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Title: How Girls Can Help Their Country
Author: Baden-Powell of Gilwell, Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, Baron, 1857-1941, Low, Juliette Gordon, 1860-1927, Baden-Powell, Agnes, 1858-1945
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration]

How Girls Can Help Their Country

Adapted from

Agnes Baden-Powell

and

Sir Robert Baden-Powell's Handbook

1917

COPYRIGHT, 1917

BY

JULIETTE LOW

Transcriber's note: Italics are signified by underscores, _, and bold is
signified by tildes, ~, around the words. In one spot in the text [=V]
is used to describe a V with a line above it and [V=] signifies a V with
a line below it.



Contents


Part I.
                                      PAGE

HISTORY                                  1

HOW TO BEGIN                             4

LAWS                                     7

SELF-IMPROVEMENT                         9


Part II.

MEMBERSHIP                              20

QUALIFICATIONS FOR GRADES AND RANK      25

ENROLLMENT                              27

BADGES AND AWARDS                       29

TESTS FOR MERIT BADGES                  31


Part III.

GAMES                                   48

CAMPING                                 57

SCOUTCRAFT                              68

STARS                                   83

GARDENING                               92


Part IV.

SANITATION                              94

HEALTH                                  98

HOME LIFE                              106


Part V.

FIRST AID                              124


Part VI.

PATRIOTISM                             136

LIST OF BOOKS TO READ                  142

INDEX                                  153


Copies of this book may be obtained from Girl Scout National
Headquarters, 527 Fifth Avenue, City of New York; price 30 cents,
postpaid.



PATRONESSES OF GIRL SCOUTS.


MRS. PHILIP BROWN                New York
"    ARTHUR CHOATE                 "   "
"    POWERS FARR                   "   "
"    SNOWDON MARSHALL              "   "
"    HENRY PARISH, JR.             "   "
"    THEODORE PRICE                "   "
"    DOUGLAS ROBINSON              "   "
"    SAMUEL VAN DUSEN              "   "
"    LEONARD WOOD                  "   "
"    WM. J. BOARDMAN             Washington, D. C.
"    ALBERT BURLESON               "         "  "
"    JAS. MARION JOHNSTON          "         "  "
"    JOSEPH R. LAMAR               "         "  "
"    RICHARD G. LAY                "         "  "
"    OSCAR UNDERWOOD               "         "  "
"    JOHN VAN RENSSELAER           "         "  "
"    EDWARD DOUGLAS WHITE          "         "  "
"    H. C. GREENE                Boston, Mass.
MISS KATHERINE LORING              "      "
"    LOUISA LORING                 "      "
MRS. RONALD LYMAN                  "      "
"    HENRY PARKMAN                 "      "
"    WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM         "      "
"    LAWRENCE ROTCH                "      "
"    WILLIAM W. VAUGHAN            "      "
"    BARRETT WENDELL               "      "
"    ROGER WOLCOTT                 "      "
"    WILLIAM RUFFIN COX        Richmond, Va.
"    HUNTER MCGUIRE                "      "
"    GEO. HYDE CLARK           Cooperstown, N. Y.
"    HERBERT BARRY             Orange, N. J.
"    THOMAS EDISON               "     "  "
"    PHILIP MCK. GARRISON        "     "  "
"    GEORGE MERCK                "     "  "
"    B. PALMER AXSON            Savannah, Ga.
"    GEORGE J. BALDWIN             "      "
MISS ELIZABETH BECKWITH            "      "
MRS. ROCKWELL S. BRANK             "      "
"    W. W. GORDON                  "      "
"    LOUIS W. HASKELL              "      "
MISS HORTENSE ORCUTT               "      "
"    NINA PAPE                     "      "
MRS. FREDERICK F. REESE            "      "
" SAMUEL DRURY       St. Paul's School, Concord, N. H.
" ORTON BROWN                   Berlin, N. H.
" FREDERICK FRELINGHUYSEN       Newark, N. J.
" WAYNE PARKER                     "    "  "
" DOUGLAS GORMAN                Baltimore, Md.
MISS MANLY                         "       "
MRS. JAS. HOUSTOUN JOHNSTON     Birmingham, Ala.
" WILLIAM S. LOVELL                 "       "
" ROBERT C. ALSTON                  "       "
" JOHN B. GORDON                  Atlanta, Ga.
" CLELAND KINLOCH NELSON           "       "
" JOHN M. SLATON                   "       "
" CARTER HARRISON                 Chicago, Ill.
" HERBERT HAVEMEYER                 "      "
" CYRUS MCCORMICK, SENIOR           "      "
MISS SKINNER                        "      "
" FREDERICA SKINNER                 "      "
MRS. MARK WILLING                   "      "
" CHARLES G. WASHBURN           Worcester, Mass.
MISS KATHERINE HUTCHINSON       Philadelphia, Pa.
MRS. ROBERT LESLIE                   "        "
" JOHN MARKOE                        "        "
" ALFONSO MUNOZ                      "        "
MISS ANNE THOMPSON                   "        "
MRS. CHARLES DOBNEY             Cincinnati, Ohio
" JAMES PERKINS                     "        "
MISS JOSEPHINE SIMRALL              "        "
MRS. ROBERT TAFT, JUNIOR            "        "
" MAX HIRSCH                        "        "
" G. S. RAFTER                  Washington, D. C.



Part I



HISTORY OF GIRL SCOUTS


Girl Scouts, like Boy Scouts, are found all over the world. When Sir
Robert Baden-Powell formed the first troops of Boy Scouts, six thousand
girls enrolled themselves, but, as Sir Robert's project did not include
the admission of girls, he asked his sister, Miss Baden-Powell, to found
a similar organization for girls, based on the Boy Scout laws, with
activities and occupations properly adapted for girls. She then founded
the Girl Guide organization.

In America, in March, 1912, the first patrols of Girl Guides were
enrolled by Juliette Low, in Savannah, Georgia. In 1913, the National
Headquarters were established by her in Washington, D. C., and Miss
Edith Johnston became the National Secretary. The name Girl Guides was
then changed to Girl Scouts because the object of the organization is to
promote the ten Scout Laws: TRUTH, LOYALTY, HELPFULNESS, FRIENDLINESS,
COURTESY, KINDNESS, OBEDIENCE, CHEERFULNESS, PURITY, and THRIFT.

The movement then grew and spread in a remarkable way. The success of
the movement is due, in a great measure, to the work of the National
Secretary, Miss Cora Neal, who built up the organization during the most
difficult years of its existence. In 1916, Headquarters were removed
from Washington to New York, and the machinery for unifying the national
work of the organization is now placed on an efficient basis.

The training of Girl Scouts is set forth in the Handbook, written by
Lieut.-General Sir Robert Baden-Powell and Miss Baden-Powell.

Juliette Low obtained the rights of their book and, with the help of
committees and experts from all parts of America, adapted it to the use
of the Girl Scouts of the United States. It is impossible to train Girl
Scouts without the Handbook.

In 1915, a Convention of Girl Scout leaders from most of the large
cities was held and a National Council was formed, composed of delegates
from the cities or communities where more than one hundred Girl Scouts
were enrolled.

This National Council met in Washington, D. C., on June 10, 1915, and
put the management of the business of the National Organization in the
hands of an Executive Committee, composed of:

    A President.
    A Secretary or Executive Officer.
    A Treasurer.
    A Vice-President.
    Chief Commissioner.
    Six or more members of the National Council.

The Duties of the Executive Committee are:

    (1) To grant charters to the Local Councils of Girl Scouts.
    (2) To manufacture and copyright the badges.
    (3) To select uniforms and other equipment.

At every annual meeting of the National Council there is an election of
the Executive Committee. This committee has the power to cancel a
charter.


National Headquarters

The National Headquarters has a staff of officers to do the work of the
organization, holding their positions at the pleasure of the Executive
Board. The National Secretary is appointed by the President and holds
office at the pleasure of the President.

Each city or locality has a Local Council of twelve or more members,
according to the size of the community. These local Councils are under
the direction of the National Council and obtain their charters from
Headquarters. Where one hundred or more Girl Scouts have been enrolled,
the Local Council has the right to send one representative to the
National Council for the annual meeting.

The salute is three fingers raised, the little finger held down by the
thumb.

[Illustration: _The Salute_]

Handshake with the left hand while the right hand is raised in half
salute--that is three fingers raised and held on the line with the
shoulder. This is the salute given between one Girl Scout and another,
and the full salute is when the fingers are raised to the temple on a
level with the brow. This is given to officers and to the United States
flag. (In saluting, the hand is always held upright, never in a
horizontal position.)



HOW TO BEGIN


It is not intended that Girl Scouts should necessarily form a new club
separated from all others. Girls who belong to any kind of existing
organization, such as school clubs or Y. W. C. A.'s may also undertake,
in addition to their other work or play, the Girl Scouts' training and
games, especially on Saturdays and Sundays.

It is not meant that girls should play or work on Sunday, but that they
may take walks where they can carry on a study of plants and animals.

Groups or bands of girls not already belonging to any club may be
organized directly as a Girl Scout Patrol or Troop.


How to Start a Patrol

Eight girls in any town, school, or settlement may join together to form
a Patrol. They should have a Captain who must be at least twenty-one
years old. The Captain selects a Lieutenant, or second in command, and
the girls elect a Patrol leader. The girls should be from ten to
seventeen years of age. It is best if all the girls in each Patrol are
about the same age. A less number than eight girls can begin the
movement, but eight girls are required to form a Patrol. A girl may not
become a Lieutenant until she has reached the age of eighteen, or a
Captain until she is twenty-one. In Europe, Girl Scout Patrols are
sometimes formed by grown women who wish to carry out the Girl Scout
program of preparedness. Members of such Patrols are called Senior
Scouts. Senior Scouts make the three promises and accept the Scout law.
They are enrolled as Scouts but do not meet regularly in the same manner
as girls' Troops. They are organized in classes to learn first aid,
signalling, marksmanship, or any other subject of the Girl Scout
program of training. Senior Scouts may well practice what they learn in
such classes by teaching, for one or two months, Patrols of younger Girl
Scouts. Thus they improve their command of what they have learned, and
serve as an example to the younger Scouts, stimulating their interest in
being prepared and especially in the subject taught.


The First Meeting

At the first meeting, the Scout Captain, who has previously studied the
plan, principles, and object of the Girl Scout organization, explains
the laws, promises, and obligations of the Girl Scouts to the members
who are to form the troops. The names and addresses of the girls are
recorded, the day set for the regular meeting, and the length of time
for each meeting determined. Fifteen minutes may be spent on knot-tying,
the Scout Captain first explaining the parts of the knot, and the
requirements for knot-tying. Three-quarters of an hour to an hour should
be spent on recreation out of doors.


Succeeding Meetings

The second, third, and fourth meetings should be spent in learning the
requirements for the Tenderfoot tests. Each meeting should open with the
formation of the troop in rank, by patrols, facing the Scout Captain.
The first salute should be given to the Scout Captain, followed by the
pledge to the flag, and inspection of the troop by the captain. After
inspection the troop should break ranks and hold a short business
meeting. Elections may be held at the second or third meeting for the
patrol leader, corporal, secretary, treasurer, and any other officers
the members of the troop may desire. The Scout Captain should instruct
the troop how to conduct a business meeting, and explain the nomination
and election of officers. Weekly dues may be determined, and some
decision had on the disposition of the funds. After the business
meeting, the work or the tests should be studied, and the proper time
spent on recreation. Every meeting should have a formal closing as well
as a regular opening. For the closing, the troop should line up as for
the opening routine, and give the good-bye salute. A definite time
should be decided upon for the examination for Tenderfoot Scout, and the
examination held at that time. Every Girl Scout who passes her
examination is then ready to be enrolled and to make the Girl Scout
Promise.


Girl Scout's Promise

Each girl must promise on her honor to try to do three things:

    ~1. To do my duty to God and to my country.~

    ~2. To help other people at all times.~

    ~3. To obey the laws of the Scouts.~

She learns the salute and the secret sign of the Scouts.

The Girl Scout Motto Is

[Illustration]



_These laws are for the guidance of Captains, and the girls, although
they learn the Law, are not allowed to make the promise to keep the Law
until the Captain considers they are capable of living up to its
spirit._

THE GIRL SCOUT LAWS


1. A Girl Scout's Honor Is to be Trusted

If a Scout says, "on my honor it is so," that means that what she says
is as true as if she had taken a most solemn oath.


2. A Girl Scout Is Loyal

to the President, to her country, and to her officers; to her father, to
her mother, and to her employers. She remains true to them through thick
and thin. In the face of the greatest difficulties and calamities her
loyalty must remain untarnished.


3. A Girl Scout's Duty Is to be Useful and to Help Others

She is to do her duty before anything else even if she gives up her own
pleasure, safety, or comfort. When in doubt as to which of two things to
do she must think, "Which is my duty?" which means, "Which is the best
for other people?" and do that at once. She must be prepared at any time
to save life or help the injured. She should do at least one good turn
to someone every day.


4. A Girl Scout Is a Friend to All, and a Sister to Every Other Girl
Scout.

Thus if a Scout meets another Scout, even though a stranger to her, she
may speak to her, and help her in any way she can, either to carry out
the duty she is then doing or by giving her food, or as far as possible
anything she may want. Like Kim a Scout should be a "Little friend to
all the world."


5. A Girl Scout Is Courteous

That is, she is polite to all. She must not take any reward for being
helpful or courteous.


6. A Girl Scout Keeps Herself Pure

in thought, word, and deed.


7. A Girl Scout Is a Friend to Animals

She should save them as far as possible from pain and should not kill
even the smallest unnecessarily. They are all God's creatures.


8. A Girl Scout Obeys Orders

Under all circumstances, when she gets an order she must obey it
cheerfully and readily, not in a slow, sullen manner. Scouts never
grumble, whine, or frown.


9. A Girl Scout Is Cheerful

under all circumstances.

Scouts never grumble at hardships, nor whine at each other, nor frown
when put out.

A Scout goes about with a smile and singing. It cheers her and cheers
other people, especially in time of danger.


10. A Girl Scout Is Thrifty

This means, that a Scout avoids all useless waste of every kind; she is
careful about saving every penny she can put into the bank so that she
may have a surplus in time of need. She sees that food is not wasted,
and that her clothing is cared for properly. The Girl Scout does not
waste time. She realizes that time is the most precious thing any one of
us has. The Girl Scout's time is spent either in useful occupations or
in wholesome recreation, and she tries to balance these two
harmoniously.



SELF-IMPROVEMENT


A Great Law of Life

One of the most fundamental laws of life is that, in the natural course
of things, the influence of women over men is vastly greater than that
of men over one another.

This is what gives to girls and women a peculiar power and
responsibility, for no Girl Scout or other honorable woman--whether old
or young--could use her influence as a woman excepting to strengthen the
characters and to support the honor of the men and boys with whom she
comes in contact.

Kipling, in ~Kim~, says that there are two kinds of women,--~one kind that
builds men up, and the other that pulls men down~; and there is no doubt
as to where a Girl Scout should stand.

This great law is nothing to make a girl feel proud or superior to men;
but, on the contrary, the understanding of it should make her humble and
watchful to be faithful to her trust. Many a boy has been strengthened
in his character and his whole life made happier by the brave refusal of
a girl to do wrong; while the opposite weakness has been the cause of
endless misery and wretchedness.

To gain and always retain the power to be a true woman friend to the men
who belong in her own sphere of life is not always an easy matter for a
girl, for she cannot do it unless she keeps a watch over her own faults
and weaknesses so that the best of her is always in control. You can not
fight for the right in the life of another unless you are first fighting
for the right in your own life.

The chief difficulty in acquiring this happy and cheerful dignity comes
from _the desire to be admired_, which is a tendency inborn in the great
majority of women. It stands in the way of their greatest strength and
usefulness, because it takes away their real independence and keeps them
thinking about themselves instead of about others. It is a form of
bondage which makes them vain and self-conscious and renders impossible
the truest and happiest companionship between men and women friends.

"Be prepared," therefore, to do a true woman's full duty to her men by
never allowing the desire for admiration to rule your actions, words, or
thoughts. Our country needs women who are prepared.

Prepared for what?

To do their duty.


Be Strong

Have you ever stopped to think that your most constant companion
throughout life will be yourself? You will always have this body, this
mind, and this spirit that you call "I," but this body, this mind, this
spirit are constantly growing and changing, and it is quite possible for
the owner to direct this growth and change. In order to live well, in
order to possess the joy of life, and to be helpful to others, a Scout
needs to apply her motto "Be prepared" to herself. Strength and beauty
should be hers in body, mind, and spirit.

[Illustration]

The body responds very readily to proper care and attention. In fact one
may have the kind of body that she wishes, if a beginning is made in
youth, and a plan persistently followed. The joyful exercise of vigorous
outdoor games gives the finest type of training to the body, and at the
same time the player enjoys the fun. To be happy and merry has a good
effect itself on the body, while being angry or morose actually
saturates the body with slow poisons. The body and mind are very closely
related. Things that are good for one are good for the other. A girl who
develops a strong agile body, at the same time improves her brain. A
girl with weak, flabby muscles cannot have the strength of character
that goes with normal physical power. It has been said, that "health is
the vital principle of bliss, and exercise of health."


Be Helpful

To make others happy is the Scout's first wish. When you come home from
work or school turn your thoughts to those you love at home and try to
see what you can do to lighten their burdens or cheer them. It is not
beyond the power of a girl to make home peaceful and happy. Perhaps
there are little ones to think of. They are quick to copy and every good
action and kind word of yours may have an effect on them through their
whole lives.

DO A GOOD TURN to some one every day. That is one of the Scout laws. Tie
a knot that you will have to untie every night, and before you go to
sleep think of the good turn you did that day--if you find you have
forgotten, or that the opportunity has not arisen that day, do two next
day to make up for it. By your Scout's oath you know you are in honor
bound to try to do this. It need be only a small thing. Help some one
across the street or show him the way to the place he wishes to go. Aid
a person overburdened with packages, or pick one up that has dropped.
Any little thing of this sort will count.


Habits

"'Tis today we make tomorrow." One of our wisest men has said that each
one of us is a bundle of habits. We are so made that once we perform any
act, that particular thing is ever afterward easier to do. We tend to do
the things we have already done. By selecting the right things to do and
always doing them, we actually are making our destiny. Each one of us
has her character made by her habits. Habits are repeated acts, and we
may choose what our habits should be by choosing our acts. As Scouts we
choose to be happy, loyal, helpful girls. As we practice the Scout laws
they become a part of us.


Modesty

Girl Scouts have often been complimented for their modest bearing. One
does not hear them talk about what they have done, or what they are
going to do. They just do the thing and say nothing about it. They go
about their business or pleasure quietly and gently, and never draw
attention to themselves unnecessarily by behaving noisily and talking or
laughing loudly in public. They should be particularly careful of this
when in the company of boys or men. Girls and boys should be comrades
and should never do anything to lose the respect of older men and women.

Girls of good feeling should be especially careful to be modest in
dress and deportment on social occasions. Unfortunately many girls who
are perfectly innocent and unconscious, cause comment and are the cause
of improper feelings being aroused among their companions. Girls should
not risk, by their manner of dress or method of dancing, bringing
temptation to others. It is easily possible for a girl to exert an
excellent influence upon her friends by setting a proper example.


Reading

Wherever you go you will have the choice of good or bad reading, and as
reading has such a lasting effect on the mind, you should try to read
only good things. If you find that you are tempted by reading rubbish,
it is easy to stop doing so. Once you know what your fault is you can
fight it squarely. Ruskin says, "All your faults are gaining on you
every hour that you do not fight them."

The thing is, when there is danger before you, don't stop and think
about it,--the more you look at it the less you will like it,--but take
the plunge and go boldly in at it, and it will not be half as bad as it
looked, when you are once in it. This is the way to deal with any
difficulty in life. If you have a job, or if any trouble arises which
seems too difficult to meet, don't shirk it--just smile, and try and
think out a way by which you may get successfully through with it. Read
in _Æsop's Fables_ how the old man advised his son that it was easy to
break a bundle of rods, but only if you took them one at a time.


Economy

More women are engaged in housekeeping than in all the other professions
and employments combined. This is a difficult profession and requires
knowledge and training, if good results are to be secured. Housekeepers
need to have a plan, and especially a budget of expenses. One of the
chief duties of housekeeping consists in seeing that there be no waste
of any kind. The efficient housekeeper prevents a waste of food, of
light, fuel, and of every other item. The wise individual gives special
care to preventing a waste of time on the part of herself and others.
The real orderly Girl Scout has a place for everything and keeps
everything in its place. She has a time for performing each of her
duties and does it at that time.


Thrift

It seems easy to learn how to spend money, but it is an art to learn how
best to spend. Scouts gain experience by being allowed to purchase for
the company, also by keeping the accounts, and they should always keep
their own accounts neatly. We have to keep accounts when we grow up, and
it is well to get into the way of measuring our expenditure from the
first. You will remember that one of the Scout laws is to BE THRIFTY.
The girl who begins making money young will go on making it as she grows
older. It may be difficult at first, but it will come easier later on,
especially if you earn money by hard work. If you try to make it only by
easy means you are bound to lose after a time. Any number of poor girls
have become rich, but in nearly every case it was because they meant to
do so from the first. They worked for it and put every penny that could
be spared into a savings account. The history of the majority of the
world's greatest millionaires is that they began life without a dollar.
To become a first-class Scout a girl must have a certain amount in the
savings bank before she can have the honor of receiving her badge. By
saving only two cents a week at least a dollar a year is saved.


Employment

"Stick to it" the thrush sings. One of the worst weaknesses of many
people is that they do not have the perseverance to stick to what they
have to do. They are always wanting to change. Whatever you take up, do
it with all your might, and stick to it. Besides the professions of
nursing, teaching, stenography and type-writing, and clerking, there are
many less crowded employments, such as hair-dressing, making flowers,
coloring photographs, assisting dentists, and gardening. There are many
occupations for women, but before any new employment can be taken up one
must begin while young to make plans and begin collecting information.
"Luck is like a street car; the only way to get it is to look out for
every chance and seize it--run at it and jump on; don't sit down and
wait for it to pass. Opportunity is a street car which has few stopping
places."

CHOOSE A CAREER: "Be prepared" for what is going to happen to you in the
future. Try to master one trade so that you will be independent. Being
punctual is a most important thing. This counts for a great deal in
filling any kind of position.


Be Observant

In the early days of human development, centuries ago, the chief
training men had was gained from fishing, hunting, and the other
activities of savage life in the woods. This is a very valuable kind of
training which city people miss. This knowledge of the woods, of animals
and their habits, and of all the other phases of nature necessary for
life in the open is called "Wood-craft." It is possible to train
ourselves to be observant of nature and to develop a keenness of sight
and hearing that are very valuable. It is a part of the duty of Scouts
to see and appreciate the beauties of nature, and not be blind to them
as so many people are.

Try to see everything. Consider it almost a disgrace if, when with
others, they see anything big or small, high or low, near or far, that
you fail to discover. See it first if you can.


Careers

Well educated women can make a good income by taking up translating,
library work, architecture, and many professions which formerly have
been open only to men. In Russia, a municipal fire brigade has been
commanded by a young woman. The medical profession offers a great
opportunity to women. Nursing is more easily learned, and is of the
greatest advantage at the same time, for every woman is a better wife
and mother for having been a nurse first. Even so long ago as the first
century women devoted their lives to the medical profession, as Zenais,
a relative of St. Paul, Leonilla, and Hildegarde of Mont Rupert. Later,
Nicerate, in 404, studied medicine and practiced with great ability.
Fifty years ago no woman could become a doctor. Now it is within the
power of any intelligent girl, through study and perseverance, to enter
the medical profession, and even to rise to distinction and to honorable
celebrity. Mme. Curie has done such wonderful work in chemistry, that
the Academy of Paris has long debated whether she should not be made an
academician for her discoveries in connection with polonium and radium.


Study

Each one of us has her own destiny in her control, and has her own
personal problems in life to settle. Thus, we all need all the knowledge
and wisdom that we can secure. Each one of us should be a student, ever
growing in power of thought and in usefulness to others. Too many
people think that education consists in memorizing all kinds of
information exactly as it is put down in the books. What each one of us
really needs is to have a mind that can think definitely and
intelligently upon all the problems presented in life. It is possible
for us to train our minds for this kind of useful and independent
thought. In the first place we should select subjects for study that are
of real interest because they bear upon some problem that concerns us.
Whenever we begin to read a book, or undertake any topic of study, it
should be done with a definite purpose in mind. Propose to yourself some
question that you expect to be answered by this book, or by this
subject. Do not be satisfied with the statement of one author, but also
find out what other authors say, and what some of your friends think
upon this question. When you have done this, try to arrange the
different thoughts and statements according to a plan. Pick out the
largest truth in the whole matter and arrange other statements or
thoughts as they are related to this central one. Making an outline of a
book is an excellent plan. Do not commit yourself entirely to the
author's point of view, if it does not agree with your own. Each one of
us has a distinct individuality and is entitled to his own views, to a
certain extent. However, we should keep our minds open, ready to accept
new truths as they are brought to our attention. Science and knowledge
are constantly advancing, and what we believe now, we may find, some
years hence, to be only a part of the truth. Thus, it is not necessary
to memorize lessons and subjects until after we have thought out what
the real meaning is, and arranged the whole subject on a definite plan.
Then, we will usually find that we know the topic without having to
memorize it formally. Finally we should try to put to use the ideas we
have gained. The real value of ideas lies in making them serve us. When
you have actually put into practice some bit of knowledge, you may then
feel that it really belongs to you.

In our work and study we need to learn to devote our whole attention to
one thing,--to do this one thing with all the power that we have. Too
many of us form a habit of dividing our attention, trying to carry two
things in mind at the same time. This is a weakness that interferes with
our success. If we are truly interested, we should put our whole
attention upon the one matter and develop power of concentration.

To make what has been said about study clearer, let us use an
illustration. Suppose one of our Girl Scouts is fond of gardening. The
family has no garden, and there is a vacant space in the yard that could
be used for this purpose. She begins the reading of one of the farmers'
bulletins on this subject, and has in mind, all the time, making a
garden of her own. This object of making her own garden is her guide in
the study. She wishes to learn what plants are best suited to her plot,
which ones will give her the best return for the kind of soil that she
has, and so, as she reads, she chooses for herself from the ideas that
are presented. The whole subject is arranged in her own mind around her
own plan of making a garden. After reading this bulletin she is likely
to consult her friends who know anything about this subject, and to read
other articles. Finally she puts into practice the notions she has
gathered, and finds through actual trial whether they succeed or not. If
she is successful in growing flowers and vegetables, the ideas have been
put to a very practical and beneficial use. This girl will know a great
deal more about gardening than if she merely read the book.


Patriotism

You belong to the great United States of America, one of the great world
powers for enlightenment and liberty. It did not just grow as
circumstances chanced to form it. It is the work of your forefathers who
spent brains and blood to complete it. Even when brothers fought they
fought with the wrath of conviction, and when menaced by a foreign foe
they swung into line shoulder to shoulder with no thought but for their
country.

In all that you do think of your country first. We are all twigs in the
same fagot, and every little girl goes to make up some part or parcel of
our great whole nation.



Part II



MEMBERSHIP


This Organization is Non-Sectarian and Non-Political

Any girl over ten years old may become a Girl Scout and she may belong
to other organizations at the same time.

She first ranks as Tenderfoot or third-class Girl Scout, then, after one
month, she becomes, after passing certain tests, a second-class Girl
Scout, and finally attains the rank of first-class Girl Scout.

After she has reached the age of eighteen, a girl can become a
lieutenant, and when she is twenty-one years old she may become a
captain if she has passed the first-class examinations. Girl Scouts'
patrols in Europe are sometimes formed by grown-up women, who wish to
carry out the Girl Scout program of preparedness, and these are called
Senior Scouts.


Grades

    Tenderfoot
    Second Class
    First Class


Officers of the Local Organization

A Commissioner. The duties of a Commissioner are:

To inspect companies and patrols and advise how to conduct them
according to the principles found in the Handbook.

To secure the harmonious co-operation of all the captains in the
district.

To be the authority for recommending the issue or the denial of
captains' certificates before they are sent to Headquarters.

To foster the movement generally throughout the district. (Where there
is no Secretary, the Commissioner must organize the examinations for
Merit Badges.)

To forward the semi-annual reports to Headquarters.


A Secretary. The duty of a Secretary is to be the local executive
officer.

She shall have charge of Headquarters and other property of the local
organization.

She shall have a general supervision of the captains and instruct new
captains in their duties.

She shall keep a record of all the troops, the names and addresses of
the captains and the councilors of Girl Scouts, and such other
information in regard to them as may be necessary for her work. She
shall receive all the applications for Girl Scout captains' certificates
and send these applications to Headquarters. Where a local council
exists, all applications must be approved by the local council.

She shall render a report at the regular meetings of the local board of
councilors on the condition and progress of the Girl Scouts.

She shall notify all the members of the annual, regular, and special
meetings.

She shall attend all the public meetings connected with the
organization.


A Treasurer. The duties of a Treasurer:

She shall keep an itemized account of all receipts and disbursements in
a book, and present a written report at the regular meeting of the board
of councilors.

She shall pay only those bills that have been signed by the Commissioner
and Secretary.

She shall make an annual report and produce the vouchers which shall be
submitted to an auditor at least one week before the annual meeting.

All the local organization's funds shall pass through her hands.


A Captain. The duties of a Captain:

The captain has the power to enroll Scouts and to recommend them to the
local committee for badges and medals. She also has the power to release
a Scout from her promise, and to withdraw her badges at any time, and to
discharge her. A Scout who considers herself unjustly treated may appeal
to the local council. Their decision shall be final.

The captain must apply to National Headquarters for an official
certificate. Her application must be accompanied by the names of two
prominent citizens, and in places where a local council is established
her application must be sent through the local council or court of honor
and be endorsed by one member of the council.

The qualifications for a captain shall be:

A general knowledge of the Handbook for Girl Scouts.

A full appreciation of the religious and moral aim underlying the
practical instruction of the entire scheme of training.

Personal standing and character such as will insure a good moral
influence over the girls, and sufficient steadfastness of purpose to
carry out the work with energy and perseverance.

Age not less than twenty-one years.

A captain is assumed to have passed the first-class Scout Test. She
wears the all-round cords, if she prefers to do so, instead of putting
on all the separate badges as the girls do.

Captains may join the Red Cross or any other organization or club.

Officers' certificates must be returned if the officer resigns or if the
certificate is cancelled, as these are the property of the President.


A Lieutenant:

The duties of a lieutenant are the same as those of a captain in the
absence of the captain. She is chosen by the captain to work with her,
and must be over eighteen years of age. Lieutenants may wear captains'
badges after passing the first-class test.

A Patrol Leader is selected in each patrol by the girls themselves (or,
if the girls desire it, by the captain). She holds her office for six
months or a year. The girls are apt to select the right girl for the
place.

The patrol leader must be what her name implies, "A Leader," for she
stands next to the captain and lieutenant, and takes either place in
their absence. The patrol must not look upon her as a "Boss." This
feeling must not enter into the patrol affairs at all, but the girls
must remember that they have put her there, and they must do all they
can to uphold her and support her in the work. If she is the right sort
of girl no such feeling will arise. If a patrol leader gives an order
that a Girl Scout does not like or think fair, the Scout must obey the
order, but later on she may talk it over with her patrol leader. If,
still, she is dissatisfied, she may go to her captain, who must decide
the matter. If the patrol leader is not a good officer, the captain may
reduce her to Scout rank and have another election.

The patrol leader appoints one of her girls as a Corporal, who takes her
place when she is absent, and assists her in keeping the patrol leader's
books.

The duties of the patrol leader are to call the roll and keep a record
of attendance of her patrol.

The patrol leader keeps a record of the dues. Patrol leaders' registers
may be obtained at Headquarters.

The patrol leader is responsible for leaving the club room in perfect
order. She may have her corporal assist her in tidying up, or she may
choose some girls to help her.


Patrol Officers:

Each patrol selects its own secretary or scribe.

The duties of a secretary: To keep a record of what is done at the
meetings; to receive and answer letters.

Patrol Nurse. The duty of a patrol nurse is to take care of any
accidents to the girls during a hike or a picnic. She should possess a
first-aid kit.



QUALIFICATIONS FOR THE THREE GRADES OF GIRL SCOUTS


The Tests

~A Tenderfoot~ (Badge, a Brooch) must be ten years old.

Before making the Scout Promise, she must know:

How to tie four of the following knots: reef, sheet-bend, clove hitch,
bowline, fisherman's, and sheep-shank (see p. 68).

The name of the Governor of the State and of the Mayor of the city.

The History of the Flag, and how to fly it (see p. 135).

The ten Scout Laws.


~A Second-Class Girl Scout~ (Badge, worn on left arm) must have had one
month's service as Third-Class Scout. She must pass the following tests:

Must have made a drawing of, or cut out and made in cloth or on paper,
the Flag of the United States.

Know how to cook one simple dish, such as potatoes or a quarter of a
pound of meat.

Lay a fire in stove, or light a fire in the open with two matches.

Make a bed properly, and know how to make an invalid's bed.

Know her own measurements (see cards at Headquarters for details of
measurement).

Must know the eight points of the compass (see compass, p. 71).

Must know what to do in case of fire (see p. 125).

Must know remedy for poison ivy and what to do to prevent frost-bite
(see pp. 134 and 135).

Must know health habits (page 96).

Must know how to work a button-hole, or knit or crochet, sew a seam and
hem a garment.

Must know Morse alphabet or semaphore alphabet.


~A First-Class Scout~ (Badge, sewn on left sleeve above elbow, which
entitles the wearer to go in for all-round cords) must have gained a
Second-Class Badge.

Must know how to set a table properly for breakfast, dinner, and supper.

Bring a shirt-waist or skirt sewn by herself or equivalent needlework.

Be able to describe how to get a specified place and walk one mile in
twenty minutes.

Must be able to dress and bathe a child two years old or younger (see p.
122).

Be able to pass an examination upon the first three chapters of the
woman's edition of the American Red Cross Abridged Text-Book in First
Aid.

Must have knowledge of signaling and of semaphore code or International
alphabet (p. 75), writing 32 letters per minute.

Must have 50 cents in savings bank earned by herself.

Must produce a girl trained by herself in tests, Tenderfoot Class.

Know how to distinguish and name ten trees, ten wild flowers, ten wild
animals, ten wild birds.

Must know simple laws of sanitation, health and ventilation (pp. 111 to
115).

Swim fifty yards in her clothes or show a list of twelve satisfactory
good turns.

Show points of compass without a compass.

Must give correctly the Scouts' secret passwords.

The subjects for proficiency badges may be undertaken after a girl
becomes a Second-Class Girl Scout, and the interest in her work is thus
continuous. The badges for proficiency are registered and are issued
only by Headquarters.



ENROLLMENT


Ceremony of Investiture of Scouts

The ceremonial for a Tenderfoot to be invested as a Scout should be a
serious and earnest function. The captain calls "Fall in." The patrol is
formed in a horseshoe, with captain and lieutenant in the gap, and the
American flag spread out. The Tenderfoot, with her patrol leader (who
will already have taught her tests and knots), stands just inside the
circle, opposite the captain. "Salute." All salute her. The lieutenant
holds the staff and hat, shoulder-knot and badge, and neckerchief of the
Tenderfoot. When ordered to come forward by the captain, the patrol
leader brings the Tenderfoot to the center. The captain then asks: "Do
you know what your honor means?"

The Tenderfoot replies: "Yes, it means that I can be trusted to be
truthful and honest"--(or words to that effect).

Captain: "Can I trust you on your honor to be loyal to God and the
country, to help other people at all times, and to obey the Scout Law?"

The Tenderfoot then makes the half salute, and so do the whole company,
whilst she says: "I promise, on my honor to be loyal to God and my
country, to help other people at all times, and to obey the Scout Law."

The captain then says: "I trust you, on your honor, to keep this
promise."

Whilst the recruit is making her promises aloud, all the Scouts remember
their own promises, and vow anew to keep them.

The captain orders: "Invest."

The patrol leader then steps out, gives the Tenderfoot her staff, and
puts her hat, neckerchief, and knot on her.

She then marches up the line to the captain, who pins on her trefoil
badge, and explains that it is her Scout's "life." If, for misbehavior,
her trefoil or life has to be taken from her, she becomes a dead Scout
for the time the captain orders--a day or a week--and is in disgrace.
The badge may be worn at all times, but the uniform is worn only when
the patrol meets.

The new Scout is then initiated into the mysteries of secret passwords
Be Prepared (said backwards). The captain orders: "To your patrol--quick
march."

The whole patrol salute and shoulder staves; the new Scout and her
patrol leader march back to their places.

These badges being the registered designs of the Corps, do not belong to
the girls who have passed the tests.

The equipment does not belong to the girl except by special permission.

Any person wearing Girl Scouts' badges without permission is liable to
be prosecuted according to law, and may incur a penalty. Offenses, such
as people who are not enrolled saluting, outsiders wearing Girl Scouts'
badges, or "Monkey" patrols wearing Girl Scouts' uniforms, must be dealt
with by trial at a Court of Honor to determine the forfeit or penalties
to be imposed on the culprits.

Captains have the power to dismiss a Scout, and the badge and the
buttons of her uniform must then be returned.



BADGES AND AWARDS


The Badge

[Illustration]

The Girl Scout badge is a clover leaf, the three leaves representing the
Girl Scout promises: (1) To do her duty to God and her country. (2) To
help other people at all times. (3) To obey the Scout law.


When to Wear the Badge

A girl asked me what were the occasions on which she might wear her
badge, thinking it was not for everyday use. The reply was, "You may
wear your badge any day and any hour when you are doing what you think
is right. It is only when you are doing wrong that you must take it off;
as you would not then be keeping your Scout promises. Thus you should
either take off the badge, or stop doing what you think is wrong."


The "Thanks" Badge

The "Thanks" badge may be given to any one to whom a Girl Scout owes
gratitude. Every Girl Scout throughout the whole world when she sees the
thanks badge, recognizes that the person who wears it is a friend and it
is her duty to salute and ask if she can be of service to the wearer of
the badge.

[Illustration: The "Thanks" Badge.]

The approval of National Headquarters must be obtained before a thanks
badge is presented to any one.


Medals for Meritorious Deeds

These medals are granted only by Headquarters, or by the President on
special recommendation from the captain, who should send in a full
account with written evidence from two witnesses of the case.

These are worn on the right breast, and are awarded as follows:


Life-Saving Medals

The Bronze Cross. (Red Ribbon.) Presented as the highest possible award
for gallantry, this medal may be won only when the claimant has shown
special heroism or has faced extraordinary risk of life in saving life.

The Silver Cross (Blue Ribbon) is given for gallantry, with considerable
risk to herself.

[Illustration: Bronze and Silver Cross for Saving Life.]

The Badge of Merit (Gilt Wreath. White Ribbon), for a Scout who does her
duty exceptionally well, though without grave risks to herself, or for
specially good work in recruiting on behalf of the Girl Scout movement,
or for especially good record at school for one year in attendance and
lessons is awarded when full records of such deeds accompany the claim.

[Illustration: Gilt Medal of Merit.]


How to Become a "Golden Eaglet"

To secure this honor a Girl Scout must win fourteen of the following
badges: Ambulance, Clerk, Cook, Child-nurse, Dairy-maid, Matron,
Musician, Needlewoman, Naturalist, Sick-nurse, Pathfinder, Pioneer,
Signaler, Swimmer, Athletics, Health or Civics.

In examining for tests one of the Court of Honor should, if possible, be
present.

The Local Committee should be satisfied, through the recommendation of
the girls' captain, that the tests were satisfactorily performed.



TESTS FOR MERIT BADGES

A girl must become a Second Class Scout before she is eligible for the
proficiency tests. Merit badges are issued to those who show proficiency
in the various subjects listed in this chapter. These badges are
registered at Headquarters and are issued from no other source.

The purpose of the various tests is to secure continuity of work and
interest on the part of the girls.

The girl who wins one of these merit badges has her interest stimulated
and gains a certain knowledge of the subject. It is not to be understood
that the knowledge required to obtain a badge is sufficient to qualify
one to earn a living in that branch of industry.


Merit Badges 1. Ambulance. (Maltese Red Cross.)

[Illustration]

To obtain a badge for First Aid or Ambulance a Girl Scout must have
knowledge of the Sylvester or Schaefer methods of resuscitation in cases
of drowning.

Must pass examination on first three chapters of Woman's Edition of Red
Cross Abridged Text Book on First Aid.

Treatment and bandaging the injured (p. 131).

How to stop bleeding (p. 133).

How to apply a tourniquet (p. 134).

Treatment of ivy poison (p. 134).

Treatment of snake-bite (p. 59).

Treatment of frost-bite (p. 135).

How to remove cinder from eye (p. 124).

2. Artist. (Palette.)

[Illustration]

To obtain an artist's badge a Girl Scout must draw or paint in oils or
water colors from nature; or model in clay or plasticine or modeling wax
from plaster casts or from life; or describe the process of etching,
half-tone engraving, color printing or lithographing; or

Arts and Crafts:

Carve in wood; work in metals; do cabinet work.


3. Athletics. (Indian Clubs.)

[Illustration]

To obtain this badge a Scout must:

1. Write a 500-word article on value of Athletics to girls, giving
proper method of dressing and naming activities most beneficial.

2. Be a member of a gymnasium class of supervised athletics or a member
of an active team for field work.

3. Understand the rules of basket ball, volley ball, long ball, tether
ball, tennis and captain ball.

4. Must be able to float, swim, dive and undress in water.

5. Know and be able to teach twenty popular games.


4. Attendance. (Annual.) (Badge, Silver Star.)

Must complete one year of regular attendance.


5. Automobiling. (A Wheel.)

[Illustration]

1. Must pass an examination equal to that required to obtain a permit or
license to operate an automobile in her community.

2. Know how to start a motor and be able to do it and be able to explain
necessary precautions.

3. Know how to extinguish burning oil or gasoline.

4. Comply with such requirements as are imposed by body conducting the
test for licensing drivers.


6. Aviation. (Monoplane.)

[Illustration]

To obtain a merit badge for aviation, a Scout must:

1. Have a knowledge of the theory of the aeroplane, helicopter, and
ornithopter, and of the spherical and dirigible balloon.

2. Have made a working model of any type of heavier than air machine,
that will fly at least twenty-five yards; and have built a box kite that
will fly.

3. Have a knowledge of the types and makes of engines used for
aeroplanes, of the best known makes of aeroplanes, and of feats
performed or of records made by famous aviators.

4. Have a knowledge of names of famous airships (dirigibles) and some of
their records.

5. Understand the difference between aviation and aerostation, and know
the types of apparatus which come under these two heads.


7. Bird Study. (Bird.)

[Illustration]

To secure this badge a Scout must:

1. Give list of 30 well known wild birds of United States.

2. State game bird laws of her State.

3. Give list of 30 wild birds personally observed and identified in the
open.

4. Give list of 10 wild birds sold as cage birds.

5. Name 10 birds that destroy rats and mice.

6. Give list of 25 birds of value to farmers and fruit growers in the
destruction of insect pests on crops and trees.

7. Give name and location of 2 large bird refuges, explain the reason
for their establishment and the birds they protect.

8. Tell what the Audubon Society is and how it endeavors to conserve the
birds of beautiful plumage.

9. What an aigret is, how obtained, and from what bird. (_Land Birds and
Water Birds_, C. A. Reed.) (The Department of Agriculture has a number
of bulletins on birds. See list.)

10. What methods to attract birds winter and summer.


8. Boatswain. (Anchor.)

[Illustration]

To obtain a badge for seamanship a Girl Scout must:

1. Be able to tie six knots.

2. Be able to row, pole, scull, or steer a boat.

3. Land a boat and make fast.

4. State directions by sun and stars.

5. Swim 50 yards with clothes and shoes on.

6. Box the compass and have a knowledge of tides.

7. Know rules of the road for steamers and power boats, also lights for
boats underway. See Pilot Rules, Gov. Ptg. Office, Washington, D. C.


9. Child-Nurse. (Green Cross.)

[Illustration]

To obtain this badge a Girl Scout must:

1. Take care of a child for two hours each day for a month, or care for
a baby for one hour a day for a month.

2. Know how to bathe and dress a baby.

(Examination should be made with infant present, if possible.)

3. Should understand care of children, have elementary knowledge as to
their food, clothing, etc.

4. Know three kindergarten games and describe treatment of simple
ailments.

5. Be able to make poultices, and do patching and darning.

6. Know how to test bath heat and use of thermometer; count the pulse
(p. 123).


10. Clerk. (Pen and Paper.)

[Illustration]

1. Must have legible handwriting; ability to typewrite; a knowledge of
spelling and punctuation; a library hand; or, as an alternative, write
in shorthand from dictation at twenty words a minute as a minimum.

2. Ability to write a letter from memory on a subject given verbally
five minutes previously.

3. Knowledge of simple bookkeeping and arithmetic.

4. Keep complete account of personal receipts and expenditure for six
months, or household accounts for three months.


11. Civics. (Eight-point Star.)

[Illustration]

To obtain this badge a Scout must:

1. Be able to recite the preamble to the Constitution.

2. Be able to state the chief requirements of citizenship of a voter, in
her state, territory or district.

3. Be able to outline the principal points in the naturalization laws in
the United States.

4. Know how a president is elected and installed in office, also method
of electing vice-president, senators, representatives, giving the term
of office and salary of each.

5. Be able to name the officers of the President's Cabinet and their
portfolios.

6. The number of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, the
method of their appointment and the term of office.

7. Know how the Governor of her state, the lieutenant-governor, senators
and representatives are elected and their term of office. Also explain
the government of the District of Columbia and give the method of
filling the offices.

8. Know the principal officers in her town or city and how elected and
the term of office.

9. Know the various city departments, and their duties, such as fire,
police, board of health, charities and education.

10. Be able to name and give location of public buildings and points of
interest in her city or town.

11. Tell the history and object of the Declaration of Independence.


12. Cook. (Gridiron.)

[Illustration]

1. Must know how to wash up, wait on table, light a fire, lay a table
for four, and hand dishes correctly at table.

2. Clean and dress fowl.

3. Clean a fish.

4. How to make a cook place in the open.

5. Make tea, coffee or cocoa, mix dough and make bread in oven and state
approximately cost of each dish.

6. Know how to make up a dish out of what was left over from the meals
of the day before.

7. Know the order in which a full course dinner is served.

8. Know how to cook two kinds of meat.

9. Boil or bake two kinds of vegetables successfully.

10. How to make two salads.

11. How to make a preserve of berries or fruit, or how to can them.

12. Estimate cost of food per day for one week.


13. Invalid Cooking. (A palm leaf.)

[Illustration]

1. How to make gruel, barley water, milk toast, oyster or clam soup,
beef tea, chicken jelly.


14. Cyclist. (A Wheel.)

[Illustration]

1. Own a bicycle.

2. Be able to mend a tire.

3. Pledge herself to give the services of her bicycle to the government
in case of need.

4. If she ceases to own a bicycle, she must return the badge.

5. Read a map properly.

6. Know how to make reports if sent out scouting on a road.


15. Dairy. (Sickle.)

[Illustration]

1. Know how to test cow's milk with Babcock Test (p. 119).

2. To make butter.

3. How to milk.

4. Know how to do general dairy work, such as cleaning pans, etc.,
sterilizing utensils.

5. Know how to feed, kill, and dress poultry.

6. Test five cows for ten days each with Babcock Test and make proper
reports.


16. Electricity. (Lightning.)

To obtain a merit badge for Electricity, a Scout must:

1. Illustrate the experiment by which the laws of electrical attraction
and repulsion are shown.

2. Understand the difference between a direct and an alternating
current, and show uses to which each is adapted. Give a method of
determining which kind flows in a given circuit.

3. Make a simple electro-magnet.

4. Have an elementary knowledge of the construction of simple battery
cells, and of the working of electric bells and telephones.

5. Be able to replace fuses and to properly splice, solder, and tape
rubber-covered wires.

6. Demonstrate how to rescue a person in contact with a live electrical
wire, and have a knowledge of the method of resuscitation of a person
insensible from shock.


17. Farmer. (Sun.)

[Illustration]

1. Incubating chickens, feeding and rearing chickens under hens.

2. Storing eggs (p. 116).

3. Knowledge of bees.

4. Swarming, hiving and use of artificial combs.

5. Care of pigs.

6. How to cure hams (p. 120).

7. Know how to pasteurize milk (page 116).


18. Gardening. (A Trowel.)

[Illustration]

1. Participate in the home and school garden work of her community.

2. Plan, make and care for either a back-yard garden, or a window garden
for one season.

3. Give plan of her work, the flowers or vegetables planted, the size
and cost of her plot and the profit gained therefrom.

4. She must also supervise or directly care for the home lawns, flower
beds; attend to the watering, the mowing of the grass, keeping yards
free from waste paper and rubbish, to the clipping of shrubbery and
hedges.

This test is open to scouts already in the Girls' Garden and Canning
Clubs throughout the country and a duplicate of their reports, sent in
for their season's work, to the state agricultural agents, or
agricultural colleges, in co-operation with the Department of
Agriculture of the United States, may be submitted as their test
material for this badge.

_Farmers' Bulletins_, 218, 185, 195.


19. Personal Health. (Dumb-bells.)

[Illustration]

To obtain a badge for personal health, a Scout must:

1. Eat no sweets, candy, or cake between meals for three months.

2. Drink nothing but water, chocolate, or cocoa for a year.

3. Walk a mile daily for three months.

4. Sleep with open window.

5. Take a bath daily for a year, or sponge bath.

6. Write a statement of the care of the teeth, and show that her teeth
are in good condition as a result of proper care.

7. Tell the difference in effect of a cold bath and a hot bath.

8. Describe the effect of lack of sleep and improper nourishment on the
growing girl.

9. Tell how to care for the feet on a march.

10. Describe a good healthful game and state its merits.

11. Tell the dangers of specialization and over-training in the various
forms of athletics, and the advantages of an all-around development.

12. Give five rules of health which if followed will keep a girl healthy
(page 96).


20. Public Health. (U. S. A. Flag.)

[Illustration]

1. Write an article, not over 500 words, about the country-wide campaign
against the housefly, and why, giving the diseases it transmits and make
a diagram showing how the fly carries diseases, typhoid, tuberculosis
and malaria. (See _Public Health Service Bulletins_ on these subjects.)

(Also see page 117.)

2. Tell how to cleanse and purify a house after the presence of
contagious disease.

3. State the laws of her community for reporting contagious disease.

4. Tell how a city should protect its supplies of milk, meat and exposed
foods.

5. Tell how these articles should be cared for in the home. (See
_Farmers' Bulletin_--"Care of Food in the Home.") (Also see pages 115
and 116.)

6. Tell how her community cares for its garbage.

7. State rules for keeping Girl Scout camp sanitary--disposal of
garbage, rubbish, etc.


21. Horsemanship. (Spur.)

[Illustration]

1. Demonstrate riding at a walk, trot and gallop.

2. Know how to saddle and bridle a horse correctly, and how to groom a
horse properly.

3. Know how to harness correctly in a single or double harness, and how
to drive.

4. Know how to tether and hobble and when to give feed and drink.

5. State lighting up time, city law.

6. How to stop run-away horse (page 135).


22. Home-Nursing. (Red Cross, Green Ring.)

[Illustration]

1. Must pass tests recommended by American Red Cross Text Book and
Elementary Hygiene and Home Care of the Sick, by Jane A. Delaro,
Department of the American Red Cross. These tests may be had from
Headquarters, upon request.

2. Know how to make invalid's bed.

3. Know how to take temperature; how to count pulse and respirations.

4. Know how to prepare six dishes of food suitable to give an invalid.


23. Housekeeper. (Crossed Keys.)

[Illustration]

1. Tell how a house should be planned to give efficiency in housework.

2. Know how to use a vacuum cleaner, how to stain and polish hardwood
floors, how to clean wire window screens, how to put away furs and
flannels, how to clean glass, kitchen utensils, brass and sinks.

3. Marketing.

Know three different cuts of meat and prices of each.

Know season for chief fruits and vegetables, fish and game.

Know how flour, sugar, rice, cereals and vegetables are sold; whether by
packages, pound, or bulk, quarts, etc.

4. Tell how to choose furniture.

5. Make a list of table and kitchen utensils, dishes for dining-room and
glasses necessary for a family of four people.

6. How to make a fireless cooker, small refrigerator and window box for
winter use.

7. Prepare a budget showing proper per cent of income to be used for
food, shelter, clothing, savings, etc.


24. Interpreter. (Clasped Hands.)

[Illustration]

1. Be able to carry on a simple conversation in any other language than
her own.

2. Write a letter in a foreign language.

3. Read or translate a passage from a book or newspaper in French,
German, Italian, or in any other language than her own.


25. Laundress. (Flatiron.)

[Illustration]

1. Know how to wash and iron a garment, clear starch and how to do up a
blouse.

2. Press a skirt and coat.

3. Know how to use soap and starch, how to soften hard water, and how to
use a wringer or mangle.


26. Marksmanship. (Rifles.)

[Illustration]

1. Pass tests in judging distances, 300 to 600 yards and in miniature
rifle shooting, any position, twenty rounds at 15 or 25 yards, 80 out of
100.

2. Know how to load pistol, how to fire and aim or use it.

3. Or be proficient in fencing or archery.


27. Music. (Harp.)

[Illustration]

1. Know how to play a musical instrument. Be able to do sight reading.
Have a knowledge of note signs and terms.

2. Name two master composers and two of their greatest works.

3. Be able to name all of the 25 instruments in the orchestra in their
proper order.

4. Never play rag time music, except for dancing.

Or, as an alternative:

1. Have a knowledge of singing. Have a pleasing voice.

2. Know two Scout songs and be able to sing them, or lead the Scout
Troop in singing.

3. Be able to do sight reading.

4. Have a knowledge of note signs and terms.

Or, as an alternative:

1. Sound correctly on a Bugle the customary army calls of the United
States.


28. Naturalist. (Flower.)

[Illustration]

1. Make a collection of fifty species of wild flowers, ferns and grasses
and correctly name them. Or,

1. Fifty colored drawings of wild flowers, ferns or grasses drawn by
herself.

2. Twelve sketches or photographs of animal life.


29. Needlewoman. (Scissors.)

[Illustration]

1. Know how to cut and fit. How to sew by hand and by machine.

2. Know how to knit, embroider or crochet.

3. Bring two garments cut out by herself; sew on hooks and eyes and
buttons. Make a button-hole.

4. Produce satisfactory examples of darning and patching.


30. Pathfinder. (Hand.)

[Illustration]

1. Know the topography of the city, all the public buildings, public
schools, and monuments.

2. Know how to use the fire alarm.

3. In the country know the country lanes and roads and by-paths, so as
to be able to direct and guide people at any time in finding their way.

4. Know the distance to four neighboring towns and how to get to these
towns.

5. Draw a map of the neighborhood with roads leading to cities and
towns.

6. Be able to state the points of the compass by stars or the sun, using
watch as compass when sun is invisible.


31. Pioneer. (Axes.)

[Illustration]

1. Tie six knots. Make a camp kitchen.

2. Build a shack suitable for three occupants.


32. Photography. (Camera.)

1. Know use of lens, construction of camera, effect of light on
sensitive films and the action of developers.

2. Be able to show knowledge of several printing processes.

3. Produce 12 photos of scout activities, half indoor and half outdoors,
taken, developed and printed by herself, also 3 pictures of either
birds, animals, or fish in their natural haunts, 3 portraits and 3
landscapes.


33. Scribe. (Open Book.)

[Illustration]

1. Must present a certificate from teacher of her school, showing a
year's record of excellence in scholarship, attendance and deportment.

2. Describe in an article, not to exceed a thousand words, how a
newspaper is made; its different departments, the functions of its
staff; how the local news is gathered; how the news of the world is
gathered and disseminated.

3. Define briefly a news item.

4. Define briefly an editorial.

5. Define briefly a special story.

6. Tell how printer's ink is made.

7. Tell how paper is made.

8. Describe evolution of typesetting from hand composition to machine
composition.

9. Write 12 news articles (preferably one a month), not to exceed 500
words each, on events that come within the observation of the Scout that
are not public news, as for instance, school athletic events,
entertainments of Scouts, church or school, neighborhood incidents.

10. Write a special story on some phase of scout-craft, a hike, or
camping experience, etc.

Or, as an alternative:

Write a good poem.

Write a good story.

Know principal American authors of prose and verse in the past and
present century.


34. Signaling. (Two Flags.)

[Illustration]

1. Send and receive a message in two of the following systems of
signaling: Semaphore, Morse. Not fewer than twenty-four letters a
minute.

2. Receive signals by sound, whistle, bugle or buzzer.

3. Or general service (International Morse Code).


35. Swimmer. (Life-buoy.)

[Illustration]

1. Swim fifty yards in clothes, skirt and boots.

2. Demonstrate diving.

3. Artificial respiration.

4. Flinging a life-line.

5. Flinging a life-buoy.

6. Saving the drowning.

Requirements for examination must be sent to parents of candidate for
approval. Approval must also be obtained from the family physician or
some other doctor.


36. Telegraphy. (Telegraph Pole.)

[Illustration]

1. Be able to read and send a message in Morse and in Continental Code,
twenty letters per minute, or must obtain a certificate for wireless
telegraphy. (These certificates are awarded by Government instructors.)
(See p. 77.)

[Illustration: Captain's Badge]



Part III



GAMES AND ATHLETICS FOR GIRLS


The finest type of physical vigor is developed from playing vigorous
outdoor games. This applies to girls as well as to boys. Games have the
great advantage over drills and gymnastics that they are worth while for
the fun alone. Play is a necessary and natural activity for every
individual. Unless each one of us gives the proper share of her time to
wholesome forms of recreation, she cannot be cheerful and happy, and
thus she cannot influence those around her toward greater happiness.
Each one of us should so plan each day that we shall spend at least one
hour playing vigorous games outdoors. The younger girls should use the
whole afternoon for play and recreation. No girl can become a normal
woman without having had her share of joyful and active play.

Girls nowadays are playing more and more, and growing stronger and more
athletic. As a result they have better health and greater beauty. No
beauty parlor can produce the perfect complexion and bright eyes which
nature gives to the out-of-doors girl.

[Illustration]

There are certain cautions which girls should use in practicing games
and athletics. After they are twelve or thirteen, they should avoid
sports like high or broad jumping, which cause a heavy jar upon landing.
Girls should not compete in long distance running, or in games which
call for violent and long-continued exertion. Basket-ball may easily be
too severe if played according to boys' rules or for long halves. In
such games there should be a gradual preparation for the competition. An
examination of the heart by a physician is very desirable, before this
type of game is played. Girls frequently overdo rope-skipping. No girl
should jump more than fifty times in succession. Excessively keen
competition under trying conditions frequently has a bad effect upon
girls of a nervous temperament. Of course, girls should rest and not
take part in active games when they are physically incapacitated. There
are, however, a wide variety of games and sports in which girls may find
both pleasure and profit. The ideal type of exercise for girls is found
in swimming, walking and similar activities in which the exertion is not
excessively violent, and which call for long-continued or repeated
efforts. Girls excel in endurance in such sports.

Team games are especially valuable for girls as they need the moral
discipline of learning to efface themselves as individuals and to play
as a member of the team. That is, they learn to cooperate. Among the
team games suitable for girls are: field hockey, soccer, baseball played
with a soft ball and basket-ball.

Among athletic events that may be used for girls, are: short sprints,
usually not over fifty yards, throwing balls for distance, relay races
and balancing competitions.

Walking is a delightful sport when done at a good pace, in the country.
All girls are fond of rope-skipping and skating.

Novelty competitions, in wide variety, may easily be invented to amuse a
group of Scouts. The following will suggest many other variations: A
short walking match, heel and toe. The distance may vary from twenty to
one hundred yards or more. The same competition may be conducted going
backward.

Have all the girls take a prone position, face downward, hands and feet
in a specified position. On a signal, get up and run to the finishing
line. The usual signal is "On your marks," "Get set," "Go." There should
be no movement whatever until the final signal "Go." Have the players
hop backward or forward in a race. Various combinations of these will
readily suggest themselves.

Two or more teams of girls may find much fun in simple passing games.
Arrange the teams in line, either seated or standing. Have them pass
such an object as a bean bag, ball or stick in a specified way. For
instance, if the girls are seated, one behind the other, the bean bag
may be passed backward over the right shoulder with one hand, around the
back of the last girl, and forward over the left shoulder. The game
starts with the bag on the ground in front of the leader, and is
finished when the leader replaces it there, after it has passed through
the hands of each girl on the team. Be careful to see that there are the
same number of girls on each team, and that the lines occupy, when
arranged, the same space on the ground. Next let the players pass the
bag backward overhead with both hands, and forward in any manner they
like.

The following variation will introduce an additional feature that makes
the game all the livelier. Let the object be passed back to the last
player who then runs forward and takes the place of the leading player,
every player in that line moving back one position as this player runs
to the front of the line. This is continued until the captain or leader
has gone through every place in the line and run back to the front. The
team whose captain gets to the front first, wins the game.

Another stage of this game may be played by stretching a cord or rope
across in front of the two lines, eight or ten feet high. As each player
advances, the bag or ball must be thrown over the rope from the near to
the far side, caught, and then thrown back. Any player failing to catch
the object must make the throw over again. After she returns to the head
of the line, the object is passed back to the last player in the same
manner, and the game continues until the captain or leading player has
passed through every position in the line, and come back to the front.

A similar game may be played with a basket-ball and basket-ball goals,
each girl being required to shoot a goal at one or both ends of the
basket-ball court. In the woods or in camp a ring or hoop may be
substituted for the basket-ball goal.

Hundreds of such simple games are found in the books on games listed in
the Handbook. A few of the more useful and popular games are described
below.


Three Deep

Twenty-four or more players form a circle of pairs with space enough
between the players (who stand closely one behind the other, facing the
center of the circle) to allow the runners to turn and run in all
directions. Two players on the outside of the circle and at a distance
from each other begin the game. One of these is called the "tagger," the
other is "It." She tries to tag "It" before she can secure a place in
front of any of the pairs forming the circle. If she succeeds, rôles are
changed, the player who has been tagged then becomes the "tagger" and
the former "tagger" tries to secure a place in front of some pair. But
whenever the runner (the player pursued) has succeeded in getting in
front of a pair before being tagged, then the hindmost (the last or
third, in the respective rank) must take to her heels and seek to evade
the unsuccessful "tagger" who now turns her attention to the new runner.
In trying to evade a tagger the successive players may run in any
direction, either left or right, outside the circle, but not pass in
front of any one rank to another rank in such a manner as to induce
wrong starts. A hindmost player may also form in front of his own rank,
making the second player in such rank hindmost or "third." The play is
always directed against the third or last of a rank, two players being
the number limited to each place.

(When classes of players in the beginning are too large the circle may
be formed by rows or ranks of threes, instead of twos or pairs.)

Expert players may form several circles and run from circle to circle,
two pairs playing simultaneously. The above play may be varied in a
number of ways.


Day and Night

The players divide into two parties, form in two lines, back to back,
about three paces apart. One of the lines is named the "Day Party" the
other the "Night Party." The leader has a disk painted black on one side
and white on the other. (A coin may be used instead of the disk.) In
front of each party is a goal. The leader throws the disk into the air.
If the disk alights with the white side up the leader calls "Day." The
"Day Party" then rushes toward its goal and the "Night Party" pursues,
tagging as many players of the "Day Party" as possible. These they take
back to their own line. The disk is thrown again, and the party whose
side turns up starts for their goal as before. The game continues in
this way until all the players on one of the sides are lost.


Sculptor

One of the players is chosen as the "Sculptor" and she arranges the
other players in different positions and attitudes as statues. No player
dares move or speak, for as soon as she does the sculptor punishes her
by beating her with a knotted handkerchief or towel (the sack-beetle).
After having arranged the players to suit her fancy the sculptor leaves
the playground, saying: "The sculptor is not at home." No sooner is she
gone than the statues come to life, sing, dance, jump and play havoc in
general. On the return of the sculptor she counts, "One, two, three,"
and any player who is not in her former posture at "Three" receives a
beating with the knotted handkerchief from the sculptor. Should the
sculptor punish the wrong statue all the players rush at her with
knotted handkerchiefs and drive her to a goal previously decided upon,
and the game is resumed with some other player as sculptor.


Cross Tag

Any player who is chased may be relieved by any other player running
between her and the one trying to tag her. The latter must then run
after the player who ran between, till she in turn is relieved.


Dodge Ball

Of any even number of players, half form a circle, while the other half
stand inside the ring, facing outward. The players in the center dodge
the ball, which, while in play, is thrown by any of those forming the
circle. Those who are hit with the ball take their places among those
around the circle, and have an equal chance at those remaining in the
center. One is put out at a time. This is kept up until no one is left,
in the circle, after which the players exchange places, that is, those
who were in the circle now form around the circle, and _vice versa_.


Kim's Game

Place twenty or thirty small articles on a tray or table, or the floor,
and cover with a cloth--different kinds of buttons, pencils, corks,
nuts, string, knives, or other such small things. Make a list and have a
column opposite for each player's name. Uncover for just one minute and
then take each player by herself and check off the articles she can
remember. The winner is the one who remembers the most.


Morgan's Game

Players run quickly to a certain bill-board or shop window where an
umpire is posted to time them a minute for their observation. They then
run back to head-quarters and report all they can remember of the
advertisements on bill-board or objects in shop window.


Scout Meets Scout

Patrols of Scouts are to approach each other from a distance. The first
to give the signal that the other is in sight wins. In this game it is
not fair to disguise but hiding the approach in any way is admissible.
You can climb a tree, ride in any vehicle, or hide behind some slowly
moving or stationary object. But be sure to keep in touch with the one
who is to give the signal.

It is best that others should not know the Scouts' secret passwords, so
one is given at a time in this book for those that can _search best_.


Acting Charades

may be indoors or out. A very good one is for two or three players to
act as if they wanted some special thing that is in sight. The first who
discovers what this is then selects some other players to act with her.


Unprepared Plays

Relate the plot of some simple play, after which assign a part to each
of several to act out. Let them confer for a short time and then act it.
This develops many fine talents and is one of the most useful games for
the memory, expression, and imagination.

A Scout always shakes hands when she loses a game and congratulates the
winner.


INVENTORY GAME. Let each girl go into a room for half a minute and when
she comes out let her make a list of what she has seen. Then compare
lists to find who has seen the most.

TESTING NOSES. This is easiest with the competitors blindfolded. Let
them smell different things and tell what they are. Also the objects may
be placed in bags but this means much more work.

CHASING AN OWL. Another good stalking game is chasing the owl. This is
done in thick woods where one Scout represents the owl hooting at
intervals and then moving to one side for a distance. Each pursuer when
seen is called out of the game and the owl, if a real good one, may get
safely back to her stump.

TURKEY AND WILDCAT is played by the turkey blindfolded "going to roost"
in some place where there are plenty of twigs or dry leaves to crack and
rustle. At the first sound the turkey jumps. If not then in reach of the
wildcat she is safe and another wildcat has a chance. This is sometimes
very laughable for the turkey being blindfolded may jump right on the
wildcat.

FAR AND NEAR. On any walk, preferably in patrol formation, let each keep
a list of things seen such as birds, flowers, different kinds of trees,
insects, vehicles, tracks, or other "sign." Score up in points at the
end of the walk on return to the club rooms.



ATHLETIC FEATS


The Palm Spring

Stand at a little distance from a wall with your face toward it and
leaning forward until you are able to place the palm of your hand quite
flat on the wall; you must then take a spring from the hand and recover
your upright position without moving either of your feet. It is better
to practice it first with the feet at a little distance only from the
wall, increasing the space as you gradually attain greater proficiency
in the exercise.


Foot-Throw

Put a basket-ball between your feet in such a manner that it is held
between your ankles and the inner side of the feet; then kick up
backward with both your feet and in this manner try to jerk the ball
over your head, catching it when it comes down.


Hand Wrestling

Two players face each other, feet planted firmly, full stride position
apart, right hands grasped. Each player tries to displace the other
player. One foot moved displaces a player.


Sitting Toe Wrestle

Two players sit on a mat facing each other, knees bent perpendicularly,
toes touching opponent's. Pass stick under knees and clasp your hands in
front of knees. When the signal is given, attempt to get your toes under
opponent's toes and upset her.

(An excellent list of games to be used while in camp will be found on
page 440 of _Games for the Home, School, and Gymnasium_, by Jessie H.
Bancroft. See, also, additional books listed under this topic in the
Handbook.)



CAMPING


It is advisable that Patrols or Companies should have some place of
their own at which to camp. Some small plot of woodland is easily
secured near most any of our cities. At the beaches it is frequently
impossible to secure the privacy desirable. The seaside is not easily
fenced in. If you own your camping ground all desirable sanitary
conditions can be looked after and buildings of a more or less permanent
nature erected. Even a "brush house" in a spot which you are allowed to
use exclusively is better than having to hunt a place every time you
want to camp out. "Gypsying" from place to place is unadvisable.

When you have your own camp, too, much better chances for study will be
found possible. You will have your own trees, flowers, and birds to
notice and care for, and a record of them is valuable even in a very
limited space. Think of the beautiful work of White--_The Natural
History of Selborne_.

Name your camp by all means. Long ago we formed the habit of naming all
our camps using by preference the name of the first bird seen there. Now
we use the Seminole name. So we have our "Ostata" and "Tashkoka." Some
of the names are too hard, though, for civilized tongues. "Mooganaga"
for instance, might hurt somebody's mouth when she tries to pronounce
it.

When going into camp _never_ forget matches. When leaving camp I used to
put all my spare matches into a dry empty bottle, cork it tight, and
hide it. After many years I have found my matches as good as "new" where
I had hidden them. By rubbing two sticks together one can make a fire
without matches.

Camping out is one of my hobbies. Walks and picnics are all very well
as far as they go, but to get the full benefit of actual contact with
Nature it is absolutely necessary to camp out. That does not mean
sleeping on wet bare ground but just living comfortably out of doors,
where every breath of heaven can reach you and all wild things are in
easy reach. A camp can be easily planned within daily reach of many of
our large cities but should be far enough to escape city sounds and
smells. It is not a camp, however, if it is where a stream of strangers
can pass by at any time of the day or night within sight and hearing.

Water is a supreme requisite at any camp. Water to swim in may be
dispensed with in extreme cases, but you can't carry your water with you
and have a comfortable time. I have been where I had to do it so I know
how it is. Also I have had to dig water out of the ground. That is not
an easy operation so be sure and camp near a well or spring. Wood, too,
you will want and it must be dry. Don't try to cook with fat pine. It's
all right to kindle with but not for cooking. Your bacon fried over it
will be as fine eating as a porous plaster. Fry your potatoes. If you
must roast them dig a hole in the ashes and cover them deep. Then go
away and forget them. Let some one else come along and cook all sorts of
things on top of them. When you come back rake them out of the ashes and
astonish every one.

Be sure your cooking fire is not too big. You must be able to get up to
it comfortably close without scorching your face. Start a small fire and
feed it as required with small dry twigs. Cooking over an outdoor fire
is a fine art and has to be studied carefully. It should be called
almost a post-graduate course in the camp studies. Of course the regular
camp-fire can be made as big and smoky as you like. Smoke is fine to
watch but not to breathe. Even the mosquitoes dislike it.

[Illustration]

Roughing it is all very fine to talk about, but it is best to make your
camp as comfortable as possible. The ground is good to sleep upon but
not stones and sticks. It's really astonishing how big a stick, no
longer than your finger, can grow in one night. Take my word for it and
don't try it. It won't pay. A hammock is my preference but a cot is
about as good. On a pinch twigs and grass are not to be despised. Moss
is apt to be moist but there is no possible objection to clean dry sand.

Be sure not to let your fire get away from you and spread. Besides the
damage to trees and fences that it may do it is impossible to tell what
suffering it may cause to animal life. So, be very careful.

       *       *       *       *       *

To prevent forest fires Congress passed the law approved May 5, 1900,
which--

    ~Forbids setting fire to the woods, and~
    ~Forbids leaving any fires unextinguished.~

When you leave your camp clean up. Fragments of food--not pickles--can
be put up somewhere for the birds. At some of our camps we have regular
places to feed the birds and they get to know what time to come there.
Here in the woods my wrens have established for themselves the hour of
sunrise, and it is partly to escape their scolding for neglect that I
get up with the sun. Mrs. Jenny scolds furiously but for actual singing
she can beat any bird in the woods.

Perhaps you notice that we have said nothing about snakes. Now it is
really a very rare thing to see a snake in the woods. You have to look
very carefully to find them, for they seem to be about the most timid of
all creatures. So far as danger from poisonous snakes is concerned you
are in much more danger from the driver of a dray than from a snake.
Take our word for it, snakes are much more afraid of you than you are
of them. Give them the least little bit of a chance and they will be out
of the way before you can see them. A gorged snake--that is one that has
just taken a full meal--may be sluggish but in a majority of cases he
will crawl away and hide in some secure place till the process of
digestion is over. Do not go near a tub if you are afraid of water for
you can get drowned in it about as easy as you can get bitten by a snake
in the woods and to wind up the subject, not one-tenth of the people who
get snake bitten, die from it. A very few do die but most of them die
from the bad treatment they receive afterwards. The "deadly auto" will
not get out of your way but all snakes will.

Once in a while you may find clinging in a low bush a pretty little
green snake. It will readily submit to being handled and is perfectly
harmless. We have found these snakes useful in the house to kill flies.
The harmless snakes are the brown snake, the common banded moccasin, the
black mountain snake, the green snake. The garter and ring-necked snakes
wear Eve's wedding-ring as a collar. They cannot hurt and they eat up
quantities of insects, but beware of the yellow and brown rattlesnakes,
especially after rainy weather, for it is said that after wet weather
they cannot make any noise with their rattles and therefore you are not
warned of their presence. The most deadly snake, the moccasin, is
brownish with a flat head.

The green lizards, too, will almost rid a house of flies if left to
wander about at will. The fence lizard, a scaly alligator looking chap,
is just as useful but never gets tame.

Try petting a toad some time. He will get to be quite at home in a
garden and pay well, for he will eat all kinds of destructive insects.
Some gardeners buy toads, paying as high as a quarter apiece, for they
know how much good they can do. A toad digs his hole backwards. Watch
him and see the fun. In the spring if there is water near he may be
induced to sing to you. If you think he is slow and clumsy you have only
to see how quick he can catch a fly.


Provisioning a Camp

This should be a matter of mature consideration. Unless there is some
place near by where deficiencies can be supplied your camp may be a
misery instead of a pleasure. Have lists made out of the things each is
to bring, if it is to be a coöperative affair. It may be best to have a
committee, even if it is a committee of one, to do all the buying. But
even in this case individual tastes must be consulted. A full list
should be made out and strictly adhered to. At one camp where each
brought what she thought best there were six cans of soup, four pounds
of sugar, and no tea or coffee.

Canned goods are all very well if you do not have to carry them too far.
So too are potatoes. For lightness on long trips, dried fruits and meal
or grits are a wise selection. Oatmeal is light and easy to cook.
Prepared batter-cake flour is a pure joy to the camp cook. Once when
camping in the mountains we had unexpected difficulties. We were at such
an elevation that water boiled at too low a temperature to cook many
things "done," so the frying-pan there reigned supreme. As to that same
frying-pan be sure to select the "long handled kind." If not you will
have to splice out the handle with a long stick. Never pack up your
"unwetables" in paper bags. At any time a shower or even a heavy dew at
night may make you run short on salt, sugar, or flour. Covered tin cans
are too cheap to make it necessary to run any such risks. Have a lantern
and oil of course. Candles blow out too easily to be of much use. For
sudden calls for a light the pocket electric affair is very good and
cheap. Keep it standing up. The batteries waste quite fast if it is left
down on the side.

The quantity of provisions to be taken depends on the length of stay.
Consult any good military or naval ration list and a very good guess can
be made. They all seem to lay stress on beans which certainly are very
good if you have the "Boston" appetite.

Keep your camp clean. Keep it in order. Let your motto be, "Tidy as you
go." It is as bad to have to hunt for a thing you want in camp as it is
at home and particularly exasperating if, when you have found it, you
must wash it before using. "A place for everything and that place
anywhere" is a bad camp rule, though it does sound as if it was a real
easy way of disposing of the matter. Dig a hole to throw slops in and do
not let them "fly" on the ground. You may want to sit down right there.
Whatever the birds will eat should be put aside for them. All other
scraps and things that may become offensive _must_ be buried. Don't
start to breed flies or fever. When near the water some part of this
rule may be dispensed with in favor of the fish and crabs. They may be
judiciously baited up, but if you are going to fish for them see that
they are not overfed.

There are times and seasons when wild fruits and berries are a most
welcome addition to the camp fare, but unless you are perfectly sure of
the supply do not reckon on them too much in making up your provision
list. Better let them be a sort of joyful surprise. So too of fish and
game. "Don't count your chickens before they are hatched." Fresh smilax
shoots can scarcely be told from asparagus. Palmetto cabbage well cooked
is fine; poorly prepared it is vile. Let some one that knows about these
things "do" them for you.

The "gipsy kettle" is picturesque and only picturesque. Drive a stout
crotched stake on each side of the fire and put a stout stick across
them. Use strong wire hooks--S-shaped on which to hang pots over the
fire. If hung through the handle on the stick they are apt to boil over
and put out the fire before you know it. They may be quickly lifted from
the wire hooks as soon as they begin to look dangerous. Even the
coffee-pot may be rigged with a wire handle by which to be hung. Wire
and string are our special hobbies in camp. Fan a fire instead of
blowing it. Your breath has lost most of its combustible gas. A tin or
wooden plate makes a good fan. Put away dry kindling every night. You
don't know what sort of weather it will be tomorrow.

Use all precaution against your fire spreading. This is particularly
necessary where there are tents. A dry tent will almost "whisk" up in
smoke if the fire catches it. Rake dry leaves well away from about the
fire. It may be best sometimes to make "a burn" round the camp. Do this
a little at a time beating out all traces of the fire in the part burnt
over. Be in no hurry about this but be thorough. Leave no smouldering
embers or chunks of rotten wood smoking behind you. Burn clean as you
go.


Camp Oven

The camp kitchen or camp oven is made with two lines of soda bricks,
stones, or thick logs flattened at the top, about six feet long,
slightly splayed from each other, being four inches apart at one end and
eight inches at the other. The big end should be towards the wind, so
that a sort of tunnel is formed in the big end at windward. Start your
fire and the draught will carry the heat along the tunnel.


Daily Routine in Camp

_Have a set of general orders posted every morning. There should be one
officer of the day and one orderly. These will be appointed in turn. The
general order should be read before breakfast and include all duties and
so far as possible the excursions and games for the day. In appointing
cooks and details for the various duties be sure not to work the
"willing horse" too hard but let all share as much alike as possible.
Some will always want to volunteer too often and some will try to avoid
certain duties distasteful to themselves or "swap" with others. This
should not be allowed but helping must never be barred completely.
Inspect camp personally at least once a day and call attention to
shortcomings kindly without chiding. You can help your girls to help
themselves. A "driver" in camp is sure to breed hard feelings and cause
discontent. The camp is a hard school for the instructor. One of the
necessary laws in a camp is that after lights are out at night, no one
must speak. Silence should reign._

       *       *       *       *       *

In some places mosquitoes are very troublesome. Oil of citronella will
drive them away for a time but a "smudge" may be necessary. They won't
stay in smoke or wind, so hunt the breeze. There are some other flies
just as bad to which the same treatment may be applied. "Black-flies" of
the northern woods are about the worst insect pest in America, though
the mosquitoes in some parts of the South, are nearly as bad. In some of
the coast regions, too, there is a species of "sand-fly" or midge that
is exceedingly annoying, but all of these are readily controlled by the
"smudge." This is a steady smoke not necessarily of an ill-smelling
nature. One of the very best materials for a "smudge" is green cedar
branches. They need some pretty hot coals to keep them smouldering but
are very effective.

Very few accidents need happen in camp. But still it may be a wise
precaution to go over with each patrol, before the camping trip, some
simple exercise in bandaging and other "First Aid" exercises. In a book
of the scope of this one it is not possible to give a full course of
instruction in such matters, so it seems best to make only casual
mention and leave details to the judgment of the patrol leaders and
captains.

[Illustration]

If any boating is to be a part of the program they should inform
themselves carefully which of their patrol can swim and just how expert
they are. Also instruct in methods of throwing things to a drowning
person or one who has just met with some mishap in a boat--such for
instance as losing an oar. A board or a plank should not be thrown
toward a person in the water but launched toward them. When adrift in an
unmanageable boat cast anchor and wait for assistance. _Never rock a
boat for fun._ A Scout who so far forgets herself as to do such a
foolhardy act should be forbidden to go into a boat again for some time
as a punishment. Most drowning accidents are from some such _fun_. It is
_sin_--not _fun_.

When bathing obey strictly all orders regarding distance to be ventured
and other rules. You may think they are mere summary restrictions but
you are probably not the best judge.

Last summer a party of boys were bathing. Contrary to orders they
scattered apart instead of keeping close together. While the Captain's
back was turned looking after the smaller boys, some of the big boys
began to dare each other to go farther and farther out. When the Captain
blew the whistle for them some still persisted in swimming away from the
beach and one of them was drowned. And to make it still worse he drowned
in shallow water where, if he had only known or had kept his wits about
him, he could have waded ashore.


Camp Orders

_In going into camp it is essential to have a few "Standing Orders"
published, which may be added to from time to time, if necessary. These
should be carefully explained to patrol leaders, who should then be held
fully responsible for their Scouts carrying them out exactly._

_Such orders might point out that each patrol will camp separately from
the others, and that there will be a comparison between the respective
camps as to cleanliness and good order of tents and surrounding
ground._

_Patrol leaders to report on the good or indifferent work of their
Scouts, which will be recorded in the Captain's book of marks._

_Bathing should be under strict supervision to prevent non-swimmers
getting into dangerous water. No girl must bathe when not well._

_Bathing picket of two good swimmers will be on duty while bathing is
going on, and ready to help any girl in distress. This picket will be in
the boat with bathing costume and overcoat on. They may bathe only when
the general bathing is over and the last of the bathers has left the
water. If bathing in the surf, a stake should be driven into the sand on
the beach and a rope securely fastened to the stake so that non-swimmers
can hold on to the rope in the water._

_Orders as to what is to be done in case of fire alarm._

_Orders as to boundaries, grounds to be worked over, damages to fences,
property, good drinking water, etc._

_No Scout allowed out of bounds without leave._

_No lads allowed inside bounds without leave._


Camping Equipment Necessary for One Week or Longer

    1 Transport wagon.
    2 Tents for girls.
    1 Tent for officer.
    3 Mallets and sufficient tent-pegs.
    2 Blankets for each Scout.
    2 Blankets for officer.
    1 Kit bag each (2 ft. by 1 ft. or bigger).
    8 Waterproof ground sheets.
    3 Buckets.
    3 Hurricane lamps.
    2 Balls of twine (medium).
    1 Spade.
    1 Hatchet.


Kitchen Equipment

    Bowls.
    2 Saucepans.
    1 Large frying pan.
    Kettle.
    Gridiron.
    Butcher knife.
    Kitchen fork.
    Spoons, ladles, and tea strainer.
    Six tea cloths.
    Cleaning rags.
    Chopping board and knife.
    Kitchen soap and scouring powder.
    1 Dish pan.


Clothing and Equipment for Each Scout

    1 Set of underwear, cotton flannel nightgown, and lisle or
      cotton stockings for each week. Do not take silk stockings.
    1 Dress besides Scout uniform.
    1 Pair heavy shoes.
    1 Pair rubbers.
    3 Handkerchiefs.
    1 Apron.
    1 Sweater or coat.
    Hairbrush and comb and tooth-brush.
    3 Towels.
    Haversack.
    2 Pillow-cases.
    Soap and wash rag or sponge.
    Bathing suit.
    1 Plate.
    1 Cup and saucer.
    "Hussif" fitted with needles, thread, scissors.
    Paper pad and envelopes and pencil.
    Knife and fork.
    Teaspoon and large spoon.
    2 Woolen blankets.



SCOUTCRAFT


Useful Knots

Everyone should be able to tie knots. A knowledge of knots is useful in
every trade or calling, and forms an important part of a Girl Scout's
training.

As it may happen some day that a life may depend on a knot being
properly tied you ought to know the proper way.

THE BOWLINE is a loop that will not slip after the first grip. First
make a loop, then pass the end up through it, round the back of the
standing part, and down through the loop again. It is often used as a
halter for horses.

THE RUNNING BOWLINE. This is the nautical slip knot. First make the loop
as in the ordinary bowline but allow a good length of end (A). Pass it
round the standing part and up through the loop, and continue as in the
ordinary bowline.

THE REEF KNOT. It is used to join two dry ropes of the same thickness.
It will not slip, and can be easily untied when wanted. Do not confuse
it with the "Granny" knot. It is the _only_ knot used in First Aid work.

THE CLOVE HITCH is made with two half-hitches. When fastened to a pole
and pulled tight it can slip neither up nor down. Greatly used in
pioneering work.

THE HALF-HITCH. Pass the end round a pole, then round the standing part,
then through below itself again.

[Illustration: Bowline.]

[Illustration: Running Bowline.]

[Illustration: Half Hitch.]

[Illustration: Reef Knot.]

[Illustration: Clove Hitch.]

[Illustration: Fisherman's Knot.]

[Illustration: Round Turn and Two Half-Hitches.]

[Illustration: Sheep Shank.]

[Illustration: Slip Knot.]

[Illustration: Sheet Bend.]

[Illustration: Middleman's Knot.]

[Illustration: Overhand Loop Knot.]

THE FISHERMAN'S KNOT. Make this knot by tying a simple knot on rope B
with the end of rope A, then tie a similar knot on rope A with the end
of rope B. Pull the standing parts and the knots will remain fast.

ROUND TURN AND TWO HALF-HITCHES. It is used for making fast a rope so
that the strain will not jamb hitches.

THE SHEET BEND. Used for uniting two dry ropes of different thicknesses.
First form a loop, then pass the end of the other rope up through the
loop, round the back of the end and standing part of loop, and through
below itself.

THE SHEEP-SHANK. A Scout should never cut rope unless absolutely
necessary. To shorten a guy rope on tent or marquee, gather the rope in
the form of two long loops and pass a half-hitch over each loop. It
remains firm under a good strain and can be easily undone when required.

MIDDLEMAN'S KNOT. Somewhat similar to the fisherman's knot but in this
case only one rope is used. Can safely be used as a halter.

THE SLIP KNOT. You sometimes want to release a knot quickly so this knot
is used. It is simply the reef knot with one of the ends (A) pushed
through one of the loops. To release, pull end A.

OVERHAND LOOP KNOT. When pulling a rope you may wish to gain more
purchase on it or you may wish to insert a short stick to pull with. Use
the loop knot shown in our diagram.

IMPORTANT. Many of the knots shown on these pages are open so that you
may more easily see their working, but when in use they should always be
drawn taut.


The Mariner's Compass

Boxing the compass consists in enumerating the points beginning with
north and working around the circle as follows:

    North
    North by East
    North, Northeast
    Northeast by North
    Northeast
    Northeast by East
    East, Northeast
    East by North
    East
    East by South
    East, Southeast
    Southeast by East
    Southeast
    Southeast by South
    South, Southeast
    South by East
    South
    South by West
    South, Southwest
    Southwest by South
    Southwest
    Southwest by West
    West, Southwest
    West by South
    West
    West by North
    West, Northwest
    Northwest by West
    Northwest
    Northwest by North
    North, Northwest
    North by West
    North

[Illustration]


How to Read a Map

Conventional Signs & Lettering Used in Field Sketching

[Illustration: CONVENTIONAL SIGNS ETC]

Conventional Signs enable you to give information on a sketch or map in
a simple manner which is easily understood. In addition to the sign it
is often necessary to give an additional description, _e. g._, whether a
railway is double or single, the width of roads, the nature of woods
(oak, pine, etc.), etc.

[Illustration: CONVENTIONAL SIGNS ETC]

Whatever lettering is used should be legible and not interfere with the
detail of the sketch. All lettering should be horizontal, except the
names of roads, railways, rivers, and canals, which should be written
along them.

Remember to fill in the North point on your sketch, as it is useless
without it. Leave a margin of about an inch all round your sketch and
state the scale that you have made your sketch, _e. g._, two inches to
the mile.

[Illustration: CONVENTIONAL SIGNS ETC]


SIGNALLING

CONTINENTAL

Used on Submarine Cables, Wireless and in Foreign Countries

    A .-
    B -...
    C -.-.
    D -..
    E .
    F ..-.
    G --.
    H ....
    I ..
    J .---
    K -.-
    L .-..
    M --
    N -.
    O ---
    P .--.
    Q --.-
    R .-.
    S ...
    T -
    U ..-
    V ...-
    W .--
    X -..-
    Y -.--
    Z --..

    1 .----
    2 ..---
    3 ...--
    4 ....-
    5 .....
    6 -....
    7 --...
    8 ---..
    9 ----.
    0 -----

    Period ......
    Comma .-.-.-
    Interrogation ..--..
    Colon ---...
    Semi-colon -.-.-.
    Quotation Marks .-..-.

The letter A is used for the word "Error"
 " " K " " " " " "Negative"
 " " L " " " " " "Preparatory"
 " " N " " " " " "Annulling"
 " " O " " " " " "Interrogatory"
 " " P " " " " " "Affirmative"
 " " R " " " " " "Acknowledgment"

The Morse Code of Signals is not hard to learn but it requires much
practice to "receive" even when the message is sent slowly. The
old-fashioned instruments were fitted with a ribbon on which the dots
and dashes were recorded, but all modern operators depend on the ear.

The code is as follows:

[Illustration: The American Morse Telegraph Alphabet]

    A .-
    B -...
    C ...
    D -..
    E .
    F .-.
    G --.
    H ....
    I ..
    J -.-.
    K -.-
    L -
    M --
    N -.
    O . .
    P .....
    Q ..-.
    R ...
    S ...
    T -
    U ..-
    V ...-
    W .--
    X .-..
    Y .. ..
    Z ... .
    & . ...
    $ ... .-..

    NUMERALS

    1.--.
    2..-..
    3...-.
    4....-
    5 ---
    6......
    7 --..
    8 -....
    9 -..-
    0 -- [1 long dash, not 2 regular dashes]

[Illustration: NUMERALS]


_Punctuation_

    Comma, . --. --
    Semi-colon, Si
    Colon, Ko
    Period, .. -- --..
    Interrogation, --.. --.
    Quotation, Qn
    Paragraph, -- -- -- --
    Exclamation, -- -- --
    Parenthesis, Pn
    Brackets, Bn
    Dollar mark, Sx
    Dash, Dx
    Hyphen, Hx
    Underline, Ux


_Signals_

    4. Start me.
    5. Have you anything for me?
    9. Train order (or important military message)--give away.
    13. Do you understand?

All sorts of changes may be made when the signals are committed to
memory. Flags--up for a dot and side for a dash is one of the commonest
and easiest for the beginner; or whistles--long and short blasts. Even
the hand or a hat may be substituted; coughing, stamping, and scratching
with the foot or a bit of stick. In fact endless changes may be invented
for use with this Code.


COMMANDS AND SIGNALS

_For the use of the Girl Scouts the following list of words of command
and whistle signals has been compiled._


Commands

    "Fall in" (in line).
    "Alert" (stand up smartly).
    "Easy" (stand at ease).
    "Sit easy" (sit or lie in ranks).
    "Dismiss" (break off).
    "Right" or "Left" (turn accordingly).
    "Patrol right or patrol left" (patrol in line wheels).
    "Quick march" (step off with the left foot first).
    "Double" (run with arms down).
    "Scouts' pace" (walk fifty paces and run fifty paces alternately).


Whistle Signals

1. One long blast means "Silence," "Alert," "Listen for next signal."

2. A succession of long slow blasts means "Go out," "Get farther away,"
or "Advance," "Extend," "Scatter."

3. A succession of quick short blasts means "Rally," "Close in," "Come
together," "Fall in."

4. Alternate short and long blasts mean "Alarm," "Look out," "Be ready,"
"Man your alarm posts."

5. Three short blasts followed by one long one from the Captain calls up
the patrol leaders.

Any whistle signal must be instantly obeyed at the double as fast as you
can run, regardless of anything you may be doing.

By previous agreement many other signals may be arranged. It all depends
on the exigencies to be met or the special order or information to be
conveyed. But these few important signals should be strictly adhered to
in all drills and exercises of Scouts. The compiler of the present
volume thinks it unwise to print the secret words so they are left for
the patrol leaders and Captain to communicate verbally.


Hand Signals

    "ADVANCE"}   Swing the arm from rear to front, below the shoulder.
    "FORWARD"}

    "RETIRE"     Circle the arm above the head.

    "HALT"       Raise the arm to full extension above head.

    "DOUBLE"     The closed fist moved up and down between
                 your shoulder and thigh.

    "QUICK TIME" To change from the "Double" to the "Quick Time," raise the
                 hand to the shoulder.

    "REINFORCE"  Swing the arm from the rear to the
                 front above the shoulder.

    "LIE DOWN"   With the open hand make two or three
                 slight movements towards the ground.

    "WHEEL"      Extend your arm in line with your
                 shoulder and make a circular movement
                 in the direction required.

    "INCLINE"    Extend your arm in line with your
                 shoulder and make a turn with your
                 body in the direction required.


Indian Signs

Burnt sticks are placed at the last camp-fire to tell the direction the
Indians have gone from this spot. Two of them always make a V point and
if the third is laid at the point of the [V=] it means north. Across the
open end of the [=V] it means south. At one side |V it means east and V|
would mean west. Now the above mark as made to indicate south would
really mean southwest, if the stick which indicates direction were a
little way to the west side--V¯. Northwest would be V_.

[V=] North
[=V] South
|V East
V| West
V¯ Southwest
V_ Northwest


Scout Signs.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Sign   | Secret    |       Meaning.
        | Patrol or |
        |Troop Sign.|
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[symbol]|           |Road to be followed.
[symbol]|           | Letter hidden 3 paces from here in direction of arrow.
[symbol]|           | This path not to be followed.
[symbol]|           | "I have gone home."
[symbol]|           | War or trouble about.
[symbol]|           | Peace.
[symbol]|           | We camped here because one of us was sick.
[symbol]|           | A long way to good water, go in direction of arrow.
[symbol]|           | Good water not far, in this direction.
[symbol]|           | This is good water.
[symbol]|           | Signature of Scout No. 4 of the Fox Patrol, 21st Glasgow.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Shaking a blanket: I want to talk to you.

Hold up a tree-branch: I want to make peace.

Hold up a weapon (axe) means war: I am ready to fight.

Hold up a pole horizontally, with hands on it: I have found something.


Self-Defense


SHOOTING

All Scouts should know how to shoot. By this we do not mean that you
should go all day behind some big dog and try to kill the birds he finds
for you, for that is the most useless form of shooting, all things
considered, that can be devised. What we mean is that Scouts should know
how to load and fire a gun or other firearm so as not to be at a loss
for a means of defense should an emergency arise. It is one of the best
means to "be prepared." Our preference for practice of this kind is a
small rifle as it is less dangerous than any form of pistol and it
affords excellent training for hand and eye. Avoid, however, the very
high power modern firearms--that kind that "shoot today and kill next
week," as there is too much danger of reaching some one that is out of
sight. The same may be said of the automatic pistol which fills too
large a circle with missiles of sudden death.


ARCHERY

The bows and arrows of our ancestors are not to be despised as a means
of training hand and eye. Archery is excellent practice for the eye, and
good exercise for the muscles. It makes no noise, does not disturb game
or warn the enemy. Scouts should know how to shoot with bows and arrows,
and they can make them for themselves. The arrow, twenty-six inches
long, must be as "straight as an arrow" and tipped with a heavy head,
with wings to keep it level. Ash wood is the best. The bow should be
unstrung when not in use, or it will get bent. It is usually made your
own height. Old gloves should be worn.



STARS


How to Find the Time by the Stars

Fig. 1 shows the stars around the northern pole of the heavens (Pole
Star), and the Pointers of the Great Bear, which direct us to the Pole
Star.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

Since all stars appear to rise in the East and set in the West (which is
really due to our earth turning round under them), the Pointers revolve
once around the Pole Star in the opposite direction to the hands of a
clock, once in twenty-four hours, or they swing through a quarter of a
circle once in six hours; it is thus a simple matter after a little
practice to judge what part of the imaginary circle they will pass
through in an hour or less.

Assuming that all the stars rise four minutes earlier each night, and
that the Pointers of the Plough are vertically above the Pole at
midnight at the end of February, we may calculate the position of the
Pointers for any hour of the night.


The First Twenty Stars in Order of Brightness

                                               Date of
                                              rising at
                                            9 P.M. in the
                                                East.

     1. Sirius, the Dog-star                   Dec. 4
     2. (Canopus, of the Ship)
     3. (Alpha, of the Centaur)
     4. Vega, of the Lyre                      April 1
     5. Capella, of the Charioteer             Aug. 21
     6. Arcturus, of the Herdsman              Feb. 20
     7. Rigel, of Orion                        Nov. 4
     8. Procyon, the Little Dog-star           Nov. 27
     9. (Achernar, of Eridanus)
    10. (Beta, of the Centaur)
    11. Altair, of the Eagle                   May 26
    12. Betelgeux, of Orion's right shoulder   Oct. 30
    13. (Alpha, of the Southern Cross)
    14. Aldebaran, of the Bull's right eye     Oct. 2
    15. Pollux, of the Twins                   Nov. 4
    16. Spica, of the Virgin                   Mar. 1
    17. Antares, of the Scorpion               May 9
    18. Fomalhaut, of the Southern Fish        Aug. 27
    19. Deneb, of the Swan                     Apr. 22
    20. Regulus, of the Lion                   Jan. 1


Orion

Then there is another set of stars representing a man wearing a sword
and a belt, named "Orion." It is easily recognized by the three stars in
line, which are the belt, and three smaller stars in another line, close
by, which are the sword. Then two stars to right and left below the
sword are his feet, while two more above the belt are his shoulders, and
a group of three small stars between them make his head.

Now the great point about Orion is that by him you can always tell which
way the North or Pole Star lies, and which way the South, as you can see
him whether you are in the South or the North part of the world. The
Great Bear can be seen only when you are in the North, and the Southern
Cross when you are in the South.

[Illustration]

If you draw a line by holding up your staff against the sky, from the
center star of Orion's belt through the center of his head, and carry
that line on through two big stars till it comes to a third, that third
one is the North or Pole Star.

Then if you draw a line the other way, beginning again with the center
star of the belt, and passing through the center star of the sword, your
line goes through another group of stars shaped like the letter L. And
if you go about as far again past L, you come to the South Pole, which
unfortunately is not marked by any star. Roughly Orion's sword, the
three small stars, points North and South.

East and West. Orion sets due west, and rises due east, so that, if you
can catch him rising or setting, you know where the points of the
compass are. Constellations, such as Orion, or the Bull, rise in the
east, four minutes earlier each succeeding night--that is about half an
hour earlier every Saturday.

Read _The Song of the Fifty Stars_ by Arthur A. Carey, and try to find
each star on a chart and then in the Heavens.


The Song of the Fifty Stars

    Alpherat, Caph, and Algenib--three leading stars--
    Move in front of all the host,
    Turning from East to West,
    Over the rounded dome;
    And, near the head of the line, the Star of the North,
    Polaris, turns his round and marks the hub of the wheel.

    From Alpherat, North and East, Andromeda shoots,
    Like a branch, with Mirach and Almach; while, far in the South,
    Achernar shines, a beacon-light, at the "End of the River."

    From Almach pass to Algol, of the changing face,
    Called by the Arabs the Demon--
    The Medusa of the Greeks.

    But, not so fast! lest we forget the little changing star
    Whose place is West of Algol, farther South--
    Mira, "the Wonderful," in Cetus or the Whale.

    Algol leads to Mirfach, the brightest star of Perseus,
    Who saved the captive Andromeda, daughter of Cepheus, "the Monarch,"
    And royal Cassiopeia.

    Then comes, surrounded by her sisters, gentle Alcyone,
    The peaceful, daughter of the King who rules the tempestuous winds;
    And, running in pursuit of these--the happy Pleiades--
    Aldebaran, "the Follower," shines from the eye of the Bull.

    Next comes Capella--the Mother Goat--watching her three Kids;
    Her yellow light the color of our Sun.

    Capella and Rigel move in line, and afterwards comes Nath,
    Who marks the horn of the butting Bull.

    Orion, the Hunter, on the Equator--the Giant of the Arabs--
    Shines glorious North and South;
    Bellatrix his left shoulder; Mintaka marks his belt.

    After Mintaka comes Betelgeux, right shoulder of Orion;
    While, between them in order, though farther North,
    Is Zeta of Taurus, the Bull, who marks the other horn.

    The next is Menkalinan, the shoulder of the Charioteer;
    And, two degrees to the Eastward, the Circle of the Solstice passes by.
    While, far down in the South,
    Canopus gleams from the stern of Argo, the Ship.

    Sirius, Star of the Greater Dog, brightest of all in the heavens,
    Is followed by Castor, one of the Twins.
    While Procyon--"Dog-in-advance"--the bright "forerunner" of Sirius,
    Is followed by Pollux, the greater of the Twins.

    Next Regulus comes in the Lion's heart, Denebola, the tip of his tail;
    While, between them in order, Merak and Dubhe, the pointers,
    Point to their aim in the North.

    Two brilliant stars in the Southern Cross are Alpha and Beta Crucis,
    The former a glorious double Sun, with a third star in attendance;
    To see them ourselves we must travel far,
    But we know that the glory is great in the South,
    Although from us it is hidden.

    Next, in the hand of the Virgin, the pointed Ear of Wheat--
    Spica of the Romans--
    Not far from the Autumn Equinox.

    Now, back to the North we go, and look for Mizar and Alcor--
    The Indian Squaw with the little papoose on her back,
    And the tip of the tail of the Greater Bear
    Where Benetnasch commands.

    Now, again to the South, where the forefeet of the Centaur
    Are marked by Beta and Alpha;--the former is known as Hadar--"the Ground";--
    The latter sun is nearest to ours
    And famous as Serk-t, toward whom the ancient Egyptians
    Turned their temples in homage--

    And, between them in order, the great and distant Arcturus
    Shines out warm in the North.

    Pulcherrima--most beautiful--must be sought by those who love her;
    For she is modest and shy in the presence of the Great One.

    Nearby is Gemma, the Bud,
    In the beautiful Northern Crown.

    Near the point where the "roof-tree" crosses the Zodiac Ring
    Is a warm, red star in Scorpio.
    This is Antares; while, in the North,
    Etanin marks the Dragon's head.

    Mu Sagitarii--closer still to the Solstice and Ecliptic--
    Marks the northern part of the heavenly Archer's bow.

    On summer evenings, high above our heads,
    Vega shines with cool and brilliant light;
    While, to the South and East, is Altair of the Eagle.

    Nearby is the Northern Cross, or Cygnus,
    Whom we call "the Swan,"
    With Deneb Adige marking her outspread tail.

    The nose of Pegasus, the soaring horse,
    Shines out in the star Enif, or Epsilon of Pegasus--a triple star--
    While Fomalhaut gleams in the South,
    Guarding the Fish's Mouth.

    Now Scheat and Markab, hand in hand, watch for the stragglers--
    Bringing up the rear of all the Fifty Stars that have passed by.


The Sun Clock

When you have been able to find the North Star it will be very easy to
set up a sun-dial. This device is not so valuable now as standard time
is universally used. If you know the difference between "sun time" and
standard time, the sun-dial can be referred to with a fair amount of
accuracy and many people regard it as a curiosity.

Select a place where the sun shines all day and the ground is level. Set
up a post or stake perpendicular and firm. At night go and "sight" a
straight stick at the North Star and fasten it securely. This stick will
now be parallel to the axis of the earth and its shadow will fall at the
same line on any given hour no matter what season of the year it may be.
At noon by the sun the shadows of the slanting stick and the upright one
will coincide. This gives you the "sun noon" and the time by a standard
watch or clock will tell you what correction to apply to your dial to
convert its time into standard. Having once established the noon, or "no
hour" mark the I, II, III, IV, V, and VI with stakes. Then calculate the
correct sun time of VI A.M. by your standard watch and stake out the
morning hours. Halves and even quarters can be marked between if you
wish.

A flower dial can be made by having your upright post a pretty tall
one, say ten or even twenty feet, and planting rows of flowers like
spokes of a wheel along the hour lines. It may be possible even to
select such as are likely to open at or near the indicated hour. The
entire semicircle of pegs will also make a pretty finish with tall
ornamental foliage plants or shrubs.


PRACTICE

_Make a sun-dial on the ground, mark the hours with stones or sticks,
and see if it shows the time every day._


AMONG THE STARS

Scouts must be able to find their way by night, but unless they practise
it they are very apt to lose themselves. At night distances seem much
greater, and land-marks are hard to see.

When patrolling in dark places, keep closer together, and in the dark or
in the woods or caves keep in touch with each other by catching hold of
the end of the next Scout's staff.

The staff is also useful for feeling the way.

WINTER EVENINGS.--_Cut out a quantity of little stars from stamp edging.
Take an old umbrella, open, and stick the stars inside it, in the
patterns of the chief constellations, then hold it overhead, and turn it
once round for twenty-four hours, making the stars rise in the east._

_The sun and the moon appear almost the same size as a rule. When we are
a little nearer the sun, in winter, he looks a trifle larger than the
moon._

_To study the constellations, go out when the stars are bright, armed
with a star map and a bicycle lamp to read it by, and spread a rug on
the ground to lie on, or have a deck-chair, or hammock. Watch for
meteors in August and November._

_Let each girl try to draw a sketch map of a given constellation, from
memory._



GARDENING


Now what about the gardens, for it goes without saying that Girl Scouts
must have gardens. Getting right down and smelling the fresh soil is
good for any one. It is mother earth's own breath. Watching the growth
of our seeds is a veritable joy of joys. But what had we better plant?
Why not let every one plant at least one tree? Never mind what kind of a
tree. We will talk about that in a minute but decide at the outset that
you will have at least one tree growing this year. Your trees will be a
legacy to posterity, a gift from the Girl Scouts to their country. For
in this United States of ours we have cut down too many trees and our
forests are fast following the buffalo. Nay, the bare face of the land
has already begun to prove less attractive to the gentle rains of heaven
and offers far too open a path to the raw blasts of winter. In many
sections of our country the climate is drier and colder than it was
before so much of the forest was destroyed. We are just waking up to
this sad fact which it will take many years to rectify. So let us plant
trees.

A tree is a tree anyway be it large or small. Some are useful food
producers while others are of value for ornament or timber. All are
good. There are no bad trees. So if you plant and raise a tree there can
be no mistake. Whatever kind you select you will have done well. Fruit
and nut trees will of course appeal most strongly to the young,
especially to those with good healthy appetites. Many very young trees
can be made to return some fruit in a comparatively short time by being
budded or grafted. Scouts should learn how to bud and graft. It is not
hard. Pears, plums, figs, and peaches all do well in the South as do
also some apples and grapes. Peach trees though are in the main
short-lived. But trees of different kinds can be grown all over the
country. Apples and pears are at their best in the North and many kinds
are very long-lived trees. There are apple trees known to be a hundred
years old still bearing. Sugar maple does well where there are long
winters, and a wood of them--locally called a "sugar bush"--is a paying
piece of property. Most fruit trees are best bought from dealers or
obtained from your friends. They do not come "true," as it is called,
from the seed. A Baldwin apple-seed will not produce a Baldwin apple.
But as all the varieties are got by selecting from seedlings we can
experiment if we wish. We are already saving apple-seeds for next year,
and it will certainly be grand if we can get a new kind of apple and
name it the Girl Scout.

We shall not make many suggestions about flowers. Any and all kinds of
flowers will do in your gardens but do not neglect our own wild ones.
Take the goldenrod for instance. The finest we have ever seen is grown
in a city garden. Many other of our wild flowers will bear cultivating
and some well repay the care necessary to "tame" them. The atamasco lily
seems to be perfectly at home in the garden and so does the bloodroot.
Violets of course would be favorites if our native species were not with
one exception scentless. As any gardener's book will tell you all about
our "tame" flowers it is not necessary to say much about them.



Part IV



SANITATION


Girl Scouts should do everything in their power to make and keep their
homes healthy as well as happy.

Most of you cannot choose your own dwelling, but whether you live in a
house, a cottage, a flat, in rooms, or even in one room of a house, you
can do a very great deal to keep it healthy and pure.

Fresh air is your great friend; it will help you to fight disease better
than anything else. Open all your windows as often as you can, so that
the air may get into every nook and corner. Never keep an unused room
shut up. You know what a stagnant pool is like--no fresh water runs
through it, it is green and slimy, and full of insects and dead things;
you would not care to bathe in it. Well, still and stuffy air in a house
is very much worse, only, unluckily, its dangers cannot be seen, but
they are there lying in ambush for the ignorant person. Disease germs,
poisonous gases, mildew, insects, dust, and dirt have it all their own
way in stale, used-up air.

You do not like to wash in water other people have used, but it is far
worse to breathe air other people have breathed. Air does not flow in
and flow out of the same opening at the same time any more than water
does, so you want two openings in a room--an open window to let the good
air in, and a fireplace and chimney to let the stale air out, or, where
there is no fireplace, a window open both at top and bottom. The night
air in large towns is purer than the day air, and both in town and
country you should sleep with your window open if you want to be
healthy. Draughts are not good, as they carry away the heat from your
body too fast; so if your bed is too near the window, put up a shelter
between it and the open window, and cover yourself more. At least one
window on a staircase or landing should always be kept open, and also
the larder and the closet windows.

[Illustration]


Tidiness

_Motto_: "TIDY AS YOU GO."

Half your time will be saved if little things are kept tidy. Have a
place for everything, and have everything in its place. If you are not
sure which is the right place for a thing, think "_Where, if I wanted
it, should I go to look for it?_" That place is the right one. Get into
the habit of always making hanks of any string you get, and keep them.

War must be waged against rats and mice, or they will multiply and loot
everything. If you have no mouse-traps, put a newspaper over a pail of
water, break a hole slightly in the center in the form of a star, and
place a bit of herring or cheese on the center tips of star to entice
the mouse. Let the paper reach to the floor, not too upright, for the
mouse to climb up. Try putting broken camphor into their holes; they
dislike the smell. Fly and wasp traps are made by tying paper over a
tumbler half-filled with water and beer or treacle. Break a hole in the
paper, and fit in a tube of rolled paper about one inch long and one
inch across.

Try to keep yourself neat, and see that the house you live in is clean,
sweet, and pleasant.


GOLDEN HEALTH HABITS FOR GIRL SCOUTS

Contributed by Dr. Thomas D. Wood.

1. Remember Fresh Air and Sunlight Are The Best Medicines.

Ventilate, therefore, every room you occupy. Germs cannot live more than
a few minutes in sunlight. Breathe deeply, sleep out, if you can. Work
and play as much as possible out-of-doors.


2. Be Not the Slave of Unhygienic Fashions.

Be proud to have efficient feet. Wear light, loose and porous, but
sufficient clothing.


3. Eat Slowly.

Do not eat between meals. Chew food thoroughly. Do not overeat. Remember
a Girl Scout is always cheerful and helpful. She eats what is provided
and is thankful for it. (She does not complain about her food.) If there
are any suggestions she can make, she reserves them until mother or the
(camp) cook is preparing the menu or the meal. Eat some hard, some bulky
and some raw foods.


4. Drink Pure Water at Frequent Intervals.

Remember that not all water that looks pure is free from disease germs.
Boil the water if the Scout leader (or older person) is doubtful about
it. The few minutes spent in boiling and cooling water is time well
spent. Do not drink water when there is food in the mouth.


5. Be Mistress of Your Time--Be Regular in Your Habits of Life.

Go to bed early enough to get sufficient sleep. Be in bed 10-1/2 to 10
hours each night. Get up in the morning promptly. Do not doze after it
is time to get up. If you have not had enough sleep go to bed earlier
the next night.

Be sure your bowels move regularly, at least once a day. If outside
engagements are so pressing as to conflict with your personal health,
remember you have an important "previous engagement" with yourself for
sufficient time for meals, sleep, out-of-door exercise and, if
necessary, rest.


6. Avoid Infection and Do Not Spread It.

Wash your hands always before eating. Use your handkerchief to cover a
sneeze or cough and try to avoid coughing, sneezing or blowing the nose
in front of others, or at the table. Do not use a common towel or
drinking cup, or other appliance which may contain disease germs.


7. Keep Clean.

The smell of flowers has been said to be their soul. Try to keep your
body as fresh as possible with the sweetness of cleanliness, not
perfumery. Take a sponge bath, shower or quick tub bath daily.


8. Play Hard and Fair.

Be loyal to your team mates and generous to your opponents.

Study hard--and in work, study or play, do your best.


9. Remember Dentist's Bills are Largely Your Own Fault.

Get the habit of cleaning your teeth and rinsing your mouth after each
meal. It is more than worth the habit.


10. Remember Silence Is Golden.

In solitudes poets and philosophers have touched the heights of life. It
is valuable for everyone to take account of stock occasionally with
oneself.



HEALTH


Exercises and their Object

The best results of exercise are to be had outdoors from the activity of
vigorous games. Some of us are so placed that we cannot have daily
recreation outdoors and it becomes necessary to give our bodies some
type of activity to keep them normal. More than half the weight of the
body is made up of muscular tissue. If this muscle is not used the
health of the whole body is affected. Exercise is a necessary condition
of health, just as food and sleep are. The body is very responsive to
the demands made upon it. In fact, each one of us can mold her own body,
very much as a sculptor fashions a statue. This is done by giving the
body proper care and the right forms of activity. A weak, infirm
physique is nothing less than a crime. It is the duty of each one of us,
both for our own sakes, and for the benefit of future generations, to
perfect our physical frame. It is a duty to be strong and beautiful in
body as well as in mind and spirit.


The Nose

Always breathe through the nose. Fifty years ago Mr. Catlin wrote a book
called _Shut your Mouth and Save your Life_, and he showed how the Red
Indians for a long time had adopted that method with their children to
the extent of a cruel habit of tying up their jaws at night, to ensure
breathing through the nostrils.

Breathing through the nose prevents germs of disease getting from the
air into the throat and stomach; it also prevents a growth in the back
of the throat called "adenoids," which reduce the breathing capacity of
the nostrils, and also cause deafness.

By keeping the mouth shut you prevent yourself from getting thirsty
when you are doing hard work. The habit of breathing through the nose
prevents snoring. Therefore practice keeping your mouth shut and
breathing through your nose.


Ears

A Scout must be able to hear well. The ears are very delicate, and once
damaged are apt to become incurably deaf. No sharp or hard instrument
should be used in cleaning the ear. The drum of the ear is a very
delicate, tightly stretched skin which is easily damaged. Very many
children have had the drums of their ears permanently injured by getting
a box on the ear.


Eyes

A Scout, of course, must have particularly good eye-sight; she must be
able to see anything very quickly, and to see it a long way off. By
practicing your eyes in looking at things at a great distance they will
grow stronger. While you are young you should save your eyes as much as
possible, or they will not be strong when you get older; therefore avoid
reading by lamplight or in the dusk, and also sit with your back or side
to the light when doing any work during the day; if you sit facing the
light it strains your eyes.

The strain of the eyes is a very common failure with growing girls,
although very often they do not know it, and headaches come most
frequently from the eyes being strained; frowning on the part of a girl
is very generally a sign that her eyes are being strained. Reading in
bed brings headaches.


Teeth

Bad teeth are troublesome, and are often the cause of neuralgia,
indigestion, abscesses, and sleepless nights. Good teeth depend greatly
on how you look after them when you are young. Attention to the first
set of teeth keeps the mouth healthy for the second teeth, which begin
to come when a child is seven and these will last you to the end of your
life, if you keep them in order.

If one tooth is allowed to decay, it will spread decay in all the
others, and this arises from scraps of food remaining between the teeth
and decaying there.

A thorough Scout always brushes her teeth inside and outside and between
all, just the last thing at night as well as other times, so that no
food remains about them to decay. Scouts in camps or in the wilds of the
jungle cannot always buy tooth-brushes, but should a tiger or a
crocodile have borrowed yours, you can make your teeth just as bright
and white as his are by means of a frayed-out-dry, clean stick.

_Learn how to make camp tooth-brushes out of sticks. Slippery elm or
"dragonroot" sticks for cleaning teeth can be got at chemists' shops as
samples._


MEASUREMENT OF THE GIRL

_It is of paramount importance to teach the young citizen to assume
responsibility for her own development and health._

_Physical drill is all very well as a disciplinary means of development,
but it does not give the girl any responsibility in the matter._

_It is therefore deemed preferable to tell each girl, according to her
age, what ought to be her height, weight, and various measurements (such
as chest, waist, arm, leg, etc.). She is then measured, and learns in
which points she fails to come up to the standard. She can then be shown
which exercises to practice for herself in order to develop those
particular points. Encouragement must afterwards be given by periodical
measurements, say every three months or so._

_Cards can be obtained from the "Girl Scouts" Office, which, besides
giving the standard measurements for the various ages, give columns to
be filled in periodically, showing the girl's remeasurements and
progress in development. If each girl has her card it is a great
incentive to her to develop herself at odd times when she has a few
minutes to spare._


My Physical Development

-------+--------+--------+----------------+------+---------+---------
|Date. |Weight. |Height. |Chest Expanded. |Neck. |Forearm. |Biceps. |
-------+--------+--------+----------------+------+---------+---------
|      |        |        |                |      |         |        |
-------+--------+--------+----------------+------+---------+---------
|      |        |        |                |      |         |        |
-------+--------+--------+----------------+------+---------+---------
|      |        |        |                |      |         |        |
-------+--------+--------+----------------+------+---------+---------
|      |        |        |                |      |         |        |
-------+--------+--------+----------------+------+---------+---------
|      |        |        |                |      |         |        |
-------+--------+--------+----------------+------+---------+---------

Fill in this page quarterly, the progress shown should be a useful
incentive.


Games to Develop Strength

Skipping, rowing, fencing, swimming, tennis, and handball are all
valuable aids to developing strength.

Use also:--

Staff exercises, to music if possible. Maze and spiral;
follow-my-leader, done at a jog-trot in the open air. A musical
accompaniment when possible. If done indoors, all the windows in the
room must be kept open top and bottom. Sing the tune.

FLAGS.--Choose sides; each player lays down a flag or a handkerchief at
her own goal, and each side tries to capture the flags of the other;
once she touches the opponent's flag she cannot be taken prisoner, but
goes back with the flag to her side.

Players can rescue a prisoner by touching her in prison. Players should
keep moving as much as possible all the time, and try to evade being
captured.

PRACTICE throwing at a mark. Put a pebble on the top of a staff and
stand at a certain line so many paces off.

Morris dances (old English country dances) and the folk-songs.


ENDURANCE IS USEFUL

Have you not often heard of accidents on the ice? In the winter of 1895
some schoolgirls were sliding on a frozen canal, when one girl twelve
years old ventured into the middle. Then there was an ominous cracking,
and in a moment she was struggling in water many feet deep.

Miss Alice White, a teacher, happened to witness the accident.
Notwithstanding the warnings of several persons standing on the
towing-path, who assured her it was most dangerous, she at once went on
the ice and approached as close to the hole as she dared with safety.
She then lay down at full length, so as to more equally distribute her
weight, and tried to seize the struggling child. But under her weight
the ice broke, and the brave girl was precipitated into the cold water.
The bystanders shouted to her to forsake the child, and at least save
her own life, but she did nothing of the kind. She held on to her
precious burden, and literally fought her way out. Piece after piece of
the ice broke off, but she at length reached the bank in a state of
great exhaustion. Her hands were cut in many places by the sharp ice,
but they were wounds of which any one might well have been proud. Miss
White was only sixteen years old, and it was the second time she had
saved a life.

Laying a pole or a branch across the hole is a good plan.


An Easy Way to Grow Strong

It is possible for any girl, even though she may be small and weak, to
make herself into a strong and healthy woman if she takes the trouble to
do a few body exercises every day. They take only about ten minutes, and
do not require any kind of apparatus.

This should be practiced every morning, the first thing on getting up,
and every evening before going to bed. A girl of ten years should weigh
at least fifty pounds, the average height at that age being forty-nine
inches. The value of this exercise is much increased if you think of the
object of each move while you are doing it, and if you are very
particular to breathe the air in through your nose. A great many people
who are pale and ill are made so by living in rooms where the windows
are seldom opened and the air is full of poisonous gases or germs. Open
your windows, especially at the top, every day to let the foul air out.

Do not exercise immediately _after_ eating; let your meal be digested.

Girls who have not done these exercises before should begin them
gradually with care, bit by bit, doing more every day. Brush your hair,
clean your teeth, wash out your mouth and nose, drink a cup of cold
water, and then go on with the following exercises.

It is best to carry these out with as few clothes on as possible, either
in the open air or close to an open window. The movements should be
executed vigorously.


First Series

EXERCISE I.

Stand erect, hands at side.

Count 1. Bend knees deeply with trunk held vertical.

Count 2. Straighten knees and return to an erect position.

Count 3. Let the body fall directly forward until it reaches an angle of
45 degrees, advancing the left foot a long stride to catch the weight of
the body, and bringing the closed hands to shoulders, palms forward,
elbows close at side, shoulders drawn back and chest out.

Count 4. Bend at the waist without moving the legs and touch the floor
with both hands.

Count 5. Return to the third position.

Count 6. Stand erect.

Repeat ten times, using first one foot, then the other. At the end of
one week use this exercise fifteen times. Continue to increase the
repetitions by fives each week until you can do thirty.

EXERCISE II.

Take five deep breaths, inhaling and exhaling, filling the lower part of
the chest, and at the end of the breath expelling all the air you can.


Second Series

EXERCISE I.

Run in place, that is go through the movements of running without
gaining ground, twenty steps, rest a minute and do fifty counts.

EXERCISE II.

Lying on the back, hands at side, raise the body and touch the toes with
both hands, ten times.

EXERCISE III.

Count 1. Charge sideways, raising the arms sideways to a vertical
position.

Count 2. Bend and twist to the left, touching the floor with both hands
on the left side of the foot.

Counts 3 and 4. Make the return movements.

Repeat ten times in each direction.

EXERCISE IV.

Deep breathing eight times.


Third Series

EXERCISE I.

Bend knees deeply, fifteen times.

EXERCISE II.

Lying face downward, hands at side, raise the head and chest from the
floor as far as possible.

EXERCISE III.

Lying face downward, head resting on the folded arms, raise each leg
upward and backward from the hip with straight knee, ten times.

EXERCISE IV.

Lying on the back, hands under head, raise both legs with straight knees
to a vertical position, toes pointed upward, ten times.

EXERCISE V.

Charge obliquely forward left, arms in line with the body and rear leg;
touch the floor and return, making it a four-count exercise.

Repeat ten times in each direction.

EXERCISE VI.

Run in place for one minute, rest and repeat.

EXERCISE VII.

Take ten deep breaths.



HOME LIFE


Housewifery

Every Girl Scout is as much a "hussif" as she is a girl. She is sure to
have to "keep house" some day, and whatever house she finds herself in,
it is certain that that place is the better for her being there.

Too many odds and ends and draperies about a room are only dust-traps,
and rugs or carpet squares, which can be taken up easily, are better
than nailed down carpets. Keep all the furniture clean and bright. Fresh
air, soap, and water are the good housewife's best allies. Bars of soap
should be cut up in squares, and kept for six weeks before being used.
This hardens it, and makes it last longer.

In scrubbing boarded floors, the secret is not to deluge the floor;
change the water in the pail frequently.

In the work of cleaning, think out your plan beforehand, so as not to
dirty what has been cleaned. Plan certain times for each kind of work,
and have your regular days for doing each thing.

PASTE-BOARDS AND DEAL TABLES.--Scrub hard the way of the grain. Hot
water makes boards and tables yellow. Rinse in cold water, and dry well.

SAUCEPANS.--New saucepans must not be used till they have first been
filled with cold water and a little soda, and boiled for an hour or so,
and must be well scoured. After basins or saucepans have been used fill
them at once with cold water to the brim; this will prevent anything
hardening on the saucepan, and will make cleaning easier.

[Illustration]


Needlework

"A stitch in time saves nine." We cannot agree with this favorite
saying, because it saves so many more than nine, besides saving time and
preventing untidiness.

Tailors, who are such neat workers, will say that they never pin their
work first. If you are not a tailor, it is much better to place your
work, before you begin, with plenty of pins. You will never get straight
lines or smooth corners if you do not plan and place it all first, just
as it has got to be, and tack it there.

Have you noticed that thread is very fond of tying itself into a bow;
but this can be prevented by threading the cotton into the needle before
you cut it off the reel, making your knot at the end you cut.

In rough measures, one inch is equivalent to the distance across a
twenty-five-cent piece, and a yard is from nose to thumb, as far as you
can reach. Needlework is good for all of us; it rests and calms the
mind. You can think peacefully over all the worries of Europe whilst you
are stitching. Sewing generally solves all the toughest problems,
chiefly other peoples'.

Pillow lace needs a little more attention, but is a lovely art which
girls can easily master. The writer was taught to make the flowers of
Honiton lace by a little Irish girl, and the variations you can invent
are endless. You would find a good sale for insertion lace of the
Torchon patterns. Make your own pillow, and buy some cheap bobbins to
begin learning with, and do not try fine work at first. Learn to spin
wool and thread; a spinster can earn money in this way.


The Girl Scouts' Patch

We don't know whether you ever did such a thing as burn a hole in your
dress, but we have, and if it is in the front, oh, dear! what will
mother say. Now, there is a very good way that Girl Scouts have of
making it all right and serviceable; they put in a piece and darn it in
all round. If possible, get a piece of the same stuff, then it will not
fade a different tint, and will wear the same as the rest. You may undo
the hem and cut out a bit, or perhaps you may have some scraps left over
from cutting out your dress.

The piece must be cut three or four inches larger than the hole, and
frayed out on all four sides. Trim the hole with your scissors neatly
all round quite square with the thread. Then lay your piece over the
hole--of course on the back or "wrong side"--and tack it there with
cotton. Now take a darning needle, and thread each thread in turn, and
darn each one into the stuff. If the ends of stuff are very short, it is
best to run your needle in and out where you are going to darn, and
then, before pulling it through, thread it with the wool. This patching
is excellent for table-linen.

We once had an aunt who was a thorough old Scout, and was rather proud
of her mending. She always said that she didn't mind what colored cotton
you gave her to sew with, because her stitches hardly ever showed, they
were so small, and also she put them inside the stuff. If she was
putting on a patch to blue stuff, she could do it with red cotton, and
you would never have noticed it on the right side; her stitches were all
under the edge. Or else she sewed it at the back, on the wrong side, so
that it looked perfectly neat.

If you are not able to match the wool for a darn, it is a good plan to
use the ravelings of the stuff itself. Sometimes, away in the country,
you can't go to a shop and you have nothing like the piece you want to
mend. A Scout would turn it inside out and undo a little of the hem, and
ravel out the edge. Suppose you were to cut a hole in the front of your
blue serge skirt; if you darn it with the ravelings of the turnings of
the seam or the hem, that will be exactly the same color and the same
thickness as your dress. No wool you could buy would match as well. Or
if you want to mend a jersey or knitted gloves, you never could buy such
a good match--the same sized wool and the tints.

[Illustration]

Damask table-cloths should be darned to match the pattern, following the
flowers of the design, and large holes may be mended like the "Scouts'
Patch" just described. To sew on buttons properly, leave them loose
enough for the iron to push. On washing articles have your threads long
enough to make a little stalk to the button, which is wound round before
finishing. Your needle should be sloped out to all sides, so as to take
up fresh stuff farther out than the holes in the button.

Scouts may make many useful presents in their spare time, such as
cretonne covered blotters or frames, mittens, warm felt slippers (for
which woolly soles can be bought), pen-wipers, pin-cushions, and
needle-books. They could also make articles for their hospitals, such as
night-clothing, soft caps, handkerchiefs, pillow-cases, and dusters.


HOME COOKING

There is a legend in Turkey that when a rich man is engaged to marry a
lady he can break it off if she is not able to cook him a dish of dates
in a different way every day for a whole month. A friend of ours did
somewhat the same in trying a new cook; he always tested them with
nothing but cutlets for a fortnight. The real test of a good cook is to
see how little food she wastes. She uses up all the scraps, and old bits
of bread are baked for making puddings and for frying crumbs; she sees
that nothing goes bad, and she also buys cleverly. Those who do not
understand cookery waste money.

Perfect cleanliness and neatness should be insisted on, or your food
will be bad and unwholesome.


Eggs

Is an egg lighter or heavier when cooked? An experienced cook is
experienced in eggs. There are "new laid" eggs which are fresh and
"fresh" eggs which are not; there are "cooking" eggs which are liable to
squeak. Eggs are safe in their shells, and think you don't know whether
they are fresh or not, or whether they are raw. Any egg can be thrown
out of a first-floor window on to the lawn without the shell breaking;
it falls like a cat, right end upwards, and this is not a boiled egg,
either! You can tell that because it will not spin on the table, so it
must have been a raw egg. A cooked egg would spin.

To tell a stale egg, you will see it is more transparent at the _thick_
end when held up to the light.

Fresh eggs are more transparent in the _middle_. Very bad eggs will
_float_ in a pan of water.


Poached Eggs

Break each egg separately into a cup. When your water is boiling fast,
drop in an egg sharply. Use a large deep pan, with salt and vinegar in
the water. Lift the egg very carefully in a ladle before it is set too
hard. Place the eggs all round a soup plate, pour over them a nice sauce
made with flour and butter, a little milk, and some grated cheese and
salt.

STOCK POT.--Keep a pot going all day, into which you can put any
broken-up bones or scraps left over, to make nourishing broth. Clean
turnips, carrots, and onions improve it. Before using let it get cold,
so as to skim off the fat.


HOME HEALTH

Contributed by Dr. Thomas D. Wood.


~1. Dust~ (carries germs and bacteria)--

  a. Must be kept out of the house by

    1. Being careful not to bring it in on shoes or clothing.

    2. By really removing the dust when cleaning, not just brushing it from
       place to place with dry brushes and dust cloths.

  b. Tools needed--

    1. Vacuum cleaner (if possible).

    2. Brooms and brushes of different kinds.

    3. Mops.

    4. Dust cloths of cotton, outing flannel and wool.

    5. Soft paper.

  c. Methods of cleaning--

    1. Cleansing and putting away all small movable articles first.

    2. Wiping walls, pictures, floor, furniture, woodwork, etc., using damp
       cloths and brushes, if possible, so that no dust can fly, and
       gathering all dust on a dustpan that has a damp paper on it to
       collect dust.

    3. Airing and sunning each room while cleaning.

    4. Wiping window shades at least once a week.

    5. Cleaning hangings often and laundering table and cushion covers.

    6. Keeping every corner, drawer, and closet aired, cleansed, sunned and
       in order at all times to prevent accumulation of dust, germs and
       household pests.

    7. Keeping all bathroom furnishings spotless and sweet, always drying
       after cleansing.

    8. Scalding all cleaning tools and drying in sunshine, if possible,
       before putting away.


~2. Care of the Bedroom--~

  Hygiene of the Bedroom--

  1. Substances that tend to make the bedroom unhealthy are--

    a. Excretions from lungs, skin, kidneys.

    b. Street dust that has settled on clothing in day.

  2. Relation of personal habits to healthfulness of the bedroom--

    a. Leave outside wraps outside bedroom, if at all possible, at least
       until they have been well dusted.

    b. Never put into the closet clothing that has been next to the
       skin during the day. Such articles should be aired by an open
       window during the night.

    c. A bath each day at some time and a thorough cleansing of face, hands
       and feet before going to bed will prevent much dust and body
       excretions from accumulating on bed clothing.

  3. Preparation for the Night--

    a. Remove counterpane and fold carefully.

    b. Protect blanket by covering with a sheet or other light covering.

    c. Open windows from top and bottom.

    d. Hang used clothing to air.

  4. Care of Room on Rising--

    a. Remove bed clothing and hang by open window in the sun.

    b. Air night clothing before hanging away.

    c. If a washstand is used, empty all bowls and jars, soap dishes, etc.,
       wash and dry them before leaving the room for breakfast.

    d. When thoroughly aired, make the bed and put the room in order.


  5. Making the Bed Properly--

    a. Mattress must have been turned. There should be a covering for the
       mattress under the first sheet.

    b. Put on the under sheet, tucking it securely under mattress at top,
       bottom and sides.

    c. Put on upper sheet and blankets, tucking in at bottom only.

    d. Turn upper sheet down over blankets.

    e. Cover with counterpane and place on well-beaten pillows.


  6. Weekly Cleaning--

    a. Mattress, rugs, and unwashable hangings should be removed to
       some place in outdoor air and sunshine, beaten and dusted.

    b. Closets must be cleaned and dusted first, then used to store all
       small articles from room after they have been thoroughly cleaned.

    c. Clean walls, pictures, woodwork, floors, windows and shades.

    d. Put room in order.

    e. Such care of the rooms of a house make regular "housecleaning"
       spells unnecessary.


~3. Kitchen Sanitation--~

  a. Do not wash--

    1. Iron (range).

    2. Brass and copper.

    3. Tin.

    4. Zinc.

    5. Aluminum, nickel, silver.

  To clean metals of grease, use kerosene, gasoline, benzine, naphtha,
  chloroform, soap suds.

  b. Care of Sink--

    1. Pour dishwater through a sieve.

    2. Greasy water must be changed into a soap or dissolved before being
       poured down to drain.

    3. Flush sink drain three times a week with boiling sal soda solution,
       one pint sal soda to three gallons of water. Use at least two quarts.

  c. Kitchen needs same treatment for general cleanliness, removal of
     dust, etc., as other rooms and walls. Woodwork--floor should be
     often washed thoroughly in hot soapsuds, rinsed and dried to be
     sure no germs develop where food is being prepared.

  d. Care of Ice Chest--

    1. Should be emptied and thoroughly washed and dried at least twice a
       week to make it a wholesome place for food.


~4. Cellar--~

  1. Must be kept as free of dust and rubbish as the kitchen.

  2. No decaying vegetables or fruit must be found in it.


~5. Door-Yard and Out-Building--~

  1. Grass and growing things, especially if sprayed with water daily, will
     help keep dust out of houses.

  2. Rubbish of any kind should be burned, for it is in such places that
     flies and mosquitoes breed.

  3. Grass should be kept cut and lawns raked to keep mosquitoes from
     breeding.

  4. No manure from domestic animals should be allowed to be exposed on the
     premises, for in such material the typhoid fly lays its eggs.

  5. Barns and out-houses should be screened.


~6. To Clean Fruits and Vegetables--~

  1. Garden soil is the home of a multitude of small forms of life,
     many quite harmless, but some organisms causing disease. For
     instance, germs of tetanus are found in dust and soil.

  2. Top-dressing or fertilizer used to enrich the soil may contain such
     disease germs.

  3. If fruits or vegetables come from the market instead of the garden
     they are quite as likely to have dust and bacteria clinging to them.

  4. It is necessary, therefore, to wash all vegetables and fruits
     thoroughly before using.


~7. How to Wash Fruit and Vegetables~--

  1. Put berries and small fruits in a colander, a few at a time, and dip
     lightly down and up in a basin of water, being careful not to crush
     the fruit.

  2. Wash strawberries with hulls on.

  3. Firm fruits, as grapes, cherries, etc., can be washed by standing
     the colander under the cold water faucet for some time.

  4. Lettuce is best washed under the cold water faucet and celery needs
     scrubbing with a brush.

  5. Apples from exposed fruit stands should be soaked for some time and
     carefully dried.


~8. Fresh Foods Are Best--~

  1. Celery, cabbage, apples, pumpkins, beets, squash, white and
     sweet potatoes, etc., can be kept fresh for out of season use if
     carefully cleansed and stored away in a dry, cool, dark place.


~9. Methods of Preserving Foods--~

  1. Salting.

  2. Pickling.

  3. Refrigeration.

  4. Canning.

  5. Preserving.

  6. Drying or evaporation.


~10. Method of Preserving Eggs--~

  1. Packing in coarse salt.

  2. Cover with water-glass in large stone jars, set in cool place.


~11. Care of Milk--~

  1. Use certified milk or inspected milk.

  2. Wash bottle top before removing cover.

  3. Pour milk in pans that have been scalded and drained dry in the
     sun or, in damp weather, by the stove.

  4. As soon as cool enough put in refrigerator or in coolest place
     possible, as milk spoils very quickly unless kept cold.


~12. Care of Meat--~

  1. Wash thoroughly as soon as it arrives.

  2. Place on clean pan of aluminum, porcelain or some such ware.

  3. Place in refrigerator until ready to cook.


~13. General Rules For Care of Food--~

  1. Keep food clean--(personal cleanliness, washing food).

  2. Keep food dry.

  3. Keep food cool.

  4. Care for food left from each meal. If carefully put away it can be
     used and not wasted.


Inspected Milk--

  1. Comes from sanitary farms where cows, cases and bottles are reasonably
     clean; the rules are much less strict than for certified milk.

  2. Cannot by law contain more than 500,000 germs in each teaspoonful,
     while certified milk contains not more than 50,000 germs.


Pasteurized Milk--

  1. Method recommended by Department of Health of Chicago. In a small tin
     pail place a saucer.

On the saucer stand the bottle of milk (leaving
the cap on the bottle). Now put sufficient hot
water (not so hot as to break the bottle) into the
pail to fill same to within three or four inches of
the top of the bottle, and then stand the pail and
its contents on the top of the stove. The instant
the water begins to boil remove the bottle of
milk from the pail and cool it as rapidly as
possible. Keep the bottle of milk in the ice box
and keep the cap on the bottle when not in use.
When you remove the cap do so with a clean
prong, and be careful that the milk side of the
cap does not come in contact with anything dirty.
None but inspected or certified milk should be
used.

Milk should be kept covered with clean cheese
cloth to prevent dust getting in.


Water--

  1. Water will carry germs of typhoid fever, cholera, etc.

  2. Boiling and cooling all water that might be suspected.


Unprotected and Exposed Food--

  a. Prevention--

    1. Be sure of a pure water supply (inspection of Board of Health).

    2. Cleanse all foods properly before eating.


House Fly--

  a. Why it is a Disease Carrier--

    1. Breeds in filth where disease germs are found.

    2. Construction of feet, legs, body, wings, etc., favorable for
       catching and holding great numbers of filth and disease germs.

  b. How to Fight the Fly--

    1. Catch all flies that get in the house.

  2. Keep food covered.

  3. Trap flies out of doors.

  4. Screen all windows of houses, barns or out-buildings.


Mosquito--

  1. Carries germs of malaria and yellow fever.

  2. Turn over every pail or tub that may hold water.

  3. Pick up old tin cans and bottles and put them where rain cannot fill
     them.

  4. Screen rain barrels and cisterns so mosquitoes cannot get to the water
     and lay eggs.

  5. Screen the wash water if it is left standing over night.

  6. Change water every day in drinking pans for birds and animals.


Rats--

  Prevention--

    Get rid of them by trapping and killing.


HINTS TO HOUSEKEEPERS


HOW TO CLEAN WIRE WINDOW SCREENS.

_Rub down with Kerosene oil outside and inside._


THREE PRIMARY COLORS _are, Red, Blue and Yellow._


POLISHING FLOORS

_One quart of turpentine to one quarter (1/4) pound of beeswax. Warm,
taking care not to let any fire reach the turpentine. Rub in the floor
with flannel and polish with hard brush. A little powdered burnt umber
mixed in gives a nice brown stain._


TO PUT AWAY FLANNELS

_First thoroughly air and beat them, then wrap up with cedar chips,
refuse tobacco, or camphor, and wrap in newspapers, being careful to
close every outlet to keep out moths._


Babcock Test

_The Babcock test is a test for determining the butter fat in milk._

_Bottles are devised which are known as Babcock milk bottles, and are
registered to show the per cent. of fat in milk. A certain amount of
milk is mixed with a certain amount of Commercial Sulphuric acid of a
specific gravity 1.83 which is added by degrees and thoroughly shaken up
with the milk. Enough distilled water is added to fill the bottle. The
mixture is then centrifuged in a Babcock Centrifuge, and the centrifuged
fat read in per cent. on the neck of the bottle._

_The Official Travelers' Babcock Test can be purchased from the Creamery
Package Manufactory Co., Chicago Ill., and costs between $5.00 and
$6.00._

_All utensils used in dairy work should be sterilized by steaming or
boiling for five minutes._


How to Cure Hams

Rub one tablespoonful of Saltpetre into the face of each ham; let it
remain one day. Literally cover the ham with salt and pack it in a
closed box. Leave it in box as many days as there are pounds to the ham.

Take it out, wash in warm water; cover the face of the ham with black
pepper, and smoke it ten days with green hickory or red-oak chips.


Care of Children

_Mrs. Benson writes: "There is no way in which a girl can help her
country better than by fitting herself to undertake the care of
children. She should learn all she can about them, and take every
opportunity of helping to look after these small Girl Scouts and Boy
Scouts of the future."_

An infant cannot tell you its wants, but a Scout with a knowledge of the
needs of children, what to feed them on, and the rules for good health,
may save many a baby, for she never knows how soon the precious gift of
some child's life may be placed in her hands.

Baby does not know that fire will burn, or that water will drown one, so
you need to guard him. Baby requires the proper food to build up a
healthy body. He prefers milk for the first months of his life, and even
up till three years old he takes mostly milk; and as a baby cannot
digest flour, bread, corn-flour, and such things are so much poison to
him. They may injure a little baby's health for life. As has been said
to older children, let him keep quiet after eating. Even up to three
years old, Baby's food must be chiefly milk--biscuits, puddings, and
fruit being gradually added. He is very particular about his milk being
fresh and good. Baby is extremely punctual. He feels it keenly if you do
not feed him at the fixed hour, and will very likely let you know it,
and woe betide you if he finds out that you have not properly scalded
out his bottle before and after each meal.

[Illustration]

When his digestion is not right, his appetite will not be so good.
Digestion means that the food you eat is turned into muscle and brain
and bone.

We eat onions to make bone, and oats to make brain, but Baby must not be
allowed such food till he is older. What is _indigestion?_ It means not
only uncomfortable pains in the middle of the night, but also that you
have not used up the food you ate, and that food is going bad inside
you, and making bad blood. Eat only the foods that you know you can
digest comfortably. Do not give Baby too much at a time, or he will not
be able to digest it, and keep him to plain food.


Air

Sun and air are life-giving. Put a pale withering plant or human being
into the sun, and each will recover health. Give a baby plenty of fresh
air, out of doors if you can, but avoid draughty places. Air the rooms
well. You know, too, that the air inside the bed-clothes is impure, so
do not let Baby sleep with his head under the sheet; tuck it in under
his chin. You remember what air did in curing illness in the case of the
expressman's children. He had two boys and three little girls all
beginning to have consumption, and constantly requiring a doctor at
great expense. He got the happy idea of putting them all into his cart
when he started out very early on his work, and he drove them about
every morning till school time. Every one of them soon got well, and
became strong and healthy.


Bath

No one can be healthy unless she is extremely clean. Baby will want his
bath daily, with soap and warmish water. He likes to kick the water and
splash, as long as you support his head. Before starting on this
swimming expedition, you should have all his clothes, warm, by you, and
all that you will want must be within reach, and he expects a warm
flannel on your knees to lie on. You must carefully dry all the creases
in his fat body for him, with a soft towel.


Illnesses

What will you do when you suddenly find that baby is ill. Call in the
doctor? Yes--that is, if there is one. But when there is no doctor! You
will at once think of all the First Aid you have learnt, and what you
know of nursing.

Drugs are bad things. You may ruin a child by giving it soothing drugs
and advertised medicines. They sometimes produce constipation. Never
neglect the bowels if they become stopped, or you may bring on
inflammation. Children's illnesses often are brought on by damp floors;
you can trace them to the evening that the boards were washed. A flood
of water could not dry without damping the room and the children.

Bowed legs come from walking too soon. It does baby good to lie down and
kick about, for crawling and climbing exercise his muscles.

The best remedy, if you find a child suffering from convulsions, is to
place it in a warm bath, as hot as your bare elbow can endure.

Childhood is the time to form the body; it cannot be altered when you
are grown up.


Clothing

Children's clothes should be warm but light, and the feet and legs
should be kept warm and dry. To put on their stockings, turn the toe in
a little way, and poke the toes into the end, then pull over a little at
a time, instead of putting the foot in at the knee of the stocking. Put
the left stocking on the right foot next day, so as to change them every
day.

Flannelette is made of cotton, so it is not warm like wool, and it
catches fire easily, as cotton-wool does.

Rubber is most unhealthful, and causes paralysis. Don't sit on rubber or
on oilcloth unless covered, and never put rubber next to the skin.


Thermometers

[Illustration]

To convert a given number of degrees Fahrenheit into Centigrade, deduct
32, multiply by 5, and divide by 9. To convert into Réaumur, deduct 32,
multiply by 4, and divide by 9. To convert degrees Centigrade into
Fahrenheit, multiply by 9, divide by 5, and add 32. To convert Réaumur
into Fahrenheit, multiply by 9, divide by 4, and add 32.

The diagram shows corresponding degrees.


Beat of Pulse per minute

Pulse beat for normal person:

Infant before age of one year, 130 to 115 beats per minute.

Infant up to two years of age, 115 to 130 beats per minute.

Adult, 70 to 80 beats per minute. Adult in old age, 70 to 60 in normal
health.



Part V



FIRST AID


The National Red Cross Society award certificates in First Aid to girls
over sixteen years old only, but any Girl Scout can win the Girl Scout
Ambulance badge by passing an examination on the first three chapters of
the Woman's Edition of the Red Cross Abridged Text-Book on First Aid.

This training of the Girl Scouts awakens taste for hospital work. The
scope of this book is insufficient for a complete course of instruction
in hospital work, so it is best for the leaders to have lectures,
lessons, and demonstrations. There is danger in a "little knowledge" of
such an important subject. So we shall only say that the one important
Scout precept of obeying orders is in a hospital of paramount
importance. Disobedience is certainly a _crime_.


Nosebleed

Slight nosebleed does not require treatment; no harm results from it.
When severe nosebleed occurs, loosen the collar (do not blow the nose),
apply cold to the back of the neck by means of a key or a cloth wrung
out in cold water; a roll of paper under the upper lip between it and
the gum will help; when bleeding still continues shove a cotton or a
gauze plug into the nostrils leaving it there until the bleeding stops.


Eyes

Dust, flies, or cinder in the eye. Get the person's head well back,
seize the upper eyelash and pull the upper lid well forward over the
lower, press it against the latter as it slips back into place, and if
the fly is beneath the upper lid it will be left on the lower lid. If
this fails, place a match on the upper eyelid, catch the eyelashes and
turn the lid over the match, and if you can see the cause of the trouble
remove it with the corner of a handkerchief or use a camel's-hair brush.
A drop of castor-oil in the eye soothes it afterwards. For lime in the
eye use a weak solution of vinegar and water.


FIRST AID TO INJURED

Fire constitutes a danger, especially if there is a panic where the fire
starts. Never throw away a lighted match, it may fall on inflammable
material and start fire. Reading in bed is dangerous, as if you go to
sleep the bed-clothes may catch fire. If you must dry your clothes by a
fire watch them carefully.

Cut away all dry grass around a fire in camp.

Never carry a light into a room that smells strongly of escaped gas;
never handle gunpowder with matches in your pocket.


How to Put out Fire

If your clothing catches fire don't run for help, that will fan the
flames; lie down, roll up in an overcoat or rug. If nothing can be found
to roll about you, roll over slowly beating out the flames with your
hands. If another person is on fire throw him on the ground and smother
the fire with a rug away from the face.


What to Do in Case of Fire

Show coolness and presence of mind; throw water (a few bucketfuls will
often put out the fire), or blankets, woolen clothing, sand, ashes,
dirt, or even flour on fire.

If you discover a fire sound the alarm on the street fire-alarm post, or
telephone to the Fire Department. The doors of a house or a room that is
on fire should be closed to prevent draughts spreading the flames.

While searching a burning house tie a wet handkerchief over the nose and
mouth. Remember that within six inches of the floor there is no smoke;
when you have difficulty in breathing, crawl along the floor with the
head low, dragging any one you have rescued behind you. Tie the
insensible person's hands together and put them over your head. You can
then crawl along the floor dragging the rescued person with you.

Never jump from the window unless the flames are so close that it is
your only means of escape. If outside a burning building put mattresses
and bedding piled high to break the jumper's fall and get a strong rug
to hold, to catch the jumper, and let many people hold the rug. In
country districts organize a bucket brigade; two lines of girls from
water to fire--pass buckets, jugs, tumblers, or anything that will hold
water from girl to girl and throw water on the fire, passing buckets
back by another line of girls.


Rescue from Drowning

There are four practical methods of bringing a drowning person to land.

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

1. If quiet, turn him on his back, and grip him by the head so that the
palms of the hands cover the ears, and swim on the back. Keep his face
above water (Fig. 1).

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

2. In case of struggling, turn him on his back. Then grip his arms just
above the elbows and raise them until they are at right angles to his
body, and swim on the back (Fig. 2).

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

3. If the arms are difficult to grasp, push your arms under those of the
subject, bend them upwards, and place your hands, with the fingers
separated, flat on his chest, the thumbs resting on his shoulder joints.
Swim on the back (Fig. 3).

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

4. In rescuing a swimmer with cramp or exhausted, or a drowning person
who is obedient and remains quiet, the person assisted must place his
hands on the rescuer's shoulders close to the neck at arm's length, turn
on his back, and lie perfectly still with the head well back. Here the
rescuer is uppermost; and, having his arms and legs free, swims with the
breast stroke. This is the easiest method, and enables the rescuer to
carry the person a longer distance without much exertion (Fig. 4).


Release

A drowning person will sometimes grip his would-be rescuer in such a
manner as to render it impossible to tow him to land. The three
following methods are recommended for releasing oneself when clutched by
a drowning person.

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

1. When the rescuer is grasped by the wrists: Extend the arms
straightforward, bring them down until they are in a line with the hips,
and then jerk the wrists against the thumbs of the subject. This will
break the hold (Figs. 5 and 6).

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

2. When the rescuer is clasped round the neck: Take a deep breath and
lean well over the drowning person. At the same time, place the left
hand in the small of his back. Then pinch the nostrils close between the
fingers of the right, while resting the palm on his chin, and push away
with all possible force (Fig. 7).

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

3. When the rescuer is clasped round the body: Take a deep breath and
lean well over as before. Place the left hand on the subject's right
shoulder and the right palm on his chin. At the same time bring the
right knee against the lower part of his chest. Then by means of a
strong and sudden push, stretch your arms and leap straight out,
throwing the whole weight of your body backwards (Fig. 8).

[Illustration]


Artificial Respiration

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

When a person is brought to land in an apparently drowned condition lose
no time in attempting restoration. Delay may prove fatal. Act at once
and work with caution, continuous energy, and perseverance. Life has, in
many cases, been restored after long hours of unceasing work. In all
cases send for a doctor as soon as possible. Meanwhile proceed at once
to clear the water out of the patient's lungs. The following method is
the simplest and is called the Schäfer system, after the inventor.
Incline the patient face downwards and the head downwards, so that the
water may run out of his mouth, and pull his tongue forward. After
running the water out of the patient, place him on his side with his
body slightly hanging down, and keep the tongue hanging out. If he is
breathing let him rest; if he is not breathing, you must at once
endeavor to restore breathing artificially. Here are Professor Schäfer's
own instructions:

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

1. Lay the patient face downwards with arms extended and the face turned
to the side.

2. Don't put a cushion or any support under the chest. Kneel or squat
alongside or astride of the patient facing towards his head.

3. Place your hands on the small of the patient's back, one on each
side, with thumbs parallel and nearly touching.

4. Bend forward with the arms straight, so as to allow the weight of
your body to fall on your wrists, and then make a firm, steady downward
pressure on the loins of the patient, while you count slowly,
"one--two--three."

5. Then swing your body backward so as to relieve the pressure and
without removing your hands, while you count slowly, "one--two."

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

Continue this backward and forward movement, alternately relieving and
pressing the patient's stomach against the ground in order to drive the
air out of his chest and mouth, and allowing it to suck itself in again,
until gradually the patient begins to do it for himself. The proper pace
for the movement should be about twelve pressures to the minute. As soon
as the patient is breathing you can leave off the pressure; but watch
him, and if he fails you must start again till he can breathe for
himself. Then let him lie in a natural position and set to work to get
him warm by putting hot flannels or bottles of hot water between his
thighs, and under the arms and against the soles of his feet. Wet
clothing should be taken off and hot blankets rolled round him. The
patient should be disturbed as little as possible and encouraged to
sleep while carefully watched for at least an hour afterwards.


Ice Rescue

To rescue a person who has broken through the ice, you should first tie
a rope around your own body and have the other end tied or held in
shore. Then get a long board or a ladder, or the limb of a tree, crawl
out on this and push it out so that the person in the water may reach
it. If nothing can be found on which to support your weight don't
attempt to walk to the person to be rescued, but lie flat on your face
and crawl out to him, thus so much less weight bears on the ice at one
point than walking. Remember, if you break through the ice yourself,
that if you try to crawl on the broken ice it will break again with you;
better support yourself on edge of ice and await rescue.


Gas and Sewer Gas

Never go to sleep in a room where the gas is burning low. As gas may
escape into the room, very big fires burning in sleeping rooms are
dangerous, especially in charcoal stoves. In underground sewers and
wells dangerous gases are found; if a lighted candle will not burn in
such a place it is certain the air will be dangerous for any one
entering it.

In rescuing a person from a place filled with gas, take a few deep
breaths before entering, carry him quickly out without breathing
yourself. Gas will not be found near the floor of a building, so you may
be able to crawl out where it would be dangerous to walk.


Treating and Bandaging the Injured

A fracture is the same thing as a broken bone. When the bone pierces
through the skin it is called a compound fracture. When it does _not_, a
simple fracture.

If you have to deal with a broken leg or arm, and can't get a doctor at
once, make the patient lie down.

Place the leg in the same position as sound one, and hold it in splints
made of anything that is stiff and rigid like a _flat_ board (that is
better than a round pole) or a limb broken from a tree. Shingles make
excellent splints.

In applying splints, they should extend beyond the next joint above and
the next joint below the broken point. Otherwise the movement of the
joint will cause the broken part to move.

With a broken thigh, the splint should be very long, extending from
armpit to below the feet; a short splint just below the knee will do for
the inner splint.

Splints may be tied on with handkerchiefs; tie firmly, but not so tight
as to cause severe pain.

In a fractured thigh it is well to bind the broken leg to the sound one
by two or three pieces of cloth around both.

The clothing around the leg makes a padding for the splints unless it is
thin summer clothing, in which case straw and leaves should be put
between the splint and the leg or arm.

Fractures of the leg and arm are treated the same way, with splints on
inner and outer sides of broken bone.

A sling will be required with fractures of the arm; this may be made
with triangular bandage or triangular neck handkerchief or piece torn
from your skirt or petticoat. Red Cross outfits are very convenient for
injuries.


Compound Fracture

If the sharp edges of the broken bone pierce through the skin, which
often happens if splints are not well applied and the person moves, the
broken bone again pierces the skin. If a wound is made by the broken
bone, then the wound must be treated first.


Dressing Wounds

All wounds, unless protected from germs, are liable to become infected
by matter or pus. Blood-poisoning or even death may result. To prevent
infection of wound, a sterilized dressing should be applied; this is a
surgical dressing which has been treated so that it is free from germs
and can be got at any druggist's or can be had in First Aid outfits.
Don't handle a wound with your hands, because even though your hands
appear perfectly clean, they are not so; neither is water free from
germs, so a wound should never be washed.

If you have no surgical dressing, boil a folded towel fifteen minutes;
don't touch the inner surface. Apply inner surface of the towel or a
clean unused handkerchief to the wound.


How to Stop Bleeding

Keep a person quiet after severe bleeding from a wound as the bleeding
may recommence, and give no stimulants unless patient is very weak.

There are two kinds of blood--that which flows from arteries and the
blood which flows from veins; the latter is of a dark color and flows in
a steady stream and goes back to the heart. A pad firmly tied on such a
wound usually stops the bleeding.

Don't be afraid of leaving a wound exposed to air.

When wounds bleed use Red Cross outfit as directed on slip contained in
outfit.

If an artery is cut a person may bleed to death in a few minutes. Girls
should know that the blood from a cut artery is bright red and flows in
spirts and jets.

There are arteries in the throat. The artery in the upper arm is about
in a line with the inner seam of the sleeve of your coat.

The artery in the leg runs down from the center line from the point of
the hip in the middle of the crotch in a line with the inseam of
trousers.

Pressure should be applied by putting your fingers three inches above
the crotch and holding it pressed against the bone. You can feel the
artery beating under your fingers, but don't put your finger in the
wound as it may infect the latter. While you hold the artery some one
else should make a tourniquet easily improvised.


How to Make a Tourniquet

Tie a handkerchief loosely around the limb and place a cork or a smooth
stone, just above your fingers on the artery. When this is placed, put a
stick about a foot long under the handkerchief at the outer side of the
limb and twist the stick so that the handkerchief gets tight enough to
keep the stone or cork pressing on the artery just as your fingers did
at first. Tie the stick in position so it will not slip.

Remember that cutting off the circulation for too long is dangerous;
don't leave the tourniquet more than an hour. Loosen it and be ready to
tighten it quickly if the bleeding recommences.

Another method to stay bleeding from an artery when the injury is below
the knee or elbow is to place a pad in the bend and tie the arm or leg
bent with the pad tight in the angle of the joint.

If an artery is cut at the throat, hold tightly together the wound to
stop the bleeding or the person may die instantly from loss of blood.

The best stimulant in cases where the patient is very weak is aromatic
spirits of ammonia. One teaspoonful in a half-glass of water.


Ivy Poisoning

Avoid poison oak or ivy. If poisoned use carbolized vaseline or
baking-soda and water made into a thick paste. Apply alcohol first.


To Ease Itching of Midge-Bites

For midge and sand-fly bites use listerine and Eucalyptus--equal
quantities--liquid carbonic soap--apply one drop on bite--or preparation
sold by druggist.


Frost-Bite

To prevent frost-bite, rub the body when exposed to cold with too little
clothing on, because rubbing brings blood to the surface. When the part
that was cold suddenly has no feeling, then to restore warmth rub it
first with snow or cold water, then gradually with warm water; if hot
water is applied at first it may cause mortification in the frozen part.


Runaway Horses

Don't try to check a run-away horse by standing in front and waving your
arms. The horse only dodges you and runs faster.


Electric Shock

Artificial Respiration should always be promptly given in cases of
electric shock.

The rescuer must not touch the body of a person touching a live wire or
a third rail unless his own body is thoroughly insulated.

He must act quickly. He should, if possible, insulate himself by
covering his hands with a rubber coat, rubber sheeting or even several
thicknesses of dry cloth. Silk is a good non-conductor. In addition he
should complete his insulation by standing on a dry board, or a thick
piece of dry paper or on a dry coat.

Rubber gloves or boots are safer, but they cannot usually be immediately
available.

If a live wire is under a patient and the ground is dry it will be
perfectly safe to stand upon it and pull him off with the bare hands.
But they should touch only his clothing and this must not be wet.

A live wire on a patient may with safety be flipped off with a dry board
or stick. A live wire may be safely cut by an axe or hatchet with a dry
wooden handle and the electric current may be short circuited by
dropping a crowbar or a poker on the wire. They should be dropped on the
side from which the current is coming and not on the further side as the
latter will not short circuit the current before it has passed through
the patient's body. Drop the metal bar, do not place it on the wire or
you will then be made a part of the short circuit and receive the
current of electricity through your body.

From American Red Cross Text Book on Elementary Hygiene and Home Care of
the Sick.



Part VI



PATRIOTISM


History of the Flag

On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was signed. By this the
united colonies dissolved all the ties that bound them to England and
became an independent nation, the United States. It was immediately
necessary to adopt a new flag, as the new nation would not use the union
jack. Congress appointed a committee, consisting of George Washington,
Robert Morris, and Colonel Ross, to design a flag. They got Mrs. Betsey
Ross, who kept an upholstery shop at 239 Arch Street, Philadelphia, to
help plan and to make the new flag. They kept the thirteen stripes of
the colonies' flag, and replaced the union jack by a blue field bearing
thirteen stars, arranged in a circle. On June 14, 1777, Congress passed
the resolution adopting this flag.

     Resolved: That the flag of the thirteen United States be
     thirteen stripes, alternate red and white: that the Union be
     thirteen stars, white on a blue field, representing a new
     constellation.

George Washington said: "We take the star from Heaven, the red from our
mother country, separating it by white stripes, thus showing that we
have separated from her, and the white stripes shall go down to
posterity representing liberty."

This new flag was first carried into battle at Port Stanwix, in August,
1777.

At first when new States came into the Union, a new stripe and a new
star were added to the flag, but it was soon evident that the added
stripes would make it very unwieldy. So on April 4, 1818, Congress
passed this act, to establish the flag of the United States.

     SEC. 1. Be it enacted, etc. That from and after the fourth day
     of July next, the flag of the United States be thirteen
     horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; that the Union
     have twenty stars, white in a blue field.

     SEC. 2. Be it further enacted, that, on the admission of every
     new State into the Union, one star be added to the Union of the
     flag; and that such addition shall take effect on the fourth
     day of July succeeding such admission.

In our flag today the thirteen stripes symbolize the thirteen original
States, and the blue field bears forty-eight stars, one for each State
in the Union. The five-pointed star is used, it is said, at Betsey
Ross's suggestion. This five-pointed star is the seal of King Solomon,
and the sign of infinity. Even the colors of the flag mean something:
red stands for valor, blue for justice, and white for purity. The whole
flag stands for freedom, liberty, and justice.


Respect Due the Flag

1. The flag should not be hoisted before sunrise nor allowed to remain
up after sunset.

2. At retreat, sunset, civilian spectators should stand at attention and
give the military salute.

3. When the national colors are passing on parade or review the
spectators should, if walking, halt, and if sitting, rise and stand at
attention and uncover.

4. When the flag is flown at half-mast as a sign of mourning it should
be hoisted to full staff at the conclusion of the funeral. In placing
the flag at half-mast, it should first be hoisted to the top of the
staff and then be lowered to position. Preliminary to lowering from
half-mast it should first be raised to top.

5. On Memorial Day, May 30th, the flag should fly at half-mast from
sunrise till noon, and at full mast from noon to sunset.

     The flag at half-mast is a sign of mourning.

     The flag flown upside down is a signal of distress.


America

The first home of social and religious freedom in America was in the
Colony of Maryland. When all the other colonies were persecuting every
one that did not believe in their own peculiar religious doctrine and
making the most invidious social distinctions, Maryland--the Ever
Faithful--was a haven of refuge for all. Situated in a middle place
among the colonies, her doctrines gradually spread till today the proud
boast of America is that she is the home of the free. Had the sentiments
of Massachusetts prevailed, we would have had today a most bigoted form
of religious government. Had John Locke's Carolina laws lasted, we would
have been under a grinding oligarchy. Georgia under Oglethorpe's wise
management joined hands with Calvert in Maryland, and the result of
their joint efforts for the betterment of mankind is the grand Republic
of the United States of today. Adams and Washington, Franklin and
Lincoln are names which shine out from the pages of history today, and
back of each was a good and honored mother. These were patriots--not
politicians or place hunters. Throughout our history the emergency seems
always to have found the man. And they have been prepared by our great
women. For even if a man has not a wife it is seldom that any great
thing is done that is not helped on by a woman. Girls, know your places.
They are no mean positions that you are destined to hold. The pages of
the history of the future may hold your names in a high and honored
place. Do well your part today. The work of today is the history of
tomorrow, and we are its makers. So let us strive to show just as grand
names on the pages yet unwritten as are inscribed on those that we have
for our proud inheritance.

It is not necessary that every Scout should be proficient in all things
suggested for practice. All should be able to drill and know the
signs--secret and open--for the use of the organization. They should
practice the precepts laid down for their guidance and be above all
things "the little friend to all" that makes such a distinctive feature
in the work and training of every day's meeting of Scouts. Consider it a
paramount duty to attend all meetings and get the most out of the
opportunities offered you in the American Band of Girl Scouts. Make your
duties amusements and your amusements duties. So will you find that you
daily increase in usefulness and your pleasure in life will grow
broader. In union there is strength. The Union of Scouts is to be a
strong union for the good of our nation in the future and an
ever-increasing bond for success to ourselves and aid to others.


The Star-Spangled Banner

    O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,
      What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming?
    Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight,
      O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming;
    And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
    Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there!
    O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

    On the shore, dimly seen thro' the mists of the deep,
      Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
    What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
      As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
    Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
    In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream--
    'Tis the star-spangled banner. O long may it wave
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

    And where is that band who so vauntingly swore,
      'Mid the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,
    A home and a country they'd leave us no more?
      Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
    No refuge could save the hireling and slave
    From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave--
    And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave,
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

    O thus be it ever when freemen shall stand
      Between their loved homes and foul war's desolation,
    Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land
      Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
    Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
    And this be our motto, "In God is our trust"--
    And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave,
    While the land of the free is the home of the brave.

    FRANCIS SCOTT KEY.


America

    My country, 'tis of thee,
    Sweet land of liberty,
      Of thee I sing;
    Land where my fathers died,
    Land of the Pilgrims' pride,
    From every mountain side
      Let freedom ring.

    My native country, thee,
    Land of the noble free,
      Thy name I love;
    I love thy rocks and rills,
    Thy woods and templed hills;
    My heart with rapture thrills
      Like that above.

    Let music swell the breeze,
    And ring from all the trees
      Sweet freedom's song;
    Let mortal tongues awake,
    Let all that breathe partake,
    Let rocks their silence break,
      The sound prolong!

    Our father's God, to Thee,
    Author of liberty,
      To Thee we sing:
    Long may our land be bright
    With freedom's holy light;
    Protect us by Thy might,
      Great God, our King.

    SAMUEL F. SMITH, 1832.


Allegiance to the Flag

I pledge allegiance to the flag, and to the republic for which it
stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.


Girl Scout Salute to the Flag

A salute to the Flag should be the first number on the program of every
meeting. Use the Scout full salute. The salute may be accompanied by the
words of the pledge. Let the hand reach the forehead on the word
"allegiance," pointing, palm outward, to the flag and recite the
remaining words with hand still pointing to flag.



READING LIST


BOOKS ON MERIT BADGE SUBJECTS

  AMBULANCE:
_Emergencies._ Gulick, C. E.
_Firebrands._ Martin, F. E.
_Home Nursing._ Harrison, E.
_Sure Pop and the Safety Scouts._ Bailey, R. R.

  ASTRONOMY:
_Story of the Heavens._ Ball, Roberts.
_Heavens with an Opera Glass._ Serviss, Garrett.
_The Friendly Stars._ Martin, M. E.
_Ways of the Planets._ Martin, M. E.
_Easy Guide to the Constellations._ Gall, James.
_Sun Lore of All Ages._ Olcott, W. T.

  ART:
_Composition._ Dow.
_How to Judge a Picture._ Van Dyke.

  ARTS AND CRAFTS:
_Art Crafting in Metals for Amateurs._ Chandler.
_Art Crafts for Beginners._ Sanford, F. E.
_Dan Beard's Books._

  BIRDS: (_see also_ NATURALIST.)
_Birds of Village and Field._ Merriam, Florence A.
_Birds and Bees._ Burroughs, John.
_Squirrels and Other Fur Bearers._ Burroughs, John.
_Sharp Eyes._ Gibson, Wm. H.
_Chapman's Books on Birds--According to Locality._
_Bird Guide._ Reed, Chester A.
_Bird Craft._ Wright, M. A.
_How to Attract the Birds._ Trafton, G.

  BOATSWAIN:
_Boys' Outdoor Vacation Book._ Verrill, A. H.
_Harper's Boating Book for Boys._ Verrill, A. H.

  CHILD NURSE:
_Baby Clothing._ Hitching, W.
_Care and Feeding of Children._ Holt, L. E.
_Care and Training of Children._ Kerr, L.
_Care of Milk and Its Use in the Home._ U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.

  CLERK:
_Goodwin's Improved Bookkeeping and Business Manual._ Goodwin, J. H.
_Handbook of Style._ (_Punctuation._) Houghton, Mifflin.
_Modern Business Arithmetic._ Curtis, U.
_New Practical Typewriting._

  COOK, INVALID COOKING:
_Boston Cooking-School Cook Book._ Fanner, F. A.
_Food for the Invalid and the Convalescent._ Gibbs, W. S.
_Mary Frances Cook Book._ Fryer, J. E.
_When Mother Lets Us Cook._ Johnson, C.

  DAIRY MAID:
_Dairy Chemistry._ Snyder, H.
_Milk and Its Products._ Wing, H. H.
_Official Travelers' Babcock Test._ Creamery Package Manufacturing Co.,
Chicago.

  ELECTRICIAN:
_A. B. C. of Electricity._ Meadowcroft, W. H.
_Boy Electrician._ Morgan, A. P.
_Electricity for Young People._ Jenks, T.
_Harper's Beginning Electricity._ Shafer, D. C.
_Harper's Electricity Book for Boys._ Adams, J. H.

  FARMER:
_Bees._ (_Farmers' Bulletin 447._) U. S. Dept. of Agr.
_How to Keep Bees._ Comstock, A. B.
_Hints to Poultry Raisers._ (_Farmers' Bulletin 528._) U. S. Dept. of Agr.
_Incubation and Incubators._ (_Farmers' Bulletin 236._) U. S. Dept. of Agr.
_Pig Management._ (_Farmers' Bulletin 205._) U. S. Dept. of Agr.
_Poultry Management._ (_Farmers' Bulletin 287._) U. S. Dept. of Agr.
_First Book of Birds._ Miller.
_Second Book of Birds._ Miller.
_Our Home Pets._ Miller.
_The Garden Book for Young People._ Lounsberry.
_Bird Stories from Burroughs._
_Butterflies and Bees._ Morley.
_Insect Stories._ Kellog.
_The Scout Garden._ Bennet, F. H.

  GARDENS:
_Children's Gardens for Pleasure, Health and Education._ Parsons, H. G.
_Garden Primer._ Tabor, G.
_Harper's Book for Young Gardeners._ Verrill, A. H.
_School Garden Book._ Weed, Clarence.
_When Mother Lets Us Garden._ Duncan, F.
_First Book of Birds._ Miller, O. T.
_Second Book of Birds._ Miller, O. T.
_Our Home Pets._ Miller, O. T.
_Little Gardens for Boys and Girls._ Higgins, M.
_The Garden Book for Young People._ Lounsberry.
_Bird Stories._ Burroughs.
_Butterflies and Bees._ Morley.
_Insect Stories._ Kellog.
_The Scout Garden._ Bennet, F. H.

  HEALTH:
_Body at Work._ Jewett, F: G.
_Good Health._ Jewett, F. G.
_Personal Hygiene._ Pyle.
_Handbook Girls' Branch of Public School Athletic League._ Burchenal.
_The Human Mechanism._ Hough & Sedgwick.

  HOUSEKEEPER:
_Good Housekeeping Magazine._ Gilman, E. H.
_Housekeeping._ (Children's Library of Work and Play.) Gilman, E. H.
_How to Live on a Small Income._ Hewitt, E. C.
_Manual of Household Work and Management._ Butterworth.
_Mary Frances, Housekeeper._ Fryer, J. E.

  LAUNDRESS:
_Laundry Manual._ Balderston, L. R.
_Housekeeping._ (_Children's Library of Work and Play._) Gilman, E.
H.

  MUSICAL:
_Dictionary of Music and Musicians._ Gove, G.
_Operas that Every Child Should Know._ Bacon, M. S.
_Stories from the Operas._ Davidson.
_Story of Music and Musicians._ Millie, L. C.
_Young People's Story of Music._ Whitcomb, I. P.
_Intervals, Theory, Chords, and Ear Training._ Brown, J. P.

  NATURALIST:
_Bird-Life._ Chapman, F. M.
_Bird Neighbors._ Blanchan, N.
_Flower Guide._ Reed, C. A.
_Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America._ Chapman, F. M.
_How to Attract the Birds._ Blanchan, N.
_How to Know the Wild Flowers._ Parsons, F. T.
_Land Birds._ Reed, C. A.
_Nature Library._ Doubleday.
_Standard Library of Natural History._ University Society.
_Wild Flowers Every Child Should Know._ Stack, F. W.
_The American Flower Garden._ Blanchan, Neltye.
_How to Know the Wild Flowers._ Mrs. W. M. S. Dana.
_How to Know the Ferns._ Parsons, Frances T.
_Primer of Forestry._ Pinchot, Gifford.
_Our Native Trees._ Keeler, Harriet L.

_Ways of Wood Fowls._ Long, Wm. D.
_Secrets of the Woods._ Long, Wm. D.
_Lives of the Hunted._ Seton-Thompson, Ernest.
_Wild Animals I Have Known._ Seton-Thompson, Ernest.
_Jungle Books._ Kipling, Rudyard.
_Our National Parks._ Muir, John.
_Earth and Its Story._ Hulprin, Angels.

_Naturalist._ Trafton.

  NEEDLEWOMAN:
_Easy Steps in Sewing._ Fryer, J. E.
_Home Art Crochet Book._ Klickmann, F.
_Magic of Dress._ Gould.
_Needlecraft._ (_Children's Library of Work and Play._) Archer, E. A.
_Sewing for Little Girls._ Foster, O. H.
_Three Hundred Things a Bright Girl Can Do._ Kelley, L. E.
_When Mother Lets Us Sew._ Johnson, C.

  PIONEER:
_Boy's Camp Book._ Cave, E.
_Boy Scout's Hike Book._ Cave, E.
_Camp Cookery._ Kephart, H.
_On the Trail._ Beard, L.

  SIGNALLING:
_Official Handbook for Girls._

  SWIMMER:
_Swimming._ Brewster.

  TELEGRAPHIST:
_Official Handbook for Boys._ Boy Scouts of America.


GENERAL READING

  FAMOUS WOMEN:
_When I Was a Girl in Italy._ Ambrosi, M.
_Promised Land._ Antin, M.
_Lives of Girls Who Became Famous._ Bolton, S. K.
_Joan of Arc._ de Monvel, B.
_Girls' Book of Famous Queens._ Farmer, L. H.
_Life of Mary Lyon._ Gilchrist, B. B.
_Autobiography of a Tomboy._ Gilder, J. L.
_Historic Girlhoods._ Holland, R. S.
_Group of Famous Women._ Horton, E.
_Story of My Life._ Keller, H.
_New England Girlhood._ Larcom, L.
_Heroines that Every Child Should Know._ Mabie, H. W.
_Louise, Queen of Prussia._ Merz, H.
_Louisa May Alcott._ Moses, B.
_Life of Alice Freeman Palmer._ Palmer, G. H.
_Florence Nightingale._ Richards, L. E.
_When I Was Your Age._ Richards, L. E.
_Wonder Workers._ Wade, M. H.
_Jeanne D'Arc._ Wilmot-Buxton.
_Queens of England._ Strickland.

  FAIRY TALES AND FOLK LORE:
_Arabian Nights._
_Fairy Tales._ Andersen, H. C.
_Granny's Wonderful Chair._ Browne, F.
_Alice's Adventures in Wonderland._ Carroll, L.
_Fairy Tales._ Grimm Bros.
_Uncle Remus, His Songs and Sayings._ Harris.
_Celtic Fairy Tales._ Jacobs, J.
_Blue Fairy Book._ Lang, A.
_Pinocchio._ Lorenzini, C.
_Children's Book._ Scudder, H. E.

  HISTORY OF LITERATURE:
_History of the English Language._ Lounsbury, T. P.
_English Literature for Boys and Girls._ Marshall, H. E.
_Introduction to American Literature._ Pancoast, H. S.

  POETRY:
_Songs of Innocence._ Blake, Wm.
_Golden Staircase._ Chisholm, L.
_Poems of Childhood._ Field, E.
_Lyra Heroica._ Henley, W.
_Boy's Percy._ Lanier, S.
_Nonsense Books._ Lear, E.
_Story Telling Poems._ Olcott, F. J.
_Golden Treasury._ Palgrave, F. T.
_Book of Famous Verse._ Repplier, A.
_Child's Garden of Verse._ Stevenson, R. L.
_Golden Numbers._ Wiggin, K. D.
_Pinafore Palace._ Wiggin, K. D.
_Posy Ring._ Wiggin, K. D.
_Lays of Ancient Rome._ Macaulay.
_Longfellow's Poems._ Longfellow.
_Lady of the Lake._ Scott.
_Idylls of the King._ Tennyson.
_Robin Hood Ballads._ Parker.
_Rosemary and Rue._ Gordon.

  STORIES:
_Lisbeth Longfrock._ Aanrud, A.
_Little Men._ Alcott, L. M.
_Little Women._ Alcott, L. M.
_Under the Lilacs._ Alcott, L. M.
_Marjorie Daw._ Aldrich, T. B.
_Pride and Prejudice._ Austen, J.
_Little Minister._ Barrie, J. M.
_Lorna Doone._ Blackmore, R. D.
_Jane Eyre._ Brontë, C. M.
_Last Days of Pompeii._ Lytton, Bulwer.
_Girlhood of Shakespeare's Heroines._ Clarke, M. C.
_Friend of Cæsar._ Davis, W. S.
_Egyptian Princess._ Ebers, G. M.
_Silas Marner._ Eliot, G.
_Ramona._ Jackson, H. H.
_Hypatia._ Kingsley, C.
_Mr. Achilles._ Lee, J.
_Scottish Chiefs._ Porter, J.
_Cloister and the Hearth._ Reade, C.
_Daisy Chain._ Yonge, C. M.
_Peter and Wendy._ Barrie, J. M.
_Four Gondons._ Brown, E. A.
_Peep-in-the-World._ Crichton, F.
_Hans Brinker._ Dodge, M. M.
_Lass of the Silver Sword._ Dubois, M. C.
_Mary's Meadow._ Ewing, J. H.
_Peterkin Papers._ Hale, L. P.
_York and a Lancaster Rose._ Keary.
_Bimbi._ Ramée.
_Queen Hildegarde._ Richards, L. E.
_Castle Blair._ Shaw, F. E.
_Heidi._ Spyri, J.
_Mother Carey's Chickens._ Wiggin, K. D.
_David Copperfield._ Dickens.
_A Tale of Two Cities._ Dickens.
_The Talisman._ Sir Walter Scott.
_Little Lord Fauntleroy._ Burnett.
_Sarah Crewe._ Burnett.
_Six Girls._ Irving, F. B.
_John Halifax, Gentleman._ Craik, D. M.
_Last of the Mohicans._ Cooper.
_Pathfinder._ Cooper.
_Deerslayer._ Cooper.
_Otto of Silver Hand._ Pyle.
_Merry Adventures of Rab._ Brown.
_Treasure Island._ Stevenson.
_Black Arrow._ Stevenson.
_Jackanapes._ Ewing.
_Nelly's Silver Mine_, Jackson.
_Robinson Crusoe._ De Foe.
_Rab and His Friends._ Brown.
_Bob, Son of Battle._ Ollivant.
_The Call of the Wild._ London.
_Master Skylark._ Bennett.
_The Prince and the Pauper._ Twain.
_Harold, the Last of the Saxon Kings._ Bulwer-Lytton.
_The White Company._ Doyle, Conan
_Wonderful Adventures of Nils._ Lagerlöf.
_Tales of Laughter._ Smith.
_Richard Carvel._ Churchill.
_Hugh Wynne._ Mitchell.
_Quentin Durward._ Scott.
_Ben Hur._ Wallace.
_Holiday House._ Sinclair.
_Alice in Wonderland._ Carroll.
_Just So Stories._ Kipling.
_Eight Cousins._ Alcott.
_Juan and Juanita._ Baylor.
_Black Beauty._ Sewell.
_Birds' Christmas Carol._ Wiggin.
_Story of Siegfried._ Baldwin.
_Swiss Family Robinson._ Wyss.
_Six to Sixteen._ Ewing.
_Man Without a Country._ Hale.
_Tom Brown's School Days._ Hughes.
_Anne of Green Gables._ Montgomery.
_Barnaby Lee._ Bennett.
_Judith Shakespeare._ Black.
_Colonel's Opera Cloak._ Brush.
_Smith College Stories._ Daskam.
_Captains Courageous._ Kipling.
_Kidnapped._ Stevenson.
_Rudder Grange._ Stockton.
_A Gentleman of France._ Weyman.
_New Chronicles of Rebecca._ Wiggin.
_Polly Oliver's Problem._ Wiggin.
_Dove in the Eagle's Nest._ Yonge.
_Elizabeth and her German Garden._ (Anonymous.)
_Princess Pricelta's Fortnight._ Arnim, M. A.
_Days of Bruce._ Aguilar.
_Tales of King Arthur._ Lang.


BOOKS OF REFERENCE FOR MERIT BADGE

BIRDS:

     Birds as Weed Destroyers. Pp. 221 to 232. Illus. (From
     _Yearbook_, 1898.) Paper, 5c. _A 1.10:133._

     Birds that Eat Scale Insects. Pp. 189 to 198. Illus. (From
     _Yearbook_, 1906.) Paper, 5c. _A 1.10:416._

     Bookkeeping. Farm Bookkeeping. 1912. 37 pp. Illus. (_Farmers'
     Bulletin 511._) Paper, 5c. _A 1.9:511._

     Does it Pay the Farmer to Protect Birds? Pp. 165 to 178. Illus.
     (From _Yearbook_, 1907.) Paper, 5c. _A 1.10:443._

     Economic Value of Predaceous Birds and Mammals. Pp. 187 to 194.
     Illus. (From _Yearbook_, 1908.) Paper, 5c. _A 1.10:474._

     Fifty Common Birds of Farm and Orchard. 1913. 31 pp. Illus.
     (_Farmers' Bulletin 513._) Paper, 15c. _A 1.9:513._

     Food of Some Well-Known Birds of Forest, Farm, and Garden.
     1912. 35 pp. Illus. (_Farmers' Bulletin 506._) Paper, 5c. _A
     1.9:506._

     How Birds Affect the Orchard. Pp. 291 to 304. Illus. (From
     _Yearbook_, 1900.) Paper, 5c. _A 1.10:197._

     Migratory Movements of Birds in Relation to Weather. Pp. 379 to
     390. 1 illus. (From _Yearbook_, 1910.) Paper, 5c. _A 1.10:545._

     Relation of Birds to Fruit Growing in California. Pp. 241 to
     254. (From _Yearbook_, 1904.) Paper, 5c. _A 1.10:344._

     Some Common Birds in their Relation to Agriculture. Revised,
     1904. 48 pp. Illus. (_Farmers' Bulletin 54._) Paper, 5c. _A
     1.9:54._

     Some Common Game, Aquatic, and Rapacious Birds in Relation to
     Man. 1912. 30 pp. Illus. (_Farmers' Bulletin 497._) Paper, 5c.
     _A 1.9:497._

HEALTH:

     Health and Cleanliness--O'Shea and Kellogg--pp. 54-124.

HOUSEKEEPING:

     Butter.

     Butter-Making on the Farm. 1905. 31 pp. (_Farmers' Bulletin
     241._) Paper, 5c. _A 1.9:241._

     Canning Vegetables in the Home. 1909. 16 pp. Illus. (_Farmers'
     Bulletin 359._) Paper, 5c. _A 1.9:359._

     School Lessons on Corn. 1910. 29 pp. Illus. (_Farmers' Bulletin
     409._) Paper, 5c. _A 1.9:409._

     The Home and Family--Kinne and Cooley--pp. 96-137.

     Handbook of Domestic Science and Household Arts--Wilson--pp.
     273-276 and 55-58.

FARM HOUSES:

     Modern Conveniences for the Farm Home. 1906. 48 pp. Illus.
     (_Farmers' Bulletin 270._) Paper, 5c. _A 1.9:270._

FARMERS' BULLETINS:

    34. Meats, Composition and Cooking. Paper, 5c.
    131. Household Tests for the Detection of Oleomargarine and Renovated
         Butter. Paper, 5c.
    154. Home Fruit Garden, Preparation and Care. Paper, 5c.
    166. Cheese-Making on the Farm. Paper, 5c.
    180. Game Laws for 1903. Paper, 5c.
    185. Beautifying the Home Grounds. Paper, 5c.
    188. Weeds Used in Medicine. Paper, 5c.
    195. Annual Flowering Plants. Paper, 5c.
    197. Importation of Game Birds and Eggs for Propagation. Paper, 5c.
    218. School Garden. 2d revised edition. Paper, 5c.
    234. Guinea Fowl and its Use as Food. Paper, 5c.
    351. Tuberculin Test of Cattle for Tuberculosis. Paper, 5c.
    375. Care of Food in Home, corrected to Mar. 25, 1910. Paper, 5c.
    409. School Lessons on Corn. Paper, 5c.
    459. House Flies. Paper, 5c.

    468. Forestry in Nature Study. Paper, 5c.
    478. How to Prevent Typhoid Fever. Paper, 5c.
    506. Food of Some Well-Known Birds of Forest, Farm, and Garden. Paper, 5c.
    511. Farm Bookkeeping. Paper, 5c.
    513. Fifty Common Birds of Farm and Orchard. Paper, 15c.
    525. Raising Guinea Pigs. Paper, 5c.

FARMS:

     Figs. Smyrna Fig Culture in United States. Pp. 79 to 106.
     Illus. (From _Yearbook_, 1900.) Paper, 5c. _A 1.10:196._

FOREST FIRES:

     Attitude of Lumbermen toward Forest Fires. Pp. 133 to 140.
     Illus. (From _Yearbook_, 1904.) Paper, 5c. _A 1.10:337._

     Forestry in Nature Study (with Key to Common Kinds of Trees).
     1911. 43 pp. Illus. (_Farmers' Bulletin 468._) Paper, 5c. _A
     1.9:468._

     Grosbeaks. Our Grosbeaks and their Value to Agriculture. 1911.
     14 pp. Illus. (_Farmers' Bulletin 456._) Paper, 5c. _A
     1.9:456._

     Headache Mixtures. Harmfulness of Headache Mixtures (containing
     Acetanilid, Antipyrin, and Phenacetin). 1909. 16 pp. (_Farmers'
     Bulletin 377._) Paper, 5c. _A 1.9:377._

PERFUMERY:

     Can Perfumery Farming Succeed in United States? Pp. 377 to 398.
     Illus. (From _Yearbook_, 1898.) Paper, 5c. _A 1.10:135._

PLANTS:

     Plants Useful to Attract Birds and Protect Fruit. Pp. 185 to
     196. (From _Yearbook_, 1909.) Paper, 5c. _A 1.10:504._

     School Exercises in Plant Production. 1910. 48 pp. Illus.
     (_Farmers' Bulletin 408._) Paper, 5c. _A 1.9:408._

POISONOUS PLANTS:

     Some Poisonous Plants of Northern Stock Ranges. Pp. 305 to 324.
     Illus. (From _Yearbook_, 1900.) Paper, 5c. _A 1.10:206._

     School Garden. 2d revised edition, 1909. 41 pp. Illus.
     (_Farmers' Bulletin 218._) Paper, 5c.

     _Yearbook._ (Separates.)

    414. Cage-Bird Traffic of United States. Paper, 10c.
    485. Manufacture of Flavoring Extracts. Paper. 5c.


_Farmers' Bulletins_

(These Bulletins can be obtained in Washington Agricultural Department
for five cents.)

Woman's Edition of Red Cross Abridged Text-Book on First Aid, can be
obtained for 35 cents from Girl Scout Headquarters, 527 Fifth Avenue,
New York City.

Elementary Hygiene and Home Care of Sick, by Jane Delano.



INDEX


Accidents, 64, 131

Air, 121

Ambulance, 31

Archery, 82

Art, 142

Artificial respiration, 129

Artist, 32

Astronomy, 82, 142

Athletic feats, 55

Athletics, 48. (Also see Manual)

Attendance, 33

Automobiling, 33

Aviation, 33


Babcock test, 119

Badge, 29

Badges, merit, 31

Bandaging, 131

Bath, 122

Bathing, precautions, 65

Bird Study, 34, 142

Bleeding, 133

Boating, 64

Boatswain, 34, 142

Body, 9

Books, 13, 146

Bronze cross, 30


Camping, 57

Camp oven, 63

Captain, 22

Career, 15, 16

Carey, Arthur A., 86

Charades, 54

Child nurse, 35, 120, 142

Civics, 36

Cleaning, 106, 111, 115

Cleanliness, 96

Clerk, 35, 143

Clothing, 67

Commands, 78. (Also see Manual)

Commissioner, 20

Compass, 70, 71

Concentration, 18

Contents, table of, iii

Continental code, 75

Conventional signs, 72

Cook, 37, 109, 139

Council, Local, 3

Council, National, 2

Crafts, 142


Dairy, 38, 116, 143

Dampness, 96

"Day and Night," 52

Dismissal, 28

Dodge ball, 53

Dressing wounds, 132

Drinking water, 97

Drowning, 126


Ears, 99

Economy, 13

Eggs, 110

Electricity, 38, 143

Employment, 15

Endurance, 102

Enrollment, 27

Equipment, camp, 66

Executive committee, 2

Exercise, 98, 103

Eyes, 99, 124


Farmer, 39, 143

Fire, 58

First-Class Scout, 26

Flag, 136

Flag Salute, 141

Fracture, 132

Frostbite, 135


Games, 48. (Also see Manual)

Gardening, 39, 92, 144

Gas, 131

Golden eaglet, 30

Grades, 20


Habits, 12

Hams, curing, 120

Hand signals, 79

Hand-wrestling, 56

Headquarters, 1, 2

Health, 40, 98, 144

Helpfulness, 11

Home life, 106

Home nursing, 41

Horsemanship, 41

Housekeeping, 13, 23, 116, 119 and 144

Housewife, 106

Hygiene, personal, 96. (See Manual)


Ice rescue, 130

Illness, 118

Influence of women, 9

Insect bites, 134

Interpreter, 42

Invalid cooking, 37

Investiture, 27

Ivy-poisoning, 130, 134


Kim's game, 53

Knots, 68


Laundress, 43

Laws, 7

Leader, 23

Lieutenant, 23


Marksmanship, 43

Measurements, 100

Meats, cooking, 110

Medals, 30

Membership, 20

Milk, 116

Modesty, a Scout's, 12

Morgan's game, 54

Morse code, 77

Motto, 6

Music, 43


Naturalist, 41

Needlewoman, 41

Needlework, 107

Nose, hygiene of, 98

Nosebleed, 124

Novelty competitions, 49

Nurse, 24


Observation, 15

Officers, 5

Orders, camp, 65

Organizing, 4

Orion, 84


Patch, Scout, 107

Pathfinder, 44

Patriotism, 18, 136

Patronesses, v

Photography, 45

Physical development, 101 (Also see Manual)

Pioneer, 45

Pledge to flag, 141

Promise, Scout's, 6

Provisions for camp, 61

Pulse, normal rate, 123


Reading, 13, 146

Reference books, 142 (Leaders, also see Manual)

Respect to flag, 141

Routine, camp, 63


Salute, 3, 141

Sanitation, 94

Scoutcraft, 68

Scribe, 45

Sculptor, 52

Second-Class Scout, 25

Secretary, 21

Self-improvement, 9

Shooting, 81

Signaling, 75

Signs, 75

Snakes, 59

Song of the Fifty Stars, 86

Songs, 141

Stars, 83

Star Spangled Banner, 141

Stories, 142, 143

Strength, physical, 102

Study, 16. (Leaders, also see Manual, List of Books)

Sun clock, 90

Swimmer, 46


Tag, 53

Team games, 49

Teeth, 99

Telegraphy, 47

Tenderfoot, 25

Tests, 25

"Thanks" badge, 29

Thermometer, 123

Three Deep, 51

Thrift, 14

Time by stars, 83

Tourniquet, 134

Treasurer, 21


Vanity, 9

Vegetables, 115


Water, drinking, 58, 117





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