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´╗┐Title: A Calendar of Scottish Saints
Author: Barrett, Michael, 1848-
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Calendar of Scottish Saints" ***

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A CALENDAR OF SCOTTISH SAINTS

BY DOM MICHAEL BARRETT, O.S.B.

SECOND EDITION REVISED & AUGMENTED



FORT-AUGUSTUS:

PRINTED AT THE ABBEY PRESS

1919



_Nihil obstat_:

D. CUTHBERTUS ALMOND, O.S.B.
Censor Dep.

_Imprimatur_:

+ GEORGIUS, Ep. Aberd.



INTRODUCTION


The title of Scottish, applied to the holy ones whose names occur
in these short notices, must be understood to refer not so much to
their nationality as to the field in which, they laboured or the
localities where traces of their _cultus_ are to be found.  The
Calendar here submitted does not pretend to be exhaustive; the saints
therein noted are those who appear prominently in such records as
remain to us and in the place-names which still recall their
personalities.

In this new edition much additional information has been inserted,
and many emendations made to render the Calendar as complete as
possible.

The chief sources relied upon in the compilation of the work are:

_The Breviary of Aberdeen_, drawn up by Bishop Wm. Elphinstone, and
printed in 1509.

Dr. Forbes' _Kalendars of Scottish Saints_.

_Origines Parochiales Scotiae_.

Dr. Skene's _Celtic Scotland_.

Canon O'Hanlon's _Lives of Irish Saints_.

Cardinal Moran's _Irish Saints in Great Britain_.

_New Statistical Account of Scotland_.

The date at the head of each notice is generally that of the death
of the saint concerned.



JANUARY

1--St. Ernan, Abbot, A.D. 640.

The Saint whose feast is celebrated on this day was a disciple of
the great St. Columba, and is said by Colgan, the renowned Irish
scholar, to have been his nephew. What connection the saint had
with Scotland is not clear. He may have laboured for a time there
under St. Columba, but he became Abbot of Drumhome in Donegal. On
the night St. Columba went to his reward, as we are told by that
saint's biographer, St. Adamnan, Ernan was favoured with a vision
in which the saint's death was revealed to him. St. Ernan died in
his Irish monastery at an advanced age in the year 640. The church
of Killernan, in Ross-shire, is named after him. Another dedication
to this saint is thought by some to be Kilviceuen in Mull.

4--St. Chroman or Ghronan, A.D. 641.

On account of the destruction of so many ecclesiastical records at
the Reformation, many {2} particulars regarding some of our
Scottish saints have been irrevocably lost. This is the case with
the holy man before us. All that we know of him may be told in a
few words. He lived in the Cunningham district of Ayrshire, where
he was revered during life and venerated after death for his great
sanctity. On his deathbed we are told he kept continually repeating
those words of the 83rd Psalm, "My soul longeth and fainteth for
the courts of the Lord. My heart and my flesh have rejoiced in the
Living God."

7--St. Kentigerna, Recluse, A.D. 733.

Like so many holy souls whose lives drew down the grace of Heaven
upon the land, St. Kentigerna was of Irish race. Her brother, St.
Comgan, succeeded their father, a prince of Leinster, in the
government of his territory. Meeting with violent opposition from
the neighbouring princes, on account of his just and upright
Christian rule, St. Comgan was obliged to fly the country, and
together with his widowed sister, who had been married to an Irish
prince, took refuge in Scotland. St. Comgan devoted himself to
monastic life, and {3} Kentigerna retired to an island in Loch
Lomond to live as an anchoress. Here in her solitary cell, on the
hilly, wooded isle which is now called in memory of her _Innis na
Caillich_ (the Nun's Island), she spent many years of the remainder
of her life. The island became the seat of the old parish church of
Buchanan, which was dedicated to her, and in the graveyard, which
is still in use, are many tombs of the chiefs and illustrious men
of the clan MacGregor. The church has been long in ruins. St.
Kentigerna died in 733. Her feast is to be found in the Aberdeen
Breviary.

11--St. Suibhne (Sweeney), Abbot, A.D. 656.

This saint was an Abbot of Iona who died in the odour of sanctity
when he had been Superior of that monastery for about three years.


14--St. Kentigern or Mungo, Bishop, A.D. 603 or 612.

The ancient kingdom of Cumbria or Strathclyde extended from the
Clyde to the Derwent in Cumberland. It had been evangelised by St.
Ninian, but, in the course of two centuries, through constant
warfare and strife, the Faith {4} had almost disappeared when, in
the middle of the sixth century, St. Kentigern was raised up to be
its new apostle. The saint came of a royal race, and was born about
A.D. 518. He was brought up from childhood by a holy hermit of
Culross called Serf, who out of the love he bore the boy changed
his name of Kentigern (signifying "lord and master") to that of
Mungo (the well beloved). It is under the latter name that he is
best known in Scotland. It should be noted, however, that the
benefactor of the young Kentigern, though possibly bearing the same
name, cannot be identified with the well-known St. Serf of Culross,
who, according to modern historians, must have flourished in a
later century. At the completion of his education Kentigern fixed
his abode at Cathures, now known as Glasgow, and was joined by many
disciples, who lived under his rule in a kind of monastic
discipline. His holy life caused him to be raised--much against his
will--to the episcopal state. He fixed upon Glasgow for his see,
and ruled his flock with all the ardour and holiness of an apostle.
Simple and mortified in life, he abstained entirely from {5} wine
and flesh, and often passed two days without food. He wore
haircloth next his skin, slept on a stone, and often rose in the
night to praise God. Throughout his life he preserved the purity of
his baptismal innocence. His pastoral staff was of simple wood. He
always wore his priestly stole, to be ready to perform the
functions of his sacred office.

Driven from Glasgow by the enmity of a wicked king, the saint took
refuge with St. David in South Wales. He subsequently founded the
monastery known afterwards, from the disciple who succeeded him in
its government, as St. Asaph's, and here more than nine hundred
monks are said to have lived under his rule. Later on he was
recalled to Glasgow, and after a life of apostolic zeal he received
through an angel, on the Octave of the Epiphany, his summons to
eternal life. Fortifying himself by the Sacraments, and exhorting
his disciples to charity and peace and constant obedience to the
Holy Catholic Church, their mother, he breathed his last, being at
least 85 years old. His saintly body was laid to rest where the
magnificent under-croft of St. Mungo's Cathedral, {6} Glasgow, was
raised to his honour in after ages.

Many old churches in Scotland bear the dedication of St. Mungo; the
chief of these is Lanark parish church. There is a parish bearing
his name in Dumfries-shire, and many holy wells are called after
him; one of these is in Glasgow Cathedral, others are in the
precincts of Glasgow, and at Huntly, Peebles, Ayr, Dumfries,
Glengairn (Aberdeenshire), also at Currie, Penicuik and Mid-Calder,
near Edinburgh. There is also St. Mungo's Isle in Loch Leven.
Besides these Scottish dedications, there are seven churches
in Cumberland which bear his name. It is noteworthy that all
of them bear the more popular title of Mungo. Within about six
miles of Carmarthen, in Wales, is the ancient parish church of
Llangendeirne--"Church of Kentigern"; this is one instance, at
least, of a dedication to the saint under his real name, and maybe
the only one. There were formerly two fairs of St. Mungo kept in
Alloa each year, where the church was dedicated to this saint. St.
Kentigern is said to have made no less than seven pilgrimages to
Rome in the course of his life. {7} His feast, which had long been
celebrated by the Benedictines of Fort-Augustus and the Passionists
of Glasgow, was extended to the whole of Scotland by Leo XIII in
1898. As he died on the Octave of the Epiphany, the feast is kept
on the following day, January 14.

19--St. Blaithmaic, Martyr, 8th or 9th century.

This saint was of princely birth, and a native of Ireland. In early
youth he renounced all the attractions of wealth and honour and
entered a monastery. Here for his many virtues he was chosen abbot,
and ruled his flock with wisdom and prudence. But from his youth he
had longed for martyrdom, and though he had often begged leave from
his superiors to preach the Faith to unbelievers, he could never
obtain it. Being at Iona, where he had entered the community as a
simple monk on renouncing his charge in Ireland, he announced one
day to the brethren in the spirit of prophecy that an irruption of
pagan Danes was about to take place. He exhorted those who felt
themselves too weak for martyrdom to seek safety in flight. They
concealed the shrine of St. Columba's {8} relics, and many of the
monks betook themselves to the mainland.

Next morning, while Blaithmaic was at the altar, having just
offered the Holy Sacrifice, the pagans rushed upon him and the few
companions who remained, and slaughtered all except Blaithmaic.
They offered him life and liberty if he would show them the shrine
of St. Columba with its treasure of gold and gems. But the intrepid
martyr refused to betray his trust and was hewn down at the altar.
He was buried at Iona on the return of the monks from their place
of safety. There is some doubt about the date of his death, some
writers place it as late as A.D. 828.

20--St. Vigean or Fechin, Hermit, A.D. 664.

The parish of St. Vigean's, Forfarshire, derives its name from this
saint, who though called Vigean in Scotland, is no other than the
Irish abbot Fechin. He ruled three hundred monks at Fore, in
Westmeath. It is not easy to determine his precise connection with
Scotland, though from the remains which bear his name it would
appear that he spent some time in the country. A hermitage at
Conan, near Arbroath, {9} is pointed out as his residence, and the
foundations of a small chapel may still be traced. Near them is a
spring known as St. Vigean's Well. A fair called by his name was
held at Arbroath on this day up to the eighteenth century.

Ecclefechan known in Middle Age charters as _Ecclesia Sancti
Fechani_ (Church of St. Fechan) takes its name from the same saint.
It has acquired celebrity in later times as the birthplace of Thomas
Carlyle. St. Fechin was buried in the Monastery of Fore.

25--St. Euchadius, Monk, A.D. 597.

This saint was one of the twelve disciples who accompanied St.
Columba from Ireland and settled with him upon the island of Iona.
He was one of the saint's helpers in the conversion of the Northern
Picts. He is said to have written the Acts of St. Columba. It seems
probable that St. Euchadius laboured at one time in Galloway, as he
received special veneration in that district. This may have been
due, however, to relics of the saint preserved there in Catholic
ages. {10}

26--St. Conan, Bishop, A.D. 648.

He was born in Ireland, and is said to have passed over to Iona to
join the community there, in which his virtues and talents placed
him high in the estimation of the monks. He was characterised by a
special devotion to the Mother of God, which won for him a singular
purity of soul. He was made tutor to the three sons of Eugenius IV,
King of Scotland, and brought them up carefully and wisely. Later
on he became a Bishop. St. Conan was greatly honoured in Scotland.
His name survives at Kilconan, in Fortingal, Perthshire, and at St.
Conan's Well, near Dalmally, Argyleshire. St. Conan's Fair is held
at Glenorchy, Perthshire, but this seems to relate to another saint
of like name, as its date is the third Wednesday in March and our
saint was venerated on January 26th, as the best authorities
testify.

28--St. Nathalan or Nauchlan, Bishop, A.D. 678.

This saint was born of a noble Scottish family at Tullich,
Aberdeenshire. From his youth he was distinguished for great piety,
and spent {11} much of his time in manual labour in the fields as a
voluntary mortification and a means of subduing the passions. Many
miracles are related of him. It is said that having given away all
his corn in time of famine, he caused the fields to be sown with
sand for lack of grain, and was rewarded by a plentiful harvest.
Having given way to murmuring in a moment of impatience he imposed
upon himself the penance of making a pilgrimage to Rome, wearing on
his leg a heavy chain; this he fastened by a padlock and threw the
key into the Dee at a place now known as "The Pool of the Key." He
is said to have bought a fish for food in Rome and to have found
the key in its stomach; this he took for a supernatural intimation
to discontinue his self-inflicted mortification.

Being made bishop by the Pope, he returned to his native land as an
apostle of the Faith. He built in Deeside several churches at his
own expense; one of these was at his native place, Tullich, where a
huge slab of granite, sculptured with an antique cross, forms the
top lintel of one of the doors of the ancient church, and is
thought to have been a portion {12} of the saint's tomb. St.
Nathalan is said to have visited Ireland, and to have founded the
monastery of Dungiven in Ulster. He died at a very advanced age at
Tullich, on January 8th, 678. He became the patron saint of
Deeside, and traces of his _cultus_  still remain in that district.
Long after Protestants had lost sight of the reason for it, an
annual holiday was held on his feast day, no work being allowed to
be done. A market was formerly held at Old Meldrum on or near this
day, called "St. Nathalan's Fair," and another at Cowie,
Kincardineshire. The ancient name of Meldrum was Bothelney, a
corruption of Bothnethalen, which signifies "habitation of
Nathalan." Near the ruins of the old church is still to be seen
"Nauchlan's Well." A quaint local rhyme preserves his memory at
Cowie:

  "Atween the kirk and the kirk ford
   There lies St. Nauchlan's hoard."

The feast of St. Nathalan was restored by Leo XIII.

29--St. Voloc or Macwoloc, Bishop. 5th or 6th century.

This saint is considered by some to have been of Irish race as his
name is possibly identical {13} with the Irish name Faelchu. He is
said by the Aberdeen Breviary to have left his native land to
spread the Roman Faith in Scotland, where he was raised to the
episcopal rank. He voluntarily took upon himself a life of great
austerity to satisfy for his own sins and those of others. His
evangelical labours were devoted to the northern parts of the
country chiefly. He lived in a little house woven of reeds and
wattles, for his attraction was towards everything poor and humble.
His simple and holy life and the miracles he worked had an immense
influence in spreading the light of faith amongst the ignorant and
half-barbarous people to whose welfare he had devoted himself, and
many were converted to the Truth.

He is said to have died in extreme old age; angels standing round
his death-bed. The old churches of Dunmeth and Logie Mar in
Aberdeenshire were dedicated to this saint. The former parish is
now included in that of Glass. Two miles below Beldorny in that
parish are St. Wallach's Baths and a ruined chapel called Wallach's
Kirk, while in the neighbourhood of the latter is St. Wallach's
Well, which up to {14} recent times was a recognised place of
pilgrim age. An annual fair was formerly held in his honour at
Logie; it is commemorated in a provincial rhyme:

  "Wala-fair in Logic Mar
   The thirtieth day of Januar."

30--St. Glascian or Maglastian, Bishop.

Scottish calendars give short notices of this saint, who is said to
have been an illustrious and saintly bishop during the reign of
King Achaius, a Scottish king contemporaneous with Charlemagne.
Very few particulars can be ascertained as to his life. All that is
at present known of him is gathered from the traces of his _cultus_
which remain in various districts of the country. Thus the parish
of Kinglassie, near Kirkcaldy, seems to have been named after him,
and in the neighbourhood is a spring of fine water known as St.
Glass's Well. There is another well named after him at Dundrennan
(Kirkcudbrightshire). Kilmaglas, now known as Stachur, in
Argyleshire, indicates another dedication to this saint. His feast
is noted in the Breviary of Aberdeen on this day. {15}

31--St. Adamnan of Coldingham, A.D. (about) 686.

In the monastery of Coldingham, over which St. Ebba presided, was a
monk of great sanctity and austerity named Adamnan. It is not
certain whether he was a native of Scotland or not. In his youth
Adamnan had led a life of great licentiousness, and being converted
by the grace of God from his evil ways was moved with a desire to
do penance for his sins. Accordingly he sought the counsel of a
certain Irish priest, to whom he made a general confession and
confided his desire of entering upon a penitential life. So deep
was his sorrow that he expressed himself ready to accept any
penance his director might impose, even to spending whole nights in
prayer, or fasting for a week continuously. The priest having
imposed upon him the penance of taking food twice only in a week
until he should see him again, departed into Ireland, and died
there before Adamnan was able to consult him a second time. Taking
this as a sign of God's Will that he was to persevere in his heroic
course of penance, Adamnan resolved to continue to the end the hard
life begun by the counsel of the Irish priest. Having become {16} a
monk at Coldingham after his conversion, he lived there for many
years, and was made one of the priests of the monastery. He died in
the odour of sanctity after being favoured with the gift of
prophecy.

St. Mittan.

All that is known of this saint is that a fair, called after him,
was held formerly at Kilmadock in Perthshire, on January 31st.,
which must consequently have been his feast day.



FEBRUARY

1--St. Darlugdach, Virgin, A.D. 524.

This saint was an Irish virgin who was educated to the monastic
life by the great St. Bridget, the glory of Ireland. She is said to
have visited Scotland during the reign of King Nectan and to have
presided over a community of religious women attached to a church
which that King had built at Abernethy and dedicated to the Blessed
Virgin. By some writers St. Bridget herself is said to have led the
monastic colony to Scotland, but this is by no means {17} clear. It
is true that great devotion was shown towards her, and many
Scottish churches and wells bear her name, but this may be
accounted for by the close connection with Ireland which subsisted
in those early times. Her relics, too, were venerated at Abernethy.

St. Darlugdach did not remain in Scotland, as she succeeded her
friend and patroness St. Bridget as Abbess of Kildare, where she
died.

3--St. Fillan or Faolan, Abbot (8th century).

He was the son of St. Kentigerna, and consequently of Irish birth,
and is said to have taken the monastic habit at Taghmon, in
Wexford, under the rule of St. Fintan-Munnu; later on he came to
Scotland. After spending some time with his uncle St. Comgan at
Lochalsh, where Killillan (Kilfillan) bears his name, the saint
devoted himself to the evangelization of the district of Perthshire
round Strathfillan, which is called after him, and where he was
greatly venerated. The success of the Scots at Bannockburn was
attributed to the presence of the arm of St. Fillan, which was
borne by its custodian, the Abbot of Inchaffray, on the {18} field
of battle. The crozier of the saint is still in existence; it is
preserved in the National Museum, Edinburgh. This also, as one of
the sacred battle-ensigns of Scotland, is said to have been present
at Bannockburn. A small bell which formerly hung in his church in
Strathfillan is now in the museum of the Antiquarian Society in
Edinburgh. Several traces of the saint are to be found in the
district in which he preached. Killallan, or Killellen, an ancient
parish in Renfrewshire, took its name from him; it was originally
Kilfillan (Church of Fillan). Near the ruins of the old church,
situated near Houston, is a stone called Fillan's Seat, and a
spring called Fillan's Well existed there until it was filled up,
as a remnant of superstition, by a parish minister in the
eighteenth century. Other holy wells bore his name at Struan
(Perthshire), Largs and Skelmorlie (Ayrshire), Kilfillan
(Wigtonshire), Pittenweem (Fifeshire), etc. A fair used to be held
annually at Houston and another at Struan, both known as Fillan's
Fair. In Strathfillan are the ruins of St. Fillan's chapel, and
hard by is the Holy Pool, in which the insane were formerly bathed
{19} to obtain a cure by the saint's intercession. Scott refers to
it in _Marmion_ (Cant. I. xxix):

  "St. Fillan's blessed Well,
   Whose spring can frenzied dreams dispel
   And the crazied brain restore."

Pope Leo XIII re-established the saint's feast in Scotland.


4--St. Modan, Abbot, 8th century.

This saint, whose missionary labours benefited the west coast of
Scotland, was the son of an Irish chieftain. He crossed over from
his native land, like so many others of his countrymen, to minister
to the spiritual wants of the many Christians of Irish race who at
that time formed an important part of the population of the
district to which he came.

A short distance from the site of the old Priory of Ardchattan,
near Loch Etive, may still be seen the remains of his first
oratory. It bears the name of Balmodhan (St. Modan's Town); a few
paces from its ruins is a clear spring called St. Modan's Well, and
hither within the memory of persons still living came many a
pilgrimage in honour of the saint. A {20} flat stone near was known
as St. Modan's Seat. It was broken up for building materials by
Presbyterians not many years ago.

The ruins are situated amid scenery of impressive beauty, and
command a view of land and water as far as the island of Mull. The
masonry," says Dr. Story in his description of the buildings, "is
strong and rough, but little more than the gables and the outline
of two broken walls remain, overshadowed by the ash trees that have
planted themselves among the stones, the existing trees growing out
of the remains of roots, all gnarled and weather-worn, of immensely
greater age. In every crevice thorn, rowan, ivy, and fern have
fastened themselves, softening and concealing the sanctuary's
decay." ("St. Modan," by R. H. Story, D.D.)

Another old church which claims St. Modan for its patron is that
of Roseneath, which stands near Loch Long, on the border of the
Western Highlands, in Dumbartonshire. Its name signifies "the
Promontory of the Sanctuary"; sometimes it was known as "Neveth"--the
Sanctuary--simply. Only the ancient burial ground and kirk now
remain, but formerly a {21} well existed here also, which is said
to have had miraculous properties and was resorted to by pilgrims.
Later on the site was made use of for a foundation of Canons
Regular, whose monastery was built on a plain below the sanctuary;
it is now entirely demolished.

Kilmodan, above Loch Riddan, on the Kyles of Bute, is another of
St. Modan's foundations, as its name implies; for it signifies
Church of Modan. The modern kirk has replaced the ancient building
and occupies the same site. Other parts of Scotland also claim
connection with this saint. He is said to have preached the Faith
as far east as Falkirk, where the old church, _Eaglais Bhreac_, was
dedicated to him, as was also the High Church of Stirling.

After a life of extreme austerity St. Modan, finding his end
approaching, retired to the solitude of Rosneath, where he died.
Devotion to him was very popular in Scotland. Scott alludes to it
in the "Lay of the Last Minstrel":

  "Some to Saint Modan made their vows,
   Some to Saint Mary of the Lowes."
                                  Canto VI. {22}

7--St. Ronan, Bishop, A.D. 737.

Dr. Skene, in his "Celtic Scotland," expresses the opinion that
this saint was a contemporary and associate of St. Modan. It is
remarkable that where a foundation of one saint exists, traces of
the other are found in the vicinity. Thus near Rosneath is
Kilmaronock, where is St. Maronock's Well, and on the opposite side
of Loch Etive, not far from Balmodhan, is Kilmaronog. Both names
signify "Church" or "Cell of Ronan."

It is a common feature in the Celtic designations of saints to find
the prefix _mo_ (my) and the affix _og_ (little) added to the
simple name by way of reverent endearment. This is the case in the
names just referred to; Kilmaronog and Kilmaronock both mean
literally "Church of my little (or dear) Ronan."

Many legends surround this saint, but very little authentic
information can be gleaned concerning the circumstances of his
life. Many dedications to him are to be found on lonely isles and
retired spots on the west coast, which seem to point to a custom of
seeking solitude from time to time. Thus a little island near {23}
Raasay is called Ronay; another sixty miles north-east of the
Lewes, possessing an ancient oratory and Celtic crosses, is called
Rona. An islet on the west coast of the mainland of Shetland is
called St. Ronan's Isle; it becomes an island at high tide only.
The parish church of Iona was called _Teampull Ronain_ and its
burial ground _Cladh Ronain_. St. Ronan is said to have been Abbot
of Kingarth, Bute, where he died in 737. Holy wells bear his name
at Strowan (Perthshire), Chapelton in Strathdon (Aberdeenshire),
and the Butt of Lewis; the latter is famed for the cure of lunacy.

14--St. Conran.

He was a Bishop of Orkney in the seventh century whose name was
illustrious for sanctity, zeal, and austerity of life.

17--St. Finan, Bishop, A.D. 661.

This saint was an Irishman who became a monk in the monastery
founded by St. Columba at Iona. During his monastic life he was
distinguished for the virtues befitting his state, especially
prudence and gravity of demeanour. {24} He was devoted to prayer
and strove zealously to live according to the Divine Will in all
things. When St. Aidan, who had been a monk of Iona, passed to his
heavenly reward, a successor in his see of Lindisfarne was again
sought in that celebrated monastery, and the choice fell upon
Finan. His first care was to erect on the island of Lindisfarne a
suitable cathedral, and in this he placed the remains of his
saintly predecessor Aidan.

During the few years that St. Finan ruled his diocese he exhibited
all the virtues of a model bishop. His love of poverty, contempt of
the world, and zeal for preaching the Gospel, won the hearts of his
people. Under his guidance, Oswy the King was brought to realise
his crime in the barbarous murder of the saintly Oswin, King of
Deira, and the result was the foundation of monasteries and
churches as tokens of his sincere repentance and his desire to
obtain pardon from Heaven through the prayers and merits of those
who should dwell in them.

The influence of St. Finan extended beyond his own people; for the
kings of more southern {25} nations, with their subjects, owed the
Faith to his zeal and piety. Peada, King of the Mercians, and
Sigebert, King of the East Saxons, both received Baptism at his
hands, and obtained from him missionaries to preach to their
respective peoples.

The most famous work in which St. Finan was directly concerned was
the foundation by Oswy of the Monastery of Streaneshalch on the
precipitous headland afterwards known as Whitby. This was to become
in later years, under the rule of the first abbess, Hilda, a school
of saints and a centre of learning for the whole territory in which
it stood, and the admiration of after ages for its fervour and
strictness of discipline.

St. Finan died after an episcopate of ten years, and was laid to
rest beside the remains of St. Aidan in the cathedral he had built
at Lindisfarne. His feast was restored to Scot land by Leo XIII. in
1898.

18--St. Colman, Bishop, A.D. 676.

On the death of St. Finan, another monk of Iona was chosen to
succeed him in the see of {26} Lindisfarne. This was Colman, who,
like Finan, was of Irish nationality. At the time a fierce
controversy was raging in Britain as to the correct calculation of
Easter. The Roman system of computation had undergone various
changes until it was finally fixed towards the end of the sixth
century. It was adopted gradually throughout the Church, but
Britain and Ireland still retained their ancient method. In
consequence of this it sometimes happened that when the Celtic
Church was keeping Easter, the followers of the Roman computation
were still observing Lent. This was the case in the Court of Oswy,
King of Bernicia, who followed the Celtic rite, while his Queen
Eanfleada and her chaplains, who had been accustomed to the Roman
style, kept the festival in accordance with it.

To bring about uniformity a synod was held at Whitby to give the
advocates of either system an opportunity of stating their views.
St. Wilfrid, the great upholder of Roman customs, brought such
weighty arguments for his side that the majority of those present
were persuaded to accept the Roman computation. {27} St. Colman,
however, since the Holy See had not definitely settled the matter,
could not bring himself to give up the traditional computation
which his dear master, St. Columba, had held to. He, therefore,
resigned his see, after ruling it for three years only, and with
such of the Lindisfarne monks as held the same views retired to
Iona.

On his way thither he seems to have founded the church of Fearn in
Forfarshire, which he dedicated to St. Aidan, placing there some of
the saint's relics brought with him from Lindisfarne. He also
founded a church in honour of the same saint at Tarbert in
Easter-Ross. This, however, was afterwards called by his own name.

After a short stay at Iona, St. Colman re turned to Ireland and
founded a monastery at Inisbofin, an island on the west coast of
that country, peopling it with the monks who had left Lindisfarne
in his company. Later on a new foundation was made at Mayo for
Saxon monks only; it became known as "Mayo of the Saxons." The
saint ruled both monasteries till his death, which occurred at
Inisbofin, where {28} he was buried. He had translated thither the
greater part of St. Aidan's relics. The ruins of the ancient church
may still be seen on the island. St. Colman's feast has been
restored to Scotland by Pope Leo XIII.

Protestant writers have tried to interpret St. Colman's conduct
regarding the Synod of Whitby as a manifest opposition to Roman
authority. This, however, is a mistaken conclusion. It must be
remembered that the matter was regarded by him as an open question,
and he considered himself justified in keeping to the traditional
usage until Rome declared against it. St. Bede, who had no sympathy
with his views on the Easter question, speaks highly of St. Colman
as a holy and zealous Bishop.

There is some discrepancy between Scottish and Irish authorities as
to the precise date of the saint's death. In Scotland he was
honoured on this day, but Irish writings give the date as August 8.
There are also some slight differences in the particulars of his
life; but as no less than 130 saints of this name are mentioned in
Irish ecclesiastical records, it is conceivable that their
histories have become intermixed. {29}

23--St. Boisil, Confessor, A.D. 664.

The old abbey of Melrose was not the Cistercian house whose ruins
still remain, but an earlier monastery which had been founded by
St. Aidan and followed the rule of St. Columba, which was
afterwards changed for that of St. Benedict. The Roman usage
regarding Easter was adopted there, very soon after the Synod of
Whitby. Its abbot was the holy Eata, who was given the government
of Lindisfarne Abbey also, when many of its monks followed St.
Colman to Ireland. Just before these events occurred the subject of
this notice was called to his reward. He was prior of Melrose under
Eata, and it was he, who, being a monk and priest of surpassing
merit and prophetic spirit, as St. Bede says, welcomed with joy and
gave the monastic habit to a youth in whom he saw "a servant of the
Lord"--the future St. Cuthbert. The two became devoted friends, and
Boisil, who was especially learned in the Scriptures, became
Cuthbert's master in that science, as well as his example in holy
living.

In 664 a terrible epidemic called the Yellow Plague visited
Scotland and carried off numbers {30} of the inhabitants. Boisil
and Cuthbert were both attacked by the malady, and the lives of
both were endangered. The holy prior, however, from the beginning
foretold the recovery of Cuthbert and his own death. Summoning the
latter to his bedside, he prophesied his future greatness, relating
all that was to befall him in the years to come, and especially his
elevation to the episcopal rank. Then he begged Cuthbert to assist
him during the seven days of life which remained to him to finish
the study of St. John's Gospel on which they had been engaged. In
this they occupied themselves till St. Boisil's peaceful death.

The church of St. Boswell's was dedicated to this saint, the name
is a corruption of St. Boisil's. The old town has disappeared. An
annual fair was formerly held on July 18th, in honour of the
saint. His well also was situated there.

25--St. Cumine, Abbot, A.D. 669.

He was the seventh abbot of Iona, and his learning and holiness
rank him among the most illustrious monks of that renowned
monastery. The Synod of Whitby, which was instrumental {31} in
overthrowing the ancient Celtic computation of Easter and
substituting the Roman use, occurred during Cumine's occupation of
the abbacy. He wrote a life of St. Columba, probably to vindicate
his sanctity after the apparent slight offered to his memory by the
synod in setting aside the traditional usage which he had
cherished. This life seems to have been the result of St. Colman's
visit to Iona before his return to Ireland (see Feb. 18th).

A more important work is St. Cumine's letter on the Easter
controversy, which he wrote before he became abbot, and which
shows a thorough acquaintance with the difficulties of the subject,
as well as deep knowledge of the Sacred Scriptures and writings
of the Fathers. He is often called _Cumine Ailbhe_ (Cumine the
Fair-haired). His name survives in _Kilchuimein_ (Church of St.
Cumine), the ancient designation of Fort-Augustus, and the only
name by which it is still called in Gaelic. A spot in the same
neighbourhood is known as St. Cumine's Return; it is in the
vicinity of a hill called St. Cumine's Seat. The parish church of
Glenelg also is named after this saint.



MARCH

1--St. Marnock or Marnan, Bishop, A.D. 625.

Like so many of the Celtic saints, the name of this one has been
changed by the addition of particles expressive of reverence. The
original form was Ernin; the Scottish name is a contraction of the
Gaelic words _Mo-Ernin-og_ (my little Ernin). He is considered by
some writers to have been of Irish nationality, but this is by no
means established. St. Marnock laboured as a missionary in Moray,
being specially noted for his zeal in preaching. He died at
Aberchirder in Banffshire, and was buried in the church there. The
place after wards received the additional name of Marnock from its
connection with the saint. St. Marnock's shrine became a favourite
place of pilgrimage, and miracles were wrought through his relics,
which were religiously preserved there. The head of St. Marnock was
frequently borne in procession to obtain fair weather. It was the
custom also to have lights placed round it every Sunday and to wash
the relic with water, {33} which was afterwards used, greatly to
their benefit, by the sick. The Innes family, who chose the saint as
their patron, had a particular devotion to that relic.

Traces of the _cultus_  of St. Marnock are to be found in many
districts of Scotland. Besides the church in which his remains
were honoured, a holy well at Aberchirder still bears his name. A
fair on the second Tuesday in March, held there annually, was known
as Marnock Fair. There was a Marnock Fair at Paisley also, which
lasted for eight days. The church of the well-known parish of
Kilmarnock, in Ayrshire, is another of his dedications. Near
Kilfinan, in Argyllshire, and not far from the sea shore, may be
seen the foundation and a fragment of the wall of a chapel with a
graveyard round it; the field in which the chapel stands is called
Ard-Marnoc. On an eminence not far off is a cell which tradition
assigns to this saint as a place of retirement for solitary
communion with God. Inchmarnock, an island near Bute, is another
place connected with him; Dalmarnock at Little Dunkeld, is
named after this saint. Other churches and parishes also show {34}
traces of the honour paid to him in Catholic ages.

St. Monan, Martyr, 9th century.

According to some writers, he was one of the companions of St. Adrian
(who was honoured on March 4), and preached the Gospel in Fifeshire;
his relics being afterwards translated to Abercrombie in that
county--King David II., in thanksgiving for cures obtained through
the saint's intercession, erecting there a noble church to contain
them. Dr Skene, however, is of opinion that this saint was not a
martyr, but was St. Monan, Bishop of Clonfert, known in Irish
calendars as Moinenn, and that his relics were brought to Abercrombie
by Irish who had fled from the Danes then plundering and burning
Irish monasteries about the year 841. On account of the great
devotion of the saint, Abercrombie became generally known as St.
Monan's, but has now reverted to its original title. The church was
given by James III. to the Dominicans; later on it was transferred to
the Canons Regular of St. Andrews. St. Monan's Well is near the
ancient building. {35}

2--St. Fergna, Bishop, A.D. 622.

This saint, a fellow-citizen and relative of St. Columba, became
eventually Abbot of Iona. During his rule many of the young nobles
who had fled from the sword of the King of Deira took shelter in the
monastery. They were instructed and converted to the Christian Faith.
St. Fergna is said to have been made a bishop in the later years of
his life, but this is called in question by some writers. He seems to
have been of partly British descent and is often styled "Fergna the
Briton."

4--St. Adrian and Companions, A.D. 875.

An old legend, which was long regarded as authentic, relates that
this saint was of royal birth and was a native of Hungary, and that
he came to Scotland with several companions to preach the Faith.
Modern historians identify him with the Irish St. Odhran, who was
driven from his country by the Danes and took refuge in Scotland. He
preached the Gospel to the people of Fifeshire and the eastern
counties. Eventually he founded a monastery on the Isle of May in the
Firth of Forth. Here he suffered martyrdom, together {36} with a
great number of his disciples, in an incursion of the Danes. A Priory
was built on the island by David I, and placed under the Benedictine
Abbey of Reading. Later on it was given over to the Canons Regular
of St. Andrews. The Isle of May became a famous place of pilgrimage
on account of the connection with it of other saints besides St.
Adrian and his companions. James IV visited it several times, having
evidently a great affection for the holy place. In 1503 he took the
"clerkis of the Kingis chapell to Maii to sing the Mes thair." Other
records occur in his treasurer's accounts, such as the following: "To
the preistis to say thre trentals of Messis thair"; for "the Kingis
offerand in his tua candillis in Maii."

6--St. Baldred, Hermit, A.D. 608.

This saint, according to a popular tradition, was a disciple of the
great St. Kentigern. He has often been styled the Apostle of East
Lothian. After his master's death St. Baldred took up his residence
upon the Bass Rock, near North Berwick, and there he devoted himself
to penance and prayer, his favourite {37} subject of meditation being
the Passion of Christ Our Lord. From time to time he would pay
missionary visits to the mainland. He died at Aldhame in Haddington,
a village which has now disappeared; St. Baldred's Cave is on the
sea-shore near its former site. Tyningham Church, in the same county,
and also that of Prestonkirk, were dedicated to him. The former was
burnt by the Danes in 941. The old parishes of Aldhame and Tyningham
are now united under the designation of Whitekirk. At Prestonkirk
there is a well which bears the saint's name, whose water, as a
Protestant writer notes, is excellent for making tea! An eddy in the
Tyne is called St. Baldred's Whirl. A century ago Prestonkirk
churchyard possessed an ancient statue of St. Baldred. The ruins of a
chapel dedicated to the saint are still discernible on the Bass Rock.

St. Cadroe, Abbot, A.D. 937.

He was connected with the royal family of Strathclyde. In his youth
he was sent to Ireland to be educated at Armagh. Returning to
Scotland, he devoted himself to the training and education of youths
for the priesthood. {38}

Later on he gave himself to a life of pilgrimage and passed into
England, where Odo, Arch bishop of Canterbury, received him with
great kindness; he also visited the King, Edmund, at Winchester.
Crossing over to France, Cadroe, by the direction of St. Fursey, who
appeared to him in a vision during prayer, took the monastic habit at
the Benedictine Abbey of Fleury. But although he wished to remain
there as a simple monk, his sanctity caused him to be made abbot of
the monastery of Wassons-on-the Meuse, which he ruled for some years.
At the request of the Bishop of Metz he took up his residence in that
city in the Abbey of St. Clement, where he instituted a thorough
reform of discipline. He remained at the latter monastery till his
death at the age of seventy, which was followed by many miracles.

8--St. Duthac, Bishop, A.D. 1068.

This saint was of Scottish birth, but was educated, like many of his
contemporaries, in Ireland. Returning to his native land, he was
consecrated bishop, and devoted himself with zeal to the pastoral
office. He is said to have {39} especially shown this devotion in
hearing the confessions of his people. He laboured as bishop in the
districts of Moray and Ross. Both during life and after death he was
noted for many miracles. He was buried in the church of Tain, whose
Gaelic title is _Baile Dhuich_ (Duthac's Town). Seven years after
death his body was found incorrupt, and was removed to a more
honourable shrine in the same church. His resting-place became one of
the chief places of pilgrimage in the country. James IV. visited it
no less than three times, travelling thither with a large retinue. At
that date St. Duthac's Bell was treasured at Tain. St. Duthac is
patron of Kilduich, at the head of Loch Duich in Kintail. The saint
probably visited this spot, which belonged to his pastoral charge.
Kilduthie, near the Loch of Leys, Kincardineshire, and Arduthie, near
Stonehaven, in the same county, both take their names from this
saint. A chapel in the Benedictine Abbey of Arbroath bore the
dedication of St. Duthac. Two fairs called after him were held
annually at Tain--"St. Duthac in Lent" was on his feast-day; that in
{40} December probably indicated some translation of his relics. At
Tain is St. Duthac's Cairn. A holy well bears his name in the parish
of Cromarty. Leo XIII restored his feast in 1898.

10--St. Failhbe (the second), Abbot, A.D. 745.

This saint was one of the abbots of Iona. He ruled that monastery
for seven years, and died there at the age of seventy.

St. Kessog or Mackessog, Bishop and Martyr, A.D. 560.

He was a native of Ireland, but devoted himself to missionary
labours in Scotland, in the province of Lennox. He used as his
retreat _Innis a' Mhanaich_ (Monk's Island) in Loch Lomond. Tradition
says that he suffered martyrdom near Luss, in Dumbartonshire. Another
version is that being martyred in a foreign country, and his body
being conveyed to Scotland for burial, the herbs with which it was
surrounded took root and grew where he was laid to rest; hence the
name Luss (herbs) was given to the spot, and was afterwards extended
to the parish. The place of his burial is called "Carnmacheasaig."
The church of {41} Luss had the privilege of sanctuary, which
extended for three miles round it, so that no one could be molested
within that boundary for any cause; this was granted by King Robert
Bruce in 1313. The church of Auchterarder, Perthshire, was dedicated
to this saint, and he was also venerated at Callander; at both
places, as also at Comrie, Perthshire, fairs were held annually on
his feast-day. Near Callander is a conical mound bearing his name.
The bell of the saint was preserved up to the seventeenth century. At
Inverness is "Kessog Ferry." The saint's name was often used by the
Scots as a battle-cry, and he is sometimes represented as the patron
of soldiers, wearing a kind of military dress.

11--St. Constantine, King and Martyr, A.D. 590.

This saint was a British king who reigned in Cornwall. His early life
was stained by many crimes, but, becoming converted to piety, after
his wife's death he entered the monastery of Menevia, now known as
St. David's, that he might expiate his sins by penance. St.
Kentigern, then an exile in that same monastery, exhorted {42} him to
devote himself to preaching the Faith in Cumbria. St. Constantine
accordingly founded a monastery at Govan, in Lanarkshire, where he
became abbot, and from whence he and his disciples preached
Christianity to the people of the surrounding country. He converted
the people of Cantyre, and met his death in that district at the
hands of the enemies of his teaching. He was buried at Govan, where
the church bears his name. Kilchousland in Cantyre takes its name
from him. The ancient church of Kinnoul, near Perth, and that of
Dunnichen, Forfarshire, were also dedicated to this saint; at the
latter place was St. Cousland's (or Causnan's) Fair, and some remains
of St. Cousland's chapel are there still. The water of his well at
Garrabost, in Lewis, known as St. Cowstan's, is said never to boil
any kind of meat, however long it may be kept over a fire. The feast
of this saint was restored by Leo XIII.

St. Libranus, Abbot.

He was one of the many saintly abbots of Iona. {43}

12--St. Indrecht, Abbot and Martyr, A.D. 854.

This saint was also Abbot of Iona, being the twenty-first in order
of succession. On his way to Rome he was martyred by the Saxons.

St. Fechno, or Fiachna, Confessor, A.D. 580.

He was one of the twelve disciples who accompanied St. Columba to
Scotland. He was probably born in the north of Ireland, and spent
some years under St. Columba's rule. Miracles are said to have been
wrought at his tomb.

16--St. Finan, Abbot, A.D. (about) 575.

This saint, surnamed "The Leper," from the disease with which he was
afflicted, is mentioned in Irish calendars on the 16th of this
month. Although the dedications to St. Finan in Scotland are many,
and devotion to him must therefore have been widespread, it is
difficult to assign a cause for it. Some have thought that he was at
some time at Iona, but the authentic particulars of his life which
are now extant are so few that it is impossible to determine. To him
is attributed the evangelisation of part of Argyllshire, in the
district which still bears {44} the name of Glen-Finan. The ancient
burial-place of the district is on _Eilean Finan_, an island in Loch
Shiel, where he is said to have lived, and where is preserved one of
the few ancient bronze bells which still exist in Scot land; it is
called by the saint's name. A fair was formerly held there annually,
and was called "St. Finan's Fair." Other dedications to this saint
are at Kilfinan in the same county Kilfinan, near Invergarry, and
Mochrum in Wigtonshire. "St. Finzean's Fair" (a manner of denoting
Finyan), formerly held at Perth, is supposed to have been in honour
of the festival of this saint.

St. Charmaig, A.D. (about) 640.

This was a saint much honoured among the Hebrides. He is patron of
the church of Keills, Argyllshire. At Ellanmore, in that county,
there are the remains of a chapel, named after him, Kilmacharmaig,
and in a recess is a recumbent figure thought to be a representation
of the saint. Kirkcormaig, in the parish of Kelton, Kirkcudbright,
possibly refers to this saint. {45}

St. Boniface or Curitan, Bishop, 8th century.

An ancient legend, which modern historians have shown to be a
fanciful distortion of facts, relates that this saint, an Israelite,
came from Rome to Britain, and that after converting Nectan, King of
the Picts, and his people to Christianity, he consecrated 150
bishops, ordained 1000 priests, founded 150 churches, and baptised
36,000 persons. The real facts of the case seem to be that this saint
is identical with Curitan, an Irish saint, who laboured in Scotland
to bring about the Roman observance of Easter. The testimony of St.
Bede that King Nectan in the year 710 adopted the Roman computation,
and the fact that St. Boniface was zealous in founding churches in
honour of St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, thus identifying
himself with special devotion to Rome, seem to give weight to the
supposition. This saint became a bishop, and the cathedral of the
diocese of Ross, which replaced the primitive building raised by him
at Rosemarkie (now Fortrose) and dedicated to St. Peter, was
subsequently named in his honour. A fair was formerly held there
annually on his feast-day. {46}

In Glen-Urquhart, Inverness-shire, _Clach Churadain_, an ancient
church at Corrimony, was dedicated to this saint. _Croit Churadain_
("Curitan's Croft") and _Tobar Churadain_ ("Curitan's Well") are hard
by.

17--St. Patrick, Bishop, A.D. 493.

To many it may seem strange that the name of the great Apostle of
Ireland should appear among Scottish saints; but the calendar would
be incomplete without it. According to many competent authorities St.
Patrick was born in Scotland. They fix his birthplace at Kilpatrick
on the Clyde, near Dumbarton. Even were this theory rejected, and
that one accepted which makes him a native of Gaul, still the number
of churches dedicated to the saint in Scotland, testifying to the
devotion in which he was held in Catholic ages, would justify the
mention of his feast here. About fourteen churches bore his name, and
many have given the designation to the parish in which they stand, as
Kilpatrick, Temple-Patrick, Ard-Patrick, Dalpatrick, Kirkpatrick,
etc. Fairs were held on this day--known as "Patrickmas"--at Dumbarton
and Kirkpatrick--Durham {47} (Kirkcudbrightshire). There is a sacred
well called by the saint's name, and also a small chapel in honour of
St. Patrick, at Muthill, Perthshire, and so highly was he esteemed in
that place that a general holiday from labour was observed on his
feast up to the beginning of last century. At Dalziel (Lanarkshire),
Kilpatrick (Dumbartonshire), and Port Patrick (Wigtonshire), are holy
wells bearing St. Patrick's name.

18--St. Finian or Finan, Bishop, A.D. 660.

This feast is noted both in the Breviary and Martyrology of Aberdeen,
as well as in other Scottish calendars. There is a wide divergence of
opinion among authorities as to the particular saint referred to, and
the Aberdeen Breviary affords no account of his life. It seems,
however, not improbable that this is the St. Finan, patron of the
churches of Migvie and Lumphanan, both in Aberdeenshire, who is
thought by Dr. Skene to have been one of St. Kentigern's Welsh
disciples, sent, together with St. Nidan (see Nov. 3), to preach the
Gospel in Deeside. "In the upper valley of the Dee, on the north side
of the river, we find a group of {48} dedications which must have
proceeded from a Welsh source. These are Glengairden, dedicated to
Mungo, Migvie and Lumphanan to Finan, the latter name being a
corruption of Llanffinan, and Midmar dedicated to Nidan; while in the
island of Anglesea we likewise find two adjacent parishes called
Llanffinan and Llannidan." ("Celtic Scotland," ii., 193.)

A chapel at Abersnethick in the parish of Monymusk bears the name of
St. Finan, and an Aberdeen authority notes in 1703 that: "Finzean
Fair at the kirk of Migvie "was kept at that time," whiles in March
and whiles in April, on the Tuesday before Midlenton fair at
Banchrie."

St. Comman, A.D. 688.

He was the brother of St. Cumine, Abbot of Iona, and therefore of
Irish descent. Like him, too, he became a monk at Iona. The parish
of Kilchoman, Islay, takes its name from this saint.


20--St. Cuthbert, Bishop, A.D. 687.

This saint was born of Saxon parents in Northumbria, and was early
left an orphan. {49} While tending sheep on the slopes of Lammermoor
the youth had a remarkable vision, in which he saw the heavens at
night-time all bright with supernatural splendour and choirs of
angels bearing some soul of dazzling brightness to its eternal
reward. Next day he learned that Aidan, the holy Bishop of
Lindisfarne, had passed away. Cuthbert had often before thought of
embracing the monastic state, and this vision of the blessedness of
one who was a brilliant example of that way of life decided him. He
therefore presented himself at the gates of the monastery of Melrose,
being probably in his twenty-fourth year. He was received as a
novice by St. Boisil, the Prior, who, on first beholding the youth,
said to those who stood near: "Behold a true servant of the Lord," a
prediction abundantly fulfilled in Cuthbert's life.

For ten years the saint remained hidden at Melrose perfecting himself
by the routine of monastic observance. Then on the foundation of
Ripon he was sent there as one of the first community. After a short
stay he returned to Melrose, and on the death of St. Boisil was {50}
made Prior. To the greatest zeal for all that concerned monastic life
he added a tender charity for the souls of others, which led him to
make many missionary excursions into the surrounding territory.

When Abbot Eata in 664 received the charge of the Abbey of
Lindisfarne in addition to Melrose, Cuthbert was sent thither as
Prior. For twelve years he was a teacher to his community, both by
word and example, of the precepts of the perfect life. Then, desiring
more strict seclusion, he retired to a solitary cell on Fame Island,
that he might give himself more completely to prayer. Here he lived
eight years, visited on great feasts by some of the Lindisfarne
monks, and at frequent intervals by pious Christians who sought his
direction and intercession.

Having been thus prepared, like St. John Baptist in his desert, for
the work God had in store for him, he was chosen Bishop of
Lindisfarne. During the two years he exercised this office he was to
his flock a model of every virtue, and a pastor full of zeal and
charity. He preserved, notwithstanding his high dignity, {51} the
humility of heart and simplicity of garb which belonged to his
monastic state. Numerous and striking miracles attested his sanctity.

Foreseeing his approaching end he retired to his little cell at Fame
where he passed away, strengthened by the Sacraments, with his hands
uplifted in prayer. He was buried at Lindisfarne; but incursions of
the Danes necessitated the removal of his remains, and for nearly two
hundred years his body was conveyed from place to place till it was
eventually laid to rest in the Cathedral of Durham. There it became
an object of pious pilgrimage from all the three kingdoms. More than
800 years after death the sacred body was found still incorrupt, and
there, in a secure hiding-place, it still awaits the restoration of
St. Cuthbert's shrine to its rightful custodians, the sons of St.
Benedict, the guardians of the secret. Among the churches dedicated
to St. Cuthbert in Scotland were those at Ballantrae, Hailes, Ednam,
Glencairn, Kirkcudbright, Drummelzier, Gienholm (Broughton), Malton,
Edinburgh, Prestwick, Eccles, Drysdale, Girvan, Maybole, Mauchline,
Weem, and even distant Wick. Besides Kirkcudbright (Church {52} of
St. Cuthbert), which gives the name to a whole county, Northumbria is
studded with churches built in his honour, which recall the
resting-places of his body, and witness to the devotion inspired by
those sacred remains to this great saint. Fairs were formerly held on
his feast-day at Ruthwell (Dumfries-shire), and Ordiquhill
(Banffshire)--both for eight days--and probably in other localities
also. His holy wells were at St. Boswell's and in Strathtay
(Perthshire).

22--St. Finian, Wynnin, or Frigidian, Bishop, A.D. 579.

In this saint we have a remarkable instance of a change of name in
accordance with the character of the language spoken in the various
countries in which he successively lived. Born in Ireland of the
royal line of the Kings of Ulster, St. Finian was sent early in the
sixth century to be educated at Candida Casa or Whithorn, where a
famous school of learning and sanctity had grown up round the tomb of
St. Ninian. Returning to his native land, Finian, by the fame of his
wonderful erudition, attracted to him numerous disciples in his {53}
monastery at Moville. Here, among others, was trained the youth who
became in after years the great St. Columba--the Apostle of the north
of Scotland.

After a pilgrimage to Rome whence here turned with a copy of the
Sacred Scriptures--a volume rare and precious in those early
times--Finian again journeyed into Italy and came to the city of
Lucca, where his holiness procured him such regard from the people
that they succeeded in obtaining his consecration as bishop of that
city. It was during his residence there that the wonderful miracle
occurred which St. Gregory the Great, who calls the saint "a man of
rare virtue," relates in his book of Dialogues. This was the turning
of the channel of the river Serchio, which had previously given much
trouble to the citizens by overflowing its banks and spoiling
orchards and vineyards round about. The saint after prayer made a new
channel with a small rake, and commanded the river to flow in that
direction for the future, which it did. He is known in Italy as St.
Frigidian.

At one time in his life this saint dwelt in the {54} Cunningham
district of Ayrshire, where his name survives in the Abbey of
Kilwinning (Church of Wynnin or Finian). He is said to have come
there from Ireland with a few companions and to have established
monastic life in that place, which was afterwards the site of a
famous Benedictine Abbey. A like miracle is related of him here. He
is said to have changed the course of the river Garnoch. He seems to
have preached the Faith at Dairy, in Ayrshire, also; for a hill hard
by is called Caer-winning, and there, as at Kilwinning, is a holy
well bearing the saint's name. An annual fair, still known as "St.
Wynnin," is held at Kilwinning.

The saint departed this life at Lucca, where his body is venerated in
the church of St. Frigidian. His feast occurs in March in some
calendars, and in others in September. By some writers the names of
Finian, Wynnin, and Frigidian have been considered as representing
distinct persons; but modern research has pronounced them to be
merely different forms of the same name and to refer to the same
saint. {55}


30--St. Olaf or Olave, King and Martyr, A.D. 1030.

He was the son of Harald, King of Norway, and became a Christian at
an early age. Exiled from his country after his father's death by
powerful enemies, he spent many years of his life in piratical
warfare. Having embraced the Christian Faith himself, he resolved to
deliver his country from the usurping power of the Swedes and Danes,
and establish the Christian religion, together with his own lawful
sovereignty. Success crowned his efforts, and he was enabled to
release his people not only from foreign domination but also from the
thralls of paganism, many of them embracing Christianity. His
enemies, however, proved too strong for him, and he was again exiled
and took refuge in Russia. Returning soon after, he raised an army to
recover his kingdom, but was slain by his infidel and rebellious
subjects in a battle at Drontheim.

A just and brave ruler, zealous for the Christian religion, though
not altogether free from grievous offences against its laws, Olaf, by
his unswerving faith, his devotion and penance, {56} won the title of
saint and martyr. He was buried at Drontheim, and a magnificent
cathedral arose over his remains. His body was found incorrupt in
1098, and again in 1541 when the shrine was plundered by the
Lutherans. On that occasion the heretics treated the body with
respect, and it was afterwards re-interred. Many miracles have
attested his sanctity.

St. Olaf's efforts for the spread of the Gospel in the Orkneys, which
at that time belonged to Norway, were doubtless the cause of the
devotion which was shown to him in Scotland. Many traces of its
existence are to be found in the dedications to him. In Orkney was
anciently St. Ollow's parish; it is now comprised in that of
Kirkwall. In the latter town is St. Ollowe's Bridge. South-west of
Girlsta, in Shetland, is Whiteness, where once stood the Church of
St. Olla. He was honoured at Grease in the Island of Lewis. Kirk of
Cruden (Aberdeenshire), where St. Ole's Fair was held annually, was
dedicated to him. The remains of the saint's ancient chapel, said to
have been founded there by Canute, were used for road metal in 1837.
St. Olla's Fair, at Kirkwall, {57} lasting for fourteen days, is
described in Scott's _Pirate_. In St. Salvator's College, St.
Andrews, was an altar to this saint. St. Olaf appears in the
Martyrology on July 29th, when his feast was kept in Norway and all
Scandinavian countries. In Scotland, however, he was honoured on this
day.



APRIL

1--St. Gilbert, Bishop, A.D. 1245.

St. Gilbert was the last Scotsman who was honoured as a saint before
the Reformation. He belonged to the noble family of Moray, being son
of William, Lord of Dufus. Having entered the ecclesiastical state he
became in due time Archdeacon of Moray, and when the see of Caithness
became vacant he was consecrated bishop of that diocese. During the
twenty years he ruled the church of Caithness he edified all by his
zeal and by the virtues of his private life.

The cathedral at that time was but a small, insignificant church at
Dornoch, dedicated to St. Finbar, an Irish saint of the sixth century
{58} who laboured as a missionary in Scotland. The poverty of the
diocese and the unsettled state of the times had prevented any
extension of this. Gilbert therefore resolved to provide at his own
cost a more worthy edifice for the mother-church of the diocese. The
church when completed was a beautiful Early English structure, with
aisles, transepts, and central tower and spire. The holy bishop
considered it a privilege to help with his own hands in the building
work. He would himself superintend the making of glass for the
windows in the glass works he had established at Sideray.

When the cathedral was finished, St. Gilbert's next care was to form
a Chapter, as hitherto there had been no canons. In this important
undertaking he followed the model of Lincoln Cathedral and
established the rite of that church in the ceremonial of the
services. The dignitaries and canons were ten in number, and there
were also sufficient vicars choral, or minor ecclesiastics, to enable
the sacred offices to be celebrated with becoming solemnity.

St. Gilbert worked many miracles during life; among them is recorded
the bestowal of {59} speech on a dumb man by means of prayer and the
sign of the cross. The saint was laid to rest under the central spire
of his cathedral, and a century after his death the dedication, which
had previously been to St. Mary, had been changed to St. Mary and St.
Gilbert.

The relics of the saint were greatly honoured in Catholic ages. No
trace of St. Gilbert's resting-place remains now except a portion of
a broken statue which probably formed part of it; like those of so
many of our holy ones, his ashes are left unhonoured in the
desecrated church wherein they repose. St. Gilbert's Fair was
formerly held annually at Dornoch; it lasted for three days.


2--St. Ebba, Virgin and Abbess, and her Companions, Martyrs, A.D. 870.

The monastery of Coldingham, in the ancient kingdom of Northumbria,
founded in the seventh century by St. Ebba, sister of the kings
Oswald and Oswy, was governed in the ninth century by another Ebba,
who presided over a band of holy virgins following the Rule of St.
Benedict. About the year 867 several thousand {60} Danish warriors,
under the command of the brothers Hinguar and Hubba, landed on the
coast of East Anglia and desolated the whole north country. When
Abbess Ebba received tidings of the near approach of the pagan
hordes, who had already wrecked vengeance upon ecclesiastics, monks,
and consecrated virgins, she summoned her nuns to Chapter, and in a
moving discourse exhorted them to preserve at any cost the treasure
of their chastity. Then seizing a razor, and calling upon her
daughters to follow her heroic example, she mutilated her face in
order to inspire the barbarian invaders with horror at the sight. The
nuns without exception courageously followed the example of their
abbess. When the Danes broke into the cloister and saw the nuns with
faces thus disfigured, they fled in panic. Their leaders, burning
with rage, sent back some of their number to set fire to the
monastery, and thus the heroic martyrs perished in the common ruin of
their house. Some chronicles give the 23rd August as the day of their
martyrdom, but Scottish writers assign this as their feast day. {61}


4--St. Gonval, Ring, A.D. 824.

Some Scottish historians speak of this good king as an example of
piety and respect for the Church and her ordinances. He is said to
have received the commendation of St. Columba. His name occurs in the
ancient Litany known as that of Dunkeld, formerly in use among the
Culdees.

11--St. Macceus or Mahew, A.D. (about) 460.

He is said to have been a disciple of St. Patrick, and spent the
greater part of his life in retirement in the Isle of Bute. No
particulars of his life can be ascertained. St. Mahew was honoured
at Kilmahew near Dumbarton. In 1467 a new chapel and cemetery,
dedicated to this saint, were consecrated there by George, Bishop of
Argyle.

St. Mechtilde or Matilda, Virgin, 13th century.

According to some Scottish historians, two members of the royal
family resigned all the honours and dignities belonging to their
state and left their native country to serve God in poverty and
obscurity. These were a brother and sister, bearing the names of
Alexander and {62} Matilda, the latter being the elder. It is not
clear which of the kings of Scotland was their relative. Alexander,
having concealed his origin, became a lay-brother in the Cistercian
monastery of Foigni, in the diocese of Laon, where he died in 1229.
His sister, taking leave of him at the gates of the monastery, took
up her abode in a small hut about ten miles distant. Here she spent
a long life in dire poverty and austerity. She would refuse all alms,
working laboriously for her daily sustenance, and spending all the
time that remained in prayer and contemplation. Miracles are said to
have proved her power with God, both during her lifetime and after
her happy death, which took place some years after that of her
brother.

16--St. Magnus, Martyr, A.D. 1116.

The noble Cathedral of Kirkwall rose over the tomb of St. Magnus one
of the most popular of the pre-Reformation saints of Scotland. It was
founded by the nephew of the martyr, twenty years after he suffered,
and to it were translated the remains of St. Magnus, which {63} had
hitherto reposed in a more humble sanctuary at Birsay. In all
probability they still rest undisturbed in the cathedral which bears
the name of the saint.

Like many of the early English saints, Magnus received the title of
martyr rather from the popular voice than by the decision of
ecclesiastical authority. As his story shows, he merited the title by
shedding his blood not so much in defence of the Christian Faith as
in behalf of the virtues of a Christian life, whose brilliancy
excited the jealous anger of his enemies.

St. Magnus was the son of Erlin, Earl of Orkney. He was distinguished
from childhood by an uprightness of life which indicated his future
sanctity. Erlin was opposed by Magnus Barefoot, King of Norway, who
made him prisoner and seized his possessions, carrying off the young
Magnus to act as his personal attendant. After ravaging the Western
Isles the Norwegian king encountered, off the Island of Anglesey, the
forces of the Norman Earls of Chester and Shrewsbury, and defeated
them with much slaughter. The young Magnus {64} refused to take any
part in the unjust warfare, and remained in his ship engaged in
prayer throughout the battle. He was soon after able to escape to the
court of Malcolm III, where he remained for some time in safety.

Magnus bitterly lamented for the rest of his days the excesses into
which he had fallen in the life of constant warfare and strife which
had been his lot with the Norwegians; whatever their guilt may have
been, it was his constant endeavour to atone for them by penance and
prayer.

The family possessions in the Orkneys were regained on the death of
Barefoot, but fresh contests were stirred up when Haco, cousin of St.
Magnus, laid claim to them for himself. To avoid bloodshed St. Magnus
agreed to a meeting with Haco in the island of Egilshay that thus the
dispute might be settled in a friendly manner. Haco, however, was a
traitor; and caused his own forces to be drawn round the unarmed
Magnus to compass his destruction. The latter, made aware of the
treachery, and unable to make any defence, prepared for his conflict
by a night of prayer in {65} the church, and the reception of the
Sacraments. Then, when morning dawned, he advanced courageously to
confront his murderers, and met a barbarous death with Christian
fortitude. The only Catholic cathedral in Scotland which remains
entire still shelters the body of a saint. It may be that God has
spared it to restore it to Catholic worship through the merits of St.
Magnus. The feast, known in the Middle Ages as "Magnusmas," was
restored by Pope Leo XIII. His fair was formerly held at
Watten-Wester in Caithness. A holy well at Birsay, in Orkney, bears
his name.

17--St. Donnan and Companions, Martyrs, A.D. 617.

Like St. Columba, whose countryman he was, St. Donnan left his native
Ireland and passed over to Scotland, where he established a monastery
on the Island of Eigg, one of the Inner Hebrides. While celebrating
the Holy Mysteries on Easter morning the abbot and his monks were
surprised by a horde of pirates, possibly Danes, who had been
instigated by a malicious woman to put them to death. At F {66} the
prayer of the monks they granted them a respite till Mass was
finished, and then put them all to the sword. The martyrs numbered
fifty-three.

Many churches, especially in the west, bore St. Donnan's dedication.
Among them were Kildonan of Eigg, Arran, South Uist, Kintyre, and
Lochbroom. On the island of his martyrdom is the saint's well. St.
Donnan's abbatial staff existed up to the Reformation; it was
treasured at Auchterless, Aberdeenshire, where "Donan Fair" was held
as late as 1851. Another fair used to be held at Kildonan, in
Sutherlandshire. The feast of these martyrs was restored to the
Scottish Calendar by Leo XIII in 1898.

18--St. Laserian or Molios, Abbot, A.D. 639.

This saint was of princely race in Ireland. He seems to have been
brought to Scotland at an early age, and to have been sent to Ireland
for his education. Later on he returned to Scotland for a life of
sanctity and solitude. A small island in the bay of Lamlash, off the
coast of Arran, became his abode for many {67} years. His virtues
gave it the name it still bears of Holy Island.

St. Laserian seems to have made a pilgrimage to Rome, where he was
raised to the priest hood. Returning to Ireland, he afterwards became
abbot of the monastery of Leighlin. He is said to have espoused with
much zeal the Roman usage with regard to Easter.

In Holy Island, which was so long his solitary abode, are still to be
seen traces of his residence. A cave scooped out of the rock bears
his name, and a rocky ledge is called "St. Molio's Bed." A spring of
clear water near the cave is also pointed out as the saint's well,
and miraculous properties have been attributed to it. The cave itself
is marked with many pilgrims crosses.

21--St. Maelrubha, Abbot, A.D. 722.

He was born of noble race in Ireland, and in early life began his
monastic life under the rule of his relative, St. Comgal, at Bangor.
When he reached the age of twenty-nine he passed over the sea to
Scotland, and founded at Applecross, in Ross, a monastery, over which
{68} he ruled for more than fifty years. During his residence in
Scotland he founded a church on a small island in the beautiful lake
now known as Loch Maree, which takes its name from this saint.

St. Maelrubha acquired a great reputation for sanctity throughout the
west coast of Scot land and the islands adjacent, where he was one of
the most popular of the Irish saints in Catholic ages. An old
Scottish tradition, quoted by the Aberdeen Breviary, says that he met
his death at the hands of pagan Norwegians, at Urquhart, in the Black
Isle, on the eastern side of Ross-shire, and that he was left lying
severely wounded, but still alive, for three days, during which
angels consoled him. A bright light, hovering over the spot, is said
to have discovered the dying saint to a neighbouring priest, and thus
procured for him the participation in "the Body of the Immaculate
Lamb" before he expired. His title to martyrdom is, however, disputed
by later authorities.

The devotion of Catholics to this saint is attested by the numerous
dedications of churches to his memory. At least twenty-one of these
{69} are enumerated by antiquarians. Chief are Applecross (where he
was laid to rest), Loch Maree, Urquhart (the reputed place of his
martyrdom), Portree, Arasaig, Forres, Fordyce, Keith, Contin and
Gairloch. In these dedications the saint's name assumes various
forms, such as Maree, Mulruy, Mury, Samareirs (St. Mareirs, at
Forres), Summaruff (St. Maruff, at Fordyce), and many others.

Many place of interest in connection with this saint may still be
found. At Applecross, in the vicinity of the ruins of the church, is
the martyr's grave, called _Cladh Maree_, near the churchyard is
"Maelrubha's River," while two miles away is the saint's seat, called
in Gaelic _Suidhe Maree_. Several other traces of him are to be
discovered in the place-names of the neighbourhood.

Loch Maree is the most interesting locality connected with St.
Maelrubha. A small island in the loch called _Innis Maree_ contains
an ancient chapel and a burial place. Near it is a deep well,
renowned for the efficacy of its water in the cure of lunacy. An oak
tree hard by is studded with nails, to each of which was {70}
formerly attached a shred of clothing belonging to some pilgrim
visitor. Many pennies and other coins have at various times been
driven edgewise into the bark of the tree, and it is fast closing
over them. These are the Protestant equivalents to votive offerings
at the shrine.

At Forres, in Moray, an annual fair was held on this day, as also at
Fordyce, Pitlessie (Fife), and Lairg (Sutherland) at the latter place
under the name of St. Murie. Keith in Banffshire was formerly known
as Kethmalruf, or "Keith of Maelrubha." At Contin, near Dingwall, the
ancient church was dedicated to the saint; its annual fair called
_Feille Maree_, and familiarly known as the "August Market," was
transferred to Dingwall. Many other memorials of this saint are to be
found in Ross-shire. It is worthy of note that many dedications
formerly supposed to be in honour of Our Lady are now identified as
those of St. Maelrubha under the title of Maree; this is proved by
the traditional pronunciation of their respective names.

St. Maelrubha is one of the Scottish saints whose _cultus_  was approved
by Rome in 1898, {71} and whose feast has been consequently restored
in many of the Scottish dioceses. It was formerly observed in
Scotland on August 27, but has been always kept in Ireland on this
day.

21--St. Egbert, Priest and Monk, A.D. 729.

He was an Englishman of good family, who, after some years of study
in the monastery of Lindisfarne, followed the almost universal custom
of those days and passed over to Ireland, then renowned for its
monastic schools, entering the monastery of Melfont. During his stay
there a pestilence broke out which carried off a great number of the
inmates. Egbert prayed earnestly to be spared that he might live a
life of penance, making a vow never more to return to England, to
recite daily the whole psalter in addition to the canonical hours,
and to fast from all food one day in each week for the rest of his
life. His vow was accepted and his life spared.

After some years Egbert was raised to the priesthood, and his zeal
for souls led him to desire to preach the faith to the pagan people
of that part of Germany then known as Friesland, In this project he
was joined by some {72} of his pious companions. A vessel had been
chartered, and all things were ready, when it was revealed to Egbert
through a holy monk that God had other designs in his regard; in
obedience to this intimation the voyage was at once abandoned.

The later life of Egbert exemplifies the way in which God chooses and
preserves the instruments for accomplishing His Will. Entering the
monastery of Iona when already advanced in years, he spent the last
thirteen years of his life in untiring efforts to induce the monks to
give up the Celtic traditions to which they clung, and to conform to
the Roman computation of Easter. His sweetness and gentleness were at
last rewarded. On Easter Day 729 he passed away at the ripe age of
ninety, "rejoicing," as St. Bede says, "that he had been detained
here long enough to see them keep the feast with him on that day,
which before they had always avoided."

Though the monks of Iona did not then, as a body, accept the Roman
custom, yet the seeds sown by Egbert bore fruit eventually in
complete conformity with the rest of the Church, {73} St. Egbert thus
merits a high place among the saints of Scotland, although but a
short period of his life was spent in the country. He also shares
with St. Willibrord the renown of converting Friesland to the Faith;
for it was by his example and persuasion that the latter was induced
to undertake the work which terminated so successfully. On account of
his connection with the conversion of the country, the feast of St.
Egbert was formerly celebrated in the diocese of Utrecht. Some
authors maintain that St. Egbert never took monastic vows, but was a
priest living in the monastery; others say, and with good reason,
that he was a bishop.

25--St. Cunibert, Bishop, A.D. 699.

This saint was entrusted by his parents for his education to some
monks living in a monastery near the Tay, whose site cannot now be
identified. He became a priest, and afterwards bishop. Towards the
end of his days he retired into solitude as a hermit, and thus
finished his earthly course.

St. Machalus, Bishop, A.D. 498.

He was a bishop in the Isle of Man, which {74} then formed part of
Scotland. His name is variously written as Machalus, Machella, and
Mauchold. One of the parishes in the island bears his name, and in
the churchyard is the saint's holy well. A ledge of rock hard by is
called his "chair"; it used to be a favourite devotion of pilgrims
to seat themselves on this ledge while drinking the miraculous water
of the well and invoking the saint's aid. The water is said to have
been effective in preventing the action of poison. Many churches in
Scotland are called by his name. There was a chapel near Chapeltown
in Banffshire known as Kilmaichlie, which seems to refer to this
saint. A holy well is still to be found in the vicinity.

29--St. Middan, Bishop.

Very little is known of this saint. Some think him to be identical
with St. Madden or Medan, who was honoured at Airlie, in Angus. Near
the church of Airlie is a spring called by the name of St. Medan,
and a hillock hard by is known as "St. Medan's Knowe." The bell of
the saint was also preserved there till it was sold for old iron
during the last century. Ecclesmaldie, {75} now called Inglismaldie,
in the Mearns, has also a "Maidie Well," which may possibly be
connected with St. Middan.

30--St. Brioc, Bishop, A.D. 500.

This saint was British by birth. He became a disciple of St. Germanus
and devoted himself to preaching the Gospel to his fellow-country
men. Flying for his life from the fury of the pagan Saxons, he passed
over the sea to Brittany, and there built a monastery on the sea
coast which was afterwards called by his name. The town which grew up
in the vicinity became the seat of a bishop, and is still known as
St. Brieuc.

There is no record of the saint having visited Scotland, but there
was much devotion to him among Celtic peoples, and Scottish
dedications bear witness to the honour in which he was held in that
country. He is the patron of Rothesay; the church bore the
designation of St. Mary and St. Brioc, and "St. Brock's Fair" was
held there on the first Wednesday in May. "Brux day fair," which
seems to refer to this saint, was instituted in 1585 to be {76} held
in July every year on the island of Cumbrae, but it has long ceased
to be kept. Dunrod Church, in Kirkcudbright, bears the dedication of
St. Mary and St. Brioc. The island of Inchbrayock in the Esk, near
Montrose, is called after him. The French keep his feast on May 1st,
but in Scotland it was celebrated on April 30th.



MAY

1--St. Asaph, Bishop, A.D. (about) 590.

St. Asaph  was one of the most eminent of the disciples of St. Mungo
(Kentigern). When the latter was driven from Scotland he took refuge
in Wales and there founded a monastery, which attracted a great
number of disciples desirous of placing themselves under his
guidance. It was to Asaph that St. Mungo resigned the government when
he himself was allowed to return to Glasgow. Owing to the sanctity
and renown of the new abbot the monastery eventually bore his name.
St. Asaph was consecrated Bishop about A.D. 650, and his diocese has
{77} retained the name of St. Asaph's for thirteen centuries. Some
writers have maintained that St. Asaph accompanied his master to
Scotland, but it seems more probable that Scottish devotion to him
originated in his close connection with the "beloved" saint of
Glasgow. Many traces of this devotion still survive. In the island of
Skye is a ruined chapel dedicated to him called "Asheg." In that
island is also an excellent spring of clear water known as _Tobar
Asheg_, or St. Asaph's Well. Kilassie, an old burial ground near Loch
Rannoch, also takes its name from him.

The most interesting of these remains is a ruin in the island of
Bearnarey, in the Sound of Harris. It is evidently a chapel of the
saint and is called _Cill Aisaim_. Near it once stood an obelisk
about eight feet high, bearing sculptured symbols, and in
comparatively recent years this was surrounded by heaps of coloured
pebbles, coins, bone pins, and bronze needles, which were probably
pilgrims offerings. The obelisk was broken up some years ago and its
materials used for building, but a Scottish antiquarian managed to
gain possession of a fragment. {78}


3--St. Fumac.

This was a saint specially venerated in Banffshire. He was the patron
of Botriphnie or "Fumac Kirk" in that county. According to an old MS.
of the eighteenth century, the wooden image of the saint was formerly
preserved there, and the old woman who acted as its custodian used
to wash it with all due solemnity in St. Fumac's Well on the 3rd
of May annually. This image was in existence in 1847, but a flood
of the Isla swept it away to Banff, where the parish minister
in his Protestant zeal burnt it. St. Fumac's Fair was kept on this
day at Botriphnie and also at Dinet, in Caithness, and Chapel
of Dine, Watten, in the same county.

9--St. Comgall, Abbot, A.D. 602.

He was a native of Ireland, and founder and ruler of the renowned
monastery of Bangor, where he is said to have governed no less than
three thousand monks. In the year 598, anxious, like so many of his
countrymen, to bring the blessing of the Christian Faith to Scotland,
he left his native land to found a {79} monastery in Tiree. He was a
great friend of St. Columba, and was one of that saint's companions
in the journey to Inverness and the miraculous conversion of King
Brude. St. Comgall did not remain permanently in Scotland; he died
in Ireland, and was laid to rest at Bangor. The date of his death is
given by Irish authorities as the 10th of May, but his feast has
always been celebrated in Scotland on the 9th. The church of Durris,
Kincardineshire, bore his name, and an annual fair, the only remains
of his festival in Protestant times, was formerly held there on this
day.


16--St. Brendan or Brandan, Abbot, A.D. 577.

He was born in Ireland, and in early youth became the disciple of St.
Jarlaath, of Tuam. He afterwards crossed over to Britain, and spent
some years in the Abbey of Llancarvan, in Glamorganshire, where he is
said to have baptised Machutus, whose name (under the French form of
Malo), is cherished still as that of one of the apostles of Brittany.

Returning to Ireland, St. Brendan founded several monasteries, the
most important of them {80} being that of Clonfert, on the Shannon.
He is said to have had as many as three thousand monks under him in
his various foundations. The saint was also closely connected with
Scotland, where he founded monasteries; it is thought that one was in
Bute and the other in Tiree. His many dedications are an indication
of Scottish devotion to him, Kilbrannan (Church of St. Brandan) in
Mull, Kilbrandon in the Isle of Seil, Boyndie in Banffshire, Birnie
in Moray and Kilbirnie in Ayrshire (where the saint's fair is held on
May 28th--16th old style) are some of these. At Kilbirnie is St.
Birnie's Well; another named after this saint is in Barra. Another
fair, granted in 1474, was held on this day at Inverary
(Argyllshire). There is a ruined chapel bearing his name on St.
Kilda.

St. Brendan's name is associated with wonderful narratives--probably
dating long after his time--of his voyages towards the west; they
possibly contain some little truth mixed up with much that is
entirely fabulous. It is beyond doubt that St. Brendan and his
companions in their missionary voyages sailed to {81} regions
hitherto unknown to the mariners of the time; it has even been
maintained that they actually touched the American shore. However
this may be, the tradition of the discoveries of the saint, familiar
to every country in Europe, kept in mind the possibly existing
western land, and issued at last in the discovery of the American
continent by Columbus.

A curious custom in connection with St. Brendan existed up to almost
recent times. When they wished for a favourable wind the fishermen
would cry repeatedly: _Brainuilt!_ The word seems to be a contraction
of _Breanainn-Sheoladair_ ("Brendan the Voyager"), and was originally
an invocation of the saint. The feast of St. Brendan has been
restored to the Scottish Calendar.

17--St. Gathan, Bishop, 6th century.
This saint was probably of Irish nationality. He dwelt for the
greater part of his life in the Island of Bute. St. Blaan, whose
ruined chapel is still to be seen in Kingarth parish in that island,
was his nephew. No particulars of the life of St. Cathan remain to
us. His name G {82} survives in Kilchatten village, mill and bay, in
Kingarth parish, and a hill near is called St. Cathan's Seat. There
is another Kilchattan in Luing Island, Argyllshire, and in the same
county is Ardchattan. Churches were dedicated to the saint in the
islands of Gigha and Colonsay. The confederation of clans known as
Clan Chattan is thought to have originated in Bute, and to have taken
its name from St. Cathan. Gillichattan and Macgillichattan are
characteristic names belonging to Clan Chattan; the latter was common
in Bute in the 17th century. They signify respectively "Servant of
Cathan" and "Son of the servant of Cathan."

18--St. Mcrolilanus, Martyr, 8th century.

He was a holy priest, probably from Ireland, who was killed by
robbers when passing through France on a pilgrimage to Rome. His
body was buried at Rheims, and remained unknown and unhonoured
for many years. Miracles at length revealed the saint's tomb,
and his body was found on examination to be entire and fresh,
exhaling a delicious odour. The sacred remains were afterwards
translated to the {83} Church of St. Symphorien in the same city.
In 1618 the Cardinal-Archbishop of Rheims presented an arm-bone
of the saint to the Scots College in Rome. It was removed for
safety to the Vatican Treasury when the college was closed during
the French occupation of Rome. Through the good offices of the
Right Rev. Bishop Pifferi, the Papal sacristan, the relic was
restored to the college in 1893. A notable relic of this saint
was obtained from Rheims by the Abbey of Fort-Augustus and is
now honoured there. There is no other record of the saint's
connection with Scotland.

St. Conval, Confessor, A.D. (about) 612.

This saint was born in Ireland, but crossed over to Scotland in his
youth to become the disciple of St. Kentigern. An old legend relates
that, as no vessel could be procured for his voyage, ne was
miraculously conveyed across the channel upon a large stone, this
stone after wards becoming an instrument of healing to the sick who
touched it. St. Conval's relics were honoured at Inchinnan on the
Clyde. He was patron of the old church of Pollokshaws or {84}
_Polloc-on-the-Shaws_; with regard to the name of this parish, _Shaw_
in old Scottish meant "a grove." The Shaws' Fair probably the
patronal feast of the church was formerly held on the last Friday in
May every year. This saint was also the patron of the churches of
Cumnock and Ochiltree, as ancient documents attest. Many miracles
have been attributed to him. It seems probable that the chapel known
as St. Conall's, at Ferrenese in Renfrewshire, whose ruins still
remain, and the holy well hard by, were named after St. Conval; the
designation (often written Conual) might easily become corrupted to
Connal in the course of centuries. The land belonging to this chapel
became in the sixteenth century part of the endowment of a collegiate
church founded at Lochwinnoch by Lord Sempill.

23--St. William, Martyr, A.D. (about) 1201.

It is a fact, unknown perhaps to many, that St. William, whose shrine
in Rochester Cathedral was the object of great devotion in Catholic
ages, must be reckoned among Scottish saints. He was a native of
Perth, and for many years {85} followed the trade of baker. In his
youth he fell into careless and irreligious ways; but being converted
he began to be zealous in good works. He became especially remarkable
for his charity to the poor, bestowing upon them in alms a tenth part
of all the bread he made.

To satisfy his devotion he started on a pilgrim age to Jerusalem,
taking as his companion a youth whom he had found in the streets, as
an infant deserted by his mother, and whom he had carried home and
brought up as his own son.

The two made their way through England, and having passed through
Rochester were on their road to Canterbury, when the youth, led by
avarice, yielded to the temptation to murder and rob his benefactor.
Striking the saint a blow on the head from behind, he afterwards
despatched him with an axe, and then made off with his booty.

The dead body remained for some days lying off the road, when it was
discovered by a mad woman who was roaming about there. In insane
sport she crowned the head with flowers, and afterwards transferred
the wreath to her {86} own brow, when she was instantly restored to
sanity. The miracle becoming known, the sacred remains were
reverently laid to rest in Rochester Cathedral. The tomb of the saint
soon became famous on account of the numerous graces obtained there
through prayer. After his canonization by Innocent IV in 1256,
pilgrimages to Rochester grew more and more frequent, and to this day
may be seen the steps worn hollow by the constant press of pilgrims
to the shrine. So generous were their offerings that they sufficed to
rebuild the choir and transepts of the cathedral.

This day is probably the anniversary of the finding of St. William's
relics.

29--St. Daganus, Bishop, A.D. (about) 609.

This saint was honoured in Galloway. St. Bede mentions him as a
zealous opponent to the introduction into the Celtic Church of the
Roman computation of Easter. This, however, does not militate against
the sanctity of his life; for the Holy See had not yet definitely set
the matter at rest, and he was therefore free to cling to the rite so
long observed in his native country. His name occurs in the Dunkeld
Litany.



JUNE

3--St. Kevin or Coivin, Abbot, A.D. 618.

This Irish saint has been compared by ancient writers to St. Paul the
Hermit, on account of his holiness of life. He founded the celebrated
monastery of Glendalough, in Wicklow County; it became in after ages
a bishop's see. He lived to the age of 120 years.

St. Kevin was greatly honoured in Scotland as well as in his native
country. It is said, that he lived for a time in Scotland. Traces of
a devotion to him are certainly found in the western part of the
country. In the parish of Southend, Argyllshire, are the remains of a
small building called St. Coivin's Chapel. Kilkivan (in the parish of
Campbelltown) is named after him, and a cave there is known as "St.
Kevin's Bed."

6--St. Colmoc or Colman, Bishop, A.D. 500.

He was an Irish saint, who became Bishop of Dromore, and was renowned
for miracles. There is no record of St. Colmoc having ever {88} lived
in Scotland, but Scottish writers number him among the saints of the
country, and the dedications still existing in his honour show that
he had some connection with that kingdom. The monastery of
Inchmahome, for instance, a priory of Austin Canons on an island in
the Lake of Monteith, Perthshire, is named after him. Another
dedication is Kilmochalmaig, the site of an ancient church on the
west coast of Bute. The remains of a pillar with a sculptured cross
may still be seen there. Portmahomack in Tarbet, Easter-Ross, refers
either to this saint or to St. Colman, patron of the church of Tarbet
(see February 18). A chapel in the burial-ground of Kirriemuir
(Forfarshire) bore the name of St. Colmoc.

9--St. Colum Cille or Columba, Abbot, A.D. 597.

The apostle of the northern regions of Scotland was born in Ireland
in A.D. 521. Both father and mother were of royal race. Though
offered the crown of his native province, Columba preferred rather to
enrol himself in the monastic state. He studied in the schools of
Moville, Clonard, and Glasnevin, and in course {89} of time was
ordained priest. At twenty-five years of age he founded his first
monastery at Derry; this was to be the precursor of the hundred
foundations which Ireland owed to his zeal and energy. In these
monasteries the transcription of the Holy Scriptures formed the chief
labour of the inmates, and so much did Columba love the work that he
actually wrote three hundred manuscripts of the Gospels and Psalms
with his own hand.

But Columba was not destined to remain in Ireland. From his earliest
years he had looked forward to the time when he might devote himself
to missionary efforts for the benefit of those who knew not the
Christian faith. In the forty-second year of his age he exiled
himself voluntarily from his beloved country to preach the Gospel to
the pagan Picts. The story of his having been banished from Ireland
for using his influence to bring about a bloody conflict between
chieftains is rejected by the greatest modern historians as a fable.
Early writers speak of the saint as a man of mild and gentle nature.

On Whit Sunday, A.D. 563, St. Columba {90} landed with twelve
companions on the bleak, unsheltered island off the coast of Argyll,
known as _Hii-Coluim-Cille_ or Iona. For thirty-four years the saint
and his helpers laboured with such success, that through their
efforts churches and centres of learning sprang up everywhere, both
on the mainland and the adjacent islands. Iona became the centre
whence the Faith was diffused throughout the country north of the
Grampians. The monastic missionaries were untiring in their efforts.
They penetrated even to Orkney and Shetland.

On Sunday, June 9, A.D. 597, St. Columba was called to his reward. He
died in the church, kneeling before the altar and surrounded by his
religious brethren. His remains, first laid to rest at Iona, were
afterwards carried over to Ireland and enshrined in the Cathedral of
Down by the side of those of St. Patrick and St. Bridget. All these
relics perished when the cathedral was burned by Henry VIII's
soldiers.

St. Columba was a man of singular purity of mind, boundless love for
souls, and a gentle, winning nature which drew men irresistibly to
{91} God. His labours were furthered by Divine assistance, which was
evidenced by numerous miracles. Among the saints of Scotland he takes
a foremost rank, and in Catholic ages devotion to him was widespread.
The churches dedicated to him are too numerous to mention. He himself
founded no less than fifty during his residence in the land which he
had chosen as the scene of his labours. Annual fairs were held on his
feast at Aberdour (Fife), Dunkeld each for eight days Drymen
(Stirlingshire), Largs (Argyllshire), and Fort-Augustus
(Inverness-shire). St. Columba's holy wells were very numerous, for
an old Irish record relates of him: "He blessed three hundred wells
which were constant." In Scotland they are to be traced at Birse
(Aberdeenshire), Alvah and Portsoy (Banffshire), Invermoriston
(Inverness-shire), Calaverock (Forfarshire), Cambusnethan
(Lanarkshire), Alness (Ross-shire), Kirkholm (Wigtonshire), and on
the islands of Garvelloch, Eigg and Iona.

St. Baitan or Baithen, Abbot, A.D. 600.

He was cousin to St. Columba, and accompanied him from Ireland to
Scotland. From {92} his childhood he had been that saint's disciple
and companion, and St. Columba had a special affection for him. He
was appointed superior of the monastery established in Tiree, but at
St. Columba's death succeeded him as Abbot of Iona. There he remained
only four years, death calling him away, as he had previously
foretold to his monks, on the anniversary of their father and
founder. St. Baitan was buried in St. Oran's Chapel on Iona. His bell
was still preserved in Donegal up to a few years since, and it was a
common practice of devotion to drink from it. In the same district is
St. Baitan's River, to which flocks and herds were brought to drink
on the saint's festival.

St. Baitan is said to have spent his time either in reading, praying,
or serving his neighbour. Even during meals he used constantly to
implore the Divine aid in the words of the Psalmist: "O God, come to
my assistance." During labour his mind was always raised to God. So
mortified was he that it was said that the impression of his ribs
through his woollen tunic used to mark the sandy beach of Iona when
he lay down to rest himself there. {93}

12--St. Ternan, Bishop, A.D. 431.

This saint was born in the Mearns of noble parents. St. Palladius,
who evangelised that district, is said to have been directed to
the child by an angel, in order that he might ad minister baptism.
Ternan grew up to manhood, embraced the clerical state, and in
due time became a bishop. He is said to have fixed his residence at
Abernethy, where he died. He was buried at the place now known as
Banchory-Ternan, Kincardineshire, where a fair is still held annually
on his festival. More than a thousand years after his death the head
of the saint was venerated there by one who has testified to the
existence at the time of the skin upon the skull in the part where it
had received the episcopal consecration. Up to the Reformation two
other valuable relics of the saint were preserved in that same
church. One was the copy of St. Matthew's Gospel, which belonged to
St. Ternan, encased in a cover adorned with gold and silver; the
other was the saint's bell. This latter is thought to have been
identical with an ancient bell which was dug up near the present
railway station at Banchory in the {94} making of the line. It has
unfortunately been lost sight of.

The churches of Slains, in Aberdeenshire, and Arbuthnott and Upper
Banchory, in the Mearns, were dedicated to St. Ternan. At Taransay,
in Harris, and at Findon, in the Mearns, were chapels of the saint;
the latter place possessed a holy well called by his name, and there
was another at Slains.

20--St. Fillan ("The Leper"), 6th century.
This saint was a native of Ireland, and is honoured in that country
also on this day. Animated with the desire for solitude in a strange
country, or else with missionary zeal, he passed over to Scotland and
settled in the district known as Strathearn. No particulars of his
life are known.

Several remains speak of devotion shown to this holy man. The village
of St. Fillans (Dundurn), in the parish of Comrie, was dedicated to
him, and from him took its name; his holy well is there still. In the
vicinity is a conical hill about 600 feet high, which is called
Dunfillan. At the summit is a rock which goes {95} by the name of
"St. Fillan's Chair"; from it he is said to have blessed the country
round. The old church of Aberdour, Fifeshire, now in ruins, was named
after St. Fillan. A well hard by, known as the Pilgrims Well, was
renowned as late as the eighteenth century for curing diseases of the
eye. It is thought to have been dedicated to the patron of the
church. The hospital of St. Martha, for the benefit of pilgrims, was
founded there in 1474, and was served by Sisters of the third Order
of St. Francis from 1487 up to the Reformation.

21--St. Cormac, Abbot, 6th century.

St. Cormac was another Irish saint. From his early youth he followed
a monastic life, and eventually became a disciple of St. Columba. In
after years he became Abbot of Dearmagh, now known as Durrow, in
King's County. This charge he resigned in order to give himself to
missionary life. He had always been of a brave and enterprising
nature, and more than once in his missionary career his zeal led him
to venture on the high seas, in quest of some pagan land where he
might preach the Faith, {96} or of some desert region where he might
live in closer communion with God.

In one of his journeys he visited St. Columba at Iona, and afterwards
sailed as far as the Orkneys, where the pagan people were minded to
put him to death. But one of the chiefs had long before made a solemn
promise to St. Columba, who had seen in vision the coming of Cormac
to the islands and his threatened death, that no harm should happen
to him in the Orkneys. This intervention was successful.

Neither the place nor time of St. Cormac's death is known with any
certainty, but an ancient Irish tradition asserts that he returned to
Durrow and was buried there.

A fragment still exists of the "Crozier of Durrow", which is
considered to be the most ancient relic of its kind now extant. It
is believed to have belonged to the founder of Durrow, the great
Columba, and to have been given by him to his disciple, Cormac.

22--St. Suibhne, Abbot, A.D. 772.

This saint was the sixteenth Abbot of Iona. There had been before him
another abbot of {97} the same name. Suibhne, pronounced "Sweeney",
is identical with an Irish appellation not uncommon in our day.

25--St. Moluag or Lughaidh, Bishop. A.D. 592.

This saint was born in Ireland and became a monk in the renowned
abbey of Bangor. He was so fervent a follower of monastic life that,
as St. Bernard testifies, he founded no less than a hundred
monasteries. Fired with missionary zeal, he left his native land to
preach to the pagans of Scotland. Tradition says that the rock on
which he stood detached itself from the Irish coast and became a raft
to bear him across the waters to the island of Lismore, in Loch
Linnhe, where he landed. St. Moluag converted the people of the
island to Christianity, and then moved into Ross-shire, where he
built many churches, dedicating them to the Mother of God.

He lived to extreme old age, and died at Rosemarkie on the Moray
Firth. Here he is said by some to have been buried, but his relics
must in that case have been afterwards translated to Lismore; for his
remains were honoured in the cathedral there, which was H {98} called
after him.

Great devotion was shown to this saint in Catholic ages both in
Scotland and Ireland. There were many dedications to him in Scotland.
At Lismore, the cathedral of Argyll bore his name. Other churches
were dedicated to him at Clatt and Tarland, Aberdeenshire; Mortlach,
Banffshire; Alyth, Perthshire; also in Skye, Mull, Raasay, Tiree,
Pabay, Lewis and other islands. An ancient burial ground at
Auchterawe, near Fort Augustus, styled Kilmalomaig, is called after
this saint. In these dedications his name appears in various forms.
The original Celtic name Lughaidh (pronounced _Lua_) became changed,
as in many other cases, by the addition of the title of honour _mo_,
as a prefix, and the endearing suffix _ag_.

At Clatt was held annually for eight days "St. Mallock's Fair", and
at Tarland "Luoch Fair". Others were held at Ruthven (Forfarshire)
and at Alyth; at the latter place the fair was styled "St.
Malogue's". At Mortlach, where some of the saint's relics were
preserved, an abbey was founded in 1010 by Malcolm II. in
thanksgiving for a victory obtained over the Danes in that place,
after the Scottish army {99} had invoked the aid of Our Lady and St.
Moluag. His holy well was nearby.

The crozier of the saint is now in the pos session of the Duke
of Argyll; it was long kept by its hereditary custodians, a
family named Livingstone, on the island of Lismore. The bell
of St. Moluag was in existence up to the sixteenth century; but
disappeared at the Reformation. An ancient bell, discovered in 1814
at Kilmichael-Glassary, Argyllshire, has been thought to be the lost
treasure. The feast of this saint was restored by Leo XIII. in 1898.



JULY

1--St. Servan or Serf, Bishop, 6th or 8th century.

Much that is legendary has become mixed up with the history of this
saint, and it is difficult to fix upon what is authentic.

He founded a monastery at Culross, Fifeshire, where he lived in great
veneration on {100} account of his virtues and miracles. He is said
to have befriended the mother of S. Kentigern when she was cast on
the shore near his dwelling, and to have baptised and educated her
child. A very ancient life of St. Serf, however, places him a century
later than St. Kentigern, and makes him contemporary with St.
Adamnan.

On account of the many difficulties presented by conflicting
traditions, it has been suggested that two saints of the same name
have lived at Culross in different centuries.

St. Serf died at Culross in extreme old age, and was buried there.
Within the grounds belonging to Lord Rosslyn at Dysart is pointed out
the cave where the saint is said to have encountered and overcome the
devil. The name Dysart (desert), which marked his place of retreat,
became afterwards extended to the town which grew up there. The cave
of the saint became a favourite place of pilgrimage.

The churches of Monzievaird-Perthshire, and Alva-Stirlingshire, were
dedicated to this saint, and at each place is a well called by his
name. Another well of his called "St. Shear's Well" exists at
Dumbarton. All three were {101} considered miraculous. St. Serf's
Fairs were formerly held at Culross, Abercorn (Linlithgowshire) and
Aberlednock (Perthshire).

At Culross a custom prevailed from time immemorial for the young men
to perambulate the streets in procession, carrying green boughs, on
the 1st of July each year. The Town Cross was decorated with garlands
and ribbons, and the procession would pass several times round it
before disbanding to spend the day in amusements. This was doubtless
the remains of a procession in honour of the saint. At the accession
of George III. the population, being strong Hanoverians, began to
celebrate that King's birthday on June 4th, and to avoid too many
public holidays, the procession of July 1st, the signification of
which has become lost, was transferred to the King's birthday. It
survived the accession of Queen Victoria, but has now probably fallen
into disuse.

3--St. Killen, Abbot, A.D. 752.

This saint was the fourteenth Abbot of Iona. The old church of
Laggan, near Loch Laggan, Inverness-shire, was dedicated to St.
Killen. {102}

4--St. Marianus Scotus, Abbot, A.D. 1088.

The monastery of St. James, Ratisbon, owes its first beginnings to
this saint. Most historians are now agreed in maintaining that
Marianus was a native of Ireland, which for many centuries bore the
designation of Scotia. The holy man with several companions entered a
Benedictine monastery at Bamberg. Some time afterwards, when on a
pilgrimage to Rome, they passed through Ratisbon. A holy hermit who
was living there persuaded Marianus to forego his visit to Rome and
take up his abode in Ratisbon. He obeyed the injunction, and founded
a monastery in connection with the Church of St. Peter, which the
nuns to whom it belonged made over to him.

After the death of Marianus a larger abbey was built in honour of St.
James and St. Gertrude which eventually became peopled by Scotsmen,
and became, after the Reformation, an important seminary for the
education of clergy for mission work in Scotland. This venerable
abbey was appropriated by the Bavarian Government about the middle of
the nineteenth century, a compensation of L10,000 being paid to the
Scots College in Rome. {103}

A valuable MS. consisting of selections from the homilies of the
Fathers of the Church, in the actual handwriting of St. Marianus
himself, was presented to the Benedictine Abbey, Fort-Augustus, by
the last survivor of the community of the Scots Monastery, Ratisbon,
and is one of the greatest treasures of the Fort-Augustus library.

6--St. Modenna, or Medana, Virgin, A.D. 518.

This saint was an Irish virgin, who received the monastic habit from
St. Patrick himself, and was a dear friend of St. Bridget. She took
up her abode in Scotland, where she founded many monasteries for
women. Some of these foundations were in Strathclyde, but the
greatest of them was in Galloway, at the place now styled Kirkmaiden
(formerly Kirkmedan), where St. Medan's Well and Cave may still be
seen.

St. Modenna is said to have lived to the age of 130 years and to have
died at Longforgan, near Dundee, after having made during the course
of her long life three pilgrimages to Rome, barefoot and clad in
hair-cloth.

Edinburgh probably takes its name from Medana. Her sanctuary,
marking, it was said, {104} one of her monastic foundations, and
known as "St. Edana's," was a place of pilgrimage long before the
time of King Edwin who was once supposed to have given the city its
designation. The discovery of the foundations of a much more ancient
building under St. Margaret's Chapel in Edinburgh Castle, in 1918,
seems to corroborate the statement in an ancient Latin life of this
Saint of the erection by her of a church on the top of Edinburgh
Rock, while it strengthens the tradition of the origin of the name,
Edana's Burgh. Maiden Castle is really Medan's (or Medana's) Castle.
A new Catholic church, situated in St. Meddan's Street, Troon, was
erected in 1911 and dedicated to this saint in conjunction with Our
Lady.

7--St. Palladius, Bishop, A.D. (about) 430.

St. Prosper of Aquitaine tells us that this saint was a Roman deacon
who was sent by Pope Celestine I. to those Irish who were already
Christians, that he might be their bishop. After founding several
churches in Ireland, and meeting with opposition from the pagans
there, he left that country for Scotland, where he founded churches
in the Mearns. He died at Fordun, and his relics were still preserved
there {105} in 1409, when the Archbishop of St. Andrews placed them
in a new and costly shrine adorned with gold and gems. The ruins of
his chapel are still to be seen there and a well bears his name.
"Paldy Fair" is still held at Auchinblae in the parish of Fordoun
(Kincardineshire); it formerly lasted eight days.

Pope Leo XIII. in his Bull concerning the restoration of the Scottish
hierarchy in 1878, refers to the share of St. Palladius in the
evangelisation of the country. "St. Palladius," he says, "deacon of
the Roman Church, is said to have preached the Faith of Christ there
(in Scotland) in the fifth century."

The same Pontiff, in 1898, restored this saint's feast to Scotland.

11--St. Drostan, Abbot, 6th century.

This saint was of Scottish birth, being descended from King Aidan of
Dalriada, the friend of St. Columba. He was sent over to that saint,
then in Ireland, to be educated and trained for the religious state.
He eventually became a monk at a monastery known as Dalquongal, of
which in course of time he became abbot. After some time he passed
over to {106} Scotland where he lived as a hermit near Glenesk, in
Angus. He afterwards entered the monastery of Iona, and while
dwelling under the rule of St. Columba accompanied that saint to the
district of Buchan, Aberdeenshire, and was made by him abbot of the
monastery of Deer, which St. Columba founded on land given to him by
the ruler of the district, whose son had been restored to health
during a severe illness by the saint's prayers. The name Deer is said
to have originated in the tears (_deara_) shed by Drostan when he
parted from his beloved master.

St. Drostan preached the gospel in the district of Inverness-shire
known as Glen-Urquhart which in Catholic ages bore the name of "St.
Drostan's Urquhart." Here a plot of ground, said to have been
cultivated by the saint when he lived there as its apostle, is still
known as "St. Drostan's Croft." In St. Ninian's Chapel, in the glen,
was preserved the saint's cross, and the custodian of the relic had
the use of the "Dewar's (or keeper's) Croft" as a reward for his
services.

St. Drostan died in his monastery of Deer and was buried at Aberdour
where miracles {107} were wrought at his tomb. Many churches in the
North of Scotland bore his name; in Caithness were Halkirk and
Cannisbay; in Angus, Edzell and Lochee; in Inverness-shire, Alvie and
Urquhart; in Banffshire, Aberlour and Rothiemay; in Aberdeenshire,
Deer and Aberdour. At Westfield in Caithness is St. Drostan's Burial
Ground; at Lochlee is "Droustie's Meadow" and "Droustie's Well."
Other wells bore his name in various districts. One was at Aberlour,
and there were five between Edzell and Aberdour.

St. Drostan's Fairs were held each year at Rothiemay, Aberlour (for
three days) and Old Deer. The last named, which formerly lasted for
eight days, is still kept up. This is one of the few instances in
which the old fair day of Catholic times has survived. In too many
cases these remnants of Catholic ages disappeared during the last
century. Pope Leo XIII. restored the feast of this saint in 1898. It
was formerly celebrated in Scotland in December.

12--St. Donald, Hermit, A.D. (about) 716.

A local tradition speaks of the sojourn of this saint in the Glen of
Ogilvy, in Forfarshire, {108} where he lived a secluded life for some
years. He was not, strictly speaking, a hermit, as his nine virgin
daughters shared his solitude, and spent their time like St. Donald
in the almost constant practice of prayer and contemplation. No
reliable record remains of the course of his life or of the date and
circumstances of his death.

18--The Nine Maidens, 8th century.

These were the daughters of St. Donald, mentioned above.

During the lifetime of their father, these maidens lived with him in
strict seclusion in the Glen of Ogilvy. Having devoted their youth to
the Religious Life, they were loth to return to the world when their
father's death left them without a protector. They accordingly
entered the monastery for women which St. Darlugdach, an Irish nun
and the friend of St. Bridget (or as some say St. Bridget herself),
had founded at Abernethy. Here they spent the remainder of their
lives.

There were many dedications in Scotland to these saints. The
ancient church of Finhaven in Forfarshire, a chapel at Pitsligo,
Aberdeenshire, {109} called the "Chapel of the Nine Maidens," and
another, bearing a like designation, at Tough, in the same county,
are some of them.

Other associations are still to be found in the many holy wells which
are called after them, at Strathmartin, Glamis and Oathlaw
(Forfarshire), Old Aberdeen and Pitsligo (Aberdeenshire), Newburgh
(Fife) and Mid-Calder (near Edinburgh).

These saints were honoured together in Catholic ages on this day.

St. Thenew or Thenog, A.D. 514.

The history of the early life of this saint is involved in obscurity.
There are various legends relating to it; but recent historians
reject them as spurious. St. Thenew was the mother of St. Mungo or
Kentigern; she is said by Jocelin in his life of St. Mungo (written
in a later age) to have been befriended by St. Serf, and baptised by
him, when she was cast ashore near his dwelling. The fact, however,
is disputed by modern critics, on account of chronological
difficulties.

At an early period a chapel dedicated to St. Thenew existed in
Glasgow; but at the {110} Reformation it was destroyed. The street
leading to this chapel was known for centuries as "St. Thenew's
Gate"; it is now called Argyll Street. The chapel had been popularly
styled "San Theneuke's Kirk," and its name still survives in the
corrupted form of "St. Enoch's"--the modern designation of an
important square in the city with its large railway station and
hotel. Close by the chapel was a holy well bearing the saint's name.

22--St. Dabius or Bavins, Priest.

Some historians have maintained that this saint was a native of
Ireland; but the Scottish tradition affirms that he was born in
Perthshire, and that he became a recluse in his native parish of
Weem, where he built a small chapel.

The shelf of the great rock of Weem, upon which the chapel formerly
stood, is still called "Chapel Rock." A holy well hard by is called
after the saint.

This well was once much frequented by pilgrims. It was a common
opinion that St. Dabius would grant any wish made there if an
offering were thrown into the water. When the well was cleaned out
some years ago a large number of coins was discovered; these were
{111} evidently offerings of the kind. There was an ancient burial
ground at Weems which bore the name of the saint, and on his
feast-day a fair was held annually there.

The name Kildavie (Church of Davius) which is found in the parish of
Kilblane, in Bute, and also in the parish of Kilninian, in Mull,
testifies to ancient churches in honour of St. Davius in those
localities. The Church of Kippen, Stirlingshire, is also dedicated to
this saint, under the designation of "Movean."



AUGUST

3--St. Walthen or Waltheof, Abbot, A.D. 1160.

He was the son of Simon, Earl of Hunting don, and Maud, grand-niece
of William the Conqueror. After the death of her first husband, Maud
married David, King of Scotland, one of the sons of St. Margaret. The
early life of the young Walthen was consequently spent at the
Scottish Court, where he edified all who knew him by his purity of
life and diligent practice of the Christian virtues. Desiring to
embrace the religious life, Walthen {112} left Scotland, and entered
the monastery of Nostell in Yorkshire, belonging to the Austin
Canons. His holiness, attested by miracles, procured the esteem of
his contemporaries, and led to his appointment, while still young, as
Prior of the monastery of Kirkham, in the same county. Attracted by
the reputation of the Cistercians, he resolved to pass into that
Order, and was encouraged in his purpose by St. Aelred, Cistercian
Abbot of Rievaulx, who became his attached friend. In spite of the
remonstrances of his religious brethren, and the avowed indignation
of his kindred, Walthen persevered in his resolution, and took the
Cistercian habit at Rievaulx, where he eventually made his profession
as a monk.

He was made Abbot of the Scottish abbey of Melrose, which he ruled
till his death. In the later years of his life he was nominated
Archbishop of St. Andrew's; but his humility shrank from the burden,
and he prevailed upon his religious superiors to prevent the
election. He died at Melrose at an advanced age. Many miracles are
attributed to him, even during life, and fifty years after death his
body was found to be incorrupt. {113}

9--St. Berchan, Bishop.

This Irish saint spent a good part of his life in Scotland. Few
particulars of his career now remain to us, but he laboured near
Stirling as a missionary. Some traces of devotion to him are still
existing. The name of Kilbarchan, in the county of Renfrew, proves
the connection of the saint with that neighbourhood. St. Barchan's
Fair was held there annually. In the same county is to be found an
ancient Celtic cross erected in honour of St. Berchan. Another fair
was at Tain; this is evident from an ancient charter of that burgh,
in which it is stated that St. Barquhan's Fair is "held on the 3rd
day after the Feast of St. Peter ad Vincula, commonly called
Lambmes." St. Peter ad Vincula, or, as it is usually called, St.
Peter's Chains, is a feast which falls on August 1st, hence St.
Berchan's Fair, in celebration of his feast, was held on the 4th.
Lambmes or Lammas was the ancient name of this feast of St. Peter and
was derived from the Saxon _hlaf_ (loaf). It had its origin in the
offering at Mass of a loaf made from the first-fruits of the harvest.
{114}

6--Blessed Alexander, Monk, A.D. 1229.

In the account given of St. Matilda (April 11) allusion was made to
her brother Alexander, who, concealing his royal origin, entered the
Cistercian monastery of Foigni, in the diocese of Laon, France. He
died some years before his holy sister on May 4th, 1229. His feast is
celebrated by his Order on this day. A fair was formerly held in his
honour at Keith, in Banffshire.

9--St. Oswald, King and Martyr, A.D. 642.

This illustrious King was the son of a pagan. Ethelfrid, King of
Northumbria. He was compelled on the death of his father to seek
safety in the north, and took refuge with his two brothers at Iona,
where all three received baptism. Eanfrid, the eldest, obtained the
throne of Northumbria, but relapsed into paganism. He met with a
violent death at the hands of the British prince, Cadwalla, and
Oswald succeeded him as king. Cadwalla was defeated near Hexham by
Oswald's inferior army, the Christian prince having previously
erected a large wooden cross on the field of {115} battle, before
which he knelt in prayer for the success of his arms, and promised,
with the consent of his soldiers, that all would embrace Christianity
should God grant them the victory.

On ascending the throne Oswald procured a missionary for his people
from Iona in the person of Aidan, who became eventually the first
Bishop of Lindisfarne. The saintly King did not disdain to act as
interpreter to his people of the instructions given by Aidan in the
Celtic tongue. Oswald reigned but eight years, yet they were years of
blessing for the nation The King led the way in the practice of the
Christian virtues, especially of charity to the poor. It was on the
occasion of the distribution to a hungry multitude at the palace
gates of the food prepared for the King's repast, and the division of
the costly silver dish itself amongst the poverty-stricken people,
that St. Aidan, who was about to join the King at a banquet, cried
out enthusiastically as he seized Oswald's right hand, "May this hand
never corrupt!" The utterance was prophetic, as the sequel will show.
{116}

The saintly King met his death on the field of battle, when resisting
the invasion of his dominions by Penda, the pagan king of Mercia. His
dying words were a prayer for the souls of all who had fallen in the
battle. Many miracles were wrought by his intercession and by the use
of particles of the cross he had erected. His right hand and arm, in
accordance with St. Aidan's prophecy, remained in corrupt till the
time of the Venerable Bede, who tells us that they were honoured in
the Church of St. Peter at Bamborough. His head was taken to the
monastery of Lindisfarne; it was eventually deposited in St.
Cuthbert's shrine and was carried with the remains of that saint to
Durham Minster.

Many monasteries and churches both in England and Scotland bore the
name of St. Oswald. Those in Northumbria and Cumbria can scarcely be
termed Scottish in these days, but Kirkoswald near Maybole and
Carluke in Lanarkshire possessed respectively a church and chapel
dedicated to the holy King. His death occurred on August 5th, but his
feast has been transferred to this day. Devotion to St. {117} Oswald
flourished greatly in Ireland as well as in Scotland and England, and
extended to the Continent.

St. Angus.

At Balquhidder, in Perthshire, there is a local tradition regarding a
saint of this name. He is said to have been a disciple of St.
Columba, and to have preached the Faith in that neighbourhood. His
name is preserved in the _Clach Aenais_ (Stone of Angus), a slab
bearing a representation of a priest holding a chalice. This stone
formerly stood within the old church at Balquhidder, and it was the
custom to stand or kneel upon it during the solemnization of a
baptism or marriage. As this rite seemed to Presbyterian authorities
to savour of superstition, the stone was removed to the churchyard
about a century ago. Near the church are the foundations of the
"Chapel of Angus." A hillock hard by is pointed out as the spot where
the saint preached, and it still bears his name.

"Angus Fair" was formerly held at King's House, in the parish of
Balquhidder, on the Wednesday after the second Tuesday in August.
{118}

This locates the saint's feast-day (which the fair doubtless
commemorated) in the early part of August, although the exact date is
uncertain.

11--St. Blaan, Bishop, A.D. 590.

He was born in Ireland of a noble family, and after spending seven
years under the direction of St. Comgall and St. Kenneth, passed over
to Bute, to St. Cathan, his mother's brother. He is said to have made
later a pilgrimage to Rome. The monastery he founded became the site
of the well-known Cathedral of Dunblane a place which derives its
name from the saint where the mediaeval building begun by David I. is
still to be seen. Among the many miracles attributed to the saint
is the restoration to life of a dead boy. He is also said to have
rekindled the extinguished lamps in his church during the night
office, on one occasion, by striking fire from his fingers as
from a flint; the miracle being vouchsafed by God to clear the
saint of any imputation of negligence in his duty.

St. Blaan became eventually a bishop. After his death devotion to him
became popular, {119} and many dedications bear witness to his
callus. There was a church of St. Blaan in Dumfries and another at
Kilblane in Argyll. The ruins of the saint's church in the parish of
Kingarth, Bute, form an object of great interest to antiquarians, and
stand amid surroundings of extraordinary beauty and charm. His bell
is still preserved at Dunblane. The saint's feast was restored to the
Scottish Calendar by Leo XIII. in 1898.

18--St. Inan, Confessor, 9th century.

In the southern district of Scotland are to be found many traces of
the _cultus_ of a saint bearing this name, though his history is not
known.

Some consider him a native of Ayrshire, since the greater part of the
remains connected with him are to be found in that county, where he
seems to have spent many years of his life. Others claim him as a
native of Ireland, and it has been conjectured that his name is
merely a corruption of Finan. There are no conclusive proofs in
support of either opinion.

The chief place of residence of St. Inan {120} seems to have been at
Irvine, though many interesting remains recall his memory at Beith On
the Cuff Hill in the latter parish is a cleft in the rock which was
originally of natural formation, but has been enlarged by art; it
bears the name of "St. Inan's Chair." At a short distance from it is
a double spring of abundant and excellent water known as "St. Inan's
Well." On the day corresponding to the 18th August, old style, a fair
is annually held in the vicinity, which bears the name of "Tenant's
(probably a corruption of St. Inan's) Fair." Inchinnan (Renfrewshire)
is said to signify "Inans' Isle."

Another well bearing the saint's name is at Lamington in Lanarkshire,
where the church was dedicated to him. At Southenan, Ayrshire, was
another church or chapel bearing the name of St. Inan; for a charter
of James IV. in 1509, confirms the donation of John, Lord Sempill, of
a perpetual Mass therein.

24--St. Yrchard or Merchard, Bishop, 5th or 6th century.

This saint was born of pagan parents in the district of
Kincardine-O'Neil, Aberdeenshire. {121}

In his early youth he embraced the Christian Faith, and was ordained
priest by St. Ternan, who associated the young man with himself in
his missionary labours. In later life he journeyed to Rome, and was
there consecrated bishop. Returning to Scotland he ended his days in
Aberdeenshire. At Kincardine-O'Neil a church was erected over the
spot where the chariot which was conveying his remains to burial was
miraculously stopped. A fair was formerly held there annually on St.
Merchard's feast and during the octave.

One of the saint's churches was in Glenmoriston. The ancient burial
ground which adjoins it is still in use, and some few stones of the
old building are yet to be seen there. The local tradition tells that
the saint when labouring as a missionary in Strathglass with two
companions, discovered, by previous revelation, three bright new
bells buried in the earth Taking one for himself, he gave the others
to his fellow-missionaries, bidding each to erect a church on the
spot where his bell should ring for the third time of its own accord;
undertaking to do the same with regard to his own. {122} One of these
companions founded a church at Glenconvinth, in Strathglass, the
other at Broadford, Isle of Skye.

St. Merchard travelled towards Glenmoriston. His bell rang first at
_Suidh Mhercheird_ (Merchard's Seat), again at _Fuaran Mhercheird_
(Merchard's Well), near Ballintombuie, where a spring of excellent
water treasured by both Catholics and Protestants still bears his
name, and a third time at the spot where the old churchyard, called
_Clachan Mhercheird_, close by the river Moriston, recalls his
memory.

The bell of the saint was preserved there for centuries. After the
church fell into decay's early in the seventeenth century, the bell
remained in the churchyard. The narrow-pointed spar of granite on
which it rested still stands there. The bell, unfortunately, was
wantonly removed, by Protestant strangers about thirty years ago, to
the great indignation of the inhabitants of the glen, Protestant as
well as Catholic; it has never since been discovered.

Tradition has it that the bell was wont to ring of its own accord
when a funeral came {123} in sight, and that whenever it was removed
from its usual position it was invariably found restored miraculously
to its place, Many persons still living in the glen have seen the
bell, and the grandparents of some of them used to relate that they
heard it ring in their youth. Devotion to this saint was very strong
in that neighbourhood in Catholic times, and he is still regarded by
Catholics as the local patron.

25--St. Ebba, Abbess, A.D. 683.

She was sister to St. Oswald, and to Oswy, his successor, Kings of
Northumbria. She founded a monastery at Ebchester, on the Derwent,
and another and more important one at Coldingham. It was at the
latter place that the great St. Ethelreda received her monastic
training. St. Ebba was buried at Coldingham, but portions of her
relics were afterwards placed in the tomb of St. Cuthbert at Durham.
St. Abb's Head, the well-known promontory on the coast of
Northumberland, takes its name from this saint.

30--St. Fiacre, Hermit, 7th century.

He was born in Ireland about the year {124} 590. A hermitage and holy
well near Kilkenny are called after him, and were frequented as late
as the beginning of this century by pilgrims who wished to pay him
honour. After labouring as a missionary in Scotland, St. Fiacre ended
his days at Breuil, near Meaux, in France, where he became famous for
miracles both before and after his death; he was invoked as the
patron saint of the province of Brie, and his shrine became a famous
place of pilgrimage.

St. Fiacre's day was kept with devotion in Scotland. The Breviary of
Aberdeen contains the office for the saint's feast. Several Scottish
churches bore his name. Among these may be mentioned the ancient
church and burial ground of St. Fiacre, or, as he is often styled,
St. Fittack, at Nigg, Kincardineshire, on the opposite bank of the
Dee from Aberdeen. The bay in the vicinity is known as St. Picker's
Bay, and St. Fittack's Well, a clear spring near the roofless ruins
of the old church, still recalls his memory. Its existence is a
strong proof of the saint's residence in the neighbourhood at some
time in his life. The fame of this well {125} for healing powers
survived the downfall of religion, and it became necessary to prevent
recourse to it by severe penalties. Thus in the records of the Kirk
Session of Aberdeen for 1630 we read:--"Margrat Davidson, spous to
Andro Adam, fined L5 for sending her child to be washed at St.
Fiackre's Well and leaving an offering."

The large numbers of pilgrims conveyed in hackney coaches to the
French shrine of this saint at Breuil, caused those vehicles to be
known as _fiacres_, a designation they still bear.

31--St. Aidan, Bishop, A.D. 651.

This saint was a native of Ireland, where, after some years of
monastic life at Inniscattery in the Shannon, he was consecrated
bishop. Later on he entered the monastery of Iona. He became the
first bishop of Lindisfarne, and the helper of St. Oswald in the
conversion of Northumbria. His life was one of great poverty and
detachment, and his example had a wonderful effect on his flock. He
used to travel about his diocese on foot, accompanied by his clergy,
spending the time occupied by {126} the journey in prayer and holy
reading. His alms were abundant, and his manner to all with whom he
came in contact kind and fatherly. His miracles, even during life,
were many and striking.

St. Aidan was the founder of Old Melrose, which stood a short
distance from the site of the more modern Cistercian Abbey whose
ruins are familiar to travellers. He also assisted the Abbess, St.
Ebba, in the foundation of the celebrated monastery of Coldingham,
which consisted of two distinct communities of men and women.

After ruling his see for seventeen years, he died at Bamborough in a
tent which he had caused to be erected by the wall of the church. St.
Cuthbert, then a youthful shepherd, as he kept his flock on the
hills, had a vision of the soul of St. Aidan being borne by angels to
Heaven. It was this vision which determined him to seek admission to
Melrose. Many churches bear St. Aidan's name. Among them are those of
Cambusnethan in Lanarkshire and Menmuir in Angus. At the latter place
is the saint's holy well, which was renowned for the {127} cure of
asthma and other complaints. Another holy well called after St. Aidan
is to be found at Fearn in Angus. The ancient church of Kenmore,
Perthshire, was known as Inchadin. Keltney Burn in the same
neighbourhood, is called in Gaelic "St. Aidan's Stream."



SEPTEMBER

1--St. Egidius or Giles, Abbot, A.D. 714.

This saint never laboured in Scotland, yet the honour shown to him in
the country is sufficient reason for the mention of his name here. He
is said to have been an Athenian by birth, who fled from his native
land to escape the admiration excited by his extraordinary sanctity.
He settled in France and founded a monastery in the neighbourhood of
Nismes, where many disciples placed themselves under his guidance,
and where he died and was laid to rest. His _cultus_ extended from
France into other countries. St. Giles was honoured in Edinburgh as
early as 11 50, when a monastery existed under his invocation. He
became the {128} recognised patron saint of the city, and his figure
appeared in the armorial bearings of Edinburgh, accompanied by the
hind which is said in his legend to have attached herself to the
saint. Since the Reformation the figure of the saint has disappeared,
though that of the animal remains.

The beautiful Church of St. Giles was re built in the 15th century,
and was erected into a collegiate church by Pope Paul II. It still
continues to be the glory of the Scottish capital. This church
possessed an arm-bone of the saint, for which a rich reliquary was
provided by the city. Fairs were formerly held in honour of St. Giles
at Moffat and also at Elgin, where the parish church bore his name.

2--St. Murdoch, Bishop.

No very reliable particulars can be ascertained as to the life of
this saint. Traces of the honour shown to him are to be found in
Forfarshire, the district which seems to have been the scene of his
missionary labours. At Ethie, in the parish of Inverkeilor, in that
county, are the remains of an ancient church and burial-ground {129}
which bear his name. Near Ethiebeaton, in the parish of Monifieth,
are traces of an old church which goes by the name of "Chapel
Dockie." This is believed to be another dedication in honour of St.
Murdoch.

9--St. Queran or Kieran, Abbot, A.D. 548.

This saint was born in Ireland and became abbot of the monastery
known as Clonmacnois. He passed over to Cornwall, and there laboured
as a missionary for some years. Many churches in that district are
known by his name, which appears there under the form of Piran.

The saint afterwards journeyed to Scotland, where he preached the
Gospel in the western districts. He settled at Dalruadhain, near
Campbeltown, and the cave to which he was accustomed to retire for
prayer is still to be seen there. He died in A.D. 548. St. Kieran
came to be regarded eventually as the patron saint of the whole of
Kintyre. He became very popular in Scotland, on account of the great
affection with which St. Columba regarded him. Every year his
hermitage and {130} holy well were the resort of pilgrims who came to
honour his memory. A rock near the sea shore is said to have been
marked by the impress of his knees, from the frequency with which he
would kneel there to pray with arms outstretched, looking towards his
beloved Ireland.

Several churches in Scotland are dedicated to this saint. Besides
a church in Campbeltown, others at Kilkerran in Kintyre, Kilcheran
in Lismore, Kilkeran in Islay and Barvas in Lewis were named
after him. Those of Strathmore in Caithness, Fetteresso and
Glenbervie in Kincardineshire and Dalkerran in Ayrshire are
dedicated to a saint of the same name, but whether it is this
particular St. Kieran is disputed. There is a well of "St. Jargon"
at Troqueer (Kirkcudbright), which is thought to be St. Kieran's.

15--St. Mirin. Bishop, 6th century.

Born in Ireland, he became a pupil of St. Comgall in the monastery of
Bangor on Belfast Lough, where no less than three thousand monks are
said to have resided together. In {131} the course of time Mirin was
made Prior of the Abbey. No authentic record relates that he left
Ireland to labour in Scotland; but Bangor, like Iona, was a great
missionary centre, from which the brethren started to evangelise the
various countries of Europe, and this fact lends credence to a
tradition that St. Mirin came to Scotland. Paisley has always claimed
the honour of possessing his remains, which became in after years an
attraction to many pilgrims.

When in the twelfth century Walter Fitz-Alan founded a Benedictine
abbey there, he placed it under the patronage of St. Mirin, jointly
with Our Lady, St. James and St. Milburga, the patron of Wenlock,
Shropshire, whence the first community came. Lights were burnt around
St. Mirin's tomb for centuries, and a constant devotion was cherished
towards him. The seal of the abbey bore his figure, with a scroll
inscribed, "O Mirin, pray to Christ for thy servants." The chapel in
which his remains repose is popularly known as "The Sounding Aisle,"
from its peculiar echo.

A fair was formerly held at Paisley on the {132} saint's feast-day
and during the octave. Other churches in the south of Scotland were
dedicated to him. In the parish of Kelton, in Kirkcudbright, are the
remains of an ancient chapel and burial-ground known as "Kirk
Mirren." On Inch Murryn (Mirin's Island), in Loch Lomond, are the
ruins of his chapel. At Kilsyth, Stirlingshire, is "St. Mirin's
Well." There are other traces of him at Coylton, in Ayrshire, where a
farm is called "Knock Murran," and at Edzell, in Forfarshire, where
there is the "Burn of Marran."

16--St. Ninian, Bishop. 5th century.

He was the first bishop residing in Scotland of whom there is any
authentic record, and one of the earliest missionaries to the
country. He was born about A.D. 360, in the district now known as
Cumberland. His father was a converted British chieftain. Ninian had
a strong desire to study the Faith at its fountain-head, and
journeyed to Rome in his twenty-first year. The Pope of the time, St.
Damasus, received him very cordially, and give him special teachers
{133} to instruct him in the doctrines of the Church. After he had
spent there fifteen years, Pope St. Siricius made him priest and
bishop, and sent him to preach the Faith in his native country.
Ninian settled in the district now called Galloway. The recollection
of the churches he had seen in Rome awoke in him a desire to build
one more worthy of God's worship than the simple edifices of that
early age in these northern countries. By the help of his friend, St.
Martin of Tours, he obtained Prankish masons for this purpose, and
built the first stone church ever yet seen in Britain. It was called
_Candida Casa_, or "White House" (still the designation in Latin of
the See of Galloway). The point of land on which it stood became
known as the "White Home," from which Whithorn derives its name.

Besides converting the people of his own neighbourhood, St. Ninian,
by his zeal, brought into the Church the Southern Picts, who
inhabited the old Roman province of Valentia, south of the Forth. He
is therefore styled their Apostle. He was more than seventy when he
died, and was laid to rest in the {134} church he had built and
dedicated to St. Martin. Later on it was called after him and became
illustrious for pilgrimages from England and Ireland, as well as from
all parts of Scotland. So many churches in Scotland bore his name
that the enumeration of them would be impossible here, while almost
every important church had an altar dedicated to him. An altar of St.
Ninian was endowed by the Scottish nation in the Carmelite Church at
Bruges in Catholic ages. There is a portion of a fresco on the wall
of Turriff Church, Aberdeenshire, which bears the figure of St.
Ninian. The burgh of Nairn was placed under his patronage. Many holy
wells bore his name: at Arbirlot, Arbroath, Mains and Menmuir
(Forfarshire); Ashkirk (Selkirkshire); Alyth, Dull (Perthshire);
Mayfield (Kirkcubrightshire); Sandwick (Orkney); Penninghame, Wigtown
(Wigtownshire); Isle of Mull. That at Dull is said by a Protestant
writer of 1845 to have been greatly frequented by invalids from far
and near, on account of its reputed healing powers.

St. Ninian's fairs were held at Whithorn {135} (for four days), and
also at Arbroath. The saint's feast, which had previously been long
observed in the diocese of Galloway and at the Benedictine Abbey,
Fort-Augustus, was extended to the whole Scottish Church by Leo
XIII. in 1898.

St. Laisren. Abbot, A.D. 605.

He was a cousin of St. Columba. He ruled for some years the Abbey of
Durrow in Ireland, and afterwards that of Iona, of which he was the
third abbot.

20--St. Marthom.

A fair was held annually at Ordiquhill (Banffshire) for eight days
from September 20, under the name of St. Marthom's fair. Nothing is
known about the life of the saint.

22--St. Lolan, Bishop.

Many extraordinary miracles are related of this saint, but his real
history is involved in obscurity.

The crozier and bell of St. Lolan were long preserved at
Kincardine-on-Forth, Perthshire, {136} and were included in the
feudal investitures of the earldom of Perth. They are alluded to in
documents of the 12th century, and the mention of the bell occurs
in one as late as 1675. Both relics have long disappeared.

23--St. Adamnan, Abbot, A.D. 704.

He was of Irish race, and belonged to the same family as St. Columba.
In his 55th year he was elected Abbot of Iona. He is said to have
been instrumental in obtaining the passing of "The Law of the
Innocents" in the Irish National Assembly of Tara. This statute
exempted the Irish women from serving on the battle field, which
before that time they had been bound to do. In 701 St. Adamnan was
sent on an embassy to his former pupil, Aldfrid, King of Northumbria,
to seek reparation for injuries committed by that King's subjects in
the Province of Meath. It was during this visit to England that he
conformed to the Roman usage with regard to the time for keeping
Easter, and he was afterwards successful in introducing the true
practice into the Irish Church. His efforts in this respect were
{137} not successful with his monks at Iona; though his earnest
exhortations, and the unfailing charity which he exhibited towards
those who differed from him, must have helped to dispose them to
conform to the rest of the Church, which they did about twenty years
after his death.

St. Adamnan is most renowned for his life of St. Columba, which has
been called by a competent judge "the most complete piece of such
biography that all Europe can boast of, not only at so early a
period, but throughout the whole Middle Ages." He is also the author
of a treatise on the Holy Land, valuable as being one of the earliest
produced in Europe.

Though the saint died at Iona, his relics were carried to Ireland;
but they must have been restored to Iona, as they were venerated
there in 1520. He was one of the most popular of the Scottish saints,
and many churches were named after him. The chief of these were at
Aboyne and Forvie (parish of Slains) in Aberdeenshire; Abriachan in
Inverness-shire; Forglen or Teunan Kirk in Banffshire; Tannadice in
Forfarshire; Kileunan (parish of Kilkerran) {138} in Kintyre; Kinneff
in Kincardineshire; the Island of Sanda; Dull, Grandtully and
Blair Athole in Perthshire--the latter place was once known as
_Kilmaveonaig_, from the quaint little chapel and burying ground of
the saint. There were chapels in his honour at Campsie in
Stirlingshire and Dalmeny in Linlithgow. At Aboyne are "Skeulan Tree"
and "Skeulan Well," at Tannadice "St. Arnold's Seat," at Campsie "St.
Adamnan's Acre," at Kinneff "St. Arnty's Cell." At Dull a fair was
formerly held on his feast-day (old style); it was called _Feille
Eonan_. Another fair at Blair Athole was known as _Feill Espic Eoin_
("Bishop Eunan's Fair" though St. Adamnan was an abbot only); it has
been abolished in modern times. His well is still to be seen in the
Manse garden there, and down the glen a fissure in the rock is called
"St. Ennan's Footmark." There was a "St. Adamnan's Croft" in
Glenurquhart (Inverness-shire), but the site is no longer known.

Ardeonaig, near Loch Tay; Ben Eunaich, Dalmally; and Damsey
(Adamnan's Isle) in Orkney, take their names from this saint. At
{139} Firth-on-the-Spey, near Kingussie, is a very ancient bronze
bell, long kept on a window-sill of the old church, and tradition
relates that when moved from thence it produced a sound similar to
the words, "Tom Eunan, Tom Eunan," until it was restored to its
original resting-place in the church, which stands on the hill
bearing that name. The tradition points to the dedication of the
church to this saint. Few names have passed through such various
transformations in the course of ages as that of Adamnan. It is met
under the forms of Aunan, Arnty, Eunan, Ounan, Teunan (Saint-Eunan),
Skeulan, Eonan, Ewen and even Arnold.

St. Adamnan's feast was restored by Pope Leo XIII. in 1898.

25--St. Barr or Finbar, Bishop, 6th century.

He was born in Connaught and was the founder of a celebrated
monastery and school on an island in Lough Eirce (now known as
Gougane-Barra), in County Cork, and to this house, says Colgan in his
_Acta Sanctorum_, so {140} many came through zeal for a holy life
that it changed a desert into a great city.

St. Finbar became the first Bishop of Cork, where he founded a
monastery almost as famous as the former. St. Finbar, like so many
Irish saints, made a pilgrimage to Rome. Missionary zeal led him
later on to Scotland, and for some time he laboured in Kintyre.

Devotion to St. Barr was very great in Catholic Scotland, as numerous
dedications attest. His churches are chiefly to be found on solitary
islands, which seem to have had a special attraction for him. Thus in
the parish of Kilkerran, Kintyre, is an island now known as Davar; it
was formerly called St. Barre's Island. The island of Barra takes its
name from him; traces of his _cultus_ lingered on there long after
the Reformation. At Kilbar (sometimes called Shilbar), for example,
an image of the saint, which was long preserved, used to be clothed
with a linen robe on his feast-day in comparatively recent times.
Other curious customs also prevailed in the island in connection with
him; his holy well is there. St. Barr was the patron saint of the
churches of {141} Dornoch, and of Eddleston (Peebles-shire); at both
places a fair was annually held on his feast-day. In Ayrshire is the
parish of Barr, and in Forfarshire that of Inch bare. At Midd Genie,
in Tarbat, is Chapel Barre.

28--St. Machan or Mahon, Bishop, about 6th century.

St. Machan, born in Scotland, was like many of his contemporaries,
sent to Ireland, then renowned for its schools, to be educated. After
he had returned to his native land and had become a priest, he
laboured in various provinces of Scotland.

At Rome, whither he had gone as a pilgrim, he was consecrated bishop
in spite of protestations from his humility; later he returned to
Scotland and to the apostolic ministry. After many years of fruitful
labour he died and was laid to rest at Campsie in Lennox. His name
still survives in Ecclesmachan (Church of Machan) in Linlithgow, of
which he is patron. The parish of Dalserf, Lanarkshire, formed at one
time the chapelry of St. Machan, and was known as Machanshire. It was
connected {142} with the church of Cadzow (now Hamilton). An altar in
St. Mungo's Cathedral, Glasgow, was dedicated to him. A fair in
honour of this saint was held annually at Kilmahog, Perthshire.



OCTOBER

8--St. Triduana, Virgin, 7th or 8th century.

St. Triduana devoted herself to God in a solitary life at Rescobie in
Angus (now Forfarshire). While dwelling there, a prince of the
country having conceived an unlawful passion for her is said to have
pursued her with his unwelcome attentions. To rid herself of his
importunities, as a legend relates, Triduana bravely plucked out her
beautiful eyes, her chief attraction, and sent them to her admirer.
Her heroism, it is said, procured for her the power of curing
diseases of the eyes. Many instances are related of such miracles
worked after her death.

St. Triduana died at Restalrig in Lothian, and her tomb became a
favourite place of {143} pilgrimage. Before the Reformation it was
the most important of the holy shrines near Edinburgh. On account of
this prominence her church was the very first to fall a victim to the
fanatical zeal of the Puritans. After being honoured for a thousand
years her relics were desecrated by the destruction of her shrine.
The General Assembly, decreed on December 21, 1560, that "the Kirk of
Restalrig, as a monument of idolatrie, be raysit and utterlie castin
downe and destroyed." An interesting discovery was made in 1907 in
connection with this church, which had long been used as a
Presbyterian place of worship after restoration. An octagonal
building, standing near, was thought to have been a Chapter House in
Catholic times; it was filled with earth and rubbish, after having
served as a burial place, and a mound of earth surmounted it on the
outside on which trees had rooted. The Earl of Moray, superior of the
village, offered to restore the church to its original state, and,
when examined by competent authorities, the supposed Chapter House
was found to be a beautiful little Gothic chapel with groined roof
supported {144} by a central pillar, similar to the building which
once covered St. Margaret's well at Restalrig. Further explorations
proved that the little octagonal building had evidently been raised
over the miraculous well of St. Triduana, so much scoffed at by
Reformation satirists. Steps led down to the water, thus covered in,
and a chapel, which must have formed an upper story above the well,
is thought to have been the "Triduana's Aisle" alluded to in ancient
documents. The building has now been thoroughly restored after its
original form and is regarded as a valuable monument of antiquity.
Thus do more enlightened ages condemn the foolish fanaticism of
bygone days!

This saint was honoured in various parts of Scotland, and her name
has undergone so many changes in the different districts as to be
often unrecognisable. It occurs under the various forms of Traddles,
Tredwell, Tradwell, Trallew, Trallen, etc.

Among these dedications are Kintradwell in Caithness and Trad lines
in Forfarshire. Near the island of Papa Westray in the Orkneys is St.
Tredwell's Loch, and on the east side of {145} the loch is a small
peninsula containing the ruins of a little building measuring 20 feet
in length and 22 feet in breadth, known as St. Tredwell's Chapel. At
Rescobie a fair used to be held on her feast-day, but in the
beginning of last century it was transferred to Forfar. It was known
as "St. Trodlin's Fair." Relics of this saint were honoured in
Aberdeen Cathedral in Catholic ages. Devotion to St. Triduana has
been revived in the modern Catholic church at Restalrig.

11 St. Kenneth, Abbot, A.D. 599.

With St. Columba, St. Bridget and St. Maelrubha, St. Kenneth ranks
among the most popular of the Irish saints honoured in Scotland. He
was the child of poor Irish parents, and was employed during his
early years in tending sheep. When he attained the years of man hood
he became a monk, and passed over to Wales, where he became the
disciple of the renowned St. Cadoc. He was one of that saint's most
beloved followers on account of his perfect obedience. After being
ordained priest he made a pilgrimage to Rome, and returning {146} to
Ireland became the disciple of St. Mobhi and St. Finnian. St.
Columba, St. Comgall and St. Kiaran lived with him as members of the
same community.

Later on St. Kenneth visited Scotland, where he lived for some years
as a monk. He is believed to have founded a monastery at St. Andrews
and to have built churches in other parts of the country, converting
many of the pagan inhabitants to Christianity by the fervour of his
preaching. He spent some time at Iona with St. Columba, and
accompanied that saint in his visit to King Brude at Inverness, and
it was St. Kenneth who, with the sign of the Cross, caused the King's
hand to wither when he drew his sword against the missionaries.

St. Kenneth died in Ireland. He founded the monastery of Aghaboe, and
around it grew up the town of that name, which up to the twelfth
century was the seat of the Bishops of Ossory, whose residence was
later transferred to Kilkenny. In Scotland this saint had many
dedications. Kilchenzie, in Kintyre; Kilkenneth, in Tiree;
Kilchainnech, in Iona; Kilchainie, in South Uist; Laggan in
Inverness-shire, {147} and others. The great abbey of Cambuskenneth
takes its name from him, as well as Chenzie Island, in the river of
Islay, and Kennoway (anciently Kennochi) in Fifeshire.

13--St. Comgan or Congan, Abbot, 8th century.

This saint was the brother of the holy recluse, Kentigerna, whose
life was given on January 7th, and was consequently the son of a
Prince of Leinster. On succeeding his father in the government of the
province he ruled his people as a true Christian prince should do;
but, meeting with violent opposition from the neighbouring chiefs, he
was forced to fly the country to save his life. Taking with him his
sister and her son, Fillan, he crossed over to Scotland, and settled
in Lochalsh, Argyllshire. Here he lived many years as a monk in great
austerity. He was far advanced in years when death came. He was
buried at Iona.

His nephew, St. Fillan (see February 3), built a church in his honour
at Lochalsh. There were also many other dedications to this saint in
Scotland. Among them were {148} Kilchowan in Kiltearn (Ross and
Cromarty), Kilchoan or Kilcongan in the island of Seil, St. Coan in
Strath (Skye), Kilquhoan in Ardnamurchan, Kilchoan in Knoydart, etc.
The church of Turriff in Aberdeenshire was dedicated to him, and the
annual fair on his feast-day was called "Cowan Fair." A hospital of
St. Congan was founded at that place in 1272 by the Earl of Buchan,
consisting of a collegiate establishment for a warden and six
chaplains. Thirteen poor husbandmen of Buchan were maintained there.
King Robert the Bruce added to its endowment. Some of the remains of
this institution are known as "The Abbey Lands." Leo XIII. restored
St. Comgan's feast to the Scottish calendar in 1898.

St. Fyndoca, Virgin.

No particulars of this saint's life remain to us. Her feast occurs
in the Breviary of Aberdeen on this day. She seems to have been
specially venerated in the diocese of Dunblane. An old charter of
the thirteenth century mentions a chapel dedicated to St. Fyndoca at
Findo Cask, near Dunning, in Perthshire; a fair was {149} formerly
held there for eight days from the saint's feast. There are ruins
of an old building known as the chapel of St. Fink at Bendochy,
near Coupar Angus; this was probably one of her dedications.

17--St. Rule, Abbot, (about) 6th century.

An old legend, long accepted as history, but rejected altogether by
modern critics, makes this saint the bearer of the relics of St.
Andrew from Patras in Achaia to Scotland in the fourth century. The
story relates that Rule, when engaged in his duties as custodian of
the apostle's shrine, was favoured with a Heavenly vision, in which
an angel commanded him to set aside certain of the relics--among them
an arm-bone and three fingers of the Apostle--and to conceal them for
a time in a certain spot indicated. Another vision later on directed
the holy man to set sail with the relics in a north-westerly
direction "towards the ends of the earth," and when the vessel should
be in danger of shipwreck on a northern coast to recognise that as a
sign that a church should be built near that spot in honour {150} of
St. Andrew, where the relics should be enshrined. St. Rule is said to
have carried out the command in company with many fellow voyagers,
and to have founded the church of St. Andrew's, where he lived more
than thirty years after his landing. A cave on the sea coast hard by
still bears his name. He is said to have retired there for prayer.
The old church of St. Rule, with its quaint, slender tower, was the
first cathedral of the city, which formerly bore the saint's name.

Most modern historians identify St. Rule with an Irish abbot of
similar name who is honoured on this day. He was a contemporary of
St. Kenneth, and probably ended his days at St. Andrews, after
labouring there as a missionary. St. Rule is the patron of Monifieth,
Forfarshire; of Meikle Folia, near Fyvie, Aberdeenshire; and of
Kennethmont, Aberdeenshire, where an ancient fair, held on the second
Tuesday in October as late as the beginning of last century, was
known as "Trewell Fair." There was a chapel of St. Rule at St. Cyrus
(formerly called Ecclesgreig) in Kincardineshire. {151}

21 St. Mund or Fintan-Munnu, Abbot, A.D. 635,
He was born in Ireland, and was a contemporary of St. Columba. He
bears the character of being the most austere of all the Irish
saints, and suffered grievously from bodily infirmities with the
greatest resignation. Crossing over to Scotland, he dwelt for a time
upon an island of Loch Leven, still called after him by the title of
Eileanmunde.

A more important foundation was afterwards made by this saint at
Kilmun, north of the Firth of Clyde, in Argyllshire. An old burial
ground still marks the site of the monastery founded by St. Mund; the
hills and wooded glens which surround the spot make up a scene of
striking beauty. A small bay in the vicinity is called "Holy Loch."
It is a matter of dispute whether the title came from its proximity
to St. Mund's foundation or from a shipload of earth from the Holy
Land, destined to form part of the foundation of a church in Glasgow,
and reputed to have been sunk in a storm near that spot.

It is said that St. Mund made application to Baithen, St. Columba's
successor at Iona, to be {152} received as a monk of that monastery,
but that Baithen advised the saint to return to Ireland and found a
monastery there. The holy abbot gave this advice on account of a
prophecy of St. Columba, who had foreseen St. Mund's desire, and had
declared that God willed that saint to become abbot over others and
not the disciple of Baithen.

It was owing to this advice that St. Mund returned to his native land
and founded Teach-Mun (Tagmon) in Wexford, which became famous under
his rule.

Mediaeval documents mention the saint's pastoral staff as preserved
in Argyllshire; its hereditary custodian held a small croft at
Kilmun; it may have been in honour of this saint that a fair was held
at that place for eight days during April as alluded to in records of
1490. No trace of the above relic now remains. In Ireland this saint
is known as St. Fintan-Munnu; but Mundus or Mund is the title which
appears in Scottish records.

26--St. Bean, Bishop, llth century.

This saint was venerated at Fowls Wester {153} and Kinkell, both in
Perthshire. His well is pointed out at the former place, and his fair
is held there. St. Bean is inserted in the calendar of the Breviary
of Aberdeen, but few particulars of his life are known to us.
Tradition makes him Bishop of Mortlach, in Banffshire, though the
existence of such a see is not generally admitted. St. Bean, probably
resided at Morlach of which he became patron (in succession to St.
Moluag see--June 25); he is said to have ruled a monastery of Culdees
there. An ancient stone effigy, in existence in the eighteenth
century in Mortlach Church, was supposed to represent the saint;
nothing of the kind is now to be seen. Balvenie, in the
neighbourhood, is thought to be derived from _Bal-beni-mor_
("dwelling of Bean the Great"). The feast of St. Bean was
restored to Scotland by Leo XIII.

St. Eata, Bishop, A.D. 686.

He was one of the boys trained by St. Aidan in the monastery of
Lindisfarne. When he grew to manhood he made his profession as a
monk of that abbey, and in after years became {154} Abbot of Old
Melrose, where St. Boisil and St. Cuthbert were among his disciples.
He became Bishop of Lindisfarne, and was afterwards translated to
the See of Hexham. He was buried in Hexham Cathedral.

30--St. Talarican, Bishop, A.D. (about) 720.

This saint has been claimed as one of the Irish missionaries to
Scotland, but competent authorities maintain that his name shows
him to have been of Pictish origin, and they add that the Irish
calendars do not contain a saint whose name can be identified with
that of Talarican. The saint is said to have been raised to the
episcopate by Pope Gregory (perhaps St. Gregory II.). It is
specially said of him that he was careful to offer Holy Mass
every day. His life was one of stern discipline. He laboured in
the northern districts of Scotland, and his popularity is shown
by the numerous dedications in his name.

The large district of Kiltarlity in Invernessshire, in which
Beauly Priory was situated, takes its name from St. Talarican.
A church and burial-ground known as Ceilltarraglan once {155}
existed in the Isle of Skye; it was situated on the plain above
the rocks to the north of Loch Portree. In the island of Taransay
we find _Eaglais Tarain_, or Church of Talarican. The saint is also
associated with the church of Fordyce, in Banffshire, where a fair
was held on his feast and during the octave. There is a St. Tarkin's
Well at Fordyce and another in the parish of Kilsyth, Stirlingshire,
is thought to own this saint as patron. Leo XIII. restored St.
Talarican's feast to the Scottish Calendar.

St. Monoch.

At Stevenson, in Ayrshire, an annual fair was formerly held on
October 30th, which was called "Sam Maneuke's," or "St. Monk's Day";
it has long been discontinued. An old will of the sixteenth century
points to this saint as the patron of the town. Archibald Weir, in
his testament, dated October 7th, 1547, says: "I give and bequeath my
soul to God Almighty and my body to be buried in the church of St.
Monoch, of Steynstoune." A procession once took place annually on
this day in the above locality. It was doubtless the remnant of some
{156} popular Catholic demonstration in honour of the patronal feast;
though mentioned as late as 1845 it has now disappeared. In the
parish of Sorn, in the same county, is an estate known by the
designation of Auchmannoch, which probably refers to this saint.

31 St. Bees or Begha, Virgin, A.D. (about) 660.

This saint was of royal Irish race. In her youth she was promised in
marriage to a Norwegian prince, but as she had vowed virginity in her
earliest years she fled from home to escape the force which might
possibly be brought to bear upon her to bring about the proposed
union. Embarking alone in a small boat, she made her way to the
opposite coast of Northumbria. Here she dwelt for some time in a
woodland retreat, after receiving the monastic habit from St. Aidan,
the bishop. She afterwards presided over a community of virgins,
whose government she eventually resigned to St. Hilda. St. Begha
founded another monastery in Strathclyde, which was known by her
name. The tongue of land on which it stood is still called St. Bee's
Head. {157}

In this retreat she died in the odour of sanctity. Kilbagie, in
Clackmannan, is probably named after this saint, and also Kilbucho
(Church of Begha), in the parish of Broughton, Peebleshire.



NOVEMBER

3--St. Malachy, Archbishop, A.D. 1148.

Among the Irish saints who benefited Scotland, the illustrious
contemporary and dear friend of his biographer, St. Bernard, must not
be omitted. St. Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, twice visited
Scotland. On his return from one of his visits to Rome, he stayed
with King David I., and by his prayers restored to life the monarch's
son, Prince Henry, who was in danger of death. During this visit, St.
Malachy erected an oratory of wattles and clay on the sea-shore near
Port Patrick. St. Bernard relates that the saint not only directed
the work but laboured with his own hands in its construction. He
blessed the cemetery adjoining, which was arranged according to Irish
usage, within a deep fosse. The second visit to Scotland was shortly
before St. Malachy {158} set out on that last journey to the
continent from which he never returned, dying on November 2nd, 1148,
in St. Bernard's own Abbey of Clairvaux. He had set his heart on
founding a monastery in Scotland at a place called _Viride Stagnum_,
"The Green Lake," situated about three miles from the present town of
Stranraer. There he marked out the boundaries, and established a
community brought from one of his Irish houses. St. Bernard alludes
to a monastery in Scotland as the last founded by St. Malachy, and
this is undoubtedly the one referred to. Later on, this monastery,
which acquired the name of Soulseat (_Sedes Animarum_), was peopled
by Premonstratensian Canons, brought from St. Norbert's own house of
Premontre. It became known in after ages as Saulseat.

St. Nidan, Bishop, about the 6th century.

He was one of the Welsh disciples of St. Kentigern, and probably
accompanied him on his return to Scotland (see pp. 47-8). He is said
to have evangelised the part of Deeside round Midmar, of which he was
the patron. {159}

St. Englatius, Abbot, A.D. 996.

This saint, whose feast-day appears in the calendar of the Aberdeen
Breviary, is associated with the parish of Tarves in Aberdeenshire,
where he is known by the name of Tanglan. There is a "Tanglan's
Well" in the village, and a "Tanglan's" Ford on the river Ythan.

St. Baya or Vey, Virgin, about the 9th century.

She is said to have inhabited the island of Little Cumbrae, where she
lived in solitude surrounded by birds and beasts. The ruins of an
ancient chapel, called that of St. Vey, are still to be seen, and the
saint is believed to have been buried there. Tradition tells us, in
proof of her love of solitude, that when the Rector of Dunbar
attempted to carry off St. Baya's relics, a furious storm arose
through the saint's intervention, and compelled him to desist. Kilbag
Head in Lewis is probably named after a church dedicated to this
saint.

St. Maura, Virgin, about the 9th century.

This saint was a friend of St. Baya, and used to visit her upon her
island for spiritual converse. {160} She is said to have governed a
very austere community of virgins consecrated to God. She died at
Kilmaura (Church of Maura) in Ayrshire.

6--St. Methven.

There are no particulars extant concerning the life of this saint,
and it is therefore impossible to determine the time in which he
flourished. A church bearing the name of St. Methven formerly stood
in the parish of Fowlis Wester, in Perthshire. A fair used to be
held there on this day in each year, locally known as St. Methvenmas
Market. The day itself was observed as a holiday. Like most of such
remains of Catholic merry-makings, the custom has long disappeared.

8--St. Moroc, Bishop.

Some writers maintain that this saint was formerly Abbot of Dunkeld.
His name certainly survives in that neighbourhood in Kilmorick,
where a spring is called St. Mureach's Well. Another church named
after this saint was at Lecropt, near Stirling, and here his {161}
body is said by tradition to have been laid to rest. Kilimrack
(Beauly) has been sometimes ascribed to this saint, but the more
reliable authorities give it as one of Our Lady's dedications. The
period in which St. Moroc flourished is not known with any degree
of certainty.

St. Gervadsus or Gernadius, Hermit, A.D. 934,

This saint was of Irish nationality. Longing for a life of entire
seclusion from the world, he left his native land and took up his
residence in Scotland. He is said to have lived many years as a
hermit in the province of Moray, and in corroboration of the
tradition a cave was formerly pointed out in the parish of Drainie,
near Elgin, known as "Gerardin's Cave," it was situated on the height
behind the modern Station Hotel at Lossiemouth. For many centuries
this habitation was intact. It had an ancient Gothic doorway and
window-opening, but these were demolished more than a hundred years
ago by a drunken sailor. Since 1870 the whole face of the cliff known
as "Holyman's Head," including the cave, has {162} been quarried. No
trace now remains of the spring of water there, called "Gerardin's
Well," from which the anchorite drank a thousand years ago.

It is said that a monastery was founded by this saint at Kennedar, in
the same parish of Drainie where he associated himself with many
fellow-soldiers in Christ, and built a church under the direction of
angels. The remains of Kineddar Castle, a residence of the Bishops of
Moray, may still be seen there. Tradition tells that on stormy
nights, the saint was wont to pace the beach below his cell, lantern
in hand, to warn off vessels from the dangerous rocks. This is
commemorated in the Lossiemouth Burgh seal, which represents the
saint with his lantern and bears the motto: _Per noctem lux_. A
Presbyterian church erected at Stotfield (Lossiemouth) in recent
years bears the name of "St. Gerardine."

12--St. Machar or Mocumma, Bishop, 6th century.

This saint was the son of Fiachna, an Irish chieftain, and was
baptised by St. Colman. In his youth he became a disciple of the
great St. {163} Columba, and when that saint went to Scotland, Machar
accompanied him, together with eleven other disciples. After some
years he was made a bishop, and was sent by St. Columba with twelve
companions to preach to the pagan Picts of Strathdon, in the
northeast of Scotland. It is said that his holy master commanded him
to found a church in the spot where he should find a river forming by
its windings the shape of a bishop's pastoral staff. Such a
configuration he found in the river Don, at the spot now known as Old
Aberdeen. Here he accordingly fixed his seat, and the cathedral that
rose from the humble beginnings of a church instituted by Machar now
bears his name.

Besides the old Cathedral of Aberdeen, there are in the same county
two parishes, formerly joined in one, which are known as New and Old
Machar, respectively. At Kildrummie, in Aberdeenshire, is a place
called (after the saint) "Macker's Haugh." There is St. Machar's
Well, near the cathedral, at Old Aberdeen; the water used always to
be taken for baptismal purposes to the cathedral. {164}

At Corgarff, in Strathdon, is another spring known as _Tobar Mhachar_
(the well of St. Machar); miracles were formerly obtained there. Of
this spring the legend is related of a priest, in time of famine,
drawing from it three fine salmon which lasted him for food till
supplies came from other quarters.

St. Machar's feast was restored to Scotland by Pope Leo XIII. in
1898.

13--St. Devenick, about the 6th century.

Tradition tells that this saint was a contemporary of the former, and
preached the Gospel in Caithness. A legend relates that his body was
borne for burial to Banchory Devenick, in Kincardineshire, in
accordance with his continually expressed desire to rest in the
district of St. Machar, whom he had tenderly loved during life. A
church was afterwards built over his relics, and named after him.

Criech, in Sutherlandshire, was probably another of his churches, if
he is the saint known there as St. Teavneach. Besides a fair of great
antiquity, known as "Dennick's", held at Milton of Glenesk,
Forfarshire, another at {165} Methlick, Aberdeenshire, held in
November about this date, bore the same name; this implies that the
respective churches are dedicated to him, as fairs bearing saints
names had their origin in all instances in the concourse of people
assembled for the celebration of the patronal feast of a church. St.
Devenick's Well is near Methlick church.

15--St. Machutus, or Malo, Bishop, A.D. 565.

The Aberdeen Breviary gives on this day the feast of the British
saint who became one of the apostles of Brittany and is commemorated
there by the town of St. Malo.

There is no record of this saint's residence in Scotland, but his
_cultus_  flourished there, possibly on account of his connection
with St. Brendan (see May 16). Lesmahago, the site of a Benedictine
monastery, takes its name from him, the title being a corrupt form of
_Ecclesia Sti. Machuti_ (Church of St. Machutus). Wigtown church,
also, was dedicated to this saint.

16--St. Margaret, Queen, A.D. 1093.

It is impossible here to say much in detail of {166} the life of the
saintly queen who is regarded as one of the heavenly patrons of the
Kingdom of Scotland; but to omit all notice of her would make our
calendar incomplete. It will be sufficient to note briefly the chief
events of her life. St. Margaret was granddaughter to Edmund
Ironside. Her father, Edward, having to fly for his life to Hungary,
married Agatha, the sister-in-law of the king. Three children were
born to them. When Edward the Confessor ascended the English throne,
Prince Edward returned with his family to his native land, but died a
few years after. When William the Conqueror obtained the crown,
Edgar, the son of Edward, thought it more prudent to retire from
England, and took refuge with his mother and sisters at the court of
Malcolm III. of Scotland, having been driven on the Scottish coast by
a tempest. Malcolm, attracted by the virtue and beauty of Margaret,
made her his bride, and for the thirty years she reigned in Scotland
she was a model queen. The historian Dr. Skene says of her: "There is
perhaps no more beautiful character recorded in history than that of
{167} Margaret. For purity of motives, for an earnest desire to
benefit the people among whom her lot was cast, for a deep sense of
religion and great personal piety, for the unselfish performance of
whatever duty lay before her, and for entire self-abnegation she is
unsurpassed, and the chroniclers of the time all bear witness to her
exalted character." Her solicitude for the nation was truly maternal.
She set herself to combat, with zeal and energy, the abuses which had
crept into the practice of religion, taking a prominent part--with
her royal husband as the interpreter of her southern speech--in many
councils summoned at her instigation. She loved and befriended clergy
and monks, and was lavish in her charity to the poor. Her own
children, through her training and example, were one and all
distinguished for piety and virtue. Her three sons, Edgar, Alexander
and David, were remarkable for their unparalleled purity of life:
David's two grandsons, Malcolm IV. and William, and William's son and
grandson, Alexander II. and III., were noble Catholic kings. Thus did
the influence of this saintly queen extend {168} over the space of
two hundred years and form monarchs of extraordinary excellence to
rule Scotland wisely and well.

St. Margaret died on the 16th of November at the age of forty-seven.
Her body was buried with that of King Malcolm, who had been killed in
battle only four days before her own death, in the church they had
founded at Dunfermline. At the Reformation her relics were secretly
carried into Spain, together with the remains of her husband, and
placed in the Escurial. Her head, with a quantity of her long, fair
hair, was preserved for a time by the Scottish Jesuits at Douai. The
sacred relics disappeared in the French Revolution. Fairs on the
saint's feast-day, known as "Margaretmas," were held at Wick,
Closeburn (Dumfries shire) and Balquhapple (now Thornhill) in
Kincardineshire. St. Margaret's Well at Restalrig near Edinburgh, was
once covered by a graceful Gothic building, whose groined roof rested
on a central pillar; steps led down to the level of the water. It is
thought to have been erected at the same period as that covering St.
Triduana's Well in the same place. {169}

When the North British Railway required the spot for the building of
storehouses, the well-house was removed to Queen's Park, where it
still stands, but the spring has disappeared (see October 8th).
Innocent XII. at the petition of James VII. (and II.) in 1693, placed
St. Margaret's feast on June 10th, the birthday of the King's son
James (stigmatised the "Old Pretender"), but Leo XIII., in 1898,
restored it for the Scottish calendar to the day of her death.

18--St. Fergus, Bishop, 8th century.

This saint, a Pict by nationality, is said to have been for many
years a bishop in Ireland. Moved by a desire to benefit the pagans of
the northern districts of Scotland, he left Ireland and returned to
his own land, accompanied by a few priests and clerics, and settled
in Strathearn. Here he founded three churches, which he dedicated to
St. Patrick. Passing north wards he visited Caithness, and after
preaching the Gospel there for some time he travelled to Buchan,
where he built a church at Lungley, a place afterwards known as St.
Fergus. Finally {170} he moved on to Glamis, in Forfarshire, where he
founded another church, and it was here that he ended his life and
was buried.

Several dedications to this saint are to be found in the northern and
eastern parts of Scotland. The churches of Wick and Halkirk, in
Caithness; Dyce and St. Fergus, in Aberdeenshire; and his well,
called "Fergan Well," at Kirkmichael, in Banffshire, famous for its
miraculous efficacy in curing skin diseases: all these bear witness
to the devotion borne towards St. Fergus by Scottish Catholics in
past ages. An annual fair was held at Glamis on his feast-day (known
as "Fergusmas"), and continued for five days. Another fair took place
at Wick.

Other proofs of his connection with Scotland are seen in the
traces of the three churches founded by the saint in Strathearn:
Strogeth-St.-Patrick, Blackford-St.-Patrick, and Dolpatrick.

The head of St. Fergus was venerated in the Abbey of Scone, where
James IV. provided a silver reliquary for it. His arm was preserved
at Aberdeen, in the old cathedral. {171}

The pastoral staff of the saint, long treasured at St. Fergus, in
Buchan, is said to have calmed a storm on that coast. No traces now
remain of it.

An ancient image of St. Fergus existed at Wick until 1613, when it
was destroyed by a minister, who was drowned by the indignant people
for his action. The saint's holy well was honoured there. He is
thought to be the same "Fergus, the Pict, Bishop of the Scots," who
took part in a Synod in St. Peter's at Rome under Pope Gregory II. in
A.D. 721.

Pope Leo XIII. restored the feast of St. Fergus in 1898.

26--St. Christina, Virgin, A.D. (about) 1085.

This saint, though brought into close connection with the country,
was not of Scottish lineage. She was the sister of St. Margaret,
and therefore the daughter of Edward the Etheling. Together with
her mother Agatha, sister to the Queen of Hungary, Christina took
the veil in the Benedictine Abbey of Romsey, in Hampshire. Here
both royal ladies became distinguished for holiness. Matilda,
daughter {172} of St. Margaret, was educated by her aunt at Romsey.
She became known as the "good Queen Maud" after she had married
Henry I. of England. St. Christina died in the odour of sanctity
about the year 1085.

27--St. Oda or Odda, Virgin, about 8th century.

She is said to have been a daughter of a Scottish king. Having the
misfortune to lose her sight, she made a pilgrimage to the tomb of
St. Lambert the martyr, at Liege, to implore the help of that
renowned wonder-worker. Her faith was rewarded by a cure, and Oda
resolved, in gratitude for the favour, to dedicate herself to God in
the religious state. She therefore retired to a hermitage in Brabant,
where she spent her remaining years in prayer and penance, winning
from Heaven many graces for the people of that district. After her
death her relics were enshrined in a collegiate church in the town of
Rhode, and she became the chief patron of the place.

It is remarkable that the feast of this saint was inserted in the
calendar drawn up for the Scottish Episcopal Church by order of {173}
Charles I. St. Oda's supposed royal descent is thought to have won
for her this distinction.

28--St. Callen.

Nothing more is known concerning this saint than the facts that the
church of Rogart, in Sutherlandshire, was dedicated to St. Callen,
and a fair, known as "St. Callen's Fair," was formerly held there
on this day.

30--St. Andrew, Apostle, Patron of Scotland.

We cannot reckon St. Andrew among the national saints of Scotland,
for he lived and died far from these northern lands. Scotland cannot
even claim connection with him on the ground of having received
missionaries from him, as England can boast of her connection with
St. Gregory the Great. Yet from time immemorial so far back that
history cannot point to any precise date St. Andrew has been
venerated as the special protector of Scotland, and his feast, known
as "Andrewmas," celebrated everywhere with great rejoicing. The
legend of St. Regulus (see October 17) which attributes to that saint
the bringing of {174} the apostle's relics to the country is rejected
by modern historians. The origin of devotion to St. Andrew in
Scotland is nevertheless due to the translation of the apostle's
relics thither (probably from Hexham) during the eighth century.
These relics were undoubtedly honoured with much devotion at the
place which was afterwards known by the name of the great Apostle,
and eventually became the Primatial See of that country.

Whatever be the true facts of the case, St. Andrew has been invoked
for more than one thousand years as the Patron of Scotland, whose
battle-cry in the ages of faith was "For God and St. Andrew."



DECEMBER

2--St. Ethernan, Bishop.

This saint belonged to a noble Scottish family and was sent to
Ireland for his education. On returning to his native land, he
devoted himself to the work of preaching the Faith among his
countrymen in the province of Buchan, Aberdeenshire. He eventually
became a bishop. {175}

On the east side of the hill of Mormond near Rathen, in
Aberdeenshire, is a place called "St. Ethernan's Den"; it is believed
to have been the spot chosen by the saint as his hermitage. The
neighbouring church of Rathen is dedicated to him. The church of
Kilrenny in Fifeshire, popularly known as "St. Irnie's," is probably
one of his dedications; it is a favourite landmark for mariners. St.
Ethernan's well is there. At Forfar a fair was annually held on this
day under the name of "Tuetheren's Fair." He was also honoured at
Madderty in Perthshire.

There seems to have been a chapel of this saint in the old monastic
church on the Isle of May; as, by an ancient charter, Alexander
Cumyn, Earl of Buchan, grants a stone of wax or forty shillings
yearly to "St. Ethernan of the Isle of May, and the monks serving God
and St. Ethernan in that place."

6--St. Constantine III., King, A.D. (about) 945.

The life of this saint is involved in obscurity. According to the
most probable account he was a Scottish King, who resigned his crown
after a {176} reign of more than forty years, and retired, as the
_Chronicle of the Picts and Scots_ relates, "to the monastery on the
brink of the waves and died in the house of the Apostle." This
monastery was probably the Culdee establishment at St. Andrews. A
cave near Fife Ness called after the saint, and marked by many
pilgrims crosses, is supposed to have been his place of retirement
for prayer.

7--St. Buite, Monk, A.D. 521.

He was born in Ireland, and from his infancy was believed to possess
miraculous powers. Early writers compare him with Venerable Bede
for his virtues and mode of life. He is said to have lived many
years in a monastery in Italy, and to have returned, by Divine
admonition, to his native land, taking with him many copies of
the Holy Scriptures together with sacred vestments and numerous
holy relics. On his journey he was joined by a number of pilgrims
who desired to live under his rule; accordingly he sailed with his
company for North Britain, and landed in Pictish territory, where
he is said to have restored the king of the country to life {177} by
his prayers. Receiving as a reward the royal fort in which the
miracle had taken place, St. Buite founded a monastery there, and
remained for some time instructing the people of the country in the
Faith. Eventually he returned to Ireland.

Dunnichen, in Angus, is thought to be the site of St. Buite's
foundation. Near it are still to be seen the remains of an ancient
fortress known as Carbuddo or _Caer Buido_ (Buite's Fort). The
saint is said to have foretold the birth of St. Columba, which
occurred on the very day upon which St. Buite himself died.

11--St. Obert.

All that is now known of this saint is that he was honoured in Perth
in Catholic ages as the patron saint of bakers. On December 10, known
as St. Obert's Eve, the bakers of that city were accustomed to pass
through the streets in procession by torchlight, playing pipes and
beating drums, and wearing various disguises. One of their number
used to wear a dress known as "The Devil's Coat." Another rode on a
horse shod with men's shoes. In its {178} primitive form this pastime
was probably some kind of sacred drama representing the chief
features in the life of the saint; but its character had changed in
the course of time.

On account of their connection with the ancient faith such
performances gave great offence to the Puritans. In 1581 "an Act
against idolatrous and superstitious pastimes, especially against the
Sanct Obert's Play," was issued by the Session. It seems to have had
little effect, for again in 1587 the bakers were required "to take
order for the amendment of the blasphemous and heathenish plays of
Sanct Obert's pastime." Eventually in 1588, several "insolent young
men" were imprisoned for their "idolatrous pastime in playing of
Sanct Obert's play, to the great grief of the conscience of the
faithful and infamous slander of the haill congregation."

17--St. Crunmael, Abbot.

No particulars of the life of this saint are extant, beyond the
fact that he was one of the Abbots of Iona. {179}

18--St. Flannan, Confessor.

This saint was of Irish nationality; the precise period at which
he lived is uncertain. The group of islands to the west of Lewis
are called after him, the Flannan Islands. On the largest of these
seven islands are the remains of a chapel known as _Teampull
Beannachadh_ (St. Flannan's Chapel). This seems to indicate that
the saint resided there at some period, though no record remains
of the fact beyond the traditional designation of the ruins. The
Flannan Islands have always been regarded by the people of Lewis
with almost superstitious veneration.

St. Manire, Bishop, A.D. 824.

This was a saint of Scottish nationality, who laboured in Deeside.
He was especially honoured at Crathie and Balvenie. He was a
strenuous opponent of the idolatrous or superstitious practices
which the half-barbarous people to whom he preached were accustomed
to introduce into their worship of God. He is said to have mastered
the many dialects then {180} spoken in the district which he
inhabited, in order to be able to preach the Faith to all.

22--St. Ethernascus, Confessor.

From his retired life and spirit of recollection this Irish saint
was known as "Ethernascus, who spoke not," or "The Silent." He was
one of the chief patrons of Clane, in the county of Kildare. It is
difficult to determine what was his precise connection with Scotland,
but his office occurs with a proper prayer in the Breviary of
Aberdeen. The church of Lathrisk, in Fifeshire, was dedicated to
St. Ethernascus conjointly with St. John the Evangelist.

23--St. Caran, Bishop, A.D. 663.

This was an east country saint who was formerly held in honour at
Fetteresso and Drumlithie in The Mearns, and at Premnay in
Aberdeenshire. There are also traces of his _cultus_  in Strathmore,
Caithness. At Drumlithie is a spring known as St. Carran's Well.
His fair was formerly held on this day at Anstruther, Fifeshire.
Some of these dedications {181} have been, by certain writers,
accredited to another saint Kieran (September 9). No particulars
of St. Caran's life are extant.

St. Mayota or Mazota, Virgin, 6th century.

It is maintained by some writers that the great St. Bridget, one of
the chief glories of Ireland, visited Scotland in the beginning of
the sixth century, and founded a monastery for women at Abernethy,
which she dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. Over this house St.
Darlughdach was placed as superior; or, as some think, she was
the real foundress. St. Mayota was one of the nine virgins who
came from Ireland to form the first community at Abernethy. She
is said to have been remarkable for having wrought many striking
miracles in her lifetime. The church of Drumoak or Dulmaoak (Field
of St. Mayota), situated near the Dee, takes its name from this
saint. A spring in the neighbourhood is called "St. Maikie's Well."

25--St. Bathan, Bishop, A.D. (about) 639.

In a letter to the Scots from Pope John IV. mention is made of this
saint as especially {182} connected with Scotland. No particulars of
his life are now known, but his _cultus_  can be traced by the
churches dedicated to him. Abbey St. Bathans, a parish in
Berwickshire, takes its name from this saint. The ruins of an abbey
for Cistercian nuns are there, and in a wooded nook, in the vicinity
is a spring called St. Bathan's Well. In addition to a reputation
for healing diseases, it has the unusual quality of never freezing;
a mill-stream into which it flows is said to be never blocked with
ice in winter. The parish of Yester (Haddingtonshire) formerly bore
the name of St. Bathan's, and the parish of Bowden in Roxburghshire
probably takes its designation from the same saint.

ALL YE SAINTS OF SCOTLAND, PRAY FOR US.



INDEX


  Abbey St. Bathans 182
  Abb's Head 123
  Aberchirder 33
  Abercorn 101
  Abercrombie (St. Monan's) 34
  Aberdeen 109, 163
  Aberdour 91, 95, 106, 107
  Aberlednock 101
  Aberlour 107
  Abernethy 16, 17, 93, 108, 181
  Abersnethick 48
  Abriachan 137
  Aboyne 137
  Adamnan, St. 136
  Adamnan of Coldingham 15
  Adrian (Odhran), St. 35
  Aidan, St. 125
  Airlie 74
  Aldhame 37
  Alexander, Bl. 114
  Alloa 6
  Alness 91
  Alva 100
  Alvah 91
  Alvie 107
  Alyth 98, 134
  Andrew, St. 173
  "Andrewmas" 173
  Angus, St. 117
  Anstruther 180
  Applecross 67 _seq_.
  Arasaig 69
  Arbirlot 134
  Arbroath 9, 39, 134
  Arbuthnott 94
  Ardchattan 19, 82
  Ardeonaig 138
  Ard-Marnoc 33
  Ard-Patrick 46
  Arduthie 39
  Argyle Cathedral 98
  Arnold (Adamnan), St. 139
  Arnty (Adamnan), St. 139
  Arran 66
  Asaph, St. 76
  Ashkirk  134
  Auchinblae 105
  Auchterarder 41
  Auchterawe 98
  Auchterless 66
  Aunan (Adamnan), St. 139
  Ayr 6

  Baitan (Baithen), St. 91
  Baldred, St. 36
  Ballantrae 51
  Balmodhan 19
  Balquhidder 117
  Balvenie 153, 179
  Banchory 93, 94, 164
  Bannockburn 17
  Barr 141
  Barr (Finbar), St. 139
  Barra 80, 143
  Barvas 100
  Bass Rock 36
  Bathan, St. 181
  Baya (Vey), St. 159
  Bay, St. Ficker's 124
  Bean, St. 152
  Bearnarey 77
  Bed, St. Kevin's 87
   " St. Molios' 67
  Bees (Begha), St. 156
  Beith 120
  Beldorny 13
  Bell
    St. Adamnan's 139
    St. Baitan's 92
    St. Blaan's 119
    St. Duthac's 39
    St. Fillan's 18
    St. Finan's 44
    St. Kessog's 41
    St. Lolan's 136
    St. Middan's 74
    St. Moluag's 99
    St. Ternan's 93
    St. Yrchard's 122
  Bendochy 149
  Ben Eunaich 138
  Berchan, St. 113
  Birnie 80
  Birsay 63
  Birse 91
  Blaan, St. 118
  Blackford-St.-Patrick 170
  Blair Athole 138
  Blaithmaic, St. 7
  Boisil (Boswell), St. 29
  Boniface (Curitan), St. 45
  Bothelney 12
  Botriphine 78
  Bowden 182
  Boyndie 80
  Brandan (Brendan), St. 79
  Bridget, St. 16
  Brioc (Brock), St. 75
  Buchanan 3
  Buite, St. 176
  Burn of Marran (Mirin) 132
  Bute, Isle of 80, 81, 111, 118

  Cadroe, St. 37
  Cadzow 142
  Caer-Winning 54
  Calaverock 91
  Callander 41
  Callen, St. 173
  Campbeltown 130
  Cambuskenneth 147
  Cambusnethan 91, 126
  Campsie 138, 141
  _Candida Casa_ 133
  Cannisbay 107
  Cantyre--See Kintyre
  Caran, St. 180
  Carluke 116
  Carmacheasaig 40
  Cathan, St. 81
  Cave of Geradin 161
    St. Baldred 37
    St. Kevin 87
    St. Kieran 129
    St. Medana 103
    St. Molios 67
    St. Serf 100
  Ceilltarraglan (Skye) 154
  Chair of St. Fillan 95
    St. Inan 120
    St. Machalus 74
  Chapel Dockie 129
  Chapel Rock 110
  Chapelton 23
  Chapeltown 74
  Charmaig, St. 44
  Chenzie Island 147
  Christina, St. 171
  Chroman (Chronan), St. 1
  Clati Chatlan 82
  Clatt 98
  Cloeburn 168
  Coivin (Kevin), St.. 87
  Coldmgharn 16, 59, 123, 126
  Colman, St. 25
  Colmoc, St. 87
  Colonsay 82
  Columba, St. 88
  Comgall, St. 78
  Comgan (Congan), St. 2, 147
  Comman, St. 48
  Comrie 41, 94
  Conan 8
  Conan, St. 10
  Conran, St. 23
  Constantine, St. 41
  Constantine III., St. 175
  Contin 69
  Conval, St. (King) 61
  Conval, St. 83
  Corgarff 164
  Cormac, St. 95
  Commony 46
  Cowie 12
  Coylton 132
  Crathie, 79
  Criech 164
  Cromarty 40
  Cross
    St. Berchan's 113
    Drostan's 106
  Crozier of
    St. Cormac 96
    Donnan 66
    Fergus 171
    Fillan 18
    Lolan 135
    Moluag 99
    Mund 152
  Crunmael, St. 178
  Culross 99 _seq_.
  Cumbrae 76
  Cumbrae, Little 159
  Cumine, St. 30
  Cumnock 84
  Cunibert, St. 73
  Cunningham 2, 54
  Curitan (Boniface), St. 45
  Currie 6
  Cuthbert, St. 29 _seq_, 48

  Dabius (Davius), St. 110
  Daganus, St. 86
  Dalkerran 130
  Dalmally 10, 138
  Dalmarnock 33
  Dalmeny 138
  Dalpatrick 46
  Dalruadhain 129
  Dalry 54
  Dalserf 141
  Dalziel 47
  Damsey 138
  Darlugdach, St. 16, 108, 181
  Davar 140
  Deer 106
  Devenick, St. 164
  Dine, Chapel of 78
  Dinet 78
  Dingwall 70
  Dolpatrick 170
  Donald, St. 107, 108
  Donnan, St. and Companions 6
  Dornoch 57, 141
  Drostan, St. 105
  Drumlithie 180
  Drummelzier 51
  Drumoak 181
  Drymen 91
  Drysdale 51
  Dull 134,138
  Dunbarton 46, 61,  100
  Dumfries 6, 119
  Dunblane 118,, 148
  Dundurn  94
  Dundrennan 14
  Dunfermline 168
  Dunfillan 94
  Dunkeld 33, 91, 160
  Dunmeth 13
  Dunnichen 42, 177
  Dunrod 76
  Durris 79
  Duthae, St. 38
  Dyce 170
  Dysart 100

  Eata, St. 153
  Ebba, St. 15, 123
  Ebba, St. and Companions 59
  Eeclefechan 9
  Eccles 51
  Ecclesmachan 141
  Eddleston 141
  Edinburgh 51, 104, 128
  Ednam  51
  Edzell 107, 132
  Egbert, St. 7
  Egilshay 64
  Eigg 66, 91
  Elgin 128
  Ellanmore 44
  Englatius, St. 159
  "Enoch's, St." 110
  Ernan, St. 1
  Ethernan, St. 174
  Ethernascus, St. 180
  Ethie 128
  Ethiebeaton 129
  Euchadins, St. 9
  Eunan (Adamnan), St. 139

  Failhbe, St. 40
  Fair of
    BI. Alexander 114
    St. Adamnan 138
    St. Angus 117
    St. Barr 141
    St. Bean 153
    St. Berchan 113
    St. Boisil 30
    St. Boniface 4
    St. Brendan So
    St. Brioe 75
    St. Callen 173
    St. Caran 180
    St. Causnan (Constantine) 42
    St. Columba 91
    St. Comgall 79
    St. Comgan 148
    St. Conan 10
    St. Conval 84
    St. Cuthbert 52
    St. Devenick 164
    St. Donnan 66
    St. Drostan 107
    St. Duthae 39
    St. Ethernan 175
    St. Fergus 170
    St. Fillan 18
    St. Finan 44
    St. Finian 48
    St. Fumac 78
    St. Fyndoc 148
    St. Gilbert 59
    St. Giles 128
    St. Inan 120
    St. Kessog 41
    St. Machan 142
    St. Magnus 65
    St. Maree (Maelrubha 70
    St. Margaret 168
    St. Marnoch 33
    St. Marthom 135
    St. Merchard 121
    St. Methven 160
    St. Mirin 131
    St. Mittan 16
    St. Moluag 98
    St. Monoch 155
    St. Mund 152
    St. Mungo 6
    St. Murie (Maelrubbha) 70
    St. Nathalan 12
    St. Olaf 56
    St. Palladius 105
    St. Patrick 46
    St. Rule 150
    St. Serf 101
    St. Talarican 155
    St. Ternan 93
    St. Triduana 145
    St. Vigean 9
    St. Wynnin 54
  Falkirk 21
  Fearn 26, 127
  Fechin (Vigean), St. 8
  Fechno (Fiachna), St. 43
  Ferrenese 84
  Fergna, St. 35
  Fergus, St. 169
  "Ferusmas" 170
  Fetteresso 130, 180
  Fianchna (Fechno), St. 43
  Fiacre, St. 123
  Fifeness 160
  Fillan (Faolan), St. 17, 147
  Fillan ("The Leper"), St. 94
  Finan, St. 23
  Finan (Finian), St. 47
  Finan ("The Leper"), St. 43
  Finbar (Barr), St. 56. 139
  Findo Gask 148
  Fondon 94
  Finhaven 108
  Finian (Wynnin), St. 52
  Fintan-Munnu (Mund), St. 151
  Firth (Frith)-on-Spey 139
  Fordoun 104, 105
  Fordyce 69, 155
  Forfar 145, 175
  Forglen 137
  Forres 69
  Fort-Augustus 31, 83, 91, 98, 103
  Fortrose 45
  Forvie 137
  Fowlis Wester 153, 160
  Frigidian (Wynnin), St. 52
  Fumac, St. 78
  Fyndoca, St. 148

  Gairloch 69
  Garrabost 42
  Garvelloch Isles 91
  Gernadius (Geradin), St. 161
  Gifford 165
  Gigha 85
  Gilbert, St. 57
  Giles, St. 127
  Girvan 51
  Glamis 109, 170
  Glascian, St. 14
  Glasgow 4, 6, 109, 142
  Glenbervie 130
  Glencairn 51
  Glenelg 31
  Glenesk 106
  Glen-Finan 44
  Glengairden 48
  Glengairn 6
  Glen of Ogilvy 108, 109
  Glenorchy 70
  Glenholm (Broughton) 51
  Glenmoriston 121
  Glen Urquhart 46, 106, 107, 138
  Govan 42
  Grandtully 138
  Grease 56

  Hailes 51, 101, 154
  Halkirk 107, 170
  Holy Island 67
  Holy Pool 18
  Houston 18
  Huntly 6

  Inan, St. 119
  Inchbare 141
  Inchbrayoch 76
  Inchinnan 83, 120
  Inchmahome 88
  Inchmarnock 33
  Inch Murryn 132
  Indrecht, St. 43
  Inglismaldie 75
  Inverary 80
  Invergarry 44
  Invermoriston 91
  Iona 3, 7, 9, 23, 30, 35, 40, 42, 43, 48, 90, 96,
       101, 106, 114, 125, 135, 136, 178
  Irvine 120

  Keills 44
  Keith 69 _seq_., 114
  Kelton 44, 132
  Kenmore 127
  Kenneth, St. 145
  Kennethmont 150
  Kennoway 147
  Kentigern (Mungo), St. 3, 100, 109
  Kentigerna, St. 2
  Kessog, St. 40
  Kessock Ferry 41
  Kevin, St. 87
  Kieran, St. 129
  Kilassie 77
  Kilbag Head 159
  Kilbagie 157
  Kilbar 140
  Kilbarchan 113
  Kilbirnie 80
  Kilblane 111, 119
  Kilbrandon 80
  Kilbrannan 80
  Kilbucho 157
  Kilchainie 146
  Kilchainnech 146
  Kilchattan (2) 82
  Kilchenzie 146
  Kilcheran 130
  Kilchoan 148
  Kilchoman 48
  Kilchousland 42
  Kilchowan 148
  Kilchuimein 31
  Kilconan 10
  Kilda, Isle of St. 80
  Kildavie 111
  Kildonan 66
  Kildrummie 163
  Kilduich 39
  Kilduthie 39
  Kileunan 137
  Kilfillan 18
  Kilfinan 33, 44
  Kilkenneth 146
  Kilkerran 130, 137, 140
  Kilkivan 87
  Killallan 18
  Killen, St. 101
  Killernan 1
  Killallan 17
  Killmacharmaig 44
  Kilmadock 18
  Kilmaglas 14
  Kilmahew 61
  Kilmahog 142
  Kilmaichlie 74
  Kilmalomaig 98
  Kilmarnock 33
  Kilmaronog 22
  Kilmaronock 22
  Kilmaurs 160
  Kilmichael-Glassary 99
  Kilmochalmaig 88
  Kilmodan 21
  Kilmorack 161
  Kilmun 151
  Kilpatrick 46, 47
  Kilquhoan 148
  Kilrenny 175
  Kilsyth 132, 155
  Kiltarilty 154
  Kilviceuen 1
  Kilwinning 54
  Kincardine O'Neil 120
  Kindardine-on-Forth 135
  Kingarth 23, 81, 119
  Kinglassie 14
  Kinkell 153
  Kinneff 138
  Kinnoull 42
  Kintradwell 144
  Kintyre (Cantyre) 42, 66, 129, 140
  Kippen 111
  Kirkcormaig 44
  Kirkcudbright 51
  Kirkholm 91
  Kirkmaiden 103
  Kirkmichael 170
  Kirk Mirren 132
  Kirk of Cruden 56
  Kirkoswald 116
  Kirkpatrick (2) 46
  Kirkwall 56, 62
  Kirriemuir 88

  Laggan 101, 146
  Lairg 70
  Laisren, St. 135
  Lamlash 66
  Lamington 120
  Lanark 6
  Largs 18, 91
  Laserian (Molios), St. 66
  Lathrisk 180
  Lecropt 160
  Lesmahago 165
  Lewis 23, 56, 98, 179
  Libranus, St. 42
  Lismore 97
  Lochalsh 17, 147
  Lochbroom 66
  Loch Duich 39
  Loch Etive 19
  Lochlee 107
  Loch Leven 6, 151
  Loch Lomond 3, 40, 132
  Loch Long 20
  Loch Maree 69
  Loch Shiel 44
  Logie Mar 13
  Lolan, St. 135
  Longforgan 103
  Lossiemouth 161
  Lua (Moluag), St. 97
  Lumphanan 47
  Luss 40

  Macceus (Mahew), St. 61
  Machalus, St. 73
  Machan, St. 141
  Machar, St. 162
  Machutus (Malo), St. 165
  Mackessog (Kessog), St. 40
  Madden (Medana), St. 71
  Madderty 175
  Maclrubha, St. 67
  "Magnusmas" 65
  Magnus, St. 62
  Mahew, St. 61
  Mahon (Machan), St. 141
  Maiden Castle 104
  Mains 134
  Malachy, St. 157
  Manire, St. 179
  Man, Isle of 73
  Margaret, St. 165
  "Margaretmas" 168
  Marianus Scotus, St. 102
  Marnock (Marnan), St. 32
  Marnock (Aberchirder) 32
  Maree, St. 69
  Marthom, St. 135
  Matilda, St. 61
  Mauchline 51
  Mauchline 51
  Marua, St. 159
  Maybole 51, 116
  Mayfield 134
  May, Isle of 35, 175
  Mayota, St. 181
  Medana, St. 103
  Meikle Folla 150
  Meldrum, Old 12
  Melrose 112
  Melrose, Old 29, 49, 126, 154
  Menmuir 126, 134
  Merchard, St. 120
  Merolilamus, St. 82
  Methlick 165
  Methven 160
  Mid-Calder 6, 109
  Middan, St. 74
  Mid Genie 141
  Midmar 48, 158
  Migvie 47
  Milton of Glenesk 164
  Mirin, St. 130
  Mittan, St. 16
  _Mo_--Gaelic prefix 22, 32
  Mochrum 44
  Mocumma (Machar), St. 162
  Modan, St. 19
  Modenna (Medanna), St. 103
  Moffat 128
  Molios (Lascerian), St. 66
  Moluag, St. 97
  Monan, St. 34
  Monifieth 129, 150
  Monoch, St. 155
  Monymusk 48
  Monzievaird 100
  Moroc, St. 160
  Mortlach 98, 153
  Mull, Isle of 80, 98, 111, 134
  Mund, St. 151
  Mungo (Kentigern), St. 3, 109
  Murdoch, St. 128
  Mury (Maelrubba), St. 65 _seq_.
  Muthill 47

  Nathalan, St. 10
  Nairn 134
  Nauchlan (Nathalan), St. 10
  Newburgh 109
  Nidan, St. 158
  Nigg 124
  Nine Maidens, The 108
  Ninian, St. 3, 132

  Oathlaw 109
  Obert, St. 177
  Ochiltree 84
  Oda, St. 172
  Odhran (Adrian), St. 35
  _Og_--Gaelic suffix 22, 32
  Olaf, St. 55
  Ordiquhill 52, 135
  Orkneys 56, 64, 96, 134, 144
  Oswald, St. 114

  Pabay 98
  Paisley 33, 131
  Palladius, St. 93, 104
  Paschal Controversy 26, 31, 72, 86, 136
  Patrick, St. 46, 169
  "Patrickmas" 46
  Peebles 6
  Penicuik 6
  Penningham 134
  Perth 44, 177
  Perth, St. William of 84
  Piran (Kieran), St. 122
  Pitlessie 6, 70
  Pitsligo 109
  Pittenweem 18
  Pollokshaws 83
  Portmahomack 88
  Port Patrick 47, 157
  Portsoy 91
  Portree 69
  Premnay 180
  Prestonkirk 37
  Prestwick 51
  Procession
    St. Marnock's 32
    St. Monach's 155
    St. Obert's 177
    St. Serf's 101

  Raasay 23, 98
  Rathen 175
  Relics of
    St. Aidan 28
    St. Andrew 174
    St. Columba 11, 90
    St. Conval 83
    St. Cuthbert 51
    St. Duthac 39
    St. Ebba 123
    St. Fergus 170
    St. Giles 128
    St. Gilbert 59
    St. Magnus 65
    St. Margaret 168
    St. Marnock 32
    St. Merolilanus 83
    St. Mirin 131
    St. Mungo 6
    St. Ninian 134
    St. Ternan 93
    St. Triduana 145
  Rescobie 142 _seq_.
  Restalrig 142, 168
  Rochester, St. William of 84
  Rogart 173
  Rona, Isle of 23
  Ronan, St. 22
  Rosemarkie (Fortrose) 45, 97
  Roseneath 20, 22
  Rothesay 75
  Rothiemay 107
  Rule, St. 149
  Ruthven 98
  Ruthwell 52

  St. Andrews 57, 146, 150, 176
  St. Bathans 182
  St. Boswells 30, 52
  St. Coan 148
  St. Cyrus 150
  St. Fergus (Lungley) 169
  St. Kilda 80
  St. Monans (Abercrombie) 34
  St. Mungo 6
  St. Vigeans 8
  Sanda, Isle of 138
  Sandwick 134
  Saulseat 158
  Scone Abbey 170
  Seat of
    St. Adamnan 138
    St. Cathan 82
    St. Cumine 31
    St. Fillan 18
    St. Merchard 120
    St. Maelrubha 69
    St. Modan 20
  Seil, Isle of 80
  Sert, St. 4, 99, 109
  Skelmorlie 18
  Skye, Isle of 77, 98, 148, 154
  Slains 94, 137
  Sorn 156
  Southenan 120
  Southend 87
  South Uist 66
  Stachur 14
  Statue of
    St. Baldred 37
    St. Barr 140
    St. Charmaig 43
    St. Fergus 171
    St. Fumac 74
    St. Gilbert 59
  Stevenson 155
  Stirling 21, 113
  Stranraer 158
  Strathclyde 3, 103, 156
  Strathdon 163
  Strathearn 94
  Strathfillan 18
  Strathmartin 109
  Strathmore 130, 180
  Strathtay 52
  Strogeth-St.-Patrick 170
  Strowan 23
  Struan 18
  Suibhne (Sweeney), St. 3
  Suibhne II., St. 96

  Tain 39, 113
  Talarican, St. 154
  Tannadice 137
  Taransay 94, 155
  Tarbert 27, 88
  Tarland 98
  Tarves 159
  Temple-Patrick 46
  Ternan, St. 93
  Thenew (Thenog), St. 109
  Thornhill 168
  Tiree 79, 80, 92, 98
  Tough 109
  Triduana, St. 142
  Troon 104
  Troqueer 130
  Tullich 10 _seq_.
  Turriff 134, 148
  Tyningham 37

  Urquhart 68, 69, 107

  Vey (Baya) St. 159
  Vigean (Fechin), St. 8
  Voloc (Wallach), St. 12

  Walthen (Waltheof), St. 115
  Watten-Wester 51, 110
  Wells of
    "Maidie" 75
    St. Adamnan 138
    St. Aidan 127
    St. Asaph 77
    St. Baldred 37
    St. Bathan 182
    St. Bean 153
    St. Boisil 30
    St. Boniface 46
    St. Brendan 80
    St. Carran 180
    St. Columba 91
    St. Conan 10
    St. Conval 84
    St. Constantine 42
    St. Cuthbert 52
    St. Devenick 165
    St. Donnan 66
    St. Drostan 107
    St. Duthac 40
    St. Englatius 159
    St. Ethernan 175
    St. Fergus 170
    St. Fiacre 124
    St. Fillan 18, 95
    St. Fumac 78
    St. Glascian 14
    St. Gerardin 162
    St. Inan 120
    St. Kieran ("Jargon") 130
    St. Machalus 74
    St. Machar 163
    St. Magnus 65
    St. Maree 69
    St. Margaret 144, 168
    St. Marnock 33
    St. Mayota 181
    St. Medana 103
    St. Merchard 122
    St. Middan 75
    St. Mirin 132
    St. Modan 19, 21
    St. Molios 67
    St. Moluag 99
    St. Monan 34
    St. Mungo 6
    St. Mureach 160
    St. Nathalan 12
    St. Ninian 134
    St. Palladius 105
    St. Patrick 47
    St. Ronan 22, 23
    St. Serf 100
    St. Talarican 155
    St. Ternan 94
    St. Thenew 109
    St. Triduana 144
    St. Vigean 9
    St. Voloc 13
    St. Wynnin 54
    The Nine Maidens 109
  Welsh dedications in Scotland 48
  Westfield 107
  Whitekirk 37
  Whiteness (Shetland) 56
  Whithorn 133
  Wick 51, 168, 170
  Wigtown 134, 165
  William of Perth, St. 84
  Wynnin (Finian), St. 53

  Yester 182
  Yrchard (Merchard), St. 120





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