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Title: Dorothy Payne, Quakeress - A Side-Light upon the Career of 'Dolly' Madison
Author: Barnard, Ella Kent
Language: English
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[Illustration: Dorothy Payne Todd.

Courtesy of Miss Lucia B. Cutts.]

   Dorothy Payne, Quakeress

   _A Side-Light upon the Career
   of "Dolly" Madison_



Dedicated to



There is little time in this busy world of ours for reading,--little,
indeed, for thinking;--and there are already many books; but perhaps
these few additional pages relating to Dolly Madison, who was loved and
honored during so many years by our people, may be not altogether amiss.
During eleven administrations she was the intimate friend of our
presidents and their families. What a rare privilege was hers--to be at
home in the families of Washington, of Jefferson, of Madison, of Monroe;
to know intimately Hamilton and Burr and Clay and Webster; to live so
close, during her long life, to the heart of our nation; to be swayed by
each pulsation of our national life;--to be indeed a part and parcel of
it all, loved, honored and revered!

It seems almost incredible that the simple country maiden, reared in
strict seclusion, by conscientious Quaker parents, should have been
transformed into the queen of social life, at whose shrine the wise men
of their day did homage, and at whose feet the warriors laid the flag of

She has left small record of her thoughts; none of her creed, excepting
in her life,--and that was pure and good. The outward symbols of her
faith were laid aside, but in her daily life we see the leading of the
"Inner Light."

We have searched amongst the driftwood of the century for traces of her
early life, and found many records, letters and references, published
and unpublished, and from them all our story has been woven.

The Friends' records of North Carolina, of Virginia and of Philadelphia
have given us very accurate and definite information relating to her
family, and the old letters, the cherished treasures of many homes, have
given a glimpse of Dolly herself in earlier and later days;--of her
Quaker girlhood in Philadelphia and of her marriage in the old Pine
street meeting-house. And then of days in Washington,--brilliant days,
in the full glare of sunshine; and finally a picture when the days were
far spent and the evening shadows falling.

For much of this material I am greatly indebted to many persons, and
especially to the following I wish to express my heartfelt gratitude for
assistance so kindly given: George J. Scattergood, Philadelphia; Edward
Stabler, Jr., Baltimore; Eliza Pleasants, Lincoln, Va.; Maud Wilder
Goodwin, New York City; Priscilla B. Hackney, North Carolina; Rosewell
Page, Richmond, Va.; Lavinia Taylor, Hanover County, Va.; Lucia B.
Cutts, Boston, Mass.; L. D. Winston, Winston, Va.; Christine M.
Washington, Charlestown, W. Va.; George S. Washington, Philadelphia;
Eugenia W. M. Brown, Washington, D. C.; Julia E. Daggett, Washington,
D. C.; Lucy T. Fitzhugh, Westminster, Md.; Margaret Crenshaw, Richmond,
Va.; Charles G. Thomas, Baltimore, Md.; Mrs. Moorfield Story, Boston,
Mass.; Julia S. White, North Carolina; Thomas Nelson Page, Washington,
D. C.; Richard L. Bentley, Baltimore; Thomas F. Taylor, Hanover, Va.;
Mary W. Slaughter, Winston, Va.; Liza Madison Sheppard, Virginia; Samuel
M. Brosius, Washington, D. C.; Elizabeth McKean, Washington, D. C.; Mrs.
William DuPont, Montpelier, Va., and Norman Penney, London, England.

                                           ELLA KENT BARNARD.

   _Baltimore, November 15, 1909._


     I. EARLY YEARS AND SCENES                               17

    II. MARRIAGE AND WIDOWHOOD                               59

   III. WASHINGTON AND THE WHITE HOUSE                       88

    IV. LATER YEARS                                         110

        INDEX                                               126


   DOROTHY PAYNE TODD, at 21                           _Frontispiece_
   From a Miniature on ivory, now in possession of
   Mrs. Richard D. Cutts.

   Heading--Drawn by Ella K. Barnard                               17

   North Carolina                                                  18
   From an old drawing.

   PATRICK HENRY                                                   20
   From a painting by Sully in the State Library,
   Richmond, Va.

   COLONEL WILLIAM BYRD                                            30
   From a painting at Brandon.

   SCOTCH TOWN, Hanover County, Virginia                           34
   From a photograph.

   NEGROFOOT HOUSE                                                 36
   From a photograph.

   THE DANDRIDGE HOME                                              50
   From a photograph.

   HANOVER COURT HOUSE                                             52
   From a photograph.

   Heading--Drawn by Ella K. Barnard                               59

   PINE STREET MEETING HOUSE                                       66
   Drawn after a photograph

   HAREWOOD, FROM THE GARDEN                                       80
   From a photograph

   THE PARLOR, HAREWOOD                                            82
   Wherein James and Dolly Madison were married.
   From a photograph.

   JAMES MADISON AND DOLLY MADISON                                 86
   From the portraits by Gilbert Stuart, owned by
   The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.

   Heading--Drawn by Ella K. Barnard                               88

   COLONEL SAMUEL WASHINGTON                                       89
   From a painting at Harewood.

   MONTPELLIER, the Madison estate in Orange
   County, Va                                                     101
   From a photograph.

   THE OCTAGON HOUSE, Washington, D. C.                           108
   From a photograph.

   MANTEL IN THE OCTAGON HOUSE                                    109
   From a photograph.

   WHITE HOUSE                                                    109
   After drawing by Harry Fenn.

   Heading--Drawn by Ella K. Barnard                              110

   DOLLY MADISON IN LATER YEARS                                   113
   From a Water-Color by Mary Estelle Cutts, now
   in possession of Miss Lucia B. Cutts.

   MADISON HOUSE, Washington, D. C, North
   View                                                           114
   From a photograph.

   MADISON HOUSE, Washington, D. C., West
   View                                                           115
   From a photograph.

   ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, Washington, D. C.                           123
   From a photograph.

   Tailpiece--Franklin Stove                                      125
   Drawn by Ella K. Barnard.

   Tailpiece--James Madison's Cloak-Clasp                         128
   Drawn by Ella K. Barnard


_Dorothy Payne, Quakeress_



The girlhood of Dorothy Payne was spent on a plantation in Hanover
county, Virginia. Very quiet and uneventful were the years whose "days
were full of happiness," the quiet happiness of country life. For
fifteen years

   "She dwelt beside the untrodden ways"

where the distant echoes of the busy world, or even the great
Revolutionary struggles that encompassed them round about, scarce caused
a ripple on the calm surface of their daily life.

She was born, however, in North Carolina, that happy region where "every
one does what seems best in his own eyes," or, better still, enjoys, as
did Colonel Byrd, "the Carolina felicity of having nothing to do!" A
rough people many of them still were, without doubt, when the little
Dolly was born in their midst, on a plantation in Guilford county, to
take charge of which her father had come a few years before from his
Virginia home to where a thrifty, God-fearing colony of Quaker emigrants
from New Garden, Pennsylvania, had peopled the wilderness, and in memory
of the Pennsylvania home had erected a new "New Garden Meeting House" in
a forest clearing. Very commodious it looked in comparison with the log
cabins from which its congregation gathered to "mid-week" and "First-day
Meeting," coming usually in the covered emigrant wagon that was ofttimes
their only means of conveyance, but which well suited the size of the
emigrant family.

[Illustration: Friends' Meeting House, New Garden, North Carolina.

From an old Drawing.]

Turning over their earliest book of records, still distinct but yellowed
by age, the curious visitor may find a page on which is inscribed the

     John Payne was born y^e 9 of y^e 12 m^o 1740.

     Mary, his wife, was born y^e 14 of y^e 10 m^o 1743.

     Walter, their son, was born y^e 15 of y^e 11 m^o 1762.

     Wm. Temple, their son, was born y^e 17 of y^e 6 m^o 1766.

     Dolley, their daughter, was born y^e 20 of y^e 5 m^o 1768.

"Dolley," their little daughter, was named for her mother's friend,
Dorothea Spotswood Dandridge, the granddaughter of Governor Spotswood,
the daughter of Nathaniel West Dandridge, a near relative of Lord
Delaware. Nathaniel West Dandridge, son-in-law of Governor Spotswood,
had been one of his followers on a far-famed journey of exploration, led
by the Governor, beyond the Appalachian mountains, and for this exploit
had been dubbed a "Knight of the Golden Horseshoe," and presented with
the symbol of the order, a golden horseshoe with its glittering jewels,
and the inscribed motto, "_Sic juvat transcendere montes_," made in
memory of their trip.

A few years earlier a cousin of Dolly Dandridge, from her own home, the
White House on the Pamunky, had been married to Colonel Washington, a
gallant young officer lately elected to the House of Burgesses. A few
years later Dolly Dandridge herself became the second wife of Patrick
Henry, the cousin of Mary Payne, a young lawyer of Hanover county,
whose eloquence had electrified the House of Burgesses, and who was now
its acknowledged leader in the fight against English taxation.

[Illustration: Patrick Henry.]

Very slight seems the connection between these events and people and the
little Quaker maiden, but it was through these, her mother's friends,
that she was drawn in and became one of that choice circle of Virginia's
honored children in the early days of the Republic.

Though born in North Carolina she was but one year old when her parents
returned to their former home in Hanover county, Virginia, and in later
years Dolly always preferred to call herself a Virginian, for it was
around the old Scotch Town homestead that all her loving memories
clustered. It was in Virginia, too, that she imbibed the early training
that fitted her to become a graceful, tactful leader in the nation's
social life. Generations of worthy ancestors had transmitted to her the
instincts of a lady, a warm and loving heart, and an appreciation of
true worth, traits that were to serve her well in after years.

The grandfather, Josias Payne[1], gentleman, was the son of George
Payne, justice and high-sheriff of Goochland, who was descended from one
of "Virginia's Adventurers," a younger brother of Sir Robert Payne, M.P.
from Huntingdonshire, England. Josias Payne had become the owner of
thousands of acres of Virginia's richest land along the James river. He
was a man of affairs, a vestryman, and a member of the House of

The English traveler Smythe has given a pleasing picture of the Virginia
gentleman. "These in general have had a liberal education, possess
enlightened understanding and a thorough knowledge of the world, that
furnishes them with an ease and freedom of manners and conversation
highly to their advantage in exterior, which no vicissitudes of fortune
or place can divest them of, they being actually, according to my ideas,
the most agreeable and best companions, friends and neighbors that need
be desired. The greater number of them keep their carriages and have
handsome services of plate; but they all, without exception, have studs,
as well as sets of elegant and beautiful horses."[2]

The picture, too, had ofttimes another side, for not all the gentlemen
could afford to send their children to England to be educated, and men
of "mean understandings" were sent to the House of Burgesses, and so
trying were they to the nerves of Governor Spotswood that he cuttingly
observes that "the grand ruling party in your House has not furnished
chairmen of two of your standing committees who can spell English or
write common-sense, as the grievances under their own handwriting will

Anne Fleming,[3] the wife of Josias Payne, was the granddaughter of Sir
Thomas Fleming of New Kent county, the second son of the Earl of Wigdon.
From this worldly grandmother doubtless came the present of the jewelry
treasured so long by the little Dolly during her school days, and safely
hid in a tiny bag around her neck, until one sad day when it
disappeared, on her way to school, never to be found again.

This same Anne Fleming was also said to be the wife of John Payne (a
cousin of Josias). Surely his wife's name was also Anne, for an old
court record shows that "Hampton and Sambo," negroes belonging to "John
Payne, gentleman," were brought to trial in 1756 for "Prepairing and
administering Poysonous Medecines to Anne Payne," for which offence the
said Hampton was declared guilty and sentenced to "be hanged by the neck
till he be dead, and that he be afterwards cut in Quarters and his
Quarters hung up at the Cross Roads." And his master was awarded the sum
of £45, the "adjudged value of Hampton," according to law. The dark
shadow of slavery was already gathering over the land, although scarcely
perceived and yet unacknowledged by the great majority of the people.

In the vestry meetings the chief planters became the veritable rulers
of the adjacent neighborhood. "The care of the poor, the survey of
estates, the correction of disorders, the tithe rates, and the
maintenance of the church and minister" came within their province. As a
justice the planter was one of five to preside at all trials of the
negroes, they not being allowed a trial by jury, but on the agreement of
the five they were freed or condemned and sentenced. Such tasks as
these, with the oversight of his estate and his duties in the House of
Burgesses, made the Virginia gentleman a busy man. Still, he never
allowed his life to become a strenuous one, but found ample time for his
pleasures and for his social duties. Fond of good living, he was unlike
the Frenchman, who "feasts on radishes that he may wear a ribbon," for
the Virginian "took his ease in homespun that he might dine on turtle
and venison."

John Payne received the breeding of the Virginia gentleman of the old
school, and grew to manhood possessing the charms of courtly manners and
of fluent speech. The early Virginia records speak of him as "John
Payne, junior." In 1763 he inherited a plantation on Little Bird Creek,
of two hundred acres, "on which he was then living," from "John Payne,
elder." To this tract his father added a gift of another two hundred
acres, likewise on Little Bird Creek, and at his death (1785) willed him
four hundred additional acres of rich bottom land in "the forks of the
James," with the negroes "Peter, Ned and Bob."

To this early home he brought his girlish wife, beautiful Mary Coles.
Mary Coles was the daughter of William Coles of "Coles Hill," Hanover
county, a younger brother of John Coles,[4] of Richmond, Virginia, who
had there as a merchant amassed a fortune, and married Mary Winston.

William Coles came later to America from Enniscorthy, Ireland, and
married Lucy, the sister of his brother's wife, then the widow of
William Dabney, by whom she had one son, William. William and Lucy
Winston Coles had three children: Walter; Lucy, who married her cousin
Isaac Winston, and Mary, the wife of John Payne, and mother of Dolly

Lucy Winston came of a Quaker family that has, perhaps, furnished more
men of note than any other in our country. Her father, Isaac Winston,[5]
emigrant, was an able man of an old Yorkshire family that had settled in
Wales. He, with several brothers, came to Virginia to escape the Quaker
persecution in England, settling first in Henrico and afterwards in
Hanover county, where he died in 1760, at an advanced age. He had
acquired a large estate, and many negroes. What a gratification it would
have been to the old man had he lived a few years longer and heard his
wayward grandson, Patrick Henry, argue the "Parson's cause," or make
his first great speech in the House of Burgesses. As it was he died
thinking the young orator unworthy even of mention in his will, but for
his sisters he carefully provided. To his granddaughters Lucy and Mary
Coles he willed £45, to be paid to them when they came of age or

                             ISAAC WINSTON
    |                             |                            |
    |                             |                            |
   Mary=John Coles    Wm. Dabney=Lucy=Wm. Coles    John Syme=Sarah=John Henry
       |                        |    |                            |
       |                        |    |                            |
   -------------         Wm. Dabney  |                          -------------
   |  |  |  |  |                     |                          |
             John                    |                          |
               |                     |                        Patrick Henry
               |                     |
   -------------                     |
           |   |                     |
           |   |                     |
           | Edward=Miss Roberts     |
           |                         |--------------------
           |                         |         |     |
           |                         |         |     |
   Sally[A]=A. Stevenson             Walter   Lucy   Mary    =  John Payne
                                                     b. 1743 |  b. 1746
     |          |           |       |      |       |     |      |         |
     |          |           |       |      |       |     |      |         |
   Walter   Wm. Temple   Dolley   Isaac   Lucy   Anna   Mary   John   Philadelphia
   b. 1762   b. 1766     b. 1768

Isaac Winston's son William had wild blood in his veins, and was a great
hunter and beloved by the Indians in their western wilds, where he had a
hunting lodge. The elder Wirt pronounced him an orator scarcely inferior
to his nephew, Patrick Henry, who was said to have inherited his rare
gift of eloquence from his Quaker ancestors. An old letter[6] from
Albemarle county claims that it was to him more than to Washington that
the credit of saving the day at the time of Braddock's defeat was due.
The troops had refused to move farther, and Washington's remonstrances
availed not, until William Winston sprang to the front and addressed
them with such stirring eloquence that each one threw up his hand and
demanded to be led forward. Judge Edmund Winston, son of William
Winston, read and practiced law with his cousin Patrick Henry, and the
firm of Henry and Winston carried all before it. Patrick Henry died in
1799, and Judge Winston married his widow, "Dolly Dandridge," and died
in 1813 in the "fifth score year of his age."

"Dolly Dandridge" died in 1831. "Cousin Dolly" she always was to her
namesake, Dolly Madison.

[Illustration: Colonel William Byrd.]

Colonel William Byrd of Westover, a polished gentleman and wit (but,
alas! also a "spendthrift and gambler"), in his "Progress to the Mines"
called on Sarah Syme,[7] then a widow, formerly "Sarah Winston, of a
good old family." "This lady, suspecting I was some lover, put on a
gravity which becomes a weed, but as soon as she learned who I was
brightened up into an unusual cheerfulness and serenity. She was a
portly, handsome dame, of a lively, cheerful conversation, with much
less reserve than most of her countrywomen. It became her very well, and
set off her other agreeable qualities to advantage." "The courteous
widow invited me to rest myself there that good day, and go to church
with her, but I excused myself by telling her she would certainly spoil
my devotions. Then she civilly entreated me to make her house my home
whenever I visited my plantations, which made me bow low and thank her
very kindly. She possessed a mild and benevolent disposition,
undeviating probity, correct understanding and easy elocution." For his
supper Colonel Byrd writes that he was served with a "broiled chicken"
and a "bottle of honest port," and no doubt he came again!

Sarah Winston afterward married John Henry,[8] a man of Scotch ancestry
and sterling worth, who for some time represented his county of Hanover
in the House of Burgesses, where later the three brothers, John Syme,
and William and Patrick Henry, sat year after year.

The name of one more member of this family will occur in later
pages:--William Campbell Preston, M.C. from South Carolina, the opponent
of John C. Calhoun in "nullification days" (1832).

Other branches of the family furnished men of great ability,
congressmen, senators, governors, warriors. To-day the United States
Senate mourns the vacant seat of that "grand old man" Edmund Winston
Pettus,[9] who died recently in his eighty-seventh year, the oldest man
in public life in the United States, and Alabama loved him as a father.

The daughters of the family, too, inherited the ready flow of language,
the quick wit and pleasing address characteristic of the family, and
which, added to good looks, made them much sought in marriage. In after
years these same qualities made them worthy helpmates in smoothing out
the social tangles of official life.

In an old letter found amongst some Quaker manuscripts from Virginia,
bearing date of 1757, was found the statement that "Thomas Cole and
William Cole have both made open confessions of truth." This William
Cole, or Coles, was probably the husband of Lucy Winston, of whom a
sweet picture in Quaker dress is preserved.

Soon after their marriage John and Mary Payne made application for
membership with the Quakers of Cedar Creek, in which neighborhood they
were then living, as shown by the minutes of Cedar Creek Monthly
Meeting, dated 5th month 30th, 1764. In 11th month 30th, 1765, they were
already settled in North Carolina. In 4th month, 1769, they with their
three children were again living in Hanover county, Virginia. During
these and the few following years three children who were probably
theirs were buried at South River, "Mary, William and Ruth Paine."

In 1775 Patrick Henry, the newly-appointed Governor of Virginia, sold
his farm called "Scotch Town" to John Payne. It was considered a
valuable tract of land, and a bargain when it came into the hands of
Henry in 1771 for £600. It had been literally "Scotch Town" in earlier
colonial days, the center of a Scotch settlement of which it was the
"great house." Here John Payne brought his rapidly-increasing little
family, but in its nineteen rooms there was room and to spare for them
all, and for the guests who so often sought its hospitable shelter.

[Illustration: Scotch Town, Hanover County, Virginia.

Photographed by Samuel M. Brosius.]

This house, with its quaint hipped roof, is standing to-day, and it
needs only a thatched covering, and the peaked dormer windows that were
perhaps there in earlier days, to make it a typical old English cottage.
The two great chimneys have been much changed. In olden times each
served for the four rooms clustered about it, and from which it took
generous corners. Above the great open fire-places were mantels of black
marble, one of which was supported by white figures. These mantels and
the three granite porticos, with their carved steps, were brought
from Scotland by Mr. Forsythe, the builder, as was also the brick for
the lower half-story. The house, too, boasts a dungeon that may have
been used for protection or for the punishment of offenders two hundred
years ago, about which time its building dates. A broad hall ran through
the house, and above either wide doorway the portico roof was supported
by iron brackets. The back door opens on the old garden, where the box
trees still flourish, but the ancient trees around the lawn are veterans
hoary and maimed by the storms of many years.

Here Patrick Henry, already famous, lived, and Dolly Payne, a blue-eyed,
merry little lassie, sat beside her mother in the family room, "the blue
room," with its walnut wainscoting trimmed with pine, and solid walnut
doors, and learned to sew and read. Scotch Town stands on high ground,
and for miles around you can see an unbroken stretch of country. In
colonial days about it were clustered numerous outbuildings, fine
stables and the negro quarters, of which there is now no trace.

Happy days were spent here by the little Dolly. Surely they had few
cares for the little daughter so carefully guarded by "Mother Amy," her
much-loved colored nurse; and there were other slaves to do her bidding.
It was through them, doubtless, that she first heard the horrible story
of the crime of "Negrofoot," now the name of the post-office on an
adjoining plantation. The stranger naturally queries, Why Negrofoot? and
is told the old story of an African slave, a cannibal, owned by a Mr.
Jarman:--how, when the master and mistress were at church one day, he
took the little two-year-old child from its nurse, killed it, and partly
devoured it before its parents returned. The retribution was swift and
terrible. A wild horse was brought, the slave tied to it, and the horse
started on a mad run. Before it had ended, the slave, too, was dead. His
body was then dismembered, and portions nailed up in different parts of
the country. The foot put up here gave the name to Negrofoot-house, and
to the post-office; and doubtless weird stories were told by the
superstitious negroes, who shunned the scenes of the double crime.

[Illustration: Negrofoot House.

Photographed by Samuel M. Brosius.]

Coles Hill was but nine miles off, one of those low story-and-a-half
Virginia houses, built of frame, whose timbers were probably cut by the
family servants. Two rooms, one on either side the wide hall, sufficed,
with the broad porch, for summer living, and the quaint bedrooms peered
out through dormer windows from the roof above. There were outbuildings,
too, on the north and east sides, and a few cabins for the negroes. (The
residence has long ago disappeared, and the land is owned by George

It was but a pleasant drive from Scotch Town on a "First-day after
meeting" for John and Mary Payne, and the children loved to gather
around the dark-eyed young grandmother, whose Quaker cap would not quite
conceal the stray curls that refused to be confined by its sheer
crispness. To her Irish grandsire Dolly owed much. From him she had
inherited a fine clear complexion, whose worth was appreciated by her
mother, and guarded by the linen face-mask carefully sewed in place, and
the long gloves always to be drawn on ere she dared venture into the
sunshine, a preparation that must have been trying indeed to the
impatient little girl. Her Irish blood, too, had added warmth to her
loving heart, and given her the quick wit and smooth tongue that caused
her to be accused, in later days, of a "knowledge of the groves of

On their return to Virginia John and Mary Payne both became zealous
workers in the Society of Friends, or Quakers. John Payne was for many
years clerk of Cedar Creek Monthly Meeting, while Mary Payne was from
time to time clerk of the women's meeting. They were also "elders," and
it is likely that John Payne became a "minister," for as early as 1773
we find he is reported as "desiring to visit friends in Amelia, and also
at Pine Creek." In 1777 and 1779 "John Payne requests a certificate to
attend North Carolina Yearly Meeting," then held at Old Neck, Perquimans
county. For years, too, there is scarcely a committee appointed of which
he is not a member, and the carefully-written pages of the record books,
as clear and distinct as when first recorded, show that both he and his
wife were beautiful penmen. In Dolly's early signatures her last name
is almost a facsimile of her mother's writing, but her spelling never
equalled that of her parents for correctness. Papers like the following,
signed by both John and Mary Payne, were of frequent occurrence.

     "_Whereas_ Milley Hutchings, Daughter of Strangeman Hutchings, of
     Goochland County, was Educated in the profession of us the people
     Call'd Quakers, but for want of living agreeable to the principles
     of Truth hath suffered herself to be Joined in marriage to a man of
     a different persuasion from us in matters of Faith, by an Hireling
     priest, contrary to the known rules of our discipline, therefore we
     think it our duty, for the clearing of our profession of such
     libertine persons, publickly to disown the said Milley from being a
     Member of our Society, untill she give satisfaction for her
     outgoing, which we desire she may be enabled to do. Signed in and
     on behalf of our Monthly Meeting held at Cedar Creek in Hanover
     County the

     [Illustration: Signature - 13th of 3^d m 1779 by

     John Payne Clerk Mary Payne Clerk[10]]

Was it well that they could not see far into the future?

The great problem of the Friends during these years, the one in which
John Payne was most vitally interested, was the freeing of their negroes
or "black people," as (when assembled in Yearly Meeting) they had
gravely decided to call them. Years before, the Quakers had crossed the
seas in search of civil and religious liberty, and while they believed
in each man's "inalienable right" to "life, liberty and the pursuit of
happiness," they could not seek them by a resort to arms. In the
Revolution they could take no part, but there was sufficient work for
them at home. Before slavery, even in their own midst, could be
abolished, the members of the legislature must be convinced, and new
state laws framed. Of this work in the South, Thomas Nelson Page says:
"The movement was largely owing in its inception to the efforts of the
Quakers, who have devoted to peace those energies which others had given
to war, and who have ever been moved by the Spirit to take the
initiative in all action which tends to the amelioration of the human
race." In his own state he considered the "problem stupendous, but it
was not despaired of. Many masters manumitted their slaves, the example
being set by numbers of the same benevolent sect [Quakers] to which
reference has been made."

Already in 1769 the members of Cedar Creek Monthly Meeting had been
"unanimously agreed that something be done." The laws of Virginia threw
many obstacles in their way, and it was not until the law passed in 1782
that the right of emancipation was given to the owners of slaves. For
this tardy permission they could not wait, and Robert Pleasants[11] in
a letter dated "Curles,[12] 3d month 28th, 1777," wrote to the
Governor, Patrick Henry, Jr., " ... It is in respect to slavery, of
which thou art not altogether a stranger to mine, as well as some others
of our Friends' sentiments; and perhaps, too, thou may have been
informed that some of us, from a full conviction of the injustice, and
apprehension of duty, have been induced to embrace the present favorable
juncture when the Representatives of the people have nobly declared _all
men free_, without any desire to offend, or thereby injure any person,
to invest more of them with the same inestimable privilege. This I
conceive was necessary to inform the governor...."

The Friends were tolerably sure of Patrick Henry's support, as in a
letter to Edward Stabler in 1773 he said: "It would rejoice my very soul
that every one of my fellow-beings was emancipated. We ought to lament
and deplore the necessity of holding our fellow-men in bondage. Believe
me, I shall honor the Quakers for their notable efforts to abolish

[Illustration: Signature of P. Henry]

In 1778 "The Meeting directs that the sum of 30/ be raised for the
payment of a book purchased for the purpose of _Recording manumissions_.
John Payne is appointed to record them, and when accomplished to deliver
the originals into the care of Micajah Crew according to the direction
of the Meeting."

The following manumission paper is one of twenty-one issued about this
time by Thomas Pleasants, the intimate friend of John and Mary Payne,
and is signed by them as witnesses.


    I Thomas Pleasants of Goochland County in Virginia from mature
    deliberate consideration and the convictions of my own mind being
    fully persuaded that freedom is the natural birthright of all
    mankind and that no Law moral or divine has given me a right to or
    property in the persons of any of my fellow creatures, and being
    desirous to fulfil the injunction of our Lord and Saviour Jesus
    Christ by doing to others as I would be done by. Do therefore
    declare that having under my care one negro woman named Betty aged
    about forty, I do for myself my Heirs Executors and administrators
    hereby release unto her the said Betty all my right Interest and
    claim or pretensions of claim whatsoever as to her person or to any
    Estate she may hereafter acquire without any interruption from me or
    any person claiming for by from or under me In WITNESS whereof I
    have hereunto set my hand and seal this 25^th day of the 1^st Month,
    one thousand and seven hundred and Eighty

   Sealed and delivered
   in presence of

     [Illustration: Signature of Tho Pleasants (Seal)

     John Payne Mary Payne]

John Payne likewise manumitted all his slaves before his removal to

After the passage of the law of 1782 the Friends no longer hesitated,
and their slaves, as far as permitted by law, were generally freed. At
the same time their owners, who had thus made themselves obnoxious to
their slave-owning neighbors, prepared to remove to a free state, the
great majority to the west. John Payne had for some years been looking
forward to a removal to Philadelphia, where his son Walter was already
established in business.

Their movements about this time are definitely ascertained by a
reference to the Quaker records:

     Cedar Creek, 8 mo. 11, 1779--"By a report from Cedar Creek
     Preparative Meeting, it appears that Walter Payne has removed to
     Philadelphia. Micajah Terrel, James Hunnicutt, Moses Harris and
     Micajah Davis are appointed to prepare a certificate for him, and
     assign the same in behalf of the Monthly Meeting if nothing

     "On the 13th of 1st month, 1781, Mary Payne informed this meeting
     that she proposed in some short time a journey to Philadelphia, and
     requests a few lines certifying her right of membership with us."

Which certificate is directed to be drawn up and signed.

Elizabeth Drinker, wife of Henry Drinker, of Philadelphia, records in
her diary:

     1781, March 5--"Molly Payne spent y^e day, and lodged with us. She
     and son Walter breakfasted y^e 6th."

And finally the meeting records:

     "On the 21st of Second Month, 1783, John Payne requests a
     certificate for himself and family to join themselves to Friends in
     Philadelphia. Micajah Crew and Moses Harris are appointed to make
     the necessary enquiry, and if nothing appears to hinder, produce
     one accordingly at next meeting."

This committee seems to have thought that John Payne could not properly
discharge his duties as executor from the distant town of Philadelphia.
Accordingly, at the next meeting, held the following month:

     "James Crew is appointed to receive the estate of Elizabeth Elmore,
     deceased, from John Payne, executor, and give us account thereof at
     next meeting. Micajah Crew, James Jarvis and James Hunnicutt are
     appointed to assist him in devising the said Elizabeth Elmore's
     cloths and to give their advice and assistance in settling all
     other matters that may come before them, respecting the estate."

     "And as John Payne is about to remove without the verge of this
     Meeting, James Hunnicutt is therefore appointed clerk thereof in
     his stead."

It will be seen that this little community looked carefully after the
various interests of its members. Their "temporal" as well as
"spiritual" affairs were within its province, to advise and admonish as
seemed best to them.

The investigation having been entirely satisfactory otherwise, the
following month a certificate of removal is granted from "Caeder Creek
Monthly Meeting, held in Hanover county, Virginia, bearing date of 12th
of 4th mo., 1783, for John and Mary Payn and their children: William
Temple, Dolly, Isaac, Lucy, Anne, Mary and John," directed to the
"Northern District Mo. Mtg. of Philadelphia."

The form of this certificate was probably like the following one drawn
up by John Payne as clerk:

     "To the Monthly Meeting held at Southriver. Dear Friends:

     "Our writing to you at this time is on account of David Terrill,
     who now resides within the verge of your Meeting, and requests our
     Certificate for himself and children. These may certify, that after
     the needful enquiry, we have cause to believe his affairs are
     settled to satisfaction. His life and conversation being in a good
     degree orderly whilst among us, we therefore recommend him,
     together with his children [namely: ....] to your Christian care,
     and with desires for their growth in the truth, we remain your
     friends and brethren.

     "Signed on behalf of our Monthly Meeting held at Cedar Creek, 8 mo.
     24th, 1781.

                                           "John Payne, Clerk."

And Elizabeth Drinker records again:

     "1783, July 9.--John Payne's family came to reside in

A year later when the young people had become friends she writes:

     "1784, July 10.--Sally Drinker and Walter Payne, Billy Sansom and
     Polly Wells, Jacob Downing and Dolly Payne went to our place at
     Frankford," and

     "1784, July 18.--Walter Payne went to Virginia."

     "1785, Dec 26.--First day. This evening Walter Payne took leave of
     us, intending to set off early to-morrow morning for Virginia, and
     in a few weeks to embark there for Great Britain."

Of the family life at Scotch Town, Dolly has left us no record, but only
the assurance that "the days were full of happiness."

The Marquis de Chastellux, a major-general under Rochambeau, in the
Revolutionary Army, who wrote an account of his travels in Virginia in
1780-2, has, however, given us a picture of a country family of this
time, and of one not far distant from Scotch Town. He visited the family
of General Nelson at Offley, an "unpretentious country place in Hanover
county," and says:

     "In the absence of the General, who had gone to Williamsburg, his
     mother and wife received us with all the politeness, ease and
     cordiality natural to his family. [It being bad weather] the
     company assembled either in the parlor or saloon, especially the
     men, from the hour of breakfast to that of bed-time, but the
     conversation was always agreeable and well supported. If you were
     desirous of diversifying the scene, there were some good French and
     English authors at hand.

     "An excellent breakfast at nine o'clock, a sumptuous dinner at two,
     tea and punch in the afternoon, and an elegant little supper,
     divided the day most happily for those whose stomachs were never

The Pleasants and Winstons were their neighbors also, but the large
estates, in a measure, isolated each family, which thus became a little
community in itself, raising all necessary food, manufacturing all
clothing and materials for clothing, and even, on the tidewater estates,
exporting from their own wharves the great staple, tobacco, for which in
return their few luxuries were brought to their very door.

With all his broad acres the Virginia gentleman had no great wealth at
his command. It has been estimated that Colonel Byrd, who was perhaps
their largest land-owner, was worth but $150,000. Patrick Henry wrote
to General Stevens (Stephens) that his father-in-law "owned one hundred
and fifty slaves and four or five thousand acres of land, not counting
some three thousand in Kentucky," but that from him his son, Captain
Alexander Spotswood Dandridge, "could have no great expectations."

The families were large, and the land often had little real value, two
dollars an acre being considered a good price. The best land in the near
neighborhood of cities brought only from twenty to forty dollars per
acre. There is a quaint record preserved in Goochland showing that
William Randolph sold to Peter Jefferson (father of Thomas) two hundred
acres for the consideration of "Henry Wetherburn's biggest bowl of
arrack punch." Henry Wetherburn was the host of the famed Raleigh Tavern
at Williamsburg.

[Illustration: The Dandridge Home.]

Of the Revolution the family at Scotch Town saw but little, but its
effects they felt; it could not be otherwise with Cornwall's great army
stationed so near them. When General Wayne's troops marched through
Hanover in June, 1781, Captain John Davis notes in his diary that
they "saw few houses, which were mostly situated far back from the
roads, and very few people." On the 17th he wrote: "Marched at 3 o'clock
through the best country I had seen in this state, twenty miles to Mr.

De Chastellux says that Mr. Tilghman, the landlord of the Hanover Inn,
lamented having had to board and lodge Cornwallis and his retinue
without any return. "We set out the next morning at nine," he continued,
"after having breakfasted much better than our horses, which had nothing
but oats; the country being so destitute of forage that it was
impossible to find a truss of hay, or a few leaves of Indian corn,
though we sought it for two miles around. Three miles from Hanover we
crossed the South Anna on a wooden bridge. On the left side of the
river, the ground rises, and you mount a pretty high hill; the country
is barren, and we travelled almost always in the woods," arriving at
Offley at 1 o'clock.

His description of the country between Williamsburg and Hanover is more
pleasing. "The country through which we pass is one of the finest in
lower Virginia. There are many well-cultivated estates and handsome
houses." "We arrived before sunset and alighted at a tolerable handsome
inn; a very large saloon and a covered portico are destined to receive
the company who assemble every three months at the Courthouse[14] either
on private or public affairs. This asylum is all the more necessary, as
there are no other houses in the neighborhood. Travellers make use of
these establishments, which are indispensable in a country so thinly
inhabited that houses are often at the distance of two of three miles
from each other."

[Illustration: Hanover Court House.

Photographed by Samuel M. Brosius.]

Susan Nelson, a loved friend of Dolly's, lived on New Found River, seven
miles off; and he who would know the later history of this neighborhood
has but to turn to the writings of her grandson, Thomas Nelson Page,
and at once, by the magic of his pen, he will be in "the old country,"
and its charm will tempt him to linger there and love its people.

Dolly's earliest school-days were spent in an "old field" log
school-house near by, but she cared little for books, either then or
later, but was a merry, loving little maiden, who was "pleasure-loving,
saucy, bewitching." As she grew older, with her brothers Walter, Temple
and Isaac, and perhaps the little Lucy, she attended the Quaker school
at Cedar Creek meeting-house, near Brackett Post-office, but three miles
distant. The meeting-house stood in a forest of pine and cedar that grew
to its very doors, while close by ran the "clear, sweet water" of Cedar
Creek. The house was an old colonial building, most of the materials for
which were brought from England; and it stood on part of that tract of
land granted by good King George. It consisted of eight hundred acres
lying on both sides of Cedar Creek in St. Paul's parish, and was granted
to Thomas Stanley, James Stanley and Thomas Stanley, Jr., for "divers
good causes and considerations, but more especially for and in
consideration of the importation of sixteen persons to dwell within this
our Colony of Virginia." "Witness our trusty and well-beloved Alexander
Spottswood, Governor, at Williamsburg, under his seal of our Colony,
this 16th day of December, 1714."

A few years ago the old meeting-house was destroyed in a forest fire.

   "The blue hills rise in stately strength,
     Streams ripple soft below,
   As on those long-gone Sabbath days,
     One hundred years ago,

   "When in these crumbling, roofless walls,
     Where birds flit to and fro,
   The Quaker fathers worshipped God
     One hundred years ago.

   "And word of truth, or praise, or prayer,
     In measured tone and slow,
   Was spoken as the Spirit moved
     One hundred years ago."

The earlier records of the school have disappeared, but later ones tell
that in 1791 Benjamin Bates, Jr.,[15] was teaching reading, writing and
English grammar for 30s per annum. But for mathematics a charge of £3
was made. Holidays were not thought so necessary for the welfare of
teachers and pupils then, but they were allowed "two days of relaxation"
each month, one of which was a "Seventh day" of the week; the other the
"monthly meeting day." The long year had but three holidays. Two weeks
were given at "Yearly Meeting time," and a half week was allowed for
each "Quarterly meeting."

The school, however, was deservedly famous; its teacher was an able man,
and scholars came to it from a distance. At this time there were few
schools in Virginia.[16] In the long list of patrons are the names of
John and Mary Payne, although they had been many years in Philadelphia,
(their share was marked as made over to "C. Moorman to pay"); Thomas
Pleasants, of Beaver Dam; Robert Pleasants, of Curles; John Lynch, from
Lynchburg; Judge Hugh Nelson, and others, all of whom were men of note
in their own neighborhoods.

John Lynch and his brother Charles were the founders of Lynchburg. The
name of Charles Lynch,[17] has become famous as the originator of
"Lynch law," yet it little represents the character of Lynch, who was a
"brave pioneer, a righteous judge, a soldier and a statesman." His
memory is "by no means deserving of oblivion, still less obloquy." "He
was but a simple Quaker gentleman, yet his name has come to stand for
organized savagery."


[Footnote 1: Colonel John Payne was member of House of Burgesses for
Goochland 1752-58, 1760-6, 65-66, 1768. Josias Payne was Burgess for
Goochland 1761 and 1765. Josias Payne, Jr., was Burgess for Goochland
1769. John Payne was member of the House of Delegates for Goochland

Payne Arms--"Gu on a fesse betw two lions pass. ar."

Crest--"A lion's gamb couped ar., grasping a broken tilting lance, the
spear end pendant gu."

Motto--"Malo mori quam foedari."]

[Footnote 2: 1688, average value of horses was £5 sterling.--Clayton.

Ten or twelve pounds was the value of a very good horse in 1782.--De

[Footnote 3: It is also a matter of tradition that Anne Fleming was the
wife of John Payne. Colonel John Payne's first wife died about the time
the following trial took place. The punishment inflicted could scarcely
be for a less crime than murder.

Bedford Co., Va., May 24th, 1756.--Court assembled "to hear and
determine all Treasons, Petit Treasons, Murders, and other Offences,
committed or done by Hampton and Sambo belonging to John Payne of
Goochland Gent."

"The said Hampton and Sambo were set to the Bar under Custody of Charles
Talbot [then sheriff], to whose Custody they were before committed on
Suspicion of their being Guilty of the felonious Prepairing and
Administering Poysonous Medicines to Ann Payne and being Arraigned of
the Premises pleaded Not Guilty and for their Trial put themselves upon
the Court. Whereupon divers Witnesses were charged and they heared in
their Defence. On Consideration thereof it is the Opinion of the Court
that the said Hampton is guilty in the Manner and Form as in the
Indictment. Therefore it is considered that the said Hampton be hanged
by the neck till he be dead, and that he be afterward cut in Quarters,
and his Quarters hung up at the Cross Roads. And it is the Opinion of
the Court that the said Sambo is guilty of a Misdemeanor, Therefore it
is considered that the said Sambo be burnt in the Hand, and that he also
receive thirty-one Lashes on his bare Back at the Whipping-Post.

"Memo: That the said Hampton is adjudged at forty-five Pounds, which is
ordered to be Certified to the Assembly [that his owner may be
remunerated according to law]."

Thomas Walker Page, "Atlantic Monthly," Dec, 1901.

       *       *       *       *       *

Slaves were not tried by jury, but before five justices, and cannot be
condemned unless all the justices agree.

On examination, instead of an oath being administered, the black is
charged in the following words:

"You are brought hither as witnesses, and by the direction of the law I
am to tell you, before you give your evidence, that you must tell the
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth; and if it be found
hereafter that you tell a lie, and give false testimony in this matter,
you must for so doing have both your ears nailed to the pillory and cut
off, and receive thirty-nine lashes on your bare back, well laid on at
the common whipping-post."

This punishment is administered by nailing one ear to the pillory, where
the culprit stands for one hour, when that ear is cut off, and the other
nailed, which is in like manner cut off at the expiration of another
hour, and after this he receives thirty-nine lashes.--"Historical
Register," 1814, page 65.]

[Footnote 4: From John Coles and Mary Winston are descended the Coles
family of Philadelphia. His grandson Edward, secretary to President
Madison, married Sally Logan Roberts, of Philadelphia, and settled
there. Major John Coles was engaged in merchandizing in Richmond; his
residence, a frame house recently demolished (1871), was situated on
Twenty-second Street, between Broad and Marshall. When torn down, many
of the timbers, though more than a century old, were found to be in a
perfect state of preservation.

When the floor of old St. John's Church was removed, in 1867, to replace
the joists, a metallic plate was found marking the place of burial and
bearing the name of Major John Coles, but it was so corroded, it soon
fell to pieces.--Vestry Book of Henrico Parish.

John Coles, who lived on Church Hill, owned much land in what is to-day
the city of Richmond. He once gave a whole square of the infant city for
a fine horse. He also owned large estates in several of the
counties.--"Virginia Magazine."]

[Footnote 5: See pedigree on following page.]

[Footnote A: Sally Coles Stevenson's letters from England have been
recently published in the "Century Magazine." She was the sister of
Edward Coles, Secretary of President Madison and second Governor of

[Footnote 6: "Virginia Magazine," Vol. VIII, p. 299.]

[Footnote 7: Studley, the home of Mrs. Syme, where Patrick Henry was
born, is no longer standing. Its site is marked by a hedge of box and an
avenue of aged trees. It was three miles from Hanover and sixteen from
Richmond. The family removed to "Retreat" (formerly Mt. Briliant), on
South Anna River, near Rocky Mills, twenty-two miles from Richmond. Here
most of Patrick Henry's childhood was passed. His mother, riding in a
double gig, took him to church with her, and coming home had him repeat
the text and recapitulate the sermon. These early exercises served him
well in after life. A few miles from "Studley," are the "Slashes of
Hanover," the birthplace of Henry Clay.]

[Footnote 8: Governor Dinwiddie introduced Colonel John Henry to his
friend John Syme. He was soon at home in his family, and married his

[Footnote 9: He was lieutenant in the Mexican War, rode horseback to
California with the "forty-niners," and was brigadier-general in the
Confederate army. He was serving his second term in the United States
Senate, and had been re-elected for another term of six years beginning
in 1909. At the time of his last election the Alabama Legislature
unanimously repealed a law as old as the State to save him the exposure
of a long journey in the dead of winter.]

[Footnote 10: Probably both these signatures were written by Mary

[Footnote 11: Robert Pleasants was the son of John Pleasants, of
Henrico, the clerk of the Upper Quarterly Meeting, who had died in 1771
and freed all his slaves by will, providing for the maintenance of those
over forty-five years of age. The laws of Virginia, however, did not
permit his heirs to carry out his wishes, and the slaves remained in
their possession until 1798, when they finally succeeded in having the
freedom of not only the several hundred originally freed, but of their
issue, confirmed by a decree of the High Court of Chancery of
Virginia.--From Friends' records, Monument Street, Baltimore.

"Robert Pleasants possessed a vigorous intellect, and was a man of
indomitable energy." He was engaged in mercantile pursuits and planting,
and was remarkably successful. He owned and resided on Curles
Plantation.--From Vestry Book of St. John's Church, Richmond.

His book of correspondence with Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Benezet,
Pemberton, Henry and many noted men is preserved in Friends' safe,
Monument St., Baltimore.

In 1790 Abolition Society founded in Virginia, Robert Pleasants,
President. At death freed eighty slaves, in addition to several hundred
belonging to father freed during his life time.]

[Footnote 12: On the James River, near Richmond.]

[Footnote 13: Original at Monument Street, Baltimore.]

[Footnote 14: Hanover Court House, 20 miles from Richmond, 102 miles
from Washington, is situated several miles from the river.

It has two very large and commodious jails (!!), one tavern, one store,
one boot and shoe shop, one blacksmith-shop. It has a population of
about 50. One attorney lives there.--"Martin's Gazetteer", 1835.

It has a population of 58 to-day.

Hanover Court House where Patrick Henry figured in early life. Here many
of his speeches were delivered. Here he won his first case, "The
Parson's Cause."]

[Footnote 15: The same Benjamin Bates who in 1816 as clerk of the
Virginia Yearly Meeting drew up and presented to the Burgesses of
Virginia a protest against the existing militia laws of the State and
accompanied it by an able letter, of which the editor of "Niles'
Register," November 30th, says that it perhaps "forms a body of the
ablest arguments that have ever appeared in defense of certain
principles held by this people."--"Friends' Miscellany," Vol. VII, p.
221; "Niles' Register," VII, p. 90, supplement. William Wirt also
pronounced its arguments "unanswerable."]

[Footnote 16: "(1634)" There are no schools or printing to make poor
people "dissatisfied." But later there was one free school endowed by a
large-hearted man. Virginia up to this time had few schools. In some
neighborhoods the planters clubbed together and log school houses were
built, but there were more often none at all, the boys being sent North
or abroad for their education, while that of the girls was often
entirely lacking. An old gazetteer of 1835 makes report for Henrico
County, including Richmond, which had been incorporated as a city in
1782, "few or no schools worthy of notice," "that a few good schools
have existed," but not a single academical institution. "That in 1803 a
charter had been obtained for one to be built by lottery and private
subscription, but only the basement was built and the project

[Footnote 17: John and Charles Lynch, sons of Charles and Sarah Clark
Lynch, were the founders of Lynchburg, Va. The Clark family were
Friends, and, after the father's death, the children, with her became
members of Cedar Creek Monthly Meeting. Their father left them the
owners of large tracts of land. John, the elder brother, kept the home
place, where Lynchburg now stands. In 11th January, 1755, Charles Lynch
and Anne Terrill are reported "clear" of other engagements by the
meeting at Cedar Creek, and the following day are married and start for
what was then a far western home--the undeveloped lands in Bedford
County, where the buffalo still roamed and Indians were plentiful.

As soon as his new home at Green Level was finished, he helped to build
and organize a Quaker meeting. This was the first public place of
worship in that part of Virginia; and when the meeting was broken up by
the Indians (it was during the French and Indian War), he removed the
congregation to his own house, where his armed negroes could ward off
their attacks.

It has been said that it is difficult to overestimate the influence of
these Quaker pioneers (of whom Charles Lynch was chief) in establishing
better relations with the Indians and fostering a spirit of peace and
justice amongst the neighbors. Lynch soon became a leading man, and
already in 1763 had great wealth in the form of tobacco, cattle and

He was asked in 1764 to become a member of the Assembly, but refused as
inconsistent with his Quaker principles. But in the excitement of Stamp
Act days, when it was difficult to get a proper representative from the
West, he saw differently, and in 1764, at the age of 35, was elected to
the House of Burgesses, and held his seat until the colony became an
independent State.

It was then necessary that he take the oath and--

December, 1767, "Charles Lynch is disowned" for taking "Solemn Oaths"
from the little meeting he had fostered and cared for and where his
words of "admonition" had been heard. In heart he was not greatly
changed, and he raised his children Friends.

When the Revolutionary struggle began he helped raise and enlist troops
for home protection. His Quaker principles prevented him from going into
the army for a time, but finally "the Court of Bedford" in 1778 "doth
recommend to his Excellency the Gov., Chas. Lynch, as a suitable person
to exercise the office of Col. of Militia," he saw the need and
accepted. At this time in his history occurred the event that has made
his name famous--a conspiracy in his home neighborhood that he promptly
put down with the help of his troops, and caused to be sentenced and
imprisoned its leaders, thereby exceeding his legal powers.

In Richmond, Jefferson, then governor, had fled from the capital, where
all was in confusion, and there was much excuse for his action.

With "his Rough Riders of the West" and his son, a lad of 16, he marched
against Benedict Arnold and then to North Carolina in time to be present
at the battle of Guilford Court House, when he won the commendation of
that other Quaker General Nathaniel Greene, who kept him with him until
after the surrender of Cornwallis. His services are described by Robert
E. Lee in his history of his father's regiment.

At the end of the war he again took his seat in the Assembly, before
which he brought up the unlawful action he had taken during the war,

The following act was passed by the Virginia Legislature after the

"Whereas, divers evil-disposed persons in the year 1780 formed a
conspiracy and did actually attempt to levy war against the
commonwealth, and it is represented to the present General Assembly that
Charles Lynch and other faithful citizens, aided by detachments of
volunteers from different parts of the State, did in timely and
effectual measures suppress such conspiracy, and whereas the measures
taken for that purpose may not be strictly warranted by law, although
justifiable from the imminence of the danger, Be it therefore enacted
that the said Charles Lynch and all other persons whatsoever concerned
in suppressing the said conspiracy or in advising, issuing or exacting
any orders or measures taken for that purpose, stand indemnified and
exonerated of and from all pains, penalties, prosecutions, actions,
suits and damages on account thereof.

"And that if any indictment, prosecution, action or suit shall be laid
or brought against them or any of them for any act or thing done
therein, the defendant or defendants may plead in bar and give this act
in evidence."--"Atlantic Monthly" (December, 1901), Thomas Walker Page,
and "Friends' Records of Cedar Creek Monthly Meeting."]




Three years after their removal to Philadelphia a certificate is issued
transferring the membership of "John Payne and Mary, his wife, and their
children, William Temple, Dorothy, Isaac, Lucy, Anne, Mary, John and
Philadelphia to Pine Street Monthly Meeting." The Paynes settled in what
was then the northern part of Philadelphia, and at first John Payne
believed his means ample to live in the same hospitable way that had
been his wont on the old Virginia plantation, but he soon found his
expenses were increased much beyond his expectations, and decided, with
the assistance of his sons, to start in business in Philadelphia. For
this kind of life, however, his early training had not fitted him, and
the business venture was a complete failure. It was followed by his
disownment from Pine Street meeting "for failure to pay his debts"
(1789), and from this crushing blow the proud spirit of John Payne never
recovered, and he died soon after.

It is interesting to know that the store of "John Payne, merchant," was
on Fifth Street between Market and Arch, and his residence was 52 Arch

Dolly in the meantime had developed into a charming woman, who entered
into all the modest gaieties of the little town, where during the day
the daughters of the family, simply dressed, did much of the household
work, although even then "some" were so remiss as to "read novels and
walk without business abroad."

When the daily tasks were finished the families gathered on the front
porch, the girls dressed in plain stuff or chintz frocks with white
aprons, and here the passing neighbors stopped to chat awhile or tarry
longer. Everybody had a speaking acquaintance, at least, in this little
Quaker town.[18]

It was probably in the fall of 1787 that two of Dolly's Virginia friends
came to pass the winter in Philadelphia,--Deborah Pleasants,[19] the
daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth Pleasants of Beaver Dam, who had been a
friend and schoolmate at the old Cedar Creek School; and her cousin
Elizabeth Brook,[20] then from Leesburg, Virginia, a Quaker settlement
where the smaller plantations of from one hundred to three hundred acres
were cultivated entirely by free labor.

The journey from Beaver Dam had been made on horseback, in easy stages,
as there were many Friendly homes to stop at on the way, and the days
spent in riding through the almost unbroken forests of Virginia pines
and the fording of the rivers had been a delightful experience to the
two girls, who, with their entire outfit on their saddle pommels,
finally drew rein in the quiet neighborhood of Brook Court, where the
arrival of their little cavalcade caused an unwonted stir.

A happy winter followed, in which the three girls were much together,
but when summer came "Deborah" and "Elizabeth" returned to their
southern homes.

The following girlish letter[21] from Dolly Payne to Elizabeth Brook is
undated, but must have been written about December, 1788, or later:


     How much am I indebted to thee dearest Eliza For throwing off that
     formality so stifling To the growth of friendship! and addressing
     First her who feels herself attached to thee by Every sentement of
     her heart and she often In her "hours of visinary indulgence" calls
     to Recollection the two lov'd girls who rendered Her so happy
     during their too short stay in Philadelphia.

     I should most gladly have offered you the Tribute of my tender
     remembrances long before This by the performance of my promise of
     Wrighting, but my ignorance of a single conveyance[22] was the only

     Let this however, my D^r Betsy obliterate the Idea of my neglect
     occasion'd by my prospects Of happiness[23] for be assur'd that no
     sublunary Bliss whatever should have a tendency to make Me
     forgetful of friends I so highly value.

     This place is almost void of anything novell, Such however as is in
     circulation I will endeavor To Recollect in order to
     communicate.--Susan Ward and thy old Admirer W. S. have pass'd
     Their last meeting & are on the point of Marriage. Sally Pleasants
     and Sam Fox[24] according to the Common saying are made one--Their
     wedding Was small on account of the death of a cousin, M. Roads.
     The Bride is now seting up in form For company. I have not been to
     visit her but Was informed by Joshua Gilpin[25] that he met 40
     Their paying their respects, etc., etc.

     A general exclamation among the old Friends Against such Parade--a
     number of other matches

     Talked off but their unsertainty must apologize For my not nameing
     the partys----

     A charming little girl of my acquaintance & A Quaker too ran off &
     was married to a Roman Catholic the other evening--thee may have
     seen Her, Sally Bartram was her name.

     Betsy Wister[26] & Kitty Morris too plain girls Have eloped to
     effect a union with the choice of Their hearts so thee sees Love is
     no respecter Of persons----

     The very respectful Compliments of Frazier Await the 2
     Marylanders--Frazier that unfortunate youth whose heart followed
     thee captive to Thy home--do call to mind this said conquest
     Betsy--I see him every day & thee is often the Subject of our
     Tete-a-tetes--he says the darn in Thy apron first struck him &
     declares that he Would give any _mony_ for that captivating badge
     Of thy industry.

     After bloting my paper all ore with nonsense I must conclude with
     particular Love to Debby Pleasants when thee should see her &

     To her brother James--write often & much to Thy affectionate


     [Illustration: Signature of D Payne]

     Addressed to--
            Eliza Brooke Jun^r:
                Montgomery County

     P^r Favour of   }
     _Cap^t Lynn_    }

A later letter to Elizabeth Brooke[27] (from Sarah Parker) gives further
news of Dolly Payne. After referring to rumors current regarding the
approaching marriage of her friend she continues:

     "It may be an encouragement, probably, should I inform thee of
     some old acquaintances jogging on in this antiquated Custom. Dolly
     Payne is likely to unite herself to a young man named J. Todd, who
     has been so solicitous to gain her favor many years, but
     disappointment for some time seem'd to assail his most sanguine
     expectations, however things have terminated agreeable to his
     desires & she now offers her hand to a person whose heart she had
     long been near and dear to--he has proved a constant Lover indeed &
     deserves the highest commendation for his generous behavior, as he
     plainly shows to the world no mercenary motives bias'd his judgment
     (on the contrary) a sincere attachment to her person was his first
     consideration else her Father's misfortunes might have been an
     excuse for his leaving her--they pass'd meeting[28] fourth day, was
     the same day George Fox[29] & Molly C. Pemberton were united, rather
     an uncommon instance, but their marriage was postponed on account of
     a relation's death.

     "Pine Street meeting house was amazingly crowded, a number of gay
     folks--I heard a young man say he was surprised on viewing the
     galleries, as they had more the appearance of a play house than of
     Friends' meeting. There were great affronts given, I am told, when
     Dolly retired in the other room to pass by Nicholas Waln, rising
     and saying 'it was not customary for those that do not belong,
     unless near connections, to go into meetings of business'--but some
     were so rude as to press in without any kind of ceremony, very
     indecent behavior was too obvious to be unobserved, even by

[Illustration: Pine Street Meeting-House.

Built 1751.]

The "passing of meeting" was then a formidable proceeding. The intended
groom, with a friend from the men's meeting, entered the women's side
after the closing of the partitions, and taking the intended bride on
his arm announced, first in one meeting and then in the other, that "we
propose taking each other in marriage."

Many anecdotes are related of Nicholas Waln, who was a leading member of
Pine Street meeting, and had been one of the shrewdest and wittiest
lawyers of the Philadelphia bar. His words were very apt to hit the

A month later, on Dolly's wedding day, at the head of the meeting (at
Pine street) sat James Pemberton[31], "erect and immovable, with his
crossed hands resting on his gold-headed cane"; beside him "Nicholas
Waln with his smile of sunshine," "Arthur Howell[32], with hat drawn low
over his face," and "William Savery of the solemn silvery voice," and
other ministers and elders of the meeting. The body of the meeting was
composed of the solid Quaker element of the city, and the "gay folks"
again crowded the galleries to their utmost capacity. After a short
silence Dolly Payne and John Todd arose, and each repeated the solemn
marriage ceremony of the Friends, each signed the marriage certificate,
and "John Todd of the city of Philadelphia, attorney-at-law, son of John
Todd, of this city, and Mary his wife, and Dolly Payne, daughter of John
Payne of the city aforesaid, and Mary his wife," were married, 1st mo.
7th, 1790.


     Whereas John Todd of the city of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania,
     attorney at law, son of John Todd of said city and Mary his wife,
     and Dolly Payne daughter of John Payne of the city aforesaid and
     Mary his wife having declared their intentions of marriage with
     each other before several Monthly Meetings of the people called
     Quakers held in Philadelphia aforesaid for the Southern District
     according to the good order used among them, and having consent of
     parents, their said proposals were allowed of by the said meeting.
     Now these are to certify whom it may concern that for the full
     accomplishing their said intentions this seventh day of the first
     month in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and
     ninety, they the said John Todd and Dolly Payne appeared in a
     public meeting of the said people held at their meeting house in
     Philadelphia aforesaid and the said John Todd taking the said Dolly
     Payne by the hand did in a solemn manner openly declare that he
     took her the said Dolly Payne to be his wife, promising with Divine
     assistance to be unto her a loving and faithful husband until death
     should separate them. And then in the same assembly the said Dolly
     Payne did in like manner declare that she took him the said John
     Todd to be her husband, promising with Divine assistance to be unto
     him a loving and faithful wife until death should separate them.
     And moreover they the said John Todd and Dolly Payne (she according
     to the custom of marriage assuming the name of her husband) did as
     a further confirmation thereof then and there to these presents set
     their hands. And we whose names are hereunto also subscribed being
     present at the solemnization of the said marriage and subscription
     have as witnesses thereof, set our hands the day and year above

                                           John Todd.
                                           Dolly Todd.


   Edward Tilghman,
   James Ash,
   Owen Jones,
   John Pemberton,
   Thomas Clifford,
   James Pemberton,
   Samuel Pleasants,
   Caleb Foulke,
   William Savery,
   James Cresson,
   James Logan,
   Benedt. Dorsey,
   Samuel Clark,
   John Parrish,
   Thos. Harrison,
   John Payne,
   Mary Payne,
   John Todd,
   Mary Todd,
   James Todd,
   Alice Todd,
   Lucy Payne,
   Anna Payne,
   Mary Payne,
   Betsy Blau,
   Thos. Poultney,
   Stephen Burrows,
   Mary Burrowes,
   Sarah Waln,
   Esther Fisher,
   Saml. Coates,
   Arthur Howell,
   John Elliott, Jr.,
   Thos. Follet,
   Caleb Atmore,
   John Poultney,
   Caspar W. Morris,
   Zaccheus Collins,
   Henry S. Drinker,
   Chas. West, Jr.,
   John Biddle,
   Elijah Conrad,
   Ebenezer Breed,
   John E. Cresson,
   Richard Johnson,
   Geo. Roberts,
   Benj. Chamberlain,
   Abigail Drinker,
   Maria Hodgdon,
   Kitty Doughten,
   Benjamin Morgan, Jr.,
   Caleb Carmalt,
   James Bringhurst,
   Anthony Morris,
   Griffith Evans,
   Isaac Bartram,
   Anna P. Pleasants,
   Israel Pleasants,
   Samuel Emlen, Jr.,
   Nicholas Waln,
   Samuel Emlen,
   Owen Biddle,
   Samuel Shaw,
   Eliza Collins,
   Anna Drinker,
   Mary S. Pemberton,
   Sarah Biddle,
   Mary Shaw,
   Abigail Parrish,
   Susanna Jones,
   Phebe Pemberton,
   Sarah Parrish,
   Mary Pleasants,
   Elizabeth Dawson,
   Mary Eddy,
   Ann Marshall,
   Sarah Ann Marshall,
   Mary Drinker, Jr.,
   Eliz. P. Dilworth

The short but happy married life of Dorothy Payne Todd was spent at 51
South Fourth street,[33] now Fourth and Walnut streets, and here her
sons, John Payne and William Temple Todd, were born.[34]

In 1793 that dread disease, the yellow fever,[35] raged in Philadelphia,
and John Todd hastened to send his wife to a place of safety. She and
her infant son, William Temple, three weeks old, were carried in a
litter to Gray's Ferry, then well beyond the city's limits. John Todd
himself returned to the city. His parents were first taken, and he,
feeling himself stricken, hastened to Gray's Ferry for one last glance
at his beloved wife. Dolly, in spite of his remonstrances, threw herself
into his arms and pressed her lips to his. After days of unconsciousness
she slowly recovered to find her husband and her infant son no more.

John Todd, Sr., left a will. To his son John he willed £500 and his
watch; and to each of his grandsons, Payne and William Temple, he left

John Todd, Jr.,[36] died October 24, 1793. To his wife he left the
settlement of his "very small estate." His will had been made some time
before his death, and said:

     I give and devise all my estate, real and personal, to the Dear
     Wife of my Bosom, and first and only Woman upon whom my all and
     only affections were placed, Dolly Payne Todd, her heirs and
     assigns forever, trusting that as she proved an amiable and
     affectionate wife to her John she may prove an affectionate mother
     to my little Payne, and the sweet Babe with which she is now
     enceinte. My last prayer is may she educate him in the ways of
     Honesty, tho' he may be obliged to beg his Bread, remembering that
     will be better to him than a name and riches.--I appoint my dear
     wife executrix of this my will.

                                           John Todd, Jr.

Inventory and Appraisement of the Goods & Chattels &c late the property
of John Todd, Jr.[37]

   Viz:--                                                        £  s  d

   One large Side Board                                          9 00 00
   One Settee                                                   10 00 00
   Eleven Mahogany & Pine tables                                17 17 06
   Three Looking Glasses                                        14 00 00
   Thirty-six Mahogany and Windsor chairs                       27 12 06
   One Case of knives & forks                                    5 00 00
   And-Irons, Shovel & Tongs                                     9 02 06
   Window curtains & Window blinds                              12 00 00
   Carpets & Floor Cloaths                                      11 15 00
   Bed, Bedstead & Bed Cloaths                                  30 00 00
   Sundry Setts of China &c                                      9 00 00
   Articles of Glass Ware & Waiters etc                          9 07 06
   Glass lamp, pr Scones & six pictures                          3 17 06
   Sundry Articles of Plate & Plated ware--also Sett of Castors 14 07 06
   Sundry Kitchen furniture                                     12 10 00
   Desk & Book case                                              5 00 00
   An open stove                                                 2 05 00
   Two Watches                                                   9 15 00
   One fowling piece                                             3 00 00
   One Horse & Chair                                            40 00 00
   Library                                                     187 15 00
                                                               --- -- --
                                                               434 05 00

Appraised Seventh day of Dec. 1793.

The estate of John Todd was more ample than his modest statements would
indicate. He left his wife that commodious dwelling of English red and
black brick still standing at the corner of Fourth and Walnut streets,
with stable on the grounds. The inventory of his effects shows that the
house was well furnished. His library, too, was a good one, and with her
"horse and chair" Dolly found herself more than comfortably provided

The moving of the national capital to Philadelphia had crowded the city
to its utmost capacity, and homes were hard to find. Mary Payne had
opened her doors,[38] and Aaron Burr, then Congressman, was fortunate to
find boarding there.

Dolly was soon drawn into society, and her brilliant beauty and charming
manners drew many admirers. James Madison requested to be introduced,
and Dolly wrote her friend, Elizabeth Lee: "Thou must come to me, for
Aaron Burr[39] is going to bring the great little Madison to see me
this evening." Dolly wore her mulberry-colored satin, and appeared a
vision of beauty to him; and it was not his only visit. But it was the
"first lady of the land" who finally brought things to a crisis. She
sent for Dolly and asked, "What is this I hear about Madison and
Mistress Todd?" and, when Dolly hid her blushing face, took her into her
arms, and told her that she and "the President" approved, and wished to
see her again happily married; "and Madison will make thee a good
husband," she said.

In the summer of 1793 Lucy Payne had become the girlish bride of George
Steptoe Washington,[40] the nephew and ward of the President. She was
but fifteen and he seventeen years old at the time, and they were now
living at Harewood[41], near Harper's Ferry. "Harewood of pleasant
memory and patriotic association," as an old writer has lovingly said.
It was built on part of the Washington tract of land in 1756, by Colonel
Samuel Washington, under the supervision of his brother George, and an
old record states that for the hauling of the gray limestone of which it
is built, from a nearby quarry, they paid one Shirley Smith "an acre of
ground per team per day". The finer part of the woodwork, the pilasters,
wainscoting and cornice, were all brought from "Old England" to
Alexandria, and thence carted to Harewood, a long and toilsome

[Illustration: Harewood from the garden.]

Now the fair young mistress of Harewood begged that her sister should be
married there, and so it was decided. Thomas Jefferson offered his coach
for the journey, and taking her sister Anna, the little Payne and a
maid, Dolly journeyed to that historic home, accompanied by Madison and
mutual friends, riding and driving.

A week of the early fall time had been whiled away when they reached
their journey's end, where great preparations were already being made
for the festive occasion, for this was to be a "gay" wedding. Guests
came from far and near. Francis Madison was there, and Harriet[42]
Washington, and at the last moment "Light-Horse Harry Lee" came dashing
up on "the very finest horse in all Virginia."

And then in the handsome wainscoted parlor, James Madison and the
winsome "Widow Todd" were married, September 15, 1794, by Dr. Balmaine,
of Winchester, Va., a relative of James Madison.

Madison's present to his bride was a wondrous necklace of Byzantine
mosaic[43] work, of temples and tombs and bridges, eleven pictures in
all joined by delicate chains.

After much feasting and merry-making, in which the groom lost his
ruffles of Mechlin lace, which were parted amongst the girlish guests as
souvenirs, the bride and groom made their escape and drove away for the

Little record of the wedding is left, and there is no list of the guests
present, as at that earlier and more stately, though unpretentious,
wedding in the old Pine street meeting-house.

[Illustration: The Parlor, Harewood.

(In which James and Dolly Madison were married.)]

The following letter from Madison to his father describes the wedding

                                           Harewood, Oct 5, 1794.

     Dear & Honor^d Sir:

     I have detained Sam, by whom I send this, so much longer than I
     intended & you expected, that many apologies are due for the
     liberty. I hope it will be a sufficient one that I found him
     indispensable for a variety of little services, which I did not
     particularly take into view before I left Orange. These he can
     himself explain, & I therefore leave the task to him, proceeding to
     the history of what relates to myself. On my arrival here I was
     able to urge so many conveniences in hastening the event, which I
     solicited, that it took place on the 15^th ult. On the Friday
     following we set out, accompanied by Miss A. Payne & Miss Harriot
     Washington, on a visit to my sister Hite, where we arrived the next
     day, having stopped a night in Winchester with M^r Balmain. We had
     been a day or two only at Mr. Hite's before a slight indisposition,
     which my wife had felt for several days, ended in a regular ague &
     fever. The fits, tho succeeded by compleat intermission, were so
     severe that I thought it prudent to call in a physician from
     Winchester. Doc^r. Mackay not being in the way, Doc^r. Baldwin
     attended, and by a [-----] administration of the Bark soon expelled
     the complaint. She has since recovered very fast, & I hope,
     notwithstanding a slight indisposition this morning which may be
     the effect of fatigue & change of weather, that its return is not
     in the least to be apprehended. We left Mr. Hite's the day before
     yesterday. Our time was passed there with great pleasure on our
     side & I hope with not less on the other. Our departure however was
     embittered by the loss sustained the night preceding by my sister,
     which you will have an account of from Mr. H. by this opportunity.
     In about 8 or 10 days we expect to set out for Philadelphia, & your
     daughter-in-law begs you & my mother to accept her best & most
     respectful affections, which she means to express herself by an
     early opportunity. She wishes Fanny also to be sensible of the
     pleasure with which a correspondence with her would be carried on.

     I was Friday at Mr. Hite's. He promises steadfastly to be with you
     in about a fortnight at farthest, & to do anything on his part
     requisite for a vigorous prosecution of the undertaking at
     Bernard's Ford.

     I must ask the favor of my mother to make me a memorandum of the
     clothing to be obtained at M^r Dunbar's for the negroes, & of
     yourself to have it transmitted along with a list of other articles
     such as salt, iron, etc., which may [be] wanted for the winter's
     use. I heard with great satisfaction by Mr. Howard that her
     complaint, which appeared in so doubtful a character when I left
     her, had taken a turn that promised an early & I hope entire
     recovery. With my sincere prayers that perfect health & every other
     good may attend you both I

                                           remain y^r affec^t son
                                                      J. Madison, Jr.

     I called soon after I came into the neighborhood on Mrs. F. Hite, &
     found her & family well. I intend to repeat my visit if possible &
     to introduce her new relative to her[44].

The grave "elders" of the Friends' meeting had hesitated ere they drew
up the letter of disownment against Lucy Payne,[45] now the wife of the
nephew, namesake and ward of Washington. And now again, as was their
custom, "Dolly" Madison[46] was "disowned because of her marriage" to
one not a member of the Society. The many strangers drawn to
Philadelphia by the establishment of the government there were causing
sad havoc in their midst.

Returning to Philadelphia, Dolly threw herself into the gay life of the
capital, of which she at once became one of the chief ornaments. John
Adams wrote to his wife from Philadelphia: "I dined yesterday with
Madison. Mrs Madison is a fine woman, her sisters equally so. One of
them is married to George Washington. The ladies, whose name is Payne,
are of a Quaker family, one of North Carolina."

Her marriage to Madison opened up to her a larger and broader life, one
for which, by nature, she was well fitted. In the past she had felt that
her membership in the Society of Friends ofttimes debarred her from many
innocent pleasures and advantages as well, and "her undue fondness for
the things of this world," for which she had once been chided, added
zest to her new surroundings.

Her father had died the year before her marriage, and other changes
followed in quick succession. January 5, 1795, Elizabeth Drinker writes:
"I heard this evening of the death of two of Molly Payne's sons, Temple
and Isaac. The latter offended a man in Virginia, who some time
afterward shot him with a pistol."

[Illustration: James Madison Dolly Madison

Portraits by Gilbert Stuart.

Reproduced by permission of The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts,
the owner of the paintings.]

Her father's will was not proved until 1796. He left his wife, Mary
Payne, sole executrix. His property consisted chiefly of lands in West
Virginia and Kentucky, and it probably had little value. (De Chastellux
tells of meeting a young emigrant who had bought one thousand acres in
Kentucky for fifty guineas.) George Walker, John Todd and Dolly Todd
were witnesses. The two former were no longer living, and the record

     "This day appeared Dolly P. Maddison, of the State of Virginia,
     Gentlewoman, late Dolley P. Todd, who being one of the People
     called Quakers, and conscientiously scrupulous of taking an oath,
     Doth Solemnly affirm and declare," etc.

Lucy Washington and Anna Payne likewise made affirmation to their belief
in their father's signature to the will.

[Illustration: Signatures of the three daughters who proved the will of
John Payne in 1796.]


[Footnote 18: Population of Philadelphia in 1770 about 31,000.--Proud's

[Footnote 19: Deborah Pleasants, daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth
Pleasants, was born 25th of Eleventh month, 1763, at Beaver Dam,
Goochland County, Va.; married William Stabler in 1789, and settled at
Leesburg, Va., but soon after removed to Sandy Spring, Montgomery
County, Md. William Stabler died in 1806. Deborah Stabler died Sixth
month 26th, 1845.]

[Footnote 20: Elizabeth Brook, daughter of James Brook, Jr., born 1762;
married 1790, at age of 28 years, to George Ellicott, of Ellicott's
Mills, Howard County, Md. James Brook, father of Elizabeth, was the
Friend who had freed the first slave freed in the State of Maryland.]

[Footnote 21: In possession of Lucy Tyson Fitzhugh, Westminster, Md.]

[Footnote 22: Post-offices were often at a great distance from the
person addressed, and it was often better to wait for some one traveling
that way. Then, too, postage was high.

The "Historical Register" gives the following postage rates, 1810-1814.
Every letter consisting of one sheet to go a distance less than 40
miles, 8 cents; 40 to 90 miles, 10 cents; 90 to 150 miles, 12-1/2 cents;
150 to 300 miles, 17 cents; 300 to 500 miles, 20 cents; over 500 miles,
25 cents. The rate was doubled, trebled and quadrupled as the number of
sheets increased.]

[Footnote 23: Her approaching marriage to John Todd.]

[Footnote 24: Samuel Mickle Fox, son of Joseph and Elizabeth Fox, and
Sarah Pleasants, born Eleventh month 8d, 1767, daughter of Samuel and
Mary Pleasants, were married Eleventh month 27th, 1788.]

[Footnote 25: Joshua Gilpin (born Eleventh month 8th, 1765; died Eighth
month 22d, 1841), son of Thomas and Lydia Fisher Gilpin, married Mary
Dilworth and had eight children. Marriage entertainments at this time
were very expensive, and harassing to the wedded. For two days afterward
punch was dealt out in profusion, and, with cakes and other sweetmeats,
were set out on the lower floor, and were also sent generally through
the neighborhood, even to those with whom the family did not visit. On
the second floor the bride received the visitors, and was kissed by all
comers, often as many as a hundred a day. The richer families also had
as many as one hundred and twenty to dine and stay to supper the day of
the marriage. All who signed the marriage certificate also were invited
to tea (or supper). At the time of the "passing of meeting" for two days
all the male friends of the bride were privileged to call, drink punch,
eat cake and kiss the bride! Even the plain Friends submitted to these
things.--"Watson's Annals."]

[Footnote 26: Younger sister of Sally Wister.]

[Footnote 27: Owned by Lucy Tyson Fitzhugh.]

[Footnote 28: The Friends' form of marriage required that the parties
proposing marriage shall first inform their monthly meeting of their
"intentions." This form is now handed in in writing. The meeting then
takes the matter into consideration, and if there is no reason to
object, the permission is given at the next monthly meeting to
"accomplish their marriage." When this permission is obtained, the
parties are said to have "passed meeting."]

[Footnote 29: George Fox, son of Joseph Fox, carpenter, and Elizabeth,
his wife, and Mary Pemberton, daughter of Charles and Esther Pemberton,
were married Eleventh month 25th, 1789.

Joseph Fox was one of the committee of citizens appointed to prepare an
answer for Paul Revere to carry back to Boston at the time of the
closing of the port, he having been sent with a message to Philadelphia
asking the support of her people.]

[Footnote 30: This letter was dated 12 mo. 7, 1789, and is marked
"Received Nov 26th 90 & forwarded by Jno Janney."]

[Footnote 31: James Pemberton, born 26th of Sixth month (August), 1723,
in Philadelphia, was the son of Israel and Rachel Pemberton. He was one
of the "overseers" of the public schools founded by charter in the town
and county of Philadelphia. Was one of the managers of the Pennsylvania
Hospital and a prominent merchant of the city. He was a member of the
Society of Friends. He was married, first, to Hannah, daughter of
Mordecai and Hannah Lloyd, in 1751, and had six children. In 1768 he
married Sarah, daughter of David and Mary Smith, of Burlington, N. J.
Their daughter became the wife of Anthony Morris. In 1775 he married
Phebe, widow of Samuel Morton. James Pemberton died Second month 9th,

John Adams in his diary says: "Israel Pemberton is at the head of Quaker
interests in Philadelphia." Israel, the father, and the sons, Israel and
James, were all members of the Assembly. James Pemberton, with six
others, resigned from the Assembly 1756-7, because of not being able
conscientiously to vote for the tax for military purposes for the Indian
wars. Sixteen other Friends also withdrew at this time. The Quaker party
kept the ascendency until 1776, then fell to pieces and forever

John and James Pemberton, Henry Drinker and Samuel Pleasants were among
the Friends banished to Virginia in 1777 because of supposed sympathy
with the British.]

[Footnote 32: The following anecdote is told of Nicholas Waln. His
brother minister, Arthur Howell, always put off his communications until
time to break meeting. So one day Nicholas accosted him as follows:--

   "Arthur Howell, what's the reason
   Thou art always out of season?
   When 'tis time to go away
   Thou wilt always preach and pray.

                                  "NICHOLAS WALN."]

[Footnote 33: From Philadelphia Directory: John Todd, Esq.,
attorney-at-law, 85 Chestnut St. (1790) John Todd, jun., Esq.,
attorney-at-law, 51 South Fourth Street.]

[Footnote 34: John Payne Todd, born February 29th, 1792; William Temple
Todd, born 1793.]

[Footnote 35: The yellow fever was brought from the West Indies to
Philadelphia. The first case appeared in July. By August 22d it had
become epidemic. August 24th a general exodus from the city took place.
Almost half its inhabitants (17,000) left the city. By November 4th,
when the disease abated, it was estimated that 5,000 had died. September
11th, 1793, Mr. Jefferson wrote to Mr. Morris: "An infectious and deadly
disease has broken out. The deaths week before last were 40; last week,
50; this week, 200. Hamilton is ill, and the President has left for Mt.
Vernon yesterday." Seventeen thousand left the city; 20,000 remained;
5,000 died--yellow fever, 1793.]

[Footnote 36: John Todd, Jr., was the son of John and Mary Todd. His
father was from New London, Chester County, Pa., and was a teacher in
Philadelphia. The son, "John Todd jun. Esq. Attorney-at-law," was a
rising young lawyer, and supposed to be a wealthy one, and a strict
Friend. He was greatly beloved by John Payne.]

[Footnote 37: From Records of Wills, Philadelphia.]

[Footnote 38: Living at 96 North Third Street in 1793.]

[Footnote 39: It was through Dolly's influence that Aaron Burr was
finally allowed to return to this country from his exile abroad. It was
the result of a heartrending letter from his daughter Theodosia,

"Madam: You may be surprised at receiving a letter from one with whom
you have had so little intercourse in the last few years. But your
surprise will cease when you recollect that my father, once your friend,
is now in exile, and that only the President can restore him to me and
his country." ...]

[Footnote 40: George Steptoe Washington was the son of Washington's
brother Samuel, after whose death he became the guardian of his two
younger boys. His education was finished at the Philadelphia College. He
was a member of Washington's staff, was one of the executors of
Washington, and inherited one of his swords.

     "To each of my nephews, William Augustine Washington, George Lewis,
     George Steptoe Washington, Bushrod Washington and Samuel
     Washington, I give one of the swords or conteaux of which I may die
     possessed; and they are to choose in the order they are named.
     These swords are accompanied with an injunction not to unsheath
     them for the purpose of shedding blood, except it be for
     self-defence or in defence of their country, and its rights; and in
     the latter case, to keep them unsheathed, and prefer falling with
     them in their hands to the relinquishment thereof."--From an old
     print of the Will of George Washington.

George Steptoe Washington chose the sword sent to Washington by
Theophilus Alte, of Sollinger, near Düsseldorf. Its history is partly
given in the following letter from Washington to John Quincy Adams, then
United States Minister to The Hague:

   "To John Quincy Adams.

   "Phila, 12 September, 1796.

   "Dear Sir:

     "To open a correspondence with you on so trifling a subject as that
     which gives birth to this letter would hardly be justifiable, were
     it not for the singularity of the case. This singularity will, I
     hope, apologize for the act.

     "Some time ago, perhaps two or three months, I read in some
     gazette, but was so little impressed with it at the time
     (conceiving it to be one of those things that get into newspapers,
     nobody knows how or why), that I cannot now recollect whether this
     gazette was of American or foreign production, announcing that a
     celebrated artist had presented, or was about to present to the
     President of the United States a sword of masterly workmanship, as
     an evidence of his veneration, etc.

     "I thought no more of the matter afterwards until a gentleman with
     whom I have no acquaintance, coming from and going to I know not
     where at a tavern I never could get information of, came across
     this sword (for it is presumed to be the same), pawned for $30,
     which he paid, left it in Alexandria, nine miles from my home in
     Virginia, with a person who refunded him the money and sent me the

     "This is all I have been able to learn of this curious affair.

     "The blade is highly wrought and decorated with many military
     emblems. It has my name engraved thereon, and the following
     inscription, translated from the Dutch:

     "'Condemnor of despotism, Preserver of Liberty, glorious Man, take
     from my son's hand this Sword, I beg you. A Sollinger." The hilt is
     either gold or richly plated with that metal, and the whole carries
     with it the form of a horseman's sword or long sabre.

     "The matter, as far as it appears at present, is a perfect enigma.
     How it should have come into this country without a letter, or an
     accompanying message, how afterwards it should have got into such
     loose hands and whither the person having it in possession was
     steering his course remains as yet to be explained. Some of these
     points, probably, can only be explained by the maker, and the maker
     is no otherwise to be discovered than by the inscription and name
     'A. Sollinger,' who from the impression that dwells in my mind, is
     of Amsterdam.

     "If, Sir, with this clew you can develope the history of this
     sword, the value of it, the character of the maker, & his probable
     object in sending it, you would oblige me, and by relating these
     facts to him might obviate doubts which otherwise might be
     entertained by him of its fate and reception.

     "With great esteem and regard, I am, dear Sir, etc."--From Sparks'
     "History of Washington."

Alte had sent his son with the sword to America in 1795 to present to
the President as "the only man whom he knew that had acted in a
disinterested manner for the happiness of his country." The son knew
little of the language, and from bashfulness or other cause failed to
present the sword to Washington. More than a year later a letter came
from the father making inquiry about his son.

The above sword was sold by the son of George Steptoe Washington to a
Chicago collector for $1,600, and soon after changed hands again for a
much higher sum.

The news of George Washington's death was taken to his nephew and
executor, George Steptoe Washington, at Harewood by a special messenger,
Charles, the servant of Tobias Lear (Washington's private secretary).

George Steptoe inherited Harewood from his older brother. He died in
North Carolina, and was buried there. The following letter is from

                                        "Philadelphia, 5, December, 1790

     "To George Steptoe Washington.

       "Dear George:

     "Agreeably to the promise, which I gave you in Virginia, I have
     made the necessary inquiries respecting the course of studies and
     expenses (?) which would enable you and your brother Lawrence to
     finish your education at the college in this place, provided you
     are master of those books and studies which you informed me you had
     passed through.

     "The enclosed account of studies and expenses, which I wish you to
     return to me, you will see is made under the hand of the Reverend
     Dr. Smith, provost of the college, and may therefore be relied on
     for accuracy. After you and Lawrence have carefully perused and
     well considered the enclosed statement, I wish you to determine
     whether you will come or not. If your determination should be in
     favor of coming on, I must impress this upon you in the strongest
     manner, namely, that you come with good dispositions and full
     resolution to pursue your studies closely, to conform to the
     established rules and customs of the college and to conduct
     yourselves on all occasions with decency and propriety.

     "To you, George, I more particularly address myself at this time,
     as from your advanced age it may be presumed that such advice, as I
     am about to give will make a deeper impression upon you, than upon
     your brother, and your conduct may very probably mark the line of
     his, but at the same time Lawrence must remember that this is
     equally applicable to him.

     "Should you enter upon the course of studies here marked out, you
     must consider it as the finishing of your education, and therefore
     as the time is limited, that every hour misspent is lost forever,
     and that future years cannot compensate for lost days at this
     period of your life. This reflection must show the necessity of an
     unremitting application to your studies. To point out the
     importance of circumspection in your conduct, it may be proper to
     observe, that a good moral character is the first essential in a
     man, and that the habits contracted at your age are generally
     indelible, and your conduct here may stamp your character through
     life. It is therefore highly important that you should endeavor not
     only to be learned, but virtuous. Much more might be said to show
     the necessity of application and regularity, but since you must
     know that without them you can never be qualified to render service
     to your country, assistance to your friends or enjoy consolation in
     your retired moments, nothing further need be said to prove their

     "As to your clothes, it will, I presume, cost much the same here as
     in 'Alexandria.' I shall always wish to see you clothed decently
     and becoming your station; but I shall ever discountenance
     extravagance or foppishness in your dress. At all times and upon
     all occasions I shall be happy to give you both such marks of my
     approbation as your progress and good conduct merit.

     "If you determine to come on, you had better do it immediately, and
     Major Washington will furnish you with such money as may be
     necessary for the stage and expenses from Alexandria to this place.
     But I must repeat what I have before enjoined, that you come with
     good dispositions and determined resolution to conform to
     establishments and pursue your studies.

     "Your aunt joins me in love to your brother, and best wishes to Dr.
     Craik and family. I am, dear George, your sincere friend and
     affectionate uncle.

   [Illustration: Signature of G Washington]]

[Footnote 41: In some respects Harewood House is the most notable of the
Washington mansions. It is three miles northwest of Charlestown, and was
built in 1756-8. Its fame rests on the dual facts that it was built by
General Washington himself and that here James and Dolly Madison were
married. It was used by Washington as a summer home, and here Lafayette
and Louis Philippe visited him. It is now owned by John Augustine
Washington. Address Charlestown, Jefferson County, Va.

The home proper consisted of but two large rooms on a floor (three on
second floor). It formerly had outside kitchens and guest-rooms. Two
fine porches have disappeared. Portraits of Samuel Washington and his
first wife are here, and also those of Lucy Payne Washington and her
husband, George Steptoe.]

[Footnote 42: Harriet Washington was the sister of George S.

[Footnote 43: The mosaics of the necklace represent Temple of Minerva,
Tomb of Cæcelia Nutallis, Bridge of Colla, Pontius Luganus, Colosseum of
Flavius Vespasianus, Pontius Salasius, Temple of Vesta, Temple of Venus,
Tomb of Caius Coeustus, Temple of Jupiter Tonans, and the Temple of
Jupiter Stattor.]

[Footnote 44: From the Ferdinand J. Dreer collection at Pennsylvania
Historical Society.]

[Footnote 45: Minutes of Philadelphia Monthly Meeting, Northern
District.--Adjourned meeting, 13th of 8 mo, 1793.--Friends are appointed
to assist women Friends in preparing a testimony against the misconduct
of Lucy Washington, late Paine, who has accomplished her marriage by the
assistance of a hireling priest contrary to the discipline established
amongst us.

27th of 8 mo, 1793.--Testimony against Lucy Washington, late Payne, who
had by birth a right of membership among us, having disregarded the
wholesome order of our Discipline in the accomplishment of her marriage
with a person not in membership with us, before an hireling priest, and
without the consent of her Mother, after being precautioned against such
outgoing. We therefore testify that the said Lucy Washington is no
longer a member of our religious Society. Nevertheless desiring she may
be favored with a due sense of her deviation and seek to be rightly

[Footnote 46: Dorothy Madison was disowned Twelfth month 20th, 1794, by
the monthly meeting of Friends of Philadelphia, on account of her




When Jefferson became President, in 1801, Madison was made Secretary of
State. The capital had been moved the year before to Washington, and the
Madisons settled on F street, between 13th and 14th. From this time
Dolly's history is well known. She became at once the center of the
social life of the capital; all eyes were turned her way, and she soon
won the hearts of the people.

Mary Payne, Dolly's younger sister, was married in 1800 to Congressman
J. G. Jackson, of Virginia, and Anna Payne was married in 1804 to
Senator Richard Cutts,[47] from Maine, then part of Massachusetts. With
her three daughters in Washington, Mary Payne was soon ready to follow,
and henceforth made her home with Dolly.

[Illustration: Colonel Samuel Washington.]

On June 4, 1805, Dolly writes: "Yesterday we had brother George,
Thornton and Laurence Washington to spend the day, and I enjoyed the
sound of Virginia hilarity echoing through the house. George coughs
incessantly, and looks thin and hoarse, but has no idea of dying."

He died a few years later, when traveling with his servant in the south,
and Lucy with her three boys came to live with the Madisons. Her
great-grandson, John Augustine Washington, owns Harewood, where from the
wall the portrait of Lucy Payne Washington smiles a welcome to the
stranger, and in the old terraced garden[48] with its rare plants, the
lilac hedge planted by her sister Dolly each springtime fills the air
with fragrance.

   "Here's the garden she walked across;
   Down this side of the gravel walk
   She went, while her robe's edge brushed the box,
   And here she paused in her gracious talk
   To point me a moth on the milk-white phlox."

Here also are the portraits of George Steptoe, and the "gay fox-loving
squire," Samuel Washington, his father, the loving husband of five
wives, who laid them one by one in the little family burying plot near
by, where now he himself and many of his descendants sleep the last

   "In ancient graves, where trailing vines
   And tender wild flowers grow."

In 1807 a great grief came to Dolly in the loss of her beloved mother,
who did not live to see her mistress of the White House. Mary Coles had
been a belle and beauty during her girlhood.[49] At the home of her
cousin, Colonel John Coles, of Enniscorthy,[50] in Albemarle county, she
had met men who were destined for grave responsibilities in later years.
John Coles and his son, Colonel John, who inherited this estate,
entertained with lavish hospitality. They had a fine stock of horses,
and for the hunting season such men as Jefferson, Madison, Monroe,
Randolph, Patrick Henry, Wirt, Edmunds, and many others, were guests
here for weeks.

Shortly after her mother's death Dolly writes:

     "Deep affliction, my dear friend, has for some time past arrested
     my pen! My beloved & tender Mother left us forever on the 20th of
     October last--She was in Virgi^a with my youngest sister when she
     died without suffering or regret. The loss is only ours, & for that
     only ought we her children to mourn.

     "Mr. Madison unites with me in best wishes & regard for you and

                                           D. P. Madison[51].

The following unpublished letter[52] from James Madison to his
brother-in-law, George Steptoe Washington, is interesting as giving an
account of the early troubles with Great Britain that finally led to the
War of 1812:

                                           Washington, Dec^r 7, 1807.

     Dear Sir

     Having lately rec'd a few no^s of Cobbets[53] Register, I enclose
     them with a few newspapers of  our own for your amusement, by a
     winter's fire side.

     The business with England has come to a stop there, and is to be
     transferred to this place. The British Gov^t. would not admit, even
     formally, into the case of the Chesapeake, a discussion of the
     general principal of impressments; and the inefficacy of any
     arrangement not embracing the whole subject, for placing the two
     countries in the relation of secure & permanent friendship, was
     thought to require a joint provision. It had been calculated with
     great confidence here that the offer authorized for putting an end
     to the general practice of G. B. was so favorable to her interest
     as well as so liberal in itself, that it would be instantly
     embraced, and that the great difficulty on the general subject
     being surmounted, the affair of the Chesapeake would be met on both
     sides with dispositions which would render it the more manageable.
     The different course insisted on will necessarily leave around the
     subject all the thorns which mutual pride and honor, wise and
     false, will have planted there; and even in case the parties shall
     succeed in removing this ground of contest, the old one, on which
     a species of contest tending to rupture has been commenced, will
     remain. From the sensibility produced in this country by the
     British practice of taking seamen, and ours in greater number than
     their own, it can hardly be supposed that the practice will be
     tolerated after a refusal of the liberal & conciliatory substitute
     proposed on our part. Let us not however despair that things may
     take a better turn. If the new envoy brings as sincere disposition
     to remove obstacles to peace & harmony as he will find here, this
     cannot fail to be the case.

     Inclosed are a few lines for Mr^s. Washington from her sister, to
     whom I beg you to offer my sincere affection.

                          With great esteem & regard I remain
                                D^r Sir yr. friend & bro^r
                                                   James Madison

   Cap^t G. S. Washington

Benjamin H. Latrobe,[54] having been made architect of the capitol with
the title of Surveyor of the Public Buildings, removed his family to
Washington in 1807. To him we owe the corn-stalk columns with capitals
of ripened ears in the vestibule of the Capitol, which Mrs. Trollope
declared the most beautiful things she had seen in primitive America.
He also designed the capitals of tobacco leaves and flowers crowning
the columns in the vestibule of the old Senate Chamber, now the Supreme
Court Room. He was likewise the architect of the St. John's Church.

At the beginning of Madison's administration, in 1809, Congress
appropriated $6,000 towards furnishing the White House, of which work he
had charge; and mirrors, china, household linen, knives and other
necessaries were bought, as were also sofas, chairs and hangings, not
forgetting a pianoforte, for $458, and a guitar, for $28.

The Madison coach was built by Fielding, of Philadelphia, at the modest
price of $1,500. It was drawn by four horses.

Mrs. Latrobe and Dolly had soon become friends, as the following
note[55] shows. It was written while James Madison was the Secretary of

     To Mrs. Latrobe:

     My dear friend: I have read your books with pleasure & return them
     with many thanks. I intended to have presented them myself
     yesterday, but could not get my carriage in time. I long to see you,
     & hope you will not fail to send  for the ride when you wish it, as
     I expect M^r. Latrobe has left you for Phil^a & that you will
     indulge low spirits. How is Lidia & the little ones? I have been
     sick for several days, & on this we shall have Doc^r Wistar of
     Phil^a to dine with us. He is an old friend, & I shall be gratified
     in having some account of our mutual acquaintances.

     We have nothing new in this quarter except Mrs. Fulton[56] the
     Bride, who arrived from New York 3 days ago. She was a Miss
     Livingston, & perhaps known to you. Even with this elegant addition
     to the City I feel melancholy without knowing wherefore.

     Can I send you anything? Can I do anything for you? If yes, will
     you still think of me with confidence & affection? I desire it from
     you if a faithful & tender friendship _has favor in your eyes_.

                                           Adieu for the moment,

   [Illustration: Signature of D P Madison]

   8^th July 1808.

At Madison's first inauguration Dolly wore buff-colored velvet and pearl
ornaments, with a Paris turban with bird-of-Paradise plumes, and "looked
and moved a queen." The inaugural ball was held at Long's Hotel, and
about four hundred people were present. The first "four hundred."

At the request of her husband she had laid aside her Quaker dress on her
marriage. However, she clung to the Quaker ways, to its soft "thee" and
"thou" that fell so pleasantly from her tongue, and even, in a measure,
to its dress. During the eight years when, as wife of the Secretary of
State, she and her sisters, Lucy and Anna, were often called on by
Jefferson[57] to do the honors of the White House, she wore her "pretty
Quaker cap." Indeed it was not until she came there as its mistress that
she reluctantly laid it aside as "no longer suitable to her

She has sometimes been accused of adhering less strictly to some of the
more essential beliefs of Quakerism, for which her father had suffered
so much.

Dolly was perhaps never a great woman, but she was infinitely better, a
loving one. Her days were filled with

     "Little nameless, unremembered acts of kindness and of love."

Her manner was irresistibly charming. Her memory of faces, her ready
sympathy, delicate tact and Irish wit made her many admirers and
friends, and her memory to-day is held in a loving remembrance such as
is felt for no other one of the mistresses of the White House.

One of the most characteristic stories told of her was that about the
two old ladies from a western town, who, after seeing the Capital, had
stopped on a corner near the White House, reluctant to leave without
first seeing the President's wife, whose fame in some ways exceeded his
own. They finally made known their wishes to a passer-by, who, being one
who had access to the White House, ushered them in, and laughingly told
their wish to Dolly. She arose from the breakfast table and went quickly
to them, surprising them by the simplicity of her appearance, being
dressed in a plain gray stuff dress and white apron, with a white linen
kerchief crossed on her breast. Gaining courage from her warm reception,
one of the old ladies murmured, "If I could but go home and tell my
daughters I had kissed you!" And the wish was scarcely uttered until it
was a reality for them both, and they departed with a story worth
telling in their western home.

She was a notable housekeeper, too, after the hospitable ways of old
Virginia, and looked well to the ways of her household, usually ere her
guests had left their beds.

Any history of Dolly Madison seems incomplete without seeing her through
Washington Irving's eyes. He attended a levee in 1811, then held from
seven to ten o'clock, and writes:

     "I was soon ushered into the blazing splendor of Mrs. Madison's
     drawing-room. Here I was most graciously received. I found a
     crowded collection of great and little men, of ugly old women and
     beautiful young ones, and in ten minutes was hand and glove with
     half the people in the assemblage. Mrs. Madison is a fine, portly,
     buxom dame, who has a smile and a pleasant word for everybody. Her
     sisters, Mrs. Cutts and Mrs. Washington, are like the two merry
     wives of Windsor, but as to Jemmy Madison--ah! poor Jemmy!--he is
     but a withered little apple-John."

On March 11, 1812, Lucy Payne Washington was married to Judge Thomas
Todd, of the Supreme Court, a widower with five children, and went to
live at Lexington, Kentucky. Although Dolly missed her greatly, she
wrote, "How wise Lucy is!" She had had many admirers, and these words
were in recognition of the wisdom of her choice.

This was the first wedding to take place in the White House, but we have
searched in vain to find any record of it in the papers of the day or
elsewhere. It was probably a comparatively quiet affair, and unlike our
recent weddings there.

Elizabeth Henry, sister of Patrick Henry, married General William
Campbell. Her daughter, Sarah Campbell, married Francis Preston, and was
the mother of the Hon. William Campbell Preston, of South Carolina, who
in his journal describes a visit to the White House, when he was only

     "I and my conductor proceeded in the hack in utter silence. The
     appearance of the house and grounds was very grand. There was a
     multitude of carriages at the door. Many persons were going in and
     coming out, and especially many in grand regimentals. Upon entering
     the room there were fifteen or twenty persons. Mr. Madison turned
     toward us, and the General said, presenting me. 'My young kinsman,
     Mr. President, who has come to pay his respects to you and Mrs.
     Madison.' The President was a little man, with a powdered head,
     having an abstracted air and a pale countenance. Around the room
     was a blaze of military men and naval officers in brilliant
     uniforms. The furniture of the room, with the brilliant mirrors,
     was very magnificent. While we stood Mrs. Madison entered, a tall,
     portly, elegant lady with a turban on her head and a book in her
     hand. She advanced straight to me, and extending her left hand
     said, 'Are you William Campbell Preston, son of my old friend and
     most beloved kinswoman, Sally Campbell?' I assented. She said, 'Sit
     down, my son; for you are my son, and I am the first person who
     ever saw you in this world.'"

[Illustration: Montpellier.

The ancestral estate inherited by James Madison, in Orange County, Va.

Courtesy of Mrs. du Pont.]

After such a greeting, little wonder that his awkwardness and terror
disappeared, and a "romantic admiration for this magnificent woman took
its place."

One more glimpse of Dolly may be given here as we pass rapidly over
these scenes, and also over the later ones at Montpellier,[58] whose
chronicles have already been so well written, to linger awhile over her
declining years ere taking leave forever. She herself has drawn this

Ingersoll's history contains the following letter from "the lady who
there, with a spirit of gentle fortitude, presided." It was written to
her sister Lucy, who was then visiting at Mount Vernon,[59] the home of
General Washington, eighteen miles from the federal city.

                                           Tuesday, Aug. 23d, 1814.

     Dear Sister:

     My husband left me yesterday morning to join General Winder. He
     inquired anxiously whether I had courage or firmness to remain in
     the President's house until his return on the morrow, or succeeding
     day; and on my assurance that I had no fear but for him and the
     success of our army, he left me, beseeching me to take care of
     myself, and of the cabinet papers, public and private. I have since
     received two dispatches from him, written with a pencil; but the
     last is alarming, because he desires I should be ready at a moment's
     warning to enter my carriage and leave the city; that the enemy
     seemed stronger than had been reported, and that it might happen
     that they would reach the city with intention to destroy it.... I am
     accordingly ready; I have pressed as many cabinet papers into trunks
     as will fill one carriage; our private property must be sacrificed,
     as it is impossible to procure wagons for its transportation. I am
     determined not to go myself until I see Mr. Madison safe, and he
     can accompany me--as I hear of much hostility towards him ...
     disaffection stalks arounds us.... My friends and acquaintances are
     all gone,--even Colonel C--with his hundred men, who were stationed
     as a guard in the enclosure.... French John (a faithful domestic),
     with his usual activity and resolution, offers to spike the cannon
     at the gates, and to lay a train of powder which would blow up the
     British should they enter the house. To the last proposition I
     positively object, without being able, however, to make him
     understand why all advantages in war may not be taken.

     Wednesday morning, 12 o'clock.--Since sunrise I have been turning
     my spy-glass in every direction, and watching with unwearied
     anxiety, hoping to discern the approach of my dear husband and his
     friends; but alas, I can descry only groups of military wandering
     in all directions as if there was a lack of arms, or of spirit to
     fight for their own firesides!

                                           3 o'clock.

     Will you believe it, my sister? We have had a battle or skirmish
     near Bladensburg, and I am still here, within sound of the cannons!
     Mr. Madison comes not; may God protect him! Two messengers covered
     with dust come to bid me fly; but I wait for him.... At this late
     hour a wagon has been procured. I have had it filled with the plate
     and most valuable portable articles belonging to the house; whether
     it will reach its destination, the Bank of Maryland, or fall into
     the hands of British soldiery, events must determine.

                                           August 24, 1814.

     Our kind friend, Mr. Carroll, has come to hasten my departure, and
     is in a very bad humor with me because I insist on waiting until
     the large picture of General Washington is secured, and it requires
     to be unscrewed from the wall. This process was found too tedious
     for these perilous moments! I have ordered the frame to be broken,
     and the canvas taken out; it is done, and the precious portrait
     placed in the hands of two gentlemen of New York for safe keeping.
     And now, dear sister, I must leave this house, or the retreating
     army will make me a prisoner in it, by filling up the road I am
     directed to take. When I shall again write you, or where I shall be
     to-morrow, I cannot tell!!

The gentlemen to whom Dolly entrusted the portrait of General Washington
were Jacob Barker,[60] the Quaker banker, to whom the government was
largely indebted for financial aid during the war of 1812, and Mr. De
Peyster, of New York. Jacob Barker himself took it to a farmhouse near
Montgomery courthouse, and later returned it to Dolly.

The Declaration of Independence was saved by Josiah King,[61] an
official from the State Department, who went to the place where it hung,
and took it from its frame; and Dolly took him and his precious burden
with her in her flight.

With Dolly went also Mr. Carrol and her servant "Sukey." They drove to
Georgetown, a short distance beyond which she spent her first night of
exile, (Salona Hall, the Smoot place). She, as well as Madison, was to
feel that the "_disaffection_" and "_hostility_" were realities in the
few following days during which they were banished from the capital, he
in hiding and she in disguise, wandering from place to place.

The night of the burning of the capitol she and her companions were
refused admittance to an inn and were, for a time, exposed to the fury
of the tempest of rain and hurricane that, while it wrought havoc in the
city, quenched the flames and drove the British troops in confusion
before it.

Monroe says the President crossed the Potomac on the evening of the
24th, accompanied by the Attorney-General and General Mason, and
remained on the south side of the river, a few miles above the lower
falls on the 25th.

On the morning of the 26th Madison, General Mason, Rush,
Attorney-General, and others of his party rode to Brookville, Montgomery
County, Md., intending to join General Winder, who had rallied his
troops near the court house, where they spent the following night at the
home of Caleb Bentley.

Madison sat most of the night on the porch in an old-fashioned desk
chair, writing his dispatches. Sentries guarded the house, pacing to and
fro around it. They found no enemies in this peaceful neighborhood, but
ere morning came they had trampled under foot the garden flowers and
vegetables of their hostess.

At daybreak (27th) a messenger arrived from the Secretary of State with
the news of the evacuation of Washington, and the President and his
party, joined by Monroe, Secretary of State, left soon afterward,
arriving at Washington at 5 o'clock in the afternoon.

Ingersoll's History of the War of 1812 contains the following reference:

"The night following came some compensation for such punishment, the
last night of Madison's exile, and eve of his restoration to almost
universal favor. It was spent in the family of Quaker hosts, strangers
to him, and conscientious adversaries of all war, who with primitive
hospitality welcomed friend Madison and entertained him and his outcast
comrades in misfortunes with the kindest and most touching attentions.
Refreshed by sweet repose under the Quaker roof they returned next day
to Washington (the 27th)."

The unfortunate battle[62] of Bladensburg was long called by its
contemporaries, "The Bladensburg Races!"

After the burning of the Capitol, the White House being in ruins,
Madison rented the Octagon House,[63] yet standing at the corner of New
York avenue and 18th street, built by Colonel John Tayloe, 3d, in 1798,
and then considered one of the finest houses in the country. It was
built of brick with trimmings of Acquia Creek sandstone, on a triangular
lot, with a circular tower in front, to which the fine Ionic portico
with its delicate tracery leads. Once inside you notice the curved
doors, sash and woodwork, and the perfect preservation of their shape;
the quaint urn-like wood stoves in niches, and the rich, solid mahogany

[Illustration: The Octagon House.

Photographed by Samuel M. Brosius.]

From a second hallway a handsome stairway winds upward to the third
story. To the right of the entrance was the parlor, with its fine
mantel, designed by Condé, of London, with graceful figures in
bas-relief, executed in a fine cement. Its estimated cost was sixteen
hundred dollars.

[Illustration: Mantel in Octagon House.

Photographed by Samuel M. Brosius.]

During the burning of the city the French minister had moved into the
house to save it from destruction, and had raised from its roof the
white flag of the Bourbons; in this case a hastily-gathered sheet
answered the purpose!

It was here that the glad tidings of peace were received, and here, in
the circular room upstairs, the treaty of Ghent was signed. And when the
soldiers came gladly marching home they stopped here to give volleys of
cheers for Dolly, the most popular person in all the United States.

[Illustration: Detail of Madison China From The White House]


[Footnote 47: Adele Cutts, their granddaughter, married, first, Stephen
A. Douglas; second, General George R. Williams.]

[Footnote 48: The box-wood border along the walk was planted by Martha

[Footnote 49: Tradition says that Jefferson had been her ardent admirer
and in earlier years the rival of John Payne.]

[Footnote 50: Enniscorthy is ten miles south of Monticello. Governor
Thomas Jefferson took refuge here from Tarleton's troops in 1781. About
eight miles below, at Scotsville, on the James River, is the place where
Lafayette, improvising a road through the forest, headed off Cornwallis
and drove him back to Yorktown. The portrait of Governor (Edward) Coles
hangs in the hall of "Estoutville," Albemarle County.]

[Footnote 51: From the Ferdinand J. Dreer collection at Pennsylvania
Historical Society.]

[Footnote 52: Original owned by Mrs. Eugenia W. M. Brown, Washington, D.
C., great-granddaughter of George Steptoe and Lucy Washington.]

[Footnote 53: William Cobbett (Peter Porcupine), 1762-1835, was an
English political writer. In 1792 he came to America and supported
himself for a time teaching English to French emigrants. Talleyrand was
one of his pupils. He settled in Philadelphia and began his political
writing. Was at first a keen Tory. Stung by the disparaging criticisms
of his mother country, he lashed American democracy and French
republicanism with coarse and bitter personal scorn. Was twice
prosecuted for libel. He left America in June, 1800. In England he
started, in January, 1802, his famous "Weekly Political Register," which
was continued until his death. At first Tory, it became the determined
opponent of the government. He had no refinement of thought, but in
matters of common sense exhibited a vigor surpassing any other writer of
his day.--From "International Encyclopedia."

A caricature of him as Peter Porcupine is published in Scharf's "History
of Philadelphia," page 498. Dr. Benjamin Rush had a "pet" treatment for
the yellow fever in 1793. Cobbett declared that it was the giving of
copious mercurial purges and bleeding five or six times a day. He made
it the talk of Philadelphia. In 1797 the "Peter Porcupine Gazette" was
published, and he opposed it (the Rush treatment) by squibs, puns,
epigrams, and quotations from "Gil Blas." Driven to desperation, Dr.
Rush brought suit for libel. It was decided against Cobbett by Chief
Justice McKean, whose election as governor he had bitterly opposed. His
goods were seized, but did not suffice to pay his debts. He went to New
York and published the "Rushlight," abusing Rush, McKean, Shippen and
Hopkinson, and others, and ended by consigning all Philadelphians to
perdition. He then sailed for England.--Scharf's "History of

[Footnote 54: April 20th, 1798, B. H. Latrobe says in his journal: "As
far as I did observe, I could see no difference between Philadelphian
and English manners. The same style of living, the same opinions as to
fashions, tastes, comforts and accomplishments. Political fanaticism
was, during my residence in Philadelphia, at its acme.... To be civilly
received by the fashionable people, and to be invited to the
President's, it is necessary to visit the British Ambassador. To be on
terms with Chevalier D'Yrujo, or General Kosciusko even, is to be a
marked democrat, unfit for the company of the lovers of order and good
government. This I saw. Many of my Virginia friends say I must be

"I boarded at Francis's Hotel. It is a much cheaper house than any I
have been at in the Virginia towns. For breakfast, dinner, tea and
supper, exclusive of liquors and fire, you pay $8 a week. At the
Virginian House, 7/6 per day, or $8.75, exclusive of liquors, tea,
supper and fire."--B. H. Latrobe's journal.

Eleven years later, B. H. Latrobe gives the expense of going to
Philadelphia from Richmond, as follows:

   Stage to Fredericsburg                 $3.50
   Stage to Georgetown                     3.50
   Stage to Baltimore                      4.75
   Mail to Philadelphia                    8.00
   Heavy stage to Philadelphia     $5.00
                                  -----  ------
                                  $16.75 $19.75

   Breakfast, 2/6, --3/-                  $0.50
   Dinner, 6/-                             1.00
   Bed and supper, 4/6-                     .75
   Five days                             $11.25
   Stage                                 $19.75
   Expenses                               11.25
   Total                                 $31.00]

[Footnote 55: The original of this letter is owned by Lucy Tyson

[Footnote 56: Robert Fulton was married in the spring of 1808 to
Harriet, daughter of Walter and Cornelia Schuyler Livingstone, of
Clermont-on-the-Hudson. His first steamboat was named for the
Livingstone place.]

[Footnote 57: Such notes as the following were frequently sent: "Thomas
Jefferson begs that either Mrs. Madison or Miss Payne will dine with him
to-day," etc.]

[Footnote 58: Montpellier (Madison always spelled it with ll) is now
owned by William du Pont, of Wilmington, Del. The interior has been
remodeled. The two wings, formerly one story, have had two stories
added. The family graveyard is fenced and in fair condition. The estate
formerly consisted of 2,500 acres.]

[Footnote 59: Mt. Vernon was willed by George Washington to his nephew,
Judge Bushrod Washington (Judge of the Supreme Court, then meeting in
Philadelphia). Judge Washington had no children, and he in turn willed
it to his only brother's eldest son, John A. Washington. Lucy Washington
Todd was visiting these cousins at the time the letter was written.]

[Footnote 60: Jacob Barker was one of the remarkable men of that period.
He was born in Maine in 1779 of Quaker parentage, and he himself
remained a Quaker during his lifetime. He was largely interested in
commerce, a ship-owner and a banker, and the government was greatly
indebted to him for financial aid during the War of 1812. In the year
1861 he was still a banker, aged 89, but then living in New Orleans. The
above story was certified as correct by him at this date.]

[Footnote 61: Elizabeth McKean.]

[Footnote 62: Much ridicule was heaped on the President, who, as
Commander-in-chief, with his Cabinet, was watching the battle, and his
orders given as--

   "Fly, Monroe, fly! Run, Armstrong, run!
   Were the last words of Madison!"

Nor was Dolly exempt. Her departure from Washington was described in the
jingle beginning--

   "Sister Cutts, and Cutts and I
     And Cutts's children three,
   Will fill the coach--and you must ride
     On horseback after we."]

[Footnote 63: Dr. William Thornton, the architect of the Octagon House,
was born of Quaker parents in the West Indies, May 27th, 1761. He came
to Washington in 1793, and was the right-hand man of the commissioners
in the early history of Washington. He died there in 1828. He was also
the architect of Tudor Place and of the United States Capitol. His works
give him sufficient praise.

"The Capitol in the federal city, though faulty in detail, is one of the
finest designs of modern times."--B. H. Latrobe's Journal.

After leaving the Octagon House, the Madisons moved to the corner of H
Street, Pennsylvania Avenue and Nineteenth Street, N. W., where they
lived during the remainder of Madison's term in office. The White House
was not again ready for occupancy until Monroe became President.]




Harriet Martineau has given us a pleasant picture of Montpellier, and
life there in 1835.

     "It was a sweet day of early spring. The patches of snow that were
     left under the fences and on the rising grounds were melting fast.
     The road was one continued slough up to the very portico of the
     house. The dwelling stands on a gentle eminence, and is neat and
     even handsome in exterior, with a flight of steps leading up to the

     "A lawn and wood which must be pleasant in the summer stretches
     behind, and from the front there is a noble object on the
     horizon,--the mountain chain which traverses the state, and makes
     it eminent for its scenery. The shifting lights upon these blue
     mountains were a delightful refreshment to the eye, after so many
     weeks of city life as we had passed.

     "We were warmly welcomed by Mrs. Madison, and a niece, a young lady
     who was on a visit to her."

Mr. Madison discussed many subjects of mutual interest with Harriet
Martineau during her two days' visit, and she afterwards wrote: "He
appeared perfectly well during my visit, and was a wonderful man of

Of the second day of her visit she writes:

     "The whole of this day was spent like the last, except that we went
     over the house looking at the busts and prints, which gave an
     English air to the dwelling, which was otherwise wholly Virginian.
     During all our conversations one or another slave was perpetually
     coming to Mrs. Madison for the great bunch of keys; two or three
     more lounged about in the house, leaning against the door-posts or
     the corner of the sofa; and the attendance of others was no less
     indefatigable in my own apartments."

Harriet Martineau was much interested in slavery, and in discussing the
subject with Madison he told her that all the bad she had heard about it
was true, and he was "in despair in regard to slavery." As long as he
was able he always superintended his own slaves, and had no overseer,
and they were always well cared for. Another visitor at Montpellier had
been greatly surprised to see the women, neatly dressed in bright
calicoes, going to church; and when a shower came, to see the dozen
umbrellas that were raised.

Madison, in speaking of the appalling increase in their numbers, said
that "one-third of his were under five years of age" (he had over one
hundred), and that he had recently been obliged to sell part of his best
land to support them, and also to sell some of his slaves. It does not
seem to have occurred to him to free them, as both Washington and
Jefferson had done by will.

Montpellier and most of the slaves were afterwards sold to pay the debts
of Dolly's dissolute son.

Paul Jennings, Madison's faithful servant, bought his freedom from
Dolly, and afterwards lived with Daniel Webster.

At the time of Dolly's death[64] her negro slaves were valued at two
thousand dollars.

[Illustration: Dolly Madison in later years.

From Water-color by Mary Estelle Cutts.

Courtesy of Miss Lucia B. Cutts.]

Madison was much interested in the Colonization Society. Of the National
Society, founded in 1817, Bushrod Washington was president. Afterward
there was a State Colonization Society of Virginia organized, and of
it John Marshall was president, and its vice-presidents were James
Madison, James Monroe, James Pleasants, John Tyler, Hugh Nelson and
others. These men all recognized the fact that "slavery proved the
spring of woes innumerable," and hindered progress in the south.

Of Dolly, Harriet Martineau said:

     "She is a strong-minded woman, fully capable of entering into her
     husband's occupations and cares, and there is little doubt that he
     owed much to her intellectual companionship, as well as to her
     ability in sustaining the outward dignity of his office. When I was
     her guest she was in excellent health and lively spirits, and I
     trust that, though she has lost the one great object of her life,
     she may yet find interests enough to occupy and cheer many years of
     honored age."

James Madison had died shortly after this visit on June 28, 1836.
"Madison," said Paul Jennings, "was the best man who ever lived."

Madison was greatly indebted to his wife for the popularity of himself
and his administration. This was brought about partly out of her wish to
see him successful, but mainly by her kind and loving thoughtfulness of
others, and ready tact in smoothing over the rough places that were
ofttimes apparent in the early days of the new government because of the
friction caused by those, so widely differing in opinions, who must yet
work together for the common good.

James G. Blaine said that "Mrs. Madison saved the administration of her
husband, held him back from the extremes of Jeffersonism, and enabled
him to escape from the terrible dilemma of the War of 1812. But for her,
DeWitt Clinton would have been chosen President in 1812."

Payne Todd grew up to be a handsome young man, "the courtliest of all
the cavaliers," during the early years of Madison's administration. His
position put many advantages in his way, and opened the door to less
profitable things. He was fêted and petted abroad, and received in the
royal families of Europe. At St. Petersburg, he danced with the Czar's
daughter; in France, the Count D'Orsay was his friend, and afterwards
visited him at Montpellier.

[Illustration: Madison House, Washington, D. C., North View.

Photographed by Samuel M. Brosius.]

He came home to be only a grief to his mother. For a time he was
Monroe's secretary, but he did little serious work. His debts ate up all
his property and hers as well. He never married. He outlived his mother,
whom he dearly loved, but two years, died full of grief and unmourned,
and was buried in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington. "His was a
wasted life."

[Illustration: Madison House, Washington, D. C., West View.

Photographed by Samuel M. Brosius.]

Richard Cutts, who had been first senator, and then, for eleven years
(1814-25), secretary of the Senate, was the owner of that valuable
square adjoining Lafayette Square, where in 1822 he built, at the corner
of Madison Place and H street, the gray mastic stuccoed house, now known
as "Madison House," the property of the Cosmos Club. At that time it
consisted of two stories, and was the only house on the square. This
property Madison bought shortly before his death, and the last twelve
years of Dolly's life were spent in this house, already endeared by many
associations, as the home of her sister Anna.

It overlooked Lafayette Square with its fine trees, shrubbery and
statuary, which years ago had been the "old apple orchard" of David
Burns. In the new home, her niece Anna Payne, daughter of her brother
John, who had settled in Kentucky, was her devoted adopted daughter and
caretaker. Here her old friends rallied around her and she held court
during her declining years.

The government bought from her the Madison Papers, thus adding
considerably to her income. She was likewise granted the franking
privilege and the Senate and House each voted her a seat in their
chambers, an unusual mark of respect and appreciation.

[Illustration: Signature of Free D P Madison]

Anna Payne was a bright fun-loving girl, and even the President did not
escape her love of practical jokes. One first of April he accepted her
invitation to dinner, only to be heartily laughed at on his arrival!

One winter, she writes her Aunt Lucy when they had tarried longer than
usual in the country:--

     "Nov. 13.--What a dull prospect!--no parties, no 'nothin'' for
     Christmas. My conscience! If we stay here this winter we'll
     freeze! Ice this morning. Aunt will tell you as soon as she makes
     up her mind as to going or not going to Washington. We hear from
     the City very frequently;--everybody telling us 'Come Home.' I hope
     we may go:--it's a dear  place."--

Lucy Payne outlived her second husband, and came back to live with her
son, William Temple Washington, at "Meg Willis" near Harewood. She, too,
lived to a good old age. Her only daughter, Madisonia, died young. Lucy
Payne Todd is buried at Harewood.

The following letter giving glimpses of later days is treasured in her

                                  June 30^{th}.

     Beloved Sister:--

     I received your answer to James' last, and forwarded it
     immediately. Enclosed I send a letter from Madisonia, and am glad
     to find she is doing so well. Mrs. Crittenden has returned some
     time from Philadelphia, and brought back her son, for whom she
     procured glasses to suit the eye upon which there was no operation
     performed. She has had a good many friends with her at different
     times, which has prevented my seeing her as much as I should
     otherwise have done in the manner I desired, which was alone. As
     soon, however, as Mrs. Ashley and her daughters (from St. Louis)
     leave, she will spend the day quietly with me, when we shall have a
     great deal of satisfactory conversation.

     Yesterday the good people of Congress received another veto. Mr.
     Tyler is becoming more and more unpopular [torn] it is said he will
     soon decide himself a Loco-foco.

     There was a rumor last night that he was shot, but we soon heard it
     was without foundation. The 4th of July will be handsomely
     celebrated, from the preparations going forward, and we shall be
     here, but not to witness much of it; for, exclusive of the _melting
     mood_ (anticipated from past and present experience), it is the
     _ton_ for the ladies to remain with closed doors during that day in

     This evening our next-door neighbor has a dinner, but it is too
     warm for me to sit up in style, so I shall spend it sociably with
     one of Mrs. Pearson's daughters, who is a near and lovely little
     neighbor. Mary Cutts dines with Mrs. Tayloe; Richard has gone to
     the North, and Walter to the West on business.

     Anna unites with me in love to you and all.

     Ever and truly your affectionate sister.


     We purpose going home in a week or ten days, and fear it will not
     be in our power to visit you on the way, having been kept too long
     here on my unfinished business, and believing that the roads and
     the heat will be too much for me at this season. In more auspicious
     weather I hope to be with you.

     To Mrs. Lucy P. Todd,
       "Meg Willis"
         near Charlestown,
           Jefferson County,

James and Madisonia were Lucy Payne's children by her second husband.
All her boys were educated abroad, being sent there when very young.
Madisonia, the daughter, seems to have been at school.

This letter,[65] like so many of Dolly's, was undated. It has her frank
mark upon it. It was probably written in June, 1842, when Tyler vetoed
the tariff bill.

Plantation life, with its roomy surroundings, has given many finely
developed characters. The oak, the chestnut and the tulip tree of the
forest tower higher, because of close contact, perhaps, but in shape
differ little from each other. Planted in the open, each one hastens to
assume its natural form, and becomes symmetrical in a way with which the
other cannot vie. So, too, is it with human life, in country and in
city. Flaws there doubtless are in both, and our noblest characters
ofttimes adorn themselves with some pet whimsicality or foible for
which, like the dwellers of Cranford, they are even more dearly loved.

"Life is a gift from divine Love," says the new teaching, and "why
divide it up into little bits, and think that little by little we are
using it up, and that soon we shall come to an end." "Ignore birthdays,
which only carry suggestions of age and ugliness, and remember that
_life_ and _goodness_ are immortal." Such doctrine as this could it have
been spoken in Dolly's day, would doubtless have voiced her feelings,
and been of greatest comfort. For birthdays she greatly preferred to
forget, and was apt indeed, to do so. Why should the dear old lady have
been reminded so often, of the many milestones past, and the very few


     I often desire to see you when I cannot, but now there is a new
     reason for the liveliness of my wishes--it is to rectify the
     mistake of a moment, not "of a night." You enquired last evening if
     I was not one year older than your mother. I answered yes, when I
     ought to have said several--In truth I could then only remember my
     first acquaintance with that beloved relation, when all the world
     seemed young to us.--

     She was about seventeen, and I turned of twenty--this was my
     calculation before I slept last night--and, being anxious to
     disavow the affection of curtailing some precious years, I will
     give you a copy of the notice of me in our family Bible, ... and
     having been all my life in the world, it gives me the advantage
     sometimes of the nominal advance to eighty. I know you will excuse
     this little sally on your time because with all your other great
     qualities you have the most reasonable and indulgent temper.

                                           Your friend and cos.,

     Jan^y 29th 1839                                  D. P. Madison.

     To The Hon^{ble} W. C. Preston.

Darwin has said that a man's worth is best measured by the duration of
his friendships. Dolly's friendships were life-long. She never allowed
the friends of more recent date, no matter who they might be, to crowd
into the background the friends of her youth. In the days of her
prosperity, rich and poor were alike welcomed at her lavish board.

The little daughter of that early correspondent, Elizabeth Brooke
(Ellicott), was treated to strawberries and cake, during informal visits
at the White House. And she gave "Jimmie" no rest until he ordered the
release of "Debby" Pleasants' (Stabler) son, when he was imprisoned
because of conscientious scruples against bearing arms in the war of

In 1830 she wrote Elizabeth Brooke Ellicott, "it would give me great
satisfaction to meet you both again, and sometimes the hope of doing so
comes over my mind." But this hope was probably never realized, as the
years were leaving their impress on them all.

Philip E. Thomas, the first president of the Baltimore and Ohio
Railroad, another cousin, often called and talked about "old times;" and
his daughter, Mary Thomas Wethered, in turn became a favorite visitor.

It was on the 24th day of May, 1844, that Prof. Morse was ready to make
the final test of his electric magnetic recording telegraph, and the
wires between Washington and Baltimore were finally completed. The
Baltimore end was set up at the Mt. Clare shops of the Baltimore and
Ohio Railroad, and the Washington end in the Supreme Court room of the
Capitol, where the many friends of the inventor had assembled to see the
first message sent. He had promised his young friend, Miss Annie
Ellsworth, that she should indite the first message over the wires. Her
choice was the words of Scripture (Numbers 23: 23): "What hath God

[Illustration: St. John's Church, Washington, D. C.]

In Baltimore a little company were likewise assembled to receive the
message. It was received there and repeated back to Washington with
entire success. Prof. Morse then turned to Dolly Madison, and asked if
she wished to send a message, and a few moments later the first real
message was flashed over the wires. Its wording was: "Message from Mrs.
Madison. She sends her love to Mrs. Wethered." John Wethered was at this
time representative in Congress, from Baltimore city.

The original printed slip of what is now called the "Dolly Madison
message" is carefully preserved in the Thomas family, as is also that
first copy of the message, "What hath God wrought." The return copy was
given by Miss Ellsworth to General Seymour of Connecticut, and by him
deposited in the Hartford Museum, as Miss Ellsworth was from

For years Dolly had attended the Episcopal church of St. John's, half a
square from her house, of which her sister Anna had become a member. It
was shortly before her death that its rector, Mr. Hawley, "persuaded her
of her wish" to become a communicant, and she was accordingly baptized
with considerable ceremony.

She lived to be eighty-one years old, and during her later years lived
much in the past, amongst the old friends, of whom her family knew

She died July 12th, 1849, and her funeral services were held in St.
John's Church, the "Court Church" of Washington. They were those
befitting a President's wife, and her remains were attended by the
Government officials, and her many loving friends and admirers, to the
Congressional Cemetery.

The Mayor, Honorable W. W. Seaton, called a special meeting of the City
Council, and passed resolutions of respect.

The _National Intelligencer_ of July 17, 1849, says: "The remains of the
venerable relict of ex-president Madison, were removed from her late
residence, Lafayette Square, to St. John's church, yesterday afternoon,
at 4 o'clock. The rector of the church, Rev. Mr. Pyne, delivered an
eloquent and just eulogy on the life and character of the deceased,
which was listened to with deep interest by a dense congregation,
including the President of the United States, the Cabinet officers,
gentlemen of the army, the Mayor and City Council, and many
distinguished citizens and strangers." Her body was afterward[67]
removed to Montpellier, where, after "life's fitful fever" the gift of
sleep is hers.

[Illustration: Franklin Stove]


[Footnote 64: Inventory of Dolly's property at the time of her death

   Amount in bank                               $22,000
   Household furniture and plate                    900
   Books                                            500
   Pictures and portraits (4 Gilbert Stuarts)     5,000
   Negro slaves                                   2,000
   Total                                        $30,400]

[Footnote 65: Owned by Mrs. Eugenia W. M. Brown.]

[Footnote 66: The dotted copy of this first message is given in Prime's
Life of Morse.]

[Footnote 67: In 1858, accompanied there by her nephew, Gen. R. D.


   Adams, John 67, 86

   Adams, John Quincy, 77

   "Alexandria", 77, 79, 80

   Arnold, Benedict, 57

   Ash, James, 70

   Atmore, Caleb, 71

   Baldwin, Dr., 83

   Balmaine, Dr., 82

   Barker, Jacob, 104

   Bartram, Isaac, 71

   Bartram, Sally, 64

   Bates, Benjamin, Jr., 54

   Benezet, 42

   Bentley, Caleb, 106

   Biddle, John, 71

   Biddle, Owen, 71

   Biddle, Sarah, 71

   Bladensburg 103, 107

   Blaine, James G., 114

   Blau, Betsy, 70

   Breed, Ebenezer, 71

   Bringhurst, James, 71

   Brook, Elisabeth, 61, 62

   Brook, James and James, Jr., 61

   Brooke, Eliza, Jr., 65

   Brown, Mrs. Eugenia W. M., 91, 119

   Burrows, Stephen, 70

   Burrowes, Mary, 70

   Burr, Aaron, 75

   Burr, Theodosia, 75

   Burns, David, 116

   Burgesses, House of, 19, 20, 21, 22, 25, 29, 82, 57

   Byrd, Col. William, 17, 30, 31, 49

   Calhoun, John C., 32

   Campbell, General William, 100

   Campbell, Sarah, 100, 101

   Carmalt, Caleb, 71

   Carroll, Mr., 104, 105

   Chamberlain, Benj., 71

   Clark, Samuel, 70

   Clay, Henry, 30

   Clifford, Thomas, 70

   Clinton, De Witt, 114

   Coates, Samuel, 71

   Cobbett, William (Peter Porcupine), 91

   Cole, Thomas, 33

   Cole (or Coles), William, 26, 27, 33

   Coles, Col. John, 90

   Coles, Edward, 26, 90

   Coles, John, 26, 90

   Coles, Lucy, 29

   Coles, Major John, 26

   Coles, Mary, 26, 29, 90

   Coles, Walter, 27

   Collins, Eliza, 71

   Collins, Zaccheus, 71

   Conrad, Elijah, 71

   Cornwallis, 50, 51, 58, 90

   Craik, Dr., 80

   Cresson, James, 70

   Cresson, John E., 71

   Crew, James, 46

   Crew, Micajah, 43, 46

   Crittenden, Mrs., 117

   Curles Plantation, 41, 42, 56

   Cutts, Adele, 88

   Cutts, Gen. R. D., 125

   Cutts, Mary Payne, 99, 118

   Cutts, Senator Richard, 88, 115

   Dabney, Lucy and William, 27

   Dandridge, Captain Alexander Spotswood, 50, 51

   Dandridge, Dorothea Spotswood, 19, 30

   Dandridge, Nathaniel West, 19

   Davis, Captain John, 51

   Davis, Micajah, 45

   Dawson, Elizabeth, 71

   de Chastellux, Marquis, 22, 48, 51, 87

   De Peyster, Mr., 104

   Dilworth, Eliz. P., 71

   Dilworth, Mary, 63

   Dinwiddie, Governor, 31

   Dorsey, Benedt, 70

   Doughten, Kitty, 71

   Douglas, Stephen A., 88

   D'Orsay, Count, 114

   Downing, Jacob, 48

   Dreer, Ferdinand J., 84, 91

   Drinker, Abigail, 71

   Drinker, Anna, 71

   Drinker, Elizabeth, 45, 48

   Drinker, Henry, 45, 68

   Drinker, Henry S., 71

   Drinker, Mary, Jr., 71

   Drinker, Sally, 48

   Dunbar, Mr., 84

   du Pont, William, 101

   D'Yrujo, Chevalier, 94

   Eddy, Mary, 71

   Edmunds, 90

   Ellicott, Elizabeth Brooke, 121

   Ellicott, George, 61

   Elliott, John, Jr., 71

   Ellsworth, Miss Annie, 122, 123

   Elmore, Elizabeth, 46

   Emlen, Samuel and Samuel, Jr., 71

   Evans, Griffith, 71

   Fisher, Esther, 70

   Fitzhugh, Lucy Tyson, 62, 65, 95

   Fleming, Anne, 22, 23

   Fleming, Sir Thomas, 23

   Follet, Thos., 71

   Foulke, Caleb, 70

   Fox, Elizabeth, 63, 66

   Fox, George, 66

   Fox, Joseph, 63, 66

   Fox, Samuel Mickle, 63

   Fulton, Harriet and Robert, 96

   Georgetown, 105

   Gilpin, Lydia Fisher, 63

   Gilpin, Joshua and Thomas, 63

   Goochland, 21, 50

   Goochland County, 39, 48, 61

   Greene, General Nathaniel, 58

   Hanover County, Va., 17, 20, 26, 27, 32, 33, 39, 47, 48, 50

   Harewood, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83, 117

   Harris, Moses, 45, 46

   Harrison, Thos., 70

   Hawley, Mr., 123

   Henry, Elizabeth, 100

   Henry, John, 31

   Henry, Patrick, 19, 29, 30, 32, 34, 35, 42, 48, 49, 52, 90, 100

   Henry, William, 32

   Hite, Mr. and Mrs. F., 83, 84

   Hodgdon, Maria, 71

   Hopkinson, 93

   Howard, Mr., 84

   Howell, Arthur, 68, 71

   Hunnicutt, James, 45, 46

   Independence, Declaration of, 105

   Ingersoll's History of the War of 1812, 101, 107

   Irving, Washington, 99

   Jackson, Congressman J. G., 88

   Janney, Jno., 66

   Jarman, Mr., 36

   Jarvis, James, 46

   Jefferson, Peter, 50

   Jefferson, Thomas, 41, 50, 57, 72, 81, 88, 90, 97, 112

   Jennings, Paul, 112, 113

   Johnson, Richard, 71

   Jones, Owen, 70

   Jones, Susanna, 71

   King, Josiah, 105

   Kosciusko, General, 94

   Latrobe, Benjamin H., 93, 94, 95, 96, 108

   Lafayette, 81, 90

   Lear, Tobias, 78

   Lee, Elizabeth, 75

   "Lee, Light Horse Harry", 81

   Lee, Robert E., 58

   Lewis, George, 76

   Livingstone, Cornelia Schuyler, 96

   Livingston, Walter, 96

   Lloyd, Hannah and Mordecai, 67

   Logan, James, 70

   Lynch, Charles, 56, 57, 58

   Lynch, John, 56

   Lynch, Sarah Clark, 56

   Lynn, Capt., 65

   McKean, Chief Justice, 93

   McKean, Elizabeth, 105

   Mackay, Dr., 83

   Madison, Francis, 81

   Madison, Isaac, 53

   Madison, James., 26, 75, 76, 81, 82, 84, 86, 88, 90, 91, 93, 99, 100,
     103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 110, 118, 124.

   Madison, Lucy, 53

   Madison, Temple, 53

   Madison, Walter, 53

   Manumission Paper, 43

   Marriage Certificate of John Todd and Dolly Payne, 69

   Marshall, Ann, 71

   Marshall, John, 113

   Marshall, Sarah Ann, 71

   Martineau, Harriet, 110, 111, 113

   Mason, General, 106

   Monroe, James, 90, 105, 108, 113, 115

   Monticello, 90

   Montpellier, 101, 110, 111, 112, 114, 125

   Moorman, C., 56

   Morgan, Benjamin, Jr., 71

   Morris, Anthony, 67, 71

   Morris, Caspar W., 71

   Morris, Kitty, 64

   Morris, Robert, 72

   Morse, Prof., 122, 123

   Morton, Phebe, 67

   Morton, Samuel, 67

   Mt. Vernon, 72, 102

   "Negrofoot", 36

   Nelson, General, 48

   Nelson, Hugh, 56, 113

   Nelson, Susan, 52

   New York, 93, 96, 104

   North Carolina Yearly Meeting, 38

   Octagon House, 108

   Offley, 48, 51

   Page, Thomas Nelson, 40, 52

   Page, Thomas Walker, 24, 58

   "Paine," Mary, Ruth and William, 33

   Parker, Sarah, 65

   Parrish, Abigail and Sarah, 71

   Parrish, John, 70

   Payne, Anne, 25, 59

   Payne, Anna, 70, 81, 87, 88, 97, 115, 116, 123

   Payne, Col. John, 21

   Payne, Dorothy, 59, 69

   Payne, George, 21, 89

   Payne, Isaac, 86

   Payne, John ("Jr."), 18, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 33, 34, 37, 38, 39, 40, 43,
     44, 45, 46, 47, 56, 59, 60, 69, 70, 87, 90, 116.

   Payne, Josias, 21, 22

   Payne, Lucy, 70, 71, 76, 85, 97

   Payne, Mary, 18, 20, 27, 33, 37, 38, 39, 43, 44, 45, 47, 56, 59, 69, 70,
     75, 86, 87, 88.

   Payne, Miss A., 83

   Payne, Philadelphia, 59

   Payne, Sir Robert, M.P., 21

   Payne, Walter, 18, 45, 48

   Payne, William Temple, 59, 86

   Pearson, Mrs., 118

   Pemberton, 42

   Pemberton, Charles, 66

   Pemberton, Esther, 66

   Pemberton, Israel, 67

   Pemberton, James, 67, 68, 70

   Pemberton, John, 68, 70

   Pemberton, Mary ("Molly C."), 66

   Pemberton, Mary S., 71

   Pemberton, Phebe, 71

   Pemberton, Rachel, 67

   Pennsylvania Historical Society, 84, 91

   Pettus, Edmund Winston, 32

   Philadelphia, 26, 44, 45, 46, 56, 59, 61, 66, 67, 68, 69, 72, 73, 75,
     78, 84, 85, 86, 91, 92, 94, 96, 102, 117, 120.

   Philippe, Louis, 81

   Pleasants, Anna P., 71

   Pleasants, Deborah, 61, 62, 64

   Pleasants, Elizabeth, 61

   Pleasants, Israel, 71

   Pleasants, James, 65, 113

   Pleasants, John, 41

   Pleasants, Mary, 63, 71

   Pleasants, Robert, 41, 42, 56

   Pleasants, Samuel, 63, 68, 70

   Pleasants, Sarah, 63

   Pleasants, Thomas, 43, 44, 56, 61

   Poultney, John, 71

   Poultney, Thos., 70

   Preston, Francis, 100

   Preston, Hon. William Campbell, 32, 100, 101, 121

   Pyne, Rev. Mr., 124

   Randolph, 90

   Randolph, William, 50

   Revere, Paul, 66

   Revolution, 40, 48, 50, 57, 58

   Richmond, Va., 26, 30, 52, 55, 57

   Roads, M., 63

   Roberts, Geo., 71

   Roberts, Sally Logan, 26

   Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 92, 93, 106

   St. John's Church, Richmond, Va., 26, 41

   St John's Church, Washington, D. C., 95, 123, 124

   Sansom, Billy, 48

   Savery, William, 68, 70

   "Scotch Town", 20, 34, 35, 37, 48, 50

   Seaton, Hon. W. W. (Mayor), 124

   Seymour, General, of Connecticut, 123

   Shaw, Mary and Samuel, 71

   Smith, David, Mary, Sarah, 67

   Spottswood, Alexander, 19, 22, 54

   Stabler, Deborah (Pleasants), 61, 121

   Stabler, Edward, 42

   Stabler, William, 61

   Stanley, James, Thomas and Thomas, Jr., 53

   Stevens (Stephens) General, 50

   Syme, John, 31, 32

   Syme, Sarah, 30

   Talbot, Charles, 23

   Tayloe, Colonel John, 108, 118

   Temple, Anne, 47

   Temple, Dolley, 19, 47

   Temple, Isaac, John, Lucy, Mary, 47

   Temple, Wm., 19, 47

   Terrell, Micajah, 45

   Terrill, Anne, 56

   Terrill, David, 47

   Thomas, Philip E., 122

   Thornton, Dr. William, 108

   Tilghman, Edward, 70

   Tilghman, Mr., 51

   Todd, Alice, 70

   Todd, James, 70, 119

   Todd, John, Jr., 63, 65, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 87

   Todd, John Payne, 72, 73, 114

   Todd, John, Sr., 71, 73

   Todd, Judge Thomas, 99

   Todd, Lucy (Payne) (Washington), 100, 102, 117, 119

   Todd, Madisonia, 117, 119

   Todd, Mary, 70, 73

   Todd, William Temple, 72, 73

   Trollope, Mrs., 94

   Tyler, John, 113, 118, 119

   Virginia, 18, 20, 21, 25, 33, 37, 38, 41, 42, 43, 48, 49, 51, 54, 55,
     56, 59, 61, 68, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 94, 99, 116.

   Walker, George, 87

   Waln, Nicholas, 66, 67, 68, 71

   Waln, Sarah, 70

   Ward, Susan, 63

   Washington, Bushrod, 76, 102, 112

   Washington, Col. Samuel, 80

   Washington, D. C., 88, 91, 94, 106, 107, 108, 118, 122, 123

   Washington, George, 19, 29, 41, 76, 77, 78, 80, 85, 86, 100, 102, 104,

   Washington, George Steptoe, 76, 77, 78, 81, 89, 91, 93

   Washington, Harriet, 81, 83

   Washington, John Augustine, 81, 102

   Washington, Lawrence, 78, 89

   Washington, Lucy (Payne), 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 98, 99

   Washington, Martha, 89

   Washington, Samuel, 76, 81, 89

   Washington, Thornton, 89

   Washington, William Augustine, 76

   Washington, William Temple, 117

   Wayne, General, 50

   Webster, Daniel, 112

   Wells, Polly, 48

   West, Chas., Jr., 71

   Wetherburn, Henry, 50

   Wethered, John, 123

   Wethered, Mary Thomas, 122, 123

   White House, 90, 95, 98, 100, 108, 121

   Wigdon, Earl of, 23

   Williams, General George R., 88

   Winder, General, 102, 106

   Winston, Isaac, 27, 28, 29

   Winston, Judge Edmund, 30

   Winston, Lucy, 27, 33

   Winston, Mary, 26, 27

   Winston, Sarah, 30, 31

   Winston, William, 29, 30

   Wirt, William, 56, 90

   Wistar, Dr., 96

   Wister, Betsy, 64

   Wister, Sally, 64

[Illustration: James Madison's Cloak-Clasp]

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's note

The following changes have been made to the text:

Page 11: "58" changed to "59".

Page 14: "58" changed to "59".

Page 36 (illustration): "Negro-foot" changed to "Negrofoot".

Page 41: "finally succeded" changed to "finally succeeded".

Page 78 (footnote): "America in 1705" changed to "America in 1795".

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