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Title: Readings from Latin Verse - With Notes
Author: Bushnell, Curtis C.
Language: English
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Classics Department



READINGS FROM LATIN VERSE


WITH NOTES



BY

CURTIS C. BUSHNELL, PH.D.

PROFESSOR OF CLASSICS IN SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY



Boston
ALLYN AND BACON
1908



COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY
CURTIS C. BUSHNELL.



FRANCISCO • SMALLEY
DECANO
COMES • ET • AMICVS
HVNC • LIBELLVM
D • D



INTRODUCTORY NOTE.

THIS little book has been prepared to meet the needs of my own classes.
The selections have been made primarily with reference to their literary
merit, but also with the intention of introducing the student to a
number of authors not usually read in the earlier portion of the college
course.

The notes are greatly indebted to the works named under the heading,
'Reference.'

I am under obligations to Professor E. C. Morris of Syracuse University
for the correction of the manuscript of the notes, and to Mr. N. L.
Willey, Syracuse University, 1908, for assistance in proof-reading.
                                        C. C. B.
SYRACUSE, N.Y.



READINGS FROM LATIN VERSE.

CLASSICAL LATIN POETRY.


I. ENNIUS.


FROM THE ANNALS.


_1. The Lament for Romulus._

  Pectora fida tenet desiderium: simul inter
  sese sic memorant, 'o Romule, Romule die,
  qualem te patriae custodem di genuerunt!
  O pater, o genitor, o sanguen dis oriundum,
  tu produxisti nos intra luminis oras.'               5

_2. Pyrrhus dismissing the Prisoners without Ransom._

  Nec mi aurum posco nec mi pretium dederitis:
  nec cauponantes bellum sed belligerantes
  ferro, non auro, vitam cernamus utrique.
  Vosne velit an me regnare era quidve ferat Fors
  virtute experiamur. Et hoc simul accipe dictum:      5
  quorum virtuti belli fortuna pepercit
  eorundem libertati me parcere certumst.
  Dono ducite doque volentibus cum magnis dis.

_3. M.' Curius._

  Quem nemo ferro potuit superare nec auro.

_4. Q. Fabius Maximus._

  Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem;
  noenum rumores ponebat ante salutem;
  ergo plusque magisque viri nunc gloria claret.

_5. The Strength of Rome._

  Moribus antiquis res stat Romana virisque.


FROM THE TRAGEDIES.


_6. A Bereaved Father's Fortitude._

  Égo cum genui, túm morituros scívi et ei re sústuli.
  Praéterea ad Troiám cum misi ob défendendam Graéciam,
  scíbam me in mortíferum bellum, nón in epulas míttere.

_7. 'Gods Careless of Mankind.'_

  Égo deum genus ésse semper díxi et dicam caélitum,
  séd eos non curáre opinor, quíd agat humanúm genus;
  nám si curent, béne bonis sit, mále malis; quod núnc abest.


FROM THE EPIGRAMS.


_8. Ennius' Epitaph._

  Nemo me dacrumis decoret nec funera fletu
    faxit. Cur? Volito vivus per ora virum.



II. LUCRETIUS.


_1. 'Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rhyme.'_

  Nunc age quod superest cognosce et clarius audi.
  Nec me animi fallit quam sint obscura; sed acri
  percussit thyrso laudis spes magna meum cor
  et simul incussit suavem mi pectus amorem
  musarum, quo nunc instinctus mente vigenti           5
  avia Pieridum peragro loca nullius ante
  trita solo. Iuvat integros accedere fontes
  atque haurire, iuvatque novos decerpere flores
  insignemque meo capiti petere inde coronam
  unde prius nulli velarint tempora musae;             10
  primum quod magnis doceo de rebus et artis
  religionum animum nodis exsolvere pergo,
  deinde quod obscura de re tam lucida pango
  carmina, musaeo contingens cuncta lepore.
              _De Rerum Natura I. 931-934._

_2. The Praise of Epicurus._

  E tenebris tantis tam clarum extollere lumen
  qui primus potuisti inlustrans commoda vitae,
  te sequor, o Graiae gentis decus, inque tuis nunc
  ficta pedum pono pressis vestigia signis,
  non ita certandi cupidus quam propter amorem         5
  quod te imitari aveo; quid enim contendat hirundo
  cycnis, aut quidnam tremulis facere artubus haedi
  consimile in cursu possint et fortis equi vis?
  Tu, pater, es rerum inventor, tu patria nobis
  suppeditas praecepta, tuisque ex, inclute, chartis,  10
  floriferis ut apes in saltibus omnia libant,
  omnia nos itidem depascimur aurea dicta,
  aurea, perpetua semper dignissima vita.
  Nam simul ac ratio tua coepit vociferari
  naturam rerum, divina mente coorta,                  15
  diffugiunt animi terrores, moenia mundi
  discedunt, totum video per inane geri res.
  Apparet divum numen sedesque quietae
  quas neque concutiunt venti nec nubila nimbis
  aspergunt neque nix acri concreta pruina             20
  cana cadens violat semperque innubilus aether
  integit, et large diffuso lumine rident.
  Omnia suppeditat porro natura neque ulla
  res animi pacem delibat tempore in ullo.
  At contra nusquam apparent Acherusia templa          25
  nec tellus obstat quin omnia dispiciantur,
  sub pedibus quaecumque infra per inane geruntur.
  His ibi me rebus quaedam divina voluptas
  percipit adque horror, quod sic natura tua vi
  tam manifesta patens ex omni parte retecta est.      30
                _Id. III. 1-30._

_3. The Changing Seasons._

  It ver et Venus, et veris praenuntius ante
  pennatus graditur zephyrus, vestigia propter
  Flora quibus mater praespargens ante viai
  cuncta coloribus egregiis et odoribus opplet.
  Inde loci sequitur calor aridus et comes una       5
  pulverulenta Ceres _et_ etesia flabra aquilonum.
  Inde autumnus adit, graditur simul Euhius Euan.
  Inde aliae tempestates ventique secuntur,
  altitonans Volturnus et auster fulmine pollens.
  Tandem bruma nives adfert pigrumque rigorem,       10
  prodit hiemps, sequitur crepitans hanc dentibus algor.
                   _Id. V. 736-746._

_4. The Origin of Superstition._

  Ergo perfugium sibi habebant omnia divis
  tradere et illorum nutu facere omnia flecti.
  In caeloque deum sedes et templa locarunt,
  per caelum volvi quia nox et luna videtur,
  luna dies et nox et noctis signa severa            5
  noctivagaeque faces caeli flammaeque volantes,
  nubila sol imbres nix venti fulmina grando
  et rapidi fremitus et murmura magna minarum.
     O genus infelix humanum, talia divis
  cum tribuit facta atque iras adiunxit acerbas!     10
  quantos tum gemitus ipsi sibi, quantaque nobis
  volnera, quas lacrimas peperere minoribu' nostris!
  Nec pietas ullast velatum saepe videri
  vertier ad lapidem atque omnis accedere ad aras
  nec procumbere humi prostratum et pandere palmas   15
  ante deum delubra nec aras sanguine multo
  spargere quadrupedum nec votis nectere vota,
  sed mage pacata posse omnia mente tueri.
  Nam cum suspicimus magni caelestia mundi
  templa, super stellisque micantibus aethera fixum, 20
  et venit in mentem solis lunaeque viarum,
  tunc allis oppressa malis in pectora cura
  illa quoque expergefactum caput erigere infit,
  nequae forte deum nobis inmensa potestas
  sit, vario motu quae candida sidera verset.        25
  Temptat enim dubiam mentem rationis egestas,
  ecquaenam fuerit mundi genitalis origo,
  et simul ecquae sit finis, quoad moenia mundi
  solliciti motus hunc possint ferre laborem,
  an divinitus aeterna donata salute                 30
  perpetuo possint aevi labentia tractu
  inmensi validas aevi contemnere viris.
  Praeterea cui non animus formidine divum
  contrahitur, cui non correpunt membra pavore,
  fulminis horribili cum plaga torrida tellus        35
  contremit et magnum percurrunt murmura caelum?
  Non populi gentesque tremunt, regesque superbi
  corripiunt divum percussi membra timore,
  nequid ob admissum foede dictumve superbe
  poenarum grave sit solvendi tempus adultum?        40
  Denique sub pedibus tellus cum tota vacillat
  concussaeque cadunt urbes dubiaeque minantur,
  quid mirum si se temnunt mortalia saecla
  atque potestatis magnas mirasque relinqunt
  in rebus viris divum, quae cuncta gubernent?       45
                   _Id. V. 1186-1225, 1236-1240._



III. CATULLUS.


_1. Exposed to a Draft._

  Furi, villula nostra non ad Austri
  flatus oppositast neque ad Favoni
  nec saevi Boreae aut Apeliotae,
  verum ad milia quindecim et ducentos.
  O ventum horribilem atque pestilentem!             5
                   _XXVI._

_2. An Affected Pronunciation._

  Chommoda dicebat, si quando commoda vellet
    dicere, et insidias Arrius hinsidias,
  et tum mirifice sperabat se esse locutum,
    cum quantum poterat dixerat hinsidias.
  Credo, sic mater, sic liber avonculus eius,        5
    sic maternus avos dixerat atque avia.
  Hoc misso in Syriam requierant omnibus aures:
    audibant eadem haec leniter et leviter,
  nec sibi postilla metuebant talia verba,
    cum subito adfertur nuntius horribilis,          10
  Ionios fluctus, postquam illuc Arrius isset,
    iam non Ionios esse, sed Hionios.
                   _LXXXIV._

_3. The Dead Pet._

  Lugete, o Veneres Cupidinesque
  et quantum est hominum venustiorum!
  Passer mortuus est meae puellae,
  passer, deliciae meae puellae,
  quem plus illa oculis suis amabat;                 5
  nam mellitus erat, suamque norat
  ipsam tam bene quam puella matrem,
  nec sese a gremio illius movebat
  sed circumsiliens modo huc modo illuc
  ad solam dominam usque pipilabat.                  10
  Qui nunc it per iter tenebricosum
  illuc unde negant redire quemquam.
  At vobis male sit, malae tenebrae
  Orci, quae omnia bella devoratis;
  tam bellum mihi passerem abstulistis.              15
  O factum male! io miselle passer!
  Tua nunc opera meae puellae
  flendo turgiduli rubent ocelli.
                   _III._

_4. Veranius, Welcome!_

  Verani, omnibus e meis amicis
  antistans mihi milibus trecentis,
  venistine domum ad tuos penates
  fratresque unanimos anumque matrem?
  Venisti! o mihi nuntii beati!                      5
  Visam te incolumem audiamque Hiberum
  narrantem loca, facta, nationes,
  ut mos est tuus, adplicansque collum
  iucundum os oculosque saviabor.
  O quantum est hominum beatiorum,                   10
  quid me laetius est beatiusve?
                   _IX._

_5. Homeward Bound._

  Iam ver egelidos refert tepores,
  iam caeli furor aequinoctialis
  iucundis Zephyri silescit auris.
  Linquantur Phrygii, Catulle, campi
  Nicaeaeque ager uber aestuosae:                    5
  ad claras Asiae volemus urbes.
  Iam mens praetrepidans avet vagari,
  iam laeti studio pedes vigescunt.
  O dulces comitum valete coetus,
  longe quos simul a domo profectos                  10
  diversae variae viae reportant.
                   _XLVI._

_6. Home at Last._

  Paene insularum, Sirmio, insularumque
  ocelle, quascumque in liquentibus stagnis
  marique vasto fert uterque Neptunus,
  quam te libenter quamque laetus inviso,
  vix mi ipse credens Thyniam atque Bithynos         5
  liquisse campos et videre te in tuto!
  O quid solutis est beatius curis,
  cum mens onus reponit, ac peregrino
  labore fessi venimus larem ad nostrum
  desideratoque adquiescimus lecto?                  10
  Hoc est quod unum est pro laboribus tantis.
  Salve, o venusta Sirmio, atque ero gaude:
  gaudete vosque, o Lydiae lacus undae:
  ridete, quidquid est domi cachinnorum.
                   _XXXI._

_7. Sympathy in Sorrow._

  Si quicquam mutis gratum acceptumve sepulcris
    accidere a nostro, Calve, dolore potest,
  quo desiderio veteres renovamus amores
    atque olim missas flemus amicitias,
  certe non tanto mors inmatura dolori est           5
    Quintiliae, quantum gaudet amore tuo.
                   _XCVI._

_8. 'Vita Frater Amabilior.'_

  Etsi me adsiduo confectum cura dolore
    sevocat a doctis, Ortale, virginibus,
  nec potis est dulcis Musarum expromere fetus
    mens animi: tantis fluctuat ipsa malis:
  namque mei nuper Lethaeo gurgite fratris           5
    pallidulum manans adluit unda pedem,
  Troia Rhoeteo quem subter litore tellus
    ereptum nostris obterit ex oculis.
         .  .  .  .  .  .
    Nunquam ego te vita frater amabilior
  adspiciam posthac: at certe semper amabo,          10
    semper maesta tua carmina morte canam,
  qualia sub densis ramorum concinit umbris
    Daulias absumpti fata gemens Ityli:
  sed tamen in tantis maeroribus, Ortale, mitto
    haec expressa tibi carmina Battiadae,            15
  ne tua dicta vagis nequiquam credita ventis
    effluxisse meo forte putes animo.
                   _LXV. 1-8, 10-18._

_9. 'Frater, Ave atque Vale.'_

  Multas per gentes et multa per aequora vectus
    advenio has miseras, frater, ad inferias,
  ut te postremo donarem munere mortis
    et mutam nequiquam adloquerer cinerem,
  quandoquidem fortuna mihi tete abstulit ipsum,     5
    heu miser indigne frater adempte mihi.
  Nunc tamen interea haec, prisco quae more parentum
    tradita sunt tristi munere ad inferias,
  accipe fraterno multum manantia fletu
    atque in perpetuum, frater, ave atque vale.      10
                   _CI._



IV. VERGIL.


_1. The Tale of Aristaeus._

  Quis deus hanc, Musae, quis nobis extudit artem?
  Unde nova ingressus hominum experientia cepit?
  Pastor Aristaeus fugiens Peneia Tempe,
  amissis, ut fama, apibus morboque fameque,
  tristis ad extremi sacrum caput adstitit amnis,            5
  multa querens, atque hac adfatus voce parentem:
  mater, Cyrene mater, quae gurgitis huius
  ima tenes, quid me praeclara stirpe deorum--
  si modo, quem perhibes, pater est Thymbraeus Apollo--
  invisum fatis genuisti? aut quo tibi nostri                10
  pulsus amor? quid me caelum sperare iubebas?
  En etiam hunc ipsum vitae mortalis honorem,
  quem mihi vix frugum et pecudum custodia sollers
  omnia temptanti extuderat, te matre, relinquo.
  Quin age, et ipsa manu felicis erue silvas,                15
  fer stabulis inimicum ignem atque interfice messis,
  ure sata, et validam in vitis molire bipennem,
  tanta meae si te ceperunt taedia laudis.
  At mater sonitum thalamo sub fluminis alti
  sensit. Eam circum Milesia vellera Nymphae                 20
  carpebant, hyali saturo fucata colore,
  Drymoque, Xanthoque, Ligeaque, Phyllodoceque,
  caesariem effusae nitidam per candida colla.
  [Nesaee, Spioque, Thaliaque, Cymodoceque,]
  Cydippeque et flava Lycorias, altera virgo,                25
  altera tum primos Lucinae experta labores,
  Clioque et Beroe soror, Oceanitides ambae,
  ambae auro, pictis incinctae pellibus ambae,
  atque Ephyre, atque Opis, et Asia Deiopea,
  et tandem positis velox Arethusa sagittis.                 30
  Inter quas curam Clymene narrabat inanem
  Volcani, Martisque dolos et dulcia furta,
  aque Chao densos divom numerabat amores.
  Carmine quo captae dum fusis mollia pensa
  devolvunt, iterum maternas inpulit auris                   35
  luctus Aristaei, vitreisque sedilibus omnes
  obstipuere; sed ante alias Arethusa sorores
  prospiciens summa flavum caput extulit unda,
  et procul: O gemitu non frustra exterrita tanto,
  Cyrene soror, ipse tibi, tua maxuma cura,                  40
  tristis Aristaeus Penei genitoris ad undam
  stat lacrimans, et te crudelem nomine dicit.
  Huic percussa nova mentem formidine mater,
  Duc, age, duc ad nos; fas illi limina divom
  tangere, ait. Simul alta iubet discedere late              45
  flumina, qua iuvenis gressus inferret. At illum
  curvata in montis faciem circumstetit unda
  accepitque sinu vasto misitque sub amnem.
  Iamque domum mirans genetricis et humida regna
  speluncisque lacus clausos lucosque sonantis               50
  ibat, et ingenti motu stupefactus aquarum
  omnia sub magna labentia flumina terra
  spectabat diversa locis, Phasimque, Lycumque,
  et caput, unde altus primum se erumpit Enipeus,
  unde pater Tiberinus, et unde Aniena fluenta,              55
  saxosusque sonans Hypanis, Mysusque Caicus,
  et gemina auratus taurino cornua voltu
  Eridanus, quo non alius per pinguia culta
  in mare purpureum violentior effluit amnis.
  Postquam est in thalami pendentia pumice tecta             60
  perventum, et nati fletus cognovit inanis
  Cyrene, manibus liquidos dant ordine fontis
  germanae, tonsisque ferunt mantelia villis;
  pars epulis onerant mensas, et plena reponunt
  pocula; Panchaeis adolescunt ignibus arae;                 65
  et mater, Cape Maeonii carchesia Bacchi:
  Oceano libemus, ait. Simul ipsa precatur
  Oceanumque patrem rerum Nymphasque sorores,
  centum quae silvas, centum quae flumina servant.
  Ter liquido ardentem perfudit nectare Vestam,              70
  ter flamma ad summum tecti subiecta reluxit.
  Omine quo firmans animum sic incipit ipsa:
    Est in Carpathio Neptuni gurgite vates
  caeruleus Proteus, magnum qui piscibus aequor
  et iuncto bipedum curru metitur equorum.                   75
  Hic nunc Emathiae portus patriamque revisit
  Pallenen; hunc et Nymphae veneramur et ipse
  grandaevus Nereus; novit namque omnia vates,
  quae sint, quae fuerint, quae mox ventura trahantur.
  Quippe ita Neptuno visum est, inmania cuius                80
  armenta et turpis pascit sub gurgite phocas.
  Hic tibi, nate, prius vinclis capiendus, ut omnem
  expediat morbi caussam, eventusque secundet.
  Nam sine vi non ulla dabit praecepta, neque illum
  orando flectes: vim duram et vincula capto                 85
  tende; doli circum haec demum frangentur inanes.
  Ipsa ego te, medios cum sol accenderit aestus,
  cum sitiunt herbae, et pecori iam gratior umbra est,
  in secreta senis ducam, quo fessus ab undis
  se recipit, facile ut somno adgrediare iacentem.           90
  Verum ubi correptum manibus vinclisque tenebis,
  tum variae eludent species atque ora ferarum.
  Fiet enim subito sus horridus, atraque tigris,
  squamosusque draco, et fulva cervice leaena;
  aut acrem flammae sonitum dabit, atque ita vinclis         95
  excidet, aut in aquas tenuis dilapsus abibit.
  Sed quanto ille magis formas se vertet in omnis,
  tanto, nate, magis contende tenacia vincla,
  donec talis erit mutato corpore, qualem
  videris, incepto tegeret cum lumina somno.                 100
  Haec ait, et liquidum ambrosiae diffundit odorem,
  quo totum nati corpus perduxit; at illi
  dulcis conpositis spiravit crinibus aura,
  atque habilis membris venit vigor. Est specus ingens
  exesi latere in montis, quo plurima vento                  105
  cogitur inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos,
  deprensis olim statio tutissima nautis;
  intus se vasti Proteus tegit obiice saxi.
  Hic iuvenem in latebris aversum a lumine Nympha
  collocat; ipsa procul nebulis obscura resistit.            110
  Iam rapidus torrens sitientis Sirius Indos
  ardebat caelo, et medium sol igneus orbem
  hauserat; arebant herbae, et cava flumina siccis
  faucibus ad limum radii tepefacta coquebant:
  cum Proteus consueta petens e fluctibus antra              115
  ibat; eum vasti circum gens humida ponti
  exsultans rorem late dispergit amarum.
  Sternunt se somno diversae in litore phocae;
  ipse, velut stabuli custos in montibus olim,
  vesper ubi e pastu vitulos ad tecta reducit                120
  auditisque lupos acuunt balatibus agni,
  considit scopulo medius, numerumque recenset.
  Cuius Aristaeo quoniam est oblata facultas,
  vix defessa senem passus conponere membra,
  cum clamore ruit magno, manicisque iacentem                125
  occupat. Ille suae contra non inmemor artis
  omnia transformat sese in miracula rerum,
  ignemque, horribilemque feram, fluviumque liquentem.
  Verum ubi nulla fugam reperit fallacia, victus
  in sese redit, atque hominis tandem ore locutus:           130
  Nam quis te, iuvenum confidentissime, nostras
  iussit adire domos? quidve hinc petis? inquit. At ille:
  Scis, Proteu, scis ipse; neque est te fallere quicquam;
  sed tu desine velle. Deum praecepta secuti
  venimus, hinc lassis quaesitum oracula rebus.              135
  Tantum effatus. Ad haec vates vi denique multa
  ardentis oculos intorsit lumine glauco,
  et graviter frendens sic fatis ora resolvit:
    Non te nullius exercent numinis irae.
  Magna luis commissa: tibi has miserabilis Orpheus          140
  haud quaquam ob meritum poenas, ni Fata resistant,
  suscitat, et rapta graviter pro coniuge saevit.
  Illa quidem, dum te fugeret per flumina praeceps,
  inmanem ante pedes hydrum moritura puella
  servantem ripas alta non vidit in herba.                   145
  At chorus aequalis Dryadum clamore supremos
  inplerunt montis; flerunt Rhodopeiae arces,
  altaque Pangaea, et Rhesi Mavortia tellus,
  atque Getae, atque Hebrus, et Actias Orithyia.
  Ipse, cava solans aegrum testudine amorem,                 150
  te, dulcis coniunx, te solo in litore secum,
  te veniente die, te decedente canebat.
  Taenarias etiam fauces, alta ostia Ditis,
  et caligantem nigra formidine lucum
  ingressus, Manisque adiit Regemque tremendum,              155
  nesciaque humanis precibus mansuescere corda.
  At cantu commotae Erebi de sedibus imis
  umbrae ibant tenues simulacraque luce carentum,
  quam multa in foliis avium se milia condunt,
  vesper ubi aut hibernus agit de montibus imber,            160
  matres atque viri, defunctaque corpora vita
  magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae,
  inpositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum;
  quos circum limus niger et deformis arundo
  Cocyti tardaque palus inamabilis unda                      165
  alligat, et noviens Styx interfusa coercet.
  Quin ipsae stupuere domus atque intima Leti
  Tartara caeruleosque inplexae crinibus anguis
  Eumenides, tenuitque inhians tria Cerberus ora,
  atque Ixionii vento rota constitit orbis.                  170
  Iamque pedem referens casus evaserat omnis,
  redditaque Eurydice superas veniebat ad auras,
  pone sequens,--namque hanc dederat Proserpina legem--
  cum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem,
  ignoscenda quidem, scirent si ignoscere Manes:             175
  restitit, Eurydicenque suam, iam luce sub ipsa,
  inmemor, heu! victusque animi respexit. Ibi omnis
  effusus labor, atque inmitis rupta tyranni
  foedera, terque fragor stagnis auditus Avernis.
  Illa, Quis et me, inquit, miseram, et te perdidit, Orpheu, 180
  quis tantus furor? En iterum crudelia retro
  fata vocant, conditque natantia lumina somnus.
  Iamque vale: feror ingenti circumdata nocte,
  invalidasque tibi tendens, heu non tua, palmas!
  Dixit, et ex oculis subito, ceu fumus in auras             185
  commixtus tenuis, fugit diversa, neque illum,
  prensantem nequiquam umbras et multa volentem
  dicere, praeterea vidit; nec portitor Orci
  amplius obiectam passus transire paludem.
  Quid faceret? quo se rapta bis coniuge ferret?             190
  Quo fletu Manis, qua Numina voce moveret?
  Illa quidem Stygia nabat iam frigida cymba.
  Septem illum totos perhibent ex ordine menses
  rupe sub aeria deserti ad Strymonis undam
  flevisse, et gelidis haec evolvisse sub antris,            195
  mulcentem tigris et agentem carmine quercus;
  qualis populea maerens philomela sub umbra
  amissos queritur fetus, quos durus arator
  observans nido inplumis detraxit; at illa
  flet noctem, ramoque sedens miserabile carmen              200
  integrat, et maestis late loca questibus inplet.
  Nulla Venus, non ulli animum flexere hymenaei.
  Solus Hyperboreas glacies Tanaimque nivalem
  arvaque Rhipaeis numquam viduata pruinis
  lustrabat, raptam Eurydicen atque inrita Ditis             205
  dona querens; spretae Ciconum quo munere matres
  inter sacra deum nocturnique orgia Bacchi
  discerptum latos iuvenem sparsere per agros.
  Tum quoque marmorea caput a cervice revolsum
  gurgite cum medio portans Oeagrius Hebrus                  210
  volveret, Eurydicen vox ipsa et frigida lingua,
  Ah miseram Eurydicen! anima fugiente vocabat;
  Eurydicen toto referebant flumine ripae.
    Haec Proteus, et se iactu dedit aequor in altum,
  quaque dedit, spumantem undam sub vertice torsit.          215
  At non Cyrene; namque ultro adfata timentem:
    Nate, licet tristis animo deponere curas.
  Haec omnis morbi caussa; hinc miserabile Nymphae,
  cum quibus illa choros lucis agitabat in altis,
  exitium misere apibus. Tu munera supplex                   220
  tende, petens pacem, et facilis venerare Napaeas;
  namque dabunt veniam votis, irasque remittent.
  Sed, modus orandi qui sit, prius ordine dicam.
  Quattuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros,
  qui tibi nunc viridis depascunt summa Lycaei,              225
  delige, et intacta totidem cervice iuvencas.
  Quattuor his aras alta ad delubra dearum
  constitue, et sacrum iugulis demitte cruorem,
  corporaque ipsa boum frondoso desere luco.
  Post, ubi nona suos Aurora ostenderit ortus,               230
  inferias Orphei Lethaea papavera mittes,
  et nigram mactabis ovem, lucumque revises;
  placatam Eurydicen vitula venerabere caesa.
    Haud mora; continuo matris praecepta facessit;
  ad delubra venit, monstratas excitat aras,                 235
  quattuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros
  ducit, et intacta totidem cervice iuvencas.
  Post ubi nona suos Aurora induxerat ortus,
  inferias Orphei mittit, lucumque revisit.
  Hic vero subitum ac dictu mirabile monstrum                240
  aspiciunt, liquefacta boum per viscera toto
  stridere apes utero et ruptis effervere costis,
  inmensasque trahi nubes, iamque arbore summa
  confluere et lentis uvam demittere ramis.
                   _Georgics IV. 315-558._



V. PHAEDRUS.


_1. Prologue._

  Aesopus auctor quam materiam repperit,
  hanc ego polivi versibus senariis.
  Duplex libelli dos est: quod risum movet
  et quod prudenti vitam consilio monet.
  Calumniari siquis autem voluerit,               5
  quod arbores loquantur, non tantum ferae,
  fictis iocari nos meminerit fabulis.
                   _I. Prologus._

_2. The Wolf and the Lamb._

  Ad rivum eundem lupus et agnus venerant
  siti compulsi; superior stabat lupus
  longeque inferior agnus. Tunc fauce improba
  latro incitatus iurgii causam intulit.
  Cur, inquit, turbulentam fecisti mihi               5
  aquam bibenti? Laniger contra timens:
  Qui possum, quaeso, facere quod quereris, lupe?
  A te decurrit ad meos haustus liquor.
  Repulsus ille veritatis viribus:
  Ante hos sex mensis male, ait, dixisti mihi.        10
  Respondit agnus: Equidem natus non eram.
  Pater hercle tuus, ille inquit, maledixit mihi.
  Atque ita conreptum lacerat iniusta nece.
  Haec propter illos scripta est homines fabula,
  qui fictis causis innocentes opprimunt.             15
                   _I. 1._

_3. The Dog, the Meat, and the River; or, Greed its own Punishment._

  Amittit merito proprium qui alienum adpetit.
    Canis per flumen carnem dum ferret natans,
  lympharum in speculo vidit simulacrum suum,
  aliamque praedam ab altero ferri putans
  eripere voluit: verum decepta aviditas              5
  et quem tenebat ore dimisit cibum,
  nec quem petebat potuit adeo adtingere.
                   _I. 4._

_4. Aesop and the Insolent Fellow._

  Successus ad perniciem multos devocat.
  Aesopo quidam petulans lapidem impegerat.
  Tanto, inquit, melior! Assem deinde illi dedit,
  sic prosecutus: Plus non habeo mehercule,
  sed, unde accipere possis, monstrabo tibi.          5
  Venit ecce dives et potens: huic similiter
  impinge lapidem et dignum accipies praemium.
  Persuasus ille fecit quod monitus fuit;
  sed spes fefellit inpudentem audaciam:
  conprensus namque poenas persolvit cruce.           10
                   _III. 5._

_5. How Castor and Pollux rewarded Simonides._

  Quantum valerent inter homines litterae,
  dixi superius: quantus nunc illis honos
  a superis sit tributus, tradam memoriae.
    Simonides idem ille, de quo rettuli,
  victori laudem cuidam pyctae ut scriberet,          5
  certo conductus pretio secretum petit.
  Exigua cum frenaret materia impetum,
  usus poetae more est et licentia
  atque interposuit gemina Ledae pignera,
  auctoritatem similis referens gloriae.             10
  Opus adprobavit; sed mercedis tertiam
  accepit partem. Cum relicuam posceret:
  illi, inquit, reddent, quorum sunt laudis duae.
  Verum, ut ne irate te dimissum censeas,
  ad cenam mihi promitte; cognatos volo              15
  hodie invitare, quorum es in numero mihi.
  Fraudatus quamvis et dolens iniuria,
  ne male dissimulans gratiam corrumperet,
  promisit. Rediit hora dicta, recubuit.
  Splendebat hilare poculis convivium,               20
  magno adparatu laeta resonabat domus:
  repente duo cum iuvenes spavsi pulvere,
  sudore multo diffluentes, corpora
  humanam supra formam, cuidam servulo
  mandant, ut ad se provocet Simonidem;              25
  illius interesse, ne faciat moram.
  Homo perturbatus excitat Simonidem.
  Unum promorat vix pedem triclinio,
  ruina camarae subito oppressit ceteros;
  nec ulli iuvenes sunt reperti ad ianuam.           30
  Ut est vulgatus ordo narratae rei,
  omnes scierunt numinum praesentiam
  vati dedisse vitam mercedis loco.
                   _IV. 25._

_6. The Delphic Oracle._

  Utilius nobis quid sit dic, Phoebe, obsecro,
  qui Delphos et famosum Parnasum incolis.
  Quid est? Sacratae vatis horrescunt comae,
  tripodes moventur, mugit adytis Religio,
  tremuntque lauri et ipse pallescit dies.           5
  Voces resolvit icta Pytho numine:
  Audite, gentes, Delii monitus dei:
  Pietatem colite; vota superis reddite;
  patriam, parentes, natos, castas coniuges
  defendite armis, ferroque hostem pellite;          10
  amicos sublevate; miseris parcite;
  bonis favete, subdolis ite obviam;
  delicta vindicate; castigate impios;
  punite turpi thalamos qui violant stupro;
  malos cavete; nulli nimium credite.                15
  Haec elocuta concidit virgo furens:
  furens profecto, nam quae dixit perdidit.
                   _Appendix 6._

_7. The Wit, the Rustic, and the Pig; or, How Prejudice met its Deserved
Humiliation._

  Pravo favore labi mortales solent
  et, pro iudicio dum stant erroris sui,
  ad paenitendum rebus manifestis agi.
    Facturus ludos quidam dives nobilis
  proposito cunctos invitavit praemio,               5
  quam quisque posset ut novitatem ostenderet.
  Venere artifices laudis ad certamina;
  quos inter scurra, notus urbano sale,
  habere dixit se genus spectaculi,
  quod in theatre numquam prolatum foret .           10
  Dispersus rumor civitatem concitat.
  Paulo ante vacua turbam deficiunt loca.
  In scaena vero postquam solus constitit
  sine adparatu, nullis adiutoribus,
  silentium ipsa fecit expectatio.                   15
  Ille in sinum repente demisit caput
  et sic porcelli vocem est imitatus sua,
  verum ut subesse pallio contenderent
  et excuti iuberent. Quo facto simul
  nihil est repertum, multis onerant laudibus        20
  hominemque plausu prosequuntur maximo.
  Hoc vidit fieri rusticus. Non mehercule
  me vincet, inquit: et statim professus est
  idem facturum melius se postridie.
  Fit turba maior. Iam favor mentes tenet            25
  et derisuri, non spectaturi, sedent.
  Uterque prodit. Scurra degrunnit prior
  movetque plausus et clamores suscitat.
  Tunc simulans sese vestimentis rusticus
  porcellum obtegere, (quod faciebat scilicet,       30
  sed, in priore quia nil compererant, latens)
  pervellit aurem vero, quem celaverat,
  et cum dolore vocem naturae exprimit.
  Adclamat populus scurram multo similius
  imitatum, et cogit rusticum trudi foras.           35
  At ille profert ipsum porcellum e sinu,
  turpemque aperto pignore errorem probans:
  En hic declarat, quales sitis indices!
                   _V. 5._



VI.    SENECA.


_1. The Rashness of the First Navigators Rebuked._

  Audax nimium qui freta primus
  rate tam fragili perfida rupit
  terrasque suas post terga videns
  animam levibus credidit auris,
  dubioque secaus aequora cursu                      5
  potuit tenui fidere ligno,
  inter vitae mortisque vias
  nimium gracili limite ducto.
    Candida nostri saecula patres
  videre, procul fraude remota.                      10
  Sua quisque piger litora tangens
  patrioque senex factus in arvo,
  parvo dives, nisi quas tulerat
  natale solum, non norat opes:
  nondum quisquam sidera norat,                      15
  stellisque quibus pingitur aether
  non erat usus, nondum pluvias
  Hyadas poterat vitare ratis,
  non Oleniae lumina caprae,
  nec quae sequitur flectitque senex                 20
  Attica tardus plaustra Bootes,
  nondum Boreas, nondum Zephyrus
  nomen habebant.
    Ausus Tiphys pandere vasto
  carbasa ponto legesque novas                       25
  scribere ventis.
  . . . . . .
    Bene dissaepti foedera mundi
  traxit in unum Thessala pinus
  iussitque pati verbera pontum,
  partemque metus fieri nostri                       30
  mare sepositum.
    Dedit illa graves improba poenas
  per tam longos ducta timores,
  cum duo montes, claustra profundi,
  hinc atque illinc subito impulsu                   35
  velut aetherio gemerent sonitu,
  spargeret arces nubesque ipsas
  mare deprensum.
  Palluit audax Tiphys et omnes
  labente manu misit habenas,                        40
  Orpheus tacuit torpente lyra
  ipsaque vocem perdidit Argo.
  Quid cum Siculi virgo Pelori,
  rabidos utero succincta canes,
  omnes pariter solvit hiatus?                       45
  Quis non totos horruit artus
  totiens uno latrante malo?
  Quid cum Ausonium dirae pestes
  voce canora mare mulcerent,
  cum Pieria resonans cithara                        50
  Thracius Orpheus solitam cantu
  retinere rates paene coegit
  Sirena sequi? Quod fuit huius
  pretium cursus? Aurea pellis
  maiusque mari Medea malum,                         55
  merces prima digna carina.

_Man now Master of the Sea._

    Nunc iam cessit pontus et omnes
  patitur leges: non Palladia
  compacta manu regumque ferens
  inclita remos quaeritur Argo--                    60
  quaelibet altum cumba pererrat;
  terminus omnis motus et urbes
  muros terra posuere nova,
  nil qua fuerat sede reliquit
  pervius orbis:                                     65
    Indus gelidum potat Araxen,
  Albin Persae Rhenumque bibunt--

_'The Prophecy of Nero's Tutor-victim.'_

  venient annis saecula seris,
  quibus oceanus vincula rerum
  laxet et ingens pateat tellus                      70
  Tethysque novos detegat orbes
  nec sit terris ultima Thule.
                   _Medea 301-320, 329-379._

_2. The Return of Agamemnon._

  _Agamemnon._ Tandem revertor sospes ad patrios laris;
  o cara salve terra. Tibi tot barbarae
  dedere gentes spolia, tibi felix diu
  potentes Asiae Troia submisit manus.
  Quid ista vates corpus effusa ac tremens           5
  dubia labat cervice? Famuli, adtollite,
  refovete gelido latice. Iam recipit diem
  marcente visu. Suscita sensus tuos:
  optatus ille portus aerumnis adest.
  Festus dies est.
  _Cassandra._     Festus et Troiae fuit.            10
  _Agam._ Veneremur aras.
  _Cass._                 Cecidit ante aras pater.
  _Agam._ Iovem precemur.
  _Cass _                 Pariter Herceum Iovem?
  _Agam._ Credis videre te Ilium?
  _Cass._                         Et Priamum simul.
  _Agam._ Hic Troia non est.
  _Cass._                    Ubi Helena est Troiam puto.
  _Agam._ Ne metue dominam famula.
  _Cass._                          Libertas adest.   15
  _Agam._ Secura vive.
  _Cass._              Mihi mori est securitas.
  _Agam._ Nullum est periculum tibimet.
  _Cass._                               At magnum tibi.
  _Agam._ Victor timere quid potest?
  _Cass._                            Quod non timet.
  _Agam._ Hanc fida, famuli, turba, dum excutiat deum,
  retinete ne quid impotens peccet furor.            20
  At te, pater, qui saeva torques fulmina
  pellisque nubis, sidera et terras regis,
  ad quem triumphi spolia victores ferunt,
  et te sororem cuncta pollentis viri,
  Argolica Iuno, pecore votivo libens                25
  Arabumque donis supplice et fibra colam.
                   _Agamemnon 782-807._



VII. LUCAN.

_1. The Energy of Caesar._

  Caesar in omnia praeceps,
  nil actum credens cum quid superesset agendum.
                   _Pharsalia II. 656, 657._

_2. Equal Authorities and Opposite Verdicts._

  Nec quemquam iam ferre potest Caesarve priorem
  Pompeiusve parem. Quis iustius induit arma,
  scire nefas: magno se iudice quisque tuetur:
  victrix causa deis placuit, sed victa Catoni.
                   _Id. I. 125-128._

_3. Cato refusing to consult the Oracle of Jupiter Ammon._

  Ille deo plenus, tacita quem mente gerebat,
  effudit dignas adytis e pectore voces:
  'Quid quaeri, Labiene, iubes? An liber in armis
  occubuisse velim potius, quam regna videre?
  an sit vita nihil, et longa? an differat aetas?      5
  an noceat vis ulla bono? Fortunaque perdat
  opposita virtute minas? laudandaque velle
  sit satis, et numquam successu crescat honestum?
  Scimus, et haec nobis non altius inseret Hammon.
  Haeremus cuncti superis, temploque tacente,          10
  nil agimus nisi sponte dei: nec vocibus ullis
  numen eget: dixitque semel nascentibus auctor
  quidquid scire licet: steriles nec legit harenas,
  ut caneret paucis, mersitque hoc pulvere verum:
  estque dei sedes, ubi terra, et pontus, et aer,      15
  et caelum, et virtus. Superos quid quaerimus ultra?
  Iuppiter est quodcumque vides, quodcumque moveris.
  Sortilegis egeant dubii, semperque futuris
  casibus ancipites: me non oracula certum,
  sed mors certa facit: pavido fortique cadendum est.  20
  Hoc satis est dixisse Iovem.' Sic ille profatur:
  servataque fide templi discedit ab aris,
  non exploratum populis Hammona relinquens.
                   _Id. IX. 564-586._

_4. Cato in the Desert._

  Ipse manu sua pila gerens praecedit anheli
  militis ora pedes: monstrat tolerare labores,
  non iubet: et nulla vehitur cervice supinus,
  carpentoque sedens. Somni parcissimus ipse est,
  ultimus haustor aquae. Cum tandem fonte reperto      5
  indiga conatur laticis potare iuventus,
  stat dum lixa bibat. Si veris magna paratur
  fama bonis, et si successu nuda remoto
  inspicitur virtus, quidquid laudamus in ullo
  maiorum Fortuna fuit. Quis Marte secundo,            10
  quis tantum meruit populorum sanguine nomen?
  Hunc ego per Syrtes, Libyaeque extrema triumphum
  ducere maluerim, quam ter Capitolia curru
  scandere Pompeii, quam frangere colla Iugurthae.
  Ecce parens verus patriae, dignissimus aris,         15
  Roma, tuis!
                   _Id. IX. 587-602._

_5. The Character of Cato._

  Hi mores, haec duri inmota Catonis
  secta fuit: servare modum, finemque tenere,
  naturamque sequi, patriaeque inpendere vitam;
  nec sibi, sed toti genitum se credere mundo.
  Huic epulae, vicisse famem: magnique penates,        5
  submovisse hiemem tecto: pretiosaque vestis,
  hirtam membra super Romani more Quiritis
  induxisse togam.
    Urbi pater est, Urbique maritus:
  iustitiae cultor, rigidi servator honesti:           10
  in commune bonus: nullosque Catonis in actus
  subrepsit partemque tulit sibi nata voluptas.
                   _Id. II. 380-391._



VIII. STATIUS.

_1.  To Sleep._

  Crimine quo merui, iuvenis placidissime divum,
  quove errore miser donis ut solus egerem,
  Somne, tuis? Tacet omne pecus volucresque feraeque
  et simulant fessos curvata cacumina somnos,
  nec trucibus fluviis idem sonus, occidit horror         5
  aequoris et terris maria adclinata quiescunt.
  Septima iam rediens Phoebe mihi respicit aegras
  stare genas, totidem Oetaeae Paphiaeque revisunt
  lampades et totiens nostros Tithonia questus
  praeterit et gelido spargit miserata flagello.          10
  Unde ego sufficiam? Non sunt mihi lumina mille,
  quae sacer alterna tantum statione tenebat
  Argus et haud unquam vigilabat corpore toto.
  At nunc, heu, si aliquis ultro te, Somne, repellit,
  inde veni! Nec te totas infundere pennas                15
  luminibus compello meis (hoc turba precetur
  laetior); extremo me tange cacumine virgae,
  sufficit, aut leviter suspenso poplite transi.
                   _Silvae V. 4._



IX. MARTIAL.

_1. Misplaced Eloquence._

  Non de vi neque caede nec veneno,
  sed lis est mihi de tribus capellis:
  vicini queror has abesse furto.
  Hoc iudex sibi postulat probari:
  tu Cannas Mithridaticumque bellum               5
  et periuria Punici furoris
  et Sullas Mariosque Muciosque
  magna voce sonas manuque tota.
  Iam dic, Postume, de tribus capellis.
                   _VI. 19._

_2. A Wise Precaution._

  Cur non mitto meos tibi, Pontiliane, libellos?
  Ne mihi tu mittas, Pontiliane, tuos.
                   _VII. 3._

_3. An Improbable Situation._

  Saepe rogare soles, qualis sim, Prisce, futurus,
    si fiam locuples simque repente potens.
  Quemquam posse putas mores narrare futuros?
    Dic mihi, si fias tu leo, qualis eris?
                   _XII. 92._

_4. The Country Resident seeking City Markets._

  Capena grandi porta qua pluit gutta
  Phrygiumque Matris Almo qua lavat ferrum,
  Horatiorum qua viret sacer campus
  et qua pusilli fervet Herculis fanum,
  Faustine, plena Bassus ibat in raeda,               5
  omnes beati copias trahens ruris.
  Illic videres frutice nobili caules
  et utrumque porrum sessilesque lactucas
  pigroque ventri non inutiles betas.
  Illic coronam pinguibus gravem turdis               10
  leporemque laesum Gallici canis dente
  nondumque victa lacteum faba porcum.
  Nec feriatus ibat ante carrucam,
  sed tuta faeno cursor ova portabat.
  Urbem petebat Bassus? Immo rus ibat.                15
                   _III. 47._

_5. The Miniature Farm._

  Donasti, Lupe, rus sub urbe nobis;
  sed rus est mihi maius in fenestra.
  Rus hoc dicere, rus potes vocare?
  in quo ruta facit nemus Dianae,
  argutae tegit ala quod cicadae,                     5
  quod formica die comedit uno,
  clusae cui folium rosae corona est;
  in quo nec cucumis iacere rectus,
  nec serpens habitare tota possit,
  erucam male pascit hortus unam,                     10
  consumpto moritur culex salicto,
  et talpa est mihi fossor atque arator.
  Non boletus hiare, non mariscae
  ridere aut violae patere possunt.
  Fines mus populatur et colono                       15
  tamquam sus Calydonius timetur.
  Et sublata volantis ungue Prognes
  in nido seges est hirundinino.
  Vix implet cochleam peracta messis
  et mustum nuce condimus picata.                     20
  Errasti, Lupe, littera sed una.
  Nam quo tempore praedium dedisti,
  mallem tu mihi prandium dedisses.
                   _XI. 18. 1-7, 10-20, 23-27._

_6. 'Carpe Diem.'_

  Cras te victurum, cras dicis, Postume, semper.
    Dic mini, cras istud, Postume, quando venit?
  Quam longe cras istud, ubi est? Aut unde petendum?
    Numquid apud Parthos Armeniosque latet?
  Iam cras istud habet Priami vel Nestoris annos.     5
    Cras istud quanti, dic mihi, possit emi?
  Cras vives? Hodie iam vivere, Postume, serum est:
    ille sapit, quisquis, Postume, vixit heri.
                   _V. 58._

_7. Secrets of Happiness._

  Vitam quae faciant beatiorem,
  iucundissime Martialis, haec sunt:
  res non parta labore, sed relicta;
  non ingratus ager, focus perennis;
  lis numquam, toga rara, mens quieta;                5
  vires ingenuae, salubre corpus;
  prudens simplicitas, pares amici;
  convictus facilis, sine arte mensa;
  nox non ebria, sed soluta curis;
  non tristis torus, et tamen pudicus;                10
  somnus, qui faciat breves tenebras;
  quod sis, esse velis nihilque malis;
  summum nec metuas diem, nec optes.
                   _X. 47._

_8. After the Great Eruption._

  Hic est pampineis viridis modo Vesbius umbris,
    presserat hic madidos nobilis uva lacus.
  Haec iuga quam Nysae colles plus Bacchus amavit,
    hoc nuper Satyri monte dedere choros.
  Haec Veneris sedes, Lacedaemone gratior illi,       5
    hic locus Herculeo numine clarus erat.
  Cuncta iacent flammis et tristi mersa favilla:
    nec superi vellent hoc licuisse sibi.
                   _IV. 44_

_9. Porcia._

  Coniugis audisset fatum cum Porcia Bruti
    et subtracta sibi quaereret arma dolor,
  'Nondum scitis' ait 'mortem non posse negari?
    Credideram, fatis hoc docuisse patrem.'
  Dixit et ardentes avido bibit ore favillas:         5
    i nunc et ferrum, turba molesta, nega.
                   _I. 42._

_10. 'Paete, non dolet.'_

  Casta suo gladium cum traderet Arria Paeto,
    quem de visceribus strinxerat ipsa suis,
  'siqua fides, vulnus quod feci non dolet,' inquit;
    'sed quod tu facies, hoc mihi, Paete, dolet.'
                   _I. 13._

_11. Paris' Epitaph._

  Quisquis Flaminiam teris, viator,
  noli nobile praeterire marmor.
  Urbis deliciae salesque Nlli,
  ars et gratia, lusus et voluptas,
  Romani decus et dolor theatri                       5
  atque omnes Veneres Cupidinesque
  hoc sunt condita, quo Paris, sepulcro.
                   _XI. 13.

_12. Genuine and Counterfeit Grief._

  Puella senibus dulcior mihi cygnis,
  agna Galaesi mollior Phalantini,
  concha Lucrini delicatior stagni,
  cui nec lapillos praeferas Erythraeos,
  nec modo politum pecudis Indicae dentem,            5
  nivesque primas liliumque non tactum;
  quae crine vicit Baetici gregis vellus
  Rhenique nodos aureamque nitellam;
  fragravit ore, quod rosarium Paesti,
  quod Atticarum prima mella cerarum,                 10
  quod sucinorum rapta de manu gleba;
  cui comparatus indecens erat pavo,
  inamabilis sciurus et frequens phoenix:
  adhuc recenti tepet Erotion busto,
  quam pessimorum lex amara fatorum                   15
  sexta peregit hieme, nec tamen tota,
  nostros amores gaudiumque lususque.
  Et esse tristem me meus vetat Paetus,
  pectusque pulsans pariter et comam vellens:
  'Deflere non te vernulae pudet mortem?              20
  Ego coniugem' inquit 'extuli, et tamen vivo,
  notam, superbam, nobilem, locupletem.'
  Quid esse nostro fortius potest Paeto?
  Ducenties accepit, et tamen vivit.
                   _V. 37._

_13. Epitaph on Little Erotion._

  Hanc tibi, Fronto pater, genetrix Flacilla, puellam
    oscula commendo deliciasque meas,
  parvula ne nigras horrescat Erotion umbras
    oraque Tartarei prodigiosa canis.
  Impletura fuit sextae modo frigora brumae,             5
    vixisset totidem ni minus illa dies.
  Inter tam veteres ludat lasciva patronos
    et nomen blaeso garriat ore meum.
  Mollia non rigidus caespes tegat ossa, nec illi,
    terra, gravis fueris: non fuit illa tibi.            10
                   _V. 34._



X. JUVENAL.

_1. The Life of the Poor at Rome; its Dangers and Discomforts._

1-33. _Houses are all the while collapsing or burning. No one assists
the poor man, while the millionaire has his misfortune more than made
good by aspirants to legacies._

34-42. _The rent you pay for a dark garret would buy a comfortable
dwelling elsewhere._

43-49. _There is so much noise at night that the poor man cannot sleep,_

50-78. _While he finds the streets dangerous both by day_

79-88. _And by night._

  Quis timet aut timuit gelida Praeneste ruinam,
  aut positis nemorosa inter iuga Volsiniis, aut
  simplicibus Gabiis, aut proni Tiburis arce?
  Nos urbem colimus tenui tibicine fultam
  magna parte sui; nam sic labentibus obstat              5
  vilicus et veteris rimae cum texit hiatum
  securos pendente iubet dormire ruina.
  Vivendum est illic ubi nulla incendia, nulli
  nocte metus. Iam poscit aquam, iam frivola transfert
  Ucalegon, tabulata tibi iam tertia fumant:              10
  tu nescis; nam si gradibus trepidatur ab imis,
  ultimus ardebit quem tegula sola tuetur
  a pluvia, molles ubi reddunt ova columbae.
  Lectus erat Codro Procula minor, urceoli sex,
  ornamentum abaci, nec non et parvulus infra             15
  cantharus, et recubans sub eodem marmore Chiron.
  Iamque vetus Graecos servabat cista libellos,
  et divina opici rodebant carmina mures.
  Nil habuit Codrus: quis enim negat? Et tamen illud
  perdidit infelix totum nihil: ultimus autem             20
  aerumnae est cumulus, quod nudum et frusta rogantem
  nemo cibo, nemo hospitio tectoque iuvabit.
  Si magna Asturici cecidit domus, horrida mater,
  pullati proceres, differt vadimonia praetor;
  tum gemimus casus urbis, tunc odimus ignem.             25
  Ardet adhuc, et iam accurrit qui marmora donet,
  conferat inpensas: hic nuda et candida signa,
  hic aliquid praeclarum Euphranoris et Polycliti,
  haec Asianorum vetera ornamenta deorum,
  hic libros dabit et forulos mediamque Minervam,         30
  hic modium argenti; meliora ac plura reponit
  Persicus orborum lautissimus et merito iam
  suspectus, tamquam ipse suas incenderit aedes.
  Si potes avelli circensibus, optima Sorae
  aut Fabrateriae domus aut Frusinone paratur,            35
  quanti nunc tenebras unum conducis in annum.
  Hortulus hic puteusque brevis nec reste movendus
  in tenuis plantas facili diffunditur haustu.
  Vive bidentis amans et culti vilicus horti,
  unde epulum possis centum dare Pythagoreis.             40
  Est aliquid, quocumque loco, quocumque recessu
  unius sese dominum fecisse lacertae.
  Plurimus hic aeger moritur vigilando; sed ipsum
  languorem peperit cibus inperfectus et haerens
  ardenti stomacho; nam quae meritoria somnum             45
  admittunt? Magnis opibus dormitur in urbe.
  Inde caput morbi. Raedarum transitus arto
  vicorum inflexu et stantis convicia mandrae
  eripient somnum Druso vitulisque marinis.
  Si vocat officium, turba cedente vehetur                50
  dives et ingenti curret super ora Liburna
  atque obiter leget aut scribet vel dormiet intus;
  namque facit somnum clausa lectica fenestra.
  Ante tamen veniet: nobis properantibus obstat
  unda prior, magno populus premit agmine lumbos          55
  qui sequitur; ferit hic cubito, ferit assere duro
  alter, at hic tignum capiti incutit, ille metretam.
  Pinguia crura luto, planta mox undique magna
  calcor, et in digito clavus mihi militis haeret.
  Nonne vides quanto celebretur sportula fumo?            60
  Centum convivae, sequitur sua quemque culina.
  Corbulo vix ferret tot vasa ingentia, tot res
  impositas capiti, quas recto vertice portat
  servulus infelix et cursu ventilat ignem.
  Scinduntur tunicae sartae modo; longa coruscat          65
  serraco veniente abies, atque altera pinum
  plaustra vehunt, nutant alte populoque minantur.
  Nam si procubuit qui saxa Ligustica portat
  axis et eversum fudit super agmina montem,
  quid superest de corporibus? Quis membra, quis ossa     70
  invenit? Obtritum vulgi perit omne cadaver
  more animae; domus interea secura patellas
  iam lavat et bucca foculum excitat et sonat unctis
  striglibus et pleno componit lintea gutto.
  Haec inter pueros varie properantur: at ille            75
  iam sedet in ripa taetrumque novicius horret
  porthmea, nec sperat caenosi gurgitis alnum
  infelix nec habet quem porrigat ore trientem.
  Respice nunc alia ac diversa pericula noctis:
  quod spatium tectis sublimibus unde cerebrum            80
  testa ferit, quotiens rimosa et curta fenestris
  vasa cadant, quanto percussum pondere signent
  et laedant silicem. Possis ignavus haberi
  et subiti casus inprovidus, ad cenam si
  intestatus eas: adeo tot fata, quot illa                85
  nocte patent vigiles te praetereunte fenestrae.
  Ergo optes votumque feras miserabile tecum,
  ut sint contentae patulas defundere pelves.
                   _III. 190-277._

_2. 'Mens Sana in Corpore Sano.'_

  'Nil ergo optabunt homines?' Si consilium vis,
  permittes ipsis expendere numinibus quid
  conveniat nobis rebusque sit utile nostris.
  Nam pro iucundis aptissima quaeque dabunt di;
  carior est illis homo quam sibi. Nos animorum           5
  impulsu et caeca magnaque cupidine ducti
  coniugium petimus partumque uxoris; at illis
  notum qui pueri qualisque futura sit uxor.
  Ut tamen et poscas aliquid voveasque sacellis
  exta et candiduli divina tomacula porci,                10
  orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpore sano.
  Fortem posce animum mortis terrore carentem,
  qui spatium vitae extremum inter munera ponat
  naturae, qui ferre queat quoscumque labores,
  nesciat irasci, cupiat nihil, et potiores               15
  Herculis aerumnas credat saevosque labores
  et venere et cenis et pluma Sardanapali.
  Monstro quod ipse tibi possis dare: semita certe
  tranquillae per virtutem patet unica vitae.
  Nullum numen abest si sit prudentia; nos te,            20
  nos facimus, Fortuna, deam caeloque locamus.
                   _X. 346-366._

_3. Sympathy the Basis of Civilization._

  Mollissima corda
  humano generi dare se natura fatetur,
  quae lacrimas dedit: haec nostri pars optima sensus.
  Plorare ergo iubet causam dicentis amici
  squaloremque rei, pupillum ad iura vocantem             5
  circumscriptorem, cuius manantia fletu
  ora puellares faciunt incerta capilli.
  Naturae imperio gemimus, cum funus adultae
  virginis occurrit, vel terra clauditur infans,
  et minor igne rogi. Quis enim bonus et face dignus      10
  arcana, qualem Cereris vult esse sacerdos,
  ulla aliena sibi credat mala? Separat hoc nos
  a grege mutorum, atque ideo venerabile soli
  sortiti ingenium divinorumque capaces
  atque exercendis capiendisque artibus apti              15
  sensum a caelesti demissum traximus arce,
  cuius egent prona et terram spectantia. Mundi
  principio indulsit communis conditor illis
  tantum animas, nobis animum quoque, mutuus ut nos
  adfectus petere auxilium et praestare iuberet,          20
  dispersos trahere in populum, migrare vetusto
  de nemore et proavis habitatas linquere silvas,
  aedificare domos, Laribus coniungere nostris
  tectum aliud, tutos vicino limine somnos
  ut collata daret fiducia, protegere armis               25
  lapsum, aut ingenti nutantem vulnere civem,
  communi dare signa tuba, defendier isdem
  turribus, atque una portarum clave teneri.
                   _XV. 131-158._

_4.  Two Famous Proverbs._

  Di, maiorum umbris tenuem et sine pondere terram
  spirantisque crocos et in urna perpetuum ver,
  qui _praeceptorem sancti voluere parentis
  esse loco_.
                   _VII. 207-210._

  Nil dictu foedum visuque haec limina tangat
  intra quae pater est; procul, a procul inde puellae
  lenonum et cantus pernoctantis parasiti.
  _Maxima debetur puero reverentia_; siquid
  turpe paras, nec tu pueri contempseris annos,           5
  sed peccaturo obstet tibi films infans.
                   _XIV. 44-49._



XI. HADRIAN.

_1. The Dying Hadrian to his Soul._

  Animula, vagula, blandula,
  hospes comesque corporis,
  quae nunc abibis in loca,
  pallidula, rigida, nudula,
  nec, ut soles, dabis iocos?                             5
                   From Spartianus, _Vita Hadriani 25._



XII. ANONYMOUS.

_1. Sayings of the Seven Wise Men._

  _Optimus est_, Cleobulus ait, _modus_, incola Lindi;
  ex Ephyra, Periandre, _doces cuncta emeditanda_;
  _tempus nosce_ inquit Mitylenis Pittacus ortus;
  _plures esse malos_ Bias autumat ille Prieneus;
  Milesiusque Thales _sponsori damna_ minatur;            5
  _nosce_ inquit _tete_ Chilon Lacedaemone cretus;
  Cecropiusque Solon _ne quid nimis_ induperabit.
                   From Hyginus, _Fabulurum Liber 221._



SACRED LATIN POETRY.

FOR CHRISTMAS DAY.

  Puer natus in Bethlehem,
  Unde gaudet Jerusalem.

  Hic iacet in praesepio
  Qui regnat sine termino.

  Cognovit bos et asinus              5
  Quod puer erat Dominus.

  Reges de Saba veniunt,
  Aurum, tus, myrrham offerunt.

  Intrantes domum invicem
  Novum salutant Principem.           10

  Sine serpentis vulnere
  De nostro venit sanguine;

  In carne nobis similis,
  Peccato sed dissimilis;

  Ut redderet nos homines             15
  Deo et sibi similes.

  In hoc natali gaudio
  Benedicamus Domino.

  Laudetur sancta Trinitas,
  Deo dicamus gratias.                20
                   _Anonymous._

FOR EASTER DAY.

  1. Victimae paschali laudes immolent Christiani.
  2. Agnus redemit oves, Christus innocens patri reconciliavit
peccatores.
  3. Mors et vita duello conflixere mirando: dux vitae mortuus regnat
vivus.
  4. Dic nobis Maria: quid vidisti in via?
  5. Sepulcrum Christi viventis et gloriam vidi resurgentis.
  6. Dic nobis Maria: quid vidisti in via?
  7. Angelicos testes, sudarium et vestes.
  8. Dic nobis Maria: quid vidisti in via?
  9. Surrexit Christus, spes mea, praecedet vos in Galilaea.
  10. Credendum est magis soli Mariae veraci quam Iudaeorum turbae
fallaci.
  11. Scimus Christum surrexisse ex mortuis vere: tu nobis victor rex
miserere.
                   _Anonymous._

PLAUDITE CAELI.

  Plaudite caeli,
  Rideat aether,
  Summus et imus
  Gaudeat orbis!
  Transiit atrae            5
  Turba procellae:
  Subiit almae
  Gloria palmae!

  Surgite verni,
  Surgite flores,           10
  Germina pictis
  Surgite campis,
  Teneris mixtae
  Violis rosae,
  Candida sparsis           15
  Lilia calthis!

  Currite plenis,
  Carmina, venis!
  Fundite laetum,
  Barbytha, metrum:         20
  Namque revixit,
  Sicuti dixit,
  Pius illaesus
  Funere Iesus!

  Plaudite montes,          25
  Ludite fontes;
  Resonent valles,
  Repetunt colles:
  'Io revixit,
  Sicuti dixit,             30
  Pius illaesus
  Funere Iesus.'
                   _Anonymous._

PONE LUCTUM, MAGDALENA.

  Pone luctum, Magdalena!
    Et serena lacrimas:
  Non est iam Simonis cena,
    Non, cur fletum exprimas:
  Causae mille sunt laetandi,           5
  Causae mille exultandi:
           Halleluia!

  Sume risum, Magdalena!
    Frons nitescat lucida;
  Demigravit omnis poena,               10
    Lux coruscat fulgida:
  Christus mundum liberavit,
  Et de morte triumphavit!
           Halleluia!

  Gaude, plaude, Magdalena!             15
    Tumba Christus exiit!
  Tristis est peracta scena,
    Victor mortis rediit;
  Quem deflebas morientem,
  Nunc arride resurgentem!              20
           Halleluia!

  Tolle vultum, Magdalena!
    Redivivum aspice:
  Vide, frons quam sit amoena,
    Quinque plagas inspice:             25
  Fulgent, sic ut margaritae,
  Ornamenta novae vitae.
           Halleluia!

  Vive, vive, Magdalena!
    Tua lux reversa est,                30
  Gaudiis turgescat vena,
    Mortis vis abstersa est;
  Maesti procul sunt dolores,
  Laeti redeant amores!
           Halleluia!                    35
                   _Anonymous._

SALVE, CAPUT CRUENTATUM.

  Salve, caput cruentatum,
  Totum spinis coronatum,
  Conquassatum, vulneratum,
  Arundine sic verberatum,
        Facie sputis illita.              5
  Salve, cuius dulcis vultus,
  Immutatus et incultus,
  Immutavit suum florem,
  Totus versus in pallorem,
        Quem caeli tremit curia.          10

  Omnis vigor atque viror
  Hinc recessit, non admiror,
  Mors apparet in aspectu,
  Totus pendens in defectu,
        Attritus aegva macie.             15
  Sic affectus, sic despectus,
  Propter me sic interfectus,
  Peccatori tam indigno
  Cum amoris intersigno
        Appare clara facie.               20

  In hac tua passione
  Me agnosce, pastor bone,
  Cuius sumpsi mel ex ore,
  Haustum lactis ex dulcore
        Prae omnibus deliciis.            25
  Non me reum asperneris,
  Non indignum dedigneris,
  Morte tibi iam vicina
  Tuum caput hic acclina,
        In meis pausa brachiis.           30

  Tuae sanctae passioni
  Me gauderem interponi,
  In hac cruce tecum mori
  Praesta crucis amatori,
        Sub cruce tua moriar.             35
  Morti tuae tam amarae
  Grates ago, Iesu care,
  Qui es clemens, pie Deus,
  Fac quod petit tuus reus,
        Ut absque te non finiar.          40

  Dum me mori est necesse,
  Noli mihi tunc deesse;
  In tremenda mortis hora
  Veni, Iesu, absque mora,
        Tuere me et libera.               45
  Cum me iubes emigrare,
  Iesu care, tunc appare;
  O amator amplectende,
  Temetipsum tunc ostende
        In cruce salutifera.              50
                   _Bernard of Clairvaux._

'JESUS, THE VERY THOUGHT OF THEE.'

  Iesu, dulcis memoria,
  Dans vera cordis gaudia,
  Sed super mel et omnia
  Eius dulcis praesentia.

  Nil canitur suavius                     5
  Auditur nil iucundius,
  Nil cogitatur dulcius,
  Quam Iesus, Dei Filius.

  Iesu, spes poenitentibus,
  Quam pius es petentibus,                10
  Quam bonus te quaerentibus,
  Sed quid invenientibus?

  Iesu, dulcedo cordium,
  Fons vivus, lumen mentium,
  Excedens omne gaudium,                  15
  Et omne desiderium.

  Nec lingua valet dicere,
  Nec littera exprimere,
  Expertus potest credere
  Quid sit Iesum deligere.                20

  Iesu, decus angelicum,
  In aure dulce canticum,
  In ore mel mirificum,
  In corde nectar caelicum:

  Desidero te millies.                    25
  Mi Iesu, quando venies?
  Me laetum quando facies
  Ut vultu tuo saties?
                   _Bernard of Clairvaux._

'COME, HOLY SPIRIT, FROM ABOVE.'

  Veni, Sancte Spiritus,
  Et emitte caelitus
  Lucis tuae radium.

  Veni, pater pauperum,
  Veni, dator munerum,                    5
  Veni, lumen cordium.

  Consolator optime,
  Dulcis hospes animae,
  Dulce refrigerium:

  In labore requies,                      10
  In aestu temperies,
  In fletu solatium.

  O lux beatissima,
  Reple cordis intima
  Tuorum fidelium!                        15

  Sine tuo numine
  Nihil est in homine,
  Nihil est innoxium.

  Lava quod est sordidum,
  Riga quod est aridum,                   20
  Sana quod est saucium:

  Flecte quod est rigidum,
  Fove quod est languidum,
  Rege quod est devium.

  Da tuis fidelibus                       25
  In te confidentibus
  Sacrum septenarium;

  Da virtutis meritum,
  Da salutis exitum,
  Da perenne gaudium.                     30
                   _Robert II, King of France._

PHOENIX INTER FLAMMAS EXPIRANS.

  Tandem audite me,
  Sionis filiae!
  Aegram respicite,
  Dilecto dicite:
  Amore vulneror,                         5
  Amore funeror.

  Huc oderiferos,
  Huc soporiferos
  Ramos depromite,
  Rogos componite;                        10
  Ut phoenix moriar!
  In flammis oriar!

  An amor dolor sit,
  An dolor amor sit,
  Utrumque nescio!                        15
  Hoc unum sentio:
  Iucundus dolor est,
  Si dolor amor est.

  Quid, amor, crucias?
  Aufer inducias!                         20
  Suavis tyrannus es:
  Momentum, annus es:
  Tam tarda funera
  Tua sunt vulnera!

  Iam vitae stamina                       25
  Rumpe, O anima!
  Ignis ascendere
  Gestit, et tendere
  Ad caeli atria;
  Haec mea patria!                        30
                   _Anonymous._

DIES IRAE.

  Dies irae, dies illa
  Solvet saeclum in favilla,
  Teste David cum Sybilla.

  Quantus tremor est futurus,
  Quando iudex est venturus,              5
  Cuncta stricte discussurus!

  Tuba, mirum spargens sonum
  Per sepulcra regionum,
  Coget omnes ante thronum.

  Mors stupebit, et natura,               10
  Cum resurget creatura
  Iudicanti responsura.

  Liber scriptus proferetur,
  In quo totum continetur,
  Unde mundus iudicetur.                  15

  Iudex ergo cum sedebit,
  Quidquid latet apparebit,
  Nil inultum remanebit.

  Quid sum miser tunc dicturus,
  Quem patronum rogaturus,                20
  Cum vix iustus sit securus?

  Rex tremendae maiestatis,
  Qui salvandos salvas gratis,
  Salva me, fons pietatis!

  Recordare, Iesu pie,                    25
  Quod sum causa tuae viae;
  Ne me perdas illa die!

  Quaerens me sedisti lassus,
  Redemisti crucem passus:
  Tantus labor non sit cassus!            30

  Iuste iudex ultionis,
  Donum fac remissionis
  Ante diem rationis!

  Ingemisco tanquam reus,
  Culpa rubet vultus meus:                35
  Supplicanti parce, Deus!

  Qui Mariam absolvisti,
  Et latronem exaudisti,
  Mihi quoque spem dedisti.

  Preces meae non sunt dignae,            40
  Sed tu bonus fac benigne
  Ne perenni cremer igni.

  Inter oves locum praesta,
  Et ab haedis me sequestra,
  Statuens in parte dextra.               45

  Confutatis maledictis,
  Flammis acribus addictis,
  Voca me cum benedictis!

  Oro supplex et acclinis,
  Cor contritum quasi cinis,              50
  Gere curam mei finis!

 ---

  Lacrimosa dies illa
  Qua resurget ex favilla
  Iudicandus homo reus:
  Huic ergo parce, Deus!                  55
  Pie Iesu domine,
  Dona eos requie! Amen!
                   _Thomas of Celano._

DE PATRIAE CAELESTIS LAUDE.

'The World is very Evil.'

  Hora novissima, tempora pessima sunt; vigilemus.
  Ecce minaciter imminet arbiter ille supremus.
  Imminet, imminet et mala terminet, aequa coronet,
  Recta remuneret, anxia liberet, aethera donet,
  Auferat aspera duraque pondera mentis onustae,             5
  Sobria muniat, improba puniat, utraque iuste.
  Ille piissimus, ille gravissimus, ecce! venit rex!
  Surgat homo reus! Instat homo deus, a patre iudex.

'Brief Life is here our Portion.'

  Hic breve vivitur, hic breve plangitur, hic breve fletur;
  Non breve vivere, non breve plangere retribuetur;          10
  O retributio! stat brevis actio, vita perennis;
  O retributio! caelica mansio stat lue plenis;
  Quid datur et quibus? aether egentibus et cruce dignis,
  Sidera vermibus, optima sontibus, astra malignis.
  Sunt modo praelia, postmodo praemia; qualia? plena;        15
  Plena refectio, nullaque passio, nullaque poena.
  Spe modo vivitur, et Sion angitur a Babylone;
  Nunc tribulatio; tunc recreatio, sceptra, coronae;

'For thee, O Dear, Dear Country!'

  O bona patria, lumina sobria te speculantur,
  Ad tua nomina sobria lumina collacrimantur:                20
  Est tua mentio pectoris unctio, cura doloris,
  Concipientibus aethera mentibus ignis amoris.
  Est ibi consita laurus et insita cedrus hysopo;
  Sunt radiantia iaspide moenia clara pyropo;
  Hinc tibi sardius, inde topazius, hinc amethystus;         25
  Est tua fabrica contio caelica, gemmaque Christus.
  Lux tua mors crucis, atque caro ducis est crucifixi.
  Laus, benedictio, coniubilatio personat ipsi.
  Tu sine litore, tu sine tempore, fons, modo rivus,
  Dulce bonis sapis, estque tibi lapis undique vivus.       30
  Est tibi laurea, dos datur aurea, Sponsa decora,
  Primaque Principis oscula suscipis, inspicis ora.

'Jerusalem the Golden!'

  Urbs Sion aurea, patria lactea, cive decora,
  Omne cor obruis, omnibus obstruis et cor et ora.
  Nescio, nescio, quae iubilatio, lux tibi qualis,           35
  Quam socialia gaudia, gloria quam specialis.
  Sunt Sion atria coniubilantia, martyre plena,
  Cive micantia, Principe stantia, luce serena.
  Urbs Sion incluta, turris et edita litore tuto,
  Te peto, te colo, te flagro, te volo, canto, saluto.       40
    Me Pater optimus atque piissimus ille creavit;
  In lue pertulit, ex lue sustulit, a lue lavit.
  Diluit omnia caelica gratia, fons David undans
  Omnia diluit, omnibus affluit, omnia mundans.
    O mea, spes mea, tu Sion aurea, clarior auro,            45
  Agmine splendida, stans duce, florida perpete lauro.
  O bona patria, num tua gaudia teque videbo?
  O bona patria, num tua praemia plena tenebo?
  Plaude, cinis meus, est tua pars Deus; eius es, et sis.
  Plaude, cinis meus, est tua pars Deus; eius es, et sis.    50
                   _Bernard of Cluny._

THE HEAVENLY CITY.

  Me receptet Sion illa,
  Sion, David urbs tranquilla,
  Cuius faber Auctor lucis,
  Cuius portae lignum crucis,
  Cuius muri lapis vivus,                5
  Cuius custos Rex festivus.
  In hac urbe lux solennis,
  Ver aeternum, pax perennis:
  In hac odor implens caelos,
  In hac semper festum melos;            10
  Non est ibi corruptela,
  Non defectus, non querela;
  Non minuti, non deformes,
  Omnes Christo sunt conformes.
  Urbs in portu satis tuto,              15
  De longinquo te saluto,
  Te saluto, te suspiro,
  Te affecto, te requiro.
  Quantum tui gratulantur,
  Quam festive convivantur,              20
  Quis affectus eos stringat
  Aut quae gemma muros pingat,
  Quis chalcedon, quis iacinthus,
  Norunt illi qui sunt intus.
  In plateis huius urbis                 25
  Sociatus piis turbis
  Cum Moyse et Elia
  Pium cantem Alleluia. Amen.
                   _Hildebert._



ABBREVIATIONS.

A. & G. = Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar.
B.      = Bennett's Latin Grammar.
G. & L. = Gildersleeve and Lodge's Latin Grammar.
Lex.    = Harper's Latin-English Lexicon.
cf.     = _confer_, compare.
e.g.    = _exempli gratia_, for example.
ff.     = following.
i.e.    = _id est_, that is.
l.,ll.  = line, lines.
lit.    = literally.
p., pp. = page, pages.
sc.     = _scilicet_, understand, supply.
vol.    = volume.



NOTES.

CLASSICAL LATIN POETRY.

I. ENNIUS. 239-169 B.C.

    Ennius ut noster cecinit, qui primus amoeno
    Detulit ex Helicone perenni fronde coronam,
    Per gentes Italas hominum quae clara clueret.
                   Lucretius, 1. 117-119.

Let us venerate Ennius like the groves, sacred from their antiquity, in
which the great and ancient oak trees are invested not so much with
beauty as with sacred associations.--Quintilian, 10. 1. 88,--translated
by Sellar.

Q. Ennius, 'the Father of Latin Literature,' was born at Rudiae, a town
of Calabria and a point of contact between the Italian and Greek
civilizations. He served with the rank of centurion in the Roman army in
Sardinia and attached himself to Cato the Censor. In 204 he came to
Rome, where he lived modestly, supporting himself by teaching Greek and
by his writings. There he became an intimate friend of the great Scipio.
The most famous of his works are the tragedies, written on Greek models,
and the _Annals_, a long epic poem in eighteen books, whose subject is
the history of Rome from the earliest times to Ennius' own day. We have
fragments of about twenty-five of the tragedies. Of the _Annals_ about
six hundred lines are preserved.

Ennius introduced the dactylic hexameter into Latin poetry.

He was versatile, widely read in Greek literature, a man of practical
interests and intellectual vigor. His intense patriotism was rewarded by
an enduring popularity.

For Reference: Sellar, _Roman Poets of the Republic_ (Oxford, 1889),
chapter 4; the collections of the fragments by Vahlen (Leipzig, 1854)
and by Muller (St. Petersburg, 1885).

Metres: Dactylic Hexameter, B. 368; A. & G. 615: _Selections_ 1-5.
Trochaic Septenarius, B. 366, 2; A. & G. 620: _Selections_ 6, 7. Elegiac
Stanza, B. 368, 369; A. & G. 616: _Selection_ 8.

_1._ 'Lines of tender regret and true hero-worship.'--Sellar. Cf. Livy,
1. 16. 2, 3. Prose translation in Sellar, _Roman Poets of the Republic_,
p. 110. 3. qualem...genuerunt: How great a guardian of our country did
the gods create in thee!--Sellar. 4. O pater, o genitor: pater is a
title of respect, genitor the actual parent. sanguen: an ante-classic
neuter collateral form of sanguis. 5. intra luminis oras: within the
realms of light (Sellar), a favorite expression with later poets.

_2._ 'Sentiments truly regal and worthy of the race of the Aeacidae.'
Cicero, _De Officiis,_ 1. 12.

This is Pyrrhus' reply to Fabricius and other envoys sent to negotiate
for the ransom of the Roman prisoners after the battle of Heraclea, 280
B.C.

Prose translation and fine comment in Sellar, Roman Poets of the
Republic, p. 99.

1. dederitis: perfect subjunctive in a prohibition. 2. nec cauponantes
bellum: not making petty traffic of war. 3. vitam: accusative of
specification. 5. accipe: to Fabricius, while ducite (1. 8) is to all
the envoys. 7. eorundem: scanned as three syllables. 8.
volentibus...dis: under favor of the great gods.--Sellar. Final s in
volentibus as in vivus (_Selection_ 8. 2) is neglected in scanning.

_4._ These lines were often quoted. They are imitated by Vergil,
_Aeneid,_ 6. 845-846:

  Tu Maximus ille es,
  unus qui nobis cunctando restituis rem.

Prose translation in Sellar, Roman Poets of the Republic, p. 106.

1. cunctando: by biding his time.--Sellar. rem equals rem publicam. 2.
noenum equals ne, not + oenum, old form of unum, one. This eventually
contracts into non. rumores: what men said of him.--Sellar.

_5._ One of the grandest lines in Latin poetry. Cicero says of it (_De
Republica_, 5.1): 'For brevity and for truth it is like the utterance of
some oracle.'

1. Moribus...virisque: By olden custom and great men Rome stands.
virisque: of. Sir William Jones, _An Ode in Imitation of Alcaeus_:

  What constitutes a state?
  Not high-raised battlement, nor labored mound,
  Thick wall or moated gate:
  Not cities fair with spires and turrets crowned:
  No;--men, high-minded men,--...
  Men, who their duties know,
  But know their rights, and knowing dare maintain.

_6._ From the _Telamo_, spoken by Telamon on receiving tidings of his
son's death. Sellar describes the passage as 'this strong and scornful
triumph over natural sorrow.'

Prose translation in Sellar, _Roman Poets of the Republic_, p. 113.

1. ei re sustuli: to that end (i.e. with full knowledge of the fact) I
bred them. re: dative, B. 52, 3; A. & G. 98, d, NOTE.

_7._ From the _Telamo_. This is Epicurean doctrine. Cf. Tennyson, _The
Lotos-Eaters, Choric Song_ at end:

  like Gods together, careless of mankind.
  For they lie beside their nectar, and the bolts are hurl'd
  Far below them in the valleys, and the clouds are lightly curl'd
  Round their golden houses, girdled with the gleaming world:
  Where they smile in secret, looking over wasted lands,
  Blight and famine, plague and earthquake, roaring deeps and fiery
sands,
  Clanging fights, and flaming towns, and sinking ships, and praying
hands.
  But they smile, _etc_.

Prose translation in Sellar, _Roman Poets of the Republic_, p. 78.

1. deum: genitive with which caelitum agrees. 3. abeat: is not so.--
Sellar.

_8._ Prose translation in Sellar, _Roman Poets of the Republic_, p. 76.
Note the alliterations in the passage. 1. dacrumis: older form of
lacrimis and related to it as dingua to lingua. nec...faxit: and let
none weep at my funeral, faxit is perfect subjunctive. 2.
Volito...virum: I still live as I fly along the lips of men. _Cf_.
Vergil, _Georgics_, 3. 9: victorque virum volitare per ora, and
Shakspere, _Sonnet_ 82:

  You still shall live--such virtue hath my pen--
  Where breath most breathes, even in the mouths of men.



II. LUCRETIUS.

98-55 B.C.

  Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas
  atque metus omnis et inexorabile fatum
  subiecit pedibus strepitumque Acherontis avari.
             Vergil, _Georgics_, 2. 490-492.


  He...died
  Chief poet on the Tiber-side.
              Mrs. Browning, _Vision of Poets_.

This doctrine of Lucretius, though antagonistic to the popular religion,
is not atheistic or pantheistic; it is not definite enough to be
theistic. It is rather the twilight between an old and a new faith.--
Sellar, _Roman Poets of the Republic_, p. 355.

The joy and glory of his art come second in his mind to his passionate
love of truth, and the deep moral purport of what he believes to be the
one true message for mankind. The human race lies fettered by
superstition and ignorance; his mission is to dispel their darkness by
that light of truth which is 'clearer than the beams of the sun and the
shining shafts of day.'--Mackail, _Latin Literature_, p. 43.

The _De Rerum Natura_, Lucretius' only work, left at his death
unfinished, is a didactic poem in six books which aims to give an
explanation of the origin and nature of the universe. All things are
declared to be composed of atoms--even the soul, which is therefore
mortal--and have been developed by a process of 'evolution' and
'survival of the fittest' under the uninterrupted control of natural
law. Gods exist, but have little to do with the world. On the ethical
side contentment, self-control, obedience, humility, are earnestly
enjoined.

The style abounds in archaism, alliteration, and assonance. The frequent
use of new compounds is a noticeable peculiarity of the diction.

Jerome states that the wife of Lucretius gave him a love-philtre which
took away his reason so that, after composing in his lucid intervals
several books, which were afterward corrected by Cicero, he died by his
own hand.

Sellar is inclined to accept this story as a 'meagre and distorted
record of tragical events in the poet's life.' On the basis of this
legend and an appreciative study of the _De Rerum Natura_, Tennyson
composed his _Lucretius_.

For Reference: Sellar, _Roman Poets of the Republic_, chapters 11-14;
Munro, _Text of Lucretius, with Notes and Introduction_ (4th. edition,
Cambridge, 1886); Mackail, _Latin Literature_ (New York, 1898), pp. 44-
46 (Lucretius as anticipating theories of modern science).

Metre: Dactylic Hexameter, B. 368; A. & G. 615.

_1._ 2. animi: a locative form, B. 232, 3; A. & G. 358. 3. thyrso: see
_Lex_. II. A and B. 5-10. Often imitated, as by Vergil, _Georgics_, 3.
291-293. 5, 6. mente...loca: I traverse in blooming thought the pathless
haunts of the Pierides.--Munro. 7. iuvat: I love.--Munro. 11,12. artis
religionum nodis: Lucretius teaches that, since the gods do not govern
the world, all rites of worship are needless, and, since the soul is
mortal, punishment after death is not to be feared. Cf. Tennyson,
_Lucretius_:

  My golden (cf. aurea, _Selection_ 2. 12) work in which I told a truth
  That stays the rolling Ixionian wheel,
  And numbs the Fury's ringlet-snake and plucks
  The mortal soul from out immortal hell.

Religio is probably derived from the root lig, meaning to bind. The
Roman felt his religion to be a fetter upon him. 14. contingens:
o'erlaying, a compound of tango.--Munro.

_2._ 2. commoda: the true interests.--Munro. 3. o...decus: Epicurus, who
is praised in many passages. (See Sellar, _Roman Poets of the Republic_,
p. 298 ff.) His bold and, comprehensive thinking is characterized as
follows (1. 72-74):

  Ergo vivida vis animi pervicit, et extra
  processit longe flammantia moenia mundi
  atque omne inmensum peragravit mente animoque.

6, 7. quid...cycnis: for in what respect could the swallow vie with
swans? 8. consimile...et: that could compare with. 16. terrores: of
superstition. To remove these by demonstrating the uncontested supremacy
in the universe of natural law is Lucretius' main purpose. moenia ff.:
Lucretius thinks of the earth as at rest in the centre of our system,--
or mundus,--surrounded by the air in which move the moon and the sun.
The air is encompassed by the fiery aether,--or flammantia moenia mundi,
'the flaming walls of the world,'--which, as it rotates, carries the
stars with it. Beyond is the 'illimitable inane' (inmensum inane) in
which are set an infinite number of other worlds, and in the midst of
these the dwellings where the gods 'live the great life...center'd in
eternal calm' (deos securum agere aevom, 6. 58). To the poet's
instructed vision aether opens and earth becomes transparent. 18-24.
Inspired by _Odyssey_, 6. 42-45. Cf. Tennyson, _Lucretius_:

  The Gods, who haunt
  The lucid interspace of world and world,
  Where never creeps a cloud, or moves a wind,
  Nor ever falls the least white star of snow,
  Nor ever lowest roll of thunder moans,
  Nor sound of human sorrow mounts to mar
  Their sacred everlasting calm!

and his description of the

  island-valley of Avilion,
  Where falls not hail, or rain, or any snow,
  Nor ever wind blows loudly

in the _Passing of Arthur_. Observe the melody of the Latin due to the
skilful alliteration, and cf. Munro's translation of it for a like
effect.

25. nusquam apparent: Lucretius has proved that they do not exist. 26.
nec...dispiciantur: though earth is no bar to all things being
descried.--Munro. 28, 29. voluptas adque horror:
delight mixed with shuddering awe.--Munro.

_3._ 1-4. Zephyr and Flora precede Spring and Venus. viai: genitive of
archaic form dependent on cuncta, translate as all the way. 5. loci:
partitive genitive after inde; translate the two words by then. 8.
aliae...ventique: other stormy winds, i.e. Volturnus and Auster. 10.
bruma: midwinter.

_4._ 1. Ergo: because of visions of the night and day and because of
their observation of natural phenomena men at large came to the
incorrect belief that the gods govern the world. (Lucretius denies the
providence of the gods, not their existence.) 2. tradere, facere:
infinitives used substantively in apposition to perfugium. 3. templa:
realms. 5. severa: stern, austere. Properly the epithet of noctis, but
poetically transferred to signa. 6. faces, flammae: meteors. 7. The
heaping up of substantives without a copula is not uncommon in
Lucretius. 8. fremitus: distant, rumbling thunder. murmura magna
minarum: the near loud, threatful thunderclaps.--Munro. minarum is
equivalent to a limiting adjective. 13. velatum: the Romans prayed with
covered head. 14. vertier: middle. The reference is to a Roman custom by
which the suppliant approached with the statue on his right; after
praying, he turned to the right so as to face it and then prostrated
himself. 17. vota: votive tablets. 18 ff. It is true piety, not to
perform these rites, but to possess a tranquil mind, and this is
difficult, for the grandeur and terror of nature are almost
overwhelming. 20. super fixum: fast above.--Munro. 21. et...viarum: and
direct our thoughts to the courses of the sun and moon.--Munro. viarum:
B. 206, 3. 26. rationis egestas: lack of power to solve the question.--
Munro. 27. genitalis origo: birthtime.--Munro. 28. quoad: how long. 34.
contrahitur: shrink into itself.--Munro. 38. corripiunt: like
contrahitur, but stronger. 40. poenarum: genitive depending on solvendi.
45. viris quae ff.: powers sufficient to, etc.

LUCRETIUS AS OBSERVER AND WORD-PAINTER.--The following groups of phrases
and sentences are given as illustrative of the accuracy, variety, and
splendor of Lucretius' descriptions:

1. _Shells on the Shore._

  Concharumque genus parili ratione videmus
  pingere telluris gremium, qua mollibus undis
  litoris incurvi bibulam pavit aequor arenam. 2. 374-376.

2. _The Stars._

  Candida sidera. 5. 1210.
  micant aeterni sidera mundi. 5. 514.
  Simul ac primum sub diu splendor aquai
  ponitur, extemplo caelo stellante serena
  sidera respondent in aqua radiantia mundp. 4. 211-213.
  caeli labentia signa. 1. 2.
  fervida signa. 5. 628.
  Raraque per caelum cum venti nubila portant
  tempore nocturno, tum splendida signa videntur
  labier adversum nimbos atque ire superne. 4. 443-445.
  totum circum tremere aethera signis. 1. 1089.

3. _The Sky._

  stellis fulgentibus apta
  concutitur caeli domus. 6. 357-358.
  signiferi super aetheris aestas. 6. 481.
  caeli lucida templa. 1. 1014.
  altaque caeli
  densebant procul a terris fulgentia templa. 5. 490-491.

4. _The Sun._

  sol lumine conserit arva. 2. 210-211.
  rosea sol alte lampade lucens. 5. 610.
  aeternum lampada mundi. 5. 402.



III. CATULLUS.

84-54 B.C.

Odi et amo. _Carmen_ 85. 1.

  Si tamen e nobis aliquid nisi nomen et umbra
    restat, in Elysia valle Tibullus erit:
  obvius huic venias, hedera iuvenalia cinctus
    tempora, cum Calvo, docte Catulle, tuo.
                Ovid, _Amores_, 3. 9. 59-62.

  Tenderest of Roman poets...
  Sweet Catullus.
         Tennyson, '_Frater, Aae atque Vale._'

Catullus is the greatest lyric poet of Roman literature.

With the exception of c. 61, it is in his shorter poems that Catullus
achieves his greatest success. The poet does not handle dactylic
measures quite easily; on the other hand, he is masterly in the lighter
lyrical forms. The harmony of substance and form, the refinement and
transparent clearness of the thoughts, are incomparable, as are the
grace, strength, and warmth of feeling in the shorter pieces.

Teuffel, Schwabe, and Warr, _History of Roman Literature_, vol. 1, p.
391 ff.

Catullus, born at Verona in Cisalpine Gaul, came early to Rome, where
most of his short life was spent. He has left us about 116 poems, most
of them brief, but a few of considerable length. The ultimate
preservation of these depended upon the fortunate rediscovery at Verona
of a single copy. Several of them imitate the learned and artificial
style of the Alexandrine school of Greek poetry. It is on this account
that Ovid applies to him the epithet doctus.

For Reference: Sellar, _Roman Poets of the Republic_, chapter 15;
Robinson Ellis, _A Commentary on Catullus_ (2d edition, Oxford, 1889);
Merrill, _Catullus_ (Boston, 1893); Ellis, _Translation of Catullus_
(London, 1871).

Metres: Phalaecian, A. & G. 623, 624, 625. 11: _Selections_ 1, 3, 4, 5.
Choliambic, A. & G. 618, a, b, c: _Selection_ 6. Elegiac, B. 369, 1, 2;
A. &. G. 616: _Selections_ 2, 7-9.

_1._ 2. oppositast: equals opposita est. The joke turns on the double
meaning of opponere, to expose and to mortgage. We may render the
passage as,--My little farm is not exposed to the drafts of the south
wind...but to a draft for, etc. 3. Apeliotae: a Greek word for east
wind, meaning from the sun, i.e. from the region where the sun rises.
For declension see B. 22; A. & G. 44. 4. ducentos: sc. sestertios. The
sestertius was worth from four to five cents. 5. O ventum...pestilentem:
O unhealthy draft!

_2._ Latin did not naturally use h at all with consonants nor favor its
use before vowels. Greek, however, frequently employs the aspirated
consonants ch, ph, and th as well as the rough breathing; and, though in
earlier times the Romans were satisfied to take Greek words over into
their language without aspirating, e.g. Corintus for [Greek: Korinthos],
in later times aspirating became a fashion. Of this fashion Arrius is an
unskilful follower, who, while believing himself to be achieving a fine
reputation for good form, makes himself a target for the ridicule of
Catullus.

1. vellet: imperfect subjunctive in the protasis of a general condition,
B. 302, 1, 3, a; A. & G. 518, c. 3. sperabat: he used to flatter
himself. 4. quantum poterat: with might and main. Arrius makes all the
display that he can of his elegant (?) accomplishment. 5. liber:
implying that Arrius' uncle had been a slave and that the family is of
humble origin. Catullus thus intimates that what Arrius thinks an
accomplishment really stamps him as of low birth. 7. misso: sent to
Syria on some public service, perhaps with Crassus in 55 B.C. 8.
audibant: B. 116, 4, b; A. & G. 183, 1. leniter et leviter: the devotees
of the aspirating fashion whom Arrius had left behind in Rome were not
so obtrusive about it as he, did not speak out 'quantum poterant.' 9.
postilla: equals postea. 11. Ionios: news of Arrius would come soon from
the Ionian Sea, for, lying as it did to the west of Greece, it would
soon be reached by him on his eastward journey. isset: B. 116, 1; A. &
G. 181, b.

The following is Martin's translation:

  Whenever Arrius wished to name
  'Commodious,' out 'chommodious' came:
  And when of his intrigues he blabbed,
  With his 'hintrigues' our ears he stabbed;
  And thought, moreover, he displayed
  A rare refinement when he made
  His h's thus at random fall
  With emphasis most guttural.
  When suddenly came news one day
  Which smote the city with dismay,
  That the Ionian seas a change
  Had undergone, most sad and strange;
  For, since by Arrius crossed, the wild
  'Hionian Hocean' they were styled.

_3._ 1. Veneres: the plural is symmetrical with Cupidines, while
suggesting 'the Graces.' 2. et...venustiorum: and all who have a soul
for beauty. hominum: partitive genitive. venustiorum: B. 240, 1; A. & G.
291, a. The expression describes those who possess qualities of grace
and charm, and implies that they can appreciate such qualities. 3.
puellae: probably Clodia, wife of Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer, to whom
under the name of 'Lesbia' Catullus addressed a number of poems. His
attachment for her was the 'one all-absorbing passion of the poet's
life.' 6. mellitus: a honey. suamque: his lady. Catullus speaks of the
sparrow in language appropriate to a lover. 11. iter tenebricosum: the
shadowy journey to Hades. 12. Cf. _Hamlet_, 3. 1:

  The undiscover'd country from whose bourn
  No traveller returns.

13. At...tenebrae: Evil be to you, evil shadows! 17. tua opera: for you,
i.e. for the sparrow, ablative of cause. 18. turgiduli...ocelli: my
girl's pretty eyes are so red and swollen.

_4._ 2. antistans...trecentis: worth a million of the rest to me.
milibus: depends on antistans, B. 187, III, 1; A. & G. 370. 4. Anum:
aged, used as an adjective. 5. mini: B. 188, c; A. & G. 378, 1. nuntii:
plural, though for a single message. 6. Hiberum: genitive plural. 7.
facta: deeds. 8. adplicansque collum: i.e. with arm about your neck
drawing you to me. 10. Cf. 1, 2 and note on venustiorum. Translate O! of
happy, happy mortals. 11. quid: a 'neuter not very rare in Latin in
similar sweeping appeals.'--Merrill.

_5._ Date, 56 B.C. 1. egelidos: in which there is no chill. 4. Catullus
is at the end of a year of absence in Bithynia on the staff of Memmius
the governor, and is about to return to Italy. Phrygii campi: the plains
about Nicaea. 6. claras Asiae urbes: the famous Greek cities on the
western coast of Asia Minor, as Ephesus, Smyrna. 7. praetrepidans:
tremulous with anticipation. 9. comitum: the other members of the
governor's staff, or cohors. 11. diversae variae: separate and varied.

_6._ Date, 56 B.C. Sirmione (Sirmio) is a peninsula--at high water an
island--extending into the Lago di Garda (Lacus Benacus). An ancient
ruin here of Constantine's time was long known as Catullus' villa. Cf.
with this and the ninth selection Tennyson's '_Frater, Ave atque Vale_':

  Row us out from Desenzano, to your Sirmione row!
  So they row'd and there we landed--'O venusta Sirmio!'
  There to me thro' all the groves of olive in the summer glow,
  There beneath the Roman ruin where the purple flowers grow,
  Came that 'Ave atque Vale' of the poet's hopeless woe,
  Tenderest of Roman poets nineteen hundred years ago,
  'Prater, Ave atque Vale'--as we wander'd to and fro
  Gazing at the Lydian laughter of the Garda Lake below
  Sweet Catullus' all-but-island, olive-silvery Sirmio!

1, 2. Paene insularum...ocelle: pearl of all peninsulas. Paene is used
as an adjective by a Greek construction, A. & G. 321, c. Cf. Ovid,
_Heroides_, 15.357, paene puer. ocelle: cf. Milton, _Paradise Regained_,
4. 240, 'Athens, the eye of Greece.' 3. fert...Neptunus: twin-realmed
(Cranstoun) Neptune upholds in lakes or sea. fert: Poseidon, according
to Homer, is the earth-upholding. Cf. _Exodus_ 20.4 'the water under the
earth.' uterque: i.e. as god of stagna (lakes) and of mare. 5. Thyniam:
the part of Bithynia on the shore of the Thracian Bosporus. 6. liquisse:
the poets are fond of using uncompounded forms of verbs. Cf. 5, 4,
linquantur. 7. O...curis: 'The form of expression suggests that the
cares now past are, as past, actual pleasures.'--Ellis. 8, 9. peregrine
labore: the toil of travel. larem: the home, lit. the household god. 11.
Hoc...tantis: This it is that of itself is a compensation for so great
labors. 12. venusta: Ellis praises 'the beauty of Sirmio, with its high
cliffs descending into the transparently blue water, and the exquisite
color of the surrounding land and sky.' ero gaude: be glad for thy
master, i.e. thy master bids thee 'Rejoice!' 13. Lydiae: the shores of
the lake were once occupied by Etruscans, and they were said to have
come originally from Lydia. The epithet is transferred from lacus to
undae. 14. quidquid...cachinnorum: the clause is to be taken as a
vocative.

_7._ 2. Calve: Calvus was an accomplished orator and poet. Of his
literary work almost nothing remains. He was Catullus' intimate friend
and is often mentioned with him. 3. desiderio: yearning, in apposition
to dolore, defining and specializing it. 4. olim missas: lost in by-gone
days, missas equals amissas. Cf. _Selection_ 6, 6 and note. 6.
Quintiliae: Calvus' young wife. Calvus himself wrote elegies in her
memory.

_8._ This poem was sent to Hortensius introducing a translation from the
Greek poet Callimachus (which is possibly Carmen 66 and of the _Coma
Berinices_). 2. Ortale: Q. Hortensius Ortalus, Cicero's chief rival as
an orator. virginibus: the Muses. 3. fetus: fruitage. 4. mens animi: my
thoughtful soul. Cicero, _De Republica_, 2.40.67, describes the mens as
pars animi. 5, 6. Lethaeo gurgite manans unda: the wave slow-streaming
from the gulf of oblivion. The 'river of death' which the brother of
Catullus has just crossed (Catullus says forded) to return no more, is
called Lethaean (Greek [Greek: lethe], 'forgetfuluess'), since the dead
forget the living, and the living the dead. 6. pallidulum: poor, pallid
foot. 7. Rhoeteo: Rhoeteum was a promontory of the Troad. 8. obterit:
crushes. 13. Daulias: the nightingale, lit. the (transformed) woman of
Daulis. Catullus has taken this name from the legend of Tereus (see
_Harper's Classical Dictionary_, 'Tereus'), while he has followed the
myth as it appears in Odyssey, 19. 518 ff., where the plaintive song of
the nightingale is represented as the lamentation of Aedon for her child
Itylus, whom before her transformation into the nightingale 'she slew
unwittingly with the bronze.' 15. haec expressa carmina Battiadae: these
verses translated from Callimachus. Callimachus of Cyrene, 'the son of
Battus,' was a Greek poet of the Alexandrine school. His death occurred
about 240 B.C. 16. nequiquam...ventis: i.e. ineffectual.

_9._ 'An invocation accompanying offerings at the tomb of the poet's
brother.'--Merrill. Catullus probably made this visit to the Troad on
his Bithynian journey. Date, probably 57 B.C. 2. miseras ad inferias:
for these sad offerings. The inferiae, or offerings to the dead,
consisted of wine, milk, blood, honey, flowers, etc. 4. nequiquam: no
answer would be returned. 6. indigne: wrongfully, because his death was
premature. 7. Nunc tamen interea: But now while I thus am sorrowing,
interea, as in 14. 21, 36. 18, and _Ciris_, 44 ff., marks the transition
from reflection upon a situation to the act which that situation demands
at the moment. 9. multum manantia: drenched. 10. ave atque vale: the
formula of farewell to the dead, spoken at the conclusion of the funeral
ceremonies. Cf. Vergil, _Aeneid_, 11. 97 ff.



IV. VERGIL.

70-19 B.C.

  Roman Vergil, thou that singest
    Ilion's lofty temples robed in fire,
  Ilion falling, Rome arising,
    Wars, and filial faith, and Dido's pyre;

  Thou that singest wheat and woodland,
    Tilth and vineyard, hive and horse and herd;
  All the charm of all the Muses
    Often flowering in a lonely word;

  Poet of the happy Tityrus
    Piping underneath his beechen bowers;
  Poet of the poet-satyr
    Whom the laughing shepherd bound with flowers;

  I salute thee, Mantovano,
    I that loved thee since my day began,
  Wielder of the stateliest measure
   Ever molded by the lips of man.

                    Tennyson, _To Vergil_.

Vergil, as the author of the _Bucolics_ and the _Aeneid_, is already
known to the student. The _Georgics_ were composed after the former and
before the latter, since they were begun in 36 B.C. and finished in 29
B.C. Hesiod's _Works and Days_ supplied a partial model, and the
influence of Lucretius was powerful. The poet shows an intense
enthusiasm for his subject, which Mr. Merivale asserts to be the
Glorification of Labor. The First Book treats of the tillage of the
ground, the Second of the culture of trees and of the vine, the Third of
the care of the animals bred by the farmer, and the Fourth and last of
bee-keeping. Elegant episodes diversify the poem, the longest of which
we extract. The dedication of the _Georgics_ is to Maecenas. Their
extent is about 2200 lines.

For Reference: Conington's _Vergil_, Fifth Edition, revised by
Haverfield, George Bell and Sons, London, 1898, Vol. I, pp. 135-165, and
notes upon _Georgics_, 4. 315-558.

Metre: Dactylic Hexameter, B. 368; A. & G. 615.

_1._ Servius twice tells us (_Eclogues_ 10. 1 and _Georgics_ 4. 1) that
the poet Cornelius Gallus was Vergil's friend, and that the latter half
of the fourth _Georgic_ was originally written in his praise, but that
this was suppressed at the command of Augustus and the tale of Aristaeus
substituted. Gallus, we remember, appears in the sixth and tenth
_Eclogues_. The story of his disgrace by the emperor and his suicide is
a familiar one.

Aristaeus, having lost his bees 'by disease and hunger,' is commanded by
the nymph Cyrene, his mother, to obtain from the sea-god Proteus the
reason for this manifestation of divine displeasure. He learns that it
is because Eurydice, the wife of Orpheus, has perished as a result of
his amorous pursuit; and the story of Orpheus' descent to the lower
world to recover her is narrated to him. Then Cyrene instructs him how
to secure a new swarm. 1. hanc...artem: this method of obtaining new
swarms of bees by slaying cattle and allowing bees to form in their
decaying bodies. 3. Peneia Tempo: Tempe is a beautiful valley in
Thessaly through which the river Peneus flows. 5. extremi: i.e. the
rising river. amnis: the Peneus. 7. gurgitis: flood. 9. Thymbraeus:
Thymbra was a city near Troy where there was a temple of Apollo. 10.
fatis: by the fates, B. 189, 2; A. & G. 375. nostri: objective genitive,
11. caelum sperare: Aristaeus was deified after death. 12. honorem:
honor from the possession of wealth. 14. relinquo: leave with
reluctance, lose. 15. Quin age: _Why not go on?_ in ironical
remonstrance. 17. molire: wield, imperative. 18. taedia: loathing of my
praise, B. 55, 4, c. The plural expresses the aversion on each occasion.
19. thalamo sub: in the deep river's chamber. Sub governs thalamo, but
follows it. Cyrene, as daughter of the river-god Peneus, dwells in
subterranean chambers at the source of that stream. She is at this time
in the thalamo described in 60 ff. Aristaeus enters through the river,
thought of as emerging from the earth a full-grown stream, the waters
arching over his head to admit him. He passes beneath the earth where he
sees groves and lakes, and rivers which are presently to issue as the
various streams of the upper world. 20. Milesia: the wool of Miletus, a
city on the west coast of Asia Minor, was famous. 21. carpebant: were
plucking the fleeces, i.e. spinning. hyali...colore: dyed with the rich,
glass-green color. 22. A similar catalogue of names is in _Iliad_, 18.
39 ff. Drymoque: que is long according to Greek usage before the double
consonant beginning the next word. 28. auro ff.: arrayed in skins
embroidered with threads of gold. 31 ff. _Odyssey_, 8. 34. mollia pensa:
their soft tasks. See _Lex_. pendo II, pensum, B, 1. 35. impulit: struck
his mother's ears. 39. procul: sc. dixit. frustra: idly, without reason.
42. nomine: ablative of specification. 43. nova: strange. 44. age:
quick. 46. qua ff.: purpose clause, that the youth might enter there.
48. misit: let him pass, lit. sent him. He enters the earth through the
opening by which the Peneus finds exit. 52. sub...terra: so Plato in the
myth of the _Phaedo_ conceives of rivers as penetrating the depths of
the earth. 53 ff. For the rivers named see _Lex_. 57. cornua: accusative
of specification. voltu: dative, B. 49, 2; A. & G. 89. 60. in thalami
pendentia pumice tecta: tecta may be regarded either as participle or
noun. In the former case thalami tecta, 'the covered things of the
chamber,' equals thalamum teclum, 'the covered chamber,' as strata
viarum equals stratae viae; pendentia pumice tecta, roofs or covered
things hanging with pumice (ablative of instrument) equals pendente
pumice tecta, roofs of hanging pumice (ablative of description).
Translate: into the chamber roofed with arching pumice. 61. inanis:
since so easily removed, accusative plural. 63. tonsis...villis: of
shorn nap, smooth and soft. 64. onerant: B. 254, 4, a; A. & G. 317, d.
65. Panchaeis ignibus: incense-burning flames. Panchaea was a fabulous
island, east of Arabia, rich in incense. 66. et mater: sc. dixit.
Maeonii: Lydian. Bacchi: the wine, as Vestam (1. 70) is the fire, the
deities being named for that over which they preside. 69. centum: simply
expressing a large number. 71. subiecta: shooting up. 73 ff. This part
of the story has its original in _Odyssey_ 4. The Carpathian Sea is
between Crete and Rhodes. 74. caeruleus: an epithet applied to Proteus
as a god of the azure sea. 75. The yoked chariot of two-footed steeds
equals the chariot yoked to two-footed steeds. 77. Pallenen: a peninsula
of Emathia, or Macedonia. 79. quae...trahantur: what in the near future
is drawn on in the chain of events. 83. eventusque secundet: and may
make the issue favorable. 94. fulva cervice: ablative of description.
101. ambrosiae: used as an ointment, as _Iliad_, 14. 170, Aeneid,
12.419. 102. perduxit: anointed; _Lex_. perduco, I. C. 1. 105, 106.
quo...reductos: whither many a billow marches before the wind and
divides into files that fall back, cogo and reductos may be used in a
military sense. The wind is the rear-guard of the marching files of
billows formed as the main wave enters an indentation in the shore. As
the wave divides, all the secondary waves pursue the original direction,
but the outer ones are retarded, as compared with the middle ones, and
seem to fall back. Statio, just below, is familiar as a military term.
Or reductos sinus can mean the depths of the bay. 107. deprensis:
weather-bound. 108. vasti...obiice saxi: by the barrier of a vast rock,
i.e. behind a rock. 109. averaum a lumine: in the darkness. 114.
faucibus: i.e. the deep-cut channels. Perhaps the author intends with a
bold personification to speak of the almost dried-up rivers as
dry-throated, siccis faucibus would then be well taken as ablative of
description. 115. antra: plural in view of the many chambers. 117. rorem
amarum: the bitter dew, beautifully used of the salt spray. 121. acuunt:
whet the wolves, i. e. their hunger. 131. Nam quis equals quisnam, Who
pray?  Surprise is expressed. 133. neque est: nor is it possible, used
with infinitive in Greek construction, _Lex_. 1 sum, I, B, 5, 6, e. 135.
lassis rebus: shattered fortunes. 137. glauco: azure. 139.
Non...nullius: double negative for greater emphasis. It is in very truth
the wrath of a god that pursues thee. irae: B. 55,4, c; A. & G. 100, c.
141. haud quaquam ob meritum poenas: penalties by no means on account of
thy guilt, i.e. less than thy guilt. 147-149. Rhodope and Pangaeus are
mountains, the Getae a tribe, Hebrus a river,--all in Thrace. Athenian
Orithyia, daughter of Erechtheus, king of Athens, was carried by Boreas
to Thrace, where she bore Calais and Zetes. As a nymph of the country
she is interested in the fate of the Thracian Orpheus and Eurydice. 153.
Taenarias: a cavern on the promontory of Taenarus in Laconia was fabled
to be the entrance of the infernal regions. 157. Erebi: Greek [Greek:
Erebos], a place of darkness, i.e. the lower world. 159 ff. Cf. _Aeneid_
6. 309-312. 161 ff. Cf. _Aeneid_ 6. 306-308. 165 ff. Cf. _Aeneid_ 6.
438-439. 167, 168. intima Leti Tartara: the inmost prison cells of
death. crinibus: dative. anguis: accusative of specification. 169.
Eumenides: the Furies, deities who punish crime; even they are moved by
Orpheus' song. Cerberus: the three-headed dog at the entrance of Hades
who kept the spirits from escaping. 171. Ixion, for an attempt upon the
chastity of Juno, was bound to an ever-revolving wheel. vento: ablative
of cause. The logic is loose; because of the wind's stopping. 173. pone:
adverb. Cf. _Aeneid_, 2. 208. 177. animi: locative genitive, B. 232, 3;
A. & G. 358. 179. stagnis: ablative of source. 182. natantia: swimming.
188. praeterea vidit: saw him more, praeterea here equalling postea.
192. nabat: was sailing. 194. Strymonis: a river on the borders of
Thrace. 196. agentem: that trees followed the music of Orpheus became
one of the commonplaces of poetry. 197-201. Notice the sweetness of
sound due to the alliteration, especially of the liquids. 202. hymenaei:
nuptials. 203. Hyperboreas: Hyperborean, i.e. northern, lit. beyond the
north wind. Tanaim: now the Don, a river named here, as are the Rhipaei
monies of the following line, because belonging to the cold, distant,
desolate North. 204. numquam viduata: never bereaved, with a thought of
the bereaved Orpheus. The setting corresponds to the situation. The grim
landscape is forever wedded to its desolation as Orpheus to his
bereavement. 206. Ciconum: a Thracian people. munere: tribute to the
dead. The word is used technically of funeral honors. 206-213. Cf.
_Lycidas_, 61-63:

  By the rout that made the hideous roar
  His gory visage down the stream was sent,
  Down the swift Hebrus to the Lesbian shore.

210. Oeagrius: Oeagrius was a king of Thrace and father of Orpheus. 213.
referebant: echoed with. Cf. Pope, _Ode on St. Cecilia's Day_, 113-116:

  Yet ev'n in death Eurydice he sung,
  Eurydice still trembled on his tongue,
  Eurydice the woods, Eurydice the floods,
  Eurydice the rocks, and hollow mountains rung.

214. iactudedit: i.e. iecit. 219. choros...agitabat: used to dance.
Agito means to occupy oneself with, as Plautus, Asinaria, 5. 1. 7. 221.
Napaeas: Dell-nymphs, Greek [Greek: napaiai], belonging to a wooded
vale. 225. Lycaei: a mountain of Arcadia. 234. facessit: he despatches.
235-239. The repetitions from 224-232 are in the Homeric manner. 241 ff.
The bees are thought to form within the bodies and to force their way
through the yielding sides. 244. uvam demittere: to let fall a cluster.
The cluster formed by the bees when they alight in swarming resembles a
bunch of grapes.



V. PHAEDRUS.

Flourished about 15 A.D.

Phaedrus, born in Thrace, came to Rome as a slave, and was set free by
Augustus. Under Tiberius he was the victim of political persecution on
account of some verses offensive to Sejanus. He published five books of
fables (with occasional anecdotes) largely imitated from Aesop.

His style is fluent, his tone lively and sometimes coarse, his diction
correct, his verse skilful.--Teuffel, Schwabe, and Warr, _History of
Roman Literature_, vol. 2, p. 30.

For Reference: Teuffel, Schwabe, and Warr, _History of Roman
Literature_, vol. 2, p. 29 ff.

Metre: Iambic Trimeter, B. 370, 1, 2; A. & G. 618, a, b.

_1._ Aesopus: a famous writer of fables, born in Phrygia about 600 B.C.
He is said to have been liberated from slavery, to have lived at Sardis
and to have been Croesus' ambassador to Delphi, where he was murdered by
the angry townspeople, who hurled him over a precipice. Babrius, a Greek
who lived about 100 B.C., made a comprehensive collection of Aesopian
fables which Phaedrus imitated with considerable closeness. 5-7. 'Let no
one censure me for representing trees as speaking; it is merely the play
of fancy and a fable.'

_2._ 4. latro: the robber wolf. 7. Qui: how? Qui is the old
ablative of the relative, interrogative, and indefinite pronouns.

_4._ 1. devocat: allures. 3. Tanto...melior: 'That is good!' See _Lex_.
under tantus, I, C, 3, a, b. 4. prosecutus: and went on to say. See
_Lex_. underprosequor, II, B. 5. unde: equivalent to a quo. 7. dignum
ff.: with a double meaning. 10. namque: for, a strengthened nam.

_5._ This story is also told by Cicero, _De Oratore_, 2. 352 ff., and by
others. 1, 2. Quantum...superius: an earlier fable (4. 23) relates how
Simonides, shipwrecked and destitute, was received most hospitably by
one of his admirers. 4. Simonides: the renowned Greek lyric poet of
Ceos. His ode upon those who fell at Thermopylae was especially famous.
Sterling translates:

  Of those who at Thermopylae were slain,
  Glorious the doom, and beautiful the lot;
  Their tomb an altar: men from tears refrain
  To honor them; and praise, but mourn them not.
  Such sepulchre nor drear decay
  Nor all-destroying time shall waste; this right have they.
  Within their grave the home-bred glory
  Of Greece was laid; this witness gives
  Leonidas, the Spartan, in whose story
  A wreath of famous virtue ever lives.

5. pyctae: a word borrowed directly from the Greek. 8. poetae more:
poets who wrote odes in honor of victories at the games usually inserted
some legend containing an account of a similar victory won by a god or a
hero. 9. gemma Ledae pignera: Castor and Pollux, the latter famous as a
boxer. pignera: see _Lex_. II, B, 1. 10. auctoritatem...gloriae: citing
the authority of a like glory. 11, 12. tertiam partem: only a third. 13.
duae: sc. partes, two-thirds. 24. humanam supra formani: the gods and
heroes were 'divinely tall.' The diminutive servulo is in strong
contrast. 31. Ut...rei: When the incident was told just as it occurred.

Another story of divine interposition on the part of Castor and Pollux
is vividly told by Macaulay in _The Battle of Lake Regillus_.

_6._ Compare with Vergil's account of the oracle given by the Sibyl to
Aeneas, _Aeneid_, 6. 9 ff. Some of the more obvious resemblances in
diction and thought are _Aeneid_, 6. 12, 29, 35, 44, 45, 46 ff., 50, 95,
98, 99, 100.

1. Utilius: equalling a superlative, of highest value. 2. qui ff.:
Delphi was a city in north central Greece and Parnassus a mountain near
it. 4. tripodes: this probably means the golden seat above the cleft in
the ground in the adytum of Apollo's temple at Delphi. On this the
priestess (vates, 1. 3; virgo, 1. 16) sat to breathe the rising vapors
which induced the prophetic ecstasy. The tripus is named from being
supported on three legs. adytis: from [Greek: aduton], 'not to be
entered.' The adyta, or innermost parts of temples, were accessible only
to priests. 5. lauri: the laurel was sacred to Apollo. 6. Pytho: the
former name for Delphi. Pytho is poetically said to speak when the
Pythian priestess speaks. 7. Delii: Delos, an island of the Aegean,
nearly at the centre of the Cyclades, was sacred to Apollo, and was his
birthplace. 12. ite obviam: oppose.

_7._ Plutarch, _Symposiacon Problematon_, V. 1 (Moralia, 674 B, C),
tells essentially this same story. Parmeno, he says, was famous for his
imitation of the grunting of a pig. Even when one came upon the stage
having a real pig concealed under his cloak, the audience cried, 'This
is nothing to compare with the sow of Parmeno.' Then he who had the pig
threw it in the midst of them, 'to show that they judged according to
opinion and not truth.'

1. Pravo favore: prejudice. labi: the metaphor is in evident contrast to
that in stant of 1. 2. 2. pro iudicio...erroris: in defence of their
mistaken judgment. 3. rebus manifestis: the disclosure of the truth. 4.
Facturus ludos: who was about to give an entertainment. 8. scurra: a
city wit. urbano sale: clever jesting, merry cleverness. The Romans
sharply contrasted city manners with those of the country to the
disadvantage of the latter. 12. loca: seats. 18. verum: sc. porcellum.
pallio: mantle or toga. 19. simul: equals simul ac. 21. prosequuntur:
honor. 27. degrunnit: grunts his best. 30. scilicet: to be sure. 32.
vero: sc. porcello. 35. imitatum: sc. esse.



VI. SENECA.

3 B.C.-65 A.D.

Seneca the Younger, or 'the Philosopher,' was born in Spain at Corduba;
was educated at Rome; was banished in 41 A.D. to Corsica by Claudius;
was recalled in 49; became Nero's tutor; largely deserves the credit for
the good government of the early part of that emperor's reign; was
consul in 57, but lost influence with Nero, and was compelled by him to
commit suicide on a charge of participation in the conspiracy of Piso.

His writings are chiefly philosophical and ethical. The frequent close
resemblance of his views to those of Christianity occasioned the
fabrication of a correspondence between himself and St. Paul. St. Jerome
considered this genuine and therefore included him among the Christian
saints.

Nine tragedies of Seneca's composition are extant. These have powerfully
influenced the development of the English and French drama.

His style is forced and ornamental, moving, for the most part, in brief,
disconnected, and often paradoxical sentences.

For Reference: Teuffel, Schwabe, and Warr, _History of Roman
Literature_, vol. 2, p. 38 ff.; Leo, _L. Annaei Senecae Tragoediae_
(Berlin, 1878-1879); Sherburne's _Tragedies of Seneca Translated_
(London, 1702); Kingery, _Three Tragedies of Seneca_ (New York, 1908);
Harris, _The Tragedies of Seneca Translated_ (The Clarendon Press,
1904).

Metres: Anapaestic Dimeter Acatalectic with Anapaestic Dipody,
G. & L. 777, 780, 782: _Selection_ 1. Dactylic Hexameter, B. 368; A. &
G. 615: _Selection_ 2.

_1._ Cf. Horace, _Carmen_, 1. 3. 9-40. 1. Audax: cf. ll. 24, 39. nimium:
cf. l. 8. 7, 8. With too slight a partition dividing the ways of life
and death, i.e. separating from himself by merely a thin plank the sea
in which he would perish. Cf. Juvenal, 12. 57-59. Line 7 nearly equals
inter vitam et mortem. 18. Hyadas: a group of seven stars in the head of
Taurus, whose setting at both the morning and the evening twilight was
attended with storms. 19. Oleniae...caprae: one of the horns of the goat
Amalthea, which fed Jupiter with its milk, was placed among the stars.
The goat was Olenian, i.e. Aetolian. 21. Attica plaustra: Charles' Wain
(the Great Dipper), which Bootes was imagined to drive. The latter
constellation is called tardus as being so placed in the sky that it
requires a long time for its setting. 24. Tiphys: the pilot of the Argo.
28. Thessala pinus: the Argo, the first ship, which, built under the
direction of Pallas, with Jason as leader and heroes like Hercules,
Castor, and Pollux as crew, sailed to Colchis in the Far East in quest
of the Golden Fleece (which perhaps originally meant the fleecy, golden
clouds of sunrise). The Sirens, Scylla, and the Symplegades were some of
the dangers of the journey. Medea, daughter of the king of Colchis,
aided Jason to secure the fleece and fled with him. See Smith,
_Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology_, 'Argonautae.'
32. illa: the Argo. 34. montes: the Symplegades, floating rocks at the
entrance of the Euxine, which clashed together to crush whatever might
come between them. 36. velut...sonitu: groaned as with ethereal sound,
i.e. dashed together with a sound like thunder. 38. mare deprensum: the
sea caught between and forced up by the closing rocks. 42. In the prow
of the Argo was a piece of the speaking oak of Dodona. 43. virgo Pelori:
Scylla. 45. omnes...hiatus: opened all her mouths together. 48. dirae
pestes: the Sirens, maidens who by sweet songs lured sailors to their
shore and devoured them. Orpheus saved his companions by drowning the
Sirens' song with the music of his lyre.

These stories are told in _Odyssey_, 12, in Apollonius Rhodius, 4. 889
ff., and (in English) in Charles Kingsley's _Greek Heroes_.

55. Medea, abandoned by Jason for Creusa, in the later action of this
play slays her rival and her own children. 68-72. Thule: a distant
island not identified,--possibly Iceland, more probably the largest of
the Shetland Islands,--regarded by the ancients as the northern limit of
the known world.

Seneca, considering the progress of maritime discovery in the past, was
led naturally to the thought that new lands would some day be discovered
beyond the ocean. The conception was not new. Cicero, _Tusculanae
Disputationes_, 1. 28, speaks of a south temperate zone, cultivated and
inhabited, unknown to us. This, of course, is not necessarily beyond the
sea, though Mela places it there. Cicero again in _De Republica_, 6. 20
implies that there are other islands than the Roman world surrounded by
other seas than the Atlantic. Plato, _Timaeus_, 24-25, says that beyond
and surrounding the Atlantic there is a vast continent, between which
and the western coast of Europe and of Libya are a number of islands, of
which Atlantis before its submergence was the largest. Strabo, 1. 4. 6,
says it is quite possible that in the temperate zone there may be not
only the island that forms the world as known to his contemporaries, but
two such or even more, especially near the circle of latitude which is
drawn through Athens and the Atlantic Ocean. See Smith, _Dictionary of
Greek and Roman Geography_, 'Atlanticum mare' and 'Atlantis.'

Lowell, in his _Columbus_, represents the discoverer as naming this
passage,--said also by tradition to have made a deep impression on his
mind,--along with Canto XXVI of Dante's _Inferno_ and Plato's _Timaeus_
and _Critias_, as inspiring him to his attempt:

  Then did I entertain the poets' song,
  My great Idea's guest, and, passing o'er
  That iron bridge the Tuscan built to hell,
  I heard Ulysses tell of mountain-chains
  Whose adamantine links, his manacles,
  The western main shook growling and still gnawed.
  I brooded on the wise Athenian's tale
  Of happy Atlantis, and heard Bjorne's keel
  Crush the gray pebbles of the Vinland shore:
  _I listened musing to the prophecy
  Of Nero's tutor-victim_...
  And I believed the poets.

The son of the discoverer wrote in his copy of the tragedies opposite
these lines,--'This prophecy was fulfilled by my father, the Admiral
Christopher Columbus, in the year 1492.'

_2._ Agamemnon returns to Argos after the capture of Troy, his wife
Clytemnestra expressing deep joy at his return. He has brought with him
as a captive Cassandra the seer who, suddenly swooning, sees in
prophetic frenzy Agamemnon's death and her own at the hand of
Clytemnestra and her paramour, Aegistheus. Agamemnon worships Jupiter
and Juno at the altar and then enters the palace to his death.

1, 2. Tandem...terra. Cf. Aeschylus, _Agamemnon_, 503 ff., 810 ff.
laris: Roman coloring. 3. diu: taken with felix. 4. Asiae: objective
genitive, after potentes, B. 204, 1; A. & G. 349, a.
5. vates: Cassandra. corpus: accusative of specification. 7. recipit
diem: i.e. revives. 9. optatus ff.: with a double meaning to the
audience. 10. Festus ff.: Troy fell immediately after the festivities
that celebrated the withdrawal of the Greek fleet. Cf. _Aeneid_, 2. 246
ff. 11. Cecidit ff.: for the death of Priam cf. _Aeneid_, 2. 506 ff. 13.
Priamum: King Agamemnon's fate is to be such as King Priam's. Priam was
slain at the altar, and these altars (aras, 1. 11) awaken forebodings.
14. Ubi ff.: where faithless wives are, is calamity. 15. Libertas: the
freedom of death. 19. dum excutiat deum: until she casts off the
influence of Apollo who has thrown her into the prophetic frenzy. 21.
pater: Jupiter. 24. cuncta: accusative of specification. 25. Argolica
Iuno: Hera had a famous shrine at Argos. For an account of excavations
there see Waldstein, _The Argive Heraeum_. 26. Arabumque donis: incense.
supplice fibra: the entrails of the sacrificed animals (pecore votivo),
whose condition was supposed to indicate the will of the gods.



VII. LUCAN.

39-65 A.D.

Lucan, full of warmth and vehemence, eminently quotable, but, to speak
frankly, one whom, orators rather than poets should imitate.--
Quintilian, 10. 1. 90.

When I consider that Lucan died at twenty-six, I cannot help ranking him
among the most extraordinary men that ever lived.--
Macaulay.

The whole production (the _Pharsalia_) is youthful and unripe, but
indicative of genuine power.--Teuffel, Schwabe, and Warr, _History of
Roman Literature_, vol. 2, p. 78.

Lucan was born in Spain; was taken early to Rome; was carefully
educated; wrote much; and was much admired; but was disliked by Nero,
who forbade him to publish poems or recite them, and finally put him to
death on the charge of complicity in the conspiracy of Piso.

In philosophy Lucan was a Stoic, in style a rhetorician. The
_Pharsalia_, his only extant work, is an epic poem of about eight
thousand lines in ten books on the civil war between Pompey and Caesar.

The Cato of _Selections_ 2-5 is Cato the Younger, or 'the Stoic,' who in
46 B.C. was in Africa in command of a part of the Republican forces
opposed to Julius Caesar. After the decisive defeat at Thapsus he
refused to survive the Republic, taking his own life at Utica. His
memory was revered throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages. Vergil
makes him the lawgiver of Elysium (_Aeneid_, 8. 670), and Dante
represents him as the warden of Purgatory, 'venerable,' his countenance
adorned with the 'rays of the four consecrated stars,' his form destined
to shine brightly on the last day.

  For her [i.e. Liberty] to thee not bitter
  Was death in Utica, where thou didst leave
  The vesture, that will shine so, the great day.

See Longfellow's translation of the _Purgatorio_, with notes, Canto I.

Haskins, _Lucani Pharsalia_, Introduction, pp. 59-60, examines all
allusions to Cato in the _Pharsalia_, and concludes that the picture is
in its main outlines truthful, though the failure to depict 'the
cross-grained perversity that moved the complaints of Cicero' makes it
somewhat one-sided. 'Of course the portrait is colored by a loving hand:
but it is none the worse for that.'

For Reference: Teuffel, Schwabe, and Warr, _History of Roman
Literature_, vol. 2, p. 78 ff. Haskins, _Lucani Pharsalia_ (London,
1889).

Metre: Dactylic Hexameter, B. 368; A. & G. 616.

_2._ 4. deis placuit: that Caesar 'had the strongest battalions' proves
that 'Heaven' was 'on his side.'

_3._ Cato, proceeding by land from the neighborhood of Cyrene toward
Numidia, and coming to the temple of Jupiter Ammon,--geographically
misplaced by Lucan,--is advised by Labienus to consult the god
concerning the outcome of the war and the nature of virtue. The
selection gives his reply. 1. mente gerebat: of. Seneca, _Epistula_ 4.
12 (41). 1, 2. 'God is near you, is with you, is within you. I have this
to say, Lucilius: a sacred spirit has his abode within us.' 3. Labiene:
Caesar's former second-in-command, who went over to Pompey's side at the
beginning of the Civil War and was finally slain at Munda. 5. et: even.
6, 7. Fortuna perdat minas: whether Fortune threatens vainly. 8.
et...honestum: and whether the right never grows more, right by success.
10. Haeremus ff.: We are in constant intercourse with heaven.--Haskins.
11. Sponte dei: by the inspiration of God.--Haskins. 12, 13.
dixit...licet: the inner light of conscience. auctor: the Creator.
15-17. These lines suggested the passage in Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey:

  I have felt...a sense sublime
  Of something far more deeply interfused,
  Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns,
  And the round ocean, and the living air,
  And the blue sky, and in the mind of man;
  A motion and a spirit that impels
  All thinking things, all objects of all thought,
  And rolls through all things.

virtus: Grotius quotes Hierocles: 'God hath not upon earth a place more
truly his than the pure heart,' and the Pythian oracle: 'I joy in
reverent mortals even as in Olympus.' Superos...ultra: Why further do we
seek the gods? Iuppiter...moveris: All that you see, and all your
feelings, that is Jupiter.--Haskins. Cf. Seneca, _De Beneftciis_, 4. 8:
Quocumque te flexeris, ibi ilium videbis occurrentem tibi: nihil ab illo
vacat, opus suum ipse implet. 22. Servata fide: true to his word. 23.
populis: dative, to the multitude, i.e. of Orientals waiting to consult
the oracle.

_4._ 10. Fortuna fuit: i.e. was due to fortune rather than to virtue.
Fortuna is predicate nominative. 14. quam...Iugurthae: i.e. than to win
the victories of Marius.

_5._ This noble portrait is that of an ideal Stoic. Roman life had been
deeply imbued with this philosophy, which had passed beyond the limits
of the schools to become at once a religious creed and a practical code
of morals for everyday use. See Mackail, _Latin Literature_, p. 171. 2.
servare...tenere: to hold fast the mean, to observe the due limit. These
and the following phrases are Stoic formulae. 4. Cf. Seneca, _Epistula_
95 (15.3). 52-53, where he says 'we are members of a great body.' 'Let
this line be both in our hearts and on our lips:

  "Human I am,
  And every human interest is mine."'

See the entire passage. 12. sibi nata: selfish.



VIII. STATIUS.

40-95 A.D.

Statius, whose father before him was a poet, was born at Naples. His
works consist of the _Thebais_, an epic in imitation of the _Aeneid_ and
having for its subject the story of the Seven against Thebes; the
_Achilleis_, intended to celebrate the deeds of Achilles, but never
completed; and the _Silvae_, a collection of thirty-one miscellaneous
poems, of which our selection is one.

For Reference: Fr. Vollmer, _Silvae_, Leipzig, 1898.

Metre: Dactylic Hexameter, B. 368; A. & G. 615.

_1._ 1. placidissime divum: cf. Statius, _Thebais_, 10. 126, 127:
mitissime divum, Somne; Ovid, 11. 623-625-.

  Somne, quies rerum, placidissime Somne deorum,
  pax animi, quem cura fugit, qui corda diurnis
  fessa ministeriis mulces reparasque labori;

and Shakspere, _Macbeth_, II. 2. 37 ff.:

  Sleep that knits up the ravelled sleave of care,
  The death of each day's life, sore labour's bath,...
  Chief nourisher in life's feast.

4. simulant...somnos: rounded tree-tops take the semblance of tired
sleep. cacumina might mean mountain tops, but the parallelism of the
passage with _Aeneid_, 4. 522-528 favors the interpretation as tree-tops.
The trees, their rounded outline no longer broken by the winds,
seem to sleep as if exhausted by their tossing. 6. terris...adclinata:
we are reminded of those Elgin marbles which represent Thalassa, the
personified sea, as resting in the lap of Gaea, the personified land.
Cf. with lines 3-7 Goethe, _Wanderer's Nachtlied_, 1-6: 'Über allen
Gipfeln Ist Ruh, In allen Wipfeln Spürest du Kaum einen Hauch; Die
Vögelein schweigen im Walde.' 7. Septima...Phoebe: the seventh moon-lit
night. 8, 9. totidem...lampades: a second expression of the thought that
it is the seventh night since he has slept. Oetaeae Paphiaeque: the
planet Venus is called Oetaean since poetical tradition pictures it as
shining from above Oeta, a mountain of Thessaly; and Paphian because the
goddess Venus, whose star it is, was worshipped with especial devotion
at Paphos in Cyprus. lampades: each nightly appearance of the star is
poetically thought of as the kindling of a new torch. Tithonia: Aurora,
the dawn, wife of Tithonus, to whom she had been able to give
immortality, but not eternal youth. She is thought of as sprinkling the
dew from the lash with which she drives her chariot team. 13. Argus:
Io's thousand-eyed custodian, who was sacer, devoted to death, since he
was doomed to be slain by Hermes, her liberator. 18. leviter...transi:
pass lightly hovering above me.

Wordsworth's three sonnets _To Sleep_ should all be compared. The best
is as follows:

  A flock of sheep that leisurely pass by,
  One after one; the sound of rain and bees
  Murmuring; the fall of rivers, winds, and seas,
  Smooth fields, white sheets of water and pure sky;
  I have thought of all by turns and still do lie
  Sleepless! and soon the small birds' melodies
  Must hear, first uttered from my orchard trees;
  And the first cuckoo's melancholy cry.
  Even thus last night and two nights more I lay,
  And could not win thee, Sleep, by any stealth;
  So do not let me wear to-night away:
  Without thee what is all the morning's wealth?
  Come, blessed barrier between day and day,
  Dear mother of fresh thoughts and joyous health!



IX. MARTIAL.

43-104 A.D.

He was a man of genius, of quick intelligence and vivacity, with a great
deal of wit and pungency in his writings, and at the same time great
candour.--Pliny, _Epistula_ 3. 21 (Sellar's translation).

Martial was born at Bilbilis in Spain. At twenty-three years of age he
came to Rome, where he resided for thirty-five years in limited
circumstances, returning to his birthplace three years before his death.
He composed fourteen books of Epigrams.

As a man he was social and popular. As a writer he was eminently sincere
(except when playing the courtier), natural, and witty. He had no equal
among the poets of his time as a lifelike painter of the actual world of
his day.

For Reference: Sellar and Ramsay, _Extracts from Martial_ (Edinburgh,
1884), Introduction; Teuffel, Schwabe, and Warr, _History of Roman
Literature_, vol. 2, p. 121 ff.; Friedländer, _Martialis Epigrammaton
Libri_ (Leipzig, 1886); Paley and Stone, _Select Epigrams from Martial_
(London, 1881).

Metres: Choliambic, A. & G. 618, a, b, c. _Selections_ 4, 12.
Phalaecian, A. & G. 623, 624,625. 11: _Selections_ 1, 5, 7, 11. Elegiac,
B. 369, 1, 2; A. & G. 616: _Selections_ 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 13.

_1._ 5. tu: the attorney who is conducting Martial's case. 6. periuria
ff.: to a Roman the name of Carthaginian (_Punicus_) was a synonym for
treachery. 7. Muciosque: Mucius, when captured in an attempt to
assassinate King Porsena, showed his insensibility to threats by
voluntarily holding his hand in the flame of an altar. Livy, 2. 12. The
plurals in this line may be rendered by _Sullas, Mariuses_, etc.

_4._ Bassus is met at various points on the Appian Way farther and
farther out from Rome. 1. pluit: because of the leaky aqueduct above. 2.
Phrygium...ferrum: the priests of Cybele washed their knives in the
Almo, a branch of the Tiber near Kome. 3. Horatiorum...campus: the
traditional scene of the combat between the Horatii and Curiatii. 4.
pusilli: the statue is small. fervet: is alive with worshippers. 10.
coronam: hoop. 12. nondum victa faba: too young yet to crunch the bean.
15. Immo: No indeed!

_5._ 2. sed...fenestra: window-gardens were common in Rome.
4. nemus Dianae: i.e. a forest of 'big timber.' 7. corona: not
understood. 16. sus Calydonius: the type of a huge and ferocious wild
animal. 17. ungue Prognes: the talon of Progne, i.e. of the swallow. For
myth see _Harper's Classical Dictionary_, 'Tereus.' 20. et...picata: a
nut will take the place of the pitch-bedaubed dolium. 22, 23.
praedium...prandium: lands...a lunch.

_6._ To a friend who has long been saying that to-morrow he will change
it all and really live. 4. In the Orient, the region of the sunrise, is
where that happy to-morrow is hiding, if anywhere. 5. These two are
types of longevity.

_7._ 4. focus perennis: a kitchen fire never idle. 5. toga rara:
a dress suit seldom. The toga was connected with burdensome duties, as
with the service of client to patron. 6. vires ingenuae: a gentleman's
measure of strength. 10. torus: wife. 12. quod...malis: Martial's
principle in life, 'to be yourself and not strive to be somebody else.'

_8._ The eruption is that of 79 A.D., which destroyed Herculaneum and
Pompeii. Epistles 6. 16 and 6. 20 of the younger Pliny, and the final
chapters of Bulwer-Lytton's _Last Days of Pompeii_ may be read in this
connection. 1. modo: but now. 2. presserat lacus: had filled the vats.
3. Nysae: a mountain in India where, according to the myth, Bacchus was
born. 5. Veneris sedes: Venus was the protecting deity of Pompeii. 6.
Herculaneum was named from and protected by Hercules. 7. mersa favilla:
Pliny, writing of the eruption, says, Epistula 6. 20. 18, 'Everything
was covered with deep ashes as with snow.' 8. nec...sibi: and the gods
could wish they had not been permitted this.

_9._ When Brutus, the slayer of Caesar, committed suicide after the
defeat at Philippi, his wife Porcia also took her own life. The common
story was that her friends, suspecting her design, removed all weapons
out of her way, and that she thereupon destroyed herself by swallowing
live coals. The real fact may have been that she suffocated herself by
the vapor of a charcoal stove,--a common method of suicide with the
Romans. 4. fatis: by his death. patrem: Cato the Younger, who slew
himself at Utica after the disastrous battle at Thapsus. 6. ferrum:
emphatic.

_10._ 1. Arria: the wife of Caecina Paetus. In 42 A.D., on the
charge of conspiracy against the government, Paetus was ordered by the
Emperor Claudius to put an end to his own life. When he hesitated, Arria
stabbed herself and handed him the dagger, saying, _Paete, non dolet_.

Pliny, _Epistula_ 3. 16. 6, says of her conduct on another occasion
when, fearing the effect of the news on her husband, then dangerously
ill, she concealed from him the death of their son:

Glorious indeed that act of hers, to bare the steel, to thrust her bosom
through, to draw the dagger forth, to hand it to her husband, to add
words immortal and almost divine, 'Paetus, I feel no pain!' But, doing
this and saying this, glory and eternal fame were in her thought. How
much greater is it, without the prize of fame, without the prize of
glory, to hide the tears, conceal the grief, and, bereaved of a son,
still to act the mother! 4. sed...dolet: i.e. it is your wound that will
give me pain.

_11._ 1. Flaminiam: sc. viam. 2. noli...marmor: the roads leading out
from Rome were lined with tombs. 3. salesque Nili: Paris appears to have
been an Egyptian. 6. omnea Veneres Cupidinesque: imitation of Catullus,
3. 1 (_Selection_ 3. 1). 7. Paris: a popular Roman actor, put to death
by Domitian.

_12._ This and the following selection are in memory of a child whose
parents were slaves on Martial's estate. 1. senibus cygnis: 'swans sing
sweetest when they die.' Notice that all the objects with which Erotion
is compared in lines 1-6 are white. Martial is thinking of the whiteness
of her complexion, a quality admired by the Romans. 2. The Tarentine
wool was highly prized. 4. lapillos: pearls. 5. dentem: tusk. 7. Baetici
gregis: the flocks on the Guadalquivir whose wool was naturally of a
yellowish color. 8. Rhenique nodos: the hair of the Germans gathered
into a club. Erotion's hair was the light flaxen of the Teutonic type.
9. Paesti: a city in Lucania, celebrated for its twice-blowing roses,--
Vergil, _Georgics_, 4. 119, biferi rosaria Paesti. 10. Atticarum
cerarum: Attica--and particularly Mt. Hymettus--was famous for its
honey. 11. Martial several times refers to the agreeable odor of amber
when warmed by holding or rubbing with the hand. 13. sciurus: derived
from Greek [Greek: skia] and [Greek: oura], lit. 'the shadow-tail.' Our
word 'squirrel' comes through the Late Latin diminutive forms,
scuriolus, squirolus, squirelus. 19. pariter: in like manner with
myself. 20. vernulae: contrasted with nobilem of line 22. 23. Quid esse
fortius potest: Can any one display more fortitude? 24. Ducenties: lit.
20,000,000 sesterces, here of indefinite value.

_13._ Martial at the tomb which has just received Erotion's ashes
appeals to his dead parents to keep the child from fear at sight of the
'black spectres' and monstrous Cerberus. 2. oscula: in apposition to
puellam. 5. modo:, just. In six days she would have been six years old.
7. patronos: protectors, i.e. Fronto and Flacilla. 9, 10. nec...fueris:
sit tibi terra levis, of ten found as S. T. T. L., is a phrase common
upon Roman tombstones.

In another epigram (10. 61), a translation of which by Leigh Hunt
follows, the poet, about to depart finally from the estate where Erotion
is buried, thus beautifully commends to his successors the care of her
tomb:

  Underneath this greedy stone
  Lies little sweet Erotion;
  Whom the Fates, with hearts as cold,
  Nipped away at six years old.
  Thou, whoever thou mayest be,
  That hast this small field after me,
  Let the yearly rites be paid
  To her little slender shade;
  So shall no disease or jar
  Hurt thy house or chill thy Lar;
  But this tomb be here alone
  The only melancholy stone.



X. JUVENAL.

About 55-138 A.D.

Facunde Iuvenalis.--Martial, 7. 91. 1.

Irati histrionis exsul.--Sidouius Apollinaris, _Carmen_ 9. 273.

Quidquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas, gaudia, discursus,
nostri est farrago libelli.--_Satira_ 1. 85-86.

Facit indignatio versum.--_Satira_ 1. 79.

Satire appears to have originated in impromptu dramatic performances. It
was looked upon by the Romans as a purely native product. Quintilian
says of it (10. 1. 93) satura quidem tota nostra eat. The word seems to
be connected with the adjective satur, the distinctive mark of the
earlier satire being fulness and variety. As lanx satura is a dish
filled with various kinds of fruit, so satire in this earlier sense is a
poem which may deal with any subject and employ several measures and
languages. With Lucilius, satire, while retaining its dramatic and
discursive character, became didactic as well, and thus the word assumed
its modern signification.

The principal names in the history of Roman satire are Ennius (239-160
B.C.), Lucilius (148-103 B.C.), Varro (116-27 B.C.), Horace (65-8 B.C.),
Persius (34-62 A.D.), Seneca the Younger (3 B.C.-65 A.D.), Petronius
(flourished about 60 A.D.), and Juvenal.

Juvenal was born at Aquinum in Latium and was the son or foster son of a
wealthy freedman. He practised declamation till middle life, was tribune
of the first Dalmatian cohort, was for some reason banished (the story
says for verses offensive to an actor who had influence at court), and
died while in exile. He was a friend of the poet Martial.

We possess sixteen of his satires divided into five books. 'Those which
are most characteristic portray the vices of Roman society with
passionate, unsparing ferocity' and in an extremely highly colored
style. In some passages the most prominent quality is wit, which
consists chiefly in the exaggerated and strongly contrasted situations.
Other passages reach a lofty height of moral earnestness and dignity.

For Reference: Wright, _Juvenal_ (Boston, 1901); Mayor, _Juvenal_
(London, 1886).

Metre: Dactylic Hexameter, B. 368; A. & G. 615.

_1._ 1 ff. Praeneste, Volsiniis, Gabiis, Tiburis: country towns at a
moderate distance from Rome. ruinam: 'The spontaneous collapse of the
tenement houses was such a common occurrence that nobody paid attention
to it, though it is an event that would fill our newspapers with a
thrilling subject for days....There were companies formed for the
purpose of propping...houses.'--Lanciani, _Ruins and Excavations of
Ancient Rome_, Conclusion, p. 563. The entire chapter should be read in
connection with this selection. 3. proni: i.e. on a hillside. 4. urbem:
i.e. Rome. tibicine: prop. 5. labentibus: the falling walls. 6. vilicus:
the owner's agent. 8. incendia: fires were common at Rome. Especially
memorable were the great conflagrations in the reigns of Nero, Titus,
and Commodus. The Temple of Vesta was almost or entirely destroyed five
times by fire. 10. Ucalegon: your neighbor on the next floor below;
called Ucalegon because iam proximits ardet, Vergil, _Aeneid_, 2. 311.
tabulata tertia: the third or attic story where you live. 11.
trepidatur: the cry of 'Fire!' is raised. 13. ultimus ardebit: and
likewise will get the alarm last. 14. Codro: any poor man in this
situation. Procula minor: too short for Tom Thumb. Procula was probably
a dwarf. urceoli: displayed on the sideboard, or abacus, beneath which
was a reclining statuette of the Centaur Chiron. 17. Iam: modifies
vetus. 18. divina carmina: the Greek books just mentioned. opici: a name
given by the Greek colonists of southern Italy to the native races.
Since these were of inferior refinement, the word came to mean
barbarian. It is applied to the mice since they destroy the manuscripts.
20,  21. ultimus cumulus: the last straw. 21. frusta: a mouthful of
food. 23. Asturici: type of a rich man. 24. differt vadimonia: puts off
the time at which the defendant had given security (vadimonium) to
appear. 26. Ardet: impersonal. 28. Euphranoris: a Greek sculptor of the
fourth century B.C. Polycliti: a Greek sculptor of the fifth century
B.C. He made a famous gold and ivory statue of Hera. 29. ornamenta
deorum: stolen from some temple. Roman conquerors and governors (like
Napoleon in modern times) freely robbed subject countries of works of
art. 30. forulos mediamque Minervam: bookcases and a Minerva among them.
A 'bust of Pallas,' the goddess of wisdom, is appropriate to a library.
32. Persicus: the same person as Asturicus. The name is given because of
the reputed wealth of the Orient. So our expression 'nabob' originally
meant a viceroy in India. Cf. Milton, _Paradise Lost_, 2. 3-4:

  where the gorgeous East, with richest hand,
  Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold.

orborum lautissimus: richest of childless men. It is on this account
that all assist him, hoping eventually to receive a legacy. Asturicus
understands their motive; hence Juvenal's humorous suspicion.

34 ff. avelli: middle. circensibus: the games consisted of many kinds of
entertainment, especially chariot racing. As with the opera to-day for
lovers of music, these games formed one of the chief attractions of life
in a great city. Sorae, Fabrateriae, Frusinone: these are country towns
of Latium. 36. tenebras: a dark hole. 37. brevis: shallow. 40.
Pythagoreis: Pythagoras, believing that the human soul might pass into
one of the lower animals after death, forbade animal food to his
disciples. 42. unius dominum lacertae: i.e. of the small area which
would be necessary to furnish food to one lizard.

43. Plurimus aeger: many sick men. aeger, though singular, is used for a
plural with the adjective of plural signification. vigilando: the final
o is short. 44. inperfeptus: undigested. 45. ardenti: inflamed.
meritoria: lodgings. 46. Magnis opibus: ablative of price. Martial says,
12. 57. 4, 'There is no place in Rome for a poor man to sleep.' Wagons
were not allowed under ordinary circumstances to pass through the
streets till the late afternoon, so that the heavy teaming was at night.
47. arto: the medium width of the principal living streets of Rome was
only from 16 to 20 feet. 48. stantis oonvicia mandrae: the mingled
noises of the penned-up herd, i.e. the abuse of the drivers and the
lowing of the animals. 49. Druso: probably the Emperor Claudius, who was
lethargic. vitulis marinis: Pliny says, _Natural History_, 9. 42, that
no animal sleeps more soundly than the seal. 50. officium: e.g. the duty
of attendance on his patron. 53. clausa fenestra: effected in some
instances by drawing the curtains, in others by closing the windows of
mica. 55. unda prior: the human tide, or surging crowd in front. 56.
assere: the chances were that this would be the pole of a litter, as
that of the rich man just mentioned. 59. clavus militis: the soldier's
boot was studded with hobnails. 60. quanto celebretur sportula fumo: in
the midst of how great a smoke they throng after the sportula. The
sportula is in this instance the food given by the patron to the client
in return for his attendance. 61. convivae: the clients. culina: a
portable kitchen to keep the food warm. 62. Corbulo: type of a
strongman; as we might say 'a Samson.' Tacitus, _Annales_, 13. 8,
describes a Roman general of this name as ingens corpore. 65. longa ff.:
a long fir tree sways to and fro as its trucks come on. A similar
picture of the crowded city streets is found in Horace, _Epistulae_, 2.
2. 70. 68. procubuit: once falls over. saxa Ligustica: the marble from
Luna on the border between Etruria and Liguria. The Romans knew hundreds
of varieties of marble and used them in vast quantities. 'As Tibullus
says, the streets of the city were always obstructed by carts laden with
transmarine columns and blocks,--columns measuring sometimes 1.97 metres
in diameter and 17.66 metres in length, like those of Trajan's temple;
or blocks weighing sometimes 27 tons.'--Lanciani, _Ruins and Excavations
of Ancient Rome_, p. 524. 71. Obtritum perit more animae: ground to
powder, is gone like a breath. 72. domus: the slaves, pueri, of the
client just killed. Even a poor man might have several. 74. striglibus:
to remove perspiration or oil from the body. gutto: oil cruet. 76. ripa:
of the Styx. Cf. for the scene Vergil, _Aeneid_, 6. 298 ff. novicius: a
complete stranger, i.e. never having died before,--a grim joke.
Juvenal's wit has been called 'the earliest known instance of American
humor.'--Peck and Arrowsmith, _Roman Life_, etc. 77. nec sperat: he
cannot cross the Styx since he has not received the rites of burial. 78.
porrigat ore: offer with his mouth. A coin was often put in the mouth of
the dead to pay Charon's fee. 80. Spatium: i.e. how high the roofs are.
Cicero describes Rome as 'suspended in the air.' Some of the houses were
100 feet in height. 83. silicem: even the volcanic stone which forms the
pavement of the street is broken. 85 ff. quot patent vigiles fenestrae:
this may be punningly rendered,--as many as there are windows up.--Peck
and Arrowsmith, _Roman Life_, etc.

_2._ 9. sacellis: the shrines of the Lares found in every house. The
common offering at them was a pig. 10. tomacula: minced meat. 17.
Sardanapali: effeminate and luxurious, the last king of Assyria. When a
conspiracy against him was about to succeed, he burned himself with his
treasures. Byron has a drama _Sardanapalus_. 19. virtutem: Virtueland.
20. Nullum numen abest: the gods are all on the side of the provident.
Fortune is no deity and only we mistaken men think her such.

_3._ 3. quae lacrimas dedit: i.e. in that she gave us tears. haec: i.e.
sympathy. 4. ergo: i.e. this gift of tears implies that, etc. 5.
squaloremque rei: persons on trial often appeared in court with unshorn
beard, unwashed toga, and other signs of mourning. 6. circumscriptorem:
his dishonest guardian. 7. puellares capilli: boys wore long hair till
they put on the toga virilis. 10, 11. minor igni rogi: minor with the
ablative here means too small for. It was unusual to burn the bodies of
very young children. face dignus arcana: i.e. worthy of initiation into
the Eleusinian mysteries. On the fifth day of the festival the initiated
marched in a torch-light procession from Athens to Eleusis. They must be
holy in thought and deed. 13. mutorum: dumb animals. venerabile:
reverential. 14. divinorumque capaces: with a capacity to know God. 16.
sensum ff.: a feeling from above, i.e. sympathy. Man with his religious
nature, with his power to practice the arts, and his erect posture, is
given this also as a crowning mark of distinction from the lower
creation. 18. indulsit: in his goodness gave. 19, 20. tantum animas:
merely life. animum: a soul. mutuus adfectus: a feeling of brotherhood.
24. tutos: protected by. 25. collata fiducia: confidence due to union.
27. defendier: archaic form of defendi.

_4._ 1. Di: sc. date or dent. sine pondere terram: cf. Martial,
_Selection_ 13. 9, 10 and note. 2. spirantis: fragrant. perpetuum ver:
because the urn is always supplied with flowers.

2. procul, a procul inde: a part of the formula used to warn away the
unhallowed from sacred rites. Cf. Vergil, _Aeneid_, 6. 258, procul, o
procul este profani. The phrase, accordingly, has attached to it a
religious earnestness and solemnity, like In the name of God, away! 3.
pernoctantis parasiti: the contemptible guest who, for a dinner, stays
all night, entertaining his host with low songs. 5. nec contempseris
annos: do not think your child too young to observe and imitate.



XI. HADRIAN.

76-138 A.D.

Hadrian was of Spanish descent and related to Trajan, whom he succeeded
as emperor in 117. His reign, except its closing years, was noteworthy
for good legislation, for the construction of magnificent buildings, and
for his journeys to every part of the Empire.

Metre: Iambic Dimeter Acatalectic, G. & L. 757, 765.

_1._ The emperor is said by Spartianus to have composed this poem upon
his death-bed.

The diminutives express affection and compassion.

4. pallidula and rigida refer to animula, the soul being conceived as
presenting the appearance of the dead body. nudula also refers to
animula, as disembodied, or, metaphorically speaking, 'unclothed'; cf. 2
Corinthians 5. 3, 4 and Plato, _Cratylus_, 403 B,' the soul denuded of
the body.' Line 5 is equivalent to a fourth adjective, sad.

The passage contains an unusual number of words which occur but once
(vagula, blandula, nudula), or very rarely (pallidula).

Pope translates:

  Ah, fleeting Spirit! wand'ring fire,
    That long hast warm'd my tender breast,
  Must thou no more this frame inspire?
    No more a pleasing, cheerful guest?
  Whither, ah whither art thou flying?
    To what dark, undiscover'd shore?
  Thou seem'st all trembling, shiv'ring, dying,
    And Wit and Humor are no more.

At Steele's request that he should write an ode in imitation of
Hadrian's poem, but of a 'cheerful dying spirit' Pope composed the hymn:

  Vital spark of heav'nly flame!
  Quit, oh quit this mortal frame:
  Trembling, hoping, ling'ring, flying,
  Oh the pain, the bliss of dying! etc.



XII. ANONYMOUS.

Metre: Dactylic Hexameter, B. 368; A. & G. 615.

_1._ 1. Lindi: a city of Rhodes. 2. Ephyra: another name for Corinth. 7.
Cecropius: Attic. Cecrops was the first king of Athens. induperabit:
indu is an old form of in.



SACRED LATIN POETRY.

The Latin hymns differ from classical poetry in that accent and rhyme
prevail instead of syllabic quantity. This is in accordance with the
genius of a language which never disregarded accent and in which rhyme
occurs even in its earliest extant literature, as in Ennius'
_Andromacha_:

  Haec omnia vidi inflammari,
  Priamo vi vitam evitari, etc.

Among the famous authors of Latin hymns are Adam of St. Victor; St.
Ambrose; Fortunatus; Robert the Second, King of France; Bernard of
Clairvaux; Bernard of Cluny; and Abelard. Among the greatest of the
hymns are the Te Deum, the Veni, Creator Spiritus, the Stabat Mater, the
Veni, Sancte Spiritus, the Dies Irae, the Ut Iucundas, the Iesu, Dulcis
Memoria, and the Hora Novissima.

For Reference: Trench, _Sacred Latin Poetry_ (London, 1874); March,
_Latin Hymns_ (New York, 1874); Daniel, _Thesaurus Hymnologicus_
(Leipzig, 1841-1856, 5 vols.); Merrill, _Latin Hymns_ (Boston, 1904);
Julian, _Dictionary of Hymnology_ (London, 1907). In all see indices of
first lines.



ANONYMOUS. FOR CHRISTMAS DAY.

This was till recently a favorite in the Lutheran churches of Germany.
Like most of the other hymns in this collection, it has often been
translated; as by Schaff in his _Christ in Song_. The oldest text known
is as early as the fourteenth century.

The subject is the birth of Christ. Cf. Matthew 2. 1. Bethlehem:
indeclinable, like most proper names of Hebrew origin. 5, 6. The ox and
ass were believed to have occupied the stable with Christ on the
combined authority of the Septuagint reading of Hahakkuk 3. 2: 'Between
two animals shalt thou be known'; and of Isaiah 1. 3: 'The ox knoweth
his owner, and the ass his master's crib.' quod: that. 7. Reges: Isaiah
60. 3; Psalms 72. 10, 15. Saba: Psalms 72. 10, 15. 11. Sine serpentis
vulnere: without 'original sin.' Cf. Genesis 3. 14, 15; 1 John 3. 5.



FOR EASTER DAY.

This fine sequence was highly esteemed by Luther and became a favorite
in many countries. Its composition was as early as the eleventh century.
At first sight it appears to be prose, but proves on closer examination
to be rhymed throughout. The dialogue form made possible its dramatic
use in the Easter Mystery Plays and the church service. For this and for
translations see Julian, p. 1223 ff.

The subject is the Resurrection. Cf. Matthew 28. 1-15; John 20. 1-18.

2. Agnus: John 1. 29. oves: John 10. 11. 3. regnat: Matthew 25. 34. 4-9.
Dic ff.: the conversation supposed to have taken place between Mary
Magdalene and the disciples after her return from the sepulchre.
Surrexit: Luke 24. 34.



PLAUDITE CAELI.

This hymn was composed by a member of the Jesuit Order. Its date is of
the fourteenth to the sixteenth century; its subject the Resurrection.

1. Plaudite: cf. Flumina plaudent manu, Psalms 97. 8; 'All the trees of
the field shall clap their hands.'--Isaiah 55. 12. 2. aether: the upper
air. 3, 4. Let the heights and the depths of the world rejoice. 5, 6.
The black storm-rack has passed by. 7. almae: bountiful. 11, 12.
pictis...campis: cf. 'daisies...do paint the meadows.'--_Love's Labour's
Lost_, V. 2. 905. 17, 18. Full veins are metaphorical for the full
strong flow of song. 20. Barbytha: bad spelling for barbita, lutes. 26.
Ludite: flow merrily.

The hymn has been translated into English by Mrs. Charles, _Christian
Life in Song_, p. 184, and by Duffield, _Latin Hymns_, p. 398. The
latter thus renders ll. 9-24:

  Spring breezes are blowing,
  Spring flowers are at hand,
  Spring grasses are growing
  Abroad in the land,

  And violets brighten
  The roses in bloom,
  And marigolds heighten
  The lilies' perfume.

  Rise then, O my praises,
  Fresh life in your veins,
  As the viol upraises
  The gladdest of strains,
  For once more he sees us,
  Alive, as he said;
  Our holy Lord Jesus
  Escaped from the dead.



PONE LUCTUM, MAGDALENA.

The subject is the appearance of the risen Christ to Mary Magdalene at
the tomb, John 20. 11-18.

1. Pone: dismiss thy grief. 3. Simonis: Mary Magdalene, as in _Dies
Irae_, 37, is identified with 'the woman which was a sinner' of Luke 7.
37-50, who, while Jesus sat at meal in the house of Simon, the Pharisee,
'weeping, began to wet his feet with her tears,' 1. 4. 22, 23. Lift thy
face, O Magdalen! Behold the risen Christ. 25. Quinque plagas: the five
strokes are the nail prints in Jesus' hands and feet and the spear wound
in his side, Luke 24. 40; John 20. 24-29. inspice: as Thomas and the
other disciples beheld.

Translation by Mrs. Charles, _Christian Life in Song_, p. 182.



BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX.

1091-1153 A.D.


SALVE, CAPUT CRUENTATUM.

This selection is taken from a hymn in seven parts, each addressing some
member of Christ's body on the cross, the feet, the knees, etc. The
composition is more probably by some German poet than by Bernard, but
its supposed origin with the latter has become a subject of religious
legend. One ancient copy describes the hymn as 'a divine and most devout
prayer of the Abbot St. Bernard, which he made when an image of the
Saviour with outstretched arms embraced him from the cross.' Again we
read, 'The image on the cross bowed itself and embraced him with its
wounded arms as a sure token that to it this prayer was most pleasing.'

Julian refers to eight English metrical versions. One of the finest
forms in which it has come into the language (through P. Gerhardt's free
German version 'O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden') is _O sacred Head! now
wounded_.

3. Conquassatum: mangled. 7. Immutatus: 'His visage was so marred more
than any man.'--Isaiah 52. 14. 10. All heaven shudders. The curia is the
centre of government. 11. viror: Late Latin for viriditas, vigor; we
might freely render brightness. 14. Expressing the extremity of
weakness, hanging all in faintness. 19. intersigno: proof, Late Latin.
23-25. From whose mouth I have taken honey with the sweetness of milk,
beyond all delights. A figurative use of the story of Samson, who found
a honeycomb in the mouth of the carcass of the lion which he had slain,
Judges 14. 8, 9. Milk is religiously associated with honey because of
the description of Canaan in Deuteronomy 31. 20, terram lacte et melle
manantem. 28-30. Now that death is near Thee, lay here Thine head, rest
in my arms. 32. gauderem: I would rejoice, were I associated with Thy
holy passion; present contrary to fact condition. 40. absque: without,
ante- and post-classic preposition. 46. emigrare: depart from life. Cf.
qui e vita emigravit, Cicero, _De Legibus_, 2. 48. 49. Temetipsum: Thine
own self. An emphatic -met is suffixed to Te.


'JESUS, THE VERY THOUGHT OF THEE.'

The author is probably St. Bernard, the abbot of Clairvaux and the great
preacher of the Second Crusade. Few men in Christendom have ever
exercised a personal influence equal to his.

These quartrains are selected from a hymn composed of fifty such, and
familiar to English-speaking Christians from Caswall's translation,
_Jesus, the very Thought of Thee_, and Ray Palmer's _Jesus, Thou Joy of
Loving Hearts_. It was a favorite of Livingstone who quotes from it in
his _African Diary_. 'No other poem in any language,' says Julian, 'has
furnished to English and American hymn-books so many hymns of sterling
worth and well-deserved popularity.'

Subject, Jesus.

1-4. Iesu: vocative. We would expect das instead of dans and tui instead
of eius. Supply est with praesentia.

13-16.

  Thou bliss of souls in bitter need,
    Water to lip and light to eye,
  All joy thou dost how far exceed,
    All yearning more than satisfy.



ROBERT II, KING OF FRANCE.

971-1031 A.D.

'COME, HOLY SPIRIT, FROM ABOVE.'

Robert, the son of Hugh Capet, to whom this hymn is commonly, but
probably incorrectly, ascribed, became king of France in 988 A.D. He
'was a kindly, easy man, endowed with all the charming and dangerous
virtues which commend themselves in the man and often prove fatal to the
king. His reign was a constant struggle, first with the church for his
wife, afterwards with his barons for his existence.'--_Encyclopaedia
Britannica_, vol. ix, p. 536.

This hymn was in the Middle Ages often called the _Golden Sequence_.
Clichtovaeus (_Elucidatorium_, Paris, 1516, f. 171) declares it 'above
all praise whether by reason of its wonderful sweetness...or of its
brevity along with wealth of ideas or...of the elegant grace of its
structure.' Trench, _Sacred Latin Poetry_, says it 'could only have been
composed by one who had been acquainted with many sorrows and also with
many consolations.'

Julian refers to thirty-eight renderings into English. One of the best
of these is A. P. Stanley's version, _Come, Holy Spirit, from Above_.

The subject is an entreaty to the Spirit to come and to bestow His
gifts. To the former thought belong the earlier stanzas, to the second
thought the latter stanzas. At the beginning of the poem veni,
emphasizing the former thought, is in its position and repetition like
da at the close, emphasizing the latter.

3. lucis: cf. lumen cordium, 1. 6, lux beatissima, 1.13. The Spirit, as
the 'guide into all truth,' is naturally addressed as light and the
giver of light. 7. Consolator: John 14. 16. 9. refrigerium: refreshment.
'May God refresh thy spirit' is a phrase not uncommon in Christian
epitaphs of the Catacombs. 7-12. Stanley renders:

  O Thou, of comforters the best,
  O Thou, the soul's most welcome guest,
     O Thou, our sweet repose,
  Our resting-place from life's long care,
  Our shadow from the world's fierce glare,
    Our solace in all woes.

19, 20. Lava, Riga: John 3. 5; Isaiah 44. 3. 27. septenarium: the
seven-fold gift. The spirit is septiformis munere, the seven gifts being
'the spirit of wisdom,' 'of understanding,' 'of council,' 'of might,' 'of
knowledge,' 'of piety,' and 'of the fear of the Lord,' Isaiah 11. 2, 3.



ANONYMOUS.

PHOENIX INTER FLAMMAS EXPIRANS.

The suggestion of this beautiful poem is from _Canticles_. The date of
composition is the seventeenth century.

The subject is the soul's 'desire to depart and to be with Christ.' The
second to the fifth stanzas take their form from the legend of the
phoenix, a fabulous bird which was said to build its funeral pyre, to
burn itself, singing a death-song, and to rise from its ashes in renewed
youth. The soul, passing from this life to immortality, conceives itself
as a phoenix consuming in the flames and singing a death-song (the
third, fourth, and fifth stanzas).

3. aegram: Canticles 2. 5. 4. Dilecto: Christ in heaven. Cf. Canticles
2. 3. 27-30. The flame leaping toward the sky is a type of the soul in
its eagerness to ascend to heaven. Cf.:

  Rivers to the ocean run
  Nor stay in all their course:
  Fire ascending seeks the sun:
  Both speed them to their source.
  So the soul that's born of God
  Pants to view his glorious face,
  Upward tends to his abode
  To rest in his embrace.
         --Seagrave.



THOMAS A CELANO.

DIES IRAE.

Thomas, called _a Celano_ from a small town in central Italy, was a
Franciscan monk who lived in the thirteenth century and was custos of
certain convents of his order on the Rhine. His authorship of this hymn
is probable, not certain.

For the literature see Julian, p. 294.

In the ritual the _Dies Irae_ is used for All Souls' Day and for requiem
masses. The most famous musical setting is by Mozart.

Daniel says of this hymn, 'Each word is a peal of thunder.' Trench says,
'The triple rhyme has been likened to blow following blow of the hammer
on the anvil.'

Goethe introduces the _Dies Irae_ into a scene of the first part of
Faust; the remorse of Gretchen becomes overwhelming as she hears the
hymn pealing through the cathedral, the culmination corning with the
repetition of the words Quid sum miser tunc, dicturus?

Sir Walter Scott thus quotes and summarizes at the end of _The Lay of
the Last Minstrel_:

  Far the echoing aisles prolong
  The awful burthen of the song,--
  DIES IRAE, DIES ILLA,
  SOLVET SAECLUM IN FAVILLA;...
  Thus the holy fathers sung.

HYMN FOR THE DEAD.

  That day of wrath, that dreadful day,
  When heaven and earth shall pass away,
  What power shall be the sinner's stay?
  How shall he meet that dreadful day?

  When, shrivelling like a parched scroll,
  The naming heavens together roll;
  When louder yet, and yet more dread,
  Swells the high trump that wakes the dead.

  Oh! on that day, that wrathful day,
  When man to judgment wakes from clay,
  Be THOU the trembling sinner's stay,
  Though heaven and earth shall pass away.

The same poet was heard to quote portions of the hymn on his deathbed,
and the last words of the Earl of Roscommon, author of one of the
well-known versions, were a rendering of line 51:

  My God, my Father, and my Friend,
  Do not forsake me in my end!

Hundreds of metrical translations of this hymn exist. A good selection
will be found in Nott, _Seven Great Hymns).

1. Dies irae, dies illa, dies tribulationis et angustiae, dies
calamitatis et miseriae, etc.--Zephaniah 1. 16. Cf. dies magnus irae,
Revelation 6. 17. 2. Shall lay the world in glowing ashes. Cf. 2 Peter
3. 10-12, especially 'The elements shall melt with fervent heat.' 3.
Teste David cum Sibylla: Jew and Gentile both testify that the Day of
Judgment shall come. As Vergil in his fourth _Eclogue_ was believed to
have foretold Christ, so the Sibyl was thought to have prophesied the
Day of Judgment. This was due to the still extant 'Sibylline Oracles,' a
collection of twelve books in Greek hexameters supposed to have emanated
from the Sibyl, but really pretended prophesies composed in the interest
of their respective religions partly by Alexandrian Jews, partly by
Christians. For the witness of David see Psalms 11. 5, 6; 96. 13; 97. 2,
3. Cf. Trench, pp. 303, 304. Teste David is ablative absolute. 6.
Discussurus: investigate, a meaning not classic in the literary
language. 7. Tuba: 'the trumpet shall sound and the dead shall be
raised.'--1 Corinthians 15. 52. Cf. 1 Thessalonians 4. 16. 11. creatura:
every creature. 13. Liber scriptus: Daniel 1. 10; Revelation 20. 12. 16.
Matthew 25. 31. 17. Luke 12. 2. 20. patronum: advocate, 1 John 2. 1. 21.
vix iustus: 'if the righteous is scarcely saved.'--1 Peter 4. 18. 22-24.

  King of awful majesty,
  Saving sinners graciously,
  Fount of mercy, save Thou me!

23. gratis: freely, Revelation 21. 6. 28-30. Dr. Johnson frequently
quoted this stanza with tears. 28. 'Jesus, being wearied with his
journey, sat thus by the well.'--John 4. 6. 33. 'After a long time the
Lord of those servants cometh and maketh a reckoning with them.'--
Matthew 25. 19. 37. The writer identifies Mary Magdalene with 'the woman
which was a sinner' to whom Jesus said, 'Thy sins are forgiven thee.'
38. latronem: the penitent thief, Luke 23. 39 ff. 43-48. Matthew 25. 31
ff. 49. acclinis: bowing before Thee. 50. A heart bruised even as ashes.
The literal meaning of contritum, 'separated into small pieces,' is
strongly in mind. Cf. cor contritum; Psalms 51. 17. Cor is in apposition
with the subject of oro. 52-57. These lines adapt the hymn to the
service. 56, 57. Note the wonderful sweetness of these lines, like calm
after storm.

BERNARD OF CLUNY.

DE PATRIAE CAELESTIS LAUDE.

This writer, born in Brittany of English parents and a contemporary of
St. Bernard, was a monk in the monastery of Cluny under Peter the
Venerable. The verses here given form the opening of his _De Contemptu
Mundi_, a bitter satire about three thousand lines long upon the
corruptions of the time. The passage is described by Neale as 'the most
lovely of mediaeval poems.'

The metre is dactylic hexameter with the leonine and tailed rhyme, each
line being broken up into three parts. This measure is so difficult that
the composer was enabled to master it only, as he believed, by a special
inspiration; but two translators into English, Moultrie and Duffield,
have attempted to reproduce it, as:

  Here we have many fears; this is the vale of tears, the land of
sorrow.
  Tears are there none at all, in that celestial hall, on life's bright
morrow.

The great English rendering is by Neale in his _Rhythm of Bernard de
Morlaix on the Celestial Country_. From this many favorite hymns have
been drawn.

The subject is the speedy coming of Christ to judge the world and the
joys and glories of the New Jerusalem. Cf. Revelation 21 and 22.

3. terminet: subjunctive of wish. 8. homo deus: the God-man; i.e.
Christ. 10. non breve vivere: subject of retribuetur. 17. Sion: the
church. Babylone: the world. Cf. such passages as Revelation 16. 19. 19.
sobria: sober and impliedly watchful. Cf. 1 Thessalonians 5. 6. 24-29.

  With jasper glow thy bulwarks,
    Thy streets with emerald blaze;
  The sardius and the topaz
    Unite in thee their rays;

  Thine ageless walls are bonded
    With amethyst unpriced;
   Thy saints build up its fabric,
    And the corner-stone is Christ.

  The cross is all thy splendor,
    The crucified thy praise;
  His laud and benediction
    Thy ransomed people raise.

  Thou hast no shore, fair ocean;
    Thou hast no time, bright day
  Dear fountain of refreshment
    To pilgrims far away.
             --Neale.

26. The heavenly throng compose thy fabric and Christ is thy precious
stone; i.e. each believer is a stone built into the structure of the
heavenly city of which Christ, the 'living stone, elect and precious,'
is the foundation. Cf. 1 Peter 2. 3-6. 29. Thou without shore (i.e.
unbounded in extent), thou without time (i.e. never ceasing to flow),
fountain that art soon a stream. 34.

   Beneath thy contemplation
     Sink heart and voice oppressed.
                --Neale.

49. Plaude...Deus:

  Exult, O dust and ashes!
  The Lord shall be thy part.
              --Neale.



HILDEBERT.

1057-1184 A.D.

THE HEAVENLY CITY.

Hildebert, a contemporary and fellow-countryman of the Bernards, became
Archbishop of Tours in 1125. His verses number more than ten thousand.

The selection is taken from his _Address to the Three Persons of the
Holy Trinity_.

Cf. Revelation 21 and 22.

3. Auctor lucis: Genesis 1. 3. 5. lapis vivua: 1 Peter 2. 4, 6. 6. Rex
festivus: Matthew 22. 2. 12-14. Revelation 21. 4; 1 John 3. 2. 15-18.
Cf. O civitas sancta, civitas speciosa, de longinquo te saluto, ad te
clamo, te require.--Augustine, _De Spiritu et Anima_. 26. Revelation 21.
24.

The following is a portion of Neale's translation (_Mediaeval Hymns_,
pp. 35-36):

  Mine be Sion's habitation,
  Sion, David's calm foundation:
  Built by him, light's source immortal,--
  To whose streets the cross is portal:
  In this city, uninvaded
  Peace,--spring endless, light unfaded:
  Endless breath of flowerets vernal,
  Festal melody eternal.
  Home, no change nor loss that fearest,
  From afar my soul thou cheerest:
  Thee it seeketh, thee requireth,
  Thee affecteth, thee desireth.


---

LATIN

COLLEGE LATIN SERIES


_Odes and Epodes of Horace_

Edited by Professor CHARLES E. BENNETT, of Cornell University 12mo,
cloth, 464 pages. Price, $1.40.

_Satires and Epistles of Horace_

Edited by Professor JOHN C. ROLFE, of the University of Pennsylvania,
12mo, cloth, 458 pages. Price, $1.40.

_Complete Works of Horace_

Edited by Professors BENNETT and ROLFE. Printed on Bible paper and bound
in flexible covers. 12mo, cloth, 922 pages. Price, $2.00.

IN these volumes each poem is preceded by a careful analysis, giving in
a line or two all necessary information regarding the subject, date, and
metre.

The comprehensive Introduction to the Odes and Epodes has sections
devoted to Horace's Life and Works; Manuscripts, Scholia, and Editions;
Classification of the Odes and Epodes; Language (treating the poet's
most striking deviations from standard prose usage); The Metres.

The Introduction to the Satires and Epistles is equally exhaustive, and
treats of the Life and Works of Horace; The Development of the Roman
Satire; The Dramatic and Literary Satire; The Schools of Ennius and
Lucilius; General Characteristics of the Satires; The Style of the
Satires; Colloquial Language of the Satires; The Metres.

In both volumes the commentary is eminently judicious, telling the
student all he needs to know, but never more than he will understand and
appreciate.

The two volumes, printed on Bible paper and bound together in flexible
covers, form the most attractive and convenient edition of the complete
works of Horace.

_Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome_

By Professor S. B. PLATNER, Western Reserve University. 8vo, cloth, 528
pages. Nine Maps and Plans and 95 Illustrations. Price, $3.00.

THIS book is intended to serve as an introduction to the study of the
topography of ancient Rome for students of Roman antiquities and
history, and incidentally as a book of reference for those who have any
special interest in the monuments which still remain. It contains an
outline of the successive stages in the growth of the city, a discussion
of the topography of each region, and the position of its buildings so
far as this is known, and a detailed description of the more important
structures.

To facilitate further study, references of two classes have been added:
first, to the sources of information in ancient literature and
inscriptions, and second, to the most important material in current
periodicals and the standard works on topography.

The volume contains five double-page and four single-page maps, nearly
all of which are colored. There are ninety-five illustrations, many
reproduced from photographs.

There are chapters devoted to each of the hills of Rome, to the Tiber
and its Bridges, the Forum, the Campus Martius, Aqueducts and Sewers,
Walls, Gates and Roads, the Sacra Via, and to the Transtiberine Region.

Chapters are also devoted to Building Materials and Methods, and the
History of the Development of the City.

_Handbook of Latin Inscriptions_

By W. M. LINDSAY, M.A., Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford. 16mo, cloth,
134 pages. Price, $1.25.

THE author states very clearly some of the principles of form changes in
Latin, and gives a collection of inscriptions by way of illustration.
These are fifty-eight in number and extend from the earliest period down
to Imperial and Late Latin.





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