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Title: Association Football - And How To Play It
Author: Cameron, John
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Association Football - And How To Play It" ***

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[Illustration: J. CAMERON.]




(Late Queen's Park, Everton, and Player-Manager, Tottenham
Hotspur F.C.)

One Shilling Net

12, Burleigh Street, Strand, W.C.


CHAP                                   PAGE

      INTRODUCTORY                       7

   I. GOALKEEPING                        9

  II. FULL-BACK PLAY                    14

 III. THE MIDDLE LINE                   18

  IV. FORWARD PLAY                      22

   V. TRAINING                          28

  VI. HINTS TO JUNIORS                  36

 VII. CAPTAINCY                         44

VIII. REFEREEING                        49


   X. CONTINENTAL FOOTBALL              59

  XI. FOOTBALL REFORM                   62

 XII. PRESENT DAY FOOTBALL              68

XIII. FAMOUS CUP-TIES                   73

      LAWS OF THE GAME                  79



JOHN CAMERON                _Frontispiece_

SAVING A "HIGH FLYER"                   11

HEADING THE BALL                        17

READY FOR THE KICK-OFF                  25



PASSING WITH THE INSTEP                 39

SHOOTING WITH THE INSTEP                41


    Then strip, lads! and to it though sharp be the weather,
      And if by mischance you should happen to fall,
    There are worse things in life than a tumble in heather,
      And life is itself but a game of football.

From the above quotation by Sir Walter Scott, it is evident that
football is quite an ancient game. Time alters everything, and it has
undoubtedly done so in football. Where one used to play with half the
village on one side and the same on the other, it is now restricted to
sides composed of eleven players. As I have been requested to write on
the modern game it is not worth while dwelling upon how it was played a
hundred years ago. Football is really supposed to be a Scottish game,
but it was in England that a proper Association with defined rules was
first started.

This was in the early sixties, and since then the F.A. has grown to be
one of the most powerful bodies connected with sport of any shape or
form. They are a most wealthy association, and their power is paramount.
It must be said that they have had everything to do with making the game
what it is at present. Although autocratic, they deal thoroughly and
honestly with both clubs and players, and it will be a bad day for the
game when any body of clubs break away. At the time of writing rumours
are very rife, but it is to be sincerely hoped that once again "rumour
is a lying jade." Friendly matches were the order of the day in the
early stages of the game. Then came the establishment of the English Cup
Competition for all clubs in the Kingdom. This was in the year 1871, and
it was only after eleven years had elapsed that the Cup went to the
North, when Blackburn Olympic were the winners. May we say _en passant_
that a Scottish club, namely, the Queen's Park of Glasgow, took part in
the final contest in 1884 and 1885, but were beaten by the Blackburn
Rovers in both cases. After that the Cup had a long sojourn in the
North, and it was not until 1901 that my old club, Tottenham Hotspur,
managed to bring it back to the South. Again, since then, the North have
had a monopoly of it, and Southern enthusiasts are longing for it to
have its resting-place somewhere in the South.

Another epoch in the game was the starting of the League system of
playing matches. The idea came from the fertile brain of Mr. W.
MacGregor, who is familiarly known as the Father of the League. This
system undoubtedly proved a great success, and although loyal amateurs
still play in the same friendly style the public took to it immensely,
as is well shown by the difference between the attendance at league and
friendly matches. Senior, junior, and school-boys' are the names of the
leagues now existing, not to mention tradesmen's and shopkeepers'
Thursday afternoon associations. The mere fact that at Cup-ties and
International matches the attendance has been over 100,000 is convincing
testimony to the winter pastime's popularity. A record crowd assembled
at Hampden Park, Glasgow, last April to see England v. Scotland, the
attendance reaching 130,000, and the sight was a most magnificent one.
Before the close of my preface I should like to express my regret at the
separation of a portion of the Amateur Element from the Parent Body last
year, and, personally, I could see no reason for their so doing--I can
only say, "The pity of it." Again, football and charity are synonymous,
and it would surprise many critics if the total amount of money
collected by clubs and associations was reckoned up. The last match in
aid of charity was played at Stamford Bridge, between Manchester United
and Queen's Park Rangers, and realised over £1,000, and I think that
speaks for itself.




Goalkeepers and Goalkeeping.

Goalkeepers, like poets, are born, not made. It is really the most
difficult position on the field to occupy. If the half-back makes a
mistake it can be rectified by the man behind him, but if the goalkeeper
makes a blunder it is fatal. It is the one position on the field that I
have never occupied, and I never had any desire to figure there. My
ideal for that position would be a man who stood six feet and weighed at
least thirteen stone, with an eye as keen as that of a hawk. He must be
able to divine where and when the opposing forward is about to shoot.
All the great goalkeepers have been of a fearless disposition,
practically throwing themselves at the ball, even at the risk of
receiving a kick from the attacking forward. Fearlessness is undoubtedly
a tremendous asset in the making of a great goalkeeper. He must also
have a perfect understanding with his backs, and they must trust him
infinitely, which makes his responsibility all the greater.

I have often been asked the question whether the goalkeeper should
train as regularly as any member of the eleven, and I have replied
without any hesitation "Certainly." In one way he does not require such
a severe course as a half-back, who has to go through much more work
than he does. He should go in for plenty of short sprinting, so that
when running out of his goal to meet any forward who has broken through
he will be able to meet the ball quicker than his opponent. The reason
for this is obvious, as half a yard in twenty will make all the
difference between a goal being scored or not. I do not believe a great
deal in gymnastics for footballers in general, but this method of
training does a goalkeeper a world of good.

[Illustration: SAVING A "HIGH-FLYER."]

Punch-ball exercises are some of the best he can practise, and nearly
all clubs have a ball fitted up in their training room. He ought to also
practise place kicking, and endeavour to do so with both feet. I have
often seen a goal scored simply through a poor return by the goalkeeper.
Many allow one of the backs to take the goal kicks, but this is a big
mistake, as it entails extra work on him, and he probably has as much to
do as he can get through. I always like to see the ball thrown or kicked
to the wings instead of the centre, where the play is generally
concentrated. It is a mistake to attempt to punch a ball when it is wet
and greasy and there is plenty of time to give it a lusty kick. Many a
match has been won and lost through the goalkeeper attempting the
former. The inauguration of the penalty kick has made the position more
difficult than in the olden days. Critics say that eleven goals should
be scored out of twelve. This is all very well in theory, but in
practice it is another matter. It is, however, from both points of view
a most trying time in any game, especially when the result of the match
depends upon whether a goal is scored or saved. I shall never forget
last year at Chelsea, when in the closing moments of the game Notts
County were allowed a penalty, from which they scored.

That goal saved them from going down to the Second Division of the
English League, and also saved thousands of pounds for the County.

When I was Manager of the 'Spurs I always made a rule that a goalkeeper
should have plenty of practice in this department. I found that in a big
match things were certainly different, and especially if there was a
large crowd present. The eye of the multitude is concentrated on the
keeper and the kicker, and there is a great strain on both, although to
my mind the goalkeeper has the advantage in this way. If a goal is
scored no one blames him, as it is expected. If the forward fails there
is usually a loud groan.

L. R. Roose, the great Welsh International, in a well-written article
for a standard book, has very well defined the chief duties that fall to
his lot.

1. To prevent the ball passing between the space bounded by the upright

2. To kick off when the ball has been sent behind the goal-line by one
of his opponents.

Another great point where the goalkeeper must use special discretion is
whether to run out to meet the forward or to "stay at home," as it is
called in the football world. Undoubtedly if the forward is clear of
the other players he should leave his post and endeavour to meet the
forward. Every yard he goes out means that he leaves less space to be
guarded. It is a well-known fact that the more work the goalie has to do
the better he shines, and it often happens that the side that has been
resting for half an hour breaks away and a goal results. A forward or a
half-back is always in the midst of it, and gets warmed whether his side
are losing or winning, but the keeper has often to exercise the faculty
of patience. There have been many great goalkeepers, and it is very hard
to pick out even half a dozen who stand out for their fame. In Scotland,
when I was a boy, Macaulay was considered to be the principal
goalkeeper, and quite deservedly so, if only for the simple reason that
in International matches, especially against England, he always rose to
the occasion. Moon, of the Corinthians; A. Trainor, of Preston North
End; Toone, of Notts County; and, later on, Sutcliffe, of Bolton, and
Robinson, of Southampton, were always to the fore, and of the pair it is
very difficult to say which was the better. Both have played for England
on many occasions, and at no time were they ever disgraced. Their
methods in many ways were different, but the one thing they had in
common was that they both knew the right moment to go for the ball.
Robinson was without hesitation the more fearless, but Sutcliffe made up
for it in many other ways. I have played against both on several
occasions, and cannot honestly say that one is greater than the other,
for what one is deficient in the other makes up for in some other way
or by some other method. The goalkeeper, like the policeman, has a very
happy time in comparison with fifteen years ago. In the olden days one
could practically do as he liked, and it was not at all uncommon to see
the goalie bundled over the line ere the ball came near him. He is
protected now in every way, and he cannot now be charged except when in
actual contact with the ball. This is a good rule, and has done a great
deal for the game.


Full-Back Play.

One associates the full back with long and lusty kicking, but he must
possess many more qualifications. He must be speedy, a fine tackler,
and, above all, a good header of the ball.

He must also keep himself thoroughly fit, although in one way he has not
so much to do as the men in front of him. He must be strong in defence,
but again, when his side is having the most of the play he should be
able to put in many a good shot. It is also requisite that he should be
able to kick as well with one foot as the other, and boys especially
should study this point. It is simply a case of practice. Every
opportunity should be utilised in developing the left foot, which is
rather weaker than the other, and every eleven out of twelve are greatly
inclined to use the right foot, but if you keep on practising, it will
not be long before you will be quite as proficient with your left as
your right. To become a good artist you must study kicking the ball from
any position or angle that it may come to you. There is what we call the
drop kick, the free kick, the overhead kick, the place kick, and taking
the ball on the run. The overhead kick is practically one to be avoided,
except in a grave case of emergency, because you are never certain of it
coming off, or of placing it to any advantage. The drop kick also takes
a great deal of practice to be accomplished with anything like success,
but the essential thing is to be able to keep the ball on the run and
kick it where you desire. A back should be of a steady disposition and
always keep cool, for if he loses his head he is of little or no use to
the side. It is also necessary to know when to head or kick the ball. It
is often imperative that a back, for the good of his side, should punt
the ball over the touch-line, but when doing so he should not make a
lusty kick and put it over the grand stand. All that is wanted is a
gentle touch to the railings, which is the proper thing to do. As I have
already remarked, to know how to head the ball is of the utmost
importance, and it is effective in clearing the line, especially from
corner kicks. Heading is quite an art of its own, and takes a long time
to master. You should be able to get at the ball not only with the
forehead, but with either side of the head.

[Illustration: HEADING THE BALL.]

There should be a general understanding between the two backs, and also
between them and the goalie. Each should understand the other's play to
a nicety, and cover one another's mistakes to a certain extent. They
must have confidence in their goalie, and should give him plenty of room
in which to operate. It is also important to know when to pass back to
the goalkeeper, and to do so correctly. I have seen many goals scored
from faultiness in this respect. In tackling, a back must be quick in
turning, so that if the forward beats him he has a chance of overtaking
his opponent. This has always been a strong point in the play of all our
greatest backs, and should be cultivated by all those who wish to
succeed. To the uninitiated it seems that when the ball comes to a back
he should return it vigorously, and nothing more. This is far from being
correct. Many of our best backs have been moderate kickers, but when
they did kick they did so with discretion and judgment, placing the ball
to the half-back if he was free or to the outside right or left, as the
run of the play might be. Above all, a back should be a fine tactician,
knowing when to go for the ball or when to put it quickly into touch,
thus giving his fellow players time to get back and save the position.
There have been many fine full backs during the last decade of football
history, and probably the greatest were the brothers Walters, of
Corinthian fame; Nick Ross, of Preston North End; and Walter Arnott, of
Queen's Park. The two Walters understood each other thoroughly, and as a
pair were second to none. Arnott was the prettiest back to watch that
I have ever seen, and Ross was about the most effective. The latter was
certainly the most fearless player that I have ever run across, and
seemed at times to plough his way through the attacking forwards.


The Middle Line.

There is no shadow of doubt but that the half-back line is the backbone
of a football team, and probably the centre half catches the eye more
than any other member of the eleven. He ought really to be a general, as
he is in command of both the attack and the defence. For, many reasons
he should be the captain of the side, for he can always encourage either
the defence or the attack. He is like a wicketkeeper in cricket, who
sees more of the game than any other player, and if he be not the
captain, his advice should always be taken into serious consideration. I
have seen so many expert half-backs that I must refrain from dwelling
upon the abilities of individual players. However, taking such great
examples as C. Campbell, of Queen's Park, Glasgow; Johnnie Holt, of
Everton fame; J. Cowan, of Aston Villa, now manager of Queen's Park
Rangers, and many others, their methods practically agree. A half-back
should be able to distribute the ball when it comes his way to the best
advantage, and a long swinging pass from centre or outside right or
left, according to his judgment, has always proved most effective. No
one understood this game more than Cowan, and I am certain others who
know the player and game will testify to this. I prefer a fast man for
this position, if only for the reason that from the kick-off he gets
going invariably before anyone else in the field. His head work ought to
be excellent, and a great deal depends upon him whether the run of play
be in the opponents' hands or otherwise. As a matter of fact, the
distribution of play to the best results is practically left to him. It
is a debatable point regarding the halves whether they should direct
their main efforts against the opposing inside or outside forward. To my
mind, there ought to be an understanding between the back and the half,
but in theory the half-back should tackle the inside forward and leave
the outside man to the back. The best of critics disagree on this point,
and I only give my own personal view from the long experience I have had
in playing the game. Still touching on the wing half, a half-back should
certainly cultivate speed as well as ability, for he must never know
when he is beaten. If a forward outmanoeuvres him, he should instantly
fall back on his own goal, so that when his back tackles the opposition
the half-back should be available to retrieve the position; that is to
say, if the outside left, for instance, beats the right half-back, the
latter should immediately get between the forward and the goal post,
especially when his opponent is known to be a dangerous attacker. It is
understood that a half-back has much more to do in proportion than any
other player in the field, and should always be in the pink of
condition. He has infinitely more running and twisting about to do, and
should be most elastic. Many wing half-backs are rather prone to wander
all over the field, which is a mistake (except in isolated cases).
Probably E. Needham, of Sheffield United, was the most adaptable player
in this respect, although H. Wilson, the Scottish International, ran him
close. The mention of the latter's name brings back to my mind the
period before the law as to throwing in the ball from touch was altered.
Wilson was the expert, and stood alone. When playing for Sunderland it
was nothing unusual for him to throw the ball from the half-way line
right into the goal-mouth. Much may have been lost owing to the
alteration in the law, for the player now must stand with both feet on
the line instead of being able to have a good run ere he parts with the
ball. The half-back should be a good shot, and should cultivate taking
the ball on the run when shooting at goal. More goals would be scored if
the half-backs did not hesitate but shot straight at the goal. "The man
who hesitates is lost," says a well-known proverb, and its truth is
shown in half-back shooting as in any other way. Why more goals do not
come from the half-back line is a mystery to me, but upon reflection I
think it is because they do not act on the spur of the moment. Still,
this is a failing in the forward line as well as in the half-back
division, and it is hardly fair to criticise them severely. In summary,
my ideal half-back would be quite as proficient in defence as in attack,
and to secure this result he will be wise to constantly develop the
latter department, for it is especially true of football that attack is
the best defence. This may seem a tall order, but a half-back should be
both a forward and a half-back combined. Half-backs should certainly
receive a great deal of assistance, especially from the forwards, and if
this is not forthcoming it puts an extra amount of work upon their
shoulders. This I shall deal with in another chapter from a forward's
point of view. I cannot conclude this chapter without alluding to the
late J. Crabtree, who played for many years with Aston Villa, and upheld
his club so well in half-back and full-back play. I have played against
him on many occasions, and he certainly was the finest man I ever came
across in defence and attack. He seemed to be able to read the forwards'
thoughts, and knowing what was going to be done with the ball,
intercepted in a way that has rarely, if ever, been equalled. This, in
one way, is a gift which is not mastered by cultivation, but still
practice is a great thing, and it is only by this means that any man can
hope to come to the front.


Forward Play.

A good forward line is perhaps a club's chief asset. If the forwards
continue to attack, the defence has an easy time, and, as previously
mentioned, the best defence is attack. It is not the man who scores that
is necessarily the best forward, but to get goals should be the aim of a
forward whether he gets the goal himself or leaves a comrade to shoot
the ball into the net. From this it will be gathered that a forward
should really understand something of the art of goalkeeping, so that he
may know how best to defeat the goalkeeper. The object of every forward
movement should be to get to the goal by the nearest way possible,
eluding the goalie by placing the ball out of his reach. We have all
heard of Johnnie Goodall's method in this line. It is a well-known fact
that he used to put a tall hat on top of the bar and endeavour to knock
it off. In this way he practically put the ball wherever he wanted to,
and this was the great secret of his goal-scoring power, which, as I
have already remarked, is the chief asset in a forward. While we are on
the point of shooting, another thing is to be able to take the ball on
the run, which is to say that a forward should shoot without having to
trap the ball. By doing so he gives the goalkeeper no possible chance of
knowing where it is going. If he can do this while running at top speed,
he will certainly be an artist in this department, and no one was better
able to do this than Stephen Bloomer, the great International. I have
often been asked what was the secret of his success, and I have always
put it down to this reason: running at top speed and being able to give
the ball--without slackening down--the final kick into the net. In the
last decade the forward line was purely individualist, and there were
certainly many giants of the game. Combination was, generally speaking,
unknown, and every forward was quite on his own. The forward line is now
a combined one, and in one way it is more effective than the old style.
It is hardly possible to get a blending of both, but it can be done, and
if a team are fortunate enough to do so they would certainly come out on
top at the end of the season. It is a recognised fact that the forward
play of to-day is rather too mechanical, and we miss the individual
efforts that we used to appreciate so very much in the days gone by.
Naturally, the centre forward is the connecting link of the rank. He
should be tall, a fine dribbler, and more often an individualist than
any of his comrades. He should also be able to keep his wings well
together, and distribute the play to the best advantage, and most of all
to be a fine shot. The inside forwards should do what is called "the
donkey work," to fetch and carry, and to help the half-backs when they
are in a dilemma. Theirs is the most thankless job of the lot, and a
great deal done by them is often unappreciated. How often I have heard
the crowd cheer a centre forward for a goal while the man who did so
much to lead up to it was quite overlooked! Happily he has the
consolation of knowing that the men with him quite appreciate his work,
as also does the educated public. I always try to impress upon the young
and old that it is not the man who scores the goal that deserves the
credit, but that in an ideal forward line each one should work for the
benefit of the side, treating the getting of the goal as a mere item of
the play. Perhaps, having played mostly on the inside, I may be inclined
to be biassed. Still, I think not, and I can fortunately plead my long
connection with the game, and I care not what others may say, this is
the _esprit de corps_ that must prevail in any team which intends to
reach the highest pinnacle in the Association world.

[Illustration: READY FOR THE KICK-OFF.]

One would imagine that it is the simple duty of the inside right to pass
the ball to his outside man or on occasions to the centre forward, but
this is far from being correct, and one of the most effective passes is
from inside right to outside left or vice versa, from inside left to
outside right. The reasons for this are obvious. In the first place, all
the play is concentrated on the right wing, and the outside left, being
correctly placed, passes it with a long swing to him, and that always
means danger to the opposition. Another reason is that he retrieves the
play to a certain extent by carrying the play right up the field and so
giving the defence an opportunity to reveal itself. An inside forward
must also come back for the throw-in when the ball goes out of touch.
Coming to the outside man, he should be able to shoot accurately from
any angle. Often a great failing of his is running the ball towards the
corner flag instead of making a bee-line for goal. It is given to few to
be able to land the ball in the mouth of the goal from the corner flag
when on the run, and even if anyone is able to do so, it would certainly
be more effective to make straight for the goal. I do not believe in an
outside forward coming to the assistance of the defence, save under
exceptional circumstances. An outside may do so and receive a cheer for
it, but it is much more important that he should be in position to take
up the ball next time it is sent where he should be waiting. One of the
virtues that an outside man should possess is that of patience. Often on
the run of the play the ball goes on quite the opposite side of the
field, and he must control the impulse to go after it. It is a great
mistake to leave your place, for when the ball does come along the
outside man will be practically clear and have a straight run before
him. I know it is a great strain on an outside man to stand still while
all the others are in the thick of the play. Still, it is his place to
do so, and it should be done. Centring the ball is a great feature, and
the best position from which to do so is about thirty yards out, landing
the ball close upon the twelve yards line. If he puts the ball further
than that the goalkeeper is in a position to catch it and thus save the
position. The art of being able to place corner kicks effectively is a
thing of the past. Perhaps this is due to the restrictions against
charging the goalkeeper unless he is in actual contact with the ball.
Still, it behoves an outside man to study this point. It may seem
strange, but the best way for the outside right to kick is with his left
foot. The same applies to the outside left; he should kick with his
right foot. The reason here is surely obvious, because kicks with your
left foot from the right wing cause a slight swerve on the ball. There
have been many great forwards both in the individual and combination
line. Aston Villa maintain that Archie Hunter was the greatest centre
forward and the best general that ever kicked a ball, and this statement
is endorsed by very many competent judges. I was fortunate enough to see
him play in Scotland when on tour twenty years ago, and he very greatly
impressed me. As I was very young at the time, perhaps I should not make
any definite statement. I have played with G. O. Smith, and he was a
great forward, as also is V. J. Woodward, with whom I have played in
later days. These three played the game as it should be played. With no
unnecessary charging, they always got on the ball, and knew when it was
best to dribble and when to shoot. William Bassett, of West Bromwich
Albion fame, was a great outside right, and could centre the ball from
any position. He and Johnnie Goodall, now manager of Watford, made a
great wing. We all know the abilities of Bloomer, who has been the
greatest goal getter of recent years. The outside left position is the
most difficult one to fill in the forward line, and consequently there
have not been so many giants in this position. Probably this is owing to
the fact that few can kick as well with both feet, but with practice
there should be no difficulty in acquiring this accomplishment.




Not the least important thing about football is the matter of training,
and nearly every professional club has a trainer, whose business it is
not only to get the men fit, but also to keep them so for eight months.
I have spoken to a great many whose work it is to get their men into
condition and keep them so, and I find that a great many of them have
different methods, but nearly all are agreed that every individual must
be taken by himself. The majority of people, however, are not paid
players, although, as I have already said, these are largely increasing
in number, because year by year we see fresh clubs springing up, besides
which every member of an ordinary club should be bound to turn out in as
perfect a condition as possible. Many make a practice of walking to and
from their work, and this in itself is excellent. When Montague
Holbein was training for his Channel swims he used to make a practice of
walking from Catford to the City, and also back, a distance of several
miles, and this he found very valuable indeed. In the early days of some
of the more important clubs a great many of the players who were
professionals went to their ordinary occupations all the week and used
to play on a Saturday. When West Bromwich Albion, captained by William
Bassett, won the English Cup against Preston North End twenty years ago,
the Midlanders were all local lads, whose wages totalled about ten
pounds a week, while Preston's pay-list was four times as much. Indeed,
men who are regularly at work, especially if it be out of doors and if
it taxes one's bodily powers, need very little training. No one ought to
play football unless he has a sound constitution, and every organ in the
body must be sound, especially the heart and lungs; it is a game for
those who are healthy and vigorous. A good plan is to pursue some
exercise during the "close" season, _i.e._, the summer months.
Professionals will tell you that August is their hardest month, a large
number of them having done nothing since the end of April. Their muscles
have become stiff, and they have probably too much surplus flesh. It is
very different where professionals take up first class cricket, and
trainers have frequently told me that those professionals and amateurs
who play the summer game require little or no preparation, and there are
many instances of that. Take, for instance, J. Sharp, the famous
Everton forward. He must be getting on in years, and yet season after
season he plays cricket up till the end of August and then turns up at
Goodison Park and shows how well he can carry the ball along and whip it
into goal, like "a rocket, though not so straight up," as one great
judge has written of him. He has been an International this year. He has
done splendid work as a cricketer, and is second on the list of
Lancashire averages, and may be described as one of the greatest
all-round men in England. Now, in his thirty-first year, he has given
evidence that if you keep in condition there is no need to worry about
special preparation or anything of the sort. Another instance is E.
Needham, the captain of Sheffield United, and perhaps the greatest
half-back for many years that we have had. He is now thirty-five, and it
is a long time since he played his first International match, and long
before he was a cricketer he had made his name as a footballer. He is a
tireless worker, as anyone who has watched him with the Sheffield United
club knows quite well, and long before his age many men have retired
from the game. He has the respect and admiration of everyone, and this
year he has come to the front as a cricketer and finished at the head of
the Derbyshire averages. The result of his always keeping in condition
is that he will probably go on for some years as a great cricketer, and
as one career is on the wane the other seems to be beginning. He is
great indeed at both games. Two other members of the Sheffield United
club have also made their presence felt at the summer game. I refer to
the two half-backs, the brothers Wilkinson. W. H., the half-back, has
never done better as a cricketer. He is a left-handed batsman, and has
made a great advance on anything he has done before, while B. Wilkinson
is a player of some repute. Lewis, of Somerset; Makepeace, of
Lancashire; Ducat, of Surrey; Iremonger, of Notts; and Leach and
Vincett, of Sussex, are all cricketers who have done splendid work
during the summer game, and have turned out footballers perfectly fit at
the beginning of the season. Indeed, if you play cricket as it should be
played it is magnificent training for football. It is hard work getting
fit at the start of the season if you have allowed your muscles to
become flabby, while there may be no regular circulation of the blood,
and generally the muscles that you require are very lethargic, so the
difficulty is with those who do not play tennis or cricket, or go in for
rowing or swimming or some other form of active exercise during the
summer, that they will have to take up some serious practice. Skipping
is good, walking and running, especially short sprinting, while
punch-ball exercise and dumb-bells may be used. There should be
moderation in all things, and one must start carefully at first and
increase the amount of training until one feels fit. During the season
walking and some practice at kicking, with an occasional sprint, are
quite enough to keep the player well. It is quite possible that some may
suffer from the tremendous amount of energy that they put into their
game. I do not think that those who work indoors, such as clerks and
others who are called upon to follow indoor occupation, require more
than moderate regular exercise. It is very likely that they will have to
do their training after or before business hours, and in the evening
brisk walking of a couple of miles, with a sprint of 100 yards four or
five times, is a good way of getting rid of superfluous fat, and
everyone can do this if he likes, though laziness will often lead some
to shield themselves under the excuse, "They have no time." One
well-known forward, thoroughly conscientious in his training, used to
exercise on the Embankment, an excellent plan. Everyone who has to work
sitting down should take a morning bath and a little practice with a
skipping rope or dumb-bells. The question of diet is of some importance.
The game is so strenuous and exhausting that a substantial meal should
be taken at least two hours before a match. Many have a beef steak well
cooked, with stale bread and vegetables that are well done, always
excluding potatoes, and they are able to play right through the game
without feeling in any way fatigued. The plainer the food the better.
All players are better if they leave alone intoxicants. Needham
earnestly advises young players to abstain from them. He says that his
experience is that they do not sustain any long continued effort, and
their stimulating effect is followed by an invariable depression. From
my own observation of players who have abstained and those who have not,
I am sure the former have done far better than the latter. Plenty of
Internationals and men whose names are household words are total
abstainers. I remember Vivian J. Woodward at a dinner in the football
season would neither touch intoxicating drinks nor smoke, and England's
captain knew what he was about. Kirwan, who captained Ireland; John
Goodall, one of the props of the game; John Lewis, the famous penalty
king; C. Williams, the Brentford and Tottenham goalkeeper; Ducat, of
Woolwich Arsenal, are only a few of the total abstainers, and to them I
might add R. M. Hawkes, International and the Luton captain. Indeed, if
you want to be of the greatest value to your side you may take it from
me that you will do better service by leaving alone all sorts of
alcohol, and as to smoking, I am quite sure it is thoroughly bad. I see
one picture which explains to me why a great deal of the slackness is
creeping over our boys. Again and again I have watched mere lads of
fourteen and fifteen, as well as young men of twenty-five, come on to
the cricket and football field smoking those horrible, cheap, inferior
"fags." How any captain can allow it is a great mystery to me, because
if we are training for a match we always say do not smoke a day or two
before, because it interferes with one's staying powers. Yet I have seen
boys come down to Tottenham smoking all the way from London, all the
time they are changing, and actually come from the dressing room with
cigarettes, and blow and blow away right to the moment of kicking off.
Not content with that, they get through some more cigarettes at the
interval, and then wonder why they are tired before the match is over. I
have often begged of our youths if they wish to be athletes to remember
that it means a certain amount of self-denial, and if they want to do
their best for their side they will take this matter seriously to heart
and remember that smoking and drinking intoxicants make one unfit rather
than otherwise. I do not think that the ordinary player need think about
special training, but if, on the other hand, staleness comes to him a
complete rest is necessary. When you are overworked at the end of a long
season your feet will seem heavy and your kicking will be uncertain,
while you will fall and stumble about. This is the time to retire and
make room for someone else. With a little care you will gain the
necessary freshness, and you will be able to tell when you have got
that, because you will be anxious to play the game.



Hints to Junior and Amateur Clubs.

It is an old adage that the boy is father to the man, and this applies
casually to football circles. The boy of to-day has a great advantage
over a boy of say ten or fifteen years ago. Every possible opportunity
is put in his way for developing his play, as schoolmasters take a
bigger interest in their boys than in olden days. Schoolboy
Internationals and shield competitions are the order of the day, while
years ago boys used to meet together, pick sides, put their jackets down
for posts, and go full speed ahead without any referee or any official.
I have followed closely these schoolboy competitions, and in my heart
think they are really a mistake. A boy of twenty years ago had to do all
the initial work, which amounted to carrying the goal-posts to the field
of play, whether it were a common or any other open space. They had to
find their own ball, and many times I have given a few pence to an
aspiring club. The blowing up of the ball was another great event, and
in those days it took a lot of doing, the youth with the strongest and
biggest lungs having the privilege of giving the ball its last few
blows. The captain always had the honour of carrying the ball to the
field of play, and could do practically what he liked with it. Nowadays
things seem completely altered. The boy, instead of doing everything for
himself, has everything done for him, and all he has to do is simply
turn up in time to change and go on to the field of play. I think this
is a great mistake, and if the youth of to-day had to go out of his way
to a great extent for his Saturday pastime he would be all the better
for it. When I was a youngster it was nothing unusual for an enthusiast
to get out of bed at an unearthly hour in the morning and make all the
preparations for the day's game, go back to breakfast, and then turn up
at the office at the usual time. To do this one must be very fond of the
game, and such a spirit will carry any club or player right to the
front. I have been secretary to both amateur and professional clubs, and
my sympathy goes out to the secretary of the first-named. The
professional secretary or manager has only to say to the player "Do
this," and he does it, like the centurion of old, but the man who holds
the reins of an amateur club has to put up with many disappointments
through the thoughtlessness of members of his team. I should like to put
this point very strongly before these players, and ask them to consider
their secretary in every way. Charles Reade wrote a very fine novel,
_Put Yourself in His Place_, and this applies to the case in point. The
hon. secretary of an amateur club as a rule is a very busy man, and
takes the position from mere love of the game. It must be admitted that
it is rough on him to find on Saturday morning that many players cannot
put in an appearance at the match and could have saved him all the
trouble of wiring and sending round the district for another player if
they had only let him know a day or two before, so that he would have
had a chance of filling the places they had vacated. It means a great
deal of trouble to him which, for the sake of a little thought, could
have easily been avoided. I am speaking feelingly now, and if any player
happens to read this chapter I hope he will consider this matter
seriously. Junior and amateur clubs have a few failings that I might be
permitted to point out. I might start in the first place with
punctuality. Although this is considered by many a virtue, it is not so
considered by them. Probably before a match starts twenty players have
to wait for the dilatoriness of the other two. Of course there are
exceptional circumstances which are excusable, but the unpunctuality of
the players in junior and amateur matches has done a great deal of harm
from a spectatorial point of view. Professional clubs soon realise this
point, and much of their success in league matches is due to players and
officials being invariably ready to start at the advertised time of kick
off. If a professional is late a severe penalty is imposed upon him, and
the Football League are most autocratic in knowing that the referee and
linesmen are always there at the correct time, and if they are late they
are liable to be fined. Regarding training for juniors, it only behoves
a boy to be thoroughly fit and well. If he indulges in some summer game,
such as cricket, tennis, or golf, or if he plays regularly lawn tennis,
he should start the season quite fit and well. If, however, he feels in
the summer not inclined to follow any of these pastimes, he ought to go
in for walking or swimming, so as to reduce his weight, and thus enable
him to go on the field and play as usual. In recent years one has heard
and read a great deal about special training, and I may remark that
special training is not really necessary, even from a professional point
of view. What is necessary is to keep the players well together, regular
hours for meals, and off to bed in good time. It is the _esprit de
corps_ that must be cultivated. The junior who is at business all the
week should require but little training. His match on the Saturday, if
he leads a regular life, should be quite sufficient to enable him to
turn up on that day as fit as possible. Still, if he has a little time
to spare a few short sprints once or twice a week will do him a great
deal of good. He may probably add two or three yards in a hundred, and
speed is a great asset in modern football. Probably one yard in twenty
is of infinitely more advantage than say five in a hundred, and for that
reason alone I have always encouraged a player, if he can possibly do
so, to go in for short sprints from twenty-five yards to fifty. Should
he not be able to run on an open piece of ground there would be no harm
in putting on a pair of canvas shoes at home and sprinting for fifty
yards on the pavement opposite his house or on the road if the district
is fairly quiet. Nobody will take any notice, especially after the first
once or twice, and on coming indoors take a hot bath; if going out again
never forget to have a cold plunge afterwards. I am a great believer in
hot baths for taking away any nasty knock or soreness, but they must be
taken with the greatest possible care so as to avoid catching cold.
There is no finer sensation after having a hot bath than to jump into a
stone cold one or to stand under a shower. It makes you tingle all over,
and after having a rub down you feel like a giant refreshed. "Am I a
believer in Turkish baths?" is a question often asked me, and I must
admit that I generally qualify my reply. Once now and again does no
harm; to indulge in them regularly to me seems a great mistake, as they
are certainly most lowering. Another point I should like to dwell upon
is that the junior of to-day makes a practice of playing with his cap
on, especially in wet weather. I must honestly state that I hate to see
anyone playing with a headgear. It seems to me strange, and I know many
a player who has caught a very bad cold through playing in this way, and
after changing, going home in the same. If he has a change it is not so
bad, but it takes a longer time for this cap to dry than his hair, and
it is some considerable time before the former is fit to wear after
getting soaked. Just a word in conclusion to the juniors. Play the game
as it should be played. Do not hold your opponents up to ridicule by
beating them two or three times when once will suffice. Get as many
goals as you possibly can, for a team will prefer to be beaten by double
figures rather than know that their opponents were toying with them and
could score whenever they chose. Be loyal to your club and clubmates,
and do not forget that enthusiasm is the great thing that will carry you
to the front in football as well as in other spheres in life.
Unselfishness is also another great point. Should your captain or
committee choose another man as your superior, do not grumble, but turn
out for the second eleven, and play with all your heart and soul, and if
you have the merit you will soon regain your old position in the first
team. Above all, play the game fairly and squarely, and you will succeed
either as a professional, senior, junior, or amateur.




There are a good many people who think that the office of captain is not
very important, but my idea is that the judicious choice of a skipper is
very great indeed. I have heard it said that the office is an empty
honour in a professional club, but I am sure that this is a great
mistake, and in an ordinary club as much depends on the leader as all
the rest put together. The best players in the world are sacrificed if
placed under an inefficient general, but on the other hand a leader of
ability and energy has often made a strong club out of what seemed to be
very unpromising material. So the best all-round player should be
skipper. It seems to me quite necessary that whoever holds this position
must have the confidence of every member of the side, and there can only
be one leader in the field, and unless any fellow has ability and
character enough to gain the loyal support of his men, he had certainly
better never think about taking the office. So many clubs fail because
they have no confidence in their leaders. Ernest Needham, the great
leader of the Sheffield United side, has said that when a team is in a
winning mood how proud the captain may be, but what a difficult post he
has to fill when a team is on the downward grade and losing match after
match. The man you choose should have a thorough knowledge of the game,
and also enthusiasm and keenness, which should be a standing rebuke to
that subtle spirit of slackness which is so characteristic of our men
to-day. Personally, I am very sorry to see this, and if you have at the
head one who sets an example of hard work, coolness, and determination,
you may be sure that he will do his best to get all he can out of his
men. "Example is far better than precept." Now the captain should be the
oldest member of a team as a rule, and the one with most experience.
Alexander Tait and Walter Bull, when they were leaders of the 'Spurs,
were examples of ability and experience going hand in hand, and they
naturally commanded respect. As a rule the captain should decide on the
composition of the team and what they should do. If he has an idea he
can improve it by giving a few new men a trial, he should inform his
committee, who in a small club should always be men who have played and
know the game. They, too, must have perfect confidence in the man they
have chosen, and allow him a very free hand if they wish to get the best
results. One caution which has often been uttered but each season seems
to need repetition, is this that when the side is playing the captain
has absolute control of his men, and is responsible for their formation
and play. He should be above favouritism, for in junior clubs the leader
has often favourites, and no matter how very able the man may be himself
one player does not make a team, and it is necessary to be friendly
with all and not be partial to anybody. The game and the ability of each
for his particular part in it must be the chief consideration, and I
hope that this will ever be so. Without it there will be no success.
Again, it is very necessary that a captain should be in a position to be
able to point out the errors of each one, so that there may be no
resentment. On the field of play, too, he must feel that he has the
support of his men, because it is when they are playing matches that he
has great responsibility. He will carefully watch for openings on the
part of the opposing club, and if he thinks he detects a weak place,
will direct the play so as to take advantage of this and gain the upper
hand, giving his comrades hints as to how this may be done. Many
captains that I know of hardly speak a word on the field of play, but
the interval forms a very useful opportunity indeed for advice, which
must be taken in the proper spirit. He will watch the play of his
opponents, and adopt what he thinks will be the best game. Ernest
Needham remembers how in the great Cup-tie, Sheffield United against
Liverpool, his side were, ten minutes from the close of play, two goals
down, and then played eight forwards, one back, and one half-back, and
in this way managed to get a drawn game. Of course, as he explains,
goals against them mattered little, but the Liverpool forwards were soon
offside in their attempt to break away. In this case the captain was in
a weak position, and reverted to what may seem a strange formation in
order to save the day. Two great captains who have left their mark upon
the game have been Howard Spencer and V. J. Woodward. Spencer was the
leader of Aston Villa, and he gained his unique position by qualities
that may well be imitated. He was something more than an English
gentleman and sportsman. He was, perhaps, the fairest player ever known
to the game. He has never been known to lose his temper, and
self-restraint seemed to him perfectly natural. No player or referee has
ever accused him of a wilful foul, and he has nothing except honest and
straightforward play and skill. His knowledge of the game was very
great, and is shown by the fact that his club won the League
Championship four times, while three times in ten years he helped Aston
Villa to win the English Cup. I dare say, like the rest of humanity, he
had faults, but at the same time he stood out a man who was a brainy
player of great ability. The other man is V. J. Woodward, who has hardly
reached the zenith of his fame. He is very fair in his play, and is ever
heartily welcomed by those who have the pleasure of his acquaintance. It
was a mere accident that brought him to the front. A Tottenham supporter
happened to see him taking part in a local game at the time when G. O.
Smith was retiring, and he was invited to show his prowess in good
company, with what result everybody knows. If he has been left out of a
side it is perhaps because he is so unselfish that he has not been
chosen on every occasion that he might have been, but nature and skill
asserted themselves, and he is the unanimous choice of the selectors
now. He would rather lose a game than win it by dirty tactics. He is
never individual, and always gives the others a chance. To my mind, he
is the ideal captain of the day, and everyone who wishes to be
successful as a leader should go and watch him. The young player must
always remember to keep perfect control over his temper, or he will do
very little. Walter Bull thinks the ideal place for a "skipper" is that
of centre half, but some others have preferred the goalkeeper's place.
In the latter you have all the play before you, but from centre half
hints can be passed unobserved to the front line. Alexander Tait, of
Leyton, was ever quiet as a captain, no shouting on the field of play,
but a friendly "tip" during the interval. What you regard as "hard
lines" will often try your temper, but if you expect your side to obey
the referee and the spectators to behave well, you must show the way.
The skipper who succeeds is the man of few words on the field, though
off it he may say a great deal. The club's affairs will go much more
smoothly if he tries to be fair. No personal feeling must interfere with
his choice of a player--the best man for the position, and the one who
plays not for himself but for his side. To-day combination is required.
I know one brilliant International who was very individual.
Remonstrances were of no use, and at last came the time when he had to
be left out of the team. He was a nice fellow, and since he left he has
been captain for his country. One man, good as he may be, cannot win a
match, and the captain, at least, should be free from reproach.



The Referee.

In one way the most important man on the field is the referee, as the
success of the game depends a great deal on his ability to control the
play and players adequately. He is commonly known as the "Knight of the
Whistle," and his responsibilities are manifold. To be a successful
referee one must keep thoroughly fit, and be able to turn out on to the
field in as good a condition as the player does, for he has got to go
through more running than any of the twenty-two players, and must keep
up with their pace. Like Cæsar's wife, he should be above suspicion, and
give his decisions without fear or favour. It is the weak referee that
often spoils a game and brings football into disgrace.

Refereeing in a first class match is much easier than taking the whistle
in what we might call junior ones. In senior circles players know the
game from "A" to "Z," and play accordingly; but often a referee has to
use more judgment than if he were officiating for the English Cup at the
Crystal Palace. However, this is only by the way, and I must dwell upon
the senior referee more than the junior. In brief, my ideal referee
must have the following qualifications:--

     1. A thorough knowledge of the rules of the game.

     2. Be strong minded enough to enforce his decisions when once
     they are given.

     3. He should have been a player himself, and still be as active
     as ever on the field.

     4. He must be an autocrat. (If necessary, the F.A. will support
     him to the fullest extent possible.)

Really the duties of a referee are manifold. He has full control of the
play, and must use a great amount of tact, for if he does not, he not
only spoils the game but his own reputation. He should be quick in
giving his decisions, and must adhere to them, despite the grumblings
and comments of the players or spectators. The professional footballer
of to-day is very quick in weighing up the referee. He knows in his
heart whether he can do as he likes or if the referee is to be obeyed.
Supposing the man with the whistle is weak, no one knows better than the
players, and again, if he is strong, they know they can take no
liberties during the course of the game. In ordinary games the referee
must be strong and have no connection with the clubs engaged. The most
able referees that I have played under or witnessed were men who were
slow to speak, but when occasion arose were quick to act. As a matter of
fact, they have simply to say "Do this," and it is done; and there is
trouble for anyone who endeavours to dispute their ruling. The greatest
referee may make mistakes. Still, he must maintain the dignity of his
decisions when once given. In many ways a referee is born and not made,
and all the best referees are those who have played the game when they
were young, and have followed it up continually since leaving off,
actually taking part in the kicking of the ball. Their hearts are in the
game, and this makes all the difference, to a great degree, whether they
are successful or not. In senior circles referees are supposed to be
unbiassed, which I am glad to say in the general run of cases they are.
The crowd of the home side are naturally in favour of their friends, and
the referee has often to put up with any amount of comment and ridicule.
It is then that he should show his character and worth by distributing
the law of the game as it ought to be done in all honesty and fairness.

Probably it may be considered vanity on my part to give the would-be
referee a few ideas from a player's point of view. A referee should, if
possible, know each man by name and the position he occupies in the
field, so that if a reprimand is necessary he can say, "Jones or
MacPherson, stop that!" A little phrase like that goes a very long way,
and I may attribute the secret of some of our referees' success to
knowing the names of the players they are refereeing, and so being able
to call them personally to order when necessary.

The relation of the referee to the linesmen is a very great question,
and whether he should be persuaded by the two men on the line has often
been discussed both on and off the field. To sum it up briefly, my
opinion is that a referee should act upon his own discretion, but when
in doubt should consult his linesmen. If he gives a decision on the spur
of the moment when he is certain he is quite correct, he must not be
persuaded by the opposition one way or the other. Still, when he is in
doubt he should certainly appeal to the linesmen, and the referee who
does not do so is bound to get into bad odour. The linesman is closely
connected with the referee in every way, although his duties are not
really arduous. In reality, he has simply to follow the ball up the
field, give his decision as to whether the sphere has gone over the
lines, and to say which side should have the benefit, and whether a
corner kick should be given or not.

Of recent years the penalty kick has often been a great trouble to the
referee, and should a man be forgiven for overlooking a certain foul it
must be decided by the opinion of the man on the line. The penalty kick
is probably the most difficult point the referee of to-day has to deal
with, and he should give it instantly with the courage of his
convictions, and even if the decisions of his linesmen are different.
Quickness and decision are what is really wanted in a referee.

Just a word or two to the spectators. They should not judge quickly or
harshly, and should always recognise that it is one man that must
decide, rightly or wrongly. They must not overlook the fact that he has
got to do so on the spur of the moment, and that he has no time for
reflection. Whilst dwelling on the subject of referees, it is a matter
of regret that many players do not take any interest in junior circles,
where their personality would command respect. The boy of to-day,
knowing that a certain International is going to officiate in the game
he is taking part in, will play much better than if Tom, Dick, or Harry
had the control, a fact which proves for itself that personality is a
great thing in the "Knight of the Whistle." John Lewis, of Blackburn,
has been crowned King of Referees, and undoubtedly this was greatly due
to his personality on the field. The player knew he could take no
liberties whatever, and when a warning was once given it was given so
that the player was sure that his next act of disobedience would ensure
for him his marching order off the field, and that later he would be
dealt with by the F.A. Mr. Lewis always let the player know when he had
gone too far in any way, and afterwards it was for a player to see that
it did not occur again. It is a pity that more first-class players, when
they have finished their playing career, do not follow it up by becoming
referees. Referees of the class of Major Marindin, J. C. Clegg, J. J.
Bentley, and many others, are badly wanted in the football of to-day. I
might appeal to the older players to take a greater interest in the
beginners than they are doing at the present time. They should remember
the days when they were young and the interest taken in them by their
elders, who used to go out of their way to encourage them in their
sport, and endeavour to do to-day what was done for them years ago.
Junior referees are badly wanted, especially men of a reputation that is
well respected. I, even in my little way, refereeing last year, found
my name and fame as a Cup-holder and International was a great
recommendation, and called for the respect that is really due to worthy
officials. If this appeals to any player it is easy for him to become a
referee by applying to his local association. The biggest bugbear that
the referee has to contend with is the penalty and offside restrictions.
To the uninitiated the offside rule appears quite simple, but to the
referee it is the most difficult problem he has got to overcome during
the course of the day. His eye is always on the ball, and whilst
following it up quickly he is naturally inclined to miss some point
which appeals to the onlookers, every one of whom considers himself a
critic. The penalty kick plays an important part in the game of to-day,
and this particular point requires instant decision, consequently the
referee needs to be a man with good judgment, and one who is not to be
deterred by criticism, whether it be by players, spectators, or


Football as a Profession.

There are many young fellows who are inclined to take up football as a
profession, and to these the writer would say, "Count well the cost
before you do it." I have spoken to many players, and few would let
their boys take football up as the serious business of life. It is easy
to start; any club that has paid players will give you a trial, and if
you are capable will sign you on at perhaps a few shillings up to a
pound a week. The objections are that the career is very short, and may
be interrupted or terminated by an accident at any time, and then if you
are not master of a trade you are practically ruined. When boys used to
come to me and tell me of their wish to join the 'Spurs I always tried
to get them to learn some trade first and be master of it, so when
necessary they could fall back upon it. This provision for the future is
necessary, because you may begin your paid career at seventeen or
eighteen, before you have learned a trade, and play on till you are
twenty-eight or thirty, and then find you are too old to begin to do so.
I have known a number who had made no preparation for the future, and in
some cases they are starving. It is one of the painful duties of a
secretary's life to have to hear of appeals for help from veterans who
have neglected to acquire some trade before taking up football. No club
ought to be allowed, for the credit of the game, to sign on any players
until they have given evidence that they have a marketable knowledge of
some trade or profession. As I have said, many think £4 a week is a nice
income; so it is, but how many get it, and how many years does it last?
It may be that in the near future you may get as much as you can out of
a club, but even then only a very few of the thousands of paid players
will get more than they do now. Many a youth, talking of the matter,
has been under the impression that all professionals get the £4 per
week. That is not so. Many of the smaller clubs cannot afford to pay it.
There are many who never get beyond 50s. per week. No doubt the
organisation of school games has had a great deal to do with turning the
attention of promising lads at school to football as a career. It is
true that one out of a thousand schoolboy players may get signed on, but
I hardly know of half a dozen. Hundreds of young men apply to clubs for
a trial, and are soon convinced that they have not skill enough, but
those few who are lucky should weigh the matter seriously. I know there
are many who may argue that they can, after their playing days are over,
get a position as trainer or manager to some club. Such a place as I
had, for instance, for many years, but, like everything else nowadays,
there are only a very limited number of these positions, while there are
scores of applicants for them, and for every vacancy to be filled there
are generally one or two who have very strong backing, and there is
little chance for the outsider. Others have often pointed out to me that
after a certain number of years they will be entitled to a benefit. This
is quite correct, but even if the benefit comes off how much does it
bring in? I should fancy that an average benefit does not give more than
£300 or £400--indeed, a footballer is considered very lucky if the match
that he has chosen brings him £150. I have known a great many that have
brought in less. Mr. J. J. Bentley, who is now the President of the
Football League, once wrote an article on "Football Finance," in which
he stated that "not more than six professional clubs were solvent," and
he asked the pertinent question: "If only six of the leading clubs can
make it pay on a really lucrative scale, what is to become of the game?"
By the game he doubtless means the professional part of it. Fourteen
years have passed away, but I very much doubt if the situation is
altered now. A few clubs, a very few, make a profit on their year's
working. The majority show a deficit which annually becomes larger. For
a time collapse is avoided by the bazaar or by turning the club into a
limited liability company, but these are only temporary reliefs, and the
fact remains that in most clubs either the expenses of management or the
salaries of the players are larger than the receipts permit, and
sometimes the clubs go under. Another important point for the would-be
"pro." is the question of temperament. You must have exceptional
qualities of a personal character. If you cannot take hard knocks as
well as give them, and if you cannot control your temper, you are not
likely to be successful. The day of the blackguardly dirty player is
over, and the man with brain as well as brawn is needed for this work.
Education makes all the difference, and the incoming professionals will
have to be men of considerable culture. Neither is there any chance for
the fellow who cannot control his appetite in the matter of strong
drink. There arise before us sad and mournful pictures of men whose
names have been "familiar as a household word," but whose sun has set
years before it should have done, owing to the fact that they soaked in
beer. Some I have seen at the Palace in the Cup Final, the heroes of the
day; apparently the world was at their feet. The next time one set eyes
on them it was difficult to recognise in the battered specimen of
humanity that stood before you the sprightly player of former days. The
contrast is painful, but often, very often, has greeted my eyes.

"No," said a great Southern League captain to me, "my boys shall never
be paid footballers, but they must learn a trade. The prospects are not
pleasing enough." No, it is far better, unless you have superlative
talents, to take to some other calling. It is only a small proportion
who make their mark in professional football.

Some may make a better thing out of it if they are paid cricketers, for
they will have wages for both games. But here again the area is limited,
though the pay is good. It is not necessary to be a professional player
to gain the highest honours. Take England's captain, V. J. Woodward; he
is an architect, but from the first day I saw him there was great
ability, and it was bound to come out. So with many other amateurs who
have come to the front. They have succeeded because they had skill, but
also because they kept in good condition owing to their ordinary work,
which was well done. To boys I say stick to your job, and having worked
well go and play your best. But leave professionalism out of the


Continental Football: Its Growth and Possible Developments.

Football on the Continent is undoubtedly developing greatly, and a great
deal of credit is due to the enterprise of the English and Scottish
clubs. I have played in France, Germany, and Austria, and the enthusiasm
displayed by the players and spectators holds forth great hopes of the
game becoming as popular on the other side of the Channel as it is here.
It is a few years ago since I last played there, and since then great
developments have taken place, such as International matches with
English and foreign sides. Practically the results have always been in
our favour, but gradually the margin in the goals is becoming less. It
will take many years yet before we can expect the Continentals to be
able to give our English teams a real good game. However, the outlook is
very rosy, as the enthusiasm is becoming greater week by week and year
after year. The British elevens who used to visit the Continent were
inclined to look upon it as a holiday trip. But after seeing the good
done by these visits they have played more earnestly than hitherto.

While playing in Austria, I was greatly impressed with the spirit of
our opponents. They were keen enough to learn, and wished to know
precisely how the game was played. The captain of the native team (by
the way, he could speak English) came to our captain and requested him
to play the game as it should be played, and get as many goals as we
could and not toy with them. We won by at least double figures, but at
the finish of the match they called for three cheers for us, and of
course we naturally responded. This is the spirit that prevails from my
little knowledge of foreign football, and if it is continued there can
be no doubt that at a future date they will be able to challenge any
English or Scottish teams, and would give them a good game. It is rather
awkward not knowing the language when playing on the Continent, as often
times one would like to know exactly why such a decision was given. It
has often had its ludicrous side, and I have often smiled at the broad
Scotchman trying to explain something to a German without any success.

Refereeing is probably the point that wants more cultivating than even
playing, and any amount of games have been spoiled by an official coming
on to the field, not following the ball, and giving his decisions
autocratically. He was generally dressed immaculately, and did not dream
of following the run of play, and in many cases he has spoiled what
would have been a good game. It is to be regretted that there have been
some scenes on the Continent reminiscent of some of our outbreaks on
home grounds. In one way this is certainly deplorable, but in another it
shows that the game is catching on on the Continent, the players
showing a better appreciation of the rules, just as they are able to
follow the rules of the game; and now what is wanted is an Association
in every country just like the F.A. in England. The International games
to be played at the Stadium this year have shown the decided taste of
other countries for all kinds of sports that are played here, and as the
matter now stands Great Britain should certainly come out first, but it
is a matter of great speculation whether Sweden, Germany, Italy, France,
or Austria will finish second. The countries mentioned are most
enthusiastic about it, and great credit must be given to the F.A. for
the magnificent sum they have contributed towards the entertainments of
the visitors. In South Africa the game has been played longer than in
any country outside the British Isles. The competition there is known as
the Donald Currie Cup, and it is nothing unusual for a team to travel a
thousand miles to take part in this competition. In conversation the
other day with a player who has played a great deal there, he said the
English footballer of to-day could not do well there, for the travelling
on the rough roads and the hard ground would be quite unlike anything
they experience in England. Argentina is a great many miles away, but
the game there is also developing rapidly. It is only three years ago
since Southampton undertook the long voyage and had a most enjoyable
time. It must be said that they astonished the natives, but this
missionary effort by one of the leading clubs in the country is making
the game popular all over the world. The Corinthians, too, have done a
great deal in this way. They have been to Africa, and practically all
over the world, and wherever they have been they have given an excellent
exposition of how the game should be played. In South Africa they had
perhaps to play with more vigour, the ground being as hard as asphalte,
and the trying conditions affecting the play, but they nearly always
came out top. France is stronger in Rugby than in Association Football,
but the International matches between the two countries make the latter
more popular with the public. The season in many countries on the
Continent is about half as long as ours, and this makes all the
difference to them, but it will be a long time before any Continental
country will be able to claim supremacy.


Football Reform.

Has Association Football reached its zenith? "Certainly not," is the
reply I invariably give to any enthusiast or cynic who asks me the
question. Remember, there are a good many reforms that must be made, for
a game must keep up its position and also retain its popularity with the
masses, who are the mainstay of football. As I have already remarked, I
have a great respect for the F.A., and they have a great deal to do with
the game which is recognised now as the game of the country. It is much
easier to criticise than to legislate, and much of the work done by
these associations does not get the credit it deserves. Facts are
stubborn things, and when my old club, Tottenham Hotspur, played in the
English Cup Final, at the Crystal Palace, in April, before a record
crowd of 114,000, it was said that these figures would never be beaten.
It certainly has not been done in England, although it has been very
nearly approached, but last April, at Hampden Park, it was overshadowed
by 20,000 more onlookers. Cricket has had an infinitely longer innings
than football, but I can see no just reason nor impediment why football,
especially Association, should not go on for at least the lifetime of
the present generation. The majority of sports, such as cycling,
running, etc., have died through the want of proper management, and
sports as a whole should be controlled by an Association of Amateurs in
the proper sense of the word. Probably it is not known to many of my
readers that the F.A., to save the game from falling into the hands of a
speculator, have restricted the dividends to be paid to any club to 5
per cent. By the way, this rule does not apply to Scotland, but before
long I hope they will follow in the steps of their English brethren.
Again, to show how pure professional clubs are, directors, whether they
be five or fifteen, are not entitled to draw any money from the club,
and this shows that the real sportsmanlike spirit prevails at the helm
of professional football, and certainly no reform in this way is desired
or required. Rumours of a National League are quite rife in the air, but
on going into the matter, I hardly see any desirability for the idea
bearing fruit. For one reason, if it did come off it would become very
speculative, and, like the big trusts in America have done, do much
damage to the smaller tradesmen. Even look at the possibility of such a
great league when one comes to deal with the matter thoroughly from a
geographical point of view, and I have spent many hours in endeavouring
to see how such a league could become workable. Rivalry in football is
one of its biggest assets, and in this way I should like to see the big
Southern clubs formed into a Southern League and the Northern clubs into
a Northern League, and the two top clubs of each League to fight out the
question of supremacy. As I have already stated, I consider that the
present governing body of Association football is admirably constituted,
and it will be a sorry day for the game if the leading clubs rebel. At
the same time, systems are rarely if ever perfect, so I should like to
make a few suggestions upon the following points:

     1. The transfer system.

     2. The wage limit.

     3. Neutral referees should be appointed by an independent body
     of the Association.

Dealing firstly with the transfer system, I think it is iniquitous, and
when the Players' Union was first formed this was one of the burning
questions of the day. I fought the matter out strenuously, because at
that time the rules of the F.A. were contrary to the League. As
secretary I appealed to the F.A., and expected great things, but instead
of compelling the League to bring its laws into line, the Association
altered its own to correspond with those of the League. Looking at this
from a broad point of view, it is hard on a player who has cost his club
nothing, but has signed on for a year. At the end of that season he is
free, and his old club can put an astonishing large sum on his head.
This is hardly in accordance with English love of fair play, and is
probably one of the few blots on the game. I am looking forward to the
day when this system shall be abolished, and the player shall be a man,
not a slave. Of course, if a club gets a large transfer for a player,
then in one way it should have some compensation if he leaves them, but
in some cases a young fellow goes elsewhere and they get more out of his
transfer fees than they ever paid him in wages. It must be admitted that
things at the present day are infinitely better than they were some
years ago. The player has the right of a special appeal to a Committee
of the League, and the amount asked for players' transfers has been
greatly reduced. Still, I think that his club should keep him until his
transfer is settled. Talking about the old Players' Union, it reminds me
that at one meeting we had, a player stated that if a club had a horse
they wanted to part with, some one would have to find the horse in
fodder until the negotiations were finished. A player is during that
time between the devil and the deep blue sea, and has to entirely
support himself during that period, and I have known many excellent
players give up the game for this reason.

Turning next to the question of the limit wage of £4 per week for any
professional, there are a great many pros and cons in this case, and
once again I think there is a certain amount of room for improvement.
Should the abolition of the transfer system become law, ere long the
wage limit will have to be most seriously considered. The clubs
themselves have the power to alter it at any annual meeting of the F.A.
They brought it upon themselves to a certain extent, for at the general
meeting it is the clubs that settle such points as these. It cannot be
denied that much of the levelling of the clubs in recent years must be
attributed greatly to this rule. Whether it has been for the good of the
game is another question, but often a player knows that if he plays an
ordinary game he can always secure £4 per week. He has no monetary
incentive to improve himself, and this is perhaps the reason why "star
artists" do not come to the front more frequently. Last year the F.A.
raised the fee for playing in an International game from three guineas
to ten, which, to my mind, was a step in the right direction, although
the player should consider the honour of playing for his country above
any mercenary reason. Again, if a professional footballer could have
such a long connection with the game as a professional cricketer, a wage
of £4 per week would not be so bad, but as his career is a short one,
no time can be depended upon. This should be well weighed by the
administrators who look after the interests of the players. I should
like to see the control of the game, as far as the appointment of
referees and linesmen is concerned, left to an independent body to be
appointed by the F.A., who will give the appointments without favour. It
may be rather a tall order just at present, but the suggestion is worthy
of consideration. Should an official who wears glasses referee in a
first-class match? is a question which is greatly discussed throughout
the land. After talking the matter over with an old player, my opinion
is that if a player can play the game in glasses surely he can follow
the ball as a referee. An old player who was in conversation with me the
other day was exceedingly bitter on the question, and I should really
think that if the matter was put strongly before the F.A., sanction
would be given to an old player to follow his favourite game in the
capacity of referee. Whilst speaking about referees, I should like to
see the Association give him power to order a man off the field for a
foul without having to report him to the parent body. The punishment to
the club by losing him would be quite sufficient, and we may be sure
they would not deal with him very lightly.


Present-Day Football.

There are not wanting signs that football has not yet finished
expanding. Every season sees more clubs in villages as well as in towns,
and the County Associations also report a numerical increase. But
whether or not there will be a sharper dividing line between amateur and
professional is difficult to say. It may be that before long we shall
have one authority for the amateur game and another for the
professional. It must not be forgotten that there are tens of thousands
of the one class, but only a few of the other. But the paid player, by
reason of the leisure he has, shows the highest skill, and in that way
has inspired the unpaid with a higher ideal of play, and it is a
favourite contention of many that the best game is that played by the
professional clubs. The junior who goes to see Aston Villa, Chelsea,
Manchester United, or Newcastle is impressed by the play, and makes up
his mind to try and put into practice what he has seen. It is good for
the boy to go and see players of the highest skill, and if the ordinary
club member would do this occasionally the average standard of play
would be higher. A boy who is an enthusiastic right back, and is
anxious to play in that position, can hardly do better than go and watch
Robert Crompton, the famous right back of the Blackburn Rovers. He is an
example of what our elementary schools produce. As a lad he took part in
the game at Moss Street Board School, an institution that had produced a
side that had carried off the trophy offered to the schools. When at
work as a plumber he played in the League team of a Sunday school, and
when engaged one day was seen by Mr. John Lewis, who got him to play for
the Rovers. For some couple of years he remained an amateur, but then
became a professional. He became captain in 1899, and has several
International "caps." He uses his head, and tries to anticipate the
intentions of his opponent. He kicks with either foot with great power,
and is a clean player. He follows the ball rather than the man. He is an
excellent example of the man who, taking to football, has found it
possible to stick to his trade as well.

Another player is James Sharp, who is a splendid outside right. In him
you have a reminder that skill may make up for lack of inches. He is
only 5 ft. 7 in., but he is one of the men who have worked hard to
attain their position and also to keep it. He can dribble well, feint,
pass, shoot, and yet keep control of the ball. He came from Hereford,
where he was a member of the local club, and after two seasons went to
Everton. In his every action you can see the man who plays for his club.
He is determined and strong, given to making the most of an opportunity.
It is difficult for the adversary to know what he is going to do. Here
is the ideal all-round sportsman. Little wonder he has succeeded so well
on the cricket field. He is not content to excel in one department. Once
we thought he would become a great fast bowler, then he began to
progress as a batsman, and at the moment of writing has concluded a
great season for his adopted county, whose fortunes have been very low.
He, too, is in business, and life for him is truly strenuous, as his
play is. We could do with more player-workers of this modest young man's

And if you come to the front line watch V. J. Woodward, our leading
gentleman player. The son of an architect living in a house that
overlooks the Oval, he learned his game at a school at Clacton, and then
resided at Chelmsford, where one day a director of the 'Spurs, happening
to know that a match was being played in the County Cup Competition,
thought he would have a look, and did so. He was struck with the skill
of Vivian J. Woodward as a centre forward, and as the result of a chat
he was got to play for Tottenham Hotspur. This was some six years ago.
He at once made his mark, and no man was ever so loved by professionals.
No fairer player ever stepped on to the field. Note his clean,
delightful runs, how unselfish he is; indeed, it was freely reported
that he was left out of a series of Internationals because he showed so
much consideration for his partners. What a glorious tribute to the
sportsmanship of the man! Yes, for clean, clever, aye, cultured forward
play, watch V. J. Woodward, who can only get away on Saturdays because
he earns his living. He is a grand wicketkeeper and cricket captain who
has not the time for county games. And he is a genuine amateur--no
riding third class and charging first. He is an honourable performer,
who looks to all to play a clean game, and expects the referee to see
they do. If such amateurs are to be driven out of the Soccer game by
"money-making limited liability companies" and their unending squabbles,
it will be a bad day for sport. You can still see Needham, old, I
suppose, as players go. What a strategist he is. His play is that of the
man who loves the game; he can still tackle, pass, defend, and shoot as
finely as of old. Of goalkeepers, one can see many. Ashcroft; Sutcliffe;
Lunn, of Wolverhampton; Hardy, of Liverpool; Maskery, of Derby County,
are all good. There are many misconceptions about the game, and most
people think that the referee is compelled to use a whistle. But if you
read the laws of the game or the directions to referees, you find that
nowhere is he instructed to use a whistle. The word is "signal," but it
might be by a trumpet, or a motion of the hands or arms. When the
referee "signals," by whistle or otherwise, at the commencement of the
game, it means that he is ready and the players can start as soon as
they like, but the period of play is counted from the actual kick. The
offside rule is very difficult for the spectator; talk to them, and they
will tell you confidently that no player can be offside if he has three
of the opposition in front of him, that is, nearer to their own goal.
Yet, as Mr. William Pickford has pointed out, a player could be offside
with eleven opponents in front of him. It is not likely, but it could
happen. If a player has not three opponents in front of him when the
ball was last played by one of his own side, who was behind him, he is
offside, and he remains so till someone else plays the ball, and if in
the interval the rest of the team ran back on goal he would still be

Again, what is an amateur? Well, conscience will decide in the light of
the rule. He must not receive remuneration or consideration of any sort
above his necessary hotel expenses and travelling expenses actually
paid. The men who pay for their sport are getting fewer and fewer. It is
a pity. But on these and many other points you can obtain valuable
booklets from the F.A., 104, High Holborn, London, W.C. They publish
also a referees' chart, with the interpretation that is officially put
upon many rules. They are mines of useful information for those who know
but little of the game.

It would seem as if the game is rapidly spreading on the Continent, and
every country takes up the sport save Turkey and Russia. England is the
mentor, and the Football Association have a great work. It may be that
the love of sport will so grow that ere many years are over we shall see
several European teams competing here year by year. In the early stages
of the development the game will be amateur, but later on will come the
paid player. One writer says, "No money, no first-class football." This
is rubbish; it is much to be regretted, such a sentiment, for we can
get the highest skill from those who play for the love of the game. The
giants of the past who created the present demand were unpaid, and the
future will still produce those who will not play for gold.


A Few Famous Cup-Ties.

The English Cup is probably a bigger attraction to a footballer than any
other. To a Scottish footballer his International cap against England is
to achieve the height of his ambition, but somehow in England, to
participate in the final at the Crystal Palace in April is the heart's
desire of the average player. There is a glamour surrounding the English
Cup Competition that nothing else can compare with.

I well remember when the Scottish clubs were entitled to enter into the
arena, and such great clubs as Queen's Park, Glasgow Rangers, Cowlairs,
Heart of Midlothian entering in the lists against the best clubs that
prevailed at the time in England. Queen's Park, still the premier
amateur club in Scotland, also the Heart of Midlothian, made history in
this competition, but the first-named must be given the laurels.

There are still many old players in Scotland who maintain that in the
first year, when they were beaten by Blackburn Rovers, the result should
have gone the other way. As it was before my day I cannot, naturally, go
into the matter as thoroughly as I should desire, but when such players
as Messrs. Smellie and Campbell have assured me that they should have
had the victory, I rather feel inclined to believe their statement.
Queen's Park, as already stated, were for many years the greatest club
in Scotland, and they played the game for the love of it, for when in
the two finals which were played at the Oval most of their members had
to travel overnight to play on the following day, which speaks for
itself. A great deal has been said, as well as written, about this
matter, and it is often asked if the "Queens" deserved to win.

Perhaps the finest Cup-tie that has been seen at the Palace was the
meeting of Everton and Aston Villa in 1897. I had thought at one time to
participate in this final, but after playing three rounds I got knocked
out, and was unable to play. I must say that my substitute at centre
forward did exceedingly well, and I could not grumble in any way at
being left out. The ordinary London man will always remember this match,
when the Villa eventually finished winners by three goals to two. I
followed it very keenly, and in one way my sympathy went to the losers,
because there was little or nothing to choose between them.

Coming to Southern clubs, probably Southampton have been the most
disappointed club that has come into the list, especially through their
great Cup-tie with Notts Forest, at the Crystal Palace, in the
semi-final of the Cup. A great amount of correspondence was entered into
at the time, and everybody really admitted that they were most unlucky
to be beaten at the last minute in a blinding snowstorm. Many people
will remember how this tie was stopped in the middle of the game, and
after resuming it with only a few minutes before the finish the result
was a draw. At almost the last moment Notts Forest broke away and scored
a goal which many people considered should never have been allowed,
simply because they did not see it. The snowstorm was heavier than when
the referee stopped the game earlier on, but he allowed it to go on
because he expected the game would result in a draw. Whether this is
correct or not I cannot say, but the fact remains that the good people
of Southampton still maintain that they had not their dues on that day.

Something has been written of late about a goalkeeper letting his side
down in a final tie, but I cannot believe that any player, whether
goalkeeper or forward, could or would let his side down.

I do not care to enter into the year when my old club, Tottenham
Hotspur, won the Cup, but one of the biggest officials in the Football
Association came along to compliment me, and said that my side gave the
best display of football since Aston Villa won the Cup--indeed, he
implied that it was even better than that given by the Villa, which
compliment I naturally appreciated. It was indeed a great day at the
Palace, and I do not propose to dwell upon the goal allowed by Mr.
Kingscott to our opponents. Our players were sure that the ball had not
crossed the line, but as we won on the replay at Bolton everything was
forgiven and forgotten.

Another great match in the early days was at Manchester, between Everton
and Wolverhampton Wanderers. Everton, the previous Saturday, had sent a
reserve team to Wolverhampton. They won quite easily. I cannot say what
the score was, but it was four or five goals to nothing. In the final at
Manchester, Everton were eventually beaten by a long shot in the early
part of the game. There was no doubting their superior skill, but this
result simply proved that cup-tie football is quite different from
league football.

There are two clubs in the South that have brought Southern football to
the front: Southampton and Tottenham Hotspur. To the latter all due
credit must be given for winning the Cup, but the "Saints," as they are
called, have done equally as good work as the 'Spurs. They were really
the pioneers of professional football in the Southern League, and when
one considers they were in the final in 1900, and again in 1902, when
they were beaten by Sheffield United after a drawn game, it reflects
great credit upon them. They do not receive the credit they deserve from
their own supporters, and the severance of two of their best local
players in 1906 was a severe handicap to the team. By the way, they were
both born and bred in the district, and caused a great sensation in the
League. Perhaps one of the biggest surprises in the finals of the
English Cup was the great victory of Bury over Derby County. The former
won by six goals to nothing, but this was entirely due to Fryer being
far from fit to play and letting the first three goals go past him. If
his knee had been all right it would never have happened.

My old friend, Charlie Campbell, often talks of his old Cup-tie
experiences, and sometimes has referred to the meetings of his old club,
Queen's Park, with Notts Forest and Blackburn Rovers. In my early days
Mr. Campbell was to my mind quite a hero. He would go out of his way to
advise and encourage juniors, and much of my success at Queen's Park and
Everton was due to the advice which he gave me in those days. Talking
about Tottenham Hotspur in the year they won the Cup, practically the
best victory was over Bury, who were the holders of the "Little Pot" at
that time. There was more enthusiasm shown over that match than I
consider has been seen during any other Cup-tie that I have ever played
in. The game was fought in a proper spirit, and when Bury scored in the
first few minutes it was thought that all was over regarding Tottenham's
chances. However, we got exceedingly well together, and won by two goals
to one, amidst the greatest enthusiasm. It outshone the reception after
the Bolton match, our victory over Reading, and all other great games
the 'Spurs have distinguished themselves in. It is not for me to dwell
upon the great reception the 'Spurs had on their return from Bolton. The
only regret is that they have not won the Cup again, nor has another
Southern club had that honour. Southampton, as well as the 'Spurs, have
done much to uphold the prestige of the South in the Cup, and it now
behoves the other clubs to gird themselves for the fray, and demonstrate
that Southern football is quite capable of holding its own against the
North. The winning of the Cup by a Southern club next April would be the
best possible proof of this.


Number of Players.--Field of Play.--The Ball.

1. The game should be played by eleven players on each side. The
dimensions of the field of play shall be--maximum length, 130 yards;
minimum length, 100 yards; maximum breadth, 100 yards; minimum breadth,
50 yards. The field of play shall be marked by boundary lines. The lines
at each end are the goal lines, and the lines at the side are the touch
lines. The touch lines shall be drawn at right angles with the goal
lines[A]. A flag with a staff not less than five feet high shall be
placed at each corner. A half-way line shall be marked out across the
field of play. The centre of the field of play shall be indicated by a
suitable mark, and a circle with ten yards' radius shall be made round
it. The goals shall be upright posts fixed on the goal lines,
equi-distant from the corner flagstaffs, eight yards apart, with the bar
across them eight feet from the ground. The maximum width of the goal
posts and the maximum depth of the crossbar shall be five inches. Lines
shall be marked six yards from each goal post at right angles to the
goal lines for a distance of six yards, and these shall be connected
with each other by a line parallel to the goal lines; the space within
these lines shall be the goal area. Lines shall be marked eighteen yards
from each goal post at right angles to the goal lines for a distance of
eighteen yards, and these shall be connected with each other by a line
parallel to the goal lines; the space within these lines shall be the
penalty area. A suitable mark shall be made opposite the centre of each
goal twelve yards from the goal line; this shall be the penalty kick
mark. The circumference of the ball shall not be less than twenty-seven
inches nor more than twenty-eight. The outer casing must be of leather,
and no material shall be used in the construction of the ball which
would constitute a danger to the players. In International matches the
dimensions of the field of play shall be--maximum length, 120 yards;
minimum length, 110 yards; maximum breadth, 80 yards; minimum breadth,
70 yards; and at the commencement of the game the weight of the ball
shall be from thirteen to fifteen ounces.

[A] (The touch and goal lines must not be marked by a V-shaped rut.)

Duration of Play.--Choice of Goals.--The Kick-off.

2. The duration of the game shall be ninety minutes, unless otherwise
mutually agreed upon. The winners of the toss shall have the option of
kick-off or choice of goals. The game shall be commenced by a place kick
from the centre of the field of play in the direction of the opponents'
goal line; the opponents shall not approach within ten yards of the ball
until it is kicked off, nor shall any player on either side pass the
centre of the ground in the direction of his opponents' goal until the
ball is kicked off.

(If this law is not complied with the kick-off must be taken over

Changing Ends.--The Interval.--The Re-start.

3. Ends shall only be changed at half-time. The interval at half-time
shall not exceed five minutes, except by consent of the referee. After
the goal is scored, the losing side shall kick off, and after the change
of ends at half-time, the ball shall be kicked off by the opposite side
from that which originally did so; and always as provided in Law 2.

How a Goal is Scored.--If Bar is Displaced.--If Ball Rebounds or Goes
Out of Play.

4. Except as otherwise provided by these laws a goal shall be scored
when the ball has passed between the goal posts under the bar, not
being thrown, knocked on, nor carried by any player of the attacking
side. If from any cause during the progress of the game the bar is
displaced, the referee shall have power to award a goal if in his
opinion the ball would have passed under the bar if it had not been
displaced. The ball is in play if it rebounds from a goal post,
crossbar, or a corner flagstaff into the field of play. The ball is in
play if it touches the referee or a linesman when in the field of play.
The ball is out of play when it has crossed the goal line or touch line,
either on the ground or in the air.

(The whole of the ball must have passed over the goal line or touch line
before it is out of play.)

The Throw-in.

5. When the ball is in touch, a player of the opposite side to that
which played it out shall throw it in from the point on the touch line
where it left the field of play. The player throwing the ball must stand
on the touch line facing the field of play, and shall throw the ball in
over his head with both hands in any direction, and it shall be in play
when thrown in. A goal shall not be scored from a throw-in, and the
thrower shall not again play until the ball has been played by another

(This law is complied with if the player has any part of both feet on
the line when he throws the ball in.)


6. When the player plays the ball, or throws it in from touch, any
player of the same side who at such moment of playing or throwing in is
nearer to his opponents' goal line is out of play, and may not touch the
ball himself, nor in any way whatever interfere with an opponent or with
the play, until the ball has been again played, unless there are at such
moment of playing or throwing in at least three of his opponents nearer
their own goal line. A player is not out of play in the case of a corner
kick, or when the ball is kicked off from the goal, or when it has been
last played by an opponent. A player cannot be out of play in his own
half of the ground.

7. When the ball is played behind the goal line by a player of the
opposite side, it shall be kicked off by any one of the players behind
whose goal line it went, within that half of the goal area nearest the
point where the ball left the field of play; but if played behind by any
one of the side whose goal line it is, a player of the opposite side
shall kick it within one yard of the nearest corner flagstaff[B]. In
either case an opponent shall not be allowed within six yards of the
ball until it is kicked off.

[B] (The corner flag must not be removed when a corner kick is taken.)

8. The goalkeeper may, within his own half of the field of play, use his
hands, but shall not carry the ball. The goalkeeper shall not be charged
except when he is holding the ball or obstructing an opponent, or when
he has passed outside the goal area. The goalkeeper may be changed
during the game, but notice of such change must first be given to the

(If the goalkeeper has been changed without the referee being notified,
and the new goalkeeper shall handle the ball within the penalty area, a
penalty kick must be awarded.)

9. Neither tripping, kicking, nor jumping at a player shall be allowed.
A player (the goalkeeper excepted), shall not intentionally handle the
ball under any pretence whatever. A player shall not use his hands to
hold or push an opponent. Charging is permissible, but it must not be
violent or dangerous. A player shall not be charged from behind unless
he is obstructing an opponent.

10. When a free kick has been awarded, the kicker's opponents shall not
approach within six yards of the ball, unless they are standing on their
own goal line. The ball must at least be rolled over before it shall be
considered played, _i.e._, it must make a complete circuit or travel
the distance of its circumference. The kicker shall not play the ball a
second time until it has been played by another player. The kick-off
(except as provided by Law 2), corner kick, and goal kick shall be free
kicks within the meaning of the law.

11. A goal may be scored from a free kick which is awarded because of
any infringement of Law 9, but not from any other free kick.

12. A player shall not wear any nails, except such as have their heads
driven in flush with the leather, or metal plates, or projections, or
gutta percha on his boots, or on his shin guards. If bars or studs on
the soles or heels of the boot are used they shall not project more than
half an inch, and shall have all their fastenings driven in flush with
the leather. Bars shall be transverse and flat, not less than half an
inch in width, and shall extend from side to side of the boot. Studs
shall be round in plan, not less than half an inch in diameter, and in
no case conical or pointed[C]. Any player discovered infringing this law
shall be prohibited from taking further part in the match. The referee
shall, if required, examine the players' boots before the commencement
of a match.

[C] (Wearing soft india rubber on the soles of boots is not a violation
of this law.)

13. A referee shall be appointed, whose duties shall be to enforce the
laws and decide all disputed points; and his decision on points of fact
connected with the game shall be final. He shall also keep a record of
the game and act as timekeeper. In the event of any ungentlemanly play
on the part of the players the offender, or offenders, shall be
cautioned, and if further offence is committed, or in case of violent
conduct, without any previous caution the referee shall have power to
order the offending player off the field of play, and shall transmit the
name or names of such player or players to his or their National
Association, who shall deal with the matter. The referee shall have
power to allow for time wasted, to suspend the game when he thinks fit,
and to terminate the game whenever by reason of darkness, interference
by spectators, or other cause he may deem necessary. But in all cases in
which a game is terminated he shall report the same to the Association
under whose jurisdiction the game was played, who shall have full power
to deal with the matter. The referee shall have power to award a free
kick in any case in which he thinks the conduct of a player dangerous,
but not sufficiently so as to justify him in putting in force the
greater powers vested in him. The power of the referee extends to
offences committed when the play has been temporarily suspended and when
the ball is out of play.

(Persistent infringement of any of the laws of the game is ungentlemanly
conduct within the meaning of this law. All reports by referees to be
made within three days after the occurrence (Sundays not included), and
reports will be deemed to be made when received in the ordinary course
of post.)

14. Two linesmen shall be appointed, whose duty (subject to the decision
of the referee) shall be to decide when the ball is out of play, and
which side is entitled to the corner kick, goal kick, or throw-in; and
to assist the referee in carrying out the game in accordance with the
laws[D]. In the event of any undue interference or improper conduct by a
linesman the referee shall have power to order him off the field of play
and appoint a substitute, and report the circumstances to the National
Association having jurisdiction over him, who shall deal with the

[D] (Linesmen where neutral should call the attention of the referee to
rough or ungentlemanly conduct, and generally assist him to carry out
the game in a proper manner.)

15. In the event of a supposed infringement of the laws the ball shall
be in play until a decision has been given.

16. In the event of any temporary suspension of play from any cause, the
ball not having gone into touch or behind the goal line, the referee
shall throw it down where it was when play was suspended, and the ball
shall be in play when it has touched the ground. If the ball goes into
touch or behind the goal line before it is played by a player, the
referee shall again throw it down. The players on either side shall not
play the ball until it has touched the ground.

17. In the event of any infringement of Laws 5, 6, 8, 10, or 16, or of a
player being sent off the field under Law 13, a free kick shall be
awarded to the opposite side from the place where the infringement
occurred. In the event of any intentional infringement of Law 9 outside
the penalty area or by the attacking side within the penalty area, a
free kick shall be awarded to the opposite side from the place where the
infringement occurred. In the event of any intentional infringement of
Law 9 by the defending side within the penalty area, the referee shall
award the opponents a penalty kick[E], which shall be taken from the
penalty kick mark under the following conditions:--

All players, with the exception of the player taking the penalty kick
and the opponents' goalkeeper, shall be outside the penalty area. The
opponents' goalkeeper shall not advance beyond his goal line. The ball
must be kicked forward. The ball shall be in play when the kick is
taken, and a goal may be scored from a penalty kick; but the ball shall
not be again played by the kicker until it has been played by another
player. If necessary, time of play shall be extended to admit of the
penalty kick being taken. A free kick also shall be awarded to the
opposite side if the ball is not kicked forward or is played a second
time by the player who takes the penalty kick until it has been played
by another player. The referee may refrain from putting the provisions
of this law into effect in cases where he is satisfied that by enforcing
them he would be giving an advantage to the offending side. If, when a
penalty kick is being taken, the ball passes between the goal posts
under the bar, a goal shall not be nullified by reason of any
infringement by the defending side.

[E] (A penalty kick can be awarded irrespective of the position of the
ball at the time the infringement is committed. In the event of the ball
touching the goalkeeper before passing between the posts when a penalty
kick is being taken at the expiry of time, a goal is scored.)

Definition of Terms.

A place kick is a kick at the ball while it is on the ground in the
field of play.

A free kick is a kick at the ball in any direction the player pleases
when it is lying on the ground.

A place kick, a free kick, or a penalty kick must not be taken until the
referee has given a signal for the same.

Carrying by the goalkeeper is taking more than two steps while holding
the ball or bouncing it on the hand.

Knocking on is when a player strikes or propels the ball with his hands
or arms.

Handling and Tripping--Handling is intentionally playing the ball with
the hand or arm; and tripping is intentionally throwing, or attempting
to throw, an opponent by the use of the legs, or by stooping in front of
or behind him.

Holding includes the obstruction of a player by the hand or any part of
the arm extending from the body.

Touch is that part of the ground on either side of the field of play.


[Illustration: BOVRIL]

Speedy on the "wing"--strong in defence--accurate in every shot at
goal--players keep in excellent form by training on =BOVRIL=.

And for warding off the colds and chills to which the spectators are
susceptible BOVRIL has been found invaluable.

=ON TOP!= My System is "ON TOP."

This is an accepted fact, acknowledged and guaranteed by the Editors of
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="C. B. FRY'S."=

=C. B. FRY, Esq., England's Premier Athlete=, says: "You may try Mr.
Inch's system with every confidence."

=THE STRONGEST MAN ON EARTH (Arthur Saxon)= says: "I will personally
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=15,000 PUPILS=

endorse these statements, and I think that the above proves that my
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=T. INCH=, Physical Culture Expert, Dep. A.F. =The Broadway, Fulham,

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large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.