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Title: Buchanan's Journal of Man, June 1887 - Volume 1, Number 6
Author: Buchanan, Joseph R. (Joseph Rodes), 1814-1899 [Editor]
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Buchanan's Journal of Man, June 1887 - Volume 1, Number 6" ***

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                             BUCHANAN'S
                           JOURNAL OF MAN.

             VOL. I.         JULY, 1887.        NO. 6.



CONTENTS OF JOURNAL OF MAN.


    Magnetic Education and Therapeutics--The So-Called Scientific
    Immortality--Review of the New Education--Victoria's Half
    Century--Outlook of Diogenes--A Bill to Destroy the Indians
    MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE--The Seybert Commission; The Evils
      that need Attention; Condensed Items--Mesmerism in
      Paris--Medical Freedom--Victoria's Jubilee; Delightful Homes
    Outlines of Anthropology Continued--Cranioscopy--Illustrated



MAGNETIC EDUCATION AND THERAPEUTICS.

EXTRACTS FROM AN ESSAY BY DR. CHARLES DU PREL, IN SPHINX, TRANSLATED
FOR THE JOURNAL OF MAN.


    "In the _Wiener Allgemeiner_ I spoke of the possibility of
    moral education by means of magnetism, which has been carried
    out." * * *

    "Dr. Bernheim, a Professor of the Medical Faculty in Nancy who
    is a champion of hypnotism has written a book on 'Suggestion and
    its Application in Therapeutics,' in which a great many hypnotic
    cures are recorded."

           *       *       *       *       *

    "Dr. ---- quotes Franklin against magnetism but Sprengel in his
    Pharmacology says 'Franklin, sickly as he was, took no part
    whatever in the investigation.' The Academy again investigated
    (1825-31) somnambulism, discovered by Puysegur, Mesmer's
    scholar. In their report of two year's investigation, eleven M.
    D.'s unanimously pronounced in favor of all important phenomena
    ascribed to somnambulism. A fairly complete synopsis of their
    report will be found in my 'Philosophy of Mystics.'"

           *       *       *       *       *

    "Du Potet first studied medicine, but disgusted by the poor
    results of Pharmacology he embraced magnetism. He performed a
    series of mesmeric experiments in the Hotel Dieu of so potent a
    nature that twenty M. D.'s of that celebrated hospital signed
    the minutes of these proceedings. People ran after Du Potet,
    pointing at him and crying 'The man who cures.'"

           *       *       *       *       *

    "The respect for medical therapeutics never has been at as low
    an ebb as just now. The public cannot be blamed for this lack of
    respect, for they have daily experiences of the ill results of
    medicine. Even high medical authorities are of the opinion that
    we have to-day a disintegration of medical principles worse than
    ever. More uncertain than therapeutics is the manner of
    diagnosing to-day! The public is well aware that each doctor has
    something different to say or prescribe. I have a personal case
    in point. During eighteen months I consulted seven different
    doctors, and got seven different contrary diagnoses as well as
    contradictory modes of treatment, and this, too, in the city of
    Munich, which is hardly secondary to any other city for its
    medical talent. Is there any cause to blame the public for
    running to the magnetizers? I should do so myself if my magnetic
    susceptibility was greater. In such magnetizers as even Mesmer,
    Dr. B. can see nothing but charlatans, but I desire to make him
    aware that a physician whose reputation he is cognizant of,
    Prof. Nussbaum in Munich, said to his audience in College,
    'Gentlemen, magnetism is the medicine of the future.' As I am
    writing this I have been disturbed by a visitor desiring the
    address of a reliable magnetizer, as the physician recommended a
    magnetizer, as he was at his wits end."

    "In our medicine the adjunct sciences alone are scientific, and
    we must respect their high grade; but therapeutics we have none.
    Hence Mesmer should be called a benefactor to mankind, for he
    has pointed out the correct way. He, with Hippocrates, says that
    not the physician but nature cures--that the real therapeutics
    consists only in aiding the _vis medicatrix naturæ_. In this
    direction the professors at Nancy and Paris are laboring. They
    have given the experimental proof that _if the idea of an
    organic change of the body is instilled into the mind of the
    hypnotized, then such change will take place_. In this we have
    a foundation for a PSYCHIC THERAPEUTICS which we hope will soon
    put an end to the anarchic condition of medicine of the present
    day. But the greatest curse to science of old, and which makes
    its appearance even to-day, is that _the old ideas are the
    greatest enemies of the new_."

    "Unfortunately it is the same in the thought realm as in
    lifeless nature, _vis inertiæ_--the law of indolence, according
    to which nature remains in its condition to all eternity, until
    she is forced into some new condition from a new cause. This
    _vis inertiæ_ is harder to conquer in the thought realm than in
    lifeless nature, for Mesmer appeared a hundred years ago, and
    yet to-day they call him "a perfect charlatan." Braid, thirty
    years ago, started hypnotism, but only after Hansen made a
    multitude of experiments for profit and pleasure in the largest
    cities of Germany, did the physicians wake up to the idea of
    investigating it. They teach nothing of mesmerism or hypnotism
    at the universities. Yes, even one year ago a professor of
    medicine confessed to me, should I pronounce the word
    somnambulism I'd be ruined. This is the manner in which ideas
    are kept from medical students."

    "If medicine, in its results, could look with pride on its
    therapeutics, it might be explained. But a therapeutics that
    allows thousands of children to sink yearly into untimely graves
    from all manner of diseases, that allows a large proportion of
    grown persons to be decimated yearly by epidemics, that in its
    psychiatry is perfectly impotent to stop the rapid increase of
    insanity, that notoriously cannot cure a migraine, a cold, yea,
    not even a corn,--such a system ought surely to have some
    modesty, and be only too glad to accept improvements that tend
    to ameliorate this condition."


CONDITION OF THE MEDICAL PROFESSION.

These remarks of Dr. Du Prel, though somewhat exaggerated, are
probably based on truth in their reference to the backward condition
of the medical profession in Europe, and of all that portion in
America which is essentially European, and governed by European
authority. But the healing art in America has been to a great extent
emancipated by the spirit of American liberty, and in its actual
results among liberal physicians is far in advance of the European
system. One signal proof of this was given at Cincinnati in 1849, when
that city was visited by a terrible epidemic of Asiatic cholera, which
swept off five thousand of its inhabitants. The mortality of cholera
under old school practise had been from twenty-five to sixty per
cent., the latter having been realized in hospitals at Paris. Under
the practice taught in our college at that time, the mortality in
1,500 cases did not exceed six per cent.

The atmosphere of freedom in this country, and the absolute medical
freedom (until within a few years the colleges have procured medical
legislation to help their diplomas, and their graduates) have given a
progressiveness and practicality to American physicians which are
beginning to be recognized abroad.

Dr. Lawson Tait is eminent in the treatment of women in England. In
the _Medical Current_ of April 20th, he is quoted as expressing a
regret that his time and money had not been directed to the Western
instead of the Eastern Hemisphere, when picking up his medical
knowledge. He predicted that 'ere long it will be to the medical
colleges of America rather than to those of Europe that students will
travel.' Then he goes on to say:

    "American visitors abroad who have given weeks and months to see
    me work, have one and all impressed me with their possession of
    that feature of mind which in England I fear we do not possess,
    the power of judging any question solely upon its merits, and
    entirely apart from any prejudice, tradition, or personal bias.
    No matter how we may struggle against it, tradition rules all we
    do; we cannot throw off its shackles, and I am bound to plead
    guilty to this weakness myself, perhaps as fully as any of my
    countrymen may be compelled to do. I may have thrown off the
    shackles in some instances, but I know that I am firmly bound in
    others, and my hope is that my visit to a freer country and a
    better climate may extend my mental vision."


POWER OF MAGNETISM AND SUGGESTION.

The suggestion of Du Prel as to the hypnotic teaching in France, that
an idea impressed on the mind of the hypnotized will be realized in
the body is the basis of a great deal of therapeutic philosophy. It is
true in practice just to the extent of human impressibility. A
cheerful physician or friend, by encouraging words impresses the idea
of recovery and thus sometimes produces it. Judicious friends never
speak in a discouraging manner to the invalid. The success of mind
cure practitioners is based on this principle. They endeavor to
impress on the patient's mind the idea of perfect health, but they
know too little of the whole subject to know how to place the patient
in that passive and receptive condition in which the results are most
promptly and certainly produced.

Such methods are limited in their effect in proportion to human
impressibility and cannot possibly supersede all use of remedies which
reach thousands of cases in which mental operations would be entirely
futile. But the power of animal magnetism over all diseases and
infirmities of mind and body has been so often demonstrated that its
neglect is a deep disgrace to the medical colleges. A correspondent of
the _Daily Telegraph_ gives the following illustration of its power
over drunkenness:

    "About eighteen months ago I was conversing with my friend B.,
    who is an enthusiastic believer in mesmerism, and has repute as
    an amateur practitioner. My contention was that his favorite
    science (?) had contributed absolutely nothing to the world's
    good to cause its recognition by either scientists or
    philosophers. 'Can you give me,' said I, 'one instance in which
    you have conferred an actual benefit by the practice of your
    favorite art?' He related several, from which I selected the
    following:--'There lives by my parsonage,' said my friend B., 'a
    man who for many years, had been a confirmed drunkard.
    Repeatedly were his wife and children forced to flee from him,
    for when in his drunken frenzies, he attempted to murder them.
    Again and again have I striven to induce him to flee from his
    horrible vice, but my efforts were always futile. One day he
    called to see me when he was suffering acutely from the effects
    of drink. I resolved to place him under mesmeric influence. This
    I did, and while subject to me made him promise not to touch
    strong drink again, and if he attempted to break his pledge,
    might the drink taste to him filthy as putrid soapsuds. I then
    restored him to his normal state, and he left me. He kept his
    unconsciously given promise. In the course of a couple of years
    this man raised himself from a condition of poverty to the
    comfortable position of a thriving market gardener. 'Not a
    fortnight since,' resumed my friend, 'my neighbor's wife
    laughingly said to me, 'There is no fear of my husband ever
    drinking again, sir. You know he has to be in the market very
    early in the morning with his vegetables. Yesterday morning,
    while he was drinking a cup of coffee at the hotel an old mate
    said to him, 'Why don't you drink some spirits; are you afraid?'
    To show his mate that he was not afraid, he ordered a glass of
    brandy, but no sooner did he put it in his mouth than he spat it
    out again, saying the 'filthy stuff tasted like rotten
    soapsuds.' My friend B. said, that, till he told me, to no one
    had he mentioned the fact, and that what he did to his poor
    neighbor he did in order to see if it were possible to use
    mesmerism as a remedial agent in cases of drunkenness."

The power of control over the impressible condition (which is so
easily developed into hypnotism) has been recently illustrated in
France, and reports of the phenomena published in the _London News_,
concerning which Mr. Charles Dawbarn has published the following in
the _Banner of Light_:

    "According to the reports published in the _Daily News_ of
    London, Eng., an attempt has been made by physicians in Paris,
    France, to determine the duration of an hypnotic influence. Some
    of my readers may not be aware that 'hypnotism' is a word coined
    by the medical faculty to replace the term 'mesmerism,' which
    they consider disreputably associated with spiritualism. These
    physicians seem to have had some very fine sensitives upon whom
    to operate. The first experiment was upon a lady of some means,
    but having a mother and sister dependent upon her for support.
    The hypnotizer first established his influence in the usual
    manner, and then told the lady he wished her to go to a lawyer
    the next day, and make her will in his favor. She protested, but
    finally gave way. All memory of this promise seemed to be lost
    as soon as she returned to her normal condition. But next day
    she went to a lawyer, and although he begged her to remember her
    mother and sister, the will was made just as suggested by the
    physician. She was an affectionate daughter and told the lawyer
    she was impelled to leave her property to a stranger by _an
    influence which she could not resist_.

    "A second experiment with another sensitive was then tried. This
    time the poor girl promised to poison a friend next day, she
    carried away with her a dose prepared by the doctor. Not knowing
    why, and like the other sensitive, _under an influence she could
    not resist_, she gave her friend the harmless drug in a glass of
    milk, and thus enacted the part of a murderer.

    "These experiments have the novelty of having been made by the
    regular faculty; but thousands of Spiritualists have proved the
    truth of an hypnotic influence lasting long after the apparent
    release of the sensitive. We know, or ought to know, that the
    hypnotic condition can be induced without visible passes; and
    many of us have seen a sensitive under influence sitting
    quietly, showing no sign of her slavery to the will of another.
    We may go yet a step further and assert that men and women,
    visible and invisible, are constantly psychologizing each other,
    although we only use the term "sensitive" when the effect is
    visible to our dull senses.

    "But Spiritualists as a whole have been converted by the
    phenomena appealing to their outward senses, and know little and
    care little for effects that can only be traced by shrewd,
    careful and scientific experiment. Yet such facts as come to the
    surface in those experiments with sensitives in France, are keys
    with which to unlock some of life's darkest mysteries, and
    expose the harsh treatment of many mediums.

    "Many of us have been greatly troubled by the conduct of our
    mediums, and often puzzled by their careful prepared attempts at
    fraud. Mediums we have met and loved, because they have given us
    proof after proof of the 'gates ajar' for angel visitors, have
    been presently detected in frauds that required days of careful
    preparation. We have cried, 'Down with the frauds!' and insisted
    that they should return to wash-tub and spade for an honest
    living.

    "We have omitted to keep in view that one who is a medium
    Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays must also be a medium Tuesdays,
    Thursdays and Saturdays, and we have neglected to learn the
    lessons of our own experience. I was talking recently to a
    gentleman of prominence, twice sheriff of his county, who was
    narrating with glee how he had mesmerised a young man, and then
    told him, 'At noon to-morrow you will be lame, and it will last
    two hours.' Of course it happened much to the poor fellows
    perplexity, but my friend would have been surprised to discover
    that therein was the entire case of the French sensitives and of
    our poor mediums.

    "A very important thought is that an hypnotic influence need not
    spring from any verbal expression. We all carry with us an
    influence which strikes every sensitive we meet; and if we sit
    with her when she is, of course, specially passive, she must
    receive a yet more marked influence. There is a photographic
    curiosity now often exhibited which, I think, illustrates the
    thought I want to emphasize. A family or a class can be
    photographed, one by one, at exactly the same focus and on the
    same negative, with a result that you have a clear and distinct
    face, not of any one's personality, but that actually combines
    the features of the whole into a new individual unlike any of
    the sitters."

    "This is the very influence we cast upon a sensitive when she
    sits for us in a miscellaneous circle. We cannot say that any
    one of us has powerfully affected her, but we know the entire
    influence has got control and possession, and that influence
    follows her, too often with irresistible power."

The publication of a work on animal magnetism by Binet and Féré of
Paris prompts the following sketch of the subject by the _Boston
Herald_, a newspaper which pays great attention to anything foreign or
anything from the old school profession, but ignores that which is
American and original. The reader will observe that the writers are
all in the dark, unable to explain the phenomena they describe.


PROGRESS OF MAGNETISM.

One of the most notable features of the scientific tendencies of the
present day is the extraordinary interest taken in the investigation
of those peculiar physical and psychical conditions attending the
states now known collectively under the name of hypnotism, varying
from lethargy, catalepsy, etc., to somnambulism. Until quite recently
these investigations have been frowned upon and tabooed in scientific
circles, and the fact that any man of scientific inclinations was
known to feel an interest in matters associated with "mesmerism" or
"animal magnetism" was sufficient to make him an object of suspicion,
and injure his good standing amongst his fellow-scientists. The result
of the so-called investigations long ago instituted by the French
Academy, pronouncing in effect the whole subject a humbug and
delusion, has lain like an interdict upon further researches, and the
whole matter was left over, for the most part, to charlatans or to
persons hardly capable of forming sound judgments or proceeding
according to the accurate methods demanded by modern science. Science,
however, in the remarkable progress attained of late, has advanced so
far upon certain lines that it has been hardly possible to proceed
further in those directions without entering upon the forbidden field.
Therefore, the old signboards against trespassing have been taken
down. For "mesmerism," that verbal scarecrow, has been substituted
"hypnotism," which word has had a wonderfully legitimatizing effect;
while "animal magnetism," that once flouted idea, has been proven to
be an existent fact by methods as accurate as those adopted by Faraday
or Edison to verify their observations.


EFFORTS OF SCIENTISTS.

Many of the most eminent scientists of Europe are now devoting
themselves assiduously to these researches. Periodicals making a
specialty of the subject are now published in France, Germany, and
England. A catalogue of the recent literature of hypnotism and related
phenomena, compiled by Max Dessoir, was printed in the number of the
German magazine called the _Sphinx_ for February of this year, and
this catalogue occupied nine pages. The list is limited to those works
written on the lines laid under the methods of the modern school, all
books being excluded whose authors hold to "mesmeric" theories, or who
are even professional magnetizers. The catalogue is, therefore, as
strictly scientific as possible, and, being classified with German
thoroughness under the different branches of the subject, such as
"hystero-hypnotism," "suggestion," "fascination," etc., it will prove
a valuable assistance to the student.

In this country the interest of scientists has not yet been aroused to
an extent comparable with that of European investigators. Old
prejudices have not entirely lost their potency. One of the most
eminent professors of a leading university is said to have been
subjected to ridicule from his colleagues because of a marked interest
shown in the subject, and a Boston physician of high standing within a
few months confided to the writer that he had made use of hypnotic
methods, with gratifying success, in the case of a patient where
ordinary remedies had proven unavailing, but he did not venture to
make the results public, since his fellow doctors might be inclined to
condemn his action as "irregular."

A work embracing the whole subject has lately appeared in Paris, and,
as it is to form a volume of the valuable International Scientific
series, published in English, French, German, and Italian, it can
hardly fail to diffuse a correct popular understanding of the results
thus far attained. The book is called "Le Magnetism Animal" (Animal
Magnetism), and its authors are Messrs. Alfred Binet and Charles Féré
of the medical staff of the Salpètrière Hospital for Nervous Disorders
in Paris. It gives a history of the patient researches conducted at
that institution by the medical staff under the celebrated Prof.
Charcot during the past nine years. These experiments have been
prosecuted according to the most exact scientific methods, and with
the most extreme caution. The endeavor has been to obtain, first of
all, the most elementary psychic phenomena, and to test every step in
the investigations by separate experiment, specially devised to prove
the good faith of the subject and the reality of his hallucination, to
eliminate the possibility of unconscious suggestion, to establish
relations with similar phenomena of disease or health in the domain of
physiology and psychology, and to note the modifications which can be
brought about by altering the conditions of the experiments. The
authors possess the great scientific virtue of never dogmatising. In
the entire book not a single law is laid down, not a single hypothesis
is advanced, which is not reached by the most approved inductive
processes. A great service of the book lies in its enunciation of new
and trustworthy methods for studying the physiology of the brain in
health and disease, while it brings into the realm of physical
experiment vexed questions of psychology heretofore given over to
metaphysical methods exclusively.


THE HYPNOTIC SLEEP

Is described as a different form of natural sleep, and all the causes
which bring on fatigue are capable of bringing on hypnotism in
suitable subjects. Two of the leading hypnotic states are lethargy and
catalepsy, the former being analogous to deep sleep, and the latter to
a light slumber. In lethargy the respiratory movements are slow and
deep; in catalepsy slight, shallow, very slow, and separated by a long
interval. In lethargy the application of a magnet over the region of
the stomach causes profound modifications in the breathing and
circulation, while there is no such effect in catalepsy. This shows
the connection of hypnotism with magnetism, and various other
experiments with magnets have produced some remarkable results. Here
it may be added that Dr. Gessmann, a Vienna scientist who has made a
specialty of hypnotic studies, has invented and successfully applied
an instrument called a hypnoscope, consisting of an arrangement of
magnets for the purpose of ascertaining whether any person is a good
hypnotic subject.

The experiments demonstrate that sensation in the hypnotic states
varies between the two opposite poles of hyperæsthesia and
anæesthesia; in other words, the senses may be extraordinarily
exalted, as in somnambulism, or, as in lethargy, they may be extinct,
except sometimes hearing. In somnambulism the field of vision and
acuteness of sight are about doubled, hearing is made very acute, and
smell is so intensely developed that a subject can find by scent the
fragment of a card, previously given him to feel, and then torn up and
hidden. The memory in somnambulism is similarly exalted. When awakened
the subject does not, as a rule, remember anything that occurred while
he was entranced, but, when again hypnotized, his memory includes all
the facts of his sleep, his life when awake and his former sleeps.
Richet attests how somnambules recall with a luxury of detail scenes
in which they have taken part and places they have visited long ago.
M----, one of his somnambules, sings the air of the second act of the
opera "L'Africaine" when she is asleep, but can not remember a note of
it when awake.

There is a theory that no experience whatever of any person is lost to
the memory; it is only the power to recall it that is defective. The
authors of this work say that, while the exaltation of the memory
during somnambulism does not give absolute proof to the theory that
nothing is lost, it proves at any rate that the memory of preservation
is much greater than is generally imagined, in comparison with the
memory of reproduction, or recollection. "It is evident," they say,
"that in a great number of cases, where we believe the memory is
completely blotted out, it is nothing of the kind. The trace is always
there, but what is lacking is the power to evoke it; and it is highly
probable that if we were subjected to hypnotism, or the action of
suitable excitants, memories to all appearance dead might be revived."

A comparison between the phenomena of awakening from natural and
artificial sleep is instituted. In the case of dreams, recollection
more or less vivid persists for a few seconds, then becomes effaced.
This forgetfulness is even more marked in the case of hypnosis. On
returning to natural consciousness, the subject cannot recompose a
single one of the scenes in which he has played his part as witness or
actor. The loss, however, is not complete, for often a word or two is
sufficient to bring back a whole scene, though this word or two coming
from operator to subject, partakes more or less of the nature of a
suggestion.


SUGGESTION.

"Suggestion," by which is meant the production of thoughts and actions
on the part of the subject through some indication or hint given by
the operator, is found to be analogous to dreaming. Say the authors:
"For suggestion to succeed, the subject must have naturally fallen, or
been artificially thrown into a state of morbid receptivity: but it is
difficult to determine accurately the conditions of suggestionability.
However, we may mention two. The first, the mental inertia of the
subject: * * * the consciousness is completely empty: an idea is
suggested, and reigns supreme over the slumbering consciousness, * * *
The second is psychic hyperexcitability, the cause of the aptitude for
suggestion." "For example, we say to a patient: 'Look, you have a bird
in your apron,' and no sooner are these simple words pronounced than
she sees the bird, feels it with her fingers, and sometimes even hears
it sing." "Again, in place of speech we engage the attention of the
patient, and when her gaze has become settled and obediently follows
all our movements, we imitate with the hand the motion of an object
which flies. Soon the subject cries: 'Oh, what a pretty bird!' How has
a simple gesture produced so singular an effect?"

    "It is admitted, however, that the hypothesis of the association
    of ideas only partly covers the facts of suggestion, even when
    stretched to include resemblances. For instance, when we charge
    the brain of an entranced patient with some strange idea, such
    as, 'On awakening you will rob Mr. So-and-so of his
    handkerchief,' and on awakening, the patient accomplishes the
    theft commanded, can we believe that in such a sequence there is
    nothing more than an image associated with an act? In point of
    fact, the patient has appropriated and assimilated the idea of
    the experimenter. She does not passively execute a strange
    order, but the order has passed in her consciousness from
    passive to active. We can go so far as to say that the patient
    has the will to steal. This state is complex and obscure,
    hitherto no one has explained it. * * * The facts of paralysis
    by suggestion completely upset classical psychology. The
    experimenter who produces them so easily knows neither what he
    produces nor how he does it. Take the example of a systematic
    anæsthesia (paralysis of sensation). We say to the subject, 'On
    awakening you will not see Mr. X., who is there before us; he
    will have completely disappeared.' No sooner said than done; the
    patient on awakening sees every one around her except Mr. X.
    When he speaks she does not answer his questions; if he places
    his hand on her shoulder she does not feel the contact; if he
    gets in her way, she walks straight on, and is terrified at
    being stopped by an invisible obstacle. * * * Here the laws of
    association, which do such good service in solving psychological
    problems, abandon us completely. Apparently they do not account
    for all the facts of consciousness."


PORTRAITS BY HALLUCINATION.

A remarkable and suggestive series of experiments performed with
portraits by hallucination is given in the book. These experiments
show, that if by suggestion a subject is made to see a portrait on a
sheet of card board which is exactly alike on both sides, the image
will always be seen on the same side, and, however it is presented,
the subject will always place the card with the surfaces and edges in
the exact positions they occupied at the moment of suggestion, in such
a manner that the image can neither be reversed nor inclined. If the
surfaces are reversed, the image is no longer seen; if the edges, it
is seen upside down. The subject is never caught in a mistake; the
changes may be made out of his sight, but the image is invariably seen
in accordance with the primitive conditions, although absolutely no
difference is to be detected by the normal vision between the two
blank surfaces.

One experiment brings out this fact clearly. On a white sheet of paper
is placed a card equally white; with a fine point, but without
touching the paper, the contour of the card is followed while the idea
of a line traced in black is suggested to the subject. The subject,
when awakened, is asked to fold the paper according to these imaginary
lines. He holds the paper at the distance at which it was at the
moment of suggestion, and folds it in the form of a rectangle exactly
superposable on the card.

A curious experiment in the same line has been often repeated by Prof.
Charcot. The subject is given the suggestion of a portrait on a white
card, which is then shuffled up with a dozen cards all alike. On
awakening, the subject is asked to run over the collection, without
being told the reason why it is wished. When he comes to the card on
which had been located the imaginary portrait, he at once perceives
it. One detail of these experiments is very significant. Supposing we
show the imaginary portrait at a distance of two yards from the
subject's eyes, the card appears white, whereas a real photograph
would appear gray. If it is gradually brought nearer, the imaginary
portrait at last appears, but it is necessary for it to be much nearer
than an ordinary photograph for the patient to recognize the subject.
By means of opera glasses we can make the patient recognize her
hallucination at a distance at which she could not perceive it with
the naked eye. In short, the imaginary object which figures in the
hallucination is perceived under the same conditions as if it were
real. Various other experiments are detailed in support of this
formula. The opera glasses only act as if they were focussed upon the
point of hallucination, and in the case of a short-sighted subject
they had to be altered to allow for the defect of vision. If the
patient looks through a prism the image is seen duplicated, although
the subject is absolutely ignorant of the properties of a prism, as
well as of the fact that the glass is a prism. A photograph of the
plain white card used when the photograph was suggested may be
substituted, and on being shown to the patient, the hallucinatory
image is seen just the same, even two years after the original
experiment, as was done in one case.

Some strange phenomena of polarity are related. The following
experiments by MM. Binet and Féré are given in illustration: "We give
a patient in somnambulism the common hallucination of a bird poised on
her finger. While she is caressing the imaginary bird she is awakened
and a magnet is brought near her head. After a few minutes she stops
short, raises her eyes and looks about in astonishment. The bird which
was on her finger has disappeared. She looks all over the ward and at
last finds it, for we hear her say, 'So you thought you would leave
me, little bird.' After a few minutes the bird again disappears anew,
but almost immediately reappears. The patient complains from time to
time of a pain in the head at a point corresponding to what has been
described in this book as the visual centre (some distance above and
slightly posterior to the ear)." The magnet also has the same effect
in suspending the real perception. One of the patients was shown a
Chinese gong and striker, and took fright on sight of the instrument.
When a blow was struck she instantly fell into catalepsy. She was
reawakened, and asked to look attentively at the gong; meanwhile,
without her knowledge, a small magnet was brought near her head. After
a minute the instrument had completely disappeared from her sight.
When it was struck with redoubled force, she only looked from side to
side with an air of slight astonishment.

       *       *       *       *       *

The mysteries which puzzle these writers are made plain by
anthropology, and I have been presenting the explanation for over
forty years to my pupils. The sensibility to hypnotic phenomena is due
to the anterior portion of the middle lobe of the brain--to the
portion which is developed one inch behind the external angle of the
eye, by exciting which we bring on the somnolent condition. The
predominance of this region renders the person liable to the mesmeric
phenomena.

The hypnoscope proposed is quite unnecessary. The proper test of
magnetic susceptibility is either to excite the organ of somnolence
and observe if the eyes are disposed to close, or to pass your fingers
over the outstretched hand of the subject, within one or two inches,
and observe if he feels any impression. A distinct feeling of coolness
is sufficient proof of magnetic susceptibility.

Let those who wish to investigate the subject begin in accordance with
true science by testing the sensitiveness of the hand. If sensitive,
let the subject sit in a passive state, while you touch the somnolent
region on the temples, one inch horizontally behind the brow. In from
one to ten minutes the eyes will show a disposition to close, winking
repeatedly until a dreamy condition arises, with a tendency to a
conscious sleep. In this condition the susceptibility is extreme.
Experiments in psychometry may be tried with success; the organs of
the brain may be excited, and many interesting experiments may be made
by those who understand the brain, for intellectual purposes, or for
the promotion of health and cure of diseases.

The whole subject is thoroughly explained in the College of
Therapeutics, making thereby a perfect guidance to health, and to
progress in philosophy, and supplying the great lack in all systems of
education--self-knowledge and the sublime art of health, longevity,
and progress in Divine wisdom.



THE SO-CALLED SCIENTIFIC IMMORTALITY.


The Smithsonian Institution at Washington was founded for the increase
and diffusion of knowledge. Guided by the contracted notions prevalent
among scientists, it has not accomplished much for either object. The
theory of Lester F. Ward of this institution was paraphrased as
follows in the last JOURNAL:

  As for immortal life I must confess,
  Science has never, never answered "yes."
  Indeed all psycho-physiological sciences show,
  If we'd be loyal, we must answer "no!"
  Man cannot recollect before being born,
  And hence his future life must be "in a horn."
  There must be a _parte ante_ if there's a _parte post_,
  And logic thus demolishes every future ghost.
  Upon this subject the voice of science
  Has ne'er been aught but stern defiance.
  Mythology and magic belong to "_limbus fatuorum_;"
  If fools believe them, we scientists deplore 'em.
  But, nevertheless, the immortal can't be lost,
  For every atom has its bright, eternal ghost!

Mr. Ward appears to enjoy greatly this theory of his own final
extinction, and he exclaims with infinite self-satisfaction, "this
pure and ennobling sense of truth he would scorn to barter for the
selfish and illusory hope of an eternity of personal existence." This
is quite a jolly funeral indeed!

It is true Mr. Ward's very profound theories contradict an immense
number of facts observed by wiser men than himself, but so much the
worse for the facts,--they must not embarrass a Smithsonian
philosopher when he solves to his own satisfaction the vast problem of
the universe. This Mr. Ward thinks he has done. It is quite an
ingenious and laboriously constructed hypothesis, but like all other
attempts to construct a grand philosophy without a basis of fact, it
is hard to manufacture the theory and hard to comprehend it. Mr. Ward
says himself in the _Open Court_ that even to comprehend his doctrine
would require the "careful reading of nearly 200 pages," while "to see
the matter in precisely the same light as I see it would require the
reading of the entire work of some 1400 pages!" Really, Mr. Ward, the
writer who cannot sufficiently befuddle himself and his readers in
fifty pages is not very skilful.

Nevertheless the Ward theory is one of the best that has ever been
gotten up by the champions of nescience, and is worthy of a statement
in the Journal as quite an improvement on the common expression of
materialistic stolidity. He claims that he does not deny immortality,
but he recognizes no immortality of man--no human soul. He recognizes
only the immortality of the world, such as it is, which nobody denies.
The future life of man he considers nothing but an illusion, though
there is an immortality of intelligence _here_ in successive forms.

The doctrine, is that spirit, intelligence, or consciousness is a part
of matter--that every atom has its own little share, which practically
amounts to nothing in its infinite subdivision, but when matter comes
into organized forms the spiritual powers thus aggregated and
organized become an efficient spiritual energy; and the higher the
organism the grander the power that is developed, man being the most
perfect organization evolves the grandest spiritual power, as a
superior violin evolves finer music than a tambourine. But the
intelligence and will of man are only phenomena, like the music, and
have no existence beyond that of the organism that produces them. This
is substantially the theory of materialists generally, and of the old
school medical colleges which consider human life a mere product of
human tissues in combination--a doctrine conclusively refuted in
"Therapeutic Sarcognomy."

The special merit of the Ward theory lies in the supposition that mind
and matter are elements everywhere inseparably united, and that human
intelligence is developed by the aggregation and organization of the
mind powers that reside in the atoms of matter,--an explanation which
does not often occur to the exponents of materialism,--and has the
merit of ingenuity. The theory would do very well if it were not
demonstrable that life exists only from influx, and that human life
and personality survive the body, and become known to every highly
organized sensitive, who knows how to investigate such matters.

The Ward theory demolishes the Deity with the greatest ease, and
places man, fleeting or evanescent as he is, at the summit of the
universe! As he expresses it, "The only intelligence in the universe
worthy of the name is the intelligence of the organized beings which
have been evolved; and the highest manifestations of the psychic power
known to the occupants of this planet is that which emanates from the
human brain. Thus does science invert the pantheistic pyramid."

Such is the fog that emanates from the institution that should help
the advance and diffusion of knowledge. No God! no soul! not even the
awful power that Spencer blindly acknowledges--nothing but matter
bubbling up and organizing itself into temporary forms that decay and
are gone forever. We may well reciprocate his suggestion, and say that
such doctrines belong to the _limbus fatuorum_, and, if enjoyed as Mr.
Ward enjoys them, they may well be called the "fool's paradise." I
think Hegel has some similar notion--that God becomes conscious only
in man, unconscious everywhere else! And even so brilliant a writer as
M. Renan says, "For myself I think that there is not in the universe
any intelligence superior to that of man." In reading such expressions
we are strongly reminded of the poem on the "rationalistic chicken,"
which would not admit that it ever came out of an egg. When the wisdom
shown in the universe is so immensely beyond the comprehension of man,
how can he assume his own to be the highest wisdom?

To such dreary absurdities as this the _Open Court_ newspaper at
Chicago is devoted, and it has a bevy of well-educated friends and
supporters--well-educated as the world goes,--and graced with literary
capacity and culture, but educated into blindness and ignorance of the
scientific phenomena of psychic science,--unwilling to investigate or
incapable of candid investigation. The coterie sustaining such a
newspaper are precisely in the position of the contemporaries of
Galileo, who refused to look through his telescope or study his
demonstrations.

It is not from any scientific spirit or scientific acumen that this
materialistic coterie avoid psychometric and spiritual facts. The
newspapers which ignore or sneer at such knowledge are easily gulled
in matters of science. A writer in the _Open Court_ upon the
possibilities of the future, which he presents as being confined
"strictly to legitimate deductions from present knowledge," exhibits
an amount and variety of ignorant credulity which ought not to have
gained admission to an intelligent journal. He speaks of an unlimited
freedom of submarine navigation and navigation of the air which would
not have appeared possible to any but the most superficial sciolist.
He also speaks of an electroscope that will telegraph rays of light
(!) and enable us thereby to see our most distant friends, and of
stowing in a small compass electricity enough to exterminate an army.
This imaginative ignoramus adds, "Give to our present biped
acquaintance the ability to exterminate armies with a lightning flash,
added to the power of sailing at will through the air or of passing at
will and in safety beneath the ocean waves, and he would depopulate
the earth." The writer gives much more of this Munchausen stuff which
is not worthy of notice except as an illustration of the feeble
scientific intelligence with which many newspapers are edited. The
editor of a really scientific journal referred to this article in the
_Open Court_ "as a proof of the danger of a little knowledge."[1]

    [1] The air is certainly yet to be navigated when a
        sufficient amount of power can be concentrated in the
        machine, but at present we can do little more than float
        with the wind. It is probable that an engine sufficiently
        strong, built of the best steel, and propelled by the
        explosive power of gun cotton, or some similar explosive,
        would overcome the difficulty. If I were to construct such
        an engine I would substitute for the lifting power of a
        balloon that of a sail acting as a kite.



REVIEW OF THE NEW EDUCATION.

BY SAMUEL EADON, M.A., M.D., PH.D., F.S.A., ETC.


I have read very carefully the third edition of the "New Education,"
and feel impelled, in order to satisfy my conscientiousness, to write
a short article relative to the impressions which the reading of the
book produced in my mind.

It is a work of extraordinary merit. Like George Combe's "Constitution
of Man," it is highly suggestive; the fascination of the author was
such that I could not help but write. To know its value and appreciate
its lofty moral outpourings, people must buy the book and read for
themselves. The first thought would be that it is the production of an
original thinker who had the courage to utter opinions fearless of
results, however antagonistic to the common-herd notions.

In all ages, the human understanding, the reasoning faculties, have
ever been considered to hold the supremacy in the scale of
development, of culture, and of advance toward a higher form of
civilization; the moral faculties were thought next in order, and then
the propensities common to all animal natures held the third or
inferior position. This view of human nature has been handed down from
an elder antiquity and still retains its hold largely in the
universities and great public schools of the present day.

If this view of the nature of man be a correct one, there ought to be
a vast intellectual brotherhood of mankind; but it is not so. From the
days of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, this culture of the
intellectual power has been continuously pursued, but with very
slender results; for were this kind of education pursued for 100,000
years, the morale of society would be little better than it is at the
present time.

Dr. Buchanan takes quite a different view and makes the moral or
ethical faculties supreme, in development and culture, the intellect
being the instruments for acquiring facts and the propensities the
steam to bring about the desired results. According to his views of
man, our emotional faculties are of a higher or more God-like order
than our intellectual powers. The intellect being the hand-maid to the
emotions, to _feel_ the force of truth is higher in mental excellence
than to _perceive_ it. Depth of emotions is the climax of spiritual
power.

The ethical and æsthetic being the foundation of the New Education,
Dr. Buchanan, in a series of beautifully written chapters, enters into
details in reference to what teachers should be, what the subjects
taught ought to be, and what are the shells and what the kernels of
knowledge. He shows clearly that woman will ultimately be the
regenerator of humanity, that education so far has been merely
fractional and one-sided--that true development consists in the
co-education of soul and body, the co-education of man and woman, the
co-education of the material and spiritual worlds.

There are a million of teachers, and every one should have a copy of
this work. No man is fit to teach in the high sense advocated by this
author unless he has thoroughly mastered this work. It is easy to pull
down a system, but not so easy to build it up; but in the New
Education the follies of the old educational systems are not only
levelled to the dust, but a higher and more practical, industrious,
and crime-preventing system of training and teaching takes its place.
This book will become the grand educational Bible for teachers in all
countries where the English language is spoken.

Nor should it be in the hands of teachers only. Every intelligent
father and mother, anxious for the development of their sons and
daughters should study this book night and day. It should be
translated into every European language, and also into Chinese and
other Eastern tongues; the refined, æsthetic, and knowledge-loving
people of Japan, were the work translated into their language, would
enjoy it intensely.

HAMBROOK COURT, near Bristol, England.

       *       *       *       *       *

A Japanese scholar has already undertaken the translation of the "New
Education" in Japan. The JOURNAL has not room at present for the
essays of correspondents, and I have only given a small portion of the
essay of the learned Dr. Eadon, who is the most progressive member of
the medical profession in England.



VICTORIA'S HALF CENTURY


We are nearing the fiftieth anniversary of the beginning of Queen
Victoria's reign. A London writer, reviewing the changes which have
taken place in the period marks these notable points: A strange
country was England in those far-off days; there was but little
difference between the general state of society under William and the
general state of society under George II. If we compared the courts of
George IV. and William with the company of a low tap-room, we should
not flatter the tap-room. Broad-blown coarseness, rank debauchery,
reckless prodigality, were seen at their worst in the abode of English
monarchs. A decent woman was out of place amid the stupid horrors of
the Pavilion or of Windsor; and we do not wonder at the sedulous care
which the Queen's guardians employed to keep her beyond reach of the
prevailing corruption. A man like the Duke of Cumberland would not now
be permitted to show his face in public save in the dock; but in those
times his peculiar habits were regarded as quite royal and quite
natural. Jockeys, blacklegs, gamblers, prize-fighters were esteemed as
the natural companions of princes; and when England's king drove up to
the verge of a prize-ring in the company of a burly rough who was
about to exchange buffets with another rough, the proceeding was
considered as quite manly and orthodox. Imagine the Prince of Wales
driving in the park with a champion boxer!

A strange country indeed was England in those times; and to look
through the newspapers and memoirs of fifty years ago is an amusement
at once instructive and humiliating. The king dines with the premier
duke, makes him drunk, and has him carefully driven round the streets,
so that the public may see what an intoxicated nobleman is like. The
same king pushes a statesman into a pond, and screams with laughter as
the drenched victim crawls out. Morning after morning the chief man of
the realm visits the boxing-saloon, and learns to batter the faces and
ribs of other noble gentlemen. We hear of visits paid by royalty to an
obscure Holborn tavern, where, after noisy suppers, the fighting-men
were wont to roar their hurricane choruses and talk with many
blasphemies of by-gone combats. Think of that succession of ugly and
foul sports compared with the peace, the refinement, the gentle and
subdued manners of Victoria's court, and we see how far England has
travelled since 1837.

Fifty years ago our myriads of kinsmen across the seas were strangers
to us, and the amazing friendship which has sprung up between the
subjects of Victoria and the citizens of the vast republic was
represented fifty years ago by a kind of sheepish, good-humored
ignorance, tempered by jealousy. The smart packets left London and
Liverpool to thrash their way across the Atlantic swell, and they were
lucky if they managed to complete the voyage in a month--Charles
Dickens sailed in a vessel which took twenty-two days for the trip,
and she was a steamer, no less! For all practical purposes England and
America are now one country. The trifling distance of 3,000 miles
across the Atlantic seems hardly worth counting, according to our
modern notions; and the American gentleman talks quite easily and
naturally about running over to London or Paris to see a series of
dramatic performances or an exhibition of pictures. When Victoria
began to reign the English people mostly regarded America as a dim
region, and the voyage thither was a fearsome understanding.

There is something in the catalogue of mechanical devices which almost
affects the mind with fatigue. Fifty years ago the ordinary citizen
picked up his ideas of all that was going on in the world from a
sorely-taxed news-sheet; and a very blurred idea he managed to get at
the best. Poor folk had to do without the luxury of the news, and they
were as much circumscribed mentally as though they had been cattle; we
remember a village where even in 1852 the common people did not know
who the Duke of Wellington was. No such thing as a newspaper had been
seen there within the memory of man; only one or two of the natives
had seen a railway engine, and nobody in the whole village row had
been known to visit a town. But now-a-days the villager has his
high-class news-sheet; and he is very much discontented indeed if he
does not see the latest intelligence from America, India, Australia,
China--everywhere. An American statesman's conversation of Monday
afternoon is reported accurately in the London journals on Tuesday
morning; a speech of Mr. Gladstone's delivered at midnight on one day
is summarized in New York and San Francisco the next day; the result
of a race run at Epsom is known in Bombay within forty minutes. We use
no paradox when we say that every man in the civilized world now lives
next door to everybody else; oceans are merely convenient pathways,
howling deserts are merely handy places for planting telegraph poles
and for swinging wires along which thoughts travel between country and
country with the velocity of lightning. We see that the world with its
swarming populations is growing more and more like some great organism
whereof the nerve-centres are subtly, delicately connected by
sensitive nerve-tissues. Even now, using a lady's thimble, two pieces
of metal, and a little acid, we can speak to a friend across the
Atlantic gulf, and before ten years are over, a gentleman in London
will doubtless be able to sit in his office and hear the actual tones
of some speaker in New York.

So much has the magic half century brought about.

If we think of the scientific knowledge possessed by the most
intelligent men when the Queen ascended the throne, we can hardly
refrain from smiling, for it seems as though we were studying the
mental endowment of a race of children. The science of electricity was
in its infancy; the laws of force were misunderstood; men did not know
what heat really was. They knew next to nothing of the history of the
globe, and they accounted for the existence of varying species of
plants and animals by means of the most infantine hypotheses. A
complete revolution--vital and all-embracing--has altered our modes of
thought, so that the man of 1887 can scarcely bring himself to
conceive the state of mind which contented the man of 1837. We have
dark doubts now, perplexing misgivings, weary uncertainties, painful
consciousness of limited powers; but along with these weaknesses we
have our share of certainties. Are we happier? Nay, not in mind. A
quiet melancholy marks the words of all the men who have thought most
deeply and learned most. The wise no longer cry out or complain--they
accept life and fate with calm sadness, and perhaps with prayerful
resignation. We have learned to know how little we can know, and we
see with composure that even the miracles already achieved by the
restless mind of man are as nothing.

       *       *       *       *       *

There is a far better reason than this for the sadness of thinking
men. It is that, with all the progress of science, art, and education,
poverty, misery, disease, and crime still afflict society as they did
in ruder ages, and our progress is _onward_, but not _upward_. It is
_upward_ progress to which the JOURNAL OF MAN is devoted.

In the foregoing sketch very little is said of the real progress of
the age--the increase of education, the uprising of the people into
greater political power and liberty, the prostration of the power of
the church, which is destined to disestablishment, and the uprising of
spiritual science.

What is there in the reign of Victoria to be celebrated? Was there
ever a more perfect specimen of barely respectable commonplace than
the reign of Victoria? What generous impulse, or what notable wisdom
has she ever shown? What has she done for the relief of Ireland, for
the improvement of a society full of pauperism, crime and suffering,
or for the prevention of unjust foreign wars? When has she ever given
even a respectable gift to any good object from her enormous income?
But virtue is not expected in sovereigns; they are expected only to
enjoy themselves hugely, to make an ostentatious display, and consume
all their benighted subjects give them.

Mrs. Stanton says:--"The two great questions now agitating Great
Britain are 'Coercion for Ireland,' and the 'Queen's Jubilee,' a
tragedy and a comedy in the same hour."

Speaking of the Queen's Jubilee she says:

    "In this supreme moment of the nation's political crisis, the
    Queen and her suite are junketing around in their royal yachts
    on the coast of France, while proposing to celebrate her year of
    Jubilee by levying new taxes on her people, in the form of penny
    and pound contributions to build a monument to Prince Albert.
    The year of Jubilee! While under the eyes of the Queen her Irish
    subjects are being evicted from their holdings at the point of
    the bayonet; their cottages burned to the ground; aged and
    helpless men and women and newborn children, alike left
    crouching on the highways, under bridges, hayricks and hedges,
    crowded into poorhouses, jails and prisons, to expiate their
    crimes growing out of poverty on the one hand and patriotism on
    the other.

    "A far more fitting way to celebrate the year of Jubilee would
    be for the Queen to scatter the millions hoarded in her private
    vaults among her needy subjects, to mitigate, in some measure,
    the miseries they have endured from generation to generation; to
    inaugurate some grand improvement in her system of education; to
    extend still further the civil and political rights of her
    people; to suggest, perchance, an Inviolable Homestead Bill for
    Ireland, and to open the prison doors to her noble priests and
    patriots.

    "But instead of such worthy ambitions in the fiftieth year of her
    reign, what does the Queen propose? With her knowledge and
    consent, committees of ladies are formed in every county, town
    and village in all the colonies under her flag, to solicit these
    penny and pound contributions, to be placed at her disposal.

    "Ladies go from house to house, not only to the residences of
    the rich, but to the cottages of the poor, through all the marts
    of trade, the fields, the factories, begging pennies for the
    Queen from servants and day-laborers."

These forced collections are not entirely for the benefit of the
Queen, but are to be appropriated also to a vast variety of local
objects and institutions.



THE OUTLOOK OF DIOGENES.


The ancient philosopher Diogenes, whom even the presence of Alexander
could not overawe, is one of the most marked and heroic figures of
ancient history. It is said "The Athenians admired his contempt for
comfort, and allowed him a wide latitude of comment and rebuke.
Practical good was the chief aim of his philosophy; for literature and
the fine arts he did not conceal his disdain. He laughed at men of
letters for reading the sufferings of Ulysses while neglecting their
own; at musicians who spent in stringing their lyres the time which
would have been much better employed in making their own discordant
natures harmonious; at savants for gazing at the heavenly bodies while
sublimely incognizant of earthly ones; at orators who studied how to
enforce truth, but not how to practice it. * * * When asked what
business he was proficient in, he answered, 'to command men.'"

Psychometry brings up these ancient characters as vividly and
truthfully as history. Such psychometric descriptions are a continual
miracle. How the psychometers, knowing not of whom they are speaking,
guided only by a mysterious intuition, should speak of the most
ancient characters as familiarly and truly as of our acquaintances
to-day, will ever stand as a psychic miracle, to illustrate the Divine
Wisdom that established such a power in man. This is the daily
experience of Mrs. Buchanan. Her description of Diogenes was as
follows:

    "I think this is an ancient. There is something quaint about
    him. He does not seem to follow anything or anybody. He lived a
    natural life, indifferent to current teachings. He had peculiar
    original ideas of his own as to life and its purposes, and seems
    to be a man of philanthropic nature, not æsthetic, but very
    indifferent as to personal appearance and habits, or as to
    pleasing people, not at all fastidious. He did not mind people's
    opinions in the least. They never disturbed him.

    "He had enough combativeness to fight his way through
    difficulties. He had great self-reliance, and did not mind
    obstacles. If he had to take part in disturbances, he was ready,
    and had tact and tactics. He had a peculiar power of governing
    men, and a peculiar way of gaining confidence and esteem. He did
    not show off at all, and was not at all condescending. He had a
    great deal of sagacity. He regarded as trifles things people
    considered as momentous.

    "(To what country did he belong?) He was probably a Greek, but
    he did not accord with anything of his time. He lived in the
    future and anticipated great changes. He did not agree with any
    contemporary religion, politics, fashions or manners, but was
    very sarcastic upon them. He was a philosopher, devoted to the
    useful, and cared nothing for the ornamental, either in
    architecture, fashions or anything else. He might not make war
    on the religion as he was not rancorous or rebellious, but he
    had different ideas in himself, and was candid in expressing
    them. He does not give much attention to modern times, but if he
    were here he would enjoy modern improvements and benevolence,
    but would denounce our fashions and our bigotry, and teach a
    primitive style of living."

Let us invoke the strong spirit of Diogenes whose sturdy freedom
of thought was like that of Walt Whitman, to coöperate in the review
of modern life. Such men are greatly needed to review a
corrupt civilization; and where is the civilization now, where was
there ever a civilization that was not corrupt? The function of
Diogenes is not performed either by the pulpit or the press. A
few special journals are terribly severe on special evils, but the
reformatory words of the press generally are few and far between, in
comparison to what is needed. The JOURNAL OF MAN does not
propose to fill the hiatus and make war upon the myriad evils of
society, but it must speak out, now and then, like Diogenes, especially
when others neglect their duty.

What is the condition of our legislative bodies? Where is there
one that does not provoke sharp criticism? The Albany correspondent
of the _N. Y. Sun_, speaking of the legislative adjournment, says;
"Mr. William F. Sheehan, leader of the Democratic minority to the
Assembly, summed up the work of the Legislature of 1887 when in
his address on the floor of the Assembly on the day of final adjournment,
he said: 'Prayer will ascend from thousands of hearts of the
citizens of this State at noon to-day for their deliverance from this
Legislature. It began its session with the corrupt election of a
United States Senator. It lived in bribery, and it dies a farce.'
No one here regrets the adjournment except the gamblers and the
lobbyists. Even the lobbyists would be glad for a vacation, as their
labors in bidding for the legislative cattle the last month have been
most arduous. The people of Albany look on the Legislature as a
pestilence to which they must yearly submit, and they welcome its
departure as a farmer does the going of a swarm of locusts from his
fields.

"Whatever else may be said about the Legislature of 1887, no one ever
accused it of being honest, and there is no doubt that it was
industrious."

This corrupt Legislature passed two very discreditable bills which
would have been made positively infamous if it had not been for the
active opposition of a few friends of liberty. One of these bills was
designed to add to the stringency of the present obstructive medical
law; the other was designed to assist the labors of Anthony Comstock
in interrupting the circulation of popular physiological literature,
under pretence of suppressing obscenity.

In the Legislature of Pennsylvania, the law designed to suppress the
cultivation of spiritual science by severe penalties, was favorably
reported by a committee but prevented by popular indignation from
passing. Yet the people were not sufficiently alert to prevent
legislation in favor of that monopoly the Standard Oil Company, which
is considered a betrayal of justice.

In Illinois a bill was passed in the Senate and came near passing in
the House, which would have abolished all medical freedom and made it
a crime for any one but a licensed doctor to help the sick in any way,
even by a prayer. Verily the spirit of American liberty does not
pervade American communities and American legislatures.

In Massachusetts the Old Puritanic Sunday Laws having fallen into
"_innocuous desuetude_," an attempt to give them a partial enforcement
in Boston compelled a little legislative action and the result was
what might have been expected in a State in which religious opinions
are allowed to interfere with the credibility of a witness, and in
which Diogenes, if he were here, would be struck with the vast
inconsistency between the creed of Christendom and its practice, and
the vast disparity between the progress of modern knowledge and the
effete system of education in our Universities. He would wonder why
modern colleges are more interested in the details of Greek life and
letters than in the beneficent sciences of to-day of which the Greeks
knew nothing.

He would wonder why the edicts of the Pagan emperor, Constantine,
concerning the observance of Sunday are observed and enforced as a
religious duty, while the Divine love inculcated by Jesus Christ,
which forbids all strife and war, is no more regarded by Christian
nations than by the rulers of ancient Rome.

He would look into the schools and universities professedly devoted to
science and literature, and ask why they have even less freedom of
discussion and thought than the schools of Athens, every professor
being interested to discourage the investigation of novelties in
philosophy instead of being ready to welcome original investigation.

Under the new Sunday law of Massachusetts, Sunday trains and steamboat
lines are at the mercy of the railroad commissioners, who can stop
every one of them; but boating, yachting, and carriage driving on
Sunday are free to all who have the money to pay for them. But while
outdoor frolic is free-and-easy, indoor enjoyment is prohibited.
Everybody is liable to five dollar fines for _attending_ "any sport,
game, or play" on Sunday, unless it has been licensed, and private
families never ask a license for their own amusements. But _to be
present_ on Sunday "_at any dancing_," brings a liability to a $50
fine for each offence! What a terrible thing dancing is to be sure,
that looking on should cost $50, while a frolic in boating and
yachting is unexceptionably holy, and the fast young men may kick up a
dust, kill the horses, and smash the buggies with impunity, or kill
themselves by rowing in the hot sun, under whiskey stimulus on Sunday.

The laws for hotels and restaurants are even more absurd. Travellers,
strangers and lodgers may be freely entertained, but if _anybody else_
(who is he?) comes into the house, or remains on the grounds about it,
on Sunday, the landlord can be fined as much as $50 at the first pop,
$100 at the second pop, and at the third pop he is to be shut up and
deprived of his license. Somebody else must be a terrible fellow on
Sunday--and he is a dangerous customer on Saturday too, for if he
comes in on Saturday evening, or even lounges on the grounds, it is a
fine of five dollars for the landlord. But who is he? How is the poor
landlord, or victualler to discover _somebody else_, who is neither
lodger, stranger, nor traveller. The landlord cannot detect him, but
all sheriffs, grand jurors, and constables are required to hunt for
him! _Vive la bagatelle!_

Strictly private gambling is safe on Sunday, and our _Chevaliers
d'Industrie_ may ruin a dozen families, and provoke suicide and
murder,--"plate sin with gold" and it is protected, and the swindling
shyster is protected too on Sunday, for no civil process can be served
on that holy day; the rogue who is bothered on that day can get
exemplary damages by this law of Sunday asylum. But the poor keeper of
a restaurant or of an inn, is the victim for old legislative boys to
throw stones at. They have provided a hundred dollar fine for every
innholder or victualler who keeps, or "suffers to be kept," on his
premises, any implements "used in gaming," or which may be used for
"purposes of amusement," and does not prevent such things from being
used on Sunday. So if he is not extremely vigilant throughout his
house and grounds, he may be caught with a hundred dollar fine, OR be
imprisoned three months in the House of Correction at the pleasure of
the magistrate!! and for every subsequent offense may be _imprisoned
in the House of Correction_ as much as one year, and then required to
give security for obeying the law. Under such a law a malicious young
hoodlum may contrive to send a landlord to jail.

To open a shop, warehouse, or workhouse on Sunday is a fifty dollar
offense, and it is fifty dollars also for doing "any manner of labor,
business or work" on Sunday, unless the judge considers it a matter of
necessity or charity; nevertheless, the "making of butter and cheese"
is good Sunday work, if we do not _open the doors_ which would bring
on a $50 fine. So is the work of steam, gas and electricity,
newspapers, telegraphs, telephones, druggists, milkmen, (bakers before
10 and after 4,) boat houses, livery stables, ferry boats, and street
cars. But to catch a fish or fire a pistol on Sunday is a $10 offense,
and to look on at a game of chess is a $50 crime. However, the law
does not punish whistling on Sunday, unless the whistler has
spectators, then it is a $50 business for all concerned. To read
Longfellow's Excelsior on Sunday to a parlor of company is a $50
crime. Reading Milton's Paradise Lost, or the American Declaration of
Independence would also rank as criminal business, being an
entertainment, and a party of twenty playing a game of croquet may be
fined a thousand dollars.

Verily, if it were not for such hypocritical and asinine legislation
as this, we might forget the history of New England witchcraft, and
the hanging of Quakers in sight of the spot where this law was enacted
as an _improvement_ on a still worse, but practically obsolete
statute.

Such Sunday legislation is a fair evidence of the absence of true
religion, and the predominance of hypocrisy. It is not enforced, and
is not expected to be. All the Sunday legislation in New York did not
prevent the immense Syracuse Salt Works from carrying on their work
day and night. Gov. Hill and the N. Y. Legislature have shown their
character by increasing the penalties of the Sunday laws, but they
have not approached the Massachusetts standard.



A BILL TO DESTROY THE INDIANS.

From the Boston Pilot.


The Puritans of New England and the Cavaliers of Virginia alike
treated the Indians as though they had no rights of manhood. The
Catholics, Baptists, and Quakers treated them kindly and justly. The
Puritans took Indian lands without permission or compensation. The
Catholics, Baptists and Quakers bought lands from the Indians in an
honorable way.

The two policies have been in conflict for nearly three centuries.

The Government has held to the policy of buying lands from the
Indians, thus recognizing their ownership; but it has not always paid
the price agreed upon. Now, under the lead of Senator Dawes Congress
has passed a bill which annuls the treaties, and overrides all
proprietary rights of every tribe, except nine of the most civilized.

His bill is the "Indian Land in Severalty Bill." It pretends to be in
the interest of the Indians, but that pretense is a fraud. It is
wholly in the interest of railroad companies, land syndicates, and
private white settlers.

The treaties of 1868 and 1876 guarantee the Sioux tribes undisturbed
possession of their reservation in Dakota. Not an acre of that land
can be taken from them without the consent of three-fourths of them.
So read the treaties signed by the United States Commissioners and
confirmed by the United States Senate.

The Dawes Severalty Bill takes the Sioux reservation from the control
of the Sioux without asking the consent of a single Indian, surveys it
as though it was a body of public land, and then says to the Sioux:
The Government will return a small homestead for each of you, as
individuals, and after twenty-five years you shall have titles to
these small tracts, but the remainder of the reservation, (about
four-fifth) must be opened to white settlers.

The Sioux protest against this outrage, and have appealed to the
National Indian Defence Association at Washington, D. C., to protect
their rights. This association has resolved to test the
constitutionality of this bill in the Supreme Court of the United
States, and asks all friends of justice to sustain them in this legal
contest.



MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE.


THE SEYBERT COMMISSION has reported against the claims of
Spiritualism. Their report will not even have the effect of the French
Academy report against animal magnetism, which checked its progress in
the medical profession but not among the people; but before the
century passed, the medical profession has taken up the science in
earnest, and re-named it hypnotism. The Seybert report will not even
be a temporary damper, for while thousands of inquirers, fully as
competent as the commission, and many of them far more competent to
the investigation, have made themselves familiar with the facts, the
commission has done nothing but to emphasize the fact already familiar
among the intelligent, of the prevalence of fraud among mediums.
Notwithstanding the wonderful powers of Slade, no one acquainted with
his history would place any reliance on his integrity. The more
intelligent Spiritualists understood such matters, and the Ladies' Aid
(Spiritualist) Society of Boston, recently had considerable amusement
in the exhibition in their parlors of the materializing and
dematerializing wire apparatus used by the fraudulent medium, Mrs.
Ross, which was said to have been carried in her bustle. Mrs. Ross
when prosecuted for her frauds was found to be protected by the law of
coverture which makes the husband alone responsible. This is a relic
of the idea of female subordination and obedience which ought to be
abolished. The progress of spiritualism has been marked by as many
follies as that of any popular movement, and the bequest of $60,000,
by Mr. Seybert, to the old fogies of the Pennsylvania University was
among the stupidest of these follies. If a friend of Galileo had made
such a bequest to the Catholic church in his time, to get an opinion
of the new astronomy, it would have been as sensible a proceeding. It
will however have one good result; it will erect a permanent monument
to the ignorance of the universities, a record from which they cannot
hereafter escape. Prof. Leidy was one of the salaried commissioners
whose mental status was thus exhibited in the last journal:

   "Your doctrine of life eternal,
   And everything else supernal,
   Might well be pronounced an infernal
                                   Delusion!"


THE EVILS THAT NEED ATTENTION, mentioned in the JOURNAL for May, are
as rampant as ever. The big combination in Chicago to raise the price
of wheat by a corner, utterly burst on the 14th of June, leaving a few
ruined speculators. The _Chicago News_ says: "What is called buying
and selling futures in grain, is no more buying and selling in the
innocent and proper interpretation of the words than the wagering on
horse races is buying and selling horses. It is a species of gambling
as pernicious to public morals as it is contrary to public policy."
The _Chicago Herald_ says, "No one is in love with a cornerer who
corners. Nobody wastes any pity on a cornerer who gets cornered
himself." Such crimes in a petty way may be punished, but we need law
for the millionaire gamblers who not only rob each other, but fleece
the entire nation at the same time.


CONDENSED ITEMS.--_Mesmerism, in Paris._ M. G. de Torcy has introduced
a mesmerized woman into the lion's cage, where she unconsciously puts
her head in the lion's mouth: then, in a state of cataleptic rigidity,
head and feet resting on two stools, the lion is made to jump over the
rigid body, then with paws resting on her body, to pull a string by
his teeth and thus fire a pistol. Of course this draws enthusiastic
audiences. _Medical Freedom._ The attempts at restrictive medical
legislation have been defeated in Rhode Island, Connecticut, and
Maine. In Maine, the bill had passed the Legislature and was approved
by Gov. Bodwell, but upon re-consideration he vetoed it and the Senate
then rejected it. The Allopathic State Society is quite indignant and
calls it "_atrocious_" that they cannot enforce a law which the Senate
and governor rejected. Mrs. Post in Iowa has been acquitted and will
not be punished at all for the awful crime of healing a patient by
prayer! The acquittal appears to be on the ground of the
unconstitutionally of the law. _The Victoria Jubilee_ in Faneuil Hall,
Boston, called out an immense indignation meeting, and many eloquent
protests. But for the energy of the police a riot might have occurred
at the time of the festival. _Delightful Homes._ Asheville, N. C.,
2339 feet above tide water, has a delightful climate, especially for
pulmonary invalids. Northern Georgia is an elevated region of
remarkable general health, and freedom from malarious and consumptive
diseases. California has still more delightful homes of health and
beauty. Colorado has twelve towns over 5,000 feet above the sea, and
ten over 10,000.



CHAPTER IV.--CRANIOSCOPY.


    The Study of the Comparative Development of the Brain through
    the Cranium--Importance of Cranioscopy--First Step--Facial
    organs--Miller, Pestalozzi, Danton, Mirabeau--Caricatures--Upper
    and lower parts of face--Female faces--Mode of comparing
    organs--Mode of manipulation--Bony irregularities--Profile
    comparison of height and depth--Vacca Pechassee and Lewis--Old
    errors--Difficulties in estimation--Morbid
    conditions--Criminals--Napoleon--Negro murderer.


[Illustration: HUGH MILLER.]

[Illustration: PESTALOZZI.]

[Illustration: DANTON.]

[Illustration: MIRABEAU.]


The reader now understands the conformation of the brain, and the
general character of its different regions. It is important that he
should as soon as possible begin the study of heads, and learn to
judge correctly their development. When he can do this, he has an
inexhaustible source of knowledge continually with him, and every new
acquaintance becomes an interesting study in ascertaining the
indications of his head and comparing them with his daily conduct and
manners. The more thorough and careful the study, the greater the
satisfaction and delight that it yields. The good cranioscopist
continually grows in knowledge, and solves all the problems of
character presented in society. But he who simply studies the elements
of character or organic faculties, and does not become acquainted with
the organs and their measurement, soon finds his knowledge too
abstract and remote from his daily life; and, instead of increasing
his stock of knowledge on this subject, he continually loses more and
more of what he has gained. It was for this reason, mainly, that the
medical profession gradually dropped the discoveries of Gall, which
would never have ceased to interest them if they had learned to apply
them to the study of men and animals.

I hope that no reader will neglect this chapter, or fail to reduce its
instructions to practice, for on that it depends whether he shall
become a practical master of cerebral science, and be able to read
every character with which he meets.

The first step in studying a head is to observe its general
contour,--whether the forehead projects far in front of the ear, to
indicate intellect; whether the upper surface rises above the forehead
sufficiently to indicate the nobler qualities, and whether it is
balanced or overpowered by the breadth and depth of the base of the
skull and thickness of the neck. In connection with this, we may
observe that the base of the brain is also expressed in the lower part
of the face which corresponds to the organs for the expression of
animal force, while the upper part of the face is devoted to the
expression of the upper and anterior parts of the brain. The
expressional faculties shown in the face do not always coincide
exactly with the real power of the organs thus expressed; but if they
do not, they at least indicate their activity and habitual display;
for faculties habitually indulged will show their organic indications
in the face, while those which are suppressed or restrained will be
less conspicuous in the face.

The reader will understand that organs located for observation on the
face are organs of the brain lying behind the face, which may be
reached and stimulated through it, as other organs are reached and
stimulated through the cranium and integuments. The contour of the
face cannot reveal the organs behind it by physical necessity, as does
the contour of the skull, yet observation induces me to rely upon
estimates based on facial development. I think there is a
correspondence of development between the brain and face, based upon
vital laws, and also a direct influence of each organ upon the surface
that covers it, so that when the organ is excited the surface becomes
flushed, and when it is kept inactive the surface becomes pale and
withered. This may be most readily observed at the organ of Love of
Stimulus, immediately in front of the cavity of the ear. The surface
presents a shrunken appearance after many years of rigid abstinence,
but becomes plump, bloated, or high-colored, in those whose habits are
intemperate. I have also observed an itching sensation at the surface
when the organs behind it were active. Any one may observe a warmth
and fulness in the upper part of the face when the social sentiments
are very active. In the act of blushing, the flush comes upon the part
of the face associated with modest and refined sentiments, the centre
of which is below the external angle of the eye, at the lower margin
of the cheek-bone.

The contrasting development of the upper and lower parts of the face
may be seen when we compare such characters as the enthusiastic
philanthropist and educational reformer, Pestalozzi, and the
high-principled and intellectual Hugh Miller, the Scotch geologist,
with such as Danton, the terrible demagogue of the French revolution,
and Mirabeau, the brilliant but unprincipled orator.

No skilful artist in caricature fails to observe these principles.
When he would degrade a character, he magnifies the lower part of the
face; and when he would represent a more refined character, the lower
part of the face becomes correspondingly delicate.

When _Puck_ would represent, a miserable wretch, he presents such a
head as the following; and when a New York journalist desired to
caricature an opponent as a saloon politician, he diminished the upper
and developed the lower part of the head, as presented here.

[Illustration: WRETCH.]

[Illustration: SALOON POLITICIAN.]

All observers of countenance and character unconsciously act upon
these principles and recognize a great difference in the expressions
of two faces,--one predominant in the lower and the other in the upper
portion of the face. That there was any scientific basis for this was
entirely unknown before my discoveries of the organs behind the face,
which modify its development and expression. My lectures upon this
subject in 1842 were attended by the physiognomical writer, Redfield,
who derived from them many important suggestions.

When the lower part of the face is massive, broad, and prominent,
while the basilar region is broad and deep, with a stout neck, we know
the great force and activity of the animal nature, and unless the
upper surface of the brain is well developed all over, we may expect
some excess in the way of violence, temper, selfishness, perversity,
sensuality, dishonesty, avarice, rudeness of manners, moral
insensibility, slander, contentiousness, jealousy, envy, revenge, or
some other form of wickedness, according to the especial conformation.

In the faces of women, we find the activity of the amiable sentiments
marked by the fulness and roseate color of the upper part of the face,
while the lower portion is more delicate than in the masculine face.

But although the facial developments generally correspond with the
activity of the organs expressed, the rule is not invariable, as the
reader will learn hereafter that the facial developments may be
moderate when the character is not excitable or demonstrative.

If the upper surface of the head is sufficiently high, we know that
great capacity for virtue exists, capable of restraining evil
inclinations, and producing admirable traits of character, according
to the organs especially developed.

When we study the special organs we determine the special virtues or
vices. For example, a head may have a good general development upward,
giving many very pleasing traits of character, and yet be so deficient
in the region of conscientiousness (while the selfish group that gives
breadth at the ears is large) as to produce great moral unsoundness
and a treacherous violation of obligations or disregard of principle.

The most delicate task in craniological study, and the most important,
is the balancing of opposite tendencies belonging to antagonistic
organs; and it was for the want of the knowledge of antagonisms that
the Gallian system so often failed in describing character and its
representatives before the public have made the most disastrous
blunders. Shrewd and honest observers discovered the imperfections of
the science.[2]

    [2] A letter just received from Australia states that the
        writer had for many years been a student of phrenology, and
        had ascertained from examining hundreds of crania that
        phrenology "stood on a basis of fact, but was wrong as well
        as deficient in some of its details. But though I could
        point to several parts of the skull where the readings of
        professionals as well as myself were always unreliable, I
        could not discover the real function of the organs in these
        places."

While the eye readily gives us the contour of heads that have not much
hair, there is but little accurate judgment without the use of the
hand, which is the first thing to be learned. Not the tips of the
fingers, but the whole hand should be laid upon the head gently, to
cover as much surface as possible, while with a gentle pressure we
cause the scalp to move slightly, and thus feel through it the exact
form of the cranium as correctly as if the bones were exposed to view.
If in this examination we find any sharp prominences, which might be
called bumps, we attribute them to the growth of bone, which does not
indicate the growth of the brain. The latter is indicated only by the
general contour.

A little anatomical knowledge will prevent us from being deceived, and
enable us to make due allowances. There are no great difficulties in
making a correct estimate, and the anatomists who have taught their
pupils that correct cranial observations could not be made, only
showed their own ignorance of the subject. We must consider the
cranium as though all osseous protuberances had been shaved off,
leaving the smooth, curving contour of the skull. The principal
projection to be removed is the superciliary ridge corresponding to
the brow at the base of the forehead. It is formed by the projection
of the external plate of the skull, leaving a separation or cavity
between it and the inner plate, which cavity is called the frontal
sinus, and is sometimes half an inch wide. As there is no positive
method of determining its dimensions in the living head, there must
ever be some doubt concerning the development of the perceptive organs
which it covers. The superciliary ridge at the external angle of the
brow extends really as much as three-quarters of an inch from the
brain. From this angle a ridge of bone (the temporal arch) extends
upward and backward, separating the lateral surface of the head from
the frontal and upper surfaces. This ridge is a convenient landmark,
but must be excluded from an estimate of development as it is merely
osseous. It extends back on the head a little behind its middle. The
sagittal suture on the median line of the upper surface usually
presents a slight, bony elevation or ridge (see the engraving of the
skull, Chapter III.), and the lambdoid suture on the back of the head
is frequently rough. A superficial practical phrenologist (of great
pretensions) at Cincinnati, in examining the head of a gentleman of
mild character, found the lambdoid suture quite rough, and gave him a
terrifically pugnacious character, not knowing enough to distinguish
between osseous and cerebral development. The occipital knob on the
median line between the cerebrum and cerebellum, has been already
mentioned. The mastoid process, the bony prominence behind the ear is
a projection exterior to the cerebellum. Where it starts from the
cranium above and behind the cavity of the ear, we may judge of
basilar development by the breadth of the head, but the basilar depth
which is more important is to be judged by the extension downward,
which was illustrated in the last chapter by comparing the skulls of
J. R. Smith and the slave-trading count.

To judge the comparative strength of the higher and lower elements of
character, we look for the height above the forehead and the depth at
and behind the ear, which is ascertained by placing the hand on the
base of the cranium behind the ears, while the height of the head is
best appreciated by placing a hand on the top with the fingers
reaching down to the brow.

In a profile view the human head may be divided into three equal
parts, the length of the nose being the central part, from the nose to
the end of the chin another, and the remainder above the nose the
third part. In inferior heads these three measurements are equal, the
upper third extending to the top of the head; but in heads of superior
character the upper third extends only to the top of the forehead, and
the outline of the head rises a half breadth above the forehead, as
the following profiles show. In heads of the lowest character the
basilar depth exceeds the height, as in the French Count and the
Indian Lewis.

The contour of a well-developed head forms a semicircle above the base
line through the brow, and its elevation above that line is equal to
one half of the antero-posterior length of the head, while in the
inferior class of heads the elevation is but four-tenths of the length
or even less, and is hardly equal to the depth, while in the highest
class the elevation is one-half greater than the depth or even more.
We obtain another view of the comparative height and depth by drawing
lines from the brow to the vertex and the base of the brain and
comparing the two angles thus formed. In the good head we observe the
great superiority of the upper angle over that formed by the line to
the ear, the lower end of which corresponds to the lowest part of the
brain, the base of the cerebellum.

[Illustration]

To take an illustration from nature, I would present the outlines of
two Indian crania that I obtained in Florida,--Vacca Pechassee, or the
cow chief, who headed a small tribe, and bore a good character among
the whites, and Lewis, an Indian of bad character in the same
neighborhood (on the Appalachicola River), who was shot for his
crimes. (I might have obtained many more, but as the Seminole war was
not then over, I found that my own cranium was placed in considerable
danger by my explorations.)

[Illustration: VACCA PECHASSEE]

[Illustration: LEWIS]

In Vacca Pechassee the height is to the depth as 11 to 9; in Lewis as
9 to 11. In J. R. Smith the height is to the depth as 12 to 10; in the
slave trading count as 9 to 14. This is the correct method of cranial
study, for comparing the moral and animal nature.

The basilar depth was entirely overlooked in the old method of
phrenologists, and hence they were very often mistaken in judging the
basilar energy by breadth alone, of which there has been no more
striking example than that of the Thugs of India, whose heads (though
a tribe of murderers) were below the European average in basilar
breadth. These facts are so conspicuous to any careful observer that I
became very familiar with them in the first six months of my study of
heads fifty-two years ago.

When the circulation of the brain is vigorous and regular, all
portions being in regular activity, the fulness of the circulation
being shown in the face, we may be sure that the character is fairly
indicated by the cranium. The younger the individual the thinner the
cranium, and the less the liability to deception by the thickness of
the bones. Female skulls are _generally_ more delicate than male, and
also more normal or uniform in their circulation. Hence there is less
difficulty in making an accurate estimate of women and of youth. The
greater difficulty is found in men of thick skulls and abnormal
brains, and these difficulties are in some cases insurmountable by
mere measurement. It will become necessary in the depraved classes to
look at the condition of the circulation about the head, and the
facial indications of the organs that have been cultivated. If these
are not sufficient to guide us we must fall back upon psychometry.

The morbid condition of the brain is a conspicuous fact, which we must
not ignore, and it is important to learn how to detect it in the
appearance of the individual, or in his psychometric indications and
Pathognomy, which is itself a profound science and important guide to
character. (Pathognomy is the science of expression, and has an exact
mathematical basis.)

We should bear in mind that it is just as possible to have impaired
and unhealthy conditions in any part of the brain as to have them in
the stomach, liver, lungs, or spinal cord. Physical diseases are
contagious and so are moral. It is generally impossible to preserve
the moral organs and faculties of a youth in healthy condition who is
allowed to associate habitually with the depraved; and it is very
difficult indeed for the mature adult to preserve his brain and mind
in sound condition when compelled to associate with the depraved. To
those who are very impressible, the contagion of vice, bad temper,
profanity, turbulence, lying, obscenity, sullenness, melancholy, etc.,
is as inevitable as the contagion of small pox.

Our criminals are generally exposed to the contagion of crime in
youth, and as they advance they are immersed in this contagion in
prisons, which are the moral pest-houses in which law maintains the
intense contagion of criminal depravity. Napoleon was an admirable
subject for such contamination, and when we learn how he was reared
amid the lawlessness and general scoundrelism of Corsica, we do not
wonder that he became an imperial brigand. The low ethical standard of
mankind, generally, and especially of historians, has heretofore
prevented a just estimate of the character of Napoleon. Royal
criminals have escaped condemnation; but the recent review of
Napoleon's career by Taine gives a just philosophic estimate of the
man, which coincides with the impartial estimation of psychometry.



BUSINESS DEPARTMENT.


The establishment of a new Journal is a hazardous and expensive
undertaking. Every reader of this volume receives what has cost more
than he pays for it, and in addition receives the product of months of
editorial, and many years of scientific, labor. May I not therefore
ask his aid in relieving me of this burden by increasing the
circulation of the Journal among his friends?

The establishment of the Journal was a duty. There was no other way
effectively to reach the people with its new sphere of knowledge.
Buckle has well said in his "History of Civilization," that "No great
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executive, has ever been originated in any country by its ruling
class. The first suggestors of such steps have invariably been bold
and able thinkers, who discern the abuse, denounce it, and point out
the remedy."

This is equally true in science, philanthropy, and religion. When the
advance of knowledge and enlightenment of conscience render reform or
revolution necessary, the ruling powers of college, church,
government, capital, and the press, present a solid combined
resistance which the teachers of novel truth cannot overcome without
an appeal to the people. The grandly revolutionary science of
Anthropology, which offers in one department (Psychometry) "the dawn
of a new civilization," and in other departments an entire revolution
in social, ethical, educational, and medical philosophy, has
experienced the same fate as all other great scientific and
philanthropic innovations, in being compelled to sustain itself
against the mountain mass of established error by the power of truth
alone. The investigator whose life is devoted to the evolution of the
truth cannot become its propagandist. A whole century would be
necessary to the full development of these sciences to which I can
give but a portion of one life. Upon those to whom these truths are
given, who can intuitively perceive their value, rests the task of
sustaining and diffusing the truth.

Mrs. Croly of New York remarked in her address to the Women's Press
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that starts to represent a cause must be maintained by individual
effort, and often at great sacrifice."

The circulation of the Journal is necessarily limited to the sphere of
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warm and enthusiastic reception than was ever before given to any
periodical. There must be in the United States twenty or thirty
thousand of the class who would warmly appreciate the Journal, but
they are scattered so widely it will be years before half of them can
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earnestly request.

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Enlargement of the Journal.

The requests of readers for the enlargement of the Journal are already
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human welfare, which would be gratifying to its readers. The second
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COLLEGE OF THERAPEUTICS.

An interesting session closed on the 10th of June. Students attending
a second course think they profited as much as by the first. The class
adopted a strong expression of their high appreciation of the
instruction received, and the importance of the new sciences.
Everything was harmonious, intelligent, and successful. Fine
psychometric powers were developed in four-fifths of the students. A
fuller report will appear in the next JOURNAL. The next course (the
ninth) will begin the first week of November next.


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SUNDAY LEGISLATION.

At the annual meeting of the Free Religious Association in Boston,
"Judge Putnam showed, in a speech which called out much laughter and
applause, that the Sunday law is not enforced, for it does not really
make our behavior different from what it would be without it, except
in so far as it permits rascals to refuse to pay notes signed on that
day, or bills for goods then purchased."

       *       *       *       *       *

                     Mayo's Vegetable Anæsthetic.

A perfectly safe and pleasant substitute for chloroform, ether,
nitrous oxide gas, and all other anæsthetics. Discovered by Dr. U. K.
Mayo, April, 1883, and since administered by him and others in over
300,000 cases successfully. The youngest child, the most sensitive
lady, and those having heart disease, and lung complaint, inhale this
vapor with impunity. It stimulates the circulation of the blood and
builds up the tissues. Indorsed by the highest authority in the
professions, recommended in midwifery and all cases of nervous
prostration. Physicians, surgeons, dentists and private families
supplied with this vapor, liquefied, in cylinders of various
capacities. It should be administered the same as Nitrous Oxide, but
it does not produce headache and nausea as that sometimes does. For
further information pamphlets, testimonials, etc., apply to

                                      DR. U. K. MAYO, Dentist,
                                        378 Tremont St., Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *

                                FACTS,

                         A MONTHLY MAGAZINE,

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                   Mental and Spiritual Phenomena,


                              INCLUDING

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               Single Copies, 10 Cents; $1.00 per year.

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                      _L. L. WHITLOCK, Editor._


             For Sale by COLBY & RICH, 9 Bosworth Street.

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                   _PUBLISHED AT HAMMONTON, N. J._

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A Paper for all who Sincerely and Intelligently Seek Truth without
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Press, Pulpit, and People Proclaim its Merits.

_Concurrent Commendations from Widely Opposite Sources._

Is the ablest Spiritualist paper in America.... Mr. Bundy has earned
the respect of all lovers of the truth, by his sincerity and
courage.--_Boston Evening Transcript._

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and proprietor is disposed to treat the whole subject of spiritualism
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I wish you the fullest success in your courageous course.--_R. Heber
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Your course has made spiritualism respected by the secular press as it
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I read your paper every week with great interest.--_H. W. Thomas, D. D.,
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     LARGE EIGHT-PAGE, WEEKLY JOURNAL, DEVOTED TO THE ADVOCACY OF
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    Transcriber's Note: The Table of Contents came from the first
    issue of the volume.





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