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Title: Mammals taken Along the Alaska Highway
Author: Baker, Rollin H. (Rollin Harold), 1916-2007
Language: English
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                 Mammals Taken Along the Alaska Highway


                                  BY

                            ROLLIN H. BAKER


                    University of Kansas Publications
                       Museum of Natural History


              Volume 5, No. 9, pp. 87-117, 1 figure in text
                           November 28, 1951


                        University of Kansas
                               LAWRENCE
                                 1951



     University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History

      Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, A. Byron Leonard,
         Edward H. Taylor, Robert W. Wilson

              Volume 5, No. 9, pp. 87-117, 1 figure in text
                           November 28, 1951


                        University of Kansas
                           Lawrence, Kansas


                              PRINTED BY
                    FERD VOILAND, JR., STATE PRINTER
                            TOPEKA, KANSAS
                                 1951
                             [Union Label]
                                23-7607



Mammals Taken Along the Alaska Highway

BY

ROLLIN H. BAKER



INTRODUCTION


Mammals from along the Alaska Highway were obtained for the University
of Kansas Museum of Natural History in the summers of 1947 and 1948 by
Mr. J. R. Alcorn, field representative of the Museum. He and his
family visited Alberta, British Columbia, the Yukon Territory and
Alaska in an automobile and trailer from June 9, 1947, to September 6,
1947, and again from June 8, 1948, to August 24, 1948. In 1947,
considerable time was spent by Alcorn in Alaska; trips were made on
the Steese Highway to Circle and on the Glenn Highway to Anchorage. In
1948, most of the collecting was done in British Columbia and in the
Yukon Territory but a side trip was taken to Haines, Alaska. The
collecting stations are shown in figure 1. Alcorn's 1,252 specimens
include several large series from areas where few or no mammals had
been taken previously. Time spent at each collecting station was of
short duration (usually less than three days) and although 56 species
and subspecies of mammals are represented in the collections, it is
recognized that not all of the kinds of mammals at any one locality
were taken.

For the loan of comparative mammalian material, grateful
acknowledgment is made to officials of the following institutions:
California Academy of Sciences; Biological Surveys collection of the
U. S. National Museum; Provincial Museum, Victoria, B. C.; National
Museum of Canada. The promptness of officials of the game commissions
of the provinces and territories concerned, in providing permits for
collecting also is acknowledged. A part of the funds for field work
was made available by a grant from the Kansas University Endowment
Association. Elevations above sea level are given in feet. Capitalized
color terms refer to those in Ridgway, Color Standards and Color
Nomenclature, Washington, D. C., 1912.


  [Illustration: Fig. 1. Map showing localities where J. R. Alcorn
      collected mammals in Alaska, Yukon Territory, British Columbia,
      and Alberta, in 1947 and 1948.]



COLLECTING LOCALITIES SHOWN IN FIGURE 1.


  Alaska

  1. Circle.

  2. Twelve Mile Summit, Steese Highway.

  3. Chatanika River, 14 mi. E and 25 mi. N Fairbanks.

  4. 1 mi. SW Fairbanks.

  5. North side Salcha River, 25 mi. S and 20 mi. E Fairbanks.

  6. Richardson Highway, 32 mi. S and 4 mi. W Big Delta.

  7. Yerrick Creek, 21 mi. W and 4 mi. N Tok Junction.

  8. Tok Junction.

  9. Fish Creek, 5 mi. N and 1 mi. E Paxson.

  10. East side Deadman Lake, 15 mi. SE Northway.

  11. Glenn Highway, 6 mi. WSW Snowshoe Lake.

  12. 1 mi. NE Anchorage.

  13. East side Chilkat River, 9 mi. W and 4 mi. N Haines.

  14. 1 mi. S Haines.


  Yukon Territory

   To avoid undue crowding, or overlapping, of symbols, two or more
   collecting localities, in some instances, are represented by a
   single symbol (solid circle) in figure 1.

  15. Junction Grafe and Edith Creeks.

  16. 6 mi. SW Kluane.

  17. East side Aishihik River, 17 mi. N Canyon.

  18. 25 mi. NW Whitehorse.

  19. { 2 mi. NNW Whitehorse.
      { McIntyre Creek, 3 mi. NW Whitehorse.
      { 1 mi. NE Whitehorse.
      { ½ mi. W Whitehorse.

  20. West side Lewes River, 2 mi. S Whitehorse.

  21. { Marshall Creek, 3 mi. N Dezadeash River.
      { Champagne, North side Dezadeash Lake.
      { SW end Dezadeash Lake.

  22. { 5 mi. W Teslin River, 16 mi. S and 53 mi. E Whitehorse.
      { 2 mi. W Teslin River, 16 mi. S and 56 mi. E Whitehorse.
      { West side Teslin River, 16 mi. S and 58 mi. E Whitehorse.
      { East side Teslin River, 16 mi. S and 59 mi. E Whitehorse.

  23. { Unahini River, 5 mi. N and 1 mi. E Dalton Post.
      { Unahini River, 3 mi. N and 1 mi. E Dalton Post.

  24. 1½ mi. E Tatshenshini River, 1½ mi. S and 3 mi. E
          Dalton Post.


  British Columbia

  25. 1 mi. NW junction of Irons Creek and Liard River.

  26. Screw Creek, 10 mi. S and 50 mi. E Teslin.

  27. { 15 mi. NW Kelsall Lake.
      { Stonehouse Creek, 5½ mi. W junction Stonehouse Creek and
      {     Kelsall River.

  28. 14 mi. N Fort Halkett, West side Smith River.

  29. West side Mt. Glave, 14 mi. S and 2 mi. E Kelsall Lake.

  30. North side Liard River, Fort Halkett.

  31. { Hot Springs, 3 mi. WNW junction Trout River and Liard River.
      { North side Liard River, ½ mi. W junction Trout River and
      {     Liard River.
      { ¼ mi. S junction Trout River and Liard River.

  32. 12 mi. S junction Trout River and Liard River.

  33. { NE end Muncho Lake.
      { SE end Muncho Lake.

  34. 10 mi. W Fort Nelson.

  35. North side Muskwa River, 4 mi. W Fort Nelson.

  36. South side Toad River, 10 mi. S and 21 mi. E Muncho Lake.

  37. Summit Pass, 10 mi. S and 70 mi. W Fort Nelson.

  38. North Fork Tetsa River, 4 mi. ENE Summit Pass.

  39. East side Minaker River, 1 mi. W Trutch.

  40. Buckinghorse River, 94 mi. S Fort Nelson.

  41. Beatton River, 115 mi. S Fort Nelson.

  42. 5 mi. W and 3 mi. N Fort St. John.


  Alberta

  43. Assineau River, 10 mi. E and 1 mi. N Kinuso.



ACCOUNTS OF SPECIES


Sorex cinereus cinereus Kerr

Cinereous Shrew

    _Sorex arcticus cinereus_ Kerr, Animal Kingdom, p. 206, 1792.
  (Type from Fort Severn, Ontario, Canada.)

    _Sorex cinereus cinereus_ Jackson, Jour. Mamm., 6:56,
  February 9, 1925.

_Specimens examined._--Total 56, as follows: _Alaska_: Chatanika
River, 700 ft., 14 mi. E and 25 mi. N Fairbanks, 3; N side Salcha
River, 600 ft., 25 mi. S and 20 mi. E Fairbanks, 10; Yerrick Creek, 21
mi. W and 4 mi. N Tok Junction, 2; E side Deadman Lake, 1800 ft., 15
mi. SE Northway, 1. _Yukon Territory_: 6 mi. SW Kluane, 2550 ft., 1;
McIntyre Creek, 2250 ft., 3 mi. NW Whitehorse, 2; W side Lewes River,
2150 ft., 2 mi. S Whitehorse, 2; SW end Dezadeash Lake, 4; 1½ mi. S
and 3 mi. E Dalton Post, 2500 ft., 10. _British Columbia_: Stonehouse
Creek, 5½ mi. W jct. Stonehouse Creek and Kelsall River, 9; Hot
Springs, 3 mi. WNW jct. Trout River and Liard River, 6; ¼ mi. S jct.
Trout River and Liard River, 4; 5 mi. W and 3 mi. N Fort St. John, 1.
_Alberta_: Assineau River, 1920 ft., 10 mi. E and 1 mi. N Kinuso, 1.

_Remarks._--Shrews from extreme northwestern British Columbia
(Stonehouse Creek) average slightly larger than typical S. c.
cinereus, especially in length of tail. These animals show definite
evidence of intergradation with the larger subspecies, _S. c.
streatori_, but are referable to _S. c. cinereus_. The pallor of some
shrews from east-central Alaska (Chatanika River and Salcha River)
suggests intergradation with the pale _S. c. hollisteri_.

Alcorn found the cinereous shrew at most of his trapping stations. It
was captured in mouse traps baited with "chewed" rolled oats; one was
taken in a trap baited with a grasshopper. Rand (1944:35) and Alcorn
each found this shrew to be one of the commoner mammals along the
Alaska Highway, but Alcorn did not find it to be so abundant as some
of the rodents in areas in which he trapped. The cinereous shrew was
taken principally in moist woodlands, grassy areas, and adjacent to
water. One female taken on July 18 was lactating.


Sorex cinereus streatori Merriam

Cinereous Shrew

    _Sorex personatus streatori_ Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna, 10:62,
  December 31, 1895. (Type from Yakutat, Alaska.)

    _Sorex cinereus streatori_ Jackson, Jour. Mamm., 6:56,
  February 9, 1925.

_Specimens examined._--Total 19, as follows: _Alaska_: E side Chilkat
River, 100 ft., 9 mi. W and 4 mi. N Haines, 10; 1 mi. S Haines, 5 ft.,
9.

_Remarks._--Average and extreme external measurements of the nine
adult specimens from 1 mile south of Haines are as follows: Total
length, 103 (98-105); tail, 45 (43-46); and condylobasal length, 16.2
(16.0-16.4). Corresponding measurements of an adult specimen (No.
1676, UKMNH) from Sitka, Alaska, are 108, 47, and 16.5. Measurements
of ten adult specimens from the Chilkat River, 9 miles west and 4
miles north of Haines, are 100 (91-106), 44 (40-50), 16.0 (15.5-16.5).
The slightly smaller average size of the latter specimens indicates a
trend toward the smaller _S. c. cinereus_, which occurs farther
inland. Skulls of some of the specimens from the Chilkat River have a
more slender rostrum than those of the specimens from 1 mile south of
Haines, and more nearly resemble _S. c. cinereus_ in this respect.
Evidently, as indicated by Jackson (1928:54), _S. c. streatori_
occupies only an extremely narrow strip of mainland in the vicinity of
Haines.


Sorex cinereus hollisteri Jackson

Cinereous Shrew

    _Sorex cinereus hollisteri_ Jackson, Jour. Mamm., 6:55,
  February 9, 1925. (Type from St. Michael, Alaska.)

_Specimens examined._--Two from _Alaska_: 1 mi. NE Anchorage, 100 ft.

_Remarks._--Both specimens of this pale subspecies were trapped, along
with six _Clethrionomys_ and one _Mus_, in a grassy area bordered on
one side by the road and on the other by a spruce forest. No. 21069,
[male]?, taken on August 21, is in molt, with one patch of new fur on
the rump and another along the midline of the nape and shoulders.


Sorex obscurus obscurus Merriam

Dusky Shrew

    _Sorex obscurus_ Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna, 10:72, December 31, 1895.
  (Type from near Timber Creek, altitude 8200 ft., Salmon River
  Mountains, now Lemhi Mountains, 10 miles west of Junction, Lemhi
  County, Idaho.)

_Specimens examined._--Total 12, as follows: _Yukon Territory_:
McIntyre Creek, 2250 ft., 3 mi. NW Whitehorse, 1; SW end Dezadeash
Lake, 2; 1½ mi. S and 3 mi. E Dalton Post, 2500 ft., 1. _British
Columbia_: Stonehouse Creek, 5½ mi. W jct. Stonehouse Creek and
Kelsall River, 4; W side Mt. Glave, 4000 ft., 14 mi. S and 2 mi. E
Kelsall Lake, 1; Hot Springs, 3 mi. WNW jct. Trout River and Liard
River, 1. _Alberta_: Assineau River, 1920 ft., 10 mi. E and 1 mi. N
Kinuso, 2.

_Remarks._--Some of the shrews taken in extreme southwestern Yukon
Territory (1½ miles south and 3 miles east of Dalton Post) and in
extreme northwestern British Columbia (Stonehouse Creek and Mt. Glave)
show evidence of intergradation with the coastal subspecies, _S. o.
alascensis_, in length of hind foot. These individuals have a long
hind foot (14 and 15); the hind feet of specimens from the other
localities listed measure 13 and 14.

Alcorn, like Rand (1944:35), found the dusky shrew to be less common
than the cinereous shrew; both were taken in the same trap lines. The
dusky shrew was taken at a higher altitude (4000 feet, on Mt. Glave)
than the cinereous shrew.


Sorex obscurus shumaginensis Merriam

Dusky Shrew

    _Sorex alascensis shumaginensis_ Merriam, Proc. Washington Acad.
  Sci., 2:18, March 14, 1900. (Type from Popof Island, Shumagin
  Islands, Alaska.)

    _Sorex obscurus shumaginensis_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
  Hist, 16:228, July 12, 1902.

_Specimens examined._--Total 3, as follows: _Alaska_: 1 mi. NE
Anchorage, 100 ft., 1; Glenn Highway, 6 mi. WSW Snowshoe Lake, 2.

_Remarks._--These three shrews, in comparison with those referred to
_S. o. obscurus_, are paler, and the one complete skull has a slightly
higher braincase. All of the specimens were obtained in grassy areas
adjacent to the roadway.


Sorex obscurus alascensis Merriam

Dusky Shrew

    _Sorex obscurus alascensis_ Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna, 10:76,
  December 31, 1895. (Type from Yakutat, Alaska.)

_Specimens examined._--Total 22, as follows: _Alaska_: E side Chilkat
River, 100 ft., 9 mi. W and 4 mi. N Haines, 12; 1 mi. S Haines, 5 ft.,
10.


Sorex palustris navigator (Baird)

Water Shrew

    _Neosorex navigator_ Baird, Report Pacific R. R. Survey, 8, pt.
  1, Mammals, p. 11, 1857. (Type from near head of Yakima River,
  Cascade Mountains, Washington.)

    _Sorex_ (_Neosorex_) _palustris navigator_ Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna,
  10:92, December 31, 1895.

_Specimens examined._--Total 20, as follows: _Alaska_: E side Chilkat
River, 100 ft., 9 mi. W and 4 mi. N Haines, 2. _Yukon Territory_:
McIntyre Creek, 2250 ft., 3 mi. NW Whitehorse, 11; SW end Dezadeash
Lake, 2; 1½ mi. S and 3 mi. E Dalton Post, 2500 ft., 3. _British
Columbia_: Stonehouse Creek, 5½ mi. W jct. Stonehouse Creek and
Kelsall River, 2.

_Remarks._--Those males with worn teeth seem to have a slightly longer
and deeper rostrum with a larger, more inflated cranium than specimens
of _S. p. navigator_ from Washington, but in other ways resemble
typical _S. p. navigator_. An adult male, with slightly worn teeth,
from Dezadeash Lake has sagittal and lambdoidal crests. All of the
water shrews were taken in July and early August and at the edge of
water in traps baited with rolled oats. None of the females had
embryos.


Myotis lucifugus lucifugus (LeConte)

Little Brown Bat

    _Vespertilio lucifugus_ LeConte, McMurtrie's Cuvier, Animal
  Kingdom, vol. 1, appendix, p. 431, 1831. (Type from Georgia;
  probably the LeConte plantation, near Riceboro, Liberty County.)

    _Myotis lucifugus_ Miller, N. Amer. Fauna, 13:59,
  October 16, 1897.

_Specimens examined._--Thirty-eight from _British Columbia_: NE end
Muncho Lake.

_Remarks._--The 38 bats were from a colony of approximately 75
individuals, found on the south side of a house. The paper was loose
and had buckled in numerous places allowing room for the bats to
ensconce themselves between the paper and outside wall.


Myotis lucifugus alascensis Miller

Little Brown Bat

    _Myotis lucifugus alascensis_ Miller, N. Amer. Fauna, 13:63,
  October 16, 1897. (Type from Sitka, Alaska.)

_Specimens examined._--One from _British Columbia_: Screw Creek,
10 mi. S and 50 mi. E Teslin.

_Remarks._--The specimen is considerably darker both above and below
than either of two specimens of _M. l. alascensis_ from Red Bluff Bay,
Alaska. Alcorn searched ten frame buildings in an abandoned camp on
the east side of Screw Creek, for bats and found only the one bat. It
was above some droppings. No droppings were found in other buildings.


Ochotona collaris (Nelson)

Collared Pika

    _Lagomys collaris_ Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 8:117,
  December 21, 1893. (Type from near head of Tanana River, about
  200 miles south of Fort Yukon, Alaska.)

    [_Ochotona_] _collaris_ Trouessart, Catal. Mamm. viv. foss.,
  p. 648, 1897.

_Specimens examined._--Total 14, as follows: _British Columbia_:
Stonehouse Creek, 5½ mi. W jct. Stonehouse Creek and Kelsall River,
1; W side Mt. Glave, 4000 ft., 14 mi. S and 2 mi. E Kelsall Lake, 13.

_Remarks._--In comparing specimens obtained by Alcorn with published
descriptions of _O. collaris_ in Howell (1924:35), it appeared that
measurable geographic variation might be present in this monotypic
species. Accordingly, comparisons were made with materials in the
Biological Surveys collection of the U. S. National Museum, the
Provincial Museum, Victoria, B. C., and the National Museum of Canada.
A comparison of specimens of similar ages showed that no subspecific
separation is justified although animals from the Yukon Territory,
British Columbia, and Northwest Territories, as compared with
available material from Alaska, tend to be grayer in color and longer
in total length with a slightly larger skull and greater alveolar
length of molariform tooth-row in both upper and lower jaws.

Specimens used for comparison were from the following localities:
_Alaska_: Mts. near Eagle (USBS), 15; 200 mi. S Fort Yukon (USBS), 2;
Upper Little Delta River, Glacier Creek, Mt. Hayes region (USBS), 1;
Glacier Creek, Mt. Hayes region (USBS), 3; Little Delta River, Slate
Creek, Red Mt. Camp, Mt. Hayes region (USBS), 1; Muldron Glacier, Mt.
McKinley (USBS), 2; Mt. McKinley (USBS), 3; Summit of Chugach Mts., on
Richardson Highway, N of Valdez (USBS), 1; Chitina River Glacier (Nat.
Mus. Canada), 3. _Yukon Territory_: McMillan Pass, Canol Road, mile
282 (Nat. Mus. Canada), 2; Rose River, Canol Road, mile 95 (Nat. Mus.
Canada), 8; Tepee Lake (Nat. Mus. Canada), 1; Conrad (Nat. Mus.
Canada), 1; near Teslin Lake (Nat. Mus. Canada), 1. _Northwest
Territories_: headwaters of Caracajou River, Canol Road, mile 111E
(Nat. Mus. Canada), 1. _British Columbia_: White Mt., Moose Arm,
Tagish Lake, Atlin (Prov. Mus., Victoria, B.C.), 2.


Lepus americanus macfarlani Merriam

Varying Hare

    _Lepus americanus macfarlani_ Merriam, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci.,
  2:30, March 14, 1900. (Type from Fort Anderson, near mouth of
  Anderson River, Mackenzie, Canada.)

_Specimens examined._--Total 3, as follows: _Yukon Territory_: W side
Lewes River, 2150 ft., 2 mi. S Whitehorse, 1; 5 mi. W Teslin River,
2400 ft., 16 mi. S and 53 mi. E Whitehorse, 1. _British Columbia_: 14
mi. N Fort Halkett, W side Smith River, 1.

_Remarks._--Alcorn reports seeing few hares on his two trips to
Alaska. Near the Miniker River, a geologist told him that the numbers
of these animals had steadily declined since 1943. One of three seen
in a spruce forest on July 8, 1947, near Whitehorse was taken by
Alcorn. A young one was captured in a rat trap in a building near the
Teslin River on July 5 of the same year.


Tamiasciurus hudsonicus columbiensis A. H. Howell

Red Squirrel

    _Tamiasciurus hudsonicus columbiensis_ A. H. Howell, Proc. Biol.
  Soc. Washington, 49:135, August 22, 1936. (Type from Raspberry
  Creek, about 30 mi. SE of Telegraph Creek, northern British Columbia.)

_Specimens examined._--Total 18, as follows: _Yukon Territory_:
McIntyre Creek, 2250 ft., 3 mi. NW Whitehorse, 1; W side Lewes River,
2150 ft., 2 mi. SW Whitehorse, 1; 2 mi. W Teslin River, 2400 ft., 16
mi. E Whitehorse, 1. _British Columbia_: 1 mi. NW jct. Irons Creek and
Liard River, 1; ¼ mi. S jct. Trout River and Liard River, 3; S side
Toad River, 10 mi. S and 21 mi. E Muncho Lake, 3; Summit Pass, 4200
ft., 10 mi. S and 70 mi. W Fort Nelson, 8.

_Remarks._--Rand (1944:42) experienced difficulty in assigning
subspecific names to red squirrels taken along the Alaska Highway in
northern British Columbia. Some variability as found by Rand is noted
in adults taken by Alcorn in this area. All of the specimens assigned
to _T. h. columbiensis_ have a darker tail and more tawny feet than
_T. h. preblei_. The average of skulls of adults is smaller than the
skull of an adult of _T. h. preblei_ from Yerrick Creek, Alaska.

Alcorn obtained most of the squirrels in rat traps and steel traps,
using "chewed" rolled oats as well as bits of fish and mouse bodies as
bait.


Tamiasciurus hudsonicus petulans (Osgood)

Red Squirrel

    _Sciurus hudsonicus petulans_ Osgood, N. Amer. Fauna, 19:27,
  October 6, 1900. (Type from Glacier, White Pass, Alaska.)

    _T[amiasciurus]. hudsonicus petulans_ A. H. Howell, Proc. Biol.
  Soc. Washington, 49:136, August 22, 1936.

_Specimens examined._--Total 7, as follows: _Alaska_: 1 mi. S Haines,
5 ft., 2. _Yukon Territory_: SW end Dezadeash Lake, 1; 1½ mi. E
Tatshenshini River, 1½mi. S and 3 mi. E Dalton Post, 4.

_Remarks._--Specimens from extreme southwestern Yukon Territory appear
to be referable to this subspecies. The one adult female (skull only,
with body measurements) from the southwestern end of Dezadeash Lake
has a shorter skull than does any adult female of _T. h.
columbiensis_. No skins of adults are in the series, but the skins of
three subadults have darker upper parts, a darker tail and less
olivaceous sides than _T. h. columbiensis_.


Tamiasciurus hudsonicus preblei A. H. Howell

Red Squirrel

    _Tamiasciurus hudsonicus preblei_ A. H. Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc.
  Washington, 49:133, August 22, 1936. (Type from Fort Simpson,
  Mackenzie District, Northwestern Territories.)

_Specimens examined._--Total 3, as follows: _Alaska_: Chatanika
River, 700 ft., 14 mi. E and 25 mi. N Fairbanks, 1; N side Salcha
River, 600 ft., 25 mi. S and 20 mi. E Fairbanks, 1; Yerrick Creek, 21
mi. W and 4 mi. N Tok Junction, 1.

_Remarks._--In comparison with specimens of _T. h. hudsonicus_ from
Iskwasum Lake, District of the Pas, Manitoba, the squirrel from
Yerrick Creek, an adult female, is larger and paler on the upper parts
and tail.

The squirrel taken at Yerrick Creek was captured in a rat trap; Alcorn
found these animals to be "fairly common" in that area. He obtained no
evidence that the natives use them for food.


Marmota monax ochracea Swarth

Woodchuck

    _Marmota ochracea_ Swarth, Univ. California Publ. Zoöl., 7:203,
  February 18, 1911. (Type from Forty-mile Creek, Alaska.)

    _Marmota monax ochracea_ A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna, 37:34,
  April 7, 1915.

_Specimens examined._--Total 3, as follows: _British Columbia_: Hot
Springs, 3 mi. WNW jct. Trout River and Liard River, 1; ¼ mi. S jct.
Trout River and Liard River, 2.


Citellus parryii plesius (Osgood)

Parry Ground Squirrel

    _Spermophilis empetra plesius_ Osgood, N. Amer. Fauna, 19:29,
  October 6, 1900. (Type from Bennett City, head of Lake Bennett,
  British Columbia.)

    _Citellus paryii plesius_ A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna, 56:97,
  May 18, 1938.


_Specimens examined._--Total 42, as follows: _Alaska_: Richardson
Highway, 2000 ft., 32 mi. S and 4 mi. W Big Delta, 5. _Yukon
Territory_: 6 mi. SW Kluane, 2550 ft., 1; McIntyre Creek, 2250 ft., 3
mi. NW Whitehorse, 1; 2 mi. NNW Whitehorse, 2100 ft., 1; 1 mi. NE
Whitehorse, 1; ½ mi. W Whitehorse, 2150 ft., 1; SW end Dezadeash
Lake, 1; 2 mi. W Teslin River, 2400 ft., 16 mi. S and 56 mi. E
Whitehorse, 7; 1½ mi. E Tatshenshini River, 1½ mi. S and 3 mi. E
Dalton Post, 3. _British Columbia_: Stonehouse Creek, 5½ mi. W jct.
Stonehouse Creek and Kelsall River, 14; W side Mt. Glave, 4000 ft., 14
mi. S and 2 mi. E Kelsall Lake, 7.

_Remarks._--The specimens vary much in color; most color variation is
the result of wear and fading. In pallor of coloration the specimens
taken on August 16 along the Richardson Highway, 32 miles south and 4
miles west of Big Delta, Alaska, show some resemblance to _C. p.
ablusus_, which occurs to the westward, although in other diagnostic
characters these specimens are typically _C. p. plesius_.

Specimens in early stages of molt were taken on July 3, 4, and 14;
another specimen in an advanced stage of molt was obtained on July 10.
One melanistic individual was taken one mile northeast of Whitehorse
on July 11.

Alcorn found these ground squirrels locally abundant, especially in
the vicinity of Whitehorse in Yukon Territory. A large population was
observed along the highway west of the Teslin River; animals were
seen for several miles along the road, principally in open coniferous
forests where there was little or no underbrush. Alcorn caught several
animals near the city dump at Whitehorse. Along the Richardson Highway
he observed these ground squirrels almost continuously for
approximately ten miles. He comments that the animals appeared to be
more numerous in the man-cleared areas along the highway than in
"unmolested areas farther back from the highway." Specimens were taken
with collecting gun and in rat traps baited with "chewed" rolled oats.


Eutamias minimus borealis (J. A. Allen)

Least Chipmunk

    _Tamias asiaticus borealis_ J. A. Allen, Monogr. N. Amer. Rodentia,
  p. 793, August, 1877. (Type from Fort Liard, Mackenzie, Canada.)

    _Eutamias minimus borealis_ A. H. Howell, Jour. Mamm., 3:183,
  August 4, 1922.

_Specimens examined._--Total 10, as follows: _British Columbia_: N
side Muskwa River, 1200 ft., 4 mi. W Fort Nelson, 1; E side Minaker
River, 1 mi. W Trutch, 5; Beatton River, 115 mi. S Fort Nelson, 1; 5
mi. W. and 3 mi. N Fort St. John, 1. _Alberta_: Assineau River, 1920
ft., 10 mi. E and 1 mi. N Kinuso, 2.

_Remarks._--Specimens with worn pelage are conspicuously paler and
grayer than those in fresh pelage. Chipmunks in early stages of molt
with fresh pelage extending posteriorly to the middle of the dorsal
part of the back were taken on June 19, 20, and 22; others in fresh
pelage above, except for the hind quarters, were taken on June 15 and
on September 2.

Alcorn found this species nowhere abundant; for example, in 187 museum
special traps set near Charlie Lake, 5 miles west and 3 miles north of
Fort St. John, in British Columbia, he took only one chipmunk.


Eutamias minimus caniceps Osgood

Least Chipmunk

    _Eutamias caniceps_ Osgood, N. Amer. Fauna, 19:28, October 6, 1900.
  (Type from Lake Lebarge, Yukon Territory.)

    _Eutamias minimus caniceps_ A. H. Howell, Jour. Mamm., 3:184,
  August 4, 1922.

_Specimens examined._--Total 36, as follows: _Yukon Territory_: 6 mi.
SW Kluane, 2550 ft., 2; McIntyre Creek, 2250 ft., 3 mi. NW Whitehorse,
3; 2 mi. NNW Whitehorse, 2100 ft., 1; W side Lewes River, 2150 ft., 2
mi. S Whitehorse, 1; SW end Dezadeash Lake, 10; 5 mi. W Teslin River,
2400 ft., 16 mi. S and 53 mi. E Whitehorse, 1; W side Teslin River, 16
mi. S and 58 mi. E Whitehorse, 2; 1½ mi. S and 3 mi. E Dalton Post,
2500 ft., 5. _British Columbia_: 1 mi. NW jct. Irons Creek and Liard
River, 2; S side Toad River, 10 mi. S and 21 mi. E Muncho Lake, 6;
Summit Pass, 4200 ft., 10 mi. S and 70 mi. W Fort Nelson, 3.

_Remarks._--Some of the specimens taken between Summit Pass and Toad
River show evidence of intergradation between the paler and grayer _E.
m. caniceps_ and the brighter and browner _E. m. borealis_. Rand
(1944:41) also found evidence of intergradation between these two
subspecies in this area.

Along the highway, Alcorn found this species to be somewhat more
abundant in the Yukon Territory than in British Columbia. He often
found the animals occupying abandoned road camps; seemingly they were
more numerous in these areas than in undisturbed natural habitat.


Glaucomys sabrinus zaphaeus (Osgood)

Flying Squirrel

    _Sciuropterus alpinus zaphaeus_ Osgood, Proc. Biol. Soc.
  Washington, 18:133, April 18, 1905. (Type from Helm Bay, Cleveland
  Peninsula, southeastern Alaska.)

    _Glaucomys sabrinus zaphaeus_ A. H. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna, 44:43,
  June 13, 1918.

_Specimens examined._--One from _Yukon Territory_: 1½ mi. S and 3
mi. E Dalton Post, 2500 ft.

_Remarks._--Although comparative material is not available at this
writing, descriptions in the literature indicate that this single
adult female belongs to the coastal form, _G. s. zaphaeus_. In both
color and in cranial and external measurements, this specimen appears
to agree closely with descriptions given by Howell (1918:43) and by
Cowan (1937:78 and 82), although its measurements are also in the
range of those given for _G. s. alpinus_ by Cowan (_loc. cit._). It
may be pointed out that Swarth (1936:402) regarded a specimen from 15
miles south of Atlin, British Columbia, as _G. s. alpinus_.

Measurements of Alcorn's specimen are as follows: total length, 331;
tail, 143; hind foot, 42; ear from notch, 23; greatest length of
skull, 41.7; zygomatic breadth, 25.7; mastoid breadth, 21.7; length of
nasals, 12.2; length maxillary tooth-row, 8.2; interorbital
constriction, 8.2; and postorbital constriction, 9.0.


Castor canadensis sagittatus Benson

Beaver

    _Castor canadensis sagittatus_ Benson, Jour. Mamm., 14:320,
  November 13, 1933. (Type from Indianpoint Creek, 3200 ft., 16 mi.
  NE Barkerville, British Columbia.)

_Specimens examined._--Two from _British Columbia_: Fort Halkett, N
side Liard River.

_Remarks._--Two beaver skulls obtained by Alcorn from trapper Johnny
Pie appear to be of this subspecies. Anderson (1947:133) records this
subspecies from the Liard River, in the area from which these
specimens were taken. The trapper told Alcorn that he shot these two
beavers in the winter of 1947-48 and hung the skulls in a tree.


Peromyscus maniculatus algidus Osgood

White-footed Mouse

    _Peromyscus maniculatus algidus_ Osgood, N. Amer. Fauna, No. 28:56,
  April 17, 1909. (Type from head of Lake Bennett, site of old Bennett
  City, British Columbia.)

_Specimens examined._--Total 93, as follows: _Alaska_: E side Chilkat
River, 100 ft., 9 mi. W and 4 mi. N Haines, 20; 1 mi. W Haines, 5 ft.,
7. _Yukon Territory_: 6 mi. SW Kluane, 2550 ft., 10; McIntyre Creek,
2250 ft., 3 mi. NW Whitehorse, 6; 2 mi. NNW Whitehorse, 2100 ft., 2; W
side Lewes River, 2150 ft., 2 mi. S Whitehorse, 16; SW end Dezadeash
Lake, 9; 1½ mi. S and 3 mi. E Dalton Post, 15. _British Columbia_:
Stonehouse Creek, 5½ mi. W jct. Stonehouse Creek and Kelsall River, 8.

_Remarks._--Specimens from the localities listed above are in the
geographic range of _P. m. algidus_ as outlined by Anderson (1947:
136). Specimens from the vicinity of Haines, Alaska, are slightly
darker indicating intergradation with _P. m. hylaeus_; Osgood (1909a:
54 and 56) also noted that intergradation between _P. m. algidus_ and
_P. m. hylaeus_ occurs in this area.


Peromyscus maniculatus borealis Mearns

White-footed Mouse

    _Peromyscus maniculatus borealis_ Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc.
  Washington, 24:102, May 15, 1911. Substitute name for _P. m. arcticus_
  Mearns. (Type from Fort Simpson, Mackenzie, Canada.)

_Specimens examined._--Total 214, as follows: _Yukon Territory_: 2 mi.
W Teslin River, 2400 ft., 16 mi. S and 56 mi. E Whitehorse, 8; W side
Teslin River, 2300 ft., 16 mi. S and 58 mi. E Whitehorse, 24; E side
Teslin River, 2300 ft., 16 mi. S and 59 mi. E Whitehorse, 7. _British
Columbia_: 1 mi. NW jct. Irons Creek and Liard River, 10; Hot Springs,
3 mi. WNW jct. Trout River and Liard River, 6; N side Liard River, ½
mi. W jct. Trout River and Liard River, 13; ¼ mi. S jct. Trout River
and Liard River, 20; SE end Muncho Lake, 5; S side Toad River, 10 mi.
S and 21 mi. E Muncho Lake, 45; N side Muskwa River, 1200 ft., 4 mi. W
Fort Nelson, 9; North Fork Tetsa River, 3900 ft., 4 mi. ENE Summit
Pass, 13; Summit Pass, 4200 ft., 10 mi. S and 70 mi. W Fort Nelson,
17; E side Minaker River, 1 mi. W Trutch, 18; Beatton River, 115 mi. S
Fort Nelson, 2; 5 mi. W and 3 mi. N Fort St. John, 7. _Alberta_:
Assineau River, 1920 ft., 10 mi. E and 1 mi. N Kinuso, 10.

_Remarks._--Specimens from 2 miles west of Teslin River resemble _P.
m. borealis_ more than _P. m. algidus_ both in size of skull and in
color, although I find it difficult to distinguish the specimens by
color.

Alcorn, like Rand (1945:43), found the mouse in almost every habitat
along the Alaska Highway. On the east side of the Minaker River, one
mile west of Trutch, Alcorn took 26 _Peromyscus_ and four _Microtus_
in 70 museum special traps baited with chewed rolled oats, set in a
grassy area where there were birches and clumps of willows.
_Peromyscus_ was usually abundant in old construction camps along the
highway; on July 27 in 50 traps set under abandoned buildings at
Summit Pass, Alcorn took 21 _Peromyscus_. Apparently, as Swarth
(1936:402) notes, the white-footed mouse makes itself at home in such
buildings, and local populations probably increase as a result of the
artificial environment that provides favorable conditions for
existence.


Neotoma cinerea drummondii (Richardson)

Bushy-tailed Wood Rat

    _Myoxus drummondii_ Richardson, Zool. Jour., 3:517, 1828. (Type
  probably from near Jasper House, Alberta, Canada.)

    _Neotoma cinerea drummondii_ Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
  7:25, April 13, 1892.

_Specimens examined._--Total 4, as follows: _British Columbia_: Summit
Pass, 4500 ft., 10 mi. S and 70 mi. W of Fort Nelson, 1; 5 mi. W and 3
mi. N Fort St. John, 3.

_Remarks._--Wood rats were obtained at only two locations, Alcorn's
field notes indicating that the animals were rare and spotty in
distribution. Rand (1944:44) comments that the rats were "scarce north
of the Lower Liard Crossing."

At both localities where specimens were taken, Alcorn noted first
their characteristic droppings. At Summit Pass, droppings were found
in a rock slide at the upper limit of timber line; one rat was taken.
At the trapping station five miles west and three miles north of Fort
St. John, droppings were found in and under an old abandoned building;
four young (two prepared) and one adult were obtained.


Synaptomys borealis dalli Merriam

Northern Bog Lemming

    _Synaptomys_ (_Mictomys_) _dalli_ Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc.
  Washington, 10:62, March 19, 1896. (Type from Nulato, Alaska.)

    _Synaptomys borealis dalli_ A. B. Howell, N. Amer. Fauna, 50:24,
  (June 30) August 5, 1927.

_Specimens examined._--Total 6, as follows: _Alaska_: E side Deadman
Lake, 1800 ft., 15 mi. SE Northway, 1. _Yukon Territory_: McIntyre
Creek, 2250 ft., 3 mi. NW Whitehorse, 5.

_Remarks._--The northern bog lemming is evidently not generally
distributed along the Alaska Highway but may be locally numerous in
cover of grass and sedge especially in marsh and bog habitat. Five
specimens were obtained in a grassy area 30 feet wide by 60 feet long
which was approximately 50 feet from McIntyre Creek in the Yukon
Territory. In 22 mouse traps set the first night in this locality,
three _Synaptomys_, six _Microtus_ and one _Sorex_ were taken. One
additional _Synaptomys_ was taken on each of the following two nights
in the same area. At Deadman Lake, Alaska, one _Synaptomys_ was taken
in heavy sedge bordering a small pond.


Clethrionomys rutilus dawsoni (Merriam)

Dawson Red-backed Mouse

    _Evotomys dawsoni_ Merriam, Amer. Nat., 22:650, July, 1888.
  (Type from Finlayson River, a northern source of the Liard River,
  lat. 61° 30' N, long. 129° 30' W, Yukon, Canada.)

    _Clethrionomys rutilus dawsoni_ Rausch, Jour. Washington Acad. Sci.,
  40:135, April 21, 1950.

_Specimens examined._--Total 126, as follows: _Alaska_: Chatanika
River, 700 ft., 14 mi. E and 25 mi. N Fairbanks, 17; 1 mi. SW
Fairbanks, 440 ft., 1; N side Salcha River, 600 ft., 25 mi. S and 20
mi. E Fairbanks, 15; 25 mi. S and 20 mi. E Fairbanks, 3; Yerrick
Creek, 21 mi. W and 4 mi. N Tok Junction, 32; Tok Junction, 1600 ft.,
1; E side Deadman Lake, 1800 ft., 15 mi. SE Northway, 9; 1 mi. NE
Anchorage, 100 ft., 9; Glenn Highway, 6 mi. WSW Snowshoe Lake, 1; E
side Chilkat River, 100 ft., 9 mi. W and 4 mi. N Haines, 2; 1 mi. S
Haines, 5 ft., 2. _Yukon Territory_: Jct. Grafe Creek and Edith Creek,
2; 6 mi. SW Kluane, 2250 ft., 4; 2 mi. NNW Whitehorse, 2100 ft., 2; W
side Lewes River, 2150 ft., 2 mi. S Whitehorse, 6; SW end Desadeash
Lake, 15. _British Columbia_: Stonehouse Creek, 5½ mi. W jct.
Stonehouse Creek and Kelsall River, 1; S side Toad River, 10 mi. S and
21 mi. E Muncho Lake, 2; Summit Pass, 4500 ft., 10 mi. S and 70 mi. W
Fort Nelson, 2.

_Remarks._--Specimens from one mile northeast of Anchorage show little
tendency toward _C. r. orca_ from the Prince William Sound area (see
Orr, 1945:73). One specimen from this locality is slightly darker than
the others.

Red-backed mice were numerous in most localities where Alcorn trapped.
A number of specimens were taken adjacent to and within abandoned road
camps, where second growth vegetation was rank. As in the case of _C.
gapperi_, he found _C. rutilus_ in varied habitats.


Clethrionomys gapperi athabascae (Preble)

Red-backed Mouse

    _Evotomys gapperi athabascae_ Preble, N. Amer. Fauna, 27:178,
  October 26, 1908. (Type from Fort Smith, Slave Lake, Mackenzie
  District, Northwest Territories, Canada.)

    _Clethrionomys gapperi athabascae_ Harper, Jour. Mamm., 13:28,
  February 9, 1932.

_Specimens examined._--Total 14, as follows: _British Columbia_: N
side Muska River, 1200 ft., 4 mi. W Fort Nelson, 1; E side Minaker
River, 1 mi. W Trutch, 3; 5 mi. W and 3 mi. N Fort St. John, 4.
_Alberta_: Assineau River, 1920 ft., 10 mi. E and 1 mi. N Kinuso, 6.

_Remarks._--These red-backed mice were taken in various habitats:
grassy areas in aspen and poplar forest, heavy spruce forest with no
undergrowth excepting lichens and moss, thick underbrush in river
flood plain, and at the site of an old sawmill. The northwestern
distribution of this species along the Alaska Highway as found by
Alcorn is approximately the same as that found by Rand (1944:44).


Ondatra zibethicus spatulatus (Osgood)

Muskrat

    _Fiber spatulatus_ Osgood, N. Amer. Fauna, 19:36, October 6, 1900.
  (Type from Lake Marsh, Yukon, Canada.)

    _Ondatra zibethica spatulata_ Miller, N. Amer. Land Mamm. 1911,
  p. 231, December 31, 1912.

_Specimens examined._--Total 2, as follows: _Alaska_: N side Salcha
River, 600 ft., 25 mi. S and 20 mi. E Fairbanks, 1; E side Deadman
Lake, 1800 ft., 15 mi. NE Northway, 1.

_Remarks._--One muskrat was shot in an old beaver pond on the north
side of the Salcha River. A skull from a carcass, that had been left
by a trapper the previous winter, was obtained at Deadman Lake.


Phenacomys intermedius mackenzii Preble

Lemming Mouse

    _Phenacomys mackenzii_ Preble, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 15:182,
  August 6, 1902. (Type from Fort Smith, Slave River, Mackenzie,
  Canada.)

    _Phenacomys intermedius mackenzii_ Crowe, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
  Hist, 80:403, February 4, 1943.

_Specimen examined._--One from _Yukon Territory_: SE end Dezadeash
Lake.

_Remarks._--A subadult taken only a few miles from the Alaskan border
in Yukon Territory constitutes an extension of the known range of this
species to the northwest. The mouse is evidently rare or irregular in
its distribution since Alcorn did considerable trapping in the area
from which only one was taken.


Microtus pennsylvanicus

Pennsylvania Meadow Mouse

The Pennsylvania meadow mouse is an abundant mammal along the Alaska
Highway. Alcorn obtained specimens at most of his trapping stations,
frequently in company with _Microtus oeconomus_ at the more northern
localities. A preferred habitat was grassy areas and willow clumps
along streams or at the edges of lakes. The best catches were made
along well-used runways, especially where there were piles of cut
grass. These runways were used also by _Clethrionomys_ and other small
animals. Specimens of _M. pennsylvanicus_ were frequently taken in
the daytime; one was taken on June 29 as it was swimming at the edge
of a small lake near the junction of the Liard River and Irons Creek
in British Columbia.

Lacking sufficient comparative material in the past, most workers have
considered that _M. pennsylvanicus_ ranges without appreciable
geographic variation throughout most of northwestern Canada and
Alaska, where it has been referred to the subspecies, _M. p.
drummondii_. Dale (1940), in studying collections made in British
Columbia and southeastern Alaska, found evidence of geographic
variation and recognized two new subspecies; thus he not only pointed
out geographically variable characters but reduced the size of the
range ascribed to _M. p. drummondii_. A later work by Rand (1943)
considered the northwestern populations of _M. pennsylvanicus_ as
being too variable to show distinctive groupings. The large collection
made by Alcorn offers evidence that other separable subspecies with
constant characters are present. Study of this material indicates the
presence of two unnamed subspecies, which are named and described as
follows:


Microtus pennsylvanicus alcorni new subspecies

_Type._--Female, adult, skin with skull, No. 21552, Univ. Kansas, Mus.
Nat. Hist., 6 mi. SW Kluane, 2550 feet elevation, Yukon Territory,
Canada; 24 August 1947; obtained by J. R. Alcorn; original No. 5240.

_Range._--Extreme southwestern Yukon Territory and adjacent parts of
Alaska as far south as Haines, as far north as Northway, and as far
west along the Alaskan coast as Anchorage and Tyonek.

_Diagnosis._--Size large (see measurements); color of upper parts near
(_l_) Brussels Brown; skull noticeably ridged; zygomatic arches heavy,
rounded and relatively short; rostrum heavy; auditory bullae not
greatly expanded; maxillary teeth relatively heavy and low-crowned.

_Comparisons._--From _M. p. drummondii_ (specimens from vicinity of
Whitehorse, Y. T., Trutch, B. C., and Kinuso, Alberta), _M. p.
alcorni_ differs as follows: Averaging larger in all measurements
taken except lengths of tail and hind foot, which are the same; color
of upper parts slightly paler and more gray and less brown; underparts
paler; zygomatic arches heavier, rounder and shorter; skull
proportionately more massive, except the auditory bullae which are
less inflated; maxillary teeth heavier and lower-crowned.

From _M. p. rubidus_ (specimens from Atlin, B. C.), _M. p. alcorni_
differs as follows: Averaging larger in all cranial measurements taken
except length of the maxillary tooth-row which is the same; color of
upperparts more gray and less brown; underparts darker; skull longer
with longer nasals and heavier zygomatic arches; skull of adult more
heavily ridged.

From _M. p. admiraltiae_ (specimens from Admiralty Island), _M. p.
alcorni_ differs as follows: Averaging larger in all measurements
taken; color of upper parts more gray and less brown, underparts
darker.

_Remarks._--_Microtus p. alcorni_ is a well-defined subspecies
differing markedly from adjacent subspecies by a larger and heavier
skull and broader, more rounded and heavier zygomatic arches.
Characters examined in the specimens available are constant. Specimens
from Haines are slightly darker than those from Kluane. An adult (No.
21534, UKMNH) from Northway has slightly more inflated auditory bullae
than those from Kluane. An adult from Tyonek (No. 986, UKMNH) has
richer brown upper parts. Measurements of this specimen resemble
closely those of animals from Kluane, although the rostrum is
noticably heavier.

Several adults were available from many of the localities of
occurrence of _M. p. alcorni_. At the locality 9 miles west and 4
miles north of Haines, there were four which were considered to be old
adults. These four had larger measurements than others considered to
be fully adult. In addition, the skulls were larger and more rugged.
There were occasionally old adults in other series. For the sake of
uniformity, I have not considered these aforementioned old adults in
the comparative studies of younger adults. This subspecies is named in
honor of J(oseph). R(aymond). Alcorn, the collector.

_Measurements._--Average and extreme measurements of six adults of
both sexes of _M. p. alcorni_ from the type locality are as follows:
Total length, 162 (149-172); length of tail, 43 (39-45); condylobasal
length, 26.3 (25.6-26.3); basal length, 25.2 (24.2-25.9); length of
nasals, 7.3 (6.9-7.5); zygomatic breadth, 15.3 (14.9-15.6); breadth
across auditory bullae, 12.8 (12.4-13.2); alveolar length of upper
molariform tooth-row, 6.4 (6.1-6.7). Seven adults of both sexes from 9
miles west and 4 miles north of Haines have the following
measurements: 158 (148-165); 45 (41-50); 26.1 (25.5-26.8); 24.8
(24.4-25.7); 7.3 (7.0-7.6); 14.9 (14.3-15.1); 12.2 (11.8-13.0); 6.2
(5.9-6.3).

_Specimens examined._--Total 65, distributed by localities of capture
as follows and deposited in the University of Kansas Museum of Natural
History: _Alaska_: E side Deadman Lake, 1800 ft., 15 mi. SE Northway,
7; 1 mi. NE Anchorage, 100 ft., 1; Tyonek, Cook's Inlet, 1; E side
Chilkat River, 100 ft., 9 mi. W and 4 mi. N Haines, 37. _Yukon
Territory_: 6 mi. SW Kluane, 2250 ft., 14; SW end Dezadeash Lake, 2;
1½ mi. S and 3 mi. E Dalton Post, 2500 ft., 3. Specimens reported by
Osgood (1904:35) have not been seen by me but may be of this
subspecies, and are tentatively referred to it. These are from the
following localities in Alaska: Lake Clark near Keejik, near the mouth
of the Chulitna River, and Kakhtul River near the junction with the
Malchatna.


Microtus pennsylvanicus tananaensis new subspecies

_Type._--Female, adult, skin with skull, No. 21509, Univ. Kansas, Mus.
Nat. Hist., Yerrick Creek, 21 mi. W and 4 mi. N Tok Junction, Alaska;
20 July 1947; obtained by J. R. Alcorn; original No. 5023.

_Range._--East-central Alaska as far south as Tok Junction, as far
west as Mt. McKinley, as far north as Fairbanks and as far east as
Eagle.

_Diagnosis._--Size medium (see measurements); color of upper parts
dark, near (_n_) Prout's Brown, with some individual variation; skull
with zygomatic arches moderately heavy and wide; nasals relatively
long; auditory bullae inflated.

_Comparisons._--From _M. p. alcorni_ (see description), _M. p.
tananaensis_ differs as follows: Smaller in all measurements taken
except alveolar length of upper molariform tooth-row which is the
same; color of upper parts darker, more richly brown and less gray;
underparts darker; zygomatic arches less massive and narrower;
auditory bullae larger and more inflated.

From _M. p. drummondii_ (see comparisons under _M. p. alcorni_), _M.
p. tananaensis_ differs as follows: Larger in all cranial measurements
taken except nasal length which is the same; color everywhere slightly
darker; wider across zygomatic arches; zygoma thicker; nasals,
relative to length of skull, shorter; auditory bullae larger and more
inflated.

_Remarks._--For the most part the material available of this
subspecies consisted of subadults; however, comparison of adults with
those of adjacent subspecies indicates that this subspecies can be
distinguished by color of the upper parts, cranial measurements, and
size of the zygomatic arches and the auditory bullae. Specimens from
14 miles east and 25 miles north of Fairbanks are especially dark. One
subadult (No. 21467, UKMNH) has blackish hair on the feet and a
blackish unicolored tail. No. 241696, USBS, an old adult female, from
Ketchumstock, is larger.

The specimens referred to this subspecies, vary some in color, but
vary less in cranial characters. Additional adults are needed from
western Alaska to determine how far this subspecies extends down the
valley of the Yukon River. Bailey (1900:24) lists one specimen from
Nulato, as _drummondii_; I have not seen it but on geographic grounds
tentatively assign it to _M. p. tananaensis_.

_Measurements._--Measurements of the type specimen are as follows:
Total length, 160; length of tail, 40; condylobasal length, 26.0;
basal length, 24.9; length of nasals, 6.7; zygomatic breadth, 14.5;
breadth across auditory bullae, 12.5; alveolar length of upper
molariform tooth-row, 6.2. Two specimens from Eagle (Nos. 128295 and
128320, USBS) have the following measurements respectively: 161, 154;
37.5, 36; 25.3, 25.4; 23.8, 23.9; 6.5, 6.8; 14.5, 14.6; 11.9, 12.3;
6.1, 6.1.

_Specimens examined._--Total 34, distributed by localities of capture
as follows and unless otherwise stated in the University of Kansas
Museum of Natural History: _Alaska_: Near Buster Creek, Chatanika
River, 1 (USBS); Chatanika River, 700 ft., 14 mi. E and 25 mi. N
Fairbanks, 4; Fairbanks, 2 (USBS); head of Glacier Creek, Mt.
McKinley, 1 (USBS); Moose Creek, Mt. McKinley, 2 (USBS); head of
Toklat River, 1 (USBS); Eagle, 4 (USBS); Yerrick Creek, 21 mi. W and 4
mi. N Tok Junction, 13; Ketchumstock, 2 (USBS); 9 mi. from mouth of
Robertson River, 1 (USBS); Tanana, 3 (USBS); Tanana Crossing, 1
(USBS). Osgood (1909b:24) records specimens which may be of this
subspecies from the following localities in Alaska: Charlie Creek,
Circle, 20 miles above Circle, 40 miles above Circle, Nation Creek,
and Seventy Mile Creek. Osgood (1900:36) also records specimens from
near Fort Yukon. None of these has been seen by me; they are only
tentatively assigned to this subspecies.


Microtus pennsylvanicus drummondii (Audubon and Bachman)

    _Arvicola drummondii_ Audubon and Bachman, Quadr. North Amer.,
  3:166, 1854. (Type, by subsequent designation, from vicinity of
  Jasper House, Alberta.)

    _Microtus pennsylvanicus drummondii_ Hollister, Canadian Alp. Jour.,
  Special Number, p. 23, February 17, 1913.

_Specimens examined._--Total 93, as follows: _Yukon Territory_:
McIntyre Creek, 2250 ft., 3 mi. NW Whitehorse, 26; W side Lewes River,
2150 ft., 2 mi. S Whitehorse, 4; 5 mi. W Teslin River, 2400 ft., 16
mi. S and 53 mi. E Whitehorse, 7; E side Teslin River, 2300 ft., 16
mi. S and 59 mi. E Whitehorse, 1. _British Columbia_: 1 mi. NW jct.
Irons Creek and Liard River, 8; Hot Springs, 3 mi. WNW jct. Trout
River and Liard River, 3; N side Liard River, ½ mi. W jct. Liard River
and Trout River, 1; ¼ mi. S jct. Trout River and Liard River, 13; S
side Toad River, 10 mi. S and 21 mi. E Muncho Lake, 2; Summit Pass,
4200 ft., 10 mi. S and 70 mi. W Fort Nelson, 2; E side Minaker River,
1 mi. W Trutch, 19; Beatton River, 115 mi. S Fort Nelson, 1; 5 mi. W
and 3 mi. N Fort St. John, 2. _Alberta_: Assineau River, 1920 ft., 10
mi. E and 1 mi. N Kinuso, 4.

_Remarks._--Adults among the specimens listed above vary but little;
one female from Assineau River in Alberta is notably more reddish than
others taken elsewhere.

Average and extreme measurements of nine adults of both sexes of _M.
p. drummondii_ from E side Minaker River, 1 mi. W Trutch, British
Columbia, are as follows: Total length, 157 (148-165); length of tail,
42 (37-46); condylobasal length, 25.1 (24.7-26.0); basal length, 24.2
(23.4-25.0); length of nasals, 6.8 (6.4-7.2); zygomatic breadth, 14.4
(13.9-14.7); breadth across auditory bullae, 12.4 (12.0-12.7);
alveolar length of upper molariform tooth-row, 6.1 (6.0-6.2); Nine
adults of both sexes from McIntyre Creek, 2250 ft., 3 miles northwest
of Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, have the following measurements: 153
(147-168); 40 (33-47); 24.9 (24.2-25.5); 24.0 (23.6-24.6); 6.6
(6.2-7.2); 14.4 (13.9-15.1); 12.1 (11.7-12.5); 6.1 (6.0-6.2).


Microtus _cf._ cantator Anderson

Yukon Singing Mouse

    _Microtus cantator_ Anderson, Nat. Mus. Canada, Bull. No. 102,
  Biol. Ser. No. 31:161, [for 1946], January 24, 1947. (Type "taken
  in tundra-slide above timber-line on mountain top near Tepee Lake
  on north slope of St. Elias Range," Yukon Territory, Canada.)

_Specimen examined._--One from _Alaska_: Fish Creek, 3400 ft., 5 mi. N
and 1 mi. E Paxson.

_Remarks._--The single adult male, obtained by Alcorn, has been
compared by Dr. Henry W. Setzer with specimens of _Microtus muriei_
Nelson, _M. miurus miurus_ Osgood, and _M. m. oreas_ Osgood in the
United States National Museum. He reports that the specimen is related
most closely to _M. miurus_ but exhibits characters by which it is, at
least, subspecifically distinct from these two forms of this species.
Three specimens of _M. andersoni_ Rand and one of _M. cantator_
Anderson, borrowed from the National Museum of Canada are less mature
than the specimen in question. Even so, the male from Fish Creek is
less gray than _M. andersoni_ and as seen from measurements of the
type, an adult male (Rand, 1945:42), is larger with longer tail and
has a shorter and narrower skull and is judged to be taxonomically
separable. _M. cantator_ was named from two specimens; both the
paratype (seen by me) and seemingly the type are too young to show
clearly subspecific characters. Alcorn's specimen is tentatively
referred to _M. cantator_ until some adult topotypes can be obtained.
Measurements of the male, No. 21539, from Fish Creek, are: Total
length, 152; length of tail, 30; hind foot, 22; condylobasal length,
28.0; basal length, 26.6; length of nasals, 7.1; zygomatic breadth,
13.8; breadth across auditory bullae, 11.5; least interorbital
breadth, 3.3; alveolar length of upper molariform tooth-row, 6.2.

Alcorn took this specimen in an area above timberline where a low
growth of willow was the dominant vegetation. Traps were set where he
had seen a mouse go into a small burrow. The next morning, August 18,
1947, he found this specimen and two _Microtus oeconomus macfarlani_
in his traps.

Microtines of the subgenus _Stenocranius_ from continental areas of
Alaska and Northwestern Canada are represented in collections by a few
specimens from widely separated localities. Lacking material from
intermediate localities, describers have given specific recognition to
several of these isolated populations. Future collecting will be
necessary to disclose whether the North American mice of this subgenus
belong to one or to more than one species and may disclose whether or
not there has been more than one invasion of the North American
continent by members of this Asiatic group.


Microtus longicaudus vellerosus J. A. Allen

Long-tailed Meadow Mouse

    _Microtus vellerosus_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,
  12:7, March 4, 1899. (Type from upper Liard River, British Columbia,
  Canada.)

    _Microtus longicaudus vellerosus_ Anderson and Rand, Canadian
  Field-Nat., 58:20, April 1, 1944.

_Specimens examined._--Total 127, as follows: _Alaska_: N side Salcha
River, 600 ft., 25 mi. S and 20 mi. E Fairbanks, 1. _Yukon Territory_:
6 mi. SW Kluane, 2550 ft., 2; McIntyre Creek, 2250 ft., 3 mi. NW
Whitehorse, 10; ½ mi. W Whitehorse, 1; SW end Dezadeash Lake, 18; 1½
mi. S and 3 mi. E Dalton Post, 2500 ft., 24. _British Columbia_:
Stonehouse Creek, 5½ mi. W jct. Stonehouse Creek and Kelsall River,
20; Hot Springs, 3 mi. WNW jct. Trout River and Liard River, 4; ¼ mi.
S jct. Trout River and Liard River, 15; S side Toad River, 10 mi. S
and 21 mi. E Muncho Lake, 27; SE end Muncho Lake, 4; Summit Pass, 4500
ft., 10 mi. S and 70 mi. W Fort Nelson, 1.

_Remarks._--Specimens from 1½ miles south and 3 miles east of Dalton
Post and from Dezadeash Lake in Yukon Territory and from Stonehouse
Creek in British Columbia are referred to _M. l. vellerosus_ although
in color of upper parts they show close relationship with _M. l.
littoralis_. These specimens are less gray and more brown than
specimens more typical of _M. l. vellerosus_ from the Liard River
area.

Alcorn found the long-tailed meadow mouse in widely separated areas.
Most specimens were obtained in grassy situations near water or on
moist ground. The single male from Summit Pass in British Columbia was
taken above timberline.


Microtus longicaudus littoralis Swarth

Long-tailed Meadow Mouse

    _Microtus mordax littoralis_ Swarth, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
  46:209, October 26, 1933. (Type from Shakan, Prince of Wales Island,
  Alaska.)

    _Microtus longicaudus littoralis_ Goldman, Jour. Mamm., 19:491,
  November 14, 1938.

_Specimens examined._--Total 29, as follows: _Alaska_: E side Chilkat
River, 100 ft., 9 mi. W and 4 mi. N Haines, 9; 1 mi. S Haines, 5 ft.,
20.

_Remarks._--In comparison with the series of _M. l. vellerosus_ from
the Liard River area, the long-tailed meadow mice from near Haines are
more reddish brown, have a longer tail, and have a smaller skull with
smaller auditory bullae. This subspecies is restricted to the coastal
area, and as noted under the account of _M. l. vellerosus_,
intergradation between these two forms occurs a relatively short
distance inland.


Microtus oeconomus macfarlani Merriam

Tundra Mouse

    _Microtus macfarlani_ Merriam, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci.,
  2:24, March 14, 1900. (Type from Fort Anderson, Anderson River,
  Mackenzie district, Northwest Territories, Canada.)

    _Microtus oec[onomus] macfarlani_ Zimmerman, Archiv f. Naturgesch.,
  11:187, September 12, 1942.

_Specimens examined._--Total 70, as follows: _Alaska_: Circle, 664
ft., 1; Chatanika River, 700 ft., 14 mi. E and 25 mi. N Fairbanks, 13;
Twelve Mile Summit, 3225 ft., Steese Highway, 6; 1 mi. SW Fairbanks,
440 ft., 3; N side Salcha River, 600 ft., 25 mi. S and 20 mi. E
Fairbanks, 28; Yerrick Creek, 21 mi. W and 4 mi. N Tok Junction, 9;
Fish Creek, 3400 ft., 5 mi. N and 1 mi. E Paxson, 3; Glenn Highway, 6
mi. WSW Snowshoe Lake, 1. _Yukon Territory_: Jct. Grafe and Edith
Creeks, 1; 6 mi. SW Kluane, 2550 ft., 2; SW end Dezadeash Lake, 1.
_British Columbia_: Stonehouse Creek, 5½ mi. W jct. Stonehouse Creek
and Kelsall River, 2.

_Remarks._--Alcorn found the tundra mouse in many of the localities at
which he trapped in east-central Alaska. Specimens were taken above
timberline, along roads, in grassy areas which had been cleared of
timber, and in low vegetation bordering streams. On August 17 at Fish
Creek, 5 miles north and 1 mile east of Paxson, Alaska, Alcorn
obtained one of these mice in a tree in the daytime. Immature
specimens taken at Stonehouse Creek are, to my knowledge, the first
records for this species in British Columbia.


Mus musculus Linnaeus

House Mouse

    _[Mus] musculus_ Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1:62, 1758.
  (Type from Upsala, Sweden.)

_Specimens examined._--Total 6, as follows: _Alaska_: 1 mi. NE
Anchorage, 100 ft., 2. _Yukon Territory_: McIntyre Creek, 2259 ft., 3
mi. NW Whitehorse, 2; 2 mi. NNW Whitehorse, 2100 ft., 1. _Alberta_:
Assineau River, 1920 ft., 10 mi. E and 1 mi. N Kinuso, 1.

_Remarks._--Alcorn took house mice in and near areas inhabited by man.
One mouse was taken near Whitehorse on July 10 under a building which
had not been occupied for one year. Another was taken at the
Whitehorse city dump. Near Kinuso, one specimen was obtained at the
site of an old sawmill.


Zapus hudsonius hudsonius (Zimmermann)

Meadow Jumping Mouse

    _Dipus hudsonius_ Zimmermann, Geogr. Gesch., 2:358, 1780.
  (Type from Hudson Bay, Canada.)

    _Zapus hudsonius_ Coues, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr.,
  ser. 2, 1:253, January 8, 1876.

_Specimens examined._--Total 8, as follows: _British Columbia_: 1 mi.
NW jct. Irons Creek and Liard River, 3; Hot Springs, 3 mi. WNW jct.
Trout River and Liard River, 1; E side Minaker River, 1 mi. W Trutch,
1; 5 mi. W and 3 mi. N Fort St. John, 1. _Alberta_: Assineau River,
1920 ft., 10 mi. E and 1 mi. N Kinuso, 1.

_Remarks._--The jumping mice listed above have been compared with
specimens of _Z. h. hudsonius_ from Ontario and Michigan. The zone of
contact between _Z. h. hudsonius_ and _Z. h. alascensis_ is still
unknown; Alcorn obtained no specimens between Irons Creek and
Whitehorse. To my knowledge there are no records from this extensive
area.

Alcorn took _Zapus_ in grassy areas at the edge of water, in an old
gravel pit, and at the site of an old sawmill. Animals were taken as
early as June 30 and as late as September 2.


Zapus hudsonius alascensis Merriam

Meadow Jumping Mouse

    _Zapus hudsonius alascensis_ Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
  11:223, July 15, 1897. (Type from Yakutat Bay, Alaska.)

_Specimens examined._--Total 18, as follows: _Alaska_: 1 mi. SW
Fairbanks, 440 ft., 1; E side Chilkat River, 100 ft., 9 mi. W and 4
mi. N Haines, 8. _Yukon Territory_: McIntyre Creek, 2250 ft., 3 mi. NW
Whitehorse, 4; SW end Dezadeash Lake, 1. _British Columbia_:
Stonehouse Creek, 5½ mi. W jct. Stonehouse Creek and Kelsall River, 4.

_Remarks._--Specimens taken by Alcorn were compared with
representatives of both _Z. princeps_ (Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon) and _Z.
hudsonius_ (Ontario, Michigan, Kansas, Wyoming). All have been
referred to _Z. hudsonius_ although one female from Stonehouse Creek
shows some tendency toward _Z. princeps_ in external measurements,
length of upper molariform tooth-row, and length of incisive foramina.


Erethizon dorsatum myops Merriam

Porcupine

    _Erethizon epixanthus myops_ Merriam, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci.,
  2:27, March 14, 1900. (Type from Portage Bay, Alaska Peninsula,
  Alaska.)

    _Erethizon dorsatum myops_ Anderson and Rand, Canadian Jour. Res.,
  21:293, September 24, 1943.

_Specimens examined._--Total 2, as follows: _Alaska_: Yerrick Creek,
21 mi. W and 4 mi. N Tok Junction, 1. _Yukon Territory_: 2 mi. W
Teslin River, 2400 ft., 16 mi. S and 56 mi. E Whitehorse, 1.

_Remarks._--Alcorn found little evidence of porcupines along the
highway. The female from the Teslin River was found under a building.
The female from Yerrick Creek was in dense underbrush in a spruce
forest and weighed 20 pounds.


Canis latrans incolatus Hall

Coyote

    _Canis latrans incolatus_ Hall, Univ. California Publ. Zool., 40:369,
  November 5, 1934. (Type from Isaacs Lake, 3000 ft., Bowron Lake
  region, British Columbia, Canada.)

_Specimens examined._--Total 2, as follows: _Yukon Territory_: 25 mi.
NW Whitehorse, 1. _British Columbia_: Buckinghorse River, 94 mi. S
Fort Nelson, 1.


Canis lupus pambasileus Elliot

Wolf

    _Canis pambasileus_ Elliot, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 18:79,
  February 21, 1905. (Type from Susitna River, region of Mount McKinley,
  Alaska.)

    _Canis lupus pambasileus_ Goldman, Jour. Mamm., 18:45,
  February 14, 1937.

_Specimens examined._--Total 3, as follows: _Yukon Territory_: E side
Aishihik River, 17 mi. N Canyon, 1; SW end Dezadeash Lake, 1; Marshall
Creek, 3 mi. N Dezadeash River, 1.

_Remarks._--Alcorn reported wolf sign at many of his camps along the
highway. Skulls were obtained from trappers.


Canis lupus occidentalis Richardson

Wolf

    _Canis lupus occidentalis_ Richardson, Fauna Boreali-Americana,
  1:60, 1829. (Type not designated, restricted to Fort Simpson,
  Mackenzie, Canada, by Miller, Smithson. Misc. Coll., 59 (no. 15):4,
  June 8, 1912.)

_Specimens examined._--Two from _British Columbia_: Buckinghorse
River, 94 mi. S Fort Nelson.


Canis lupus columbianus Goldman

Wolf

    _Canis lupus columbianus_ Goldman, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
  54:110, September 30, 1941. (Type from Wistaria, north side of Ootsa
  Lake, Coast District, British Columbia, Canada.)

_Specimens examined._--One from _British Columbia_: Screw Creek, 10
mi. S and 50 mi. E Teslin.


Vulpes fulva abietorum Merriam

Red Fox

    _Vulpes alascensis abietorum_ Merriam, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci.,
  2:669, December 28, 1900. (Type from Stuart Lake, British Columbia,
  Canada.)

    _Vulpes fulva abietorum_ Bailey, Nature Mag., 28:317, November 1936.

_Specimens examined._--Total 11, as follows: _Yukon Territory_: 6 mi.
SW Kluane, 2559 ft., 1; Marshall Creek, 3 mi. N Dezadeash River, 6;
Champagne, N side Dezadeash River, 3; 1½ mi. E Tatshenshini River, 1½
mi. S and 3 mi. E Dalton Post, 1.

_Remarks._--Specimens obtained are skulls only, mostly taken in the
winter months by trappers. One fox was found dead with porcupine
quills stuck in and around its mouth.


Ursus americanus cinnamomum Audubon and Bachman

Black Bear

    _Ursus americanus var. cinnamomum_ Audubon and Bachman, Quadr.
  North Amer., 3; 125, 1854. (Type from Northern Rocky Mountains.)

_Specimens examined._--Total 3, as follows: _British Columbia_: 10 mi.
W Fort Nelson, 1; Buckinghorse River, 94 mi. S Fort Nelson, 2.

_Remarks._--One large, unsexed skull from Buckinghorse River with part
of the rostrum gone has the frontal shield strongly dished. A young
adult female taken 10 miles west of Fort Nelson on August 23, 1948,
has the following external measurements: Total length, 1345; tail, 65;
hind foot, 256; ear from notch, 135.


Ursus species

Grizzly

_Specimens examined._--Total 5, as follows: _Yukon Territory_: E side
Aishihik River, 17 mi. N Canyon, 1; Unahini River, 5 mi. N and 1 mi. E
Dalton Post, 1; Unahini River, 3 mi. N and 1 mi. E Dalton Post, 2.
_British Columbia_: Buckinghorse River, 94 mi. S Fort Nelson, 1.

_Remarks._--Of three specimens obtained at the Unahini River, two
males resemble each other closely, while the third, an old adult
represented by an unsexed skull with broken cranium, is markedly
different, the skull being noticeably shorter with shorter rostrum and
lower jaw and other distinctive features. It closely resembles the
skull of an adult male taken at the Aishihik River. Furthermore, the
first two animals show close relationships with an unsexed skull which
Alcorn obtained at the Buckinghorse River in British Columbia.

Two males taken at the Unahini River in the Yukon Territory have the
following external measurements: Total length, 1933, 1812; tail, 150,
96; hind foot, 262, 260; ear from notch, 129, 131. Other specimens,
skulls only, obtained from native hunters, are partly broken. Alcorn
writes that the local hunters always shoot a grizzly in the head to be
certain that it is dead.


Mustela erminea arctica (Merriam)

Ermine

    _Putorius arcticus_ Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna, 11:15, June 30, 1896.
  (Type from Point Barrow, Alaska.)

    _Mustela erminea arctica_ Ognev, The mammals of U. S. S. R. and
  adjacent countries, 3:31, 1935.

_Specimens examined._--Four from _Alaska_: N side Salcha River, 600
ft., 25 mi. S and 20 mi. E Fairbanks.

_Remarks._--One ermine was caught in a rat trap; the others were taken
within 50 yards of the trapped animal by attracting them with
squeaking calls to within shooting range. One of the weasels
approached to within ten feet of Alcorn, while he was making the
mentioned call.


Mustela erminea richardsonii Bonaparte

Ermine

    _Mustela richardsonii_ Bonaparte, Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist.,
  2:38, January, 1838. (Type from Fort Franklin, at western end of
  Great Bear Lake, Mackenzie district, Northwest Territories, Canada.)

    _Mustela erminea richardsonii_ Hall, Jour. Mamm., 26:180,
  July 19, 1945.

_Specimens examined._--One from _Yukon Territory_: McIntyre Creek,
2250 ft., 3 mi. NW Whitehorse.


Mustela erminea alascensis (Merriam)

Ermine

    _Putorius richardsonii alascensis_ Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna, 11:12,
  June 30, 1896. (Type from Juneau, Alaska.)

    _Mustela erminea alascensis_ Hall, Jour. Mamm., 26:180,
  July 19, 1945.

_Specimens examined._--One from _Alaska_: E side Chilkat River, 100
ft., 9 mi. W and 4 mi. N Haines.


Mustela vison energumenos (Bangs)

Mink

    _Putorius vison energumenos_ Bangs, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.,
  27:5, March, 1896. (Type from Sumas, British Columbia, Canada.)

    _Mustela vison energumenos_ Miller, North Amer. Land Mamm. 1911,
  p. 101, December 31, 1912.

_Specimen examined._--One (broken and unsexed skull) from _Yukon
Territory_: Champagne, N side Dezadeash River.

_Remarks._--While studying moose at Medicine Lake, near Circle Hot
Springs, Alaska, on August 9, 1947, Alcorn observed some mink
concerning which he records the following: "After waiting about an
hour a large mink was seen traveling northward on land at the edge of
the lake. It continued and went out of sight. I waited about two
minutes and then started a series of loud squeaks. To our surprise we
soon saw what we judged was the same mink. In company with this mink
were five others.... These mink were much interested in the squeaking
noise and some came within 10 feet of me. They stayed on land most of
the time but some of them made short swims a few feet out into the
lake. One had a white chin, another had a white spot on its chest.
This group may have been an adult female with her young."


Martes pennanti columbiana Goldman

Fisher

    _Martes pennanti columbiana_ Goldman, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
  48:176, November 15, 1935. (Type from Stuart Lake, near headwaters
  of Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada.)

_Specimens examined._--Total 2, as follows: _British Columbia_: 14 mi.
N Fort Halkett, W side Smith River, 1; N side Liard River, Fort
Halkett, 1.


Martes americana actuosa (Osgood)

Marten

    _Mustela americana actuosa_ Osgood, N. Amer. Fauna, 19:43,
  October 6, 1900. (Type from Fort Yukon, Alaska.)

    _Martes americana actuosa_ Miller, N. Amer. Land Mamm. 1911,
  p. 93, December 31, 1912.

_Specimen examined._--One from _British Columbia_: N side Liard River
Fort Halkett, 1.


Lynx canadensis canadensis Kerr

Canada Lynx

    _Lynx canadensis_ Kerr, Anim. Kingd., vol. 1, systematic catalogue
  inserted between pages 32 and 33 (description, p. 157), 1792. (Type
  from Eastern Canada.)

_Specimens examined._--Total 4, as follows: _Yukon Territory_:
Marshall Creek, 3 mi. N Dezadeash River, 1. _British Columbia_: 14 mi.
N Fort Halkett, W side Smith River, 2; Buckinghorse River, 94 mi. S
Fort Nelson, 1.


Alces americana gigas Miller

Moose

    _Alces gigas_ Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 13:57,
  May 29, 1899. (Type from North side Tustumena Lake, Kenai Peninsula,
  Alaska.)

    _Alces americanus gigas_ Osgood, N. Amer. Fauna, 24:29,
  November 23, 1904.

_Specimens examined._--One from _British Columbia_: 15 mi. NW Kelsall
Lake.


Oreamnos americanus columbiae Hollister

Mountain Goat

    _Oreamnos montanus columbianus_ J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
  Hist., 20:20, February 10, 1904. Not _Capra columbiana_ Desmilins,
  1823.

    _Oreamnos americanus columbiae_ Hollister, Proc. Biol. Soc.
  Washington, 25:186, December 24, 1912. (Type from Shesley Mountains,
  northern British Columbia, Canada.)

_Specimens examined._--Two from _British Columbia_: 12 mi. S jct.
Liard River and Trout River.

_Remarks._--Two skulls of male goats were obtained from a trapper,
Johnny Pie, who shot them on July 4, 1948. Field notes indicate that
both mountain goats and mountain sheep are frequently taken by natives
in the Liard River area.


Ovis dalli stonei Allen

Northern Mountain Sheep

    _Ovis stonei_ Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 9:111,
  April 8, 1897. (Type from headwaters of the Stikine River,
  British Columbia, Canada.)

    _Ovis dalli stonei_ Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 31:28,
  March 4, 1912.

_Specimen examined._--One from _British Columbia_: Summit Pass, 4200
ft., 10 mi. S and 70 mi. W Fort Nelson.

_Remarks._--The specimen has the following external measurements:
Total length, 1474; tail, 84; length of hind foot, 400; ear from
notch, 91. The individual is a male, seven years old, as judged by the
rings of growth on the horns. The skull is accompanied by a skin now
tanned for study purposes.



  LITERATURE CITED


  Anderson, R. M.
    1937.  Mammals and birds of the Western Arctic District, Northwest
           Territories, Canada. Reprinted from Canada's Western
           Northland, Dept. of Interior, Ottawa, pp. 97-122, 5 figs.,
           1 map, July 9.
    1947.  Catalogue of Canadian Recent mammals. Nat. Mus. Canada,
           Bull. 102, Biol. Ser. 31:v+238 pp., [for 1946], January 24.

  Bailey, V.
    1900.  Revision of American voles of the genus Microtus. N. Amer.
           Fauna, 17:1-88, 5 pls., 17 figs., June 6.

  Cowan, I. M.
    1937.  The distribution of flying squirrels in western British
           Columbia with the description of a new race. Proc. Biol.
           Soc. Washington, 50:77-82, June 22.

  Dale, F. H.
    1940.  Geographic variation in the meadow mouse in British Columbia
           and southeastern Alaska. Jour. Mamm., 21:332-340, August 14.

  Howell, A. H.
    1918.  Revision of the American flying squirrels. N. Amer. Fauna,
           44:1-64, 7 pls., 4 figs., June 13.
    1924.  Revision of the American pikas. N. Amer. Fauna, 47:1-57,
           6 pls., 4 figs., August 21.

  Jackson, H. H. T.
    1928.  A taxonomic review of the American long-tailed shrews. N.
           Amer. Fauna, 51:i-vi+1-238, 13 pls., 24 figs., July.

  Orr, R. T.
    1945.  A study of the _Clethrionomys dawsoni_ group of red-backed
            mice. Jour. Mamm., 26:67-74, February 27.

  Osgood, W. H.
    1900.  Results of a biological reconnaissance of the Yukon River
           region. N. Amer. Fauna, 19:1-100, 7 pls., October 6.
    1904.  A biological reconnaissance of the base of the Alaska
           Peninsula. N. Amer. Fauna, 24:1-86, 7 pls., November 23.
    1909a. Revision of the mice of the American genus Peromyscus.
           N. Amer. Fauna, 28:1-285, 8 pls., 12 figs., April 17.
    1909b. Biological investigations in Alaska and Yukon Territory.
            N. Amer. Fauna, 30:1-96, 5 pls., October 7.

  Rand, A. L.
    1943.  Canadian forms of the meadow mouse (_Microtus
           pennsylvanicus_). Canadian Field-Nat., 57:115-123,
           January 24.
    1944.  The southern half of the Alaska highway and its mammals.
           Nat. Mus. Canada, Bull. No. 98, Biol. Ser. No. 27:1-50,
           21 pls., 1 fig.
    1945.  Mammal investigations on the Canol Road, Yukon and Northwest
           Territories, 1944. Nat. Mus. Canada, Bull. No. 99,
           Biol. Ser. No. 28:1-52, 20 pls., 1 fig.

  Swarth, H. S.
    1936.  Mammals of the Atlin region, northwestern British Columbia.
           Jour. Mamm., 17:398-405, November 14.


_Transmitted April 9, 1951._



       *       *       *       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes

  The text presented is essentially that in the original printed
  document with the exception of some minor punctuation changes and
  the typographical corrections detailed below.


Typographical Corrections

  Page 103 under Dawson Red-backed Mouse: Territoy  => Territory
  Page 104 under Muskrat:                 Mann.     => Mamm.
  Page 114 under Red Fox:                 procupine => porcupine


       *       *       *       *       *       *       *       *





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Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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