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´╗┐Title: Educational Work of the Boy Scouts
Author: Barclay, Lorne W. (Lorne Webster), 1885-
Language: English
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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

BUREAU OF EDUCATION

BULLETIN, 1921, No. 41

EDUCATIONAL WORK OF THE BOY SCOUTS

By

LORNE W. BARCLAY

          DIRECTOR OF THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
          BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA

       *       *       *       *       *

[Advance sheets from the Biennial Survey of Education in the United
States, 1918-1920]

[Illustration: Department of the Interior Logo]

                WASHINGTON
          GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
                  1921



                   ADDITIONAL COPIES
          OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
             THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
                GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
                   WASHINGTON, D. C.
                         AT
                   5 CENTS PER COPY



EDUCATIONAL WORK OF THE BOY SCOUTS.

By LORNE W. BARCLAY.

_Director of the Department of Education, Boy Scouts of America._

       *       *       *       *       *

        CONTENTS.--Scouting and the schools--Scouting and
          citizenship--The pioneer scout--Seascouting, a
          branch of the Boy Scouts of America--National
          Councils endeavor to discover vital facts in
          regard to the boyhood of the Nation--International
          aspects of scouting--Scout handbooks, organs, and
          other literature--Motion pictures for boys.

       *       *       *       *       *


SCOUTING AND THE SCHOOLS.

Scouting continues to enjoy the cordial indorsement of school men
everywhere all over the country. More and more those interested are
coming to see the enormous possibilities of cooperation between the
scout movement and the schools. Many schools now give credit for scout
work done outside of the schools. Many more are in hearty sympathy with
the program as an extraschool activity.

In 1919 there were organized in connection with public schools 1,942
troops and 170 in connection with private schools. The records also show
that for the same year 1,623 scoutmasters were also school-teachers.
Many troops have their meetings in the school buildings and in turn
render good service by taking charge of fire drills, first aid and
safety first instruction, yard clean ups, flag drills, etc.

Scout leaders take the utmost pains to see that scout activities do not
in any way interfere with school duties, and troop meetings are
regularly held on Friday evening for that reason. The best results have
been obtained not by formalizing scouting, but by supplementing and
vitalizing the book work by the practical activities of the scout
program. Through scouting many a boy's healthy curiosity to know has
been whetted, so that he comes for perhaps the first time in his life to
see "sense" in books. As one school man has said, "Scouting has done
what no other system yet devised has done--made the boy _want to
learn_."

The National Education Association, meeting in Chicago in 1919, had a
special scouting section which was particularly helpful, interesting,
and conducive to closer cooperation between the scout movement and the
public schools.

The department of education of the National Council is at present
engaged in working out the development of a national policy governing
the relations between scouting and the schools, for important and
successful as the work has hitherto been, it is believed that only the
very outskirts of the possible fields of mutual helpfulness have yet
been reached.


SCOUTING AND CITIZENSHIP.

The making of good citizens is one of the chief aims of the scout
movement. Everything in its program contributes directly and indirectly
to this end. Every boy who associates himself with the movement is
impressed with a sense of personal responsibility. If he sees a heap of
rubbish that might cause a fire or collect disease-carrying germs, he is
taught to report these traps to the proper authorities without delay. He
is enlisted in every movement for community betterment and good health.
Scouts are organized for service and have participated in hundreds of
city-clean-up and city-beautiful, and "walk-rite" campaigns. They fight
flies and mosquitoes and fever-carrying rats. They assist forest wardens
and park commissioners in preserving and protecting trees and planting
new ones. They help the police in handling traffic in crowded
conditions, as in parades, fairs, etc., and work with fire departments
in spreading public information as to fire prevention, as well as
actively participating in cooperation with fire brigades.

All this means the making of an intelligent, alert, responsible
citizenry, dedicated to being helpful to all people at all times, to
keep themselves physically strong, mentally awake, morally straight, to
do their duty to God and country.


THE PIONEER SCOUT.

In order that boys who live in remote country districts may enjoy the
benefits of the scout training, even though it is not possible for them
to join a regular troop, the Pioneer Division of the Boy Scouts of
America has been established. Pioneer Scouts follow the same program as
other scouts do, taking their tests from a specially appointed local
examiner, usually a teacher, pastor, or employer. On January 31, 1920,
there were 758 active Pioneer Scouts on record at national headquarters.
Much interest has been manifested in this branch of scouting, which has
been found to fill a real need among country boys. The State
agricultural departments and colleges have given generous aid and
indorsement, as have also the Grange, Antituberculosis League, and other
local institutions. The United States Department of Agriculture is also
lending its hearty support and indorsement to this branch of scout work.
The Secretary of Agriculture, the Hon. E. T. Meredith, says: "The Boy
Scout program fits in with the work of the rural school, the rural
church, the agricultural boys' club, and other rural welfare
organizations. They should go hand in hand."


SCOUTING AND AMERICANIZATION.

Mr. James E. West, Chief Scout Executive, makes the following statement
in his tenth annual report rendered to the National Council, Boy Scouts
of America:

          The tremendous value of the Boy Scout movement in
          the Americanization problems of this country has
          been recognized by the division of citizenship
          training, Bureau of Naturalization, Department of
          Labor, from whom was received a request that Boy
          Scouts distribute letters and cards among aliens
          in the interest of the educational work of the
          division of citizenship training. A study of the
          indorsements of the movement by national leaders
          (selected from the many received) will reveal
          similar recognition in such quarters. Many leaders
          in the organization, from coast to coast, have
          long recognized that the Boy Scouts of America
          enjoy a high privilege as well as a high
          responsibility in truly democratizing the boyhood
          of this country.

          The foreign-born boy and the son of foreign-born
          parents sit side by side with native-born boys (as
          they should) in our schools. They mingle in their
          play and in their homes. They are one boyhood. But
          it is a boyhood of marvelously diverse racial
          characteristics and tendencies. Moreover, this
          boyhood is the future manhood of America. And the
          boy inside each individual in this 8,000,000 or so
          of American youth instinctively responds to the
          Boy Scout program. As America is the melting pot
          of the nations, even so scouting is the melting
          pot of the boys of the nations.

          Fortunately, the program needs no modifications or
          special manipulation to "Americanize" its
          followers. It is inherently an Americanizing
          program. In Manhattan's crowded East Side, since
          1912, when the first scout troop was founded
          there, thousands of boys have taken the Scout Oath
          and Law and followed its principles and lived its
          out-of-door life. To-day there are 25 troops in
          New York City, numbering 800 boys. Every
          scoutmaster and assistant scoutmaster in the
          district is an ex-scout. These troops have a
          splendid record of war-service work, and it has
          been declared of them that they were the greatest
          single agency in operation rightly to interpret
          the war to their foreign-born neighbors.

          The aggressive introduction of scouting into all
          our industrial sections, the enlistment of the men
          of those sections (who are eligible) as local
          council members, troop committeemen, scoutmasters,
          the fullest possible round of scouting activities
          for the men and the boys in this country who do
          not yet know America, but aspire to be her sons,
          will help to solve all our industrial problems and
          preserve our national ideals and institutions.


SEA SCOUTING--A BRANCH OF THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA.

Sea scouting is another important branch of scouting which aims to
develop water scouting and nautical activities and training of all
sorts. Chief Sea Scout James A. Wilder says:

          Sea scouting is the way whereby scouting fulfills
          its obligation to the American boy to prepare him
          for emergencies on water as well as on land. High
          officials of the Navy and the merchant marine have
          expressed their unqualified approval of the entire
          program of seamanship, watermanship, cloud study,
          sailmaking, boats under oars and sail, shore
          camping, and the other fascinating activities. Our
          merchant marine languishes for lack of instructed
          seamen. It is not a far cry to the time when boys
          who have followed the seascout program will be
          found in the four quarters of the globe, doing
          business on great waters because they, as sea
          scouts, received the same training which helped
          keep our flag flying on the seven seas.

During the year 1919 the sea scouting department tripled its membership
and had regularly commissioned ships in 19 States. It is essentially an
older-boy plan and is not a substitute for scouting but a development of
it. Only boys over 15 years of age are eligible to join a sea scout
ship, though a preliminary rank, that of Cabin Boy, is open to younger
scouts who are able to meet certain tests in "water preparedness" and
take the Sea Promise.

THE SEA PROMISE.

        On my honor, I will, as a scout and as a cabin
        boy, do my best to become proficient in scouting.

        1. To learn swimming and always "be prepared" to
          render aid to those in need in connection with
          water accidents.

        2. To make it my practice to know the location of
          the life-saving devices aboard every boat I go on,
          and to outline mentally any responsibility in
          maintaining order for myself and shipmates in case
          of emergency.

        3. To be vigilant and cautious, always guarding
          against water accidents.

        4. To cooperate with the responsible authorities
          for the observance of all regulations for the
          conduct and safety of boats and ever seek to
          preserve the motto of the sea, "Women and Children
          First."

Like all scouting, sea scouting is both recreation and education. A sea
scout has a jolly good time in the water and on it, but at the same time
he is acquiring a tremendous amount of practical knowledge and nautical
efficiency which will stand him in good stead whether he follows the sea
or not.


NATIONAL COUNCIL'S ENDEAVOR TO DISCOVER VITAL FACTS IN REGARD TO THE
BOYHOOD OF THE NATION.

Earnest search reveals the lack of any comprehensive and uniform data as
to the youth of the Nation, although such data are absolutely essential
if we are to reach every boy and assure him the educational and other
opportunities to which he is entitled. At the instigation of the chief
scout executive, Mr. James E. West, the National Council of the Boy
Scouts of America is endeavoring to start in motion an aggressive
campaign in the ascertaining and collecting of such facts. Each local
council is charged with the responsibility of studying conditions in its
own locality. Realizing the importance of making this study of
nation-wide extension, the National Council, at its last annual meeting
(March, 1920), passed the following resolution:

          Whereas the National Council of the Boy Scouts of
          America regard it of the utmost importance that
          there should be available for use by the Boy
          Scouts of America and other organizations
          interested in the welfare of the youth of the
          Nation all possible data relating to this subject;
          and

          Whereas investigation has proved that practically
          no uniform data of this sort are at present
          available as a basis for a thorough study of the
          situation and further development of their
          respective programs for service to the youth of
          our Nation:

          _Resolved_, That the National Council of the Boy
          Scouts of America in tenth annual meeting now
          assembled requests that the Federal Government and
          the various States of the United States shall, at
          their earliest conveniences, through their various
          appropriate departments, collate and make
          available for our use and that of other
          organizations such data as will provide
          intelligent, efficient, and economic promotion of
          the program devoted to making of good citizenship,
          and

          _Be it further resolved_, That the United States
          Bureau of Education, Census Bureau, and the
          Department of Child Welfare be especially urged to
          collate such data as are absolutely necessary for
          a thorough investigation of the problems involved;
          and

          _Be it further resolved_, That if sufficient funds
          are not at the present time available for this
          absolutely essential purpose, the Congress of the
          United States and the legislatures of the various
          States of the Union be urged to immediately make
          such appropriation as may be necessary for
          carrying out this purpose.


INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF SCOUTING.

Scouting as a world movement was represented in the summer of 1920 by
the International Scout Jamboree held at London, England, at which
delegates were present from 34 of the 53 nations in which scouting is
definitely established. The Boy Scouts of America were represented by a
group of about 250 scouts and scout leaders representing the whole
country. The gathering was most interesting and impressive in every way,
and the value of the scout movement in training boys to healthful,
useful activities by a program which is both educational and
recreational was triumphantly demonstrated. Aside from their
participation in the jamboree itself, the trip was of immense value to
our own boys, as it allowed of extensive visiting of points of interest
and historic association both in England and France, and in Belgium,
where the delegation was reviewed by King Albert, of Belgium.

At the invitation of the American Committee for Devastated France, the
National Council loaned its department of education director, Mr. Lorne
W. Barclay, to be in charge of the scout camp at Compiegne, France, on
the bank of the Aisne.


SCOUT HANDBOOKS, ORGANS, AND OTHER LITERATURE.

_Handbook for Boys._--The Handbook for Boys continues to be increasingly
in demand. Two or three printings of the book are required annually,
each printing including a 1,000,000 edition, to supply the demand for
what is said to be the most popular boy's book in the world. It is now
in its twenty-fourth edition and is the official interpretation of the
scout movement.

_Leaders' handbooks._--The new Scoutmaster's Handbook contains a wealth
of valuable material for scout leaders and other adults interested in
the movement. It is prepared by experts and based upon sound pedagogical
principles as well as good scouting. The new handbook for executives,
called Community Boy Leadership, is now in circulation and is proving
valuable.

_Magazines._--Boy's Life, the official scout magazine for boys, is a
live, wholesome, interesting publication issued monthly, containing
stories and articles by well-known authors and specialists.

_Scouting_, issued monthly, is prepared especially for scout leaders not
under council, while The Scout Executive, another monthly bulletin, is
directed chiefly to the field under council.

_Merit Badge pamphlets._--The editorial department of the Boy Scouts of
America has prepared and edited a series of valuable pamphlets in
connection with the Merit Badge subjects, which is filling a long-felt
want among scouts and others interested. There are 68 different
pamphlets, each written by a recognized authority in the respective
subject, and each submitted before printing to a large number of
experts, over 500 of whom were consulted for critical suggestion and
guidance. No effort has been spared to make these booklets accurate and
interesting. They contain over 3,000 pages of printed matter and over
800 illustrations, as well as valuable bibliographies and biographical
matter. The pamphlets have already attracted considerable favorable
notice among school men, and several colleges are placing the whole
series in their reference libraries.

A classified list of the subjects for which pamphlets have been issued
follows:


I. _Subjects that have to do with outdoor activities._

          1. Angling.
          2. Archery.
          3. Camping.
          4. Cooking.
          5. Cycling.
          6. Hiking.
          7. Horsemanship.
          8. Marksmanship.
          9. Pathfinding.
         10. Photography.
         11. Pioneering.
         12. Seamanship.
         13. Stalking.
         14. Swimming.


II. _Subjects that have to do with outdoor activities of a vocational
nature._

          1. Agriculture.
          2. Beekeeping.
          3. Bird study.
          4. Botany.
          5. Conservation.
          6. Dairying.
          7. Forestry.
          8. Gardening.
          9. Poultry keeping.
         10. Taxidermy.


III. _Subjects which have to do with modern application of mechanics._

          1. Automobiling.
          2. Aviation.
          3. Electricity.
          4. Machinery.
          5. Signaling.
          6. Wireless.


IV. _Subjects which have to do with the preservation of health and the
saving of life._

          1. Athletics.
          2. First Aid.
          3. First Aid to Animals.
          4. Firemanship.
          5. Life Saving.
          6. Personal Health.
          7. Physical Development.
          8. Public Health.
          9. Safety First.


V. _Subjects which have to do with so-called "Trades."_

          1. Blacksmithing.
          2. Carpentry.
          3. Craftsmanship, including Craftswork in
               Metal, Leather, Basketry, Pottery,
               Cement, Book-binding, Wood Carving.
               (7 separate pamphlets.)
          4. Handicraft.
          5. Leather working.
          6. Masonry.
          7. Mining.
          8. Plumbing.
          9. Printing.
         10. Surveying.

VI. _Subjects which have to do with knowledge gained mainly from books
and laboratories, under instructors._

          1. Astronomy.
          2. Chemistry.
          3. Business.
          4. Civics.
          5. Interpreting.
          6. Scholarship.

VII. _Subjects which have to do with some form of art._

          1. Architecture.
          2. Art.
          3. Music (including Bugling).
          4. Painting.
          5. Sculpture.

_Other literature._--The National Council also issues a large number of
other informational and interpretative publications, such as the Manual
of Customs and Drills, The Seascout Manual, What Every Scoutmaster Wants
to Know, Scouting and the Public Schools, Your Boy and Scouting, What
Scouts Do, Membership in the Boy Scouts of America, The Boy Scout
Movement (as approved by the Religious Education Association), etc.

_Cooperation with publishers._--The department during the year has
maintained through its director constant contact with publishers and
authors. More than 100 new books published for boys in 1919 have been
carefully examined (a good many in manuscript form) for review in Boys'
Life or inclusion in some one of our book lists and, of these, of the
few really good books for boys published in 1919, it is a joy to report
that more than half of these were first published serially in Boys'
Life, a record that stands alone.

_New books edited._--The director has edited as usual the Boy Scouts'
Year Book, compiled from last year's issues of Boys' Life, the sales of
which have been more than a third larger than in previous years. More
notable still has been the success of the Boy Scouts' Book of Stories, a
compilation of stories of interest to boys selected, one each, from the
writings of our best American and English short-story writers. The
purpose of the director in editing such a book was to interest boys in
stories that have the quality of fine writing, and so help to develop in
them a taste for literature that will make them lovers of the great and
good books of all ages. The very nature of the book warranted the
conclusion that it would take considerable time to make it a good
seller. Once again the unexpected has happened in that the first year's
sales of the Boy Scouts' Book of Stories has equaled the first year's
sale of the Boy Scouts' Year Book, and the present promise is that for
years to come this book will more than hold its own. In the coming year
material is being gathered for a companion volume to be published under
the title the Boy Scouts' Book of Stories in Verse.

_Motion pictures for scouts._--The director of the library department of
the National Council, Mr. Franklin K. Matthews, has served as a literary
adviser to a motion-picture company. As a result of this collaboration a
large number of educational and scout films have been put into
circulation, including the popular "Knights of the Square Table," by
Chief Seascout James A. Wilder. It is believed that these films offer
splendid opportunities not only to show the educational possibilities of
the scout movement but also to interest and instruct the public in the
joys and benefits of outdoor life, the necessity for safety first and
fire-prevention measures, and other features which are accentuated by
the scout program. The films can also be admirably used in connection
with the Americanization movement.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

This book uses both "Seascouting" and "Sea scouting" in their various
forms.

Page 7, "pracically" changed to "practically" (that practically no
uniform)





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