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Title: A Short System of English Grammar - For the Use of the Boarding School in Worcester (1759)
Author: Bate, Henry
Language: English
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A

Short _System_

OF

English GRAMMAR.


For the use of the

BOARDING SCHOOL

In WORCESTER.



_By_ HENRY BATE _A. B._



_Worcester:_ Printed by R. LEWIS,
Bookseller, in _High-Street_.



THE PREFACE.


_Usage and Custom are the Rules and Measures of every_ Language, _and
the Rules of_ GRAMMAR _have nothing more to do, than to teach it. The_
GRAMMAR _is to be fashioned from the particular_ Language, _it treats
of, and not the Language from the_ GRAMMAR. _For want of following this
regular Plan, our Modern_ GRAMMARIANS_ have introduced the_ GRAMMAR
Rules _of other_ Languages _into their own; as if all_ Language _was
founded on_ GRAMMAR, _and the Rules in one_ Language _would serve the
same End and Purpose in another._

The Latin, _for Instance, has only_ eight Parts of Speech, _and the
Writers of_ English GRAMMAR _have unthinkingly adopted the same Number;
whereas with the Article, which the_ Latin _has not, and which is of
great Service in a_ Language, _we have no less than nine. The_ Latin
_admits of_ Cases; _but as different_ Cases, _properly speaking, are
nothing more than the different Inflections and Terminations of Nouns_,
English Nouns _have no_ Cases. _It is not agreeable to the Principles
of_ GRAMMAR _to say that_--of a Rose--_is the Genitive Case of_--Rose,
_or_--to a Rose, _the Dative; for_ of _and_ to _are no Part of the
Word_ Rose, _but only_ prefix Particles _or_ Prepositions, _which shew
the different Relation of the Word_ Rose. _So likewise when we say_
Alexander's Horse, _the Word_ Alexander's _is not the Genitive Case of_
Alexander; _for strictly speaking the_ 's _is no Part of the Word_
Alexander _but the final Letter of the Pronoun Possessive_ his, _and
without the_ Apostrophe _we shou'd read it thus;_ Alexander his Horse.
_If any of the_ Parts of Speech _have_ Cases, _the_ Pronouns _have, and
some of the_ Pronouns _may perhaps have_ two; _but for the Sake of
making every Thing as easy as I can to the Learner, I have taken the
Liberty of distinguishing such_ Pronouns _into_ Prefix _and_
Subsequent, _and entirely laid aside_ Cases _as useless and
unnecessary. The_ Latin _has_ Genders, _the_ Adjective _in that
Language always varying to correspond with the_ Substantive; _but
our_Adjectives _never vary, and therefore the Distinction of_ Genders
_has nothing to do with_ English GRAMMAR, _but is idle, trifling,
impertinent._

EXPERIENCE _shews, that this Sort of pedantick Ignorance and Folly, has
made that dark and obscure, which it was intended to elucidate, and
unhappily puzzled and perplexed a great many more, than it has ever
instructed. Every attempt to make_ English easy _must be fruitless,
that is not formed upon a different Plan, and such is the following_
short System of English GRAMMAR.



A
Short _System_
OF
English GRAMMAR.



_Of_ GRAMMAR _and it's_ DIVISIONS.


Grammar is the Science of Letters or Language, and is the Art of
Speaking and Writing properly.

It's Divisions are four;

ORTHOGRAPHY        ANALOGY
PROSODY            SYNTAX


_Of_ ORTHOGRAPHY.

Orthography comprehends _Writing_, and _Articulation_. _Articulation_
treats of Simple Sounds, which are made by the Organs of Speech, and by
which we communicate our Ideas and Sentiments to one another. _Writing_
represents the Living Speech, and makes as it were these Sounds and
Sentiments visible.


_Of_ PROSODY.

Prosody treats of Pronunciation with respect of _Accent_, _Time_, and
_Quantity_. But as the Science of Letters, Sounds, and Pronunciation is
instilled into the Minds of the English Youth very early in Life, and
as this GRAMMAR is not intended for the Use of _Foreigners_, but for
them; I shall not trifle away their Time, in teaching them, what they
cannot be supposed to be unacquainted with; but proceed to the third
Part of GRAMMAR called _Analogy_.


_Of_ ANALOGY.

Analogy is the mutual Relation, or Agreement of Words with one another,
and treats of all the _Parts of Speech_, which in English are _nine_.

_Article_    _Verb_          _Conjunction_
_Noun_       _Participle_    _Preposition_
_Pronoun_    _Adverb_        _Interjection_


_Of An_ ARTICLE.

An Article is a _Part of Speech_ put before _Nouns_ to ascertain and
fix their Vague Signification. There are three Articles, _a_, _an_, and
_the_. _A_ and _an_ are Indefinite Articles and applied to Persons or
Things indifferently; as _an Oyster_, _a Prince_. The Article _the_
distinguishes individually or particularly; as _the Oyster_, _the
Prince_.


_Of a_ NOUN.

A Noun is a _Part of Speech_ which expresses the Subject spoke of; as
_Ink_, _Paper_, _Witness._

A Noun is either _Substantive_, or _Adjective_.

A Noun _Substantive_ is the Name of a Thing considered simply in
itself, and without any Regard to it's Qualities; as _a Man_, _a
Woman_, _a Child_.


A Noun _Adjective_ is a Word added to the _Noun Substantive_,
expressing the Circumstance or Quality thereof; as _a good Man_, _an
old Woman_, _a young Child_.


_Of a_ PRONOUN.

A Pronoun is a _Part of Speech_ substituted in the Place of a _Noun_,
to avoid the frequent and disagreeable Repetition of the same Word; as
_the Bird_ is joyous, _he_ chirps, _he_ sings; which without the
_Pronoun_ wou'd be thus; _the Bird_ is joyous, _the Bird_ chirps, _the
Bird _ sings.

PRONOUNS PERSONAL.

_I_       _He_            _Myself_      _I myself_
_Me_      _Him_           _Yourself_    _You yourself_
_You_     _She_           _Thyself_     _Thou thyself_
_Thou_    _Her_           _Himself_     _He himself_
_Thee_    _One's self_    _Herself_     _She herself_

PRONOUNS RELATIVE.

_Who_, _whose_, _whom_, _what_, _which._

PRONOUNS DEMONSTRATIVE.

_This_, _that._

PRONOUNS POSSESSIVE.

_My_      _Ours_     _Your_     _Theirs_
_Mine_    _Thy_      _Yours_    _Her_
_Our_     _Thine_    _His_      _Hers_


_Of_ NUMBER.

Number expresses the Difference betwixt one Thing and many, and is
either _Singular_ or _Plural_.

When a Thing is considered as single, or a Multitude of Things
considered as united together, it is of the _Singular Number_; as _a
Man_, _a Troop_.

When several Things are considered as distinct from each other it is of
the _Plural Number_, as _Men_, _Soldiers_.

The _Plural_ is usually formed in _Noun Substantives_ by adding _s_ to
the _Singular_; as _Article Articles_, _Noun Nouns_.

But when the Pronunciation requires it, or when the _Singular_ ends in
_s_, _x_, _sh_, or _ch_, the _Plural_ is usually formed by adding the
Syllable _es_; as _Ass Asses_, _Fox Foxes_, _Sash Sashes_, _Church
Churches_.

When the _Singular_ ends in _f_ or _fe_, the _Plural_ is usually form'd
by changing the _f_ or _fe_ into _ves_; as _Wife Wives_, _Self Selves_.

Sometimes the _Plural_ is formed by adding the Syllable _en_; as _Ox
Oxen_; sometimes by changing the _Vowel_; as _Man Men_; and sometimes
the _Vowels and Consonants_; as _Penny Pence_, _Mouse Mice_, _Louse
Lice_.

Some of the _Pronouns_ form their _Plural_ very irregular; as _I We_,
_Me Us_, _Thou Ye_, _Thee You_, _He They_, _Him Them_, _She They_, _Her
Them_.

Some _Nouns_ have no _Singular Number_; as _Scissors_, the
_East-Indies_, the _West-Indies_.

Some have no _Plural_; the Names of Kingdoms for Instance; as
_England_, _Ireland_, _Portugal_.

Cities, Towns and Villages; as _Worcester_, _Kinver_, _Hagley_.

Seas, and Rivers; as the _Mediterranean_, _Severn_.

_Wheat_, _Barley_, _Gold_, _Silver_, _Pewter_, and a great many Words,
that cannot be reduced to any Rule want the _Plural Number_; as _Ale_,
_Beer_, _Bread_, _Butter_, _Honey_, _Milk_, _Hunger_, _Thirst_,
_Drunkenness_.

The Termination of some _Nouns_ is the same both in the _Singular_ and
_Plural_; as _a Sheep_, _a Swine_, a Flock of _Sheep_, a Herd of
_Swine_, &c.


_Of_ COMPARISON.

Comparison is the comparing the different Circumstances of Persons or
Things with each other, and serves to alter the Signification of a
Word, either by a gradual Increase, or a gradual Diminution; as _long
longer longest_, _short shorter shortest_.

ADJECTIVES, _Adverbs_, and _Substantives_, have three Degrees of
Comparison, the _Positive_, the _Comparative_, and the _Superlative_.

The _Positive_ lays down the Natural Signification simply and without
excess or Diminution; as _long_, _short_, _often_.

The _Comparative_ raises or lowers the _Positive_ in Signification, and
is formed of the _Positive_ by adding the Syllable _er_; as _long
longer_, _short shorter_, _often oftener_.

The _Superlative_ raises or lowers the Signification as much as
possible, and if formed of the _Positive_ by adding the Syllable _est_;
as _long longest_, _short shortest_, _often oftenest_.

Sometimes they are compared by the _Adverbs_ _very, infinitely_; and
the _Adjectives_ _more, most_; _less, least_; as _long, very long,
infinitely long_; _short, more short, most short_; _commonly, less
commonly, least commonly_.

These _Adjectives_ deviate from the general Rule, _good better best_,
_bad worse worst_, _little less least_, _much more most_.

SUBSTANTIVES are compared by the _Adjectives_ _more, most_, the Words
_than_, or _that_, always following; as a Dunce, _more_ a Dunce _than_
I or me, the _most_ a Dunce _that_ ever I did see.


_Of a_ VERB.

A Verb is a _Part of Speech_, which serves to express, what we affirm
of, or attribute to any Subject, and is either _Active_ or _Passive_.

A Verb _Active_ is that which expresses an _Action_; as _I kick_, _I
see_.

A Verb _Passive_ is that which receives the _Action_ or expresses the
_Passion_; as _I am kick'd_, _I am seen_.

A Verb has two _Numbers_ the _Singular_ and the _Plural_; and three
_Persons_ in each _Number_; as _I am, thou art, he is_. _We are, ye
are, they are._

The same is to be observed in every _Mood_ and in every _Tense_ but in
the _Infinitive_, which has neither _Number_ nor Person.


_Of_ MOODS.

A mood is the Manner of _conjugating Verbs_ agreeably to the different
Actions or Affections to be expressed.

There are _four Moods_, the _Indicative_, the _Imperative_, the
_Conjunctive_, and the _Infinitive._

The _Indicative Mood_ expresseth the _Action_ or _Passion_ simply
directly and absolutely; as _I love, I have loved, I will love_.

The _Imperative_ commands or forbids; as _come_, _go_, _begone_.

The _Conjunctive_ expresses the _Action_ or _Passion_ conditionally and
is always joined with the _Indicative_, or the same _Mood_; as _I will
love you, if you wou'd love me_; _I wou'd dance, if you wou'd dance_.

The _Infinitive_ expresses the _Action_ or _Passion_ indeterminately
without any Regard to _Time_, _Place_, _Number_, or _Person_; as _to
love, to be loved_.


_Of the_ TENSES.

Tense is an Inflection of Verbs, whereby they are made to signify, and
distinguish the Circumstance of _Time_.

There are _five Tenses_, _the Present Tense_, _the Preterimperfect_,
_the Preterperfect_, _the Preterpluperfect_, and _the Future_.

1. The _Present Tense_ expresses the Time, that now is; as _I sup_.

2. The _Preterimperfect Tense_ denotes the historical Relation of a
past Action, but yet not perfectly compleated, when joined to another
Action that is perfectly compleated; as _when or while I supped he came
in_.

3. The _Preterperfect Tense_ expresses the Time Past perfectly; as _I
have supped_.

4. The _Preterpluperfect Tense_ expresses the Time Past doubly; as _I
had supped_.

5. The _Future Tense_ expresses the Time to come; as _I shall sup, I
will sup_.


_Of the_ CONJUGATION.

Conjugation is the Variation of Verbs through all their _Moods and
Tenses_; and the English Verbs are chiefly conjugated by _auxiliary
Signs_; as _to love_; or by _auxiliary Verbs_; as _I am loved, I have
loved_.


_Of the_ AUXILIARY SIGNS.

The _auxiliary Signs_ are Words that serve to express the Variations of
the _Verb_.

The _Imperative Mood_ has the _Signs_ _do, let_; as--_do thou love, let
him love_.

The _Infinitive Mood_ has the _Signs_ _to, about_; as _to love, about
to love_.

The other _Moods_ have the _auxiliary Signs_ following.

_Singular_

1st _Person_ { I do, did, must, may,
             { can, might, wou'd, cou'd,
             { shou'd, shall, _or_ will.

2d _Person_  { Thou do'st, did'st, must,
             { may'st, can'st, might'st,
             { wou'd'st, cou'd'st, shou'd'st,
             { shalt _or_ wilt.

3d _Person_  { He does, or do'th, did, must,
             { may, can, might, wou'd,
             { cou'd, shou'd, shall, _or_
             { will.

_Plural_

1st _Person_ { We do, did, must, may,
             { can, might, wou'd, cou'd,
             { shou'd, shall, _or_ will.

2d _Person_  { Ye do, did, must, may,
             { can, might, wou'd, cou'd,
             { shou'd, shall _or_ will.

3d _Person_  { They do, did, must, may,
             { can, might, wou'd, cou'd,
             { shou'd, shall _or_ will.


_Of the_ AUXILIARY VERBS.

The _auxiliary Verbs_ are only two, _to Have_ and _to Be_; which cannot
be conjugated without the _auxiliary Signs_, and without the reciprocal
Assistance of each other.

_To HAVE._

INDICATIVE MOOD.

_Present Tense._

_Sing._ I have; thou hast; he hath, _or_ has. _Plur._ We have; ye have;
they have.

_Preterimperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I had; thou hadst; he had. _Plur._ We had; ye had; they had.

_Preterperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I have had; thou hast had; he hath, _or_ has had. _Plur._ We
have had; ye have had; they have had.

_Preterpluperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I had had; thou hadst had; he had had. _Plur._ We had had; ye
had had; they had had.

_Future Tense._

_Sing._ I shall, or will have; thou shalt, or wilt have; he shall, _or_
will have. _Plur._ We shall, _or_ will have; ye shall, _or_ will have;
they shall, _or_ will have.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

_Present_ and _Future_.

_Sing._ Let me have; do thou have, _or_ have thou; let him have.
_Plur._ Let us have; do ye have, _or_ have ye; let them have.

CONJUNCTIVE MOOD.

_Present Tense._

_Sing._ I may, _or_ can have; thou may'st, _or_ can'st have; he may,
_or_ can have.

_Plur._ We may, _or_ can have; ye may, or can have; they may, _or_ can
have.

_Preterimperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have; thou must,
might'st, woud'st, coud'st, _or_ shoud'st have; he must, might, wou'd,
cou'd, _or_ shou'd have. _Plur._ We must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_
shou'd have; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have; they must,
might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have.

_Preterperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have had; thou must,
might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, _or_ shou'd'st have had; he must, might,
wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have had. _Plur._ We must, might, wou'd,
cou'd, _or_ shou'd have had; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd
have had; they must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have had.

_Preterpluperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd had had; thou must,
might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, _or_ shou'd'st had had; he must, might,
wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd had had; _Plur._ We must, might, wou'd,
cou'd, _or_ shou'd had had; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd
had had; they must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd had had.

_Future Tense._

_Sing._ I shall, _or_ will have had; thou shalt, _or_ wilt have had; he
shall, _or_ will have had; _Plur._ We shall, _or_ will have had; ye
shall, _or_ will have had; they shall, _or_ will have had.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

_Present_ ---- to have
_Perfect_ ---- to have had
_Future_ ---- about to have.

PARTICIPLES.

_Present_ ---- having
_Preterperfect_ ---- having had.


_To BE._

INDICATIVE MOOD.

_Present Tense._

_Sing._ I am; thou art; he is. _Plur._ We are; ye are; they are.

_Preterimperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I was; thou wast; he was; _Plur._ We were; ye were; they were.

_Preterperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I have been; thou hast been; he hath been. _Plur._ We have
been; ye have been; they have been.

_Preterpluperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I had been; thou hadst been; he had been. _Plur._ We had been;
ye had been; they had been.

_Future Tense._

_Sing._ I shall, _or_ will be; thou shalt, _or_ wilt be; he shall, _or_
will be. _Plur._ We shall, _or_ will be; ye shall, _or_ will be; they
shall, _or_ will be.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

_Present_ and _Future_.

_Sing._ Let me be; do thou be, _or_ be thou; let him be. _Plur._ Let us
be; do ye be, _or_ be ye; let them be.

CONJUNCTIVE MOOD.

_Present Tense._

_Sing._ I may, _or_ can be; thou may'st, _or_ canst be; he may, _or_
can be. _Plur._ We may, _or_ can be; ye may, _or_ can be; they may,
_or_ can be.

_Preterimperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd be; thou must,
might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, _or_ shou'd'st be; he must, might, wou'd,
cou'd, _or_ shou'd be. _Plur._ We must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_
shou'd be; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd be; they must,
might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd be.

_Preterperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have been; thou must,
might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, _or_ shou'd'st have been; he must, might,
wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd, have been. _Plur._ We must, might, wou'd,
cou'd, _or_ shou'd have been; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd
have been; they must, might, wou'd cou'd, _or_ shou'd have been.

_Preterpluperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have had been; thou
must, might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, _or_ shou'd'st, have had been; he
must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have had been. _Plur._ We must,
might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have had been; ye must, might, wou'd,
cou'd, _or_ shou'd have had been; they must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_
shou'd have had been.

_Future Tense._

_Sing._ I shall, _or_ will have been; thou shalt, _or_ wilt have been;
he shall _or_ will have been. _Plur._ We shall, _or_ will have been; ye
shall, _or_ will have been; they shall, _or_ will have been.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

_Present_ ---- to be
_Preterperfect_ ---- to have been
_Future_ ---- about to be.

PARTICIPLES.

_Present_ ---- being
_Preterperfect_ ---- having been.


_Of_ REGULAR VERBS.

Regular _Verbs_ are those that are _conjugated_ by some established
Rules.

The _Termination_ of the _Infinitive Mood Present Tense, of the Verb
Active, in regular Verbs_, is always the same as the _first Person_ of
the _Indicative Mood Present Tense singular_; as _to love, I love_.

The _Termination_ of the _second Person Singular_ is formed out of the
_first_ by adding _st_ or _est_; as _I love, thou loves_t; _I read,
thou readest_.

The _Termination_ of the _third Person singular_ is formed out of the
_first_ by adding _th_ or _eth_; as _I love, he loveth, I read, he
readeth_; or only by adding _s_; as _he loves, he reads_.

The _Termination_ of the _first Person Preterimperfect Tense singular_,
is formed out of the _first Person Present Tense singular_ by adding
the Syllable _ed_; as _I love, I loved_.

The _Termination_ of the _Participle Present of the Verb Active_, is
always formed out of the _first Person Present_ by adding the Syllable
_ing_; as _I love_, _loving_.

The _Termination_ of the _Preterimperfect, the Preterperfect, and the
Preterpluperfect of the Indicative Mood; and the Preterperfect, the
Preterpluperfect and the Future of the Conjunctive, and the Participle
Passive_ is in regular Verbs the same; as _I loved, I have loved, I had
loved, I may have loved, I might have loved, I shall have loved, I am
loved_. And

The _Termination_ of every other _Tense, Number or Person_, is the same
with the _Infinitive_.


_Of a_ VERB ACTIVE.

A Verb _Active regular_ is conjugated by the _auxiliary Signs, the
auxiliary Verbs_, and the general Rules foregoing.

_To LOVE._

INDICATIVE MOOD.

_Present Tense._

_Sing._ I love, _or_ do love; thou lovest, _or_ dost love; he loveth,
_or_ loves, _or_ doth love. _Plur._ We love, _or_ do love; ye love,
_or_ do love; they love, _or_ do love.

_Preterimperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I loved, _or_ did love; thou loved'st, _or_ did'st love; he
loved, _or_ did love. _Plur._ we loved, _or_ did love; ye loved, _or_
did love; they loved, _or_ did love.

_Preterperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I have loved; thou hast loved; he hath loved, _or_ has loved.
_Plur._ We have loved; ye have loved; they have loved.

_Preterpluperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I had loved; thou hadst loved; he had loved. _Plur._ We had
loved; ye had loved; they had loved.

_Future Tense._

_Sing._ I shall, _or_ will love; thou shalt, _or_ wilt love; he shall,
_or_ will love. _Plur._ We shall, _or_ will love; ye shall, _or_ will
love; they shall, _or_ will love.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

_Present_ and _Future_.

_Sing._ Let me love; do thou love, _or_ love thou; let him love.
_Plur._ Let us love; do ye love, _or_ love ye; let them love.

CONJUNCTIVE MOOD.

_Present Tense._

_Sing._ I may, _or_ can love; thou may'st, or can'st love; he may, _or_
can love. _Plur._ We may, _or_ can love; ye may, _or_ can love; they
may, _or_ can love.

_Preterimperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd love; thou must,
might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, _or_ shou'd'st love; he must, might,
wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd love. _Plur._ We must, might, wou'd, cou'd,
_or_ shou'd love; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd love; they
must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd love.

_Preterperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have loved; thou must,
might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, _or_ shou'd'st have loved; he must,
might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have loved. _Plur._ We must, might,
wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have loved; ye must, might, wou'd, cou'd,
_or_ shou'd have loved; they must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd
have loved.

_Preterpluperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have had loved; thou
must, might'st, wou'd'st, cou'd'st, _or_ shou'd'st have had loved; he
must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have had loved. _Plur._ We must,
might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have had loved; ye must, might, wou'd,
cou'd, _or_ shou'd have had loved; they must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_
shou'd have had loved.

_Future Tense._

_Sing._ I shall, _or_ will have loved; thou shalt, _or_ wilt have
loved; he shall, or will have loved. _Plur._ We shall, _or_ will have
loved; ye shall, _or_ will have loved; they shall, _or_ will have
loved.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

_Present_ ---- to love
_Preterperfect_ ---- to have loved
_Future_ ---- about to love.

PARTICIPLES.

_Present_ ---- loving
_Preterperfect_ ---- having loved.


_Of a_ VERB PASSIVE.

The _Verb Passive_ is nothing more than the _Participle Passive_ joined
to the _Auxiliary Verb to be_; as

INDICATIVE MOOD.

_Present Tense_ I am loved; _&c._
_Preterimperfect_ I was loved; _&c._
_Preterperfect_ I have been loved; _&c._
_Preterpluperfect_ I had been loved; _&c._
_Future_ I shall or will be loved; _&c._

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

_Present_ and _Future_. Let me be loved _&c._

CONJUNCTIVE MOOD.

_Present Tense._

_Sing._ I may, _or_ can be loved; thou _&c._

_Preterimperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd be loved; thou _&c._

_Preterperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have been loved; thou
_&c._

_Preterpluperfect Tense._

_Sing._ I must, might, wou'd, cou'd, _or_ shou'd have had been loved;
thou _&c_.

_Future Tense._

_Sing._ I shall, _or_ will have been loved; thou _&c._

INFINITIVE MOOD.

_Present_ ---- to be loved
_Preterperfect_ ---- to have been loved
_Future_ ---- about to be loved.

PARTICIPLES.

_Present_ ---- being loved
_Preterperfect_ ---- having been loved.


_Of a_ PARTICIPLE.

A Participle is a _Part of Speech_, which partaketh of a _Verb_ and a
_Noun_. When it has a Relation to Time it may be considered as a
_Verb_; but when it is joined to a _Substantive_ or admits of
_Comparison_, it may be considered as an _Adjective_.

When the _termination_ of the _Participle Passive_ is not formed by
adding the Syllable _ed_ to the _first Person_ of the _Indicative Mood
Present Tense Singular_; or when the _Termination_ of the _Participle
Passive_ differs from the _Termination of the Preter Tenses_, the
_Verb_ becomes _irregular_; but in all other Respects is conjugated as
the regular Verb; as I abide, thou abidest, &c.

_Pres. Tense._     _Preter._     _Participle Passive._

     Abide           Abode               Abode
     Bite            Bit                 Bitten
     Catch           Caught              Catched
     Do              Did                 Done
     Eat             Eat                 Eaten
     Fall            Fell                Fallen
     Get             Got                 Gotten
     Hold            Held                Holden
     Know            Knew                Known
     Lie             Lay                 Laid
     Make            Made                Made
     Rise            Rose                Risen
     Shine           Shone               Shined
     Tread           Trod                Trodden
     Weave           Wove                Woven
     _&c._           _&c._               _&c._

To these may be added the _Auxiliary Verbs_ ---- _To Have, and to Be_.


_Of an_ ADVERB.

An Adverb is a _Part of Speech_ joined to a _Verb_, a _Noun Substantive_,
an _Adjective_ or _Participle_, and sometimes to another _Adverb_, to
express the Manner or Circumstance of the Thing signified; as _he
speaks properly_, _an orderly Man_, _truly good_, _extreamly loving_,
_very devoutly_.

Adverbs are very numerous, and have Relation to

Time; as _now_, _lately_, _always_.

Place; as _here_, _there_, _no-where_.

Order; as _by Turns_, _abreast_, _orderly_.

Quantity; as _enough_, _more_, _entirely_.

Number; as _once_, _twice_, _thrice_.

Dobting; as _perhaps_, _may be_, _peradventure_.

Asking; as _why?_ _whence?_ _wherefore?_.

Affirmation; as _yes_, _indeed_, _certainly_.

Negation; as _no_, _never_, _not at all_.

Comparison; as _more_, _less_, _likewise_.

Quality; as _justly_, _prudently_, _indifferently_.


_Of a_ CONJUNCTION.

A Conjunction is _a Part of Speech_, which serves to connect and join
the several Parts of a Discourse together, and is of various Kinds.

Copulative; _as and_, _also_, _moreover_.

Disjunctive; _as or_, _neither_, _whether_.

Adversative; _as but_, _yet_, _notwithstanding_.

Conditional; _as if_, _unless_, _provided_.

Casual; _as for_, _because_, _forasmuch_.

Conclusive; _as then_, _so that_, _therefore_.


_Of a_ PREPOSITION.

A Preposition is _a Part of Speech_, that serves to express the
particular Relation and Circumstance of some other _Part of Speech_,
and is either used in _Apposition_, as _in Heaven_; or in
_Composition_, as _Invisible_.

PREPOSITIONS _used in_ APPOSITION.

Above        between        of
about        betwixt        on
after        beyond         over
against      by             through
among        for            throughout
amongst      from           towards
at           in             under
before       into           unto
behind       near           upon
beneath      near to        with
below        nigh           within
beside       nigh to        without.

PREPOSITIONS _used in_ COMPOSITION.

A-base                ap-point
ab-use                as-certain
abs-tract             at-taint
ac-commodate          be-friend
ad-apt                circum-ambient
af-fix                co-adjutor
after-noon            com-pound
amphi-theatre         com-plot
ante-date             con-strain
anti-christ           contra-diction
an-archy              counter-balance.
de-camp               op-pression
Dis-appoint           over-reach
dif-fusive            out-landish
di-minish             per-form
e-mission             post-master
em-brace              pre-eminence
en-close              preter-natural
es-say                pro-long
ex-terminate          re-gain
extra-ordinary        retro-grade
for-bear              sub-join
fore-see              super-fine
im-perfect            trans-migration
in-glorious           un-worthy
inter-view            under-written
intro-duction         up-right
ob-noxious            with-draw
off-spring            _&c._, _&c._, _&c._


_Of an_ INTERJECTION.

An Interjection _is a Part of Speech_, that serves to express some
sudden Motion or Passion of the Mind, transported with the Sensation of
Pleasure or Pain.

Of Pleasure; as, _O brave!_ _O Heavens! O Joy!_

Of Pain; as _Alas! O my God! O Lord!_

INTERJECTIONS _of a_ lower Order.

Of Caution; as, _hold! take Care!_

Of Admiration; as, _see! look! behold!_

Of Aversion; as, _fie! away you Fool!_

Of Silence; as, _be still! Silence!_


_Of_ SYNTAX.

Syntax is the Manner of constructing one Word with another prescribed
by the _Rules of_ GRAMMAR.

RULE 1st.

The Article _a_ is usually placed before a Word that begins with a
_Consonant_, the Article _an_ before a Word that begins with a _Vowel_,
and either _a_ or _an_ before a Word that begins with an _h_; and the
Article _the_, before a Word that begins either with a _Vowel_ or a
_Consonant_; as, _a Christian_, _an Infidel_, _a Heathen_, or _an
Heathen_; _the Christian_, _the Infidel_, _the Heathen_.

RULE 2d.

A Noun _Substantive_ is usually placed after its _Noun Adjective_; as
the _Second Chapter_, a _great Man_. But sometimes for the Sake of
greater Distinction the _Adjective_ is placed after, with the Article
_the_ before it, as _George the Second_, _Peter the Great_. In _Poetry_
the _Adjective_ is placed either before or after its _Substantive_
indifferently, as the Versification requires it.

RULE 3d.

All _Nouns and Pronouns_ are of the _third Person_ except _I and we_,
which are of the _first Person_, and _Thou, you and ye_, which are of
the _Second Person_; and except the _Relative Pronouns_ which are
always of the _same Person_ with the _Personal Pronoun_ to which they
relate; as _I love, thou lovest, he loveth; I who love, Thou who
lovest, he who loveth_.

RULE 4th.

The _prefix Pronouns_, _I, we, thou, you, ye, he, she, they, who_, are
usually placed before the _Verb_; and the _Subsequent Pronouns_, _me,
us, thee, him, her, them, whom_, are usually placed after; as _I love
the Dog, the Dog loves me_. But when a _Question_ is asked, or when the
_Verb_ is of the _Imperative Mood_, or in short Sentences, the _prefix
Pronouns_ are usually placed after; as _lovest thou me? love thou
thyself, said he, said they_.

RULE 5th.

When a Question is asked, and the _Verb_ has an _Auxiliary Sign_, or an
_Auxiliary Verb_, the _governing Noun_ or _Pronoun_ is placed
immediately after such _Auxiliary_; as _does the Sun shine? has he
washed his Hands?_ And when the _Verb_ has two or more _Auxiliaries_,
the _Noun or Pronoun_ is placed after the first; as _have I been
taught? Cou'd the Truth have been known?_

RULE 6th.

The _Verb_ agrees with its _governing Noun_, _Pronoun Personal_, or
_Pronoun Relative_, in _Number_ and _Person_; as _the Birds sing_,
_thou lovest_, _he who loveth_.

RULE 7th.

A NOUN of _Multitude_ may have a _Verb_ either _Singular_ or _Plural_;
as _the People is mad_, or _the People are mad_.

But if a _Substantive_ of the same Signification follows, that is not a
_Noun of Multitude_, then the _Verb_ is always Plural; as we do not say
_the People is a mad Man_, but _the People are mad Men_.

RULE 8th.

Two or more _Nouns_ or _Pronouns Singular_, will have a _Verb Plural_;
as _the Dog and Cat are very loving_. But when two or more
_Substantives Singular_ signify the same _Thing_ or _Person_, or when
the _Preposition_ OF intervenes, the _Verb_ is always _Singular_; as
_the River Severn is Navigable._ _William the Conqueror was a great
Man._ _This System of Grammar is compendious_.

RULE 9th.

The _subsequent Pronouns_ are usually placed after _Prepositions and
Interjections_; as _of me, to us, for thee, with her, from them,
against whom, O me!_


_Of the_ POINTS _or_ PAUSES.

The _Points_ or _Pauses_ have a Sort of musical Proportion.

The _Period_ is marked thus (.)----Its _Time_ is equal to two _Colons_
and is never placed but at the End of a Sentence, the Sense of which is
perfect and compleat; as _By me Kings reign, and Princes decree
Justice._

The _Colon_ is marked thus (:) ---- Its _Time_ is equal to two
_Semicolons_, and is placed where the Sense seems to be perfect and
compleat; but to which notwithstanding something may still be added; as
_give Instruction to a wise Man, and he will be yet wiser: Teach a just
Man and he will increase in Learning_.

The _Semicolon_ is marked thus (;) ---- its _Time_ is equal to two
_Commas_, and is placed where the Sense is less compleat than the
_Colon_, and more compleat than the _Comma_; as _a wise Man's Heart is
at his right Hand; but a Fool's Heart is at his left_.

The _Comma_ is marked thus (,) ---- It is the last and least _Pause_ or
_Time_ that is made use of, and serves to distinguish the simple
Numbers of a _Period_; as _arise, my Friend, and come away_.


_Of the other NOTES or CHARACTERS._

A Note of _Interrogation_ (?) is used when a Question is asked; as _who
comes there?_

A Note of _Admiration_ (!) is used after _Interjections_ or _short
Sentences_ to express our Wonder and Surprize; as _O!_ _O LORD!_

A Parenthesis (_rarely made use of by a good Writer_) is used to
inclose one Sentence within another.

The _Paragraph_ is marked thus (¶) and denotes the beginning of a new
Discourse.

An (') _Apostrophe_ is used when some Part of a Word is left out; as
_Alexander's Horse_, for _Alexander his Horse_.

A _Hyphen_ (-) is used to join together two Words, as _Foot-stool_,
_&c._ and is used also when part of a Word is written in one Line, and
part in another.

The _Caret_ is marked thus, (^) to shew where the Words in any Sentence
that are left out, shou'd come in; as

           is
_the Lady  ^  beautiful._


The _Subdivision_, or part of a Chapter is marked usually thus, §.


The _Index_ points to some remarkable Passage thus, Index finger,
pointing to the right].

A _Quotation_ is a double _Comma_ reverse and set against some Lines on
the left side of a _Page_, to shew that they are quoted from another
_Author_, thus, ".

The _Notes_ that refer to the _Margin_ are an _Asterisk_ made thus, *,
an _Obelisk_ thus, [Dagger symbol], also thus, ||.

Besides these there are _literal Characters_, _numeral Characters_, and
_Abbreviations_, the Knowledge of which is not so easily to be acquired
by GRAMMAR _Rules_, as by diligent Observation and Experience.


_The_ END.





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