By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Christian Phrenology - A Guide to Self-Knowledge
Author: Bunney, Joseph
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Christian Phrenology - A Guide to Self-Knowledge" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive.)









Phrenology is a system of Mental Philosophy. It enquires into the quality
and condition of the mind, estimating the faculties, sentiments, and
propensities of the individual, without being deceived by personal esteem
or the voice of partial praise; for as it too frequently occurs that minds
of the highest order are more or less under the influence of self love, or
a desire for the admiration of others, so are they blinded to their own
weaknesses and in some measure rendered incapable of acknowledging their
faults even to themselves. This defect, a defect of the race rather than
of the individual, presents an effectual barrier to all mental
improvement, for minds however highly gifted are always in some measure
led astray by self gratulation or the flattering commendations of others,
and thus they are led to overlook their own errors, or to congratulate
themselves that they are not as other men are, and the mental eye becomes
blinded to what is wrong in its own intellectual organization although
sensitively awake to the erroneous feelings and propensities of others. It
is the province of PHRENOLOGY to measure the external features of the
mind's agent, and to facilitate the study of MAN without diverging into
metaphysical error on the one hand, or materialism on the other.

Phrenology then is one of those beautiful revelations of applicable
science which could only have been made known in an æra of intellectual
cultivation. It is in accordance with man's advancement in civilization
and refinement.--It was not needed in the days of

  "High emprise or priestly power."

for when men were measured by their prowess, and when might was right, a
standard of intellect would have been of little value; but amidst the
discoveries of the 19th century it comes to us as a monitor and a friend;
Its developement forms a striking fact in the philosophy of history--for
as we trace the long and varied records of physical discovery from the
time of Archimedes to the coronation of Victoria,--we invariably find that
whatever science, or whatever art has been made known to us, it has always
been the forerunner of new chapters in the history of man: thus Astronomy
led the way to magnetism--Magnetism led to the scientific principles of
navigation,--and the steam engine, mighty as its power appears, is but in
accordance with the advanced wants of mankind; and so with every other
instance, in proportion to the discoveries of intellect, has man advanced
in the scale of intelligence and humanity,--with mind, so has matter
progressed, until from the unlettered savage, he has arrived at the gates
of that scientific temple whose lessons teach him, that now, having laid
out the earth for his sustenance, peopled the ocean with his race, and
proved his mastery over all things, it is time that he should arise and
conquer self,--

  Know then thyself, and seek not God to scan,
  The proper study of mankind is man!

To do this, man must be studied in his moral, social, and religious
condition; thus only is he enabled to gratify that inward yearning after
what is great and good which is the basis of all improvement. It is
necessary however to learn what is imperfect before improvement can be
attempted. We must learn our own mental constitution and compare it with a
standard of excellence, and what standard can we have, but that all
surpassing goodness that created man in his own image? HE in whom even
Pilate found no fault--who said "I am the vine, and ye are the
branches,"--who went about doing good, and who said to his disciples, "Be
ye therefore perfect, even as your father which is in heaven is perfect."
This is the standard that we should look up to--to the Author of all
good;--to His life upon earth as the line of our conduct here--to his
sufferings in our day of tribulation--to His glory as the end that we
would one day share in.

Such is the object that forces itself upon the mind, when liberated from
the baser passions of humanity, the spirit can indulge in its own lofty
aspirations--it feels a noble elevation of purpose in contemplating the
improvement of its being--and it feels capable of following out a design
so beautiful,--there is a dimly revealed pleasure in devoting every energy
to the acquisition of an end so glorious, and the pleasure is pure,
elevated, and ennobling, it is neither transient nor violent, but it seems
to be breathed into the heart, making it wiser, better, and happier--It is
not the pleasure that we have sought for in life, but the calm and quiet
enjoyment that is referred to the mind, as the seat of all pure and
rational delight: and to the brain, as a pleasure that will endure and
increase, and fade not away like the momentary intoxications of animal
delight: the pleasure of a good object is referrible to the mind, and to
the brain as the seat of that mind, and we ask, Is the mind the offspring
of that brain? or, Is the brain the organ through which the mind acts? a
moment's thought answers the question; in a few short years that brain
will be mouldering away in the silent tomb, whilst the mind that animated
it, can never die; thus then we arrive at the seat of the mind, a fact
universally allowed by all philosophers, in all places, and at all times,
and by reasoning upon this simple fact, we are led through progressive
stages of induction, until we have arrived at a knowledge of that most
valuable but most difficultly exercised faculty, Self-control.

Now, we know well that the eye and the ear receive their faculties from
the brain, through the medium of the nerves. Thus, the eye may be
delighted by gazing on an extended view of nature; the ear by listening to
the sublime cadences of sacred music; but if we sever the delicate
filament that conveys the sense of enjoyment to the brain, as the seat of
all pleasure, resulting from the exercise of the eye or the ear, so do we
immediately sever the sentient being from the perception of beauty in form
or landscape, or of harmony in sound. So it is with a limb, if we divide
the fibre or nerve connecting the muscles of that limb with the brain, we
immediately deprive the organ of feeling and volition. Thus, then, the
feelings, the senses, and the enjoyments are referred to the brain as the
seat of the mind, and it would be as irrational to suppose that the brain
in its entirety is influenced by every sensation, perception, or impulse,
as to suppose that the whole body is required for an operation affecting
only a part: so by analogy we learn, that as the eye is given us to see
with, the ear to hear with, the tongue to speak with; when neither eye,
ear, or tongue is adapted to any other use, so, in like manner we are led
to infer, that particular parts of the brain are endowed with powers,
peculiar to themselves; for it would be equally rational to suppose that a
man could in some measure read with the ear, smell with the eye, or see
with the nose, as to assert that the same portion of brain could be
directed by the mind at will, to study poetry, or sculpture, the arts of
money getting, or direct to the enjoyments of love. Such operations of the
mind are essentially different; the poet, the sculptor, the man of this
world, and the lover of pleasure have portions of the brain, individually
adapted to the various operations of the mind, and as the mind is
developed by natural circumstances, by hereditary prejudices,--the effects
of early training,--the results of education,--the influence of good or
bad example, or the untoward events that occur in life,--so is the effect
of each and every one of these duly registered upon the mind, and upon the
brain, as the organ of that mind, so that at any and every period of
existence an external examination of the brain points out what
propensities, sentiments, and faculties are at that period in existence,
and as a due cultivation or improper neglect of the mental powers is
invariably recorded through the mind itself acting upon the brain with
more or less energy in those individual parts most generally exercised, so
does Phrenology--the science of the brain, as an unbiassed friend, point
out what errors of the imagination are to be shunned--what propensities to
be conquered, what faculties to be cultivated, what sentiments to be given
up. So does it present itself as a means whereby we may know our own
weaknesses and conquer them--our strength, and be enabled to exert it. So
does it point out whatever may be predominant in our nature for good or
for evil, teaching us by a monitor far more true than even the heart
itself, how to remedy our faults in this life, and gradually by severe and
constant practice, teaching us how to become more fitted for the life to


In examining the history, or the progress of discovery in any particular
science, we are irresistibly led to enquire _why_ a series of facts like
those which constitute its basis should have remained so long hidden from
the eye of man. We know that the doctrines we are investigating are
founded upon facts, and if those facts are in operation at this moment,
they must have been equally so a thousand years ago, or our enquiries
cannot be based upon Truth, since Truth is eternal. If, then, in perusing
the records of phrenology, we are led to wonder at the long ages of human
ignorance, Are we not equally surprised that all physical science should
have existed so many ages, without the cognizance of man? Do we not wonder
that thousands of years floated down the stream of Time, before man
discovered _why_ the lightning flashed across the heavens, or _why_ the
needle pointed to the pole, and are we not even now unable to tell _why_
the polar Aurora diffuses its ethereal light? Why then single out
Phrenology for disbelief, because it is new, is gold the less gold because
fresh from the mine? or truth less true because recently revealed? _We_
cannot tell why phrenology has so long remained unknown, but we may refer
the reason to the wisdom of that Almighty Intelligence who placed his bow
in the heavens, and fashioned that wonderful cycle of events that in every
age has been suited to the wants and capacities of man. Phrenology could
not have existed in any age but one wherein mind had asserted its mastery
over matter, and although the understanding was in some measure prepared
for the reception of new truths by the physiognomy of Lavater, and the
facial line introduced by Camper, yet experience proved that Lavater's
theories were not generally applicable, and the means proposed by Camper
at the best times uncertain. Anatomists and physiologists toiled at
discovering the seat of the mind, they dissected and drew conclusions--but
so vague and unsatisfactory was the knowledge communicated, that the more
the anatomist dissected, the more he became entangled in a mass of
conjecture and perplexity. The metaphysician failed too; he studied the
mind chiefly through himself and by recording his own knowledge of his
faculties, was led into error: like the nautilus he retreated into his own
shell and thus sought to learn what was without, and as may be supposed
men of different minds arrived at different results:--such was the state
of mental knowledge about 1760. The method pursued by Dr. Gall, was
essentially different; at an early period he was led to notice the
difference of talents and disposition in his schoolmates and companions,
he found one with a retentive memory, another with a talent for languages,
one was remarkable for elegance of style, another for dullness, and a
third for close reasoning; he found their dispositions equally different,
and this diversity appeared to regulate their partialities and aversions;
some showed a liking for play, others for books, and a third class for
mechanical handiwork. In this manner every one presented an individual
character; some years after he found that persons with a great talent for
learning by heart were those with whom it was most difficult for him to
compete, and he noticed that all these had prominent eyes, he then
recollected that his early companions had the same feature prominent, and
when he entered the University he directed his attention to this fact, and
found that all those who had prominent eyes possessed a great facility of
learning by heart, even in cases where they possessed no particular
talent. Although this connexion between talent and external appearance was
not sufficiently established to be considered as a _certain_ circumstance,
Dr. Gall could not divest himself of a belief in the relationship of the
one fact to the other, and after much reflection he conceived that if
memory for words had an external indication, the same circumstance might
be traced to the other intellectual powers; looking therefore only at
general indications he believed he could trace the existence of talents
for painting, music and mechanics, he marked also the external features
of individuals possessing great determination of character, this suggested
to him the idea of looking to the head for all the moral sentiments,
referring the state of the skull to the influence of the Brain.

Here then commenced the difficulties which appeared as soon as Dr. Gall
compared his own observations from nature, with the opinions of
Physiologists and Metaphysicians; he found that while some placed the
sentient soul or intellectual faculties in the brain, others placed it in
the heart, or the cerebellum, or even in the viscera, so that he hesitated
about the correctness of his conclusions, he observed also that the
principal difference of mental faculty was not owing to difference of
education or accidental circumstances,--if the difference were accidental,
the project he now contemplated would be hopeless, but he recollected that
his brothers, and sisters, and schoolfellows had all received a similar
education and equal care, yet many upon whom the teachers had bestowed
great attention were still far behind their companions.

     "Often," says Dr. GALL, "we were accused of want of will, or
     deficiency in zeal; but many of us could not, even with the most
     ardent desire, followed out by the most obstinate efforts, attain, in
     some pursuits, even to mediocrity; while in some other points, some
     of us surpassed our schoolfellows without an effort, and almost, it
     might be said, without perceiving it ourselves. But, in point of
     fact, our masters did not appear to attach much faith to the system
     which taught equality of mental faculties: for they thought
     themselves entitled to exact more from one scholar, and less from
     another. They spoke frequently of natural gifts, or of the gifts of
     God, and consoled their pupils in the words of the Gospel, by
     assuring them that each would be required to render an account, only
     in proportion to the gifts he had received."

Convinced by this, that there is a diversity of talent and of disposition,
he encountered another obstacle in the conventional terms used to express
the actions of the mind. Metaphysicians spoke of judgment, perception,
thought, memory and imagination, but Gall wished to express a faculty for
music, for painting and for mechanics, he therefore abandoned the theories
and opinions of others resolving to learn by direct observation from
nature; he visited prisons, schools and lunatic asylums, was introduced to
courts, to colleges and the seats of justice; and wherever he heard of
persons distinguished for any particular endowment or deficiency, he
observed and studied the external features of those particular heads. In
this manner by degrees of induction he felt himself warranted in his
belief that the configurations of the head indicate the mental powers; in
addition to this examination during life, whenever any of the persons died
with whose peculiarities he had become acquainted during life, he used
every means to be allowed to examine their brain after death, and thus he
succeeded in arriving at the first outlines of those facts which time
afterwards developed. In these researches he found that the brain covered
by the _dura mater_ presented a form exactly corresponding to that which
the skull had exhibited during life: and being confident in the
correctness of his system he announced it to the world at Vienna, in
1796. The successive steps that he passed over, were, 1. He observed the
relationship between particular talents and particular forms of the head.
2. He ascertained that the figure and size of the brain corresponded in
every point with the skull. 3. He dissected the brain minutely so as to
investigate its structure.

Dr. Spurzheim studied under Gall, in 1800, and in 1804 became associated
with him in his labours; since that period many new and valuable
discoveries were made by them in the anatomy and physiology of the brain;
the truths thus elucidated mere formed into a system of mental philosophy.

It was impossible to foresee what results would follow the exposition of
this doctrine. Dr. Gall's mode of enquiry was plain and simple; thus he
found that a desire for gain bore relation to the size of one part of the
brain--he called it the organ of _theft_, because he found it largest in
thieves; the propensity to destroy, he called _murder_, because he found
it largest in individuals condemned for that crime--in like manner
benevolence and other organs, for as Dr. Gall had not laid out any
arrangement, a series of disjointed facts was all that could be arrived
at, leaving their value to be determined at a future period, when the
multitude of facts should require some arrangement. As soon, therefore, as
the value of the materials had been ascertained by time and further
investigation, the eye of philosophy at once detected the materials for a
system of mental elucidation, and phrenological facts were arranged into a
scientific system, whose importance has been universally recognized:
facts that had hitherto appeared isolated were soon connected with others
and the obloquy that had been thrown upon it by public ridicule, was
overpowered by the presence of truth. The doctrines which at first were a
rude and undigested mass of unconnected facts, whose apparent results were
neither promising nor inviting, now became changed in character,--it was
recognized to be the science of mind and its value was apparent, the new
opinions had been doubted, simply because they were new, but they bore
upon them the impress of truth: those who were adverse to its doctrines,
were those who had not studied its principles; and those who doubt it now
are those who have never examined the volume of nature, from which the
page of science has been torn. Those who consider its relative bearing,
both upon individuals and the human race, will be convinced that
Phrenology carries in its train the most valuable assistance in furthering
the cause of education, morality, and religion. We cannot conclude this
chapter better than by quoting the annexed extract by a popular writer
from the Foreign Quarterly Review;--

     "Nothing that ever was devised by man has put in his hands so
     powerful an instrument to know himself, as that which we
     (phrenologists) have given him; for, if he believes in us, he cannot
     deny the evidence of his own organization. The first key to unlock
     the hearts of others is that which opens our own; and to know whether
     we judge our neighbour fairly or not, we should measure the quantity
     of our own feelings which we mix up in the judgment. But from this
     acquaintance with ourselves and others may result the greatest
     benefit that could accrue to social intercourse, mutual indulgence.
     When we recollect that each has his own particular organization, as
     we have ours; that it is not easy to controul the dispositions which
     nature has thus implanted in our minds; that we have defects as
     insupportable, perhaps, as any that we encounter, we shall be more
     disposed to bear with others' foibles, that they may pardon ours; and
     mutual necessity will make us tolerant.

     "A still higher function of phrenology, as it relates to mankind at
     large, not merely to the few unfortunates who labour under malady, is
     its empire over education. The vast error, that men are alike fitted
     for all professions, that all can turn their mental powers to the
     same account and profit, has done much injury to the education of
     individuals, and consequently to the general progress of the world.
     But our science (continue Drs. Gall and Spurzheim) shows that all men
     are not alike fitted for all purposes; that, in one, a receptiveness
     for musical, in another for mathematical instruction predominates;
     that some are endowed with the power of prompt perception, and others
     with that of abstruse induction; in short, that every walk of social
     life has its destined votaries. Now, it is to be hoped, that when
     parents have the authority of phrenology for the talents and
     disposition of their children, they will cultivate those which nature
     has made the most salient in their cranium, and not torment them with
     studies for which they have no sufficient organ. Should one of their
     boys, in defiance of birch-rods and ferulas, neglect his vocabulary
     to carve his taw, or cut out waggon-wheels with his penknife, let
     them consult one of us, and we will tell them that all the betula of
     Windsor forest will not make a scholar of him; we will show that, not
     being one of the ox-eyed, he can but ill remember words, but that
     having a fulness in the frontal bone just above the spheno-temporal
     suture, he may become an expert mechanic, an engineer, a mill-wright,
     or a Watt; that it is in vain to thrust in through the gluteus
     maximus what cannot penetrate the head; and that flog him as they
     may, his _propria quæ maribus_ will always be covered with chips and
     chisels. In the same manner we will teach them to oppose the bad
     propensities of youth, by withholding aliment from self-love, from
     obstinacy, from cruelty, and by cherishing benevolence, justice,
     piety; and correcting levity by gently stimulating the reflecting
     faculties. We can tell, too, why many a school-boy, who has carried
     away prizes and rewards, sinks into an ordinary adult; and why more
     than one dunce has burst out like a luminary in later years; for we
     can show the organs which make a brilliant infant and a dull man, and
     those which are of little use at Eton, but most essential to a
     statesman or a philosopher. Neither shall we allow ourselves to be
     imposed upon by any urchin's cunning, or mistake ill will and
     idleness for inability. The marks by which we judge are registered by
     nature, indelible, immutable, and clear to every eye.

     "But individual education is a very small portion of the good which
     we aspire to teach--(these people really are mad; their ambition is
     unbounded!). We will educate nations; and nothing can prevent us from
     fulfilling this mission, but the destruction of the human race. We
     will tell the men of every country their faults and their vices,
     their virtues and their talents, and hold them up as clearly as size
     and form can be held up, to the notice of mankind. None shall escape
     us. Already, not only Europeans,--English, French, Germans,
     Italians,--the most enlightened, the most refined of men, have we
     scrutinized, but Asiatics under every latitude, Africans thirsting on
     both sides of the Equator, Americans as wild as Africans, as
     civilized as Europeans. We have told truths to all, and pointed out
     the means of improvement. At this moment, indeed, they may not listen
     to us, but the day will come when they will advance but by us. To us
     is given to decide the great question of original national
     propensities, as of individual propensities, and to show how they may
     be expanded or repressed. We shall instruct rulers how to govern, and
     subjects how to submit, and strike the just balance--as various as
     the races and the regions of the earth--between the sovereign and the
     people; and the first time that we inspire oppressed reason to demand
     her rights, and to demand no more--that we teach men how much liberty
     they can bear, how much privation they must yet endure, we shall have
     our full reward.

     "So much for the practical pretensions of our science. The reader
     must now hear our claims to speculative superiority. Dr. Spurzheim
     has said, and been most heartily abused for saying--and, if the
     science be false, most heartily deserves to be abused for
     saying,--that the whole philosophy of the mind must be entirely
     changed; that the study of man in this respect will become a new
     study, &c. In this dictum--most noble or most arrogant, according to
     events--we (phrenologists) concur, with the loudest cheers; and in
     this, do we say, lies the stupendous monument of our science. Since
     the earliest records of philosophy, sages have speculated on the
     heart, the mind, the passions, and the understanding. For more than
     three thousand years systems have flashed, and disappeared without
     leaving a trace. Some of these, indeed, were abundantly ingenious;
     but were defective in that which alone can make them lasting, truth.
     It would be curious to examine the hypotheses which have grown up,
     one after the other, in the fertile soil of fancy, Arabian, Chinese,
     Persian, Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and modern European, and to see how
     specious and how futile all have been. Not one of them was founded on
     any thing but conjecture; and, until Gall appeared, it was not
     supposed that mental philosophy, that psychology, ever could have any
     other basis. But Gall proceeded entirely upon fact; and those who
     accuse his system as imaginative, will probably call the 'Faerie
     Queene' an historical poem, and 'Lear' an algebraical tragedy. He
     stalked from brain to brain, from organ to organ, and trampled
     conjecture under foot. 'The man of skulls'--aye, Mr. Edinburgh
     Reviewer, the _boy_ of skulls--endowed in truth, with not less
     imagination than his predecessors, had yet more love of fact than
     they had; and this single faculty has placed him above them all. It
     is, indeed, most wonderous, that the catalogue of the innate
     faculties of man should have escaped the grey-haired philosophers of
     every age and climate, and that its first-fold should have been
     opened to a child of nine years old, who in maturity unrolled it all,
     except a leaf or two, which he left to his followers. Such a
     discovery, had it been made by a man after so long concealment, and
     so many attempts to accomplish it, would have been wonderful; but let
     it never be forgotten that it was the work, and not the accidental
     work, of an infant."


     "In proportion as any branch of study leads to important and useful
     results--in proportion as it tends to overthrow prevailing errors--in
     the same degree it may be expected to call forth angry declamation
     from those who are trying to despise what they will not _learn_, and
     wedded to _prejudices_ which they _cannot defend_."--ARCHBISHOP

Having pointed out in the introductory chapter the great end and aim of
VIRTUE, we shall proceed to point out the advantages of Phrenology, in
enabling man to become wiser, better, and happier. It will be universally
conceded, that this life is a state of probation, that if we do well--that
is, if we become God's people, we shall enter into the kingdom of heaven;
but if we do evil, we shall have our portion in the lake which burneth
with everlasting fire; for this reason St. Paul exhorts us to press
forward to the prize of our high calling. "Let us go on unto perfection,"
says he, and again, "let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth
so easily beset us"--and in another place he tells us, that "it is
appointed unto men once to die, and after that the judgment."

Such then, being our situation, how imperative is the command to, "cease
to do evil, and learn to do well." We must first learn what is imperfect
and then strive to improve,--we must look upon SELF IMPROVEMENT, as
something possible, something allied to the better portion of human
nature, something worthy of the noblest care and the mightiest efforts
that human beings, aiming at perfection, can even hope to aspire to. We
must recall the past, watch over the present, and strengthen ourselves
against the future,--we must learn what we _are_ and what we _may be_, for
we have in ourselves the power of controlling as well as of watching our
passions and our energies, and it is this prerogative that causes human
responsibility. Phrenology teaches us that mental energy is invariably
accompanied by an increase of the brain, in the portion which is acted on
by that energy; if the intellect be expanded, the perceptive faculties in
active operation, the nobler energies of charity and veneration employed
for good, it is at once apparent; so too with the baser passions, the
sensualist, the ignorant, and the depraved alike reveal by their
organization the spirit that moves within them, and as we know by endless
facts that the brain alters in proportion to the use or disuse of
faculties, sentiments, or passions; so if we are right-minded we must
infer that God created no such master-piece of unerring workmanship
without designing it for our good; and if so, how culpable, how criminal
must they be, who dare to doubt the hand of a nobler being in a design so
beautiful,--how culpable must they be who neglect to use the means laid
down for their advancement,--how criminal, when they know, yet slight or
scorn to employ it? But it may be asked, how can the brain enlarge or
decrease by the action of the mind? Can an invisible, immaterial principle
enlarge or lessen the organ through which it operates? most certainly it
can,--what but _use_ developes the muscular system--what but the amount of
exertion makes the right arm of the gold beater nearly twice the size of
his left? or why does active exertion give strength and tone to the limbs,
whilst indolence renders them effeminate and small,--and if any one doubt
the parallel, they cannot have examined and enquired for truth, on which
alone enquiry can be based. Muscular power, considered abstractedly, is to
the full as invisible and deep seated as the powers of the mind,--the mind
must first direct the motions of animal power through the medium of the
nerves, and the exertion of their power forms the muscles, or if the power
be not exerted, the muscles, however fully developed previously, must
quickly decrease; so it is with the brain, the index of the mind: and as
no one can behold the brawny frame of the laborious artisan without being
led to consider the exertion of muscular force as the cause of that
powerful form, so no one ought to dispute the identical operation in
another part of the human system, simply because they _are_ familiar with
one and _will not_ be familiar with the other.

Taking it for granted then, (and surely no one will deny rashly what
countless facts have proved, and what is only proved the more as the
number of facts increase) that the brain is the organ of the mind, we are
led to the following principles.

1. The brain is the organ through which the mind operates.

2. In proportion to the developement of any part of the brain will be the
power of that corresponding faculty, sentiment, or passion, because that
faculty, sentiment, or passion, by its _anterior action_, has developed
the brain.

3. The increase or decrease of mental passions, affections, or sentiments,
is accompanied by a corresponding increase or decrease of the brain.

4. The brain like the muscle, is only the agent through which the
immaterial spirit acts, for as muscular power resides not in a muscle, so
neither does the mind dwell in the brain;--and as all connection between
the muscle and life, or vital energy is destroyed by severing the
connection of the nerve communicating power to that muscle, so might the
mind and brain be severed, but for the beautiful design of Providence, in
so carefully protecting the brain lest any mental organ be impaired, as
well as by the formation of duplicates to those organs most exposed to
injury; for as in common life, the accident that deprives man of a limb,
does not render him incapable of his higher and loftier duties, so is it
proportionably necessary that the organ through which those higher and
nobler functions are performed should have been rendered most secure from

5. That the different parts of the brain having been found by long
experience to be appropriated to different functions, those parts are and
have the same design, and are produced by the same faculties in all human

Under one of these heads all phrenological facts must fall.

From these principles also, it must be evident that the brain is dependant
for its form and character on the developement of the mind in any
individual, and in this manner phrenology ascertains the natural bias of
the mind, so as to direct education;--it ascertains similarity of pursuits
and dispositions so as to improve social intercourse;--it ascertains at
any time of life what faculties require to be cultivated or to be checked,
what sentiments or passions preponderate in the individual, for good or
for evil, what should be repressed, as well as those parts wherein
increase should be aimed at, it points out the persons with whom we
sympathize, or towards whom we may have an antipathy,--in the treatment of
mental disease, its use is obvious. "No more satisfactory proof of this
can be referred to, than the extraordinary success of the experiments at
the Hanwell Lunatic Asylum under the direction of Dr. and Mrs. Ellis.
Regarding the brain not as an entire organized mass, but as an assemblage
of organs, some of which may come into a morbid condition while the rest
remain comparatively healthy, the course pursued at that excellent
institution has been, by kindness and by engaging the attention of the
patient, to exercise those organs which are sound, and, by diminishing the
action of those which are in a diseased state, to restore them to the
healthy performance of their functions. The success which has attended the
experiment stands without precedent in the annals of insanity." From this
treatment we learn that cures have averaged ninety in a hundred.

Phrenology teaches us how to aim at self-improvement, that is, the duty
which every man owes to himself, so as to improve and render more perfect
whatsoever is wrong in his nature.--Improvement is the end and object;--it
demands a vigorous well regulated exertion of all the energies of thought
and feeling.--Phrenology teaches where it is most required--whether it be
moral, intellectual or religious, and whichever it may be, we must make it
the great end of our endeavours, and use solemnly and deliberately the
great powers that GOD has given to us,--without this resolution of purpose
the best means are worthless: but with it the poorest may become mighty in
moral and intellectual powers, the progression of our nature to the
perfection pointed at by St. Paul, must not be regarded as a fiction, but
a reality,--we must look coolly and rationally upon the vast amount of
ignorance--intemperance, sensuality and selfishness that dwell with and
around us,--we must think what an immense field of mind is lost--how many
_might be_ cheered with intelligence, disinterestedness and refinement,
that now _are_ lost in voluptuous extravagance or the exercise of
worthless and depraved passions;--we must learn the dignity of our station
as men--that we shall be made partakers of CHRIST, if we be stedfast unto
the end,--and that if we keep this object in view stedfastly and
zealously, we shall inherit a crown of righteousness that fadeth not
away--and that too in a kingdom of everlasting happiness where the wicked
shall cease from troubling and the weary be at rest.


The BRAIN is admitted by physiologists, to be the organ of the mind,
although dissection furnishes no clue to its functions, but the same may
be said of the eye, the tongue or the ear. The phrenologist compares
developement of brain with manifestation of mental power, and by its
classification of organs arranges those instruments through which the mind
manifests its power during life. A brief description of the brain
therefore will be advantageous. It is a mass of soft matter not
homogeneous, but presenting different appearances; part of it white in
colour, and fibrous in texture is named the _medullary substance_ and
abounds in the interior; the other matter is of a grey colour and not
fibrous in appearance, this forms the outer-portion of brain, they do not
blend together, but have a perfect line of distinction. There is no
adipose or fatty matter in the skull. The brain is divided into two
hemispheres, separated by a strong membrane termed the _Falciform process
of the Dura Mater_, and each hemisphere is divided into three lobes,
anterior, middle and posterior: the two hemispheres and the organs of each
side are brought into communication by fibres running transversely. The
_cerebellum and brain_ are only slightly and indirectly connected.

The greater portion of the brain is destitute of sensibility, Sir C. Bell
imagines from this that it possesses a higher office than that of sensual
perception. The external substance of the brain is arranged in
convolutions or folds; these appear to be intended for the purpose of
increasing its superficial extent with the least enlargement of size,--in
the inferior classes of animals there are no convolutions, but they
increase in number and extent as we ascend in the scale of being. Each
side of the _brain_ and also of the _cerebellum_, is supplied with
separate arteries conveying blood to it, while the _sinuses_ or canals
which return the blood to the heart are common to all.

The CEREBELLUM is composed of matter similar to that of the brain in
appearance, but different in arrangement,--it is separated from the brain
by a strong membrane called the _tentorium_: its fibres originate in the
_medulla oblongata_ where the organs of the propensities take their rise,
so that the _brain and cerebellum_ although separated by the _tentorium_
are both connected together. The brain and Cerebellum are protected by the
skull, and the brain is formed before the bones which invest it. The
process of ossification is gradual, the principal portion at birth being
strong membranes in which the points of ossification begin and continue
increasing in extent and strength till about the age of nine years:
between the substance of the brain and the skull are the _pia mater_ and
the _dura mater_, two integuments which enclose the peripheral extent of
the brain and convey blood-vessels to its several parts, the brain with
these membranes exactly fills the interior of the skull. The skull fully
formed is composed of eight bones which are connected by indented edges:
the internal and external surfaces are, from their smooth surface called
the _plates_ and the intermediate part, _diploe_, which is of a loose
cellular texture; as this _diploe_ is nearly equally thick in every part,
the two tables are nearly parallel to each other, and the variations where
they occur do not exceed the eighth or tenth part of an inch; the
integuments being an exact form of the brain, and the bony matter fitting
them exactly, it follows that there is no obstacle of importance to
prevent our observing the form of the brain by the form of the skull.

Disease and old age alone oppose obstacles to this proceeding; for by
these causes the skull may be increased or diminished in volume, and it is
generally irregular in thickness in old age: the _sutures_ also interrupt
absolute parallelism, but their situation is known and allowed for, and
the _frontal sinus_, or cavity at the top of the nose, in the frontal
bone, (which is often enlarged and covered by the _schneiderian membrane_
giving great power to the nerves of smell) is so remotely connected that
it can only affect a few organs,--five at the most. These few objections
are so fully overruled by practice and observation, that they can never
lead to error if the student exercise a proper degree of caution.--We may
conclude then, that if men manifest their _true nature_ in their actions,
(and men cannot always be dissemblers,) the mind influencing the brain,
and thereby the skull, must present a developement corresponding to their
real character--and that PHRENOLOGY or external examination leads to the
results sought for when we examine human nature for the purpose of self
improvement, or for moral and religious elevation of character.


The Temperaments are commonly stated to be four only, and their
sub-divisions; as these are united in the same individual. These are, the
_Nervous, Sanguine, the Bilious, and the Lymphatic_; they are
however rarely met with in a separate state, the greater number of persons
presenting a mixed temperament, the most predominant of which are the
_Sanguine-Bilious_ and the _Sanguine-Nervous_, a milder form of _Lymphatic
and the Lymphatic_ with the _Sanguine, Bilious and Nervous_, may be stated
as producing twelve varieties. Temperament may be defined as the natural
constitutional tendency of the individual, producing a disposition to
exert certain faculties more than others: for this reason they must be
carefully studied, that their _active_ and _passive_ influence upon the
mind may be ascertained. Their action is chiefly manifested in the
_energy_ or _apathy_, of the individual's character; for when properly
balanced, by their equal influence on a well cultivated mind, they produce
the beautiful harmony of feeling, that leads to a right estimation of
things whether moral, intellectual, or physical; by their combined
influence in the physical man, that is on the passions and affections, or,
on the intellectual being, that is, the perceptives actives, and the
reflectives passive,--or upon the higher sentiments, when the moral
energy is active, and the spiritual zeal passive,--they produce the
noblest developement of character that can actuate human nature--the
disunity of these produces but a heathen morality on the one hand, or
religious fanaticism on the other: in the mind too, while there is an
active _perception_ of facts, without due _reflection_ on causes, or the
reverse of these, the mind may be led into an excess of its favourite
pursuit, to the ultimate loss of much mental power. When rightly exercised
however, the spiritual unity of body, mind and soul, produces a vigorous
pursuit of whatever is great and good in human nature.

The Temperaments may be generally referred to some particular constitution
of the organic system--whole families are sometimes of a similar
temperament, and at others no two members are alike: a great portion
probably depends upon parental causes, in the same way that family
likenesses are often observed, probably they may be referred to the blood
as a chief cause, the active circulation producing great action on the
brain and nerves originating the _nervous_: a fulness of the circulating
medium may produce the _sanguine_; a muscular developement the _bilious_;
a sluggish system the _lymphatic_. The classification of the temperaments,
and their combined influence upon the three-fold nature of man may be best
understood from careful observation: when pure they present the following

1. A NERVOUS TEMPERAMENT is indicated by a pale complexion, features sharp
and angular, delicate texture of the muscular system, fine silky hair,
delicate health, quickness of perception and great susceptibility; persons
under the influence of this temperament are very sensitive,--act more from
impulse and feeling than from principle, and feel great languor when

2. The LYMPHATIC TEMPERAMENT, is marked by a full fleshy outline,--round
features,--pale complexion, light straightish hair,--pulse slow, muscles
soft and the disposition lukewarm and indolent: the circulation being
feeble, the mental manifestations are proportionately sluggish and weak.

3. The BILIOUS TEMPERAMENT is distinguished by dark hair, skin of a yellow
hue and coarse angular features, eyes active, and often with a severe
expression, the muscles firm and well developed;--the pulsations partake
of great energy which extends also to the brain.

4. The SANGUINE TEMPERAMENT is evident from a clear florid
complexion,--features well formed and fleshy,--the muscles full and
tolerably firm, mild expression in the eye,--auburn or brown hair, eyes
blue or sometimes hazel,--disposition lively and cheerful.

These, with their combinations will produce all the common varieties, and
where they are well united in a single individual the union generally
improves the character.


When we regard the different quarters of the globe,--the distinct and
permanent features of national character that stamp races of men as races,
we are immediately struck with the great mental and natural dissimilarity
of these varieties of the human race.--The Briton bowing in worship to the
one true and ever living God,--the wild Indian revelling in the
uncontrolled sublimities of a wild and unconquered waste,--the Brahmin,
prostrate at the blood stained relics of human sacrifice, or the ignorant
African, worshipping the carved effigy of some mis-shapen and hideous
monster;--each present characters which indicate some strongly marked
feature of individual and national constitution. The millions that dwell
around the Ganges have a national and characteristic feature in their
mental constitution, and this distinguishing mark is as decidedly evident
in the form of the brain as it is in the customs of the people,--the same
remark applies to all other races;--the European who has long dwelt in a
high state of civilization, and mental culture,--The Asiatic, whose
ancient customs, moderns vainly seek to improve,--The American, in his
native forest, surrounded by civilization, remains even yet in the state
of rude and ancient barbarism.--These differences of _national_
character, must have a great influence upon the _individual_: the
unvarying customs produce a sameness in the organization--the people as a
_whole_ are intellectual, ignorant, or barbarian.

These national differences have been attributed to the influence of soil
and climate:--but although these exercise some influence, they are
inadequate to explain the whole--climate would materially affect the
customs of the people, and these customs would influence the organization
of those parts of the brain influenced by the operations of the mind in
procuring animal comforts,--the developement of constructiveness is
greatly affected by the cause. But when we remember how certainly the same
causes produce the same results throughout the works of nature, we are
often unable to explain much of this influence, the Europeans and native
Indians have lived for centuries under the influence of the same physical
causes--the one has progressed like their brethren of the old
continent,--the other remains stationary in savage and uncivilized

Religious and political institutions again, have been brought forward as
the causes of these differences; but this is a superficial view of the
matter, because it will be granted that all our institutions have been
framed as the minds of man require them, not anteriorly: and when we
except institutions like that of christianity, the direct gift of God
himself, from what cause do we consider human institutions to emanate
except from the minds of those who legislate for the wants of a people,
or who impose institutions upon them by right of arbitrary power.

That national character accords with Phrenological rules, is true as far
as we have opportunities of judging; but at present our collections of
national skulls are not sufficiently extensive to draw any very remarkable
conclusions; the most prejudiced observer cannot fail to remark the great
difference among the skulls of different people--thus, the ancient Greek
with _Ideality and Constructiveness_ large, when opposed to the deficient
skull of the New Hollander, shews as striking a contrast, as the hovels of
the one, do to the architectural remains of the other.[1]

To estimate national peculiarities properly, travellers competent to
examine heads, and classify temperaments are much wanted: the size of
individual organs and their combinations are also required: the skulls
that we possess shew that the brain is in exact agreement with the
characters given to their various people by travellers of observation and
experience.--The subjugation of a free people to a foreign yoke,--the
introduction of new customs by conquerors,--the revolutions of states and
empires, and the intercourse of nations, with many other matters to be
gathered from the history of the world, all aid in assisting us to
determine national character and from this to deduce the natural
tendencies of individuals.



_Common to man and the inferior animals._


This organ is situated in the cerebellum, about half way between the
centre of the occipital bone and the large long process behind the ear. It
manifests itself by the thickness or width of the back part of the head;
it is produced as the human frame approaches full developement, being
small in children, and generally on the increase between the ages of
sixteen and twenty four,--it frequently diminishes in old age. USE,--This
organ is properly exercised in virtuous affection:--the endearments of a
domestic circle, and the society of those we love;--it softens the proud,
irascible, anti-social principles of human nature, and aids the benevolent
affections,--it causes a respectful, and honourable deference to the
softer sex;--inspires the poet in his best conceptions of the purity, and
self devotedness of Love, and produces that quiet but effectual influence
in society, which is shown in the kind interest taken by either sex in the
proceedings of the other. When abused, or allowed only to act as an animal
propensity, the absence of the higher feature is a very unamiable trait in
the human character,--no deference is paid to age or sex and woman
regarded only as the minister to illicit lust. Love to God is shown by
overcoming these baser feelings, "they who love me, are such as follow my
commands" were the words of the Christian's pattern, and the exercise of
this mental faculty is best shown by those who practise charity or
universal love without which we are but as "a sounding brass or tinkling
cymbal." ABUSE.--An encouragement of animal and debasing sensuality which
soon leads to a loss of modesty, and personal respect, and virtue: the
worship due to the Creator is lavished on the creature; Jealousy and its
myriad evil attendants originate chiefly in the abuse of this faculty.


In animals this organ is termed _instinct_, and instinct means an original
propensity impelling an animal to a particular action without intention or
purpose. This organ is situated over the cerebellum, and corresponds to
the protuberance of the occiput, rather above and between the duplex organ
of amativeness. As a faculty inherent in the human race it is beautifully
shown in parental affection; women have it larger than men, and it is
found to be larger in the female, than in the male skulls of animals. The
interest of this feeling is often proportionate to the helplessness of
infancy;--a mother doats on her infant in the earliest months of existence
when few beside herself can see any attractions in it: it is generally
manifested in large families where the youngest is invariably the
favourite, unless when sickness causes another to share in maternal
tenderness. It seems probable that the fondness lavished by maiden ladies
on animals, originates in this faculty: for they often nurse and pamper
their pets quite as excessively as parents do children. The mutual love or
affection for the same offspring is the bond of union in marriage--a
step-parent seldom exhibits any thing more than regard towards the child
of another: it has been observed by Spurzheim that he found it small in 29
infanticides whom he had been able to examine: but as the faculty in its
proper use produces feelings of the most delightful and exquisite
character so is it the more liable to ABUSE. Children are thus spoiled by
indulgence, their prospects are raised by a parent's mistaken affection;
and instead of protection and happiness to children and attention and
deference from them, it too often terminates in a spoiled child on the one
side, and disrespect towards the other. Through mistaken opinions parents
often prefer to make their children _rich_ rather than _good_ thus
sacrificing their temporal and eternal welfare, leading them to put their
trust in things "which the moth and rust doth corrupt and where thieves do
break in and steal," rather than in that Rock of ages without whose
knowledge not one sparrow dies.


This organ is located at the middle of the posterior edge of the parietal
lobe, or each side of Concentrativeness, higher than Philoprogenitiveness,
and just above the lambdoidal suture. USE--This faculty is marked in those
individuals who exhibit permanent attachment to beings and objects around
them--it gives a permanence to friendship, a steady adherence to opinions,
and a dislike to change whether of objects or persons: a person with this
faculty well developed will manifest friendship to another even in the
greatest depression of fortune when friendship is most severely tried: it
is on the average larger in females than in men, and this is shewn in the
permanence of their attachments, "Man," it is said "may love, but it is
too often with a view to his own gratification, but when a woman loves,
she does so with all her soul."--The absence of this organ shews an
individual to be of a cold, indifferent character in his friendship, and
one not to be depended upon in the hour of misfortune, it is only where
the organ is well developed that an attachment is sustained through evil
report and good report: when regulated by judgment rather than passion, it
produces the noblest examples of disinterestedness and devotion.--The
ABUSE of this organ is shown in the unworthy attachment of man to the
fleeting things of this life--he places not his affections upon high, but
on the conections of party, the interests, the advantages of this life--he
loves life to an erroneous extent, perhaps degenerates into a recluse,
shews a devoted attachment to the good things of this life and but little
for him who was the true friend as "the way, the truth, and the life."


Inhabitiveness is by many persons considered as a modification of the
preceding organ or of _Concentrativeness_: it can hardly be considered a
definite organ, or a distinct mental faculty: it is observed particularly
in the attachment of individuals to some particular spot,--their home,
country, or abode of those whom they love;--as the Swiss have been known
to pine for the mountain heights of their father land, or, as all men
desire their ashes to repose at the side of their dearest kin. Dr.
Spurzheim in his late work published in America is inclined to attribute a
more extensive sphere of action to this organ than can be yet decided; and
in fact, it is a decided manifestation of mental energy in many persons--a
dislike of change, especially of abode; a disinclination to travel, an
attachment to the place of birth, of long residence, or the spot where
life has been spent, leads many persons to live and die in the same spot
where their fathers lived and died before them;--it is this organ that
gives a _Home_ to Englishmen, _Home_, for which some languages have not
even an expression, _Home_, in defence of which, Englishmen have so
bravely fought, so nobly died. Many animals are attached to peculiar
situations, the chamois, on the Alpine cliff,--the eagle, soaring to his
eyrie,--and the beaver located by some unfrequented stream, give evidence
of a similar tendency.

The faculty when ABUSED, or allowed to be excessive leads to peculiarity
of disposition, an avoidance of strangers, a dislike to necessary duties
that interfere with domestic arrangements, nervous ideas, susceptibility
of insult, and in some cases, by the neglect of external objects, the mind
dwelling upon its own internal emotions only, has declined to monomania
or even temporary alienation.


Combativeness is situated on each side of Philoprogenitiveness, a little
behind, and up from the ear; being the result of great mental energy, it
is indicative of physical courage; it enables an individual to contend
with difficulty and danger, prompts to repel whatever is inimical, and
opposed to his exertions. The instinctive tendency is doubtless to oppose,
and thus produce courage; in its lowest activity it leads simply to
resistance; in a higher degree to attack the measures, sentiments, or
opinions of others; it is generally more developed in men than in women,
although individual instances occur among women with this organ largely
developed: the name given to this faculty originally by Dr. Gall was,
"_the instinct of self defence, and defence of property_," but the
definition was regarded by Spurzheim as too limited; and its operation in
connection with other faculties is very extensive indeed--because
_courage_ when properly directed is useful to preserve the right, and Dr.
Johnson speaking of courage, says, "it is a quality so necessary for
maintaining virtue that it is respected even when associated with
vice."--On this account it lends _energy of character_, and is necessary
to all great actions; for even in the most virtuous designs, how
frequently is opposition manifested, which it requires every energy to
subdue; those who fight for virtue, require courage as much, or more than
those who fight for vice;--when this organ is deficient, the individual is
unfitted for the bustles and fatigues of active life, he shrinks from
hostility and from any course that opposes the feelings, the prejudices or
even the vices of human society. It is very powerful in combination,
lending its aid to the designs of a Howard, lending _energy_ to the
application of talent, or _courage_ to the opponent of sin;--the most
perfect and useful member of society, is formed by the full developement
of moral sentiments, due allowance of reflective power, and a stimulative
degree of this organ. Useful, however as it is, when well used, so is its
action dangerous when unchecked, and in abuse. It inspires a love of
contention, and controversy, so that the social hours become embittered by
strife; a tendency to anger and provocation by irritating conduct; to
rashness in designs from miscalculation of their effects. An individual
knowing this organ to be large, should always _think_ before he _acts_,
and always keep before him the illustrious example of _Him_, who "being
reviled, reviled not again."--The energy given him, should be employed
well, he should never "be weary of well doing," but remember that "the
fruit of the spirit, is love, joy, and peace."


The organ of destructiveness is immediately over the external opening of
the ear, being more or less forward as the developement is more or less
intellectual. The faculty is indispensable to all animals who live on
flesh, and it differs from the preceding organ in being more permanent.
Combativeness gives courage to meet danger, or oppose it without terror.
Destructiveness lends a _constant power_ of overcoming and destroying as
long as the object of opposition remains; its energy is thus a permanent
stimulus to exertion, so as to overcome whatever object is in view--if
learning, indefatigable perseverance; if riches, a constant plodding in
the pursuit; if virtue, a firm and unvarying opposition to the myriad
phases of sin. Combativeness is the _active_ momentary stimulus that
requires excitement. Destructiveness, the _passive_ energy that supports
continued exertion. The organ is thus valuable when rightly used, but
unfortunately it lends its energy to evil pursuits as well as good
ones--it is found in the hardened and unrepentant sinner, as well as in
the noble and energetic patriot; it is thus highly dangerous in persons
whose organization is not under the government of moral principle; a good
endowment is indispensable for a proper discharge of duty, as the sword,
the emblem of destructiveness is often combined with the scales of
justice, the one to measure the offence, the other to punish the
contemners of the law; those who have the organ small, are deficient of
energy, incapable of fighting with the turmoils of the world.--on the
other hand the abuse of it is recognised in petty tyranny, a desire to
trample on those beneath us; a carelessness to the happiness of others,
and a severity of punishment for the minutest fault; In common life we may
trace the operation of this faculty; a preacher, with the organ large and
benevolence small, would hold out the _threatenings_ of the Gospel, a
preacher of the opposite organization would dwell upon its _promise of
pardon_; the ill-treatment of animals and children, results from this
faculty, uncontrolled by moral sentiments; the crowds of ignorant persons
who assemble at bull-baits, cock fights, and other species of cruelty are
led to gratify the organ from a want of moral principle: the dreadful
practice of swearing, uttering threats of vengeance far beyond human
power, and calling down imprecations on the heads of others, arises from
the same cause, and how rarely are these seen (to any extent) in educated
society--where the energy of character has been directed by moral training
into useful channels;--The abuse of this organ is therefore to be
earnestly cautioned against, because, lending its energy to evil, it is
productive of the worst results. Destructiveness itself is rarely found as
a principle of destruction, but the various degrees of vice and crime are
often persevered in till they become more evil than this organ. A person
therefore should endeavour to break off rooted habits (if bad ones) by
directing the energy of the mind into other channels, they must walk in
the Spirit, and not fulfil the lusts of the flesh, knowing that, "they
that are Christ's crucify the flesh and the affections, and lusts that
belong to it." Let them put on the whole armour of God, so that they may
stand against the wiles of the devil, let them take the helmet of
salvation and the sword of the spirit, which is the WORD OF GOD.


This organ is situated immediately above Destructiveness, in the lateral
portion of the brain; when both organs are fully developed, it becomes
difficult without practice to distinguish them, it may therefore be
mentioned that Secretiveness is higher and more forward than the other. It
seems to result from some instinctive tendency existing in the mind, to
conceal from the public eye, its own emotions and ideas. It is essential
to a prudent character, for as Solomon says, "A fool uttereth all his
mind; but a wise man keepeth it in till afterwards."--In the lower order
of animals the same faculty is termed _cunning_, and it not only aids them
in their pursuit of food, but also enables them to combat force by
prudence. It enforces a salutary restraint against undue manifestation of
other propensities which are best maintained within an individual's own
bosom, and it serves likewise to guard against the prying curiosity of
others; those persons in whom it is deficient are blunt and unrestrained
in their opinions, exhibit great want of tact in society, expressing their
sentiments without regard to propriety of time, or place, or person. When
properly employed, this organ tends to shew a reserved disposition, it
suspects the secret design of others, and exhibits the secrecy which is
indispensable to prudent conduct and success: a deficiency of this organ
is shown among tale bearers, gossips, and newsmongers, and to the want of
it some portion of scandal may be attributed. Secretiveness is necessary
for the confidence of friendship, it is an essential element of
politeness, much of which consists in avoiding the expression of what is
disagreeable. It is however liable to ABUSE, and then it leads to much
evil: a love for concealment, intrigue, cunning, and mystery in the
details of every day life; hypocrisy and dissimulation to hide what has
been done on the sly; persons with overweening _Self Esteem_ always
conceal their affairs from the eye of the world, are anxious to support
appearances, and maintain a fair character outwardly even if their private
acts are of the grossest kind; if associated with want of moral sentiment
it leads to lying and theft: it is often manifest to a surprising extent
among the insane. Persons having the organ large will do well to keep a
check upon any unnatural reserve: and they should always see that they do
nothing that requires concealment: if the organ _must be_ exercised, let
them lay up the word of God in their hearts which is the seed, that sown
in an honest and good heart, brings forth fruit to perfection.


This organ is only a probable one: a love for food hardly appears to be a
natural function of the mind, and most of the known instances of enormous
appetite appear to have resulted from organic disease (in nearly every
instance that is quoted by Phrenologists.) There appears to be some
grounds for supposing that this part of the brain is connected with the
sensations of hunger and thirst, and perhaps also with the sense of
taste. Spurzheim says of it, "This organ though indicated by reason and
comparative anatomy, is merely probable and can be confirmed or rejected
like every other, according to direct observations alone, in comparing
cerebral developement to the special propensity. I possess many facts in


It requires some little experience to tell the precise spot of this organ,
it is situated in the frontal bone above the spheno-temporal suture, but
its position varies with the developement; and it is somewhat covered by
the temporal muscle, so that it is difficult to judge except from
experience. Constructiveness is the application of the inventive faculty,
and since necessity is the mother of invention, Constructiveness is that
talent possessed by man for constructing and fabricating whatever his
wants or his desires may originate. It is this organ that is exercised by
the architect, the painter and the poet in refined life, by the artisan of
humble life, by the beaver in their huts, birds in their nests and even
spiders in their webs: it is a most valuable faculty: and to it we are
indebted for the ability to carry out what the mere intellectual faculties
have conceived: it depends for its value upon the organs wherewith it is
associated, with language and Ideality, it gives poetical ability; with
form, the art of sculpture; or with colour, painting--where the organ is
in excess it determines to ABUSE; such as, the attempting to do what an
acquaintance with philosophy would prove impossible; the construction of
ingenious, but useless or even mischievous articles; the application of
constructive ability in imitating valuables for base purposes; throwing
away great labour on articles of curiosity, and innumerable other ways in
which mis-application of ability is productive of injury: it should be
remembered that ability in any way is a talent, for us to improve against
the time when our Lord comes to require it of us, and we should remember
that misapplication will be a more serious fault, than that of the servant
who hid his lord's talent in a napkin, or of him who buried it in the


This organ is situated at the inferior range of the parietal bone. The
faculty of the mind is a tendency to _acquire_ whatever is regarded
valuable and whether riches or learning or articles of vertu be the object
of acquisition, there appears to be little doubt, that such a faculty is
natural to the nature of man. Although such an instinctive desire presents
the aspect of meanness we must in some measure look at its effects; what
would England or any civilized country be, if there had never been a
desire for storing up the products of intellect and philosophy,--and the
wealth that enables England to send out millions in spreading the word of
God over a benighted and barbarous world?--If industry were to be limited
by present wants, man would always continue the creature of mere impulse;
it is the faculty of acquisitiveness that directs a systematic aim at
supplying the comforts and elegancies of life, and to this, accumulation
is necessary: when however the pursuit of wealth becomes the chief
business of life the moral sentiments are deadened, the intellect and the
nobler faculties of the mind become engrossed in a debasing pursuit, the
sympathy that characterizes a true christian is lost sight of. To provide
for immediate wants of ourselves and those dependant upon us, to furnish
the means of some repose for the body so as to enable the mind to enjoy
cultivation, and to provide for the education of offspring:--to give a
natural tendency for learning, for religious instruction, or the
acquisition of that knowledge which is power, may be set down as the
proper objects of this faculty: where the faculty of acquisitiveness is
unduly exercised, and the propensity to acquire is not balanced by
veneration and conscientiousness, the character is often influenced to
dishonesty. In ABUSE; a miserly hoarding and total neglect of charity is
evident, covetousness which St Paul condemns as idolatry, avarice and
selfishness, a total disregard of distress, of conscientious principle,
and of honour and duty are first and foremost;--from this organ, the weak
fall a prey to the strong, the poor to the avarice of the lovers of mammon
as they are called, that riches are valued more than public virtue or
private integrity--that riches are pursued to the total ruin of the
loftier principles of human nature, and to this prostitution of spirit and
of soul is owing the difficulty of a rich man's entering the kingdom of
heaven. If there be such an instinctive tendency of the human mind, no
better advice can ever be offered than that of the christian's pattern
"seek ye first the kingdom of God and his righteousness and all other
things shall be added unto you." "For what shall it profit a man, if he
gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?"--

Besides these organs of the propensities, phrenologists have imagined the
existence of a peculiar instinct termed _Vitativeness_, or love of life:
the fact is probable but requires much caution and much experience before
it can be definitely decided: the existence of a few isolated facts does
not necessarily include the whole human race as being like a few
individuals, and there is great necessity for not increasing the number of
organs without due confirmation, because the simplicity of arrangement and
the plainness of the science is thereby disturbed. Of this organ Spurzheim
says "I look for this organ at the basis, where the middle and posterior
lobes of the brain meet each other, at the internal border of



It was owing to this organ, a full prominent eye, that Dr Gall first
directed his attention to a scientific investigation of the faculties of
the mind. vide Page. 13

A large developement is indicated by the prominence and depression of the
eye, this appearance being produced by convolutions of the brain situated
in the posterior and transverse part of the orbitary plate, pressing
downward and outward in proportion to its convolutions. A full
developement of this organ indicates a faculty for the acquisition and
employment of words, or artificial signs, expressing our ideas; the
meaning of the signs must be determined by other faculties, exactly as
force or power of any kind requires to be guided and directed: from this
reason may originate the very different significations given to the same
abstract word, a different organization producing a difference in the
meaning attached to it in spite of every effort to give an accurate
definition; this will be self evident, if we merely quote the three
leading features of Christianity, Faith, Hope, and Charity, and refer to
different degrees of moral and intellectual elevation or turpitude, for
the vague, unsatisfactory, and degraded meaning that we find frequently
attached to them. Persons with a large endowment of this faculty, abound
in words; in conversation they pour forth with volubility, but when
excited they pour forth a torrent; this should be moderated by good sense,
and appropriate language rather than verbosity will be employed in their
speaking efforts as well as in their writings: when the organ is
deficient, the individual wants a command of expression, he writes and
speaks with great poverty of style, and when possessed of ideas is unable
to clothe them in elegant or even appropriate language. The talent for, or
facility of learning foreign languages originates in the same faculty,
taken connectedly with the mental capacity for entering into the style and
combinations of other countries. Some individuals in whom the organ is
large do not necessarily possess a ready memory, which usually occurs when
the faculty that apprehends the primitive idea (of which words only
pronounce the name) is more than ordinarily small. The organ abused
generally makes a speechifier of small worth, a talker for the mere sake
of talking, who frequently loses sight of reason and subject as well as
his own good sense.--Its best use is a felicity of diction in describing
the sentiments and opinions of the individual so that they may be exactly
comprehended by others.

12. FORM.

This organ is situated in the corner of the eye next the nose, and when
large there is a considerable breadth across the nose at that place: its
chief use is in the accurate knowledge of form, whether of persons or
objects, and disposes the mind to give a definite form to objects even
when unseen: it is to this the acute observation of objects, by which
means we compare them one with another, or personal identity after absence
and probable change in the form of features: to this organ many
distinguished sculptors and architects owe much of their excellence, as
its necessary action in connection with other organs would be to express
an accuracy of outline: it is to an excessive use of this organ that
painters study correctness of form in drawing, and neglect colouring;
useful to architects for this reason.

13. SIZE.

The organ of size is situated at the corner of the eyebrow, next to
individuality, and appears to influence the capability of the eye and mind
in its motions of dimension: instances are known where persons deficient
in this faculty have been unable to manage perspective in drawings, or
even to copy the plainest figure without error in the size: others on the
contrary measure size by the eye almost as accurately as by a rule, and
are especially accurate in judging about dimensions--the organ is
necessary for some professions, but not of great general importance.


This faculty like the preceding, is shewn only in particular persons: the
absence of it is rarely noticed, and the presence of it quite unseen
except in some particular walks of life. It gives a power of measuring,
and comprehending the resistance of bodies to forces applied to them, is
useful in philosophic enquiry, engineering, architecture &c.


The sensation of colour on the eye is very different in different
persons; many persons having an acute sense of vision readily perceive the
qualities of objects but are incapable of judging about the agreement or
disagreement of particular colours, and when the faculty is small they
confound them and are incapable of perceiving their effect. When prominent
the individual possesses a taste for gaudy colours, careless about their
arrangement or harmony with others. It is situated in the centre of the
eyebrow giving it a prominent aspect such as may be witnessed in the
portraits of Titian, Rubens, and many celebrated artists: The organ of
colour well developed gives harmony and excellence in colouring and is
useful to botanists, dyers, mercers, and all artists: That the faculty is
abused, or rather wanting may be witnessed by the numberless facts that we
meet with constantly, where people dress in gaudy colours and appear quite
regardless of their being suitable or otherwise.

16. SPACE.

This hardly appears a positive faculty, we have noticed it from its being
mentioned by phrenologists; it appears to be of a similar kind to form,
size, and weight, all of which organs are connected with the organ of
vision; the persons who have the organ well developed are persons of wide
views in every thing, they are enraptured with extensive prospects,
mountains, and every thing of a large size--if proved to exist, such a
faculty would be valuable to painters.

17. ORDER.

The tendency of this faculty is to produce a love of order and arrangement
in every thing; they are distressed by confusion, and are highly pleased
with a regular arrangement of their furniture, books and other property.
The organ is located in the superciliary ridge, and from its general small
developement, much fact is still necessary before the organ and its value
can be definitely determined: there is certainly well marked in some
persons, a love of order, and in others a carelessness to disorder, the
one often degenerating into precision in trifles that produces great
discomfort to other persons, the latter often inducing a disregard of
necessary care and attention: the medium is to be sought for by all who
detect either in their own character.


The organ of the faculty of NUMBER is situated above and outside the
external angle of the eye, a little below the external angle of the
frontal bone. The special function seems to be calculation in general: it
does not seem to extend to any faculty of computation beyond that of
numbers, although from the tact that it associates with it, it facilitates
the study of mathematics. Many instances are adduced of its large size in
good calculators, particularly in George Bidder, the calculating boy. This
organ, like the other perceptives requires cultivation.

19. TUNE.

The organ of TUNE bears the same relation to the ears that the organ of
_Colouring_ does to the eyes. A large developement of the organ enlarges
the lateral parts of the forehead, and great practice is always necessary
before the organ can be successfully observed: but if two persons are
placed together, the one having it largely, the other smally developed,
the superior one will be perceptible at a glance. The faculty gives the
perception of melody, which is only _one_ of the ingredients of musical
talent; the organs of the mind must be well developed in accordance with
this, so that the soul and expression of music may be felt and
appreciated, before the organs are perfectly developed; the fingers indeed
may be trained to great expertness, but it is only the real lover of
harmonious sounds who devotes _all_ his powers to its cultivation that can
arrive at any thing like perfect skill. As a natural faculty of nature,
this organ is particularly pleasing in calming the passions, and producing
pleasure by means perfectly innocent. Persons cannot obtain a scientific
knowledge of music in whom the organ is deficient, and when _abused_ as
this faculty often is, it should be remembered that the line between
pleasure and pain is so indefinite, that where one terminates the other
begins;--music carried beyond an agreeable pitch, leads the possessor into
society, and too frequently into pleasures more enervating and
sensual--these are to be dreaded, and the musician should remember that as
the noblest employment of his faculty is to "Praise God in the
highest,"--so, nothing can be more debasing than the prostitution of it to
unworthy purposes.

20. TIME.

The organ of TIME seems to be related to that of order in its effects, it
is essential to music and versification, form some source of pleasure in
dancing, and seems to give a power of judging time and intervals of
duration in general. The value of time renders this faculty more than
usually necessary; it leads to a right estimation of punctuality as well
as punctuality in engagements: persons with the organ large are fevered by
delay, they become irritated about trifles of time that they may be kept
waiting by others and thus incur a charge of bad temper. The organ is
especially useful in persons studying history as it tends to give a
faculty of remembering dates and other periods of time, the succession of
events, &c.


Dr. Gall was led to infer the position of this organ from witnessing the
memory of particular persons in their relation of places they had visited,
and the strong impression made upon them by surrounding objects, so that
he regarded this to be a primitive faculty. Spurzheim says, "the special
faculty of this organ and the sphere of its activity, remains to be
determined. It makes the traveller, geographer and landscape painter,
recollects localities and gives notions of perspective." Persons in whom
the organ is large, form vivid and distinct conceptions of situations and
scenery which they have seen or heard described, and have great power in
recalling such conceptions.--The organ is large in all eminent navigators
and travellers, also in great astronomers and geographers. Persons who
have this organ large, are passionately fond of travelling: and where
firmness is small, it influences to restlessness, and love of change; to
physical pleasure as a gratification of this organ, in the neglect of
other duties, and thus often exerts a baneful influence on the mind when
allowed to operate without control.


The tendency of this organ is, the examination of fact as the only
foundation of truth; it is situated in the middle of the lower part of the
forehead, immediately above the top of the nose, it produces breadth and
projection between the eyebrows. This faculty renders us observant of
outward objects, and gives a desire to know, and to examine; it prompts to
observation and general information, and is necessary for the acquisition
of facts as a basis of science. Spurzheim says, "Persons endowed with this
faculty in a high degree are attentive to all that happens around them, to
every object, to every phenomenon, to every fact: it desires to know all
by experience, and consequently puts every other organ into action: is
fond of instruction, collects facts, and leads to practical
knowledge."--To the influence of this organ we may trace the knowledge of
individuals by animals, and even wild beasts in which this organ is large
may be tamed to the will of a keeper. It puts into active exertion the
perceptive faculties round the eyebrow, and thus influences the quality of
the faculty (language) which lies in that portion of brain; so that a
person with this organ large, and language small, will say but a few words
and those to the purpose, or with individuality small and language large,
he will utter ten thousand neatly turned sentences of the meanest
commonplace, alike destitute of information or science. Persons in whom
the organ is large, are alive to every thing that passes around them, they
look at facts and events, leaving it to others to reason upon them, and
many great discoveries have been made by persons with this organ large who
have not been celebrated for their powers of reasoning. When the organ is
small, the individual fails to observe things that are going on around
him, he will walk in the streets, or the country and see or rather observe
literally nothing; he may visit a house without observing any one object
beyond the immediate purpose of his visit.

ABUSES. This organ is often employed in the affairs of other people, in
petty knowledge that tends to no real purpose; a superficiality of
observation that leads to erroneous inferences, and when largely developed
with the reflective and philosophic faculties, it leads to peculiarity of
studies and pursuits to the exclusion of all others, and by breaking the
unity of learning which points all things to Him who gave, it is too
often the cause, of mistaken opinion or downright error.


Enquires into events and takes notice of occurrences; it gives prominence,
or a rounded fulness to the middle of the forehead. Dr. Gall comprised
this organ and the preceding one in one faculty, but it is now known that
the one takes cognizance of objects, the other the relationship and
actions of those objects. It seems to unite the reflectives with the
perceptives, so that it recognizes the activity of other faculties and
directs them to strict action; it desires to know by experience, and thus
produces what is termed the _good sense_ of a matter, and by recognizing
the functions of the other powers of the brain and the operations of the
external senses, it reduces those impressions into conceptions, ideas and
opinions.--Eventuality is shewn when we review the past for comparison
with the future, it examines the effects of God's government in the
universe and brings home the truths of the gospel to the heart of every
one. Eventuality is the intellectual door to the threefold nature of man
directing facts to his perceptive, reflective and moral being, thus
pointing out the truth of Christianity in the fulfilment of prophecy, the
mercy of the Creator and the punishment entailed upon sin; without this
faculty the mind acquires a false conception of things, unsound opinions,
and a tendency to the doctrines of materialism and infidelity from the
animal rather than the intellectual nature being appealed to. Persons
distinguished in professional pursuits have this organ large, since they
possess readiness of observation as well as talent in the detail, whereby
previously acquired knowledge is brought to bear upon present emergencies;
where the organ is only partially and imperfectly developed, he will feel
great difficulty in commanding his knowledge or appealing to it with any
certainty, the organ should therefore be assiduously cultivated. In ABUSE
it tends to promote a love of trifles, detailed events, scandal and abuse,
the minutest particulars in preference to general information and
individual aggrandizement rather than general good.


The organ of comparison lies upon the upper and middle portion of the
frontal bone. The aim of the faculty seems to be to form abstract ideas,
generalizations and establish harmony among the operations of the other
faculties; thus comparing and establishing analogies among the objects of
which a knowledge has been obtained by the perceptives: and it not only
traces real resemblances, but the relations which things have to one
another; persons with this organ large illustrate their ideas by similies
drawn from other objects and thus render them plainer to the understanding
of another person, and the comparisons thus drawn will be derived from
those objects which most commonly engage the attention of the person
making them: it is generally large in poets, even when they write prose;
2,500 similies are found in _Moore's Life of Sheridan_; these comparisons
please, because they address themselves to the multitude and produce
clearness and force of illustration. Spurzheim says of this organ, "In
order to persuade and to affect, the speaker or orator must speak by
analogy, he must bring spiritual things close to terrestrial objects and
compare them with each other; the activity of this faculty is very
important, it compares the sensations and ideas of all the other faculties
and points out their difference, analogy, similitude, or identity." By
comparison, man is enabled to judge whether his own life is _what it ought
to be_, whether he has lived for _time_ or for _eternity_: by comparison
he is enabled to determine how far his life agrees with the Christian's
pattern, knowing that "as he sows, so will he reap;" the propensities
incline to evil, as a necessary sequence to the fall, the moral sentiments
urge on to good, a foreshadowing of immortality, the reflectives teach him
_how_ to be good, how to compare the truth as it is in Christ Jesus, with
his own sinful heart, and learn wherein he errs. This is the proper and
should be the only true aim of the Christian. In ABUSE this faculty
frequently leads to false reasoning on account of the inactivity of the
perceptives, in examining the subjects compared, it gives a love for
similies and analogies, not always caring for their applicability, and
unless duly regulated by the nobler instincts of fallen humanity, it
degenerates to sophistry and a blindness to error.


This organ lies immediately at the sides of _Comparison_ and is found
large in men distinguished for profound metaphysical talent. We have shown
how _Individuality_ and _Eventuality_ take cognizance of things evident to
the senses; Causality looks to the _cause_ of the phenomena observed by
other faculties: it expresses the irresistible conviction that every
phenomenon and change around us emanates from a mighty, an unseen, an
ETERNAL GOD; it looks to HIM as the cause of our joys, and our possessions
here, as the omniscient and ever merciful Father who gave his Son to die
for our transgressions, it seeks Him as the cause of our hopes of
everlasting bliss, and it bids us to acknowledge and adore. It is the
faculty that considers the relation of cause and effect and prompts the
question, _Why?_ to whatever is unknown, or imperfectly understood; and
for this reason requires to be watched lest the matter of enquiry be
placed beyond the limited faculties of man, and infinite subjects be thus
reasoned upon by finite capacity. If this organ be in unity with
_Veneration_, _Conscientiousness_, and _Comparison_, the individual will
be of steady, and rational Christian principles, but if without them,
impious doubts and atheistical surmises will tend to require a _visible_
cause for what must be _invisible_ and the germ of error being planted, it
may take root and abound to the ruin of nobler and more elevating
opinions. In ABUSE, this organ produces a mania for possibilities, denying
the existence of causes not evident to the senses, a disbelief in
whatever is spiritual, and a direct influence to intellectual pride,
sophistry, and error.


The organ of Gaiety is sometimes called WIT; and has been defined by
Spurzheim as "a sentiment which disposes men to view every thing in a gay,
joyful, and mirthful manner;"--"given to man to render him merry and
gay,--feelings not to be confounded with satisfaction and contentment."
The faculty appears to give a characteristic tendency to view every thing
that occurs in a light manner, simply as far as it gratifies, and pleases,
not in proportion to its intrinsic value, combined with the higher
faculties, it produces wit, in common events humour; with the animal
propensities, sarcasm and satire, or caricature and excess; with language,
punning and double meanings, and in all cases it tends to a levity that is
often misplaced. It is situated between Ideality and Causality at the
upper part of the side of the forehead. In ABUSE, or when not counteracted
by reason and reflection, it tends to severity and satirical remarks on
the failings and weaknesses of others: a too easy regard for sin when not
positively offensive, a love of pleasure, often leading to vicious excess;
and frequently the faculty to gratify itself, offends friends by ill timed
remarks and a system of practical jokes.

This organ acting upon the intellect leads to unsound and hasty judgments,
because the mind being influenced more by _Ideality_ than _Causality_,
(between which two organs _Gaiety_ is situated) it becomes an enemy to
self discipline, and study, and leads the possesser into a physical love
of pleasure, &c.--it opposes also the operation of the higher intellectual
faculties from its close approximation to the true organ of analogy which
is situated between the duplex organ of _Causality_ in the centre of the
forehead, and by a vain influence on the imagination it leads to delusive
analogies as regards truth, overcoming the careful study of fact by the
perceptive faculties and diverting the current of conscious inquiry by a
regard for self and its pleasures rather than the true and correct
analogies of truth.


Imitation leads us to imitate what we see deserving to be copied in
others, and thus lies at the foundation of all art, because it is
necessary to copy before any skill can be arrived at. It is a necessary
ingredient in the character of actors, sculptors, architects, painters and
engravers: it influences the style of the author, the manner of the poet,
the correctness of the dramatist. It is always active in children and thus
forms a natural education in them, taken from the persons around them: it
is for this reason essentially and imperatively necessary that good models
are presented to children in their youth; it gives a talent of acquiring
the peculiarity of foreign languages; and when deficient, it produces a
stiffness and uncomfortable mannerism that causes a person to appear like
a fish out of water. It may be misused by being employed for mimicry and
buffoonery especially for defects--in vice this is the real "facilis
descensus averni,"--The situation of the faculty on either side of
Benevolence, and above the reflective faculties teaches the proper use of
Imitation; to copy what is good and above all the prominent features of
our Lord's character, charity and universal love.


Caution tends naturally to circumspection, and it produces a cautious and
considerate disposition of mind; persons so organized are continually on
their guard, they look forward from fear of what may happen and are
anxious to anticipate every occurence, they ask advice, take opinions and
are still undecided; thus it produces doubt, irresolution, and wavering,
which prevents vigorous and decisive conduct: when the organ is deficient
in mature age, the individual is rash and precipitate, never apprehensive
of the results of his conduct and thus he adopts rash resolutions and
enters on hazardous enterprizes without foreseeing what must necessarily
follow: to a due influence of this faculty we may trace the moral virtue
that regulates the impulses of passion--looks to the future, and keeps the
end of all things steadily in view. In ABUSE the faculty occasions fear
and anxiety of the future, timid and desponding sentiments; no reliance
upon Providence, too much thought about the morrow, forgetting that
"sufficient for the day is the evil thereof"--Let a wise man, "Fear God
and have no other fear," for this will lead him to be cautious against
offences against Him, and if a man keeps this steadily in view, he will
never violate the laws of man.


Temperance is allied to caution, it is to the animal portion of man what
_caution_ is to the intellectual: its existence is identified with the
preceding organ by many phrenologists, and probably the developement of
that organ, as it is closer too, and more active upon the animal passions
may be coincident with this. In this way Temperance tends to _present_ as
cautiousness to _future_ prudence, it gives mind the mastery over matter,
overcomes Combativeness and the lower feelings, and teaches temperance in
all things: carried into an erroneous action it produces meanness and
almost avariciousness; the wise man whose animal nature predominates will
learn the difference between _use_, and _abuse_, by exercising Temperance
not by the abuse of the goodness and gifts of his Creator.


Located between Cautiousness and Firmness. This faculty produces a feeling
of _duty_, a desire of _justice_, and a love of _truth_; it is the organ
that leads men to do as they would be done unto, and is the most elevated
principle of human action: the faculty does not determine what is just or
unjust, but causes a desire to do whatever the reflective faculties
determine to be right and becoming. It is a portion of the organization
that cannot be too much cultivated, as it is of the highest importance in
guiding and directing, regulating and controlling the actions of the other
faculties: it leads to a conviction of individual error, and the truth
when asserted by others: it influences the whole being to exercise
prudence, temperance and fortitude, in opposition to the baser desires of
the propensities; it tends to overcome the energy of passion, to regulate
and direct the affections, to root out prejudice, and give the sense of
moral rectitude, that supports an honest man under distress and
affliction: when the sentiment is not well developed, the ideas of right
and wrong are weak, and injustice if in accordance with interest or
inclination easily committed; and when the lower propensities are active,
an individual with this organ small, will call that _justice_, which a
person differently organized would at once condemn; these are they of whom
the apostles spoke, "Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that
are defiled and unbelieving, there is nothing pure:" but even their mind
and _conscience_ is defiled: remorse and repentance spring from this
faculty: it should however be exerted _before_, not _after_ an
action--neither should it descend into immoderate personal chastisement;
for no punishment of the body can wash out sin from the soul; the
sentiment will never be abused if it be directed to preserve the
"conscience, void of offence."


Firmness, is a tendency to _persist_ in conduct, opinion, and purpose:
the immediate emotion is termed Resolution. The organ is situated at the
posterior part of the coronal region, close upon the middle line. This
faculty seems to bear no relation to external objects, its influence adds
a particular quality to other manifestations: whatever may be the
predominant pursuit it seems to give _perseverance_ in that pursuit; it
contributes greatly to the success of an individual in a particular
object, as he keeps steadily in one course. A person without the faculty
may manifest equal desire, but will, perhaps, try a dozen methods of
success without following out any one, thus fortitude and patience are the
results of this organization: when duly exercised, it gives stability of
character; a person who is not led by the accident of the moment, but one
who aims at perfection, and duly keeps to the high road to arrive there:
when combined with conscientiousness it gives moral courage, supports the
martyr at the stake, and enables a man to go on through evil report and
good report without turning to the right hand or the left: without this
endowment, the most splendid talents are thrown away, as they never reach
the summit of what is good, because like Reuben, "unstable as water they
cannot excel."--In ABUSE this faculty leads to obstinacy, stubbornness,
infatuation in evil courses, or a constant aim at what is good, without
perseverance to arrive at it.


The operation of this faculty is beautifully described by Shakspeare;--

  "The poet's eye in a fine frenzy rolling,
  Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven,
  And as imagination bodies forth
  The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen
  Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing
  A local habitation and a name."

The organ is situated nearly on the temporal ridge of the frontal bone.
Gall called it, _the organ of poetry_, because "in every kind of poetry
the sentiments are exalted, the expressions warm; and there must be
rapture, inspiration, what is commonly called imagination or fancy." It is
this faculty that produces the aspiration after _perfection_, it aims at
endowing every object with the highest degree of perfection which it is
capable of assuming, and is thus very valuable to man in his progressive
changes towards a more virtuous and perfect existence. It gives a peculiar
tinge to other faculties, making them aspire to exquisiteness, thus giving
an expansion to the mental powers, which carries onwards, forwards, and
upwards, makes them aim to be happy and form schemes for its attainment:
it gives a keener relish to other faculties, in short, its operation is
intellectually ennobling. In ABUSE it produces a finical and sickly
refinement, fanciful opinions, love of show more than utility; it leads to
novel reading, extravagant notions, and this gives a fictitious and
unsteady character, unfitted for the severer walks of life.


This organ is situated immediately above _Ideality_; and the faculty
gives faith in spiritual agency, in what is beyond the sphere of human
vision, and which nevertheless requires to be believed; it inspires a love
of the marvellous, the wonderful, the grand; a seeking for extraordinary
events even in the most unlikely concerns, and a tinging of common-place
with the emotions of superstition and romance. In the end of man's
tyranny, God prophesies through the mouth of Isaiah that "he will make all
men drunk with the wine of astonishment." In ABUSE, this faculty leads
into much error, it inspires a love of what is novel and marvellous, a
tendency to believe in magic, witchcraft, and other unlawful and
unchristian arts, and when uncontrolled by the higher sentiments, to the
pursuit of occult subjects; when united with the moral sentiments and due
perception and reflection, it searches deep into the truth, tests
spiritual causes and prophecies by research and belief, considering that
nothing is impossible to God and that His goodness is sufficient for all.


Situated in the middle of the coronal region of the brain; gives an innate
disposition to religious truth; a veneration for things sacred; belief in
the word of God, and hope in Christ Jesus; it is this innate principle
that bids the savage bow down to stocks and stones, to graven idols, and
the works of his own hands; it is this that inspires the missionaries of
God's word, and leads others to bestow their wealth in furthering the
good cause; and to pray for the time when the "knowledge of the Lord shall
cover the earth, as the waters cover the sea;" when abused, this organ
leads to superstition, an undue reverence for the _material_ portion of
Christianity, to the depreciation of the _spiritual_, thus producing
fanaticism, fear, and mystery; this organ requires to be guided by
conscientiousness, and the light of God's word, as the only true guide to
religion, as composed of its elements, Faith, Hope and Charity.

35. HOPE.

The organ of Hope lies on each side of Veneration; the mental faculty
being altogether different from desire, led phrenologists to seek for a
primitive organ, and thus the faculty has been identified with this
portion of the brain. In well formed characters, this faculty leads to
sanguine expectation in the goodness of God, it produces the blessed hope
of everlasting life, the perfect love that casteth out fear, through hope
and belief in Christ; it gives confidence in all undertakings commenced
and carried on in a Christian spirit; it is the true staff of moral and
religous courage, buoying up the soul amid the darkest terrors of distress
or desolation. Hope supports Faith, and perfects Charity, since without
it, the religion of man would be dark, gloomy, and desponding; in abuse,
the faculty is directed to hopes of this world only; it creates too
sanguine expectations, leading to disappointment that is often the bitter
but wholesome fruit of experience; it often leads to vain and foolish
speculations, and sometimes to want of exertion from a hope of good
happening; "hope deferred maketh the heart sick." When in unity with
faith, benevolence, and the higher sentiments, it is productive of
_Theosophy_, the knowledge of God from his works of love, and by a warm
hope of everlasting life, leads men to subdue the lusts of the flesh, to
be humble in their own wisdom, and to hope for the accomplishment of the
great promise, "to be heirs of glory, and joint heirs with Jesus Christ."


Benevolence is the noblest sentiment that man is enabled fully to
exercise: it is in the coronal bone, central and immediately before the
fontanel, it produces the generous and forgiving Christian, and the
faculty is always delighted in doing good, and in ministering to the
happiness of others; it compassionates distress, communicating a warmth of
generous feeling that overcomes acquisitiveness and selfishness: it
disposes to mildness of disposition, general kindness, charity, sympathy
and love; it is the foundation of Christian charity and tends to relieve
the wants and necessities of others. The higher sentiment is that of
charity to the weaknesses of others, and a due regard to their opinions
and errors; if too freely exercised it becomes abused that is, it inclines
to generous extravagance, and alms-giving without regard to necessity in
the object; it may thus be used to effect injustice to others, and
although one of the noblest virtues of the human character it is useless
unless exercised in a right way: for as St. Paul says--"though I give all
my goods to feed the poor, and my body to be burned, and have not
_Charity_, it profiteth me nothing."


Self Esteem rightly exercised confers self respect, a due regard to rank
or station, and induces confidence in one's own abilities; the organ is
placed just at the top or crown of the head. When exercised in a right
way, it imparts a degree of self-satisfaction, and enables us to apply our
powers to the best advantage in whatever station we are placed; it leads
to self esteem, so that the individual contemns every action that is base
and unworthy of an exalted mind; it restrains from forming improper
connections, and this too when the moral qualities are not sufficient.
When the organ is too small, the individual is bashful, has no reliance on
himself, and from rating his abilities too low, gets them rated less. When
large, it produces egotism, pride, hauteur, and self conceit. Combined
with good moral sentiments, it is a valuable organ. In ABUSE it tends to
self-love, self-will, and uncharitableness; and towards others contempt,
disdain, and tyranny; it is a mortal enemy to Christian love and peace.


This faculty regards the opinion that other persons form of us: the organ
is situated on each side of _Self esteem_ about half an inch from the
lambdoidal suture: it produces the desire of approbation, admiration,
praise and fame: it renders us anxious to please those whose approval we
esteem, and to excel in whatever pursuit our associates admire. If well
balanced by conscientiousness and veneration, it seeks the approval of the
Great Judge of all things, by becoming worthy of eternal life: a due
endowment is indispensable to an amiable character. In ABUSE it tends to
vanity, a thirst for praise and flattery, a dread of the world's opinion,
and a too easy giving way to the ways of the world to obtain the applause
of the worthless;--the faculty is cultivated by the system of rewards for
merit offered in youth,--it is not often the abstract value of the object
so much as the approbation of those who know us. This organ causes
bashfulness or _Mauvaise Honte_, and produces the fear of doing wrong,
which it often originates by over anxiety to do well; it requires to be
closely watched, as it leads to _envy_, one of the most subtle and
dangerous passions, that afflict man in his fallen state; it stirs up the
animal propensities and the earthly affections, overcoming the superior
sentiments; the man who endeavours to seek the applause of others should
remember that his Redeemer said, "And whosoever of you be the chief, let
him be the servant of all." The faculty requires to be cultivated and
regulated by conscientiousness, guided by the understanding to seek the
applause of the good, and influenced by the spirit to seek the applause
that is all in all to the christian, "Well done thou good and faithful
servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord."


This organ, called by the French authors, "_Ottin_, Tete Philosophie,"--is
situated on the top of the forehead above Comparison and causality, and
gives an intense love of philosophy and metaphysical research: when well
supported by the moral sentiments and perceptive faculties, it gives a
great power of reasoning well, but if the perceptives are deficient, it
gives a love of theory without sufficient regard to facts, so that the
process of induction is lost sight of: its greatest abuse causes the light
of wisdom, which is Truth, to be darkened by spiritual delusion or wilful
perversion of revelation: or it produces intellectual sophistry, which
tends to support party prejudices, and clothe error in the vestments of
truth--actuated by the moral sentiments, this faculty produces the power
of detecting sophistry in the arguments of another and teaches the
christian to be as "subtle as the serpent, and as harmless as the dove."


This organ lies between Conscientiousness, Hope, Caution and Wonder; it
produces a desire to compare the past with the future and judge of what
will be; it influences to a study of prophetic writings and as the organ
is actuated by wonder, or a desire of truth, so is the prophet true or
false; and as the animal or moral and spiritual creature prevails, so will
the person be dangerous or useful. St. Paul tells us, "despise not
prophesying."--and he calls it a gift and adds prophecy shall cease, but
Charity and Love never faileth;--and again he exhorts us above all things
to seek to prophecy, which in the greek text signifies "_to teach the
truth_," and thus it tends to perfect Christian peace and establishes for
ever the eternal power of love; this faculty teaches us to perfect the
faculties by pointing their evil tendency and looking forward to the
teaching of the Divine spirit, to perfect what is out of unity in the
threefold nature of man, as a physical, intellectual, and spiritual being:
it teaches us to wait for the time when the Great Teacher Christ shall
come as the Spirit of Truth and teach us all things. The abuse of this
faculty makes men become false prophets and teachers; history affords
abundant instances of men acting under diseased organs who have thus
become deluding fanatics. The humble Christian who follows his anointed
master will strive to overcome all that is vicious, so that he may be able
to inherit all things, and understand the great truth that "the testimony
of Christ Jesus is the spirit of prophecy."


This little work having extended to a greater length than was originally
intended, it is purposed to continue the subject in another volume of
similar size, to which this is the text book.--In that work we design to
point out the influence of the organs in combination,--the harmony of
Scripture with Phrenology--and a text book for perfecting the organization
by means of Holy writ--our object in so doing, is to make Christians the
_true_ Phrenologists, and to make this science one of the great army of
TRUTHS, now advancing to the battle of Armageddon. Our aim in this volume
has been simply to point out the uses of Phrenology, and the truths
whereon it is founded; in the next we purpose to consider the means,
whereby the pious and humble reader of Scripture may be enabled to perfect
his organization, so as to overcome the world,--to fight the good
fight,--and indeed to be born again.



  Introduction to the Study of Phrenology          5

  Historical Account of Phrenology                11

  Advantages and Objects of Phrenology            21

  On the Structure and Anatomy of the Brain       28

  On Temperament                                  32

  On the Varieties of the Human Race              35

  Amativeness. Love                               38

  Philoprogenitiveness, Love of Offspring         39

  Adhesiveness. Attachment                        40

  Inhabitiveness, Love of Home                    41

  Combativeness                                   43

  Destructiveness                                 44

  Secretiveness                                   47

  Alimentiveness                                  48

  Constructiveness, Mechanical Skill              49

  Acquisitiveness                                 50

  Language                                        52

  Form                                            54

  Size                                            55

  Weight                                          55

  Colouring                                       55

  Shape                                           56

  Order                                           57

  Number                                          57

  Tune                                            58

  Time                                            59

  Locality                                        59

  Individuality                                   60

  Eventuality                                     62

  Comparison                                      63

  Causality                                       65

  Gaiety                                          66

  Imitation                                       67

  Caution                                         68

  Temperance                                      69

  Conscientiousness                               69

  Firmness                                        70

  Ideality                                        71

  Wonder                                          72

  Faith or Veneration                             73

  Hope                                            74

  Benevolence                                     75

  Self Esteem                                     76

  Love of Approbation                             77

  Sophistry                                       78

  Prophecy                                        78

  Conclusion                                      79


Public attention is solicited to this Science as practised on Christian
principles, by


Phrenology is emphatically the Science of Mind; and it enables persons to
ascertain what points of their character are defective without being
deceived by self-love or flattery, because, the Brain being the agent
through which the mind operates, acts as an index to the general state of
the mind at any particular period: and since _Unhappiness--Ill success
in life--Monomania--Nervousness--Erroneous or Evil Actions--_are all
the results of mis-directed mental energy--so Phrenology is, under Divine
Providence, the means of detecting those slight wanderings of the
intellectual faculties into particular channels, which frequently
terminate in permanent estrangement, or lasting mental misery and
discontent. _Phrenological Advice_, as practised by Mr. Bunney, is an
examination of the state of the mind, through its agent the brain, and a
recommendation of those pursuits which are calculated to restore a
disarranged unity or an unequal balance among the organs or dispositions
of the mind.

Mr. Bunney having examined many thousand heads during the last ten years,
and witnessed the very great success attending Phrenological advice when
rightly administered and properly followed, desires to announce that he is
at home from Ten till Five daily, at his Lecture Room, 62, Regent's
Quadrant, where he will be happy to examine and advise persons as his long
experience in accordance with the Holy Scriptures may render necessary.
Mr. B. is well aware that many persons are deterred from visiting him by
pecuniary reasons, but he begs to add that his invitation is for public
good only, and that he expects no remuneration unless it is perfectly
agreeable to the wishes and circumstances of the inquirer. Having examined
one-half the members of our leading Universities, Oxford and Cambridge
with valuable results to the parties themselves, Mr. B. must consider any
further comment unnecessary.



[1] No one will doubt how much influence Christianity has had in producing
the high moral and intellectual developement of Europeans, to this also we
may trace their great intellectual superiority as nations.

Transcriber's Notes:

Passages in italics are indicated by _italics_.

The original text includes Greek characters on the first page. For this
text version these letters have been replaced with transliterations.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Christian Phrenology - A Guide to Self-Knowledge" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.