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Title: Seeds of Michigan Weeds - Bulletin 260, Michigan State Agricultural College Experiment - Station, Division of Botany, March, 1910
Author: Beal, W. J. (William James), 1833-1924
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Seeds of Michigan Weeds - Bulletin 260, Michigan State Agricultural College Experiment - Station, Division of Botany, March, 1910" ***

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BULLETIN 260                                               MARCH, 1910






  W. J. BEAL


_The Bulletins of this Station are sent free to all newspapers in the
State and to such individuals interested in farming as may request them.
Address all applications to the Director, East Lansing, Michigan._


  Postoffice and Telegraph address,          East Lansing, Mich.
  Railroad and Express address,              Lansing, Mich.




  HON. ROBERT D. GRAHAM, Grand Rapids,
      Chairman of the Board,                    Term expires 1914
  HON. WM. J. OBERDORFFER, Stephenson,          Term expires 1912
  HON. Wm. L. CARPENTER, Detroit,               Term expires 1912
  HON. ALFRED J. DOHERTY, Clare,                Term expires 1914
  HON. I. R. WATERBURY, Detroit,                Term expires 1916
  HON. WILLIAM H. WALLACE, Bay Port,            Term expires 1916
  HON. FRED M. WARNER, Governor of the State,        _Ex officio_
      President of the College,                      _Ex officio_
  HON. L. L. WRIGHT, Ironwood,                       _Ex officio_
  ADDISON M. BROWN, A. B., Secretary.


  JONATHAN L. SNYDER, A. M., LL. D., Pres.,          _Ex officio_
  ROBERT S. SHAW, B. S. A.,                              Director
  CHARLES E. MARSHALL, Ph. D., Scientific and Vice
      Director and Bacteriologist
  R. H. PETTIT, B. S. A.,                            Entomologist
  A. J. PATTEN, B. S.,                                    Chemist
  H. J. EUSTACE, B. S.,                            Horticulturist
  J. A. JEFFERY, B. S. A.,                         Soil Physicist
  W. J. BEAL, Ph. D.,                                    Botanist
  V. M. SHOESMITH, B. S.,                              Farm Crops
  ADDISON M. BROWN, A. B.,                Secretary and Treasurer


  C. P. HALLIGAN, B. S.,                     Asst. Horticulturist
  O. RAHN, Ph. D.,                           Asst. Bacteriologist
  A. C. ANDERSON, B. S.,                 Asst. Dairy Husbandryman
  J. B. DANDENO, Ph. D.,                         Assist. Botanist
  G. D. SHAFER, Ph. D.,              Research Asst. in Entomology
  M. A. YOTHERS, B. S.,                       Asst. in Entomology
  W. GILTNER, D. V. M. M. S.,      Research Asst. in Bacteriology
  C. W. BROWN, B. S.,              Research Asst. in Bacteriology
  F. A. SPRAGG, M. S.,   Research Asst. in Crops (Plant Breeding)
  C. S. ROBINSON, M. S.               Research Asst. in Chemistry
  MISS Z. NORTHROP, B. S.,                  Asst. in Bacteriology
  MISS L. M. SMITH, Ph. B.,                 Asst. in Bacteriology
  O. B. WINTER, A. B.,                         Asst. in Chemistry
  MRS. L. E. LANDON,                                    Librarian


  Chatham, Alger County, 160 acres deeded--Leo M. Geismar in charge.
  Grayling, Crawford County, 80 acres deeded.
  South Haven, Van Buren County, 10 acres rented; 5 acres
    deeded--Frank A. Wilkin in charge.

The designer of this bulletin first had in mind something of the sort
for the use of his students, not only the undergraduates, but others
living on farms, or teaching in Michigan and elsewhere. Whoever grows
seeds to sell, or buys seeds to sow, should be benefited by consulting
the illustrations which are unsurpassed for accuracy by anything in this
country. They were all made by Mr. F. H. Hillman. A hand lens costing
from twenty cents to a dollar is almost indispensable in examining our
seeds. The brief descriptions are necessarily made by using definite
scientific terms, which are explained in a glossary at the close of the
work. A few weeds are not illustrated, for the reason that the plants
have ceased to produce seeds, such as the horse radish, and some of them
are not conspicuously bad. Not far from half the illustrations are made
from small seed-like fruits, likely to be mistaken for seeds, such as
are produced by dandelions, burdocks, narrow-leaved dock, all grasses.
Cuts of seeds of several clovers are inserted that students may learn to
distinguished them from weeds too often mixed with them.

No apology is offered for making use of the decimal scale instead of the
cumbersome antiquated English scale, which fortunately is gradually
growing out of use. In the back part of the bulletin are duplicate
copies of the decimal scale that any one can cut out and use for

For copies of the following figures some time ago prepared by Mr.
Hillman, we are indebted to the authorities of the Agricultural College,
of Reno, Nevada: 7, 11, 12, 16, 17, 23, 24, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39,
40, 41, 42, 44, 46, 55, 56, 58, 63, 68, 69, 71, 74, 75, 84, 86, 87, 91,
92, 95, 97, 98, 99, 108, 110, 116, 125, 130, 135, 138, 140, 144, 146,
152, 153, 158, 159, 172, 173, 174, 175, 178, 179, 181, 182, 185, 187,
189, 190, 191, 199, 203, 205, 212, 214, 215.

    "A weed is any useless or troublesome plant."
    "A plant out of place or growing where it is not wanted."
    "A plant whose virtues have not yet been discovered."--Emerson.

Weeds everywhere; they thrive in the cornfield, they choke wheat in the
field, they annoy the gardner, they thrive in the meadow, they spring up
by the roadside, they encroach on the swamp, they damage the fleeces of
sheep. The rapid increase in the number and variety of weeds should
cause alarm.


1. They rob cultivated plants of nutriment.

2. They injure crops by crowding and shading.

3. They retard the work of harvesting grain by increasing the draft and
by extra wear of machinery. (Bindweed, thistles, red root.)

4. They retard the drying of grain and hay.

5. They increase the labor of threshing, and make cleaning of seed

6. They damage the quality of flour, sometimes making it nearly
worthless. (Allium vineale L.)

7. Most of them are of little value as food for domestic animals.

8. Some weeds injure stock by means of barbed awns. (Squirrel tail
grass, wild oats, porcupine grass.)

9. Some of them injure wool and disfigure the tails of cattle, the manes
and tails of horses. (Burdock, cocklebur, houndstongue.)

10. A few make "Hair balls" in the stomachs of horses. (Rabbit-foot
clover, crimson clover.)

11. Some injure the quality of dairy products. (Leeks, wild onions.)

12. Penny cress, and probably others, when eaten by animals, injure the
taste of meat.

13. Poison hemlock, spotted cowbane and Jamestown weed are very

14. Many weeds interfere with a rotation of crops.

15. All weeds damage the appearance of a farm and render it less
valuable. (Quack-grass, Canada thistle, plantains.)


1. They are of some use in the world to induce more frequent and more
thorough cultivation, which benefits crops.

2. The new arrival of a weed of first rank stimulates watchfulness.
(Russian thistle.)

3. In occupying the soil after a crop has been removed they prevent the
loss of fertility by shading the ground.

4. Weeds plowed under add some humus and fertility to the soil, though
in a very much less degree than clover or cow peas.

5. Some of them furnish food for birds in winter.


1. Sometimes by producing an enormous number of weeds. (A large plant of
purslane, 1,250,000 seeds; a patch of daisy fleabane, 3,000 to a square

2. In other cases by the great vitality of their seeds. Shepherd's
purse, mustard, purslane, pigeon-grass, pigweeds, pepper-grass, May
weed, evening primrose, smart weed, narrow-leaved dock, two chick-weeds
survive when buried in the soil thirty years at least, as I have found
by actual test.

3. In each prickly fruit of a cocklebur there are two seeds, only one of
which grows the first year, the other surviving to grow the second year.

4. Some are very succulent, and ripen seeds even when pulled.

5. Often by ripening and scattering seeds before the cultivated crop is
mature. (Red root, fleabane.)

6. Sometimes by ripening seeds at the time of harvesting a crop, when
all are harvested together. (Chess, cockle.)

7. Some seeds are difficult to separate from seeds of the crop
cultivated. (Sorrel, mustard, narrow-leaved plantain in seeds of red
clover and alfalfa.)

8. Some are very small and escape notice. (Mullein, fleabane.)

9. Some plants go to seed long before suspected, as no showy flowers
announce the time of bloom. (Pigweeds.)

10. In a few cases the plants break loose from the soil when mature and
become tumble-weeds. (Some pigweeds, Russian thistle.)

11. Some seeds and seed-like fruits are furnished each with a balloon,
or a sail, or with grappling hooks. (Dandelion, sticktights, burdock.)

12. Some remain with the dead plant long into winter, and when torn off
by the wind or by birds, drift for long distances on the snow, often
from one farm to another. (Pigweeds.)

13. Some have creeping root-stocks or tubers. (Quack-grass, nut-grass.)

14. Some defend themselves with forks and bayonets. (Thistles.)

15. Most of them are disagreeable in taste or odor, so that domestic
animals leave them to occupy the ground and multiply. (Jamestown weed,
stink grass, milk weed.)

16. Plants with stout roots are sometimes passed over by the harrow or


1. By live stock, carried in the hair or fleece or carried by the feet;
in some instances passing alive with the excrement.

2. By unground feed-stuff purchased.

3. By adhering to the insides of sacks where they were placed with

4. In barnyard manure drawn from town.

5. In the packing of trees, crockery, baled hay and straw.

6. By wagons, sleighs, threshing machines.

7. Sometimes by plows, cultivators and harrows.

8. By railway trains passing through or near a farm.

9. By ballast of boats at wharves.

10. By wool-waste at factories.

11. By birds, squirrels, and mice.

12. By water of brooks, rivers, by washing rains and by irrigating

13. By the wind aided by little wings or down, or by drifting on the

14. By dropping seeds to the ground from extending branches and
repeating the process.

15. By creeping root-stocks, as June grass, quack-grass and toad-flax.

16. By piercing potatoes, carrots, etc., quack-grass, June grass,
Bermuda grass are sometimes carried to other fields or farms where the
tubers and roots are planted.

17. A farmer buys clover seeds or grass seeds that were grown in some
state that never before grew seeds that went onto his farm and thus he
may get some new weeds. Seeds of alfalfa or some other crop bring new
kinds of weeds, especially those of dodder. As every kind of weed goes
onto a farm to stay there it follows that as a country becomes older the
greater the number of kinds of weeds. As a rule each farm is annually
getting more sorts of weeds, and as each farmer is cultivating weeds,
they are more freely distributed in every field and along every roadside
and by exchanging they are carried to neighboring and distant farms.

A great many farmers buy and sow whatever the merchant offers them under
the name mentioned. For example, the college has a sample of something
called clover seed, sold by a dealer in this state. It contains about 40
per cent of narrow-leaved plantain.


To begin with, years and years ago no new farm in the wilderness of
Michigan contained more than twenty to thirty-five kinds of weeds, as
there were not more than thirty-five sorts in the entire state, while at
present there are not far from 250 kinds. A large majority of weeds hail
from older countries, more especially from Europe.

There are a few weeds, like Canada thistle and quack-grass, that may
infest any crop of farm or garden, but in most cases, whether to call a
weed very bad depends on the nature of the crop grown, the size of the
weed-seeds and their time of ripening.

Some weeds have a very wide distribution, thriving all around the world
in temperate climates, while others are more limited in range; some
thrive only in dry, thin, sandy soil and others in wet soils. To some
extent the presence of a few weed-seeds is almost as objectionable when
once on the farm, as though there were more, because these few may
thrive and seed freely.

In many respects the lists of weeds for New Jersey is different from the
list in Michigan, while half the weeds of Nevada or Oregon are not known
in our state.

Chess, cockle, red root and rye are liable to be troublesome in fields
of winter wheat, because the seeds are more or less difficult to
separate from this grain and for the reason that they require a portion
of two years to come to maturity.

Meadows and pastures, especially where the land is not fertile, abound
in weeds that require two years or more to produce seeds, such as
narrow-leaved dock, bitter dock, bull thistle, carrot, teasel, two kinds
of mulleins, night-flowering catchfly, evening primrose, several kinds
of fleabane, ox-eye daisy, orange hawkweed, two or three kinds of
plantain, Canada thistle, hound's tongue, stick seed, sow thistle, horse
nettle, buttercups, toad flax, silvery cinquefoil, and many more, not
excluding some annuals, like crab-grass, tickle grass, pigeon grasses.
As crops of corn, potatoes, beans, turnips, beets and squashes are ready
to harvest at the close of one growing season they are molested more or
less by pigeon grasses, several pigweeds, purslane, crab-grass, barnyard
grass, tickle grass and a number of others.

In 1897 some seventy-five lots of timothy seeds were examined and the
following list of twenty-four species of weeds were found. Doubtless
other weeds may still be found in other lots of timothy seed. No sample
was entirely free from weeds. Pepper grass was most common, next
followed tumble weed and then shepherd's purse:

  Amaranthus graecizans, Tumble weed.
  Amaranthus retroflexus, Rough pigweed.
  Anthemis Cotula, May weed.
  Brassica arvensis, Charlock.
  Brassica nigra, Black mustard.
  Bursa Bursa-pastoris, Shepherd's purse.
  Carduus arvensis, Canada thistle.
  Carex straminea. A kind of sedge.
  Chenopodium album, Pigweed.
  Chenopodium filicifolium, Another kind of pigweed.
  Lactuca Canadensis, Wild Lettuce.
  Lepidium Virginicum, Wild Pepper-grass.
  Onagra biennis, Evening primrose.
  Panicum capillare, Hair grass, tickle grass.
  Plantago lanceolata, Narrow-leaved plantain.
  Plantago Rugelii, Rugel's Plantain, one of the broad-leaved plantains.
  Poa compressa, Flat-stemmed poa, wire grass.
  Potentilla Monspeliensis, Rough cinquefoil.
  Prunella vulgaris, Self-heal.
  Rumex Acetocella, Field or sheep sorrel.
  Sisymbrium officinale, Hedge mustard.
  Verbena angustifolia, Narrow-leaved vervain.
  Verbena hastata, Blue vervain.
  Verbena urticifolia, White vervain.

In examining some 130 lots of clover seeds as found in the market during
1897, thirty-two kinds of weed seeds were found. Sheep sorrel was most
common, next to this yellow or bitter dock and green foxtail. Only three
samples of clover seed was free from weeds, but possibly some weeds
might have been seen if larger quantities had been looked over.

During the year 1908, eleven years later, 47 kinds of weed seeds were
found in 122 lots of seed of red clover, a gain of nearly 50 per cent.

During three months from January 1, 1910, in examining 450 lots of seeds
of grasses, clovers and alfalfas, besides large numbers of common weeds
that we know, were 74 kinds not known to the writer. Of these 74 kinds,
probably some will never become weeds of any account. Some of these came
with alfalfa from Montana and some were importations from Europe and

Parasitic fungi rank as weeds; such as rusts and smuts of wheat, oats,
corn; apple scab, black knot of plum, brown rot of cherry, anthracnose
of beans.


1. The right kind of a man, who will carefully observe and study the
kinds of weeds and their habits, fighting each to the best advantage, i.
e. with method.

2. See that all seeds purchased or grown at home for seed are free from
seeds of weeds. Although often heard, these words are too little

3. See that threshing machines, hay racks, grain bags from other farms
are well cleaned before used on the farm.

4. Cook or grind screenings and burn chaff when certain weeds are

5. Send seeds to the Agricultural College, East Lansing, for
identification, unless they are known to be harmless.

6. Strive to prevent weeds from ripening seeds. This is especially
important late in the season in case of all pigweeds, purslane and
others where the flowers are very small and are liable to be overlooked
and the seeds ripen before their presence is suspected.

7. For meadow or pasture make the soil very fertile, as most weeds will
then be killed or crowded by the better grass and become of little

8. Modify the rotation of crops with reference to killing the weeds.

9. Make a specialty of hoed or cultivated crops.

10. Make soiling crops a prominent feature in certain fields.

11. Smother weeds with quick growing and thickly seeded crops, like red
clover or rye or buckwheat.

12. Keep some crops growing on the land from early spring till late
autumn,--double cropping, i. e., two cultivated crops in one year for
barn and cellar instead of one for use and one of weeds.

13. Cultivate thoroughly after a crop is removed.

14. Clean up and avoid leaving any vacant or out of the way places for
breeding ground.

15. Where practicable, remove fences and cultivate to the gutters of the

16. Keep some sheep.

17. When once begun, continue the work thoroughly from year to year,
giving no quarter to weeds. This is the easiest in the long run and the
royal way.

18. Where hand labor is employed, it is far less expensive and much
easier to keep weeds down by raking or hoeing once a week than by going
over the ground much less frequently.

The habits of a weed determine to a great extent the best mode of
fighting it. Certain remedies suggest themselves for creeping
perennials, like quack grass and toad flax, while different treatment is
best for narrow-leaved dock; and still a different mode of attack may be
adopted for crab grass and purslane.

Weeds are annuals, as pigweeds, crab grass, purslane; biennials as bull
thistle and mulleins; perennials, like quack grass, Canada thistle,
ox-eye Daisy.

Will it pay? The annual cost of successfully fighting a weedy farm of
100 acres in Ontario has been found to be about $75. Good cultivation in
the long run pays a greater profit than slipshod culture. It not only
kills the weeds, but keeps the soil in condition for securing good
crops. It conserves moisture.

Perennial plants cannot gain any if the green leaves are not allowed to
appear. The nourishment stored in the root stocks underground will aid
the plant to send up slender leaves and if these remain, the plants gain
and recruit, but if the leaves start underground and are cut off before
coming to the light, these root stocks are drawn on again to furnish
food to start more leaves and thus, in time become exhausted.



[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

=Ergot.= _Claviceps purpurea._ This is a poisonous fungus, not a seed,
mentioned here because it is frequently found as an outgrowth of the
grain of many grasses, such as rye, timothy, red top. To mature spores,
it must pass to another stage requiring six months or more.


[Illustration: Fig. 2.]

=Quack-Grass. Couch-Grass.= _Agropyron repens_ (L.) Beauv. Florets about
1 cm. long, 5-nerved at the short-awned apex: grain seldom produced and
still less frequently found apart from the floral glume and palea,
linear, about 4 mm. long, base abruptly acute, apex rounded, rounded on
the back or outside, inside concave. Our worst weed. Introduced from

[Illustration: Fig. 3.]

=Wild Oat.= _Avena fauta_ L. Freed from chaff the floral glume is firm,
rough, brown, thinly hairy, about 15 mm. long, awn from near the middle
2-4 cm. long with several firm twists, abruptly bent near the middle,
the true grain seldom separated from the firmer floral glume. A bad weed
in Oregon and California, seldom seen in Michigan.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.]

=Field Chess.= _Bromus arvensis_ (L.) Not often seen in this country;
floral glume 6-7 mm. long bearing an awn rather longer; grain much like
that of _B. secalinus_ which see. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.]

=Soft Chess.= _Bromus hordeaceus_ L. (_Bromus mollis_). Floral glume
extending beyond the grain, 5-7 nerved, 6-9 mm. long, grain rounded on
the back, shape of a shallow boat, 6.5 mm. long, palea thin with
comb-like teeth on the margins. Waste places, thin meadows. Introduced
from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 6.]

=Smooth Brome-grass.= _Bromus racemosus_ L. Florets about 9 mm. long,
awn 6-10 mm. long; longer, softer, thinner, with longer awn than found
in florets of _B. secalinus_ which see. Not often seen in this country.
Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]

=Chess Cheat.= _Bromus secalinus_ L. Florets swollen a little above the
middle, the floral glume rounded on the back, obscurely 7-nerved, 6-7
mm. long, an awn 3-4 mm. long, more or less; palea covering the concave
side, each edge bearing a single row of stiff hairs; glume and palea
closely adhering to the grain. Introduced from Europe. A weed in wheat

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

=Barren Brome Grass.= _Bromus sterilis_ L. Floral glume minutely
roughened, adhering to the grain; 5-7 nerved; 11-15 mm. long;
compressed; concave in section. Introduced from Europe, becoming common
in the state.

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]

=Sand-Bur. Bur-Grass.= _Cenchrus tribuloides_ L. Spikelets consisting of
the grain and its coverings, broad oval, somewhat flattened, about 7 mm.
long, thinly covered by stiff, straight, barbed, prickles, 2-5 mm.
long, making a disagreeable and formidable bur, often common on sandy
land. Native of this country.

[Illustration: Fig. 10.]

=Bermuda Grass.= _Cynodon Dactylon_ L., Pers., (Capriola Dactylon (L.)
Kuntze). Floral glume enclosing the grain, smooth, light colored, oval
to half-oval, 1.5 to 2 mm. long, in cross section with two long sides
and a short side half as long; grain light brown, obovate to oval, a
small nipple at the larger end.

The plant seeds in hot countries but not in cool, temperate regions;
spreading chiefly by coarse, hard rootstocks. Introduced.

[Illustration: Fig. 11.]

=Small Crab-Grass.= _Digitaria humifusa_ Pers. _Panicum lineare_ Kroach.
_Syntherisma linearis_ (Kroch.) Nash. Spikelets in the rough, before
severe rubbing, ovoid or oblong, flattened, 2 mm. long, first glume
minute, second and third as long as the spikelet, soft with very short
hairs, one of them 3-nerved, the other 5-nerved; floret after severe
rubbing, brown to black, smooth, floral glume of the rounded side
curving over the edges below covering with their edges about two-thirds
of the palea. Introduced from Europe; becoming troublesome on thin

[Illustration: Fig. 12.]

=Large Crab-Grass. Finger Grass.= _Digitaria sanguinalis_ (L.) Scop.
_Panicum sanguinale L. Syntherisma_ (L.) Nash. Spikelets before severe
rubbing, oblong, acute, 2.5-3.5 mm. long, first glume on flattened side
minute, second on rounded side about half as long as the spikelet,
pubescent or nearly smooth, third glume more or less pubescent,
5-7-nerved; floret, after severe rubbing, smooth, edges of floral glume
thin. Introduced from Europe. Roots very tough and coming from the lower

[Illustration: Fig. 13.]

=Barnyard Grass.= _Echinochloa Crus-galli_ (L.) Beauv. _Panicum
Crus-galli_ L. Florets oval, white, yellowish gray or brown, 2.4-3 mm.
long, plano-convex, glume on the convex side, highly polished, three
obscure longitudinal nerves. Native of this country.

[Illustration: Fig. 14.]

=Yard-Grass. Wire-Grass.= _Eleusine Indica_ (L.) Gaertn. Florets light
lead color or brown before threshing or much rubbing; grain dark,
reddish brown, 1.2-1.4 mm., ovoid with the base abruptly pointed, 3
sided, the corners rounded, a vertical groove along one side; seen from
the back with the groove side down and base toward the observer,
starting from an oval spot near the base, 10-15 ridges on each side,
extend downward and forward. Introduced from some warmer region of the
Old World.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.]

=Stink-Grass.= _Eragrostis megastachya_ (Koeler) Link. _Eragrostis
major_ Host. Grain orange red or wine color .4-.6 mm. long. Broad oval
to nearly circular, very slightly flattened, extremities slightly
pointed, embryo within one edge near the base, a fine network of dark
lines evident under a good lens. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 16.]

=Squirrel-tail Grass.= _Hordeum jubatum_ L. Spikelets in clusters of
three, central one only fertile, 5 mm. long, containing a grain adhering
to the floral glume and palea, the other two abortive, seven awns in
these three spikelets, 4-6 cm. long, four others less than 1 cm. long;
awns and fragment of rachis holding the cluster of spikelets together,
all barbed upward, making them troublesome for fleeces of sheep and the
mouths of animals eating them. Native of this country and widely

[Illustration: Fig. 17.]

=Old Witch Grass. Tickle Grass. A Tumble-Weed.= _Panicum capillare_ L.
Florets flattened, elliptical, apex abruptly pointed, about 1.5 mm.
long, highly polished, leaden gray, lighter at the extremities and along
the edges of the glume, five slender light colored nerves join the
extremities passing vertically over the glume, two light nerves on the
palea. Native to this country.

[Illustration: Fig. 18.]

=Tall Smooth Panicum. Switch Grass.= _Panicum virgatum_ L. Achene
surrounded by two persistent shining pieces, the floret; floral glume
hard, light brown, oval or ovate-lanceolate 2.5-3.1 mm. long. Apex
obtusely pointed. Seldom troublesome, widely distributed.

[Illustration: Fig. 19.]

=Low Spear-Grass.= _Poa annua_ L. Florets straw-colored, 2.8-3.1 mm.
long, apex smooth, lower half of keel and the base of lateral nerves,
having numerous soft hairs. A low annual grass, introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 20.]

=Flat stemmed Poa. Wire Grass. Canadian Blue Grass.= _Poa compressa_ L.
Florets lance-obovate, 2-2.5 mm. long, closely resembling those of Poa
pratensis, which see.

Palea abruptly acute. If well rubbed after threshing, the floret is
nearly smooth, otherwise it contains on the lower half numerous webby
hairs. Grain reddish brown, both ends pointed, 1-1.4 mm. long. Seldom
sown purposely. Sometimes used to adulterate Poa pratensis. In early
days this grass was called blue grass by people of New England and New
York State. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 21.]

=June Grass. Kentucky Blue Grass.= _Poa pratensis_ L. Florets
ovate-lanceolate, acute 3-4 mm. long, with three equal sides when seen
in transverse section, nearly smooth, if severely rubbed in threshing,
otherwise the floral glume is thickly webbed at the base; palea
acuminate, grain light brown, elliptical, both ends usually pointed
1.2-1.4 mm. long, in cross sections with three equal sides, one of which
has a shallow vertical groove. Compare with Poa compressa. Introduced
from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 22.]

=Rye.= _Secale cereale_ L. Grain light brown, 6-8 mm. long, elliptical,
base acute, apex obtuse and rounded, in cross section the back somewhat
acutely rounded, the opposite side with a narrow vertical groove,
surface more or less irregularly wrinkled. Introduced from Europe. A bad
weed in wheat fields.

[Illustration: Fig. 23.]

=Pigeon-Grass. Yellow Foxtail.= _Setaria glauca_ (L.) Beauv.
_Chaetochloa glauca_ (L.) Scrib. Spikelets light to dark brown, 2.5-3
mm. long; after threshing or much rubbing consisting of each a grain and
two firm coverings, known as a floral glume which covers the sides of
the somewhat depressed palea, oval, apex slightly 3-toothed, rounded
side strongly arched, somewhat V-shaped, roughened crosswise by
prominent fine more or less branching ridges; ridges of palea on concave
side less prominent. Introduced from Europe. Very common in hoed annual

[Illustration: Fig. 24.]

=Green Foxtail. Green Pigeon Grass.= _Setaria viridis_ (L.) Beauv.
_Chaetochloa viridis_ (L.) Nash. Spikelets, light to dark brown mottled,
2-2.3 mm. long, after threshing or much rubbing consisting of the grain
and two firm coverings, the rounded one known as a floral glume which
covers the edges of the flattened side, oval, the surface granular and
very faintly striate, lengthwise and ridged crosswise. Much resembling
Hungarian grass. Introduced from Europe. Found with yellow foxtail.

[Illustration: Fig. 25.]

=Porcupine Grass.= _Stipa spartea_ Trin. Grain inclosed in the floral
glume, light brown, 18 mm. long, clothed on the lower half with short
brown hairs slanting upward, bearing at the base a sharp, hard, curved
beak, when dry the attached awn is twisted for 6 cm. and straight and
bent at right angles about 6 cm. When moistened, the awn untwists more
or less; twisting and untwisting the beards hold what the beak pierces,
thus making it a formidable weapon to enter the skins of sheep, goats
and dogs. Fortunately it is seldom abundant. Sandy land Michigan and


[Illustration: Fig. 26.]

=Yellow Nut-Grass.= _Cyperus esculentus_ L. This is a species of sedge,
and so far as I have examined, produces no seeds, perhaps having lost
that method of reproduction, as it acquired the habit of spreading by
tubers here illustrated. In moist soil, sometimes a troublesome weed.

[Illustration: Fig. 27.]

=Ovoid Spike-rush.= _Eleocharis ovata_ (Roth.) R. & S. Spike ovoid, 4-10
mm. long, achene pale to chestnut brown, shining, obovate-oblong,
compressed, about 1 mm. long, bearing a triangular tubercle at the apex,
and six to eight barbed bristles, 1.3-1.7 mm. long, very variable. Not
troublesome except in low land.


[Illustration: Fig. 28.]

=Slender Rush.= _Juncus tenuis_ Willd. Seeds light brown to amber color,
translucent, flattened, oval, half oval, oblong, ovoid, the acute apex
curved to one side, about 0.3 mm. long. Dry to moist soil, almost
throughout North America, now migrating to all parts of the world. A
very common, grass-like rush in this state, seldom recognized by any one
under any name, except by a first-rate botanist.


[Illustration: Fig. 29.]

=Field Garlic. Wild Garlic.= _Allium vineale_ L. Seeds not seen,
apparently seldom produced; bulblets (b) light yellow or almost white,
obovoid to elliptical, 7-8 mm. long, when dry. Introduced from Europe.
Troublesome in pastures and tainting the flavor of butter; in wheat it
taints the flavor of flour. Persistent when introduced. The illustration
of grains of wheat (a) are given for comparison.


[Illustration: Fig. 30.]

=Slender Nettle.= _Urtica gracilis_ Ait. Achenes compressed,
lens-shaped, ovate, rarely oval, faces similar, smooth, dull and grayish
brown, .9-1.1 mm. long. Native of this country. Compared with U. dioica,
this achene is thinner and shorter. Prominent in low pastures.


[Illustration: Fig. 31.]

=Knot-Grass.= _Polygonum aviculare_ L. This door-yard weed is in no
sense a grass. Achenes unequally 3-sided, ovoid, acute, angles obtuse,
surface, dull, light to dark reddish brown, finely granular and striate
lengthwise. 1.8-2.2 mm. long, usually with the remains of calyx
attached. Native of this country. Common about door-yards.

[Illustration: Fig. 32.]

=Wild Buckwheat.= _Polygonum Convolvulus_ L. Achenes dull, jet-black,
equally 3-sided, elliptical to obovoid, minutely granular often with
faint longitudinal striation, the faces often more or less concave, the
angles rounded, 2.5-3.5 mm. long, sometimes with the remains of calyx
attached. Introduced from Europe. Often climbing up corn stalks.

[Illustration: Fig. 33.]

=Erect Knotweed.= _Polygonum erectum_ L. Achenes dull, light to dark
brown, unequally 3-sided, ovoid or rhombic, finely granular and striate
lengthwise, the faces sometimes concave, the angles rounded, 2.5-3 mm.
long, sometimes with the remains of calyx attached. Native to this
country. Of little account.

[Illustration: Fig. 34.]

=Smart-weed.= _Polygonum Hydropiper_ L. Achene dull, granular, light to
dark reddish brown, lenticular, acutely and narrowly or broadly
elliptical, or 3-sided, apex acute, concave on the sides, angles obtuse,
2-3 mm. long, sometimes with the remains of the dotted calyx attached.
Introduced from Europe. Wet land.

[Illustration: Fig. 35.]

=Dock-leaved or Pale Persicaria.= _Polygonum lapathifolium_ L. Achene
shining, dark to chestnut brown, 2-2.2 mm. long, flattened, circular to
broadly ovate with abruptly pointed apex, the base obtuse or bearing the
remains of the thin calyx. Introduced from Europe. Low wet places.

=Shore Knotweed.= _Polygonum littorale_ Link. So far as the achenes are
concerned, they are identical with those of P. aviculare above
described. Native of this country. On hard or thin places, especially
when newly graded.

[Illustration: Fig. 36.]

=Pennsylvania Persicaria=, _Polygonum Pennsylvanicum_ L. Achene shining,
jet-black, flattened, surface very slightly uneven and granular nearly
circular with a short abrupt apex, edge rounded, 2.5-3 mm. long, often
bearing the remains of the calyx. Native to this country. Occasional in
annual crops.

[Illustration: Fig. 37.]

=Lady's Thumb.= _Polygonum Persicaria_ L. Achene shining, jet-black,
surface finely uneven, much flattened with rounded edges or with 3
nearly equal concave faces, the edges faintly angled along the center,
broadly ovate, base obtuse or bearing a portion of the calyx, apex
abruptly pointed, 2-2.3 long. Introduced from Europe. Waste places and
stubble ground.

[Illustration: Fig. 38.]

=Climbing False Buckwheat.= _Polygonum scandens_ L. Achene black,
shining, in cross-section sides flat or concave, corners rounded,
obovate, in vertical outline sides rounded to an obtuse apex, from
rounded sides to base slightly concave, base acute, 3.5-4 mm. long when
freed from the persistent base of the calyx. Woods and shady places. Not
prominent as a weed.

[Illustration: Fig. 39.]

=Sorrel. Sour Dock.= _Rumex Acetosa_ L. Calyx-wings broadly ovate or
orbicular, heart-shaped 3.5-4.5 mm. long, achene shining, with 3 equal
sides, broadly oval, both ends abruptly pointed, the thin edges usually
lighter colored than the dark brown or black convex faces, 1.5-2 mm.
long. Introduced from Europe. Not common.

[Illustration: Fig. 40.]

=Sheep Sorrel.= _Rumex Acetosella_ L. Achenes usually closely covered by
dull reddish brown, finally roughened calyx, which is removed with
difficulty; achenes shining with 3 equal sides, broadly oval, the base
rounded, the apex abruptly pointed, sides convex, reddish brown or amber
color, corners obtuse, darker colored. Native of this country, though in
large part introduced from Europe. Very common in thin sandy meadows.

[Illustration: Fig. 41.]

=Narrow-leaved or Curled Dock.= _Rumex crispus_ L. Achene covered by 3
brown heart-shaped calyx-wings, which are 2.5-3.5 mm. long, each bearing
an ovoid, acute tubercle; one of them is 1.5 mm. long, the other two
smaller. Achene ovoid, 3-angled, shining, rich reddish-brown, 1.3-1.8
mm. long, .7-1.4 mm. wide, in transverse section the angles prominent,
convex sides and angles concave near the base; base abruptly acute; when
viewed vertically sides and angles concave near the apex; apex abruptly
acute, compare these notes with those concerning R. obtusifolius.
Introduced from Europe. Very common on low land and in meadows.

[Illustration: Fig. 42.]

=Broad-leaved or Bitter Dock.= _Rumex obtusifolius_ L. Achene covered by
three brown, hastate-deltoid calyx-wings, which are about 4 mm. long,
each bearing an ovoid-elliptical tubercle, one of them 1.5 mm. long,
the other two very narrow, rudimentary. Achenes ovoid, 3-angled, less
polished than those of R. crispus, light brown, 2-2.4 mm. long, 1-1.4
mm. wide, angles in transverse section slight, sides convex, usually in
a greater degree than in the specie just named, vertically sides and
angles very slightly concave or straight near the base which is abruptly
acute; sides and angles near the apex scarcely concave or straight; apex
acute. Introduced from Europe. Not very common.

[Illustration: Fig. 43.]

=Patience Dock.= _Rumex Patientia_ L. Calyx-wings circular-heart shaped,
4-6 mm. long, one of them bearing a prominent ovoid tubercle; achene
ovoid-elliptical, 3-angled, somewhat polished, shining, light-brown,
2.5-3.5 mm. long, 1.7-2 mm. wide, angles prominent, sides straight, in
transverse section, not counting the angles, base rounded, not counting
the abrupt point, when seen vertically, the sides near the apex are
straight or slightly concave. Introduced from Europe. Not common.

[Illustration: Fig. 44.]

=Willow-leaved Dock.= _Rumex Mexicanus_ Meisn. _Rumex salicifolius_
Weinm. Calyx-wings triangular-ovate, about 3 mm. long, each bearing a
large tubercle; achene dark reddish brown, smooth, shining, 1.8-2.2 mm.
long, ovoid, angles prominent, the sides viewed transversely rounded,
the sides of the base as viewed vertically, rounded, straight or
slightly concave, near the apex straight or concave. A native of
Northeastern North America. Not common.


[Illustration: Fig. 45.]

=Spreading Orache.= _Atriplex patula_ L. Seeds are likely to occur in
either of three different guises, depending upon the degree of their
ripeness or the amount of threshing to which they have been subjected.

Achenes thin, dull, granular, gray, closely fitting the seed; seed
jet-black, shining, flattened, nearly circular, edge bluntly rounded,
and notched in one place, a groove leading from one side of a margined
protuberance part way to the center of the face, 1.5-1.8 mm. in
diameter. Introduced from Europe. Seldom troublesome.

[Illustration: Fig. 46.]

=Pigweed. Lamb's Quarters.= _Chenopodium album_ L. Seeds are likely to
occur in either of three different guises dependent upon the degree of
their ripeness or the amount of threshing to which they have been
subjected. The figure shows these conditions admirably.

Seeds black, dull or somewhat glistening, gray if not pretty clean;
nearly circular; somewhat lens-shaped, one side usually more nearly
flattened than the other 1-1.4 mm. in diameter, the edge bluntly
rounded, the more convex side bearing a curved groove leading from one
side of the marginal protuberance to near the center of the face,
surface finely uneven, often with a faintly evident radiating striation.
Introduced from Europe. Very common in annual crops.

[Illustration: Fig. 47.]

=Mexican Tea.= _Chenopodium ambrosioides_ L. Note remarks under last
preceding description concerning different stages of cleaning. Seeds
smooth, shining, reddish brown, to black, thickly double convex with
scarcely a trace of a hem-like margin, circular, short kidney-shaped or
ovate with a notch on the edge, .6-.8 mm. long. Introduced from tropical
America. Not prominent.

[Illustration: Fig. 48.]

=Jerusalem Oak.= _Chenopodium Botrys_ L. Concerning different states of
cleaning, note remarks above under C. album.

Seeds perfectly cleaned with great difficulty, brown to black or gray,
when imperfectly cleaned, slightly flatted on two sides, circular or
round, kidney-shaped, sometimes with a hem-like margin, on one side a
faint groove from the margin to near the center of the face, .6-.8 mm.
in diameter. Introduced from Europe. Not prominent.

[Illustration: Fig. 49.]

=Oak-leaved Goosefoot.= _Chenopodium glaucum_ L. Concerning the
different stages of cleaning note remarks above under C. album.

Seeds brown to black, more or less slightly granular, shining, flattened
on two sides, circular edge bluntly rounded, with a single notch from
which on one side extends a slight depression toward the center of the
face, .5-.8 mm. in diameter. Introduced from Europe. Occasional on moist

[Illustration: Fig. 50.]

=Maple-leaved Goosefoot.= _Chenopodium hybridum_ L. Concerning the
different stages of cleaning, note remarks above under C. album.

Seeds black, shining, greenish gray if not fully cleaned, nearly
circular, lens-shaped, equally convex, 1.2-1.8 mm. in diameter, with a
notch on the edge, from which on one side a groove leads to near the
center of the face, surface finely uneven, often with a faintly evident
radiating striation. Native of this country. Of little importance.

[Illustration: Fig. 51.]

=Many-seeded Goosefoot.= _Chenopodium polyspermum_ L. Concerning
different stages of cleaning, note remarks above under C. album.

Seeds finely glandular, shining, jet-black, greenish gray, when not
fully cleaned, nearly circular or broadly kidney-shaped, sides equally
convex, .6-1.1 mm. in diameter, with a notch on the edge from which on
one side, a groove leads to near the center of the face. Introduced from

[Illustration: Fig. 52.]

=Winged Pigweed.= _Cycloloma atriplicifolium_ (Spreng.) Coulter. Seeds
are likely to occur in either of three different guises depending upon
the degree their ripeness or the amount of threshing to which they have
been subjected. See the figure of this species. Seeds granular,
circular, dull, jet-black, or gray in case the thin ovary remains,
1.3-1.7 mm. in diameter, lower face convex, the upper slightly convex if
mature, with a slight notch on the rounded edge, the lower face bearing
a slight curved groove, leading from the notch to near the center, the
upper face with a light spot at the center. Introduced from western
United States. A tumble weed, not common.

[Illustration: Fig. 53.]

=Russian Thistle.= _Salsola Kali tenuifolia_ G. F. W. Mey. This is not a
thistle nor a cactus, but a pigweed. Concerning different stages of
cleaning, note remarks above under Chenopodium album (see the figures).
Seeds conical, the apex flattened or concave, both sides showing the
long coiled embryo, light gray in color, about 2 mm. in diameter.
Introduced from northern Europe into the north west and from there into
Michigan. Well advertised, though not of high rank as a weed in this
state. A tumble weed.


[Illustration: Fig. 54.]

=Western Water Hemp.= _Acnida tuberculata Moq._ Seeds smooth, highly
polished, brown to jet-black, double convex, nearly circular, with a
slight notch at one edge, .6-.8 mm. in diameter, smaller, lighter
colored, and thin margins less conspicuous than those found on the seeds
of _Amaranthus circaezans_. There are three varieties with seeds much
the same as these. Native of low ground in central and southern

[Illustration: Fig. 55.]

=Prostrate Amaranth.= _Amaranthus blitoides_ S. Wats. Seeds smooth,
highly polished, jet-black, double convex, nearly circular, with a
slight notch at one edge, 1.4-1.5 mm. in diameter. Introduced from west
of the Rocky Mountains. It thrives on sandy and gravelly banks. Margin
of this seed is less pronounced than in either of the other three
noticed above. Found almost everywhere in fields of Michigan. Introduced
from tropical America. Very common in annual hoed crops.

[Illustration: Fig. 56.]

=Tumble weed.= _Amaranthus graecizans_ L. Seeds smooth, highly polished,
jet-black, double convex, nearly circular with a slight notch at one
edge, .7-1 mm. in diameter. Compare with _Acnida_. Introduced from
tropical America. It needs sand or gravel.

[Illustration: Fig. 57.]

=Slender Pigweed.= _Amaranthus hybridus_ L. (_A. chlorostachys_). Seeds
smooth, highly polished, jet-black, double convex, broadly ovate, with a
slight notch at the narrow extremity, 1.1-1.4 mm. long. Distinguished
from the preceding species by having a seed ovate instead of circular.
Introduced from tropical America. Not abundant.

[Illustration: Fig. 58.]

=Rough Pigweeds.= _Amaranthus retroflexus_ L. Sometimes incorrectly
called red-root. Seeds smooth, highly polished, jet-black, double
convex, broadly ovate, with a slight notch at the narrow end, .9-1.2 mm.
long. The seeds of this and the next preceding are ovate, while those of
the first two are very nearly circular. When seen edgewise, the
hem-like margin of this seed is less prominent then in either of the
preceding three noticed above. Found almost everywhere in annual crops.
Introduced from tropical America.


[Illustration: Fig. 59.]

=Knawel.= _Scleranthus annuus_ L. As the seed is single for each flower,
it is unnecessary for the ovary to open; the small, hardened, ten-angled
calyx with its five thick lobes aid in protecting and distributing the
seed within. The seed is seldom seen. Calyx straw colored, obovoid, 2
mm. long besides the five spreading, membranaceous lobes, which are
nearly as long. A low spreading plant, resembling some kinds of


[Illustration: Fig. 60.]

=Carpet-Weed.= _Mollugo verticillata_ L. Seeds orange-red, shining,
flattened, kidney-shaped or ovoid, .4-.6 mm. long, concave on the
thinner edge from which protrudes a nipple-like point, a low central
ridge passing over the rounded edge. Native of warmer America. Needing


[Illustration: Fig. 61.]

=Cockle.= _Agrostemma Githago_ L. Flowers rose-colored; pod
erect, ovoid, about 16 mm. long; seeds dark brown to black,
wedge-shaped-triangular, appearing as though the two extremities were
bent together; surface covered with curved rows of conspicuous teeth,
one side 3-3.5 mm. long. Introduced from Europe. In no sense a weed
except in wheat fields.

[Illustration: Fig. 62.]

=Thyme-leaved Sandwort.= _Arenaria serpyllifolia_ L. Flowers white;
seeds reddish brown to lead color, slightly flattened, circular to
short-kidney-shaped. Each side covered with 4-5 curved rows of smooth,
oval tubercles, giving the appearance of having two extremities bent
together, about 5 mm. in diameter. Naturalized from Europe, delighting
in light, poor soil. When well grown it becomes a tumbleweed.

[Illustration: Fig. 63.]

=Larger Mouse-ear Chickweed.= _Cerastium vulgatum_ L. Flowers white;
pods cylindrical; seeds light-reddish yellow to dark reddish brown;
slightly flattened, 4-sided, 2 of them straight, converging, one
rounded, the other narrow and notched. Some of them ovoid, others nearly
circular, covered with a few irregularly curved rows of tubercles, .4-.8
mm. in diameter. In large part introduced from Europe, though a native
of this continent.

[Illustration: Fig. 64.]

=Bouncing Bet. Soapwort.= _Saponaria officinalis_ L. Flowers white;
seeds dark lead-color, flattened, short-kidney-shaped to circular with
notch on one side, 2 mm. across, more or less, with 6-7 curved rows of
short, shiny tubercles. Naturalized from Europe, delighting in sandy

[Illustration: Fig. 65.]

=Cow-herb.= _Saponaria Vaccaria_ L. Seed dull, jet-black, slightly
roughened by great numbers of minute points, nearly spherical, 2.3 mm.
in diameter. An annual very troublesome in spring wheat. Introduced from

[Illustration: Fig. 66.]

=Sleepy Catch-Fly.= _Silene antirrhina_ L. Flowers pink; seeds
lead-color, slightly flattened, circular to short-kidney-shaped, each
side covered with 5-6 curved rows of pointed tubercles giving the
appearance of having two blunt extremities bent together, .5-.7 mm.
across. Compare seeds with those of _Arenaria_ above described. When in
flower, two of the upper internodes are glutinous. Only found on thin

[Illustration: Fig. 67.]

=Forked Catch-fly.= _Silene dichotoma_ Ehrh. Seeds reddish-brown,
flattened, the three sides and the corners rounded, thickest at one
corner narrowing to the side opposite; seed scar in the middle of the
narrow side, four curved rows of tubercles on either side of the seed
extending to the scar, diameter 1.3 mm., the thick edge concave,
containing 6-7 rows of tubercles.

[Illustration: Fig. 68.]

=Bladder Campion.= _Silene latifolia_ (Mill.) Britton & Randle. _Silene_
(Moench) Garcke. Flowers white; pod covered by an inflated calyx, seeds
dull grayish brown, flattened, wedge-shaped, oval or 3-sided, 1-1.7 mm.
across, 5-7 curved rows or tubercles on each side. Naturalized from

[Illustration: Fig. 69.]

=Night-flowering Catch-Fly.= _Silene noctiflora_ L. Flowers white; seeds
dull grayish brown, very slightly flattened, oval or short
kidney-shaped, nearly 1.5 mm. across, with 8-10 curved rows of tubercles
on each side. Naturalized from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 70.]

=Spurry.= _Spergula arvensis_ L. Flowers white; seeds jet-black, except
a narrowly winged, light-colored margin, slightly flattened, circular in
outline 1-1.5 mm. across, with a slight notch on one side, surface often
sprinkled with delicate, fragile, light-colored prickles. Introduced
from Europe. Thriving on poor, sandy land.

[Illustration: Fig. 71.]

=Common Chickweed.= _Stellaria media_ (L.) Cyrill. _Alsine media_ L.
Flowers white; seeds reddish yellow to dark brown, somewhat flattened,
nearly circular, each side covered with 5-6 curved rows of tubercles,
giving the appearance of having the two extremities bent together, about
1 mm. in diameter. Introduced from Europe, thriving in cool weather in


[Illustration: Fig. 72.]

=Purslane. Pussley.= _Portulaca oleracea_ L. Flowers yellow, seeds
jet-black, shining, flattened, wedge-shaped, having three rounded nearly
equal sides, broadly oval or almost circular, often having a curved
tooth or point on one side, with 3-4 curved rows of minute tubercles.
Seed .5-.8 mm. in diameter. Naturalized from the southwest. Every
gardener knows how difficult it is to exterminate this weed.


[Illustration: Fig. 73.]

=Small-flowered Crowfoot.= _Ranunculus abortivus_ L. Achene light brown
to straw colored, 0.8-1.2 mm. in diameter, oblong, 0.3 mm. thick, when
seen in cross sections, surface uneven with minute wrinkles, pits and
dots flattened, broad oval to circular, three-sided, bearing the remains
of a short curved style. Rich, low woods, not a common weed.

[Illustration: Fig. 74.]

=Bitter or Tall Buttercup.= _Ranunculus acris_ L. Achenes dull, dark
brown, two-beaked, somewhat lens-shaped, 3-4 mm. long, one edge very
slightly convex, the other prominently so, or somewhat semicircular in
outline, hem-like margin, obscure. Introduced from Europe. Low land.

[Illustration: Fig. 75.]

=Bulbous Buttercup.= _Ranunculus bulbosus_ L. Achenes dull brown, nearly
circular, diameter 3-4 mm.; beak short, turned to one side, surrounded
by a narrow, hem-like margin. In June, many meadows of New England and
New York are yellow with great numbers of flowers. Introduced from
Europe. Upland; fortunately not yet common in this state.

[Illustration: Fig. 76.]

=Creeping Buttercup.= _Ranunculus repens_ L. Achenes plump, dull,
light-brown, nearly circular, diameter 3-4 or more mm.; beak more or
less hooked, hem-like margin conspicuous. This species usually seeds
very sparingly, but when once introduced, it looses no time in spreading
by creeping stems. Introduced from Europe. Moist land; a rapid spreader
by runners.


[Illustration: Fig. 77.]

=Celandine.= _Chelidonium majus_ L. Yellow sap, yellow flowers; seeds
dark brown to almost black, ovoid, 1.2-1.5 mm. long, with 10-12 curved
vertical rows of small square depressions on each side; projecting from
one side a prominent white or cream-colored ridge, irregularly wrinkled
when dry. Introduced from Europe. Persistent.


[Illustration: Fig. 78.]

=Yellow or Small Alyssum.= _Alyssum alyssoides_ L. Flowers yellow; fruit
nearly circular; seeds rich yellowish brown, about 1.5 mm. long, nearly
straight on one edge, flattened slightly, convex on each side or one
side flat, surrounded by a thin wing. Cotyledons accumbent. Introduced
from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 79.]

=Yellow Rocket. Winter Cress.= _Barbarea vulgaris_ R. Br. (_Barbarea
Barbarea_ L. Mac. M.) Seeds roughened, dull, light brown, irregularly
flattened, broad oval, circular-oval, circular-oblong, cotyledons
accumbent. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 80.]

=Hoary Alyssum.= _Berteroa incana_ (L.) D. C. Flowers white; pods oval,
flattened; seeds reddish brown, circular, broad oval, or rhombic in
outline, about 1.5 mm. in diameter, flat on one side showing a slight
groove, the other side convex, irregular owing to pressure in the pod.
Cotyledons accumbent. Introduced from Europe. A thrifty weed of the
mustard family.

[Illustration: Fig. 81.]

=Charlock.= _Brassica arvensis_ (L.) B. S. P. Pods tipped with a
flattened elongated-conic, often 1-seeded beak. See also cuts of
rutabaga and black mustard. Introduced from Europe. See statements last

[Illustration: Fig. 82.]

=Rutabaga.= _Brassica campestris_ L. Seed dull, light or dark reddish
brown, roughened by an indistinct net work of ridges, very nearly
spherical, 1.4-1.8 mm. in diameter. Much cultivated, inclined to escape.
Included here for comparison with other species. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 83.]

=Indian Mustard.= _Brassica juncea_ (L.) Cossos. See also cuts of turnip
and black mustard. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 84.]

=Black Mustard.= _Brassica nigra_ (L.) Koch. Seeds dark brown to reddish
brown, 1-1.7 mm., spherical, or broadly oblong, not flattened. The
surface of well developed specimens presents a delicate but evident net
work of fine ridges which appear under the lens as dark lines. The scar
(hilum) is a whitish, elevated spot, at one extremity of the oblong
seeds. See cuts of seeds of turnip. Introduced from Europe. A vigorous
persistent weed.

[Illustration: Fig. 85.]

=Small Fruited False-Flax.= _Camelina microcarpa_ Andrz. Flowers small,
yellow; pods pear-shaped, flattened, about 6 mm. long, surrounded by a
vertical ridge; seeds reddish brown, granular, usually broad-oval, about
1 mm. long, slightly flattened, the vertical ridge much less prominent
than in C. sativa. When wet the seed is soon covered with mucilage. Not
yet very common. Naturalized from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 86.]

=False Flax.= _Camelina saliva_ (L.) Crantz. The common name is derived
from the fact that it is a weed of flax fields in Europe. Flowers small,
yellowish; pods pear-shaped, slightly flattened, 8-10 mm. long,
surrounded by a vertical ridge. Seeds reddish yellow, granular, usually
oval, 2-3 mm. long, one side flat or roundish, the other furnished with
a prominent vertical or oblique ridge. Seed incumbent. When wet the seed
is soon covered with mucilage. Naturalized from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 87.]

=Shepherd's Purse.= _Capsella Bursa-pastoris_ (L.) Medic. _Bursa
Bursa-pastoris_ (L.) Britton. Flowers small, white; pods flat, nearly
triangular, about 4 mm. long. Seeds reddish yellow, granular, oblong,
slightly flattened, 1 mm. or less long. Each side usually bearing two
longitudinal grooves, separating the surface into three nearly equal
parts, these grooves indicating the position of the parts of the embryo.
When placed in water, a copious coat of transparent mucilage appears on
the surface. In Nevada and Colorado a great pest in fields of Alfalfa.

[Illustration: Fig. 88.]

=Hare's Ear.= _Conringia orientalis_ (L.) Dumort. Seeds brown, surface
checked off into minute irregular pits or patches; broad oval, 2-2.5 mm.
long, in section nearly circular, except two opposite slight grooves
near one side. Cotyledons incumbent. Introduced, not common.

[Illustration: Fig. 89.]

=Sand Rocket.= _Diplotaxis muralis_ (L.) DC. Flowers yellow, seeds
reddish yellow or reddish brown, broad oval, somewhat flattened.
Mucilaginous when wet. Introduced from Europe. A vigorous weed.

[Illustration: Fig. 90.]

=Worm-seed or Treacle Mustard.= _Erysimum cheiranthoides_ L. Flowers
yellow; seeds reddish yellow, smooth, dull, about 1.2 mm. long, ovoid or
oval, more or less flattened, varying much in shape; some of them acute,
rhombic or triangular, becoming mucilaginous when wet. Probably
introduced from Europe. If not already in some portions of the state, we
may at any time expect to find three other species of Erysimum. A
vigorous and prominent weed.

[Illustration: Fig. 91.]

=Apetalous Pepper-Grass.= _Lepidium apetalum_ Willd. Petals usually
wanting, sometimes 2 and minute; pods flat, nearly circular; seeds
reddish yellow, flattened, ovate, 1.5-1.8 mm. long, or more exactly,
nearly straight on one side and roundish on the other. Mucilaginous
when wet. Cotyledons incumbent. When well developed in open places it
becomes a tumble weed. Apparently naturalized from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 92.]

=Field Pepper-Grass or Cow Cress.= _Lepidium campestre_ (L.) R. Br.
Petals white; pods flat, nearly circular; seeds dull, dark brown,
obovoid, with base acute, more or less flattened on three sides, 2-2.5
mm. long. Mucilaginous when wet. Cotyledons incumbent. Naturalized from

[Illustration: Fig. 93.]

=Hoary Cress.= _Lepidium Draba_ L. Seed reddish brown, surface slightly
uneven, slightly flattened, oval to broad oval, 2-2.3 mm. long, usually
with two slight vertical grooves on each side, incumbent. This may soon
appear in Michigan.

[Illustration: Fig. 94.]

=Golden Pepper-grass.= _Lepidium sativum_ L. Seed reddish yellow to
reddish brown, oval, slightly compressed, often nearly straight on one
edge, usually showing two vertical grooves on each side, 2.5 mm. long,
cotyledons incumbent. This is not a grass but a plant of the mustard
family; it has escaped from cultivation.

[Illustration: Fig. 95.]

=Wild Pepper-Grass.= _Lepidium Virginicum_ L. Petals white, pods flat,
nearly circular; seeds granular, dull, reddish yellow, flat, ovoid with
one edge straight, the other rounded, usually with a slight wing on the
broad end and on the round edge. 1.5-1.8 mm. long. Mucilaginous when
wet. Cotyledons accumbent.

When mature, large plants become tumble weeds. Apparently native to this

[Illustration: Fig. 96.]

=Ball Mustard.= _Neslia paniculata_ (L.) Desv. Small fruits, greenish to
light yellowish-brown, globular, 2 mm. in diameter, covered with
net-veined ridges; 1-2 seeded, cotyledons incumbent. Not yet known in
Michigan but may arrive any time. Native of Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 97.]

=Tall or Tumbling Mustard.= _Sisymbrium altissimum_ L. Flowers
cream-color; pods long and narrow; seeds reddish yellow, oblong, about
1.5 mm. long, the apex winged. Mucilaginous when wet. Cotyledons
incumbent. Introduced from Europe. One of the worst weeds in the

[Illustration: Fig. 98.]

=Hedge Mustard.= _Sisymbrium officinale_ (L.) Scop. Flowers yellow,
seeds reddish brown or yellow, oblong, while lying on the flat side,
circular in outline at the middle as viewed from the edge, straight on
one side from the middle tapering to each end. 1-1.5 mm. long.
Mucilaginous when wet. Cotyledons incumbent. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 99.]

=Penny Cress.= _Thlaspi arvense_ L. Flowers white; pods thin, double
convex, nearly circular; seeds deep reddish brown, flat-oval or ovate,
covered on each side by 12-14 curved ridges which originate and
terminate at the narrow extremity. 1.5-2 mm. long. Cotyledons accumbent.
When eaten by cows the milk and meat has a disagreeable taste. A bad
weed, especially in the north-west. Introduced from Europe.


[Illustration: Fig. 100.]

=Mossy Stonecrop.= _Sedum acre_ L. Seed light, reddish-yellow, somewhat
glossy, obovate to oblong, pointed at the base, slightly anatropous,
compressed, 6-7 mm. long. This mossy little plant is persistent when
once established in sandy soil. Introduced from Europe.


[Illustration: Fig. 101.]

=Tall Hairy Agrimony.= _Agrimonia gryposepala_ Wahl. _Agrimonia hirsuta_
(Muhl.) Bicknell. Flowers yellow. Bur, consisting of calyx and two
included fruits inside of which are two seeds; lower part of bur,
top-shaped, rough, grooved, above which are numerous hooked prickles in
several rows, the whole 7-10 mm. long. Native of woods in this country;
seeds mottled brown, flat on one side, 2.5 by 2.5 mm. not found mixed
with grass seed. Several other species are nearly as troublesome as this
one. Seldom found out of the woods.

[Illustration: Fig. 102.]

=Small-flowered Agrimony.= _Agrimonia parviflora_ Ait. Flowers yellow;
fruit 5-6 mm. long and nearly as wide including the hooked bristles;
bristles few, erect or spreading, scarcely any recurved; seeds light
brown, broad oval, 2.7 by 2.5 mm. with a rounded point at the base more
pronounced than in the former species. Shady places.

[Illustration: Fig. 103.]

=Silvery Cinquefoil.= _Potentilla argentea_ L. Flowers yellow, achenes
dull white to brown, unsymmetrically ovoid or short kidney-shaped,
slightly flattened, 0.5-0.7 mm. long, smooth or marked by a few
longitudinal curved ridges, some of them forked. Introduced into
Michigan from Europe or possibly from the eastern states. Thrives in
sandy land.

[Illustration: Fig. 104.]

=One kind of Cinquefoil or Five-finger.= _Potentilla Canadensis_ L.
Achene unsymmetrically ovoid, light straw-color to brown, ridges
indistinct, short, wavy, branched and broken up, (these ridges are
different from those of P. argentea or P. monspeliensis) 1 mm. long, the
achene is less flattened and narrower in proportion. Native from Me. to
Ga. Miss.

[Illustration: Fig. 105.]

=Rough Cinquefoil.= _Potentilla Monspeliensis_ L. Flowers yellow;
achenes nearly white to light brown, unsymmetrically ovoid, or short
kidney-shaped, slightly flattened, 1 mm. or less in length, clearly
marked by a few longitudinal curved ridges, the longer ones forked.
Indigenous to Michigan, thriving on moist or wet land.


[Illustration: Fig. 106.]

=Ax Seed. Ax Wort.= _Coronilla scoparioides_ Koch. Seed reddish brown,
oblong, slightly flattened and curved, 4-5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, with
a circular scar in a depression on the middle of one edge, and a slight
ridge the entire length of both sides. Introduced from Europe, not yet a
prominent weed in Michigan.

[Illustration: Fig. 107.]

=Bird's-foot Trefoil. Ground Honeysuckle. Bloom-fell.= _Lotus
corniculatus_ L. Seed light brown occasionally mottled with black,
shining, spherical to ovoid, slightly compressed near one edge, 1-1.2
mm. in diameter, the compressed portion (raphe) extending half to
three-fourths the length of the seed to the hilum or scar, above this
the seed is narrower. Introduced from Europe. Seldom met with in this

[Illustration: Fig. 108.]

=Black Medick. Nonesuch.= _Medicago lupulina_ L. Flowers light yellow;
pods black, oval, much flattened, spirally coiled, causing the two
extremities to nearly meet; 2-2.8 mm. long; seeds smooth, dull yellow to
green, oval, flattened, kidney-shaped, with a tubercle near the middle
of the concave edge or like the figure, 1.5-1.8 mm. long. Introduced
from Europe and becoming frequent in grass land. Its worst feature is to
supply seeds that may be mistaken for and mixed with seeds of alfalfa
and red clover. The seeds differ from those of alfalfa in being more
commonly egg-shaped than kidney-shaped in outline. The scar is nearer
the small extremity in these seeds than in those of alfalfa. For pasture
this is less valuable than white clover.

[Illustration: Fig. 109.]

=Alfalfa. Lucerne.= _Medicago sativa_ L. Seeds varying much in shape and
size owing to their crowding in the pod when young, yellowish green to
light brown. The cuts give a good idea of the variety of shapes; surface
dull or somewhat glossy, often kidney shaped, with the scar in a
depression near the middle, the tips may be truncate or acute or
rounded, 2-2.5 mm. long in cross-section, oval; when viewed from one
edge it is seen to be bent or warped in various ways, half anatropous,
often seen with a slight depression extending along one edge from the
scar to one end, larger seeds more often flattened than are the shorter.
A prominent forage plant, the seeds of which are often adulterated.
Native of Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 110.]

=White Sweet Clover.= _Melilotus alba Desv._ Flowers white; pods
straw-color to brown, coarsely and irregularly reticulate-ridged or
wrinkled; seeds smooth, dull, yellowish or greenish, more strictly
elliptical-oblong in outline than those of red clover and alfalfa,
bearing the broad, shallow notch near one extremity; 2-2.2 mm. long.
Introduced from Europe. Seeds used to adulterate those of alfalfa.

[Illustration: Fig. 111.]

=Alsike Clover.= _Trifolium hybridum_ L. Seeds dull yellowish green to
very dark green, some of them mottled, lighter about the seed scar,
flattened, one of the rounded edges thicker than the other, and between
the two a slight groove on each side; seed rounded at one end, the other
truncate with the seed scar in the middle of the truncate end. Some
seeds are half anatropous, resembling in shape those of red clover;
1.3-1.2 mm. in diameter. When compared with white clover, these seeds
are larger and thicker. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 112.]

=Crimson Clover. Scarlet Clover.= _Trifolium incarnatum_ L. Seed smooth,
shining when not old, color light yellow to reddish yellow or brown,
oval, scar about one-third the distance from the narrow end,
three-fourths anatropous, 2-2.5 mm. long, very slightly compressed.

[Illustration: Fig. 113.]

=Red Clover.= _Trifolium pratense_ L. Seeds usually dull, pure light
yellow to purple, flattened, ovoid, having the seed scar near the middle
of one edge or below the middle, half anatropous, a slight depression on
each side from the scar toward the broad end, the short edge thinner
than the long edge, 1.5-1.8 mm. long by 1.x1.4 mm. wide. Very common.
Introduced from Europe.

=Mammoth Clover= is a variety or race or red clover, the seeds of which
are indistinguishable from the seeds of red clover. As a rule they are
darker in color and rather smaller. Red clover and mammoth clover are
usually much mixed.

[Illustration: Fig. 114.]

=Low Hop-clover.= _Trifolium procumbens_ L. A low, yellow-flowered
annual, often becoming a tumble-weed at maturity. Seeds plump, shining,
straw-colored to light brown, broad oval, very slightly flattened, 1 mm.
long, three-fourths anatropous, i. e., the scar is a very little
distance from one end of the seed. A little way back of the scar on each
side is a light-colored depression. Rather rapidly spreading. From

[Illustration: Fig. 115.]

=White Clover.= _Trifolium repens_ L. Seeds scarcely shining, yellow to
light brown, flattened, one of the rounded edges thinner than the other,
and between the two a slight groove on each side, one end rounded, the
other truncate with a slight depression in the center containing the
seed scar 1.-1.2 mm. long to 1 mm. wide. The seeds that are truncate at
one end are anatropous, some of them resembling those of red clover are
half anatropous. Common and well known, possibly native to the northern


[Illustration: Fig. 116.]

=Alfilaria. Storks-bill.= _Erodium cicutarium_ (L.) L'Her. Flowers pink;
achenes reddish brown, hairy, lance-shaped, the smaller end curved,
hard, sharp, the larger end when mature bearing an awn spirally coiled
for half its length, the sickle like apex turned to one side.

Achenes 5-6 mm. long, the coiled portion and cycle-like apex each 10-15
mm. long. True seed light brown, ovoid-lanceolate 2.5-2.7 mm. long.
Introduced from Europe.

This plant is not yet common in our state, but, judging from its
behavior in the botanic garden, it is destined soon to become a bad
weed. On the desert ranches of Arizona, Nevada and elsewhere, it
furnishes much pasture.

[Illustration: Fig. 117.]

=Cut-leaved Crane's bill.= _Geranium dissectum_ L. Seed light brown,
broadly oval or ovoid, surface deeply pitted requiring 25-30 pits to
form one row transversely about the surface. Seed scar at the larger end
from which extends a slight vertical ridge reaching nearly one-third the
length of the seed. Introduced from Europe, becoming common.

[Illustration: Fig. 118.]

=Small-flowered Crane's bill.= _Geranium pusillum_ Burm. f. Flowers
minute, pink, pubescent under a lens, slightly compressed, oval with the
apex near one side of one end, about 2 mm. long, the beak nearly twice
as long; seed reddish brown, smooth, oval, slightly flattened, 1.7-1.9
mm. long. Introduced from Europe, a bad weed when once established.


[Illustration: Fig. 119.]

=Three-Seeded Mercury.= _Acalypha Virginica_ L. Seeds 1.3-1.8 mm. long
oval or obovoid, dull, light to dark reddish brown or gray, mottled with
black spots, surface covered with numerous irregular vertical lines, a
ridge (hilum) extending from the pointed end for about one-third the
length, continuing to the broad extremity as a dark line (raphe). Native
to this country. Moist land.

[Illustration: Fig. 120.]

=Cypress Spurge.= _Euphorbia Cyparissias_ L. Seeds dull, light lead or
ash-colored, oval or oblong, circular in transverse section, 1.5-2 mm.
long, not including an irregular yellowish appendage (caruncle) at the
base, a dark verticle line (raphe) extending along one side. Introduced
from Europe. Thriving on thin sandy soil.

[Illustration: Fig. 121.]

=Toothed Spurge.= _Euphorbia dentata_ Michx. Seeds ash colored, obovoid,
or globose, inconspicuously four-angled, base obtuse, irregularly
tuberculate, 1 mm. or more long. It thrives in the Botanic Garden and
very likely may soon spread onto Michigan farms.

[Illustration: Fig. 122.]

=Leafy Spurge.= _Euphorbia Esula_ L. Seeds dull, light drab colored,
broad-oval, narrowed at one end, nearly circular in transverse section,
2.3 mm. long, not including a wrinkled bunch (caruncle) at the base, a
dark vertical line (raphe) extending above one side opposite which is
another ridge the color of the seed. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 123.]

_Euphorbia hirsuta_ (Torr). Weigand. Seeds lead colored, obovoid
approximately square in transverse section with one side narrower than
the others, 4-10 irregular transverse ridges on each side, the raphe
standing along one corner, about 1.2 mm. long by 7 mm. wide. Sandy soil.

[Illustration: Fig. 124.]

=Spotted Spurge.= _Euphorbia maculata_ L. Seeds obovoid-oblong, nearly
square in cross-sections, minutely pitted and transversely wrinkled with
2-5 broken wavy ridges, a fine dark vertical line (raphe) along one
corner, color reddish drab, .6-.8 mm. long. Probably introduced from
west of the Rocky Mountains.

[Illustration: Fig. 125.]

=Upright Spotted Spurge.= _Euphorbia Preslii_ Guss. _Euphorbia nutans
Lag._ Seeds lead-colored obovoid-oblong, with 4 unequal sides as seen in
cross-section, pitted and transversely wrinkled, with 2-5 broken wavy
ridges, a fine dark, verticle line (raphe) along one corner, 1-1.3 mm.
long. Native of eastern North America. Introduced in seeds of red

[Illustration: Fig. 126.]

=Thyme-leaved Spurge.= _Euphorbia serpyllifolia_ Pers. Seed ash-colored,
obovoid, four-angled or nearly square in cross-section, the surface
covered with four or five more or less broken obtuse transverse ridges,
a slender, dark line (raphe) extending from end to end on one corner.
Dry soils, like railway tracks.


[Illustration: Fig. 127.]

=Poison Ivy.= _Rhus Toxicodendron_ L. Berry nearly white, globular,
about 5 mm. in diameter, drupe kidney-shaped, concave on both edges, 3
by 4.5 mm. in diameter, 2 mm. thick. To some people very poisonous to
the touch; a woody shrub.


[Illustration: Fig. 128.]

=Indian Mallow. American Jute. Velvet Leaf.= _Abutilon Theophrasti_
Medic. _Abutilon Abutilon_ (L.) _Rusby_. Flowers yellow; seeds brown,
flattened, 3.5-4 mm. long, ovoid excepting a piece cut from one side of
the smaller end with 3-4 curved rows of minute slender objects on each
side, the raphe extending from the pointed end to the notch on one side
(half anatropous). Naturalized from northern Asia.

[Illustration: Fig. 129.]

=Bladder Ketmia.= _Hibiscus Trionum_ L. Seed brown, the surface dotted
with numerous, ragged, light-colored pimples. Think of the shape as
obovoid, and then bent somewhat to the side. As now found the seed is
triangular in outline with rounded corners, considerably thinned toward
one corner near which is the seed scar in the midst of a depression.
Each side of the triangle is about 2 mm. long. Introduced from Europe.
Not yet a prominent weed in Michigan.

[Illustration: Fig. 130.]

=Cheeses. Running Mallow.= _Malva rotundifolia_ L. Flowers white;
cluster of 12-15 fruits flattened, circular with depression on each
side, ovary circular, wedge-shaped, very slightly roughened, with
radiating ridges; seeds light brown, nearly smooth, flattened, 1.4-1.7
mm. in diameter, wedge shaped, nearly circular with a small notch on the
thin edge. Naturalized from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 131.]

=Whorled Mallow.= _Malva verticillata._ L. Flowers white; cluster of
10-12 fruits flattened, circular with depression on each side, carpel
circular, wedge-shaped, about three rows of irregular shallow pits on
the wide edge, radiating ridges on each flat side; seeds light brown,
nearly smooth, flattened, wedge-shaped, ovate or nearly circular,
1.5-1.7 mm. long, with a small notch on the thin edge. Introduced from
the west.

[Illustration: Fig. 132.]

=Prickly Sida.= _Sida spinosa_ L. Seed smooth, dull brown or reddish
brown, having one side round and two sides flat or more or less concave,
all edges obtuse while lying on one flat side, broadly ovoid, with one
side nearly straight, scar at the larger end in the midst of a slight
depression, 1.5-1.8 mm. long. Not yet common in Michigan. Introduced
from the tropics.


[Illustration: Fig. 133.]

=Common St. John's-wort.= _Hypericum perforatum_ L. Seed dark brown,
mottled with about twenty-four vertical rows of small scars, short
oblong, 1 mm. long, a little more or less, circular in cross-section, a
slight point at one or both ends. Troublesome in old meadows and
pastures. From Europe.


[Illustration: Fig. 134.]

=Small-flowered Gaura.= _Gaura parviflora_ Dougl. Achenes greenish
brown, at first glance, having the appearance of barley, linear, swollen
in the middle, more or less grooved or channeled, 6-8 mm. long.
Introduced from the South.

[Illustration: Fig. 135.]

=Common Evening-Primrose.= _Oenothera biennis_ L. _Onagra biennis_ (L.)
Scop. Flowers yellow; seeds reddish brown or darker, surface dull,
minutely ridged, very irregular in shape owing to crowding in the pod,
more or less pyramidal and four or five sided, the angles acute or with
a wing-like border, 1.-1.5 mm. long. Native to this country.


[Illustration: Fig. 136.]

=Water Hemlock.= =Mosquash Root.= =Beaver Poison.= _Cicuta maculata_ L.
Achenes, when young grow in couples joined by their flat sides, broadly
oval, somewhat flattened, a single one-half oval, 2.7-3.2 mm long, with
five corky yellowish white vertical stripes alternating with four brown
oil tubes, the flat side with two wide light corky stripes including two
brown oil tubes. The roots are very poisonous. Native to Michigan and
elsewhere. Moist or wet lands.

[Illustration: Fig. 137.]

=Poison Hemlock.= _Conium maculatum_ L. Flowers white, achenes growing
in pairs, light brown, oval, flat on one side, five ribs extending from
one end to the other, between them the surface abounds in minute
vertical projections, achene about 3.5 mm. long. Difficult to identify.
Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 138.]

=Wild Carrot.= _Daucus Carota_ L. Flowers white; achenes light brown,
striped with white, oval, flattened, bearing numerous frail spines
along the edges and in two rows lengthwise of one face, tips of spines
diverging, often hooked, about 3.5 mm. long not including the spines.
Introduced from Europe. This is the cultivated carrot escaped from
fields and gardens. A great pest in old meadows.

[Illustration: Fig. 139.]

=Wild Parsnip.= _Pastinaca sativa_ L. Flowers yellow; achenes growing in
pairs, 5-6 mm. long, with flat sides together, light brown, broad oval,
much flattened, surrounded by a narrow thin ridge, 9-curved shallow ribs
on one side. Introduced from Europe.


[Illustration: Fig. 140.]

=Common Milkweed.= _Asclepias Syriaca_ L. Pods 8-12 cm. long, covered
with soft spiny processes; seeds dull light brown, much flattened,
narrowly obovate, 6.5-8 mm. long, the small end truncate, surrounded by
a broad wrinkled wing-margin or hem. The concave side bears a slender
vertical ridge (raphe) for two-thirds of its length; the convex side
bearing fine, short ridges. Before escaping from the pods, the small end
of the seed contains a cluster of spreading silky hairs (coma) 2-3 cm.
long. Native of this country. Often troublesome and conspicuous in light
soil, occasionally becoming small, pale, with slender branches and

[Illustration: Fig. 141.]

=Black Swallow-wort.= _Cynanchum nigrum_ (L.) Pers. _Vincetoxicum
nigrum_ Moench. Smooth pods of the vine about 5 cm. long; seeds brown
when dry, much flattened, concave, obovate, 6-8 mm. long, nearly
surrounded by a wing margin or hem, the small end truncate. The concave
side bears a slender vertical ridge (raphe) for over half its length,
both sides bearing fine short ridges. Before escaping from the pods, the
small end of the seed contains a cluster of spreading silky hairs.
Introduced from Europe; not yet common, but it is persistent where once


[Illustration: Fig. 142.]

=Small Bindweed.= _Convolvulus arvensis_ L. Color of seeds dull dark
brown, coarsely roughened, oval, 3-4 mm. long, one face convex, the
other face sloping to the edges from a broad, central ridge, becoming
mucilaginous when soaked in water. Introduced from Europe. Seldom, if
ever, seeding in Michigan. On dry, poor land.

[Illustration: Fig. 143.]

=Hedge or Great Bindweed.= _Convolvulus sepium_ L. Pod nearly globose,
about 8 mm. in diameter, usually covered by the bracts and calyx; seeds
dull black or dark brown, roughened, oval, about 5 mm. long, one face
convex, the other face sloping to the edges from a central ridge. Native
to this country. Seldom seeding in Michigan. On low land.

[Illustration: Fig. 144.]

=Field Dodder.= _Cuscuta arvensis_ Beyrich. A pale yellow leafless
parasitic vine; seeds dull, yellowish brown, minutely pitted,
considerably resembling those of red clover, broad oval, ovoid or
spherical, .7-1 mm. long, one side rounded the other often with two flat
surfaces terminating in a ridge. Not uncommon with alfalfa.

[Illustration: Fig. 145.]

=Flax Dodder.= _Cuscuta Epilinum_ Weihe. Stems very slender, yellow or
red, a parasitic vine; seeds dull, yellowish to dark brown, minutely
pitted, nearly spherical, oval, ovoid, 1-1.5 mm. long. Introduced from

[Illustration: Fig. 146.]

=Clover Dodder.= _Cuscuta Epithymum_ Murr. Stems very slender, a
parasitic vine; seeds oval to spherical, dull, pitted, color yellowish,
light to dark brown, light green to purple, about 2 mm. long. Introduced
from Europe. Occasionally found on red clover.

[Illustration: Fig. 147.]

=Gronovius Dodder.= _Cuscuta Gronovii_ Willd. Seed light to dark brown,
surface minutely granular, free from gloss, a few spherical, most of
them indented as they dry or variously angled where they crowded against
each other in the pod, 1.5-1.7 mm. in diameter. Species of dodder are
difficult to distinguish one from the other. This is common on low land,
where it draws nourishment from a great variety of plants, such as
willows, balsams, nettles.

[Illustration: Fig. 148.]

=Spanish Dodder.= _Cuscuta planiflora_ Tenore. Color light to dark pink,
purple buff, olive green; surface well roughened, almost reticulated, in
shape flattened on one side, ovoid, oval angled, indented in great
variety, 0.7-1.2 mm. long.


[Illustration: Fig. 149.]

=Hound's Tongue.= _Cynoglossum officinale_ L. Flowers reddish purple;
ovary brown deeply 4-lobed separating into four achenes, 5-7 mm. long,
flattened, broadly ovate or circular, excepting a slight extension at
one end, lower side having an ovate scar, nearly half as long as the
achenes, all the rest of the surface clothed with straight, stiff,
cap-shaped hairs, bearded on all sides. Introduced from Europe. Very
objectionable in pastures.

[Illustration: Fig. 150.]

=Stick-Seed. Burr Seed.= _Lappula echinata_ Gilibert. _Lappula Lappula_
(L.) Karst. Flowers blue, ovary deeply 4-lobed separating into four
warty achenes, each one brown, about 2.5 mm. long, slightly flattened,
ovate with wedge-shaped apex; the upper side bearing a few stiff
straight, diverging cap-shaped hairs, bearded on all sides; lower side
destitute of hairs, bearing a straight ridge from the point to the
middle of the large end. Introduced from Europe. Very objectionable in

[Illustration: Fig. 151.]

=Wild Comfrey.= _Lappula Virginiana_ (L.) Greene. Flowers blue; ovary
deeply 4-lobed separating into four brown achenes, about 3 mm. long,
flattened on upper side, broadly ovate, the apex wedge-shaped, the upper
side clothed with stiff straight cap-shaped hairs, bearded on all sides;
lower side a low 4-sided cone, nearly smooth with a concave triangular
scar. Native to rich woodlands.

[Illustration: Fig. 152.]

=Red Root. Wheat Thief. Corn Gromwell.= _Lithospermum arvense_ L.
Flowers white; ovary 4-divided separating into four hard, conical-ovoid
achenes, each dull gray, erect, wrinkled, 2.5-3 mm. long, convex on the
back, keeled on the inner side, base obliquely truncate, containing two
minute white tubercles. A prominent weed of high rank in fields of
winter wheat.


[Illustration: Fig. 153.]

=Blue Vervain.= _Verbena hastata_ L. Achenes crowded, four together
until mature, dull, reddish brown, flattened, oblong, 1.7-2 mm. long,
bordered by a narrow margin, the outer face convex, bearing 3-5 small
vertical ridges branching and uniting at the apex, forming a distinct
network, the inner face sloping to the margin from a central vertical
ridge; a light colored scar is seen on one side of the base. Native to
this country. Not important.

[Illustration: Fig. 154.]

=Nettle-leaved Vervain.= _Verbena urticifolia_ L. Achenes 1.6-1.8 mm.
long, very closely resembling the last above mentioned. The achenes of
this one are a trifle shorter and broader, more nearly oval than oblong.
Native to this country. Not common in fields.


[Illustration: Fig. 155.]

=Dead Nettle.= _Lamium amplexicaule_ L. Achenes light brown,
conspicuously marked by white spots some of which coalesce making the
surface striped crosswise, obovate-oblong, pointed at the smaller end,
1.5-2 mm. long, the outer surface rounded, the inner face angled, the
concave surfaces sloping to the edges from a central vertical ridge.
Introduced from Europe. Thrives in cool weather.

[Illustration: Fig. 156.]

=Motherwort.= _Leonurus Cardiaca_ L. Achenes light brown,
obovoid-oblong, rounded on one side flat on the other two sides, the
truncate apex hairy, 2-2.4 mm. long. Introduced from Europe. Waste

[Illustration: Fig. 157.]

=White Hoarhound.= _Marubium vulgare_ L. Achenes dull, varying from
light to dark brown, sometimes finely roughened by numerous minute
tubercles, slightly flattened, oval or obovoid, about 2 mm. long, outer
surface convex, inner face angled sloping to the edges from a central
vertical ridge, edges of achenes often slightly margined, surface
lightly grooved. Introduced from Europe. A weed in northern Michigan
where snow protects it in winter.

[Illustration: Fig. 158.]

=Catnip. Catmint.= _Nepeta Cataria_ L. Achenes dull, light reddish brown
to nearly black, with two laterally placed cavities near the base, each
filled with white spongey tissue, broadly oval, slightly flattened,
1.3-1.7 mm. long. Introduced from Europe. Scarcely a weed.

[Illustration: Fig. 159.]

=Self-heal. Heal-all.= _Prunella vulgaris_ L. Achenes light to dark
brown, slightly roughened, having a diffused luster, slightly flattened,
oval or oblong, the base tapering to a small whitish, triangular
appendage, outer side convex having dark verticle lines, the other face
sloping to the edges from a central ridge, becoming mucilaginous when
soaked in water. Native to this country.


[Illustration: Fig. 160.]

=Jimson Weed. Thorn-apple.= _Datura Stramonium_ L. Pods ovoid, densely
prickly, about 4 cm. long; seeds black to brown, flattened, with 6-10
slight irregular elevations, the whole surface covered with minute
shallow pits, short kidney shaped, i. e., one edge nearly straight or
slightly notched, the remainder of the margin making about two-thirds of
a circle. 3-3.5 mm. long. Most likely introduced from Asia. A coarse,
poisonous weed found in waste places.

[Illustration: Fig. 161.]

=Purple Jimson Weed. Purple Thorn-apple.= _Datura Tatula._ The color of
the stems are purple, the flowers and pods nearly the same as those last
above; seeds of the two scarcely if at all unlike. Naturalized from
tropical America. Waste places.

[Illustration: Fig. 162.]

=Horse Nettle.= _Solanum Carolinense_ L. Berry orange-yellow, 1.6 to 2
cm. in diameter; seeds lemon yellow, slightly double convex, obovate
2.1-2.9 mm. long, surface finely granular all over. Native of the
southwest U. S. It spreads rapidly by long roots.

[Illustration: Fig. 163.]

=Black Nightshade.= _Solanum nigrum_ L. Berry black, smooth, globose,
8-10 mm. in diameter; seeds finely granular, dull, yellowish to light
brown, flattened, unsymmetrically ovate, about 1.5 mm. long. Native to
this country. I have the best of authority for saying that these berries
when ripe make good pies, whether the uncooked fruit is poisonous there
is less proof. Of little importance.

[Illustration: Fig. 164.]

=Beaked Nightshade.= _Solanum rostratum_ Dunal. Fruit surrounded by a
persistent prickly calyx about 2 cm. long; seeds flattened, irregularly
undulate or wrinkled, dark brown or black, usually ovate or circular in
outline, 2-2.5 mm. in diameter, surface covered with small pits.
Introduced into Michigan from the southwest. A coarse prickly weed.


[Illustration: Fig. 165.]

=Butter and Eggs. Toad-Flax.= _Linaria vulgaris_ Hill. _Linaria Linaria_
(L.) Karst. Flowers yellow and orange; seeds dark brown or black, flat,
circular or oval, surrounded by a broad wing-margin, the wing notched
and covered by numerous fine radiating ridges, the surface of the seed
roughened by numerous projecting points, seed, including its wing, 1.5-2
mm. long. Introduced from Europe. A vigorous weed in meadows, spreading
by seeds and by root stocks.

[Illustration: Fig. 166.]

=Moth Mullein.= _Verbascum Blattaria_ L. Flowers yellow; pod 6 mm.
diameter; seeds light to dark brown, .5-1 mm. long, columnar, lateral
surface slightly angular and 6-sided, base truncate or obliquely so and
broader than the rounded apex, thus somewhat thimble-shaped, each
lateral face deeply pitted in longitudinal rows, the pits in contiguous
rows, alternating. Introduced from Europe. A vile weed in meadows and

=Velvet-Leaved Mullein.= _Verbascum Thapsus_ L. Flowers yellow; pod 6
mm. high; seeds cannot be distinguished with certainty by means of the
ordinary lens from those of moth mullein. The pitted surface seems to
predominate in _Verbascum Blattaria_, while the grooved surface seems to
be more common in the seeds of V. Thapsus. Introduced from Europe.
Common in thin pastures.

[Illustration: Fig. 167.]

=Wall Speedwell.= _Veronica arvensis_ L. Pods heart-shaped; seeds dull,
light yellow, flattened, oval, .7-1.1 mm. long on one side appearing as
though the two ends had been brought together by bending. From Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 168.]

=Common Speedwell.= _Veronica officinalis_ L. Pods heart-shaped; seeds
dull, pale yellow, flattened, broadly oval to broadly obovate, .8-1.2
mm. long, with a small scar near the middle of one side, from which
extends a faint line (raphe) to one extremity. Appearing as though

[Illustration: Fig. 169.]

=Purslane Speedwell.= _Veronica peregrina_ L. Pods heart-shaped; seeds
dull, light reddish yellow, flattened, oval to broadly obovate .5-.8 mm.
long, with a small scar a little above the middle of one side, from
which extends a dark line (raphe) to one extremity. Most likely native
to this country.

[Illustration: Fig. 170.]

=Thyme-leaved Speedwell.= _Veronica serpyllifolia_ L. Pods broadly
heart-shaped; seeds pale yellow, a trifle darker than those of V.
officinalis, light, reddish yellow, in shape and markings much like
those of V. peregrina, flattened, broadly oval to obovate .5-.7 mm.
long, with a small scar near the middle on one side, from which extends
a dark line (raphe) to one extremity.

Apparently native to this country.

Seeds of the Veronicas are very difficult to distinguish from one


[Illustration: Fig. 171.]

=Sand Plantain.= _Plantago arenaria_ W. & K. Seeds dark amber brown,
shining, rounded on the back like the bottom of a shallow canoe, 2.5-3
mm. long, transverse groove around the middle of the back, opposite side
with a groove extending lengthwise, about as wide as the ridge on either
side of it; hilum in the middle of the groove. Found at Harrisville,

[Illustration: Fig. 172.]

=Large-bracted Plantain.= _Plantago aristata_ Michx. Seeds oval, dull,
light to dark brown, 2.2-3 mm. long, shaped like a shallow, thick-walled
canoe with ends rounded alike, outer face marked by a shallow,
transverse groove at or near the middle, a white line marking the margin
at the base on the canoe inside, two white-margined pits occupying the
middle of the concave side. Introduced from the west in clover seeds,
not yet common.

[Illustration: Fig. 173.]

=Rib-Grass. Narrow-leaved Plantain.= _Plantago lanceolata_ L. Seeds
shining, amber-colored to brown, oval, 2-2.5 mm. long, shaped like a
shallow, thick-walled canoe with ends rounded alike, a dark scar
occupying the middle of the narrow concave side, a faint, transverse
groove across the convex side near the middle sometimes apparent. Often
found mixed with clover seeds from which it is very difficult to
separate. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 174.]

=Broad-leaved Plantain.= _Plantago major_ L. Seeds, light to dark brown
or very nearly black, 1-1.5 mm. long, slightly flattened, with acute
edges very variable in shape, oval, oblong, rhomboidal and trapezoid,
the surface roughened by slender, colored ridges, appearing under the
lens as slightly wavy lines, radiating from the scar. The clear light
green color of the lower end of the leaf-stem is an easy mark to
distinguish this plant from another broad-leaved plantain, _P. Rugelii_
in which the base of leaf is red. Introduced from Europe. About door

[Illustration: Fig. 175.]

=Rugel's Broad-leaved Plantain.= _Plantago Rugelii Decne._ Seeds dark
brown to black, much like those of P. major, but larger, 1.5-2.5 mm.
long slightly flattened, with edges acute, very variable in shape, oval
oblong, rhomboidal, surface minutely roughened and dull, but wholly
without ridge or lines as in P. major. Native of this country. Lower end
of leaf-stalk red, and not clear green as in P. major. A vile pest in
clover fields.


[Illustration: Fig. 176.]

=Blue Field Madder.= _Sherardia arvensis_ L. The parts often called
seeds are in reality the half-fruits ripened, each one bearing at the
apex three, white, pointed, persistent calyx lobes, the inner face
showing a vertical groove, and in some of the fruits the calyx is broken
off. Surface dull brown, clothed with small white hairs, obovoid, 2-2.5
mm. long. Introduced from Europe, not often found in the northern


[Illustration: Fig. 177.]

=Wild Teasel.= _Dipsacus sylvestris_ Huds. Achene brown, minutely hairy,
4 mm. long, oblong, square in cross-section, with four vertical ribs on
the angles and four on the sides. Seed suspended, anatropous, supplied
with endosperm. Introduced from Europe. A weed requiring two years from
seed to seeding.


[Illustration: Fig. 178.]

=Yarrow. Milfoil.= _Achillea Millefolium_ L. Flowers white; achenes
white to gray, finely striate lengthwise, flattened, oblong, tapering at
the lower end, straight or curved. 2-2.3 long. Most likely introduced
from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 179.]

=Ragweed.= _Ambrosia artemisiifolia_ L. Achenes hard, straw-colored to
light brown or black, top-shaped, broadly oval, 2.5-3 mm. long, besides
the beak 1.5 mm. long, the sides irregularly ridged vertically, with
5-10 short teeth at the apex. Sometimes the hard covering is removed by
a clover huller, exposing the naked seed. Native of the U. S.

[Illustration: Fig. 180.]

=Great Ragweed.= _Ambrosia trifida_ L. Achenes hard, brown, more or less
mottled, top-shaped, 7-8 mm. besides the stout beak 2-3 mm. long, sides
with 5 stout ridges terminating in 5 short teeth. Native to the United
States. River bottoms, low land, sometimes 15 ft. high.

[Illustration: Fig. 181.]

=Corn Camomile=. _Anthemis arvensis_ L. Achenes very variable, creamy
white to light brown, oblong, wedge-shaped in outline, circular to
four-angled in cross-section, more or less ribbed lengthwise, a
ripple-shaped scar at the narrow end; apex truncate with a minute
projection in the center, often with a narrow ridge about the margin.
About 1.7 mm. long. Introduced from Europe. Seldom troublesome in

[Illustration: Fig. 182.]

=May-weed. Dog's-Fennel.= _Anthemis Cotula_ L. Outer flowers white;
achenes straw color to light brown, obovoid (large end uppermost) to
oblong, circular in outline, 1.3-1.8 mm. long, with 10 warty ribs.
Introduced from Europe. Old roads and waste places.

[Illustration: Fig. 183.]

=Great Burdock.= _Arctium Lappa._ So far as I have seen the achenes of
this species, when compared with A. minus, are darker colored, rather
longer, the ribs more distinct.

=Smaller Burdock.= _Arctium minus_ Beruh. Possibly only a variety of _A.
Lappa_ L., but the prevailing plant in central Michigan. I see no way of
distinguishing the achenes of one from the other; but it makes little
difference as one burdock is as bad as another.

Flowers purple; achenes dull brown, often spotted with black, straight
or curved, slightly flattened, oblong-prismatic with 3-5 narrowly ridged
angles, and occasionally other smaller ridges, 4.5-6 mm. long.
Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 184.]

=Biennial Wormwood.= _Artemisia biennis_ Willd. Achenes dark brown,
smooth, somewhat flattened, 3-4 angled, obovate, narrowed at the base
.8-1.3 mm. long. Native in the northwestern United States and introduced
east with grass seeds. Moist land.

[Illustration: Fig. 185.]

=Smaller Bur-Marigold.= _Bidens cernua_ L. Flowers yellow; achenes 4-6
mm. long, dull brown, the awns lighter, flattened, 4-angled,
wedge-shaped, awns 2-4, barbed downward as also are the ribs. Native of
this country. Low lands.

[Illustration: Fig. 186.]

=Purple-stemmed Swamp Beggar-ticks.= _Bidens connata_ Muhl. Flowers
orange; achenes brown, wedge-shaped or obovate, hairy, tubercled,
flattened, 4-angled, 4-toothed, 4-6 mm. long, achenes and teeth
downwardly barbed. Swamps, common.

[Illustration: Fig. 187.]

=Beggar-ticks.= _Bidens frondosa_ L. Achenes dull brown, tubercled, much
flattened, obovate or oval, 6-12 mm. long, awns usually 2, spreading
barbed downward. Low lands.

[Illustration: Fig. 188.]

=Star Thistle.= _Centaurea solstitialis_ L. Achene cream white to
mottled brown, flattened, oval about 2 mm. long; scar of attachment in a
notch of one edge above the rounded base, apex truncate with a small
tubercle in the middle. Found in seeds of alfalfa. A ragged plant from

[Illustration: Fig. 189.]

=Ox-eye Daisy.= _Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum_ L. Flowers white; achenes
brown or black with ten white conspicuous vertical ribs, narrowly
obovate 1.5-1.8 mm. long, bearing a tubercle at the apex. Introduced
from Europe. Becoming common. A prominent weed in old pastures and

[Illustration: Fig. 190.]

=Chickory.= _Chichorium Intybus_ L. Flowers yellow; achenes light brown,
more or less mottled or spotted with black, straight or curved, 4-5
angled, flattened, apex truncate crowned with a double row of minute
scales. Achenes 2.5-3 mm. long. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 191.]

=Canada Thistle.= _Cirsium arvense_ (L.) Scop. _Carduus arvensis_ (L.)
Robs. Flowers purple or white; achenes smooth, light brown, curved or
straight, narrowly obovoid or oblong, slightly flattened, 2-3 mm. long,
apex truncate, cup-shaped with a tubercle in the center. Introduced from
Europe. A weed of first rank.

[Illustration: Fig. 192.]

=Bull Thistle.= _Cirsium lanceolatum_ (L.) Hill. _Carduus lanceolatus_
L. Flowers purple; achenes smooth, nearly white, with sharp vertical
brown stripes, slightly flattened, obovate or oblong, usually curved
near the apex, 3-4 mm. long, apex truncate with a large tubercle in the
center. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 193.]

=Narrow leaved Hawksbeard.= _Crepis tectorum_ L. Flowers yellow; achene
chestnut brown, straight or curved, linear, ribs 10, smooth or rugose;
3.4 mm. long. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 194.]

=Fire-weed.= _Erechtites hieracifolia_ (L.) Raf. Achenes brown, linear,
2.2-2.8 mm. long, flattened, straight or curved, having ten vertical
ribs between which are minute white oppressed hairs, the extremities
truncate, wider than the narrow portion beneath, the apex white with a
tubercle projecting from the center of a minute cup. Native to this
country. Not of much importance.

=Annual Fleabane.= _Erigeron annuus_ (L.) Pers. Flowers white; achenes
smooth, shining, brownish white, translucent, flattened, obovate or
oblong, .7-.9 mm. long, bearing at the apex a whorl of very small
diverging bristles, the longest ones having been rubbed off. Faint
traces of a few oppressed hairs may be seen under a good lens. Native to
this country and a very prominent weed in thin meadows.

[Illustration: Fig. 195.]

=Horse-weed.= _Erigeron Canadensis_ L. _Leptilon Canadense_ (L.)
Britton. Achenes oblong, dull cream color, much flattened, 1-1.3 mm.
long, shining, smooth or containing a few minute oppressed bristles,
apex truncate, bearing a whorl of bristles, the longest having been
rubbed off. Native of this country. Compare the above description with
that of Erigeron annuus. Common in waste places.

[Illustration: Fig. 196.]

=Daisy Fleabane.= _Erigeron ramosus_ (Walt.) B. S. P. Flowers white;
achenes nearly identical with those last described, Erigeron annuus,
bristles shorter, less diverging, surface bearing more minute appressed
hairs when seen under a lens. Native to this country and prominent in
some thin meadows.

[Illustration: Fig. 197.]

=Sweet Everlasting.= _Gnaphalium polycephalum_ Michx. _Gnaphalium
obtusifolium_ L. Outer scales of the head thin, white, stiff; achenes
yellowish white or brown, slightly flattened, smooth, oval or oblong,
.5-.7 mm. long. Native to this country. Not often troublesome.

Much practice with a good lens and careful comparisons with other small
achenes will be necessary in identifying such specimens as are furnished
by this species.

[Illustration: Fig. 198.]

=Low Cudweed.= _Gnaphalium uliginosum_ L. Outer scales of the head thin,
brown, more or less wooly; achenes .4-.6 mm. long, yellowish white to
brown, slightly flattened, smooth, narrowly oblong .4-.6 mm. long.
Achenes narrower and rather shorter than those of G. obtusifolium.
Native to this country. Not of high rank as a weed.

[Illustration: Fig. 199.]

=Broad-leaved Gum Plant.= _Grindelia squarrosa_ (Pursh.) Dunal. Flowers
yellow; achenes creamy white or light brown, very variable in
appearance, more or less flattened, often 4-angled, straight to much
curved, narrowed at the base, apex truncate, often concave with a
distinct marginal rim, some of them not very unlike those of Canada
thistle, some of them smooth, others finely grooved or ridged
lengthwise, others somewhat wrinkled, 2.5-3 mm. long. Occasionally
introduced from the west with seeds of grasses or clover. Usually not
persistent in Michigan.

=Artichoke.= _Helianthus tuberosus_ L. Flowers yellow; achenes black,
shiny more or less, slightly flattened, pubescent with very short hairs,
with four obtuse angles, narrowly obovate, 6-7 mm. long, one side of the
smaller end projecting beyond the other side. Native of this country;
cultivated by Indians.

[Illustration: Fig. 200.]

=Golden Mouse or Orange-Ear Hawkweed. Devil's Paint-Brush.= _Hieracium
aurantiacum._ Flowers orange yellow; achenes jet black, oblong, straight
or curved, apex truncate, base abruptly tapering, cylindrical, the sides
bearing 10 narrow, vertical ridges. Introduced from Europe. In Eastern
New York and Western Massachusetts meadows abound in large areas of this
vile weed, 1.8-2.2 mm. long.

[Illustration: Fig. 201.]

=Mouse-Ear Hawkweed.= _Hieracium Pilosella_ L. Flowers yellow; achenes
jet black, oblong, straight or curved, apex truncate, base abruptly
pointed, cylindrical or narrowly oval, the sides bearing 10 narrow
vertical ridges. Introduced from Europe. The achenes very closely
resemble those of the orange hawkweed. It doesn't matter much, for the
habits are the same, and one is about as noxious as the other.
Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 202.]

=Elecampane.= _Inula Helenium_ L. Flowers yellow; achenes light brown,
straight or curved, linear, flattened, 4-5 mm. long, 4 sided with 5-8
obscure vertical ridges on each side, apex concave, the margin bearing a
circle of short stiff bristles, the remains of longer ones. Introduced
from Europe. Not common.

[Illustration: Fig. 203.]

=Marsh Elder.= _Iva xanthiifolia_ (Fresen.) Nutt. Achenes various shades
of brown to black, flattened or rhombic in section, obovoid, 1.5-2 mm.
long, longitudinally, striate with fine lines. Native to the upper
peninsula of Michigan where it most likely was at one time introduced
from the west. It has not been found in the lower peninsula, probably
because it had no means of coming across Lake Michigan.

[Illustration: Fig. 204.]

=Wild Lettuce.= _Lactuca Canadensis_ L. Flowers yellow; achenes black or
nearly so, flattened, oval, bearing 3 ribs, the lateral ones sometimes
double, the middle one slender, surface abounding in minute transverse
ridges as seen under a lens, the remains of a beak sometimes remaining.
Native of this country. Other species of Lettuce are more or less

[Illustration: Fig. 205.]

=Prickly Lettuce.= _Lactuca virosa_ L. For many years erroneously called
_Lactuca scariola_. Flowers yellow; achenes dull, dark brown, mottled
with black, flattened, bearing 5-7 rough, vertical ridges, interspersed
by as many smaller ones; oblong, obovate, widest toward the tapering
apex. 3-3.5 mm. long. Some of the leaves turn one edge up and the other
down. Introduced from Europe and has proved itself a remarkable

[Illustration: Fig. 206.]

=Fall Dandelion.= _Leontodon autumnalis_ L. Flowers yellow; achenes
light brown, linear, with 5 broad, rounded ribs; achene 4-6.5 mm. long,
straight or curved, the outer traversed, with low transverse ridges.
Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 207.]

=Black-eyed Susan. Yellow Daisy.= _Rudbeckia hirta_ L. Achene
purple-brown to black, slightly tapering from base to apex 1.5-1.8 mm.
long, base abruptly pointed, apex truncate, in cross section nearly
square, having 5-7 slender vertical ridges on each side besides a larger
one at each of the four corners. Widely distributed in meadows and

[Illustration: Fig. 208.]

=Corn Sow-Thistles.= _Sonchus arvensis_ L. Flowers yellow; achenes dull,
dark reddish brown, oblong, extremities blunt, slightly flattened,
bearing four coarse, fold-like ridges, with two smaller ridges between
each of the two large ones, transversely wrinkled, 2.5-3 mm. long. This
species is a perennial spreading by roots-stalks as well as by seeds.
Introduced in Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 209.]

=Spiny Sow-Thistle.= _Sonchus asper_ (L.) Hill. Flowers pale yellow;
achenes dull straw-color to reddish brown, much flattened, obovate,
oblong, extremities blunt, each side bearing 3-5 vertical ridges,
surface nearly smooth, 2.5-3 mm. long. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 210.]

=Common Sow-Thistle.= _Sonchus oleraceus_ L. Flowers pale yellow;
achenes reddish brown, linear, oblanceolate, 3 mm. long, flattened
extremities blunt, 5 uneven wrinkled ridges on each side. Introduced
from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 211.]

=Red-Seeded Dandelion.= _Taraxacum erythrospermum_ Andrz. Achene bright
red or red reddish brown, flattened, oblanceolate, 3 mm. long, 1 mm.
wide or less, the red beak 1 mm. long, prickles often extending nearly
to the base along twelve vertical ribs, the achenes narrower, shorter,
much darker in color, with prickles extending farther down the ribs, the
short beak longer; the plant is earlier, often smaller, when compared
with the other species.

Doubtless this is more common than has been reported, having been
overlooked. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 212.]

=Dandelion.= _Taraxacum officinale_ Weber. _Taraxacum Taraxacum_ (L.)
Karst. Flowers yellow; achenes dull light to dark brown, flattened
oblanceolate, thread-like beak two to three times as long as the achene,
the stout colored beak 0.5 mm. long. The most conspicuous character of
the achenes lies in the barb-like-toothed edges and ridges of each of
the similar faces, extending along the upper half. Achene, 3-4 mm. long,
having twelve longitudinal ridges, 1.2 mm. wide. Introduced from Europe.
Troublesome on thin lawns.

[Illustration: Fig. 213.]

=Salsify. Oyster-Plant.= _Tragopogon porrifolius_ L. Flowers purple;
achenes dull light brown, nearly cylindrical; apex tapering, mostly
terminating in a slender beak which is often longer than the body of the
achene. Achene straight or curved, 10-ribbed, 12-18 mm. long, outermost
coarsely roughened by upwardly directed, whitish, scale-like
projections. Native of Europe.

=Meadow Salsify. Yellow Goat's Beard.= _Tragopogon pratensis_ L. Flowers
yellow; achenes dull, light brown, nearly cylindrical, apex tapering,
mostly terminating in a slender beak. Achene straight or curved,
10-ribbed, 12-15 mm. long, the inner ones of the head smooth, the
outer-most coarsely roughened by upwardly directed, whitish, scale-like
projections. Introduced from Europe.

[Illustration: Fig. 214.]

=American Cocklebur.= _Xanthium Canadensis_ Mill. Achenes or burs
reddish brown, oblong, circular in section, two-beaked, about 20 mm.
long, covered with stout hooked prickles. Each bur encloses two seeds.
Native of this country.

[Illustration: Fig. 215.]

=Spiny Clotbur.= _Xanthium spinosum_ L. Bur oblong, light brown, very
slightly flattened, 10-13 mm. long, the beaks weak and small, small
hooked prickles 3-4 mm. long, each bur contains two seeds. Introduced
from Europe.

=Broad Cocklebur.= _Xanthium strumarium_ L. Bur dark brown, oval,
circular in sections 12-22 mm. long, beaks stout, nearly straight,
spines about 5 mm. long, surface of burs and base of spines clothed with
minute hooked prickles. Naturalized from Europe.



  Abutilon, 145

  Acalypha, 143

    AC-CUM´BENT, leaning or lying upon, applied to cotyledons when
    the caulicle (radicle) is folded against their contiguous edges,
    shown as [Symbol: 0== rotated 90 deg. clockwise].

    A-CHENE´, achenium, a small, dry, one-seeded, indehiscent fruit,
    likely to be mistaken for a seed.

  Achillea, 160

  Acnida, 126

    A-CU´MIN-ATE, ending in a prolonged tapering point.

  Agrimonia, 138

  Agrimony, tall hairy, 138

  Agrostemma, 128

  Agropyron, 110

  Aizoaceae, 128

  Alfalfa, 140

  Allium, 119

  Alfilaria, 142

  Alsike clover, 141

  Alsine, 131

  Alyssum, 132

  Alyssum, hoary, 133

  Amaranth, 126, 127

  Amaranth family, 126

  Amaranthaceae, 126

  Amaranthus, 127

  Ambrosia, 160, 161

  American jute, 145

  Anacardiaceae, 145

    A-NAT´RO-POUS, a name applied to an ovule or seed which grows so
    that the funiculus coheres to the whole length forming a raphe
    along the edge bringing the hilum near the micropyle while the
    chalaza is at the other extremity.

  Annual fleabane, 165

  Anthemis, 161

  Apetalous pepper-grass, 135

    A´PEX, the tip or growing point of an organ.

  Arctium, 162

  Arenaria, 129

  Artemisia, 162

  Artichoke, 167

  Asclepiadaceae, 149

  Asclepias, 149

  Atriplex, 124

  Avena, 110

    AWN, a bristle-shaped appendage.

  Ax seed, 139

  Ax wort, 139

  Ball mustard, 137

  Barbarea, 133

    BARBED, furnished with rigid points or short bristles, usually
    reflexed like the barb of a fish-hook.

  Barnyard grass, 114

  Beaked nightshade, 156

  Beaver poison, 148

  Beggar-ticks, 163

  Bermuda grass, 113

  Berteroa, 133

  Bidens, 162, 163

  Biennial wormwood, 162

  Bindweed, 150

  Bird's-foot trefoil, 139

  Bitter buttercup, 131

  Bitter dock, 122

  Black-eyed susan, 169

  Black medick, 139

  Black mustard, 134

  Black nightshade, 156

  Black swallow-wort, 149

  Bladder campion, 130

  Bladder Ketmia, 146

  Bloom-fell, 139

  Bluefield madder, 159

  Blue grass, 116

  Blue grass, Canadian, 116

  Blue grass, Kentucky, 116

  Blue Vervain, 153

  Borage family, 152

  Boraginaceae, 152

  Bouncing Bet, 129

  Broad-leaved Dock, 122

  Broad-leaved plantain, 159

  Brome grass, 112

  Bromus, 111

  Buckwheat family, 119

  Buckwheat, wild, 120

  Bulbous buttercup, 132

  Bull thistle, 164

  Burdock, 162

  Bur-grass, 112

  Bur-marigold, 162

  Bur-seed, 152

  Bursa, 134

  Buttercup, bitter, creeping, or tall, 131

  Butter and eggs, 156

  Camelina, 134

  Canada thistle, 164

  Canadian blue grass, 116

  Capriola, 113

  Capsella, 134

  Carduus, 164, 165

  Carpet-weed, 128

    CAR´UN-CLE, an excrescence or protuberance near the hilum of a

  Caryophyllaceae, 128

  Cashew family, 145

  Catch-fly, 129, 130

  Catmint, 154

  Catnip, 154

  Celandine, 132

  c. m. centimeter, see ruled lines on last page, 183

  Cenchrus, 112

  Centaurea, 163

  Centimeter, see ruled lines on last page, 183

  Cerastium, 129

  Chaetochloa, 117

  Charlock, 133

  Cheat, 112

  Cheeses, 146

  Chelidonium, 132

  Chenopodiaceae, 124

  Chenopodium, 124, 125, 126

  Chess, barren, field, smooth, soft, 111

  Chickory, 164

  Chickweed, 129, 131

  Chrysanthemum, 163

  Cichorium, 164

  Cicuta, 148

  Cinquefoil, silvery, 138, 139

  Cirsium, 164, 165

  Claviceps, 110

  Climbing false buckwheat, 121

  Clover dodder, 151

  Cockle, 128

  Cocklebur, 171

    CO´MA, a tuft of hair on a seed.

  Common chickweed, 131

  Common milkweed, 149

  Common speedwell, 157

  Compositae, 160

  Composite family, 160

  Conium, 148

  Conringia, 135

  Convolvulaceae, 150

  Convolvulus, 150

  Corn camomile, 161

  Corn gromwell, 153

  Coronilla, 139

  Couch grass, 110

  Cow-cress, 136

  Crab-grass, 113-114

  Crassulaceae, 138

  Creeping buttercup, 132

  Crepis, 165

  Cress, cow, 136

  Crimson clover, 141

  Crowfoot, 131

  Crowfoot family, 131

  Cruciferae, 132

  Curled Dock, 122

  Cut-leaved Crane's bill, 142

  Cuscuta, 150, 151

  Cycloloma, 126

  Cynanchum, 149

  Cynodon, 113

  Cynoglossum, 152

  Cyperaceae, 118

  Cyperus, 118

  Cypress spurge, 143

  Daisy fleabane, 166

  Dandelion, 170

  Datura, 155

  Daucus, 148

  Dead nettle, 154

    DEL´TOID, shaped like the Greek letter delta; triangular.

  Devil's paint-brush, 167

  Digitalis, 113

  Diplotaxis, 135

  Dipsaceae, 160

  Dipsacus, 160

  Dock, 121

  Dock-leaved Persicaria, 120

  Dodder, 150

  Dog's fennel, 161

  Echinochloa, 114

  Elecampane, 167

  Eleocharis, 118

  Eleusine, 114

    EL-LIP´TIC-AL, oblong and rounded at the ends; longer than oval.

    EM´BRY-O, the little plant forming a part of the seed, usually
    consisting of caulicle, one or more cotyledons and a plumule.

  Eragrostis, 115

  Erechtites, 165

  Ergot, 110

  Erigeron, 165, 166

  Erodium, 142

  Erysimum, 135

  Euphorbia, 143, 144

  Euphorbiaceae, 143

  Evening primrose, 147

  Evening primrose family, 147

  Fall dandelion, 168

  False Buckwheat, 121

  False flax, 134

    FE´MALE FLOW´ER, one having pistils only, but no stamens;
    pistillate flower.

    FER´TILE, producing fruit, or reproductive bodies of any kind.

  Field dodder, 150

  Field garlic, 119

  Field madder, 159

  Field pepper-grass, 136

  Figwort family, 156

  Fire-weed, 165

  Five finger, 139

  Flat-stemmed Poa, 116

  Flax dodder, 150

  Fleabane, 165, 166

  Floral glume

    FLO´RET, a single flower of a head or cluster, especially in

  Forked catchfly, 130

  Foxtail, green, yellow, 117

  Garlic, field, wild, 119

  Gaura, 147

  Geraniaceae, 142

  Geranium family, 142

    GLUME, one of the outer floral envelopes in grasses or sedges.
    The term as now used includes the bracts (empty glumes) which
    subtend a spikelet and the lower of the two bracts subtending
    the individual flower (flowering or floral glume, lemma).

  Gnaphalium, 166

  Golden pepper-grass, 136

  Goosefoot, 125

  Goosefoot family, 124

    GRAIN, the caryopsis or fruit of Gramineae; any small seed.

  Grass, crab, 114

  Grass family, weeds in, 110

  Grass, old witch, 115

  Grass, porcupine, 117

  Grass, stink, 115

  Green foxtail, 117

  Great bindweed, 150

  Great burdock, 162

  Great ragweed, 161

  Grindelia, 166

  Gronovius' dodder, 151

  Ground honeysuckle, 139

  Gum plant, 166

  Hare's ear, 135

    HAS´TATE, like the head of a halberd--applied to leaves which
    have a spreading lobe on each side of the base.

  Hawksbeard, 165

  Heal-all, 155

  Hedge bindweed, 150

  Hedge mustard, 137

  Helianthus, 167

  Hibiscus, 146

  Hieracium, 167

  Hillman, F. H., graduate of the College in 1888; expert
  draftsman of the seed Division of Washington, D. C, 103

  Hilum, 134

    HI´LUM, the scar or point of attachment of a seed.

  Hoarhound, 154

  Hoary alyssum, 133

  Hoary cress, 136

  Honeysuckle, ground, 139

  Hordeum, 115

  Horse nettle, 155

  Horse-weed, 165

  Hound's tongue, 152

  Hypericaceae, 147

  Hypericum, 147

  Illecebraceae, 128

    IN-CUM´BENT, leaning or lying upon; applied to cotyledons when
    the caulicle is folded against the track of one of them, shown
    as [Symbol: || o].

  Indian mallow, 145

  Indian mustard, 133

  Indigenous, 139

    IN-DIG´E-NOUS, native and original to the region.

  Inula, 167

  Iva, 167

    IN´VO-LU-CRE, a set of bracts immediately subtending a flower or

  Jerusalem oak, 125

  Jimson weed, 155

  Juncaceae, 118

  June grass, 116

    KEEL, the joined pair of petals in a papilionaceous corolla; a
    projecting ridge along the back of an organ.

  Knawel, 128

  Knot-grass, 119

  Knotweed, 120

  Knotweed family, 128

  Labiatae, 154

  Lactuca, 168

  Lady's Thumb, 121

  Lamb's quarters, 124

  Lamium, 154

    LAN´CE-O-LATE, tapering abruptly towards the base and gradually
    towards the apex, like the head of a lance.

  Lappula, 152

  Large-bracted plantain, 158

  Leafy spurge, 143

  Leguminosae, 139

  Leontodon, 168

  Leonurus, 154

  Lepidium, 136

  Leptilon, 165

  Liliaceae, 119

  Lily family, 119

  Linaria, 156

    LIN´E-AR, very narrow with the margins parallel or nearly so.

  Lithospermum, 153

  Low cudweed, 166

  Lucerne, 140

  Lotus, 139

  Low hop-clover, 141

  Madder family, 159

  Mallow, 145, 146

  Mallow family, 145

  Malva, 146

  Malvaceae, 145, 146

  Mammoth clover, 141

  Many-seeded goosefoot, 126

  Maple-leaved goosefoot, 125

  Marsh elder, 167

  Marubium, 154

  May-weed, 161

  Medicago, 139, 140

  Melilotus, 140

  Mexican tea, 125

  Milfoil, 160

  Milkweed, 149

  Milkweed family, 149

  Millimeter, see last page of this bulletin

  Mint family, 154

  m. m. Millimeter, see ruled lines on last page, 139

  Mollugo, 128

  Morning-glory family, 150

  Mossy stonecrop, 138

  Motherwort, 154

  Moth mullein, 156

  Mouse-ear chickweed, 129

  Mouse-ear hawkweed, 167

  Mullein, 156, 157

  Musquash-root, 148

  Mustard, 133, 134, 135

  Mustard family, 132

  Narrow-leaved dock, 122

  Narrow-leaved hawk's beard, 165

  Narrow-leaved plantain, 158

  Nepeta, 154

  Neslia, 137

  Nettle family, 119

  Nettle-leaved vervain, 153

  Night-flowering catchfly, 130

  Nightshade, 156

  Night-shade family, 155

  Nonesuch, 139

  Nut-grass, 118

  Oak-leaved goosefoot, 125

  Oat, wild, 110

    OB-LAN´CE-O-LATE, lanceolate in form, but tapering toward the
    base more than toward the apex.

    OB´LONG, longer than wide with nearly parallel sides. Compare

    OB-O´VATE, a flat body broader toward the apex than the base.
    See Ovate.

    OB-O´VOID, a solid body broader towards the apex than the base.
    See Ovoid.

    OB-TUSE´, having a rounded end or apex; blunt.

  Oenothera, 147

  Old witch grass, 115

  Onagraceae, 147

  Orache, spreading, 124

  Orpine family, 138

    O´VAL, about twice as long as broad, with regular curved
    outlines, broadly elliptical.

    O´VATE, like a longitudinal section of an ordinary hen's egg,
    with the attachment, if any, at the broad end.

    O´VOID, the shape of a hen's egg and attached, if at all, at the
    large end.

  Ovoid spike rush, 118

  Ox-eye daisy, 163

  Oyster-plant, 170

  Paint brush, 167

    PA´LE-A, PA´LET, the upper bract which with the floral glume
    incloses the flower in grasses.

  Pale persicaria, 120

  Panicum, 113

  Panicum capillare, 115

  Panicum, smooth, 115

  Papaveraceae, 132

  Parsley family, 148

  Parsnip, wild, 149

  Pastinaca, 149

  Patience dock, 123

  Pennsylvania persicaria, 120

  Penny cress, 137

  Peppergrass, 135, 136

  Persicaria, dock-leaved, 120

  Pigeon grass, 117

  Pigweed, 124

  Pigweed family, 124

  Pink family, 128

  Plantago, 158, 159

  Plantain family, 158

  Poa annua, 116

  Poa compressa, 116

  Poa, flat-stemmed, 116

  Poa pratensis, 116

  Poison hemlock, 148

  Poison ivy, 145

  Polygonaceae, 119

  Polygonum, 119-120

  Poppy family, 132

  Porcupine grass, 117

  Portulaca, 131

  Portulacaceae, 131

  Potentilla, 138, 139

  Prickly lettuce, 168

  Prickly sida, 146

  Prostrate amaranth, 127

  Prunella, 155

    PU-BES´CENT, clothed with soft and rather short hairs.

  Pulse family, 139

  Purple Jimsonweed, 155

  Purple-stemmed beggar-ticks, 163

  Purslane family, 131

  Purslane speedwell, 157

  Pusley, 131

  Quack grass, 110

  Ragweed, 160

  Ranunculaceae, 131

  Ranunculus, 131, 132

    RA´PHE, the adherent funiculus connecting the hilum and chalaza
    in anatropous or amphitropous ovules or seeds.

  Red clover, 141

  Red-seeded dandelion, 170

  Red root, 153

    RE-TIC´U-LATE, in the form of network.

  Rhus, 145

  Rib-grass, 158

  Rocket, yellow, 133

    ROOT, the descending axis which is destitute of leaves or nodes.

    ROOT STOCK, rhizome, a stem usually subterranean and more or
    less thickened, producing young branches.

  Rosaceae, 138

  Rose family, 138

  Rough cinquefoil, 139

  Rough pigweed, 127

  Rudbeckia, 169

  Rugel's broad-leaved plantain, 159

  Rumex, 121, 122, 123

  Running mallow, 146

  Rush family, 118

  Rush, slender, 118

  Rush, spike, 118

  Russian thistle, 126

  Rutabaga, 133

  Rye, 116

  Salsify, 170

  Salsola, 126

  Sand-bur, 112

  Sand plantain, 158

  Sand rocket, 135

  Sandwort, 129

  Saponaria, 129

  Scarlet clover, 141

  Scleria, 128

  Scrophulaceae, 156

  Secale, 116

  Sedge family, 118

  Sedum, 138

  Self-heal, 155

  Setaria glauca, viridis, 117

  Sheep sorrel, 122

  Shepherd's purse, 134

  Sherardia, 159

  Shore knot-weed, 120

  Sida, 146

  Silene, 129, 130

  Silvery cinquefoil, 138

  Sisymbrium, 137

  Sleepy catchfly, 129

  Slender pigweed, 127

  Slender nettle, 119

  Slender rush, 118

  Small alyssum, 132

  Smaller burdock, 162

  Small-flowered crane's bill, 142

  Small-flowered crowfoot, 131

  Small-fruited false flax, 134

  Smut-weed, 120

  Solanaceae, 155

  Solanum, 155, 156

  Sonchus, 169

  Sorrel, 121

  Sour dock, 121

  Sow-thistle, 169

  Spanish dodder, 151

  Spear grass, 116

  Speedwell, 157

  Spergula, 130

    SPIKE´LET, a small or secondary spike, as found in grasses.

  Spotted spurge, 144

  Spring clotbur, 171

  Spring sow-thistle, 169

  Spurge family, 143

  Spurry, 130

  Squirrel-tail grass, 115

  St. John's-wort family, 147

  Star thistle, 163

  Stellaria, 131

    STER´ILE, not fertile.

  Stick-seed, 152

  Stink grass, 115

  Stipa spartea, 117

  Stonecrop, mossy, 138

  Stork's-bill, 142

    STRI´ATE, striped with parallel ridges and grooves.

  Swallow-wort, 149

  Swamp begger-ticks, 163

  Sweet clover, 140

  Sweet everlasting, 166

  Syntherisma, 113

  Tall buttercup, 131

  Tall mustard, 137

  Taraxacum, 170

  Teasel family, 160

  Thistle, 164

  Thistle, Russian, 126

  Thorn apple, 155

  Three-seeded mercury, 143

  Thyme-leaved sandwort, 129

  Thyme-leaved speedwell, 157

  Thyme-leaved spurge, 144

  Toad-flax, 156

  Tragopogon, 170

  Treacle mustard, 135

  Trefoil, 139

  Trifolium, 141, 142

    TRUN´CATE, terminating abruptly, as though cut off or flattened
    at the end. Compare Premorse and Succise.

    TU´BER-CLE, a swollen part or a root due to bacteria. Usually
    applies to such as possess the power to fix nitrogen; a little

  Tumbleweed, 127

  Tumbling mustard, 137

  Umbelliferae, 148

  Upright spotted spurge, 144

  Urtica, 119

  Velvet leaf, 145

  Velvet-leaved mullein, 157

  Verbascum, 156, 157

  Verbena, 153

  Verbenaceae, 153

  Veronica, 157

  Vervain family, 153

  Vincetoxicum, 149

  Wall speedwell, 157

  Water hemlock, 148

  Water hemp, 126

  Weed, defined, 103

  Weed, what enables a plant to become one, 105

  Weeds, disadvantages of, 104

  Weeds, found in certain crops and why, 107

  Weeds, how introduced and how spread, 106

  Weeds, how to exterminate, 108

  Weeds, lists of, in clovers and grasses, 107

  Weeds of Michigan compared with those elsewhere, 107

  Weeds, some small benefits from, 104

  Weeds, where certain ones are troublesome, 107

  Weeds, where they come from, 107

  Western water hemp, 126

  Wheat thief, 153

  White clover, 142

  White hoarhound, 154

  White sweet clover, 140

  Whorled mallow, 146

  Wild carrot, 148

  Wild comfrey, 152

  Wild garlic, 119

  Wild lettuce, 168

  Wild parsnip, 149

  Wild peppergrass, 136

  Willow-leaved dock, 123

  Winged pigweed, 126

  Wild buckwheat, 120

  Wild oat, 110

  Winter cress, 133

  Wire grass, 114, 116

  Witchgrass, old, 115

  Worm-seed, 135

  Wormwood, 162

  Xanthium, 171

  Yard grass, 114

  Yarrow, 160

  Yellow alyssum, 132

  Yellow daisy, 169

  Yellow foxtail, 117

  Yellow goat's beard, 170

  Yellow rocket, 133

[Symbol: right pointing index] If not familiar with the decimal scale
used in recording measurements in this volume, the reader can clip out
one of those found below and use it for measuring.


Transcriber's Notes

  Use the first phrase to find the change.

Page 2

  'a dollar is almost indispensable in'

  Changed 'indispensible' to 'indispensable'.

Page 2

  'they annoy the gardner.'

  'gardner' may be 'gardener'. Unchanged.

Page 105

  'enormous number of weeds.'

  'weeds' may be 'seeds'. Unchanged.

Page 114

  'three obscure longitudinal'

  Changed 'obcure' to 'obscure'.

Page 119

  'Urtica gracilis'

  Changed 'Utrica' to 'Urtica'.

Page 120

  'Polygonum Convolvulus'

  Changed 'Concolvulus' to 'Convolvulus'.

Page 120

  'elliptical to obovoid,'

  Changed 'ellipical' to 'elliptical'.

Page 121

  'base obtuse or bearing'

  Changed 'abtuse' to 'obtuse'.

Page 122

  'Rumex Acetosella'

  Changed 'Rumux' to 'Rumex'.

  Changed 'Actosella' to 'Acetosella'.

Page 124

  'faintly evident radiating striation'

  Changed 'striatian' to 'striation'.

Page 125

  'one side a groove leads to near'

  Changed 'grove' to 'groove'.

Page 125

  'Chenopodium hybridum'

  Changed 'hybrium' to 'hybridum'.

Page 126

  'Acnida tuberculata'

  Changed 'tubercalala' to 'tuberculata'.

Page 131

  'Purslane. Pussley.'

  Changed 'Purselane' to 'Purslane'.

Page 131

  'nearly circular, each side covered with 5-6 curved rows of tubercles,
  giving the appearance of having the two extremities bent together,'

  These two lines were reversed in original.

Page 131

  'in outline, hem-like margin,'

  Changed 'hemlike-like' to 'hem-like'.

Page 134

  'scar (hilum) is a whitish,'

  Changed 'whittish' to 'whitish'.

Page 136

  'Lepidium Draba'

  Changed 'Lepidum' to 'Lepidium'.

Page 138

  'slightly anatropous,'

  Changed 'anatroupous' to 'anatropous'.

Page 138

  'Agrimonia gryposepala'

  Changed 'cryposepala' to 'gryposepala'.

Page 141

  'long by 1.×1.4 mm. wide.'

  '1.×1.4 mm.' maybe '1.-1.4 mm.'. Unchanged.

Page 142

  'are half anatropous'

  Changed 'anathropous' to 'anatropous'.

Page 144

  'verticle line (raphe)'

  'verticle' may be 'vertical'. Unchanged.

Page 147



Page 150

  'Convolvulus arvensis'

  Changed 'Convolvoulus' to 'Convolvulus'.

Page 153

  'four hard, conical-ovoid'

  Changed 'connical' to 'conical'.

Page 153

  'long, bordered by a narrow margin,'

  Changed 'bordred' to 'bordered'.

Page 155

  'convex having dark verticle lines,'

  'verticle' may be 'vertical'. Unchanged.

Page 156

  'dull, yellowish to light brown,'

  'grown' changed to 'brown'.

Page 156

  '.5-1 mm. long, columnar,'

  Changed 'colummar' to 'columnar'.

Page 157

  'Purslane Speedwell'

  Changed 'Purselane' to 'Purslane'.

Page 157

  'with certainty by means of'

  Changed 'certainity' to 'certainty'.

Page 157

  'oval to broadly obovate,'

  Changed 'obvate' to 'obovate'.

Page 159

  'shape, oval, oblong, rhomboidal'

  Changed 'rhombodial' to 'rhomboidal'.

Page 164

  'Chickory. Chichorium Intybus'

  'Chicory' and 'Cichorium' are the generally accepted spellings today.

Page 165

  'Leptilon Canadense'

  Changed 'Leptiton' to 'Leptilon'.

Page 165

  'extremities truncate,'

  Changed 'extremeties' to 'extremities'.

Page 167

  'brown, straight or curved,'

  Changed 'stright' to 'straight'.

Page 167

  'Iva xanthiifolia'

  May be 'xanthifolia'. Unchanged.

Page 167

  'or rhombic in section,'

  Changed 'rhombicin' to 'rhombic in'.

Page 168

  'Leontodon autumnalis'

  Changed 'autunalis' to 'autumnalis'.

Page 169

  'spreading by roots-stalks'

  'root-stocks' and 'roots-stalks' used interchangeably. Unchanged.

Page 169

  'Introduced in Europe.'

  May be 'Introduced from Europe.' Unchanged.

Page 170

  'Taraxacum Taraxacum'

  Changed 'Taraxacum Taraxicum' to 'Taraxacum Taraxacum'.

Page 170

  'faces, extending along'

  Changed 'exending' to 'extending'.

Page 173

  'ending in a prolonged tapering point.'

  Changed 'prolonge' to 'prolonged'.

Page 175

  'Clover dodder, 151'

  Changed '51' to '151'.

Page 177


  Changed 'Lithospernum' to 'Lithospermum'.

Page 177

  'Hoary alyssum,'

  Changed 'allyssum' to 'alyssum'.

Page 178

  'lanceolate in form,'

  Changed 'laceolate' to 'lanceolate'.

Page 178

  'Ox-eye daisy,'

  Changed 'daisey' to 'daisy'.

Page 181

  Tall mustard, 137

  Changed '237' to '137'.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Seeds of Michigan Weeds - Bulletin 260, Michigan State Agricultural College Experiment - Station, Division of Botany, March, 1910" ***

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