish, the
  sting-ray

  Pastry, absent, p. 43

  PATELLA, a platter or dish on which food was cooked and served,
  corresponding to our gratin dishes; a dish in general. In this sense
  it is often confused with PATINA, which see, so that it has become
  difficult to distinguish between the two terms
    ---- THIROTARICA, ℞ 144; ---- ARIDA, ℞ 145; ---- EX
      OLISATRO, ℞ 145a; ---- SICCA, ℞ 145

  PATELLARIUS, pertaining to a PATELLA; also one who makes or sells
  dishes, and, in the kitchen, also a dishwasher; cf. PATINARIUS

  PATINA, PATENA, a pot, pan, dish, plate; also food, eating, a dish,
  or cookery in general in which sense it corresponds to our
  "cuisine"

    PATINARIUS, a glutton, gormandizer, also a pile of dishes, also
  the craftsman who makes and the merchant who sells dishes as well as
  the scullion who washes them

    PATINA APICIANA, ℞ 141; ---- APUA, ℞ 138-9, 146; ---- DE
  ASPARAGIS, ℞ 132-33; ---- DE CYDONIIS, ℞ 163; ---- EX LACTE,
  ℞ 140; ---- EX LARIDIS ET CEREBELLIS, ℞ 147; ---- FRISILIS,
  ℞ 131; ---- EX RUSTICIS, ℞ 134; ---- DE ROSIS, ℞ 136;
  ---- DE LACERTIS, ℞ 152; ---- DE LUPO, ℞ 158; ---- DE
  PERSICIS, ℞ 160; ---- EX URTICA, ℞ 162; ---- EX SOLEIS,
  ℞ 154; ---- EX PISCIBUS, ℞ 155-7, 486; ---- MULLIS, ℞ 148;
  ---- QUIBUSLIBET, ℞ 149; ---- ALIA PISCIUM, ℞ 150; ----
  SOLEARUM EX OVIS, ℞ 487; ---- QUOTIDIANA, ℞ 122, 142; ----
  VERSATILIS, ℞ 129, 143; ---- ZOMORE, ℞ 153; ---- DE PIRIS,
  ℞ 161; ---- DE SORBIS, ℞ 159; ---- DE SAMBUCO, ℞ 135;
  ---- DE CUCURBITIS, ℞ 137

  PAVO, peacock, ℞ 54

  Peaches, a dish of, ℞ 160

  Peacock, Book VI, ℞ 54

  Pears, ℞ 22, 161

  Peas, p. 247, ℞ 185-6, 190-2; ---- a tempting dish of, ℞ 192;
  ---- Indian, ℞ 187; ---- purée of peas, cold, ℞ 188; ---- or
  beans à la Vitellius, ℞ 189, 193; ---- in the pod, Apician style,
  ℞ 194-6; ---- in the pod à la Commodus, ℞ 197; purée of peas
  with brains and chicken, ℞ 198

  PECTINE, scallop, ℞ 52

  Peeling young vegetables, ℞ 69

  PELAMIS, young tunny, ℞ 426, 444

  Pennell, Elizabeth R., writer, pp. 17, 18, 257-58

  PEPON, a kind of gourd, melon or pumpkin, ℞ 85

  Pepper, ℞ 1; ---- for other spices, ℞ 143, 177, 295, seq.

  PERCA, perch, ℞ 446

  Perch, ℞ 446

  PERDICE, IN, ℞ 218

  PERDRIX, partridge, ℞ 218, seq., 499

  PERNA, ham; pork forequarter or hindquarter, ℞ 287, 288
    ---- APRUGNA, ℞ 338

  PERSICUM, peach, ℞ 29, 160; --US, peach-tree

  Persons named in recipes, pp. 11, 21

  PETASO, fresh ham, hind leg of pork, ℞ 289

  Petits pois à la française, ℞ 185

  Petits salés, ℞ 41, 147, 149, 150, 151

  Petronius Arbiter, writer, pp. 3, 7, 11, 15

  PETROSELINUM, parsley

  PHARIAM, UVAM PASSAM, ℞ 197

  PHASEOLUS, FASEOLUS, green string beans, kidney bean, young bean and
  pod, both green and wax bean varieties. Ger. FISOLE and FASOLE, ℞
  207

  PHASIANUS, pheasant; --ARIUS, one who has care of or who raises
  pheasants, game-keeper, ℞ 49, p. 265

  Pheasant, dumplings of, ℞ 48; -- plumage as decoration, ℞ 213

  Phillipps, bibl. Apiciana I

  PHOENICOPTERUS, Flamingo, ℞ 220, 231-2

  Picentinian bread, ℞ 126

  Pichon, Baron J., collector, pp. 257-8, Apiciana, Nos. 21-22, p. 272

  Picking birds, ℞ 233

  Pie chimneys, ℞ 141

  Pig, see PORCELLUM

  PIPER, pepper; ---- NIGRUM, black p.; ---- VIRIDUM, green p., ℞
  134; "pepper" for other spices, ℞ 143, 177, 295, seq. --ATUS,
  prepared with p.

  PIPERITIS, pepperwort, Indian pepper, capsicum

  PIPIO, a young bird, a squab; from the chirping or "peeping" sounds
  made by them; ---- EXOSSATUS, boned squab

  PIRUM, pear, ℞ 160-1

  PISA, --UM, peas, pea, ℞ 185, seq., 190-2, 195-8; ---- FARSILIS,
  ℞ 186; ---- INDICAM, ℞ 187; ---- FRIGIDA, ℞ 188; --M
  VITELLIANAM, ℞ 189, 193; ---- ADULTERAM, ℞ 192

  PISCINA, fish pond, fish tank, which was found in every large Roman
  household to keep a supply of fresh fish on hand

  PISCIS, fish; PISCES FRIXOS, ℞ 476-7; ---- SCORPIONES RAPULATOS,
  ℞ 475; ---- ASSOS, ℞ 478; ---- OENOTEGANON, ℞ 479, 81; ----
  IN PISCIBUS ELIXIS, ℞ 486; ---- IN PISCE ELIXO, ℞ 433, 434,
  435, 436, 454; ---- AURATA, ℞ 461; ---- ASSA, ℞ 462; ----
  OENOGARUM, ℞ 464-5

  PISTACIUM, --EUM, pistache

  PISTOR, baker, pastry cook, confectioner, see COQUUS

  Pitch, for sealing of vessels, ℞ 25

  PLACENTA, a certain cake, a cheese cake

  Plaster in bread, p. 39
    ---- for sealing of pots, ℞ 23

  Platina, Bartolomeo, humanist, writer, pp. 8, 9, 19, Apiciana No. 6,
  and often quoted in this index. Author of first printed Cookery
  book. Cf. Martino and Platina Exponents of Renaissance Cookery, by
  J. D. Vehling. Cf. Cibarium, Cornum, Corvus, Frictella, Merula,
  Morus, Passer, Ranae, Risum, Sturnus, Styrio, Thinca, Thymus,
  Zanzerella

  Plato, writer, p. 12

  Platters, Roast, p. 219; Athene, p. 158

  Plautus, writer, p. 147; ---- naming cooks, ℞ 484; Plautian
  Latinity, ℞ 153

  Pliny, writer, p. 31, ℞ 307, 396, 410

  Plumage of birds as a decoration, ℞ 213

  Plums, ℞ 22

  Plutarch, writer, pp. 3, 66, 128

  Poggio, medieval scholar, at Fulda, p. 20

  POLEI, POLEGIUM, PULEIUM, penny-royal, flea-bane, flea-wort

  POLENTA, peeled or pearled barley, ℞ 178

  Pollio, Roman, feeding human flesh to fish, ℞ 484

  POLYPODIUM, the herb fern or polypody

  POLYPUS, the fish polypus, ℞ 410

  POLYTELES, POLI--, fine dishes, trimmed, set off; "Recherché" food;
  Title of Book VII

  Pomegranates, to keep, ℞ 20

  Pompeii: Casa di Forno. See p. 2
    ---- destroyed, p. 3, seq.
    ---- Wine Room, illustration, p. 124

  Pompeii, city, description of, see Review. Innkeeper at ----
  advertising ham, ℞ 287; objects, table ware, etc., found at P.,
  see list of illustrations

  POMUM, fruit of any tree, as apples, pears, peaches, cherries, figs,
  dates, nuts, also mulberries and truffles. Cf. MALUM, p. 370

  PONTUS, Black Sea Region

  PORCA, PORCUS, female and male swine; PORCELLUS, PORCELLINUS, young
  s., pig, ℞ 336-81, 488-94; ---- PORCELLUM FARSILEM, ℞ 366,
  367; ---- ASSUM, ℞ 369; ---- ELIXUM, ℞ 368; ---- APICIANUM,
  ℞ 370; ---- VITELLIANUM, ℞ 371; ---- LAUREATUM, ℞ 373; ----
  FRONTINIANUM, ℞ 374; ---- CELSINIANUM, ℞ 376, 377; ----
  HORTULANUM, ℞ 378; ---- ELIXUM IUS FRIGIDUM, ℞ 379; ----
  TRAIANUM, ℞ 380; ---- CORIANDRATUM, ℞ 488; ---- FLACCIANUM,
  ℞ 372; ---- OENOCOCTUM, ℞ 489; ---- EO IURE, ℞ 490; ----
  THYMO SPARSUM, ℞ 491; OXYZOMUM, ℞ 492; ---- LASARATUM, ℞
  493; ---- IUSCELLATUM, ℞ 494; ---- ASSUM TRACTOMELINUM, ℞ 369;
  ---- LACTE PASTUM, ℞ 370; ---- IN PORCELLO LACTANTE, ℞ 381

  Pork, p. 285; ---- and onions à la Lucretius, ℞ 151; ---- skin,
  cracklings, ℞ 251-55; ---- udder, ℞ 251; ---- tenderloin, ℞
  251-255; ---- tails and feet, ℞ 251; ---- fig-fed, ℞ 259; ----
  cutlets, Hunter Style, ℞ 263; ---- paunch, ℞ 285; ---- loin
  and kidneys, ℞ 286; ---- shoulder, ℞ 287-88; ---- fresh ham,
  ℞ 289; ---- bacon, ℞ 290; ---- Salt ---- ℞ 290; ----
  forcemeat, ℞ 366

  Porker, The ----'s Last Will and Testament, ℞ 376

  Porridge, Books IV, V, ℞ 172, 178; ---- and wine sauce, ℞ 179;
  ---- another, ℞ 180

  PORRUM, --US, leek, ℞ 93, 96; "SECTILE ----"--Martial

  PORTULACA, PORCILACA, purslane

  POSCA, originally water and vinegar or lemon juice. It became an
  acid drink of several variations, made with wine, fruit juice, eggs
  and water

  Pot Roast, ℞ 270

  Potherbs, to keep, ℞ 25, 188, see OLUS

  Potted Entrées, ℞ 54

  POTUS, drink

  PRAECOQUO, --OCTUS, --OCIA, "cooked beforehand," also ripened too
  early, but the present kitchen term is "blanching," or "parboiling."
  Cf. PRAEDURO

  PRAEDURO, to harden by boiling, to blanch, ℞ 119

  Preserves, several in Book I

  Preserving (keeping of) meats, ℞ 10-12; ---- fried fish, ℞ 13;
  ---- fruit, figs, prunes, pears, etc., ℞ 19-24, 28, 29, 30; ----
  grapes, ℞ 19; ---- honey cakes, ℞ 16; ---- mulberries, ℞
  24; ---- oysters, ℞ 14; ---- pomegranates, ℞ 20; ---- pot
  herbs, ℞ 25; ---- quinces, ℞ 21; ---- sorrel, sour dock, ℞
  26; ---- citron, ℞ 23; ---- truffles, ℞ 27; ---- vegetable
  purée, ℞ 106

  Press, wine illustration, p. 92

  Processing, ℞ 19-24

  PRUNA, live, burning coal

  PRUNUM, plum; ---- DAMASCENUM, p. from Damascus, ℞ 22; this
  variety came dried, resembling our large prunes. ---- SILVESTRIS,
  sloe berry, which by culture and pruning has become the ancestor of
  plums, etc.

  PTISANA, (better) TISANA, barley broth, rice broth, a gruel, ℞
  173-3, 200-1; ---- TARICHA, ℞ 173

  Pudding, ℞ 60

  PULLUS, PULLULUS, young animal of any kind but principally a pullet,
  chicken, ℞ 51, 2-7, 213, 235-6, seq.; ---- RAPTUS, note 1, ℞
  140

    PULLUM PARTHICUM, ℞ 237; OXYZOMUM, ℞ 238; ---- NUMIDICUM,
  ℞ 239; ---- LASERATUM, ℞ 240; ---- ELIXUM, ℞ 242; ---- CUM
  CUCURBITIS, ℞ 243; ---- CUM COLOCASIIS, ℞ 244; ---- VARDANUM,
  ℞ 245; ---- FRONTONIANUM, ℞ 246; ---- TRACTOGALATUM, ℞ 247;
  ---- FARSILIS, ℞ 248; LEUCOZOMUM, ℞ 250

  PULMENTARIUM, any food eaten with vegetables, pulse or bread, or a
  dish composed of these ingredients, ℞ 67-71

  PULMO, lung, ℞ 29

  PULPA, --MENTUM, ℞ 42, 134; also PULMENTUM

  PULS, --E, PULTICULUM, Books IV, V, a porridge, polenta, ℞ 178,
  seq.; PULTES JULIANAE, ℞ 178; ---- OENOCOCTI, ℞ 179; ----
  TRACTOGALATAE, ℞ 181

  PULTARIUS, a bowl, a "cereal" dish, ℞ 104

  Pumpkin, B. III, ℞ 73-80; ---- pie, ℞ 137; ---- fritters, ℞
  176; ---- like dasheens, ℞ 74; ---- Alexandrine Style, ℞ 75;
  ---- boiled, ℞ 76; ---- fried, ℞ 77; ---- 78; ---- mashed,
  ℞ 79; ---- and chicken, ℞ 80

  Purée of lettuce, ℞ 130

  PYRETHRUM, --ON, Spanish camomile, pellitory


  Q

  QUARTARIUS, a measure (which see), 1/4 pint

  Quenelles, ℞ 131

  Quinces, ℞ 21, 162


  R

  Rabbit, ℞ 54

  Radishes, ℞ 102

  Ragoût of brains and bacon, ℞ 147; ---- financière, ℞ 166

  RAIA, the sea-fish ray, or skate; also whip-ray; p. 343, ℞ 403-4;
  Raie au beurre noir, ℞ 404

  Raisins, ℞ 30

  RANAE, frogs, have been an article of diet for ages. Platina gives
  fine directions for their preparation. He recommends only frogs
  living in the water. RUBETAS ET SUB TERRA VIVENTES, UT NOXIAS
  REJICIO! AQUATILAS HAE SUNT DE QUIBUS LOQUOR

    Platina skins the frogs, turns them in flour and fries them in
  oil; he adds fennel flower garnish and SALSA VIRIDA (green sauce,
  our ravigote or remoulade) on the side. No modern chef could do
  different or improve upon it. The fennel blossom garnish is a
  startling stroke of genius

  Rankin, E. M., writer, see COQUUS

  RAPA, RAPUM, rape, turnip, navew, ℞ 26, 100-1

  RAPHANUS SATIVUS, Horseradish, ℞ 102

  Ray, fish, ℞ 403-4

  RECOQUO, RECOCTUM, re-heated, warmed-up

  Redsnapper, ℞ 448

  Réduction, ℞ 145, 168

  Reference to other parts of the book by Apicius, ℞ 170, 166

  Relishes, ℞ 174-5

  RENES, ℞ 286

  Reynière, Grimod de la ---- writer, p. 3, see MAPPA

  RHOMBUS, fish, turbot

  RHUS, a shrub called SUMACH, seed of which is used instead of salt

  RISUM, rice, also ORYZA. The word RISUM is used by Platina who says:
  "RISUM, QUOD EGO ANTIQUO VOCABULO ORIZAM APPELLATUM PUTO." This is
  one of the many philologically interesting instances found in
  Platina and Aegineta of the evolution of a term from the antique to
  the medieval Latin and finally emerging into modern Italian. What
  better proof, if necessary, could be desired than this etymology for
  the authenticity of the Apicius book? Its age could be proven by a
  philologist if no other proof were at hand

  Roasts, Roasting, p. 285, ℞ 266-70

  Roman Beauty Apple, ℞ 136
    ---- excesses, p. 15

  Roman Cook Stove, illustration, p. 182
    ---- economic conditions, p. 15

  Roman Vermouth, ℞ 3

  ROSATUM, ROSATIUM, flavored with roses; ---- VINUM, rose wine, ℞
  4-6; ---- without roses, ℞ 6

  Rose pie, see MALUM ROSEUM, also ℞ 136, 171
    ---- custard, ℞ 136; ---- pudding, ℞ 136; ---- apple, ℞ 136

  Rose wine, ℞ 4-6

  ROSMARINUS, rosemary

  Round sausage, ℞ 65

  Roux, ℞ 172, see AMYLARE

  RUBELLIO, fish, ℞ 447

  RUBRA TESTA, red earthen pot

  RUMEX, sorrel, sour dock, monk's rhubarb, ℞ 24

  Rumohr, B., writer, pp. 3, 18

  Rumpolt, Marx, cook, cf. Styrio

  RUTA, rue; ---- HORTENSIS, garden r.; ---- SYLVESTRIS, wild r.; ----
  RUTATUS, prepared with r. Rue was very much esteemed because of its
  stimulating properties

  Rye, ℞ 99


  S

  SABUCO, see SAMBUCO

  SACCARUM, SACCHARUM, sugar; distillate from the joints of the bamboo
  or sugar cane, coming from India, hence called "Indian Salt." It was
  very scarce in ancient cookery. Honey was generally used in place of
  sugar. Only occasionally a shipment of sugar would arrive in Rome
  from India, supposed to have been cane sugar; otherwise cane and
  beet sugar was unknown in ancient times. Any kind of sweets,
  therefore, was considered a luxury

  SAL, salt. Laxative salt, ℞ 29; "For many ills," _ibid._

  Sala, George Augustus, writer, p. 38

  SALACACCABIA, SALACATTABIA, "salt" food boiled in the "caccabus,"
  ℞ 125-7, 468-70

  Salad, ℞ 109-11; ---- dressing, ℞ 112-3; Italian ---- ℞ 122

  Salcisse, ℞ 41

  SALINUM, salt cellar

  Salmasius, Codex of ----, see Apiciana, III

  SALPA, a sea-fish like stock-fish

  SALSAMENTUM IN PORCELLO, ℞ 381

  Salsicium, ℞ 41

  SALSUM, pickled or salt meat, especially bacon; ℞ 10, 41, 147,
  149, 150, 428, seq.; ---- CRUDUM, ℞ 151, cf. petits salés

  Salt, laxative, ℞ 29; "for many ills," _ibid._; ---- meat, to
  make sweet, ℞ 12; ---- fish, ℞ 144, seq., 427, seq.; ----
  balls, ℞ 145

  SALVIA, SALVUS, sage

  SAMBUCUS, elder-tree, or e.-berry; ℞ 135

  Sanitary measures, see MAPPA

  SAPA, new wine boiled down

  SAPOR, taste, savor, relish; ---- ROSELLINUS, rose extract, prepared
  rose flavor

  SARCOPTES, title of Book II

  SARDA, SARDELLA, small fish, sardine, anchovy, ℞ 146, 419, 420,
  480; ---- CONDITAE, ℞ 480; SARDAM FARSILEM, ℞ 419; ----
  Sardine omelette, ℞ 146

  Sarinus, Pompeiian innkeeper, p. 7

  SARTAGO, frying pan, flat and round or oblong, of bronze or of iron;
  some were equipped with hinged handles, to facilitate packing or
  storing away in small places, in soldiers' knapsack, or to save
  space in the pantry. This, as well as the extension handle of some
  ancient dippers are ingenious features of ancient kitchen utensils.
  See also FRICTORIUM, and the illustrations of pans, pp. 155, 159

  SATUREIA, savory, satury

  Sauce pans, illustrations, pp. 155, 159, 73, 231

  Sauces, ancient compared with modern, pp. 22, 24, 26, 27; ---- for
  roasts, ℞ 267-70; ---- for partridge, ℞ 499; ---- crane and
  duck, ℞ 215; ---- for fowl, ℞ 218-28

  Sauces. Bread Sauce, ℞ 274; Brine, ℞ 284; ---- for broiled
  fish, Alexandrine style, ℞ 437-39; ---- for boiled fish, ℞
  433-6, 454; ---- for broiled mullet, ℞ 442-3; ---- boiled meats,
  ℞ 271-3; ---- for roasts, ℞ 267, seq.; English ----, ℞ 267;
  ---- for broiled murenas, ℞ 448-51; Dill ----, ℞ 283; Herb
  ---- for fried fish, ℞ 432; ---- for Horned fish, ℞ 441; ----
  for lacertus, ℞ 455-7; ---- perch, ℞ 446; ---- redsnapper,
  ℞ 447; ---- dory, ℞ 461-2; ---- for suckling pig, ℞ 379;
  ---- young tunny, ℞ 444-5, 459; ---- for tooth-fish, ℞ 460-1,
  486; ---- shellfish, ℞ 397; ---- for venison, ℞ 339, 349; ----
  for wild sheep or lamb, ℞ 350; White ----, ℞ 276, 277; Wine
  ---- for fish, ℞ 464; Tasty ---- for conger, ℞ 441; ---- for
  tidbits, ℞ 276-82; ---- for sea-scorpion, ℞ 463; ---- for eel,
  ℞ 440, 466-7

  Saucisse, ℞ 41

  Sauerbraten-Einlage, ℞ 11

  Sausage, p. 172, ℞ 41, 45, 60-65, 139, 165

  Savonarola, Michaele, p. 273

  Scalding poultry, ℞ 233

  Scallops, ℞ 46

  SCANDIUS, chervil

  SCARUS, a certain sea-fish esteemed as a delicacy, a parrot-fish

  SCHOLA APITIANA, Apiciana, Nos. 21, 22, 23, facsimile, p. 206

  Schuch, C. Th. editor, Apiciana, Nos. 16-17, p. 34, 25, 270 seq.

  Science confirming ancient methods, p. 32

  SCILLA, SCYLLA, SQUILLA, a shell-fish, a sea-onion, ℞ 43, 485

  SCORPIO, a sea-scorpion, ℞ 463, 475

  SCRIBLITA, SCRIBILITA, pastry, some kind of pancake, extra hot.
  Plautus and Martial, hence Scriblitarius, cake baker, cf. Coquus

  SCRUPULUM, SCRI--, a weight, which see

  Sealing vessels to prevent air from entering, ℞ 23, 25

  Sea Barb, ℞ 482-3; ---- Bass, ℞ 158, 447; ---- Eel, ℞ 484;
  ---- food, p. 343; ---- stew, Baian style, ℞ 432; ---- mullet,
  ℞ 157; ---- nettles, ℞ 162; ---- perch, ℞ 447; ---- pike,
  ℞ 158; ---- urchin, ℞ 413-4; ---- scorpion, ℞ 475

  Sea-scorpion with turnips, ℞ 475

  Sea water, ℞ 8

  Seasoning, see flavoring

  Secrecy in recipes, pp. 29, 30

  Seeds, Summary of, p. 236

  SEL, see SIL

  SEMINIBUS, DE, p. 236

  Seneca, Roman philosopher, pp. 3, 11, 15

  SEPIA, cuttle-fish, ℞ 406-9

  SERPYLLUM, wild thyme

  Service berry, ℞ 159
    ---- pan with decorated handle, illustration, p. 73
    ---- dish for eggs, p. 93

  SESAMUM, sesame herb or corn

  SESELIS, SEL, SIL, hartwort, kind of cumin

  SETANIA, a kind of medlar, also a certain onion or bulb

  SEXTARIUS, a measure, which see, ℞ 1

  Sforza Ms. Apiciana XIII

  Shellfish, ℞ 397, 412

  Shell-shaped Dessert Dish, p. 125

  Shircliffe, Arnold, Dedication, p. 273

  Shore Dinner, ℞ 46

  Sicardus Ms. Apiciana XIV

  Signerre Rothomag., editor, pp. 258, seq., also see Tacuinus

  Signerre, Colophon, p. 260

  SIL, see SESELIS

  SILIGO, winter wheat, very hard wheat

  SILIQUA, shell, pod, husk

  SILPHIUM, SYLPHIUM, same as LASERPITIUM, which see, ℞ 32

  SILURUS, supposed to be the river fish sly silurus, or sheat-fish,
  also called the horn-pout, or catfish, ℞ 426

  SIMILA, --AGO, fine wheat flour

  SINAPIS, mustard

  "_Singe_," ℞ 55

  SION, --UM, plant growing in the marshes or on meadows, water-parsnip

  SISYMBRIUM, water cress

  SITULA, hot water kettle

  Skate, ℞ 403-4

  Slang in ancient text, p. 19

  Slaughter, cruel methods of, ℞ 259, 260

  Slaves grinding flour, illustration, p. 60

  Sloe, see PRUNUM

  Smelts, ℞ 138-39

  SMYRNION, --UM, a kind of herb, common Alexander

  Snails, ℞ 323-5

  Soda, use of ---- to keep vegetables green, ℞ 66

  Soft cabbage, ℞ 103-6

  SOLEA, flat fish, the sole, ℞ 154, 487; SOLEARUM PATINA, _ibid._

  SORBITIO, from SORBEO, supping up, sipping, drinking, drought; any
  liquid food that may be sipped, a drink, a potion, a broth, a
  sherbet, Fr. SORBET

  Sorrel, ℞ 26

  Sour Dock, ℞ 26

  Soups, ℞ 178, seq.

  Sow's womb, matrix, udder, belly, ℞ 59, 172, 251-8

  Soyer, Alexis, chef, 35

  Sparrow, see PASSER

  Spätzli, ℞ 247

  Spelt, ℞ 58-9

  Spengler, O., writer, p. 17

  SPICA, a "spike," ear of corn, top of plants, the plant spikenard,
  SPICA NARDI

  Spiced Fruit, ℞ 177

  Spices, Summary of, pp. 234-5; spicing, ancient and modern, ℞ 15,
  276-77, 385, seq.

  Spiny lobster, ℞ 54, 485

  Spoiling, to prevent food from--see Book I, and Preserving, to
  prevent birds from spoiling, ℞ 229-30, 233

  SPONDYLIUM, --ION, a kind of plant, cow-parsnip, or all-heal. Also
  called SPHONDYLIUM and FONDULUM. It is quite evident that this term
  is very easily confused with the foregoing, a mistake, which was
  made by Humelbergius and upheld by Lister and others. For comparison
  see ℞ 46, 115-21, 183, 309, 431

  SPONDYLUS, the muscular part of an oyster or other shellfish,
  scallop, for instance; also a species of bivalves, perhaps the
  scallop, ℞ 46

  SPONGIOLA, rose gall, also the roots of asparagus, clottered and
  grown close together

  SPONGIOLUS, fungus growing in the meadows, a mushroom, cf.
  SPONDYLIUM and notes pertaining thereto

  Sprats, ℞ 138-9

  Sprouts, cabbage ----, ℞ 89-92

  Squab, ℞ 218-27, cf. Pipio

  Squash, ℞ 73-80

  Squill, ℞ 485

  Squirrel, ℞ 396

  Stag, ℞ 339-45

  Starch, in forcemeats, sausage, etc., ℞ 50

  Starr, Frederick, see introduction

  STATERAE, steelyards for measuring

  Sternajolo, writer, Apiciana, No. 28, p. 273

  Stewed Lacertus, ℞ 152; ---- meats, p. 285, ℞ 356, seq.

  Stewpots, illustrated, pp. 183, 209, 223, 235

  String beans and chick-peas, ℞ 209

  STRUTHIO, ostrich, ℞ 210-11

  Studemund, W., writer, p. 19

  Stuffed pumpkin fritters, ℞ 176; ---- chicken or pig, ℞ 199;
  ---- boned kid or lamb, ℞ 360

  STURNUS, a starling, stare; Platina condemns its meat as unfit,
  likewise that of the blackbird (cf. MERULA); he pronounces their
  flesh to be "devilish." "STURNI, QUOS VULGO DIABOLICAM CARNEM HABERE
  DICIMUS." Yet three-hundred years later, French authorities
  recommend this sort of food. Viger, La Nouvelle Maison Rustique,
  Paris, 1798, Vol. iii, p. 613, tells how to catch and fatten STURNI.
  "After a month [of forced feeding] they will be nice and fat and
  good to eat and to sell; there are persons who live of this trade."
  He praises the crow similarly

    These instances are cited not only as a commentary upon the taste of
  the Southern people and their habits which have endured to this day
  but also to illustrate the singular genius of Platina. Also the
  following notes to STYRIO tend to show how far advanced was Platina
  in the matter of food as compared with the masters of the 18th
  century in France

  STYRIO, STIRIO, STURIO, ℞ 145, sturgeon; probably the same fish
  as known to the ancients as ACIPENSER or STURIO. (A. SIVE S. OBLONGO
  TEREDEQUE--Stephanus à Schonevelde, in Ichthyologia, Hamburg, 1624).
  There can be no doubt that the sturgeon or sterlet is meant by this
  term, for Platina calls the eggs of the fish "caviare." "OVA
  STIRIONIS CONDITUM QUOD CAUARE UOCANT." Eloquently he describes his
  struggle with the changing language. The efforts of this
  conscientious man, Platina, to get at the bottom of things no matter
  how trivial they may appear, are highly praiseworthy

    He writes "DE STIRIONE. TRAHI PER TENEBRAS NŪC MIHI VIDEOR,
  QUANDO HORŪ, DE QUIBUS, DEINCEPS DICTURUS SUM, PISCIŪ, NULLUS
  CERTUS UEL NOMINIS, UEL NATURAE EXISTAT AUTOR. NEGLIGENTIAE MAIORUM
  & INSCITIAE ID MAGIS, QUÀM MIHI ASCRIBENDUM EST. VTAR EGO NOUIS
  NOMINIBUS NE DELICATORUM GULAE PER ME DICANT STETISSE, QUO MINUS
  INTEGRA UTERENTUR UOLUPTATE."

    As for the rest, Platina cooks the sturgeon precisely in our own
  modern way: namely in water, white wine and vinegar. And: "SALEM
  INDERE MEMENTO!--don't forget the salt!"

    Compare him with France 350 years later. As for caviare, A.
  Beauvilliers, in his L'Art du cuisinier, Paris, 1814, treats this
  "ragoût" as something entirely new; yet Beauvilliers was the leading
  restaurateur of his time and a very capable cook, save Carême, the
  best. Beauvilliers has no use for caviare which he calls "Kavia."
  Says he: "LES RUSSES EN FONT UN GRAND CAS ET L'ACHETENT FORT CHER
  [The Russians make a big thing of this and buy it very dearly] CE
  RAGOUT, SELON MOI, NE CONVIENT QU' AUX RUSSES--this stew, according
  to my notion, suits only the Russians or those who have traveled
  thereabouts."

    Shakespeare, in speaking about "Caviare to the General" apparently
  was more up-to-date in culinary matters than this Parisian
  authority. A search of the eight volumes (Vol. I, 1803) of the
  famous Almanach des Gourmands by Grimod de la Reynière, Paris, 1803,
  seq., fails to reveal a trace of caviare

    A German cook, a hundred years after Platina, Marx Rumpolt in "Ein
  new Kochbuch, Franckfort am Mayn, bey Johan Feyrabendt, 1587" on
  verso of folio XCVII, No. 9, gives an exact description of caviare
  and its mode of preparation. He calls it ROGEN VOM HAUSEN. The
  HAUSEN is the real large sturgeon, the Russian Beluga from which the
  best caviare is obtained. Rumpolt, whose book is the finest and most
  thorough of its kind in the middle ages, and a great work in every
  respect, remarks that caviare is good eating, especially for
  Hungarian gentlemen

    "... SO ISSET MAN JN ROH / IST EIN GUT ESSEN / SONDERLICH FÜR EINEN
  VNGERISCHEN HERRN."

  SUCCIDIA a side of bacon or salt pork

  SUCCUM, SUCUM, ℞ 172, 200

  Suckling Pig, see PORCELLUS

  Sugar and pork, ℞ 151; use of ---- in ancient Rome, see SACCARUM

  Suidas, writer, p. 11

  SUMEN, ℞ 257; ---- PLENUM, ℞ 258

  Sumptuary laws, p. 25, ℞ 166

  Sumptuous dishes, ℞ 285

  Sweet dishes, home-made, ℞ 294-6

  Sweet MINUTAL, ℞ 168

  SYRINGIATUS, ℞ 360


  T

  TABLE, adjustable, illustration, p. 138; ---- round, _id._, p. 122

  Tacuinus, editor-printer, p. 258; quoted in recipes 8 seq.; Facs. of
  Title Page, 1503, p. 262; Facs. of opening chapter, p. 232

  TAMNIS, --US, TAMINIUS, wild grape

  TANACETUM, tansy

  Taranto, Tarentum, city, ℞ 165; --ian sausage, ℞ 140; ----
  Minutal, ℞ 165; see also LONGANO

  Taricho, Tarichea, town, ℞ 427, seq.

  Taro, dasheen, ℞ 74, 154, 172, 200, 244, 322; see COLOCASIA

  Tarpeius, a Roman, ℞ 363

  TEGULA, tile for a roof, also a pan, a plate of marble or of copper;
  Ger. TIEGEL

  Tempting Dish of Peas, A ----, ℞ 192

  TERENTINA, ℞ 338

  Tertullian, writer, p. 3

  TESTA, --U, --UM, an earthen pot with a lid, a casserole

  TESTICULA CAPONUM, ℞ 166

  TESTUDO, TESTA, turtle, tortoise. Platina praises the sea-turtle as
  good eating

  TETRAPES, --US, four-footed animals; title of Book VIII

  TETRAPHARMACUM, a course of four dishes, or a dish consisting of
  four meats. In modern language, a "Mixed Grill," a "Fritto Misto," a
  "Shore-Dinner"

  THALASSA, the sea; title of Book IX, treating of fish

  Theban ounce, ℞ 3

  THERMOPOLIUM, a tavern, specializing in hot drinks

  THERMOSPODIUM, a hot-plate, a hot dish carrier, a BAIN-MARIS,
  illustrations, pp. 72, 90

  THINCA, a fish, moonfish (?) "OLIM MENAM APPELLATAM
  CREDIDERIM"--Platina

  Thudichum, Dr., writer, p. 18

  THUS, TUS, frankincense, or the juice producing incense, Rosemary
  (?); also the herb ground-pine, CHAMAEPITYS, ℞ 60

  Thrush, p. 265, ℞ 497

  THYMBRIA, savory; see SISYMBRIUM, SATUREIA and CUNILA; also see
  THYMUS

  THYMUS, thyme. Platina describes THYMUS and THYMBRIA with such a
  love and beauty that we cannot help but bestow upon him the laurels
  worn by the more well-known poets who became justly famous for
  extolling the fragrance of less useful plants such as roses and
  violets

  THYNNUS, tunny-fish, ℞ 426, 457-8

  Tidbits, p. 285, ℞ 261, seq.; ---- of lamb or kid, ℞ 355

  TISANA, see PTISANA, ℞ 172-3, 200-1

  Title pages, Venice, 1503, 262; Lyons, p. 263; Zürich, p. 265;
  London, p. 267

  Toasting, ℞ 129

  Tooth-fish, ℞ 157

  Torinus, Albanus, editor of the Apicius and Platina editions of
  1541, text, p. 14
    ---- quoted, ℞ 1, 2, 8, seq., assailed by Lister, see L.
    ---- facsimile of Title page 1541, p. 220

  TORPEDO, --IN, --INE, ℞ 403-4

  TORTA, cake, tart; ---- ALBA, cheese cake

  Toulouse garnish, compared, ℞ 378

  TRACTOGALATUS, a dish prepared with milk and paste (noodles,
  spätzli, etc.); ---- PULLUS, a young chicken pie

  TRACTOMELITUS, a dish prepared with honey paste; a gingerbread or
  honeybread composition

  TRACTUM, ℞ 181

  Traianus, a Roman, ℞ 380; also Traganus, Trajanus

  Traube, writer, p. 19

  Trimalchio, fictitious character by Petronius, whose "Banquet" is
  the only surviving description of a Roman dinner, unfortunately
  exaggerated because it was a satire on Nero, pp. 8, 11

  Tripod, illustration, p. 40

  TRITICUM, --EUS, --INUS, wheat, of wheat

  TROPHETES, erroneously for AËROPTES, Gr. for fowl, title of Book VI

  Truffles, ℞ 27, 33, 315-321, 333; cf. TUBERA

  TRULLA, any small deep vessel, also a dipper, ladle

  TUBERA, "tubers"; TUBER CIBARIUM, ---- TERRAE, truffle, a fungus,
  mushroom growing underground, ℞ 27, 35, 315, seq., 321; T.
  CYCLAMINOS, "sow-bread," because swine, being very fond of T. dig
  them up. The truffle defies cultivation, grows wild and today is
  still being "hunted" by the aid of swine and dogs that are guided by
  its matchless aroma

  TUCETUM, a delicate dish; particularly a dessert made of prunes

  Tunny, fish, ℞ 427, 458, 459; Baby, ℞ 420, 424, 425, 426;
  Salt, ℞ 427

  TURDUS, thrush, ℞ 497

  Turkey, probably known to the ancients. See Guinea Hen and Meleagris

  Turnips, ℞ 100, 101

  Turnover dish, ℞ 129

  TURTUR, "turtle" dove, ℞ 218, seq., 498; ---- ILLA, young t., an
  endearing term

  TURSIO, TH--, ℞ 145

  TYROPATINA, ℞ 301

  TYROTARICUS, a dish made of cheese, salt fish, eggs,
  spices--ingredients resembling our "Long Island Rabbit," ℞ 137,
  143, 180, 439; see TARICA, ℞ 144, 428


  U

  UDDER, ℞ 251

  UNCIA, ounce, equals 1/12 lb.; also inch, -/12

  UNGELLAE, ℞ 251-5 foot

  Urbino, Duke of, p. 269

  URNA, urn, pitcher, water bucket; --ULA, small vessel; also a liquid
  measure, containing half of an AMPHORA, of four CONGII, or twelve
  SEXTARII; see measures

  URTICA, nettle; also sea-nettle, ℞ 108, 162

  U. S. Dept. of Agr. on Dasheens, ℞ 322

  UVA, grape, ℞ 19; Uvam passam Phariam, ℞ 97


  V

  Vaerst, Baron von, a writer, pp. 3, 8

  Vanilla, ℞ 15

  VARIANTES LECTIONES, Apiciana No. 12

  Varianus, Varius, Varus, Vardanus, Roman family name, ℞ 245

  Varro, a writer, ℞ 70, 307, 396, p. 21

  VAS, a vase, vat, vessel, dish, plate; --CULUM, a small v.; ----
  VITREUM, glass v., ℞ 23

  Vasavarayeyam, ancient Sanscrit book, p. 13

  Vatican Mss. Apiciana, p. 254, seq., Incipit facsimile, p. 253

  Veal Steak, p. 314, ℞ 351, 2; ---- Fricassée, ℞ 353, 4

  Vegetable Dinner, ℞ 67-9, 71, 145, 188; ---- purée, ℞ 103-6;
  ---- peeling of young v., ℞ 66; to keep v. green, ℞ 67, 188;
  ---- and brain pudding, ℞ 131

  Vehling, J. D., see Introduction; V. collection, p. 257

  VENERIS OSTIUM, ℞ 307

  Venison, ℞ 339-45

  VENTREM, AD ----, ℞ 68, 69, 70, 71; --ICULUM, ℞ 285

  VERMICULI, "little worms," noodles, vermicelli

  Vermouth, Roman, French, and Black Sea, different kinds of, ℞ 3,
  seq.

  VERVEX, a wether-sheep, mutton

  VESTINUS, see Caseus, ℞ 126

  Vicaire, Georges, bibliographer, p. 18

  VICIA, a kind of pulse, vetch

  VICTUS, way of life, diet; ---- TENUIS, reduced diet

  Vinaigrette, ℞ 113, 336, 341

  Vinidarius, Excerpts of, pp. 12, 21, 234

  VINUM, wine; ---- CANDIDUM FACIES, ℞ 8; many technical terms are
  given to wines, according to their qualities, such as ALBUM,
  CONDITUM, FUSCUM, NIGRUM, LIMPIDUM, ATRUM, DURUM, FULVUM, SANGUINEM,
  RUBENS, FIERI, BONUM, DULCE SUAVUM, FIRMUM, SALUBRE, DILUTUM,
  VAPIDUM, etc. These, as our modern terms, are employed to designate
  the "bouquet," color and other characteristics of wine. Then there
  are the names of the different brands coming from different parts,
  too numerous to mention. Furthermore there are wines of grapes, old
  and new, plain or distilled, raw or cooked, pure and diluted,
  natural or flavored, and the many different drinks made of grape
  wine with herbs and spices

    V. NIGRUM, "black wine," may be muddy wine in need of clarification;
  there is some slight doubt about this point. It appears that the
  vintner of old was much more tempted to foist unworthy stuff upon
  his customers than his colleague of today who is very much
  restricted by law and guided by his reputation

    VINUM also is any drink or liquor resembling grape wine, any
  home-made wine fermented or fresh. There is a V. EX NAPIS, ----
  PALMEUM, ---- EX CAROTIS, ---- EX MILII SEMINE, ---- EX LOTO, ----
  EX FICO, ---- EX PUNCICIS, ---- EX CORNIS, ---- EX MESPILIS, ---- EX
  SORBIS, ---- EX MORIS, ---- EX NUCLEIS PINEIS, ---- EX PIRIS, ----
  EX MALIS, (cf. Pliny), resembling our cider, perry, berry wines and
  other drink or liquor made of fruit, berries, vegetables or seeds

    VIOLATIUM and ROSATIUM, ℞ 5, are laxatives; ---- ORIGANUM is wine
  flavored with origany; etc., etc.

    It is doubtful, however, that the Romans knew the art of
  distillation to the extent as perfected by the Arabs centuries later
  and brought to higher perfection by the medical men and alchymists
  of the middle ages

  Violet Wine, ℞ 5

  Virility, supposed stimulants for, ℞ 307, 410

  VITELLINA, VITULINA, calf, veal, ℞ 351-4

  Vitellius, emperor, p. 11, ℞ 189, 193, 317

  VITELLUS OVI, yolk of egg; also very young calf. "Calf's
  sweetbreads"--Danneil

  Vollmer, F., editor, commentator, Apiciana No. 21, 23, 27, pp. 13,
  18, 19, 273

  Vossius, G. J., philologist, on Coelius, p. 266

  VULVA, sow's matrix, womb; --ULA, small v., ℞ 59, 251-54, 256.
  Was considered a delicacy. Pliny, Martial and Plutarch wrote at
  length on the subject. The humane Plutarch tells of revolting detail
  in connection with the slaughter of swine in order to obtain just
  the kind of V. that was considered the best

    Cf. Pliny, Hist. Nat., VIII, 51; XI, 37, 84, 54; Plutarch's essay on
  flesh eating, Martial, Ep. XII, 56 and VII, 19


  W

  WEIGHTS. LIBRAE, scale, balance. LIBRA--pound--lb--12 ounces,
  equivalent to one AS
    UNCIA, an ounce, properly the twelfth part of any unit, also any
      small bit
    SCRIPULUM, or SCRU--, 1 scruple, 288 to 1 lb.
    SELIBRA for SEMILIBRA, half a pound
    Theban ounce, cf. ℞ 3

  Weighing fluids, ℞ 471

  Welsh rabbit, see ZANZERELLA

  Whiting, ℞ 419

  Wild Boar, ℞ 329, seq., 338; ---- sheep, ℞ 348; ---- goat,
  ℞ 346, seq.

  Wilson, Dr. Margaret B., collector, cf. Preface, p. 37; cf. Apiciana
  I, pp. 254, 257; cf. Garum

  Wine, fine spiced, ℞ 1; Rose, ℞ 4; ---- without roses, ℞ 6;
  ---- Violet, ℞ 5; ---- To clarify muddy, ℞ 8; ---- New--boiled
  down, DEFRITUM, ℞ 21; ---- sauce for truffles, ℞ 33; ----
  Palm, ℞ 35; ---- of Carica figs, ℞ 55; ---- sauce for fig-fed
  pork, ℞ 259, 260; ---- fish, ℞ 479; cf. VINUM

  Wine pitcher, illustration, p. 208; ---- press, illustration, p. 92;
  ---- storage room in Pompeii, illustration, p. 124; ---- Dipper, p. 3;
  ---- Crater, p. 140

  Wolf, Rebekka, writer, ℞ 205, seq.

  Woodcock, ℞ 218, seq.

  Wood-pigeon, ℞ 218, seq.

  Wooley, Mrs. Hannah, writer, ℞ 52

  Writers, ancient, on food, pp. 3, 4


  Y

  YEAST, ℞ 16

  Young cabbage, p. 188, ℞ 87


  Z

  ZAMPINO, ℞ 338

  ZANZERELLA, a "Welsh rabbit." "CIBARIUM QUOD VULGO ZANZERELLAS
  UOCANT"--Platina

  ZEMA, ZU--, ZY--, a cook pot for general use

  ZINZIGER, GINGIBER, ginger; the latter is the better spelling

  ZOMORE, ZOMOTEGANON, ZOMORE GANONA, ZOMOTEGANITE--a dish of fish
  boiled in their own liquor, resembling the modern bouillabaisse,
  ℞ 153. The GANON, --A, --ITE, is the name of an unidentified
  fish, the supposed principal ingredient of this fish stew. Cf.
  Oenoteganon


[End of Index and Vocabulary]

[_INDICIS FINIS_]



ADDENDA


Description of Commentaries

APICIANA NOS. 30-31, A.D., 1935-36

J. SVENNUNG: UNTERSUCHUNGEN ZU PALLADIUS UND ZUR LATEINISCHEN FACH-
UND VOLKSSPRACHE.

"Skrifter utgivna med understöd av Vilhelm Ekmans universitets-fond,
Uppsala," tom. 44, (Uppsala, 1935)

and

DE LOCIS NON NULLIS APICIANIS SCRIPSIT J. SVENNUNG.

(Särtryck ur Eranos vol. XXXIV) Gotoburgi 1936. Typis descr. Elanders
Boktr. A.-B.

    [Through the good offices of Dr. Edwardt Brandt, of
    Munich, the above two commentaries on Apicius were
    received in the last moment, thanks to the courtesy of
    the author, Lekto J. Svennung, of Uppsala, Sweden. The
    first study is a critique of technical terms and
    colloquialisms as found in Palladius, touching
    frequently upon Apicius, published in 1935 at Uppsala by
    the Vilhelm Ekman University Foundation and the other is
    a reprint of an article on a number of Apician formulae
    from Eranos, Vol. XXXIV, published at Gothenburg, 1936,
    by Elander, Ltd.

    J. D. V., Chicago, November 30th, 1936.]

{Illustration: (Squib on the margin of an ancient manuscript in the
Monastery of St. Gallen, Switzerland)}

{Transcription:

  LIBRO COMPLETO···
  SALTAT SCRIPTOR
  PEDE LAETO······}



Transcriber's Note

Minor punctuation errors have been repaired. Amendments have been made
only where there was a clear error, where there was a definite
inconsistency within the text, or where it was impossible to find a
reliable source of the original spelling, as follows:

    Page vii--FRONTISPIECE amended to FRONTISPICE--"13
    FRONTISPICE, Lister Edition ..."

    Page 5--predeliction amended to predilection--"... nor
    did he indulge in that predilection for ugly detail ..."

    Page 9--Minturæ amended to Minturnæ--"... living chiefly
    at Minturnæ, a city of Campania, ..."

    Page 11--departmentized amended to
    departmentalized--"... were departmentalized to an
    astonishing degree ..."

    Page 11--indispensible amended to indispensable--"These
    indispensable books are simply wanting in our book ..."

    Page 15--Pommerania amended to Pomerania--"... Sweden,
    Holstein, Denmark, Friesland, Pomerania still observes
    Apicius rules ..."

    Page 20--fallability amended to fallibility--"... how
    each new copy by virtue of human fallibility or
    self-sufficiency ..."

    Page 22--salt amended to salted--"The fish, intestines
    and all, was spiced, pounded, fermented, salted,
    strained and bottled ..."

    Page 23--an amended to a--"May it be a sturdy one, and
    let its owner beware."

    Page 24--prodiguous amended to prodigious--"His culinary
    procedures required a prodigious amount of labor ..."

    Page 26--insiduousness amended to insidiousness--"Even
    the most ascetic of men cannot resist the insidiousness
    of spicy delights ..."

    Page 27--appeite amended to appetite--"... having our
    appetite aroused at the very perusal ..."

    Page 28--devine amended to divine--"... the experienced
    practitioner will be able to divine correct proportions,
    ..."

    Page 32--compote amended to compôte--"... oyster
    cocktail, poultry and compôte, goose with apple ..."

    Page 36--mummyfied amended to mummified--"... that
    Apicius is not a mummified, bone-dry classic ..."

    Page 58--EPIMLES amended to EPIMELES--"_EXPLICIT APICII
    EPIMELES LIBER PRIMUS_"

    Page 64--feasable amended to feasible--"... such as we
    here suggest would be entirely feasible ..."

    Page 70--CIRELLOS amended to CIRCELLOS--"[65] ROUND
    SAUSAGE _CIRCELLOS ISICIATOS_"

    Page 77--popularily amended to popularly--"... chestnuts
    and potatoes, popularly known as "Chinese potatoes" ..."

    Page 89--acccordance amended to accordance--"...
    Procedure quite in accordance with modern practice."

    Page 89--omitted [1] added to beginning of note in
    recipe 121.

    Page 89--114 amended to 115 (twice)--"... (Cf. ℞ No.
    115) ..." and "... _Spondyli uel fonduli_ (℞ Nos.
    115-121) does belong to Book II ..."

    Page 96--Carthusians amended to Carthusian--"... those
    delightful creations by the Carthusian monks ..."

    Page 102--act amended to fact--"... a fashion which, as
    a matter of fact still survives in the Orient, ..."

    Page 110--glace amended to glacé--"... the _œnogarum_
    taking the place of our meat glacé."

    Page 110--vexacious amended to vexatious--"Another
    interpretation of this vexatious formula ..."

    Page 116--indispensible amended to indispensable--"...
    both of which are indispensable to modern cookery."

    Page 117--166 amended to 165--"... {Cf. ℞ No. 165} ..."

    Page 122--illustrations amended to illustration--"This
    is a good illustration of and speaks well for ..."

    Page 129--forcements amended to forcemeats--"... any
    fine forcemeats, cut into or cooked in tiny dumplings."

    Page 150--Dan. amended to Dann.--"Dann. takes this
    literally, but _navo_ (_navus_) here ..."

    Page 151--omitted [1] added to beginning of note in
    recipe 243.

    Page 154--APERATURE amended to APERTURE--"... EMPTY IT
    THROUGH THE APERTURE OF THE NECK ..."

    Page 162--TID BITS amended to TID-BITS--"TID-BITS,
    CHOPS, CUTLETS"

    Page 164--Worchestershire amended to Worcestershire--"...
    some of the commercial sauces made principally in England
    (Worcestershire, etc.), ..."

    Page 166--Gell. amended to Goll.--"... _Cupedia_ (Plaut.
    and Goll.), nice dainty dishes, ..."

    Page 172--cates amended to cakes--"_Dulcia_, sweetmeats,
    cakes; ..."

    Page 173--128 amended to 129 and 142 amended to 143--"...
    or else it is a nut custard, practically a repetition of
    ℞ Nos. 129 and 143."

    Page 180--SNAIL amended to SNAILS--"THE SNAILS ARE FRIED
    WITH PURE SALT AND OIL ..."

    Page 191--galatine amended to galantine--"We would call
    this a galantine of lamb if such a dish ..."

    Page 193--Dan. amended to Dann.--"Dann. thinks
    _laureatus_ stands for the best, ..."

    Page 193--it's amended to its--"... it is possible that
    the kid was cooked with its mother's own milk."

    Page 198--councellor amended to counsellor--"Celsinus
    was counsellor for Aurelianus, the emperor."

    Page 204--EXLIXUM amended to ELIXUM--"ALITER LEPOREM
    ELIXUM"

    Page 213--15 amended to 14--"[3] Cf. No. 14 for the
    keeping of oysters."

    Page 228--2 amended to 3--"[2] Cf. note 3 to ℞ No.
    448."

    Page 228--preceeds amended to precedes--"... this
    formula precedes the above."

    Page 231--act amended to fact--"... as a matter of fact,
    stands for pepper, ..."

    Page 236--CARDAMON amended to CARDAMOM--"... INDIAN
    SPIKENARD, ADDENA [3], CARDAMOM, SPIKENARD."

    Page 236--FENNELL amended to FENNEL--"... CELERY SEED,
    FENNEL SEED, LOVAGE SEED, ..."

    Page 253--XVII amended to XVIII--"Munich, XVIII"

    Page 255--Cesna amended to Cesena--"Cesena, bibl.
    municip., 14th century."

    Page 255--phases amended to phrases--"... and failed to
    understand some phrases of it."

    Page 258--Pennel amended to Pennell--"The Pennell
    collection was destroyed by a flood in London ..."

    Page 258--Epimelels amended to Epimeles--"... GRÆCA AB
    APITIO POSITA HÆC SUNT || EPIMELES, ..."

    Page 277--Southerwood amended to
    Southernwood--"ABROTANUM, ... or, according to most
    Southernwood."

    Page 277--Attich amended to Attic--"... a small measure,
    equivalent to 15 Attic drachms"

    Page 278--fewerfew amended to feverfew--"AMACARUS,
    sweet-marjoram, feverfew"

    Page 279--Baracuda amended to Barracuda--"Barracuda, a
    fish, ℞ 158"

    Page 279--COLOSASIUM amended to COLOCASIUM--"Beans ...
    ---- "Egyptian," see COLOCASIUM"

    Page 279--orrage amended to orage--"... the arrack or
    orage, also spinach, according to ..."

    Page 279--omitted ℞ added--"BUBULA, Beef, flesh of
    oxen, p. 30, ℞ 351, 352"

    Page 280--forno amended to Forno--"... with our
    illustrations of the Casa di Forno of Pompeii ..."

    Page 280--Caviar amended to Caviare--"Caviare, see
    STYRIO"

    Page 282--mussle amended to mussel--"... any hollow
    vessel resembling a mussel shell ..."

    Page 283--maitre amended to maître--"... to the PRINCEPS
    COQUORUM, the "maître d'hôtel" of the establishment ..."

    Page 284--tumeric amended to turmeric--"CURCUMA
    ZEODARIA, turmeric"

    Page 284--Destillation amended to Distillation and entry
    moved to proper place in the Index--"Distillation, see
    Vinum"

    Page 286--illustratios amended to illustrations--"... on
    which the CRATICULA stood. Cf. illustrations, p. 182"

    Page 287--Passianus amended to Passenianus--"Hare, ...
    ---- smoked Passenianus, ℞ 389 ..."

    Page 289--destillate amended to distillate--"... the
    juice or distillate of the herb by that name, ..."

    Page 289--LIQORIBUS amended to LIQUORIBUS--"LIQUORIBUS,
    DE, p. 370"

    Page 290--indispensible amended to indispensable--"...
    grown in Italy at his time, that are so indispensable
    ..."

    Page 290--dog-brier amended to dog-briar--"... namely
    the hip, dog-briar, or eglantine is made into dainty
    confections ..."

    Page 292--omitted page number added to entry for oval
    pan--"Oval pan, illustration, p. 159"

    Page 294--forcement amended to forcemeat--"Pork ... ----
    forcemeat, ℞ 366"

    Page 296--destillate amended to distillate--"...
    distillate from the joints of the bamboo or sugar cane,
    ..."

    Page 297--SESESIL amended to SESELIS--"SESELIS, SEL,
    SIL, hartwort, kind of cumin"

    Page 297--SISYMBRUM amended to SISYMBRIUM--"SISYMBRIUM,
    water cress"--and entry moved from following entry for
    SITULA to preceding it.

    Page 297--Sternajola amended to Sternajolo--"Sternajolo,
    writer, Apiciana, No. 28, p. 273"

    Page 299--omitted p. added--"Title pages, Venice, 1503,
    p. 262; ..."

    Page 300--Rebecca amended to Rebekka--"Wolf, Rebekka,
    writer, ℞ 205, seq."

    Page 300--Wooley amended to Wolley, and entry moved to
    correct place in index--"Wolley, Mrs. Hannah, writer,
    ℞ 52"

The following have also been noted:

    The author has consistently used minuscle rather than
    minuscule when referring to manuscript. Since it appears
    deliberate, it has been preserved as printed.

    Page 9 has a word obscured--"one of three known famous
    ---- bearing that name". Another source of the text has
    the word as 'eaters', so the same has been used here.

    Page 23 has a reference to a "modern" sauce, A I. There
    were no obvious references to be found for a sauce of
    that name, so it may be a typo for A1 sauce, which was
    available at the time of writing. As there is no way to
    be certain, however, it has been preserved as printed.

    Page 49--note to recipe 13 reads, "Exactly as we today
    with fried herring and river lamprey". It is possible
    that it should read "as we do today", but has been left
    as printed.

    Page 151--recipe 241 has a note 1, but no marker in the
    text.

    Page 166--recipe 275 has a marker for note 1, but no
    note with that number.

    Page 172--Note 1 to recipe 294 reads "making it convenient
    and unprofitable for the domestic cook"--this should
    probably be read as "inconvenient and unprofitable",
    but it has been left as printed.

    Page 175--recipe 305 has a marker for note 2, but no
    note with that number.

    Page 189--recipe 351 has a marker for note 2, but no
    note with that number.

    Page 211--recipe 405a has a marker for note 2, but no
    note with that number.

    Page 226--there is no title for recipe 445.

    Page 230--there is no Latin translation provided for the
    heading "EEL".

    Page 243--recipe 481 is titled "FISH STEWED IN WINE",
    but does not mention wine anywhere in the recipe itself.

    Page 284--contained incorrectly placed index entries for
    CLIBANUS, CNICOS and CNISSA (following COXA). These have
    been moved to the correct place.

    Page 291--the index entry for Morsels also seems to have
    had the recipe references (309, seq.) for Morels included;
    this has been preserved as printed.

    Page 291--contained incorrectly placed index entry for
    Mullet (following MUSTUM). This has been moved to the
    correct place.

    Page 292--in the subentry for OLUS (OLUS AND CAULUS),
    there is an ℞ but no number.





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