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Title: A History of Giggleswick School - From its Foundation, 1499 to 1912
Author: Bell, Edward Allen
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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A History of Giggleswick School

FIRST EDITION, JULY, 1912.

[Illustration: REV. GEORGE STYLE, M.A.]



A HISTORY OF

GIGGLESWICK SCHOOL

FROM ITS FOUNDATION
1499 TO 1912

BY

EDWARD ALLEN BELL, M.A.,

_Sometime Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford_

[Illustration: School Seal]

LEEDS:
RICHARD JACKSON,
16 & 17, COMMERCIAL STREET.

1912.



PREFACE


The history of Giggleswick School has just two difficulties about it
which need to be unravelled. The date of the foundation of the School or
of the Chantry of the Rood and the origin of the Seal alone are of
interest to the antiquary and I have failed to discover either. The
remainder is the story of a school, which has always had a reputation in
the educational world and at the same time has left only the most meagre
records of itself. The gentry of the neighbourhood were its scholars,
but few have made their fame in the world without. Headmasters and
Ushers have passed their lives here, but few were ambitious. Giggleswick
was their haven of old age. Customs grew up, the same customs died and
only seldom is it possible to conjecture their character.

A nation without a history is considered to have had the most blessed
existence and the same is true of a school. Giggleswick has but once
been the prey of the brigand and then it was fortunate enough to have a
friend at court. It lost its original endowment and its private
character. It gained a larger revenue and a Royal Charter. The placidity
of its life was undisturbed by financial deficits. Its income expanded
steadily. The close corporation of Governors were never ambitious to
display their wealth, they never excited the greed of the statesman;
even Cromwell's army passed through the district unmentioned by the
Minute-Book.

It did not grow, it made no history, but continued on the even tenour of
its path. Some years it was effective as a school of instruction, some
years it was not, but never did it meet with the inquisitorial landlord,
never but once did it suffer from the Crown. With the nineteenth century
came its first crisis for three hundred years and it passed through
unhurt. A new school with the old endowments, a better education with a
wider horizon, a new power with which to meet the coming needs were all
engrafted on the old foundation. If romance involves moments of
startling excitement, Giggleswick has no romance. But if romance lies in
an unrecorded, unenvied continuity, in the affection of pupils that age
after age causes men to send their sons and their sons' sons to the same
school, then the history of Giggleswick is shot through with romance. No
school can continue for more than a generation, if this supreme test of
its hold upon the hearts of men should fail. The school that nurtured
the father must do its duty by the son and the golden link of affection
is forged afresh.

It would have been impossible to complete the task of writing the
history of the School, if I had not received invaluable help from many
sources. Two men in particular must accept my deepest gratitude--Mr. A.
F. Leach and Mr. Thomas Brayshaw. Mr. Leach is the foremost authority in
England on English Grammar Schools and he has never stinted his help.
Mr. Brayshaw probably knows more than any other man of the history of
the School during the last eighty years and he has supplied me
generously with pamphlets and information. In addition he has been most
assiduous in helping me to choose and decipher documents belonging to
the School, which the Governors of the School were kind enough to allow
me to use. The Rev. G. Style, the Rev. J. R. Wynne Edwards and many
others have helped me materially with Chapters X and XI, while Mr. J.
Greaves, of Christ's College, Cambridge, sent me his own copy of Volume
I of the Christ's Admission Book and an advance proof copy of Volume II.

The photographs are taken from originals in the possession of Mr. A.
Horner, of Settle, Mr. P. Spencer Smith and Mr. E. D. Clark. Mr. Spencer
Smith in particular has gone to endless trouble in procuring photographs
of every kind for the special purpose of this book.

These names by no means include all those who have helped me with advice
on many occasions. I thank them all and in particular I would thank the
present Headmaster, Mr. R. N. Douglas, who has put every convenience in
my way and without whose co-operation the book could never have been
written.

                                                            E. A. B.

GIGGLESWICK,

    _June, 1912._



CONTENTS.


CHAPTER I.--THE FOUNDATION.                                      [13-24.

James Carr, capellanus, earliest date 1499--Rood Chantry of Giggleswick
    Parish Church--The Earliest Records of the Carr Family--Private
    Adventure School--Lease of Ground for a School-house--Terms of the
    Lease--Description of the first School--James Smith, a Boarder,
    1516--Death of James Carr--Endowment of Chantry--Chantry
    Commission, 1547--Edward VI, Injunctions--Chantry Commissioners,
    1548--Chaunterie of our Ladye--Tempest Chantry--Chaunterie of the
    Rode--Richard Carr--Thomas Iveson--Song-school.


CHAPTER II.--RE-FOUNDATION, 1553-1599.                           [25-38.

John Nowell--Edward VI Charter--"Free" School--Position of the
    Vicar--Master and Usher--New Endowment from S. Andrew's College,
    Acaster--School Seal--Statutes of 1592--Archbishop of
    York--Election of Governors--The Master--"Strangers"--Vacations
    --Subjects of Instruction--The Usher--Hours of School--The
    Scholars--Præpositors.


CHAPTER III.--SCHOOLS AND THEIR TEACHING IN THE SIXTEENTH
             AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES.                          [39-46.

Trevisa--Ecclesiastical Control Curriculum--Trivium--Quadrivium--Lily's
    Latin Grammar--Custos--Hebrew--Teaching of English--The Primer--The
    Bible--Prayers and Thanksgivings--Scriveners--Music--Puritanism.


CHAPTER IV.--CHRISTOPHER SHUTE AND ROBERT DOCKRAY.               [47-64.

Shute Minute-Book--Clapham Bequests--Scholarships at the
    University--Potations--Tennant's Gift--Tennant's Bequest--Josias
    Shute--Burton Rent-charge--Election of Scholars--Purchase of the
    School Building--Richard Carr--Scholarships and Fellowships at
    Christ's--Tempest Thornton--Thomas Atherton--Carr Exhibitions at
    the Present Day--Resignation of Shute--Appreciation of his
    Work--Josias Shute's Bequest--Robert Dockray--Henry Claphamson,
    Usher--Rev. Rowland Lucas.


CHAPTER V.--THE CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.                [65-76.

Rev. Rowland Lucas, Head Scoulmaster--Giggleswick and Cambridge--
    Anthony Lister, Vicar--Abraham de la Prynne--Richard
    Frankland--Founder of Nonconformity--Rathmell Academy--Samuel
    Watson, a Quaker Governor--William Walker, Master--William Brigge,
    Master--Shute Exhibitions--Increased Rents from School
    Estates--Governors lend out Money--Extract from Account
    Book--Thomas Wildeman--John Armitstead, Master--Richard Ellershaw,
    Vicar--Poor Fund--Joshua Whitaker--Character of Armitstead--
    Successes at Cambridge.


CHAPTER VI.--THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.                            [77-109.

John Carr, A.B.--A Family Circle--Richard Thornton--Conditions of
    Mastership--Collection of Rent and Masters' Stipends--John Cookson,
    "probe edoctus"--William Paley, Master--The Paleys of
    Langcliffe--William Paley, the Younger--Career at
    Cambridge--Charles Nowell in Lancaster Gaol--Dispute over his
    Successor as Governor--Paley and John Moore, Usher, and their
    Stipends--The Archbishop's Judicious Letter--Enclosures--Mortgage
    of North Cave Estate--Teaching of Writing--Elementary
    Education--Increase of Revenue--A Third Master--Purchase of
    Books--Burton Exhibitions--Re-building of School--New
    Statutes--Attitude of the Vicar--Rev. John Clapham--Bishop Watson
    of Llandaff on Classical Teaching--Educational Status of
    Giggleswick--Applicant's Letter for post of Writing Master--Robert
    Kidd--Distribution of Prizes to Scholars--Re-adjustment of
    Salaries--Nicholas Wood, Usher--Obadiah Clayton, Classical
    Assistant--Numbers of the School--Vacations--Miss Elizabeth
    Paley--Death of William Paley--Estimate of his Work--Old
    Boys--Letter from T. Kidd on Life at Cambridge.


CHAPTER VII.--THE REV. ROWLAND INGRAM.                         [110-125.

Appointment of a New Master--Suggested Examiners--Qualifications
    Necessary--Strong Field of Candidates--Appointment of
    Ingram--Elementary Education--William Stackhouse, Writing
    Master--Clayton's Insanity--Increased Numbers--Increased
    Revenues--Commissioners of 1825--Rev. John Howson--Craven
    Bank--Usher's House--Letter from John Carr--John Saul
    Howson--Character of Ingram's Rule--Potation.


CHAPTER VIII.--DR. GEORGE ASH BUTTERTON, 1845-1858.            [126-148.

Attitude of the Governors--Aim of Education--Scheme of 1844--Its
    Defects--Bishop of Ripon--Appointment of Butterton--New School
    Built--Description--Prize Poems--Hastings' Exhibition--Bishop of
    Ripon's Examiner's Report--Giggleswick Pupils Prize--Howson
    Prize--Modern Language Master--Curriculum of the School Examination
    1855--Admittance of Pupils--Difficulties of Butterton--Illness of
    Howson--Fig Day--Payments by Scholars--Glazier's Bills--Efficiency
    of the School.


CHAPTER IX.--THE REV. JOHN RICHARD BLAKISTON, 1858-1866.       [149-168.

Blakiston appointed Master--Matthew Wood, Usher--John Langhorne--Arthur
    Brewin--Examiner's Report--Decrease of Numbers--Difficulties of the
    Scheme of 1844--Blakiston and Wood--Master's House Unfit for
    Boarders--Pronunciation of Greek and Latin--Mr. James
    Foster--Charity Commissioners--New Scheme 1864--New Governing
    Body--Sir James Kay Shuttleworth--Walter Morrison--Fig Day--School
    Clock--Ingram Prize--Resignation of Usher--Preliminaries for a New
    Scheme--Suspension of Usher's Office--Inspector's Report 1863--Free
    Education--Inspector's Report 1865--Development of New
    Scheme--Resignation of Mr. Blakiston--Purchase of Football
    Field--Proposals for Hostel.


CHAPTER X.--A NEW ERA.                                         [169-197.

Temporary Headmaster--Thomas Bramley--Michael Forster--Hostel--Rev.
    George Style--Private Boarding House--Endowed Schools Act 1869--New
    Scheme of Management 1872--Free Education--Shute Exhibitions--
    Increase of Numbers--Natural Science--Dr W. Marshall
    Watts--Purchase of Holywell Toft--Additions to the Hostel--New
    Class-rooms--Gymnasium--Success at the Universities--Death of Sir
    James Kay Shuttleworth--Lord Frederick Cavendish--Mr. Hector
    Christie--Giggleswick Church Restoration--Athletics--Giggleswick
    _v._ Sedbergh--Music--Charles Frederick Hyde--School Library--G. B.
    Mannock--Bankwell--Arthur Brewin--Fire in the Laboratory--
    Educational Exhibition--Museum--Old Boys' Club--Numbers in the
    School--Craven Bank--Hollybank--_Giggleswick Chronicle_--Boer War.


CHAPTER XI.--THE CHAPEL.                                       [198-215.

Mr. Morrison's offer--Aim of Architecture--The Purpose of a Dome--Value
    of a School Chapel--Foundation Stone laid--Interior of the
    Chapel--Organ--Dome--Windows--Cricket Pavilion--Gate-house--Mr.
    Morrison's Portrait--Mr. Style's Resignation--His Work--Praepostors
    --Fagging--Schoolboys' Tower--Mr. Style's Enthusiasm--Ascension
    Day--Secret of his power.


CHAPTER XII.--THE LAST DECADE.                                 [216-229.

W. W. Vaughan--Changes made--Importance of English--Higher
    Certificate--Resignation of Dr. Watts--Style Mathematical
    Prizes--Waugh Prize--Dormitories Re-named--Gate-house--Giggleswick
    Boys' Club--Sub-target Rifle Machine--Quater-Centenary--Fives
    Courts--Inspection--Carr Exhibitions--Death of Mr. Mannock--O.T.C.
    --Improvement of Cricket Ground--Athletics--Scar-Rigg
    Cup--Headmaster and Wellington--Mr. Vaughan's Work--R. N.
    Douglas--Death of Mr. Bearcroft--Sergeant-Major Cansdale--
    Quater-Centenary.


APPENDIX.                                                      [230-284.


INDEX.                                                         [285-294.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


Rev. George Style, M.A.           Frontispiece

                                   Facing Page
The Charter                                 12

First School, 1512                          18

Rev. Josias Shute, B.D.                     60

Richard Frankland, M.A.                     68

Archdeacon Paley                            82

Second School, 1790                         90

Rev. Rowland Ingram, M.A.                  110

Usher's House                              120

Craven Bank                                120

Rev. G. A. Butterton, D.D.                 126

The Old School                             132

Porch of the Old School                    134

Rev. John Howson, M.A.                     146

Sir James Kay Shuttleworth                 146

Rev. John Richard Blakiston, M.A.          150

Hector Christie, Esq.                      156

Cricket Ground                             164

The Hostel, 1869                           170

A Class-room                               174

A Hostel Study                             174

Hostel                                     176

The Library                                178

Class-rooms and Laboratory                 180

Chemistry Laboratory                       182

The Museum                                 182

Big School                                 184

The Fives Courts                           186

Lord Frederick Cavendish                   188

The School Buildings                       190

Bankwell                                   194

Walter Morrison, M.A., Esq.                198

The Chapel Exterior                        200

The Chapel Dome                            204

James Carr                                 204

The Chapel, East, Interior                 208

The Chapel, West, Interior                 210

The Gate House                             212

W. W. Vaughan, M.A., Esq.                  216

Joiner's Shop                              218

Athletic Shop                              218

G. B. Mannock, Esq.                        220

Officers Training Corps                    224

R. N. Douglas, M.A., Esq.                  228

[Illustration: School Charter]

[Illustration: Decoration]



CHAPTER I.

The Foundation.


Giggleswick School for over four hundred years has lived a life apart,
unconscious of the world outside: but its life has not therefore been a
placid one. Real dangers have continually assailed it, real crises have
been faced. Most schools have been founded with a preliminary grant of
an endowment, with which to afford a proper maintenance to Master and
Scholars. But Giggleswick was not one of these. Its actual origin is
obscure but this at least is sure, it existed before it was endowed. It
was the private enterprise of one man, James Carr, who in 1518 "nuper
decessit."

Nineteen years before, the same James Carr was a capellanus in charge of
the Rood Chantry, which he himself had founded. The date of its
foundation has not reached us, but the fact of its existence, and
consequently the probable existence of the Grammar School, is certain
in 1499.

In that year two-and-a-half acres of arable land in Settle and a meadow
called Howbeck ynge were let to one William Hulle by the indenture of
the cantarist. The cantarist or chantry priest was James Carr. Six years
later, Hugh Wren, William Preston and James Carr, capellani, were made
joint owners of "unum messuagium et unam bovatam terræ et prati."

These two possessions conclusively prove the existence of the Rood
Chantry and the presence of James Carr during the last year of the
fifteenth century, and from that year Giggleswick School may date its
birth. The name Carr is variously spelt. Skarr, Car, Carre, Karr, Ker,
all appear, but no importance is to be attached thereto. Spelling as
part of the equipment of an educated man is one of the less notable
inventions of the nineteenth century. As a family the Carrs come from
Stackhouse, a village quite close to Giggleswick, but their recorded
history begins with this generation. The father of James is nameless,
but his eldest brother Stephen was living at Stackhouse in the year
1483, when he leased a plot of land from the Prior and Convent of
Finchale. It was therefore not unnatural that James should found a
chantry in the neighbourhood of his family home.

The purpose of a chantry was the offering up of prayers for the souls
either of the founder or of such as he might direct. We do not know the
original cause of James Carr's Chantry or for whose soul he prayed. But
in 1509 he received a legacy from his brother Thomas, who was vicar of
Sancton. The gift consisted of "unam calicem argenteam" and with it
there was a request "ut oretur pro anima mea et parentum meorum diebus
Dominicis." Henceforth this was his duty. But a weekly service of prayer
on Sundays would be a poor occupation for a man, even though he had
clearly another Mass to say as well. And he endeavoured to dispel the
monotony of his chantry by teaching. He followed a common practice of
chantry priests, but he had some additional qualifications for the work.
He belonged to a local family of some importance, he had a certain
income of his own, and he was prepared to take boarders as well as to
teach the boys in the village.

The unique character of his enterprise declares itself very soon. He was
so successful a teacher that he could no longer find it possible to
carry on his work in his own house or possibly "like a pedant that keeps
a school in a church," he required a building larger and more
convenient. In other words he was prepared to take a risk and to invest
his own capital in buildings. It is the only instance that has been
recorded of what Mr. A. F. Leach calls a Private Adventure School. It
was not endowed from an outside source before 1553, but until the year
1518 was the private property of James Carr. He endowed the Rood Chantry
with lands producing six pounds one shilling a year, and the successive
chantry priests carried on the teaching that he had begun.

On November 12, 1507, a lease had been entered into between "the Right
Reverende ffader in Gode, Thomas, Prior of Duresme and Convent of the
same on the one partie and James Karr, preste, on the other partie" by
which the said James was given a seventy-nine year lease of "half one
acre of lande with the appertenance, laitlye in the haldyng of Richarde
lemyng, lyeng neir the church garth of Gyllyswyke in Crawen within the
countie of york." He and his successors contracted to pay a full or
rack-rent of xij_d._ of lawful English money every year and an
additional vj_s._ viij_d._ as often as it might be desired to extend the
lease. It was also provided that "whensoever the same James Karr shall
change his naturall lyfe that then it shalbe lawful, as ofte tymes as it
shalbe nedful, to the vicar of ye churche afforsaid for the tyme beyng
and kyrkmasters of the same, heires, executors, and assignes to the said
James Karr, jontlie, to elect one person beyng within holye orders, to
be scole master of the gramer scole afforsaid." Such Schoolmaster had
not only to be within "holye orders" but also to receive a license to
teach from the Prior of Durham. Not till the nineteenth century was
teaching a grammar or classical school regarded as a profession
independent of the Church.

The half acre that he thus obtained was ordered to be enclosed and James
Carr agrees that he will keep or cause to be kept there "one gramer
scole" building it "at hys awne propyr charges and costes."

The _Gentleman's Magazine_ in 1786 contains a letter from a
correspondent describing the school that Carr built. It was low, small
and irregular and consisted of two stages, whereof at that period the
upper one was used for writing, etc., that is to say for elementary
education, probably reading, writing and arithmetic; the lower stage on
the other hand was used for advanced teaching. This would include the
elaborate classical curriculum common to almost every school and to
which we shall return later. On the North side there was a small
projecting building, which before 1786 had contained a tolerable
collection of books but at that time they had been dispersed. The date
of the completion of the building is fixed by an inscription on a stone
which was placed almost above one of the doors and is still preserved
in the modern Big School.

        Alma dei mater, defende malis Jacobum Car:
        Presbiteris, quoque clericulis domus hec fit in anno
        Mil' quin' cen' duoden'. Jesu nostri miserere:
        Senes cum junioribus laudent nomen Domini.

    Kindly Mother of God, defend James Car from ill. For priests
    and young clerks this house is made in 1512. Jesus, have mercy
                             upon us.
         Old men and children praise the name of the Lord.

The inscription is an ingenious but not altogether happy example of
Carr's ability as a writer of Latin Hexameters.

Above this stone slab was an ornamented niche, which at one time
contained an image but of which no knowledge can be obtained. It may
have held a statue of the Virgin and Child and be the origin of the
school seal, as a writer in the _Giggleswick Chronicle_, March 1907,
suggests, but the chantry was not dedicated to the Virgin, it was the
"Chaunterie of the Rode" and as such we should expect to find a crucifix
with the Virgin standing by it.

[Illustration: FIRST SCHOOL, 1512.]

There is only one other record of the School during the next thirty
years but it is a very important one, for it shows that the School was
not restricted to the village but encouraged boarders from distant
villages and towns. About the year 1516 William Malhame writes to his
brother John:

    "Brother, I will Sir W. Martyndale to be Parish Priest at
    Marton, and to have like wages that Sir W. Hodgson had: and I
    will Sir W. Hodgson to have vj markes yearly during his life, to
    tarry at Marton and pray for mee and my father and mother's
    sawles. They both begin their service at Midsomer next coming. I
    am content that James Smith go to Sir James Carr to scoule at
    Michelmas next comyng, and also I am content ye paye for his
    bord, which shall be allowed ye ageane. From London ye second
    day of Aprill.

                                   "By your Brother Wm. Malhame.
    "To his Brother John Malhame."

In September 1518, the Craven with Ripon Act Book describes James Carr
as one who "nuper decessit" and his will was proved. No trace of it has
been found but we know from the Chantry Commissioners' Report in 1546
that he had endowed the Chantry School with a rental of £vi xij_d._

The Commission had been appointed to ascertain the chantry property
which might be vested in the King. There were two excellent reasons for
the change. Many avaricious men had already on various pretexts
"expulsed" the priests or incumbents and taken the emoluments for
themselves. Such private spoliation could not be allowed. And in the
second place Henry VIII had involved himself in "great and inestimable
charges" in the maintenance of his wars in France and Scotland. He
needed money and he saw an easy way to getting it. The Chantry
Commissioners made their report, but before many chantries were taken
by the King, he died. At once the Chantries Act, which was only for
Henry's life, is dissolved naturally.

Edward VI, "monstrificus puellus," was a precocious child of nine years
old when he succeeded to the throne. The first "Injunctions" issued in
his name gave distinct promise for educational bodies, as they comprised
an order, compelling all chantry priests to teach the children reading
and writing. Thus at one stroke of the pen he converted a body of men,
who had insufficient work to do, into National Schoolmasters. Such a
measure would tend to improve the quality of the chantry priests, who
would no longer run "unto London, unto St. Poules" seeking for a chantry
of souls, seeing that the toil of a Schoolmaster would be their lot.

But within a year a fresh Chantries Act was passed and a new Commission
appointed by the Protector and his Council. The Act contained a
prefatory statement which maintained that "a great part of superstition
and errors in Christian religion has been brought into the minds and
estimations of men" and this "doctrine and vain opinion by nothing is
more maintained and upholden than by the abuse of trentals, chantries,
and other provisions made for the continuance of the said blindness and
ignorance." They therefore determined to dissolve the chantries and at
the same time continue Grammar Schools, where they existed. The results
belied the early promise. The clauses relating to the endowment of
Grammar Schools have gained Edward VI a widespread fame as a founder of
most of the schools in England. But that fame has been wholly
fictitious.

Henry VIII had wrought great damage to elementary education, although he
had professed "I love not learning so ill, that I will impaire the
revenues of anie one house by a penie, whereby it may be upholden." But
it has been calculated that in 1546 there was probably one school for
every eight thousand people, whereas three hundred years later, the
proportion was thrice as small. Yet Edward VI did not found one school
in Yorkshire, and many, which had previously existed, he deprived of all
revenue. So diminished were the means of education in 1562 that Thomas
Williams, on his election as Speaker of the House of Commons, took
occasion to call Queen Elizabeth's notice to the great dearth of schools
"that at least one hundred were wanting, which before this time had
been." In other words in a period of less than thirty years the number
had decreased by a third. And this was in spite of a six years' reign of
Edward VI., the supposed progenitor of schools.

In the report of the Commissioners of 1548 Giggleswick is recorded as
having three chantries. There was the Chantry of Our Lady, the incumbent
of which, Richard Somerskayle, is described as "lx yeres of age,
somewhat learned" and enjoying the annual rent of £4. The Tempest
Chantry with Thomas Thomson as incumbent 70 yeres old and "unlearned."
The Chantry of the Rode, "Richard Carr, Incombent, 32 yeres of age, well
learned and teacheth a gramer schole there, lycensed to preach, hath
none other lyving than the proffitts of the said chauntrie." The net
value of the chantry was £5 15_s._

Richard Carr was a nephew of the founder and from the description of his
two fellow chaplains he was evidently superior to the ordinary chantry
priest. They were "unlearned," "somewhat learned," he was "well learned"
and "lycensed to preach." For all that the chantry lands were taken from
him, but the School was not dissolved: he was maintained as a
Schoolmaster by a stipend of the annual value of £5 6_s._ 8_d._ charged
on the crown revenues of York "for the good educacyon of the abbondaunt
yought in those rewde parties."

The population of Giggleswick, which as a parish included Settle,
Rathmell, Langcliffe and Stainforth, was roughly 2,400 and at the
beginning of the nineteenth century was unaltered. Such a population
was too "abbondaunt" for one man to teach, particularly if he took
boarders, and it is not surprising to find in the report of 1548 the
following paragraph:

    "A some of money geven for the meyntenance of scholemaster
    there. The said John Malhome and one Thomas Husteler, disseased,
    dyd gyve ... the some of £24 13_s._ 4_d._ towards the
    meyntenance of a Scholemaister there for certen yeres, whereupon
    one Thomas Iveson, preist, was procured to be Scholemaister
    there, which hath kept a Scole theis three yeres last past and
    hath receyved every yere for his stypend after the rate of £4,
    which is in the holle, £12."

    "And so remayneth £12 13_s._ 4_d._"

John Malhome was probably the brother of William, who in 1516 had sent
James Smith to be a boarder at the School, and, as he was a resident in
the neighbourhood and was a "preist," perhaps a chantry priest at
Giggleswick, his interest in the School is not unnatural.

Thomas Husteler had an even more adequate reason for leaving money to
pay the stipend of a Schoolmaster, for he had been priest of the Chantry
of the Rood, and had been wont to "pray for the sowle of the founder
(James Carr) and all Cristen sowles and to synge Mass every Friday of
the name of Jhesu and of the Saterday of our Lady." He had also to be
"sufficientlie sene in playnsonge and gramer and to helpe dyvyne service
in the church."

Thus in addition to his chantry duties he had to perform the double
office of Grammer and Song Schoolmaster, and the work proving too heavy
for him he left money to provide the maintenance of a second Master.
Thomas Iveson received this money and probably acted either as an Usher
or as Song Schoolmaster. Many schools in England employed a Master to
teach music but during the sixteenth century a change was gradually
taking place. Many Song Schools ceased to exist and everywhere the song
master became of less importance. In 1520 Horman had written "No man can
be a grammarian without a knowledge of music;" Roger Ascham, although he
quoted with approval Galen's maxim "Much music marreth man's manners"
considered that its study within certain limits was useful; and in 1561
Mulcaster declared that all elementary schools should teach Reading,
Writing, Drawing and Music. Music then was no longer a part of the
general curriculum, but was chiefly restricted to the Cathedral Choir
Schools, where the young chorister had a career opened up for him either
in the church or as a member of a troupe of boy-actors. It is therefore
of some interest to find that in 1548 the Master at Giggleswick had a
knowledge of plainsong as well as grammar.

[Illustration: Decoration]



CHAPTER II.

1553-1592.


Giggleswick Church had been given to the Priory of Finchale by Henry de
Puteaco about 1200, and Finchale was a cell of the Prior and Convent of
Durham. So from that date till the Dissolution of the Monasteries the
Priors continued to appoint the Vicar. When however in 1548 the church
became vacant the rights of the convent were vested in Edward VI and he
appointed to the office one of his chaplains John Nowell.

Nothing is known of him. He may have been the brother of Alexander
Nowell, a prominent divine both under Mary and her successor, and for a
time Head Master of Westminster, Principal of Brasenose College, Oxford,
and for over forty years Dean of S. Paul's. This Alexander was a leader
of education; he wrote a Catechism that became a school text-book and he
assisted to re-found a free school at Middleton. It is not a wholly
unsound conjecture, if we suppose that the John Nowell, who assisted to
re-found Giggleswick was, if not a brother, at least a member of the
same family as Alexander whose home was at Whalley.

We know at least that he was Vicar of Giggleswick till 1558. During his
first five years Richard Carr, assisted for a time by Thomas Iveson, was
continuing to teach in the small and irregular building of James, his
uncle; and as a stipend he was receiving annually £5 6_s._ 8_d._

This money ceased to be paid after 1553, in which year on May 26 Edward
VI "of happy memory" was pleased to grant a Charter to the School and to
endow it with property. This he did at the humble petition of John
Nowell, vicar, Henry Tennant, gentleman, and other inhabitants of the
town and parish of Giggleswick in Craven.

Quite forgetful of the School's previous existence for over half a
century, he ordains that "from henceforth there may and shall be one
Grammar School ... which shall be called the Free Grammar School of King
Edward the Sixth of Giggleswick, and the same School for ever to
continue of one Schoolmaster or Headmaster and of one Under Master or
Usher."

This limitation of the teaching staff to one Headmaster and one Usher
led to serious qualms of conscience among the Governors in the last
decade of the eighteenth century, when the revenues and numbers of the
School had been very greatly increased. They then added to the number of
the staff and discovered that they had contravened the Charter of Edward
VI, and this difficulty was one of those that led to the application in
1795 for new Statutes.

It was to be a "free" school, not in any restricted, unusual sense of
the word, not free from ecclesiastical interference, that did not come
till the nineteenth century, not free from temporal interference, that
has never come, but free from fees, giving gratuitous teaching. The
Charter was an English document translated into Latin. Hence it is not a
question whether the word "libera" can ever be understood in the sense
of gratuitous. The Latin word is used as being not the exact, but the
nearest equivalent of the English. The Free Grammar School undoubtedly
meant exemption from fees and all other meanings are heresies of the
nineteenth century, fostered only too willingly by those guardians of
Grammar Schools, who were not eager to fill their class-rooms with boys
from the locality free of charge and so to exclude the sons of
"strangers" who were ready to pay for the privilege. The Charter then
named eight men of the more discreet and honest inhabitants of the Town
and Parish of Giggleswick to be Governors of the said School. They were:

JOHN NOWELL, Vicar.
WILLIAM CATTERALL, of Newhall.
HENRY TENNANT, Gentleman.
THOMAS PROCTER, of Cletehop.
HUGH NEWHOUSE, of Giggleswick.
WILLIAM BROWNE, of Settle.
ROGER ARMISTED, of Knight Stayneforde.
WILLIAM BANK of Fesar.

The Vicar, for the time being, must always be a Governor and with one
other he had the sole power of summoning the rest to a meeting.
Collectively they could appoint the Headmaster and Usher, make elections
to their own body, when any other than the Vicar died or left the
neighbourhood, and make statutes and ordinances for the government of
the School with the advice of the Bishop of the Diocese. If the Vicar
should infringe the said statutes they could for the time being elect
another of the inhabitants into his place. They were a corporate body
and could have a common seal.

An endowment was provided for them out of the confiscated property of S.
Andrewes College, Acaster, in the parishe of Styllingflete in the
Countie and Citie of York. Acaster had been founded about 1470 and
consisted of three distinct schools, Grammar, Song and Writing, the last
intended to "teach all such things as belonged to Scrivener Craft." The
property included land in North Cave, South and North Kelthorpe and
Brampton. A further grant was made of land in Edderwick, Rise and
Aldburgh which had formed part of the endowment of the Chantry of the
Blessed Virgin Mary in the parish of Rise and Aldburgh.

These lands were situated in the East Riding and their whole value
amounted annually to £23 3_s._ of which they had to pay an annual rent
to the King of sixty-three shillings. The Trustees were further allowed
to purchase or receive gifts of land, etc., for the maintenance of the
School, provided that such additional endowment did not exceed the clear
yearly value of £30.

The grant does not sound over-generous, but it is necessary to multiply
money to twenty times its value, in order to obtain a clear estimate of
it in this century. On such a computation it would amount to £400 a year
after paying the King's rent, and in addition, it would be possible to
acquire by gifts or legacies another £600, making a possible income of
£1,000. The Common Seal that the Governors used is of an origin
altogether obscure. It represents presumably the Virgin and Child while
below is the figure of a man praying. Round the rim are the words:

Sigillum Prebendarii de Bulidon

It may be that Bulidon has in course of time been corrupted and that
some modernized form of it exists, with records of a collegiate church.
It is quite clearly the seal of a canon or prebendary, but as yet no one
has discovered his church or his name. Perhaps Nowell was a prebendary
and this was his seal, which he transferred to the Governors for their
corporate use.

The Governors were empowered to make "de tempore in tempus" fit and
wholesome Statutes and Ordinances in writing concerning the Governors
... how they shall behave and bear themselves in their office ... and
for what causes they may be removed; and touching the manner and form of
choosing and nominating of the chief master and undermaster, and
touching the ordering, government and direction of the chief master and
undermaster and of the scholars of the said School, which said Statutes
were to be inviolately observed from time to time for ever.

No record remains of Statutes made in accordance with this royal
permission until thirty-nine years later. Custom no doubt played a great
part in the government of the School and it continued steadily on the
lines first laid down by James Carr. But towards the close of the
century the country was awakening from the materialism which had girt it
round. The danger of invasion had passed away. The seeds of religious
fervour were bearing fruit. A militant, assertive Puritanism was
vigorously putting forward its feelers throughout the length and breadth
of England, nor was education the last to be affected. Throughout
history it has been the aim of the enthusiast to make education conform
to a single standard. Sometimes it has been the value of the
disputation, sometimes of the sense of Original Sin, sometimes of the
classics. At the close of the sixteenth century Original Sin had become
an important factor in the theories of the expert, and its presence is
marked in the Giggleswick Ancient Statutes of 1592.

On Sunday the 2nd of July, 1592, between the hours of three and five in
the afternoon, Christopher Foster, public notary and one of the Proctors
of the Consistory Court at York, appeared personally before John,
Archbishop of York, in the great chamber of the Palace at Bishopthorp.
He there presented his letters mandatory, sealed with the common seal,
for Christopher Shute, Clerk, Bachelor of Divinity, Vicar of the Parish
Church of Giggleswick, Henry Tenant, Antony Watson, Richard Chewe,
gentlemen, Thos. Banckes, and Roger Carre, yeomen.

He had brought with him "Letters Patent wrote on vellum of the late King
Edward the Sixth of happy memory concerning the foundacion of the said
ffree Grammar School and sealed with the great seal of England." These
he shewed to the Archbishop together with certain wholesome Statutes and
Ordinances, which they had determined upon. The Archbishop consented to
deliberate concerning the matter and consulted with counsel learned in
the law in that behalf. Later on the 3rd day of October after mature
deliberation, he was pleased to transmit the said Statutes to be
registered in the Chancellor's Court at York by the hands of John Benet,
Doctor of Laws and Vicar General. The Statutes were accordingly
confirmed and remained valid for over two hundred years.

The Governors bound themselves to choose from time to time men of true
and sound religion, fearing God and of honest conversation. In spite of
these somewhat grandiose qualifications it was found necessary to make a
second regulation by which each Governor on his election should protest
and swear before the Vicar of Giggleswick and the rest of the Governors
to be true and faithful towards the School and its emoluments and
profits and not to purloin or take away any of the commodities of the
same, whereby it might be impoverished or impaired in any respect.

The third paragraph provided for the election of a new governor in case
of a vacancy occurring through removal from the district or "if any of
them be convicted of any notorious cryme:" in his place was to be chosen
a godly, discreet, and sober person. Once, at least, every half-year
they were to visit the School and examine the labours of the Master and
Usher and also the proceedings of the Scholars in good literature. If
any fault was to be found in the observation of the Statutes on the part
of the Master or Usher or Scholars, the Governors had the right, of
admonishing the offenders and if after admonition twice given amendment
was not made, they could remove them. On the other hand the control of
the Master over the Scholars was not absolute, but was shared with the
Governors.

Finally they were to see to the revenues of the School, and to pay
stipends to the Master and Usher, "neither shall they make any wilful
waste of the profits but be content with a moderate allowance, when they
are occupied about the business of the said School."


THE MASTER.

The Master was to be a man fearing God, of true religion and godly
conversation, not given to dicing, carding, or any other unlawful games.
These Statutes were the outcome of custom and it is not unreasonable to
suppose that while such general expressions as true religion and godly
conversation represented the national feeling of the time, particular
prohibitions of dicing and carding had reference to special weaknesses
of the contemporary Master. Thus at Dronfield in 1579 the Master was
particularly enjoined not to curse or revile his scholars.

The three following clauses refer to the instruction of the Scholars in
godly Authors for Christian Religion, and other meet and honest Authors
for more Knowledge of the Liberal Sciences. He shall once every week
catechize his Scholars in the Knowledge of the Christian Religion and
other godly Duties to the end their Obedience in Life may answer to
their proceedings in godly Literature.

He shall not teach them any unsavoury or Popish doctrines or infect
their young wits with heresies. He shall not use in the School any
language to his Scholars which be of riper years and proceedings but
only the Latin, Greek or Hebrew, nor shall he willingly permit the use
of the English Tongue to them which are or shall be able to speak Latin.
These are regulations typical of the century and we shall return to them
more fully on a later page.

Giggleswick was a free school but it was clearly not intended to be only
a local school, for the Master was to teach indifferently, that is to
say, impartially, the Poor as well as the Rich, and the Parishioner as
well as the Stranger, and, as they shall profit in learning, so he shall
prefer them, without respect of persons.

Vacations were to consist of two weeks at Easter, three weeks at
Christmas, and three weeks to be by the said Master appointed when he
thinketh it most convenient for his Scholars to be exercised in writing
under a Scrivener for their better exercise in that faculty; provided
that he could also upon any convenient occasion grant an intermission
from study, in any afternoon, whensoever he seeth the same expedient or
necessary. He himself could not be absent at any other time above six
days, in any one quarter without the special license of the Governors.

For these pains and labours he was to receive as recompense the yearly
stipend of twenty marks or £13 6_s._ 8_d._ of lawful English money, to
be paid twice in the year in equal portions at the feast of S. Peter
Advincula and at the feast of the Purification of Our Lady. Lastly he
was not to "begyne to teache or dismiss the schoole without convenient
prayers and thankesgyveing in that behalfe publiquely to be used."


THE USHER.

The Usher likewise was to be a man "of sounde religion and sober lyfe
and able to train up the youth in godliness and vertue:" obedient to
the Master and directed by him in his teaching. Every year he was to
prefer one whole form or "seedge" to the Master's erudition and if they
failed, he would stand subject to censure from the Master and Governors.

He was not to absent himself more than four days in any quarter without
license from the Master and Governors and in the absence of the Master
was to supply his office. For this he received just half the former's
yearly stipend, or £6 13_s._ 4_d._, to be paid in equal portions twice
in the year.

Together they had to begin work every morning at 6-30, "if they shall
see it expedient," and continue till 11-0 a.m. Then they had a rest till
1-0 o'clock, after which they worked till 5-0 p.m.; except during the
winter season when the times of beginning of the school and dismissing
of the same shall be left to the discretion of the Master. They could
with the assent of the Archbishop of York and upon admonition twice
given be expelled from their office or upon one admonition or two be
fined or censured according to the quality of their offence.


THE SCHOLARS.

The Governors alone, with the consent of the Master, could expulse a
Scholar for rebelliously and obstinately withstanding the Master or
Usher; but if any scholar, upon proof first had, should be found
altogether negligent or incapable of learning, at the discretion of the
Master he could be returned to his friends to be brought up in some
other honest trade and exercise of life.

They could not be absent without leave: and if they did not obey the two
Prepositors, by the Master to be appointed for order and quietness in
the School they were to be subject to the severe censure of the Master
or Usher. Lastly if they behaved themselves irreverently at home or
abroad towards their parents, friends, or any others whatsoever, or
complained of correction moderately given them by the Master or Usher,
they were to be severely corrected for the same.

The stipends of the Master and Usher were not wholly ungenerous.
Mulcaster, who had founded Merchant Taylors' School and had two hundred
and fifty boys under his charge received only £10: at Rotherham the
Grammar Master received £10 15_s._ 4_d._; this was in 1483 but it was
extremely good pay for the period. Even Eton College which had a revenue
of over £1,000 at the time of Edward VI's Chantry Commissioners' Report
was only paying its Schoolmaster £10. It is true that these Schools had
also a varying number of boys paying small fees, but such additional
income was not part of the foundation. For Giggleswick with a revenue
of £20 (exclusive of the King's rent of £3 3_s._) and a further possible
revenue of £30, to pay the whole of its £20 as a stipend to the
Headmaster and Usher was a distinctly liberal proceeding.

The discretionary power of the Master with regard to the discipline of
the School appears to be greatly limited. He is bidden appoint two
prepositors, he is even advised as to some particular occasions on which
he shall correct the scholars. But these regulations probably only
codify existing custom, and in practice, no doubt, the Master would find
himself almost entirely free from control. Nevertheless such regulations
were not without their danger.

[Illustration: Decoration]

[Illustration: Decoration]



CHAPTER III.

Schools and their Teaching in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.


From the fifteenth century at least the local Grammar School was the
normal place of education for all classes but the highest. In 1410 an
action for trespass was brought by two masters of Gloucester Grammar
School against a third master, who had set up an unlicensed school in
the town and "whereas they used to take forty pence or two shillings a
quarter, they now only took twelve pence," and therefore they claimed
damages. In the course of the argument the Chief Justice declared that
"if a man retains a Master in his house to teach his children, he
damages the common Master of the town, but yet he will have no action."

Instances such as this tend to shew that it was the exception for boys
to be taught either at home by a private tutor or under a man other than
the Public Schoolmaster.

In England, Schools, from the first, that is from their introduction
together with Christianity, had been exclusively ecclesiastical
institutions and were under ecclesiastical authority and regulation. In
1215 the Fourth Lateran Council had said that there should be a
Schoolmaster in every Cathedral, and that he should be licensed by the
Bishop. In 1290 at Canterbury the Master had even the power of
excommunicating his Scholars. At a later date many chantry priests by
the founder's direction, a few voluntarily undertook the task of
teaching. In 1547 they were compelled to do so by a law, which after a
year was rendered nugatory by the confiscation of Chantries. In 1558
Elizabeth ordained that every Schoolmaster and Teacher should take the
oath, not only of Supremacy but also of Allegiance. Even after the
Reformation they had still to get the Bishop's license and this
continued till the reign of Victoria, save for a brief period during the
Commonwealth, when County Committees and Major-Generals took the
responsibility.

The curriculum in Schools at the beginning of the sixteenth century
consisted of what was called the Trivium, Grammar, Dialectic, and
Rhetoric. The Quadrivium or Music, Arithmetic, Geometry and Astronomy,
was relegated to the Universities and only pursued by very few. In 1535
Henry VIII wished "laten, greken, and hebrewe to be by my people
applied and larned." Latin was not in those days a mere method of
training the youthful mind, it was much more a practically useful piece
of knowledge. It was a standard of communication and a storehouse of
phrases. It was taught in the most approved fashion, as a language to be
spoken to fit them, as Brinsley says, "if they shall go beyond the seas,
as gentlemen who go to travel. Factors for merchants and the like."

Almost every boy learned his Latin out of the same book. Lily's Grammar
was ordered to supplant all others in 1540. The smallest local Grammar
Schools had much the same text-books and probably as good scholars as
Eton or Winchester or Westminster. The Master and Scholars must not talk
any language other than Latin, Greek or Hebrew according to the
Giggleswick Statutes, and at Eton and Westminster the same rule applied;
at those Schools any boy discovered talking English was punished with
the name of Custos, a title which involved various unpleasant duties.

Greek and Hebrew are both in the Giggleswick curriculum. Hallam says
that in 1500 not more than three or four persons could be mentioned, who
had any tincture of Greek. Colet, in his re-foundation Statutes of S.
Paul's School ordained that future Headmasters "must be learned in good
and clean Latin Literature" and also "in Greek, if such may be gotten."
But towards the close of the century Greek had become well-established.
Durham introduced it in 1593, the Giggleswick Statutes imply its use in
1592, and Camden, Headmaster of Westminster, in 1597 brought out a Greek
Grammar, which became as universal as Lily's Latin Grammar.

Of Hebrew there are few records, and none at Giggleswick, it was
probably allotted very little time, and certainly at the Universities,
it was for long at a very low ebb.

With regard to English very little was done. Erasmus was responsible for
a slightly wider outlook and he encouraged History in Latin books and in
a less degree Geography as a method of illustration. Mulcaster who
published his book "Positions" in 1561 deplored the fact that education
still began with Latin, although religion was no longer "restrained to
Latin." The Giggleswick Statutes set it forth that the Master shall
instruct his scholars--for more knowledge of the Liberal Sciences and
catechize them every week in the knowledge of Christian Religion.

If the Liberal Sciences were the appointed task, and, if in addition, he
must speak Latin or Greek or Hebrew, the boy of 1592, long as his school
hours undoubtedly were, would be well occupied. We have no evidence on
the point, but we can conjecture from other sources the nature of the
knowledge of Christian Religion that they were expected to have.

The Primer was the layman's service-book, and consisted largely of
matter taken from the Horæ or Hours of the Blessed Virgin Mary:

    This litel child his litel book lerninge,
    As he sat in the scole at his prymer.

In 1545 Henry VIII had issued a new edition in consequence of the
Reformation and he now set it forth as the only edition to be used, and
emphasized the importance of learning in the vernacular, the Pater
Noster--Ave Maria--Creed--and Ten Commandments.

The Primer was a book of devotion, the Catechism was rather a summary of
doctrines. Alexander Nowell, Dean of S. Paul's and possibly a brother of
the Giggleswick John Nowell had published a Catechism in 1570, which
supplanted all others even those "sett fourth by the Kinges majesties'
authoritie for all scolemaisters to teache," and it was Nowell's
Catechism that the School Statutes expected to be used.

The Bible was not definitely a school subject till 1604, and although it
was in earlier use in some places of education, there is no mention of
it at Giggleswick. There is however one more religious aspect of school
life that was very general and is mentioned in these particular
Statutes. The Master shall not begin to teache or dismiss the School
without convenient Prayers and Thanksgivings. The Prayers would probably
consist of the Ten Commandments, the Lord's Prayer, and the Creed.

Of Grace there is no mention, but in 1547 Edward VI had issued
injunctions that "All Graces to be said at dinner and supper shall be
always said in the English Tongue."

Every year the Master was allowed to appoint three weeks for the boys to
be exercised in writing under a Scrivener. There were in Yorkshire
peripatetic Scriveners, who used to wander from school to school and
teach them for a few weeks in the year, after which the writing in the
school would be neglected. At Durham School the writing had to be
encouraged by a system of prizes, by which the best writer in the class
would receive every Saturday all the pens and paper of his fellows in
the form. St. Bees Grammar School in 1583 tried a similar system from
another point of view, they paid the Usher 4_d._ yearly for every boy
"that he shall teach to write, so long as he takes pains with them." But
paper was a very great expense; for by the year 1600 there were only two
paper factories in England and the price for small folio size was nearly
4_d._ a quire. Writing indeed was only beginning to be common in the
schools, it had long been looked upon merely as a fine art and for
ordinary purposes children had been taught by means of sand spread over
a board. Henceforward steps are taken all over England to ensure its
teaching; at first the expert, the Scrivener, goes round from school to
school, but later the ability of the Ushers improves and no longer need
they fear the competition of a rival, they begin to teach the boys
themselves and writing becomes a part of the ordinary curriculum.

It will be recognized that there is a central motive of religion
pervading the teaching and conduct of schools towards the close of the
sixteenth century, and in the seventeenth, as there always had been. "We
have filled our children's bones with sin" says Hezekiah Woodward, "and
it is our engagement to do all we can to root out that which we have
been a means to root in so fast." A more serious spirit was abroad. The
young man was to abstain from singing or humming a tune in company
"especially if he has an unmusical or rough voice." Schoolmasters were
to abstain from "dicing and carding," scholars from misdemeanour and
irreverent behaviour towards others.

Latin, Greek and Hebrew, became the "holy languages" because they were
so closely allied with the Sacred Scriptures. Throughout education a
deeper sense of the value of religious teaching, a deeper conviction
that sin was detestable, a greater respect for outward sobriety fastened
upon the minds of those who were responsible for education, and the
children whom they trained grew up to be the fathers and mothers of the
intense enthusiasts, who enforced religious freedom by the execution of
their King.



CHAPTER IV.

Christopher Shute and Robert Dockray, 1599-1642.


Christopher Shute was appointed Vicar of Giggleswick in 1576. He had
been a Sizar of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, in 1561 and graduated B.A. in
1564, M.A. 1568, and B.D. in 1580. He was a writer on religious subjects
and published "A Compendious Forme and Summe of Christian Doctrine,
meete for well-disposed Families" and among other writings "A verie
Godlie and necessary Sermon preached before the young Countess of
Cumberland in the North, the 24th of November, 1577."

After he had been appointed Vicar of Giggleswick by Queen Elizabeth, he
took a very sincere interest in the fortunes of the School, and at his
suggestion and Henry Tennant's the Statutes of 1592 were set forth. In
1599 he began a Minute-Book to record "all constitutions, orders,
eleccions, decrees, statutes, ordinances, graunts, accounts,
reckenninges and rents for the free Grammar Schoole of Giggleswick of
the donacion and grant of the most famous king of late memorie, Edward
the Sixt by the grace of God, King of England, Fraunce, Ireland, etc.
Beginning the five and twentieth daie of March, Anno Domini, 1599.
Annoque regni Reginæ Elizabethæ etc. quadragesimo primo." These being
Governors:

CHRISTOPHER SHUTE, Vicar.
JOHN CATTERALL.
HENRIE TENNANT.
ANTHONY WATSONNE.
RICHARD CHEWE.
THOMAS BANKES.
HENRIE SOMERSCALES.
RICHARD FRANCLAUND.

He did not give the book definitely until 1604 "ad usum legum,
decretorum, electionum, compitorum," and there are no entries in it
between the years 1599 and 1603.

The period during which Christopher Shute was a Governor was marked by
great prosperity in the fortunes of the School. During the first twenty
years of the new century, many rich gifts were received. The first of
these that is recorded is in 1603 when John Catterall, Esquire, of
Newhall, leased to his fellow Governors a meadow in Rathmell for "their
only use and behoof" for twenty-one years; the Governors leased it in
their turn for an annual rent of 33_s._ 4_d._ and eventually, though the
exact date is not mentioned, John Catterall bought it back for a fixed
sum of £13 6_s._ 8_d._ and an annual rent of 33_s._ 4_d._ as the former
lessee had not paid his rent.

In 1603 also, William Clapham, Vicar of "Runtoun in the county of
Northfolke by his last will and testament bearing daite the fyft day of
July, 1603," bequeathed to the schoole the patronage, free gift and
advowson of the Churches and Rectories of Fulmodestone, Croxton and
Rolleston in the county of Norfolk, "And the yearlie pension or porcionn
paiable out of them of iiij_li._ viij_s._ viij_d._ I will that iiij_li._
thereof be yearlie for ever imploied towards the maytaynance or fynding
of a poore scholer of the said schoole of Gigleswick, being of the said
parish of Gigleswicke or Clapham, to be kept to Learning in somme
Colledge in Cambridge: Provided alwaies and my will is that he shall be
one of the Claphams or Claphamsons, if there shall be anie of those
names meete and fitte theirfore, and to have the said yearly allowance
of iiij_li._ for the space of seaven yeares, if he continue and abide in
Cambridge so long." ... "And the other viij_s._ viij_d._ I will that the
one half theirof shall be bestowed yearlie toward a potacionn amongst
the poore schollers of the same schoole, for the tyme being one Saincte
Gregories daie, and the other half distributed amongst the poore of the
said parish of Gigleswick yearlie on Easter daie for ever, to be
ordered, governed and distributed from tyme to tyme by the Feoffees,
overseers, governors, and rulers of the said Schoole for the tyme being,
whereof one to be a Clapham if their be anie of the name in the same
parish meet for that office."

Potations, thus provided for by William Clapham, were common to many
schools and were gifts of food and beer by the Master to the Scholars,
who in their turn were expected to bring gifts of money and thus enable
the Master of a Free School to get an addition to his pay. At Nottingham
Dame Mellers in 1512 did "straitlye enjoyne that the Scholemaister, and
Usshers, nor any of them, have, make, nor use any potacions, cock-fighte
or drinking with his or their wiffe at wiffes' hoost or hoostices, but
only twice in the yeare nor take any other giftes or avayles, whereby
the Schollers or their Frendes should be charged, but at the playsure of
the frends of the Scholers, save the wages to be payde by the sayde
Gardyans." On the other hand in the Hartlebury School Statutes, 1565, it
is written "the said Schoolmaster shall ... take the profitts of all
such Cocke-fights and potations as be comonlie used in Scholes." At
Cambridge "they have a potation of Figgs, Reasons and Almons, Bonnes and
Beer at the charge of the sayed Determiners."

Such was the custom and William Clapham evidently intended by his gift
of 4_s._ 4_d._ to relieve the Master from the expense and allow the
gifts to be pure profit. Unfortunately no record has been traced of any
gifts though there are entries in the Minute-Books of payment of
expenses on March 12, 1626, "charges this day vi_s._ vi_d._," which
probably refer to the expenditure upon the scholars. Such mention is
quite exceptional up till the close of the seventeenth century. The
usual accounts are much briefer, giving no details of expenditure but
mentioning the balance only _e.g._ "their remaineth in the hands of John
Banks fifty-eight pounds eighteen shillings sixpence."

In time Clapham's bequest increased in value and was reckoned in the
Exhibition Account. Certainly from 1767 the Exhibition Account gave
something towards the cost of the Potation. In 1767 it was £1 7_s._
0_d._, in 1770, 11_s._ 3_d._ In 1782 it becomes a fixed sum of £1 10_s._
4_d._ and the Governors make up the rest from another account. In one
year 1769 it was regarded as a joint expenditure by the Governors and
Masters. During the last twenty years of the eighteenth century the
expenditure averaged £2 10_s._ 0_d._ In 1814 it was £8 1_s._ 2_d._, thus
proving independently that the numbers of the School must have increased
considerably. In 1839 figs and bread are mentioned as having been bought
and the Charity Commissioners' Report of 1825 says that beer had ceased
to be provided. The figs and bread continued to be distributed till
1861, after which the practice ceased.

The Scholarship to "some colledge in Cambridge" was gradually merged
with other gifts in a general Exhibition Account and it is only rarely
possible to distinguish a holder of the Clapham Exhibition. Indeed £4
was not a luxurious sum as time went on.

On June 29th, 1604 Henry Tennant of Cleatopp, who had already shewn
himself eager for the welfare of the School by supporting the petition
of Christopher Shute for the confirmation of the Statutes, gave £100 to
the Governors of the School. With this money they were to buy lands or
rent charges "to and for such use, purpose and intent that the yearly
revenues, yssues, and profittes ... shall and maie be by them ...
emploied first for and towardes the better mantaynance of Josias Shute,
one of the sonnes of the said Christopher Shute, in Cambridge, until
such tyme as he shall be admitted to be Master of Arts in the said
Universitie, and from yeare to yeare for ever for and towards the
releiving and mantayninge of such schollers within the Universitie of
Cambridge, one after another successivelie, as shall be naturallie borne
within the said parish of Giggleswick and instructed and brought upp to
learning at the said free Grammer Schoole, and as shall be elected and
chosen out of the said Schoole by the Master and Governors ... to be
fitt for that purpose." Each one was to receive the money until he
became Master of Arts, so long as he did not defer the time beyond the
customary limit nor remove nor discontinue his place.

This gift Tennant confirmed in his will of July 5 in the same year with
a further gift of all his lands and hereditaments in Settle and the
"ancient yearlie rent of five shillings be it more or lesse." This was
to "go towards the procuringe and obtayninge of an Exhibicioun for a
poore scholler or seizer in somme one Colledge in Cambridge until ... he
shall or may be Bachelor of Arts.... The same poore scholler to be borne
within the parish of Giggleswick and brought upp at the schoole their
att learninge and to be elected ... by the Maister and Governors."
Clapham's advowsons and rent-charge were sold by the Governors on June
20, 1604, to "one Symon Paycock, of Barney, and Robart Claphamson, of
Hamworth, in the countie of Northfolk, clarke" in consideration of the
payment of one hundred marks and the lands in Settle left by Henry
Tennant were sold to Antonie Procter, of Cleatopp, on January 14, 1604
for £40. These two sums together with Henry Tennant's former gift of
£100 helped to make up £240, with which the Governors on January 19,
1609, bought a rent-charge of £14 13_s._ 4_d._, which has been paid them
ever since. Being a rent-charge, it is not liable to fluctuation.

The first elections were made on February 14, 1604. Josias Shute did not
take his B.A. degree till 1605 nor his M.A. till 1609, so that the
clause in Henry Tennant's will referring to him still held and he was
receiving the interest on £100, but there is also the interest on the
lands in Settle which had been sold for £40 and were bringing in £4
yearlie.

Thomas, one of the sons of Christopher Shute, and Alexander Bankes, of
Austwick, in the parish of Clapham (also a relative of one of the
Governors) were elected to the two Exhibitions. But as Clapham's money
continued for seven yeares, they were each to receive £4 a year for four
years and to divide the Clapham Exhibition during the next three years,
if both continued in the University. This was done "for their better
mantaynance and to take awaie emulation."

Thereafter elections were frequently made, until the merging of the
funds in the general foundation of the School by the scheme of 1872.

In 1507, the half-acre of land on which James Carr, capellanus, had
built his school had been leased for seventy-nine years for a yearly
rent of "xij_d._ of good and lawfull moneye of England," and when the
seventy-nine years were up, the lease was to be renewable on a payment
of 6_s._ 8_d._ Clearly it had been renewed in 1586 but no record
remains. In 1610 "on the ffourteenth daie of December, Sir Gervysse
Helwysse and Sir Richard Williamson were owners in ffee farme of the
Rectorie and Parsonage of Giglesweke." Durham had ceased to possess it,
on the Confiscation of Finchale Priory, and in 1601 Robert Somerskayles
had bought it of the Crown.

Sir Gervysse Helwysse and Sir Richard Williamson "in consideracion of a
certeyne somme of money to them in hand paid, but especially at the
request and mediacion of the said Christofer Shutt" sold "all that house
comonly called the Schoolehouse in Giglesweke afforesaid and that close
adioyneing therto, called the Schoolehouse garth, parcell of the said
Rectorye."

The amount of the "certeyne somme of monye" is not declared. The land
now belonged to the School, but the xij_d._ yearly had still to be paid
as part of the fee farm rent, payable for the Rectory to the King's
majesty.

The next important bequest comes from Richard Carr, Vicar of Hockleigh
in Essex, who died in 1616. He was a great-grandson of the brother of
James, the founder of the School. The family interest was maintained and
at his death he left a house in Maldon, called Seely House Grove, with
all its appurtenances to his wife Joan and after her death to the
"Societye, Companie and Corporation of Christe Colledge in Cambridge."
He also bequeathed direct to the College "a tenement at Hackwell alias
Hawkwell in the Countie of Essex called Mount Bovers or Munde Bovers."

These lands "during the naturall life of my foresaid wife, Joane" were
to be used for the provision of five Scholarships at £5 apiece and after
the death of Joane the whole estate was to provide eight Scholarships at
£5, and two Fellowships at twenty marks (£13 6_s._ 8_d._) apiece. The
Scholarships were to continue until the holder had time to "commence
Master of Arts," if he abode so long, and the Fellowships until they had
time to "commence Bachelor of Divinitie."

The Scholars had to be born in the parish of Giggleswick or be children
"lawfullie begotten of my brother-in-law, Robert Thornton and my sister
Jeanet, his wife, in the parish of Clapham and of their children's
posteritie for ever." They must have been brought up in the free School
of Giggleswick and were to be "chosen from the poorer sort though they
be not altogether so learned, as other scholars, who have richer
friends." If any of the founder's kin were not immediately ready for the
Scholarship, it could be held over for one year and the amount for that
year distributed among the Sizars of the College. Never more than four
of his kin might hold the Scholarship at one time.

The Fellowships were to be offered to his two nephews "Richard Carr, now
of Peterhouse, and Robert Thornton, of Jesus Colledge in Cambridge." If
they should be unable to accept them the "Maister and Fellowes of
Christe Colledge" shall elect fellows from the number only of those "who
have or at least have had some of the aforesaid scholarships and none
other to be capable of them."

The College Authorities were asked to provide convenient chambers and
studies for both Fellows and Scholars and to account them as Fellows and
Scholars of the College.

In consequence of the provision that the Scholars were to be elected
from "the poorer sort" an agreement was made in 1635 by which those
elected were allowed to receive the £5 and yet go to another College.
For £5 was quite inadequate and at Christ's "by reason of the poverty of
the holders, no Fellow is found willing to undertake for them as a Tutor
in respect of the hazard thereof." Tempest Thornton is the only name
recorded as a Giggleswick Fellow and he held office in 1625. The reason
why no other was ever elected is given in a letter from Thomas Atherton,
Fellow of Christ's, written May 29, 1718, to Richard Ellershaw, Vicar
of Giggleswick, in which he says that it was "owing to our having lost
that part of the Estate thus bequeathed us called Seely House Grove,
which was sued for and recovered a great while ago by some or other that
laid claim to it."

The farms in Hockley and Maldon are still in their possession and one of
them retains its name, Munde Bowers. Never more than six Scholarships a
year had been given and in 1718 the income was £31 a year. In 1890 there
were apparently two Carr Exhibitions of £50 a year each, while at the
present day there is one of £50 tenable for three years, but it is
possible that in a few years another Exhibition may be given
occasionally.

In 1619 the term of Christopher Shute's Headmastership drew to a close.
He resigned and his place was taken by the Rev. Robert Dockray. It
cannot be ascertained how long Shute had been Master, for the earliest
expenditure which is entered in the Minute-Book was in 1615 and therein:

 Item: to Mr. Shute and Mr. Claphamson for
   monie that was behind of their wages                   £1 17 4

This entry establishes the fact that one Christopher Shute was Master in
1615 and the receipts continue in his name for four years until 1619.
Tradition says that the Vicar and Master were one and the same person,
but there are certain difficulties in the way. In the first place the
Vicar was over seventy years of age, secondly there is no Grace Book or
extant contemporary writing or extract from the Parish Registers, in
which he is called both Vicar and Master. Thirdly, the Vicar's son,
Josias, is said to have been educated by his father, until he was of an
age to go to the Grammar School. On the other hand Shute may have
undertaken the work of the Master for a few years only and owing to some
especial necessity, which has not been recorded. Secondly there is no
record of any Christopher Shute, other than the Vicar, who in 1615 could
have acted as Master. Nathaniel Shute had a son Christopher, who was
later a Fellow of Christ's, Cambridge, but at this date he was still a
boy. Thirdly the signatures in the Minute-Book of both Master and Vicar
are very similar.

The year 1619 is the latest date at which the Vicar took any active part
in the advancement of the School and his work may be briefly summarised.
With Henry Tennant, he had petitioned Archbishop Piers for his assent to
the Statutes, which they had drawn up. In 1599 he had procured a
parchment-covered book, which he called "Liber Christopheri Shute et
amicorum" and in 1604 he presented it to the School. The book contains
elections of Scholars, elections of Governors, Accounts, Receipts,
etc.; it is not full of important matter, but is rather a bare record of
certain facts.

In 1610 he was responsible with Robert Bankes and John Robinson for the
purchase of the land on which the School stood, and during his
mastership the Clapham, Tennant and Carr bequests were made. Such
benefactions in themselves denote the fame of the School, and the result
of its teaching is seen in the pupils it sent forth.

Nathaniel Shute was born at Giggleswick "his father, Christopher Shute
being the painful Vicar thereof." He was educated at the School and went
thence to Christ's College, Cambridge; he became a most excellent
scholar and solid preacher, though nothing of his work remains save the
Corona Caritatis, a sermon preached at the funeral of Master Fishbourn.
He died in 1638.

Josias Shute, born in 1588, was the brother of Nathaniel and from
Giggleswick went on to Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1611 he became
Rector of S. Mary Wolnoth, Lombard Street, and remained there over
thirty years. He was "the most precious jewell ever seen in Lombard
Street," but suffered much during the civil disturbances of the reign.
Charles I made him Archdeacon of Colchester in 1642, and he died on June
14, 1643. His funeral sermon was preached by Ephraim Udall.

[Illustration: REV. JOSIAS SHUTE, B.D.]

He was a skilled Hebrew scholar a language which he had probably begun
to study at Giggleswick, and he left many manuscripts which were
posthumously published by his brother Timothy. While he was still at
Cambridge, he had enjoyed the interest on £100 given by Henry Tennant
and in gratitude therefor and for other benefits received at the School
he left to the Governors by a will dated June 30, 1642, certain parcels
of land in the parish of Giggleswick, called Eshton Close, Cappleriggs
Close and Huntwait Fields. The rent of these fields was to be
apportioned in two ways. Five pounds was to be given yearly to the
maintaining of a poor Scholar of the parish, who had been educated in
the School, at either University until he became Master of Arts. The
remainder of the rent was to be distributed amongst the poor of
Giggleswick, who were most pious and had most need. The land increased
in value greatly. In 1683 the rent amounted to £6 8_s._ 0_d._, and in
1697 £7 5_s._ 10_d._ Seventy years later it had almost doubled and in
1806 it was £34 6_s._ 0_d._

In the latter year the Governors effected an exchange. Huntwait was
given up for Tarn Brow and the rent rose five pounds. In spite of this
gradual increase in value, the Governors only allotted the five pounds
to the Exhibition Fund, the rest went to the poor of Giggleswick, to be
distributed on the day of the Purification of the Virgin Mary. The five
pounds was as a rule paid as an extra Exhibition in addition to the sum
received from the Burton rent-charge, which had been bought with the
money left by William Clapham and Henry Tennant, and the recipients were
often especially mentioned as poor, notably in 1652 and again in 1673.

On December 13, 1872, Tarn Brow was sold for £1,000 and apportioned to
pay part of the cost of the buildings which were then being erected. The
Governors were directed to pay three-and-a-half per cent. interest on
the sum expended. Cappleriggs was let for £20 a year and Eshton for £11.

The whole income now arising from these sources is applied in providing
certain boys with total exemptions from payment of tuition fees and the
costs of books and stationery: they are called Shute Exhibitions and are
offered in the first instance to boys who are in attendance at a Public
Elementary School in the ancient parish of Giggleswick.

Christopher Shute had three other sons who were all ministers of the
Church and were "all great (though not equal) Lights, set up in fair
Candlesticks."

He had done his duty as a Father, he had more than done his duty as
Vicar and Governor. It is unfortunate that there is no portrait of him,
for it would then be possible to discern the scholarly and courtly
grace of the man under whom the School more than it had ever done before
or was to do again until the nineteenth century flourished and prospered
and grew notable. He died, still Vicar and Governor, in 1626. "Happy a
father who had his quiver full with five such sons."

The Rev. Robert Dockray succeeded in 1619 as Master, and Henry
Claphamson, who had been Usher certainly since 1615, possibly earlier
though no records exist, continued in the office. The pay of both had
increased since 1592. The Ancient Statutes of that date give the stipend
of the Master as twenty marks (£13 6_s._ 8_d._), and of the Usher as £6
13_s._ 4_d._, with power to the Governors to increase it. It cannot be
ascertained when a change was made but in the half-year Accounts for
1617 there occurs the entry:

    Item: to the Maister and Usher, xv_li._

Robert Dockray and Henry Claphamson never received less than £20 and
£10 yearly apiece after 1619. In 1629 they received an additional
gratuity, the Master, of twenty nobles, _i.e._ £6 13_s._ 4_d._ and the
Usher, of £3 6_s._ 8_d._

The School went on its uneventful way. Dockray, the Master, became Vicar
and made his protestation as an ex-officio Governor in 1632. In August,
1635, Christopher Lascelles, of Ripon, gentleman, received £20 in
consideration of some request he made concerning troubles which he had
been put to but which he does not specify. For the rest Governors
succeeded Governors, Scholars were sent to the University with aid from
the Exhibition money, Master and Usher receipted their wages each half
year. The year 1640, is the last in which Robert Dockray appears as a
Governor and his last receipt for his wages is dated March of the same
year. Henry Claphamson succeeded to his work temporarily for eighteen
weeks, receiving 10_s._ 3_d._ a week, but himself died before August
1642. Anthony Lister, the Vicar, taught for just over six months at the
same rate, and on August 25, 1642, the Rev. Rowland Lucas had earned £9
12_s._ 0_d._ as "head scoulmaster."

The Usher's place was taken by William son of Thomas Wilsonne,
"Agricolæ" in Giggleswick. He had been at the School for ten years under
Mr. Dockray and at the age of eighteen had gone up to S. John's,
Cambridge, as a Sizar in 1639. Thence he went back to his old School in
1642 and remained there for twenty-four years.



CHAPTER V.

1642--1712.


The Rev. Rowland Lucas was a native of Westmorland and had been educated
at Kirkby under Mr. Leake. In 1626 he was admitted to Christ's College,
Cambridge, as a Sizar and took his B.A. in three years and his M.A. in
1633. Before he came to Giggleswick he had been Headmaster of Heversham.
In 1643 his salary was increased to forty marks and in 1645 to £40, and
during his six years many scholars went to Cambridge and won distinction
in the world, such as Thomas Dockray and John Carr. At his death in
1648, William Wilsonne, the Usher, supplied his place for a few weeks
and later William Walker was elected. He was a native of Giggleswick and
had been a boy at the School under Mr. Lucas. In 1643 at the age of
eighteen he was admitted as a Sizar at Christ's and commenced B.A.
1646-7 and later M.A.

The numbers of the School at this period are quite uncertain. The
accommodation was slight and the teaching staff limited to the Master
and Usher, but the boys were probably packed very close. During the nine
years of his mastership, boys were steadily sent to Cambridge. Christ's
alone admitted twenty-five and in one single year (1652) three others
entered S. John's. These boys were sons of really poor men. John Cockett
in 1651 was the first recorded receiver of the Shute Exhibition of £5,
and in the next year it was given to Josias Dockray, son of the late
Master, "whom we conceive to be a poore scoller of our parish." Both
these boys became ordained and in time were appointed to one or more
livings. For a century and a half Giggleswick fed Christ's with a steady
stream of boys who almost without exception entered the service of the
Church.

Seventeenth century Giggleswick took no heed of the progress of the
School and records do not abound. It was a disturbed period in English
history and political and religious troubles occupied men's minds to the
exclusion of lesser matters. Giggleswick was nevertheless well-known,
for in 1697 Abraham de la Prynne records in his diary an anecdote of a
Mr. Hollins who thirty years before had lived at Giggleswick "as I
remember in Yorkshire where the great school is." Apparently Anthony
Lister, who was then Vicar had roused the resentment of a particular
Quaker, who found himself anxious to go to the Parish Church to rebuke
Lister publicly, when he began to preach. On his way thither he met a
friend and told him of his intention. The man tried to dissuade him but
finding argument of no avail, he asked him what induced him to choose
this particular Sunday. Whereupon the Quaker replied that "the Spirit"
had sent him. The rejoinder came quickly "why did the Spirit not also
tell thee that one Roger and not the Vicar is preaching to-day?" There
was at this period one particularly distinguished son of Giggleswick,
Richard Frankland born at "Rothmelæ" (Rathmell) in 1631 who came to the
School when he was nine and at the age of seventeen went as a Burton
Exhibitioner to Christ's College, Cambridge. The Shute Minute-Book of
1651 has the following entry:

    xxj_st_ January, 1651.

    Received the day and yeare abovesaid from Robt. Claphamson the
    some of eight pounds which he received of James Smith, of
    Burton, for one year's rent, the which is disbursed by us as
    follows (to witt) to Jane ffrankland for her son, viz. xl_s._

His father John Frankland is said on his tombstone in Giggleswick Church
to be one of the Franklands of "Thartilbe" (Thirkleby, near Thirsk) and
he was admitted to Christ's in 1626.

Richard became B.A. in 1651 and M.A. four years later. In 1653 he was
"set apart" and received Presbyterian ordination. He was immediately
appointed Vicar of Auckland S. Andrew by Sir Arthur Haselrig but was
ejected nine years later. He was not an extreme man but he refused to be
re-ordained by Bishop Cosen. After the second Conventicle Act of 1670 he
made a personal appeal to Charles II, "to reform your life, your family,
your kingdom and the Church." The King was much moved and replied "I
thank you, Sir," and twice looking back before he went into the Council
Chamber said "I thank you, Sir; I thank you." Returning to Rathmell his
native place, Frankland opened an Academy, where he gave an University
training in Divinity, Law or Medicine. Aristotle was taught and one
tutor was a Ramist. The lectures were delivered in Latin. His pupils
were not confined to any one denomination, but included Puritans,
Presbyterians and Independents.

[Illustration: RICHARD FRANKLAND, M.A.]

Fortune smiled very grimly upon him and he was compelled to change his
place of instruction on many occasions. His pupils always followed him.
One Archbishop excommunicated him, another--Archbishop Sharpe--also a
Christ's man, discussed the matter with the help of tobacco and a bottle
of wine. Sharpe's main objection was that a second school was not
required so close to Giggleswick, and an Academy for public instruction
in University Learning could not lawfully receive a Bishop's license. In
the main he was undisturbed during his last years and when he died in
1698 over three hundred pupils had passed through his hands and his
Academy was later transferred to Manchester and in 1889 to Oxford, where
it became known as the Manchester New College. During the period of
Frankland's struggles with the dignitaries of the Church, one Samuel
Watson, of Stainforth, who had been a Governor of Giggleswick School was
in 1661 "willing being a Quaker that another should be elected in his
place." Eight years later he interrupted a service in the Parish Church,
and the people "brok his head upon ye seates."

In 1656 William Walker resigned the mastership and for three months his
place was taken by William Bradley, who had been a pensioner at S.
John's, Cambridge, at the same time as the Usher, William Wilsonne.
William Brigge was then elected. He was an University man and almost
certainly at Cambridge, but his college is doubtful.

In 1659 the Shute Scholarship was to be given "to Tho. Green's son of
Stainforth, when a certificate comes of his admittance" into the
University. This was a precaution that was not unnecessary. It is only
rarely that the money is entered as being paid to the scholar himself:
far more often is it paid to the father or mother and sometimes to the
boy's college Tutor. On March 12, 1660, it is agreed "that the £5 is to
be paid to Tho. Gibson, his Tutor, upon his admittance into the
Collidge." In 1673, Hugh, son of Oliver Stackhouse, "being ye poorest
scoller" was awarded the money.

The North Cave Estate, which had been given to the School as part of its
endowment in 1553, had very greatly increased in value during the
hundred years to 1671, when the rents amounted to over £80. The stipends
of the Masters were raised by means of a gratuity and William Brigge
received £30. No reason appears why after fifteen years' service and an
increased gratuity he should still be receiving £10 a year less than one
of his predecessors, Rowland Lucas, in 1644.

Thomas Wildeman, the Usher, received £15. Wilson had died in 1666 and
one William Cowgill, of whom we know nothing, succeeded him for four
years. In 1671 Wildeman took his place. One Thomas Wildeman had been at
Giggleswick as a boy and had entered Magdalene, Cambridge, in 1670, and
then migrated to Christ's. The dates make it possible that they are the
same person, in which case he would be continuing to keep his terms at
Cambridge and be acting as Usher at the same time.

The Accounts of the School at this period shew the Governors in a
different light. Their expenditure not having increased proportionately
to their income, the surplus money was lent out at interest to the
people in the village. Hugh Stackhouse, who had gone up to Christ's with
school money on account of his great poverty, was at this time acting as
Treasurer or Clerk and was one of the earliest to take advantage of the
Governors' enterprize. He borrowed £10 at five per cent. and the debt
continues to be mentioned for many years. He would appear to be a
privileged debtor.

The following is a typical entry in the Account Book:

On March 12, 1686.

Interest and Bonds for ye Schoole

                                            £   _s._  _d._
Antho. Armitstead                          00    10    00
Tho. Brayshay                              00    05    00
Antho. Barrows                             00    05    00
Tho. Stackhouse                            00    08    09
Robte. Cookson                             00    10    00
Tho. Carr, of Settle, at ½ year for £20    00    10    00
Nathaniel More at £20                      01    00    00
Robte. Cookson at £100                     05    00    00
Hugh Stackhouse at £10                     00    10    00
Mr. Wildman at £20                         01    00    00

The Mr. Wildman here referred to may have been the Usher, who belonged
to a Giggleswick family but had given up the post of Usher, which at
this date was held by John Sparke formerly of Christ's and possibly the
same as the John Sparke who was Vicar of Long Preston in 1703. William
Brigge had also left in 1684 and for six months his work was taken by a
former Usher, John Parkinson, who had matriculated as a Sizar at
Christ's in 1676 and after taking his degree came for two years as Usher
in place of Wildeman. On Brigge's death he acted as Headmaster, but
whether he was definitely appointed such or was intended to be in charge
for a short time only is doubtful, as he died in six months.

    June 12, 1685. "Mr John Armittsteade entred to ye Schole."

John Armitstead was born at Long Preston in 1660, and after being at
Giggleswick as a boy, he went up to Cambridge at the age of nineteen
with a Burton Exhibition. He was entered as a Sizar at Christ's, and
commenced B.A. in 1682-3 and M.A. 1688. The name of Armitstead has been
very closely connected with the School even to the present day.

Henry Roome was Usher for one quarter in 1688 and then gave place to
Richard Atkinson or Akinson, whose salary varied from year to year, but
never exceeded a certain limit, viz.: just half the Master's, which
consisted of "ye ancient Master's Stipend" of twenty marks and a
gratuity which brought it between £40 and £50. There are also small
entries in places, such as:

    October 1, 1687.

    Paid to Mr. Armitstead for repairs about ye schoole loft and
    garden that he had laid out, as particulars may appeare, which
    noate of particulars he delivered to ye summe of £4 17_s._
    06_d._ In which noate theire was a Presse that stands in ye
    schoole chamber, it is theire to remaine to belonge to ye
    schoole.

Richard Ellershaw, the Vicar, took a very great interest in the School,
and in 1718 he wrote to Christ's College, Cambridge, seeking information
about the Carr Scholarships. It was probably due to him that in 1693 two
shillings was laid down for transcribing part of Carr's Will, which
money "the schollars that receive Burton Exhibitions must then (i.e.
1694) allow to the school stock."

One point of interest remains connected with this period: it is a
curious slip of paper without date, which contains an invitation to the
reader, whoever he may have been, to visit the writer J.N. in the
country. It is written on the back of some of Armitstead's accounts,
with an alternative version by its side, which was no doubt a revised
copy of the theme after correction by the Master:

    Ex animo rogo ut rus venias
    quod cupio tuo frui sodalitio
    tum quia tua frequentia haud
    parvam ferat consolationem
    parentibus natu grandioribus,
    persuasum habeto alii qui
    potentiores sunt et pluribus
    abundant divitiis plura in te
    conferant beneficia sed nemo
    libentiori et promptiori est
    animo tuum promovere honorem
    quam humillimus servus. J.N.

    Permultum cupio rus venias et
    quod vehemens est desiderium tuo
    frui comercio, tum quod tua
    frequentia admodum esset
    consolabilis parentibus
    senilibus, certum habeto alii
    tum potentiores tum divitiores
    plura tibi faciant beneficia sed
    nemo et libentior et promtior
    est tuam ornare dignitatem quam
    servus humillimus.     J.N.

The money left to the School by Josias Shute was in part intended to be
paid to the poor of the parish, together with two further sums of five
shillings left by William Clapham and nine shillings by Mr. Thornton for
the same purpose. It is difficult to note the payment of these sums, for
they were as a rule added together and entered as "For the Poor Fund,"
but in 1695 there was paid to:

                          £  _s._ _d._
John Grime Wilkinson     00   02   00
Wm. Nelson               00   01   00
Bryan Cookson            00   07   00
J Robinson               00   01   00
Mary Pert                00   01   00
Thos. Cocket             00   01   00
Ric. Harrison            00   01   00
                        £00   14   00

Shute's surplus was certainly given to the poor in some years but there
is no consistent record and by the scheme made under the Endowed Schools
Acts it ceased. In 1692 "Arthur, son of Joshua Whitaker, of Settle,
appearing to us to be ye poorest schollar that stood candidate for ye
said gift" was allowed the Shute Exhibition of £5. He also received £7
of the Burton Rents, and in May, 1698, as much as £9 10_s._ 0_d._ With
these sums he was enabled to go to Christ's College, Cambridge, where he
gained a Scholarship and by the year 1698 in March, which under the new
style would be March 1699, he had returned to the School as Usher, in
succession to Richard Akinson. He taught for fifteen years and received
as usual, just half the Headmaster's stipend, the amount varying between
£23 and £27. On March 12, 1712, the following entry occurs: "Recd of ye
Governors of ye free Gramar School of Gigleswick ye sum of two pounds
eighteen shillings and sixpence for ye use of my brother Wm. Foster, now
Curate of Horsefield," but it turns out to be a payment of that part of
the Exhibition to which he was entitled, up till the time he had left
Cambridge, presumably in the previous June.

John Armitstead's receipts end in 1704, and he died in 1712. It is
impossible to determine the worth of a Master, when so few documents
remain to judge him, but the Governors of 1768 thought fit to refer to
"the artful and imperious temper of Mr. Armitstead." Their particular
grievance was that in 1704 the Governors had a balance of £230 with
which they purchased a farm called Keasden. This they let and its
profits went to the Master and Usher, and in 1712 the "easy, complying
disposition of the Governors" was persuaded to allow the Master to
collect the rents of all the lands belonging to the School and simply
enter a receipt "of the wages now due to us." Consequently no accounts
were kept from 1704 till 1765, and because there was no reserve fund
presumably no repairs were done. The Master collected the rents and with
his Usher divided the spoil. He even seized the £15 which remained over
from the purchase money of the Keasden farm. Nor was this all. Up to the
year 1705 the Master paid for the expenses of the Governors' Meetings
but in that year the Governors were persuaded to deduct sixpence in the
pound from the Exhibitions given to the boys going up to the
Universities. This deduction continued till the nineteenth century.
Judging then from the opinions of the Governors fifty years later, John
Armitstead was not wholly an altruist. It is still more unfortunate that
his evil lived after him.

The number of Scholars, who went up to Cambridge in his time though less
than it had been, was still considerable. During his twenty-eight years,
as many as twenty-seven went to Christ's alone, including the first
Paley who is known to have been educated at the School. The greater
proportion always went to Christ's until the last decade of the
eighteenth century, but other Colleges received them also, notably at
certain periods S. John's.



CHAPTER VI.

The Eighteenth Century.


John Armitstead ceased to acknowledge the receipt of his wages in 1704
and died in 1712. Just as he had belonged to a local family and had been
educated at the School and Christ's College, Cambridge, so was his
successor.

John Carr, A.B., late of Stackhouse, was a descendant of the original
James and Richard Carr and was thus the third member of the family to
hold the Mastership. He had been elected to the combined Exhibitions
from the School in 1707, and after taking his degree he was ordained
Deacon at York in 1713 and Priest in 1720. On June 18, 1712, as a layman
and at the age of twenty-three he entered upon his duties as Master.
Seven days later a relative, of what degree is uncertain, William Carr,
of Langcliffe, was elected a Governor, and eight years later another
William Carr, of Stackhouse, and hence probably a closer connexion,
possibly his father, was also made a Governor. In 1726 George Carr was
made Usher. The family circle was complete.

After 1704 the position of Usher had been successively filled by Anthony
Weatherhead, a former pupil of Armitstead's and a B.A. of Christ's, by
Thos. Rathmell from whom there are no receipts but who died in 1712, and
by Richard Thornton, who held it for fourteen years. There is no record
that he was ever a member of the School as a boy, but it is a legitimate
conjecture, when it is remembered that the Thorntons were an old family
in the neighbourhood, and one of them figures in the Minute-Book, 1692,
as having left nine shillings to the Giggleswick poor.

On the day on which John Carr was elected Master he had to sign an
agreement in the following terms:

    June 18, 1712.

    Conditions on which a master shall be chosen.

    1. He shall observe all the statutes of the schoole.

    2. And particularly the writing master shall hereafter be chosen
    by ye Governours at the usuall day of meeting in March and ye
    time to be appointed by the Master, as has been formerly
    practic'd.

    3. That the masters shall, upon receipt of any moneys from
    Northcave, Rise, etc., acquaint at least one of ye Governours,
    when such moneys are paid to them, give the said Governour or
    Governours an acquittance under their hands, and ye moneys
    receiv'd to be entred into the schoole booke and the private
    acquittance given to be delivered back to the masters on the day
    of meeting in march aforesaid.

    4. That ye masters shall take the rents of the Keasden lands,
    when due, and give an acquittance for the same to the Governours
    on the usuall day of March.

    5. Whereas ye statutes enjoyn that the Governours, when they
    meet about ye business of ye school, shall be content with
    moderate charges, it is agreed that those moderate charges on ye
    usuall day of meeting in March shall not exceed at any one
    meeting the sum of one pound per Annum.

    To ye above written articles, I, John Carr, A.B., give my
    consent and promise to observe them.

                                                            JOHN CARR.

It cannot be explained why these regulations were made, but probably the
real point of friction had lain in the collection of rents, or perhaps
in the choice of the Writing Master. It is clear from the second clause
that the original custom has not changed much. The Ancient Statutes of
1592 had given the Master power to appoint a three weeks vacation, when
he wished, in order that the "scollers" might "be exercysed in wrytinge
under a scriviner" and it is the same in 1712. It proves that, although
the School was a free school and was the place of education for the
whole township of Giggleswick and the surrounding neighbourhood, it was
not a place for elementary education and never had been.

The fifth paragraph bears reference to the agreement made with John
Armitstead in 1705, by which the Masters ceased to provide the
entertainment at the Governors' Meetings. Henceforward the amount to be
expended is limited to one pound per annum.

In 1720 Richard Thornton was allowed to act as Clerk to Charles Harris,
Esq., for six months. It does not transpire who Charles Harris was, but
the case is somewhat paralleled seventy years later, when in 1793 Robert
Kidd is "to take the trouble of keeping accounts, etc., for the
Governors and be allowed an additional sum of two guineas per annum."

In 1726 Richard Thornton resigned and George Carr took his place.
Nothing worthy of note is recorded until John Carr's death in 1744, save
that in 1728 the said John Carr received £1 11_s._ 8_d._, "to be laid
out in building a little house for ye use of ye schoole," but what it
was, is not known. The number of boys going up to the Universities in
Carr's time fell off unaccountably, though they included John Cookson
whose entry "probe edoctus" in the Christ's College Admission Book
testifies to the teaching in the School.

Carr died in 1743 and was succeeded by William Paley. Born at
Langcliffe, educated at the School and admitted into Christ's as a Sizar
with a Burton Exhibition in 1729-30, William Paley gained a Scholarship
there two years later. He became ordained and was made Vicar of
Helpston, Peterborough, where his eldest son was born. He remained Vicar
for sixty-four years till his death and combined the living with the
Headmastership of Giggleswick and for twenty years with a Curacy at the
Parish Church.

His family had lived at Langcliffe for some considerable time and from
1670 to 1720 the name is never absent from the School Minute-Book.
"Altogether a schoolmaster both by long habit and inclination, irritable
and a disciplinarian. Cheerful and jocose, a great wit, rather coarse in
his language," Such is his grandson's description of him. "And when at
the age of eighty-three or eighty-four he was obliged to have assistance
(which was long before he wanted it in his own opinion) he used to be
wheeled in a chair to his School: and even in the delirium of his last
sickness insisted on giving his daughters a Greek author, over which
they would mumble and mutter to persuade him that he was still hearing
his boys Greek."

"He was found sitting in the hayfield among his workpeople, or sitting
in his elbow-chair nibbling his stick, or with the tail of his damask
gown rolled into his pocket busying himself in his garden even at the
age of eighty."

In 1742 he married Elizabeth Clapham, of Stackhouse, who was also a
member of an old Giggleswick family. She is said to have ridden on
horseback behind her husband from Stackhouse to Peterborough. She was
the most affectionate and careful of parents, a little, shrewd-looking,
keen-eyed woman of remarkable strength of mind and spirits, one of those
positive characters that decide promptly and execute at once, of a
sanguine and irritable temper that led her to be always on the alert in
thinking and acting. She also had a fortune of £400, which in this
neighbourhood was almost sufficient to confer the title of an heiress
(_Some Craven Worthies_).

[Illustration: ARCHDEACON PALEY.]

Their son was William Paley, Archdeacon of Carlisle and author of
"Evidences of Christianity." Born in 1744 he went to Christ's College at
the age of fifteen, with a Burton Exhibition and received a Carr
Scholarship, when he entered. As a boy he had been a fair scholar with
eccentric habits. His great delight was in cock-fighting and he must
have looked forward to each Potation Day, March 12, with considerable
joy. There are many anecdotes about him. He is supposed, whilst in
company with his father riding on his way to Cambridge to have fallen
off his horse seven times, whereupon his father would merely call out
"take care of thy money, lad." His mind was always original, indeed he
was never regarded as a "safe" man and in consequence he did not attain
that high position in the Church that his intellectual achievements
entitled him to expect. When about to take his B.A. degree he proposed
to write a thesis on "Aeternitas poenarum contradicit divinis
attributis," but the Master of Christ's was so distressed that Paley was
induced to appease him by the insertion of a "non." In 1765 he gained
the Member's Prize as Senior Bachelor with a Latin essay which had long
English notes. One of the examiners condemned it, because "he supposed
the author had been assisted by his father, some country clergyman, who
having forgotten his Latin had written the notes in English." Powell,
the Master of S. John's, a learned doctor and the oracle of Cambridge on
every question concerning subscription to the faith, spoke warmly in its
favour "it contained more matter than was to be found in all the others
... it would be unfair to reject such a dissertation on mere suspicion,
since the notes were applicable to the subject and shewed the author to
be a young man of the most promising abilities and extensive reading."
This opinion turned the balance in Paley's favour (_Baker's History of
S. John's_). It also justified the father's opinion of his son. For when
the younger Paley went to Cambridge, his father exclaimed that he would
be "a great man, a very great man: for he has by far the cleverest head
I ever met with in my life." He became Senior Wrangler.

The highest position he attained in the Church was the Archdeaconry of
Carlisle, though he could have become Master of S. John's College,
Cambridge, if an University life had attracted him, but it never did. He
had left it, while quite young, to become Rector of Musgrave,
Cumberland, at £80 a year. In 1805 he died, Giggleswick's most
distinguished son.

William Paley was soon to discover the nature of the Governing Body.
Charles Nowell, one of the kin of the second founder, was confined in
Lancaster Gaol for some offence which is not recorded and there results
a neat little comedy:

    April 25, 1745.

    Willm. Banks, of Feizer, elected in the room of Charles Nowell,
    of Capleside (now being and having been long confined in
    Lancaster Gaol) having in the presence of us taken the
    accustomed oath.

                                                        ANTHO. LISTER.


    May 20, 1745.

    Be it remembered that the said William Banks on the said
    twenty-fifth day of April, having some doubt within himself
    whether he was legally elected, the above-named Charles Nowell
    not having resigned, he did not take the oath required by the
    Statutes of the ffree School of Giggleswick but on this day,
    being satisfied that his election was legal, he took the said
    oath before us (the Vicar and other Governors withdrawing
    themselves).

                                                            W. DAWSON.
                                                             WM. CARR.


    May 23, 1745.

    Be it remembered that I was absent when Mr. Wm. Banks was sworn
    but I hereby agree that he was legally elected a Governor at a
    prior meeting. I also hereby declare the sd Wm. Banks to be a
    legall Governor.

                                                         ROBT. TATHAM.

Twenty years passed and another question arose to engender bitter
feelings in the hearts of the Governors and Masters. In 1755 George Carr
ceased to be Usher and John Moore took his place. As far as can be
known, Moore had not been educated at the School, certainly he had not
gone up to Christ's with a Burton Exhibition. For some years Master and
Usher worked together for stipends respectively of £90 and £45,
according to the regular method by which the Master received double the
pay of the Usher. They had been accustomed to make an acknowledgment of
"all ye wages now due to us as masters." But the Statutes of 1592 had
declared the Master's wage to be £13 6_s._ 8_d._ and accordingly the
Governors in 1768 proposed to emphasize the additional sum, as being
given of grace. They brought forward a draft receipt acknowledging the
payment of £13 6_s._ 8_d._ "being a year's salary as Headmaster; and
likewise from the said Governors £83 6_s._ 8_d._ as a gratuity and
encouragement for my diligence." This they required Paley to sign, and a
similar one was drafted for Moore. Both Masters refused. The Governors
then decided that they "cannot consistently with their trust pay the
Master and Usher any more money than is fixed for their stipend by the
Statutes." Three months later a meeting was called to take into
consideration a letter from the Archbishop of York in answer to an
appeal from both parties, and the following minute records their
decision:

    "It is resolved by us, whose names are subscribed, punctually to
    comply with and put into execution to the utmost of our power
    the very judicious and friendly opinions and advice given by the
    Archbishop in his letter."

The minute is signed by six Governors and the two Masters and on the
next page the receipts are given as they always had been before, though
the few pounds extra that each was to have received are not paid. The
very "judicious" letter of Archbishop Drummond not only fixed the salary
of the Master and the Usher but gives some additional information. The
rents had increased to above £140 a year and of this the Master and
Usher were to be given £135 and as the rents increased so should the
salaries, always leaving a sufficient surplus for the Repairs Fund.

The School, he added, had a small number of scholars, which "may be
accounted for by various causes" and was not due to the teaching to
which he paid a graceful compliment. He further suggested that the Usher
should take it upon himself to teach Writing, Arithmetic, and
Merchants' Accounts, the first elements of Mathematics, and the parts
that lead to Mensuration and Navigation.

With regard to the Governors, he counselled them to meet annually on May
2, quite apart from their ordinary meetings and make up their accounts
and submit a review of the same and of the past year's work to the
Archbishop. Secondly they should draw up fresh Statutes. He was
anticipating the Governors' action of thirty years later. The Scholars,
he noted, had no pew in the Church. Some should be procured and the
Scholars should "goe there regularly under the eye of the Master or
Usher or some Upper Boy, who should note the absentees." Altogether the
word "judicious," applied to the letter by the Governors, was justified.

Largely by the work of Arthur Young, the old system of cultivation by
open fields had been changing, and by the beginning of the reign of
George III it was chiefly the North of England that still continued
after the older fashion. People were content to make a living, they did
not concentrate their thoughts on wealth. But in 1764 the tide of reform
had reached the Governors' East Riding Estates in North Cave and Rise,
and a private Act was passed through Parliament, ordering that the
separate possessions should be marked off and enclosed. This Act
involved a very considerable expense and the Governors, being unable to
meet it out of their income, on August 26, 1766, mortgaged their East
Riding Estates to Henry Tennant, of Gargrave. The acreage was three
hundred and ninety-five acres one rood and the mortgage was concluded
for £1,120 for one thousand years. The whole of the money was at once
expended; and nearly £500 was appropriated by what Arthur Young called
"the knavery of Commissioners and Attorneys."

The income of the Governors rose immediately, in 1766 their rent
receipts amounted roughly to £208 and eleven years later to £347 while
in 1780 £400 would be a closer estimate.

The Shute Exhibition rents had also increased steadily. In 1739 they
were £9 4_s._ 6_d._, twenty-five years later £13 9_s._ and in 1786 over
£15. The Masters' salaries were therefore increased. In 1768 the
Archbishop had fixed the minimum of Master and Usher at £90 and £45. A
few years later £96 was given and in 1776 the sums of £151 and £75, each
with a few shillings. In 1784 a new scheme was evolved, William Paley
received £180, John Moore's successor--Smith--£70, and a third Master
who was apparently engaged to teach Writing and Accounts, and first
appears in 1786, received £20 a year.

Expenditure in every direction increased, and an agent, William Iveson,
had to be retained to look after the North Cave Estates, at a salary of
£1 10_s._ Repairs to the School became more extensive, Vincent Hallpike
was required to make a "box for the Charter," and the Governors made
more frequent journeys to their estates, no doubt as a result of the
increased facility and diminished expense of travelling, which was a
notable feature of the latter part of the eighteenth century. Further
they had engaged a third Master, but whether this was due to a slight
decrease of attention paid to the School by the Master--and it is well
to remember that he was still Curate of Giggleswick and Vicar of
Helpston, Peterborough--or due to a real increase in the numbers and
requirements of the School is not stated. Several indications point to
an increase in the efficiency of the School. In 1783, an advertisement
was drafted and published for the appointment of an Usher, whereas
before this time they had been content as a rule to take the most
promising of those who had recently left the School. Advertising now
gave them a wider field of choice. A Lexicon and a Dictionary were
bought in the following year for £1 8_s._ 6_d._, as well they might be,
for the last occasion on which books are recorded to have been bought
was in 1626, when the Governors had expended £3 7_s._

The Exhibition fund, which came from the rents of the land given by
Josias Shute together with the Burton rents and a rent-charge of 3_s._
6_d._ on Thos. Paley's house in Langcliffe, had been gradually
accumulating. Few Exhibitions were given and the surplus was put into
the capital account. In 1780 the general fund borrowed £160 from the
Exhibition money in order to enclose some new allotments in Walling Fen,
in accordance with an Act of Parliament. The result was startling. The
first year gave them a new rent-roll of £40, the second year saw this
sum doubled.

For a hundred and seventy-five years James Carr's "low, small and
irregular" building had sufficed for the needs of the School. "Deep in
the shady sadness of a vale" it had witnessed the gradual change of the
Reformation, it had inspired one of the leaders of Puritan
Nonconformity, it had seen the child growth of a great theologian and,
more than all, it had roused the imagination and fostered the mental
growth of hundreds of the yeomen and cottagers of the North of England.
But now its work was accomplished. Flushed with new-found wealth, full
of a vague aspiration after progress, conscious perhaps of real
deficiencies in the old building, these late eighteenth century
Governors spoiled the "many glories of immortal stamp." Carelessly they
destroyed the ancient building, without a line to record its glory or
its age. It was left to a nameless "Investigator C," in the pages of the
_Gentleman's Magazine_ to tell the world what it was losing. Future
dreams oversoared past deeds.

[Illustration: SECOND SCHOOL, 1790.]

No minutes survive, but the accounts of the year 1787 describe the
expenditure on a new building. Three years later the last item was paid
for and a new school-house was standing on the site of the old. It was
very solidly built and larger than its predecessor. Over the door was
fixed the stone on which the Hexameter inscription "Alma dei mater,
defende malis Jacobum Kar" etc., was written, and which had already
adorned the face of the old building so long. The old division of an
upper and lower school was retained, but otherwise details are few. The
new School was built at a cost of £276 16_s._ 8¼_d._ and served its
purpose for over sixty years, when it was then itself replaced in 1851.

With new school buildings, greatly increased revenues and a third
Master--Mr. Saul--appointed in 1784 with the privity of the Archbishop
of York but not licensed--the Governors were eager to get additional
statutory power to increase the teaching staff and pay the surplus money
away both in leaving Exhibitions and in gratuities to the Scholars at
the School by way of encouragement. There is a letter extant addressed
in November, 1794, by the Clerk to the Governors to Mr. Clough, who was
requested to lay the whole matter before Mr. Withers and get his legal
opinion.

The letter reads as follows, after first quoting the Charter and also
the Statutes of 1592, which limited the stipend of the Master to £13
6_s._ 8_d._ and of the Usher to £6 13_s._ 4_d._

    The Revenues of the said School have for sometime been betwixt
    three and four hundred pounds a year, but upon the Governors
    lately re-letting the several farms belonging the School, the
    Revenues will be advanced to about seven hundred pounds a year.

    The Governors have with the privity of the late Archbishop of
    York for a number of years employed a third Master to teach
    Writing, and Accompts. As the Revenues of the said School are
    now so much advanced, viz: from about £350 to £700 a year, the
    Governors of the sd School are desirous with the consent of the
    Archbishop of York to make some additional Statutes in pursuance
    of the sd Charter, authorizing them to engage more assistants at
    the sd School to teach different branches of literature.

    The Governors propose by the new Statutes to be made that the
    Head Master's stipend shall not be less than £200 a year and the
    Usher's stipend not less than £100 a year, and then to authorize
    the Governors to apply such part of the surplus of the Revenues,
    as they shall think expedient, in the hiring one or more
    assistant or assistants under such annual stipends as they shall
    think proper for teaching different branches of literature at
    the sd School; and the remainder of the money to be by them
    applied in Exhibitions to be given to any Scholar or Scholars of
    the sd School going to either of the Universities, as the
    Governors for the time being shall think best for the good of
    the sd School, or in any gratuitys to be given to any Scholar
    or Scholars to create emulation whilst at School.

    The Governors think it would be of great use ... if some ANNUAL
    EXHIBITION were established of 20 or £30 a year to two or more
    Scholars going to either of the Universities, who had resided
    three of the last years of his Education as a Scholar of
    Giggleswick School. Such Exhibitions to be held for four years,
    if residing at the University, but they have some doubt how far
    this can be done, or any gratuity given to any Scholar to create
    Emulation, whilst still at School, consistent with the Charter.
    Therefore they desire Mr Withers to give his opinion.

       *       *       *       *       *

    As the present vicar of Giggleswick the Rev. John Clapham was
    appointed in 1783 and in 1793 refused to act as Governor, has
    been a little obnoxious to the rest of the Governors, they wish
    a Statute may be prepared empowering any two of the Governors
    from time to time to call a meeting of the Governors respecting
    the sd School. And that any new elected Governor may be sworn
    before any two Governors at such meeting to be true and faithful
    towds the sd School.

    The whole of the Governors are perfectly unanimous in this
    business, except the Rev. John Clapham, the vicar, who has not
    attended lately the meetings of the Governors, tho' he has
    always had regular notice given him of every meeting that has
    been held, and he gives no reason why he does not attend the
    meetings and concur with the rest of the Governors in the Trust.

Bishop Watson, of Llandaff, was also consulted. He had already been
connected with William Paley, the Headmaster's son, and had been his
examiner for his degree, and suggested the insertion of the "non," when
the Master of Christ's had been scandalized by the subject on which
Paley had intended to write his theme.--"Aeternitas poenarum
contradicit divinis attributis." In the matter of the new Statutes his
friendly counsel had been sought by John Parker, of Marshfield, Settle,
one of the Governing Body. The Bishop recommended that twelve leaving
Exhibitions should be established of £30 for four years, and the
remainder to be disposed of "at the discretion of the Governors, to such
young men as had been distinguished by obtaining Academic or Collegiate
Honours during their residence in the University." "Some appropriation
of this kind," he added, "if you take care to get a good Master will
make Giggleswick School one of the first in the North of England, and I
for one prefer a School in the North and situated, as Giggleswick is,
out of the way of much corruption, to either Eton or Westminster. As to
French and Mathematics being taught at a great Classical School, I do
not approve of it; the Writing Master should make the scholars quite
perfect in common Arithmetic, and in vulgar and decimal fractions, and
that knowledge will be a sufficient basis to build Mathematics upon.
Greek and Latin require so much time and attention before they can be
well understood, that I think there is no time at School for any other
language."--Oct. 18, 1794.

Meanwhile the matter was developing. In January, 1795, the Governors
wrote direct to Mr. Withers, and stated that they desired "_power to
borrow money for building an additional School_," or in the
"_improvement of the Estates_." To this Mr. Withers replied that he
considered that annual leaving Exhibitions came within the province of
the Governing Body, but they could not borrow money without fresh
legislation. He further advised them to repeal all the old Statutes.

The additional School buildings that they proposed were a house for the
Master. In March, 1796, the Attorney-General gave his opinion that the
power to call meetings could not be taken away from the Vicar, "if he
remains a corporate" or member of the Body, that the granting of
Exhibitions was _ultra vires_, and that he doubted whether the provision
for the Master to teach Writing, Accounts, etc., "is consistent with the
Institution itself, doubting whether the School founded is not a School
for _teaching Latin, etc._," but possibly it might, he added, be upheld,
as a court would be hardly likely to censure the Governors for applying
a reasonable sum to that purpose.

The Archbishop of York considered the application, and altered it in one
respect only. He decided that it was too dangerous to pay the Master a
minimum of £200 and the Usher a minimum of £100, for it would tend to
make them "independent of the Governors;" he therefore preferred "to
leave it in the breasts of the Governors to reward them according to
their merit," but he allowed a minimum to be inserted in each case, for
the Master £100, for the Usher £50. A Writing Master was also to be
appointed, and such other Assistants "when occasion shall in their
judgment require to teach Writing, Accounts, Mathematics, and different
branches of Literature in the said School." Their stipend was not fixed,
and for this reason. Mr. Saul had been acting as Writing Master since
1784, at the salary of £20 a year. He left in 1790 and was succeeded by
Mr. Stannicliffe, who was paid at the same rate. After six months he
determined that the salary was not satisfactory and sent in his
resignation. The Governors endeavoured to engage a successor, but
"finding they could not get a proper person in his room for less than
£30 for six months, they all agreed (except the Vicar) to give that sum,
and a Master has been employed in the School upon these terms ever
since."

In spite of their difficulty in getting a "proper" person, there was no
lack of applicants, and one in particular is worthy of reproduction:


                           Littleboro', near Rochdale, Lancashire,
                                         3rd April, 1792.

    Revd. Sir,

    Having perused your Advertisement in Wright's Paper for a
    Writing-Master and Accountant for the free Grammar School at
    Giggleswick in your neighbourhood, I take this Opportunity of
    offering myself as a Candidate for that Office....

    The Salary is but small but from the Tenor of your
    Advertisement, I am inclined to believe that from my assiduity
    and care, I should soon be able to increase it.

    I have studied the French and Italian Languages grammatically
    and have travelled thro' many Parts of Italy, France and Spain,
    after 4 years Residence in a Counting House at Leghorn--I will
    thank you, Revd. Sir, if you will candidly inform me pr Return
    of Post, whether these two Languages will be useful in your Part
    and how far Giggleswick is from Settle; also for a particular
    description of the Place.--For if it be populous, my Wife will
    carry on her Business, which is that of Mantua making.

    I have been twice at Settle, but it is a long time ago. I was
    private Pupil to the Rev. Mr Shuttleworth B.A., Curate of our
    Village, upwards of 12 years and from him and from the
    neighbouring Gentlemen and Clergy, I can obtain the needful;
    provided you think it wd answer for me to come over with my
    Family and settle.

    I should like a neat House, with a good garden to it and
    Accommodations for a few boarders.

    Most Elections, in different Departments of Life, are very
    unfair and partial and if you suppose this is likely to be the
    case on the present Occasion, your Candour will infinitely
    oblige me and be instrumental in preventing my further trouble.

    Your friendly reply as soon as possible will be deem'd a great
    favour conferr'd on

                             revd. Sir,
                                       Yr mo obedt Sert,
                                                      JOHN WOOLFENDEN.

He was not selected.

All candidates, or nearly all, sent with their letters of application
beautifully written testimonials in different styles to shew their
proficiency, one unfortunately made a bad blot. They were also put
through an examination in Arithmetic, when they assembled on the day of
election. One confessed to being a member "of ye old Established
Church," another "hoped to continue so." Finally, Robert Kidd was
chosen. His letter of application is particularly interesting, both
because of its beauty and because he says: "I have a good circuit for
half-a-year, and if attendance from January to middle of the year, or
from Midsummer to January will suit at Giggleswick," he would be ready
to come. From this he appears to have been one of the old type of
Scrivener, who paid regular visits to different Schools, and for whom
the Ancient Statutes of 1592 allowed a special vacation to the Scholars.
He wrote on April 8, from Whalley Grammar School, and a special
messenger was sent to fetch him at a cost of 5_s._ In the following year
he wrote an elaborate address to the Governors, in which he said,
"Permit me to say, I have been a faithful labourer and Disciplinarian in
your School. You are truly sensible of the Inequality of the Attendance
and Salaries. Now Gentlemen, if it be consistent with your Approbation,
and the Institution of your Seminary, to make a small adjustment, the
Favor shall be gratefully acknowledged." He was accordingly "put to the
trouble of Keeping Accounts, etc., for the Governors," and paid an
additional two guineas a year.

Archbishop Markham agreed to the alteration of the Statutes with regard
to the Governors themselves, and thenceforward a newly elected Governor
was to protest and swear to be faithful etc., in the presence of any two
Governors, instead of before the Vicar as formerly; and the privilege of
summoning meetings was taken away from the Vicar and given to any two
Governors. Further, any five, duly assembled, had the power to act and
proceed with business, and "the determination of the major part of them
shall be final and conclusive."

The Scholars moreover were at liberty to receive annual rewards and
gratuities, in such manner as the Governors may deem "best calculated to
excite a laudable emulation." Thus in 1798 three guineas were
distributed among them in the presence of the Masters and Governors:

                   £   s.  d.
Jno. Carr          1   1   0
Jno. Bayley        0  10   6
Enoch Clementson   0   7   0
Wm. Bradley        0   7   0
Jno. Howson        0   7   0
Richd. Paley       0   3   6
Richd. Preston     0   3   6
Jams. Foster       0   3   6

Any Scholar who had attended at the School for the last three years of
his education could receive an Exhibition with which to attend any
English University, provided that the Governors always reserved in their
hands a sufficient sum for the necessary Repairs of the School, and also
of a House for the habitation of the Master, if and when such a House
should be built.

Mr. Smith, who had been acting as Usher but without a license from the
Archbishop, resigned in 1792 and Nicholas Wood succeeded him. Possibly
he had been educated at the School, for in 1796 a letter was sent to the
Archbishop from the Governors saying that they had appointed Nicholas
Wood, of Giggleswick, Clerk, to be Usher, and praying the Archbishop to
give him a license "subject to the said Statutes and Ordinances," which
had been agreed upon.

The new power to grant an increase of salary was soon exercised and in
1797 the Headmaster received £250, the Usher £100, "in case of Diligence
and good Conduct" and the Assistant £60 provided that he assisted the
Governors when necessary in "transacting the business of their Trust"
and taught Writing and Arithmetic to the free School Scholars, "every
boy who has been at the free School one month to be entitled." In the
following year Robert Kidd was allowed £70 on condition that he "gives
due attention on every day in the year, Saturdays, Sundays and one
month at Christmas only excepted and that, when any boy is initiated
into the ffree School he will not take any pay in case such Boy or Boys
should attend his School, altho' they may not have been a month at the
ffree School."

The matter of prizes is also taken up and a certain sum, which is not
named, was allotted to each of the three head classes and was to be
expended on books, which should be given to the best Scholar of each
class. No class was to compete which had less than nine boys and they
were to be examined once every year in the presence of the Governors.

The Master was required to see that the boys in the higher department of
the School had their conversation during School hours in Latin. This was
evidently a throw-back to the Ancient Statutes of 1592, when they were
at least given the alternative of Greek or Hebrew. Further they said
"conceiding that a Boy may improve in writing as much by an exercise as
a copy, they recommend that every boy be obliged to write his exercise
in the high or Writing School, under the inspection of the Writing
Assistant and each exercise to have his (_i.e._ the Assistant's)
initials affixed to signify that such Boy wrote his best, not to signify
whether a good or bad Exercise."

It will be remembered that in the house that James Carr built, the lower
part was for advanced teaching, the higher for writing. The distinction
had apparently continued and the upper portion alone had materials for
writing. Certain it is that each portion was wholly distinct from the
other, and Usher and Assistant were masters in their own domain. In
June, 1797, the Governors decided that attention should be paid to
Classics in the Writing Department and Nicholas Wood, the Usher, was
asked to undertake the work but refused, whereupon Mr. Clayton an
Assistant in the Classical Work was requested to do so and accepted the
duty for an additional remuneration of £10.

These two men held an interesting position. Wood certainly had a
freehold, and Clayton was difficult to remove, so that in 1798 the
Governors decided that an Assistant should "be provided during the
summer months to teach the Classical Scholars, unless Mr. Wood and Mr.
Clayton in three days signifie that one of them will teach." Fortunately
Mr. Wood at once agreed to do so. It referred, no doubt, to the
Classical Scholars in the Writing Department, whom Wood had refused to
instruct, but when Clayton undertook the work and received £10 for his
trouble, Wood relented.

Two months later the Governors issued a pathetic appeal that the
"Master's Assistant and Usher be requested to attend better at the
School." It was July and only in the previous April Robert Kidd's
salary had been raised to £70 on stringent conditions of attendance.

The numbers of the School were growing apace, for twice in 1798 it was
resolved to advertise for a Mathematical Assistant. At the same meeting
25_s._ was allowed to the Master's Assistant "for the purpose of
providing fuel during the winter and no collection shall be made from
the Scholars." The Staff seem to have been a little difficult. Nicholas
Wood refused to sign a receipt in full for his wages when he was only
being paid a part, and the Governors resolved to "withold the remainder
of his salary."

Robert Kidd and Nicholas Wood left the School in April, 1799, and John
Carr, of Beverley, took Kidd's place. Wood's post was filled by Clayton,
who was made Usher at a salary of £100 a year, "provided he conducts
himself to the satisfaction of the Governors or a majority of them," and
agreed to teach five days a week.

Some difficulty arose, and on May 11 there is a minute saying that "Mr.
Wood and Mr. Kidd had been settled with." Wood seems to have been
dependent on his wife, who could not make up her mind whether she wished
to stay or go.

For the post of Usher there were several applicants as well as Clayton,
who got testimonials from Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he had
behaved himself with "sobriety." One of the applicants went so far as
to give an extract in Hebrew writing in order to shew his capacity. The
study of Hebrew in the School had perhaps not lapsed. He further stated
that he did not consider it necessary to learn Latin and Greek first, in
order to get a good knowledge of Hebrew. A sound foundation in English
was sufficient, though he hastened to declare that he was perfectly
capable of teaching Latin and Greek "with quickness and accuracy."

An advertisement had before appeared with a view to electing a
Mathematical Assistant, and was worded thus:

    "Whereas the Revenue of the Free Grammar School of King Edward
    the Sixth at Giggleswick is very much increased. The Governors
    for that Charity wishing to appropriate the same to be as useful
    to the Community at Large as possible, have resolved to appoint
    an ASSISTANT to teach Mathematics in all its Branches, to
    commence the First Week of February, 1799, provided there be
    Three Young Men at that Time inclined to be instructed therein."

    Therefore, NOTICE is hereby given,

    That Classics, Mathematics, Writing and Accompts, etc., will be
    taught free of any Expense to any Person in the Kingdom.

    Such Persons as wish to be instructed in Mathematics are desired
    to signify their Intention by Letter addressed to the Governors
    of Giggleswick School, on or before Michaelmas Day next, in
    order that an Assistant may be obtained.

Certain School holidays were fixed at the same meeting. They were to be
the 12th and 13th of March (Potation Day and its successor), Monday and
Tuesday in Easter Week, Monday and Tuesday in Whitsun-week, two days at
Laurence Mass (Lammas), one month at Christmas, and "one month to
commence the first Monday after the 5th day of July annually."

But while the difficulties with the Usher and the Assistants were
developing, the attitude of the Head Master was not altogether
satisfactory. In December, 1798, "Mr. Preston reports that Rev. Mr.
Paley refuses his resignation upon such terms as the Governors are
inclined to receive ... therefore resolved that the Recorder be applyed
to for every matter that the Governors are doubtful about." William
Paley was a man of considerable age, and disinclined to believe that he
was unfit for his work. The Governors had recognized the possibility
that he would not be strong enough for his duties, when in 1797 they had
agreed to give him a salary of £250 "for the time that School shall be
taught by him or by a sufficient and diligent Assistant." Clayton
probably acted as the Assistant. Yet in December, 1798, the Governors'
patience was exhausted, for they had already questioned Miss Elizabeth
Paley on the subject, and she appears to have given grounds for hoping
that her father would resign, but on the twenty-ninth he definitely
refused. They waited another nine months, and on September 28, 1799,
they adjourned their meeting to October 5, "as the present Master is not
considered to survive many days." On September 29 he lay dead.

For fifty-five years William Paley had presided over the destinies of
the School and his work may fitly be compared with that of his great
predecessor Christopher Shute. Both had taken up their work, when the
fortunes of the School were at a low ebb. Shute had watched the careful
saving of the School money, until they had been able to purchase "the
school-house and yard in 1610 and a cart-road in the same yard and
liberty for the schollers to resort to a certain spring to drink and
wash themselves 1619, and likewise a garden for the use of the Masters
and several other good things." Paley had become Head Master in 1744
when no accounts were kept, when the Master and Usher appropriated all
the money from the rents and when the boys were few in number. Rapidly
matters began to mend. His own son William left the School in 1759
already a scholar and destined to a lasting fame. Thomas Proctor was a
boy at the School between 1760 and 1770, and became a great sculptor.
His "Ixion" exhibited in 1785 is still recognized as a work of genius.
William Carr, of the same family as James Carr, the founder of the
School, won a Scholarship at University College, Oxford in 1782, a
Fellowship at Magdalen 1787, and settled down at Bolton Rectory in 1789.
His literary tastes brought him the friendship of Wordsworth, and he
became famous as the breeder of a heifer of remarkable proportions.

One of Paley's pupils--Thomas Kidd--probably a member of the same family
as the Writing Assistant, a family who had lived in the neighbourhood
certainly since 1587--wrote from Trinity College, Cambridge, to the
Vicar, the Rev. John Clapham, in 1792:

    Revd. Sir,

    I recd your Draught of £26 0_s._ 0_d._ April 19, 92. Mr. Jas.
    Foster left the University in March. I _was_ very happy to
    congratulate him on his being elected Fellow of S. John's Col.
    _by that_ respectable _Society_ and I _hope_ that he will be
    able to assert this honour _legally_ x x x. I am sincerely sorry
    that the Governors are not pleased that I so long deferred to
    send a certificate of my residence, if it is an _offence_, it is
    _involuntary_:--and for the future it shall be sent in due time
    and _nearly_, I expect in the same _formula_. For what business
    have I in the country previous to "taking" my degree?

    There aren't any I remember in the country, _some here_, who
    affect to despise what they cannot understand; such enterprising
    critics and fastidiously hypercritics, men of truly
    philosophical penetration--of a truly classical taste spurn
    aside the coarse beverage to be found in Gr. mss. scholiasts and
    various _lections_; but

    [Greek:
          all' aidesai men ... en lygrô
    gêra proleipôn ... mêtera
    ... hê =me= pollakis
    =theô= aratai zônta pros domous molein.]

    This appeals to the feelings: but we must attend to general
    consequences.

    Please to present my respects to my worthy master Mr. Paley--let
    him know that we have this year gone through Mechanics--Locke on
    the H.U., Duncan and Watts, etc. Logick--Dr. T. Clarke and Dr.
    Foster on the Attributes, Mr. Paley's Moral and P.
    Phil.--Spherical Trigonometry--and are going to lectures in
    Astronomy--That I have written a Gr. Ode in Sapphics--that it
    has been examined--that I am advised to hazard it in the
    Lottery.

    This year has been distinguished for remarkable events in the
    litterary world, wh our narrow limits will not permit us to
    mention.--The learned Dr. Parr _began_ an edition of Horace--it
    will _come out_ a 4to on _Human Evidence_--(a very interesting
    subject in _Jurisprudence_)--caused by a political
    frate.--Porson will vacate the University Scholarship next
    October.

                 I am your most obliged humble servant,
                                                              T. KIDD.

    Trin. Coll., Camb., April 24--92.

The majority of those that went to Cambridge seem to have gone to
Colleges other than Christ's, but of those who went there one, Adam
Wall, son "pharmacopolae haud indocti" was Second Wrangler in 1746, and
had a distinguished Academic career, his own son William was Senior
Wrangler, John Preston gained the "wooden spoon" in 1778, but was
afterwards elected a Fellow of his College, while Thomas Paley his great
nephew, was Third Wrangler in 1798, and a Fellow of Magdalene. All three
were Christ's men. This was a very good proportion of successes, seeing
that only thirteen boys went there from Giggleswick in Paley's time.

Not only in the educational improvements, but also in the financial
increase of the School property, these years were similar to the
beginning of the 17th century. North Cave and Walling Fen were enclosed
by Acts of Parliament, and land worth £140 in 1768 was valued at £750 in
1795. The Exhibition Fund had no balance in 1765, while nine years later
there was £100 in the bank. A new School had been built, the teaching
staff increased and new Statutes made. Surely a great and enviable
Headmastership.



CHAPTER VII.

The Rev. Rowland Ingram, B.D.


On the death of William Paley the Governors at once began the task of
finding a successor. They inserted in the newspapers an advertisement to
the effect that a vacancy had occurred and that candidates would be
examined by the Archbishop of York in Classics, Mathematics, "or any
other Branch of Literature, his Grace may think proper." The salary was
to be from £100--£300 but no house was provided.

There was a very strong field of applicants. A Fellow of Trinity,
Cambridge, Thomas Carr, founder's kin--a Fellow of Hertford--a Fellow of
Queen's, Oxford--a Fellow of Sidney Sussex, Cambridge--Headmasters of
various Grammar Schools, were all candidates. One Isaac Cook--Headmaster
of Ripon--explained as shewing the high value of his Classical
attainments that when he was elected to Ripon he was examined "with
another candidate in Terence, Cicero, Tacitus, the Greek Testament and
Demosthenes, and wrote a Latin Dissertation."

The Archbishop declined the honour of examining the candidates, but
later recommended that they should appoint to the Mastership his
brother--John Sheepshanks--as one eminently suitable. The Headmaster of
Eton was then asked to undertake the examination and was offered "such
pecuniary or other compliment" as he might wish. As he did not even
answer their letter, they wrote to the Rev. W. Stevens, Headmaster of
Sedbergh, who undertook the duty.

[Illustration: REV. ROWLAND INGRAM, M.A.]

In the result the Rev. Rowland Ingram was elected. He had gained "one of
the first Mathematical honours" and had only just failed to win the
Bachelor of Arts Classical Medal. He was a B.D. and a late Fellow and
Tutor of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. He was turned thirty-two (his
brother said he was thirty-four) and after being for some years a
private Tutor at Eton had been appointed in Midsummer, 1798, Headmaster
of Ipswich Grammar School, where he had made a considerable name. He was
certainly the strongest candidate who applied and it speaks well for the
Governors that they elected him, notwithstanding the fact that two old
Giggleswick boys were standing--Thomas Carr and the Rev. Thomas Paley,
the former of whom had a very distinguished academic career, and Paley
had been third Wrangler. Ingram began with a salary of £300 a year and
within six months premises were bought from Mr. Geo. Robinson, on which
it was determined to build him a house.

Troubles arose on the staff almost immediately. John Carr who had
succeeded Robert Kidd at £80 a year declared in June, 1800, that he
would not continue to teach under £100. His request was not complied
with, but the Governors made a compromise. They told him that he must
give reasonable notice before he left the School, but that as his
department consisted of a great number of boys and it was impossible for
him to pay proper attention to them all, they had decided to hire an
Assistant. At the same time they required that "teaching the English
Grammar be encouraged."

The recent and rapid growth of the Writing Department is very
significant. Its growth and the importance laid upon it increased step
by step with the Industrial Revolution. It gave an elementary education
and was confined to practical subjects--Arithmetic, Mensuration,
Merchants' Accounts, etc. Some confusion existed in men's minds about
the primary object of a Grammar School. Giggleswick had not been founded
to give elementary instruction but its duty was to impart a sound
knowledge of the Classics, in order to enable its pupils to go up to the
University with a Scholarship and thence enter one of the learned
professions and preferably become a Priest. The boys were welcomed from
whatever homes they came, and though leaving Scholarships were given
with a preference to the poorer boy, everyone received an education in
the higher branches of literature. Not until 1768 was there any mention
of the necessity of promoting the study of elementary subjects. It is
true that the Statutes of 1592 had provided for a Scrivener to teach
writing but he was only to come for three weeks in the year. In 1768 the
Archbishop of York desired that a more permanent teacher should be
chosen and the appointments of Saul, Stancliffe, Kidd, which have
already been noticed, and of John Carr, of Beverley, were the result.

With the nineteenth century the School rapidly developed in importance.
Kidd had in 1798 been paid £70 a year, Carr in the following March
received £80 and clamoured for £100. In 1801 owing to the increase of
numbers the son of Mrs. Mary Bradley acted as his Assistant for a few
months and later in the year Carr engaged his own son, whom the
Governors allowed to remain, until a permanent Assistant was appointed.
The Governors passed and re-passed resolutions on the question of
providing a permanent teacher and Mr. Clementson was appointed in 1805
and taught the boys in a house built by the Governors but lately used as
a school by Mr. Holmes. The proper School was possibly growing too large
and in 1804, the Archbishop had suggested that English should be taught
in a distinct department. The teaching of English grammatically was an
innovation and a natural response to the needs of the time. Earlier ages
had thought that in order to get a thorough grasp of English it was
first necessary to pass through the portals of the Classics but the
get-educated-quick had no time for such methods. Clementson was paid £50
and, when he demanded an increase, was graciously allowed an additional
£20 "so long as his servitude shall be agreeable to the parties."

For a brief period of seven weeks in 1806 William Stackhouse worked
under Carr at the rate of £30--Clementson having left--and Carr resigned
in January, 1807. In that month he received a last payment of £5 5_s._,
as a reward for examining candidates for the vacant post. One of them,
John Lockwood, was elected but he was required to teach not only Writing
and Arithmetic but also Mathematics. He rejected the offer and
Stackhouse was appointed permanently at £100 a year. In 1809 he received
£150 and continued at this salary till his death or resignation in 1830.

In his appointment English, as a teaching subject, was neglected, but
later in the same year the Archbishop was approached on the propriety of
establishing an English School and in 1809 a minute of the Governors
declared that none were to be admitted into the Writing School, unless
they were able to read and were under eighteen. This points to an entire
cleavage between the Grammar and the Writing School. They were in
different parts of the building and a member of the one was not of
necessity a member of the other. They were both subsisting on the same
foundation, but the Writing School was an off-shoot, a child and an
illegitimate one. Not until the middle of the century did the old School
shake it off and return to the primary objects of its foundation.

Obadiah Clayton, the Usher, began in June, 1800, to shew signs of
insanity. The particular form that it took was the habit of producing
pistols in School. He was put for a time in an asylum and a Mr.
Tomlinson was to be written to as a successor, but as they did not hear
from the Archbishop to whom they had applied for instructions, nothing
was done. Later Clayton returned from the asylum but possibly for a time
took no part in the School work. In 1802 the Governors went to the
expense of 5_s._ 4_d._ in order to get advice on the propriety of
complying with his request that he should attend a private pupil during
school hours and should be allowed to take the globes from the School.
His request was negatived.

Two years later, matters reached a head, his conduct was not considered
consistent and the Archbishop suggested that they should pay him the
statutory minimum of £50 and hire an Assistant. The difficulty lay in
the fact that he held a freehold and could only with great difficulty
be made to resign. Meanwhile, Carr and Ingram were requested to report
upon his conduct. Ingram declared that Clayton's conversation was of a
wild and incoherent nature, but Carr was more minute. He reported that
Clayton did not attend the School much for three weeks and that during
that time he appeared to be in a deranged state of mind and made use of
expressions such as that he had got a letter from his wife in heaven, or
that the roads on which he walked were paved with fire. Although the
immediate cause of his mental derangement was the death of his wife, he
had never enjoyed good health. One of his testimonials from the Tutor of
Magdalene College, Cambridge, had said that he had been compelled to
leave Magdalene temporarily owing to ill health. He continued however to
teach until 1805, when at his own suggestion he was allowed to absent
himself for four years without giving up his license and he received £50
a year. This permission was characterized by the Archbishop as an act of
humanity, but the legality of thus disposing of the Trust money was
seriously questioned. A year later the Governors received a letter from
him, saying that he had had many difficulties and had visited many parts
of England but his "_dernier resort_" was at Bognor Barracks where he
had enlisted as a private soldier and was anxious to be bought out. Some
neighbouring clergy had interested themselves in his case and the
Bishop of Chichester was willing to provide him with a curacy, provided
that satisfactory answers came from the Governors of Giggleswick.
Clayton begged them therefore to say that the cause of his leaving the
School had been "ill-health." He was released from the Army but probably
did not serve any curacy, for in May, 1808, he was acting as a Chaplain
in the Royal Navy, after which nothing more is known of him though he
continued to be paid his salary till 1810. His position as Usher was
filled in that year by John Armstrong, who had been elected as a
Classical Assistant in 1806; the Governors at that time had proposed to
offer £50 as a fit salary, but as no candidate had appeared on the day
of election, it was raised to £100.

Ingram was an energetic man at the beginning of his Headmastership and
supported by an able Governing Body and a growing revenue, he had wished
to enlarge the numbers of the School and to increase its efficiency.
Advertisements had been put in the Leeds, London, and Liverpool papers
"for the encouragement of the School," money had been annually
distributed among the Scholars to create emulation, the English
Department had been strengthened and it had been decided to teach
English grammatically. Books had been bought more lavishly than ever
before, and also globes celestial and terrestrial, as they were
"considered to be of great use in every department of the School."

The numbers of the School increased sometimes to such an extent that
four masters had to be engaged but this was never more than a temporary
expedient. The Charity Commissioners issued a report in 1825 dealing
with the School, in which they gave the numbers of the School as
sixty-three, of whom twenty-three were taught by the Master and forty by
the Usher. It gave no record of the number in the English Department.
These boys had a feeling of distinct hostility against the Grammar
School boys. They were of a less wealthy class, they lived in the
neighbourhood and they were receiving the priceless boon of a practical
and elementary education. The Grammar School boys on the other hand were
not all natives of the place. About twenty-one came from the Parish, ten
were members of families who had come to reside there, and the rest were
wholly strangers. They were compelled to learn Writing and Mathematics,
which they did not consider liberal sciences, and they had to use the
same door of entrance and exit as their enemies. This hostility
developed into open strife and partly accounts for the continual glazing
bills that the Governors had to meet. From 1783-1792 they had been
fairly constant amounting to about a pound a year, but in 1803 5_s._
reward was offered to anyone giving information about persons breaking
School windows, and in 1834 the bill was over £7. It was a very
difficult position. The Report of 1825 recommended that the elementary
education should be continued but if possible in another building
because it supplied a certain need and, if discontinued, would arouse an
even greater hostility in the locality. At the same time it distinctly
recognized that such endowment was probably illegal.

It has already been noticed that the revenues of the School were
expanding. In 1802 the Governors received over £800 from the North Cave
Estate, which five years later was valued at £1,287 but was not let at
this valuation. At the time of the Report of 1825 the rental was
considered to be about £1,140. The Exhibition Fund had also risen from
£26 in 1801 to £37 15_s._ in 1821, and twice it reached £40. The money
at this period was given as a rule to one person for four years and at
the end of that period as re-assigned. There was no examination, the boy
or his father applied to the Governors and the claimant could receive
it, even if he had already been three years resident in the University.
The increased income had been obtained by the purchase of Government
Stock. Between 1810 and 1814 Navy five per cents. were bought to the
extent of £1,190, and in addition to this the Governors had paid off the
debt of £1,120, which had been incurred owing to the enclosure of
Walling Fen. They were paying Ingram £510 a year, John Howson, M.A., who
had been a former pupil of Paley and had become Usher on John
Armstrong's death in 1814, received £205; and William Stackhouse £150.
They had built a house for the Headmaster and had repaired one for the
Usher.

All boys were admitted into the School for whom there was room, but they
now had to bring a certificate of good character for the previous year.
The boarders lodged with the Usher and with people in the neighbourhood,
notably one John King and Mrs. Craggs. These boys paid boarding fees.
When the Governors issued an advertisement for a Writing Master in 1792
they gave the salary as £30 but "as much more can be made by
quarterage." Is it possible that quarterage can mean taking boarders? It
is not certain whether Ingram took boarders, but he probably did. His
house was built gradually. Although the land was bought in 1800, the
mode of a building for Master, Usher and Assistant was still being
discussed in 1802. In October of the same year John Nicholson was
commissioned to erect it at a cost of £700. It was finished in 1804, and
Nicholson undertook to repair a house for the accommodation of the Usher
or Assistant at a cost of £250.

[Illustration: USHER'S HOUSE.]

[Illustration: CRAVEN BANK.]

Carr, the Writing Master, was complaining bitterly of the "numberless
inconveniences" he had suffered, and in January, 1805, was looking
forward to living at last in a good house, though he was not quite sure
whether he would "live to enjoy it." But by March he had not got into it
and working himself up into a fit state of indignation delivered himself
of the following letter to Thomas Paley, one of the Governors:

    Sir,

    I am very poorly with a cold I have taken by lying in a damp
    bed, I thought last night I must have called somebody to my
    assistance, I have with difficulty got thro' the fatigues of the
    day.

    Surely when Nicholson undertook the house, he had not permission
    to defer the completing of it _ad libitum_. It was first thought
    it would have been done six weeks before Christmas. Mr. N. has
    now converted the house into a workshop for the convenience of
    his people to carry on the repairs that are to be done to the
    dog-kennel: in order to make it habitable for some of Mr.
    Armistead's people: and the plasterer has also been absent for
    the last two days, I suppose, employed by Mr. N. at Astick. If I
    had any tolerable convenience it would be quite another thing;
    but I have never had a comfortable place to lie down in since I
    have been at Giggleswick, tho' I have been a slave to the
    business of the School, and stood much in need of undisturbed
    and comfortable rest. I am indeed sorry to trouble you so often,
    but not only my happiness, but my life is at stake: and I would
    rather leave Giggleswick immediately than go on so any longer.

                                 I remain, Sir,
                                               Yours etc.,
                                                         J. CARR.

    Monday, P.M.

    P.S.--Mr. Ingram could have done a little longer without a
    scullery, as well as I can do (if I ever go to it) without a
    garden wall and a necessary.

He did not stay many years longer but resigned in 1807. Ingram's house
was known as Craven Bank and in 1829 he added a stable at the cost of
£60. Howson also was having money spent upon his house. In 1817 he had a
new kitchen built at the cost of £100 and seven years later he received
£120 to repair his house, while his salary had already been increased £5
yearly to meet the cost of alterations and repairs.

The closing years of Rowland Ingram's time were not bearing the fruit
that the first decade had promised. But the School turned out at least
one good Scholar--John Saul Howson--a son of the Usher. Born in 1816 he
went up to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1833, at the age of seventeen.
He won a Scholarship there and also received money from the Tennant
Exhibition Fund. He took some University prizes, and a first class in
both Classics and Mathematics. As Head of Liverpool College for ten
years he did a great educational work, by releasing it from debt and
reforming its system. Later he was appointed Dean of Chester where
eventually he died. As a Churchman he was a notable figure and as a
Christian he will be remembered long.

On the whole the teaching in later years was not efficient. J. S. Howson
relates how before he was eight years old he had said the Latin Grammar
through four times without understanding a word of it. This was a
remarkable achievement but not adequate evidence of supreme genius in
the teacher. Education, like most other things, was everywhere at its
nadir, and Giggleswick was no exception. In the whole of Ingram's time
as Headmaster--43 years--he had three Ushers. One was mad, one died
after four years, and one--John Howson--grew grey-headed with the work.
He had during the same period three Writing Masters, of whom one was
most cantankerous, another stayed twenty-four years, and the third--John
Langhorne--was not wholly a success. He managed the School Accounts from
1839-1845, but they were found to be "so inaccurate and confused" that
Mr. Robinson had to enter them in the book afresh.

The constancy of a staff which from 1814-1831 never varied, and of whom
two were local men, contributed to the depression of the School. Another
contributory cause lay in the constitution of the Governing Body. During
the last decade of the eighteenth century and the first decade of the
next the Governors showed themselves very diligent in the pursuit of the
School's welfare. But as time went on, the increasing revenues created
an increasing thirst for more. The Accounts dealt less and less with
things appertaining to the School, more and more with the management of
the North Cave Estate. Between the years 1810 and 1843 there were not
more than two meetings of the Governors, the minutes of which refer to
the conduct of the School; instead they refer constantly to the growing
balance in the Bank (in 1817 it was over £1,500) and they dissipated it
by gratuities equivalent to half a year's salary to the several Masters
and in profuse expenditure in building and repairs. There was but one
man among them who had known the days when £350 was all they had a year,
and only a tumbledown school to teach in. John Clapham must have looked
back with mixed feelings as he regarded the energy, the efficiency, and
the swelling numbers of that early part of the century and compared them
with later years.

There was one more change of importance in this time. The Potation was
still retained and the cost of the meetings on March 12 grew more and
more. The Governors came to dine but they remained to sup. In 1784
fifteen sat down to a dinner, costing 1_s._ a head, they had eight
bottles of Wine, 12_s._ 6_d._ worth of Punch, and Ale 4_s._ 6_d._ In
1802 ten had dinner at 2_s._ 6_d._ a head, nine had supper. They drank
fourteen bottles of Wine, on Rum and Brandy they spent 15_s._ 6_d._, and
on Ale 4_s._ 6_d._ Similar meetings took place each year. There was also
a change in the boys' share. They probably--there is not always a
record--had Figs and Bread given them every year but, sometimes Ale was
also provided. In 1802 they had 5_s._ 6_d._ worth, and in 1807 they had
some but it cannot be asserted that they always had it and between 1807
and 1825 the practice completely dropped and has never been revived.

Rowland Ingram--old Rowland, as the boys called him--was growing old,
and in 1844 he retired on a pension. His friends and neighbours
determined to give him some substantial recognition of the esteem with
which they regarded him, and in January, 1845, a committee was formed to
decide its nature. In the end a Portrait was painted, and the surplus
was placed in the hands of the Governors, to be expended on the
foundation of a library, to be attached to the School, or in any other
substantial way, such as would seem to them more likely to be
permanently beneficial to the School.



CHAPTER VIII.

The Rev. George Ash Butterton, D.D.

1845-1858.


In 1834 the Governors felt some doubt respecting the legality of the
last Statutes of 1795 and proposed to bring forward some Scheme to
obtain sufficient power for the management of the School. Thereafter for
six years the Minute-Books were completely silent on this matter, but in
1840 they noted that the number of boys in the High School learning
Writing and Arithmetic under Langhorne was greater than one man could
efficiently attend to. The Headmaster was therefore requested to propose
regulations such as he might think expedient for making the High School
more useful, as subsidiary to the Grammar School, either by insisting
upon qualifications in the Scholars previous to admission, limiting the
number to be admitted or otherwise, and to submit such regulations for
the consideration of the Governors. Presumably some steps were taken,
but the Governors were beginning to feel that all was not right, and in
1843 they became more definite. They decided first, "That from the
change of Times and other causes, the Education afforded at the
Giggleswick Grammar School is at the present time insufficient for
general purposes, and more especially for the purposes of Trade and
Mercantile Business."

[Illustration: REV. G. A. BUTTERTON, D.D.]

It will be as well to pause here and remark this very notable statement.
Reformers had been at work before, but their effect had been very
slight. They had succeeded in establishing a Writing Master, whose duty
it was to give free elementary instruction. Now, forty years later,
dissatisfaction was surging in the breasts of the Governors, because the
elementary instruction was too elementary, and because its spirit did
not pervade the whole School. Now for the first time was it laid down
that the business of a School was to train its children so as to fit
them in some obvious manner for the work of their life. Latin and Greek
and Hebrew had become the touchstone of education, primarily because
they were the "holy" languages, and after Religion had long ceased to be
the mainspring of education, their intrinsic merits fell into the
background. Utility became a more pungent argument. Secondly, the
Governors decided that the Endowment and Statutes, together with the
particulars of the income of the School, should be laid before a
competent Chancery Barrister who should suggest a system of education
upon a more extended scale.

The necessity for some alteration in the Statutes was established by the
refusal of the Governors in 1844 to accede to Mr. Ingram's desire for a
new Assistant. They declared that such an arrangement was not
contemplated by the Charter and Statutes and therefore could not be
made. An impossible situation had arisen, and the Statutes must be
revised. But there was one difficulty. A new Scheme could not be carried
out except on the appointment of a new Headmaster or with his willing
consent. Ingram was approached upon the subject and declared his
readiness to retire on a pension of £300 a year, and with permission to
continue to occupy his official residence, Craven Bank. He was
seventy-eight years old, and in view of his long service to the School,
his request could scarcely be denied. Four years later he died, and like
his predecessor, William Paley, was buried in Giggleswick Church, amidst
a great gathering of men who came to bear tribute to "his truly
Christian character."

His resignation had paved the way for a new Scheme, in accordance with
the Act passed in 1841, for "improving the condition and extending the
benefits of Grammar Schools." The Scheme was drawn up by the Governors,
commented on by Arthur Lynch, Master in Chancery, 1844, and in the next
year confirmed by the Vice-Chancellor of England. It will be well to
examine the Report in some detail. In the first place the Bishop of
Ripon was in all cases substituted for the Archbishop of York, where the
latter had jurisdiction. Secondly, the 1795 Statutes were wholly omitted
and of the earlier Ordinances of 1592, only such were retained as were
in tune with the spirit of the age.

New regulations were also added. The Headmaster must be a Clergyman of
the Church of England, and a Master of Arts. He must be a good Classical
Scholar and a Mathematician, thoroughly capable of teaching both
subjects, and qualified to teach Logic, Rhetoric, English in all its
branches, and Moral and Political Philosophy. The requirements in an
Usher were less exceptional. He must be a member of the Church of
England, but need not be in Orders. He should be capable of taking the
higher Classical Forms occasionally, be skilled in English, and rather
less advanced Mathematics, and have an elementary knowledge of Modern
Science. He was to be appointed by the Governors.

The salary of the Headmaster was to be a minimum payment of £210 and a
maximum of £360, with a house; the Usher was to receive a house and £150
and a capitation fee of £2, which was so limited that it was only
possible to rise to £210. Each could receive ten boarders. Other
Assistants might be employed, but their united salaries were not to
exceed £230. The retiring age was fixed at sixty-five, when the Master
and Usher would be granted a pension, but the Governors could extend the
services of either beyond the age limit, if they so willed. The surplus
funds were to be used in such a way as to make the Exhibition money from
the Burton Rents, etc., up to £70 a year. The Bishop of Ripon was to
appoint an Examiner every Christmas, and receive a Report from him.
Holidays were fixed for a month in the Summer and at Christmas, three
days each at Easter and Whitsuntide, in addition to the Saturday and
Sunday and Good-Friday. Every Saturday and the day of riding the Parish
boundaries were to be whole holidays.

Further, the arrangements by which one Master relieved another in case
of illness or absence, the place where each Master should sit in School,
the disposition of the School into Forms and Classes, the amount of time
to be devoted to each branch of instruction--provided always that every
boy should learn some Latin and Greek--all these questions of internal
arrangement, which were essentially within the province of the
Headmaster, were to be agreed upon by the Governors and reduced to
writing.

It is almost inconceivable that such a scheme was ever put on paper, yet
it lived for twenty years. The Headmaster was bound and shackled beyond
belief. He could not appoint or dismiss his Masters, he had no power to
admit boys into the School, nor, unless they were "altogether negligent
and incapable of learning," could he remove them. He was powerless.
Ingram had retired in 1844, and the scheme then had gone forward and
been completed before a new Headmaster was appointed. Thus the details
of the management of the School were settled, quite irrespective of the
point of view of the man who was to be responsible.

In August, 1845, the Governing Body--eight discreet men--met to appoint
Ingram's successor. There was, as in 1800, a strong list of applicants,
but the choice fell unanimously on the Rev. George Ash Butterton, D.D.,
late Fellow of S. John's College, Cambridge, and at the time Headmaster
of Uppingham School. As a boy he had been fortunate enough to have been
one of Kennedy's Sixth Form pupils at Shrewsbury School, and his
subsequent success at Cambridge shewed that he was among the ablest
Scholars of his year.

The first three years passed uneventfully. Small alterations were made
in the School, and with the aid of £150 from the Governors, he added a
wing to his house at Craven Bank. In 1849 he desired the Governors, in
accordance with the scheme, to appoint a Master for teaching Modern
Languages, but they were unwilling to do this "until such addition shall
have been made to the School, as will afford suitable accommodation for
such a Master and his class." This is the first intimation that the
Governors were considering the question of building. Complaints had been
made before that numbers were increasing and exceeding the limits of the
room or the staff, but nothing had been done. Now, however, the question
was actively taken up.

The immediate resolve was to build an addition of a Library and a
Class-room for Modern Languages, and further to raise the School-rooms
and give them better light and ventilation. Many Subscriptions were
offered by the Masters, Old Pupils, and other friends of the School,
towards a more ornamental style of building than the School funds could
afford. The Architects' plans grew, and it was soon found that very
little of the old structure would remain. Consequently in 1850 it was
decided to build the School afresh from its foundations.

[Illustration: THE OLD SCHOOL.]

Finance troubled the Governors much, for they did not feel justified in
spending more Trust money than was essential for the upkeep of the
School. The Library and the new Class-room were essential, and the
Governors were prepared to find the money for them, but the rest they
hoped to receive from outside help. They put forward a statement of the
need, and the resulting subscriptions were very satisfactory. Two Old
Boys and sons of the Usher, the Rev. John Saul Howson and his brother
George Howson, undertook the entire expense of the Ornamental Doorway.
The relatives of the Rev. John Carr, Professor of Mathematics in the
University of Durham, put in a long window immediately above the
doorway. In this window is a representation of John Carr, the Headmaster
up to 1744. Further, £50 remained over from the Ingram Testimonial Fund,
and was now to be applied to the decorating of a window in the Library
with stained glass.

The building was substantial and sound. The main part consisted of two
long Class-rooms, one on the ground floor, one above. These both ran the
whole length of the building, until the Library was reached which with
the Modern Language Room formed a transverse addition. A stone
staircase, winding and unexpectedly long, ascended from the main
entrance, and at its top was the High or Writing School. In the
Class-room below were two platforms, now disappeared, the one by the
door for the Usher's desk, the one by the Library for the Master. The
Modern Language Room opened into it. There were two doors, one the main
entrance chiefly used by the boys, the other smaller and undistinguished
for the Masters only. It led into the Library and into a Tower, where
the School bell was. The Library was not very big but a long narrow
room, and inset in the wall was a fire-proof safe, for the better
preservation of the Charter and other documents. It alone has continued
to serve its original purpose. It is not possible to judge accurately
the difference in size between this building and its predecessor, but it
was distinctly bigger. The poplars which are to be seen in the
photograph of the Drawing of the 1790 School were felled for the new one
and the School filled the space. In addition there was a cloister-like
building at the back, where in hours of play refuge might be sought from
the weather.

The total cost was over £2,000, or more than seven times as much as its
predecessor. Much of the money came from subscriptions, some from the
surplus income of the School, but the rest was obtained by selling out
£645 7_s._ 2_d._ New 3¼ per cent. Stock belonging to the Exhibition
Fund. The Governors pledged themselves to pay 3½ per cent. to the
Exhibition Fund, thus depleted, and to repay the principal out of
surplus income at the rate of 10 per cent. per annum, or more, if
convenient. It was represented that this would at once be an advantage
to the Exhibition Fund and also an economical method of borrowing the
necessary money. The money was repaid by 1855.

[Illustration: PORCH OF THE OLD SCHOOL.]

The cost of the Ornamented Doorway, paid for by the Usher's two sons,
was estimated at £48 13_s._, but this was exclusive of the Niche and the
Statue of Edward VI which it contained. This Statue was an object of the
frequent missile and was so often cast down that it was at last removed.
On the outside of the Library Wall is a Coat of Arms belonging to the
Nowell family and underneath is the extract from the Charter "_Mediante
Johanne Nowell_." One relic of James Carr's School remained, the stone
slab with its Hexameter inscription, and as it had found a place inset
in the wall of the second building, so it did in 1850, but after a time
it was removed owing to its decay.

The first Speech Day in the new School was celebrated in a fitting
manner on March 12th, 1851. Three prize Odes were composed on the
subject of re-building and were read by their respective authors. F.
Howson recited some rapt verses, extolling Queen Victoria and telling
her that the New School should stand as her memorial.

    O Fairest star, with radiance divine
    Gilding the honours of thy royal line!
    Too pure thy beauty realms of earth to cheer
    A brighter orbit gained in a far brighter sphere.
            But unextinguishable still
                Thy parting glow!
            As from Sol's latest smile of light
    Steep Alpine summits of eternal snow
    A purpling lustre cast o'er the deep vales below.

    So beams thy virtue, after life has fled,
    In deeds reflected, which their blessings shed
    Still o'er thy people, and will ever be
    Illustrious tokens of thy piety.
            This spot an endless monument
                Of thee shall stand,
            And still perpetuate thy praise:
    For here from age to age a youthful band
    Shall learn the fear of God, the love of Fatherland.

J. Brackenridge gave a short description of the extent of his Classical
Studies:--

    See this the third! theme of mine ode,
          Adorned by sculptur'd art;
    Make it, O Learning, thy abode,
          Thy gems through it impart.
    There may the bards of tragic name
    Forever flourish, Graecia's fame--
          With Homer's deathless lay!
    Here Maro with heroic glow,
    And Naso's elegiac flow
          Outlive their mould'ring clay.

Jackson Mason was the best of the three, though strongly suggestive of
Gray. He describes the tale of a maiden "vanished down the gulph
profound" and now

    The ruffled water of the well
    Mov'd by bosom's fall and swell
        Alternate ebbs and flows.

    The tale is o'er; the old man gone.
        With tottering steps and slow
    He pauses ever and anon,
        To view the vale below:
    And, leaning on his staff the while,
    Gazes with pleasure on the pile,
          Which crowns that landscape fair:
    Then as the grateful tear-drop falls,
    For blessings on those goodly walls
          Breathes forth this fervent prayer.

Such was the poetical achievement of three boys in 1851.

The School might reasonably be expected to go forward quickly, with new
buildings, a new Headmaster and strenuous Governors, and in 1850 they
received a just recognition of the quality of the teaching. The Provost
and Fellows of Queen's College, Oxford, had a very large sum of money
at their disposal, which was devised to them by Lady Elizabeth Hastings.
She had intended the money to be divided annually among boys from
schools in the North of England. The privilege of being one of the
schools able to send boys in for the Exhibitions--which were very
valuable--was offered to Giggleswick and gratefully accepted. The
Exhibitions have frequently been won.

The first Examination under the new scheme was held in December, 1862.
The Bishop of Ripon appointed the Rev. William Boyd, M.A., Examiner. He
found the School in "an efficient working condition," in both the higher
and lower departments. The first class, which in those days consisted of
the senior boys, passed a good Examination in Greek Testament, a play
of Aeschylus, Homer, Thucydides, Horace, and Vergil, Geography and
Ancient History. The Latin Prose Composition of two or three was very
good.

The Second Class were examined in Homer, Xenophon, Ovid, and Cæsar.
Books were given as prizes to the value of £13 4_s._ Both in this
Examination and in the two succeeding years the proficiency of the first
form was very marked, and the general efficiency of the teaching was
commented on. The most general excellence lay in Divinity, but as the
subject was a limited one _e.g._ Life of Abraham, and the work for it
began six months before, perhaps too much stress should not be laid on
it. There were seven classes, all of them doing Latin, with the fourth
class doing Eutropius, and they were also examined in Modern Geography,
the History of England, and the Catechism.

In 1844, four old boys, William Garforth, John Saul Howson, John
Birkbeck, and William Robinson agreed together to contribute to a fund
for the provision of two prizes each half year. They were to be called,
"The Giggleswick Pupils' Prizes," and were to consist of Books, stamped
with the School Seal. One was to be given to the boys of the Upper part
of the School for the best English or Latin Essay, and the other to the
Lower boys for General Merit.

In 1853, the Howson Prizes were given by the Fellows of Christ's
College, Cambridge, and other friends, in memory of George Howson, a son
of the Usher, and himself a Fellow of his College. It was a striking
testimony to the character of the man that his associates should thus
wish to "perpetuate the name of our highly gifted and lamented friend."
They wished in some small degree to advance "the interests of an
institution, which was, we know, most dear to him, from early
associations, and also from his worthy father's long and honourable
association with it." They asked that two prizes should be given
annually to the boys of the Lower School, one for General Proficiency,
regard being had to conduct, and one for the best examination in a
defined portion of Scripture History; the subject was to be announced at
least six months before.

The School had been re-built chiefly in order to provide room for a
Teacher of Modern Languages, and in 1855 the Governors proposed to
appoint such an one. They laid down the following regulations: He should
attend five days a week--all classes except the highest and lowest
should learn French, and the highest might, if they wished. Italian,
German and Hebrew were to be optional with all. Lastly, all classes
except the highest must attend the English Master. The salary of the
Modern Language Master was to be £130 a year.

The Masters were requested to draw up a scheme of work. The hours of
School had been altered in 1844 and were now from 8-0 a.m. till noon,
and from 2-0 p.m. till 5-0 p.m. (in the Winter till 4-30 p.m.). All the
Masters and Assistants were compelled to teach every hour of every
school day. The scheme is as follows:

THE HIGHER DIVISION.

 ---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------
          |   MONDAY.   |  TUESDAY.   | WEDNESDAY.  |  THURSDAY.  |  FRIDAY.
 ---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------
 Morning  |1. Classics &|1, 2, 3.     |1, 2, 3.     |1. Classics &|1, 2, 3.
          | Mathematics.| Classics.   | Classics.   | Mathematics.| Classics.
          |2 & 3.       |             |             |2, 3.        |
          | French.     |             |             | French.     |
 ---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------
 Afternoon|1. Classics &|1. Classics &|1.           |1. Classics &|1.
          | Mathematics.| Mathematics.| Mathematics.| Mathematics.| Mathematics.
          |2, 3.        |2, 3.        |2, 3.        |2, 3.        |2, 3.
          | Classics &  |  Arithmetic.| Arithmetic. | Classics &  | Arithmetic.
          | Arithmetic. |             |             | Arithmetic. |
 ---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------


THE LOWER DIVISION

 ---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------
          |   MONDAY.   |  TUESDAY.   | WEDNESDAY.  |  THURSDAY.  |  FRIDAY.
 ---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------
 Morning  |4, 5.        |4, 7.        |5, 6.        |4, 5.        |4, 5.
          | Classics &  | Classics &  | Classics &  | Classics.   | Classics &
          | Scripture.  | History.    | Geography.  |             | Geography.
          |6, 7.        |6.           |7.           |6, 7.        |7.
          | Arithmetic &| Arithmetic. | Arithmetic. | Arithmetic. | Arithmetic.
          | Scripture.  |5. French.   |4. French.   |             |6. French
 ---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------
 Afternoon|5, 6.        |4, 5.        |6, 7.        |6, 7.        |6, 7.
          | Classics.   | Classics.   | Classics.   | Classics.   | Classics.
          |7.           |7.           |4, 5.        |4.           |4, 5.
          | Arithmetic. | Arithmetic. | Arithmetic. | Arithmetic. | Arithmetic.
          |4. French.   |6. French.   |             |5. French.   |
 ---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------
                        |6, 7. One    |7. One hour  |6, 7. One    |6, 7. One
                        | hour in the | in the      | hour in the | hour in the
                        | morning for | morning for | morning for | morning for
                        | Latin       | Grammar,    | Geography   | Exercise,
                        | Grammar,    | Exercise,   | Exercise,   | Grammar or
                        | Exercise,   | etc.        | etc.        | History.
                        | etc.        |             |             |
                        +-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------


THE MODERN LANGUAGE MASTER

 ---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------
          |   MONDAY.   |  TUESDAY.   | WEDNESDAY.  |  THURSDAY.  |  FRIDAY.
 ---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------
 Morning  |2, 3. French.|5. French.   |4. French.   |2, 3. French.|6. French.
 ---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------
 Afternoon|4. French.   |6. French.   |German.      |5. French.   |German.
 ---------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------

N.B. The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, mark the different classes

The stragglers, not classified, are included under number 7.

Every class did Classics for at least two hours every day, very often
four. English had no place in the Schedule for the first three forms;
yet by the scheme the second and third had to attend the English Master.
Arithmetic was the only subject of a mathematical type. It was only a
scheme for the General Course of Instruction and doubtless under the
name of Classics or of Mathematics, they may have found some scope for
English or Scripture. Scripture was certainly done by the first and
second but possibly only in the Greek Testament.

The Examiner appointed by the Bishop of Ripon in 1855 paid many tributes
to the excellence of the first class, and added "all of whom bid fair to
do honour to the School by high University distinction." It is the
nature of some men to exude praise, but words such as these certainly
seem to point to a very fair level of scholarship in the class taken by
Dr. Butterton and to considerable powers of teaching on his part.

Dr. Butterton was destined to rule the School for two more years, but
they were filled with such bitter fruit that it is difficult to describe
them. It will be remembered that the Governors according to the new
scheme held themselves responsible for the election of boys who wished
to enter the School. At the beginning of every term the Headmaster
would supply them with a list of boys, with the district from which
they came and, if there was room for them, there seems to have been no
hesitation about admitting them. There was not even, as far as appears,
a question of a certificate of character for those boys who wished to be
Boarders, though perhaps it was so customary since Ingram's early years
that it passes without comment. Only once, in 1854, does the number of
applicants appear to have exceeded the number of vacancies. Acting on
the presumption that such a selection or election was almost a matter of
form Dr. Butterton admitted certain boys into the School on his own
authority in 1856. He had clearly put himself in the wrong and he was
admonished by the Governors.

There was also at the same time a dispute between him and the Governors,
relative to the appointment of the Modern Language Master. There had
been several applicants and one had been chosen, but the Headmaster did
not consider the choice wholly an impartial one and he was unwise enough
to say so. The Governors pointed out to him that the appointment of the
Masters was vested wholly in the Governors and that it was most improper
for him to interfere. The Governors were acting perfectly within their
rights and in accordance with the scheme. But the scheme was totally
unsound for the proper management of a School. Again when Dr. Butterton
wished the Whitsuntide holidays to be added to the month in the Summer,
he was informed that according to the scheme there must be holidays at
Whitsuntide and not more than a month in the Summer, and so nothing
could be done.

Perhaps as a man he was too impetuous and slightly intolerant, and,
though it would have been difficult for the most godly of men to keep a
school alive and progressing under such conditions, it was quite
impossible for him to hope to succeed, unless he kept the staff upon his
side. But he quarrelled with John Howson, the Usher, on two distinct
occasions, one on a question of discipline and one with regard to a
French Class that he caused to be held during School hours in his own
house, by a man of his own choice. On both occasions the immediate cause
of disagreement was but the final spark of a smouldering and mutual
discontent, and it is impossible to distribute the blame.

The Modern Language Master was placed upstairs in the High School and a
space was partitioned off for him from the main part of the room, where
Mr. Langhorne was giving Elementary Instruction. Such an arrangement was
not entirely suitable and the French Classes were afterwards taken in
the room which had been especially built for them next to the Library.

The next months saw the gradual development of a situation that caused
Dr. Butterton's retirement. The Rev. John Howson also showed signs of so
serious an illness that he expressed his readiness to retire, should
some suitable arrangement be made. The Governors agreed to give him a
pension of £120 a year.

Dr. Butterton's Headmastership cannot be dismissed without a reference
to certain customs that were prevalent in his time. Down the centre of
the pathway that runs alongside the School palings on to the main road
there is a black stone fixed in the ground. This was a familiar place of
torture. Every new boy was taken thither and made to sit down heavily on
its top. It was a custom that continued for some years, until the
removal of the School buildings to their present position took away the
temptation. The distribution of Figs and Bread on March 12 still
continued but cock-fighting had gradually died out. It had long been the
custom to use the Figs as missiles and the objects of attack were
Masters, Governors, spectators and even Ladies. It is very difficult to
say whether March 12, was ever a day on which the Masters used to
collect money gifts from the boys. Potation Day was the customary day
for such offerings in many schools, but at Giggleswick the practice of
receiving money from the Scholars was particularly forbidden in the
case of the Writing Master in 1799, and at other times. And it may be
that money was taken in a more official way. Three guineas frequently
appears in the Minute-Book as the "contribution of the Scholars" towards
the firing and heating of the School, and in 1852 blinds were provided
for the School windows, but the Minute-Book expressly said that they
were to be kept in repair by the Boys.

There has already been occasion to notice the very heavy glazier bills
that the Governors had to meet, and there is a fitting commentary upon
them in an extract from a letter to the Governors written by the Rev.
Dr. Butterton:

    "I take the opportunity of mentioning a circumstance, which
    requires the interference of the magistrates or at any rate of
    the police. Every evening all the rabble of Giggleswick and
    Settle assemble in the Schoolyard and conduct themselves in such
    a riotous manner, that no schoolboy dare enter the yard and no
    lady dare pass through it. They play at ball against the library
    wall to the imminent danger of the windows, and frequently climb
    up to the top of the building to the serious injury of the roof.
    As the nuisance seems to increase every evening, it appears to
    me that strong measures must be taken to put it down."

This chapter cannot close without a brief and inadequate account of the
Rev. John Howson. He was born at Giggleswick in 1787 and was a pupil at
the School during the later years of William Paley's Headmastership; in
1798 his name was in the list of pupils who received a prize. He
graduated B.A. and M.A. at Dublin, and in March, 1814, he came back to
his old School as Second Master on John Armstrong's death. He was
ordained Priest and married a daughter of Mr. J. Saul, who had been at
one time Writing Master at the School. He remained at Giggleswick till
his death. He was of a type of schoolmaster, now extinct, hot tempered,
but kindly natured; one of his pupils is said to have returned from the
Colonies bent on one thing, determined to have his revenge on Howson for
some act of supposed injustice done to him as a boy. His portrait
reveals a geniality that marked him always, though at times he was
inclined to distrust new ideas and new men. He preferred the
well-trodden path.

[Illustration: REV. JOHN HOWSON, M.A.]

[Illustration: SIR JAMES KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH.]

The year before Dr. Butterton had been appointed Headmaster had been
marked by the first appearance of a School Magazine, of which record
remains. The Giggleswick School Olio ran to three numbers under the
motto of Vade, Vale, Cave. Its contributions are ambitious and graceful,
poetry haunts its pages, and is of a kind that reflects considerable
Classical reading.

Two boys under Dr. Butterton deserve some mention. Jackson Mason, the
son, grandson, and father of Giggleswick boys, recited a poem in honour
of the re-building of the School in 1851, and after being a scholar of
Trinity College, Cambridge, became later Vicar of Settle. Though an
invalid, he made his mark as a translator of many hymns from the old
Latin, and his work remains in the Ancient and Modern Hymn-Book. J. H.
Lupton was a Scholar of St. John's College, Cambridge, and afterwards
Fifth Classic and Surmaster of S. Paul's School. These are not isolated
examples of the academic success that attended Dr. Butterton's
Headmastership. The Speech Day of 1855 recorded not a few. It was
notable for being the first year a Giggleswick boy--Bramley--had ever
won the Lady Elizabeth Hastings' Exhibition at Queen's College, Oxford,
and was marked by high distinctions gained at Cambridge by three other
former boys, Lupton, Mason, and Leeming.

Under Dr. Butterton there is probably little doubt that, with the
exception of his last year, the School had increased greatly in
efficiency. Its numbers averaged eighty-three and once reached
ninety-one. It had re-built itself and had attracted the generosity of
old boys and friends in the endowment of prizes. The subjects of
instruction had been increased. The discipline, had improved. Fresh
blood had been wanted, and a fresh scheme. They were both obtained. But
perhaps the scheme did not represent the summit of human wisdom, perhaps
the fresh blood was too rich.



CHAPTER IX.

The Rev. J. R. Blakiston.


The resignation of Dr. Butterton did not in any way modify the
determination of the Governors to hold by the existing Scheme. A printed
notice of the qualifications required by the new Master and Usher was
sent out. The Master had to excel in all branches of learning, the
higher branches of Greek and Latin Literature, advanced Mathematics,
Logic, Rhetoric, English of all kinds and Moral and Political
Philosophy. The qualifications of the Usher were less exacting. Salaries
at a minimum of £210 and £150 were offered, and for every additional boy
in the School after the first thirty and up to sixty, the Master
received £5, the Usher £2 as a capitation fee. Each was given a house
and garden, rent free, and could take boarders.

More than forty applications for the mastership were received and the
Rev. John Richard Blakiston was appointed. Born in 1829 he was educated
at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he gained a Scholarship. In 1853 he
was Second Classic and took Mathematical Honours. A Fellowship
Examination was to be held in October, 1854, and Mr. Blakiston was
studying for it, when Thring, who had been recently appointed to
Uppingham, offered him a post there as a House-Master. After
three-and-a-half years he accepted the Headmastership of Preston
Corporation School and a year later--December, 1858--was appointed to
Giggleswick. At the same meeting of the Governors the Rev. Matthew Wood
was appointed Usher. Born in 1831 he was a Scholar of S. Catherine's
College, Cambridge, and later an Assistant Master at Durham School.

John Langhorne was the only survivor of the days of Butterton and almost
immediately he resigned and was succeeded by Mr. Arthur Brewin, who had
been trained as a teacher in the Chelsea Training College and had served
under Blakiston at Preston. His salary was to be £130 a year. A Modern
Language Master was also chosen.

The following December the usual examination took place and the Bishop
of Ripon appointed the Rev. Frederic William Farrar, who at that time
was a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and a Master at Harrow. This
first report is important, because of the great contrast it presents
when compared with later years. The School in 1859 was staffed by very
able, young and ambitious men, indeed Mr. Blakiston's intellectual
capacity and ability as a teacher were quite exceptional, and the report
speaks in terms of commendation of the work of the School, especially
of the boys under Blakiston and Brewin.

[Illustration: REV. J. R. BLAKISTON.]

In the next year 1860, the examiner appointed was the Rev. J. T. B.
Landon, sometime Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford; the progress that
he reported was by no means so satisfactory as in the previous year. He
praised the efficiency of the staff, but he pointed out that the pupils
were not so advanced as to be able to profit sufficiently from the
teaching. Similarly in 1861 there were no boys whose knowledge
corresponded with that of an average sixth form in one of the greater
Public Schools.

The causes were twofold. The number of boys had steadily decreased from
ninety-six in Dr. Butterton's time, to fifty-six in 1860, and thereafter
to an even greater extent. The consequence was that the competition
became considerably less acute, and the proportion of boys from the
neighbourhood considerably greater. Such boys would clearly in the main
be less likely to profit by the efficiency of the teaching than boys
from a greater distance. But there was a second and a contributory
cause. The anomalous position of the Master and Usher, each of whom had
a freehold in his office, had led to awkward incidents under the late
Headmaster. But they were now accentuated by the fact that both Master
and Usher were young men and were appointed at the same time. The
subordination of the Usher to the Master was regulated by the Statutes
of 1592, but in so vague a manner that they allowed room for all manner
of evasion. It would be an unprofitable task to discuss these
differences in detail; let it be sufficient to say that matters reached
such a pitch that the Master was summoned before the Settle Bench of
Magistrates on a charge of excessive vigour in applying punishment, and
that the Usher was expected (though he did not do so) to appear as a
witness for the Prosecution. The summons was dismissed, and the Master
exonerated from all blame, but such a procedure was not calculated to
enhance the prestige of the School, or modify the mutual difficulties of
the Headmaster and Usher.

One of the chief of the minor causes of complaint was the position of
the boarders. The advertisement issued for the purpose of encouraging
applicants for the posts of Master and Usher had signified that both men
could take boarders and so increase their salary. But Craven Bank, which
was the Master's residence, was quite unsuited for the housing of boys.
Butterton had only the attics to put them in, and Blakiston found it
impossible to take any boys, except by allowing them to live entirely
with his own family, and inhabit the same rooms, and for this he asked a
higher fee of £75 a year. The Usher on the other hand was given a
smaller house, but in April, 1859, the Governing Body spent £700 in
enlarging it, and building what is now the Sanatorium. By this means he
was able to take ten or twelve boys, keep them quite separate from his
own family, and board them on lower terms than the Master at £56. As the
numbers declined, the necessity for both men to have boarders
disappeared, and in consequence the lower fees and the more comfortable
internal arrangements of the Usher's house caused it to be more
desirable in the eyes of the parents, and in January, 1863, the Usher
had ten boarders, the Master one.

These were the more trivial causes of complaint, but Mr. Blakiston had
too big a mind to suffer himself to be obsessed by the accidentals. He
was fighting, and consciously fighting, a much bigger battle. Dr. Arnold
had fought and won it at Rugby some years before, but the path at
Giggleswick was not therefore the easier. The real point at issue was
the 1844 Scheme for the Management of the School. It had driven away Dr.
Butterton, it was harassing his successor. Mr. Blakiston on one occasion
had to receive permission from the Governing Body to have the floor
raised on his dais in the School, in order that he might have a better
view of the boys as a whole. He could not arrange holidays without
permission, he could not admit the boys without authority, he could not
insist on a change in the pronunciation of Latin without rousing the
interference of the Governors. The pronunciation, that is to-day called
"new," was introduced by Mr. Blakiston in 1860, as well as a novel
method of pronouncing Greek; he tried in vain to induce other
Headmasters to follow his example.

These restrictions were particularly harassing to an ambitious and
enthusiastic man, and in March, 1862, he applied to the Charity
Commissioners for an amendment of the Scheme. They were unwilling to
take any hand in it on the mere motion of the Master, and their refusal
led to much recrimination. Men, anonymous and otherwise, wrote to the
Newspapers commenting on the decadence of the School in efficiency and
numbers, and the subject became well-worn. In the midst of it Mr.
Blakiston received generous and unexpected support. Mr James Foster, a
City of London Merchant, who had been educated at Giggleswick and had
property in the neighbourhood, heard of the dissension that was going
on, and read the published pamphlets of Mr. Blakiston. He accordingly
asked his nephew and partner--Mr. James Knowles--to wait upon Mr.
Blakiston with the offer of £500 wherewith he might be enabled to
continue his efforts. James Knowles also wrote independently to the
Charity Commissioners, as a member of the public anxious for the
welfare of a School in whose neighbourhood he owned property. He called
attention to the differences which had arisen between the Master and the
Usher and the consequent depression of the School, and desired that they
should open an investigation themselves in the interests of the Public.

Meanwhile the Governors had at last bestirred themselves and in
September, 1862, had caused a letter to be written to the Commissioners,
asking for an amendment to the Scheme. They suggested that, in
accordance with Mr. Blakiston's suggestion, the area, from which members
of their body could be chosen, should be slightly extended and their
numbers raised from the statutory eight to fifteen. They put forward the
names of seven additional members, but on two declining the honour, they
reduced the number to five. The great danger of the previous number of
eight drawn from the small area of the Parish of Giggleswick had lain in
the tendency to choose men, who were closely allied one to another by
ties of relationship and so possibly of prejudice. In 1864 the Scheme
was so amended and the new Governors were chosen. They included three
men, who soon shewed a very real, active and enlightened interest in the
prosperity of the School--Sir James Kay Shuttleworth, Mr. C. S.
Roundell, and Mr. Walter Morrison. One object had now been attained and
the way lay open for a more thorough amendment of the position of the
Master.

But first it will not be amiss to mention other features of the School
life. Potation Day was celebrated to the usual accompaniment of Figs
until the year 1860, when the Charity Commissioners objected to it and
to the Governors' dinners as a waste of trust funds. The Governors
declined to entertain the objection, but limited the expenditure on the
dinner given by the Governors to themselves and the Masters to £12, and
any further expense was to be borne by the whole body of Governors
present. The following year the dinner was again held and paid for as
formerly, but in 1862 the differences between the Master and Usher and
the death of one of the Governors gave them an opportunity of omitting
the dinner in a dignified manner. Since that date the dinner has never
been held. Fig-day, as far as the boys were concerned, was also
celebrated this year but for the last time. In 1863 it was resolved that
the customary payment of three guineas by the Scholars for School fires
and cleaning should be discontinued and the money which had been
collected in the winter of 1859-60 was to be applied to the purchase by
Mr. Blakiston of books for the School Library. This is the first
recorded intimation of the buying of books for the Library, which had
been built by Dr. Butterton.

[Illustration: HECTOR CHRISTIE,

_Chairman of the Governors_.]

In 1861 it was decided to purchase for the School a clock not exceeding
the value of £5 and also to erect a shed in the Schoolyard. It was to be
used as a playing and drilling place for the boys in wet weather, but as
the estimated cost of it was £80 the Governors refrained from carrying
the matter further until July, 1862. In that year some members of a
committee, who had been appointed many years earlier to promote the
decoration in the re-building of the School reported that they had £66
3_s._ 9_d._ in hand. This they offered to the Governors to assist them
in the building of the shed in an ornamental style. In 1864 it was
suggested that the Building Committee should report on the additional
cost, for which the shed then in course of erection could be converted
into Fives Courts. In 1865 Mrs. Kempson, of Holywell Toft offered £150
as a prize, to be called "The Ingram Prize," in memory of her father,
the Rev. Rowland Ingram, sometime Headmaster. Five years previously the
Pupils Prize and the Howson Prize had been suspended, but Mrs. Kempson's
offer was gratefully accepted. She wished it to take the form, if
possible, of a Bible with references.

The Usher had already absented himself for one term in order that he
might undertake work at Cirencester, but he found it uncongenial and
returned to Giggleswick. In June, 1864, he definitely resigned. The
Governors at once requested permission from the Charity Commissioners to
suspend for six months the post of Usher and to appoint a temporary
Assistant to take the work. It was inconvenient to have the freehold
occupied at a time when the Governing Body were contemplating amendments
to the 1844 Scheme. In the meantime the Master was allowed the option of
living in the Usher's house.

Henceforth the fortunes of the School began to improve. The position had
been so unenviable that with the temporary vacancy in the freehold of
the Usher, the Governors and the Headmaster began to consider seriously
the alteration of the Scheme of Management. The Charity Commissioners
had been approached first in 1862, by Mr. Blakiston, and, after he had
been supported by the Governing Body, the matter received official
attention. An Inspector was sent down in the early part of 1863, and
taking advantage of a reconciliation between the Master and Usher, he
refused to discuss or enquire into the personal aspect of the matter.

His report described the financial resources of the School, which
consisted of 732 acres of land, and produced a yearly income of over
£1,120. There was also an increasing surplus of revenue over
expenditure, which three years later amounted to little less than £800.
The average number of boys during the years 1846-1860 had been
eighty-three, and the highest point had been ninety-six. This according
to the testimony of those, who had the longest associations with the
School, was a considerably larger number than had ever been reached at
any previous period. In 1860 the number had dropped to fifty-six, and at
the time of the Inspector's visit was fifty-one. Ten of these were
boarders, of whom nine lived in the Usher's House, one with the
Headmaster. There was one day boarder; nine lodged with strangers, four
more with relatives, the rest, twenty-seven in all, were home boarders
or boys coming to School from their homes in the neighbourhood. The
education was mainly Classical, although some boys who were intended for
a commercial career were excused Greek and Latin Verse, while almost all
learned both French and German.

The chief difficulty under which the School was labouring, was the class
of boy from which it drew. The whole education was given free and this
tempted many parents to send their sons, who in reality were not fitted
to take advantage of the curriculum provided. There were exceptions, and
some boys of humble parentage had distinguished themselves in an
intellectual sphere, but their proportion was not great. It was
therefore suggested that tuition fees should be imposed. Such a charge
was revolutionary and was stoutly condemned by all the inhabitants
living around. It formed the battlefield for ten years. Face to face
with the Inspector, the Governors gave their consent to the change, but
presently local pressure became so strong that they withheld it. But the
short Scheme of 1864 which enabled members of the Governing Body to be
chosen from a wider area, and the consequent appointment of Sir James
Kay Shuttleworth gave a great impetus to reform. There was now no
faintness of heart. The increased efficiency of the School became a
dominating idea, and the principle of capitation fees was accepted. But
it was impossible to carry through such a principle without the consent
of the neighbourhood. Their enthusiasm could hardly be looked for, but
their goodwill was indispensable. In 1865 their hostility was lessened
to the extent that a compromise was suggested, by which fifty boys
should always be admitted free of capitation fee, and that ability to
read and write should be deemed sufficient to gain admittance. The
School had never within living memory educated more than ninety-six
boys, and at this time the numbers were down to thirty-seven, in 1864
they had been thirty-four, so that the suggested number of free boys was
perhaps somewhat an exaggerated number. The Governors replied by
suggesting twenty-five boys drawn from a radius of eight miles. This
would probably have sufficed for as many as would be likely to benefit
in the limited area, and the limitation in area was only a return to the
original desire of the founder to educate boys who were sons of parents
in the neighbourhood.

In October, 1865, Mr. J. G. Fitch inspected the School as an Assistant
Commissioner, under the Schools Enquiry Commission. There were only
twenty-two boys in the higher classes learning Latin, and the Sixth Form
consisted of one, while only eight boys in all were able to read a
simple passage from a Latin Author. He noticed several disadvantages
under which the School was labouring, and consequent upon which it had
declined. One of them was the narrow and local character of the
Governing Body, but this had been recently amended by the Scheme of
1864. Another was the obvious one of the impossibility of having two
masters, one nominally subordinate to the other, and yet each enjoying a
freehold. Lastly, he pointed out that there was no effective supervision
by the Governors over the boarding arrangements, and he condemned the
gratuitous character of the instruction, which attracted boys for whom
the education at the National School would have been sufficient.

The Report was issued and negotiations went forward with regard to
capitation fees. The inhabitants of the Parish of Giggleswick were quite
open to compromise within a limited extent. They were willing to reduce
the number of free Scholars, but they could hardly be expected to waive
their rights altogether. Instead of fifty they suggested thirty-five as
a suitable number and the Governors agreed to accept thirty but no
longer wished them to be chosen from a limited area. Limitation of area
was however a very important point in the eyes of the Parish and they
could not accept the offer. A deadlock arose. Sir James Shuttleworth saw
the danger of jeopardizing the whole Scheme by their inability to agree
upon one point and he boldly proposed to omit the clause altogether and
allow it to stand over, while the rest of the Scheme was carried
through. The Commissioners were asked to give their consent to this
omission, and they were only very reluctantly persuaded to do so, for
they had considered it to be a very important clause.

Even so a further difficulty arose. The freehold of the Usher was in
abeyance, and Mr. Blakiston for the sake of the promised prosperity of
the School had been willing to waive his rights but, when the question
of capitation fees was wholly dropped, he changed his mind and proposed
to retain his former position. The whole Scheme was in danger, until
the Governors decided to point out to Mr. Blakiston that his refusal
would in no way impede some of the essentials of the change but that, as
they could not intrude upon his privileges, he would, while he retained
the Mastership, continue to labour under all the disadvantages, which
had for seven years made his position so irksome. He would still be
unable to appoint or dismiss his Assistants and his power over the
Scholars would not be changed for the better. The Master's decision was
unaltered, but in March, 1866, he determined to accept an appointment as
a Government Inspector of Schools and so the difficulty was at an end.

The following May the Commissioners promulgated the new Scheme and it
will be as well to discuss it at this point. All boys were to be
admitted who could read and write and were not afflicted with any
contagious disorder. The Headmaster was to receive a salary of not less
than £250 a year and was to be appointed by the Governors subject to the
approval of the Bishop of Ripon, the Visitor of the School. He could be
dismissed by a two-thirds majority of the Governors, without any cause
being assigned. A house was provided for him and he could both appoint
and dismiss all the Assistant Masters and have complete and sole control
over the supervision and discipline of the boys. These regulations were
a great step forward and the power of the Headmaster became a real
power. Scholarships were also to be given to deserving boys, and they
were to be tenable at the School. This was a new departure and had been
suggested by the desire to impose capitation fees, which would in
particular cases be excused. The Scholarships under the amended Scheme
would be spent in part payment of the boarding fees. Leaving Exhibitions
were also to be awarded and were intended to supplement the various
moneys massed under the heading of Burton Rents.

The year 1865 was marked also by another equally notable enquiry. At the
half-yearly meeting a Committee was appointed to enquire into the
advisability of extending the boarding accommodation. The present
arrangements were not satisfactory. The Usher's house could not
accommodate more than ten boys, the Master's not so many. Any other boys
from a distance were compelled to live with anyone in the village, who
was willing to take them. The boys would be under no proper supervision
and frequently the conditions would be not even sanitary. There was a
clear need for an enlarged building, where as many boys could live, as
were attracted to a school, which had many natural advantages.

[Illustration: CRICKET GROUND.]

The Committee issued their report in October and proposed that a
Boarding-house should be built and a level piece of ground provided in
its vicinity for Football and Cricket. The Boarding-house was to provide
a dining-hall, rooms for preparatory studies and dormitories for fifty
boys, together with apartments for a Master in charge. The Trust Funds
were not sufficient to build the School up afresh, with new
Boarding-houses and new Class-rooms and it was a debateable question
what site they should choose. The first proposal was to use the recently
built School and convert the upper room into a dormitory and so increase
the accommodation with a minimum of expense. But the close proximity of
the Churchyard gave a suggestion of insanitariness to the site and the
absence of playing fields made it impossible. There was a further
choice. Near Craven Bank was a certain amount of land belonging to Mr.
Robinson and also a field of five acres. Other sites were suggested
including one between the Workhouse and the Station but finally in
January, 1866, the plot of land near Craven Bank was bought for £375.
Mr. Ingram's house--at the present time occupied by the Headmaster--was
offered to the Governors for £2,600 subject to Mrs. Kempson's life
interest, but it was not accepted. There was a further question of the
lines on which the Boarding-house should be run. The alternatives were,
to let the buildings to the Master on a rent of six per cent. on the
total outlay and allow him to make what money he could out of the
pupils, or to adopt what was called the Hostel System. The Master would
then have a limited control over the internal discipline of the boys,
but the other responsibilities would rest with the Governors. All profit
could then be appropriated by them with a view to the adoption of a
Sinking Fund and an Exhibition Fund. Finally the Hostel System was
decided upon. In March, 1866, Sir James Kay Shuttleworth, Mr. Carr and
Mr. Morrison were appointed as a Committee to obtain plans for the
erection of a Boarding-house and to prepare a scheme of management for
it.

Mr. Blakiston's resignation was accepted at the same meeting, and Mr.
Thomas Bramley was appointed as his temporary successor. He had already
been acting as an Assistant in the place of the Usher, and his salary
was now raised to £250 a year, and he was liable to supersession at
three months' notice; he had no freehold, and was only intended to act
as Master for a limited period. Before closing the Chapter on Mr.
Blakiston's career at Giggleswick it will be well to recapitulate
briefly some of the excellent work that he had accomplished. He had come
in a time of transition. Education throughout England was in the
melting-pot. Giggleswick itself had very considerable opportunities of
expanding into one of the foremost Schools in the North of England. The
population was growing rapidly. New industries were springing up on
every hand. A generation was coming to manhood, whose needs were as yet
a matter for speculation. But Giggleswick had a traditional hold upon
the minds of the North, it had also a rich endowment. Was it prepared to
meet the necessities of the hour, or was it to continue in the same
self-centred policy that had served well enough in the past? Mr.
Blakiston answered the question at once. He was young, he was ambitious,
he was a scholar. He was also in his ideas a revolutionary. It is not
difficult to picture the result. Thrown into the midst of a slow-moving
machinery, alone in his estimate of the potential greatness of the
School, supremely conscious of his mission, he found himself a solitary.
There are two methods of progress. One to oil the old cog-wheels and
pray for progression. Another to point out the clogging nature of the
machinery and propose a new device. He chose the latter method. It was
bold and dangerous. But he went through with it courageously. The
numbers dropped rapidly, the fame of the School suffered a relapse, but
in the end the victory was his. Before he retired, one new scheme had
been adopted, another and a better one was awaiting confirmation, the
suggestion of a new Boarding-house was being pressed forward, and the
field was clear for the great and revolutionary change--the adoption of
a system of capitation fees. The subsequent prosperity of the School
owed much of its swift development to the Headmastership of Mr.
Blakiston, and it is a grateful task to record it.



CHAPTER X.

A New Era.


On the resignation of Mr. Blakiston, in March, 1866, the Rev. Thomas
Bramley, an Assistant Master, was appointed temporary Headmaster. The
Charity Commissioners had been asked for their advice, and had expressly
stipulated that the temporary office should not carry with it any
freehold. After holding this position for eighteen months, Mr. Bramley
sent in his resignation in October, 1867. The Governors held a meeting
to consider the position, and a letter was read voicing the opinion of
the inhabitants of the neighbourhood that a permanent Headmaster should
be appointed. They shewed that the numbers of the School proved that the
education received had value in the eyes of the locality, and they
suggested that a permanent Headmaster would be more likely to take a
close interest in the boys. The Governors replied that they could not
see their way to making a permanent appointment, until the
Boarding-house had been completed and the regulations drawn up for boys
who wished to reside with strangers in the neighbourhood.

[Illustration: THE HOSTEL, 1869.]

The Plans for a Boarding-house had been going forward rapidly, and in
May, 1867, the Charity Commissioners had sanctioned the expenditure by
the Governors of £6,400. The income of the Trust had for some years
shewn a surplus of revenue over expenditure, and this surplus then
amounted to over £1,200; the further £5,000 was obtained from the
proceeds of the sale of the Rise Estate, in 1863. The Boarding-house was
to be built by Mr. Paley, a grandson of the Archdeacon, and was to
contain Dormitories for forty-nine boys and studies for eighteen.

In December, 1867, Mr. Michael Forster was appointed provisional
Headmaster for a single year. It was particularly pointed out to him
that the position would not carry with it any claim to be appointed to
the permanent post, when it was determined that such should be filled
up. Mr. Forster had taken a First Class in Classical Moderations, and a
Second in the Final School, and in addition had won a Winchester
Scholarship in Mathematics at New College, and had "read Mathematics as
high as Plane Trigonometry."

The numbers of the School steadily increased, and in the Easter Term of
1868 there were sixty-six boys, and in the following Michaelmas Term
sixty-seven, of whom four boarded in the Master's House, and eleven in
Lodging Houses. The rest were day-boys living at home. The majority
were very young: twenty-two boys were under twelve, and forty-one
between the ages of twelve and sixteen.

In May, 1869, the Governors proceeded to the appointment of a permanent
Headmaster. Mr. Michael Forster had been continued in his provisional
post for a few months, and had witnessed a further increase in the
numbers of the School, which at that period stood at seventy-three. The
regulations for the conduct of the School had been drawn up, and the
Headmaster was to receive a House rent-free and an assured income of
£250, with a further additional sum for each boy, not exceeding fifty in
number, who should board for a year in the Hostel or in the Master's
House. The maximum would then amount to £750, but a further sum of £250
was possible, if the Governors deemed it expedient to build a second
Hostel to accommodate another fifty boys.

For the first time in the history of the School it was not necessary for
applicants to be in Holy Orders, but the master must be a member of the
Church of England, and a graduate of one of the Universities of Oxford,
Cambridge or Dublin. Under the new Scheme of Management the appointment
of Assistant Masters, but not their salaries, and the control of the
internal discipline and conduct of the School were to be in his sole
charge. But the regulations for the admission of boys and for the
subjects of instruction were to be made by the Governing Body.

A scheme had been drawn up by a Sub-Committee, whereby the charge for
Boarders was fixed at £80 per annum and £5 of each boarder's charges was
to be appropriated to Free Scholarships and Exhibitions. The division of
the School into an Upper and Lower Division was maintained and the
subjects in the latter were to be English in all its branches,
Arithmetic and the Accidence of Latin. The Upper School in time was to
consist of two sides, Classical and Modern. The Classical side had as
its especial object the preparation of boys for the English
Universities, whereas the Modern side was intended to give instruction
in Latin, French, German, English Literature, Mathematics, History,
Physical Geography, and, when the numbers of the School should increase,
Chemistry or some other branch of Natural Science. Latin could be
omitted with the concurrence of the Master and parents in individual
cases. Provision was also made for an increased and efficient staff of
Masters, some of whom should be resident in the Hostel.

There were four principal applicants for the Headmastership and on May
26, 1869, the Governors elected as Headmaster the Rev. George Style,
Fellow of Queens' College, Cambridge, who since the beginning of 1868
had been an Assistant Master at Clifton College.

The staff of Masters consisted of Mr. Style, the Headmaster, Mr. C. H.
Jeaffreson, late Scholar of Lincoln College, Oxford, the Second Master,
without however a freehold, Mr. Arthur Brewin, who was still in charge
of the Lower School, which at this time came rather to be known as the
Junior or Preparatory School, and Herr Stanger who visited the School on
certain days each week in order to teach German.

When Mr. Style came he found fifty-six boys in the School; of these,
three became boarders in the Hostel, fifteen were boarding in various
houses in the neighbourhood and the rest lived with their parents. In
March, 1870, at the Annual Meeting, the Headmaster reported that there
were sixty-one boys in the School of whom nine were in the Hostel and
sixteen in private Boarding-houses. The system of Private
Boarding-houses constituted a difficulty common to many of the older
schools in England at this period. It was not possible to put a sudden
stop to a practice that had been prevalent for the most part of three
centuries and yet the accommodation in many of these lodging-houses was
inadequate and the sanitary arrangements most prejudicial to health. It
is only necessary to glance at the regulations which the Governors
thought fit to make to realize how unrestricted had been the life of
the boys who lodged in such houses. Henceforward no boy could live in a
house, other than his parents', unless the tenant had received a license
from the Governing Body. No boy was to be allowed to leave the house
after 7-0 p.m. in Winter, and 9-0 p.m. in Summer. No boy should enter a
Public House, or smoke or play cards, and any breach of the rules was to
be forthwith reported to the Headmaster. This was the first occasion on
which any rules had been laid down. Eventually the private
Boarding-houses gave place to the Hostel, where greater opportunities
existed for study and discipline; in 1871 only four such private
boarders remained and soon afterwards there were none.

[Illustration: A HOSTEL STUDY.]

[Illustration: CLASS ROOM.]

As soon as the Endowed Schools Act had been passed in 1869 the Governors
of Giggleswick began to consider a new scheme for the management of the
School. On May 30, 1870, Mr. D. R. Fearon, an Assistant Endowed Schools
Commissioner, came down to confer with the Governors. He suggested that
the foundations of Giggleswick and Sedbergh should be amalgamated and
that out of their joint funds two first-grade schools should be
established, one Classical, one Modern; and that in some respects it
would be more convenient that Sedbergh should be the Modern School,
because at that time it was almost in abeyance and therefore the
difficulties would be less great. If the Governors of Giggleswick had
not already expended large sums in building, the Commissioners would
have approved a scheme for removing both schools and establishing one
central foundation for Classical and Modern studies, but this was then
impossible. It was proposed that the Governing Body should be increased
and no teaching be gratuitous, but in order to provide for the
satisfaction of local requirements a Third Grade School should be
established in Settle either as a separate school or as an upper branch
of the National School or alternatively they should annex to Giggleswick
School a Junior Department with a lower fee and a limitation of age.
Further, in consequence of the twelfth clause of the Endowed Schools
Act, some provision was to be made out of the Giggleswick Endowments for
the education of girls. These suggestions were not all carried out. The
two foundations were treated separately, except that Sedbergh was
established as a First-grade Secondary School with Classics as its main
subject, and Giggleswick was similarly established on Modern lines.

The new regulations for the government of the School came into force in
1872. The Governing Body was to consist of sixteen members; eight were
to be Representative Governors, and were to consist of the Justices of
the Peace in the Petty Sessional Divisions in which Giggleswick and
Sedbergh were respectively situated; representatives nominated by S.
John's College, Cambridge, Owen's College, Manchester, and the Governing
Bodies of certain neighbouring Grammar Schools. The remaining eight were
to be co-optative. The Vicar of Giggleswick ceased to be an ex-officio
Governor and the Bishop of Ripon was no longer the official visitor of
the School. His powers were henceforward vested in the Crown. The
Headmaster had no freehold but was liable to be dismissed at six months'
notice without cause assigned by a two-thirds majority of the Governing
Body, twice assembled for the purpose. But on the other hand he was
given complete jurisdiction over the whole internal management, teaching
and discipline of the School, and full power to appoint and dismiss his
Assistant Masters.

[Illustration: HOSTEL.]

The question of free education at the School was settled finally. Every
boy admitted into the School had to pay an entrance fee not exceeding £3
and a tuition fee not less than £12 or more than £24. Fees for boarding
in the Hostel were not to exceed £45. Certain exemptions from tuition
fees could be granted as the reward of merit, and in a few instances the
boarding fees might be remitted for similar reasons and to a limited
extent. If the state of the Trust Funds permitted, a leaving
Exhibition, to be called The Giggleswick Exhibition, might be awarded
for the purpose of fitting the holder for some profession or calling. It
was to be given on the results of an examination in Mathematics, Natural
Science or Modern Languages.

The most important clause in the scheme was that which inaugurated the
Shute Exhibitions. Giggleswick had been founded as a Free School, and
the fundamental alteration of its character had been vigorously opposed
by the inhabitants of the neighbourhood for close upon ten years. They
were fighting a losing battle. It was clear that no school could
maintain the efficiency of its education without the imposition of fees.
One of its two original characteristics must go. Either the education
must cease to be free, or it must lose its former liberal element. For
three hundred years and more a Grammar School education had been such
that by its very breadth it endeavoured to fit men for whatsoever walk
in life they intended to adopt. But in the nineteenth century education
was becoming more expensive, and the old ideals could not be maintained
at the old cost. It is always an odious task to change the character of
a benefaction, and to deprive people of long-standing privileges, but on
the other hand it is essential to look at the matter from a different
standpoint. Did the imposition of fees rob many boys of the chance of an
education by which they were likely to profit? The answer is almost
certainly in the negative. That there were some few to whom a higher
education would be a gain is equally certain, and for these provision
was made. The bequests of Josias Shute had been made in order to enable
poor scholars to go up to the University, and for two hundred years the
money was used in this way. But in 1872 it was diverted. It was
henceforth to be applied to the payment of the tuition fees of such boys
as had for not less than three years been educated at one or other of
the Public Elementary Schools in the Ancient Parish of Giggleswick, and
who should be deserving of it. These boys were to be called Shute
Exhibitioners. The change has limited the numbers of boys from the
neighbourhood who have been educated at the School, but the results have
been excellent. Many Shute Exhibitioners have been enabled by this help
to fit themselves for various positions in life, in which they have
afterwards distinguished themselves, and it is improbable that any have
been kept back by their failure to gain an Exhibition. The Governors
further determined to change the character of the Lower School and make
the education received there similar to that of a Preparatory School.
In order to carry out the second aspiration of the Endowed Schools
Commissioners, namely to "promote the education of girls," the Governors
were ordered to pay £100 yearly to some girls' schools, which should be
chosen later. This sum was paid to the Endowed School for Girls at
Skipton.

[Illustration: THE LIBRARY.]

The subjects of instruction at the Grammar School were fixed according
to the ideas prevalent for the promotion of "Modern" Education. Natural
Science was included, and Latin found a place. Greek did not form part
of the regular course, but the Governors could accord permission to
learn it to such boys as needed it to qualify them to enter an
University. The permission was frequently granted, and in such cases
Greek was taken in place of German.

The establishment of the new scheme was followed by a great development
in the numbers of the School. Whereas in March, 1871, there were only
fifty-eight boys, in the following March there were sixty-seven, and in
December, 1873, one hundred and one. Never before in the history of the
School had the numbers, so far as is known, reached a hundred, and the
rapid increase justified the decision of the Governors to build the
Hostel and to lower the boarding fees. It is a remarkable fact that
although in the early part of 1872, no boys had been required to pay
any money for tuition, yet no boy left the School when fees were imposed
later in the same year in accordance with the provisions of the scheme.

It is probable that the provision made under the Scheme for the teaching
of Natural Science contributed largely to the increase in numbers. In
January, 1872, the Headmaster had appointed Dr. W. Marshall Watts, as an
Assistant Master, to take charge of the Science subjects, viz.:
Chemistry, Physics, and Botany in the Upper School. At the same time
arrangements were made by the Governors for the building of the first
part of the Chemical Laboratory. The plans for the buildings and all the
arrangements were carried out in accordance with the advice and under
the personal supervision of Dr. Marshall Watts, who brought to bear upon
the subject the experience which he had lately gained at Manchester
Grammar School. In consequence the Laboratory, which cost about £1,500,
was excellently adapted to its purpose. While the building operations
were in progress, the Science teaching was begun and carried on under
difficulties in two or more rooms at Craven Bank, which was then empty.
A new residence for the Headmaster had been provided by the Governors in
1872. Holywell Toft had been built by the Rev. Rowland Ingram, a son of
the former Headmaster, and he had used it as his residence while he was
Vicar of Giggleswick; when he resigned the office, his sister Mrs.
Kempson remained there. In 1871 the Governors were given the opportunity
of purchasing it for £2,000, and in the following year it was used as
the official residence of the Headmaster.

[Illustration: CLASS ROOMS AND LABORATORY.]

The additions to the Hostel, rendered necessary by the increase in
numbers, were sanctioned by the Charity Commissioners in 1874, and a sum
of £10,000 was named to provide for the same, and for the provision of
further accommodation in the Laboratory. The Hostel already provided
accommodation for forty-nine boys, but with the additions, which
included, besides other buildings, the whole of the South Wing, and on
the North the present Dining Hall and the Dormitories above it, room was
made for about sixty-six more boys. From this time also the three-term
system was adopted. Previously the School had assembled in the middle of
August until Christmas, after which they came back for a long term
extending from January till July, with only a short holiday at Easter.
The holidays were now lengthened from eleven or twelve weeks in the year
to fourteen.

In 1876 the numbers had increased to such an extent that it was found
necessary to build new Class-Rooms. Teaching had been still carried on
in what is now known as the Old School, and the accommodation for some
time had been so inadequate that rooms in the Hostel itself had been
utilized. The Governors therefore determined to build rooms sufficient
for one hundred and twenty boys, and to add a Lecture-room to the
Laboratory. A difficulty arose about the site. It was at first proposed
to lessen the expenditure by adding to the Old School, where there was a
sufficient space, but such an addition would have permanently divided
the life of the School, and apart from the question of finance, it was
clearly of the utmost importance that the Class-rooms should be adjacent
to the Hostel. This course was finally decided upon, and six Class-rooms
were built. The total cost of these buildings and of the Hostel
additions reached over £13,000, and the Governors were empowered to sell
certain of their North Cave Estates, and to borrow £6,000 from the
Governors of Sedbergh. This debt was finally paid off in 1881 out of
surplus revenue, which was so great that in 1878 Fives Courts were built
out of it, and three years later £1,100 was spent in alterations and
additions to the Headmaster's House. In spite of this considerable
expenditure the Governors were still able to put aside each year the sum
of £800.

[Illustration: CHEMISTRY LABORATORY.]

[Illustration: THE MUSEUM.]

The numbers continued to increase rapidly, and in 1884 the Charity
Commissioners agreed to the proposal of the Governors to extend the
Class-rooms. Those already standing had been built in such a way that it
was an easy undertaking to add to them. The road up High Rigg alone
stood in their way, but permission was obtained to divert it and make a
better road further South. On the ground-floor two new Class-rooms were
built and connected by a corridor on the West side, while above it Big
School, eighty feet long by thirty feet broad, absorbed one of the
former Class-rooms, and supplied what had previously been a great defect
in the arrangements of the School. It was capable of holding between
three and four hundred people, and was thus of the utmost use on Speech
Days and other great occasions, besides providing a fit place for
assembling the whole School for Prayers and Concerts. At the southern
end of the building a transverse addition was built, of which the lower
half was to serve as a Library, and above were two Class-rooms opening
into the Big School. Thus in addition to the Science Block, the School
Buildings now consisted of Big School and nine large Class-rooms, each
of which was capable of holding from twenty to twenty-five boys. Another
long-felt need was also supplied. A large Covered Playground was erected
on the West side of the Class-rooms. It was one hundred and five feet
long and fifty feet broad, with a height of forty feet; its floor was
paved with wood, and its walls were cemented. There a large proportion
of the School could amuse themselves on days when the inclemency of the
weather made out-door pursuits difficult. The cost of these buildings
was defrayed out of the Trust Funds, but at the same time a Gymnasium
and Changing Room were added by money provided by the subscriptions of
Old Boys and other friends of the School, and in particular of Mr. John
Birkbeck, one of the Governors. The cost of this part alone amounted to
over £1,300.

The twenty years from 1866 to 1886 saw the whole character of the School
transformed. A complete set of new buildings had been erected with
boarding accommodation for one hundred and fifty boys, and Class-rooms
for two hundred and forty, all within one central space. Over twenty
thousand pounds had been expended, and yet it had been found possible to
meet these many claims without unduly depleting the total revenue
arising from the Estates in the possession of the Governors in the
East-Riding. The rental in 1894 was over £700, and shewed a decrease of
a little less than £500 a year. That such a sudden and swift development
should have been possible reflects the greater credit on the foresight
of Sir James Kay Shuttleworth and his fellow Governors and on the energy
and enthusiasm of the Headmaster.

[Illustration: BIG SCHOOL.]

No branch of the School life failed to grow during these eventful years;
in work and in play success was pre-eminent. Dr. Marshall Watts was
possessed of new buildings and up-to-date apparatus, and he did not fail
to use them to the full. Mr. Style himself superintended the
Mathematical work of the School, and both Mathematics and Science turned
many a Giggleswick boy towards paths which brought honour and
distinction to himself and his School. Between the years 1880 and 1891
five Scholarships were won for Mathematics, and nine first-class
Mathematical Honours. In Natural Science thirteen boys won Scholarships
at Oxford or Cambridge, and eleven took first classes. One Classical
Scholarship was gained, the Junior Mathematical Scholarship at Oxford
and one Mathematical Fellowship at Cambridge. Two boys passed into the
Indian Civil Service direct from the School. Many others won
Second-class Honours or Exhibitions or Scholarships at other places and
several were placed extremely high in the Honours List of the London
University Matriculation. These successes speak for themselves, and
cover only a period of eleven years. The last decade of the century was
almost as fruitful.

At this point it will be as well to picture more definitely in the mind
the characteristics of the School. A contributor to the _Giggleswick
Chronicle_, in June, 1893, has described the conditions as he found them
on his admission in 1871. The Dining-room stood where the Senior
Reading-room now is, but it extended further back, including what is now
a passage and the Servants' Hall. The eight Studies at the end of the
lower passage formed a single large room for evening preparation and for
prayers. Gas was not used, but oil-lamps were in every study and the
school-room in the Hostel was lighted by candles fitted into tall metal
candlesticks heavily weighted. The Old School was the chief place for
work and the practice was continued of having the Junior School, which
corresponded to the more ancient Lower School, upstairs and the Upper
School consisting of three classes worked on the ground floor. The
Class-room and Library were soon called into use and as the numbers
rapidly increased two large rooms at the South end of the Hostel which
had been recently built were also used. Science Classes were held in
Craven Bank.

[Illustration: FIVES COURTS.]

In 1877 the death of Sir James Kay Shuttleworth robbed Giggleswick of a
firm friend. His position as Chairman of the Governors had enabled him
largely to mould the destinies of the School during its very difficult
and important period of transition. He had been the most strenuous
supporter of all who had the true interests of the School at heart, and
he had fought amongst the foremost in the struggle for a new Scheme. Sir
James Shuttleworth came to Giggleswick free from local prejudice and
trained in educational work and the success that attended the School
from 1872 onwards is largely due to the broad-minded sagacity that he
displayed.

Lord Frederick Cavendish succeeded him as Chairman and for five years
gave Giggleswick of his best. He was followed by his brother Lord Edward
Cavendish, who held the office for nearly nine years till his death in
1891. In that year Mr. Hector Christie entered upon his long term as
Chairman. Ever since the Scheme of 1864 the Governing Body had been an
exceedingly strong one. In addition to those already mentioned there
were at different times Mr. Morrison, Mr. C. S. Roundell, Rev. H. I.
Swale, and Mr. John Birkbeck, junior. All these men took a great
individual interest in the School and as a body they were generous and
progressive.

From time immemorial the School had attended Giggleswick Parish Church
for services on Sunday, and during this period two pews, one for the
Headmaster and one for the Second Master, were set apart immediately on
the North and South sides of the Communion Table. Boarders sat in their
respective Master's pew or overflowed into other seats in the Church.
But with increasing numbers it became difficult to provide seats for the
School without interfering unduly with the convenience of the general
congregation. Accordingly at the beginning of the year 1875 the School
was allowed to have the use of the Church on Sundays for a special
service at 9-0 a.m., but they still attended the ordinary afternoon
service at 3-0. This system continued for five years until in 1880 the
Governors laid on gas in the Church and put in suitable fittings. The
School was then enabled to have a second special service at 7-0 p.m. A
few years later the Rev. W. H. Coulthurst, the Vicar, consented to a
plan for the restoration of the Church, and it was only fitting that the
School should take a special interest in the work. The Headmaster issued
an appeal for financial help to the Old Boys and to the School; £120 was
collected for the General Fund, special contributions were made to the
new organ, and the Headmaster and Boys, Past and Present, gave the
Church a clock with S. Mary's chimes. This clock replaced an old one,
which was put in the School Museum. Its works were made partly of wood
and it required daily winding by hand, a process which occupied a
considerable time. The School services during the progress of the
restoration were held in Big School, while the Old School had been given
over to the Vicar for the holding of the Parish services. The Church was
re-opened on May 11, 1892, by the Bishop of Richmond, and on the
following Sunday the sermon at the first School service was preached by
the Rev. Delaval Ingram, a son of the former Vicar and a grandson of the
Rev. Rowland Ingram, the former Master of the School.

[Illustration: LORD FREDERICK CAVENDISH.]

During Mr. Style's Headmastership Athletics also became a permanent part
of the School life. The Cricket-field had been purchased in 1869, and
had been used for both Cricket and Football. Unfortunately it was a
fair-weather ground. Its foundations rested on peat, and continuous play
all the year round did not improve it. The first matches that were
played took place in the early seventies, when the Hostel had as yet
only fourteen boys, but in spite of their small numbers a match was
arranged between them and the rest of the School. Later on other School
fixtures were mapped out, and the great days of the year were when
Sedbergh, and, for a time, Lancaster School were the opponents. Between
the years 1871 and 1895 forty-six Cricket Matches were played against
Sedbergh, of which nine were drawn and seventeen won. Similarly during
the period 1880-1895 twenty-four Football Matches took place, and
Giggleswick won ten. The two Schools were equally matched, and the
football of both reached a high standard. The Swimming Bath had been
built in 1877, and was roofed in for use in winter. The Fives Courts
were well attended, and Golf was begun on the playing fields at a later
time. In 1893 a new Football Field was bought and an adjoining one
rented. This was a material help to the School Athletics, for it was one
of the few level fields in the district that was not in the winter
almost permanently a marsh.

[Illustration: THE SCHOOL BUILDINGS.]

One of the most distinguishing features of the School was Music. The
first resident Master was Mr. Charles Frederick Hyde, who came to the
School in 1886, and for nearly seven years organized the music. With the
help of Mr. L. Watkins all branches of the subject were developed, and,
unlike the custom of most other Schools, music teaching was not cramped
or regarded merely as an unfortunate necessity, but was given
considerable opportunity. When Mr. Hyde died in 1893, his friends
combined together, and, collecting £560, presented to the School
Trustees a fine Organ, which was placed in Big School. This was a
striking testimony to the appreciation that he had inspired after just
seven years' work. Three men have up till the present succeeded to Mr.
Hyde's place, and musical enthusiasm has been maintained at a very high
pitch.

The School Library had been begun under Dr. Butterton in a room
especially built for the purpose. But as the centre of the School life
gradually changed and new Class-Rooms were built near the Hostel, the
Library was transferred to its present position. For a time each boy
paid a small terminal subscription to maintain it with a supply of
books. Reading in the Library was never compulsory, but a number of boys
would go there on wet afternoons or at other free times, and it proved
itself very valuable. Among the Books in the School's possession there
is a copy of the "Breeches" Bible; A Paraphrase and Note on the Epistles
of St. Paul, by John Locke, the Second Edition, published in 1709; An
Edition of Cocker's Arithmetic, and several of the first collected
Editions of Charles Dickens.

The establishment of the Preparatory School had led Mr. Style to
consider the question of providing a house for the boarding of younger
boys, who should in time come up to the Hostel. Bankwell seemed a
suitable building and was taken on a lease in 1887. Mr. G. B. Mannock
was placed in charge. There was an excellent garden attached and the
house had rooms for twenty boarders, while an adjoining field was
rented for games. Thus the boys living there were able to keep almost
entirely apart from the older boys in the School, except in school-time.
Two years later Holly Bank was also taken for the same purpose.

The Junior School had for a period of nearly forty years been in the
charge of Mr. Arthur Brewin, who had succeeded John Langhorne as Writing
Master in 1859. He had seen the complete development of the School and
had watched each of the many schemes of management mature. His own
department had been completely revolutionized. Formerly it had been a
Writing School, in which generally he had been accustomed to give an
elementary education, that in some cases was to be the only book
learning that the boys were ever to get; but he eventually found himself
teaching boys whose average age was under twelve and scarcely one of
whom left the School before going into the higher classes. In July,
1897, he retired.

In November, 1896, what might have proved an irreparable disaster came
upon the Laboratory. During the early hours of the morning a fire was
discovered in the Chemistry Room and it spread to the rest of the
building. Most fortunately the Class-rooms and Hostel, which were both
separate from the Laboratory, were not injured and the fire was quenched
by 6-0 a.m. The misfortune seemed only to inspire the Headmaster and
Dr. Watts to draw up plans for replacing what was already an excellent
Laboratory with a still better one. In the following term both the
Chemistry and Lecture Rooms were almost re-built and in 1899 a more
extensive scheme was carried out by which two new Class-rooms, a
Physical Laboratory and a Science Library were designed together with
some smaller rooms, and the building fitly completed the appearance of
the School.

An Educational Exhibition was held at the Imperial Institute, London, in
1900, and many of the Schools of England exhibited their ancient
documents and summarized their schemes of work. Giggleswick was allotted
a certain space and sent up a survey of its past history and a detailed
statement of its curriculum. In the Sixth Form, the thirty-two teaching
periods a week were divided thus: Latin was allotted six, Mathematics
eight, English and Divinity one each, Modern Languages eight, and
Natural Science eight. Boys who wished to take Greek omitted German. In
addition preparation for the next day's work was done each evening and
on Saturday nights an essay or theme was set. Drawing formed part of the
regular work of the School below the first three Forms. Singing was
taught to all the younger boys and a School Choir had been formed
consisting of boys and masters. Nearly half the School learned
instrumental music, chiefly the Piano, and there were one or two School
Concerts given every year and in addition concerts of classical music
were held every fortnight.

The School Museum occupied the place of the Library in the Old School,
and in it were some particularly interesting specimens. The Victoria
Cave which had been discovered in 1837, was carefully explored by Mr.
Tiddeman and other experts, and after five years' work the results were
presented in 1878 to the School Museum. In 1893 Mr. J. Walling Handby
sent a Collection of Forty-one Skins of New Zealand Birds, and Mr.
Clapham, of Austwick, gave a valuable Collection of British Birds. In
addition there were Collections of Minerals (notably the Keate
Collection), Fossils, Eggs, and South Sea Shells. The Museum was open at
certain times to the public. School Societies flourished. The
Photographic Society was instituted in 1876, the Debating Society in
1877, and a Literary Society in 1879.

Cricket, Football, Golf, Fives, Swimming, and Athletic Sports, all found
their place in the School year. The School Colours--Red and Black--were
worn by most of the School, but, as is common, distinctive colours were
assigned to members of the first two elevens in Cricket, and the two
fifteens in Football. Inter-School and Dormitory Matches were also
played.

[Illustration: BANKWELL.]

In September, 1897, an Old Boys' Club was formed under the presidency of
the Headmaster in order to maintain a closer union between past and
present members of the School, and to organize Meetings and Athletics.
The Scheme met with considerable support, and from time to time meetings
and dinners have been held.

For the most part of the last twenty years of the century the numbers of
the School had been too great for the Hostel to include them all. In
1894 there were two hundred and eight boys in the School, of whom only
twenty to twenty-five were Day Boys. Craven Bank had consequently been
used as another Dormitory. Bankwell, and for a time Hollybank, were
filled with some of the younger boys. The great difficulty under which
the School laboured was the frequent change of Masters, especially of
those who took the higher forms. It was therefore suggested that the
House System as opposed to the Dormitory System should be given a trial.
Hollybank was no longer needed in 1900 to take the overplus from
Bankwell, and a Master was put in charge of it, in the hope that older
boys would come. The attractions were twofold. In the first place it was
intended to give the Master in charge of it an opportunity of marrying
and the expectation of a sufficient income to make him content to
continue at Giggleswick. In the second place it was hoped that the fact
of a man being married would tend to induce parents to send their boys
more readily. Unfortunately the scheme was not wholly successful, and
was soon abandoned.

Every boy in the School attended the Gymnasium, which since its opening
in 1887 had been under the superintendence of Sergeant-Major Cansdale.
Many boys also learned carpentry in the Joiners' Shop, which had been
fitted with benches and lathes, and other necessary materials in the
upper room of the Old School.

This brief summary of the School life was depicted at the Educational
Exhibition and it was a worthy record for a small School. It will be
seen that the main characteristic of the School was that it was amongst
the first to adapt itself to modern needs. It is probably no
exaggeration to say that at that period no school in England could
approach Giggleswick in the practical teaching of Science; to this was
due a great measure of its success. In every branch of school life
excellence was attained, an unusual number of Scholarships were won and
the Football Fifteen for two successive seasons in 1894 and 1895 never
had a single point scored against them in any School Match.

Throughout the history of the School there have been very few signs of
literary exuberance. Only one School song has been written, called "Now
Reds" by Mr. J. R. Cornah for the _Giggleswick Chronicle_, April, 1898.
The _Giggleswick Chronicle_ was begun in 1880 but it was edited by
Masters and was intended rather to place on record the terminal life of
the School than aspire to literary eminence. As such it has achieved its
purpose and is a valuable and interesting record. But apart from
official matter boys have shewn themselves very loth to summon forth
their energies and write. With one exception no paper, written by boys
alone, has been published since the _Olio_ caused Sir Walter Scott to
smile.

The Boer War claimed a certain number of Old Boys, some of whom did
extremely well. Captain H. H. Schofield distinguished himself at the
Battle of Colenso, and helped to rescue two guns, for which he gained
the Victoria Cross, while Lieutenant S. A. Slater was largely
responsible for a clever and daring capture of Bultfontein. Altogether
at least nineteen boys went out.



CHAPTER XI.

The Chapel.


                                             House of Commons Library,
                                                   March 1, 1897.

    Dear Style,

    I have an idea in my head of offering to build the School a
    Chapel with a Dome as an architectural experiment, employing
    Jackson, the famous Oxford Architect. One would call it the
    Diamond Jubilee Memorial. Site the knoll in the Cricket Field.
    We have very few domes in England and it might give a hint to
    others.

    But I should like to hear any suggestions of yours. A Domed
    Building on the site should look well. It would need much
    thinking out as we do not understand Domes. The Round Church at
    Cambridge gives some hints.

                                  Yours truly,
                                                         W. MORRISON.

    Rev. G. Style.

This letter was received by the Headmaster on March 2. The effect of
such news coming without any previous warning can be imagined. The
difficulty of commemorating the Diamond Jubilee year had seemed
overwhelming and this unexpected offer from Mr. Walter Morrison
dissipated the troubles in a moment. In the second place a School Chapel
had alone been wanting to complete the seclusion and privacy of the
School, and hitherto the prospect of such a building had seemed
unattainable. It was now offered as a gift.

[Illustration: WALTER MORRISON J.P.]

Mr. Morrison had recently returned from travelling in the East and had
been greatly impressed by one particular feature of Eastern
Architecture. The dome is almost universal in Palestine, and Mr.
Morrison desired that an architectural experiment should be made in
England. He wished to see the School Chapel built in the Gothic Style
but with a dome. Mr. T. G. Jackson, R.A., was approached upon the
subject and remembering that his former Master, Sir Gilbert Scott, had
always hoped to undertake such a work, he gladly made his plans.

The aim of all the best Architecture is to construct a building of such
a kind that it will withstand the ruin of the ages and will prove an
opportunity for doing well whatever it is built for. The purpose of a
house is that a man should be able to live in it. The essence of a
church is that it should provide a place of worship. It is easy enough
to construct a four-square building with accommodation for a required
number of people but brick walls are not sufficient. Utility does not
consist only in adequate space; it has many other features, closely
inwoven with it. Fitness is the keynote of beauty. Taken by themselves
there is little beauty to be seen in two parallel straight iron lines
running through the country-side, but conceive of them as railway lines,
adequately and without any unnecessary waste of material performing the
office for which they were made, and few sights can be more charged with
the very essence of beauty. The purpose that underlies the construction
and the complete fulfilment of that purpose is beauty.

But a Church cannot be content only with a building sufficiently
well-built to hold its worshippers and sufficiently in tone with its
surroundings to express the unity of art and nature. It has a further
form of expression that it must satisfy. It is a religious building, and
as such its characteristics and its form must exemplify religious
tendencies and thought. A barn can be supremely beautiful, but it does
not radiate the atmosphere of worship. A Church must be characterized by
certain great and instinctive elements of grandeur, it must breathe the
spirit of reverence, it must, as Ruskin says, "speak well and say the
things it was intended to say in the best words." Giggleswick School
Chapel may justly be said to fulfil all these conditions. It is in
harmony with its surroundings, and it is a structure of great
architectural beauty, that is to say, it expresses its purpose in the
best way.

[Illustration: THE CHAPEL EXTERIOR.]

Every style of Architecture makes its own peculiar appeal to mankind.
One kind of Church seems better adapted to the needs of Englishmen;
Eastern peoples prefer a different style. Mr. Morrison proposed to take
a distinctive feature of each and make them one. For the general
building he chose the Gothic style because, though not native to
England, it has imposed itself to an overwhelming extent on the Parish
Churches and Cathedrals of the country, and to it he added a Dome. There
is one feature that these two apparent opposites have in common. Gothic
Churches vary greatly, but many of them are notable for their appearance
of loftiness. The clustered columns seem to lead the eye upwards to the
roof, as if men naturally went about the world cramped and confined, and
were now bidden turn their gaze to the heights. A dome has a somewhat
similar effect: it carries on the gaze and it gives an increased and
unexpected vision. The bold union of the two has created a School
Chapel, which satisfies every wish. It is suited to the surrounding
country, it is possessed of great beauty, and it breathes the atmosphere
of worship.

But there is another consideration. One of the most striking
characteristics of boy-life is the feeling of personal possession.
Everything that is of importance has a personal aspect. Whatever a boy
sees belonging to his own School is at once invested with a curious
sanctity and defended with all the armour of pride. It is of supreme
importance that the side of school life, the religious side, which
sometimes appeals to a boy with a greater force than any other, should
have a building of its own. The Parish Church can never lay claim to the
same devotion, and therefore can never exercise the same influence. A
School Chapel develops a feeling of unity and brotherhood; such unity is
less possible in a Parish Church.

Buildings and surroundings have a power to mould character. It is the
big, silent things of life that often really move a man: the walls that
he can learn to love and know, and invest with life and memory. These
feelings are not recognized at the time, and it is well that they should
not be. Emotionalism and probing self-analysis are dread dangers. But
the memories of school in after life are not in the first instance
memories of friends, but of the places where those friends were met and
the friendships made. A boy's life is made up of moments and
impressions, and many of the indelible impressions of his youth are
formed in the School Chapel. Hence the gift of a beautiful School Chapel
is the greatest gift a man can give. Boys at Giggleswick have at their
right hand the natural glories of the Craven District, they have now
also a supreme example of the architect's skill and courage and success.
Environment is the keynote to the development of character. These boys
have the twofold opportunity of profiting from Nature and from Art.

The mind must go back three centuries in the history of the School to
find a parallel to this gift, and even then no individual example will
stand comparison. The difficulties of the work were great, but were
surmounted with complete success. The Chapel is a striking and beautiful
landmark. The Building was begun in 1897, and the foundation stone was
laid with some ceremony on October 7, by the Duke of Devonshire, and
work proceeded for four years without interruption.

There are many interesting features about the building, and no expense
was spared to get the very best material. In the interior all the
fittings and seats were made of cedar wood imported direct from Tucuman,
a Province in the Argentine. Two Bronze Statues, one of Queen Victoria
and one of Edward VI were designed by Mr. George Frampton, A.R.A., and
placed in niches over the west door. A cast of the one of Edward VI was
given by the sculptor and placed in Big School. The main feature of the
interior is one broad aisle in the centre, balanced on either side by
two passage aisles, and the centre of the broad aisle is paved with
black and white marble. At the West end are eight stalls with carved and
pierced standards to the canopies.

The Organ was the last instrument built under the direction of Mr. Henry
Willis--Father Willis--and its construction was superintended by Sir
Walter Parratt. The outside pipes are made of spotted metal, and the
organ has three manuals. The Pulpit was put in later standing at the
North-West end of the Choir it is visible to the whole congregation.

The Dome was constructed in a way, hitherto probably untried in Europe,
it was built without centering, on a principle of interlocking blocks of
terra cotta. The outside is of timber covered with copper; inside on the
lower part with a gold background are mosaics of sixteen angels. They
are slightly over six feet high, and are represented as playing musical
instruments; their wings cross one another and give a fine pattern of
colour. In the pendentives are seated figures of the four Evangelists.
These were all worked, not from the back as is usual, but from the face,
and each was fixed on the vault bit by bit.

[Illustration: JAMES CARR.]

[Illustration: THE CHAPEL DOME.]

The glass has special interest. The East Window contains subjects from
the Life of our Lord, and the South Transept Window contains figures of
James Carr, Edward VI, Josias Shute, Archdeacon Paley, the Headmaster
and Mr. Morrison. The Clerestory Windows contain in groups of threes,
Christian worthies of various times.

    NORTH SIDE.                 SOUTH SIDE.

1. MARTYRS.                 4. WARRIORS.
     Sir Thomas More.            Sir Philip Sidney.
     King Edmund.                King Alfred.
     Bishop Latimer.             General Gordon.

2. DIVINES.                 5. MISSIONARIES.
     John Bunyan.                Henry Martin.
     John Wycliffe.              Columba.
     John Wesley.                Livingstone.

3. TEACHERS.                6. POETS.
     Alcuin, of York.            Milton.
     William, of Wykeham.        Caedmon.
     Arnold, of Rugby.           Tennyson.

The West Window was designed by the Architect, and is a very curious
representation of the Creation, full of daring colour. The roof and part
of the walls are decorated with sgraffito work. The Chapel was opened
for use on October 4, 1901, by Dr. Warre, Headmaster of Eton, and
dedicated by the Bishop of Ripon, and has since been regularly used for
services on Sunday.

The generosity of Mr. Morrison did not stop with the Chapel, but at the
same time he constructed a fine stone Pavilion at the West end of the
Cricket Ground, and a Gate-house and Porter's Lodge at the entrance from
the public road. The enthusiasm aroused by the sight of this open-handed
generosity was so great that it was at once determined to open a fund
for a portrait of Mr. Morrison and hang in Big School. The subscribers
were nearly four hundred in number, and many of the old masters and
boys were among them. Sir Hubert Von Herkomer was commissioned to paint
the portrait, and on July 28, 1903, it was unveiled in the presence of a
large gathering of people. It is a striking portrait, and well suggests
the kindliness, humour, and generosity that are the distinguishing
features of Mr. Morrison's character.

It was close upon thirty-five years since Mr. Style had first taken over
the charge of the School. The year 1869 had been a most unpromising one
in the history of Giggleswick; the future was difficult and doubtful.
But courage is one of the first essentials in a Schoolmaster, and Mr.
Style had a full share. Every old School is steeped with tradition, but
much of it at Giggleswick was bad, and Mr. Style did his best to
eradicate and replace it. The boy of that period was a rougher boy than
is common in public schools to-day, and he needed sterner treatment. Mr.
Style was an awe-inspiring disciplinarian, but he was no Busby or Keate
in his use of the rod. The temper of Schoolmasters had been rapidly
improving, and there are no instances of the astonishingly unjust
punishments that were common in an earlier day. In the early part of the
century one of the masters had once thrashed a boy, and the apparent
injustice of the punishment had been so indelibly inscribed upon the
boy's mind that years afterwards he came back to the School, not with
the feelings of affection common to most men when they revisit the scene
of their boyhood, but filled with a fierce resentment against his former
master, and vowing that if he were alive he would thrash him within an
inch of his life. Mr. Style was of a different mould; he set before
himself the ideal of absolute justice, and this fact was recognized by
the School. On one occasion some boys had placed an elaborate "booby"
trap, consisting of two dictionaries on the top of the door of the end
"prep" room and awaited the arrival of their victim. To their horror the
door opened and crash went the dictionaries on the Headmaster's top-hat.
There was a moment of awful suspense, and he said, "I know that was not
meant for me."

With the building of the Hostel it was necessary to build up afresh a
complete system of school life. As the numbers increased he established
a monitorial system, by which many of the lesser breaches of discipline
were dealt with by the boys themselves. There was great opposition to
the innovation on the part of the boys, and as a consequence the system
never worked so well as it should have done. These head boys were called
Praepostors, a conscious echo of the two "Praepositors" of the first
Statutes of 1592. Fagging was allowed but was not unduly practised. It
consisted chiefly of running messages or blacking boots or boiling
water. Perhaps the most unpleasant duty of the new boy was the
compulsion that he was under to sing for the benefit of his elders.

On the second Saturday of term the senior boys in the Hostel were
assembled in the underground Baths and every new boy was put upon a
chair in their midst and made to sing. The penalty for singing out of
tune was a cup of salt and water but it is doubtful whether the penalty
was often enforced; even so there is no continuous tradition; it was
irregular and spasmodic. Another task for the new boy was to climb the
Scars a quarter of a mile from the School and place a stone upon the
cairn, called "Schoolboys' Tower."

[Illustration: CHAPEL, EAST.]

The Praepostors had also the power of punishment by giving "lines" or by
thrashing but the latter was subject to proper control. Some years
previously the monitorial system in schools had been given a new lease
of life by Arnold at Rugby and it was in theory a legalised increase of
the natural power possessed by the Sixth Form; but it was often found
that intellect and strength of character did not always accompany each
other. At Giggleswick no position in the School gave a prescriptive
right to be a Praepostor. The choice lay solely in the hands of the
Headmaster and although more frequently those chosen were members of the
Sixth Form, it was by no means necessary, and the captain of the
Football Fifteen was almost always chosen among them.

In the early days the Athletics of the School needed much encouragement.
The Schoolyard for generations had provided the only opportunity for
games; Football and Cricket were in their infancy. In most matches
against teams, other than schools, Mr. Style took a personal part. He
was a keen wicket-keeper and a good bat and did not cease to play
cricket till 1890.

There were other ways in which his personal character greatly influenced
the boys. He spent a great part of each day, when not in School, in the
Governors' Room at the South end of the Hostel and there he was always
ready to see those who wished to speak to him on any subject. Many
received special tuition from him after Evening Prayers and one great
secret of the esteem with which the boys regarded him was the personal
interest that he took in their life. There is the story of a boy who was
particularly anxious to enter the School as a day-boy, but his
attainments were insufficient for his age and he knew no Latin. He came
himself to see Mr. Style and to press for admittance and at last he was
told that if he could learn some Latin before the entrance examination
of the following term, his age should not stand in his way. At the same
time Mr. Style advised him to come to him every now and then and tell
him how he was getting on. After a while the boy came and said that he
had learned the Latin Grammar as far as the dative of the relative. On
being asked why the dative of the relative had been his limit, he
explained that his teacher had not been able to pronounce it and so he
could go no further. He was put through some questions and could not
answer them but if asked to decline any word he would do it in this
fashion: _Mensa_ _mensae_ _mensam_ _mensas_ _mensae_ _mensarum_ _mensae_
_mensis_ _mensa_ _mensis_ and so on all through the Grammar until he
came to the relative and at the dative he failed. Mr. Style considering
that the memorising of the Latin Grammar in such a way implied some
quickness of mind told him to leave the school that he was at and come
to him at certain times each day. His time-table was however very full
and he could only give the boy half an hour a day at 6-0 a.m. and 7-0
p.m. This he did and he found the boy extremely quick and intelligent.
He passed him into the School the next term and seeing he had a distinct
gift for Mathematics encouraged him in every way. Eventually he sent
him up to S. John's College, Cambridge, with a Mathematical Scholarship
and hoped that at last he had prepared a boy who would be Senior
Wrangler. Unfortunately his health broke down and he came out seventh
but some years later in 1889 was made a Fellow of the College.

[Illustration: CHAPEL, WEST.]

Mr. Style was an early riser. Every morning at 6-30, without fail, he
was in the Governors' Room ready to talk over any necessary matters. He
took very full duty in School, and made himself chiefly responsible for
the higher Mathematical work; and in addition with some assistance from
Mr. Mannock or Mr. Bearcroft, he undertook most of the laborious
business work connected with the organization of the Hostel and the
School.

His Assistant Masters always look back to their days at Giggleswick as
some of the happiest they have ever spent. Mr. Style was naturally
anxious to keep his staff with him as long as possible, but he realized
that he could not expect to do this while the Trustees felt themselves
unable to guarantee salaries sufficient to enable a man to marry. He
gladly and generously helped them to find promotion. Many became
Headmasters. Mr. J. Conway Rees, who for years had been the most
painstaking and successful of men in making the Fifteen a match-winning
side, left to become head of a school connected with the Mohammedan
College at Aligarh. Mr. Rhodes went to Ardingly, and so on.

Every Sunday, in the early days, Mr. and Mrs. Style would ask the whole
Hostel and later, as the numbers increased, the upper forms to come into
the Governors' Room and there they would be regaled with sandwiches and
lemonade and a musical evening would be held. Bubble and Squeak the boys
called these evenings and they were much appreciated. Delicate boys
would sometimes spend a week or a few days living in the Headmaster's
house, and sometimes boys would be invited who were suffering from colds
or other slight illnesses, and thus in the middle of a term they would
find a short reminder of home life. In innumerable ways the boys were
made to feel that the Headmaster was no official pedagogue but a man
such as their own fathers, and they felt a corresponding affection for
him.

[Illustration: THE GATE HOUSE.]

Ascension Day was a whole holiday and for some years the Headmaster was
in the habit of taking the whole School, after a service, out for a day
on the hills. On one occasion they went to the top of Graygreth (near
Kirkby Lonsdale) on a very hot day. In the evening four boys were found
to be missing. The Headmaster taking two boys with him scoured the hills
till darkness drew on, but in vain. At last they came to a wayside inn
and made inquiries, at which a yokel remarked "You must be a fine
Master, if you can't look after your own boys." As a matter of fact all
four boys were in safe quarters at Kirkby Lonsdale, after losing their
way in a thick mist. This was the last occasion on which the Headmaster
ventured to take the whole School out. In future the boys went in
smaller bodies with their House Tutors.

What was the secret of his power and his success? First undoubtedly was
the keenness of his eye. "I have been all over the world and I have
never come across a man with as keen an eye as Mr. Style" said one of
his former pupils. He seemed to look quite through a man and there was
no thought of evasion with him. Then there was his thoroughness. He was
so absolutely devoted to his duty that his example was bound to affect
those who came near him. It was noticeable in everything he did. He
played a game of cricket as if it were the most important thing in life.
Thirdly he had another most necessary quality in a Headmaster, the power
of choosing the right Assistant Masters. Dr. Marshall Watts, G. B.
Mannock, Douglas R Smith, S. P. Smith, C. F. Hyde, Rev. J. W. Chippett,
A. W. Reith, are only a few among the many who helped him with every
quality they possessed.

As a teacher he was sometimes unable to restrain himself with a dull
boy. "Do you understand?" he asked a boy who was struggling with the
intricacies of Algebra. "No sir." "My good man! My fine owl! Now do you
understand?" But with the abler boys he was remarkably successful. In
October, 1896, there were twenty-six old boys at Oxford and Cambridge
and of these twelve were Scholars or Exhibitioners of their College, two
played for the Cambridge Rugby Fifteen, one rowed against Oxford, and
another gained his half-blue for Swimming. This year represented perhaps
one of the latest successful years. Between 1880 and 1894 nothing could
go wrong; numbers increased and Scholarships were gained but about the
latter year the School suffered a serious set-back owing to an outbreak
of scarlet fever and the numbers began to sink.

During the long period of growth Mr. Style was watchful over every
detail of the building that was going on, and was projecting much for
the future. "It is my opinion that the Headmaster is never happy, unless
he can hear the sound of hammer and nails," an Old Boy once said. He was
determined that the School should have the very best buildings and
fittings possible, although he was never at a loss to carry things on
when a makeshift was necessary.

"Some of the best Science work that has been done here was done in my
scullery," were his words.

This absorbing love of the School was a tonic to every one who was under
him. He came at a time when there was only a collection of boys with no
unity and no sound traditions. He left it united and loyal. He came to a
rich endowment, which was spending its resources with little visible
result. He left the School prosperous, and possessed of a reputation all
over England. He had been among the first Headmasters to acknowledge the
value of a training in Natural Science, and he showed men that a
thorough and efficient training in modern subjects could be given in one
of the oldest of England's Public Schools. He did not wait upon time, he
did not waver upon his path, but marched straight forward.

Prosperity grew step by step, buildings rose up, numbers increased, and
distinctions were won, but behind all the outward success was the
vitalising energy of the Headmaster, the inspiration of the optimist,
the personality of the man.



CHAPTER XII.

The Last Decade.


In January, 1904, the Governors of the School assembled to elect a new
Headmaster. Their choice fell unanimously on Mr. William Wyamar Vaughan.
Mr. Vaughan had been educated at Rugby and New College, Oxford, where he
graduated in 1888. Since 1890 he had been an Assistant Master at Clifton
College, and had been in charge of seventy day boys there for four
years. The appointment was in many respects a significant one. For the
first time in the history of the School a permanent Headmaster had been
appointed, who was not in Holy Orders. Since 1869 the statutory
regulation on the subject had been changed, but this was the first
occasion on which the Governors had exercised their freedom. In the
second place, Giggleswick up till the last thirty years had educated a
preponderating number of day boys, but lately this element had been so
outnumbered by the boarders that there was considerable danger of a
serious division arising between them. The election of a man who had
been in charge of the day boys at one of the bigger Public Schools gave
great hopes to those who had the unity of the School at heart, nor were
these expectations unfulfilled. Thirdly, Mr. Vaughan was a pioneer in
the enthusiasm which directed the path of learning towards a greater
study of English subjects.

[Illustration: W. W. VAUGHAN, M.A.

_Russell & Sons_]                              [_17, Baker Street, W._
]

The chief responsibility of the military side at Clifton had lain with
him of late years, and at Giggleswick he lost little time in
reorganizing the classification of the School. A scheme was carried
through by which every boy was classed according to his attainments in
English, and one hour a day was given to the study of the subject in its
various branches of Scripture, History, Geography, Literature, and
occasionally Grammar. The weekly theme or essay was retained. For all
other subjects the boy was put into sets, which bore no relation to his
Form, except in so far as the School was divided up for English into
three parts--Upper, Lower and Junior, and for other subjects into A, B
and C, Blocks. No boy was able to be in the B Block who was in the
Junior School, or in the A Block, if he was in the Lower School. These
big divisions were very rarely found to hinder the advance of a boy in
any particular subject and when once he had obtained a position in the
Upper School, want of capacity in English was of no impediment at all.
The great ideal at which Mr. Vaughan aimed was a sound education in a
varied number of subjects but all of them must be based on the study of
English. Boys were not encouraged to specialize until they had attained
to a position in one of the two top Forms and in later years not until
they had gained the Oxford and Cambridge Higher Certificate. The School
was inspected by the Oxford and Cambridge Board in 1906 and the reports
were most gratifying. In the same year the Higher Certificate
Examination was taken by the Sixth and Upper Fifth, and in future became
a regular feature of their work.

The School suffered a severe loss in 1904 by the resignation of Dr.
Watts. He had acted as the chief Master of Natural Science for
thirty-two years and had superintended the building of the Science Block
from its foundations. Mr. C. F. Mott a former Scholar of Trinity
College, Cambridge, and a Lecturer at Emmanuel College was appointed to
succeed him and no choice could have been more happy. A Scientific
Society was soon formed with the object of giving a lead to the informal
study of Nature and to promote a closer interest in the collections of
various kinds at the School Museum. In the following year 1905
Speech-Day was celebrated for the first time for twenty-five years and
was marked by the presentation of the "Style" Mathematical Prizes, which
had been founded from a fund to which former pupils of Mr. Style
contributed as a mark of their appreciation of his Headmastership. In
1906 the "Waugh" Prizes for English Literature were presented by Mr.
John Waugh, J.P., who had been at the School under Dr. Butterton and had
retained a strong interest in education. These prizes were to be awarded
on the result of two papers, one on a specially prepared subject in
English Literature and one on a general knowledge of the whole.

[Illustration: JOINER'S SHOP.]

[Illustration: ATHLETIC SHOP.]

Many smaller changes were made in the School-life in the next few years.
The four dormitories which had hitherto been known by letters A, B, C,
D, were re-named in 1907 after four benefactors of the School--Paley,
Nowell, Carr, and Shute, thus recalling to mind something of the
traditions to which the boys were heirs. The Gate-house, which had been
built by Mr. Morrison at the time of the building of the Chapel was
further utilized as a Shop, where boys from the Hostel could at certain
hours buy most kinds of food. Previously they had been able to buy what
they required from a shop in the village but this had always been open
to disadvantages and the opening of the Gate-house in 1906 under Mr. and
Mrs. Parker, who had both been connected with the School for many years,
obviated these disadvantages; it also secured a useful profit, which
could be laid out by the School in what way they wished.

But one of the most important events of Mr. Vaughan's Headmastership
was the foundation in 1906 of the Giggleswick Boys' Club in Leeds. The
great danger of Public School life is the difficulty of realizing that
the unit of the School is a part of a larger whole and that one aim of
education is the inculcation of an active interest in all spheres of
life. The aim of the founders of the Giggleswick Boys' Club was to
provide a house in one of the poorer districts, where boys might spend
certain evenings in the week in warmth and comfort. An excellent man was
fortunately found in Sergeant-Major Baker, who was willing to take the
whole responsibility of the internal management. The Club was begun at
2, West Street, Leeds, and at the end of a year the average attendance
was found to have been thirty. Every Summer as many boys as possible
come down to Giggleswick for a day, and a cricket match is arranged.
There is a very noteworthy feeling of affection for the School springing
up in the Club and its general success is assured.

Another departure from ordinary school routine was made in the same
year. A Rifle Club was formed for the purpose of teaching boys to shoot.
Mr. J. G. Robinson, a Governor of the School, presented a Sub-Target
Rifle Machine, which was placed in the Covered Playground and under the
direction of Sergeant-Major Cansdale a considerable number of the School
practised shooting.

[Illustration: G. B. MANNOCK.]

The year 1907 was a very important one in the history of the School. On
November 12, just four hundred years before, the lease of the plot of
ground, on which James Carr built his first School, had been signed. The
occasion was one which was fittingly celebrated. A Thanksgiving Service
was held in the Chapel and Mr. Style, the late Headmaster, attended it
and was gladly welcomed. Mr. J. G. Robinson, took the opportunity of
presenting the School with two new covered-in Fives Courts at the back
of Brookside, and, closely adjoining it, he built and fitted up a metal
workshop, where boys could indulge their taste for engineering.

In the same year another inspection of the School was invited by the
Headmaster and the Board of Education sent down three examiners. The
result was most encouraging for they had come down somewhat prejudiced
about the usefulness of the education received there but they went away
convinced that Giggleswick was performing its duty in a way that merited
the highest commendation. The Carr Exhibitions at Christ's College,
Cambridge, which were reserved for Giggleswick boys, were still given
but, owing to the decrease in the value of land, were at this time
limited to one in every three years. They nevertheless proved a most
useful means of helping those boys, who were unable to go up to the
University without aid.

A year later, on May 26, 1908, Mr. G. B. Mannock died suddenly. Since
1874 he had been a Master at the School. He had taught the First Form
during the whole of the time and had also in earlier days taken over the
charge of the Drawing and Music. In 1887 when it was decided to lease
Bankwell as a house for those boys who were too young to go immediately
into the Hostel, Mr. Mannock, who had been previously a Dormitory Master
for the younger boys in the Hostel, was asked to undertake the
responsibility of being the Master-in-charge. He continued to do so till
his death. The influence that he had exerted was a very remarkable one.
No boy ever came away from Bankwell without feeling that for some time
in his life at any rate he had lived under the protection of one of the
most saintly of men. Friendship and sympathy were the very essence of
his character and he taught every one with whom he came in touch, that
gentleness and courtesy were weapons, stronger and more valuable than
any others. A fund was raised to perpetuate his memory and it was
decided to decorate the Class Rooms with panelling and hang them with
pictures. In the Sixth Form Room Honour Boards were also erected. It was
felt that this improvement in the decoration of the School would be a
fitting tribute to one, whose joy in beauty was so deep and sure.

The close of Mr. Vaughan's time at Giggleswick was marked by two schemes
of the utmost importance. A contingent of the Officers Training Corps
was established under the direction of the Rev. C. F. Pierce. Mr. Pierce
had enjoyed no previous experience of military training, but he threw
himself into the work with enthusiasm. The Summer Term in 1910 saw its
beginning, and within a year there had been a consistent average of
between fifty-five and sixty boys in the Corps. They have two field-days
a term, and go to the Public Schools' Camp at Aldershot or Salisbury
each August. In 1911 the Corps went to Windsor to be reviewed by the
King, and were members of a Brigade which was widely noted in the
newspapers for its appearance and marching.

[Illustration: OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS.]

The second scheme that was undertaken at this time was the improvement
of the Cricket Ground. The ground rested on a foundation of peat, which
acted like a sponge, and it was almost impossible in an average summer
to get a fast wicket. It was proposed that a sum of six or seven hundred
pounds should be collected, and some means should be found of draining
the ground thoroughly. Mr. Edwin Gould, one of the Assistant Masters,
was chiefly instrumental in gaining acceptance for the scheme, and his
appeal for funds was responded to well. The work was begun in the
Autumn of 1910, and it was hoped that it would be finished before the
Summer of 1911, but this was found impossible. The underlying foundation
of peat was so deep that all hope of digging it up was abandoned. It was
instead decided to heighten the general level of the ground by six feet,
and to do so by filling in with earth and stone. The work was very
laborious owing to the blasting operations that had to be carried out,
but the ground has been enlarged in every direction, and in course of
time should prove one of the best in England. While the work was in
progress Cricket was played during the Summer of 1911 on the Football
Field, and a remarkably fast wicket was obtained.

During Mr. Vaughan's time the Athletics of the School had not been
maintained at the same high pitch as in previous years. The great
success of the ninety's had not continued. It is difficult for a school
to be successful both in work and games, and in the early years of the
century the School was not so large in numbers as it had been in the
best years of Mr. Style; the choice of players was therefore more
limited. Nevertheless, throughout the School there was a general
tendency to take up more than one branch of sport. Golf, Fives,
Gymnastics, all received gifts of Challenge Cups, and considerable
competition resulted. In 1908 Captain Thompson, of Beck House,
generously presented a Cup for a Cross Country Race. The Scar-Rigg Race,
as it has been called, is three miles long, and starting near the top of
the Scar Quarry, the competitors run along its top till they get to the
summit of Buckhaw Brow, after which they run across the fields, over the
High Rigg Road and down to the finish near the Chapel. It is a fine
course and, though a hard one, does not try the strength of the runners
unduly.

In April, 1910, the Headmaster received an unanimous invitation from the
Governors of Wellington College to be the Master there. It was a great
grief to Giggleswick that she should lose one, who, though she had known
him only for six years, had even in that brief period stamped himself
upon the imagination of them all.

During his Headmastership everyone connected with the School seemed to
gain a closer and more personal interest in its fortunes. He treated men
as if they were themselves possessed of more than usual individuality.
No one was expected to be a mere automaton, useful but replaceable.
There was a special part of the School organization which each man was
made to feel was precisely the part that he could play. Dormitory
Masters were given greater independence, boys, especially the older
boys, were made to realize that they also had a deep responsibility in
the welfare of the School. The great features in Mr. Vaughan's character
were his insight into the best qualities of all who surrounded him and
the generous optimism of his judgment. It was a difficult task for any
man to succeed to the work of Mr. Style, who had built up the School
afresh through many arduous difficulties, but Mr. Vaughan realized that
the passing of the period of rapid enlargement laid upon him the
responsibility of fostering the slow and unostentatious work of
profiting by the past and of seeing that the reputation of the School
was maintained and increased. He was essentially an idealist, a dreamer
of dreams, a visionary, but he never lost sight of the practicable.
Organization was his handmaid.

Parents, Masters and Boys were quick to recognize the sincerity of the
man. He was often impetuous but he was always candid. His decisions were
firm, but he never shirked an argument. His sermons in Chapel were not
steeped in oratory but the directness of his appeal, the persistent
summons to the standard of Duty and the obvious depth of his emotion
gave them power. Largeness of numbers never appealed to him, and he did
not in any way strive to call the attention of the world to the School.
He wished for success in Scholarships and in Athletics but he regarded
the School as he regarded the individual. Distinction in work or games
was no passport to his favour, but he continually looked only for the
right use of such capacity as each one possessed. Frequently he would
take boys from the lower part of the School and himself give them
private tuition. Character was more than intellect. The boys learned to
know him as their friend and he would go into their studies in the
evening and be gladly welcomed. The unity of the School was much
increased, the Hostel had no special privileges and at the close of his
Headmastership the six years had witnessed a steady growth in the
effectiveness of the School. No one ever forgot that he was Headmaster
but at the same time he never failed to encourage others to act for
themselves. He had a single-minded desire for the good of the School and
he inspired others with it. His contempt for outworn conventions, his
sincerity, his generosity of heart, even his impetuous nature impressed
all alike with the feeling that they were dealing with one, who was
essentially a man.

A successor to Mr. Vaughan was soon found in Mr. Robert Noel Douglas,
who after having had a distinguished Academic and Athletic career at
Selwyn College, Cambridge, had been appointed Assistant Master at
Uppingham in 1892. There he had acted as a House Master for some years
previously to his appointment to Giggleswick.

[Illustration: R. N. DOUGLAS, M.A.]

Soon after the new Headmaster had been appointed, Mr. Philip Bearcroft
retired from his work as Bursar. Since 1878 he had been a Master at the
School and had acted as Form Master, Dormitory Master and later as
Bursar. The older generation of Giggleswick boys look back with peculiar
affection to the days when they were in his form--The Transitus--as it
was then called. They remember his enthusiasm and his loyalty and his
conscientious devotion to the School. Many had hoped that his retirement
from active work would prelude some years of life released from anxiety,
but death has claimed him with the hope unfulfilled. In May, 1912, he
made his last visit to the School and two days later he died.

During the two years since 1910 the progress of the School has been very
steady. Almost every term has seen the numbers increase, until they are
at the present time just under one hundred-and-fifty. The Officers
Training Corps has flourished, an Athletic shop has been opened, and in
every respect the development of the School has continued. A great loss
however was suffered when Sergeant-Major Cansdale retired in April,
1912, after completing twenty-five years of work. He had originally come
to Giggleswick in 1887 as an Instructor in the Gymnasium, but when Mr.
Vaughan instituted the practice of Swedish Drill, Sergeant-Major
Cansdale gladly seconded the change, and the improvement in the general
physique of the School bears tribute to his skill. The year 1912 also
marks the four hundredth anniversary of the opening of the First School,
which had been built under the guidance of the Founder, James Carr. The
importance of the anniversary is being celebrated by the raising of a
fund, from which entrance scholarships of good monetary value may be
established, and so a sound educational step forward will have been
taken, and one true to the best traditions of the School. The four
centuries that have passed by have witnessed many changes in the world
of education. New ideals have prevailed and have altered the bases of
the past. But Giggleswick may look back upon its history with a
consciousness that it has seldom failed to do its duty. It shall not
fail to-day.

    _Vera gloria radices agit et propagatur._



APPENDIX I.

LEASE BY PRIOR AND CONVENT OF DURHAM CATHEDRAL MONASTERY OF SCHOOL SITE
AT GIGGLESWICK.

[_Leach._ _Early Yorkshire Schools_, p. 232.]

[From the original, in possession of the Governors.]


A lease by the Prior of Duresme to Sir James Carr, preiste, for the
grounde whereon the schoolhouse and schoolehouse yarde air now sett,
Dated 12 Nov., 1507.

"This Indentur made the xii day of Novembr the yere of our lorde MDvii
betwixt the Right Reverende ffader in Gode, Thomas, prior of Duresme,
and convent of the same, on the one partie, and Jamys Karr, preste, on
the other partie.

"Witnessyth that the forsaide prior and convent of one hole mynde and
consent hath graunted, dimised and to ferme lettyn, and by these
presentes graunttes and to ferme lattes, to the forsaid Jamys Karr his
heires, executors and assignes, half one acre of lande with the
appertenance, laitle in the haldyng of Richarde lemyng lyeng neir the
church garth of Gyllyswyke in Crawen within the countie of york,
abowndyng and beyng betwix the lande laitlye in the haldyng of Robert
Burton upon the est syde, and the parsons lande afforsaide on the sowth
syde, contenyng space and lenth of the saide Kyrkegarth, that is to say,
frome the cloise laitlye in the haldyng of Richard Talyour and so
lynyally to the lathe appertenyng unto the tenement of the parsonage
nexst jonyng, unto the steple of the said church, And the tother hede
shoryng and abbuttyng upon one cloise called thakwhait contenyng xv
yerdes upon the north side.

"Also it is agreyd that the said Jamys shall encloise the said half acre
and therupon beyld and uphold at hys awne propyr charges and costes, in
which beildyng he shall kepe or cause to be kept one gramer Scole, with
fre curse and recurse with all maner of caryage necessarye to the same,
without any interrupcion of the tenante afforsaid or any that shall
succede. And in lyke maner the said tenante and they that shall succede
to have fre curse and recurse to ther tenement with all maner of caryage
necessarie without any maner of interrupcion of the said Jamys or they
that shall succede.

"To have holde and occupye to the said Jamys his heires and assignes,
beyng Scole masters of the said gramer scole, the said half acre of
lande with the appurtenance frome the fest of the Invencion of the holy
Croce next ensuyng unto the ende and terme of lxxix yeres then next
followyng fully to be completyd and expired yevyng yerlye therfor unto
the said prior and convent and ther successors or ther assignes at the
fest of Saynct laurence martyr xij_d._ of good and lawfull monye of
England as parcell of the rente of the said tenement wherto the said
halff acre afforsaid pertenyth and belongyth. The first pament begynyng
in the fest of Saynct laurence afforsaid next ensuyng, and if it happyn
or fortune the said ferme of xij_d._ to be behynd unpayd after the fest
that it awght to be payd at by the space of xxti days and no
sufficient distres founde in the said grounde for the ferme so beyng
behynd unpayd, That then it shalbe lawfull to the said Prior and convent
and ther successors to reentre in the said halff acre of land with the
appurtenaunce and it to rejoce unto such tyme they be fully content and
payd of the said ferme and arrerage if ther be any.

"Provided allway that when soever the said Jamys Karr shall change his
naturall lyfe, that then it shalbe lawfull, as ofte tymes as it shalbe
nedfull, to the vicar of ye churche afforsaid for the tyme beyng and
kyrkmasters of the same, heires executors and assignes to the said Jamys
jontle, to electe one person beyng within holye orders, to be scole
master of the gramer scole afforsaid, whiche so electe, and abled by the
Prior of Duresme, shall have occupye and rejoce the said halff acre of
land and the hows therapon beildyd with the appurtenaunce, in lyk wyse
as the said Jamys occupyed and usyd in hys tyme. Overthis and above, it
is covnandyt and agreyd that when so ever it shall pleas the Scolemaster
of the said scole for the tym beyng to renewe this leis and dimision at
any tyme within the yeres above specyfied That then the said Prior and
convent shall seall under ther common seall to the said scolemaster a
newe Indentur maid in maner and forme afforsaid, no thyng except nor
meneshyd, bot as largely as in this said Indentur is specyfied. The said
scolemaster paying therfor as oft tymes it shalbe renewed vj_s._
viij_d._ for the said Seall.

In witness wheroff ather partie to other to thes Indentures
enterchangeably hath put to ther sealls yevyn the yere and day above
said."



APPENDIX II.

REPORT OF THE CHANTRY COMMISSIONERS OF HENRY VIII ON GIGGLESWICK SCHOOL,
1546.

[_English Schools at the Reformation_, p. 295, from Rec. Off. Chantry
Certificate, 70.]


Deanery of Craven.

17. The Chaunterie of the Roode in the same parish churche of
Gygleswyke.

Thomas Husteler, Incumbent.

Of the foundacion of James Skarr', priest, To th'entente to pray for the
sowle of the Founder and all Cristen sowles and to synge masse every
Friday of the name of Jhesu, and of the Saterday of Our Lady; And
further that the said incumbent shulde be sufficientlie sene in
playnsonge and gramer, and to helpe dyvyne service in the same Churche.

The same is in the saide churche, and used according to the foundacion.
Ther is no landes aliened sithens the statute.

Goodes, ornamentes and plate pertenynge to the same, as apperith by the
inventory, viz. goods valued at 19_s._ 2_d._ and plate 42_s._

Goods, 19_s._ 2_d._

Plate, 42_s._

First, one messuage with th'appurtenaunces in Oterbourne, in the tenure
of Cuthberte Carre                                         24_s._

Christopher Tompson                                         2_s._

John Smyth, one cotage                                      2_s._

Henry Atkinson, one mesuage with th'appurtenaunces ther    18_s._

the wyff of Thomas Atkinson, one mesuage and one oxgange of lande
                                                           10_s._

Thomas Atkinson, one messuage with th' appurtenaunces      15_s._

Christopher Tompson, one cotage                             5_s._

Richard Tompson,   "                                        5_s._

Henry Swier, j mesuage with th'appurtenaunces              15_s._

Richard Patenson, one "   "   "                            15_s._

William Harroo,   "  in [_blank in MS_]                    10_s._

In all                                                  £6 12_d._

Sum of the rental                                       £6 12_d._

Whereof

Paiable to the Kinges Maiestie yerlie for the tenthes 6_s._ 8_d._

And to John Smyth yerlie for his annuytie durynge his lyffe 6_s._

Sum of the allowance                                 14_s._ 8_d._

        And so remaynyth                            106_s._ 4_d._



APPENDIX III.

REPORT OF THE CHANTRY COMMISSIONERS OF EDWARD VI, 1548.

[_English Schools at the Reformation_, p. 302, from Rec. Off. Chantry
Certificate, 64.]


West rydyng of the countye of Yorke.

50. Gyggleswike Parryshe.

The Chauntry of Our Lady in the Parysche churche ther.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the parysh of Gyggleswike is one prist found to serve the cure besyde
the vicar; the number of houslyng people is xijc, and the seyd parysh
is wyde.

The Chauntry of the Rode in the seyde Paryshe Churche.

Rychard Carr, incumbent, xxxijti yeres of age, well learned and
teacheth a grammer schole there, lycensed to preache, hath none other
lyving then the proffitts of the seyd chauntrie.

Goods, ornaments and plate belonging to the seyd Chauntrie as apperith,
6_s._ 8_d._ Plate, _nil_.

The yerely value of the freehold land belonging to the seid Chauntrie as
particularly apperith by the Rentall, £6 12_d._; Coppiehold, _nil_.

Whereof

Resolutes and deduccions by yere, 6_s._

And so remayneth clere to the Kinges Majestie, 115_s._

A some of money geven for the meytenaunce of schole Mr there.

The sayd[A] John Malholme and one Thomas Husteler, disseased, dyd gyve
and bequeth by theyre last will and testament, as apperith by the seyd
certificat, the some of £24 13_s._ 4_d._ towards the meyntenance of a
scholemaister there for certen yeres, whereupon one Thomas Iveson,
preist, was procured to be Scholemaister there, which hath kept a Scole
theis three yeres last past, and hath receyved every yere for his
stypend after the rate of £4, which is in the holle, £12.

        And so remayneth, £12 13_s._ 4_d._

FOOTNOTES:

[A] 'Sayd' because the last entry was that the same person, described as
'preist disseased,' i.e. deceased, had given £33 6_s._ 8_d._ for a
priest, who received yearly £4 3_s._ 4_d._



APPENDIX IV.

CHANTRY COMMISSIONERS' CERTIFICATE FOR CONTINUANCE OF GIGGLESWICK
SCHOOL.

[_Leach. Early Yorkshire Schools_, p. 240, Rec. Off. Chantry
Certificate, 103.]


Westriddinge of the Countye of Yorke.

72. Giggleswike.

The Chaunterie of the roode there.


Richard Carre, Incumbent there.

          Freholde, £5 6_s._ 8_d._

Memorandum: that thincumbent of the seide Roode Chaunterie, being well
lerned and licensed to preache, kepith a Grammer Scole there, which is
necessarie to contynne with the seide revenue, or other stipend, for the
good educacion of the abbondaunt yought in those rewde parties.

Scoole continuatur quousque.

Scoole maynteyned with a somme of money.

Memorandum: that in the seide parishe one John Malholme, prest, and
Thomas Husteler diseased, did give and bequethe by their last will and
testament, as apperith by the certificat of Giggleswike, the some of £24
13_s._ 4_d._ towardes the mayntenaunce of a Scoole master there for
certyn yeres, whereupon one Thomas Iveson, priest, was procurid to be
Scolemaster, which hathe kept a Scole there these three yeres paste, and
hathe receyved every yere for his stipende after the rate of £4 the
yere, the hole £12, and so remayneth £12 13_s._ 4_d._

Continuatur Scole per quantitatem pecunie.

Examinatur per Henricum Savill, supervisorem.



APPENDIX V.

GIGGLESWICK. PURCHASE OF SCHOOL LANDS FROM CROWN.

[_Leach._ _Early Yorkshire Schools_, p. 241.]


[Rec. Off. Particulars for grants. 3 Edward VI.]

Memorandum[B] that we, Sir Edwarde Warner, knight, Silvestre Leigh and
Leonarde Bate, gentelmen, do require to purchase of the King's maiestie,
by virtue of his graces Comyssion of sale of landes, the landes,
tenements and heredytaments conteyned and specified in the particulers
and rates hereunto annexed, being of such clere yerely value as in the
same particulers and rates is expressed.

In witness whereof to this Bill, subscribed with our handes, we have put
our Seales the 28th day of Marche, in the thirde yere of the reigne of
our souereigne lorde, Edwarde the sixt, by the grace of God king of
England, Fraunce and Ireland, defender of the fayth, and of the Churche
of England and also of Ireland on Earth the supreme hedd.

By me, Sylvester Leigh. per me, Leonardum Bate.

[The place left for signature and seal of Sir E. Warner has never been
filled. Traces of the seal of S. Leigh and a portion of that of L. Bate
still remain.]

West riding com. Ebor.

Possessiones nuper Canterie vocate Roode chaunterye in ecclesia
parochiali de Gygleswik.

Gygleswik.

Terre et tenementa dicte nuper  }
Cantarie Liberis tenentibus per }  valent in
cartam pertinencia .  .  .      }

Firma unius tenementi cum pertinenciis in Settill in
parochie de Gygleswike predicta ac 2 acrarum et unius rode
terre arrabilis ibidem, et unius prati vocati Howbecke ynge
continentis ½ rodam, cum communa, pasture in Trakemore,
sic dimissi Willelmo Hulle per indenturam Cantariste
ibidem, datam 12mo die Augusti anno regni Regis Henrici
VIImi 14to Habendum sibi et heredibus suis imperpetuum
Reddendo inde annuatim ad festa Purificationis Beate Marie
et Sancti Laurencii equaliter                                   11_s._

Firma unius cotagii in Settill predicta dimissi Johanni
Smythe per indenturam dicti Cantariste datam 28vo die
Marcii anno regni Regis Henrici VIIIvi quinto Habendum pro
termino vite ejusdem Johannis et Reddendo inde annuatim ad
festa predicta equaliter                                         2_s._

Firma unius mesuagii scituati in Otterburne, ac trium
bovatarum terre arrabilis, prati et pasture jacencium in
villa et campis ibidem, modo in tenura Cuthberti Carre ad
voluntatem de anno in annum Reddendo inde annuatim ad festa
predicta equaliter                                              24_s._

Firma unius cotagii ibidem modo in tenura Christoferi
Thomeson, ut prius, per annum eisdem terminis equaliter          2_s._

Firma unius mesuagii ibidem ac duarum bovatarum terre
arrabilis prati et pasture jacencium in campis predictis,
modo in tenura Henrici Atkynson, ut prius, per annum eisdem
terminis equaliter                                              18_s._

Firma unius mesuagii et unius bovate [etc., as in last item
to pasture] ibidem modo in tenura relicte Henrici Atkynson
[etc., as in last]                                              15_s._

Firma 1 mesuagii et duarum bovatarum [etc., as in last]
Thome Atkynson [etc.]                                           15_s._

Firma [etc., as in last] Henrici Swyer [etc.]                   15_s._

Firma [etc., as in last] Ricardi Paytsin      15_s._   }
                                                       }
Firma unius cotagii ibidem modo in                     }
tenura Christoferi Thomson [etc.]              5_s._   }
                                                       }
Firma [as in last] Ricardi Thomson [etc.]      5_s._   }

    Summa totalis £6. 0_s._ 12_d._

Inde

Reprise, viz. in

Redditu annuatim Johanni Smythe pro quodam feodo sibi concesso pro
termino vite sue in consideracione collectionis reddituum supradictorum,
prout patet per cartam sub sigillo fundatoris Cantarie predicte,
gerentem datam 28mo die Marcii anno nuper Domini Regis H. VIIIvi
quinto [_sic._] _unde 3s. concesse prefato Johanni et heredibus suis ut
patet per cartam predictam_.

_at 20 yeres rate_, 60_s._                       3_s._

                                       £146 16_s._
                                            60_s._
                                       __________
                                       £143 16_s._

Et remanet clare per annum   [_sic._] 118_s._

There are no woods growinge in or uppon the premisses.

                Examinatur per Henricum Savill,
                        supervisorem.

[At foot of roll.]

29 Januarii anno 3cio    The clere yerelie value
Regis Edwardo VIti,        of the preamisses    £67 8_s._ 11½_d._
pro Edwardo Warner,      which, rated at the
milite.                  severall rates above
                         remembered,
                         amounteth to          £1297  6_s._ 8_d._

Adde the rennt for the leade and belles
of the chaples of Wakefelde                       £7  4_s._ 4_d._
                                                _____________
And so th'oole is                              £1314 11_s._ 0_d._

                  To be paide all in Hande.

The Kinges Majestie to discharge the purchaser of all incumbraunces,
except leases, and the covenauntes in the same, and except the renttes
before allowed.

The tenure is as above particlerly expressed.

The purchaser to have thissues from Michollmas last. The purchaser to be
bounde for the wooddes. The Leade, Belles and advowsons excepted.

                                              RY. SAKEVILLE.
                                              WA. MILDMAY.
                                              ROBT. KEYLWEY.

FOOTNOTES:

[B] This is on a separate piece of parchment, tacked on to the main
document, which follows.



APPENDIX VI.

THE CHARTER.

[From Original, in possession of the Governors.]


Edwardus Dei gracia Anglie et Francie et Hibernie Rex et in terra
Ecclesie Anglicane et Hibernice Supremum Caput Omnibus ad quos presentes
littere pervenerint Salutem.

Sciatis quod nos ad humilem peticionem tam Dilecti capellani nostri
Johannis Nowell, clerici, vicarii ecclesie parochialis de Gegleswycke in
Craven in comitatu nostro Eborum et dilecti nobis Henrici Tenant,
generosi, quam ceterorum Inhabitancium ville et parochie de Gegleswicke
predicta pro Scola Grammaticali in Gygleswicke in Craven in dicto
comitatu Eborum erigenda et stabilienda pro institucione, erudicione et
instruccione puerorum et juvenum.

De gracia nostra speciali et ex certa sciencia et mero motu nostris
volumus, concedimus et ordinamus quod de cetero est et erit una Scola
grammaticalis in Gigleswyck predicta que vocabitur Libera Scola
Grammaticalis Regis Edwardi sexti in Gygleswyck, et scolam illam de uno
Ludimagistro seu Pedagogo et uno Subpedagogo seu Ypodidasculo pro
perpetuo continuaturam erigimus, creamus, ordinamus, fundamus, et
stabilimus per presentes.

Et ut intencio nostra predicta meliorem capiat effectum et ut terre,
tenementa, redditus, revenciones et alia ad sustentacionem Scole
predicte concedenda assignanda et appunctuanda melius gubernarentur pro
continuacione ejusdem, volumus, et ordinamus, quod de cetero sint et
erunt infra villam et parochiam de Gygleswycke predicta octo homines de
discrecioribus et magis probioribus inhabitantibus ejusdem ville et
parochie pro tempore existentibus, unde vicarius ecclesie parochialis
ibidem pro tempore existens unus sit, qui erunt et vocabuntur
Gubernatores possessionum, revencionum et bonorum dicte Scole vulgariter
vocate et vocande libere Scole grammaticalis Regis Edwardi sexti de
Gygleswyck. Et ideo sciatis quod nos eligimus, nominavimus,
assignavimus, et constituimus, ac per presentes eligimus, nominamus,
assignamus, et constituimus dilectos nobis dictum Johannem Nowell,
clericum, vicarium ecclesie parochialis de Gygleswycke, ac Willelmum
Catterall de Nova Aula, ac prefatum Henricum Tenant, generosum, Thomam
Procter de Cletehop, Hugonem Newhouse de Gygleswycke, Willelmum Browne
de Settall, Rogerum Armisted de Knyght Stayneforde, et Willelmum Bank de
Fesar, inhabitantes ville et parochie de Gygleswycke predicta fore et
esse primos et modernos Gubernatores possessionum revencionum et bonorum
dicte Libere Scole grammaticalis Regis Edwardi Sexti de Gygleswyck ad
idem officium bene et fideliter exercendum et occupandum a data
presencium durante vita eorum.

Et quod iidem Gubernatores in re, facto et nomine, de cetero sint et
erunt unum corpus corporatum et politiquum de se imperpetuum per nomen
Gubernatorum possessionum revencionum et bonorum Libere Scole
Grammaticalis Regis Edwardi Sexti de Gygleswycke incorporatum et
erectum; Ac ipsos Johannem, Willelmum, Henricum, Thomam, Hugonem,
Willelmum, Rogerum et Willelmum, Gubernatores possessionum revencionum
et bonorum Libere Scole grammaticalis Regis Edwardi Sexti in Sedbergh in
Comitatu Ebor. per presentes incorporamus ac corpus corporatum et
politiquum per idem nomen imperpetuum duraturum realiter et ad plenum
creamus, erigimus, ordinamus, facimus, constituimus et declaramus per
presentes; Et volumus ac per presentes concedimus quod iidem
Gubernatores possessionum revencionum et bonorum Libere Scole
Grammaticalis Regis Edwardi Sexti de Gygleswycke habeant successionem
perpetuam, et per idem nomen sint et erunt persone habiles et in lege
capaces ad habendum perquirendum et recipiendum sibi et successoribus
suis de nobis aut de aliqua alia persona, aut aliquibus aliis personis
terras, tenementa, decimas redditus, reversiones, revenciones et
hereditamenta quecumque.

Et volumus, ordinamus, decernimus et declaramus per presentes quod,
quandocumque contigerit aliquem vel aliiquos octo Gubernatorum
possessionum, revencionum et bonorum dicte libere Scole pro tempore
existencium, preter vicarium ecclesie parochialis de Gygleswyck predicta
pro tempore existentem, mori, seu alibi extra villam et parochiam de
Gygleswycke predicta habitare, aut cum familia sua decedere, quod tunc
et tociens imperpetuum bene liceat et licebit aliis dictorum
Gubernatorum superviventibus et ibidem cum familiis suis commorantibus,
vel majori parti eorundem, aliam idoneam personam vel alias idoneas
personas de inhabitantibus ville et parochie de Gygleswyck predicta in
locum vel locos sic morientis vel moriencium, aut cum familia sua sicut
prefertur decedentis vel decedencium, in dicto officio Gubernatoris vel
Gubernatorum successurum vel successuros eligere et nominare; et hoc
tociens quociens casus sic acciderit.

Et volumus et per presentes ordinamus et concedimus quod vicarius
ecclesie parochialis de Gygliswicke pro tempore existens de tempore in
tempus sit et erit unus dictorum octo Gubernatorum possessionum
revencionum et bonorum dicte libere Scole Grammaticalis et quod idem
vicarius de Gigleswycke pro tempore existens cum uno aliorum
predictorum Gubernatorum pro tempore existencium habeat plenam
potestatem et auctoritatem convocandi movendi et peremptorie citandi
aliquos predictorum Gubernatorum pro tempore existencium tociens
quociens necessitas exiget in omnibus et singulis ordinacionem
gubernacionem direccionem et conservacionem Scole predicte tantummodo
tangentibus et concernentibus.

Et Sciatis quod nos intencionem et propositum nostrum in hac parte ad
effectum deducere volentes, de gracia nostra speciali ac ex certa
sciencia et mero motu nostris, dedimus et concessimus, ac per presentes
damus et concedimus prefatis modernis Gubernatoribus possessionum,
revencionum et bonorum dicte Libere Scole Grammaticalis. Totum illum
annualem redditum nostrum unius denarii et unius oboli et servicii nobis
spectancia et pertinencia et nuper parcellam possessionum et revencionum
nuper ecclesie Collegiate Sancti Andree Apostoli de Nether Acaster in
comitatu Eborum exeuntem de terris et tenementis nunc vel nuper Johannis
Stather in Northcave seu alibi in dicto comitatu; Ac totum illum annuum
redditum nostrum duodecim denariorum et duorum pullorum gallinaciorum ac
servicium nobis spectancia et pertinencia, et nuper parcellam
possessionum et revencionum dicte nuper ecclesie collegiate, exeuntem de
uno gardino et cotagio modo vel nuper Ricardi Padley in Northcave
predicta. Ac totum illum annuum redditum duorum solidorum et servicium
nobis spectantum et pertinentum et nuper parcellam [etc., as in last
item] exeuntem de uno cotagio et uno gardino modo vel nuper Willelmi
Powneswade; Ac totum [etc.] septem denariorum [etc.] exeuntem de terris
et tenementis modo vel nuper Laurencii Mawer in Northcave predicta; Ac
totum illud capitale messuagium nostrum cum pertinenciis in Northcave
predicta, ac octo bovatas terre arrabilis et prati nostras ibidem ac
omnia terras, prata, pascua, pasturas, et hereditamenta nostra vocata
Forbyland, ac unum clausum terre nostrum vocatum Esping close in
Northcave predicta; ac omnes illas duas bovatas terre nostras in Southe
Kelthorp et Northe Kelthorpe in dicto comitatu nostro Eborum cum eorum
pertinenciis modo vel nuper in tenura sive occupacione Radulphi Bayly ac
dicte nuper ecclesie collegiate Sancti Andree Apostoli in Netheracaster
predicta spectancia et pertinencia, ac parcellam possessionum inde
existencia;

Ac omnia mesuagia molendina, tofta, cotagia, domos, edificia, gardina,
terras, tenementa, prata, pascua, pasturas, communas, redditus,
reversiones, servicia et hereditamenta quecumque cum pertinenciis modo
vel nuper in separalibus tenuris sive occupacionibus Ricardi Raynarde,
Christoferi Stephen, Christoferi Kempe, Willelmi Goodeade, Johannis
Gawdie, Ricardi Lonsdale, Hugonis Jennison, et nuper uxoris cujusdam
Marshal, Thome Evars, [_blank in charter_] Raedstone, Willelmi Browne,
Christoferi Powneswade, Johannis Anderson, Laurencii Smythe, Johannis
Kiddal, [_blank in charter_] Jackson et nuper uxoris Kirkton et Willelmi
Nayre, clerici, Johannis Stather, Marmaduci Banks, Thome Hayre, Alicie
Smythe, et Radulfi Raynarde situata jacencia et existencia in Northcave
et Brampton in dicto comitatu Eborum et dicte nuper ecclesie collegiate
Sancti Andree Apostoli in Netheracaster predicta dudum spectancia et
pertinencia et parcellam possessionum et revencionum inde existencia;

Ac eciam totom illud capitale mesuagium ac unum parvum hortum et duo
pomeria nostra continencia per estimacionem duo acras; Ac totum illum
clausum nostrum terre et pasture, vocatum Southende close, continentem
per estimacionem quinque acras, ac eciam quinque bovatas nostras terre
prati et pasture cum omnibus et singulis pertinenciis suis modo vel
nuper in tenura sive occupacione Ricardi Carter, situata jacencia et
existencia in Rise et Aldburgh in dicto comitatu Eborum, ac alibi in
eodem comitatu, que fuerunt parcella possessionum et revencionum nuper
cantarie Beate Marie fundate in ecclesia parochiali de Rise et Aldburgh
in dicto comitatu Eborum, ac omnia alia terras tenementa prata pastures
redditus reversiones servicia et hereditamenta nostra quecumque cum
pertinenciis in Rise et Aldburgh in dicto comitatu Eborum et alibi in
dicto comitatu que fuerunt parcella possessionum et revencionum dicte
nuper cantarie.

Necnon omnes illas decimas garbarum granorum et bladorum nostras cum
pertinenciis annuatim et de tempore in tempus proveniencium crescencium
sive renovencium in Edderwyck infra parochiam de Aldburgh in dicto
comitatu nostro Eborum, modo vel nuper in tenura sive occupacione dicti
Ricardi Carter, et dicte nuper cantarie spectantes et pertinentes et
parcellam possessionum et revencionum inde existentes;

Ac totum illum annuum redditum duorum solidorum et sex denariorum et
servicium nobis spectancia et pertinencia et parcellam possessionum et
revencionum dicte nuper cantarie existencia, exeuntia de uno tenemento
cum pertinenciis modo vel nuper in tenura sive occupacione Roberti
Hudderson in Rise predicta;

Ac totum illum annuum redditum duodecim denariorum et servicium nobis
[etc., as in last item] exeuntia de uno cotagio in Rise predicta, modo
vel nuper in occupacione Johannis Robynson;

Ac eciam omnes et omnimodos boscos subboscos et arbores nostros
quoscumque de in et super premissis crescentes et existentes, ac
reversionem et reversiones quascumque omnium, et singulorum premissorum
et cujuslibet inde parcelle, Necnon redditus et annualia proficua
quecumque reservata super quibuscumque dimissionibus et concessionibus
de premissis seu de aliqua inde parcella quoquomodo factis, Adeo plene
libere et integre ac in tam amplis modo et forma prout aliquis
Gaudianus, Custos, Magister vel Gubernator dicte ecclesie collegiate
Sancti Andree Apostoli in Netheracaster, aut aliquis cantarista vel
Incumbens dicte nuper cantarie aut aliquis alius sive aliqua alia
premissa aut aliquam inde parcellam antehac habentes possidentes aut
seisiti inde exisientes eadem aut aliquam inde parcellam unquam
habuerunt, tenuerunt vel gavisi fuerunt, habuit tenuit vel gavisus fuit,
aut habere tenere vel gaudere debuerunt aut debuit; Et adeo plene,
libere et integre ac in tam amplis modo et forma prout ea omnia et
singula ad manus nostras racione vel pretextu cujusdam actus de diversis
Cantariis, Collegiis, Gildis Fraternitatibus et liberis Capellis
dissolvendis et determinandis in Parliamento nostro tento apud et
Westmonasterium anno regni nostri primo inter alia editi et provisi, seu
quocumque alio modo, jure seu titulo devenerunt, seu devenire debuerunt,
ac in manibus nostris jam existunt seu existere debent vel deberent.

Que quidem mesuagia, terre, tenementa, redditus, reversiones, servicia
et cetera omnia et singula premissa, modo extenduntur ad clarum annuum
valorem viginti trium librarum et trium solidorum;

Habendum tenendum et gaudendum predicta mesuagia, molendina, terras,
tenementa, decimas, prata, pascua, pasturus communas, boscos, subboscos,
redditus, reversiones, servicia ac cetera omnia et singula premissa cum
pertinenciis prefatis modernis Gubernatoribus possessionum revencionum
et bonorum dicte Libere Scole grammaticalis, et successoribus suis
imperpetuum. Tenendum de nobis heredibus et successoribus nostris ut de
manerio nostro de Estgranewich in comitatu Kancie per fidelitatem tantum
in libero socagio et non in capite.

Ac reddendo inde annuatim nobis, heredibus et successoribus nostris
sexaginta et tres solidos legalis monete Anglie ad curiam nostram
Augmentacionum et revencionum corone nostre ad festum Sancti Michaelis
Archangeli singulis annis solvendos, pro omnibus redditibus, serviciis
et demandis quibuscumque.

Necnon dedimus et concessimus, ac per presentes damus et concedimus
prefatis modernis Gubernatoribus omnia exitus, redditus, revenciones et
proficua predictorum terrarum, tenementorum et ceterorum omnium et
singulorum premissorum a festo Sancti Martini in hyeme ultimo preterito
huc usque proveniencia sive crescencia Habendum eisdum Gubernatoribus ex
dono nostro, absque compoto seu aliquo alio proinde nobis heredibus vel
successoribus nostris quoquomodo reddendo, solvendo vel faciendo.

Et ulterius volumus ac pro nobis heredibus et successoribus nostris per
presentes concedimus prefatis Gubernatoribus et successoribus suis quod
de cetero imperpetuum habeant commune sigillum ad negocia sua premissa
aut aliter tangencia seu concernencia, deserviturum; et quod ipsi
Gubernatores et successores sui per nomen Gubernatorum possessionum,
revencionum et bonorum Libere Scole Grammaticalis Regis Edwardi Sexti de
Gigleswycke placitare possint et implicatari, defendere et defendi,
respondere et responderi in quibuscumque curiis et locis, et coram
quibuscumque judicibus in quibuscumque causis, accionibus, negociis,
sectis, querelis, placitis et demandis cujuscumque nature seu
condicionis fuerint.

Et ulterius de uberiori gracia nostra ac ex certa sciencia et mero motu
nostris dedimus et concessimus et per presentes damus et concedimus
prefatis modernis Gubernatoribus et successoribus suis ac majori parti
eorundem plenam potestatem et auctoritatem erigendi nominandi et
appunctuandi Pedagogum et Subpedagogum Scole predicte tociens quociens
eadem Scola de Pedagogo vel Subpedagogo vacua fuerit.

Et quod ipsi et successores sui Gubernatores advisamento Episcopi
diocesis ibidem pro tempore existentis, de tempore in tempus faciant et
facere valeant et possint idonea et salubria statuta et ordinaciones in
scriptis, Gubernatores predictos et successores suos quomodo se habeant
et gerant in officiis suis Gubernatorum predictorum vel ob quas causas
ab officiis suis amoveantur, et tangencia et concernencia modum et
formam erigendi et nominandi Pedagogum et Subpedagogum ac approbandi,
admittendi et continuandi eosdem sic electos nominatos ab ipsis
Gubernatoribus pro tempore existentibus aut majori parte eorundem ut
prefertur, Ac eciam quocumque modo concernencia et tangencia
ordinacionem, gubernacionem et direccionem Pedagogi et Subpedagogi ac
Scolarium Scole predicte pro tempore existencium, et stipendii et
salarii ejusdem Pedagogi et Subpedagogi; ac alia eandem Scolam ac
ordinacionem, gubernacionem, preservacionem et dispocionem reddituum et
revencionum ad sustentacionem ejusdem Scole appunctuatorum et
appunctuandorum tangencia et concernencia. Que quidem statua et
ordinaciones sic fienda concedimus et per presentes precipimus
inviolabiliter observari de tempore in tempus imperpetuum.

Et si vicarius ecclesie parochialis de Gigleswicke predicta pro tempore
existens dicta statuta et ordinaciones infringat et non perimpleat juxta
intencionem et effectum eorundem, quod tunc pro ista vice bene liceat
et licebit aliis dictorum octo Gubernatorum ad tunc existencium unam
idoneam personam de inhabitantibus parochie de Gigleswycke predicta
magis discreciorem et probiorem in officium unius Gubernatorum
possessionum revencionum et bonorum dicte libere Scole grammaticalis
eligere nominare et prefato loco dicti vicarii sic infringentis statuta
et ordinaciones predicta.

Et ulterius de uberiori gracia nostra dedimus et concessimus, ac per
presentes damus et concedimus prefatis modernis Gubernatoribus
possessionum, revencionum et bonorum dicte Libere Scole Grammaticalis et
successoribus suis, licenciam specialem liberamque et licitam
facultatem, potestatem et aucthoritatem, habendi, recipiendi et
perquirendi eis et eorum successoribus imperpetuum, ad sustentacionem et
manutencionem Scole predicte tam de nobis heredibus vel successoribus
nostris, quam de aliis quibuscumque personis et alia persona quacumque,
maneria, mesuagia, terras, tenementa, rectorias, decimas, aut alia
hereditamenta quecumque, infra regnum Anglie, seu alibi infra dominia
nostra dummodo non excedant clarum annuum valorem triginta librarum,
ultra dicta mesuagia terras tenementa decimas ac cetera premissa
prefatis Gubernatoribus et successoribus suis, ut prefertur, per nos in
forma predicta concessa, Statuto de terris et tenementis ad manum
mortuam non ponendis, aut aliquo alio statuto, actu, ordinacione seu
provisione aut aliqua alia re, causa vel materia quacumque in contrarium
inde habito facto, ordinato seu proviso in aliquo non obstante.

Et volumus ac per presentes ordinamus quod omnia exitus, redditus, et
revenciones predictorum terrarum tenementorum decimarum et possessionum
per presentes concessorum ac imposterum dandorum et assignandorum ad
sustentacionem Scole nostre predicte de tempore in tempus convertentur
ad sustentacionem et conservacionem Scole predicte et non aliter nec ad
aliquos alios usus seu intenciones.

Volumus eciam et per presentes concedimus prefatis Gubernatoribus Scole
predicte quod habeant et habebunt has litteras nostras patentes sub
magno Sigillo nostro Anglie debito modo factas et sigillatas, absque
fine seu feodo magno vel parvo nobis in Hanaperio nostro, seu alibi, ad
usum nostrum, proinde quoquomodo reddendo, solvendo vel faciendo.

Eo quod expressa mencio de vero valore annuo, aut de aliquo alio valore,
aut de certitudine premissorum, sive eorum alicujus, aut de aliis donis
sive concessionibus per nos aut per aliquem progenitorum nostrorum
prefatis modernis Gubernatoribus Scole predicte ante hec tempora factis,
in presentibus minime facta existit, aut aliquo statuto, acta,
ordinacione, provisione sive restriccione inde in contrarium facto,
edito, ordinato sive proviso, aut aliqua alia re, causa vel materia
quacumque in aliquo non obstante.

In cujus rei testimonium has litteras nostras fieri fecimus patentes.

Teste me ipso apud Westmonasterium vicesimo sexto die Maii anno regni
nostri septimo.

Per breve de privato sigillo et de praedicta aucthoritate Parliamenti.

_Irorogatur in officio Willim Notte Auditoris ibin 9no die Junii Anno
Regni nunc Edwardi Sexti septimo._



APPENDIX VII.

THE STATUTES.

[_Early Yorkshire Schools_, p. 254.]


Statutes and Ordinaunces to be observed by the Governours, Master, Usher
and Schollers of the Free Grammer Schole of Gygleswicke from tyme to
tyme agreed on by the Governours of the sayd Schole together with the
consent and approbacion of the moste Reverend Father in God, John, by
Devyne permission, Archbyshoppe of Yorke, prymate of Englande and
metropolitane, as followeth:--


For the Governours.

First the Governours to be chosen from tyme to tyme shall be men of true
and sounde religion, fearinge God, and of honest Conversacion.

Secondly att their ordinacion to the said Schole they shall protest and
sweare before the Vycar of Gygleswicke and the rest of the Governours of
the said Schoole, to be true and faithefull towardes the said Schoole
and the emolumentes and profytes belonginge to the same; and that they
shall not att any time purloyne or take away any of the commodities of
the same, whereby it mighte be impoverished or empayred in any respecte.

Thirdly if it fortune any of the said Governours att this tyme or att
any tyme hereafter, to dwell or remove with there families out of the
parishe aforesaid, or if any of them be convicte of any notorious cryme,
that then and from thencefurth it shall and may be lawful for the rest
of the said Governours, with the privitie and assent of the
Archbysshoppe of Yorke for the tyme beinge, upon due proofe and
examinacion of the matter or matters aforesaid, to electe into the
office and roome of every one so removeinge, offendinge and convicted, a
godly, discrete and sober person of the parishe aforesaid.

Fourthly the said Governours, or the more parte of them, shall every
halfe yere once att the least, visitte the said Schoole, and there
examyne the labours of the Master and Usher, and also the proceadinges
of the said Schollers in good litterature, together with the
observations of the Statutes of the Schole in that case provyded, to
thende if any defaulte be proved in master, usher or scholler, they,
with the privitie and assent of the Archbysshoppe of Yorke for the tyme
beinge, may furthwith take order to redresse the same.

Fyftely if upon due admonicion twise gyven by the said Governours to the
said Master, usher or scholler concernynge the violatinge and wilfull
breakeinge of the Statutes of the said Schoole, they and every of them
do not amend, that then and from thencefurth it shall and may be lawfull
to and for the said Governours, with the privitie and assente of the
Archbysshoppe of Yorke, for the tyme beinge, to deprive and depose the
said master, usher or scholler so offendinge, and others to electe into
there place, accordinge to the true meaninge of the letters Pattentes of
the said Schoole in that case provided.

Sixtely the said Governours shall provyde from tyme to tyme that the
ordinarie stipendes for the master and usher at there accustomed tymes
be payd, and also shall take care that the Schoole house within and
without be sufficiently repayred upon the emolumentes and profittes
accrewinge and growinge to the said Schoole, neyther shall they make any
wilfull waste of the said profittes, but be contente with a moderate
allowaunce when they are occupyed about the busines of the said Schoole.


For the Master.

First the Scholemaster to be chosen from tyme to tyme, shall be a man
fearinge God, of true religion and godlye conversacion, not gyven to
diceinge, cardinge, or other unlawfull games, but beinge admitted to the
chardge of the said schole, shall faithfully followe the same.

Secondly he shall instructe his schollers in godly authours for
Christian religion and other meet and honest authours for more knowledge
of the liberall sciences; and also shall once each weeke cathechise his
said schollers in the knowledge of Christian religion and other godly
dueties, to thende their obedience in lyfe may answere to there
proceadinges in godly litterature.

Thirdly he shall not teache his schollers any unsavory and popishe
aucthours which may eyther infecte the yonge wittes of his schollers
with heriesies, or corrupte there lyfes with uncleanenes.

Fourthly he shall not use in schoole any language to his schollers which
be of ryper yeares and proceadinges but onely the lattyne, Greeke and
Hebrewe, nor shall willingly permitt the use of the Englishe tonge in
the schoole to them which are or shalbe able to speake lattyne.

Fyftely he shall indifferently in schoole endevour himselfe to teache
the poore as well as the riche, and the parishioner as well as the
stranger, and as his said schollers shall profitt in learninge, so he
shall preferre them accordingly, without respecte of persons.

Sixtely he shall not be absent above six dayes in any one quarter of the
yeare, without speciall licence of the Governours for the tyme beinge,
or the more parte of them, nor shall use any vacations througheout the
yeare unlesse it be two weekes att Easter, three weekes att Christenmes,
and three weekes by the said master to be appointed when he thinketh it
most convenient for his schollers to be exercysed in wrytinge under a
scriviner for there better exercyse in that facultye; provyded alwayes
that he may upon any convenient occasion grante an intermission or
vacation to his schollers from studye, in any afternoone whensoever he
seeth the same expedient or requisite.

Seaventhly that the said Scholemaster in recompence of his paynes and
labour in the due exequution of his office, shall have and receyve
yearely of the said Governours the yearely stipend of twentie markes of
lawfull Englishe money, for and duringe so longe tyme as he shall
continue scholemaster att the schoole of Gygleswicke aforesaid, to be
payd att two tymes in the yeare, vidz.:--att the feast of saynt Peter
advincula, six poundes thirtene shillinges fourepence, and at the feast
of the Purificacion of our Ladye, six poundes thirtene shillinges
fourepence, by even portions.

Lastly the said master shall not bygynne to teache or dismisse the said
Schoole without convenient prayers and thankesgyveinge, in that behalfe
publiquely to be used, most requisite att bothe mornynge and evenynge.


For the Usher.

First the Usher of the schoole shalbe a man of sounde religion and sober
lyfe, and such one as can traine upp the Yowthe of the Schoole in
godlynes and vertue.

Secondly he shalbe obedient to the scholemaster in all thinges
concernynge his office, by whome he shalbe directed for his manner in
teacheing, cathechiesinge, correctinge, &c.

Thirdly he shall not absent himselfe from the schoole foure dayes in any
quarter of the yeare, without speciall lycence first obteyned of the
master and Governours.

Fourthly he shall preferr every yeare one whole forme or seedge to the
masters erudition, wherein if he make defaulte then he shall stande to
the censure of the said master and Governours.

Fyftly he shall take upon him the Regiment and teacheinge of the said
Schoole in thabsence of the master, and so shall supplye the office of
the master in his said absence.

Sixtly that the said Usher in Recompence of his paynes and labour in the
due exequution of his office, shall have and receyve yearely of the said
Governours the yerely stypende of sixe poundes thirtene shillinges
fourepence of lawful Englishe money, for and duringe so longe tyme as he
shall contynue Usher of the said school att Gygleswicke aforesaid, to be
payd att two tymes in the yeare, vidz.:--att the feast of saynt Peter
Advincula, thre poundes six shillings eightpence, and att the feast of
the purificacion of our Lady, three poundes sixe shillinges eightepence,
by even portions.


For the Master and Usher.

First that the Scholemaster and Usher of the said Schoole shall every
worke day (usuall vacations aforesaid excepted) begynne to teache the
Schollers of the said Schoole halfe an houre before seaven of the
clocke, if he shall see it expedient, and so contynue till eleaven of
the clocke before Noone, and so shall begynne againe att one of the
clocke in thafternoone and so continue till fyve of the clocke (the
usuall vacacions aforesaid and other necessarie and honest causes and
reasonable recreations excepted), Excepte also the winter season whan
the tymes of begyninge of the schoole and dismissinge of the same, and
of the schollers dwellinge neare to the schoole or farr of, shalbe lefte
to the discretion of the master.

Secondly if the Scholemaster or Usher of the said schoole shall committ
any notorious cryme, or shalbe remisse or negligent in teaching the
Schollers of the said schoole, and do not upon the second admonition by
the said Governours or any of them given, amend and reforme such his or
their faulte and offence, that then from thencefurth it shalbe lawfull
for the said Governours or the more parte of them, with the privitie and
assent of the Archebysshoppe of Yorke for the tyme beinge, to expell the
said schoolemaster and usher so offendinge from his said office, and to
electe and chuse an other in his place, in manner aforesaid.

Thirdly if the scholemaster or usher shalbe founde eyther to be remisse
or vehement in corrections, upon due proofe first made to the
Governours, it shalbe lawfull for them or the more parte of them, upon
admonicion once or twice gyven, to fyne or censure the said master or
usher accordinge to the quallitie of thee offence, the assent and
consent of the Archebysshoppe of Yorke for the tyme beinge first had and
obteyned in that behalfe.


For the Schollers.

First what Scholler or Schollers soever shalbe admitted into the said
Schoole and ther be registred in the number of Schollers, and
afterwardes shall rebelliously and obstinatly withstand his master or
masters, eyther in doctrine, correction, or other godly Government, and
convinced of the same, if upon admonicion and warninge first given he do
not repent and amend, it shall and may be lawfull to the said Governours
with the consent of the said master, to expulse him the schoole.

Secondly no scholler or schollers of what degree soever, shall absent
himselfe from schoole any day, and especially the dayes eyther nowe or
hereafter for exercyses to be appointed, without necessarye cause or
speciall leave first obteyned of the master or usher under whome he
shall then remayne for his absence that day.

Thirdly if any Scholler, upon due proofe first had, shalbe founde eyther
altogether negligent or uncapable of lernynge, att the discrecion of the
said master, he shalbe returned to his frendes to be broughte upp in
some other honest trade and exercyse of lyfe.

Fourthly what scholler or schollers soever in the absence of the said
master and usher shall not obey the two prepositors, by the master to be
appointed for order and quyetnes of the said Schole, shall for every
offence proved, be subjecte to the severe censure of the said master or
usher.

Lastly what Scholler or schollers soever shall committ any misdeameaner,
or behave themselfes unreverently att home or abroade, eyther towardes
there parentes, frendes, strangers, or others whosoever, or shall
complaine of correction moderately given him by the master or usher,
shalbe severely corrected for the same, upon due knowledge first gyven
of the same to the said master or usher.



APPENDIX VIII.

PURCHASE DEED OF SCHOOL HOUSE AND YARD, 1610.[C]

[_Early Yorkshire Schools_, p. 267.]

[From the original in possession of the Governors.]


This Indenture made the ffourtenth daie of December in the yeares of the
raigne of our soveraigne Lord James, by the grace of God of England,
Scotland, ffrance and Ireland, king, defender of the fayth. That is to
saie of England, ffrance and Ireland the eight and of Scotland the foure
and fortith.

Betwene Sir Gervysse Helwysse of worletbie in the countie of Lincoln,
knight, and Sir Richard Williamson of Gainesburgh in the same countie,
knight, on thone partie, and Christofer Shutt, batcheler in Divinitie
and vickar of the parish church of Giglesweke in the countie of Yorke,
Robert Bankes of Giglesweke afforesaid, one of the attorneyes of his
maiesties court of comon pleas, and John Robinson of Hollinghall in the
parish of Giglesweke afforesaid, yoman, on thother partie.

Wittnesseth that the said Sir Gervysse Hellwysse and Sir Richard
Williamson, being owners in ffee farme of the Rectorie and parsonage of
Giglesweke, in consideracion of a certeyne somme of money to them in
hand paid, but especially at the request and mediacion of the said
Christofer Shutt, and to and for the use and benifitt of the free
Grammer schoole of Giglesweeke afforesaid, have enfeoffed, graunted,
bargayned and solde, and by these presentes doe enfeoffe, graunt,
bargayne and sell unto the said Christofer Shutt, Robert Bankes, and
John Robinson, ther heires and assignes for ever, as feoffees in trust
for and to the uses afforesaid.

All that house comonly called the Schoolehouse in Giglesweke afforesaid,
and that close adioyneing thereto called the Schoolehouse garth, parcell
of the said Rectorye.

To have and to holde the said Schoolehouse and schoolehouse garth unto
the said Christofer Shutt, Robert Bankes and John Robinson, ther heires
and assignes for ever, for and to the uses afforesaid. Yelding and
paying therfore yearly to the kinges maiestie, his heires and
successors, the rent of twelve pence of lawfull English money, at the
feastes of thanunciacion of the blessed virgine Marie and of St.
Michaell tharchangell, by even porcions for and towardes thet fee farme
rent of fortie and foure poundes, payable yearly for the said Rectorie
and parsonage to the kinges maiestie, his heirs and successors, at the
feastes afforesaid.

And the said Sir Gervisse Helwysse and Sir Richard Williamson doe by
these presentes constitute and appoint John Bankes and William Lawson of
Giglesweke afforesaid, yomen, ther true and lawfull Attorneyes, for
them, and in ther names and places, to enter into the said Schoole and
Scholehouse garth, to geve quyet and peaceable possession and seisine
thereof unto the said Christofer Shutt, Robert Bankes and John Robinson,
ther heirs and assignes, rattifyeing and alloweing whatsoever the said
Attorneys shall doe therin.

In wittnes wherof the parties afforesaid to these presente Indentures
interchangeably have sett ther handes and seales the daie and yeares
first above written.

GERVASE HELWYSSE

Recognita coram me Mattheo Carew, milite, in Cancellaria Magistro per
suprascriptum Gervasium Helwis, militem, octavo die Februarii anno
suprascripto 1610.

Examinata.

RD. WILLIAMSON

Capta et recognita per predictum Ricardum Williamson militem coram me
Willelmo Gee, milite, uno magistrorum alme Curie Cancellarie dicti
domini Regis apud Ebor. xxo die Decembris anno supradicto.

Cognosco recognicionem W. Gee.

Sealed and deliuered by the within named Sir Gervysse Helwysse,[D] in
the presence of Christopher Batesonn, Edward Astone.

Sealed and delivered by the within named Sir Richard Williamson, in the
presence of--

William Nowell.
Thomas Preston.
Henry Somerscales.
George Bainton.

Giglesweke Schoole
Helwyss et alius
et
Shutt et alii.

In dorso clausarum cancellarie infrascripti domini Regis nono die
ffebruarii anno infrascripto.

Per Johannem Torr.

Seals.

1. [Or, a fess azure debruised by a bend gules?]--Helwys--impaling [?
or] a cross engrailed [per pale gules and sable?].--Broke. Crest: Five
arrows, 1 in pale and 4 in saltire, points in base [or, armed and
flighted argent] entwined by a serpent [proper].

2. [Or], a chevron [gules] between 3 trefoils slipped [sable] a crescent
in chief for difference.--Williamson.

FOOTNOTES:

[C] Modern (eighteenth century) hand.

[D] Sir Gervase Helwys was Lieutenant of the Tower, and was executed in
connection with the Overbury Murder, 1615.



APPENDIX IX.

SCHEME MADE BY THE BOARD OF EDUCATION UNDER THE CHARITABLE TRUSTS ACTS,
1853 TO 1894, FOR THE ALTERATION OF THE SCHEME REGULATING THE
GIGGLESWICK GRAMMAR SCHOOL.


_The Foundation._

1. In this Scheme the expression "the Foundation" means the Grammar
School, in the Parish of Giggleswick, in the Administrative County of
the West Riding of Yorkshire, now regulated by a Scheme made under the
Endowed Schools Acts on 9 August 1872, as amended and altered by Schemes
of 3 April 1886, 26 November 1897, and 23 April 1903.

_Repeal and Substitution._

2. The provisions of the Scheme of 9 August 1872 as amended and altered
are hereby repealed, and the provisions of this Scheme are substituted
therefor; provided that nothing in this Scheme shall derogate from the
exclusive right of the Board of Education to exercise any rights or
powers of the Visitor of the Foundation exercisable through or by them
immediately before the date of this Scheme.

_Title of Foundation._

3. The Foundation and its endowment (including the particulars specified
in the Schedule to this Scheme) shall be administered under the name of
GIGGLESWICK SCHOOL.

GOVERNORS.

_Governing Body._

4. The Governing Body of the Foundation, in this Scheme called the
Governors, shall, when complete, consist (subject as in this Scheme
provided) of 18 persons, being:--

TEN Representative Governors to be appointed

TWO by the West Riding County Council;

ONE by the Council of St. John's College, Cambridge;

ONE by the Provost and Fellows of Queen's College, Oxford;

ONE by the Master and Fellows of Christ's College, Cambridge;

ONE by the Council of the Victoria University of Manchester;

ONE by the Council of the University of Leeds;

ONE by the Governing Bodies of Bingley Grammar School and the Keighley
Trade and Grammar School alternately;

ONE by the Governing Bodies of Burnley Grammar School and the Clitheroe
Grammar School alternately; and

ONE by the Governing Bodies of Ermysted's Grammar School at Skipton and
the Kirkby Lonsdale Grammar School alternately; and

EIGHT Coöptative Governors, to be appointed by resolution of the
Governors.

A Representative Governor need not be a member of the appointing body.

Every Governor to be appointed by the County Council shall be appointed
for a term of office ending on the date of the appointment of his
successor, which may be made at any time after the ordinary day of
retirement of County Councillors next after his appointment. The other
Representative Governors shall be appointed each for a term of three
years, and the Coöptative Governors each for a term of five years.

Wherever alternate election by two Governing Bodies is prescribed, the
first election after the date of this Scheme shall be made by the
Governing Body, whose turn it would have been to elect, if this Scheme
had not been made.

_Existing Representative Governors._

5. The persons in office at the date of this Scheme as Representative
Governors of the Foundation shall be entitled to remain in office as
Representative Governors under this Scheme each for the remainder of the
term for which he was appointed, but in other respects shall be counted
as if they had been appointed under this Scheme.

_Existing Coöptative Governors._

6. The persons in office at the date of this Scheme as Coöptative
Governors of the Foundation shall be entitled to remain in office as
Coöptative Governors under this Scheme, each for the remainder of the
term for which he was appointed.

_Additional Governors._

7. If an increase in the number of Representative Governors is required
to comply with any conditions of a grant made by a Local Authority or by
the Board of Education, or is considered desirable for any other
reasons, additional Representative Governors may, with the consent of
the Governors and the approval of the Board of Education (signified by
writing under their seal), be appointed by a Local Authority.

_Religious Opinions of Governing Body._

8. Religious opinions or attendance or non-attendance at any particular
form of religious worship shall not in any way affect the qualification
of any person for being one of the Governing Body under this Scheme.

_Declaration by Governors._

9. No person shall be entitled to act as a Governor, whether on a first
or any subsequent entry into office, until he has signed in the minute
book of the Governors a declaration of acceptance and of willingness to
act in the trusts of this Scheme.

_Governors not to be personally interested in Foundation._

10. Except in special circumstances with the approval in writing of the
Board of Education, no Governor shall take or hold any interest in any
property belonging to the Foundation otherwise than as a trustee for the
purposes thereof, or receive any remuneration, or be interested in the
supply of work or goods, at the cost of the Foundation.

_Quorum and Voting._

11. There shall be a quorum when five Governors are present at a
meeting. Every matter, except as in this Scheme provided, shall be
determined by the majority of the Governors present and voting on the
question. In case of equality of votes the Chairman shall have a second
or casting vote.

_Determination of Governorship._

12. Any Governor who is absent from all meetings of the Governors during
a period of one year, or who is adjudicated a bankrupt, or who is
incapacitated from acting, or who communicates in writing to the
Governors a wish to resign, shall thereupon cease to be a Governor.

_Vacancies._

13. Every vacancy in the office of Governor shall as soon as possible be
notified to the proper appointing body, or be filled by the Governors,
as the case requires. Any competent Governor may be re-appointed.

_Casual Vacancies._

14. A Governor appointed to fill a casual vacancy shall hold office only
for the unexpired term of office of the Governor in whose place he is
appointed.

_Management Rules._

15. The Management Rules appended to this Scheme (being the rules in
accordance with which the Governors shall conduct their business and
manage the property of the Foundation) shall have effect as part of this
Scheme.

_Vesting Property._

16. The Governors and all other persons capable of being bound by this
Scheme shall, unless the Board of Education otherwise in writing direct,
do all such acts as may be necessary in order to vest in the Official
Trustee of Charity Lands and to transfer to the Official Trustees of
Charitable Funds respectively, all freehold and leasehold lands and
hereditaments and all stocks, shares, funds, and securities
respectively, which may hereafter become the property of the Foundation.

THE SCHOOL.

_Day and Boarding School for Boys._

17. The School of the Foundation shall be a day and boarding School, for
boys, and shall be maintained in or near the Ancient Parish of
Giggleswick in the present school buildings or in other suitable
buildings provided for the purpose by the Governors as a Public
Secondary School.

_Income of Foundation._

18. All moneys received as income exclusively in respect of the School,
whether from the fees of pupils or otherwise, shall be applicable wholly
for the purposes of the School. After payment of the expenses of
administration, the Governors shall apply the income arising from the
property specified in the Schedule to this Scheme as follows:--

(1) They shall pay thereout the yearly sum of 100_l._ to the Governing
Body of the Girls' Middle School at Skipton, to be applied by that
Governing Body for the general purposes of that School, in accordance
with the provisions of the above-mentioned Scheme of 3 April 1886, as
since amended and altered;

(2) They shall provide thereout the yearly sum of 90_l._ to be applied
as herein-after directed;

(3) They shall apply the income of the property representing the
endowment of the Foundation of Josias Shute, in the maintenance of Shute
Scholarships as hereinafter provided;

(4) They shall apply the income of the various prize funds in providing
prizes for boys in the School of the Foundation as heretofore; and

(5) They shall apply the residue for the general purposes of the School
of the Foundation.

_Rates, &c. on School._

19. All payments for rates, taxes, repairs, and insurance of or in
respect of any property occupied for the purposes of the School shall,
so far as not otherwise provided for, be made out of the income of the
Foundation applicable to the purposes of the School.

STAFF.

_Head Master and Assistants._

20. There shall be a Head Master of the School, and such number of
Assistant Masters as the Governors think fit.

_Employment of Staff._

21. Every Master in the School shall be employed under a contract of
service with the Governors which shall, in the case of appointments made
after the date of this Scheme, be reduced to writing, and shall in any
case be determinate only (except in the case of dismissal for misconduct
or other good and urgent cause) upon a written notice given by or on
behalf of the Governors or by the Master, as the case may be, and taking
effect in the case of the Head Master after the expiration of six months
from the date of notice, and in other cases at the end of a school term
and after the expiration of two months from the date of notice; but
nothing in this clause shall--

(_a_) in the case of any person employed at the date of this Scheme,
affect any special provisions as to notice contained in the Scheme under
which he was appointed or any special agreement as to notice in force at
the date of this Scheme; or

(_b_) affect the special provisions of this Scheme as to the procedure
to be followed by the Governors in the case of the dismissal of the Head
Master.

_Masters need not be in Holy Orders._

22. No person shall be disqualified for being a Master in the School by
reason only of his not being, or not intending to be, in Holy Orders.

_Masters not to be Governors._

23. No Master in the School shall be a Governor.

_Head Master--Appointment._

24. The Head Master shall be a graduate of a University in the United
Kingdom or have such other equivalent qualification as may be approved
by the Board of Education. He shall be appointed by the Governors after
due public advertisement in newspapers and otherwise so as to secure the
best candidates.

_Dismissal of Head Master._

25. The Governors may, at pleasure, dismiss the Head Master without
assigning cause, upon notice given in accordance with the provisions of
this Scheme; or they may, for misconduct or other good and urgent cause,
dismiss him without notice.

Any resolution to dismiss the Head Master shall not take effect until it
has been passed at a special meeting, and confirmed at a second special
meeting held after an interval of not less than 14 days, and is so
passed and confirmed by not less than two-thirds of the Governors
present and voting on the question.

Provided that where the dismissal is a dismissal without notice--

(_a_) the Governors may, at the first meeting, if they think fit, by a
resolution passed by not less than two-thirds of the whole number of
Governors for the time being in office, suspend the Head Master from his
office until the second meeting; and

(_b_) full notice of, and opportunity of defence at, both meetings shall
be given to the Head Master.

_Head Master's Tenure and Official Residence._

26. The Head Master shall dwell in the residence, if any, assigned for
him. The occupation and use of the residence and of any other property
of the Foundation occupied by him as Head Master shall be had by him in
respect of his official character and duties, and not as tenant, and if
he is removed from his office, he shall relinquish all claim to the
Mastership and its future emoluments, and shall deliver up possession of
the residence and other property to the Governors, or as they direct. He
shall not, except with the permission of the Governors, permit any
person not being a member of his family to occupy the residence or any
part thereof.

_Head Master not to have other Employment._

27. The Head Master shall give his personal attention to the duties of
the School. He shall not undertake any office or employment interfering
with the proper performance of his duties as Head Master. He shall not
hold any benefice having the cure of souls, nor during a school term
perform for payment any ecclesiastical duty outside the School.

_Income of Head Master._

28. Subject as in this Scheme provided, the Head Master shall receive a
stipend in accordance with a rate or scale fixed by the Governors.

_Assistant Masters._

29. The power of appointing and dismissing Assistant Masters in the
School shall be exercised by the Head Master, after obtaining in every
case the approval of the Governors, and every Assistant Master shall be
dismissible at pleasure, either on notice given in accordance with the
provisions of this Scheme, or in the case of misconduct or other good
and urgent cause, without notice.

An Assistant Master may at any time be suspended from duty by the Head
Master, and the Head Master shall in that case report the matter to the
Governors.

_Pensions or Insurance._

30. The Governors may contribute, or agree to contribute, while any
Master is in their employment, towards yearly payments for securing on
his behalf a pension or capital sum payable after that employment has
ceased. The amount contributed by the Governors in respect of a Master
in any year shall not exceed that contributed by the Master.

ORGANIZATION AND CURRICULUM.

_Jurisdiction of Governors over School Arrangements._

31. Within the limits fixed by this Scheme, the Governors shall
prescribe the general subjects of instruction, the relative prominence
and value to be assigned to each group of subjects, what reports shall
be required to be made to them by the Head Master, the arrangements
respecting the school terms, vacations, and holidays, and the number of
boarders. They shall take general supervision of the sanitary condition
of the school buildings and arrangements. They shall every year fix the
amount which they think proper to be paid out of the income of the
Foundation applicable for the purposes of the School for providing and
maintaining a proper School plant and apparatus and awarding prizes.

_Views and Proposals of Head Master._

32. Before making any rules under the last foregoing clause, the
Governors shall consult the Head Master in such a manner as to give him
full opportunity for the expression of his views. The Head Master may
also from time to time submit proposals to the Governors for making or
altering rules concerning any matter within the province of the
Governors. The Governors shall fully consider any such expression of
views or proposals and shall decide upon them.

_Jurisdiction of Head Master over School Arrangements._

33. Subject to any rules prescribed by or under the authority of this
Scheme, the Head Master shall have under his control the choice of
books, the method of teaching, the arrangement of classes and school
hours, and generally the whole internal organization, management, and
discipline of the School, including the power of expelling boys from the
School or suspending them from attendance for any adequate cause to be
judged of by him, but on expelling or suspending any boy he shall
forthwith report the case to the Governors.

_Payments for School Objects._

34. The Head Master shall determine, subject to the approval of the
Governors, in what proportions the sum fixed by the Governors for school
plant and apparatus and prizes shall be divided among the various
objects for which it is fixed in the aggregate, and the Governors shall
pay the same accordingly either through the hands of the Head Master or
directly as they think best.

_General Instruction._

35. Instruction shall be given in the School in such subjects proper to
be taught in a Public Secondary School for boys as the Governors in
consultation with the Head Master from time to time determine. Subject
to the provisions of this Scheme, the course of instruction shall be
according to the classification and arrangements made by the Head
Master.

_Religious Instruction._

36. Subject to the provisions of this Scheme, religious instruction in
accordance with the principles of the Christian Faith shall be given in
the School under regulations to be made by the Governors. No alteration
in any such regulations shall take effect until the expiration of not
less than one year after notice of the making of the alteration has been
given by the Governors in such manner as they think best calculated to
bring the matter within the knowledge of persons interested in the
School.

_Religious Exemptions._

37.--(_a_) The parent or guardian of, or person liable to maintain or
having the actual custody of, any boy attending the School as a day
pupil may claim by notice in writing addressed to the Head Master the
exemption of such boy from attending prayer or religious worship, or
from any lesson or series of lessons on a religious subject, and such
boy shall be exempted accordingly, and a boy shall not, by reason of
any exemption from attending prayer or religious worship, or from any
lesson or series of lessons on a religious subject, be deprived of any
advantage or emolument in the School or out of the endowment of the
Foundation to which he would otherwise have been entitled.

(_b_) If the parent or guardian of, or person liable to maintain or
having the actual custody of, any boy who is about to attend the School
and who but for this sub-clause could only be admitted as a boarder,
desires the exemption of such boy from attending prayer or religious
worship, or from any lesson or series of lessons on a religious subject,
but the persons in charge of the boarding-houses of the School are not
willing to allow such exemption, then it shall be the duty of the
Governors to make proper provisions for enabling the boy to attend the
School and have such exemption as a day pupil, without being deprived of
any advantage or emolument to which he would otherwise have been
entitled.

(_c_) If any teacher, in the course of other lessons, at which any boy
exempted under this clause is in accordance with the ordinary rules of
the School present, teaches systematically and persistently any
particular religious doctrine from the teaching of which any exemption
has been claimed as in this clause before provided, the Governors shall,
on complaint made in writing to them by the parent, guardian, or person
liable to maintain or having the actual custody of such boy, hear the
complainant, and inquire into the circumstances, and if the complaint is
judged to be reasonable, make all proper provisions for remedying the
matter complained of.

_Examinations._

38. Once at least in every two years there shall be, at the cost of the
Foundation, an examination of the whole of each of the upper forms of
the School by, or under the direction of, a University or other
examining body approved by the Board of Education, with the assistance,
if the Governors think fit, of any of the teaching staff of the School;
and a report thereon shall be made to the Governors, who shall send
copies of it to the Head Master and to the West Riding County Council
and two copies to the Board of Education. Provided that the Board may,
either generally or in any particular year, dispense with that
examination as regards any of the upper forms.

Once at least in every year there shall be an examination of the lower
forms by the teaching staff of the School, and a report thereon shall be
made to the Governors if they require it.

An examination may be partly in writing and partly oral, or, in the
lower forms, wholly oral. If in any year the School as a whole is
inspected by the Board of Education, the Board may dispense with any
examination for that and the following year. The Board may decide which
forms shall be considered to be "upper" and "lower" respectively for the
purposes of this clause.

CONDITIONS OF ADMISSION.

_To Whom School is Open._

39. Subject to the provisions established by or under the authority of
this Scheme, the School and all its advantages shall be open to all boys
of good character and sufficient health. Provided that a boy shall not
be admitted to the School--

(_a_) unless he is residing with his parent, guardian, or near relation
within degrees of kindred fixed by the Governors, or lodging in the
house of some person other than a Master, conducted under the rules
approved for that house by the Governors, or

(_b_) unless (if he is admitted as a border) he is boarding in a house
conducted under rules made by the Governors and provided or controlled
by them or by some Master who is not the parent of the boy.

_Ages for School._

40. Subject as herein provided, no boy shall be admitted to the School
under the age of 9 years. No boy shall remain in the School after the
end of the school year, in which the age of 19 is attained. The Head
Master shall make rules for the withdrawal of boys from the School in
cases where, from idleness, or incapacity to profit by the studies of
the place, they have fallen materially below the standard of position
and attainment proper for their age.

_Application for Admission._

41. Applications for admission to the School shall be made to the Head
Master, or to some person appointed by the Governors, according to a
form to be approved by them and delivered to all applicants.

_Register of Applications._

42. The Head Master or some person appointed by the Governors shall keep
a register of applications of admission, showing the date of every
application and of the admission, withdrawal, or rejection of the
applicant and the cause of any rejection and the age of each applicant.
Provided that every person requiring an application to be registered
shall pay such fee as the Governors may fix, not exceeding five
shillings.

_Entrance Examination._

43. No boy shall be admitted to the School except after being found fit
for admission in an examination under the direction of the Head Master
graduated according to the age of the boy, or in some other examination
approved by the Governors. Those who are so found fit shall, if there is
room for them, be admitted in order according to the date of their
application.

_Fees._

44. No fee, payment, or gratuity shall be received from or on behalf of
any boy in the School, except in accordance with Rules for Payments,
which shall be made by the Governors and shall among other things
provide:--

(_a_) for the payment of such tuition fee, at the rate of not more than
30_l._ and not less than 12_l._ a year, as is prescribed in the rules:

(_b_) for the payment of an entrance fee not exceeding 3_l._ and

(_c_) in the case of any boarder, for the payment of a boarding fee, at
the rate of not more than 66_l._ a year, in addition to the tuition fee.

The Rules for Payments shall be subject to the approval of the Board of
Education signified by writing under their seal, and when so approved
shall have effect accordingly.

FREE PLACES, MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCES, AND EXHIBITIONS.

_Exemptions from Fees._

45. (1.) The Rules for Payments shall provide for total or partial
exemptions from payment of tuition fees or entrance fees.

(2.) They shall, among other things, provide--

(_a_) that a yearly sum of not less than 60_l._ out of the income of the
Foundation applicable for the general purposes of the School may, if
funds permit, be applied in providing total or partial exemptions from
payment of tuition fees for boys who are and have for not less than
three years been resident in the Ancient Parish of Giggleswick; and

(_b_) that the income of the property representing the endowment of
Josias Shute shall be applied in providing total exemptions from payment
of tuition fees and the cost of books and stationery, to be called Shute
Scholarships, and to be offered in the first instance to boys who are
and have for not less than two years been in attendance at a Public
Elementary School in the Ancient Parish of Giggleswick;

and may also provide--

(_c_) that any boys who are exempted from payment of tuition fees under
the provisions of sub-clauses (2) (_a_) and (2) (_b_) of this clause,
and who by reason of their proficiency are deserving of the distinction,
shall be called Giggleswick Scholars and Shute Scholars respectively,
and that any other boys who are exempted from payment of tuition fees,
and are likewise worthy of the distinction, shall be called Foundation
Scholars.

_Maintenance Allowances._

46. The Governors may award to such of the Giggleswick Scholars or
Foundation Scholars as in the opinion of the Governors are in need of
financial assistance to enable them to enter or remain in the School,
Maintenance Allowances each of a yearly value of not more than 5_l._ Any
such Allowance may, at the discretion of the Governors, be paid to the
parent or guardian of the boy, or may be applied by them towards
payments (other than tuition or entrance fees under the Rules for
Payments or in providing the boy with travelling facilities or meals).

_Boys' Moiety of Yearly Sum of 90l._

47. The Governors shall apply one moiety of the above-mentioned yearly
sum of 90_l._, in one or both of the following ways:--

(1) in providing additional Shute Scholarships,

(2) in awarding maintenance allowances each of a yearly value of not
more than 10_l._ to Shute Scholars.

Any unapplied residue of the said moiety shall be applied by the
Governors in augmenting the value of the Giggleswick and other
Exhibitions herein-after mentioned.

_Boarding Scholarships._

48. The Governors may, if funds permit, apply a yearly sum of not more
than 150_l._ out of the income of the Foundation applicable for the
purposes of the School in the maintenance of Boarding Scholarships, each
consisting of exemption, total or partial, from payment of boarding
fees. These Scholarships may be held in conjunction with any Scholarship
or Exemption maintained under this Scheme.

_Giggleswick and other Leaving Exhibitions._

49. The Governors shall, as soon as funds permit, maintain a Leaving
Exhibition, to be called the Giggleswick Exhibition, of the yearly value
of not less than 30_l._ nor more than 50_l._ to be awarded for
proficiency in any one or more of the subjects of general instruction
provided for by this Scheme. They may also maintain (1) a Leaving
Exhibition to be called the Clapham and Tennant Exhibition, and (2)
other Leaving Exhibitions.

(_a_) The Exhibitions shall be tenable at any University, Training
College for pupils intending to enter the teaching profession, or other
Institution of higher, including professional or technical, instruction.

(_b_) An Exhibition shall be either

(i) a single payment, or

(ii) a series of payments extending over not more than four years,

and in either case shall not exceed a total value of 200_l._

(_c_) Exhibitions shall be awarded for merit only, on the result of such
examination as the Governors think fit, to boys who then are and have
for not less than two years been in the School. Within the limits fixed
by this Scheme the Exhibitions shall be freely and openly competed for,
and shall be awarded under such rules and conditions as the Governors
think fit, but so that as nearly as possible the same number may be
awarded each year. Any Exhibition for which there is no duly qualified
candidate, who on examination is adjudged worthy to take it, shall for
that turn not be awarded.

_Deprivation._

50. The Scholarships and Exhibitions shall be tenable only for the
purposes of education. If, in the judgment of the Governors, the holder
of any Scholarship or Exhibition or any boy exempted as aforesaid is
guilty of serious misconduct or idleness, or fails to maintain a
reasonable standard of proficiency, or ceases to pursue his education,
the Governors may deprive him of the Scholarship, Exhibition, Exemption,
or any Maintenance Allowance, but in the case of an Exemption (unless
the Rules for Payments otherwise provide) only upon grounds sufficient
to justify the removal of any boy from the School. In the case of an
Exhibition, the Governors may act on the report of the proper
authorities of the University, College, or Institution, at which the
Exhibition is held, or on such other evidence as the Governors think
sufficient. Under this clause the decision of the Governors shall be
final in each case.

SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS.

_Preparatory Department._

51. The Governors may, if they think fit, maintain in the School a
Preparatory Department for the education of boys. For this department
the Governors may make such modifications as they think fit in the
foregoing provisions relating to ages, instruction, and examination, and
the Rules for payments may prescribe such tuition fees as may be thought
suitable.

_Education of intending Elementary School Teachers._

52. The Governors may, with the approval in writing of the Board of
Education, make special provision in or in connexion with the School for
the education of boys who intend to qualify as teachers in Public
Elementary Schools. For these boys, subject to the like approval, the
Governors may make such modifications as they think fit in the foregoing
provisions relating to ages, instruction, and examination, and the Rules
for Payments may prescribe such tuition fees as may be thought suitable.

SETTLE GIRLS' SCHOOL.

_Payment to Settle Girls' School._

53. The Governors shall pay the other moiety of the said yearly sum of
90_l._ to the Governing Body of the new Public Secondary School for
girls established or about to be established at Settle, to be applied by
such Governing Body for the general purposes of that School, on
condition that the Governing Body maintain therein not less than three
free places for girls who are resident in the Ancient Parish of
Giggleswick, and who are and have for not less than two years been in
attendance at a Public Elementary School.

TRANSITORY PROVISIONS.

_Continuance of Existing Arrangements._

54. Until the expiration of two months from the date of this Scheme, or
such further period as may be sanctioned in writing by the Board of
Education, matters which under this Scheme are to be the subject of
rules which require the approval of the Board under their seal may be
conducted in accordance, as far as circumstances permit, with the
arrangements existing at the date of this Scheme.

_First Meeting of Governors._

55. The first meeting of the Governors shall be summoned by the Clerk of
the present Governing Body as soon as possible after the date of this
Scheme, or, if he fails to summon a meeting for two months after that
date, by any two Governors.

_Present Head Master._

56. The present Head Master shall, if willing, take and hold the office
of Head Master of the School under this Scheme. He shall be entitled
while holding office to receive a fixed yearly stipend of 200_l._ and
also a capitation payment calculated on such a scale, uniform or
graduated, as may be fixed from time to time by the Governors, at the
rate of not less than 4_l._ a year for each boy in the School.

_Saving of Interests._

57. No boy who is and on 8 September 1909 was in the School shall be
liable to any payment to which he might not have been liable if this
Scheme had not been made, and any holder of a Scholarship or Exhibition
awarded on or before the date of this Scheme shall be entitled to hold
his Scholarship or Exhibition as if this Scheme had not been made.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

_Further Endowments._

58. The Governors may receive any additional donations or endowments for
the general purposes of the Foundation. They may also receive donations
or endowments for any special objects connected with the Foundation not
inconsistent with or calculated to impede the due working of the
provisions of this Scheme. Any question arising upon this last point
shall be referred to the Board of Education for their decision.

_Orders for Replacement not affected._

59. Nothing in this Scheme shall affect any Order of the Charity
Commissioners or the Board of Education now in force, so far as it makes
provision for the discharge of any debt or for the replacement of any
stock or money.

_Alteration of Scheme._

60. The Board of Education may, in the exercise of their ordinary
jurisdiction under the Charitable Trusts Acts, 1853 to 1894, frame
Schemes for the alteration of any portions of this Scheme, provided that
such alteration shall not be contrary to anything contained in the
Endowed Schools Acts, 1869, 1873 and 1874, and that the object of the
Foundation shall always be:--

(1) to supply a liberal education for boys by means of a School or
Schools in the Ancient Parish of Giggleswick or otherwise, and

(2) to promote the education of girls.

_Questions under Scheme._

61. Any question as to the construction of this Scheme or as to the
regularity or the validity of any acts done or about to be done under
this Scheme, shall be determined conclusively by the Board of
Education, upon such application made to them for the purpose as they
think sufficient.

_Interpretation._

62. The Interpretation Act, 1889, applies to the interpretation of this
Scheme as it applies to an Act of Parliament.

_Date of Scheme._

63. The date of this Scheme shall be the day on which it is established
by an Order of the Board of Education.


MANAGEMENT RULES.

MEETINGS AND PROCEEDINGS.

1. The Governors shall hold ordinary or stated meetings at least twice
in each year. A special meeting may at any time be summoned by the
Chairman or any two Governors upon four clear days' notice being given
to the other Governors of the matters to be discussed.

_Chairman._

2. The Governors shall, at their first ordinary or stated meeting in
each year, elect one of their number to be Chairman of their meetings
for the year. If it is necessary to supply his place at any meeting, the
Chairman of that meeting shall be appointed before any other business is
transacted. The Chairman shall always be re-eligible.

_Rescinding Resolutions._

3. Any resolution of the Governors may be rescinded or varied at a
subsequent meeting, if due notice of the intention to rescind or vary
the same has been given to all the Governors.

_Adjournment of Meetings._

4. If at the time appointed for a meeting a sufficient number of
Governors to form a quorum are not present, or if at any meeting the
business is not completed, the meeting shall stand adjourned _sine die_,
and a special meeting shall be summoned as soon as conveniently may be.
Any meeting may be adjourned by resolution.

_Minutes and Accounts._

5. The Governors shall provide and keep a minute-book and books of
account. All proper accounts in relation to the Foundation shall in each
year be made out and certified, and copies sent to the Board of
Education and the West Riding County Council in such form as the Board
may require.

_Publication of Accounts._

6. On sending accounts for any year to the Board of Education the
Governors shall exhibit for public inspection in some convenient place
in Giggleswick, copies of the accounts so sent for that year, giving due
public notice where and when the same may be seen, and they shall at all
reasonable times allow the accounts for any year to be inspected, and
copies or extracts to be made, by all persons applying for the purpose.

_General Power to make Rules._

7. Within the limits prescribed by the Scheme, the Governors shall have
full power to make rules for the management of the Foundation, and for
the conduct of their business, including the summoning of meetings, the
deposit of money at a proper bank, the custody of documents, and the
appointment during their pleasure of a Clerk or of any necessary
officers at such a rate of remuneration as may be approved by the Board
of Education.

MANAGEMENT OF PROPERTY.

8. The Governors shall manage the property of the Foundation not
occupied for the purposes thereof according to the general law
applicable to the management of property by Trustees of charitable
foundations.

_Repairs and Insurance._

9. The Governors shall keep in repair and insure against fire all the
buildings of the Foundation not required to be kept in repair and
insured by the lessees or tenants thereof.

_Allotments Extension Act, 1882._

10. The Governors may set apart and let in allotments under the
Allotments Extension Act, 1882, any portions of the land belonging to
the Foundation other than buildings and appurtenances of buildings.

_Letting of Property._

11. The Governors shall give public notice of the intention to let any
property in such manner as they shall consider most effectual for
insuring full publicity. The Governors shall not create any tenancy in
reversion, or for more than 21 years certain, or for less than the
improved annual value at rackrent, without the sanction of the Board of
Education or a competent Court.

_Leases._

12. The Governors shall provide that on the grant by them of any lease
the lessee shall execute a counterpart; and every lease shall contain a
covenant on the part of the lessee for the payment of rent, and all
other usual and proper covenants applicable to the property comprised
therein, and a proviso for re-entry on non-payment of the rent, or
non-performance of the covenants.

_Timber and Minerals.--Surplus Cash._

13. Any money arising from the sale of timber, or from any mines or
    minerals on the estates of the Foundation; and

Any sum of cash now or at any time belonging to the Foundation and not
    needed as a balance for working purposes;

shall (unless otherwise ordered by the Board of Education) be treated as
capital and be invested in the name of the Official Trustees of
Charitable Funds.

COPIES OF SCHEME.

14. The Governors shall cause a copy of the Scheme to be given to every
Governor, Head Master, and other Teacher, upon entry into office, and
copies may be sold at a reasonable price to all persons applying for the
same.


SCHEDULE.

PARTICULARS OF PROPERTY OF THE FOUNDATION.

===========================================================================
Description.             |   Extent  | Tenant, Person liable, |Gross Yearly
                         | or Amount.|or Persons in whose Name|  Income.
                         |           |       invested.        |
-------------------------+-----------+------------------------+------------
REAL ESTATE.             |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
_At Giggleswick._        |           |                        |
                         |  A. R. P. |                        | £ _s._ _d._
Sites and buildings of   |   ----    | In hand.               |   ----
 the Grammar School,     |           |                        |
 Chapel, hostel, Masters'|           |                        |
 houses, &c.             |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
Eatage of Football field |  6  1  17 | Emanuel Johnson        | 10   0   0
 (Lower Ashton).         |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
Tram Pasture             |  4  1  32 |                        |
                         |           |                        |
Eatage of Cricket field  | 15  0   7 | Messrs. Harrison & Sons|  8   0   0
                         |           |                        |
Brookside croft          |  1  0  36 | W. W. Vaughan          |  3   0   0
                         |           |                        |
Site for Sanatorium      |  6  3  32 | }                      |
                         |           | }  George Jenkinson    | 44  10   0
Spen pasture             | 11  3  26 | }                      |
                         |           |                        |
Land called "Cappleriggs"| 16  3   2 |     Do.   do.          | 20   0   0
                         |           |                        |
  "    "    "Poor Ashton"|  2  0  33 | Emanuel Johnson        | 10  10   0
                         |           |                        |
Bath Croft               |  1  1  14 | William Simpson        |  3  10   0
                         |           |                        |
_At North Cave, in the   |           |                        |
  East Riding._          |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
Farm buildings and land  |129  2  14 | Charles Dennis         | 88   0   0
 called "North Cave      |           |                        |
 Farm."                  |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
Farm buildings and land  |128  2   0 |   Do.    do.           |100  0   0
 called "Common Farm."   |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
Farm Buildings and land  | 67  3  15 | Thomas Cleminshaw      | 47  0   0
 called "Stoney Carr     |           |                        |
 Farm."                  |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
"White Hart" Inn and     | 48  0  22 | Mrs. Emily Gray        | 80  0   0
 garden, farm buildings, |           |                        |
 and land called         |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
Watermill, cottage, and  | 15  2  34 | Richard Boast          | 40  0   0
 land.                   |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
House, foundry, and land |  5  2  18 | W. and T. Saunders     | 25  0   0
                         |           |                        |
House and land           |  0  0  30 | Major Dunlop           |  7  4   0
                         |           |                        |
  Do.                    |  1  0  12 | H. S. Clarke           |  7  0   0
                         |           |                        |
  Do. (Nordham House)    |  1  0  15 | Thomas Gregson         | 25  0   0
                         |           |                        |
  Do.                    |  0  1  10 | W. J. Tuton            |  7  0   0
                         |           |                        |
Garden                   |  0  1   5 |   Do.                  |  2 10   0
                         |           |                        |
  Do.                    |  0  1  32½| W. E. Blanchard        |  2 10   0
                         |           |                        |
  Do.                    |  0  1  32 |   Do.    do.           |  2 10   0
                         |           |                        |
Land at Drewton          |  0  1  21 | W. Moverley            |  1  1   0
                         |           |                        |
Twenty-eight Sheepwalks  |   ----    | J. G. A. Jowett        |  7  7   0
 on Drewton.             |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
Rent for shooting over   |   ----    | Colonel Clitherow      |  9  9   0
 estate at North Cave.   |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
_Rentcharges._           |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
Quit-rents in respect of |   ----    | Various                |  3  2  10
 lands at North Cave.    |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
Tithe rentcharges on     |           | Various                | 23 10   4
 lands at Etherdwick, in |           |                        |
 Aldborough, in the East |           |                        |
 Riding.                 |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
Rentcharge on land at    |           | Christopher Other's    | 14  0   0
 Burton-in-Lonsdale,     |           |  Representatives       |
 West Riding.            |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
   Do.      do.          |           | ----Foxcroft           |  0 13   4
                         |           |                        |
Rentcharge on land at    |           | Fine Cotton Spinners'  |  0  3   6
 Langcliffe, in Parish   |           |  Association, Limited, |
 of Giggleswick.         |           |  Manchester.           |
                         |           |                        |
PERSONAL ESTATE.         |           |                        |
                         |£ _s._ _d._|                        |
Consols                  |  4 11  0  | The Official Trustees  |  0  2   0
                         |           |  of Charitable Funds.  |
                         |           |                        |
_The Howson Prize Fund._ |           |                        |
                         |           |                        |
Proceeds of Sale of      |104  0  0  | Governors of the School|
 shares in the Settle    |           |                        |
 Public Buildings        |           |                        |
 Company.                |           |                        |----------
                         |           |   Total               £|594 13   0
-------------------------+-----------+------------------------+------------

This schedule is made up to 1 November 1909.

The Board of Education order that the foregoing scheme be established.

Sealed this 1st day of February 1910.



APPENDIX X.

MASTERS OF GIGGLESWICK.


1499-1518 JAMES CARR, Founder of the Rood Chantry.

1548-1560 RICHARD CARR, Incumbent of the Rood Chantry.

1615-1619 REV. CHRISTOPHER SHUTE, B.D., Vicar of Giggleswick, 1576-1626.

1619-1641 REV. ROBERT DOCKRAY, M.A., Vicar of Giggleswick, 1632-1641.

1642-1647 REV. ROWLAND LUCAS, M.A.

1648-1656 REV. WILLIAM WALKER, M.A.

1656-     WILLIAM BRADLEY (Temporary).

1656-1684 REV. WILLIAM BRIGGS.

1684-     JOHN PARKINSON, B.A.

1685-1712 REV. JOHN ARMITSTEAD, M.A.

1712-1744 REV. JOHN CARR, B.A.

1744-1799 REV. WILLIAM PALEY, B.A.

1800-1844 REV. ROWLAND INGRAM, B.D.

1846-1858 REV. GEORGE ASH BUTTERTON, D.D.

1858-1866 REV. JOHN RICHARD BLAKISTON, M.A.

1866-1867 REV. THOMAS BRAMLEY, M.A. (Provisional).

1867-1869 MICHAEL FORSTER, B.A. (Provisional).

1869-1904 REV. GEORGE STYLE, M.A.

1904-1910 WILLIAM WYAMAR VAUGHAN, M.A.

1910-     ROBERT NOEL DOUGLAS, M.A.



APPENDIX XI.

USHERS.


1545-1562 THOMAS IVESON (Priest).

1615-1642 HENRY CLAPHAMSON.

1642-1665 WILLIAM WILSON.

1666-1671 WILLIAM COWGILL.

1671-1680 REV. THOMAS WILDEMAN, B.A.

1680-1682 JOHN PARKINSON, B.A.

1683-1688 REV. JOHN SPARKE.

1688-     HENRY ROOME.

1688-1698 RICHARD ATKINSON.

1698-1703 ARTHUR WHITAKER.

1704-1705 REV. ANTHONY WEATHERHEAD, B.A.

17  -1712 THOMAS RATHMELL.

1712-1726 RICHARD THORNTON.

1726-1755 GEORGE CARR.

1756-1784 JOHN MOORE.

1784-1792     SMITH.

1792-1799 REV. NICHOLAS WOOD.

1799-1810 REV. OBADIAH CLAYTON.

1810-1814 JOHN ARMSTRONG.

1814-1858 REV. JOHN HOWSON, M.A.

1858-1864 REV. MATTHEW WOOD, M.A.


WRITING MASTERS.

1784-1790 J. SAUL.

1790-1791     STANCLIFFE.

1791-1799 ROBERT KIDD.

1799-1807 JOHN CARR.

1807-1831 WILLIAM STACKHOUSE.

1831-1859 JOHN LANGHORNE.

1859-1897 ARTHUR BREWIN.

N.B.--In 1872 the position of Mr. Brewin was changed.



INDEX.


Acaster, 28

Act Book, Ripon, 19

Alcuin of York, 205

Aldburgh, 29

Aldershot, 223

Alfred, King, 205

Aligarh, 212

Ardingly, 212

Argentine, 203

Armitstead, Anthony, 71
  John (Master), 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79

Armistead, ----, 121
  Roger, 28

Armstrong, John (Usher), 117, 120, 147

Arnold, Dr., 153, 205, 208

Ascham, Roger, 24

Atherton, Thomas, 57

Atkinson, Richard (Usher), 72, 74

Athletic Shop, 228

Auckland, St. Andrew, 67

Austwick, 54, 121, 193


Baker, Sergt.-Major, 219

Banckes, Thomas, 31, 48

Bank, William, 28

Bankes, Alexander, 54
  Robert, 60
  William, 84, 86

Banks, John, 51

Bankwell, 191, 195, 222

Barney, 53

Barrows, Anthony, 71

Bayley, John, 99

Bearcroft, Philip, 211, 226

Beck House, 225

Benet, John, 32

Beverley, 103

Big School, 182, 189, 190, 203, 205

Birkbeck, John, 138
  John (Junior), 184, 187

Blakiston, Rev. J. R. (Master), 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 158,
      162, 163, 166, 167, 168, 169

Boarding-house (_see_ Hostel), 173

Boer War, 197

Bognor, 116

Bolton, 107

Boyd, Rev. W., 137

Brackenridge, J., 136

Bradley, Mary, 113
  William (Master), 69
  William, 99, 113

Bramley, ----, 148
  Rev. T. (Master), 166, 169

Brampton, 29

Brasenose College, Oxford, 25

Brayshay, Thomas, 71

"Breeches" Bible, 191

Brewin, Arthur, 150, 151, 173, 192

Brigge, William (Master), 69, 70, 71, 72

Brinsley, 41

Brookside, 221

Browne, William, 28

"Bubble and Squeak," 212

Buckhaw Brow, 225

Bulidon, 29, 30

Bultfontein, 197

"Bumming" Stone, 145

Bunyan, John, 205

Burton, 67
  Exhibitions (_see_ Carr, Tennant, Clapham, Shute), 67, 72, 73, 74, 80,
      82, 85, 92, 130, 134, 164
  Rents, 62, 90, 134, 164

Busby, 206

Butterton, Rev G. A. (Master), 131, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148,
      149, 151, 152, 153, 157, 191, 219


Caedmon, 205

Camden, 42

Cansdale, Sergeant-Major, 196, 219, 228, 229

Canterbury, 40

Capleside, 84

Cappleriggs Close, 61, 62

Carlisle, 83

Carr, ---- (Governor), 166
  George (Usher), 77, 80, 85
  James (Founder), 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 26, 30, 54, 55, 77, 90, 91, 101,
      106, 135, 204, 219, 221, 229

Carr, John, 65
  (Master), 77, 78, 79, 80
  (Mathematical Professor at Durham University), 133
  (Writing Master), 99, 103, 111, 113, 114, 116, 121
  Richard (Master), 22, 26, 77
  (Founder of the Exhibitions), 55
  Richard (of Peterhouse), 57
  Roger (Governor, 1592), 31
  Stephen (of Stackhouse), 14
  Thomas (Vicar of Sancton), 71
    (of Settle), 71
    (Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge) 110, 111
  William (of Langcliffe), 77
    (of Stackhouse), 77, 84
    (Rector of Bolton), 106, 107
  Exhibitions, 56, 58, 73, 82, 221

Catterall, John, 48
  William, 28

Cavendish, Lord Edward, 187
  Lord Frederick, 187

Chantries Act, 20

Chantry of Our Lady, 22
  of the Rood, 13, 14, 16, 18, 22, 23
  Tempest, 22
  Commissioners, 19, 37

Chapel (_see_ Parish Church), 198, 199, 200, 202, 203, 205, 221, 225

Charity Commissioners, 52, 118, 154, 155, 158, 161, 163, 183

Charles II, 68

Charter, 26, 27, Appendix VI

Chelsea Training College, 150

Chester, Dean of, 122

Chewe, Richard, 31, 48

Chichester, Bishop of, 117

Chippett, Rev. J. W., 213

Choir Schools, 24

Christie, Hector, 187

Christ's College, Cambridge, 56, 57, 65, 66, 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77,
      78, 80, 82, 83, 85, 93, 108, 221

Cirencester, 158

Clapham (of Austwick), 193
  Elizabeth, 81
  John (Vicar), 93, 107, 124
  William (Founder of Clapham Exhibitions), 49, 50, 51, 73
  Exhibitions, 49, 50, 52, 54

Claphamson, 49
  Henry (Usher), 58, 63, 64
  Robart, 53

Clarke, Dr. T., 108

Class-rooms, 181, 183

Clayton, Obadiah (Usher), 102, 115, 116, 117

Clementson, Enoch, 99, 113, 114

Cletehop, 28, 52, 53

Clifton College, 173, 216, 217

Clough, 92

Club, Old Boys', 195
  Giggleswick Boys', 219

Cocker's Arithmetic, 191

Cocket, Thomas, 74

Cockett, John, 66

Colchester, 60

Colenso, 197

Colet, Dean, 41

Columba, 205

Colours, School, 193

Conventicle Act, Second, 68

Cook, Isaac, 110

Cookson, Bryan, 74
  John, 80
  Robte, 71

Cornah, J. R., 197

Cosen, Bishop, 68

Coulthurst, Rev. W. H. (Vicar), 188

Cowgill, William (Usher), 70

Craggs, Mrs., 120

Craven Bank, 122, 128, 131, 152, 165, 170, 180, 186, 194

Cricket, 189, 193
  Field (_see_ Football Field), 198, 223
  Pavilion, 205

Cross-country Race, 225

Croxton, 49

Cumberland, 84

Custos, 41


Dawson, William, 84

Debating Society, 193

Devonshire, Duke of, 203

Dickens, Charles, 191

Dockray, Josias, 66
  Robert (Master and Vicar), 58, 63, 64
  Thomas, 65

Dome (Chapel), 198, 199, 201, 204

Douglas, R. N. (Headmaster), 227

Dronfield School, 34

Drummond, Archbishop, 86

Dublin, 147, 171

Duncan, 108

Durham School, 42, 44, 150
  Prior of, 16, 17, 25, 55


Edderwick, 29

Edmund, King, 205

Edward VI, 20, 21, 25, 26, 31, 47, 48, 135, 203, 204

Education, Board of, 221

Educational Exhibition, 193, 196

Elizabeth, Queen, 21, 40, 47, 48

Ellershaw, Richard (Vicar), 58, 73

Endowed Schools Act, 74, 174

English School, 113, 114, 117, 118, 119, 126, 133, 140, 142, 192
  Teaching of, 217

Erasmus, 42

Eshton Close, 61, 62

Eton College, 37, 41, 94, 110, 205

Exhibitions (_see_ Burton, Carr, Tennant, Shute), 94, 95, 100, 109, 119,
      177, 178

Exhibition, Giggleswick, 177, Appendix IX


Fagging, 208

Farrar, Rev. F. W., 150

Fearon, D. R., 174

Fees, imposition of, 176

Feizor}
Fesar } 28, 84

Fig-Day (_see_ Potations), 145, 156

Finchale Priory, 14, 25, 55

Fishbourn, 60

Fitch, J. G., 16

Fives Courts, 157, 182, 190, 194, 221, 224

Football, 189, 190, 193, 196, 209
  Field, 165, 189, 190, 224

Forster, Michael (Headmaster), 170, 171

Foster, Christopher, 31
  Dr., 108
  James, 99, 107
  James, 154
  William, 74

Foundation Scholars, Appendix, 9

Frampton, George, A.R.A., 203

Frankland, Jane, 67
  John, 67
  Richard, 67, 68
  ----, 48

"Free" School, 27, 79, 160, 176, 177, 178

Fulmodestone, 49


Garforth, William, 138

Gargrave, 88

Gate-house, 205, 219

_Gentleman's Magazine_, 17, 91

George III, 87

Gibson, Thomas, 69

_Giggleswick Chronicle_, 18, 186, 197

Gloucester Grammar School, 39

Golf, 190, 193, 224

Gordon, General, 205

Gould, E., 223

Governing Body, 28, 115

Grace, 44

Gray, Thomas, 136

Graygreth, 212

Green, Thomas, 69

Gymnasium, 184, 194, 224


Hallam, 41

Hallpike, Vincent, 89

Hamworth, 53

Handby, J. W., 193

Harris, Charles, 80

Harrison, Richard, 74

Harrow School, 150

Hartlebury Grammar School, 50

Haselrig, Sir Arthur, 68

Hastings, Lady Elizabeth, 137
  Exhibition, 137, 148

Hawkwell, 56

Hebrew, 34, 41, 42, 43, 101, 104, 127, 139

Helpston, 80, 89

Helwysse, Sir Gervysse, 55

Henry VIII, 19, 20, 21, 40, 43

Herkomer, Sir H. Von, 206

Heversham, 65

High Rigg, 225

Higher Certificate, 218

Hockleigh, 55, 58

Hodgson, Sir W., 19

Holidays (_see_ Vacations), 35, 105, 130, 144, 153, 181

Hollins, 66

Hollybank, 192, 195

Holmes, ----, 113

Holywell Toft, 157, 180, 182

Horace, 108

Horman, 24

Horsfield, 75

Hostel, 165, 169, 170, 172, 174, 181, 189, 191, 192, 195, 208, 209, 227

Howbeck Ynge, 14

Howson, F., 135
  George, 133, 139
  John (Usher), 99, 120, 122, 123, 135, 144, 145, 146
  John Saul (Dean of Chester), 122, 123, 133, 138

Hulle, William, 14

Huntwaitfields, 61

Husteler, Thomas, 23

Hyde, C. F., 190, 191, 213


Ingram, Rev. D., 189
  Rev. Rowland (Master), 111, 116, 117, 120, 123, 125, 128, 131, 133,
      143, 157, 180, 189
  Rev. R., Junior (Vicar), 165, 180, 189

Injunctions, 20, 44

Inscription on First School, 18

Ipswich Grammar School, 111

Iveson, Thomas (Usher), 24, 26

Iveson, William, 89


J.N., 73

Jackson, J. G., 198, 199, 205

Jeaffreson, C. H., 173

Jesus College, Oxford, 57, 76

Joiner's Shop, 196


Keasden Farm, 75, 76, 78

Keate Collection (Museum), 193
  Dr., 206

Kelthorpe, North and South, 29

Kempson, Mrs., 157, 165, 180

Kennedy, Dr., 131

Kidd, Robert (Writing Master), 80, 98, 100, 103, 111, 113
  Thomas, 107, 108

King, John, 120

Kirkby (?) 65
  Lonsdale, 212, 213

Knowles, James, 154


Laboratory (_see_ Natural Science), 192, 193

Lancashire, 96

Lancaster Gaol, 84
  Grammar School, 189

Landon, J. T. B., 151

Langcliffe, 22, 77, 80, 81, 90

Langhorne, John (Writing Master), 123, 126, 144, 150, 192

Lascelles, Christopher, 63

Lateran Council, 12, 15, 40

Latimer, Bishop, 205

Leach, A. F., 16

Leake, 65

Leeds, 117, 219

Leeming, 148

Leghorn, 97

lemyng, Richard, 16

Library, 156, 157, 183, 191

Lily's Latin Grammar, 41, 42

Lincoln College, Oxford, 173

Lister, Anthony (Vicar, 1641), 64, 66
  (Vicar, 1741), 84

Literary Society, 193

Littleboro', 96

Liverpool, 117
  College, 122

Llandaff, Bishop of, 93

Locke, John, 108, 191

Lockwood, John, 114

London, 117

Long Preston, 71, 72

Lucas, Rowland (Master), 64, 65, 70

Lupton, J. H., 148

Lynch, Arthur, 128


Magdalen College, Oxford, 107, 151

Magdalene College, Cambridge, 70, 103, 108, 116

Maldon, 56, 58

Malhame, John, 18, 23
  William, 18, 23

Manchester, 59
  Grammar School, 180

Mannock, G. B., 191, 211, 213, 222

Markham, Archbishop, 99

Marshfield, 94

Martin Henry, 205

Marton, 19

Martyndale, Sir W., 19

Mary, Queen, 25

Mason, Jackson, 136, 147, 148

Master, The, 30, 35, 44, 86, 129, 140, 163, 164, 165, 171, 172, 176,
      182, 216

Mathematics, 185, 210

Mathematical Assistant, 103, 104

Mellers, Dame, 50

Merchant Taylors' School, 37

Metal Workshop, 221

Middleton Free School, 26

Milton, 205

Modern Languages, 131, 132, 139, 140, 144, 172, 174, 175, 193

Moore, John (Usher), 85, 88

More, Nathaniel, 71
  Sir Thomas, 205

Morrison, Walter, 156, 165, 187, 198, 199, 200, 204, 205, 206, 219

Mott, C. F., 218

Mulcaster, 24, 37, 42

Munde Bovers, 56, 58

Museum, 188, 193, 218

Musgrave, 84

Music, 190, 193, 222


National School, 161, 175

Natural Science, 172, 179, 180, 185, 193, 214, 215

Nelson, William, 74

New College, Oxford, 69, 170, 216

Newhall, 28, 48

Newhouse, 28

Nicholson, John, 120, 121

North Cave, 29, 70, 78, 87, 89, 109, 119, 124, 182, 184

Nottingham, 50

Nowell, Alexander (Dean of St. Paul's), 25, 26, 43
  Charles (Governor), 84
  John (Vicar), 25, 26, 28, 30, 43, 135, 219

"_Now Reds_," 197


O.T.C., 223, 228

_Olio_, 147, 197

Owen's College, Manchester, 176


Paley, ----, 76, 170
  Elizabeth, 105
  Richard, 99
  Thomas, 90, 121
  Thomas, 108, 111
  William (Master), 80, 83, 85, 88, 105, 106, 107, 108, 110, 120, 128,
      147
  William (Archdeacon), 82, 83, 93, 94, 106, 108, 204, 219

Parish Church, 187, 188, 202

Parker, John, 94
  Mr. and Mrs., 219

Parkinson, John (Master), 72

Parr, Dr., 108

Parratt, Sir Walter, 204

Paycock, Simon, 53

Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 47

Pert, Mary, 74

Peterborough, 80, 81, 89

Peterhouse, 57

Photographic Society, 193

Piers, John (Archbishop of York), 31, 59

Pierce, Rev. C. F. (Captain O. T. C.), 223

Porson, 108

_Positions_ (Mulcaster), 42

Potations, 49, 50, 51, 82, 105, 124, 145, 156

Powell (Master of S. John's College, Cambridge), 83

Praepositors}
Praepostors } 37, 207, 208, 209

Preparatory School (_see_ Bankwell) 178, 191

Preston, ----, (Governor), 105
  John, 108
  Richard, 99
  William, 14
  Corporation School, 150

Primer, 43

Prizes (_see_ Howson, G. and J. S., Ingram, Style), 138, 139, 157,
      218, 219

Procter, Anthony, 53
  Thomas, 28
  ----, 106

Pronounciation of Greek and Latin, 154

Prynne, Abraham de la, 66

Pulpit (Chapel), 204

Puteaco, Henry de, 25


Quadrivium, 40

Quakers, 69

Queen's College, Oxford, 137, 148, 172


Rathmell, 22, 48, 67, 68
  Thomas (Usher), 78

Rees, J. Conway, 211

Reith, A. W., 213

Revenues, 28, 29, 158, 170

Rhodes (Rev. C. A.), 212

Richmond, Bishop of, 189

Rifle Club, 219

Ripon, 64, 110
  Bishop of, 129, 130, 137, 142, 176, 205

Rise Estate, 29, 78, 87, 170

Robinson, ----, 123, 165
  George, 111
  J., 74
  John, 60
  J. G., 219, 221
  William, 138

Rochdale, 96

Rolleston, 49

Roome, Henry (Usher), 72

Rotherham Grammar School, 37

Roundell, C. S., 156, 187

Rugby School, 153

Runtoun, 49


S. Bees School, 44

S. Catherine's College, Cambridge, 150

S. John's College, Cambridge, 66, 69, 83, 84, 107, 131, 148, 176, 211

S. Mary, Wolnoth, 60

S. Paul's School, 41, 148

Salisbury, 223

Sanatorium, 153

Sancton, 15

Saul, J. (Writing Master), 91, 96, 113, 147

Scar Quarry, 225

Scar-rigg, 225

Scheme of Management (1872), 175, 187

Schofield, Captain, 197

Schoolboys' Tower, 208

School Songs (_see_ Cornah)

Science (_see_ Natural Science)

Scientific Society, 218

Scott, Sir Gilbert, 199
  Sir Walter, 197

Scrivener (_see_ Writing Master), 35, 44, 45, 79, 94, 98, 113

Seal, School, 28, 29

Sedbergh School, 111, 174, 175, 176, 182, 189

Seely House Grove, 56, 58

Selwyn College, Cambridge, 227

Settle, 22 28, 53, 54, 71, 74, 94, 97, 146, 147, 152, 175

Sharpe, Archbishop, 68

Sheepshanks, John, 111

Shrewsbury School, 131

Shute, Christopher (Master and Vicar), 31, 47, 48, 52, 54, 55, 58, 59,
      60, 62, 106
  ----, 59
  Josias (Archdeacon), 52, 54, 59, 60, 73, 74, 90, 178, 204
  Nathaniel, 59, 60
  Thomas, 54
  Timothy, 61
  Exhibitions (_see_ Burton), 61, 62, 69, 74, 88

Shuttleworth, Rev. Mr., 97
  Sir James Kay, 155, 160, 162, 165, 185, 186, 187

Sidney, Sir Philip, 205
  Sussex College, Cambridge, 111

Skipton, 179

Slater, Lieutenant S. A., 197

Smith, ----, (Usher), 88, 100
  D. R., 213
  James, 19, 23
  ----, 67
  S. P., 213

Somerscales, Henry, 48
  Robert, 55

Somerskayle, Richard, 22

Sparke, John (Usher), 71

Speech Day, 135, 218

Sports, Athletic, 193

Stackhouse, 77, 81
  Hugh, 70, 71
  Oliver, 70
  Thomas, 71
  William (Writing Master), 114, 120

Stainforth, 22, 28, 69

Stancliffe, ---- (Writing Master), 96, 113

Stanger, Kerr, 173

Statutes School, 30, 31, 41, 42, 59, 92, 98, 101, 126, 127, 152, 208

Stevens, Rev. W., 110

Stillingfleet, 28

Stipends of Master and Usher, 35, 36, 37, 63, 70, 72, 75, 76, 83, 92,
      95, 96, 100, 103, 115, 117, 129, 149, 163, 171

Style, Rev. G. (Headmaster), 172, 173, 185, 188, 189, 193, 195, 198,
      204, 206, 207, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 218, 221, 224,
      226

Supremacy, Oath of, 40

Swale, Rev. H. I., 187

Swimming Bath, 190, 193


Tarn, Brow, 61, 62

Tatham, Robert, 85

Tennant, Henry, 88
  ----, 26, 28, 31, 47, 48, 52, 53, 54, 59
  Exhibition (_see_ Burton), 53, 122

Tennyson, 205

Thartilbie, 67

Thirkleby, 67

Thirsk, 67

Thomson, Thomas, 22

Thompson, Captain, 224

Thornton, ---- (Poor Fund), 74
  Richard (Usher), 78, 80
  Robert, 56
  Robert, 57
  Tempest, 57

Thring, 150

Tiddeman, 193

Tomlinson, ----, 115

"Transitus," The, 228

Trinity College, Cambridge, 60, 107, 108, 122, 149, 150

Trivium, 40

Tucuman, 203


Udall, Ephraim, 60

University College, Oxford, 106

Uppingham School, 131, 150, 227

Usher, 35, 86, 129, 140, 149, 153, 163, 164, 173


Vacations (_see_ Holidays), 35

Vaughan, W. W. (Headmaster), 216, 217, 220, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 229

Vicar (of Giggleswick), _passim_, 28, 176

Victoria, Queen, 135, 203
  Cave, 193
  Cross, 197


Walker, William (Master), 65, 69

Wall, Adam, 108

Walling Fen, 90, 109, 120

Warre, Dr., 205

Watkins, L., 190

Watson, Anthony, 31, 48
  Bishop of Llandaff, 93
  Samuel, 69

Watts, 108
  Dr. Marshall, 180, 185, 193, 213, 218

Waugh, John, 219

Weatherhead, Anthony (Usher), 77

Wellington College, 225

Wesley, John, 205

Westminster School, 25, 41, 42, 94

Whalley, 26
  Grammar School, 98

Whitaker, Arthur (Usher), 74
  Joshua, 74

Wildeman, Thomas (Usher), 70, 71, 72

Wilkinson, John Grime, 74

William of Wykeham, 205

Williams, Thomas, 21

Williamson, Sir Richard, 55

Willis, Henry, 204

Wilsonne, Thomas, 64
  William (Usher), 64, 65, 69

Winchester College, 41, 170

Withers, 92, 93, 95

Wolnoth, S. Mary, 60

Wood, Rev. M. (Usher), 150, 152, 156, 157, 158
  Nicholas (Usher), 100, 102, 103

Woodward, Hezekiah, 45

Woolfenden, John, 97

Wordsworth, 107

Wren, Hugh, 14

Wright's Paper, 96

Writing Master (_see Scrivener_), 94, 96, 100, 102, 107, 112, 114,
      115, 120, 127, 146, 147, 192

Writing School (_see English School_)

Wycliffe, John, 205


Young, Arthur, 87, 88



A Short List of Yorkshire Books published by Richard Jackson, 16 and 17,
Commercial Street, Leeds.


#Coronations: their rise and development in England.# By the Very Rev.
the Dean of York. Printed on antique paper in quarto form, 90 pages and
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#Picturesque Old York.# Chapters Historical and Descriptive. By The Very
Rev. A. P. Purey-Cust, D.D., Dean of York. With 35 full-page
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    "The Dean imparts to his subject a freshness that strikes
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#The Alien Benedictines of York.# Being a History of Holy Trinity Priory
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#Knaresborough and its Rulers.# Being a complete History of the Domain
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#Sedbergh, Garsdale and Dent.# Three Picturesque Yorkshire Dales; being
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#Sedbergh School Songs.# Written and Illustrated by R. St. John Ainslie.
Beautifully Printed on Art Paper and Bound in Navy Blue Art Cloth, Gilt
Edges. Price 3/6. Large Paper Edition, Bound in White Vellum, 10/6 nett.

#Sedbergh School and its Chapel.# Edited by B. Wilson, Editor of the
"Sedbergh School Register," and R. St. John Ainslie. With numerous
Illustrations, and Prefaced with a History of this Ancient School. Demy
8vo. Art Cloth Boards, Gilt Edges. 3/6 nett. And a limited Edition bound
in Vellum, Bevelled Boards, &c. 7/6 nett.

#Sedbergh School Register#, 1546-1909. Second and Enlarged Edition, with
a History of the School from the earliest to the present time. By B.
Wilson, Esq., B.A., Twenty-five full-page illustrations together with a
fac-simile of King Edward VI Charter, Demy 8vo, 700 pages, cloth boards,
gilt top. 10/6 nett. (_Only a very few copies remain._)

    "The Registers with the assistance of the Universities go back
    to the sixteenth century and furnish many interesting facts
    about scholars who distinguished themselves at School and
    University. The illustrations add greatly to the value of the
    book. The Charter reproduced from the copy in the Bodleian shows
    the signatures of the King, Protector, and Archbishop Cranmer.
    There is a Photo. of the School and its Grounds, the Chapel, the
    old and new Class-Rooms, Evan's House, and many Portraits which
    cannot fail to interest all Sedberghians."--_Yorkshire Post._

#Walks Round York Minster.# By the Very Rev. A. P. Purey-Cust, D.D.,
author of "The Heraldry of York Minster," &c. 4to, 250 pages with forty
full-page Illustrations, specially done for the work. Edition limited to
250 numbered copies. Price 15/- nett. And 100 copies bound in white
vellum bevelled boards. 25/- nett.

    "The illustrations reproduce in great measure the chief objects
    of interest in the Minster, whether in Sculptured Tomb, Effigy,
    or 'Storied Window.' One section is of surpassing interest, the
    Military Memorials in which the Minster is so rich. The Dean has
    done his work in a scholarly and interesting fashion."--_York
    Herald._

    "'Walks round York Minster' is a book that will endure. The last
    work by the Dean will always find a welcome wherever people may
    be found who love the Minster."--_Yorkshire Post._

#The Costume of Yorkshire in 1814.# A series of forty-one Fac-Similes of
Original Water-Colour Drawings, with descriptions in English and in
French, by George Walker, of Killingbeck, Leeds. Edited with Explanatory
Notes by the late Edward Hailstone, F.S.A., of Walton Hall. Folio. Price
£1 1 0 nett. Also an edition de luxe bound in vellum. Price £3 3 0
nett.

  The forty-one reproductions in colour, embrace characteristic
    examples of the manners, customs and costumes of typical Yorkshire
    subjects, such as: The Horse Couper, Cloth Maker, Fishermen, Oat
    Cakes, Nur and Spell, Yorkshire Regiments, the Old Cloth Hall, the
    Fool Plough, Bishop Blaize Procession, Riding the Stang,
    Wensleydale Knitters, Sheffield Cutlers, The Flax Industry,
    Hawking, Racing, Cranberry Gatherers, Leech Finders, &c., &c.

#Rambles by Yorkshire Rivers.# By George Radford, M.A. A series of
descriptive articles describing the Tees, Greta, Swale, Yore, Nidd,
Washburn, Aire, Ouse, Derwent, Rye and the Esk. Illustrated by twelve
Etchings, specially drawn for the work by J. Ayton Symington. 7/6 nett.

    "Mr. Radford who is well-known as the author of 'Phases of a
    Yorkshire Moor' and 'Turner in Wharfedale,' discourses
    pleasantly of the Scenery, Folklore and Antiquities, associated
    with the Rivers of Yorkshire.... A book which should be
    possessed by all true lovers of the county."

#Some Historic Mansions of Yorkshire#, and their Associations. By
William Wheater, author of "A History of the Parishes of Sherburn and
Cawood," and "Templenewsam"; with twenty-five Etched Illustrations drawn
on the spot by A. Buckle, Stanley Medway, and J. A. Symington. 2 Vols.
4to. 25/- nett. Also a large paper edition £3 3 0 nett.

  The Volumes contain: Bolton Hall and the Lord's Scrope, Bramham Park
    and the families connected, Beswick Old Hall and the Drapers,
    Castle Howard and the Howards, Dalton Hall and the Hothams, Farnley
    and the Fawkes family, Harewood and the Lascelles, Heslington and
    the Earls of Richmond, Hazlewood and the Vavasours, Methley and the
    Saviles, Nun Appleton the Prioresses and Nuns, Nostal and the
    Winns, Newburgh and the Wombwells, Newton and the Fairfaxes, Ripley
    and the Ingilbys, Swillington and the Lowthers, Skipton and the
    Cliffords, Studley and The De Greys, Templenewsam and the Knight
    Templars, Upleatham and the Bruces and Zetlands, Wentworth and the
    Straffords, Wilton and the Bulmers.

  The above comprise twenty-five Chapters in Yorkshire Family History,
    the importance of which cannot be exaggerated, as the families whose
    history is given are amongst the most prominent in England's Story.

#A History of the Bramham Moor Hunt.# By William Scarth Dixon, author of
"A History of the York and Ainsty Hunt." With twenty-five full-page
Illustrations, reproducing portraits of many famous Members of the Hunt
and the three important plates originally painted by David Dalby, also a
frontispiece, an original portrait of the late George Lane Fox, Esq.,
the Master. Large 4to £1 11 6.

#The History of the York and Ainsty Hunt.# By William Scarth Dixon,
author of "A History of the Bramham Moor Hunt," "In the North Countree,"
&c., &c., with twenty reproductions of Portraits of Masters, Huntsmen,
Special Meets, Favourite Hounds, Old Prints, &c., &c. Published at £1 1
0. Also a large paper edition at £2 2 0 nett.

    "A valuable acquisition to every Sporting Library."

    "A book which no sport-loving Yorkshireman should be without."

#The Heraldry of York Minster.# A Key to the History of its Builders and
Benefactors as shown in its stained glass windows and in the carved work
in stone. By The Very Rev. A. P. Purey-Cust, D.D., F.S.A., Dean of York.
2 Vols. large 4to. £6 6 0

  The Illustrations embrace twenty full-page Plates, Emblazoned in
    Heraldic Colours, reproducing the Arms of the Principal Persons who
    have been identified with the Minster, either as Builders or
    Benefactors; the four hundred and thirty pages of Text contain a
    wealth of historic illustration of the rise, development and
    vicissitudes of important Yorkshire Families, and over 250 Black
    and White Illustrations.

#Yorkshire Guide.# A Handbook for Tourists in Yorkshire and complete
History of the County, compiled by W. Wheater, author of "Historic
Mansions of Yorkshire." 220 Illustrations in the Text. 2 Vols. small
4to. 10/6 nett.

#Robin Hood and the Curtall Fryer.# The Text written in Early English
Style with decorative Initials, Head and Tail-Pieces and Borders and
numerous full-page Drawings illustrating the moving incidents in the Old
Ballad. Illustrated and described by M. Hinscliff, Esq. 5/- nett.

#The Historie of the King's Manour House of York.# By R. Davies, F.S.A.
Illustrated with Etchings by A. Buckle, B.A. Published at 5/- nett.

#Lyrics and Sonnets of Northern Lands.# Translated from the Danish by A.
Buckle, B.A. and Illustrated with Etchings and Mezzotints by the author.
Small 4to. 7/6 nett.

    The above is dedicated by special permission to Queen Alexandra
    who, in graciously accepting a copy expressed her "warm
    appreciation of the author's skill, as Translator and Etcher."

#Yorkshire by the Sea.# Notes Historical, Topographical and Descriptive,
by George Radford, M.A., author of "Rambles by Yorkshire Rivers." With
twelve Etchings and twenty-six Drawings in the Text, by J. A. Symington.
10/6 nett.

#Yorkshire Etchings and Sonnets.# By A. Buckle, B.A., author of "Lyrics
and Sonnets of Northern Lands," &c. 10/- nett.

  The Etchings represent well-known places in Yorkshire such as St.
    Hilda's Whitby, Kirkham Priory, Lastingham, St. Mary's Abbey,
    Kirkstall, Richmond Castle, York Minster, Flambro', Rievaulx,
    Hudswell, Sinnington, St. Olave's; and exquisite stretches of
    scenery on the Wharfe and Esk.

#History of the Parish Church, Leeds#, from the earliest known period
down to the present time, with an account of the antient Pillar or Cross
found in the walls of the late edifice. By the late Major R. W. Moore.
With 14 Illustrations. 2/- nett.

#Church and Town for Fifty Years.# (Leeds 1841-1891): A Memorial of the
Festival holden in the Parish Church, Leeds, July 12th to 19th, 1891.
Edited by the Rev. C. G. Lang, M.A., now Archbishop of York. 3/6 nett.

  An interesting feature of this book is that it contains a fac-simile
    reproduction of the original advowson, with what is left of the
    seal. The book contains a short history of the Church, a full
    account of the various Jubilee functions, and the verbatim reports
    of the sermons preached.

#An Architect's Sketch Book at Home and Abroad.# By William H. Thorp,
Associate and Graduate of the Royal Institute of British Architects,
sometime Hon. Sec. of Leeds Architectural Society. Seventy-five
Illustrations with Descriptive Letter-press. Large 4to. Edition limited
to 400 copies and nearly all sold. £1 1 0 nett.

#Yorkshire Stories Re-told.# By James Burnley, author of "West Riding
Sketches," &c., &c. Crown 8vo. Cloth boards, 330 pages. 3/6 nett.

#Records of the Parish of Whitkirk.# By the late Rev. George Moreton
Platt, M.A., and John William Morkill, M.A. Illustrated by thirty-two
Drawings made by J. A. Symington and J. W. Morkill. Large 4to. £1 1 0
nett.

  This is a most interesting book of Local History introducing a
    complete account of many important families, who have been or are
    located here, principal among them being The Smeatons, The Grays,
    The Totties, Mores, Manstons, Howards, Wilsons, and Nelthorpes, as
    well as an account of the Manors of Roundhay, Newland and Seacroft,
    and a full century of Baptisms, Weddings and Burials.

#Leeds Parish Church: Saint Peter's at Leeds.# Being an account
Historical and Descriptive. By the late James Rusby, Fellow of the Royal
Historical Society, and Edited by Rev. J. G. Simpson, D.D., Canon of St.
Paul's, late Principal of the Leeds Clergy School. Very fully
Illustrated by Herbert Railton. 330 pages, large 4to. Cloth boards, gilt
top, &c. Price £2 2 0 nett.

#A History of St. Aidan's Church# (Bishop Woodford Memorial). Compiled
by the Rev. R. M. Nicholls, M.A. Crown 8vo., 100 pages, with 10
full-page illustrations printed on antique paper, limited to 200 copies.
Price 2/6 nett.

#Yorkshire Anecdotes: or Remarkable Incidents in the Lives of Celebrated
Yorkshire Men and Women.# By the Rev. R. V. Taylor, B.A. Author of the
"Worthies and Churches of Leeds," &c., &c. 2 Vols. Crown 8vo. Cloth
boards. 7/6 nett.



TRANSCRIBERS' NOTES


General: Corrections to punctuation have not been individually
  documented

General: No attempt has been made to correct or standardise spelling in
  quotations from original documents

General: Italicised text in the original is marked with underscores
  _text_; Bold text is marked with hashes #text#; underlined text is
  marked with equal signs =text=

Page 6: tenour as in original

Pages 8, 37, 38, 207, 291: Inconsistent spelling of Praepositors/
  Præpositors/Prepositors/prepositors as in original

Pages 10, 220: Variable capitalisation of Sub-Target as in original

Page 20: School-masters standardised to Schoolmasters

Page 25: Chapter title 1553-1592. as in original, differs from table of
  contents 1553-1599.

Pages 59, 193: Variable spelling of summarised/summarized as in original

Page 63: ninteenth corrected to nineteenth

Page 105: twenth-ninth corrected to twenty-ninth

Page 107: philsophical corrected to philosophical

Page 135: rebuilding standardised to re-building

Page 146: he corrected to be in And it may be that money was taken

Page 147: Hyphenation of Kay-Shuttleworth in illustration caption as in
  original, inconsistent with text

Page 148: rebuilt standardised to re-built

Page 161: aud corrected to and in "the boarding arrangements, and he
  condemned"

Page 166: responsibilites corrected to responsibilities

Page 209: School-yard standardised to Schoolyard

Page 239: tenemcnta corrected to tenementa in Terre et tenementa dicte
  nuper

Page 243: Gugernatores corrected to Gubernatores in Et quod iidem
  Gugernatores

Page 249: successsoribus corrected to successoribus in heredibus et
  successsoribus nostris

Page 250: , as in original in eorundem ut prefertur, Ac

Page 266: Variable hyphenation of herein(-)after as in original

Page 272: if he is admitted as a border as in original

Page 288: Hasebrig corrected to Haselrig in index entry for Haselrig,
  Sir Arthur

Page 289: lemyng not capitalised, as in original





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