Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Buchanan's Journal of Man, November 1887 - Volume 1, Number 10
Author: Buchanan, Joseph R. (Joseph Rodes), 1814-1899 [Editor]
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Buchanan's Journal of Man, November 1887 - Volume 1, Number 10" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



                             BUCHANAN'S
                           JOURNAL OF MAN.

            VOL. I.        NOVEMBER, 1887.        NO. 10.



CONTENTS OF JOURNAL OF MAN.


  The Slow Triumph of Truth
  Old Industrial Education
  An Incomparable "Medical Outlaw"
  Educational.--Educational Reform in England; Dead Languages
    Vanishing; Higher Education of Women; Bad Sunday-School Books;
    Our Barbarous Orthography
  Critical.--European Barbarism; Boston Civilization; Monopoly;
    Woman's Drudgery; Christian Civilization; Walt Whitman;
    Temperance
  Scientific.--Extension of Astronomy; A New Basis for Chemistry;
    Chloroform in Hydrophobia; The Water Question; Progress of
    Homoeopathy; Round the World Quickly
  Glances Round the World (concluded from August)
  Rectification of Cerebral Science (illustrated)



THE SLOW TRIUMPH OF TRUTH.


THE JOURNAL OF MAN does not fear to perform its duty and use plain
language in reference to the obstructionists who hinder the acceptance
of demonstrable sciences and prevent all fair investigation, while
they occupy positions of influence and control in all collegiate
institutions.

It is not in scorn or bitterness that we should speak of this erring
class, a large number of whom are the victims of mis-education--of the
hereditary policy of the colleges, which is almost as difficult to
change as a national church, or a national despotism. The young men
who enter the maelstrom of college life are generally borne along as
helpless as rowing boats in a whirlpool. It is impossible for even the
strongest minds to be exposed for years, surrounded by the
contaminating influence of falsehood, and come forth uninjured. But
while we pity the victims of medical colleges and old-fashioned
universities, let us seek for our young friends institutions that have
imbibed the spirit of the present age.

Man is essentially a spiritual being, and, even in this life, he has
many of the spiritual capacities which are to be unfolded in the
higher life. Moreover, there are in every refined constitution a great
number of delicate sensibilities, which no college has ever
recognized.

There has been no concealment of these facts. They have always been
open to observation,--more open than the facts of Geology and
Chemistry. Ever since the earliest dawn of civilization in Egypt,
India, and Greece the facts have been conspicuous before the world,
and, in ancient times, have attracted the attention of imperial and
republican governments. And yet, the literary guild, the
_incorporated_ officials of education everywhere, have refused to
investigate such truths, and shaped their policy in accordance with
the lowest instincts of mammon,--in accordance with the policy of
kings, of priests, of soldiers, and of plutocrats; and this policy has
been so firmly maintained and transmitted, that there is not, to-day,
a university anywhere to be found that possesses the spirit of
progress, or is willing to open either its eyes or its ears to the
illumination of nineteenth-century progress, and to the voice of
Heaven, which is "the still small voice of reason."

"_Of the earth, earthy_" is the character of our colleges to-day as it
was in the days when Prof. Horky and his colleagues refused to look
through the telescope of Galileo. Is not this utter neglect of
Psychometry for forty-five years (because it has not been _forced_
upon their attention) as great an evidence of perpetuated stolidity as
was the conduct of the Professors of Padua 280 years ago in shunning
the inspection of Galileo's telescope, when the demonstration has been
so often repeated that Psychometry is a far greater addition than the
telescope to the methods of science and promises a greater enlargement
of science than the telescope and microscope combined.

"_Of the earth, earthy_" is a just description of institutions which
confine their investigations and limit their ideas of science to that
which is physical, when man's life, enjoyment, hopes and destiny are
all above the plane on which they dwell and in which they burrow.
Physical science is indeed a vast department of knowledge, but to
limit ourselves to that when a far grander realm exists, one really
more important to human welfare, is an attempt to perpetuate a
semi-barbarism, and the time is not _very_ remote in this progressive
age when the barbarism of the 19th century literature and education
will become a familiar theme.

The efforts of intellectual rebels to break through the restrictions
of collegiate despotism have not yet had much success, and my own
labors would have been fruitless in that respect if I had not been
able to combine with others in establishing a more liberal college,
the _Eclectic Medical Institute_ of Cincinnati, which still retains
something of the progressive spirit of its founders.

Simultaneously with the American rebellion against British authority,
_Mesmer_ in France made an assault upon that Chinese wall of medical
bigotry which Harvey found it so hard to overcome, but although he
secured one favorable report from the Medical Academy at Paris, he was
never admitted to an honorable recognition. Now, however, the baffled
truth has entered the citadel of professional authority and the
correspondent of the New York Tribune tells the story as follows:


CHARCOT AVENGES MESMER.

Under this heading the _New York Tribune_ published in September the
letter of its regular correspondent at Paris, which is given below:

It shows that in the present state of imperfect civilization the
narrow-minded men who generally lead society are perfectly able to
suppress for a time any discovery which does not come from their own
clique. And when they do yield to the force of evidence and accept
extraordinary new discoveries, they either do it in a blundering and
perverted manner, or they try to appropriate it as their own and
continue to rob the pioneer thinker.

The psychometric experiments of Drs. Bourru and Burot, Dr. Luys and
others have not been conducted in the scientific and satisfactory
manner in which I introduced them in 1841, but in the hysterical and
sensational manner which is now attracting attention.


    LETTER FROM PARIS.

    Mesmer has been well avenged by Charcot, the great professor
    who fills the chair in the clinical ward of the Saltpetriere for
    the nervous diseases of women. Not only, indeed, has this
    illustrious physician shown that the charlatan whom the elder
    Dumas introduced with such telling effect into his novels, "La
    Comtesse de Charny" and "Le Docteur Balsamo," was no mere
    charlatan, but a number of Charcot's disciples have proved the
    truth of what Dumas seemed to draw from his rich imagination.
    Dr. Charcot, who is a cautious man, has publicly admitted
    hypnotic suggestion. He thinks extraordinary curative effects,
    so far as the consciousness of pain goes, are to be derived from
    hypnotism, which is Mesmerism with a new Greek name. But he
    always exhorts laics not to dabble in it, and medical men to
    keep their hypnotic lore to themselves. This is charming after
    the way in which the profession of which Charcot is really a
    bright light treated Mesmerism. Mesmer was an empiric. But he
    nevertheless got at the truth.

    Homoeopathy was tabooed because it was not orthodox, by that
    Sanhedrim known as the Faculty of Medicine. Animal magnetism was
    long ignored on the ground that charlatans had taken it up and
    that no doctor who had self-respect could follow them. Mesmerism
    was treated with no less contempt until a new name was given it,
    and Charcot declared that there was not only something but a
    good deal in it deserving the attention of scientists.

    Dr. Luys last Tuesday made a communication to the Academy of
    Medicine on this subject which electrified the members present.
    It was on the action, both at a distance and by direct contact,
    of certain medicated or fermented substances on hypnotic
    subjects. The latter were all women who could not possibly have
    got their cue beforehand, and were being observed, while Dr.
    Luys operated, by a jury of scientists above all suspicion of
    having lent themselves to any trickery. Alcohol when put to the
    nape in a tube no larger than a homoeopathist's vial and
    hermetically sealed produced exactly the same effect as if
    imbibed at a bar. Absinthe, haschish, opium, morphine, beer,
    champagne, tea and coffee were in succession tried with their
    characteristic effects. But "the cup which cheers but not
    inebriates" was found too exciting for French neuropaths.
    Valerian caused the deepest sadness. The thoughts of the patient
    were centred in a grave. She was impelled irresistibly to stoop
    down and scratch the ground, and thought herself in a cemetery
    exhuming a deceased relative whom she loved. Under the illusion
    she fancied herself picking up bones belonging to his skeleton,
    which she handled with tender reverence, and when there was an
    imaginary mound of them formed she placed, with deep-drawn sighs
    and tears and genuflections, a cross above them. Under the
    influence of haschish everything looked rosy and gayety
    prevailed. The subject was a young girl, very fond of the drama.
    She fancied herself on the stage and playing a part which suited
    her to perfection. It was in a bouffe opera and she sang her
    score admirably. The sentiments were expressed with delicate
    feeling. Dr. Luys can, according to the substances he uses, run
    through the whole gamut of human passions and emotions.

    What is most strange is that no trace of the fictitious world in
    which the hypnotized subject has been wandering, remains when
    real consciousness is restored. It is very rare for even the
    idea of having been in dreamland to survive the awakening from
    the hypnotic trance. Dr. Luys says that hypnotic suggestion
    sometimes has periods of incubation more or less long. The
    subject is at first gently drawn to do a certain thing or
    things, and then the drawing becomes an irresistible impulse.
    They are first as if tempted and then as if possessed. They can
    no more help themselves than a man who had got to the verge of
    Niagara Falls in a boat could help going over.

    Dr. Roger moved that the Academy name a Commission to inquire
    into hypnotic suggestion, near and at a distance. Dr. Bronardel
    supported him. He said, "All that Dr. Luys has alleged and shown
    cannot fail to make a noise throughout the world. Nobody save
    MM. Burot and Bourru have gone so far as Dr. Luys. He not only
    forces on the attention of the Academy the question of
    hypnotism, but of persons being affected by poisonous substances
    which do not penetrate, or it may be even touch, their bodies.
    This is from a legal point of view a great danger. A great
    social responsibility is involved in the matter. It is the duty
    of the Academy to have the experiments of Dr. Luys repeated,
    with others that bear upon them."

    Hypnotism, or animal magnetism, has been a little more than a
    hundred years despised and rejected by the doctors. It was
    discovered by a Viennese, Mesmer, who belonged to that curious
    branch of the Freemasons, the Illuminati. When he told Stoerck,
    the head of the Faculty of Medicine at Vienna, of his discovery,
    that learned owl begged him not to discredit that body by
    talking of anything so absurd. He persisted. Sarcasm and then
    persecution obliged him to go abroad, and he came to Paris in
    1778. The world of fashion and the court went crazy about him.
    He then set up in the Palais Royal, where, it must be said, in a
    way that was worthy of a charlatan, he worked his discovery. M.
    Le Roy, of the Academy of Medicine, thought him on the scent of
    a great truth. But the other doctors were of the bats' eyes
    sort, and hunted Mesmer down. He went to stay at Creteil, where
    he applied his method and made his famous magnetic pail, which
    interested M. d'Eslon, head doctor to the Comte d'Artois--later
    Charles X. He wrote about the magnetic pail. The Academy of
    Medicine warned him to be more cautious in speaking of quack
    inventions, and threatened to expel him from membership if he
    did not retract what he had written. That body even made a new
    rule to this effect: "No doctor declaring himself in favor of
    animal magnetism, either in theory or practice, can be a member
    of this society."

    Mesmer, hearing the police had their eye on him, went to Spa.
    But the ladies took his part with such ardor that the king named
    a commission to inquire into his discovery. Its members, too,
    were owls. They reported that "the magnetic fluid of which
    Mesmer speaks does not exist." Jussieu stood out against the
    owls and he only. He said: "All your efforts will not prevent
    this truth from making its way. They can only prevent this
    generation from profiting by it."

    I should add that the influence gained by the hypnotic operator
    remains after the subject awakes from the trance. Its action
    then reminds one of the characters in the legends of olden times
    who sold their souls to Satan. The Emperor of Brazil is very
    anxious to study hypnotism, or, at least, to dip into it when he
    comes back to Paris.

The reader will observe in the foregoing letter and in all medical
literature Mesmer is spoken of as a "charlatan" and "empiric."
Charlatan is an opprobrious term, but "empiric" literally means one
who follows experience instead of dogma, and should therefore be an
honorable designation; but as the medical profession has always been
dogmatic, and therefore hostile to empiricism, or fidelity to
experience, it has made empiricism an opprobrious term. Dr. Mesmer was
neither an ignoramus nor a quack, but a graduated physician, although
his title is generally omitted. He had more enthusiasm than
philosophy, but he was far in advance of his contemporaries, who had
neither, and deserves to be honorably remembered.



OLD INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION.


The greatest triumph in the profession of education ever achieved by
man was that of EZEKIEL RICH, of New Hampshire, born in 1784, whose
successful experiments at Troy, New Hampshire, were fully reported in
1838 to the American Institute of Instruction, and were described in
the last edition of the "_New Education_."

Mr. Rich demonstrated that a solid scientific, literary, moral, and
industrial education, qualifying boys and girls for a successful
business life, and greatly superior to the education now given, might
be imparted to youth while they were also sufficiently occupied in the
industrial way to _pay all their expenses_.

This is incomparably beyond anything that even the most famous
teachers have ever done, for it brings the gospel of industrial
salvation to all struggling laborers who dwell in poverty--not
immediate salvation for themselves, but salvation for their class, by
making education free for all, and giving to the children of the
poorest laborer the opportunity of a career in which independence is
sure, and wealth a possibility.

The profession of teaching, like all other professions, runs in its
fixed grooves or, as popularly expressed, its "ruts," and it will be
long ere the noble example of RICH will inspire a spirit of imitation.
His exposition of his method lay almost half a century unnoticed,
until I brought it before the National Educational Association.

Upon the subject of Industrial Training, Mr. Geo. P. Morris has
resurrected an old treatise, published by Thomas Budd, in 1685,
describing East and West Jersey, in which he lays down a system of
practical education which he wished to see adopted in Pennsylvania and
New Jersey.

He wishes a thousand acres of land given to maintain each school, free
for the poor, the rich, and the Indians--the _children being_
_maintained_ free of expense to parents from the profits of the school
"_arising by the work of the scholars_." They are to be occupied in
"learning to read and write true English, Latine and other useful
speeches and languages, and fair writing, arithmatick and bookkeeping;
and the boys to be taught and instructed in some mystery or trade, as
the making of mathematical instruments, joynery, turnery, the making
of blocks and watches, weaving, shoemaking, or any other useful trade
or mystery that the school is capable of teaching; and the girls to be
taught and instructed in spinning of flax and wool, and knitting of
gloves and stockings, sewing and making of all sorts of useful
needlework, and the making of straw-work, as hats, baskets, etc., or
any other useful art or mystery that the school is capable of
teaching.

    "3. That the scholars be kept in the morning two hours, at
    reading, writing, book-keeping, etc., and the other two hours at
    work in that art, mystery, or trade that he or she _most
    delighteth in_, and then let them have two hours to dine and for
    recreation; and in the afternoon, two hours at reading, writing,
    etc., and the other two hours at work at their several
    imployments."

Budd quotes from a book by Andrew Yarenton an account of the
spinning-schools in Germany, as follows: "In all towns there are
schools for little girls, from six years old and upwards, to teach
them to spin, and to bring their tender fingers by degrees to spin
very fine; their wheels go all by the foot, made to go with much ease,
whereby the action or motion is very easie and delightful. The way,
method, rule, and order how they are governed is, 1st. There is a
large room, and in the middle thereof a little box like a pulpit.
2ndly, There are benches built around about the room, as they are in
playhouses; upon the benches sit about two hundred children spinning,
and in the box in the middle of the room sits the grand mistress, with
a long white wand in her hand," with which she designates the idle for
punishment.

    "They raise their children as they spin finer to the higher
    benches. 2d. They sort and size all the threds, so that they can
    apply them to make equal cloths; and after a young maid has been
    three years in the spinning-school, that is taken in at six, and
    then continues until nine years, she will get eight pence the
    day, and, in these parts I speak of, a man that has most
    children lives best."

Eight pence a day at that time was good wages for an artisan.

Thos. Budd was more than two hundred years ahead of the teachers of
America, for they are just beginning to introduce Industrial
Education, and they have not reached up to this idea of making the
work of pupils pay their expenses, which Budd proposed, and which Rich
realized.

In Yarenton's account of the spinning-schools, the reader will observe
that the children are occupied solely in spinning, their minds being
left without culture. How easy would it have been for the grand
mistress, instead of merely watching their work, to have been
instructing them orally in any species of knowledge, or leading them
in singing, which would have made their time pass delightfully, and
cultivated all the finer sentiments of the soul.

RICH has the honor of proving that this could be done, and that there
was no fatigue, but continual pleasure all day long when the monotony
of work was relieved by instruction, and the instruction that would
have been monotonous by itself was made pleasant by being intermingled
with hand work.

Man cannot be well trained or developed in fragments. Head, hand, and
soul must all co-operate, and then each strengthens the other. When
shall we have another RICH?

Boston is making progress in industrial education. At the exhibition
of a school in Brookline, conducted by our worthy friend, Mr. Griffin,
fine cabinet work, bureaus, desks, etc., were shown, equal to the work
of the best mechanics, produced by boys of from twelve to sixteen
years, after forty or fifty lessons of three hours each.

This is the true method of conquering poverty and putting an end to
social discontent. When all youth of both sexes are trained in
industrial skill and diversified employments, poverty will disappear.



AN INCOMPARABLE "MEDICAL OUTLAW."


London papers inform us that "all England is in mourning" over the
death of Robert Howard Hutton, the renowned natural bone-setter, which
recently occurred in that city. Judging from the large number of
biographical notices, editorials, and communications which appear in
English journals, he must have been one of the best known men in the
British empire. It appears to be admitted that his fame greatly
surpassed that of any physician or surgeon in the whole country. One
lady of rank pronounces his death "a national calamity," and a
gentleman, who speaks of England as "the most doctor-ridden nation
under heaven," refers to more than a hundred cures effected by this
remarkable man among his acquaintances after they had failed to derive
any benefit from the regular practitioners, who were the most eminent
in their profession. Years ago, George Moore, a distinguished
philanthropist and millionaire of London, testified that Hutton
treated him in the case of a displacement of a bone, which had baffled
the skill of the most famous surgeons in the country for three years,
and effected a complete cure in one minute. Hunters, cricket players,
rowing men, and athletes in all parts of Great Britain consulted
Hutton when they met with accidents. A sporting paper, in a notice of
his career, says:

    "He gradually broke down the wall of prejudice which had been
    built up against bone-setters by the medical faculty on the
    ground that they were merely quacks. His cures in cases of
    displacements and sprains which had puzzled the most expert
    surgeons, were so brilliant and undisputed that he was
    frequently consulted by those who had previously reviled him.
    His house in Queen Anne Street was thronged day after day by
    persons, who in some instances had come hundreds of miles to
    avail themselves of his skill."

Robert Howard Hutton was born in Westmoreland county, England,
forty-seven years ago. He belonged to a family of "natural
bone-setters," the most famous of whom was his uncle, who taught him
all the mysteries of his craft. He practised surgery in Westmoreland
and adjacent counties for several years, where he acquired such a
reputation that he was induced to move to London. He appears to have
made the change more from philanthropic than from monetary
considerations. He loved the country and was very fond of hunting.
Once in London and within reach by railroad of every portion of Great
Britain, his patronage became so extensive that he had no time to
gratify his inclination in regard to sports.

Men of the class to which Mr. Hutton belonged, were once quite common
in this country. Men conducting large lumbering operations in Maine
generally arranged to take a "natural bone-setter" into the woods
every winter. The masters of whaling vessels endeavored to have one
among their crews. The faith of ignorant people in "natural
bone-setters" is profound.

They believe that they are possessed of inherent knowledge and skill.
Some think that they are possessed of a natural gift, and others that
they have acquired secrets that never become known to the members of
the medical profession. The circumstance that they effect a cure in
persons who had "suffered much from many physicians," though they
never read a medical book, never attended college, never witnessed a
clinic, and never received instruction from a preceptor, elevates them
in the minds of the people far above the directors of hospitals.

It is fair to presume that men like Mr. Hutton are possessed of great
skill and also of great knowledge. They may not know the scientific
name of any bone, ligament, or muscle in the human body, but they may
know the location and function of every one of them. Instead of being
derided as "quacks," they should be classed as hereditary specialists.
It is admitted that bees, ants, dogs and horses inherit knowledge and
skill, and it is certainly fair to presume that human beings do the
same. No person will be likely to practice surgery without having had
a course of training, unless he has great confidence in himself, and
self-confidence makes one resolute. Mr. Hutton, it is said, never
administered an anæsthetic and never employed an assistant. He was
very strong, quick, and active. He jerked a bone into place in an
instant, while he was telling a story, and before the sufferer knew
what was about to happen. He had a most extensive practice, and
"practice makes perfect." It is likely that he put more dislocated
bones in place than any ten regular practitioners in his country. He
was an observant man, with remarkable keenness of sight and delicacy
of touch. His great success caused him to undertake risks that many
surgeons would shrink from. His success as well as that of others of
his class, may be accounted for on scientific principles. It remains
to be seen what medical journals will say of him. It is certain that
the secular press regarded him as a most extraordinary man, and regret
that the family of "natural bone-setters" died out with him.--_Chicago
Times_.

It is for the suppression, imprisonment or banishment of such men as
Hutton and the American bone-setter, Sweet, that American legislatures
are besieged by medical monopolists. It is not long since that the
gifted Italian woman, Rosa del Cin, was driven back to Italy by
medical hostility in New York. No medical college allows its students
to learn the healing power of gifted individuals.



EDUCATIONAL.


EDUCATIONAL REFORM IN ENGLAND.--Education, writes James Payn in the
Independent, has for a long time, as regards the upper classes, been
in the hands of impostors and coxcombs. Scotch schools for ten pounds
a year have for generations turned out better educated men than in our
public schools for two hundred pounds, and of late the school boards
have shown how efficiency can be combined with low prices. This last
development has put the great educational establishments upon their
mettle, and induced them to consider whether a smattering of Greek
obtained in twenty years, and forgotten in the twenty-first, is, after
all, the highest form of intellectual culture. The head-masters of
Harrow, Winchester and Marlbro' have come at last to the sage
conclusion that twelve years of age is quite early enough to begin
Greek, and that for a good many boys that tongue is a superfluity. The
simple truth is that not one boy in ten understands Greek. Unhappily
this act of tardy justice (and mercy) can have no retrospective
effect. Think of the generations of unhappy children who have been
tortured by that infernal language, and of the imprisonment in summer
days of which it has been the cause. Who can give us back our lost
time and liberties infringed? I don't wish to revive ancient customs
of a vindictive nature, but I should like to see the Greek grammar
burnt by the common hangman in every school yard.

Payn's indignant language might be reinforced by quoting De Quincey's
description of the second Lord Shaftesbury, a man whose intellect was
developed by classical studies alone, and who was practised daily in
talking in Latin until he became "the most absolute and
undistinguishing pedant that perhaps literature has to show. No
thought, however beautiful, no image, however magnificent, could
conciliate his praise as long as it was clothed in English, but
present him with the most trivial commonplaces in Greek, and he
unaffectedly fancied them divine." Hence he ridiculed Milton, Dryden,
Locke, and Shakespeare. How much time and money have been spent in
colleges to produce this pedantic perversion of the mind, to create
that love of the ignorance of antiquity and indifference to modern
enlightenment which are so common among the college-educated classes.


DEAD LANGUAGES VANISHING.--In the eighty higher grammar schools in
Germany which are entitled to grant certificates of the proficiency
requisite in order that military service may be reduced from three
years to one, French and English are the only foreign languages
taught, Latin being excluded.


HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN.--Women in Russia have for the last
twenty-three years been permitted to obtain university degrees, and
now they are permitted to enter the medical profession. Sweden and
Norway have followed the example, so has Italy and even Portugal. De
Castro, the Portuguese prime minister, says that the improvement of
female education is the most urgent question of the day. In France,
Mad. Kergomard has been elected a member of the Superior Council of
Public Instruction by a large majority.

In the London University this year, there were 340 successful
candidates, sixty-one of whom were ladies. They were rather more
successful than the men in gaining honors.

Emily S. Bouton says, "In England a society has been formed of young
women, some of them belonging to families of wealth and distinction.
Each member binds herself upon entering to learn some one thing,
whether art, profession or trade, so thoroughly, that if misfortune
comes she will be able to maintain herself by its exercise. It is the
beginning of a realization by women themselves, that for any work that
demands wages, there must be, not a superficial knowledge which is
sure to fail when the test is applied, but a training that will give
the mastery of all the faculties, and enable the worker to labor to a
definite purpose."


BAD SUNDAY-SCHOOL BOOKS.--An Eastern correspondent of the St. Louis
Globe has been talking with a Sunday-school superintendent about the
bad books in the Sunday-school library, as follows:

    "But that isn't all or the worst of it," continued the
    superintendent. "Not long ago one of the teachers came to me and
    said her faith in orthodoxy had been very much shaken, and she
    did not know that she could conscientiously remain longer in the
    school. Several of her class were also losing their confidence
    in the old creed. She said this result had been reached by
    reading one of the books in the Sunday-school library. It was
    'Bluffton,' and was the account of how a young Presbyterian
    minister had gradually been converted to rationalism, and had
    finally taken his congregation with him over to liberalism. I
    hunted up the work and read it. The author is Rev. Minot J.
    Savage, the prominent and eloquent Boston Unitarian clergyman.
    The book is a remarkable one, and even made me feel
    uncomfortable, as hide-bound in Calvinism as I supposed I was.
    Investigation showed that a score of our older scholars and
    several of the teachers had been very much impressed by the
    story, and had been talking the subject over. The book is all
    the more effective because it is a faithful portrayal, so I
    understand, of Mr. Savage's experience. How the book got into
    our library I don't know, but I suppose the selections were made
    by some clerk in the publishing house of whom we purchased. He
    saw the book was by a minister, and naturally presumed it was
    eminently fit. Right in our own city I have learned that
    'Bluffton' is in half a dozen libraries, and is doing deadly
    work to orthodoxy. Of course this sort of thing must stop."


OUR BARBAROUS ORTHOGRAPHY.--An attempt was once made to introduce the
English language in Japan, but their learned men decided that the
irregularities of English spelling and grammar were a fatal objection.
The best illustration of its barbarism is to attempt to carry it out
uniformly,

  For spelling is easy, although
  We may not always knough
  How to spell sough.

The attempt to form the past tense of verbs by analogy produces this
amusing result from the pen of H. C. Dodge.

  The teacher a lesson he taught;
  The preacher a lesson he praught;
    The stealer, he stole;
    The healer, he hole;
  And the screecher, he awfully scraught.

  The long-winded speaker, he spoke;
  The poor office seeker, he soke;
    The runner, he ran;
    The dunner, he dan;
  And the shrieker, he horribly shroke.

  The flyer to Canada flew;
  The buyer, on credit he bew;
    The doer, he did;
    The suer, he sid;
  And the liar (a fisherman) lew.

  The writer, this nonsense he wrote;
  The fighter (an editor) fote;
    The swimmer, he swam;
    The skimmer, he skam;
  And the biter was hungry and bote.



CRITICAL.


EUROPEAN BARBARISM.--A German Major, of distinguished military career,
brought a suit for libel securing an apology and retraction, but after
this satisfactory result a caucus of army officers, called a court of
honor, induced the war office to dismiss him from the army _because he
had not challenged his opponent_. This appears to be the doctrine of
the war office. America has outgrown such barbarism. Not only are
duels forbidden, but Texas has passed a severe law against carrying
pistols, the punishment being imprisonment.


BOSTON CIVILIZATION.--More space is given by our leading dailies to
base ball, pugilism, races, games and crimes than to anything else. Of
course Boston wants such reading. The Herald says, "It is not unusual
to see 5000 people sitting in the hottest sun of the hottest summer
days for more than two hours, and not even murmuring at the lack of
liberality which fails to provide them the slightest awning for
shelter. There is a grand stand for which the price of $1 for a
reserved seat is charged. The character of these reserved seats would
exceed belief on the part of those who have not been in them. And yet
the management who deal in this manner with a long forbearing public
find it not an unusual event to make $3000 clear profit from a single
game of base ball!"

But Boston has religion as well as base ball and "_Sufferings of God's
Mother_" was the heading of a piece of religious news in the Boston
Herald.

On the other hand the temperance influence through high license has
reduced the number of liquor saloons in Boston to 800 less than two
years ago.


MONOPOLY.--The latest monopoly under the name of a trust is the "Salt
Trust." Sixty-three companies unite to form it. The object is to
freeze out competition and keep up the prices. These "trusts" which
began with the Standard Oil, and are gradually extending over the
whole field of production, are as much opposed to the genius of our
institutions as Socialists or Nihilists. They are gigantic monopolies,
and the purpose is to do by combinations of capital what could never
be done under fair and honest competition.--_Herald_.

The remedy for this must be found in legislation. Boycotting is
illegal, monopoly _should be_.


WOMEN'S DRUDGERY.--Why should all the washing, cooking, and sewing of
each household be done by its women? We have laundries, ready-made
clothing, and bakeries, and now it is proposed in Boston to furnish a
complete supply of ready-cooked food. This _can be done_ cheaper than
families can supply themselves, if we leave out the American
propensity to speculate in exorbitant profits.


CHRISTIAN CIVILIZATION.--Wong Chin Foo may boast of the superiority of
heathenism as long as pauperism shows itself to be a vast ulcer, as in
the following despatch from London:

    "Pauperism is on the increase in the metropolis. Last week
    relief was given to 53,164 indoor, and 35,110 outdoor paupers.
    The total shows an increase of 2011 over the corresponding week
    last year. Trafalgar Square pavement is half covered nightly
    with houseless vagrants, and church steps, benches, and doorways
    in nearly all parts of London have their complements of
    destitute people after midnight. Many resort to the parks in the
    daytime to obtain on the grass the sleep which they are unable
    to get on the stones by night, and begging cannot be suppressed
    by the police."


WALT WHITMAN, the odd and original American poet, enjoys in his
declining years and feeble health the admiration of a large number of
literary friends, who are to build him a beautiful little cottage. His
special admirers regard him as the greatest of American poets, and he
has equally warm admirers among the foreign literati. A Walt Whitman
club is to be established in his honor at Philadelphia. Yet it is not
long since Mr. Whitman was made the target of the "prurient prudes,"
who carry on the Comstockian movement of the Vice Society, and was
ordered to expunge some of his writings. Mr. Whitman defied them, and
his literary prestige has sustained him; but Mrs. Elmina Drake
Slenker, of Western Virginia, a woman of humble surroundings, has been
pounced upon, arrested, and placed on trial for discussing in private
correspondence physiological questions in reproduction which might
have been discussed by physicians in medical journals with impunity.
Her friends regard this as an outrage, considering her exemplary
character and philanthropic motives. The Congressional law under which
the prosecution of Mrs. Slenker has been instituted, is a specimen of
hasty legislation, rushed through in the last hours of the 42d
session, more than one-half of all the acts being passed on the last
day and night amid the most disgraceful confusion and uproar.

A well-educated community will learn that the charge of obscenity in
such cases expresses a quality which belongs neither to nature nor
art, but to the foul minds in which such ideas rise. This was
illustrated by an intelligent judge in Maine. _The Health Monthly_
says:

    "Recently in Portland an art dealer was arrested for exhibiting
    immoral pictures in his window. Mr. Stubbs, the artist, gathered
    up samples of all the pictures that he had exhibited in his
    windows and took them with him into court. He placed them about
    the court room on chairs and benches. They were copies of
    masterpieces of the Paris Salon of well-known subjects, and such
    as are familiar to all art critics. As Judge Gould looked about
    him and saw these pictures he thought it unnecessary to take
    testimony, but descending from his desk he made a pilgrimage of
    the room, carefully inspecting each picture. He exhibited much
    appreciation, and after examining the last one, he complimented
    the taste of the art dealer and dismissed the case. A sensible
    judge."

This "prurient prudery" of the vulgar mind was once strongly exhibited
in Baltimore. The millionaire Winans had imported from abroad quite a
number of classical statues, which he erected in the beautiful grounds
around his palatial residence. The ignorant vulgarity of the
neighborhood made such a clamor against his statuary as to excite his
indignation and contempt. He built a wall about his grounds fifteen
feet high, to exclude the vulgar gaze. The City Council being
thoroughly ashamed of the circumstances as a discredit to the city,
passed a resolution requesting him to take down the wall, but Mr. W.
had been too profoundly disgusted with the vulgarity of the people,
and refused to remove it.


TEMPERANCE.--"For the first time in the history of Iowa, Fort Madison
Penitentiary is short of a sufficient number of convicts to enable it
to fill contracts made upon the basis of the usual supply. This and
many similar instances go to prove that prohibition _does_ decrease
crime."

Hon. W. D. Kelley, the oldest member of Congress, argues that the
whiskey tax of ninety cents a gallon ought to be taken off because it
amounts to little more than half a cent a drink, and therefore does
not discourage intemperance. Temperance men would think this was an
argument for increasing the tax. The best temperance measure would be
to send every drunkard to a reformatory prison.



SCIENTIFIC.


EXTENSION OF ASTRONOMY.--An interesting and important announcement is
made by an English scientist, Dr. Pritchard, of Oxford, which, if
confirmed, will give a great deal of satisfaction to all who study the
evening skies. He has succeeded in throwing out his measure-line to
one of the fixed stars. Hitherto measurement has virtually stopped
with our own solar system. The angles which form the basis of
calculations for the remoter stellar spaces are so infinitesimal that
human vision can take no certain and uniform cognizance of them. Until
now science could only draw its great circle and say: Within this the
millions of suns which shine upon the earth from all directions are
not; how far they really are beyond, no one can tell, only conjecture.
But now comes the camera, a veritable new eye for science, as
sensitive as the optic nerve and a thousand times more steadfast and
tireless, being able to hold its gaze upon the minutest object of
search hour after hour, without blinking. It is with this new eye that
Dr. Pritchard has succeeded, as he thinks, in reading the
infinitesimal figures on the milestone of the star 61 Cygni. He gives
the distance as fifty billions of miles, and reminds us that this star
is probably the nearest to us of all the bodies in space outside our
own planetary system.--_Home Journal_.


A NEW BASIS FOR CHEMISTRY has been published by Thos. Sterry Hunt, 165
pages, price, $2. Prof. Hunt dispenses entirely with the atomic
theory, but that does not make the mystery of definite combinations
any clearer. It is only "confusion worse confounded."


CHLOROFORM IN HYDROPHOBIA.--Dr. V. G. Miller, an old army surgeon of
Osage Mission, Kansas, says that he once treated a terrible case of
hydrophobia with chloroform, using altogether about three pounds. It
conquered the spasms. A slimy, stringy secretion ran out of the man's
mouth which probably carried off the poison, and for a long time he
could not swallow, but in three weeks he entirely recovered. The
salivary glands seem to have a close relation to hydrophobia. Many
years ago reports were published from Russia on the authority of M.
Marochetti, a hospital surgeon, of the cure of hydrophobia, by
piercing with a red hot needle certain swellings that rose under the
tongue, and giving a decoction of broom. Dr. M. said that fourteen
were cured in this manner. This discovery seems to have been
forgotten.


THE WATER QUESTION.--"It may naturally be asked, If Brooklyn has been
so successfully supplied with water from driven wells, why has not New
York adopted the same system? In answer to this it must be remembered
that the drive-well is a new invention, and, before its application to
Brooklyn, had only been used on a small scale. To this day no one can
give satisfactory reasons why the water flows continuously from the
earth through the pipe of a driven-well. Hence, to the public
generally, this mode of obtaining water was new and little understood.
At the time of its introduction to Brooklyn a water-famine was
threatened. All the ordinary sources of supply had been exhausted by
the ever-increasing population, and the authorities were puzzled what
to do. In this extremity Andrews & Bro., a firm which had much
experience in working drive-wells, offered _at their own expense_, to
put down wells and supply the town with water. Had Andrews & Co.
merely proposed to put down the wells and the town to pay the bill and
run the risk of failure, the proposition would not have been
entertained. Fortunately, Andrews & Co. offered to take the expense
and risk of failure on their own shoulders. The city's chief engineer
at the time, Robert Van Buren, seconded by Engineer Bergen, with the
approval of Mayor Low and Commissioner Ropes, accepted the contract.

"Engineers and scientists, at the time, scouted the idea and raised all
sorts of objections. The summer it was completed there was a
five-months drought, with less than 2-1/2 inches of rain. This,
however, did not affect the drive wells, and at the request of the
town authorities, they increased the speed of their pumping engines,
and supplied all demands, even beyond their contract. And there the
wells still remain, a standing example, a pharos to enlighten the
world.

"In the meantime, the neighboring city of New York, across the river,
was alarmed for fear their Croton water should give out. Plans had
been laid down and estimates made for enlarging their supply by
bringing the whole Croton river to New York and building a new
aqueduct. This involved an expenditure of fifty or sixty million
dollars, and such a chance was not to be lightly given up by those who
expected to be enriched by the job. To put down auxiliary driven wells
would have required not one-twentieth the expense, and they would have
furnished the town with water for all time, and moreover might have
been put down within the city limits."--_J. Donbavand_.


PROGRESS OF HOMOEOPATHY.--Homoeopathy was first introduced into
America in the year 1825 by Dr. Gram. It now numbers 11,000
practitioners, 14 medical colleges, 1,200 matriculants annually, 400
graduates annually, 57 hospitals with 4,500 beds, 3 insane asylums, 48
dispensaries, 150 societies, 23 journals, 33 pharmacies, 1 college of
specialties.


ROUND THE WORLD QUICKLY.--A copy of the _London Times_, sent to Lord
Huntly, Japan, went round the world, returning to London in 69 days.



GLANCES ROUND THE WORLD.

(_Continued and concluded from August No._)


In vain have I appealed to the educators of our country in "THE NEW
EDUCATION." It will be half a century before our systems of education
will be organized for the _elevation_ of society. Heretofore, our
systems have had a positively demoralizing effect by inculcating a
love of military glory, a love of ostentatious pedantry, a stubborn
adherence to old opinions, and a scorn of useful industry. The gradual
establishment of industrial schools, however, is the most hopeful sign
in our educational system, and the establishment of ethical education
will be the last and most glorious change. But that is a task for the
next century which will understand how to save and reform criminals.
The thought is already entertained, and the new _Princeton Review_
says, that in coming time "the world will look back with amazement
upon the days when it let known, determined criminals run at large,
only punishing them occasionally, by a temporary deprivation of their
liberty in short and determinate sentences. We can see to-day that it
is a thoroughly illogical proceeding. The man determined upon a life
of crime is of no use to himself at large, and he is both a danger and
expense in his community. He commonly gives evidence in his character
and his acts of this determination--evidence sufficient for the court
which tries and sentences him; but if that is too uncertain, then
conviction for a second offence may be legally taken to define his
position. After the second offence the criminal should be shut up, on
an indeterminate sentence, where he will be compelled to labor to pay
for his board and clothes and the expense of his safe-keeping."


AFRICAN POPULATION.

We have another disturbing element in the negro population, a large
portion of which is unfitted for a republican government by ignorance
and social debasement, but fortunately free from the violence and
turbulence of the lower class of immigrants. This degradation is fast
being removed by education and the ambition inspired by freedom. The
latter is shown by the formation of the Afro-American League for the
protection of the blacks, especially in the Southern States, and the
advancement of their interests and influence. This idea originated
with Mr. Fortune, the editor of the _New York Freeman_.

Few are aware of the progress of negro education. We have already
16,000 colored teachers. In the Southern States alone there are said
to be 1,000,000 of pupils,--in the male and female high schools,
15,000. There are sixty normal schools, fifty colleges and
universities, twenty-five theological seminaries, and in the churches
3,000,000 worshippers. The colored population pays taxes on from 150
to 200 millions of dollars.

The black race will be free from slavery at the close of this century.
The Brazilian Parliament passed a law for gradual emancipation in
1871, when there were about 2,000,000 slaves. In 1885, the number was
reduced to 1,200,000, and measures have been introduced to hasten the
completion of emancipation.

In Cuba, slavery seems to be at an end. The queen regent of Spain has
signed a decree freeing the Cuban slaves, some 300,000, from the
remainder of their term of servitude. The work, thus consummated,
began in 1869, which provided for the conditional emancipation of
certain classes of slaves in Cuba, and for the payment of recompense
to the owners of the men and women liberated. From the first,
slave-owners have been paid for their slaves.


FOREIGN PROGRESS.

When we look abroad the most encouraging progress is in the race to
which this republic owes its origin. In spite of the cruel oppression
in Ireland, Great Britain has been prospering in the last twelve
years. Mr. Mulhall, the able statistician, has shown in the
contemporary _Review_ that in the United Kingdom, since 1875, the
population has increased twelve per cent., the wealth twenty-two per
cent., trade twenty-nine per cent., shipping sixty-seven per cent.,
and instruction sixty-eight per cent. Hence there is a marked increase
of knowledge and wealth. During this period the natural increase of
population has been 1200 daily and the immigration to the United
States and Colonies has averaged 600 daily. In addition to the
national increase, there has been an immigration of 1,317,000,
consisting of foreign settlers and returned colonists. Two-thirds of
the emigration went to the United States.

This healthy increase of population contrasts favorably with the
condition in France. England had in 1883 a surplus of births over
deaths of 367,000 in a population less than 27,000,000. In France the
surplus of births in 1881 was but 108,229, in 1884 but 79,000, and in
1885, 85,464. The excessive militarism cultivated in France is adverse
to national growth, and justly so; while the peaceful condition of
America insures great national growth--a beneficent law. No nation has
ever grown with the rapidity of ours, but our rate of growth has
greatly diminished during the present century. Dr. Fonce's statistics
show that twice as many children were born in proportion to population
at the beginning of the century, as have been born since 1850. What is
the reason?


PROGRESS IN FRANCE.

France has taken a very important step in emancipating education from
the power of the church--completely secularizing education. Under the
present law religious associations are no longer allowed, as such, to
give instruction in public schools, and all schools taught by priests
are to be superseded by public schools. The Ultramontanes are bitterly
hostile to this law, and call it religious oppression, but it is
firmly maintained. The Minister of Instruction says that in public
instruction there cannot be two authorities, church and state, with
equal sovereignty. There is but one sovereignty, that of the State.

Clerical studies do not now attract young men as formerly, either in
America or France. The University of Paris last year had 11,000
alumni, but only thirty-five theological students. 3,786 studied for
the legal profession, 3,696 for the medical, 1,767 attended to
pharmacy, 928 to letters and 467 to science. There were 167 female
students, 108 of them preparing for medicine, fifty-one in literary
studies, seven in science and one preparing as a lawyer.

When France shall be sufficiently civilized to abolish duels and
dismiss her standing army, she may have an opportunity of reaching the
front rank in civilization and progress. Even at present France has
many elements of the highest civilization in courtesy and refinement
of manners, artistic skill, scientific progress and advancing wealth.
The French might give some valuable lessons to Americans, especially
in journalism. Mrs. J. C. Croly (Jennie June) in her recent address to
the Women's Press Association in Boston, gave a pungent criticism on
American journalism which, in justice it must be said, is not
applicable to the press generally, although the immense space given to
baseball, pugilism, races, and all species of crime, by our leading
journals, is disgraceful. "If the tail were large enough," said
Dundreary, "the tail would waggle the dog!" certainly the tail end of
society wags its journals. Mrs. Croly said:--

    "What the newspaper seems to be principally valued for, just
    now, is for doing individual gossiping, scolding and backbiting
    on a large scale, and in a way that relieves the individual from
    responsibility. The old women of the past have been royally
    revenged for all the sneers and slights put upon their
    spectacled talks, and tea parties; for back-door tittle-tattle
    of the meanest, most reckless sort, has been made a business,
    has become the staple of some journals. That people read such
    stuff does not seem to me reason enough for printing it. Shall
    we not have a daily paper some time, that is at once bright,
    clear, pure, honest and strong; one that works upward, instead
    of downward; that has its hold upon the best things, and
    inspires us with new faith in them, and in their power to work
    out race redemption."

Such criticisms do not apply to the Parisian press, which employs and
pays liberally the ablest writers.

The French have at last begun the publication of cheap literature for
the people. A firm in Paris "have begun the issue of what is termed
the Nouvelle Bibliotheque Populaire (the New Popular Library), at ten
centimes, or two cents, an issue, this to be a collection of the most
remarkable works of all literature, histories voyages, romances,
plays, religious and philosophical treatises, and poetry, etc. Each
volume is to be complete, and is to have thirty-two pages, printed in
clear text, the equivalent in its entirety to one hundred pages of an
ordinary French book. These volumes are to be published one each week,
at a subscription price of seven francs, or a little less than $1.40
per year."

They propose "to give a résumé of those parts of secondary interest,
and to publish in their entirety those salient passages which cannot
be ignored, the works thus presented having the appearance and the
interest of the originals. The reader who cannot spare the time to
carefully read the original may thus in a few hours acquire a fair
idea of its purpose and value. The second class will be a large number
of works that are now out of print, or which can only be procured at a
very high price. The third, and perhaps more popular class, will be
the works of authors of all ages, of all countries, and of all
schools, such as Shakespeare, Corneille, Pascal, Chateaubriand,
Sophocles, Racine, Lord Byron, etc. Ten of these volumes have already
been published."

In this country, John B. Alden of New York has taken the lead in
publishing valuable literature at the lowest possible prices.


PEACEFUL INDICATIONS.

Europe is now profoundly at peace as predicted by psychometry, and the
dreary history of royal government assumes a more pleasing aspect
to-day. Victoria is an improvement on her predecessors, for she has
but drifted along with parliamentary government, and doing neither
good nor harm, has behaved with decorum, and preserved the devoted
loyalty of her subjects.

The old Emperor William, too, has a loyal nation, and has led a life
which does not attract censure. He is fond of military parades, but
seeks to avoid war.

As Austria and its rulers do not receive much attention from American
journals, I thought it well to look into the royal sphere by
Psychometry, and having a photograph of the emperor, I placed it under
the hands of Mrs. Buchanan, who pronounces without seeing the object
investigated. The following is her language:

    "This is a male. There is a good deal of character and
    intellect, and he carries with him a good deal of power. I think
    he has been sometimes engaged in some great public movement. He
    is philanthropic. He has power to sway and carries force with
    the people both from his position and his ability.

    "I think he is a foreigner with a very high rank. He seems a
    magnate of great distinction. He has about as high an office as
    can be given, like an emperor or czar.

    "There is a good deal of forgiveness in his nature; he forgives
    wrongs; he has no cruelty. He is not as selfish as men of his
    rank generally are. He is more with the people, less
    aristocratic and proud. It is difficult to tell his
    nationality--Servia and Austria come into my mind. There is a
    great empire about him. There seems to be some dissatisfaction
    in the country, some apprehension of invasion and disturbance.
    There's a good deal of trepidation. They do not want to go to
    war, though there is no cowardice there. They are uneasy and
    suspicious of other nations. He is not ambitious for war. I do
    not feel that there will be any war. The difficulty is about
    some question of territory.

    "It is an agricultural country, with a loyal peasantry. They are
    not well educated, but naturally intelligent. It is a pleasant,
    temperate climate.

    "He does not desire to show off kingly power. There's a good
    deal of modesty. He is not aggressive. He is quite advanced in
    science, but is not a spiritualist. He is orthodox in religion,
    but liberal to science."

If she had known the subject of these remarks, and studied European
politics and travelers' descriptions, she could not have been more
correct.

The Emperor of Austria has introduced a great improvement in royal
deportment. The _London Times_ says of him:

    "One or two days a week his Majesty receives all comers who have
    applied to be received, and he receives them alone. Every
    applicant takes his turn. A master of ceremonies opens a door,
    the visitor walks in and finds himself face to face with the
    Emperor, who is unattended. The door closes and the petitioner
    may say to the Emperor what he likes.

    "There is no chamberlain or secretary to intimidate him. The
    Emperor stands in a plainly furnished study, in undress uniform,
    without a star or grand cordon, and greets everybody with an
    engaging smile and a good-natured gesture of the hand which
    seems to say: 'There is no ceremony here. Tell me your business,
    and if I can help you I will.'

    "There is nothing petty or evasive in him. He is a monarch who
    replies by 'Yes' or 'No,' but always with so much courtesy that
    the humblest of his subjects receives from him at departing the
    same bow as he vouchsafes to ambassadors. A most lovable trait
    in him is that whenever he sees anybody nervous at his presence
    he makes the audience last until, by his kind endeavors, the
    nervousness has been completely dispelled."

There is nothing like this elsewhere in royal courts, nor anything
like their religious observances, which will probably astonish my
readers. The following statement appears to be authentic, and was
given in the _Sun_:

    On Holy Thursday the Emperor and Empress of Austria, in the
    presence of their whole court, of the Privy Council, the
    Diplomatic Corps, and the superior officers of the Vienna
    garrison, washed the feet of twenty-four poor old men and women,
    having previously served these venerable paupers with a
    plentiful meal, placing the several dishes before them with
    their own hands. After the old people had partaken of the good
    things provided for them by the imperial bounty, the tables were
    cleared by imperial archdukes and ladies of honor. Subsequently
    a purse containing thirty pieces of silver was presented by the
    Emperor to each of the old men, and by the Empress to each of
    the venerable dames, one of whom had all but attained her
    hundredth year, while the youngest of the twelve was a hearty
    octogenarian.

    This religious rite is rarely seen in this country. It was
    celebrated on the twenty-first of August by the Primitive
    Baptists of Hillsville, Va., a mountainous region of South West
    Va. There were about 800 present, some coming from hundreds of
    miles. "The preliminary exercises were singing and exhortation
    or discussion, the speaker first announcing some point of
    doctrine or religious thought. The hymns were lined by reading
    one line only at a time. The arrangements for administering the
    ordinances were circles of seats, those allotted to the sisters
    being in a double row and facing the brothers, who were seated
    in a single row. Within the circle was another seat for the
    ordained and officiating elders. There was a table with bread
    and wine, and under it were buckets of water, basins, and
    towels. The bread and wine were first passed around by the
    officers of the church, after which came the feet-washing. The
    elder who began the ceremony drew off his coat and vest, and
    girded a towel around his waist. He then began on the right,
    washing and wiping the feet of the brother at the head of the
    line, who in turn arose and remaining barefooted, performed the
    office to the one next him, and so on until the feet of all had
    been washed. The elder who was the first to perform the rite was
    the last to receive it. The sisters performed the rite in the
    same manner as did the brothers. At the conclusion the elders,
    while singing, passed around and shook the hands of all the
    brothers and sisters."

King Humbert, of Italy, and his wife, are making themselves quite
popular by their unassuming manners and sympathy with the people.

King Humbert objects to taking his pleasures at shows and exhibitions
as a solitary; he likes his people to be present and share them with
him. At the opening of the exhibition at Venice the king gave
expression to his disappointment at the loneliness and emptiness of
the halls. An official told him that the public had been kept out from
loyal consideration for the comfort of himself and the queen. "I am
sorry for this," said his majesty, "though you have done it in good
part; it is my belief that the king belongs to the people as well as
the people to the king." Before leaving the exhibition he recurred to
the subject, again expressing his deep regret. "I hope that none of
you believe," said he, "that I am the sort of man who is shy of being
seen among the people. I have no grounds whatever for such a feeling."

King Humbert, according to an _American Register_ correspondent, is
known for his temperance in all things except that of smoking. It has
often been noticed what an exceedingly small eater the King had shown
himself on all occasions, and as to drink, his guests may have it in
plenty, but his favorite "tipple" is water. His one great weakness was
(for it is a thing of the past) a good cigar. He was a formidable
smoker, but he abused his taste in that line to such an extent that he
has taken a new departure and has "sworn off" from the fragrant weed.
His nerves had begun to suffer, he had asthmatic turns, could sleep
but little, and then had to be propped up by plenty of pillows. Some
weeks ago his physician told him what was the matter, and King Humbert
said: "From this day forth I will not smoke another cigar, or anything
in the shape of tobacco." His majesty has kept his word, and the result
has been a most noticeable improvement in his health. King Humbert is
a man of iron will, and no one doubts that he will keep his self-made
pledge.

His wife, Queen Margaret, is soon to figure as an author--with stories
founded on the legends of the Middle Ages. She speaks several
languages and reads English literature, keeping herself posted on
English views and politics. She is described as being devout but
liberal, lovely and graceful, quite attractive, and much idolized by
the Roman people.

The Queen of Roumania is a poetess of romantic sentiments, and lately
underwent examination for a diploma, giving her a right to do certain
teaching in the schools. In fact, all the continental queens are much
brighter than Victoria.


THE REIGN OF PEACE.

We find another very pleasant indication of the coming peace that was
psychometrically prophesied for all the world, before 1889, in the
Central American States. Advices from Panama of April 25th, said:

    "Of great present and future interest to the republics of
    Central America are the treaties recently accepted by the Diet,
    which assembled in Guatemala. The aim was 'to establish an
    intimate relationship between the five republics, and, by making
    the continuance of peace certain, to provide for their final
    fusion into one country.' The treaty contains 32 articles, which
    provide that perpetual peace shall exist between the republics,
    that all differences shall be arranged, and that in the event of
    this proving impossible, such differences shall be submitted to
    arbitration. The idea which appears to have been prominent among
    the members of the convention was the establishment of settled
    rules, which, governing all the republics, shall simplify the
    government of each. The fortunes of each one of these industrial
    and agricultural States is so intimately allied to those of the
    others, that it really appears that they are destined to form
    one common nation.

    "To prevent further shedding of blood the Central American
    Congress made provision, in case of discord, that the States at
    variance should agree upon an arbitrator. For this reason a
    nomination is made in advance, and regulations were drawn up in
    order to prevent, under any circumstances, the outbreak of war.
    Should, however, armed disputes arise between two or more of the
    republics, the others bind themselves to observe the strictest
    neutrality.

    "All the republics bind themselves in the most solemn manner to
    respect the independence of each State, and to prohibit the
    preparation in any one of armed expeditions against any of the
    others, and that all citizens of the different States shall
    enjoy similar privileges and rights throughout all of them."

Finally--John Bright and 173 members of the British House of Commons
have signed the American Peace Memorial, nine of whom will come with
the deputation to America.


THE SINALOA COLONY.--Co-operation in some form is the only hope of
philanthropists for a harmonious settlement of the labor question.
Hence we must feel an interest in the Sinaloa Colony. I have always
maintained that there are very few of the present generation (who are
the outcome of war and competition) fit for co-operative life. Mr.
Owen in his letter of last August says:

    "The work we have laid out in Sinaloa requires, at first, men of
    frontier experience--those who can fish, hunt, cook, work the
    land and hold to a purpose in the face of privations and even
    death.

    "We repeat again that if the women wish us to succeed they must
    not go to Sinaloa until we have gotten water, garden, and houses
    for them, and _never_ without _first_ obtaining permission from
    our New York office.

    "The Credit Foncier company was conceived in kindness and love
    for mankind, and its mission was and is peace on earth and good
    will to every human being. It is to be regretted that the
    Company was not financially able from the beginning to guard its
    friends from discomforts and disease. Such was its endeavor, but
    the circumstances surrounding our movement have made this
    impossible. Of all times during the 19th century, perhaps, we
    struck Sinaloa when it was the least prepared for us. Our
    friends, however, would not be advised. Their idea of
    co-operation was that every one was to act as he or she pleased,
    at the time and place he or she selected; and that the Company
    was to be responsible for his and her employment, food, shelter,
    health and comfort at all times and in every place. So
    thoroughly did they believe this that they did not even think it
    was necessary to give the Company a hint that they were going to
    Sinaloa, how, when, or for what purpose.

    "Well! what was the result of each acting for him and herself?
    Some 400 and more persons were dumped off at Topolobampo into
    the brush and cacti, and over fifty per cent of these were
    women, children, and aged persons, who became at once a heavy,
    constant, and ever increasing care to those who were physically
    capable of meeting the requirements of the movement. This
    actually put upon every able-bodied pioneer a child, woman, or
    aged person to attend to, to see sheltered, to have fed, etc.,
    etc., besides his duties, and it added five times to the
    expenses in the field which the Company proposed at first to
    meet. But this was not the worst. The attention which it was
    necessary to give to these non-combatants took the men from the
    work that the Company expected to be done. This discouraged
    those who were able and willing to work and piled anxieties upon
    our best friends until they tottered under loads other than
    belonged to the cause. Disease, death, and discouragement
    followed. Those who remained in the States were frightened, and
    the Company was left almost moneyless and powerless to assist,
    even when it was most earnest in its work and in its wish to do
    so.

    "Had an army preparing for a campaign been recruited in such a
    way, its friends would have demoralized and defeated it before
    an enemy had been met. The United States Army, during the late
    rebellion, was recruited in the following way: every man had to
    be stripped naked, measured, weighed, examined, and reported by
    a medical officer to be physically and mentally capable of
    enduring camp life, before he was enlisted, and even after this
    test and care, the records will show that thirty per cent each
    year, without going into battle, became sick, died, deserted, or
    went home, _i.e._, only 70 per cent of all those recruited for
    the war stood the trials, even to get the first smell of the
    burnt powder.

    "Now that we have gotten our pioneers reduced to about 200, to a
    few more than we had in December at Topolobampo, and to which
    number we then urged that no more be added, we can organize and
    begin anew to follow out the details laid down in _Integral
    Co-operation_, strengthened by having veterans in the field and
    by an experience with our people which will be of value to them
    and to the Company.

    "We are informed that some of those who returned in July, like
    those who came back in April, expect to go again to Sinaloa as
    soon as the Company is in shape to push its work. We wish to say
    to these friends that all who have proven themselves to be
    thoroughly with the movement will be welcomed in our midst, but
    that we positively order--and in this we have the support of
    every director and every good colonist--that every person who
    goes to our settlements hereafter shall apply for and obtain
    permission from the New York office. _Our purpose is now to lead
    the movement and not to have the movement lead us._ Any colonist
    who goes to our settlements in violation of these instructions
    will not be received as a friend, will not be employed,
    sheltered or provided for, and will forfeit stock and credits in
    the Company."

When the pioneers in philanthropic schemes learn that their success
depends entirely upon the persons enlisted, and when they select those
persons by a psychometric knowledge of character or a thorough
knowledge of their past lives, sternly rejecting all who are weak,
unbalanced, passionate or selfish, success may be expected. The
adversities at Topolobampo are the best preparation for success, by
sending off all who were not fitted for such work.

There is evidently some good material at Topolobampo. Ida Hogeland
wrote, July 30, 1887:

    "Let not your heart be troubled. There is nothing, absolutely
    nothing, up to this last day of July that has interfered with
    our bodily comfort, though we live in tents yet. The showers are
    so gentle and refreshing that they serve as a perpetual
    delight."

W. W. Green says:

    "But whether stockholders do their part or not, we are here to
    do our part in solving the great question of Integral
    Co-operation, and if we fail it is their fault. But we do not
    intend to fail. We have men here of the right grit, and enough
    of them to hold the fort. So you need not be alarmed on that
    account. A. K. Owen has not lied to us about the resources of
    the country."

Mr. Owen promises to bring in a hundred good colonists in November,
and says the Mexican government manifests a friendly feeling.



RECTIFICATION OF CEREBRAL SCIENCE

(_Continued from page 32._)


The map of Gall presented here is taken from his large work published
from 1809 to 1819 (price 1000 francs), the latter part being finished
without the co-operation of Spurzheim. The great imperfection is
apparent at a glance. Gall simply published what he saw, or thought he
saw, and being a very imperfect, inaccurate observer of forms and
outlines, he attached himself chiefly to the idea of prominences (or
bumps) at certain localities, and to his mode of presenting the
subject we are mainly indebted for the ridicule of phrenology as a
science of bumps. I have taken much pains to assure my students that
cerebral science has little or nothing to do with bumps, that bumps
upon the skull belong to its osseous structure, which presents certain
protuberances with which they should be acquainted, and do not
indicate development of brain, which is indicated by gentle changes in
the contour of the skull, the form of which shows how much room there
is for special convolutions.

To Gall's drawing, which was by no means accurate, I have added the
names of the organs as he recognized them, and given definite
boundaries to the organs which he represented by a shaded drawing,
conveying the idea of a central elevation. I have given them the whole
space allowed by his shading, and this leaves considerable space
unoccupied, as if he did not know what lay between them. Spurzheim, on
the contrary, attempted to cover the entire ground, and had a more
harmonious arrangement than Gall, in whose map we see the inventive
faculty running into murder, and avarice into music and poetry. Yet
even Spurzheim retained avarice in contact with ideality, invention,
hope, and conscientiousness. Neither seems to have realized that there
is no example in the brain of a single convolution perfectly
homogeneous, and even intermingled in its minute structure, suddenly
changing its essential functions into something entirely opposite,
when there is not the slightest separation or differentiation of the
cerebral matter. When such marked differences are perceptible, it is
due to the separation of the convolutions by the furrows or
anfractuosities into which the pia mater descends, making a
substantial separation. But this nice survey of the convolutions and
their boundaries was obviously impossible by cranioscopy, which, at
the best, could only recognize considerable differences of magnitude.
Psychometry alone is capable of minute exploration of functions, the
results of which I published in a large map of the head in 1842.

The chart of Spurzheim needs no further criticism at present. In
contrast with the chart of Anthropology, the reader will observe that
the latter presents the functions of the entire basilar region of the
brain, which are marked upon the face and neck in the most proximate
locations. The catalogue of Spurzheim is as follows:

    AFFECTIVE I. PROPENSITIES.--[dagger] Desire to Live.
    * Alimentiveness. 1. Destructiveness. 2. Amativeness.
    3. Philoprogenitiveness. 4. Adhesiveness. 5. Inhabitiveness.
    6. Combativeness. 7. Secretiveness. 8. Acquisitiveness.
    9. Constructiveness.

    AFFECTIVE II. SENTIMENTS.--10. Cautiousness. 11. Approbativeness.
    12. Self-Esteem. 13. Benevolence. 14. Reverence. 15. Firmness.
    16. Conscientiousness. 17. Hope. 18. Marvellousness. 19. Ideality.
    20. Mirthfulness. 21. Imitation.

    INTELLECTUAL I. PERCEPTIVE.--22. Individuality. 23. Configuration.
    24. Size. 25. Weight and Resistance. 26. Coloring. 27. Locality.
    28. Order. 29. Calculation. 30. Eventuality. 31. Time. 32. Tune.
    33. Language.

    INTELLECTUAL II. REFLECTIVE.--34. Comparison. 35. Causality.


[Illustration: THE OLD PHRENOLOGY COMPARED WITH ANTHROPOLOGY.

    ORGANOLOGY OF SPURZHEIM, 1832.

        In this bust we see the psychological functions of the
        brain. To state its physiological influence on the
        bodily functions would require a separate bust or chart.

    ORGANOLOGY OF BUCHANAN, 1842-1887.]

In presenting a psychological map of the brain it is almost impossible
to separate psychology entirely from physiology in the nomenclature,
as the basilar organs relate more to the body than the soul.
Alimentiveness or appetite, Virility, Sensibility, Hearing, Vision,
Turbulence, all imply physical operations. At the same time all the
higher emotions, which we express in psychic terms, have their
physical effects on the body, which are very important and enable us
to understand PSYCHIC THERAPEUTICS, a science which has been blindly
cultivated under the name of Mind Cure. A thorough understanding of
the double functions of the brain and body enables us to solve all the
great problems of mind and body, and apply our solution to the
business and duties of life and organization of society.

It is not proposed to present here a complete view of the new
Anthropology, as the functions and locations of organs will be
presented fully hereafter, but merely to show by a brief catalogue how
large an addition has been made to the old system to fill all the
vacant spaces left on the surface of the cranium and on the basilar
surfaces of the brain which are reached through the face and neck, the
functions of which are therefore designated on the external locations
on the face and neck through which they are reached.

In the intellectual region our more thorough analysis gives us for the
higher understanding, not merely Comparative Sagacity and Causality,
but Foresight, Sagacity, Judgment, Wit, Reason, Ingenuity and Scheming
or planning. At present I merely state the facts that such organs are
demonstrated by experiments. The philosophy, beauty and perfection of
the new Anthropology will be made apparent as the subject is developed
hereafter. Behind the region of understanding are found several
semi-intellectual organs,--Ideality and Marvellousness, which have
been recognized in the old system, and above them Imagination and
Spirituality, which in connection with Marvellousness make a group to
which I have given the name of Genius, as when largely developed they
give great brilliance and expansion of mind. Immediately above Reason
is a region producing Pliability and Versatility, which greatly
assists the reasoning faculty in mastering unfamiliar truth.
Admiration, adjacent to Imagination, gives great power of appreciation
and recognition of merit. Sincerity and Candor or Expressiveness also
add much to the capacity for attaining truth; and Liberality, between
Foresight and Benevolence, adds much to the expansion of the
understanding.

The middle intellectual region gives us Intuition and Clairvoyance at
the inner face of the front lobe, then Consciousness and observation,
running into recent and remote Memory, above the region of Phenomena
which recognizes the changes in physical objects. Between Time and
Invention we have System, lying between Order below and Planning
above. Between Invention and Ideality we have Composition or Literary
Capacity, and in Ideality a region of Meditation (not marked) running
into Somnolence, the region of Dreaming and of Transcorporeal
Perception or Impression. This runs into General Physical Sensibility,
through Impressibility (not marked), and anteriorly into the sense of
Hearing (adjacent to Language and Tune). The organ of Sensibility has
many subdivisions unnecessary to mention at present. Below this lies
the region of Interior Sensibility, which I have generally called
Disease, because it gives so great a liability to morbid conditions,
but of course no condition in the human constitution is morbid aside
from injurious influences.

In the lower range of Intellectuality we find just below Order and
Calculation the sense of Force, which might be called the muscular
sense or sense of exertion, by means of which we perceive the action
of our muscles and attain great dexterity. Immediately over the pupil
of the eye we find the faculty of Vision or sense of Sight, marked
Light, which runs into a sense of Shade at the inner angle of the eye,
by which two perceptions everything in nature except colors is
recognized. Light extends up into Color. The middle of the brow is
therefore the seat of Vision, while Hearing is in the temples behind
the eye. The eye gives us the external location of the organs just
behind it, which I do not call Language, although certainly favorable
to the study of languages, in which Gall was practically correct. The
anterior surface of the middle lobe, represented by the eye and the
face, is a region of natural language or Expression, a tendency to
manifestation which is so conspicuous in children, but which becomes
subdued in adult life by the higher powers, during which change the
infantile fulness of face generally disappears. The prominence of the
eye therefore indicates a more active manifestation of intellect and
close attention to everything that interests, or thoughtful
observation.

The face is marked as the region of Expression, which lies in the
anterior surface of the middle lobe, and gives the ready excitability
and disposition to manifest our feelings in response to all who
approach us. The upper portion of the face corresponds to the
expression of the upper surface of the brain, the lower to the
occipital region and the posterior inferior portion to the basilar
region. Hence the breadth and prominence of the lower part of the face
is not a pleasing feature. Ardor or evolution of warmth is expressed
by the prominence of the chin, which corresponds to the medulla
oblongata. Excitability running into Insanity is expressed below the
jaw, and its milder form as Childishness and tendency to Idiocy below
the anterior part of the jaw, while Hysterical Nervousness appears
below the chin, and Sexual Passion at the larynx.

On the side of the head we have Modesty and Reverence, the former
running down into Bashfulness and the latter into Humility or
Servility. Next to these we find Sublimity, which was correctly
suggested by the Edinburgh phrenologists. It lies between Reverence
and Cautiousness.

Passing up from the timid and excitable region of Cautiousness to its
upper prudential region we reach a prudent, calm and self-controlling
region which is marked Sanity, as it is the power which overrules the
passionate excitability and gives us self-control and consequent
clearness of mind. Next behind Cautiousness comes Coolness or
Coldness, which is both a mental and physical quality, behind which we
have a region of Repose, the tendency of which is toward sleep. Below
Coolness we have a region marked Force, which gives energy and impulse
without the violence that is developed lower down.

Immediately over the ear is the region of Irritability, the antagonist
of Patience. Going forward, the functions change to Excitability and
Sensibility; going back it becomes impulsive and somewhat lawless.
This impulse, antagonistic to Religion, manifests itself as
Impulsiveness and Profligacy. Farther back the impulse becomes the
Rivalry which is seen in all species of games as well as in the
competitions of all species of business and ambition. Rivalry runs
into grasping Selfishness, Acquisitiveness or avarice, and this,
through Jealousy and Deceit, into the familiar function of
Combativeness.

Passing down from Combativeness, Jealousy, and Rivalry, we come to a
more intense hostility in Hatred, or the spirit of Domination and
Revenge (antagonistic to Love), anterior to which at the mastoid
process we find the maximum violence in Destructiveness and
Desperation, the antagonists of Hope, and Philanthropy or Kindness.
This is the murderous region, below and behind the ear, which Gall and
Spurzheim mislocated above it, whereas it belongs to the inferior face
of the brain, where the organs grow downward.

Passing forward and inward on the basilar surface, adjacent to the
petrous ridge of the temporal bone, and the anterior margin of the
tentorium, we reach in front the passional region of Rage and Insanity
and a little further back, a region of restless and lawless
Turbulence, which is marked upon the neck, and which antagonizes the
regions of Tranquillity, Patriotism, and the outer portion of
Conscientiousness.

Anterior to the Destructive and Turbulent region, but a little more
external than Insanity, are the regions of Roguery and Pessimism,
which appear immediately at the ear and on the lower angle of the jaw,
which is marked as Melancholy on account of its sullen gloom, which
looks always on the unfavorable side. The organ manifested behind the
jaw through the inner ear or meatus auditorius is one of sensual
selfishness which, when predominant, produces Baseness or disregard of
all duties for our own indolent and profligate indulgence,
antagonizing Conscientiousness. Closely adjacent to this is the
tendency to Intemperance, belonging to the organ of Love of Stimulus,
at the posterior margin of Alimentiveness. Anterior to Alimentiveness
is the indolent region, the organ of Relaxation, between Disease and
Melancholy, the antagonist of Energy which gives untiring industry.

Looking at the occiput, we find below Self-esteem or Pride, which was
correctly located, the organs of Self-confidence, Love of Power, and
Arrogance, extending down the median line to the cerebellum. Parallel
to this we find Ostentation (which might be called Vanity) and
Ambition, organs which antagonize Modesty and Ideality, as those of
the median line antagonize Reverence. Next to Ambition comes the
region of Business Energy, a less aspiring and ostentatious element
than Ambition. Next to this come the regions of Adhesiveness, the
gregarious social impulse, Aggressiveness, the intermediate between
Adhesiveness and Combativeness, possessing much of the character of
each, and Self-sufficiency, which relies upon our own knowledge and
desires to lead others. These three organs are the antagonists of the
intellectual, and yet by a wonderful law to be explained hereafter,
they co-operate with them. The region between Aggressiveness, Repose,
and Force is marked Stolidity, as that is the effect of its
predominance. It bears some resemblance to the stubborn character of
the upper portion of Combativeness, in which organ we may clearly
distinguish five or six different modifications of its energy.

Combativeness, Aggressiveness, and Business Energy run into Dogmatism,
a sceptical and domineering impulse. Ambition and Ostentation run down
into Loquacity and Fascination, below which we find Familiarity, which
runs into Arrogance and Sexual Virility. Between the latter and the
Turbulent region is the region of pure Animalism, of which Sarcognomy
shows the correspondence in the legs. Above this in the region of
Hatred is the location of Vital Force, which has its correspondence at
the upper posterior part of the thigh. The general sympathy of the
thigh is found in the restless and impulsive region at the side of the
neck, which antagonizes Cautiousness.

On the superior surface of the brain we find parallel to Religion on
each side, Philanthropy or Kindness, Hope and Love, which antagonize
Destructiveness, Desperation, and Hate. Anteriorly on each side of
Benevolence is a pleasing region antagonistic to Combativeness and
Jealousy, and manifesting many pleasing sentiments, which I have
grouped under the general title of Harmony. In this region Faith and
Candor, or love of truth, antagonize Jealousy. Politeness, Imitation,
Friendship, Admiration, Pliability, Humor (or Mirthfulness), and
Sympathy antagonize Combativeness. The region of Genius antagonizes
sceptical Dogmatism.

Behind Love, which self-evidently belongs to the higher region of the
brain, where the founders of the science failed to find it, comes
Conscientiousness, which was discovered by Spurzheim, and behind that,
experiment shows Fortitude, the antagonist of the sensuous appetite,
Energy, the antagonist of indolent relaxation, and Cheerfulness, the
antagonist of Melancholy, by which I have so often removed depression
of spirits, the lack of which leaves us a prey to melancholy. Exterior
to Conscientiousness comes Patriotism, or love of country.

Parallel to the posterior part of Firmness lies Heroism, or Hardihood,
next to which come Health and Oratory, then Approbativeness and
Playfulness, running into Sense of Honor and Magnanimity.
Approbativeness, Playfulness, Honor, Magnanimity and Self-sufficiency
might as one group be almost included in the old conception of
Approbativeness. Magnanimity is a faculty closely akin to Self-esteem
or Pride, but belongs more to interior sentiment and is less external
or demonstrative.

All of these new organs and faculties have been discovered,
demonstrated and studied since 1835, my first discoveries, which
included a great portion of the whole, having been made by the
cranioscopic method of Gall and Spurzheim, in which I found no
difficulty in detecting the errors of my predecessors, and discovering
the truths which are so patent to one who seeks them. But alas, the
dispassionate search for truth is the rarest virtue on earth. Even
Gall himself had not enough of this to recognize the discoveries of
Spurzheim. Nor had Spurzheim enough to get rid of some of the palpable
errors of Gall, such as placing Acquisitiveness in the temples,
Mirthfulness in the philosophic group, and reversing the true
positions of Tune and Constructiveness, extending the latter into the
middle lobe. Spurzheim, however, was a better and more faithful
observer than Gall, and greatly improved the science of Phrenology,
though he never realized that from the brain we may develop a complete
Anthropology.

This hasty enumeration of the psychic portion of the demonstrated
functions of the brain, which my predecessors failed to reach, will
give the reader some idea of the magnitude of the task to discover all
this, to establish its relations to anatomy, and, I may add, to
cerebral mathematics, and to organize the whole into a harmonious
philosophy, which demonstrates itself, when understood, by a divine
perfection which is beyond the power of human invention to originate.

Perhaps some readers may feel that I should have introduced the
subject by systematic demonstrations and narratives of experiments. I
avoid this because such narratives would not be attractive to readers
who are eager to reach a valuable truth, and do not wish to go through
the labors of discovery. Nor am I at all concerned about
demonstrations. If I have unveiled eternal truths, my successors, if
they are faithful students, will be compelled to see what I have seen,
and to verify my observations.

I simply KNOW the truth of what I present, from several reasons, each
one of which is sufficient in itself.

1. EXPERIMENTAL.--As an experimental investigation I have many
thousand times excited the organs of the brain in intelligent persons
and made them realize or show the effects as I stimulated the
intellect, the emotions, the passions or the physiological functions,
so as to bring out Memory, Intuition, Somnolence, Spirituality, Love,
Religion, Hope to ecstasy, Pride, Arrogance, Combativeness, Avarice,
Hunger, Theft, Insanity, Sleep, Mirth, Grief, etc., etc., and the
organs that change the action of the heart, the muscular strength and
the bodily temperature. These experiments have been made before great
numbers of enlightened persons and have been largely repeated by my
students. Manifestly I cannot speak with any less confidence of
Anthropology than a chemist does of chemistry, when for forty-five
years, I have ever been able and willing to demonstrate its principles
by experiments on intelligent persons, changing their physical
strength, their circulation and their mental faculties.

2. SENSITIVE.--I have felt nearly all the functions of the brain in
various degrees of excitement in my own person, and know the positions
of the organs as well as the gymnast knows the position of the muscles
in which he produces fatigue. My physical sensibility has been so
acute as to recognize by local sensations at all times the degree of
activity in any portion of the brain, manifested by local warmth and
sensibility, by a sanguineous pressure, by vivid sensations in the
scalp, with erection of the hair, or by aching fatigue, or by
irritations and tenderness in the scalp; or in case of inactivity by
the entire absence of sensation, or in case of obstruction by a
distinct feeling of oppression.

3. PSYCHOMETRIC.--I have explored every portion of the brain with care
and minuteness by the psychometric method, even tracing the
convolutions and their anfractuosities, and observing from point to
point how beautifully and harmoniously the innumerable functions blend
with each other; how the different portions of a convolution vary, and
how the different conditions of the brain and different degrees of
excitement modify the results; and these investigations have been
carried on for years, until results were clearly established and over
and over confirmed by psychometry, by experiment, and by
consciousness.

4. MATHEMATICAL.--The development of so positive a science enabled me
to establish certain mathematical or GEOMETRIC laws of cerebral
action, concerning the direction and mode in which all faculties act
upon the mind and body, which laws constitute the BASIC PHILOSOPHY of
Anthropology, the highest generalization of science. These laws
constitute a compact system of science, lying at the basis of all
psychology, as the bony skeleton is the basis of the human form. These
laws being easily demonstrated, and giving great clearness and
systematic beauty to the whole science, are alone a sufficient
demonstration. They constitute the science of PATHOGNOMY.

5. CRANIOSCOPY.--In describing characters or constitutions, the new
system is continually tested and demonstrated. All whom I have taught
find, when they test it, that, in its applications by cranioscopy, the
results invariably confirm the accuracy of the science.

6. CORRESPONDENCE.--Sarcognomy demonstrates in the body an entire
correspondence to the system of functions and organs discovered in the
brain. The same functions, on a lower plane and in corresponding
locations, are found in the body.

7. APPLICATION.--In the application of the science, not only to the
diagnosis of character and disease but to the solution of problems in
human nature, the explanation of temperaments, the determination of
relations between persons or sociology, the correction of education,
the organization of philosophy, the criticism of literature, the
philosophy of oratory and art, the development of a philosophic
pneumatology and religion, and, finally, the study of the animal
kingdom,--every application gives evidence of its competency and its
truth as a supreme science and philosophy.

MASTERING THE SCIENCE.--The large amount of detail of the organology
of the brain which has been presented, will, no doubt, strike most
readers with a sentiment of multitudinous confusion, and a doubt of
the possibility of their ever applying so complex a science to the
study of character. I have the pleasure of saying that the difficulty
quickly vanishes when one is rightly instructed, and that I generally
succeed in a single evening in making my pupils acquainted with the
localities so well as to avoid any material error. The more perfectly
any science is developed and understood the easier it becomes to
impart its principles. In the next chapter I will show how easy it is
to learn the organic locations of Anthropology and apply them to the
judgment of character.



TO YOU PERSONALLY.


The JOURNAL OF MAN acknowledges with pleasure your co-operation during
the past year, its trial trip. It presumes from your co-operation,
that you are one of the very few truly progressive and large-minded
mortals who really wish to lift mankind into a better condition, and
who have that practical sagacity (which is rare among the educated) by
which you recognize great truths in their first presentation before
they have the support of the leaders of society. If among our readers
there are _any_ of a different class, they are not expected to
continue. The sincere friends of the JOURNAL have shown by many
expressions in their friendly letters, that they are permanent
friends, and as the present size of the JOURNAL is entirely inadequate
to its purposes, they desire its enlargement to twice its present size
and price. They perceive that it is the organ of the most important
and comprehensive movement of intellectual progress ever undertaken by
man, and they desire to see its mission fulfilled and the benefit
realized by the world, in a redeeming and uplifting education, a
reliable system of therapeutics, a scientific and beneficent religion,
a satisfactory spiritual science, and the uplifting of all sciences by
Psychometry. But it is important to know in advance that all the
JOURNAL'S present readers desire to go on in an enlarged and improved
issue. You are, therefore, requested to signify by postal card your
intentions and wishes as to the enlarged JOURNAL. Will your support be
continued or withdrawn for the next volume, and can you do anything to
extend its circulation? An immediate reply will oblige the editor.


COLLEGE OF THERAPEUTICS.

The next session opens by an Introductory Lecture, at 6 James street,
Tuesday evening (7.30), November 1st, which all subscribers of the
JOURNAL are invited to attend. Fee for the course of six weeks, $25.

Subject of the introductory, "What can we all do for ourselves and our
friends?"


LITERARY NOTICES.

The life of Philippus Theophrastus, Bombast of Hohenheim, known by the
name of Paracelsus, and the substance of his teachings concerning
Cosmology, Anthropology, Pneumatology, Magic and Sorcery, Medicine,
Alchemy, and Astrology, Philosophy, and Theosophy, extracted and
translated from his rare and extensive works, and from some
unpublished manuscripts, by FRANZ HARTMANN, M.D., 220 pages. Published
by George Redway, London, York Street.

Scientific students will find it interesting to trace the life and
speculations of Paracelsus, but to those who are not well grounded in
science and philosophy, who have an easy credulity, such writings have
a misleading tendency. Paracelsus was a great reformer, both in
medicine and religion, and had very remarkable success as a physician.
The sensation he produced, the profound admiration of his friends and
hostility of his enemies show him to have been an extraordinary man.
The present volume is well written and interesting, and furnishes
themes for future comment.


"Life and Labors of Dr. J. R. Newton,--Healer, or The Modern
Bethesda." This handsome volume of 320 pages, with a fine likeness of
Dr. Newton, should occupy a place in every library, as a record and
demonstration of the grand truth that man has in his living spirit a
healing power which is proportioned to his spiritual development and
affinity with heaven. Sold by Colby & Rich, Boston, $2.


"THE PURPOSE OF THEOSOPHY," by Mrs. A. P. Sinnett, London, published
by Chapman & Hall, 1885 (107 pages). This is a brief and clear
statement of the Oriental Theosophy. That it differs widely from the
Theosophy of American students is a matter of course. Tradition and
Science never agree entirely. The pursuit of the highest wisdom is
Theosophy, and to this the JOURNAL OF MAN is devoted, but is not
encumbered by ancient theories.

[Hand pointing right] See advertisement of Rare Books, by R. Weiss.


"CONSOLATION and other poems, by Abraham Perry Miller," of
Worthington, Minnesota; published by Brentano, New York, 122 pages.
This little book is full of graceful verse and fine thoughts well
expressed. The author's style has a simplicity and perspicuity which
make a contrast to the occult style of Tennyson, and convey many good
lessons, as in the sentence,

  "We bear within us that which makes us blest
  And Heaven and Hell are carried in the breast."


"THE PROBLEMS OF LIFE," by Dr. R. C. Flower, Spectator Publishing Co.,
Boston, 52 pages, 50 cents. This handsome brochure discusses many
prevalent evils in a pungent and rhetorical style and gives a great
amount of good advice in a sprightly and practical way.


"The Mediumistic experiences of JOHN BROWN, the medium of the Rockies,
with an introduction by Prof. J. S. Loveland." A book of 167 pages.
Price, $1.00.

This is quite a remarkable and interesting volume. The introduction,
by Prof. Loveland, is very well written, and presents the merits of
Mr. Brown as one of the pioneer mediums. "A distinct centre in the
history of modern Spiritualism." "Before Davis grasped the Magic
Staff," before the Fox girls had heard the "mystic rap," John Brown
had wandered from "the rock-bound shores" of "old New England" to the
wild fastnesses of the Rocky Mountains, and amid a company of
adventurous trappers and traders, was manifesting the strange facts
connected with the spirit side of our complex life. A few copies left
at this office will be sent by mail for $1.


A VOLAPÜK GRAMMAR, for the study of the Volapük language, by Prof.
Kerchkoffs, translated into English by Karl Dorubush, has lately been
published. Volapük has gained a foothold in nearly every European
nation, and bids fair to become universal.

       *       *       *       *       *

PSYCHOMETRIC PRACTICE.

Mrs. C. H. Buchanan continues to apply her skill in the description of
character and disease, with general impressions as to past and future.
Her numerous correspondents express much gratification and surprise at
the correctness of her delineations. The fee for a personal interview
is $2; for a written description $3; for a more comprehensive review
and statement of life periods, with directions for the cultivation of
Psychometry, $5.


MAYO'S ANÆSTHETIC.

The suspension of pain, under dangerous surgical operations, is the
greatest triumph of Therapeutic Science in the present century. It
came first by mesmeric hypnotism, which was applicable only to a few,
and was restricted, by the jealous hostility of the old medical
profession. Then came the nitrous oxide, introduced by Dr. Wells, of
Hartford, and promptly discountenanced by the enlightened (?) medical
profession of Boston, and set aside for the next candidate, ether,
discovered in the United States also, but far inferior to the nitrous
oxide as a safe and pleasant agent. This was largely superseded by
chloroform, discovered much earlier by Liebig and others, but
introduced as an anæsthetic in 1847, by Prof. Simpson. This proved to
be the most powerful and dangerous of all. Thus the whole policy of
the medical profession was to discourage the safe, and encourage the
more dangerous agents. The magnetic sleep, the most perfect of all
anæsthetic agents, was expelled from the realm of college authority;
ether was substituted for nitrous oxide, and chloroform preferred to
ether, until frequent deaths gave warning.

Nitrous oxide, much the safest of the three, has not been the
favorite, but has held its ground, especially with dentists. But even
nitrous oxide is not perfect. It is not equal to the magnetic sleep,
when the latter is practicable, but fortunately it is applicable to
all. To perfect the nitrous oxide, making it universally safe and
pleasant, Dr. U. K. Mayo, of Boston, has combined it with certain
harmless vegetable nervines, which appear to control the fatal
tendency which belongs to all anæsthetics when carried too far. The
success of Dr. Mayo, in perfecting our best anæsthetic, is amply
attested by those who have used it. Dr. Thorndike, than whom Boston
had no better surgeon, pronounced it "the safest the world has yet
seen." It has been administered to children and to patients in extreme
debility. Drs. Frizzell and Williams say they have given it
"repeatedly in heart disease, severe lung diseases, Bright's disease,
etc., where the patients were so feeble as to require assistance in
walking, many of them under medical treatment, and the results have
been all that we could ask--no irritation, suffocation, nor
depression. We heartily commend it to all as the anæsthetic of the
age." Dr. Morrill, of Boston, administered Mayo's anæsthetic to his
wife with delightful results when "her lungs were so badly
disorganized, that the administration of ether or gas would be
entirely unsafe." The reputation of this anæsthetic is now well
established; in fact, it is not only safe and harmless, but has great
medical virtue for daily use in many diseases, and is coming into use
for such purposes. In a paper before the Georgia State Dental Society,
Dr. E. Parsons testified strongly to its superiority. "The nitrous
oxide (says Dr. P.) causes the patient when fully under its influence
to have very like the appearance of a corpse," but under this new
anæsthetic "the patient appears like one in a natural sleep." The
language of the press generally has been highly commendatory, and if
Dr. Mayo had occupied so conspicuous a rank as Prof. Simpson, of
Edinburgh, his new anæsthetic would have been adopted at once in every
college of America and Europe.

       *       *       *       *       *

                     Mayo's Vegetable Anæsthetic.

A perfectly safe and pleasant substitute for chloroform, ether,
nitrous oxide gas, and all other anæsthetics. Discovered by Dr. U. K.
Mayo, April, 1883, and since administered by him and others in over
300,000 cases successfully. The youngest child, the most sensitive
lady, and those having heart disease, and lung complaint, inhale this
vapor with impunity. It stimulates the circulation of the blood and
builds up the tissues. Indorsed by the highest authority in the
professions, recommended in midwifery and all cases of nervous
prostration. Physicians, surgeons, dentists and private families
supplied with this vapor, liquefied, in cylinders of various
capacities. It should be administered the same as Nitrous Oxide, but
it does not produce headache and nausea as that sometimes does. For
further information pamphlets, testimonials, etc., apply to

                                      DR. U. K. MAYO, Dentist,
                                        378 Tremont St., Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *

                          THE CARRIER DOVE.

              An Illustrated Weekly Magazine, Devoted to

                       SPIRITUALISM AND REFORM.

                    Edited by MRS. J. SCHLESINGER.

Each number will contain the portraits and Biographical Sketches of
prominent Mediums and Spiritual workers of the Pacific Coast, and
elsewhere. Also, Spirit Pictures by our Artist Mediums. Lectures,
essays, poems, spirit messages, editorials and miscellaneous items.

          DR. L. SCHLESINGER,   }
          MRS. J. SCHLESINGER,  }          PUBLISHERS.

            Terms:--$2.50 per Year. Single Copies, 10 cts.

                      Address, THE CARRIER DOVE,
             32 Ellis Street, San Francisco, California.

       *       *       *       *       *



    Transcriber's Note: The Table of Contents came from the first
    issue of the volume. The article RECTIFICATION OF CEREBRAL
    SCIENCE is continued from the October issue of the JOURNAL.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Buchanan's Journal of Man, November 1887 - Volume 1, Number 10" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home