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Title: Crayon Portraiture - Complete Instructions for Making Crayon Portraits on Crayon Paper and on Platinum, Silver and Bromide Enlargements
Author: Barhydt, Jerome A.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Crayon Portraiture.


[Illustration: FREE-HAND CRAYON MADE ON STEINBACH CRAYON PAPER--STIPPLE
EFFECT IN FACE, BROKEN LINE EFFECT IN BACKGROUND. BY J. A. BARHYDT.]



CRAYON PORTRAITURE

COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS FOR MAKING CRAYON
PORTRAITS ON CRAYON PAPER AND ON
PLATINUM, SILVER AND BROMIDE
ENLARGEMENTS

ALSO DIRECTIONS FOR THE USE OF
TRANSPARENT LIQUID WATER COLORS
AND FOR MAKING
FRENCH CRYSTALS


BY

J. A. BARHYDT

AUTHOR OF ARTICLE ON CRAYON PORTRAITURE IN
_Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia, 1890_.


Illustrated

_Revised and Enlarged Edition_

NEW YORK
THE BAKER & TAYLOR CO.
33-37 E. 17TH STREET, UNION SQUARE NORTH


COPYRIGHT, 1886 AND 1892

BY J. A. BARHYDT


ROBERT DRUMMOND, PRINTER, NEW YORK



PREFACE.


In issuing this second treatise on Crayon Portraiture, Liquid Water
Colors and French Crystals, for the use of photographers and amateur
artists, I do so with the hope and assurance that all the requirements
in the way of instruction for making crayon portraits on photographic
enlargements and for finishing photographs in color will be fully met.
To these I have added complete instructions for free-hand crayons.

This book embodies the results of a studio experience of twenty-four
years spent in practical work, in teaching, and in overcoming the
everyday difficulties encountered, not alone in my own work, but in
that of my pupils as well. Hence the book has been prepared with
special reference to the needs of the student. It presents a brief
course of precepts, and requires on the part of the pupil only
perseverance in order that he may achieve excellence. The mechanical
principles are few, and have been laid down in a few words; and, as
nearly all students have felt, in the earlier period of their art work,
the necessity of some general rules to guide them in the composition
and arrangement of color, I have given, without entering into any
profound discussion of the subject, a few of its practical precepts,
which, it is hoped, will prove helpful.

While this book does not treat of art in a very broad way, yet I am
convinced that those who follow its teachings will, through the work
they accomplish, be soon led to a higher appreciation of art. Although
this kind of work does not _create_, yet who will say that it will not
have accomplished much if it shall prove to be the first step that
shall lead some student to devote his or her life to the sacred calling
of art?

It has been said that artists rarely, if ever, write on art, because
they have the impression that the public is too ill-informed to
understand them--that is, to understand their ordinarily somewhat
technical method of expression. If, therefore, in the following pages I
may sometimes seem to take more space and time for an explanation than
appears necessary, I hope the student will overlook it, as I seek to be
thoroughly understood.

My hope with reference to this work is that it may prove of actual
value to the earnest student in helping him reach the excellence which
is the common aim of all true artists.

                        J. A. BARHYDT.



CONTENTS.

                                                                  PAGE.

Preface                                                             ix

Crayon Portraiture                                                  15

Photographic Enlargements                                           19

Crayon Materials                                                    22

The Specific Use of Crayon Materials                                25

The Strainer                                                        30

Mounting Crayon Paper and Platinum and Silver Enlargements          32

Mounting Bromide Enlargements                                       37

Outlines--Negative Outline                                          39

Magic Lantern Outline                                               42

Transfer Outline                                                    46

The Metroscope                                                      47

The Pantograph                                                      49

Crayon Effects--The Four Methods of making Backgrounds              51

Free-hand Crayons and those made from Photographic Enlargements     53

Filling in the Free-hand Crayon                                     55

Line Effect                                                         57

Stipple Effect                                                      59

Backgrounds--General Principles                                     62

First Method of making the Background--Stump Effect                 65

Second Method of making the Background                              66

Third Method of making the Background--Line Effect                  67

Fourth Method of making the Background--Stipple Effect              70

Face--Line Effect                                                   72

Dress--Line Effect                                                  76

Bromide Crayons                                                     78

Finishing Bromide Enlargements                                      82

Monochromes                                                         88

Values                                                              89

The Studio                                                          93

Framing                                                             95

Passepartout Mounting                                               97


TRANSPARENT LIQUID WATER COLORS FOR COLORING
PHOTOGRAPHS.--MATERIALS REQUIRED IN THEIR USE                      101

Theory of Color                                                    103

Colors                                                             106

Yellow                                                             106

Blue                                                               107

Rose                                                               108

Violet                                                             109

Magenta                                                            109

Flesh                                                              110

Brown                                                              110

Black                                                              111

Gold                                                               111

Instructions for using Liquid Water Colors                         112

Drapery                                                            114

Landscape                                                          116

The Principle                                                      117


FRENCH CRYSTALS                                                    123

Materials                                                          124

The Method                                                         125

Mounting French Crystals                                           126

Finishing Photographs in India Ink                                 128

Conclusion                                                         130



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


                                                                  PAGE.

Free-hand Crayon made on Steinbach Crayon Paper with a
Magic Lantern Outline, showing Stipple Effect in Face
and Drapery and Broken Line Effect in Background         _Frontispiece_

Negative Outline--Dark Chamber                                      40

McAllister's Magic Lantern, No 653, with Wonder Camera
  Attachment                                                        42

Magic Lantern Outline                                               43

Lines to produce Stipple Effect                                     60

Background--Line Effect                                             67

Line Effect for Face                                                72

Line Effect for Dress                                               76

Crayon executed over Bromide Enlargement made from Original
Negative, showing Stipple Effect throughout                         80

[Illustration]



CRAYON PORTRAITURE.


To many who know nothing about the art of crayon portraiture, the
mastery of it not only seems very difficult, but almost unattainable.
In fact, any work of art of whatever description, which in its
execution is beyond the knowledge or comprehension of the spectator, is
to him a thing of almost supernatural character. Of course, this is
more decided when the subject portrayed carries our thoughts beyond the
realms of visible things.

But the making of crayon portraits is not within the reach alone of the
trained artist who follows it as a profession. I claim that any one who
can learn to write can learn to draw, and that any one who can learn to
draw can learn to make crayon portraits. Making them over a
photograph, that is, an enlargement, is a comparatively simple matter,
as it does not require as much knowledge of drawing as do free-hand
crayons. But you must not suppose that, because the photographic
enlargement gives you the drawing in line and an indistinct impression
of the form in light and shade, you are not required to draw at all in
making a crayon portrait over such an enlargement. Some knowledge of
drawing is necessary, though not a perfect knowledge.

Many people err in supposing that only the exceptionally skilled can
produce the human features in life-like form upon the crayon paper.
While recognizing great differences in natural aptitude for drawing in
different persons, just as those who use the pen differ widely in their
skill, some being able to write with almost mechanical perfection of
form, I still hold that any one who is able to draw at all can succeed
in producing creditable crayon portraits; and the lack of great skill
as a draughtsman, should neither discourage a student nor debar him
from undertaking to make crayon portraits (over enlargements, at
least), either as an amateur or professional. To make a crayon from
life undoubtably requires considerable talent and some education as an
artist; but photography, in recent times, has made such advances from
the old fashioned daguerreotype to the dry plate process and
instantaneous exposure, and such developments have recently been made
in the field of enlargements and in photographic papers, that it is now
possible for anyone, who will carefully follow the plain instructions
given in the following pages, to make a good crayon portrait by the aid
of the different kinds of enlargements. These place in his hands a
perfect reproduction of what he wishes to make; and care and close
attention to details will insure the rest.

The student, however, must have courage. I tell my pupils not to be
afraid to work freely; that if they spoil their work beyond their
ability to redeem it, I can always fix it up and restore it for them;
and that they should go ahead confidently. The reader may say that he
has no teacher to help him out of his difficulty; but he must remember
that he has the photographic enlargement as a sure guide, and that
whenever he fears he is losing the outline, he can see at once what he
is doing, by holding the enlargement against the light with its back
towards him. My experience as a teacher has shown me that pupils, as a
rule, are timid, especially that class which works mostly on
enlargements, resulting from the fear of losing the outline and from
lack of a thorough knowledge of drawing. I especially urge the
necessity for boldness and freedom in execution. As an expert in
chirography can read character in handwriting, so the artist's public
will judge him from his work. If he is, in fact, weak and timid, these
traits will find expression in what he puts on paper. Let courage,
then, be an important part of your equipment, if you would succeed in
doing good crayon work.



PHOTOGRAPHIC ENLARGEMENTS.


There are three kinds of photographic enlargements used as a basis for
crayon portraits, and, with a little experience, the student can
determine for himself which kind will prove the most satisfactory.

Free-hand crayons are made on Steinbach and other crayon papers,
without any photograph as a basis. Silver enlargements are made on
paper coated with a solution of chloride of silver, which the action of
the light reduces to salts of silver. This is the oldest form of
photography, and has been used since its introduction by Scheele in
1778. Silver enlargements are made by the aid of the sun (and are then
called solar enlargements) or they can be made with the electric light.

Platinum enlargements are a recent advance in photographic printing
with iron salts, the process which has been worked out and patented by
W. Willis, Jr., being a development of such printing. Its principle is
that a solution of ferrous oxalate in neutral potassium oxalate is
effective as a developer. A paper is coated with a solution of ferric
oxalate and platinum salts and then exposed behind a negative. It is
then floated in a hot solution of neutral potassium oxalate, when the
image is formed.

This process was first introduced by Mr. Willis in 1874, and he has
since made improvements. He claims that the platinotype paper does not
contain any animal sizing. The early experiments convinced him that the
paper upon which the image was to be printed would prove an important
factor, as all photographic paper contained animal sizing, which was
found to be antagonistic to platinum salts. The action of platinum
salts upon a paper containing animal sizing gave it a tint which no
amount of acid washing could remove. For the past nine years Mr. Willis
has had manufactured for his special use a Steinbach paper, free from
the animal sizing, and he also uses a cold developer, thereby causing
the paper to retain its original elasticity.

The chief points of difference between bromide enlargements and silver
or platinum enlargements are that, in the former, we have the sensitive
compound of silver suspended in a vehicle of gelatin, and, in the
latter, a thin coating of an aqueous solution of the sensitive salts.
In the former process, the image is not shown until the paper has been
developed in the bath, while in the latter, the image is shown upon the
paper when it is exposed to the light; so that, in the latter, the
image or picture has only to be fixed or made permanent, while in the
former, it is developed, then fixed. The gelatin bromide paper is
coated with a solution of gelatin, bromide of potassium and nitrate of
silver, developed with a solution of oxalate of potash, protosulphate
of iron, sulphuric acid and bromide of potassium and water, and fixed
with hyposulphate of soda. It is manufactured in America by E. and H.
T. Anthony & Co. and by the Eastman Dry Plate Company.



CRAYON MATERIALS.


The following materials will be found necessary for crayon work:

    A good photographic enlargement,
    Easel,
    Mahl stick,
    Three inch magnifying glass,
    Square black Conte crayon, Nos. 1, 2 and 3,
    Charcoal holder for the same,
    Hardmuth's black chalk points, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5,
    Holder for the same,
    Box Faber's crayon points, Nos. 1, 2 and 3,
    Holder for the above crayons,
    Conte crayon, in wood, Nos. 0 and 1,
    6 B. Faber's holder for Siberian lead pencil points,
    4 H. Faber's holder with Siberian lead pencil point,
    Velour crayon,
    Peerless crayon sauce,
    Black Conte crayon sauce, in foil,
    White crayon, in wood,
    Bunch of tortillon stumps,
    Large grey paper stumps,
    Small grey paper stumps,
    The Peerless stump,
    Large rubber eraser, 4 inches by 3-4 inches square, bevelled end,
    Two small nigrivorine erasers,
    Holder for nigrivorine erasers,
    Piece of chamois skin,
    Cotton batting of the best quality,
    A sheet of fine emery paper,
    A sharp pen knife,
    One pound of pulverized pumice stone,
    Mortar and pestle,
    A large black apron,
    Paste-board box about ten inches square and two inches deep,
    Back-boards for mounting crayon paper and photographic enlargements,
    Pliers,
    Paste brush, three inches wide, to be used for starch paste or for
      water.

Experience has taught me that we cannot be too particular in giving
directions as to the materials for our work, and therefore I have
carefully included in the above list everything necessary to thoroughly
equip the student. While the magnifying glass mentioned above is not an
actual necessity, still a good one will be found very useful, as it
will often show details in the photograph which would not be discovered
by the naked eye. My male readers may at first object to so feminine an
article as an apron, but it will be found thoroughly useful, and I am
sure they will never consent to abandon it after they have once become
accustomed to wearing it.



THE SPECIFIC USE OF CRAYON MATERIALS.


I will now explain the specific use and nature of these materials,
reserving the various kinds of photographic enlargements and their
special qualities and advantages, for treatment under their different
manipulations.

The easel should be set so that the light strikes the picture at an
angle of 90 deg., and, when working from a side light, it will very
often be necessary to darken the lower part of the window to accomplish
this result.

The mahl stick is held in the left hand, and is used as a rest for the
right arm in working. Though a trifle awkward and difficult at first,
its use must, nevertheless, be learned, as the hand will not be steady
without it, especially in portrait work.

The square black Conte crayons are for filling in where there are large
dark places. The No. 1 is used with the black Conte crayon sauce in
making the crayon sauce (to be applied with the ends of the fingers) to
produce a broad effect and to make the stipple effect on the paper
after it has been rubbed with pumice stone.

The crayon points, Nos. 1, 2 and 3, are used in making outlines and
also in putting in the lines to produce the line effect. In general,
they are to be used in free-hand crayons and on silver and platinum
enlargements.

The Hardmuth black chalk points are similar to the crayon points, and,
if preferred, should be used according to the directions given for the
crayon points.

The Hardmuth points are made in five numbers and will, therefore,
produce more shades of black than the crayon points. They are also
twice as long as the latter, without costing any more.

The Conte crayons, in wood, are used for finishing the crayon,
especially the No. 0, its hardness adapting it to that purpose.

The 6 B. Faber's holder, for lead pencil points, is for holding the
Faber's Conte crayon No. 0 after it has become short, the wood being
carefully removed before the crayon is placed in the holder.

The 4 H. holder, with Siberian lead pencil point, is used in the very
finest work on bromide paper, for finishing in the light places. Care
must be employed not to use too much lead on the paper, as, being of a
different color from the crayon, it would show if too freely applied.
It is also used in making monochromes.

Velour crayon is very black. It is only used to produce a velvet effect
and whenever it is necessary to make a very strong dark--that is, a
dark that is deeper than an ordinary shadow.

The Peerless crayon sauce is the same as the crayon sauce made from No.
1 Conte crayon and the black Conte crayon sauce in foil. It is made and
put up in bottles by F. W. Devoe & Co., and can be bought of any dealer
in artist's materials. It will be found more convenient to get it in
this form than to prepare it in the studio; it costs no more and saves
the expense of a mortar and pestle. As it is ground by machinery and
passed through a very fine screen, there are no small hard particles in
the preparation, and its use is recommended.

Black Conte crayon sauce, in foil, is used in making the crayon sauce
to be applied with the fingers.

White crayon, in wood, is for touching up the high lights of white
drapery, and especially for the high lights on white lace; it is to be
used very sparingly.

Tortillon stumps are used in making the face, when it is desired to
produce the stump effect, and also in making the hair.

The large grey paper stump serves to make the broad effect of shade in
the stump effect in the hair and dress.

The Peerless stump is used to produce the same effect as the large grey
paper stump. It will be found far better than the paper stump for work
on the bromide paper, as it is made of softer material and causes the
crayon to adhere to the paper more readily.

The large rubber eraser is to put in the broad effects of light in the
background and dress. The small nigrivorine erasers are used when it is
necessary to remove the crayon, in order to produce small decided
lights--principally in making free-hand crayons and to produce the line
effects over a platinum and silver enlargement. While the stumps are
used for putting on the crayon, the erasers are used to remove it. The
chamois is also used for removing the crayon, to produce broad effects
of light.

The cotton is for applying the crayon sauce to the paper and for
rubbing the crayon at different stages in the completion of the
picture. The crayon cannot be removed with the eraser unless it has
first been rubbed with the cotton; and this must be borne in mind, as
the use of the eraser at this stage would only result in making a black
line or spot, when it was intended to produce a white line or spot.

It will also be well to make a chamois block for applying the crayon
sauce, to be worked with the tortillon stump. This is done by tacking
onto a block, four inches long, two inches wide and three-quarters of
an inch thick, a piece of chamois skin, three inches wide by five
inches long, allowing it to cover the top, while it is fastened along
the four edges. This is placed face down in the box of crayon sauce and
rubbed around in it, so that the crayon will adhere thoroughly to the
chamois.

Emery paper is used to sharpen the nigrivorine erasers and the crayon
points.

The knife, which is a very important tool, should be a good one, always
kept well sharpened. The best for this work is an ink eraser, with a
rounding point, a long edge on one side of the blade and a short one on
the other side, extending about an inch from the point.

The mortar and pestle are for pounding or grinding the Conte crayon No.
1 and the crayon sauce, in making the special crayon sauce mentioned
above.

The paste-board box is intended to hold this special crayon sauce or
the Peerless sauce.

The back-boards are one inch thick, made to fit the back of the
strainer (described in the next chapter), and are used in mounting. It
will be necessary to have three different sizes, the most useful being
11×15, 15×19 and 19×24 inches, to fit, respectively, strainers
measuring 16×20, 20×24, 24×29 and 25×30 inches.

The pliers should be either what is known as shoe-maker's pliers (which
are the cheapest) or the canvas pliers, used in stretching that
material; they are needed to stretch the cloth on the strainer.

The pulverized pumice stone is used in preparing the surface of crayon
paper and bromide enlargements, to produce the stipple effect.



THE STRAINER.


The strainer, on which crayon paper or any kind of photographic
enlargement is to be mounted, should be the same size as the intended
picture. The frame is made of four strips of pine wood, two inches
wide, one inch thick on the outside, and three quarter inch on the
inside, making a quarter inch bevel on the inside edge of the face;
these are nailed together and glued. To this, tack a piece of bleached
muslin, free from knots and rough places, which has been cut two inches
larger each way than the frame. Use six ounce Swede upholsterers'
tacks, placing one in the centre of the outside edge of one side and
another directly opposite, stretching the muslin as firmly as possible
with the fingers. Then place a third tack in the centre of the outside
edge of the top, and a fourth in the centre of the bottom of the frame,
stretching as before. In finishing, use the pliers in addition to the
fingers, and remember that you must always stretch from the centre
towards the corner or you will have wrinkles in the muslin. As this
process should be thoroughly understood, I will give minute directions
for completing the operation. Having already placed the four tacks as
above, stand the strainer on its bottom edge on the floor, with the
back towards you, and put in the fifth tack two inches to the right of
the third, that is, the one on the top previously mentioned. Instead of
stretching the muslin directly back in a straight line towards you and
at right angles to the fourth tack, you must draw it with the fingers
towards the right hand corner. Then finish stretching, and tacking this
edge to the right hand corner of the top, placing the tacks two inches
apart and taking care to only draw the cloth sufficiently to have it
perfectly smooth and straight on the edges, leaving the stretching to
be done with the pliers; then turn the strainer on the side edge and
tack at two inch intervals from the centre of the other (that is the
upper) side to the right hand corner, same as before, and then tack
half of the bottom edge and half of the other side in the same way. You
will observe that you now have only one half of the muslin tacked--that
is, one half on each edge--and you then complete the tacking, using the
pliers to thoroughly stretch the muslin. This method has the advantage
that you can stretch the muslin on the strainer and get it on better
and in less than half the time required by the old method; also that
you stretch the whole surface of the muslin with the pliers, and do it
with only half the work.



MOUNTING CRAYON PAPER AND PLATINUM AND SILVER ENLARGEMENTS.


Wet in clean water a piece of muslin about two inches larger each way
than the paper you intend to mount, and lay it on the mounting board or
table, removing all the wrinkles with a wet brush; then place the paper
on this cloth, face down, and with some water and a brush, wet the back
of the paper, continuing to use the brush until all the wrinkles are
entirely smoothed out and the paper lies down perfectly flat. Any
number of pieces of paper can be wet at the same time by placing one
over the other, provided the larger sizes are laid down first and each
is brushed out flat before another is placed over it. Let the paper
soak for about fifteen minutes.

After having removed the surplus water from the paper with a cloth,
sponge or squeegee, apply starch paste to the paper with a paste brush,
going over it thoroughly, until it has received an even coat of paste
free from lumps. Then lay one of the back-boards on a table and, having
placed the strainer down on it face up, give the cloth of the latter a
coat of paste, using the same care you did in going over the paper,
taking pains to have the edges of the cloth well pasted, and to
remove, by passing your finger all around the outside edges of the
strainer, any paste which may be there. Now pick the paper up and place
it on the pasted surface of the strainer, which an assistant should
hold tipped towards you. (The help of an assistant will be found almost
indispensable in mounting). After the paper is in the proper place, lay
the strainer down and secure each corner of the paper, by first lifting
it slightly and then rubbing it down with a clean cloth from the
direction of the centre towards the corner you have lifted up. With a
sharp knife trim off the edges of the paper and set it away to dry, but
neither near a fire nor in too cold a place. You can very often save
the remounting of a paper by occasionally glancing at it as it dries
and by gently rubbing down a little with the fingers any places that
look as if they would not stick. Very often the paper will be all right
with the exception of this difficulty at one edge or corner. This is
invariably the lower part, and is caused by the water settling there.
It is therefore advisable to change the position of the strainer two or
three times as it dries, letting it stand on different edges.

After the paper is dry, if there are any places that have refused to
stick fast to the cloth, it will be impossible for you to remedy the
matter, and you must remount it. You proceed, therefore, to remove the
paper from the cloth. This you do by turning the strainer face down and
filling the back of it with warm water, allowing it to remain there
until you think that the paste has become thoroughly dissolved; then
turn the strainer over and carefully remove the paper. If it should not
come off readily, fill the strainer again with water, and soak it until
it will come off. After you have removed the paper, lay it on a wet
cloth, and with a case knife clean off the starch, using care not to
injure the surface of the paper, and also clean off the starch from the
strainer; then proceed to remount as before. When you once understand
that you cannot spoil an enlargement on account of defective mounting,
you will work more confidently. After you have tried three times to
remount, and the paper still insists in not sticking, you must take a
new strainer, as too many wettings will have spoilt the cloth and wood.
Sometimes there seems to be a difference in the stretching qualities of
the enlargement and cloth, which makes it impossible to produce a
perfect cohesion. When, therefore, it has been remounted three times
and does not come out perfect, your best course is to mount a piece of
crayon paper on a new strainer, and after it is thoroughly dry to then
mount the enlargement on that. This you do in the manner described for
mounting in the first instance, directly on the strainer, except that
you do not coat with paste the crayon paper already mounted.

It sometimes happens, that after the paper has been mounted and dried,
it is discovered that lumps in the paste have caused defects to appear
on the face of the paper in the shape of raised surfaces that unfit it
for the intended purpose. These can be entirely removed by wetting the
back of the strainer with some clean water immediately behind where the
lumps of paste are, and with a knife scraping the cloth a little at
these places; the surplus paste will work itself out through the cloth.

The starch paste used in mounting should not be made very thick; on the
contrary, it should be as thin as is consistent with still retaining
all its adhesive qualities. Should you fear that it is too thick or
lumpy, strain it through a piece of cheese cloth. In a former edition
of this book I advised adding to the paste a little white glue
dissolved in warm water, but I do not now consider this necessary for
crayon paper or photographic enlargements, and do not recommend its use
except for mounting paper of unusual thickness.

The foregoing directions for mounting apply to platinum or silver
enlargements, crayon or other kinds of paper, but not to bromide
enlargements. The bromide paper requires a different method of handling
on account of the gelatin surface, which when wet is destroyed by
contact with any dry substance, as the latter removes the gelatin.

For determining the proper position of photographic enlargements (bust
pictures) on the strainer, the following scale will be useful as a
general guide. When the size of the strainer is 16×20, 20×24, 22×26, or
25×30 inches, the distances from its top to the top of the head of the
portrait should be respectively 3-1/2, 4, 4-1/2 and 5-1/2 inches.



MOUNTING BROMIDE ENLARGEMENTS.


The first requisite for this is a water-tight tray, large enough to
hold the enlargements. A hard rubber tray can be purchased, or a wooden
one that will answer the purpose may be made. I use one of my own
construction that is cheap and serviceable. It is simply a wooden box,
27×32 inches and 4 inches deep, made of 1/2 inch grooved material and
lined with black oil cloth, not cut at the corners, but folded in. In
this, when about half full of water, lay the enlargement face up, and
let it remain in the water fifteen minutes. It should then be laid face
down on the wet cloth (which should be all ready) as described in the
preceding chapter, for mounting crayon paper. Care must be exercised to
have the cloth wet all over, for if there should be any dry spots in it
they would ruin the gelatin surface. With a cloth or squeegee remove
the water from the back of the enlargement and also from the cloth
around its edges, for if there is too much water on the edge of the
cloth it will work up into the paste and prevent it from sticking when
mounted. Now paste the enlargement and strainer according to the
directions given for mounting crayon paper, place the enlargement on
the strainer and rub it down by using the fingers wet in a little
water, or the squeegee can be used; and then trim off even with the
outside of the strainer. Avoid rubbing too hard along the edges, as by
so doing you will press out all the paste and it will not stick.

You can remount a bromide enlargement as often as necessary in case it
does not come out perfect, only bear in mind that you must not allow
anything dry to touch the surface when wet. But I should not advise you
to try more than three times directly on the strainer. It would be
better to mount a piece of crayon paper on a new strainer, and after it
is dry to remount the bromide enlargement on that.



OUTLINES--NEGATIVE OUTLINE.


After the crayon paper has been mounted on the strainer and dried, the
next step is to obtain the outline. I will first treat of free-hand
crayons, taking it for granted that the reader is not able to produce
crayons from life, but works from a photograph. There are five
different methods of making an outline, from which the reader can make
his own selection.

[Illustration: NEGATIVE OUTLINE--DARK CHAMBER.

_From the Annual Encyclopedia. Copyrighted, 1891, by D. Appleton &
Co._]

Make a negative from the photograph that is to be enlarged, and
construct for a room that is entirely dark, with the exception of one
window, a dark inside shutter, with an opening in it the size of the
negative you intend to use. Place a cleat on each side and at the
bottom of this opening, so that the negative may be made to slide in
front of it. Having removed the ground glass from your camera box,
fasten the latter against the shutter so that the opening comes in the
centre of the box. You can fasten it with four hooks and eyes, or
arrange cleats on the shutter and pieces on the box, so that it will
slide into place. Be sure and have the box come tight against the
shutter so that the light will be entirely excluded. Place the negative
over the small opening in the shutter and adjust the camera box; then
stand the easel with the crayon strainer on it at the proper distance
to give the required size of the enlargement and focus the image sharp
on the crayon paper. The strainer must stand at the same angle as the
shutter; that is, if the shutter is perpendicular then the strainer
must stand perpendicular also. Then go over the outline and shadow
lines with the charcoal, after which open the shutter and examine the
outline and see if it is right. As you are working in the dark you are
apt to overlook some lines. If you have done so you can close the
shutter again and make them. If it proves to be all right go over it
with the crayon point No. 2.



MAGIC LANTERN OUTLINE.


[Illustration: McALLISTER MAGIC LANTERN, No. 653, WITH WONDER CAMERA
ATTACHMENT.

_From the Annual Encyclopedia. Copyrighted, 1891, by D. Appleton &
Co._]

[Illustration: MAGIC LANTERN OUTLINE.

_From the Annual Encyclopedia. Copyrighted, 1891, by D. Appleton &
Co._]

This is the method I am using at present in my own free-hand crayon
work, and prefer because it does not require a negative. I use a
McAllister Magic Lantern, No. 653, with a wonder camera attachment.
This attachment enables you to make an enlargement from a cabinet or
card photograph, and to dispense with a negative. If you intend to do
very much free-hand crayon work I should advise you to get one, as it
will soon pay for itself. The lantern should be put in working
condition according to the printed directions that come with it, and
placed on your table. I use a table six feet long, sixteen inches wide,
and thirty inches high. Nail to one side of the table, four inches from
the end, a stick six feet long, one inch wide, and one-half inch thick,
using two two-inch brads. One end of the stick should rest on the
floor, care being taken that it stand perfectly perpendicular, a square
being used if necessary to secure this result. The stick will have a
length of 42 inches above the table, which will be ample for the use of
a 25 by 30 strainer. Place the strainer, with the crayon paper mounted
on it, facing outward on its bottom edge on the table and nail it fast
to the stick with two brads, letting it stand at right angles with the
edge of the table with its back towards the lantern, which is at the
other end of the table. The object of placing the strainer with the
back towards the lantern is that the image must show through the
strainer or the outline would be drawn reversed. Draw a charcoal mark
on the back of the strainer vertically through the centre, and mark the
proper distance from the top of strainer horizontally where the top of
the head should come. Now move the lantern until you have it the proper
distance from the strainer to make the head the size desired, and
afterwards focus the features sharp and distinct, using the charcoal
marks for the proper place to make the head, the vertical line coming
through the centre of the face; then, seated at the end of the table,
in front of the strainer, make a charcoal outline as in the former
method.

Of course the magic lantern can be used for producing an outline only
at night, or in a perfectly darkened room.

The following table will prove a safe guide to follow in determining
the size of the head for bust pictures. The distance from the roots of
the hair on the forehead to the bottom of the chin should be:

    For 14 by 17 inch pictures, 4     inches,
     "  16  " 20   "     "      4-1/2   "
     "  18  " 22   "     "      5       "
     "  20  " 24   "     "      6       "
     "  22  " 27   "     "      6-1/2   "
     "  25  " 30   "     "      7       "
     "  29  " 36   "     "      7       " showing the hands.



TRANSFER OUTLINE.


For this method an enlargement made from the photograph is required,
but it needs to be an enlargement of the head only--that is, a 11×14
inch enlargement of the head will answer for a 25×30 inch crayon
portrait, and serve as a guide to work from in making the crayon.

Transparent tracing paper (made of fine tissue paper, oiled with
clarified linseed oil and then dried,) is laid on the enlarged
photograph, and the outline gone over with a soft lead pencil. The
tracing paper is then turned and its back is rubbed all over with
charcoal, when it is laid charcoal side down on the mounted crayon
paper, and carefully fastened with four thumb tacks. The lines first
made are then gone over with a sharp pointed lead pencil. When the
tracing paper is removed a perfect outline in charcoal is found to have
been made. This should then be gone over with the crayon point No. 2.
The rest of the portrait is sketched in from the original picture.



THE METROSCOPE


Comprises a series of squares accurately engraved upon the finest plate
glass by machinery. The two plates of glass (of which one form of the
instrument consists), are ruled for convenience with squares differing
in size. These are framed and held together by thumb screws, allowing
sufficient space between them for inserting and securing a picture the
size of a cabinet photograph. The lines are thus brought into such
perfect contact with all parts of the photograph so that they appear to
be drawn on it. One feature of this instrument which renders the square
system very practical, consists of the division and sub-division of the
squares by dotted lines and dash lines. The eye naturally divides a
line or space into halves and quarters, and for this reason the dash
lines have been designated for quartering the main lines, and the
dotted lines for quartering the squares thus formed. This gives sixteen
times as many squares for use as are drawn upon the photograph.

A method based on the same principle as the metroscope, but not
requiring the use of that instrument, may be pursued, as follows:
Fasten the photograph to a board, mark the space at the top, bottom and
sides into one-quarter inch divisions, and drive sharp pointed pins in
each of the division marks. Taking a spool of white thread run it
across vertically and horizontally from each pin to the one opposite,
and you will then have the photograph divided into one-quarter inch
squares; then, if your enlargement is to be six times the size of the
photograph, take the mounted crayon paper and divide the sides and top
and bottom in 1-1/2 inch squares, run thread across the same as for the
photograph, and then proceed to draw the outline, first in charcoal,
and afterwards with the crayon. The spaces marked on the crayon paper
should in each case, of course, be as many times greater than those
marked on the photograph as the intended enlargement is greater than
the photograph.



THE PANTOGRAPH.


This instrument for enlarging or reducing a picture was invented about
the year 1603. It consists of four metallic or wooden bars or rules,
which are perforated by a series of holes (numbered from 1 to 20), and
connected together by means of an adjustable thumb screw. The
instrument is provided with a tracing and a marking point, and a screw
or point which is forced into the drawing board to hold the instrument
in position. A good pantograph will cost about two dollars; those of a
cheaper grade are entirely worthless for practical use, while a good
one will last a life time. A little experience will enable any one to
learn the use of the numbers.

To employ the instrument select the number on the bars corresponding to
the number of times the subject is to be enlarged, and connect the
adjustable ends of the bars so that they intersect at this number;
secure the pantograph to the drawing board at the left hand side; place
a piece of manilla paper at the other end of the board and secure it
with thumb tacks, taking care to smooth all the wrinkles out. Next
adjust the marking point in the centre of the paper; and secure the
photograph to the board so that its centre shall be directly under the
tracing point, which should always touch it. If it does not do so at
first, place a little weight on the instrument over this point heavy
enough to bring it in contact with the photograph. Now guide the
instrument, by taking hold of the tracing point while at the same time
you watch the marking point. In this manner go over the entire
photograph, putting in all the details necessary, after which you can
transfer this outline to the crayon paper by means of the tracing paper
according to the former method given for transferring an outline.

These are all the best methods of producing an outline. In each of them
you fasten the charcoal lines with the No. 2 crayon points, and then,
having brushed off the charcoal, proceed to put in the background for
your portrait. This you do by any one of the methods given in the
following pages.



FOUR METHODS OF MAKING THE BACKGROUND.


The background can be made first, with the crayon sauce and the use of
the large gray stump and rubber eraser; second, with the cotton and
rubber, by using the cotton in applying the crayon sauce to put in the
dark places in the background, and then finishing with the rubber;
third, by the use of the line effect; and fourth, by the stipple
effect, produced by the use of pumice stone. This last I consider far
superior to any of the others, as it changes the appearance of the
surface of the paper entirely, and produces an effect altogether
different from that ordinarily shown in a background. It is also free
from the mussy, dirty appearance which is produced by the use of the
cotton and crayon sauce alone. I have been repeatedly asked by both
amateurs and professionals what kind of paper I use in free-hand
crayons. The inquiry arose from the fact that treating the paper by the
fourth method changes the appearance of the surface of the paper and
also its color. I have never before, however, given to the public, nor
even to my pupils, the secret of this process. When the pupil has
mastered it so as to once produce the satisfactory effect of which it
is capable, he will find that it has all the advantages I claim for it
and is a secret well worth knowing, in fact, what would be termed one
of the tricks of the profession, and a very valuable one. I must
confess, however, that I discovered it by an accident. I had been
experimenting for years in making backgrounds in order to produce an
effect that was entirely satisfactory to me, and had failed to reach
just what I wanted. One day, however, I was at work on a portrait that
I was very particular with, but the background of which proved quite
unsatisfactory to me. In despair I threw on a handful of pumice stone,
intending to entirely remove the background by its aid, when, to my
surprise and delight, I found I was producing the very effect that I
had been seeking for years, namely, one rendering the background of a
different color from the face and giving it a clear, transparent
appearance, so that the eye seemed to penetrate it, quite different
from the opaque, almost dirty backgrounds, resulting from the use of
other methods.

I will treat each of these methods in separate chapters further on.



FREE-HAND CRAYONS AND THOSE MADE FROM PHOTOGRAPHIC ENLARGEMENTS.


The principal difference between the appearance of free-hand crayons
and those that are made over a photographic enlargement, is that in the
former the shadows are lighter and more transparent. In the matter of
feeling, however, the free-hand crayon is much more satisfactory to the
artist for he knows it is all his own work, and that he has not
depended on the photographic enlargement to help him make the portrait.

After the outline has been drawn, in making a free-hand crayon, the
portrait is still not yet in the same state of advancement as a silver,
platinum or bromide enlargement; for the reason that the latter not
only has the outline, but also the faint impression in light and shade
of the rest of the portrait. I will, therefore, in the next chapter,
give instructions for filling in the free-hand crayon up to such a
degree of light and shade as shall put it in the same condition as the
enlargement. From that point on the same directions (to be subsequently
given) for finishing the portrait will apply equally to both the
free-hand crayons and the enlargements, except that the bromide is
understood to require special treatment.

The frontispiece was made from a free-hand crayon which was executed on
Steinbach crayon paper with a magic lantern outline. This shows the
stipple effect in the face and drapery, and a broken line effect in the
background. The student will notice the difference between this
illustration and that facing page 81, which was made from a bromide
crayon. In the bromide crayon the shadows are dark and strong, while in
this they are lighter and more transparent.



FILLING IN THE FREE-HAND CRAYON.


Having your crayon outline already made on the mounted strainer, lay
the latter down on the table face up, and proceed to put in a pumice
stone background with the crayon sauce according to instructions
hereafter given on page 70 for producing that kind of background,
making sure that you go entirely over the outline. Then place the
strainer on the easel, and after putting in the cloud effect take the
chamois block in your left hand, and, with a tortillon stump in your
right, put in the shadows in a strong, clear and decided manner.
Commencing on the hair, put in the broader shadows first, working the
stump in the same direction that the lines of the hair go, and endeavor
to give the soft flow that the hair should have, avoiding making lines
or any attempt to make individual hairs. The eyebrows should then be
put in in the same way as the hair, care being taken to preserve the
form; then the eyes, beginning with the upper lids, putting in the
lines between the eye and the lid, and also the second line forming the
lid. Do not line in the lower lid between the eye and the lid, but put
in the under line of the lower lid. Next form the pupil, placing it in
the centre of the iris, making it very dark; then the iris, noticing
in particular that the upper lid throws a shadow on the top of the
iris; then the shading of the nose and nostrils and shadows under the
nose. The mouth is the next important feature, and, as there are no
decided lines in it, you must put in none, but have the degrees of
light and shade form the mouth. Begin with the corners, and notice
carefully that here lies nearly the whole expression of the lower part
of the face; next treat the central point of the lips and complete the
mouth; then make the shadows around the mouth and chin, after which,
put in the ears, and then model up the face, making all the shadows
broad and decided, leaving the details for the finishing touches, but
being careful in the modeling to retain all of the values. Next put in
the clothes with the large stump, sweeping it gently across the lights
in different directions, allowing the lines to cross each other
occasionally. Carefully preserve the form in this, giving the proper
shape to the lapels of the coat or folds in the dress, and to the arms.
Avoid detail and do not carry the clothes as far down as you want them
to show in the finished picture. Lace work should not have too much
detail, but be made somewhat indistinct; only show a few of the forms
out sharp and defined, giving the pattern.



LINE EFFECT.


This can be produced in crayon portraits made over a photographic
enlargement, or in free-hand crayons after the filling in just
described has been done. The lines are drawn to cross one another so as
to leave diamond shaped spaces. One of the important things in this
style of finishing is the line of direction, by which is meant the
lines or grains that represent the object to be drawn. We say that wood
is cross-grained, meaning that the grains or fibers of the wood run
crosswise. If we were to represent a straight board in crayon drawing,
we would draw straight lines running lengthwise of the board, unless it
should have some cross-grained places in it, as that is the way the
grain of the board would be. If we should take the same board and bend
it in the form of a circle, we would in order to represent the board in
that position, draw lines running in a circle to correspond with the
grain and position of the board. The idea to be impressed is, that when
we want to represent an object with crayon and that object is flat, we
draw straight lines to represent its surface; and when the object is
round or partly so, we draw curved lines, conforming them to the
surface of the object. Light and shade in nature have each their
different qualities. Light expresses form while shade obscures it;
consequently, in the light places of an object we will see its grain or
texture, and that grain or texture will gradually become obscured as it
enters the shadow until it is entirely lost in the deepest shadows.
This grain will not show in nature as decided where the strongest
lights are as it will in the half shadows; and, therefore, in the
crayon representation the grain effect should show more decided in the
half shadows. If your crayon is not true in this respect, it will
appear coarse and fail to please as a work of art on account of its
falsity to nature. The line effect is produced throughout the whole
picture, in the background, face and dress.



STIPPLE EFFECT

     _On a photographic enlargement or a free-hand crayon after
     the outline and masses of light and shade have been made
     with the tortillon stump, as explained on page 55._

[Illustration: LINES TO PRODUCE THE STIPPLE EFFECT.

_From the Annual Encyclopedia. Copyrighted, 1891, by D. Appleton &
Co._]

When putting in a background with the pumice stone as described in the
fourth method on page 70, treat the whole surface of the paper with
pumice stone in order to raise the grain of the paper, but go over the
face lightly. Then place the strainer on which the portrait is mounted
on the easel, and put in the shadows with the tortillon stump,
producing the lights with the eraser; finish with the No. 0 crayon. But
instead of producing a diamond effect, as you did with the lines, you
now want to have a stipple effect, which is that of small black and
white spots; the paper producing the white spots, and the crayon the
black ones. To produce this make the lines in the shadows and
half-shadows, but not in the light places, in the manner shown in the
illustration on the following page; instead of crossing them to form
diamonds, using short lines and varying their direction and
intersection with reference to the ultimate effect; then rub them with
the end of the finger. In finishing, gradually divide up all the small
light parts with the pencil and the dark with the eraser: if it is
necessary at any time to rub the crayon, use the end of the finger
instead of the cotton. Be careful not to get too much crayon on the
paper, that is, you must not "force up" or be compelled to make the
shadows too dark by the use of the crayon; they should be made as dark
as necessary with the stump before finishing. Should you find in
finishing that they are not dark enough, use the stump to make them
darker, as the pencil is only intended to give the stipple effect, and
should be used in a very light and delicate way. Continue the process
of finishing according to the directions hereafter given for bromide
enlargements. The foregoing illustration is the first or ground work
for the stipple effect produced by the aid of the fingers. To obtain
this effect without rubbing with the fingers, make small black dots,
instead of the lines shown above, until the desired effect is produced.
The latter method results in a coarser stipple effect, but it requires
a much longer time and is more difficult than the former.



BACKGROUNDS--GENERAL PRINCIPLES.


Always commence the portrait by putting in the background. Among the
four different methods which I have given, the student can make his own
selection. For myself, I prefer the last two mentioned.

There can be no definite rule given for the lights and shadows in the
backgrounds, as every portrait will need a characteristic background
adapted to the subject. There should always be a nice disposition of
light and shade, the light coming against the dark side of the face and
the dark against the light side, and generally a cast shadow. What this
is may be learned by setting a cast (or any other object) near the
wall, letting the light strike it at an angle of 90 degrees, and
noticing the size and position of the shadow thrown on the wall. The
cast shadow in your background must not be too near the head, as
simplicity should be one of the principles of the background, and this
can only be attained by breadth of light and shade. The background is
of secondary importance, and should not intrude itself on the portrait
in its effect of lines or light and shade. Backgrounds for half or full
length figures need especial study in their effect of lines, and one
who intends to succeed in making them properly should study linear
composition in Burnet's essay on Composition,[A] especially the
following passages. "Composition is the art of arranging figures or
objects so as to adapt them to any particular subject. In composition
four requisites are necessary--that the story be well told, that it
possess a good general form, that it be so arranged as to be capable of
receiving a proper effect of light and shade, and that it be
susceptible of an agreeable disposition of color. The form of a
composition is best suggested by the subject or design, as the fitness
of the adaptation ought to appear to emanate from the circumstances
themselves; hence the variety of compositions.

"To secure a good general form in composition, it is necessary that it
should be as simple as possible. Whether this is to be produced by a
breadth of light and shade, which is often the case with Rembrandt,
even on a most complicated outline, or by the simple arrangement of
color, as we often find in Titian, or by the construction of the group,
evident in many of Raphael's works, must depend upon the taste of the
artist. It is sufficient to direct the younger students to this
particular, their minds being generally carried away by notions of
variety and contrasts.

"In giving a few examples of composition, I have confined myself to the
four simple and principal forms, not only from their being most
palpable, but also from their possessing a decided character, which is
at all times desirable. To those who imagine that such rules tend to
fetter genius, I shall merely quote Sir Joshua Reynolds, whose works,
if properly understood, render all other writings on the subject of
painting superfluous: 'It must of necessity be that even works of
genius, like every other effect, as they must have their causes, must
likewise have their rules. It cannot be by chance that excellencies are
produced with any constancy or any certainty, for this is not the
nature of chance; but the rules by which men of extraordinary points,
and such as are called men of genius, work, are either such as they
discover by their own peculiar observations, or are of such nice
texture as not easily to admit being expressed in words; especially as
artists are not very frequently skillful in that mode of communicating
ideas. Unsubstantial, however, as these rules may seem, and difficult
as it may be to convey them in writing, they are still seen and felt in
the mind of the artist, and he works from them with as much certainty
as if they were embodied, as I may say, upon paper. It is true these
refined principles cannot be always palpable, like the more gross rules
of art, yet it does not follow but that the mind may be put in such a
train that it shall perceive, by a kind of scientific sense, that
propriety which words, particularly words of unpractised writers such
as we are, can but very feebly suggest.' (Sixth Discourse)."

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote A: Essays on Art, by John Burnet, New York, E. L. Wilson.]



FIRST METHOD OF MAKING THE BACKGROUND--STUMP EFFECT.


To produce the stump effect, rub the chamois block in the box of crayon
sauce, and then with the large grey paper stump commence by putting in
the darkest parts and the cast shadow. Use the broad end of the stump,
moving it over the surface of the paper with an even and uniform
pressure, so that you will not make any dark spots. Make broad lines
and have them cross each other so as to form diamond shaped spaces,
using considerable care and a very light touch in the lighter places.
Finish with the large rubber eraser, cutting it so that it will make
white lines about the same width as the black lines made with the
stump. Have these light lines run into the dark ones in some places,
and use the rubber so as to produce a dashing effect.



SECOND METHOD OF MAKING THE BACKGROUND.


Take a handful of cotton batting, rub it in the box of crayon sauce,
and then on a piece of paper before applying it to the crayon paper to
make the background, being careful to avoid rubbing harder in some
places than others, as dark spots are likely to be caused in that way.
Commence by rubbing in close to the face and work out towards the edge
of the paper. Let the darkest part be closest to the face, shading out
in the form of a circle about six or eight inches from the face,
according to the subject, the upper line of the arc coming a little
above the head. Then make the cast shadow and finish with the large
rubber eraser, putting the lights, or cloud effect, as it is called, in
the background. When doing this, place the strainer high enough on the
easel to bring the centre of the picture on a level with your eyes,
then standing in front of it and about six feet off, decide upon your
plan of light and shade. After you have put in the first of the lights,
step back to the former position, and see if it gives the proper
effect. Continue this method of working until the background is
entirely completed.



THIRD METHOD OF MAKING THE BACKGROUND--LINE EFFECT.


With the cotton and crayon sauce as in the preceding method, put in the
dark places and cast shadow, but not as dark as you want them when
finished; then with the crayon point No. 2 put in three sets of lines
thus:--

[Illustration: BACKGROUND. LINE EFFECT.

_From the Annual Encyclopedia. Copyrighted, 1891, by D. Appleton &
Co._]

Do not carry out the lines as far as the background will extend when
finished. The lines should be one-quarter of an inch apart in life-size
portraits, and a little closer in smaller sizes. As a rule the lines
are a little further apart in the background than in the face. These
lines need not be horizontal, crossed by oblique ones at obtuse angles,
but they can be curved lines, if desired, provided they cross each
other so as to leave diamond shaped spaces. After the lines are in rub
a piece of clean cotton over them all, using pressure enough to subdue
them to the degree of indistinctness desired; then finish with the
large eraser and crayon point No. 2, putting in the cloud effect. Such
lines as show too prominently you subdue with the nigrivorine eraser.
If there are any light places, make them dark with the crayon.

The background should be very indistinct on the edges, and be vignetted
in the shape of an oblong, having some very light clouds above and on
either side of the head. Let there be a nice contrast between the face
and the background, having light come against dark and dark against
light; that is, when one side of the face is dark and one side light,
have the background light against the dark side, and dark against the
light side; when light and shade are about equal on both sides of the
face, have the background about the same shade on both sides, without
too decided a cast shadow. If you have a subject that has gray hair,
have the background darker than it would be otherwise. The background
should never be darker at any place than the shadows in the face, and
close to the face it must be a shade between the light and half
shadows. Never resort to the practice of leaving the background white,
as this will only give a hard, stiff appearance. Clean off the outside
edges of the background with a clean piece of cotton and the pumice
stone.



FOURTH METHOD OF MAKING THE BACKGROUND--STIPPLE EFFECT.


Lay a piece of manilla paper on the table about twelve inches larger on
each edge than your strainer, placing the strainer on it face up; rub a
handful of cotton batting first in the crayon sauce and then on the
manilla paper to remove any foreign substance. Then apply the cotton
with a circular motion to the crayon paper to make the background
desired. Next sprinkle the pulverized pumice stone over the entire
background, and go over this with the fingers in a circular movement,
using them flat from the second joint to the ends; then lift the
strainer up, and, resting it on the edge, jar off all the pumice stone,
and when this is done, lay it down again and rub it off with a clean
piece of cotton. Now rub the fingers in the crayon sauce, keeping them
flat so that it will adhere evenly to them, and go over the background
lightly as when rubbing in the pumice stone and you will produce a nice
stipple effect. Finally, place the strainer on the easel, and finish
according to the directions given for finishing crayons made on bromide
enlargements.

Of course it will need considerable experience before you can succeed
in doing this perfectly, but patience and perseverance will ultimately
accomplish the desired end. There are two matters of importance to be
borne in mind in making these backgrounds--first, do not have any
small, hard pieces of crayon on the cotton when you rub it on the
paper, and second, use the fingers in as flat a position as possible,
for if you do not have them flat down on the paper you are likely to
make dark spots in the background.



FACE--LINE EFFECT.


[Illustration: LINE EFFECT FOR FACE.

_From the Annual Encyclopedia. Copyrighted, 1891, by D. Appleton &
Co._]

Commence on the hair with the crayon point No. 2, and put in all the
shadows and half-shadows, carefully preserving the lines of direction,
but avoid working over the lights more than necessary; then with the
crayon point No. 1 strengthen all the shadows about the eyebrows, the
eyes, the mouth, the chin and the ears. Next put the lines in the face.
The following illustration shows the lines before they are rubbed. It
will be well to remember that only two sets of lines are used in the
face, as shown in the illustration, and the same number in the dress,
while there are three sets required in the background. The lines in the
face should be a little closer than those in the background, while
those in the dress are about the same as those in the background.

In the effect of the lines in the face lie the chief merit and beauty
of this method of crayon work. When properly drawn, the lines represent
and give the grain of the flesh in a very beautiful broken effect. They
are drawn so as to leave spaces shaped like diamonds, but in the
finishing should be so treated as to lose their regularity, and to have
the effect of "broken diamonds." If you will examine the back of the
wrist joint when your hand is bent slightly backward, you will see more
clearly what is meant by the term "broken diamonds" in the slight
ridges which show the grain of the flesh. Begin with the forehead,
using the crayon point No. 1, and put in one set of lines straight
across, but curving downwards as the forehead commences to round off
towards the hair at the sides; then one more set of lines in the
direction that will produce the diamond spaces, continuing these two
sets of lines throughout the face. These lines intersecting at the
proper angles will indicate the grain of the flesh, if the line of
direction be carefully followed. Remembering that the face is not a
flat surface, make the lines darker in the shadows and lighter as they
approach the lights. The high lights on the forehead, the nose, the
highest point of the chin, and around the mouth, should, however, have
no lines over them.

Having put in these lines take a small handful of cotton, and rub the
hair and face over both the high lights and shadows, the motion
following the line of direction; that is, being straight across the
forehead, curving towards the hair at the sides, and circular on the
cheeks. Care should be exercised not to rub too hard, it being a common
fault of the beginner to rub the paper too much, and produce a dirty
effect. The lines should be merely rubbed until they are somewhat
blurred and indistinct. Remember that the crayon portrait is made on
the surface of the paper, and not rubbed into it. After it has thus
been treated with the cotton, go over the shadows with the crayon point
No. 1, and rub again with the cotton.

The face of the crayon will now be about three shades darker in the
lights than it should be when finished, and not quite dark enough in
the shadows. Finish it with the No. 0 crayon and nigrivorine eraser,
using the latter wherever a lighter effect is required; also break up
the regularity of the diamond spaces, and whenever a line shows too
prominently subdue it with the eraser.

If you would succeed in making good crayon portraits, it will be
necessary for you to cultivate a light touch with the crayon in
finishing.

The eraser is one of the principal instruments employed in making
crayon portraits, and is used the same as if it were a crayon pencil,
that is, on that principle, the difference being that you make white
lines with it instead of black ones. Keep the eraser to a sharp point
in the following manner: take a piece of emery paper about three inches
square, and place it in the left hand between the index and second
fingers, holding the fingers about half an inch apart, and bending the
paper to fit between them; then rub the eraser in the crease thus
formed, holding it at an acute angle. Sometimes it is necessary to
sharpen the eraser with a knife or a pair of scissors before rubbing it
on the emery paper. In working with the eraser on the crayon paper do
not rub hard enough to remove all the crayon from the surface of the
paper, except in producing the high lights and the white of drapery.
Notice in particular in finishing the hair that where it touches the
forehead there are no lines, as the light and shade should blend
together so nicely as to leave no decided line between them.



DRESS--LINE EFFECT.


[Illustration: LINE EFFECT FOR DRESS.

_From the Annual Encyclopedia. Copyrighted, 1891, by D. Appleton &
Co._]

The above illustration represents the effect of the lines in the dress.
In putting them in let every fold, sleeve and lapel have lines of its
own, that is, lines differing in direction so as to discriminate it
from the other parts of the clothing. These distinctive lines will lose
themselves in the wrinkles, in shadows, and in the next fold, where the
lines will have a different direction. The illustration is very crude,
as it shows the lines before they are rubbed with cotton; after that
process they have quite a different appearance. In men's clothing the
lines may be drawn a little farther apart than in the treatment of the
finer texture of ladies' garments. After you have put in the lines with
the crayon point No. 2, go over them with a piece of cotton previously
rubbed in the crayon sauce, and then complete this part of the work by
the use of a dull eraser for the smaller lights, and the chamois for
the broad lights.

The crayon is now in good condition for finishing, which you will
proceed to do by the use of No. 0 Conte crayon and the nigrivorine
eraser, softening the lights with the former and the shadows with the
latter, until you have the whole portrait subdued, and no decided lines
of light and shade. Of course throughout these processes you must pay
close attention to all the characteristic points in the likeness, so
that the crayon will be a true and life-like reproduction. Do not sit
too close to the crayon in finishing; if you do, you will be
disappointed when you come to look at it from a slight distance, and
will not find at all that enchantment which distance is said to lend to
the view, as the crayon will disclose a spotty effect, and too great a
contrast between the lights and shadows.



BROMIDE CRAYONS.


In the bromide enlargement, while the paper has to undergo all the
different manipulations of development, fixing and washing, that the
platinum and silver enlargements do, yet the gelatin is not removed,
and, when dry, remains as a strong sizing to the surface of the
paper--in fact, so strong, that in some of the different kinds of
bromide paper the surface is very nearly as hard as glass, and,
therefore, the crayon cannot be used upon it with good results until it
has received a special treatment, as the crayon would only make a black
scratchy mark.

It has been said that the bromide paper and enlargement were entirely
different from the platinum or silver enlargement and the crayon paper.
While there is not as much difference between the bromide and other
enlargements as there is between the former and the crayon paper, there
should be this difference: the silver or platinum enlargement should
only be printed strong enough to give the form and the larger details
in the negative, while the bromide enlargement must be as nearly a
perfect photograph as can be produced from the negative.

[Illustration: FROM CRAYON EXECUTED OVER A BROMIDE ENLARGEMENT MADE
FROM THE ORIGINAL NEGATIVE--STIPPLE EFFECT THROUGHOUT. BY J. A.
BARHYDT.]

From the fact that, on account of the difference in the surface of
the paper, there cannot be as much crayon put on the bromide
enlargement as on the other kinds of paper, and that, therefore, it
cannot be strengthened to the same degree in the shadows without
spoiling the nice transparent effect that a bromide should have there,
it follows that the best bromide crayons are those on which the least
crayon is used to produce the desired effect. The bromide paper, on
account of the gelatin surface, will not take the crayon from the stump
as readily as the other kinds of paper; but after the surface has been
treated with the pumice stone this objection is removed, and the paper
can be worked on with the stump readily. I can say from my own
experience, that for producing a crayon over a photographic enlargement
with the stipple effect, it has no equal in the beauty of finish and
rapidity of execution.

The illustration facing this page was made from a crayon executed over
a bromide enlargement from the original negative. Better results can
always be reached in a bromide enlargement when it is thus made from
the original negative. The student will notice in particular the
stipple effect in the reproduction.



FINISHING BROMIDE ENLARGEMENTS.


Examine the enlargement mounted on the strainer, looking at it from the
side, to learn if there is any starch on the surface of the paper
before commencing work on it. If there is any, carefully wash it off
with a sponge and some clean water, and then set the enlargement aside
until it has thoroughly dried. Then lay it down on the table with a
piece of manilla paper under the strainer about 12 inches longer on
each edge than the latter; take a handful of cotton, first rubbing it
thoroughly in the crayon sauce, then on the manilla paper, and finally
going over the surface of the enlargement with it in a circular motion.
Then sprinkle pumice stone over the portrait, and using the ends of the
fingers flat, rub it over the entire surface of the paper. This
treatment cuts through the gelatin surface and prepares it for the
stipple effect. Now stand the strainer on its edge and jar the pumice
stone off, after which lay it down on the table, and with a piece of
clean cotton lightly brush off the surface; then, having rubbed the
finger ends in the crayon sauce, go over the entire surface of the
enlargement, holding them flat, and you will produce a fine stipple
effect.

If the shadows need to be darker, use a little more crayon on the
fingers; also put the cast shadow in the background, applying the
crayon with the fingers.

Before proceeding further it will be well to note that the crayon is
entirely on the gelatin surface, and that the photographic image is on
this surface also, and not on the paper itself; therefore, under the
image and the gelatin you have the pure white paper. I call attention
to this in order that you may work with a better comprehension of the
materials you are using.

You now have four surfaces. First, the muslin cloth of the strainer;
second, the starch; third, the white paper; fourth, the gelatin.

Knowing that the gelatin has a hard surface, you are prepared to learn
that the crayon will come off from the bromide much more easily than
from the other kinds of paper. These had but three surfaces, while the
bromide has a fourth--a very hard one--between the crayon and the
paper, and on account of its hardness it will need different treatment
in its manipulation. Therefore you use the fingers in applying the
crayon sauce, and, when it is necessary to make a place light, you do
so with the cotton, chamois or eraser. Should you find it necessary to
make a place white where it is dark, you can remove the photograph
entirely, as this is on the gelatin, scraping it off down to the white
paper with a sharp knife.

Resuming the process of finishing, place the enlargement on the easel
and put in the cloud effect with the large eraser, then lay it on the
table again, and clean it off about four inches from the edge all
around with pumice stone and a fresh piece of cotton where you have
rubbed with the eraser, and blend the background into this four inch
space. Return the enlargement to the easel again, and with the broad
eraser clean up the lights throughout, and with the cotton and pumice
stone blend them into the shadows; then with the peerless stump, crayon
sauce and fingers strengthen the larger shadows, using the nigrivorine
eraser when necessary to clean up the lights, and the tortillon stump
for the work in the smaller shadows, if it is required to make them
darker. Now with the No. 0 crayon finish the face by completing the
stipple effect in the patches of light and shade. You will have a good
guide in the background for finishing and giving the stipple effect, as
there you will have this stipple effect quite perfect, especially in
the light places. This finishing with the No. 0 crayon is the nicest
part of the work, and when doing it you must keep in mind that you are
putting in the stipple effect, and that alone; that is, the portrait at
this stage is supposed to be very nearly right in light and shade and
expression, and it should not be necessary to strengthen it in the
shadows by using the No. 0 crayon. You are to cut up or divide the
portrait into small black and white spots, but do not take out white
spots with the No. 0 crayon that are larger than the white spots
desired in the stipple effect; these light places must be cut into
smaller light spots. If you should take out these white spots (and this
is an error you must be very careful to avoid), you would produce an
effect of large dark and white spots that would be entirely wrong, the
real process being to divide large white and dark spots into smaller
ones of the same color.

This stipple effect should be worked all over the face with the
exception of the highest lights, and even these will very often need to
be worked over except at the single points of the very highest lights.
In this work you now have an opportunity to demonstrate the theory of
contrast. Sometimes the enlargement is too dark in the shadows, and
although you require to have them lighter you have already removed all
the crayon from the surface, and it still remains too dark. The crayon
pencil is many shades darker and blacker than the shadows, yet you can
by its use make them lighter by putting in the stipple effect, as the
dark touches of the pencil in their contrast with the shadow color
under them cause them to appear lighter. This is a very essential
principle to remember in crayon portrait work: that the effect of dark
against light is to make the light appear lighter, and the dark darker.
After the face and hair are completed as above, then finish the
clothes with the peerless stump, eraser and fingers. If there are any
very dark strong shadows--for instance, under the collar or around the
neck--put them in with the velours crayon and subdue them with the
fingers. When at work on the clothes at the bottom of the portrait do
not finish straight across, but in a circular way. Next taking up the
background you will discover that there are some large patches of light
and shade that must be changed and made the required color to
correspond with the adjoining surface; lean back as far as possible in
your chair, and join these places together with the pencil and eraser;
then in the same position finish the face by removing any light or dark
places, strengthening the eyes, nose, mouth, and any point of the
likeness requiring a final touch. Remove with the point of your knife
any small black spots such as sometimes show in the photograph, and
then with a fresh piece of cotton and pumice stone clean off the edges
of the crayon all around.

Before regarding the picture as quite complete, examine it by holding
it at right angles to the light, to see if there are not some marks of
the crayon pencil that show too prominently. These can be subdued with
the ends of the fingers. Sometimes in finishing with the No. 0 crayon
the paper will seem to be gritty so that you can hardly work on it.
The difficulty is that some of the pumice stone has adhered to the
surface of the paper. This can be disposed of by rubbing it with the
fingers. It should be remembered that the pumice stone must be entirely
removed from the whole surface of the paper, as otherwise it will
settle in the crayon, and give a dirty gray effect. When, as sometimes
happens in commencing the portrait, dark or white spots or streaks show
themselves, do not pay any attention to them until you have entirely
finished the crayon, then if they are dark, make them the proper shade
with the eraser, and if light, with the crayon.



MONOCHROMES.[B]


These are portraits in one color on porcelain, glass or any hard
material that has first been coated with gelatin and then photographed
on. First treat the whole surface with pumice stone as directed for the
bromide paper, afterwards go over it with the crayon and cotton. Then
put in the cloud effect in the background, and clean off the lights in
the face, hair, and clothes with the eraser; next put in the
half-shadows with the peerless stump; then with a solution of India ink
darken the stronger shadows throughout the portrait--in the eyes, nose,
mouth and eyebrows, and finally in the hair. Finish the face with the
No. 0 crayon and the 4 H. Faber's lead pencil according to directions
given for finishing bromide enlargements. The Faber pencil is used
almost exclusively throughout the face. Very nice effects of strong
light can be made on porcelain by scraping through the gelatin surface
with the knife. This process is specially adapted to making pictures of
smaller size, say 10×12, or 11×14 inches, as it produces a very soft
and delicate effect.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote B: For photographic process, see the American Annual of
Photography and Photographic Times Almanac, 1888.]



VALUES.


The matter of values enters into the essential quality of every work of
art, and especially of a portrait. It is the truth of their rendering
that will give a faithful likeness. By the term values is meant the
relations of light and shade to each other. This subject has been so
admirably treated by John Burnet in his essay entitled "Practical Hints
on Light and Shade,"[C] that I give his observations on this point.

"Before proceeding to investigate light and shade in their various
intricate relations, it may be proper to notice a few of the more
palpable and self-evident combinations; and for the better
comprehending of which I shall divide them into five parts, viz.:
Light, half-light, middle tint, half-dark and dark. When a picture is
chiefly composed of light and half-light, the darks will have more
force and point, but without the help of strong color to give it
solidity it will be apt to look feeble, and when a picture is composed
mainly of dark and half-dark the lights will be more brilliant; but
they will be apt to look spotty for want of half-light to spread and
connect them, and the piece be in danger of becoming black and heavy.
And when a picture is composed chiefly of middle tint, the dark and
light portions have a more equal chance of coming into notice, but the
general effect is in danger of becoming common and insipid. Light and
shade are capable of producing many results, but the three principal
are relief, harmony and breadth. By the first the artist is enabled to
give his work the distinctness and solidity of nature; the second is
the result of a union and cement of one part with another; and the
third, a general breadth, is the necessary attendant on extent and
magnitude. A judicious management of these three properties is to be
found in the best pictures of the Italian, Venetian and Flemish
Schools, and ought to employ the most attentive examination of the
student, for by giving too much relief he will produce a dry hard
effect, by too much softness and blending of the parts, wooliness and
insipidity, and in a desire to produce breadth of effect he may produce
flatness."

The student should make a careful study of the values, as upon these
will depend the entire effect of the portrait and its fidelity as a
likeness; and the absence of these qualities of rendering light and
shade are one of the marked features of the work of amateurs, as they
are apt to make their shadows too dark and their lights too light. You
should compare the portrait with the photograph you are working from,
and preserve the same contrasts between the lights and shadows in order
to produce satisfactory results. The best way of examining your work is
by the use of a mirror. To the student the mirror is his best critic.
It is before this silent observer that he submits his work with the
certainty of receiving an honest criticism. At every step of your
progress look at your work in a good mirror, as here it is changed
about, the left side being the right side, and no error will escape
detection. Sometimes you will see that what appeared true was in
reality false, what seemed graceful in contour was distorted; here an
eye which you thought was looking at you quite straight now mocks you
from the glass in manifest obliquity; the mouth, which you thought had
a pleasant expression, now looks as disdainful as can be. And so all
through your work you will be startled; you will doubt the mirror.
Doubt it not; your work is false. If you will be convinced show it to
some competent artist, and he will confirm the judgment of the
impartial mirror. Experience will soon teach you to put such reliance
on its never capricious council that you will follow its suggestions
implicitly, and, when your work is altered, the result will satisfy you
invariably, that, as the proverb says of two heads, so two images are
better than one. When you have come to this conclusion there is not a
beauty of eighteen who will consult her glass (though it is true for a
somewhat lighter purpose,) more eagerly, more devoutly, more
frequently, or finally, we hope, with more triumphant satisfaction than
will you.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote C: Essays on Art by John Burnet, New York, Edward L. Wilson.]



STUDIO.


The amateur is not to consider the selection of his studio or work-room
of minor importance; the perspective, coloring, and the effect of the
portrait will all depend, in a great measure, upon the situation and
dimensions of the studio. It may be said in a general way that the
larger the apartment the better. To secure the effect which it is
essential to produce, there should be space enough left behind the
artist to permit him to step back from six to ten or twelve feet to
accurately view and see the effect of the portrait. I cannot urge too
strongly upon the amateur the usefulness of frequently viewing his work
from a distance. I would gladly save him the disappointment and chagrin
which I have myself experienced, when having neglected this precaution,
I have quite finished a portrait only to find it thoroughly
unsatisfactory when looked at from a greater distance than that at
which I had worked.

You should choose a room with a north light if possible; if that is not
available then one with a south light, and the room should be as near
the top of the house as possible. Let the light be arranged so as to
strike the easel at an angle of 90 degrees, and if it is a side light
darken the lower half of the window. Do not have the side walls white,
they should be a neutral shade; reddish is the best. For work with
water colors or India ink you need a stand, and be sure and set it so
that the light will be at your left when you work. Keep the studio as
free from dust as possible, and when you have finished working for the
day wash your brushes and place the corks in the water color bottles,
so as to exclude the dust from them. For crayon work also set the easel
so that the light is at the left hand.

A word in regard to selecting materials. I have already spoken in
regard to the selection of photographs for coloring. As to
brushes--camel's hair will cost only about a third as much as sable,
and will answer every purpose for beginners; the fine sable should be
procured after the pupil has advanced sufficiently. In choosing a brush
for water colors, dip it in a cup of water and draw it over the edge of
the cup; if it has a little spring to it, and comes to a point readily
without any of the hair straggling, it is all right; if not, reject it.
Winsor and Newton's Chinese White is the best white paint. For mixing
the colors you can get a slant with eight divisions, or a nest of
saucers. In selecting glass for mounting pictures choose that which is
free from blisters.



FRAMING.


The following directions in regard to framing will, I hope, be found
advantageous. When framing with a passepartout mat, always use

    For a 16×20 portrait an 18×22 frame,
     "    18×22    "     "  20×24   "
     "    20×24    "     "  22×26   "
     "    24×29    "     "  25×30   "

I make a life-size portrait 25×30 on a 24×29 strainer. The reason for
using a larger frame than strainer is this: that it invariably happens
that the head of the portrait will not come in exactly the proper place
in the opening of the passepartout, and by having the frame two inches
larger each way you will be able to bring the head wherever desired in
this opening. When placing the picture in the frame, lay the latter
face down on a table and put in the glass, which should have been
perfectly cleaned; lay in the passepartout and fasten it with small
brads. Then lay the crayon down on the table face up and turn the frame
over on it, and after you have it in the proper place, draw the picture
and frame partially over the edge of the table, and from underneath
mark the back of the passepartout where the edges of the picture come;
then turn the frame and picture over so that it shall be face down. Now
cut eight strips of old tin-type metal one-quarter of an inch wide and
three inches long, making holes at each end of them for the tacks, and
with these strips fasten the picture in its place by tacking one end of
each to the strainer and the other end to the frame. Also cut a piece
of heavy manilla paper the size of the frame, lay it on a board, dampen
it with a sponge, apply starch paste around each side and the ends for
a space of six inches, and lay it over the back of the picture and
frame, pressing it down on the latter; then set it away to dry. This
will make a neat smooth back which will exclude moth and dust from the
portrait.



PASSEPARTOUT MOUNTING.


The following method will be found useful, especially if you want to
exhibit a crayon without the expense of framing it. Lay on the mounting
board a piece of heavy manilla paper somewhat larger than the picture,
then put the crayon on this face up, next the passepartout, and last
the clean glass. Mark the size of this on the paper, and then, having
removed the glass, crayon and passepartout, cut the paper enough larger
than the marks to allow it to come up one inch all around over the
edges of the glass; next dampen the paper, and apply the starch paste
to its edges about six inches all around, then lay the crayon,
passepartout and glass back where they were on the paper, and bring the
latter up, lapping it over the face of the glass; cut the corners out
so as to bring them over properly; rub the edges down thoroughly on the
glass, and with a ruler and knife trim off the paper, allowing
one-quarter of an inch margin; then set away to dry. This will put the
crayon in good condition to be exhibited, and will thoroughly protect
it.



Transparent Liquid Water Colors for Coloring Photographs.

[Illustration]



TRANSPARENT LIQUID WATER COLORS FOR COLORING PHOTOGRAPHS


_Materials Required in Their Use._

    A good photograph, an engraving or photogravure mounted on
      card-board
    Camel's hair brushes, Nos. 3 and 5,
    Sheet of blotting-paper,
    Small sponge,
    Clean white cloth,
    Cake of Chinese white, Winsor and Newton's water color,
    A divided slant or nest of small dishes for holding the color when
      mixed,
    Box transparent liquid water colors,
    Stick of India ink,
    Box pulverized pumice stone,
    Two tumblers for water.

It has passed into a proverb that he is a bad workman who complains of
his tools. It is certain that good ones simplify work and give better
results. One of the most important things for successful art-work is to
have at hand the proper materials and good instruments. In their
selection do not follow a penny wise and pound foolish policy, but get
the best you can; and these you will often find not too good.



THEORY OF COLOR.


The principles connected with coloring should be understood if one
desires to produce the most pleasing and harmonious effects in
painting. The three colors, red, yellow, and blue, with the white of
the paper, are equal in theory to all the requirements of art in its
true relation to color. Red, yellow and blue are called primary colors;
that is, we cannot produce these colors from the combination of any
others. Orange, purple and green are called secondary colors, and are
produced by the combination of the primary colors. By the mixture of
red and yellow we obtain orange, from red and blue, purple, from yellow
and blue, green. The tertiary colors--broken green, gray and brown--are
produced by the mixture of the secondary colors. From orange and purple
we obtain brown, from orange and green, broken green, and from purple
and green, gray. The three primary colors must always be present in a
picture to produce harmony. Colors are divided into what are called
warm and cold colors, the yellow and red being termed warm, and the
blue cold. Yellow and red produce light and warmth, and it is
impossible to produce coolness without the use of blue. In painting we
use the three terms, light, shade and color, because they best express
the qualities of color. Light is expressed by yellow, shade by blue,
and color by red. While red is particularly designated as color, we
must not forget the claims of yellow and blue, as they, together with
red, complete the primary scale of colors. It is by placing these
different colors in juxtaposition that we produce the proper qualities
existing in each of the other colors. It is impossible to produce the
effect of warmth by red and yellow unless we use the blue in connection
with them. It is this filling up, or completing the primary scale of
colors, that gives the term complementary, so often employed in
speaking of colors. Thus red is said to be complementary to green, as
green contains the other two colors of the primary scale--blue and
yellow. Blue is complementary to orange, as orange contains red and
yellow. Yellow is complementary to purple, as purple contains blue and
red. The principle of using the complementary color is of the utmost
importance in painting, or the use of color by any method, and it is on
this principle that the harmony of color is based. When a painting is
produced that has the colors red, yellow and blue properly balanced, a
pleasing and harmonious effect is attained; but if these colors are not
used in their proper relations, there is a discord, and the work is not
satisfactory. These rules must be borne in mind by every student in
coloring, whether he uses oil or water colors. One of the most common
errors of amateurs is to overlook the red in landscape. Thus trees are
too green, and the grass is insufferably green: the complementary
color, red, has been left out.

By the following experiment you may prove that when you see one color
the eye is in a perfect condition to see its complementary color. On a
piece of white paper, three inches wide and five inches long, draw with
a lead pencil an oblong, half an inch from the top, one inch wide, and
two and one-half inches long from right to left, and a similar oblong
one-half an inch below the one already drawn. Then draw a six pointed
star (or any other not too large figure you desire) in the centre of
the upper oblong, and paint it with vermilion water color. Now look
intently at the painted star for thirty seconds, and then look at the
plain oblong below, and you will observe that the latter will gradually
assume a very beautiful shade of green, the exact complementary color
of the vermilion, with the figure in white upon it--unless you should
happen to be color blind. If that is the case, the experiment will
demonstrate that fact.



COLORS.


Transparent water colors are put up in boxes containing nine colors,
and as you reduce them in the proportion of one part of color to eight
of water, a single box will last a long time. They can be bought of
almost any dealer in artist's materials, and are designated as
Florentine, Egyptian, Grecian, and by other names. Care should be used
in procuring those which are pure and fresh. The colors are yellow,
blue, rose, violet, magenta, flesh, brown, gold and black. The labels
on the bottles give directions for mixing.



YELLOW.


Yellow is one of the primary colors and one of the most useful, as it
enters into the coloring of almost every picture. Transparent yellow is
very brilliant, and can be used with any other color. Yellow and red
make orange, yellow and blue make bright green, yellow and black a dull
green. In landscapes, yellow is used in the middle distance with blue
and rose and magenta. In the foreground it is used with blue and black
for green, and is especially adapted for brilliant touches of foliage,
grasses, and light places in the ground. In portraits a very little can
be used in the reflected lights on the faces, and, when mixed with
brown, for light shades of hair and eyebrows; for light dresses, used
weak, it makes a very nice cream color. It can also be used very weak
for laces, the strong lights being afterwards touched up with Chinese
white, but not when the picture is to be mounted on glass. This color
will ordinarily work nicely and give good results wherever its use
seems appropriate, but care must always be exercised not to use it too
strong.



BLUE.


This is another of the primary colors and a very essential one, it
being the nearest allied to shade, and although not shade itself, no
shadows can be produced without it. We will find it, therefore,
mingling with all the shades of nature between the lights and shadows.
It would be in vain for us to introduce all our warm colors, if the
cool tints that are produced by blue are wanting; for, without that,
the work will appear heavy, as it is the contrast between blue and the
warm colors that produces a balance of color. Blue mixed with yellow
makes a very brilliant green, with gold a duller green, with magenta a
purple. In landscapes it is used in skies and the middle distances, but
not in the foreground, unless mixed with yellow. Blue can be mixed with
rose or magenta for sunset skies. When the horizon is represented a
streak of blue or rose, or of blue and magenta, will give a very
pleasing effect. In portraits if you have a light background, a thin
wash of blue can be used over it. The same can also be used for blue
eyes and for dresses when they are light in the picture, also in all
the half-shadows of the dresses or draperies without regard to what
their other color may be.



ROSE.


This is the nearest approach to red that we have in these colors, and
as it fills out the scale it is an essential one. It is, in fact, a
very delicate shade of rose. For landscape it is used only in the
skies, and then only a little near the horizon for sunset effects. For
portraits it is used in the drapery for making a very light shade of
pink, and it can be used generally when you want to make a very
delicate effect. The photographic print on which it is used should not
be too dark.



VIOLET.


This is a very strong and brilliant color, and therefore needs more
than usual care in handling. In landscapes it is only used in certain
skies near the horizon, and but very seldom even then. It is more
especially designed for portraits, and there particularly in drapery to
make very decided effects of strong color; but it can only be used when
the dress or draperies are dark in the photograph.



MAGENTA.


This also is a powerful color and must be used carefully. It is not
adapted to landscapes, but in portraits is used for dresses and
accessories. If the photograph requires a dark dress this color will
make it a beautiful shade.



FLESH.


This color can be used a very little in the skies of landscapes when
there is a sunset effect to be represented. In portraits it is used to
color the faces and hands. After it is dry, retouch the cheeks and lips
with the same color.



BROWN.


This color is used in all the shadows. In landscapes, in some
instances, it serves for use in the middle distance and foreground; the
light places should be retouched with yellow or gold. It is also used
for tree trunks, fences, and the like. In portraits it serves to color
the hair and eyes, and appears in the dark shadows of the drapery and
furniture. If the background is dark, a nice effect is produced by
tinting it a little with this color.



BLACK.


In transparent color this has more the effect of a dark gray than a
brilliant black, such as is produced with body colors. When you want a
very dark black, it is better to use a little India ink with it. It is
used in the skies of landscapes when you wish a gray effect, or to
subdue a too strong blue color or red, and in foregrounds for rocks. In
connection with yellow it will make a sombre green for trees,
mountains, etc. In portraits it is used for the hair and eyes, in the
shadows around the mouth, and in drapery in connection with the other
colors.



GOLD.


This is a combination of yellow and red, and in general can be used
wherever either of these colors would answer. In landscapes a little
can be used in the skies, the middle distances, and lights on the
ground in the foreground. In portraits it is used to color the drapery
and jewelry.



INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING LIQUID WATER COLORS.


Fill the two tumblers with water, and have all the other materials
ready and convenient to work with. If you have selected a burnished and
mounted photograph wet its surface with saliva; unburnished
photographs, photogravures and engravings do not require this
treatment, but in coloring them it will be necessary to mix a weak
solution of gum arabic with the colors to prevent their penetrating the
paper. If printed on too thin a paper the photogravure or engraving
should be mounted. If it is found that the colors "crawl" or spread on
the photograph, mix a little acetic acid with the colors you are using,
and should this fail to remove the difficulty, rub a pinch of pumice
stone over the photograph with the fingers.

If the photograph is a portrait commence with the background, washing
it all over with a brushful of diluted color, being careful not to get
any on the face. If the background is light, use a weak solution of
blue, if dark, a brown solution. The majority of backgrounds only need
a very little tinting--just sufficient to change the color. For the
face use flesh color, diluting it to the proper shade, washing it
entirely over the face, and with a stronger solution of the same color
tint the cheeks and lips, giving them a little brighter effect than the
flesh color. Touch up the shadows in the face with the brown, and if
there are any reflected lights use a very weak solution of the yellow
color for them; then with some very weak black make the shadows around
the mouth a little darker; next with a solution of blue, also very
weak, strengthen the shadows in the forehead and around the temples;
then color the eyes, using a small brush. If they are blue, use a weak
solution of blue, if gray, use a little black, and if brown, then that
color. Next color the hair; if brown, use brown mixed with a little
black to take away the reddish color; if auburn, use brown and yellow,
with a little gray between the lights and shadows. In working on the
hair, move your brush in the direction of the lines of the hair; if
wavy, then cause your brush to follow its lines. After you have thus
gone over it, darken the shadows with a stronger solution of the same
color. After the hair, paint the eyebrows and beard, if there is any,
with the same color.



DRAPERY.


You must remember in using these liquid colors that they are
transparent, and, therefore, whenever the print is light you cannot
make it dark, unless you strengthen the shadows by applying opaque
colors. For dresses, if they are light, use the delicate colors to suit
your fancy, either the rose, blue, yellow, or gold; when they are dark,
use the magenta or violet, being careful to spread the colors evenly.
After you have once colored the dresses, then with a stronger solution
of the same color darken the shadows; if you then touch up the
half-shadows with blue the effect will be still finer. For neckties or
ribbons use the complementary color to that of the dress. For laces use
a weak solution of yellow, and after it is dry touch up the strong
lights with Chinese white. If there is a curtain in the picture use the
complementary color to the dress. For chairs use brown. If sky, trees
and grass are to be painted, color them according to the directions
given for landscapes under the different colors; only be sure to modify
them, and keep them low in tone and color.

In laying on flat washes of color, the brush must be held nearly
upright and should be passed boldly over the surface; the color should
then gradually be brought down and spread equally over the whole
surface as rapidly as possible, in order to avoid letting any part dry
before the whole has been covered; then whatever surplus there may be
should be carefully sponged off. When you apply the wash of color to
the picture the latter should not be held flat, but at a slight angle,
so that the color will settle down towards the bottom of the picture.

These colors are more suitable for figures and landscapes combined than
they are for landscapes alone, yet very pretty effects in landscapes
can be produced with them. If any white spots should be found in the
photograph, as very often happens, after the picture is quite complete,
touch them out with India ink, using a small brush.



LANDSCAPE.


If the sky is to be blue, wash it all over with a weak solution of
blue; if there are white clouds, you can touch up the highest lights
with Chinese white; if there is a sunset or rosy effect, use a weak
solution of rose or a little magenta. But it is best not to try to make
too much of the sky, as the gray that is generally in it will give a
very pretty effect and leave more contrast between the figures and the
sky. For the middle distance mix blue, rose, and a little yellow or
gold if you want it greenish, or you can use a very little brown. The
nearer the trees come in the foreground the stronger in color they
should be; that is, they should tend more to the green and brown and
less to the bluish color. If they are to be bright green use blue and
yellow, and retouch the light places with yellow. You can make the
green duller by mixing a little black with the yellow, or you can make
a richer green by using blue, gold and brown, and then touching up the
lights with gold, and the shadows with brown. For the grass use blue
and yellow, and retouch the lights with yellow; for the ground use
brown, and retouch the lights with gold; for tree trunks, fences, and
the like, use brown; for rocks, use black and a little brown.



THE PRINCIPLE.


The study of painting as an art is based on three considerations, form,
light and shade, and color. I will now treat of color--the form, and
light and shade being furnished for us in the photograph. Photography
as a means of art education in its influence on the public is salutary.
In spite of all its falsity it is the best teacher of the first
elements of criticism and knowledge of the facts of form and light and
shade. Photography does not produce color, so that we will add the one
link to the chain that is wanting. As we are dealing with pictures
finished in light and shade, it is well that we should have rules to
aid in choosing good ones to work on.

In selecting a photograph to color we want as perfect a print as it is
possible to procure. A light one is preferable. Notice in particular if
it is well defined, that the shadows and middle shades are clear, the
lights pure, and that it is free from defects and spots. Many think
that they can take a poor photograph, and, by coloring it, cover up the
defects, but they are wrong in this, for the transparent colors will
not conceal defects. The best rule is that the better the photograph
the better will be the picture when finished. The Soule Photograph
Company, No. 338 Washington Street, Boston, Mass., furnish photographic
reproductions, mounted and unmounted, of all the best paintings in the
world, in both public and private art galleries, and their photographs
are the best to color. Therefore, to begin with, have a perfect picture
to color. Scholars in commencing to use the brush will not be able to
produce bold effects of color, and will only acquire that power by use
and practice. By bold effects I do not mean that one part is to be more
prominently rendered than any other portion of the work, but merely the
brilliancy of coloring which distinguishes professional from amateur
work. In any kind of painting it must be borne in mind, that there are
no decided lines forming the edges of any object. The point insisted on
is that the boundaries of objects must be of that color that will
harmonize and subdue the picture, producing a soft, delicate effect.

I would advise all who begin to paint to commence with water colors, as
they are the easiest to manipulate, the liquid water colors being
easier than the body colors, and their use the simplest of all kinds of
painting. The photograph being a fac-simile of a subject as it appears
to the eye in form and light and shade, furnishes a picture perfect
except in color, while the liquids supply the color in the form best
adapted to teaching the first steps in its use. It is hoped, though,
that after the student has thoroughly mastered this course of study, he
will attempt something higher and more difficult in the study of art.



French Crystals.

[Illustration]



FRENCH CRYSTALS.


These are photographs colored with liquid water colors and mounted on
glass. For several years a process has been taught by which a
photograph is rendered transparent by the use of paraffine oil, etc.,
then mounted on glass, and colored from the back with oil paints. While
by this method a picture pleasing at the time could be produced, yet
unless the process was perfectly executed the oils would decompose and
the picture become yellow and spotted. The use of water colors entirely
overcomes these objections, as it is so simple that any one can employ
them perfectly, and as there are no oils used in their production they
cannot change or turn yellow.



MATERIALS.


    Convex glasses on which to mount photographs,
    Bottle of Florentine, Egyptian, Grecian or other compound for
      mounting on glass,
    Best French picture glass,
    Some gummed paper,
    A dish in which to soak photographs,
    Some dark, thin, fancy paper,
    Sheet of blotting paper.



THE METHOD.


Having secured a good photograph, rub a little pumice stone over it
with the finger, and then, if it is mounted, remove it from the card by
placing it in warm water and allowing it to soak for an hour or two, or
over night if necessary. After it is thus freed from the card lay it
face down on a piece of glass, and sponge off all the starch from the
back. Cut a piece of blotting paper the size of the picture and lay it
on a glass, wetting it with water applied with a sponge; then lay the
photograph, still wet, on the blotting paper, and, with a sponge,
remove all the surplus water from its surface. Now proceed to color it
according to the directions given in the preceding pages for coloring
photographs with transparent liquid water colors. In case you should
put on too much color, let the photograph soak a few moments in warm
water, when the surplus color will gradually come out, and you may then
recolor it. After it has been finished to your satisfaction, proceed to
mount it according to the directions next given.



MOUNTING FRENCH CRYSTALS.


The glass for mounting, whether flat or convex, should be the same size
as the picture. It should be dipped in water and permitted to drain
off, but do not dry it; pour a little of the compound on the side
against which the photograph is to be placed--the hollow side, if the
glass is convex--let it drain off and lay the picture face down upon
it. With the thumb and finger commence at the centre of the photograph,
smoothing it down close to the glass, forcing all the air bubbles out
to the edges, thus continuing until the picture is entirely smoothed
out, and at every point in actual contact with the glass. During this
process hold the glass at an angle, so that you can see if there are
any air bubbles or glistening places in it by examining its face
occasionally; and always let a little of the compound get on the back
of the photograph, as it allows the fingers to glide over it more
easily and lessens the chance of tearing it. Now take a second glass
the same size as the first, and having thoroughly cleaned it, fasten it
to the back of the other by small strips of gummed paper. Then place a
piece of card-board of the same size on the back of the two glasses and
fasten the three together also with small strips of gummed paper;
finally securing the whole firmly together by binding it with some
large strips, and your picture is ready to frame. In case you do not
care to frame it, cut out a piece of some dark fancy paper, a quarter
of an inch on each edge larger than the picture, and fasten it, dark
side out, on the back, allowing the quarter of an inch to lap over and
be pasted on the face, after which straighten the edges with a ruler
and sharp knife.



FINISHING PHOTOGRAPHS IN INDIA INK.


The principles that have been given in regard to finishing photographs
with lines, apply also to finishing with India ink--with the exception
that in the manipulation of the ink it must be remembered that it
cannot be taken out; therefore, you must commence to finish the
photograph gradually, and produce the proper strength by repeatedly
working over it. The old method of making India ink portraits was to
have a print on "plain" paper--a kind without albumen on its surface.
The great disadvantage of "plain" paper is that the lights and shadows
on it are not strong, and therefore it takes too much work to finish
the picture.

The following method (which is very simple and can be used in work on
albumen paper, provided you have treated it by rubbing pumice stone
over its surface with your fingers), adapts it to India ink. Of course
the pumice stone treatment destroys the albumen on the surface, causing
it to have a dull appearance, but after the picture has been finished
its lustre can be restored by the use of a not too warm burnisher.

In finishing the photograph commence on the hair by washing it all
over (with the exception of the highest light) with a weak solution of
the ink, using the brush in the same direction that the hair goes;
after this has dried, indicate the half-shadow with a little stronger
wash, and after drying it again put in the deeper shadows, then the
eyebrows, eyes and beard, if the subject has one.

Faces are finished in India ink on the line principle,[D] which shows
the grain of the flesh. Commence on the forehead with a very weak
solution, and then continue it all over the face, repeatedly working
and cross hatching with lines until the face is dark enough; then
strengthen the shadows under the eyes, nose, mouth and chin. After the
face is completed put in the clothes. This you do by washing them over
with two or three solutions of the ink, and then producing the line
effect as in work on crayon portraits, explained on page 76, the
difference in the nature of the material used being always borne in
mind. After the picture is otherwise completed, you can brighten up the
eyes and some of the strongest shadows with a solution of gum arabic
and water.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote D: See pages 57 and 72.]



CONCLUSION.


While it is thought that all essential instructions on the topics
treated of have been given in the foregoing pages, and that if
faithfully followed they will lead the pupil to attain satisfactory
results, it is hoped that my readers who have accompanied me thus far
will not be content to continue to use a photograph as the basis of
their work, but will advance to the pursuit of art in a broader and
more scientific manner. As a step in this direction the study of form,
and light and shade, by drawing from the cast should be taken up; and
to this work the directions as to light and shade given in the
foregoing pages fully apply, that requiring the object to be placed in
such a position that the light will strike it at an angle of ninety
degrees being always borne in mind.

The student will do well to gain all he can from the published works of
the leaders in the profession, whose writings, both theoretical and
practical, are invaluable. Three essays by John Burnet I can very
heartily recommend. They are "Practical Hints on Light and Shade,"
"Practical Hints on Composition," and "The Education of the Eye." These
are published in a single volume, which is illustrated with examples
from the great masters of the Italian, Flemish and Dutch schools, and
should be in the hands of every amateur. They will all repay perusal
and study until their principles are mastered. An English edition of
these books is published by James Carpenter, London, and in this
country they have been reproduced by Edward L. Wilson, editor of the
_Philadelphia Photographer_. Another book which abounds in valuable and
practical information for the amateur and can be highly commended, is
"Art Recreations, a Guide to Decorative Art," by Marion Kemble,
published by S. W. Tilton & Co., Boston; also J. Bacon's "Theory of
Coloring," issued by Geo. Rowney & Co., England.

Those who are disposed to treat disdainfully the work of finishing
photographs in crayon and color as not demanding truly artistic
qualities, should not forget that success here has still a real value
in awakening in many who undertake it a feeling for art of a higher
kind, and in developing a natural talent which otherwise might have
been undiscovered. Many an artist now looks back with pleasure and
gratitude to this sort of work, in which he received the first impetus
toward higher effort.

In answer to the assertion which is sometimes made that transparent
water colors are not permanent, I claim that in the sense in which the
word is ordinarily used in connection with photography they may
properly be called so. In this sense the lasting qualities which
characterize the materials used by the old masters are not looked for,
but where photographs have been thus colored, finished in the form of
French crystals, and properly sealed from the atmosphere, they are
practically permanent. I have some in my possession that were made
years ago, and they are as bright and fresh to-day as when first
colored. It can be truly said that photographs colored in this way make
very beautiful and pleasing pictures, obtainable with but little work
and expense, and having practical permanency of color.

As a final word to those who intend to follow art as a profession, I
urge the earnest study and mastery of drawing at the outset as the
foundation of all art; then take up work in body water colors, and when
the theory of coloring is fully understood, do not neglect the careful
reading of books of acknowledged merit bearing on your work. The more
notes you take in the course of your reading the more fully you will
assimilate the author's thought, while, at the same time, you furnish
the easiest means of rapid review. After all, your soundest basis for
work will be your deep and continuing love for it, and your willingness
to labor long and conscientiously to attain excellence. Do not imagine
that the profession of an artist is that of an idler. On the contrary,
of all occupations it is perhaps the most active, for one is constantly
engaged, if not with art itself, at least with its materials.

Every artist will confess that were it not for the charm with which it
rewards the votaries who follow it from love, the pursuit would be a
painful one, such vigilant precaution does it require, such constant
foresight, such calculation and preparation against possible difficulty
on every hand; but the true artist, happy in the daily gain of
knowledge which his experience brings him, and delighted with the
gradual mastery of his work, as a rule lives along enjoyably, retaining
more than most men the freshness of youth while he gains in power as he
advances in years. So pleasant a fate as this for each of his readers
is the closing wish of the author.



       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes

Moved some illustrations to avoid breaking up paragraphs of text. The
page references in the List of Illustrations refer to the original
book.

Corrected minor punctuation errors and hyphenation inconsistencies, and
made the following changes:

Page 50: Changed necesssary to necessary:
  (all the details necesssary).

Page 67: Changed Appelton to Appleton:
  (From the Annual Encyclopedia. Copyrighted, 1891, by D. Appelton).

Page 74: Changed where-ever to wherever:
  (using the latter where-ever a lighter effect is required).

Page 90: Changed picrure to picture:
  (And when a picrure is composed chiefly of middle tint).





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