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Title: History of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia
Author: Campbell, Charles, 1807-1876
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                                OF THE

                     COLONY AND ANCIENT DOMINION




                          CHARLES CAMPBELL.

                       J. B. LIPPINCOTT AND CO.

     Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by

                          CHARLES CAMPBELL,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the
                    Eastern District of Virginia.


Although Virginia must be content with a secondary and unpretending rank
in the general department of history, yet in the abundance and the
interest of her historical materials, she may, without presumption,
claim pre-eminence among the Anglo-American colonies. While developing
the rich resources with which nature has so munificently endowed her,
she ought not to neglect her past, which teaches so many useful lessons,
and carries with it so many proud recollections. Her documentary
history, lying, much of it, scattered and fragmentary, in part
slumbering in the dusty oblivion of Transatlantic archives, ought to be
collected with pious care, and embalmed in the perpetuity of print.

The work now presented to the reader will be found to be written in
conformity with the following maxim of Lord Bacon: "It is the office of
history to represent the events themselves, together with the counsels,
and to leave the observations and conclusions thereupon, to the liberty
and faculty of every man's judgment."

I avail myself of this occasion to express my acknowledgments to Hugh B.
Grigsby, Esq., (who has contributed so much to the illustration of
Virginia history by his own writings,) for many valuable suggestions,
and for having undergone the trouble of revising a large part of the
manuscript of this work.

  PETERSBURG, VA., _September 2d, 1859_.


  CHAPTER I.--Early Voyages of Discovery. Sir Walter Raleigh's
                Colony of Virginia.                                   17

         II.--Early Life and Adventures of Captain John Smith.        30

        III.--Landing at Jamestown and Settlement of Virginia
                proper. Wingfield, President of Council. Ratcliffe,
                President.                                            35

         IV.--Smith's Explorations. Smith, President.                 55

          V.--Smith's Adventures with the Indians. His Administration
                of the Colony. His Departure. His Character and
                Writings.                                             70

         VI.--The Indians of Virginia.                                85

        VII.--Sufferings of the Colonists. Wreck of the Sea-Venture.
                Miscellaneous Affairs. Percy, President. Lord
                Delaware, Governor. Percy, Acting Governor. Sir
                Thomas Dale, High Marshal. Sir Thomas Gates,
                Governor.                                             92

       VIII.--Pocahontas visits England. Her Death. Yeardley,
                Deputy Governor.                                     112

         IX.--Argall, Governor. His Administration. Powhatan's
                Death.                                               124

          X.--Sir Walter Raleigh.                                    132

         XI.--First Assembly of Virginia. Powell, Deputy Governor.
                Yeardley, Governor.                                  138

        XII.--Negroes imported into Virginia. Yeardley, Governor.    143

       XIII.--London Company. George Sandys, Treasurer. Wyat,
                Governor.                                            149

        XIV.--Tobacco.                                               153

         XV.--East India School.                                     158

        XVI.--Massacre of 1622.                                      160

       XVII.--Extermination of Indians.                              166

      XVIII.--Dissolution of Charter of Virginia Company. Earl of
                Southampton, Nicholas Ferrar, and Sir Edwin Sandys.  169

        XIX.--Royal Government established in Virginia. Yeardley,
                Governor. West, Governor. Pott, Governor. Sir John
                Harvey, Governor.                                    179

         XX.--Maryland settled. Contest between Clayborne and Lord
                Baltimore.                                           187

        XXI.--Virginia during Harvey's Administration. He is
                recalled and succeeded by Wyatt.                     193

       XXII.--Virginia during the Civil War of England. Berkley,
                Governor. Kemp, Governor.                            199

      XXIII.--Virginia during the Commonwealth of England. Bennet,
                Governor.                                            210

       XXIV.--Maryland during the Protectorate.                      222

        XXV.--Virginia during the Protectorate. Digges, Governor.
                Matthews, Governor.                                  233

       XXVI.--Virginia under Richard Cromwell and during the
                Interregnum. Berkley, Governor.                      240

      XXVII.--Loyalty of Virginia. Miscellaneous Affairs. Morrison,
                Governor. Berkley, Governor.                         249

     XXVIII.--Scarburgh's Report of his Proceedings in establishing
               the Boundary Line between Virginia and Maryland. "The
               Bear and the Cub," an extract from the Accomac
               Records.                                              259

       XXIX.--Miscellaneous Affairs.                                 263

        XXX.--Berkley's Statistics of Virginia.                      271

       XXXI.--Threatened Revolt.                                     274

      XXXII.--Rev. Morgan Godwyn's Account of the Condition of the
                Church in Virginia.                                  277

     XXXIII.--Indian Disturbances. Disaffection of Colonists.        280

      XXXIV.--Bacon's Rebellion.                                     283

       XXXV.--Bacon's Rebellion, continued.                          293

      XXXVI.--Bacon's Rebellion, continued.                          308

     XXXVII.--Closing Scenes of the Rebellion.                       313

    XXXVIII.--Punishment of the Rebels. Berkley's death. Succeeded
                by Jeffreys.                                         319

      XXXIX.--Chicheley, Governor. Culpepper, Governor.              326

         XL.--Statistics of Virginia.                                331

        XLI.--Effingham, Governor. Death of Beverley. Effingham's
                Corruption and Tyranny.                              335

       XLII.--William and Mary proclaimed. College chartered.
                Andros, Governor.                                    343

      XLIII.--Condition of Virginia. Powers of Governor. Courts and
                State Officers. Revenue.                             349

       XLIV.--Administration of Andros. Nicholson again Governor.    356

        XLV.--Assembly held in the College. Ceremony of Opening.
             Governor's Speech.                                      364

       XLVI.--Church Affairs. Nicholson recalled. Huguenots.         367

      XLVII.--Rev. Francis Makemie. Dissenters.                      371

     XLVIII.--Nott, Lieutenant-Governor. Earl of Orkney,
                Governor-in-chief.                                   375

       XLIX.--Spotswood, Governor.                                   378

          L.--Indian School.                                         384

         LI.--Spotswood's Tramontane Expedition.                     387

        LII.--Virginia succours South Carolina. Disputes between
                Spotswood and the Burgesses. Blackbeard.             391

       LIII.--Spotswood's Administration reviewed. His subsequent
                Career and Death. His Family.                        398

        LIV.--Drysdale, Governor. Robert Carter, President.          411

         LV.--Gooch's Administration. Carthagena Expedition.         414

        LVI.--Settlement of the Valley. John Lewis.                  423

       LVII.--Rev. James Blair. Governor Gooch and the Dissenters.
                Morris. Davies. Whitefield.                          433

      LVIII.--Gooch resigns. Robinson, President. Lee, President.
                Burwell, President.                                  444

        LIX.--Dinwiddie, Governor. Davies and the Dissenters.
                George Washington. Fairfax.                          452

         LX.--Hostilities with the French. Death of Jumonville.
                Washington surrenders at Fort Necessity.             460

        LXI.--Dinwiddie's Administration, continued. Braddock's
                Expedition.                                          469

       LXII.--Davies. Waddell. Washington.                           482

      LXIII.--Settlers of the Valley. Sandy Creek Expedition.
                Dinwiddie succeeded by President Blair.              488

       LXIV.--Fauquier, Governor. Forbes captures Fort Du Quesne.    500

        LXV.--"The Parsons' Cause." Patrick Henry's Speech.          507

       LXVI.--Patrick Henry.                                         519

      LXVII.--Rev. Jonathan Boucher's Opinions on Slavery. Remarks.  526

     LXVIII.--Disputes between Colonies and Mother Country. Stamp
                Act. Speaker Robinson, Randolph, Bland, Pendleton,
                Lee, Wythe.                                          530

       LXIX.--Stamp Act opposed. Loan-Office Scheme. Robinson's
                Defalcation. Stamp Act Repealed. Offices of Speaker
                and Treasurer separated. Family of Robinson.         538

        LXX.--Bland's Inquiry. Death of Fauquier. Persecution of
                Baptists. Blair's tolerant Spirit.                   549

        LXXI.--Botetourt, Governor. Parliamentary Measures resisted.
                 Death of Botetourt. Nelson, President. American
                 Episcopate.                                         550

       LXXII.--Rev. Devereux Jarratt.                                563

      LXXIII.--Duty on Tea. Dunmore, Governor. Revolutionary
                 Proceedings.                                        568

       LXXIV.--Dunmore's Administration. Revolutionary Proceedings.  572

        LXXV.--Richard Henry Lee. Congress at Philadelphia. Patrick
                 Henry. Washington.                                  577

       LXXVI.--Battle of Point Pleasant. General Andrew Lewis.
                 Cornstalk.                                          582

      LXXVII.--Logan. Kenton. Girty. Dunmore's ambiguous Conduct.    590

     LXXVIII.--Daniel Boone.                                         595

       LXXIX.--Second Virginia Convention. Henry's Resolutions and
                 Speech.                                             599

        LXXX.--Thomas Jefferson.                                     603

       LXXXI.--Dunmore removes the Gunpowder. Revolutionary
                 Commotions. Patrick Henry extorts Compensation for
                 the Powder from the Governor.                       607

      LXXXII.--The Mecklenburg Declaration.                          615

     LXXXIII.--Dunmore retires from Williamsburg. Washington made
                 Commander-in-chief.                                 618

      LXXXIV.--Committee of Safety. Carrington, Read, Cabell. Death
                 of Peyton Randolph. The Randolphs of Virginia.      624

       LXXXV.--Dunmore's War. Battle of Great Bridge. Committee of
                 Safety and Colonel Henry.                           632

      LXXXVI.--Dunmore's War, continued. Colonel Henry resigns.      639

     LXXXVII.--Convention at Williamsburg. Declaration of Rights and
                 Constitution of Virginia. Patrick Henry, Governor.
                 George Mason.                                       644

    LXXXVIII.--Declaration of Independence. George Wythe. Benjamin
                 Harrison, Jr., of Berkley. Thomas Nelson.           652

      LXXXIX.--Richard Henry Lee. Francis Lightfoot Lee. Carter
                 Braxton.                                            659

          XC.--Dunmore retires from Virginia. Events of the War in
                 the North. Death of General Hugh Mercer.            664

         XCI.--Death of Richard Bland. The Bland Genealogy.
                 Petitions concerning Church Establishment. Scheme
                 of Dictator. Hampden Sidney College. The Virginia
                 Navy.                                               670

        XCII.--Examination of Charges against Richard Henry Lee.
                 His Honorable Acquittal.                            681

       XCIII.--Events of the War in the North. General Clark's
                 Expedition to the Northwest.                        685

        XCIV.--Convention Troops removed to Charlottesville. Church
                 Establishment abolished. Events of the War in the
                 South. Battle of King's Mountain. Jefferson,
                 Governor.                                           693

         XCV.--Arthur Lee. Silas Deane. Dr. Franklin. James
                 Madison.                                            701

        XCVI.--Logan. Leslie's Invasion. Removal of Convention
                 Troops.                                             706

       XCVII.--Arnold's Invasion.                                    710

      XCVIII.--Battle of the Cowpens and of Guilford. Phillips and
                 Arnold invade Virginia.                             715

        XCIX.--Cornwallis and La Fayette in Virginia. Nelson,
                 Governor.                                           726

           C.--Capture of the Patriot. The Barrens and Captain
                 Starlins. Battle of the Barges.                     738

          CI.--Washington in the North. Cornwallis occupies
                 Yorktown. Battle of Eutaw Springs. Henry Lee.
                 Washington invests Yorktown. Cornwallis
                 surrenders.                                         742






     Early Voyages of Discovery--Sir Humphrey Gilbert--Walter
     Raleigh--Expedition of Amadas and Barlow--They land on
     Wocokon Island--Return to England--The New Country named
     Virginia--Grenville's Expedition--Colony of Roanoke--Lane,
     Governor--The Colony abandoned--Tobacco--Grenville returns to
     Virginia--Leaves a small Colony at Roanoke--Sir Walter Raleigh
     sends out another Expedition--City of Raleigh chartered--White,
     Governor--Roanoke found deserted--Virginia Dare, first Child
     born in the Colony--White returns for Supplies--The Armada--
     Raleigh assigns the Colony to a Company--White returns to
     Virginia--Finds the Colony extinct--Death of Sir Richard
     Grenville--Gosnold's Voyage to New England.

THE discoveries attributed by legendary story to Madoc, the Welsh
prince, have afforded a theme for the creations of poetry; those of the
Northmen of Iceland, better authenticated, still engage the dim
researches of antiquarian curiosity. To Columbus belongs the glory of
having made the first certain discovery of the New World, in the year
1492; but it was the good fortune of the Cabots to be the first who
actually reached the main land. In 1497, John Cabot, a Venetian
merchant, who had become a resident of Bristol in England, with his son
Sebastian, a native of that city, having obtained a patent from Henry
the Seventh, sailed under his flag and discovered the main continent of
America, amid the inhospitable rigors of the wintry North. It was
subsequent to this that Columbus, in his third voyage, set his foot on
the main land of the South. In the following year, Sebastian Cabot
again crossed the Atlantic, and coasted from the fifty-eighth degree of
north latitude, along the shores of the United States, perhaps as far as
to the southern boundary of Maryland. Portuguese, French, and Spanish
navigators now visited North America.

Dreadful circumstances attended the foundation of the ancient St.
Augustine. The blood of six hundred French Protestant refugees has
sanctified the ground at the mouth of St. John's River, where they were
murdered "not as Frenchmen, but as heretics," by the ruthless Adelantado
of Florida, Pedro Menendez, in the year 1565.

In the summer of the ensuing year he sent a captain, with thirty
soldiers and two Dominican monks, "to the bay of Santa Maria, which is
in the latitude of thirty-seven degrees," together with the Indian
brother of the cacique, or chief of Axacan, (who had been taken thence
by the Dominicans, and baptized at Mexico, by the name of the Viceroy
Don Luis de Velasco,) to settle there, and undertake the conversion of
the natives. But this expedition sailed to Spain instead of landing.

This region of Axacan comprised the lower part of the present State of
North Carolina. The Spanish sound of the word is very near that of
Wocokon, the name of the place, according to its English pronunciation,
where the colony sent out by Raleigh subsequently landed.[18:A]

In the year 1570 Father Segura and other Jesuit missionaries,
accompanied by Don Luis, visited Axacan, but were treacherously cut off
by him. In the same year, or the following, the Spaniards repaired to
the place of their murder and avenged their death.[18:B]

In 1573 Pedro Menendez Morquez, Governor of Florida, explored the Bay of
Santa Maria, "which is three leagues wide, and is entered toward the
northwest. In the bay are many rivers and harbors on both sides, in
which vessels may anchor. Within its entrance on the south the depth is
from nine to thirteen fathoms, (about five feet nine inches English,)
and on the north side from five to seven; at two leagues from it in the
sea, the depth is the same on the north and the south, but there is more
sand within. In the channel there are from nine to thirteen fathoms; in
the bay fifteen, ten, and six fathoms; and in some places the bottom
cannot be reached with the lead." Barcia describes the voyage of Morquez
from Santa Helena "to the Bay of Santa Maria, in the latitude of
thirty-seven degrees and a half,"[19:A] and makes particular mention of
the shoal running out from what is now Cape Lookout, and that near Cape
Hatteras, the latitude and distances given leaving no doubt but that the
Bay of Santa Maria is the same with the Chesapeake.[19:B] Ten years will
probably include the period of these early Spanish visits to Axacan and
the Chesapeake; and these explorations appear to have been unknown to
the English, and Spain made no claim on account of them. Had she set
forth any title to Virginia, Gondomar would not have failed to urge it,
and James the First would have been, probably, ready to recognize it.

In the year 1578 Sir Humphrey Gilbert obtained from Queen Elizabeth
letters patent, authorizing him to discover and colonize remote heathen
countries unpossessed by any Christian prince. After one or two
unsuccessful expeditions, Sir Humphrey again set sail in 1583, from
Plymouth, with a fleet of five small vessels. The largest of these, the
bark Raleigh, was compelled in two days to abandon the expedition, on
account of an infectious disease that broke out among the crew.

After Cabot's discovery, for many years the vessels of various flags had
frequented the northern part of America for the purpose of fishing, and
when Sir Humphrey reached St. John's Harbor, the thirty-six fishing
vessels found there at first refused him admittance; but upon his
exhibiting the queen's commission they submitted. He then entered the
harbor, landed, and took formal possession of the country for the crown
of England.

As far as time would admit, some survey of the country was made, the
principal object of which was the discovery of mines and minerals; and
the admiral listened with credulity to the promises of silver. The
company being dispersed abroad, some were taken sick and died; some hid
themselves in the woods, and others cut one of the vessels out of the
harbor and carried her off. At length the admiral, having collected as
many of his men as could be found, and ordered one of his vessels to
remain and take off the sick, set sail with three vessels, intending to
visit Cape Breton and the Isle of Sable; but one of his vessels being
lost on a sand-bank, he determined to return to England. The Squirrel,
in which he had embarked for the survey of the coast, was very small and
heavily laden, yet this intrepid navigator persisted in remaining on
board of her, notwithstanding the urgent entreaties of his friends in
the other and larger vessel, the Hind; in reply to which, he declared,
that he would not desert his little crew on the homeward voyage, after
having with them passed through so many storms and perils. And after
proceeding three hundred leagues, the little bark, with the admiral and
all her crew, was lost in a storm. When last seen by the company of the
Hind, Sir Humphrey, although surrounded by imminent perils, was seated
composedly on the deck with a book in his hand, and as often as they
approached within hearing was heard to exclaim: "Be of good cheer, my
friends; it is as near to heaven by sea as by land." At midnight the
lights of the little vessel suddenly disappeared, and she was seen no
more. Sir Humphrey Gilbert was descended from an ancient family in
Devonshire; his father was Otho Gilbert, Esq., of Greenway, and his
mother, Catharine, daughter of Sir Philip Champernon, of Modbury. He was
educated at Oxford, and became distinguished for courage, learning, and
enterprise. Appointed colonel in Ireland, he displayed singular energy
and address. In the year 1571 he was a member of the House of Commons
from Compton, his native place. He strenuously defended the queen's
prerogative against the charge of monopoly, alleged by a Puritan member
against an exclusive grant made to some merchants. He was the author of
several publications on cosmography and navigation. Having attracted the
attention of the queen in his boyhood, she at length knighted him, and
gave him one of her maids of honor in marriage. When he was preparing
for his voyage she sent him a golden anchor with a large pearl at the
peak, which he ever after prized as a singular honor. Raleigh
accompanied this present, which was sent through his hands with this
letter: "I have sent you a token from her majesty--an anchor guided by a
lady, as you see; and farther, her highness willed me to send you word
that she wished you as great hap and safety to your ship as if herself
were there in person, desiring you to have care of yourself as of that
which she tendereth. Farther, she commandeth that you leave your picture
with me."

Not daunted by the fate of his heroic kinsman, Raleigh adhered to the
design of effecting a settlement in America, and being now high in the
queen's favor, obtained letters patent for that purpose, dated March,
1584. Aided by some gentlemen and merchants, particularly by his gallant
kinsman Sir Richard Grenville, and Mr. William Sanderson, who had
married his niece, Raleigh succeeded in providing two small vessels.
These were put under the command of Captains Philip Amadas and Arthur
Barlow. Barlow had already served with distinction under Raleigh in
Ireland. The two vessels left the Thames in April, 1584, and pursuing
the old circuitous route by the Canaries, reached the West Indies. After
a short stay there they sailed north, and early in July, as they
approached the coast of Florida, the mariners were regaled with the
odors of flowers wafted from the fragrant shore. Amadas and Barlow,
proceeding one hundred and twenty miles farther, landed on the Island of
Wocokon, in the stormy region of Cape Hatteras, one of a long series of
narrow, low, sandy islands--breakwaters apparently designed by nature to
defend the mainland from the fury of the ocean. The English took
possession of the country in the queen's name. The valleys were wooded
with tall cedars, overrun with vines hung in graceful festoons, the
grapes clustering in rich profusion on the ground and trailing in the
murmuring surges of the sea. For two days no inhabitant was seen; on
the third a canoe with three men approached, one of whom was readily
persuaded to come on board, and some presents gained his confidence.
Going away, he began to fish, and having loaded his canoe, returned, and
dividing his cargo into two parts, signified that one was for the ship,
the other for the pinnace. On the next day they were visited by some
canoes, in which were forty or fifty men, among whom was Granganameo,
the king's brother. The king Wingina himself lay at his chief town, six
miles distant, confined by wounds received in a recent battle. At this
town the English were hospitably entertained by Granganameo's wife. She
was small, pretty, and bashful, clothed in a leathern mantle with the
fur turned in; her long dark hair restrained by a band of white coral;
strings of beads hung from her ears and reached to her waist. The
manners of the natives were composed; their disposition seemed gentle;
presents and traffic soon conciliated their good will. The country was
called Wingandacoa.[22:A] The soil was productive; the air mild and
salubrious; the forests abounded with a variety of sweet-smelling trees,
and oaks superior in size to those of England. Fruits, melons, nuts, and
esculent roots were observed; the woods were stocked with game, and the
waters with innumerable fish and wild-fowl.

After having discovered the Island of Roanoke on Albemarle Sound, and
explored as much of the interior as their time would permit, Amadas and
Barlow sailed homeward, accompanied by two of the natives, Manteo and
Wanchese. Queen Elizabeth, charmed with the glowing descriptions of the
new country, which the enthusiastic adventurers gave her on their
return, named it, in allusion to her own state of life, VIRGINIA. As
hitherto all of North America as far as discovered was called Florida,
so henceforth all that part of it lying between thirty-four and
forty-five degrees of north latitude came to be styled Virginia, till
gradually by different settlements it acquired different names.[22:B]

Raleigh was shortly after returned to Parliament from the County of
Devon, and about the same time knighted. The queen granted him a patent
to license the vending of wines throughout the kingdom. Such a monopoly
was part of the arbitrary system of that day. Nor was Sir Walter
unconscious of its injustice, for when, some years afterwards, a spirit
of resistance to it showed itself in the House of Commons and a member
was warmly inveighing against it, Sir Walter was observed to blush. He
voted afterwards for the abolition of such monopolies, and no one could
have made a more munificent use of such emoluments than he did in his
efforts to effect the discovery and colonization of Virginia. He fitted
out, in 1585, a fleet for that purpose, and entrusted the command to his
relative, Sir Richard Grenville. This gallant officer, like Cervantes,
shared in the famous battle of Lepanto, and after distinguishing himself
by his conduct during the Irish rebellion, had become a conspicuous
member of Parliament. He was accompanied by Thomas Cavendish, afterwards
renowned as a circumnavigator of the globe; Thomas Hariot, a friend of
Raleigh and a profound mathematician; and John Withe, an artist, whose
pencil supplied materials for the illustration of the works of De Bry
and Beverley. Late in June the fleet anchored at Wocokon, but that
situation being too much exposed to the dangers of the sea, they
proceeded through Ocracock Inlet to the Island of Roanoke, (at the mouth
of Albemarle Sound,) which they selected as the seat of the colony. The
colonists, one hundred and eight in number, were landed there. Manteo,
who had returned with them, had already been sent from Wocokon to
announce their arrival to his king, Wingina. Grenville, accompanied by
Lane, Hariot, Cavendish and others, explored the coast for eighty miles
southward, to the town of Secotan, in the present County of Craven,
North Carolina. During this excursion the Indians, at a village called
Aquascogoc, stole a silver cup, and a boat being dispatched to reclaim
it, the terrified inhabitants fled to the woods, and the English,
regardless alike of prudence and humanity, burned the town and destroyed
the standing corn. Grenville in a short time re-embarked for England
with a valuable cargo of furs, and on his voyage captured a rich Spanish

Lane extended his discoveries to the northward, as far as the town of
Chesapeakes, on Elizabeth River, near where Norfolk stands, and about
one hundred and thirty miles from the Island of Roanoke. The Chowan
River was also explored, and the Roanoke, then known below the falls as
the Moratoc. Lane, although a good soldier, seems to have wanted some of
the qualities indispensable in the founder of a new plantation. The
Indians grew more hostile; conspiracies were entered into for the
destruction of the whites, and the rash and bloody measures employed to
defeat their machinations aggravated the mischief. The colonists, filled
with alarm, became impatient to escape from a scene of so many
privations and so much danger. Owing to a scarcity of provisions, Lane
distributed the colonists at several places. At length Captain Stafford,
who was stationed at Croatan, near Cape Lookout, descried twenty-three
sail, which proved to be Sir Francis Drake's fleet. He was returning
from a long cruise--belligerent, privateering, and exploratory--and, in
obedience to the queen's orders, now visited the Colony of Virginia to
render any necessary succor. Upon learning the condition of affairs, he
agreed to furnish Lane with vessels and supplies sufficient to complete
the discovery of the country and to insure a safe return home, should
that alternative be found necessary. Just at this time a violent storm,
raging for four days, dispersed and shattered the fleet, and drove out
to sea the vessels that had been assigned to Lane. The tempest at length
subsiding, Drake generously offered Lane another vessel with supplies.
But the harbor not being of sufficient depth to admit the vessel, the
governor, acquiescing in the unanimous desire of the colonists,
requested permission for them all to embark in the fleet, and return to
England. The request was granted; and thus ended the first actual
settlement of the English in America.

During the year which the colony had passed at Roanoke, Withe had made
drawings from nature illustrative of the appearance and habits of the
natives; and Hariot had accurately observed the soil and productions of
the country, and the manners and customs of the natives, an account of
which he afterwards published, entitled, "A briefe and true report of
the new found land of Virginia." He (Lane) and some others of the
colonists learned from the Indians the use of a narcotic plant called by
them uppowoc; by the English tobacco. The natives smoked it; sprinkled
the dust of it on their fishing weirs, to make them fortunate; burned it
in sacrifices to appease the anger of the gods, and scattered it in the
air and on the water to allay the fury of the tempest. Lane carried some
tobacco to England, supposed by Camden to have been the first ever
introduced into that kingdom. Sir Walter Raleigh, by his example, soon
rendered the use of this seductive leaf fashionable at court; and his
tobacco-box and pipes were long preserved by the curiosity of
antiquaries. It is related, that having offered Queen Elizabeth some
tobacco to smoke, after two or three whiffs she was seized with a
nausea, upon observing which some of the Earl of Leicester's faction
whispered that Sir Walter had certainly poisoned her. But her majesty in
a short while recovering, made the Countess of Nottingham and all her
maids smoke a whole pipe out among them. It is also said that Sir Walter
made a wager with the queen, that he could calculate the weight of the
smoke evaporated from a pipeful of tobacco. This he easily won by
weighing first the tobacco, and then the ashes, when the queen
acknowledged that the difference must have gone off in smoke. Upon
paying the wager, she gayly remarked, that "she had heard of many
workers in the fire who had turned their gold into smoke, but that Sir
Walter was the first that had turned his smoke into gold." Another
familiar anecdote is, that a country servant of Raleigh's, bringing him
a tankard of ale and nutmeg into his study as he was intently reading
and smoking, was so alarmed at seeing clouds of smoke issuing from his
master's mouth, that, throwing the ale into his face, he ran down stairs
crying out that Sir Walter was on fire.

Sir Walter Raleigh never visited Virginia himself, although it has been
so represented by several writers. Hariot's "Report of the new found
land" was translated by a Frenchman[25:A] into Latin, and this
translation refers to those "qui generosum D. Walterum Raleigh in eam
regionem comitati sunt." The error of the translator in employing the
words "comitati sunt," has been pointed out by Stith, and that error
probably gave rise to the mistake which has been handed down from age to
age, and is still prevalent. A few days after Drake's departure, a
vessel arrived at Roanoke with supplies for the colony; but finding it
abandoned, she set sail for England. Within a fortnight afterwards, Sir
Richard Grenville, with three relief vessels fitted out principally by
Raleigh, arrived off Virginia; and, unwilling that the English should
lose possession of the country, he left fifteen men on the island, with
provisions for two years. These repeated disappointments did not abate
Raleigh's indomitable resolution. During the ensuing year he sent out a
new expedition of three vessels to establish a colony chartered by the
title of "The Governor and Assistants of the City of Raleigh in
Virginia." John White was sent out as governor with twelve counsellors,
and they were directed to plant themselves at the town of Chesapeakes,
on Elizabeth River. Reaching Roanoke near the end of July, White found
the colony deserted, the bones of a man scattered on the beach, the fort
razed, and deer couching in the desolate houses or feeding on the rank
vegetation which had overgrown the floor and crept up the walls.
Raleigh's judicious order, instructing White to establish himself on the
banks of Elizabeth River, was not carried into effect, owing to the
refusal of Ferdinando, the naval-officer, to co-operate in exploring the
country for that purpose.

One of the English having been slain by the savages, a party was
dispatched to avenge his death, and by mistake unfortunately killed
several of a friendly tribe. Manteo, by Raleigh's direction, was
christened, and created Lord of Roanoke and Dassamonpeake. On the
eighteenth of August, the governor's daughter, Eleanor, wife to Ananias
Dare, one of the council, gave birth to a daughter, the first Christian
child born in the country, and hence named _Virginia_. Dissensions soon
arose among the settlers; and, although not in want of stores, some,
disappointed in not finding the new country a paradise of indolent
felicity, as they had fondly anticipated, demanded permission to return
home; others vehemently opposed; at length all joined in requesting
White to sail for England, and to return thence with supplies. To this
he reluctantly consented; and setting sail in August, 1587, from
Roanoke, where he left eighty-nine men, seventeen women, and eleven
children, he arrived in England on the fifth of November.

He found the kingdom wholly engrossed in taking measures of defence
against the threatened invasion of the Spanish Armada, and Raleigh,
Grenville, and Lane assisting Elizabeth in her council of war--a
conjuncture most unpropitious to the interests of the infant colony.
Raleigh, nevertheless, found time even in this portentous crisis of
public affairs to dispatch White with supplies in two vessels. But
these, running after prizes, encountered privateers, and, after a bloody
engagement, one of them was so disabled and plundered that White was
compelled to put back to England, while it was impossible to refit,
owing to the urgency of more important matters. But, even after the
destruction of the Armada, Sir Walter Raleigh found it impracticable to
prosecute any further his favorite design of establishing a colony in
Virginia; and in 1589 he formed a company of merchants and adventurers,
and assigned to it his proprietary rights. This corporation included
among its members Thomas Smith, a wealthy London merchant, afterwards
knighted; and Richard Hakluyt, dean of Westminster, the compiler of a
celebrated collection of voyages. He is said to have visited Virginia,
and Stith gives it as his opinion that he must have come over in one of
the last-mentioned abortive expeditions. Raleigh, at the time of making
this assignment, gave a hundred pounds for propagating Christianity
among the natives of Virginia. After experiencing a long series of
vexations, difficulties, and disappointments, he had expended forty
thousand pounds in fruitless efforts for planting a colony in Virginia.
At length, disengaged from this enterprise, he indulged his martial
genius, and bent all his energies against the colossal ambition of
Spain, who now aspired to overshadow the world.

More than another year was suffered to elapse before White returned to
search for the long-neglected colony. He had now been absent from it for
three years, and felt the solicitude not only of a governor, but also of
a parent. Upon his departure from Roanoke it had been concerted between
him and the settlers, that if they should abandon that island for
another seat, they should carve the name of the place to which they
should remove on some conspicuous object; and if they should go away in
distress, a cross should be carved above the name. Upon his arrival at
Roanoke, White found not one of the colonists; the houses had been
dismantled and a fort erected; goods had been buried in the earth, and
in part disinterred and scattered; on a post within the fort the word
CROATAN was carved, without a cross above it. The weather proving
stormy, some of White's company were lost by the capsizing of a boat;
the stock of provisions grew scanty; and no further search was then
made. Raleigh, indeed, sent out parties in quest of them at five
different times, the last in 1602, at his own charge; but not one of
them made any search for the unfortunate colonists. None of them were
ever found; and whether they perished by famine, or the Indian tomahawk,
was left a subject of sad conjecture. The site of the colony was
unfortunate, being difficult of access, and near the stormy Cape
Hatteras, whose very name is synonymous with peril and shipwreck. Thus,
after many nobly planned but unhappily executed expeditions, and
enormous expense of treasure and life, the first plantation of Virginia
became extinct.

In the year 1591 Sir Richard Grenville fell, in a bloody action with a
Spanish fleet near the Azores. Mortally wounded, he was removed on board
one of the enemy's ships, and in two days died. In the hour of his death
he said, in the Spanish language, to those around him: "Here I, Richard
Grenville, die with a joyous and quiet mind, for that I have ended my
life as a true soldier ought to do, fighting for his country, queen,
religion, and honor, my soul willingly departing from this body, leaving
behind the lasting fame of having behaved as every valiant soldier is in
his duty bound to do." His dying words may recall to mind the familiar
verses of Campbell's Lochiel:--

     "And leaving in death no blot on my name,
      Look proudly to heaven for a death-bed of fame."

Sir Richard Grenville was, next to his kinsman, Sir Walter Raleigh, the
principal person concerned in the first settlement of Virginia.

In 1602, the forty-third and last year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth,
Captain Bartholomew Gosnold, deviating from the usual oblique route by
the Canaries and the West Indies, made a direct voyage in a small bark
across the Atlantic, and in seven weeks reached Massachusetts Bay. It
was on this occasion that Englishmen, for the first time, landed on the
soil of New England. Gosnold returned to England in a short passage of
five weeks. In these early voyages the heroism of the navigators is the
more admirable when we advert to the extremely diminutive size of their
vessels and the comparative imperfection of nautical science at that
day. Encouraged by Gosnold's success, the mayor, aldermen, and merchants
of Bristol sent out an expedition under Captain Pring, in the same
direction, in 1603, the year of the accession of James I. to the throne.
During the same year a bark was dispatched from London under Captain
Bartholomew Gilbert, who fell in with the coast in latitude 37°, and, as
some authors say, ran up into the Chesapeake Bay, where the captain and
four of his men were slain by the Indians.

In 1605 Captain Weymouth came over under the auspices of Henry, Earl of
Southampton, and Lord Thomas Arundel.


[18:A] Memoir on the first discovery of the Chesapeake Bay. Communicated
by Robert Greenhow, Esq., to the Virginia Historical Society, May, 1848,
in Early Voyages to America, (edited by Conway Robinson, Esq., and
published by the Society,) p. 486. Mr. Greenhow cites for authority the
Ensayo Chronologico Para la Historia de la Florida of Barcia,

[18:B] MS. letter of John Gilmary Shea, Esq., author of "History of the
Catholic Missions among the Indian Tribes of the United States," citing
Barcia and Alegambe.

[19:A] "A 37 grados y medio." Alegambe says: "Axaca ab æquatore in
Boream erecta 37°."

[19:B] In a map found in a rare work, in French, dated 1676, entitled
"Tourbe Ardante," shown me by Townsend Ward, Esq., Librarian of
Pennsylvania Hist. Society, the Chesapeake is called St. Mary's Bay.

[22:A] Wingan signifies "good."

[22:B] Smith's History of Virginia, i. 79. Stith's History of Virginia,

[25:A] De Bry.



     Early Life and Adventures of Captain John Smith--Born at
     Willoughby--At Thirteen Years of Age undertakes to go to Sea--
     At Fifteen Apprentice to a Merchant--Visits France--Studies
     the Military Art--Serves in the Low Countries--Repairs to
     Scotland--Returns to Willoughby--Studies and Exercises--
     Adventures in France--Embarks for Italy--Thrown into the Sea--
     His Escape--Joins the Austrians in the Wars with the Turks--His
     Gallantry--Combat with Three Turks--Made Prisoner at
     Rottenton--His Sufferings and Escape--Voyages and Travels--
     Returns to England.

IN 1606 measures were taken in England for planting another colony; but
preliminary to a relation of the settlement of Virginia proper, it is
necessary to give some history of Captain John Smith, "the father of the
colony." He was born at Willoughby, in Lincolnshire, England, in 1579,
being descended on his father's side from an ancient family of Crudley,
in Lancashire; on his mother's, from the Rickands at Great Heck, in
Yorkshire. After having been some time a scholar at the free schools of
Alford and Louth, when aged thirteen, his mind being bent upon bold
adventures, he sold his satchel, books, and all he had, intending to go
privately to sea; but his father's death occurring just then prevented
the execution of that scheme. Having some time before lost his mother,
he was now left an orphan, with a competent hereditary estate, which,
being too young to receive, he little regarded. At fifteen he was bound
apprentice to Thomas Sendall, of Lynn, the greatest merchant of all
those parts; but in a short time, disgusted with the monotony of that
life, he quit it, and accompanied a son of Lord Willoughby to France.
Within a month or six weeks, he was dismissed, his service being
needless, with an allowance of money to take him back to England; but he
determined not to return. At Paris, meeting with a Scottish gentleman,
David Hume, he received from him an additional supply of money and
letters, which might recommend him to the favor of James the Sixth of
Scotland. Young Smith, proceeding to Rouen, and finding his money
nearly all gone, made his way to Havre de Grace, and there began to
learn the military art, during the reign of the warlike Henry the
Fourth. From France the adventurer went to the Low Countries, where he
served for four years under the standard of the patriot army against
Spain, in the war that eventuated in their independence. Embarking
thence for Scotland, with the letters of recommendation previously given
to him, and after suffering shipwreck and illness, Smith at length
reached Scotland, where he was hospitably entertained "by those honest
Scots at Kipweth and Broxmouth," but finding himself without money or
means to make himself a courtier, he returned to his native place,
Willoughby. Here he soon grew weary of much company; and indulging a
romantic taste, retired into a forest, and in its recesses, near a
pretty brook, he built for himself a pavilion of boughs, where he
studied Machiavel's Art of War, and Marcus Aurelius, and amused his
leisure by riding, throwing the lance, and hunting. His principal food
was venison, which he thus provided for himself, like Shakespeare, with
but little regard for the game-laws; and whatever else he needed was
brought to him by his servant. The country people wondered at the
hermit; and his friends persuaded an Italian gentleman, rider to the
Earl of Lincoln, to visit him in his retreat; and thus he was induced to
return to the world, and after spending a short time with this new
acquaintance at Tattersall's, Smith now repaired a second time to the
Low Countries. Having made himself sufficiently master of horsemanship,
and the use of arms and the rudiments of war, he resolved to go and try
his fortunes against the Turks, having long witnessed with pain the
spectacle of so many Christians engaged in slaughtering one another.

Proceeding to St. Valery, in France, by collusion between the master of
the vessel and some French gallants, his trunks were plundered there in
the night, and he was forced to sell his cloak to pay for his passage.
The other passengers expressed their indignation against this villany,
and one of them, a French soldier, generously supplied his immediate
necessities, and invited Smith to accompany him to his home in Normandy.
Here he was kindly welcomed by his companion and the Prior of the
ancient abbey of St. Stephen, (where repose the remains of William the
Conqueror,) and others; and the story of his misfortunes reaching the
ears of some noble lords and ladies, they replenished his purse; and he
might have enjoyed their hospitality as long as he pleased, but this
suited not his restless, energetic and independent spirit. Wandering now
from port to port in quest of a man-of-war, he experienced some
extraordinary turns of fortune. Passing one day through a forest, his
money being spent, worn out with distress of mind, and cold, he threw
himself on the ground, at the side of a fountain of water, under a tree,
scarce hoping ever to rise again. A farmer finding him in this
condition, relieved his necessities, and enabled him to pursue his
journey. Not long afterwards, meeting in a grove one of the gallants who
had robbed him, without a word on either side, they drew their swords,
and fought in view of the inmates of a neighboring antique ruinous
tower. In a short while the Frenchman fell, and, making confessions and
excuses, Smith, although himself wounded, spared his life. Directing his
course now to the residence of "the Earl of Ployer," with whom he had
become acquainted while in the French service, he was by him better
refurnished than ever.

After visiting many parts of France and Navarre, he came to Marseilles,
where he embarked for Italy, in a vessel carrying a motley crowd of
pilgrims of divers nations, bound for Rome. The winds proving
unfavorable, the vessel was obliged to put in at Toulon, and sailing
thence the weather grew so stormy that they anchored close to the Isle
of St. Mary, opposite Nice, in Savoy. Here the unfeeling provincials and
superstitious pilgrims showered imprecations on Smith's head,
stigmatizing him as a Huguenot, and his nation as all pirates, and Queen
Elizabeth as a heretic; and, protesting that they should never have fair
weather as long as _he_ was on board, they cast him into the sea to
propitiate heaven. However, he swam to the Islet of St. Mary, which he
found inhabited by a few cattle and goats. On the next day he was taken
up by a privateering French ship, the captain of which, named La Roche,
proving to be a neighbor and friend of the Earl of Ployer, entertained
him kindly. With him, Smith visited Alexandria in Egypt, Scanderoon, the
Archipelago, and coast of Greece. At the mouth of the Adriatic Sea, a
Venetian argosy, richly laden, was captured and plundered, after a
desperate action, in which Smith appears to have participated. He landed
in Piedmont with five hundred sequins and a box of jewels, worth about
as much more--his share of the prize. Embarking for Leghorn, he
travelled in Italy, and here met with his friends, Lord Willoughby and
his brother, both severely wounded in a recent bloody fray. Going to
Rome, Smith surveyed the wonders of the Imperial City, and saw the Pope,
with the cardinals, ascend the holy staircase, and say mass in the
Church of St. John de Lateran. Leaving Rome, he made the tour of Italy,
and embarking at Venice, crossed over to the wild regions of Albania and
Dalmatia. Passing through sterile Sclavonia, he found his way to Gratz,
in Styria, the residence of the Archduke Ferdinand, afterwards Emperor
of Germany. Here he met with an Englishman and an Irish Jesuit, by whose
assistance he was enabled to join a regiment of artillery, commanded by
Count Meldritch, whom he accompanied to Vienna, and thence to the seat
of war. At this time, 1601, there was a bloody war going on between
Germany and the Turks, and the latter had gained many signal advantages,
and the Crescent, flushed with victory, was rapidly encroaching upon the
confines of Christendom. Canissia having just fallen, it was at the
siege of Olympach, beleaguered by the Turks, that Smith first had an
opportunity of displaying the resources of his military genius, for
which he was put in command of two hundred and fifty horse.

That siege being raised, after some interval of suspended hostilities,
the Christian forces, in their turn, besieged Stowle Wessenburg, which
soon fell into their hands. Mahomet the Third, hearing of this disaster,
dispatched a formidable army to retrieve or avenge it; and in the bloody
battle that ensued on the plains of Girke, Smith had a horse shot under
him, and was badly wounded. At the siege of Regal he encountered and
slew, in a tournament, three several Turkish champions, Turbashaw,
Grualgo, and Bonny Mulgro. For these exploits he was honored with a
triumphal procession, in which the three Turks' heads were borne on
lances. A horse richly caparisoned was presented to him, with a cimeter
and belt worth three hundred ducats; and he was promoted to the rank of

In the bloody battle of Rottenton, he was wounded and made prisoner.
With such of the prisoners as escaped massacre, he was sold into slavery
at Axiopolis, and fell into the hands of the Bashaw Bogall, who sent
him, by way of Adrianople, to Constantinople, a present to his youthful
mistress, Charatza Tragabigzanda. Captivated with her prisoner, she
treated him tenderly; and to prevent his being sold again, sent him to
remain for a time with her brother, the Tymour Bashaw of Nalbritz, in
Tartary, who occupied a stone castle near the Sea of Azof. Immediately
on Smith's arrival, his head was shaved, an iron collar riveted on his
neck, and he was clothed in hair-cloth. Here long he suffered cruel
bondage; at length one day, while threshing in a barn, the Bashaw having
beaten and reviled him, he turned and slew him on the spot, with the
threshing bat; then put on his clothes, hid his body in the straw,
filled a sack with corn, closed the doors, mounted the Bashaw's horse,
and rode off. After wandering for some days, he fell in with a highway,
and observing that the roads leading toward Russia were indicated by a
cross, he followed that sign, and in sixteen days reached Ecopolis, a
Russian frontier post on the Don. The governor there took off his irons,
and he was kindly treated by him and his wife, the lady Callamata.
Traversing Russia and Poland, he returned to Transylvania in December,
1603, where he met many friends, and enjoyed so much happiness that
nothing less than his desire to revisit his native country could have
torn him away.

Proceeding through Hungary, Moravia, and Bohemia, he went to Leipsic,
where he found Prince Sigismund, who gave him fifteen hundred golden
ducats to repair his losses. Travelling through Germany, France, and
Spain, from Gibraltar he sailed for Tangier, in Africa, and to the City
of Morocco. Taking passage in a French man-of-war, he was present in a
terrible sea-fight with two Spanish ships; and after touching at Santa
Cruz, Cape Goa, and Mogadore, he finally returned to England in


[34:A] "The True Travels, Adventures, and Observations of Captain John
Smith," in his History of Virginia. Hillard's Life of Smith, in Sparks'
American Biography. Simms' Life of Smith.



     Gosnold, Smith, and others set on foot another Expedition--
     James I. issues Letters Patent--Instructions for Government of
     the Colony--Charter granted to London Company for First Colony
     of Virginia--Sir Thomas Smith, Treasurer--Government of the
     Colony--Three Vessels under Newport sail for Virginia--The
     Voyage--Enter Chesapeake Bay--Ascend the James River--The
     English entertained by the Chief of the Quiqoughcohanocks--
     Landing at Jamestown--Wingfield, President--Smith excluded
     from the Council--Newport and Smith explore the James to the
     Falls--Powhatan--Jamestown assaulted by Indians--Smith's
     Voyages up the Chickahominy--Murmurs against him--Again
     explores the Chickahominy--Made prisoner--Carried captive
     through the country--Taken to Werowocomoco--Rescued by
     Pocahontas--Returns to Jamestown--Fire there--Rev. Mr. Hunt--
     Rage for Gold-hunting--Newport visits Powhatan--Newport's
     Departure--Affairs at Jamestown.

BARTHOLOMEW GOSNOLD was the prime mover, and Captain John Smith the
chief actor, in the settlement of Virginia. Gosnold, who had already, in
1602, made a voyage to the northern parts of Virginia, afterwards called
New England, for many years fruitlessly labored to set on foot an
expedition for effecting an actual settlement. At length he was
reinforced in his efforts by Captain Smith; Edward Maria Wingfield, a
merchant; Robert Hunt, a clergyman, and others; and by their united
exertions certain of the nobility, gentry, and merchants, became
interested in the project, and King James the First, who, as has been
before mentioned, had, in 1603, succeeded Elizabeth, was induced to lend
it his countenance. April 10th, 1606, letters patent were issued,
authorizing the establishment of two colonies in Virginia and other
parts of America. All the country from 34° to 45° of north latitude,
then known as Virginia, was divided into two colonies, the First or
Southern, and the Second or Northern.

The plantation of the Southern colony was intrusted to Sir Thomas Gates
and Sir George Somers, knights; Richard Hackluyt, clerk, prebendary of
Westminster; Edward Maria Wingfield, and others, mostly resident in
London. This company was authorized to plant a colony wherever they
might choose between 34° and 41° of north latitude; and the king vested
in them a right of property in the land extending along the sea-coast
fifty statute miles on each side of the place of their first plantation,
and reaching into the interior one hundred miles from the sea-coast,
together with all islands within one hundred miles of their shores. The
Second, or Northern colony of Virginia, was in like manner intrusted to
Thomas Hanham, and others, mostly residents of Bristol, Exeter, and
Plymouth. These were authorized to plant a colony wherever they might
choose between 38° and 45° of north latitude, and he gave to them a
territory of similar limits and extent to that given to the first
colony. He provided, however, that the plantation of whichever of the
said two colonies should be last effected, should not be within one
hundred miles of the other that might be first established. The company
of the Southern colony came to be distinguished as the London company,
and the other as the Plymouth company. But eventually these names were
dropped; and the name of Virginia, which had been at first common to the
two colonies, was appropriated to the Southern colony only; while the
Northern colony was now called New England.[36:A]

In the charter granted to Sir Thomas Gates and his associates, it was
provided that the colony should have a council of its own, subject to a
superior council in England. The subordinate council was authorized to
search for and dig mines, coin money, carry over adventurers, and repel
intruders. The president and council were authorized to levy duties on
foreign commodities; the colonists were invested with all the rights and
privileges of English subjects, and the lands granted to settlers in
free and common soccage.[36:B]

On the 20th of November, 1606, instructions were given by the crown for
the government of the two colonies, directing that the council in
England should be appointed by the crown; the local council by the
superior one in England; the local one to choose a president annually
from its own body; the Christian religion to be preached; lands to
descend as in England; trial by jury secured in criminal causes; and the
council empowered to determine all civil actions; all produce and goods
imported to be stored in magazines; a clerk and treasurer, or
cape-merchant, to be appointed for the colony. The stockholders, styled
adventurers, were authorized to organize a company for the management of
the business of the colony, and to superintend the proceedings of the
local council. The colonists were enjoined to treat the natives kindly,
and to endeavor by all means to convert them to Christianity.[37:A] Sir
Thomas Smith was appointed treasurer of the company, and the chief
management of their affairs intrusted to him. He was an eminent London
merchant; had been chief of Sir Walter Raleigh's assignees; was about
this time governor of the East India Company, and had been ambassador to

The frame of government thus provided for the new colony was cumbrous
and complicated, the legislative and administrative powers being so
distributed between the local council, the crown, and the company, as to
involve the danger of delays, uncertainty, conflict, and
irresponsibility. By the words of the charter the colonists were
invested with the rights of Englishmen; yet, as far as political rights
were concerned, there being no security provided by which they could be
vindicated, they might often prove to be of no more real value than the
parchment on which they were written. However, the government of such an
infant colony must, of necessity, have been for the most part arbitrary;
the political rights of the colonists must, for a time, have lain in
abeyance. Their civil rights were protected in criminal causes by the
trial by jury, and lands were to be held by a free tenure.

At length three vessels were fitted out for the expedition, one of
twenty tons, one of forty, the third of one hundred tons, and they were
put under the command of Captain Christopher Newport, a navigator
experienced in voyages to the New World. Orders being put on board
inclosed in a sealed box, not to be opened until their arrival in
Virginia, they set sail from Blackwall on the 19th of December, 1606.
For six weeks they were detained by headwinds and stormy weather in the
Downs, within view of the English coast, and during this interval,
disorder, threatening a mutiny, prevailed among the adventurers.
However, it was suppressed by the interposition of the clergyman, Robert
Hunt. The winds at length proving favorable, the little fleet proceeded
along the old route by the Canaries, which they reached about the
twenty-first of April, and on the twenty-sixth sailed for the West
Indies, upon arriving at which it appears that Captain Smith was
actually in command of the expedition, for,[38:A] writing afterwards in
1629, he says: "Because I have ranged and lived among those islands,
what my authors cannot tell me, I think it no great error in helping
them to tell it myself. In this little Isle of Mevis, more than twenty
years ago, I have remained a good time together, to wood and water, and
refresh _my men_." This isle was, on this occasion, the scene of a
remarkable incident in his life, and one which appears to have escaped
the notice of our historians. "Such factions here we had as commonly
attend such voyages, that a pair of gallows was made; but Captain Smith,
for whom they were intended, could not be persuaded to use them. But not
any of the inventors but their lives by justice fell into his power to
determine of at his pleasure, whom, with much mercy, he favored, that
most basely and unjustly would have betrayed him."

After passing three weeks in the West Indies they sailed in quest of
Roanoke Island, and having exceeded their reckoning three days without
finding land, the crew grew impatient, and Ratcliffe, captain of the
pinnace, proposed to steer back for England.

At this conjuncture a violent storm, compelling them to scud all night
under bare poles, providentially drove them into the mouth of Chesapeake
Bay. The first land that they came in sight of, April 26th, 1607, they
called Cape Henry, in honor of the Prince of Wales, eldest son of King
James, as the opposite point, Cape Charles, was named after the king's
second son, then Duke of York, afterwards Charles the First. A party of
twenty or thirty, with Newport, landing here, found a variety of pretty
flowers and goodly trees. While recreating themselves on the shore they
were attacked by five of the savages, who came creeping upon all-fours
from the hills like bears, and with their arrows wounded two, but
retired at the discharge of muskets.[39:A]

That night the sealed box was opened, when it appeared that the members
of council appointed were--Bartholomew Gosnold, John Smith, Edward Maria
Wingfield, Christopher Newport, John Ratcliffe, John Martin and George
Kendall. They were instructed to elect, out of their own number, a
president for one year; he and the council together were invested with
the government; affairs of moment were to be examined by a jury, but
determined by the council.

Seventeen days were spent in quest of a place for the settlement. A
point on the western side of the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay they named
Point Comfort, because they found a good harbor there, which, after the
recent storm, put them in good comfort. Landing there, April 30th, they
saw five Indians, who were at first alarmed; but seeing the captain lay
his hand upon his heart, they came boldly up and invited the strangers
to Kecoughtan, now Hampton, their town, where they were entertained with
corn-bread, tobacco and pipes, and a dance. May 4th, the explorers were
kindly received by the Paspaheghs. The chief of a neighboring tribe sent
a guide to conduct the English strangers to his habitation. Percy calls
them the Rappahannas; but as no such tribe is mentioned by Smith as
being near the James River, they were probably the Quiqoughcohanocks,
who dwelled on the north side of the river, about ten miles above
Jamestown.[39:B] Upon the arrival of the English this chief stood on the
bank of the river to meet them, when they landed, "with all his train,"
says Percy, "as goodly men as any I have seen of savages, or Christians,
the Werowance [chief] coming before them, playing on a flute made of a
reed, with a crown of deer's hair, colored red, in fashion of a rose,
fastened about his knot of hair, and a great plate of copper on the
other side of his head, with two long feathers, in fashion of a pair of
horns, placed in the midst of his crown. His body was painted all with
crimson, with a chain of beads about his neck; his face painted blue,
besprinkled with silver ore, as we thought; his ears all behung with
bracelets of pearl, and in either ear a bird's claw through it, beset
with fine copper or gold. He entertained us in so modest a proud
fashion, as though he had been a prince of civil government, holding his
countenance without laughter, or any such ill behavior. He caused his
mat to be spread on the ground, where he sate down with a great majesty,
taking a pipe of tobacco, the rest of his company standing about him.
After he had rested awhile he rose, and made signs to us to come to his
town: he went foremost, and all the rest of his people and ourselves
followed him up a steep hill, where his palace was settled. We passed
through the woods in fine paths having most pleasant springs, which
issued from the mountains [hills.] We also went through the goodliest
corn-fields that ever were seen in any country. When we came to
Rappohanna town, he entertained us in good humanity." While this
hospitable, unsophisticated chief was piping a welcome to the English
strangers, how little did he anticipate the tragic scenes of war and
blood which were so soon to ensue!

On the 8th of May the English went farther up the river to the country
of the Appomattocks, who came forth to meet them in a most warlike
manner, with bows and arrows, and formidable war-clubs; but the whites,
making signs of peace, were suffered to land unmolested.[40:A] At length
they selected for the site of the colony a peninsula lying on the north
side of the James River, and about forty miles from its mouth. The
western end of this peninsula, where it is connected by a little isthmus
with the main land, was the spot pitched upon for the erection of a
town, which was named, in honor of the king, Jamestown. Some contention
occurred between Wingfield and Gosnold in regard to the selection of
this place, Gosnold objecting to it. Smith conceived it a fit place for
a great city. Gosnold exhibited in this matter the better judgment. The
situation, eligible in some points, was extremely unhealthy, being low
and exposed to the malaria of extensive marshes covered with water at
high-tide. The bank of the river there is marked by no striking or
picturesque feature. According to the terms of the charter, the
territory now appropriated to the colony comprised a square of a base of
one hundred miles, and including an area of ten thousand square miles,
of which Jamestown was the centre, so to speak.

The settlers landed at Jamestown on the 13th day of May, 1607. This was
the first permanent settlement effected by the English in North America,
after the lapse of one hundred and ten years from the discovery of the
continent by the Cabots, and twenty-two years after the first attempt to
colonize it, made under the auspices of Walter Raleigh. Upon landing,
the council took the oath of office; Edward Maria Wingfield was elected
president, and Thomas Studley, cape-merchant or treasurer of the
colony.[41:A] Smith was excluded from the council upon some false
pretences. Dean Swift says: "When a great genius appears in the world,
the dunces are all in confederacy against him."

All hands now fell to work, the council planning a fort, the rest
clearing ground for pitching tents, preparing clapboard for freighting
the vessels, laying off gardens, and making fishing-nets. The Indians
frequently visited them in a friendly way. The president's overweening
jealousy would allow no military exercise or fortification, save the
boughs of trees thrown together in a semicircle by the energy of Captain

On the fourth of June, Newport, Smith, and twenty others were dispatched
to discover the head of the river on which they were seated, called by
the Indians, Powhatan, and by the English, the James. The natives
everywhere received them kindly, dancing, and feasting them with bread,
fish, strawberries, and mulberries, for which Newport requited them with
bells, pins, needles, and looking-glasses, which so pleased them that
they followed the strangers from place to place. In six days they
reached a town called Powhatan, one of the seats of the great chief of
that name, whom they found there. It consisted of twelve wigwams,
pleasantly situated on a bold range of hills overlooking the river, with
three islets in front, and many corn-fields around. This picturesque
spot lies on the north bank of the river, about a mile below the falls,
and still retains the same name.

On the day of their arrival, the tenth of June, the party visited the
falls, and again on the day following, Whitsunday, when they erected a
cross there to indicate the farthest point of discovery. Newport, in
return for Powhatan's hospitality, presented him with a gown and a
hatchet. Upon their return, the Indians first gave occasion for distrust
at Weyanoke, within twenty miles of Jamestown. Arriving there on the
next day, June the twentieth, they found that a boy had been killed, and
seventeen men, including the greater part of the council, had been
wounded by the savages; that during the assault a cross-bar shot from
one of the vessels had struck down a bough of a tree among them and made
them retire, but for which all the settlers there would probably have
been massacred, as they were at the time of the attack planting corn in
security, and without arms. Wingfield now consented that the fort should
be palisaded, cannon mounted, and the men armed and exercised. The
attacks and ambuscades of the natives were frequent, and the English, by
their careless straggling, were often wounded, while the fleet-footed
savages easily escaped.

Thus the colonists endured continual hardships, guarding the workmen by
day and keeping watch by night. Six weeks being passed in this way,
Newport was now about to return to England. Ever since their departure
from the Canaries, save for a while in the West Indies, Smith had been
in a sort of duress upon the false and scandalous charges of some of the
principal men in the expedition, who, envying his superiority, gave out
that he intended to usurp the command, murder the council, and make
himself king; that his confederates were distributed in the three
vessels; and that divers of them, who had revealed it, would confirm it.
Upon these accusations Smith had been arrested, and had now lain for
several months under the cloud of these suspicions. Upon the eve of
Newport's departure, Smith's accusers affecting through pity to refer
his case to the council in England, rather than overwhelm him on the
spot by an exposure of his criminal designs, he defied their malice,
defeated their base machinations, and so bore himself throughout the
whole affair, that all saw his innocence and the malignity of his
enemies. The very witnesses suborned to accuse him charged his enemies
with subornation of perjury. Kendall, the ringleader of them, was
adjudged to pay him two hundred pounds in damages, which Smith
contributed to the common stock of the colony. During these disputes
Hunt, the chaplain, used his exertions to reconcile the parties, and at
his instance Smith was admitted into the council on the twentieth day of
June, and on the next day they all received the communion. The Indians
now sued for peace, and two days after Newport weighed anchor, leaving
at Jamestown one hundred settlers, with provisions sufficient, as was
supposed, for more than three months.[43:A]

Not long after his departure a fatal sickness began to prevail at
Jamestown, engendered by the insalubrity of the place, the exposure of
the settlers, and the scarcity and bad quality of their food. Hitherto
they had procured provisions from the vessels, but now, for some time,
the daily allowance of each man was a pint of damaged wheat or barley.
"Our drink was water, and our lodgings castles in the air." By September
fifty of them, being one-half of the colony, died; the rest made out to
subsist upon sturgeon and crabs. Among the victims of disease was
Bartholomew Gosnold, the projector of the expedition, whose name is well
worthy to be ranked with Smith and Raleigh. The sick, during this
calamitous season, received the faithful attentions of Thomas Wotton,

Wingfield, the president, after engrossing, as it was alleged, the
public store of provisions to his own use, attempted to escape from the
colony in the pinnace, and return to England. This baseness roused the
indignation even of the emaciated survivors, and they deposed him, and
appointed Captain John Ratcliffe in his place, and displaced Kendall, a
confederate of Wingfield, from the council.

In a manuscript journal of these early incidents, written by Wingfield
himself, and preserved in the Lambeth Library, he undertakes to
exculpate himself from the charge of engrossing the common store in the
following terms: "As I understand, by report, I am much charged with
starving the colony; I did always give every man his allowance
faithfully, both of corn, oil, aquavitæ, etc., as was by the council
proportioned; neither was it bettered after my time, until toward the
end of March a biscuit was allowed to every workingman for his
breakfast, by means of the provision brought us by Captain Newport, as
will appear hereafter. It is further said I did much banquet and riot; I
never had but one squirrel roasted, whereof I gave a part to Mr.
Ratcliffe, then sick; yet was that squirrel given me. I did never heat a
flesh-pot but when the common-pot was so used likewise; yet how often
Mr. Presidents and the councillors have, night and day, been endangered
to break their backs, so laden with swans, geese, ducks, etc. How many
times their flesh-pots have swelled, many hungry eyes did behold, to
their great longing; and what great thieves and thieving there hath been
in common store since my time, I doubt not but is already made known to
his majesty's council for Virginia."

At length their stores were almost exhausted, the small quantity of wine
remaining being reserved for the communion-table; the sturgeon gone, all
further effort abandoned in despair, and an attack from the savages each
moment expected. At this hopeless conjuncture, a benignant Providence
put it into the hearts of the Indians to supply the famished sufferers
with an abundance of fruits and provision. Mankind, in trying scenes,
render an involuntary homage to superior genius. Ratcliffe, the new
president, and Martin, finding themselves incompetent and unpopular,
intrusted the helm of affairs to Smith, who, acting as cape-merchant,
set the colonists to work, some to mow, others to build houses and
thatch them, he himself always performing the heaviest task. In a short
time habitations were provided for the greater part of the survivors,
and a church was built. Smith next embarked in a shallop to go in quest
of supplies. Ignorance of the Indian language, the want of sails for
the boat, and of clothing for the men and their small force, were
discouraging impediments, but they did not dishearten him. With a crew
of six or seven he went down the river to Kecoughtan, a town of eighteen
cabins. Here he replied to a scornful defiance, by a volley of musketry
and capturing their okee--an idol stuffed with moss, and painted and
adorned with copper chains--so terrified them, that they quickly brought
him a supply of venison, wild-fowl, and bread. Having procured a supply
of corn, on his return he discovered the town and county of
Warrasqueake, where he procured a further supply. After this, in several
journeys, he explored the borders of the Chickahominy River. During his
absence, Wingfield and Kendall, leaguing with the sailors and others,
seized the pinnace in order to escape to England; but Smith, returning
unexpectedly, opened so hot a fire upon them as compelled them to stay
or sink. For this offence Kendall was tried by a jury, convicted, and
shot.[45:A] Not long after, Ratcliffe and Captain Gabriel Archer made a
similar attempt, and it was foiled by Smith's vigilance and resolution.

At the approach of winter the rivers of Virginia abounded with
wild-fowl, and the English now were well supplied with bread, peas,
persimmons, fish, and game. But this plenty did not last long; for what
Smith carefully provided the colonists carelessly wasted. The idlers at
Jamestown, including some of the council, now began to mutter complaints
against Smith for not having discovered the source of the Chickahominy,
it being supposed that the South Sea or Pacific Ocean lay not far
distant, and that a communication with it would be found by some river
running from the northwest. The Chickahominy flowed in that direction,
and hence the solicitude of these Jamestown cosmographers to trace that
river to its head. To allay this dissatisfaction of the council, Smith
made another voyage up that river, and proceeded until it became
necessary, in order to pass, to cut away a large tree which had fallen
across the stream. When at last the barge could advance no farther, he
returned eight miles and moored her in a wide bay out of danger, and
leaving orders to his men not to venture on shore until his return,
accompanied by two of his men and two Indian guides, and leaving seven
men in the barge, he went still higher up in a canoe to the distance of
twenty miles. In a short time after he had parted from the barge the men
left in her went ashore, and one of them, George Cassen, was surprised
and killed. Smith, in the mean while, not suspecting this disaster,
reached the marshy ground toward the head of the river, "the slashes,"
and went out with his gun to provide food for the party, and took with
him one of the Indians. During his excursion his two men, Robinson and
Emry, were slain; and he himself was attacked by a numerous party of
Indians, two of whom he killed with a pistol. He protected himself from
their arrows by making a shield of his guide, binding him fast by the
arm with one of his garters. Many arrows pierced his clothes, and some
slightly wounded him. Endeavoring to reach the canoe, and walking
backward with his eye still fixed on his pursuers, he sunk to his waist
in an oozy creek, and his savage with him. Nevertheless the Indians were
afraid to approach, until, being now half-dead with cold, he threw away
his arms, when they drew him forth, and led him to the fire where his
two companions were lying dead. Here the Indians chafed his benumbed
limbs, and having restored the vital heat, Smith inquired for their
chief, and they pointed him to Opechancanough, the great chief of
Pamunkey. Smith presented him a mariner's compass; the vibrations of the
mysterious needle astonished the untutored sons of the forest. In a
short time they bound the prisoner to a tree, and were about to shoot
him to death, when Opechancanough holding up the compass, they all laid
down their bows and arrows. Then marching in Indian file they led the
captive guarded, by fifteen men, about six miles, to Orapakes, a hunting
town in the upper part of the Chickahominy swamp, and about twelve miles
northeast from the falls of James River (Richmond.) At this town,
consisting of thirty or forty houses, built like arbors and covered with
mats, the women and children came forth to meet them, staring in
amazement at Smith. Opechancanough and his followers performed their
military exercises, and joined in the war-dance. Smith was confined in a
long house under a guard, and an enormous quantity of bread and venison
was set before him, as if to fatten him for sacrifice, or because they
supposed that a superior being required a proportionately larger supply
of food. An Indian who had received some toys from Smith at Jamestown,
now, in return, brought him a warm garment of fur--a pleasing instance
of gratitude, a sentiment often found even in the breast of a savage.
Another Indian, whose son had been mortally wounded by Smith, made an
attempt to kill him in revenge, and was only prevented by the
interposition of his guards.

Opechancanough meditating an assault upon Jamestown, undertook to entice
Smith to join him by offers of life, liberty, land, and women. Being
allowed to send a message to Jamestown, he wrote a note on a leaf of a
book, giving information of the intended assault, and directing what
means should be employed to strike terror into the messengers, and what
presents should be sent back by them. Three men dispatched with the note
returned with an answer and the presents, in three days, notwithstanding
the rigor of the season; it being the midst of the winter of 1607,
remarkable for its extraordinary severity, and the ground being covered
with snow. Opechancanough and his people looked upon their captive as
some supernatural being, and were filled with new wonder on seeing how
the "paper could speak." Abandoning the design of attacking Jamestown,
they conducted Smith through the country of the Youghtanunds,
Mattapanients, Payanketanks, Nantaughtacunds, and Onawmanients, on the
banks of the Rappahannock, and Potomac. Thence he was taken to
Pamaunkee, at the junction of the Matapony and Pamunkey--the residence
of Opechancanough. Here, for three days, they engaged in their horrid
orgies and incantations, with a view to divine their prisoner's secret
designs whether friendly or hostile. They also showed him a bag of
gunpowder, which they were reserving till the next spring, when they
intended to sow it in the ground, as they were desirous of propagating
so useful an article.

Smith was hospitably entertained by Opitchapan, (Opechancanough's
brother,) who dwelt a little above, on the Pamunkey. Finally, the
captive was taken to Werowocomoco, probably signifying chief place of
council, a favorite seat of Powhatan, on the York River, then called the
Pamaunkee or Pamunkey. They found this chief in his rude palace,
reclining before the fire, on a sort of throne, resembling a bedstead,
covered with mats, his head adorned with feathers and his neck with
beads, and wearing a long robe of raccoon skins. At his head sate a
young female, and another at his feet; while, on each side of the
wigwam, sate the men in rows, on mats; and behind them as many young
women, their heads and shoulders painted red, some with their heads
decorated with the snowy down of birds, and all with strings of white
beads falling over their shoulders. On Smith's entrance they all raised
a terrific yell; the queen of Appomattock brought him water to wash, and
another, a bunch of feathers for a towel. After feasting him, a long
consultation was held. That ended, two large stones were brought, and
the one laid upon the other, before Powhatan; then as many as could lay
hold, seizing Smith, dragged him to the stones, and laying his head on
them, snatched up their war-clubs, and, brandishing them in the air,
were about to slay him, when Pocahontas, Powhatan's favorite daughter, a
girl of only twelve or thirteen years of age,[48:A] finding all her
entreaties unavailing, flew, and, at the hazard of her life, clasped the
captive's head in her arms, and laid her own upon his. The stern heart
of Powhatan was touched--he relented, and consented that Smith might

Werowocomoco, the scene of this celebrated rescue, lies on the north
side of York River, in the County of Gloucester, about twenty-five miles
below the fork of the river, and on a bay into which three creeks
empty.[48:B] This is Timber-neck Bay, on the east bank of which stands a
remarkable old stone chimney, traditionally known as "Powhatan's
chimney," and its site corresponds exactly with the royal house of that
chief, as laid down on Smith's Map of Virginia. Werowocomoco is only a
few miles distant from the historic field of Yorktown, which is lower
down the river, and on the opposite side. The lapse of time will
continually heighten the interesting associations of Werowocomoco, and
in ages of the distant future the pensive traveller will linger at the
spot graced with the lovely charms of nature, and endeared by
recollections of the tender heroism of Pocahontas.

Within two days after Smith's rescue, Powhatan suffered him to return to
Jamestown, on condition of sending him two great guns and a grindstone,
for which he promised to give him the country of Capahowosick, and
forever esteem him as his own favorite son Nantaquoud. Smith,
accompanied by Indian guides, quartered at night in some old hunting
cabins of Paspahegh, and reached Jamestown on the next morning about
sunrise. During the journey, as ever since his capture, he had expected
at almost every moment to be put to death. Returning, after an absence
of seven weeks, he was joyfully welcomed back by all except Archer and
two or three of his confederates. Archer, who had been illegally
admitted into the council, had the insolent audacity to indict Smith,
upon a chapter of Leviticus, for the death of his two men slain by the
Indians on the Chickahominy. He was tried on the day of his return, and
sentenced to be hanged on the next day, or the day after the next, when
Newport's opportune arrival on the very night after Smith's return,
providentially saved him from this ignominious fate. Wingfield
attributes the saving of _his_ life likewise to Newport, who released
him from the pinnace, where he was in duress.[49:A]

Smith now treated his Indian guides kindly, and showing Rawhunt, a
favorite servant of Powhatan, two pieces of cannon and a grindstone,
gave him leave to carry them home to his master. A cannon was then
loaded with stones, and discharged among the boughs of a tree hung with
icicles, when the Indians fled in terror, but upon being persuaded to
return, they received presents for Powhatan, his wives and children, and

At the time of Smith's return to Jamestown, he found the number of the
colonists reduced to forty. Of the one hundred original settlers,[49:B]
seventy-eight are classified as follows: fifty-four gentlemen, four
carpenters, twelve laborers, a blacksmith, a sailor, a barber, a
bricklayer, a mason, a tailor, a drummer, and a "chirurgeon." Of the
gentlemen, the greater part were indolent, dissolute reprobates, of good
families; and they found themselves not in a golden El Dorado, as they
had fondly anticipated, but in a remote wilderness, encompassed by want,
exposure, fatigue, disease, and danger.

The return of Smith, and his report of the plenty that he had witnessed
at Werowocomoco, and of the generous clemency of Powhatan, and
especially of the love of Pocahontas, revived the drooping hopes of the
survivors at Jamestown. The arrival of Newport at the same juncture with
stores and a number of additional settlers, being part of the first
supply sent out from England by the treasurer and council, was joyfully
welcomed. Pocahontas too, with her tawny train of attendants, frequently
visited Jamestown, with presents of bread, and venison, and raccoons,
sent by Powhatan for Smith and Newport. However, the improvident traffic
allowed between Newport's mariners and the natives, soon extremely
enhanced the price of provisions, and the too protracted detention of
his vessel made great inroads upon the public store. Newport, not long
after his arrival, accompanied by Smith, Scrivener, newly arrived, and
made one of the council, and thirty or forty picked men, visited
Powhatan at Werowocomoco. Upon their arrival, Smith landed with a party
of men, and after crossing several creeks on bridges of poles and bark,
(for it appears that he had mistaken the right landing place, having
probably passed up a little beyond the mouth of Timberneck Bay,) they
were met and escorted to the town by Opechancanough, Nantaquaus,
Powhatan's son, and two hundred warriors. Powhatan was found seated on
his bedstead throne of mats, with his buckskin pillow or cushion,
embroidered with beads. More than forty trays of bread stood without, in
rows on each side of the door. Four or five hundred Indians were
present. Newport landed on the next day, and some days were past in
feasting, and dancing, and trading, in which last Powhatan exhibited a
curious mixture of huckstering cunning, and regal pride. Smith gave him
a suit of red cloth, a white greyhound, and a hat. Charmed with some
blue beads, for one or two pounds of them he gave in exchange two or
three hundred bushels of corn. Newport presented him a boy named Thomas
Salvage, in return for an Indian named Namontack. Smith acted as

The English next visited Opechancanough, at his seat, Pamunkey. The blue
beads came to be in great request, and none dared to wear them save the
chiefs and their families. Having procured a further supply of corn at
this place, Newport and his party returned to Jamestown, which was now
destroyed by an accidental fire. Originating in the public storehouse,
the flames spread rapidly over the cabins, thatched with reeds,
consuming even the palisades, some eight or ten yards distant. Arms,
apparel, bedding, and much of their private provision, were consumed, as
was also a temporary church, which had been erected. "The minister,
Hunt, lost all his library, and all that he had but the clothes on his
back; yet none ever heard him repine at his loss. Upon any alarm he was
as ready for defence as any, and till he could not speak, he never
ceased to his utmost to animate us constantly to persist; whose soul,
questionless, is with God."[51:A] As no further mention is made of him
at Jamestown, it is probable that he did not live long after this fire.
Dr. Hawks, however, conjectures that he survived long enough to
officiate in the first marriage in Virginia, which took place in the
year 1608.[51:B] He appears to have resided in the County of Kent,
England, where, in January, 1594, he was appointed to the vicarage of
Reculver, which he resigned in 1602. But he probably still continued to
reside there, or to consider that his home, until he embarked for
Virginia, because when in the Downs, which are opposite to Kent, he was
only twenty miles "from his habitation." Of his appointment as chaplain
to the expedition, Wingfield, in his journal referred to before, gives
the following account: "For my first work, (which was to make a right
choice of a spiritual pastor,) I appeal to the remembrance of my Lord of
Canterbury's Grace, who gave me very gracious audience in my request.
And the world knoweth whom I took with me, truly a man, in my opinion,
not any way to be touched with the rebellious humor of a papist spirit,
nor blemished with the least suspicion of a factious schismatic." My
Lord of Canterbury was that persecuting prelate, Archbishop Bancroft,
who persecuted the Puritan dissenters till they desired to come over to
Virginia to get out of his reach, and which they were prohibited from
doing by a royal proclamation, issued at his instance. Rev. Robert Hunt,
by all the notices of him that are given, appears to have been a pious,
disinterested, resolute, and exemplary man.

When the English first settled at Jamestown, their place of worship
consisted of an awning, or old sail, suspended between three or four
trees, to protect them from the sun; the area covered by it was inclosed
by wooden rails; the seats were unhewed trees, till plank was cut; the
pulpit was a wooden crosspiece nailed to two neighboring trees. In
inclement weather an old decayed tent served for the place of worship.
After awhile, by the zeal of the minister Hunt, and the assistance of
Newport's seamen, a homely structure like a barn was erected, "set upon
crachets, covered with rafts, sedge, and earth," as likewise were the
sides, the best of the houses being constructed after the same fashion,
and the greater part of them worse than the church, so that they were
but a poor defence against wind or rain. Nevertheless, the service was
read daily, morning and evening, and on Sunday two sermons were
preached, and the communion celebrated every three months, till the Rev.
Mr. Hunt died. After which prayers were still said daily, and a homily
read on Sunday, and so it continued until the arrival of other preachers
some two or three years afterwards. The salary allowed Mr. Hunt appears
to have been £500 a year, appropriated by the council of the Virginia
Company in England, consented to by the council in Virginia, and
confirmed by the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1605, to Richard Hackluyt,
Prebend of Westminster, who, by his authority, sent out Mr. Hunt, "an
honest, religious, and courageous divine, during whose life our factions
were oft qualified, our wants and greatest extremities so comforted,
that they seemed easy in comparison of what we endured after his
memorable death."[52:A]

The stock of provisions running low, the colonists at Jamestown were
reduced to a diet of meal and water, and this, together with their
exposure to cold, after the loss of their habitations, cut off upwards
of one-half of them. Their condition was made still worse by a rage for
gold that now seized them. "There was no talk, no hope, no work, but dig
gold, wash gold, refine gold, load gold." Smith, not indulging in these
empty dreams of imaginary wealth, laughed at their infatuation in
loading "such a drunken ship with gilded dust."

Captain Newport, after a delay of three months and a half, being now
ready to sail for England, and the planters having no use for
parliaments, places, petitions, admirals, recorders, interpreters,
chronologers, courts of plea, nor justices of the peace, sent Master
Wingfield and Captain Archer home with him, so that they, who had
ingrossed all those titles to themselves, might seek some better place
of employment. Newport carried with him twenty turkeys, which had been
presented to him by Powhatan, who had demanded and received twenty
swords in return for them. This fowl, peculiar to America, had been many
years before carried to England by some of the early discoverers of
North America.[53:A]

After Newport's departure, Ratcliffe, the president, lived in ease,
peculating on the public store. The spring now approaching, Smith and
Scrivener undertook to rebuild Jamestown, repair the palisades, fell
trees, prepare the fields, plant and erect another church. While thus
engaged they were joyfully surprised by the arrival of the Phoenix,
commanded by Captain Nelson, who had left England with Newport, about
the end of the year 1607, and after coming within sight of Cape Henry,
had been driven off to the West Indies. He brought with him the
remainder of the first supply, which comprised one hundred and twenty
settlers. Having found provisions in the West Indies, and having
economically husbanded his own, he imparted them generously to the
colony, so that now there was accumulated a store sufficient for half a

Powhatan having effected so advantageous an exchange with Newport,
afterwards sent Smith twenty turkeys, but receiving no swords in return,
he was highly offended, and ordered his people to take them by fraud or
force, and they accordingly attempted to seize them at the gates of
Jamestown. The president and Martin, who now ruled, remained inactive,
under pretence of orders from England not to offend the natives; but
some of them happening to meddle with Smith, he handled them so roughly,
by whipping and imprisonment, as to repress their insolence.

Pocahontas, in beauty of feature, expression, and form, far surpassed
any of the natives; and in intelligence and spirit "was the nonpareil of
her country." Powhatan, hearing that some of his people were kept
prisoners at Jamestown, sent her, with Rawhunt, (who was as remarkable
for his personal deformity, but shrewd and crafty,) with presents of a
deer and some bread to sue for their ransom. Smith released the
prisoners, and Pocahontas was dismissed with presents. Thus the scheme
of Powhatan to destroy the English with their own swords, was happily

The Phoenix was freighted with a cargo of cedar, and the unserviceable,
gold-hunting Captain Martin, concluded to return with her to England. Of
the 120 settlers brought by Newport and Nelson, there were 33 gentlemen,
21 laborers, (some of them only footmen,) 6 tailors, 2 apothecaries, 2
jewellers, 2 gold-refiners, 2 goldsmiths, a gunsmith, a perfumer, a
surgeon, a cooper, a tobacco-pipe maker, and a blacksmith.[54:A]


[36:A] See charter in Stith's Hist. of Va., Appendix; "Notes as to the
Limits of Virginia," by Littleton Waller Tazewell, in Va. Hist.
Register, No. 1.

[36:B] Hening's Statutes at Large, i. 57.

[37:A] Hen. 67; Stith, 36, and in Appendix.

[37:B] Stith, 42.

[38:A] Smith's Hist. of Va., ii. 276.

[39:A] Narrative (in Purchas' Pilgrims, iv. 1685,) by George Percy,
brother of the Earl of Northumberland, and one of the first expedition.
See Hillard's Life of Smith in Sparks' Amer. Biog., 211 and 214 in note.
(Hillard in the main follows Stith.) Smith's Newes from Virginia.

[39:B] Smith, i. 140-41.

[40:A] Percy's Narrative.

[41:A] Stith, 46.

[43:A] Smith, i. 153; Newes from Virginia; Anderson's History of the
Colonial Church, i. 217.

[45:A] Newes from Va., 7.

[48:A] Smith, ii. 30. In Newes from Va., Smith calls her "a child of ten
years old." This was a mistake.

[48:B] Stith, 53; Newes from Virginia, 11.

[49:A] Anderson's History of the Colonial Church, i. 221, referring to
Wingfield's MS. Journal.

[49:B] List of the first planters, Smith, i. 153.

[51:A] Purchas, iv. 1710, cited in Anderson's History Col. Church, i.

[51:B] Hawks' Contributions, 22.

[52:A] Captain John Smith's "Advertisements for the Unexperienced
Planters of New England, or anywhere," etc. A rare pamphlet, written at
the house of Sir Humphrey Mildmay, in the Parish of Danbery, Essex
County, England, dedicated to the excellent Archbishop Abbot, and
published in 1631. Cited in Anderson's History of Col. Church, ii. 747.

[53:A] Grahame's Col. Hist. U. S., Amer. ed., i. 28, in note.

[54:A] Smith, i. 170.



     Smith's First Exploring Voyage up the Chesapeake Bay--Smith's
     Isles--Accomac--Tangier Islands--Wighcocomoco--Watkins'
     Point--Keale's Hill--Point Ployer--Watts' Islands--Cuskarawaok
     River--The Patapsco--Potomac--Quiyough--Stingray Island--Smith
     returns to Jamestown--His Second Voyage up Chesapeake Bay--
     The Massawomeks--The Indians on the River Tockwogh--
     Sasquesahannocks--Peregrine's Mount--Willoughby River--The
     Patuxent--The Rappahannock--The Pianketank--Elizabeth River--
     Nansemond River--Return to Jamestown--The Hudson River
     Discovered--Smith, President--Affairs at Jamestown--Newport
     arrives with Second Supply--His Instructions--The First
     English Women in Virginia--Smith visits Werowocomoco--
     Entertained by Pocahontas--His Interview with Powhatan--
     Coronation of Powhatan--Newport Explores the Monacan Country--
     Smith's Discipline--Affairs at Jamestown--Newport's Return--
     Smith's Letter to the Council--The First Marriage in Virginia--
     Smith again visits Powhatan.

ON the second day of June, 1608, Smith, with a company of fourteen,
consisting of seven gentlemen (including Dr. Walter Russel, who had
recently arrived,) and seven soldiers, left Jamestown, for the purpose
of exploring the Chesapeake Bay. The party embarked in an open barge of
less than three tons, and dropping down the James River, parted with the
Phoenix off Cape Henry, and crossing over thence to the Eastern Shore,
discovered and named, after their commander, "Smith's Isles." At Cape
Charles they met some grim, athletic savages, with bone-headed spears in
their hands, who directed them to the dwelling-place of the Werowance of
Accomac, who was found courteous and friendly, and the handsomest native
that they had yet seen. His country pleasant, fertile, and intersected
by creeks, affording good harbors for small craft. The people spoke the
language of Powhatan. Smith pursuing his voyage, came upon some
uninhabited isles, which were then named after Dr. Russel, surgeon of
the party, but now are known as the Tangier Islands. Searching there for
fresh water, they fell in with the River Wighcomoco, now called
Pocomoke; the northern point was named Watkins' Point, and a hill on
the south side of Pocomoke Bay, Keale's Hill, after two of the soldiers
in the barge. Leaving that river they came to a high promontory called
Point Ployer, in honor of a French nobleman, the former friend of Smith.
There they discovered a pond of hot water. In a thunder-storm the
barge's mast and sail were blown overboard, and the explorers, narrowly
escaping from the fury of the elements, found it necessary to remain for
two days on an island, which they named Limbo, but it is now known as
one of Watts' Islands. Repairing the sails with their shirts, they
visited a river on the Eastern Shore called Cuskarawaok, and now, by a
singular transposition of names, called Wighcocomoco. Here the Indians
ran along the banks in wild amazement, some climbing to the tops of
trees and shooting their arrows at the strangers. On the following day a
volley of musquetry dispersed the savages, and the English found some
cabins, in which they left pieces of copper, beads, bells and
looking-glasses. On the ensuing day a great number of Indians, men,
women, and children, thronged around Smith and his companions with many
expressions of friendship. These savages were of the tribes Nause,
Sarapinagh, Arseek, and Nantaquak, of all others the most expert in
trade. They were of small stature like the people of Wighcocomoco; wore
the finest furs, and manufactured a great deal of Roenoke, or Indian
money, made out of shells. The Eastern Shore of the bay was found low
and well wooded; the Western well watered, but hilly and barren; the
valleys fruitful, thickly wooded, and abounding in deer, wolves, bears,
and other wild animals. A navigable stream was called Bolus, from a
parti-colored gum-like clay found on its banks, it is now known as the

The party having been about a fortnight voyaging in an open boat,
fatigued at the oar, and subsisting on mouldy bread, now importuned
Smith to return to Jamestown. He at first refused, but shortly after,
the sickness of his men, and the unfavorable weather, compelled him
reluctantly to turn back, where the bay was about nine miles wide and
nine or ten fathoms deep. On the sixteenth of June they fell in with the
mouth of the Patawomeke, or Potomac, where it appeared to be seven miles
wide; and the tranquil magnificence of that majestic river reanimated
their drooping spirits, and the sick having now recovered, they agreed
to explore it.

About thirty miles above the mouth, near the future birth-place of
Washington, two Indians conducted them up a small creek, toward Nominy,
where the banks swarmed with thousands of the natives, who, with their
painted bodies and hideous yells, seemed so many infernal demons. Their
noisy threats were soon silenced by the glancing of the English bullets
on the water and the report of the muskets re-echoing in the forests,
and the astonished red men dropped their bows and arrows, and, hostages
being exchanged, received the whites kindly. Toward the head of the
river they met some canoes laden with bear, deer, and other game, which
the Indians shared with the English.

On their return down the river, Japazaws, chief of Potomac, having
furnished them with guides to conduct them up the River Quiyough, at the
mouth of which he lived, (supposed by Stith[57:A] to be Potomac Creek,)
in quest of Matchqueon, a mine, which they had heard of, the party left
the Indian hostages in the barge, secured by a small chain, which they
were to have for their reward. The mine turned out to be worthless,
containing only a sort of antimony, used by the natives to paint
themselves and their idols, and which gave them the appearance of
blackamoors powdered with silver-dust. The credulous Newport had taken
some bags of it to England as containing silver. The wild animals
observed were the beaver, otter, mink, marten, and bear; of fish they
met with great numbers, sometimes lying in such schools near the surface
that, in absence of nets, they undertook to catch them with a
frying-pan; but, plenty as they were, they were not to be caught with
frying-pans. The barge running aground at the mouth of the Rappahannock,
Smith amused himself "spearing" them with his sword, and in taking one
from its point it stung him in the wrist. In a little while the symptoms
proved so alarming that his companions concluded his death to be at
hand, and sorrowfully prepared his grave in a neighboring island by his
directions. But by Dr. Russel's judicious treatment the patient quickly
recovered, and supped that evening upon the offending fish. This
incident gave its name to Stingray Island. The fish was of the ray
species, much like a thornback, but with a long tail like a horse-whip,
containing a poisoned sting with a serrate edge.

The party returned to Jamestown late in July, and found sickness and
discontent still prevalent there. Ratcliffe, the president, was deposed
in favor of Smith, who, of the council, was next entitled to succeed;
but Smith substituted Scrivener in his stead, and embarked again to
complete his discoveries.

On the twenty-fourth of July he set out for the Chesapeake Bay, his
company consisting of six gentlemen, including Anthony Bagnall, surgeon,
and six soldiers. Detained some days at Kecoughtan, (Hampton,) they were
hospitably entertained by the Indians there, who were astonished by some
rockets thrown up in the evening. Reaching the head of the bay, the
explorers met some canoes manned by Massawomeks, who, after their first
alarm being propitiated by the present of two bells, presented Smith
with bear's meat, venison, fish, bows, arrows, targets, and bear-skins.
Stith supposed this nation to be the same with the Iroquois, or Five

On the River Tockwogh (now Sassafras) Smith came to an Indian town,
fortified with a palisade and breastworks, and here men, women, and
children, came forth to welcome the whites with songs and dances,
offering them fruits, furs, and whatever they had, spreading mats for
them to sit on, and in every way expressing their friendship. They had
tomahawks, knives, and pieces of iron and copper, which, as they
alleged, they had procured from the Sasquesahannocks, a mighty people
dwelling two days' journey distant on the borders of the Susquehanna.
Suckahanna, in the Powhatan language, signifies "water."[58:B]

Two interpreters being dispatched to invite the Sasquesahannocks to
visit the English, in three or four days sixty of that gigantic people
arrived, with presents of venison, tobacco-pipes three feet long,
baskets, targets, bows and arrows. Five of their chiefs embarked in the
barge to cross the bay. It being Smith's custom daily to have prayers
with a psalm, the savages were filled with wonder at it, and in their
turn performed a sort of adoration, holding their hands up to the sun,
and chanting a wild unearthly song. They then embraced Captain Smith,
adoring him in the like manner, apparently looking upon him as some
celestial visitant, and overwhelming him with a profusion of presents
and abject homage.

The highest mountain seen by the voyagers to the northward they named
Peregrine's Mount; and Willoughby River derived its name from Smith's
native town. At the extreme limits of discovery crosses were carved in
the bark of trees, or brass crosses were left. The tribes on the
Patuxent were found very tractable, and more civil than any others. On
the banks of the picturesque Rappahannock, Smith and his party were
kindly treated by the Moraughtacunds; and here they met with Mosco, one
of the Wighcocomocoes, who was remarkable for a bushy black beard,
whereas the natives in general had little or none. He proved to be of
great service to the English in exploring the Rappahannock. Mr. Richard
Fetherstone, a gentleman of the company, died during this part of the
voyage, and was buried on the sequestered banks of this river, where a
bay was named after him. The river was explored to the falls, (near
Fredericksburg,) where a skirmish took place with the Rappahannocks.

Smith next explored the Pianketank, where the inhabitants were, for the
most part, absent on a hunting excursion, only a few women, children,
and old men being left to tend the corn. Returning thence the barge
encountered a tremendous thunder-storm in Gosnold's Bay, and running
before the wind, the voyagers could only catch fitful glimpses of the
land, by the flashes of lightning, which saved them from dashing to
pieces on the shore, and directed them to Point Comfort. They next
visited Chesapeake, now Elizabeth River, (on which Norfolk is situated,)
six or seven miles from the mouth of which they came upon two or three
cultivated patches and some cabins. After this they sailed seven or
eight miles up the Nansemond, and found its banks consisting mainly of
oyster-shells. Skirmishing here with the Chesapeakes and Nansemonds,
Smith procured as much corn as he could carry away. September the 7th,
1608, the party arrived at Jamestown, after an absence of upwards of
three months, and found some of the colonists recovered, others still
sick, many dead, Ratcliffe, the late president, under arrest for mutiny,
the harvest gathered, but the stock of provisions damaged by rain.

During that summer, Smith, with a few men, in a small barge, in his
several voyages of discovery traversed a distance of not less than three
thousand miles.[60:A] He had been at Jamestown only three days in three
months, and had, during this interval, explored the whole of Chesapeake
Bay and of the country lying on its shores, and made a map of them.

In the year 1607 the Plymouth Company, under the direction of Lord Chief
Justice Popham, dispatched a vessel to inspect their territory of North
Virginia. That vessel being captured by the Spaniards, Sir John Popham,
at his own expense, sent out another, which, having returned with a
favorable report of the country, he was enabled to equip an expedition
for the purpose of effecting a settlement there. Under the command of
his brother, Henry Popham, and of Raleigh Gilbert, a nephew of Sir
Humphrey Gilbert, a hundred emigrants, embarking May, 1607, in two
vessels, repaired to North Virginia, and seated themselves at the mouth
of the River Sagahadock, where they erected Fort St. George. However,
after enduring a great deal of sickness and hardship, and losing several
of their number, including their president, Henry Popham, and hearing by
a supply-vessel of the death of their chief patrons, Sir John Popham,
and Sir John Gilbert, (brother of Raleigh Gilbert,) they gladly
abandoned the colony, and returned to England in the spring of 1608.

It was in this year that Henry Hudson, an Englishman, employed by the
Dutch East India Company, after entering the Chesapeake, and remarking
the infant settlement of the English, discovered the beautiful river
which still retains the name of that distinguished navigator. The Dutch
afterwards erected near its mouth, and on the Island of Manhattan, the
fort and cabins of New Amsterdam, the germ of New York.

Smith had hitherto declined, but now consented, September, 1608, to
undertake the office of president. Ratcliffe was under arrest for
mutiny; and the building of the fine house which he had commenced for
himself in the woods, was discontinued. The church was repaired, the
storehouse newly covered, magazines for supplies erected, the fort
reduced to a pentagon figure, the watch renewed, troops trained; and the
whole company mustered every Saturday in the plain by the west bulwark,
called "Smithfield." There, sometimes, more than a hundred dark-eyed and
dark-haired tawny Indians would stand in amazement to see a file of
soldiers batter a tree, where a target was set up to shoot at.

Newport arrived with a second supply, and brought out also presents for
Powhatan, a basin and ewer, bedstead and suit of scarlet clothes.
Newport, upon this voyage, had procured a private commission in which he
stood pledged to perform one of three impossibilities; for he engaged
not to return to England without either a lump of gold, a certainty of
the South Sea, or one of Sir Walter Raleigh's lost colonists. Newport
brought also orders to discover the Manakin (originally Monacan)
country, and a barge constructed so as to be taken to pieces, which they
were to carry beyond the falls, so as to convey them down by some river
running westward to the South Sea or Pacific Ocean. Vasco Nunez, in
1513, crossing the Isthmus of Darien, from the summit of a mountain
discovered, beyond the other side of the continent, an ocean, which,
from the direction in which he saw it, took the name of the "South Sea."

The cost of this last supply brought out by Newport was two thousand
pounds, and the company ordered that the vessels should be sent back
freighted with cargoes of corresponding value, and threatened, in case
of a failure, that the colonists should be left in Virginia as banished
men. It appears that the Virginia Company had been deeply incensed by a
letter received by Lord Salisbury, (Sir Robert Cecil,) Secretary of
State, reporting that the planters intended to divide the country among
themselves. It is altogether improbable that they had conceived any
design of appropriating a country which so few of them were willing to
cultivate, and from which so many of them were anxious to escape. The
folly of the instructions was only surpassed by the inhumanity of the
threat, and this folly and inhumanity were justly exposed by Smith's
letter in reply.[61:A]

Newport brought over with him Captains Peter Wynne and Richard Waldo,
two veteran soldiers and valiant gentlemen; Francis West, brother of
Lord Delaware; Raleigh Crashaw; Thomas Forest with Mrs. Forest, and Anne
Burras, her maid; the first Englishwomen that landed at Jamestown.[62:A]
Some Poles and Germans were sent out to make pitch, tar, glass, soap,
ashes, and erect mills. Waldo and Wynne were admitted into the council;
and Ratcliffe was restored to his seat.

The time appointed for Powhatan's coronation now drawing near, Smith,
accompanied by Captain Waldo, and three others, went overland to a point
on the Pamaunkee (York) River, opposite Werowocomoco, to which they
crossed over in an Indian canoe. Upon reaching Werowocomoco, Powhatan
being found absent, was sent for, and, in the mean time, Smith and his
comrades were being entertained by Pocahontas and her companions. They
made a fire in an open field, and Smith being seated on a mat before it,
presently a hideous noise and shrieking being heard in the adjoining
woods, the English snatched up their arms, and seized two or three aged
Indians; but Pocahontas immediately came, and protested to Smith that he
might slay her if any surprise was intended, and he was quickly
satisfied that his apprehensions were groundless. Then thirty young
women emerged from the woods, all naked, save a cincture of green
leaves, their bodies being painted; Pocahontas wearing on her head a
beautiful pair of buck's horns, an otter's skin at her girdle and
another on her arm; a quiver hung on her shoulder, and she held a bow
and arrow in her hand. Of the other nymphs, one held a sword, another a
club, a third a pot-stick, with the antlers of the deer on their heads,
and a variety of other savage ornaments. Bursting from the forest, like
so many fiends, with unearthly shrieks, they circled around the fire
singing and dancing, and thus continued for an hour, when they again
retired to the woods. Returning, they invited Smith to their
habitations, where, as soon as he entered, they all crowded around,
hanging about him with cries of "Love you not me? love you not me?" They
then feasted their guest; some serving, others singing and dancing, till
at last, with blazing torches of light-wood, they escorted him to his

On the next day, Powhatan having arrived, Smith informed him of the
presents that had been sent out for him; restored to him Namontack, who
had been taken to England, and invited the chief to visit Jamestown to
accept the presents, and with Newport's aid to revenge himself upon his
enemies, the Monacans. Powhatan, in reply, refused to visit Jamestown,
saying that he, too, was a king; but he consented to wait eight days to
receive presents; as for the Monacans, he was able to avenge his
grievances himself. In regard to the salt water beyond the mountains, of
which Smith had spoken, Powhatan denied that there was any such, and
drew lines of those regions on the ground. Smith returned to Jamestown,
and the presents being sent round to Werowocomoco by water, near a
hundred miles, Newport and Smith, with fifty men, proceeded thither by
the direct route across the neck of land that separates the James from
the York.

All being assembled at Werowocomoco, the ensuing day was set for the
coronation, when the presents were delivered to Powhatan--a basin, ewer,
bed, and furniture ready set up. A scarlet cloak and suit of apparel
were with difficulty put upon him, Namontack, meanwhile, insisting that
it would not hurt him. Still more strenuous efforts were found necessary
to make him kneel to receive the crown, till, at last, by dint of urgent
persuasions, and pressing hard upon his shoulders, he was induced,
reluctantly, to stoop a little, when three of the English placed the
crown upon his head. At an appointed signal a volley of musketry was
fired from the boats, and Powhatan started up from his seat in alarm,
from which, however, he was in a few moments relieved. As if, by way of
befitting satire upon so ridiculous a ceremony, Powhatan graciously
presented his old moccasins and mantle to Newport, and some corn; but
refused to allow him any guides except Namontack. The English having
purchased, in the town, a small additional supply of corn, left
Werowocomoco, and returned to Jamestown.

Shortly afterwards Newport, contrary to Smith's advice, undertook to
explore the Monacan country, on the borders of the upper James River,
with one hundred and twenty picked men, commanded by Captain Waldo,
Lieutenant Percy, Captain Wynne, Mr. West, and Mr. Scrivener. Smith,
with eighty or ninety men, some sick, some feeble, being left at
Jamestown; Newport and his party, embarking in the pinnace and boats,
went up to the falls of the river, where, landing, they marched forty
miles beyond on the south side in two days and a half, and returned by
the same route, discovering two towns of the Monacans--Massinacak, and
Mowchemenchouch. The natives, "the Stoics of the woods," evinced neither
friendship nor enmity; and the English, out of abundant caution, took
one of their chiefs, and led him bound at once a hostage and a guide.
Having failed to procure any corn from the Indians, Newport's party
returned from the exploration of this picturesque, fertile, well-watered
region, more than half of them sick or lame, and disheartened with
fatigue, stinted rations, and disappointed hopes of finding gold.

Smith, the president, now set the colonists to work; some to make glass,
others to prepare tar, pitch, and soap-ashes; while he, in person,
conducted thirty of them five miles below the fort to cut down trees and
saw plank. Two of this lumber-party happened to be young gentlemen, who
had arrived in the last supply. Smith sharing labor and hardship in
common with the rest, these woodmen, at first, became apparently
reconciled to the novel task, and seemed to listen with pleasure to the
crashing thunder of the falling trees; but when the axes began to
blister their unaccustomed hands, they grew profane, and their frequent
loud oaths echoed in the woods. Smith taking measures to have the oaths
of each one numbered, in the evening, for each offence, poured a can of
water down the offender's sleeve; and this curious discipline, or
water-cure, was so effectual, that after it was administered, an oath
would scarcely be heard in a week. Smith found that thirty or forty
gentlemen who volunteered to work, could do more in a day than one
hundred that worked by compulsion; but, he adds, that twenty good
workmen would have been better than the whole of them put together.

Smith finding so much time wasted, and no provisions obtained, and
Newport's vessel lying idle at heavy charge, embarked in the discovery
barge, taking with him eighteen men and another boat, and leaving orders
for Lieutenant Percy to follow after him, went up the Chickahominy.
Being overtaken by Percy, he procured a supply of corn. Upon his return
to Jamestown, Newport and Ratcliffe, instigated by jealousy, attempted
to depose Smith from the presidency, but he defeated their schemes. The
colony suffered much loss at this time by an illicit trade carried on
between the sailors of Newport's vessel, dishonest settlers, and the
Indians. Smith threatened to send away the vessel and to oblige Newport
to remain a year in the colony, so that he might learn to judge of
affairs by his own experience, but Newport submitting, and acknowledging
himself in the wrong, the threat was not executed. Scrivener visiting
Werowocomoco, by the said of Namontack procured another supply of corn
and some puccoons, a root which it was supposed would make an excellent
dye, as the Indians used its red juice to stain their faces.

Newport at last sailed for England, leaving at Jamestown two hundred
souls, carrying a cargo of such pitch, tar, glass, and soap-ashes as the
colonists had been able to get ready. Ratcliffe, whose real name was
discovered to be Sicklemore, was sent back at the same time. Smith in
his letter to the council in England, exhibited, in caustic terms, the
preposterous folly of expecting a present profitable return from
Virginia. He sent them also his map of the country, drawn with so much
accuracy, that it has been taken as the groundwork of all succeeding
maps of Virginia.

Not long after Newport's departure, Anne Burras was married at Jamestown
to John Laydon, the first marriage in Virginia. Smith finding the
provisions running low, made a voyage to Nansemond, and afterwards went
up the James, and discovered the river and people of Appomattock, who
gave part of their scanty store of corn in exchange for copper and toys.

About this time Powhatan sent an invitation to Smith to visit him, and a
request that he would send men to build him a house, and give him a
grindstone, fifty swords, some guns, a cock and hen, with much copper,
and many beads, in return for which he promised to load his vessel with
corn. Having dispatched by land a party of Englishmen and four Dutchmen
to build the house, Smith, accompanied by the brave Waldo, set out for
Werowocomoco on the twenty-ninth of December, with the pinnace and two
barges manned with forty-six men. Smith went in a barge with six
gentlemen and as many soldiers, while in the pinnace were Lieutenant
Percy and Francis West, with a number of gentlemen and soldiers. The
little fleet dropping down the James arrived on the first night at
Warrasqueake, from which place Sicklemore, a veteran soldier, was
dispatched with two Indian guides in quest of Sir Walter Raleigh's lost
company, and of silk grass. Smith left Samuel Collier, his page, at
Warrasqueake to learn the language. The party being detained, by
inclement weather, a week at Kecoughtan, spent the holidays there among
the natives, feasting on oysters, venison, wild-fowl, and good bread,
enjoying also excellent fires in the dry, smoky cabins. While here Smith
and two others killed one hundred and forty-eight wild-fowl in three

At Kiskiack, (now Chescake, pronounced Cheese-cake,) the severity of the
cold again compelled the English to take shelter in the Indian wigwams.
On the twelfth day of January they reached Werowocomoco. The York River
being frozen over near half a mile from the shore, Smith, to lose no
time, undertook to break his way through the ice; but the tide ebbing,
left the barge aground on a shoal. In this dilemma, although the cold
was extreme, Smith jumping into the icy river, set the example to his
men of wading near waist deep to the shore, where, quartering in the
first cabins that they reached, they sent to Powhatan for provisions. On
the following day he supplied them abundantly with bread, wild turkeys,
and venison. Like Nestor of old, he told Smith somewhat extravagantly,
that he had seen the death of all of his people thrice; that he was now
old and must ere long die; that his brothers, Opitchapan,
Opechancanough, and Kekataugh, his two sisters, and their two daughters,
were to be his successors. He deprecated war, and declared that when he
and his people, forced to fly by fear of the English, lay in the woods,
exposed to cold and hunger, if a twig but broke, every one cried out,
"There comes Captain Smith." At length, after a long dialogue, Powhatan
still obstinately insisting that the English should lay aside their
arms, Smith gave orders privately to his people in the boat to approach
and capture him. Discovering their design he fled with his women and
children, while his warriors beset the cabin where Smith was. With
pistol, sword, and target, he rushed out among them and fired; some fell
one over another, the rest escaped.

Powhatan, finding himself in Smith's power, to make his peace sent him,
by an aged orator, a large bracelet and a string of beads, and in the
mean while the savages, goodly, well-formed fellows, but grim-looking,
carried the corn on their backs down to the boats. The barges of the
English being left aground by the ebb-tide, they were obliged to wait
till the next high-water; and they returned ashore to lodge in some
Indian wigwams.

Powhatan, and the treacherous Dutchmen who had been sent to build him a
house, and who were attracted by the abundant good cheer that they
enjoyed at Werowocomoco, now together plotted Smith's destruction. But
Pocahontas, the chieftain's dearest jewel, in that dark night, passing
through the gloomy woods, told Smith that great cheer would soon be sent
to him, but that her father with all his force would quickly come and
kill him and all the English, with their own weapons, while at supper;
that therefore, if he would live, she wished him to go at once. Smith
would have given her such toys as she delighted in; but, with tears
streaming down her cheeks, she said that she would not dare to be seen
to have them, for if her father should know it she would die; and so she
ran away by herself as she had come. The attempt to surprise Smith was
accordingly soon after made; but, forewarned, he readily defeated the

Upon the return of the tide, Smith and his party embarked for Pamaunkee,
at the head of the river, leaving with Powhatan Edward Boynton, to kill
fowl for him, and the Dutchmen, whose treachery was not as yet
suspected, to finish his house. As the party sent forward to build the
house had been there about two weeks, and as the chimney is erected
after the house, it may be probably inferred that "Powhatan's Chimney"
was built by the Dutchmen. It indeed looks like a chimney of one of
those Dutch houses described by Irving in his inimitable "Legend of
Sleepy Hollow." It is the oldest relic of construction now extant in
Virginia, and is associated with the most interesting incident in our
early history. This chimney is built of stone found on the banks of
Timberneck Bay, and easily quarried; it is eighteen and a half feet
high, ten and a half wide at the base, and has a double flue. The
fire-place is eight feet wide, with an oaken beam across. The chimney
stands on an eminence, and is conspicuous from every quarter of the bay;
and itself a monumental evidence of no inconsiderable import. That the
colonists would construct for Powhatan's house a durable and massive
chimney there is every reason to believe, and here is such a one still
extant, and still retaining, through all the mutations of time, the
traditional name of "Powhatan's Chimney." There is no other such chimney
in all that region, nor the remains of such a one. At the foot of the
yard, and at a short distance from the chimney, which is still in use,
being attached to a modern farm-house, is a fine spring, formerly shaded
by a venerable umbrageous red-oak, of late years blown down. In the
rivulet that steals along a ravine from the spring, Pocahontas sported
in her childhood. Her name, according to Heckwelder, signifies "a
rivulet between two hills," but this is denied by others.

In the early annals of Virginia, Werowocomoco is second only to
Jamestown in historical and romantic interest; as Jamestown was the seat
of the English settlers, so Werowocomoco was the favorite residence of
the Indian monarch Powhatan. It was here that, when Smith was about to
meet his fate,

     "An angel knelt in woman's form
      And breathed a prayer for him."

It was here that Powhatan was crowned by the conceited Newport; here
that supplies for the colony were frequently procured; here that
occurred so many interviews and rencontres between the red men and the
whites. Here, two centuries and a half ago, dwelt the famous old
Powhatan, tall, erect, stern, apparently beardless, his hair a little
frosted with gray. Here he beheld, with barbarous satisfaction, the
scalps of his enemies recently massacred, suspended on a line between
two trees, and waving in the breeze; here he listened to recitals of
hunting and blood, and in the red glare of the council-fire planned
schemes of perfidy and revenge; here he sate and smoked, sometimes
observing Pocahontas at play, sometimes watching the fleet canoe coming
in from the Pamaunkee. Werowocomoco was a befitting seat of the great
chief, overlooking the bay, with its bold, picturesque, wood-crowned
banks, and in view of the wide majestic flood of the river, empurpled by
transient cloud-shadows, or tinged with the rosy splendor of a summer


[57:A] Stith, 65.

[58:A] Stith, 67.

[58:B] Smith, i. 147.

[60:A] Smith, i. 191.

[61:A] Stith, 82; Smith, 200.

[62:A] Smith, i. 193.



     Smith visits Pamaunkee--Seizes Opechancanough--Goes back to
     Werowocomoco--Procures Supplies--Returns to Jamestown--Smith's
     Rencontre with Chief of Paspahegh--Fort built--"The Old Stone
     House"--Colonists dispersed to procure Subsistence--
     Tuckahoe-root--Smith's Discipline--New Charter--Lord Delaware
     appointed Governor--Fleet dispatched for Virginia--Sea-Venture;
     cast away on Island of Bermuda--Seven Vessels reach Virginia--
     Disorders that ensued--Smith's Efforts to quell them--He
     Embarks for England--His Character, Life, and Writings.

SMITH and his party had no sooner set sail from Werowocomoco, up the
river, than Powhatan returned, and dispatched two of the Dutchmen to
Jamestown. The two emissaries, by false pretences and the assistance of
some of the colonists, who confederated with them, succeeded in
procuring a supply of arms and ammunition, which were conveyed to
Powhatan by some of his people who were at hand for that purpose. In the
mean time the other Dutchman, who had been retained by Powhatan as a
hostage, provided him with three hundred stone tomahawks. Edward Boynton
and Thomas Savage, discovering the treachery, attempted to make their
escape back to Jamestown, but were apprehended and taken back, and
expected every moment to be put to death.

During this interval, Smith having arrived at Pamunkey, at the junction
of the Pamunkey and the Matapony, landed with Lieutenant Percy and
others, to the number of fifteen, and proceeded to Opechancanough's
residence, a quarter of a mile back from the river. The town was found
deserted by all, except a lame man and a boy, and the cabins stripped of
everything. In a short time the chief of the warlike Pamunkies returned,
accompanied by some of his people, armed with bows and arrows. After
some conference, Smith finding himself deceived as to the supply of corn
which had been promised, reproached the chief for his treachery.
Opechancanough, to veil his designs, agreed to sell what scanty
commodities he then had, at Smith's own price, and promised to bring on
the morrow a larger supply. On the next day Smith, with the same party,
marched again up to Opechancanough's residence, where they found four or
five Indians, who had just arrived, each carrying a large basket. Soon
after the chief made his appearance, and with an air of frankness began
to tell what pains he had been at to fulfil his promise, when Mr. Russel
brought word that several hundred of the Indians had surrounded the
house where the English were. Smith, perceiving that some of his party
were terrified, exhorted them "to fight like men and not die like
sheep." Reproaching Opechancanough for his murderous designs, he
challenged him to decide the dispute in single combat on a neighboring
island. The wily chief declining that mode of settlement, endeavored to
inveigle Smith into an ambuscade, when his treachery being manifest, the
president seized him by the forelock, and with a cocked pistol at his
breast, led him, trembling, in the midst of his own people. Overcome
with terror, Opechancanough surrendered his vambrace, bow, and arrows;
and his dismayed followers threw down their arms. Men, women, and
children, now brought in their commodities to trade with the English.
Smith, overcome with fatigue, retired into a cabin to rest; and while he
was asleep, a party of the Indians, armed with swords and tomahawks,
made an attempt to surprise him, but starting up at the noise, he, with
the help of some of his comrades, soon put the intruders to flight.

During this time, Scrivener, misled by letters received from England,
began to grow ambitious of supplanting Smith, who was cordially attached
to him; and setting out from Jamestown for Hog Island, on a stormy day,
in company of Captain Waldo, Anthony Gosnold, and eight others, the boat
was sunk and all were lost. When no one else could be found willing to
convey this intelligence to Smith, Richard Wyffin volunteered to
undertake it. At Werowocomoco he was shielded from danger by Pocahontas,
who, in every emergency, still proved herself the tutelary angel of the
colony. Wyffin having overtaken Smith at Pamunkey, he concealed the news
of the recent disaster from his party, and, releasing Opechancanough,
returned down the river. On the following morning, a little after
sunrise, the bank of the river swarmed with Indians, unarmed, carrying
baskets, to tempt Smith ashore, under pretence of trade. Smith, landing
with Percy and two others, was received by Powhatan at the head of two
or three hundred warriors formed in two crescents; some twenty men and a
number of women carrying painted baskets. Smith attempted to inveigle
Powhatan into an ambuscade, but the savages, on a nearer approach,
discovering the English with arms in their hands, fled. However, the
natives, some days afterwards, from all parts of the country, within a
circuit of ten or twelve miles, in the snow brought, on their naked
backs, corn for Smith's party.

Smith next went up the Youghtanund (now Pamunkey) and the Matapony. On
the banks of this little river the poor Indians gave up their scanty
store of corn with such tears and lamentations of women and children as
touched the hearts of the English with compassion.[72:A]

Returning, he descended the York as far as Werowocomoco, intending to
surprise Powhatan there, and thus secure a further supply of corn; but
Powhatan had abandoned his new house, and had carried away all his corn
and provisions; and Smith, with his party, returned to Jamestown. In
this expedition, with twenty-five pounds of copper and fifty pounds of
iron, and some beads, he procured, in exchange, two hundred pounds of
deer suet, and delivered to the Cape-merchant four hundred and
seventy-nine bushels of corn.

At Jamestown the provision of the public store had been spoiled by
exposure to the rain of the previous summer, or eaten by rats and worms.
The colonists had been living there in indolence, and a large part of
their implements and arms had been trafficked away to the Indians. Smith
undertook to remedy these disorders by discipline and labor, relieved by
pastimes and recreations; and he established it as a rule, that he who
would not work, should not eat. The whole government of the colony was
now, in effect, devolved upon him--Captain Wynne being the only other
surviving councillor, and the president having two votes. Shortly after
Smith's return, he met the Chief of Paspahegh near Jamestown, and had a
rencontre with him. This athletic savage attempting to shoot him, he
closed and grappled, when, by main strength, the chief forced him into
the river to drown him. They struggled long in the water, until Smith,
grasping the savage by the throat, well-nigh strangled him, and, drawing
his sword, was about to cut off his head, when he begged for his life so
piteously that Smith spared him, and led him prisoner to Jamestown,
where he put him in chains. He was daily visited by his wives, and
children, and people, who brought presents to ransom him. At last he
made his escape. Captain Wynne and Lieutenant Percy were dispatched,
with a party of fifty, to recapture him, failing in which they burned
the chief's cabin, and carried away his canoes. Smith now going out to
"try his conclusions" with "the salvages," slew some, and made some
prisoners, burned their cabins, and took their canoes and fishing weirs.
Shortly afterwards the president, passing through Paspahegh, on his way
to the Chickahominy, was assaulted by the Indians; but, upon his firing,
and their discovering who he was, they threw down their arms, and sued
for peace. Okaning, a young warrior, who spoke in their behalf, in
justifying the escape of their chief from imprisonment at Jamestown,
said: "The fishes swim, the fowls fly, and the very beasts strive to
escape the snare, and live." Smith's vigorous measures, together with
some accidental circumstances, dismayed the savages, that from this time
to the end of his administration, they gave no further trouble.

A block-house was now built in the neck of the Jamestown Peninsula; and
it was guarded by a garrison, who alone were authorized to trade with
the Indians; and neither Indians nor whites were suffered to pass in or
out without the president's leave. Thirty or forty acres of land were
planted with corn; twenty additional houses were built; the hogs were
kept at Hog Island, and increased rapidly; and poultry was raised
without the necessity of feeding. A block-house was garrisoned at Hog
Island for the purpose of telegraphing shipping arrived in the river.
Captain Wynne, sole surviving councillor, dying, the whole government
devolved upon Smith. He built a fort, as a place of refuge in case of
being compelled to retreat from Jamestown, on a convenient river, upon a
high commanding hill, very hard to be assaulted, and easy of defence.
But the scarcity of provisions prevented its completion.[74:A] This is,
no doubt, the diminutive structure known as "the Old Stone House," in
James City County, on Ware Creek, a tributary of York River. It stands
about five miles from the mouth of the creek, and twenty-two from
Jamestown. It is built of sandstone found on the bank of the creek, and
without mortar. The walls and chimney still remain. This miniature
fortress is eighteen and a half feet by fifteen in size, and consists of
a basement under ground, and one story above. On one side is a doorway,
six feet wide, giving entrance to both apartments. The walls are pierced
with loop-holes, and the masonry is exact. This little fort stands in a
wilderness, on a high, steep bluff, at the foot of which Ware Creek
meanders. The Old Stone House is approached only by a long, narrow
ridge, surrounded by gloomy forests and dark ravines overgrown with ivy.
It is the oldest house in Virginia; and its age and sequestered
situation have connected with it fanciful stories of Smith and
Pocahontas, and the hidden treasures of the pirate Blackbeard.

The store of provisions at Jamestown was so wasted by rats, introduced
by the vessels, that all the works of the colonists were brought to an
end, and they were employed only in procuring food. Two Indians that had
been some time before captured by Smith, had been until the present time
kept fettered prisoners, but made to perform double tasks, and to
instruct the settlers in the cultivation of corn. The prisoners were
released for want of provision, but were so well satisfied as to remain.
For upwards of two weeks the Indians from the surrounding country
supplied the colony daily with squirrels, turkeys, deer, and other game,
while the rivers afforded an abundance of wild-fowl. Smith also bought
from Powhatan half of his stock of corn. But, nevertheless, it was found
necessary to distribute the settlers in different parts of the country
to procure subsistence. Sergeant Laxon, with sixty or eighty of them,
was sent down the river to live upon oysters; Lieutenant Percy with
twenty, to find fish at Point Comfort; West, brother of Lord Delaware,
with an equal number, repaired to the falls, where, however, nothing
edible was found but a few acorns. Hitherto the whole body of the
colonists had been provided for by the courage and industry of some
thirty or forty.

The main article of their diet was, for a time, sturgeon, an abundant
supply of which was procured during the season. It not only served for
meat, but when dried and pounded, and mixed with herbs, supplied the
place of bread. Of the spontaneous productions of the soil, the
principal article of sustenance was the tuckahoe-root, of which one man
could gather enough in a day to supply him with bread for a week. The
tockawhoughe, as it is called by Smith, was, in the summer, a principal
article of diet among the natives. It grows in marshes like a flag, and
resembles, somewhat, the potato in size and flavor. Raw it is no better
than poison, so that the Indians were accustomed to roast it, and eat it
mixed with sorel and corn-meal.[75:A] There is another root found in
Virginia called tuckahoe, and confounded with the flag-like root
described above, and erroneously supposed by many to grow without stem
or leaf. It appears to be of the convolvulus species, and is entirely
unlike the root eaten by the Jamestown settlers.[75:B]

Such was the indolence of the greater number of the colonists, that it
seemed as if they would sooner starve than take the trouble of procuring
food; and at length their mutinous discontents arose to such a pitch
that Smith arrested the ringleader of the malecontents, and ordered that
whoever failed to provide daily as much food as he should consume,
should be banished from Jamestown as a drone. Of the two hundred
settlers, many were billeted among the Indians, and thus became familiar
with their habits and manner of life.

Sicklemore, who had been dispatched to Chowanock, returned, after a
fruitless search for Sir Walter Raleigh's people. He found the Chowan
River not large; the country generally overgrown with pines; pemminaw,
or silk-grass growing here and there. Two other messengers, sent to the
country of the Mangoags in quest of the lost settlers, learned that they
were all dead. Guides had been supplied by the hospitable chief of the
Quiyoughcohannocks to convoy the messengers. This chief was of all
others most friendly to the whites; although a superstitious worshipper
of his own gods, yet he acknowledged that they were as inferior to the
English God in power as the bow and arrow were inferior to the English
gun; and he often sent presents to Smith, begging him "to pray to the
English God for rain, else his corn would perish, for his gods were

The Virginia Company in England, mainly intent on pecuniary gain and
quick returns, were discouraged by the disasters that had befallen the
colony, and disappointed in their visionary hopes of the discovery of
gold mines, and of a passage to the South Sea. They therefore took
measures to procure from King James a new charter, abrogating the
existing one, and investing them with ampler powers. Having associated
with themselves a numerous body of additional stockholders, or
adventurers, as they were then styled, including many persons of rank,
and wealth, and influence, they succeeded in obtaining from the king a
new charter, dated May 23d, 1609, transferring to the Company several
important powers before reserved to the crown. By this charter the
extent of Virginia was much enlarged, the eastern boundary being a line
extending two hundred miles north of Point Comfort, and two hundred
miles south of it, the northern and southern boundaries being parallels
drawn through the extremities of the eastern boundary back to the South
Sea or Pacific--the western boundary being the Pacific.

By the provisions of the new charter the Virginia Company became indeed
apparently more independent and republican, but under the new system the
governor of the colony was indued with arbitrary power, and authorized
to declare martial-law; and the condition of the colonists became even
worse than before. This sudden repeal of the former charter evinced an
ingratitude for the services of Smith and his associates, who, under
it, had endured the toil, and privations, and dangers of the first

The Supreme Council in England, now chosen by the stockholders
themselves, appointed Sir Thomas West, Lord Delaware, Governor and
Captain-General of Virginia. He was the third Lord Delaware, and the
present (1843) Earl Delaware, John George West, is his lineal
descendant. Sir Thomas Gates was appointed Lieutenant-Governor, and Sir
George Somers, Admiral. Sir George was a member of Parliament, but upon
being appointed to a colonial post his seat was declared vacant.

Nine vessels were speedily fitted out, with supplies of men and women,
five hundred in number, and provisions and other stores for the colony.
Newport, who was entrusted with the command of the fleet, and Gates and
Somers, were each severally authorized, whichever might happen first
to reach Jamestown, to supersede the existing administration there
until the arrival of Lord Delaware, who was not to embark for several
months, and who did not reach Virginia until the lapse of more than a
year. This abundant caution defeated itself, for Newport, and the
lieutenant-governor, and the admiral, finding it impossible to adjust
the point of precedence among themselves, embarked together by way of
compromise, in the same vessel, the Sea-Venture.[77:A]

The expedition sailed from Plymouth toward the end of May, 1609, and
going, contrary to instructions, by the old circuitous route, via the
Canaries and the West Indies, late in July, when in latitude thirty
degrees north, and, as was supposed, within eight days' sail of
Virginia, they were caught "in the tail of a hurricane," blowing from
the northeast, accompanied by an appalling darkness, that continued for
forty-four hours. Some of the vessels lost their masts, some their sails
blown from the yards, the sea breaking over the ships.

     "When rattling thunder ran along the clouds,
      Did not the sailors poor and masters proud
      A terror feel, as struck with fear of God?"[78:A]

A small vessel was lost, July twenty-fourth, and the Sea-Venture, with
Newport, Gates, Somers, and one hundred and fifty settlers, destined for
Virginia, was separated from the other vessels of the expedition. The
other vessels, shattered by the storm, and having suffered the loss of
the greater portion of their supplies, and many of their number by
sickness, at length reached Jamestown in August, 1609. They brought back
Ratcliffe, or Sicklemore, who had been remanded to England on account of
his mutinous conduct, also Martin and Archer, together with sundry other
captains, and divers gentlemen of good means and high birth, and about
three hundred settlers, the greater part of them profligate youths,
packed off from home to escape ill destinies, broken-down gentlemen,
bankrupt tradesmen, and the like, "decayed tapsters, and ostlers
trade-fallen, the cankers of a calm world and long peace."

Upon the appearance of this fleet near Jamestown, Smith, not expecting
such a supply, took them to be Spaniards, and prepared to encounter
them, and the Indians readily offered their assistance. The colony had
already, before the arrival of the fleet, been threatened with anarchy,
owing to intelligence of the premature repeal of the charter, brought
out by Captain Argall, and the new settlers had now no sooner landed
than they gave rise to new confusion and disorder. The factious leaders,
although they brought no commission with them, insisted on the
abrogation of the existing charter, rejected the authority of Smith,
whom they hated and feared, and undertook to usurp the government. Their
capricious folly equalled their insolence; to-day the old commission
must rule, to-morrow the new, the next day neither--thus, by continual
change, plunging all things into anarchy.

Smith, filled with disgust, would cheerfully have embarked for England,
but seeing little prospect of the arrival of the new commission, (which
was in the possession of Gates on the Island of Bermudas,) he resolved
to put an end to these incessant plots and machinations. The
ringleaders, Ratcliffe, Archer, and others, he arrested; to cut off
another source of disturbance, he gave permission to Percy, who was in
feeble health, to embark for England, of which, however, he did not
avail himself. West, with one hundred and twenty picked men, was
detached to the falls of James River, and Martin, with nearly the same
number, to Nansemond. Smith's presidency having expired about this time,
he had been succeeded by Martin, who, conscious of his incompetency, had
immediately resigned it to Smith. Martin, at Nansemond, seized the
chief, and, capturing the town, occupied it with his detachment; but
owing to want of judgment, or of vigilance, he suffered himself to be
surprised by the savages, who slew many of his party, rescued the chief,
and carried off their corn. Martin not long after returned to Jamestown,
leaving his detachment to shift for themselves.

Smith going up the river to West's settlement at the falls, found the
English planted in a place not only subject to the river's inundation,
but "surrounded by many intolerable inconveniences." To remedy these, by
a messenger he proposed to purchase from Powhatan his seat of that name,
a little lower down the river. The settlers scornfully rejected the
scheme, and became so mutinous that Smith landed among them and arrested
the chief malcontents. But overpowered by numbers, being supported by
only five men, he was forced to retire on board of a vessel lying in the
river. The Indians daily supplied him with provisions, in requital for
which the English plundered their corn, robbed their cultivated ground,
beat them, broke into their cabins, and made them prisoners. They
complained to Captain Smith that the men whom he had sent there as their
protectors, "were worse than their old enemies, the Monacans." Smith
embarking, had no sooner set sail for Jamestown than many of West's
party were slain by the savages.

It so happened, that before Smith's vessel had dropped a mile and a half
down the river, she ran aground, whereupon, making a virtue of
necessity, he summoned the mutineers to a parley, and they, now seized
with a panic, on account of the assault of a mere handful of Indians,
submitted themselves to his mercy. He again arrested the ringleaders,
and established the rest of the party at Powhatan, in the Indian
palisade fort, which was so well fortified by poles and bark as to defy
all the savages in Virginia. Dry cabins were also found there, and
nearly two hundred acres of ground ready to be planted, and it was
called Nonsuch, as being at once the strongest and most delightful place
in the country. Nonsuch was the name of a royal residence in England.

When Smith was now on the eve of his departure, the arrival of West
again threw all things aback into confusion. Nonsuch was abandoned, and
all hands returned to the falls, and Smith, finding all his efforts
abortive, embarked in a boat for Jamestown. During the voyage he was
terribly wounded while asleep, by the accidental explosion of a bag of
gunpowder, and in the paroxysm of pain he leapt into the river, and was
well-nigh drowned before his companions could rescue him. Arriving at
Jamestown in this helpless condition, he was again assailed by faction
and mutiny, and one of his enemies even presented a cocked pistol at him
in his bed; but the hand wanted the nerve to execute what the heart was
base enough to design.

Ratcliffe, Archer, and their confederates, laid plans to usurp the
government of the colony, whereupon Smith's faithful soldiers, fired
with indignation at conduct so infamous, begged for permission to strike
off their heads; but this he refused. He refused also to surrender the
presidency to Percy. For this, Smith is censured by the historian Stith,
who yet acknowledges that Percy was in too feeble health to control a
mutinous colony. Anarchy being triumphant, Smith probably deemed it
useless to appoint a governor over a mob. He at last, about Michaelmas,
1609, embarked for England, after a stay of a little more than two years
in Virginia,[80:A] to which he never returned.

Here, then, closes the career of Captain John Smith in Virginia, "the
father of the colony," and a hero like Bayard, "without fear and without
reproach." One of his comrades, in deploring his departure, describes
him as one who, in all his actions, made justice and prudence his
guides, abhorring baseness, idleness, pride, and injustice; that in no
danger would he send others where he would not lead them himself; that
would never see his men want what he had, or could by any means procure;
that would rather want than borrow, and rather starve than not pay; that
loved action more than words, and hated falsehood and avarice worse than
death; "whose adventures were our lives, and whose loss our deaths."
Another of his soldiers said of him:--

     "I never knew a warrior but thee,
      From wine, tobacco, debts, dice, oaths, so free."

From the time of Smith's departure from Virginia to the year 1614,
little is known of him. In that year he made his first voyage to New
England. In the following year, after many disappointments, sailing
again in a small vessel for that country, after a running fight with,
and narrow escape from, two French privateers, near Fayal, he was
captured, near Flores, by a half-piratical French squadron. After long
detention he was carried to Rochelle, in France, and there charged with
having burned Port Royal, in New France, which act had been committed by
Captain Argall. Smith, at length, at the utmost hazard, escaped from his
captors, and being assisted by several of the inhabitants of Rochelle,
especially by Madame Chanoyes, he was enabled to return to England. The
protective sympathy exhibited toward him, at several critical
conjunctures, is thus mentioned in some complimentary verses prefixed to
his History of Virginia:--

     "Tragabigzanda, Callamata's love,
      Deare Pocahontas, Madam Shanoi's too,
      Who did what love with modesty could do."

In 1616 Smith published his "Description of New England," composed while
he was a prisoner on board of the French piratical vessel, in order, as
he says, to keep his perplexed thoughts from too much meditation on his
miserable condition. The Plymouth Company now conferred upon him the
title of Admiral of New England. It was during this year that Pocahontas
visited England. After this time, Smith never again visited America.
When, in 1622, the news of the massacre reached England, he proposed to
come over to Virginia with a proper force to reduce the savages to
subjection, but his proposal was not accepted. Captain Smith received
little or no recompense for his colonial discoveries, labors, and
sacrifices; and after having spent five years, and more than five
hundred pounds, in the service of Virginia and New England, he complains
that in neither of those countries has he one foot of land, nor even the
house that he built, nor the ground that he cultivated with his own
hands, nor even any content or satisfaction at all, while he beheld
those countries bestowed upon men who neither could have them, nor even
know of them but by his descriptions. It is remarkable that in his
"Newes from Virginia," published in 1608, no allusion is made to his
rescue by Pocahontas. In 1612 appeared his work entitled "A Map of
Virginia, with a Description of the Country, Commodities, People,
Government, and Religion, etc.," and in 1620, "New England Trials." In
1626 was published his "General History of Virginia, New England, and
the Summer Isles," the greater part of which had already been published
in 1625, by Purchas, in his "Pilgrim." The second and sixth books of
this history were composed by Smith himself; the third was compiled by
Rev. William Simons, Doctor of Divinity, and the rest by Smith from the
letters and journals of about thirty different writers. During the year
1625 he published "An Accidence, or the Pathway to Experience necessary
for all young Seamen," and in 1627 "A Sea Grammar." In 1630 he gave to
the public "The True Travels, Adventures, and Observations of Captain
John Smith, in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, from 1593 to 1629."
This work, together with "The General History," was republished by Rev.
Dr. John H. Rice, in 1819, at Richmond, Virginia. The copy is exact and
complete, except some maps and engravings of but little value. The
obsolete orthography and typography of the work confines it to a limited
circle of readers. It is now out of print and rare. In 1631 Smith
published "Advertisements for the unexperienced planters of New England,
or anywhere," etc., said to be the most elaborate of his productions.
The learned, judicious, and accurate historian, Grahame, considers
Smith's writings on colonization, superior to those of Lord Bacon. At
the time of his death, Smith was engaged in composing a "History of the
Sea." So famous was he in his own day, that he complains of some
extraordinary incidents in his life having been _mis_represented on the
stage. He was gifted by nature with a person and address of singular
fascination. He married, and the author of a recent interesting English
book of travels, a lineal descendant, refers with just pride to his
distinguished ancestor: "On the upper waters of the Alt, near the
celebrated Rothen Thurm, (or Red Tower,) several severe engagements
ushered in the seventeenth century. It was at this time that the wave of
Mohammedan conquest rolled on, and broke over Hungary, Transylvania, and
Wallachia, and, whether advancing or retiring, swept those unfortunate
lands with equal severity. Sigismund Bathori, after holding his own for
awhile in Transylvania against the emperor, was obliged to succumb; the
Voyvode of Wallachia, appointed by the Porte, aroused, by his cruelties,
an insurrection against him, and the moment appeared favorable for
thrusting back the Turkish power beyond the Danube. The Austrian party
not only appointed a new Voyvode, but marched a large army, chiefly
Hungarian, into the country, and were at first victorious, in a
well-contested battle. But, at length, between the river and the heights
of the Rothen Thurm range, the Christian army was attacked with
impetuosity by a far greater number, composed principally of Tartars,
and was entirely cut to pieces. In this catastrophe several English
officers, serving with the Hungarian army, were slain; and _an ancestor
of the author's_, who was left for dead on the field, after describing
this 'dismall battell,' gives their names, and observes that 'they did
what men could do, and when they could do no more, left there their
bodies in testimony of their mind.'"[83:A]

Captain John Smith died at London, 1631, in the fifty-second year of his
age. He was buried in St. Sepulchre's Church, Skinner Street, London;
and from Stowe's Survey of London, printed in 1633, it appears there was
a tablet erected to his memory in that church, inscribed with his motto,
"Vincere est vivere," and the following epitaph:--

     Here lies one conquered that hath conquered kings,
     Subdued large territories, and done things
     Which, to the world, impossible would seem,
     But that the truth is held in more esteem.
     Shall I report his former service done
     In honor of God and Christendom,
     How that he did divide from pagans three
     Their heads and lives, types of his chivalry;
     For which great service, in that climate done,
     Brave Sigismundus, (King of Hungarion,)
     Did give him a coat of arms to wear,
     Those conquered heads got by his sword and spear?
     Or shall I tell of his adventures since
     Done in Virginia, that large continent,
     How that he subdued kings unto his yoke,
     And made those heathens fly as wind doth smoke,
     And made their land, being of so large a station,
     A habitation for our Christian nation,
     Where God is glorified, their wants supplied,
     Which else for necessaries might have died?
     But what avails his conquest? now he lies
     Interred in earth, a prey for worms and flies.
     O may his soul in sweet Elysium sleep
     Until the Keeper, that all souls doth keep,
     Return to judgment, and that after thence
     With angels he may have his recompense.

The tablet was destroyed by the great fire in the year 1666, and all now
remaining to the memory of Captain Smith is a large flat stone, in front
of the communion-table, engraved with his coat of arms, upon which the
three Turks' heads are still distinguishable.[84:A] The historian
Grahame concludes a notice of him in these words: "But Smith's renown
will break forth again, and once more be commensurate with his desert.
It will grow with the growth of men and letters in America, and whole
nations of its admirers have yet to be born." A complete edition of his
works would be a valuable addition to American historical literature.
The sculptor's art ought to present a fitting memorial of him and of
Pocahontas, in the metropolis of Virginia.


[72:A] The word Matapony is said to signify "no bread at all." The four
confluents of this river, on modern maps, are whimsically named Ma, Ta,
Po, and Ny, being the four component syllables of the word. Captain
Smith calls it the Matapanient.

[74:A] Smith, i. 227.

[75:A] Smith, i. 123; Beverley's Hist. of Va., iii. 15. I refer to the
first edition of 1705, which does not differ materially from the second
edition of 1722.

[75:B] Farmer's Register for April, 1839, ix. 3; Jefferson's Notes on
Va., 33; Rees' Cyclopædia, art. Tuckahoe; Fremont's Report, 135, 160.

[77:A] The following is a list of the vessels and their commanders: the
Sea-Adventure, or Sea-Venture, Admiral Sir George Somers, with Sir
Thomas Gates and Captain Christopher Newport; the Diamond, Captain
Ratcliffe and Captain King; the Falcon, Captain Martin and Master
Nelson; the Blessing, Gabriel Archer and Captain Adams; the Unity,
Captain Wood and Master Pett; the Lion, Captain Webb; the Swallow,
Captain Moon and Master Somers. There were also in company two smaller
craft, a ketch and a pinnace.

[78:A] Smith's Hist of Va.

[80:A] Smith, i. 239.

[83:A] A Year with the Turks, by Warington W. Smyth, A.M., 27.

[84:A] Godwin's Churches of London, i. 9.


     The Indians of Virginia--Their Form and Features--Mode of
     wearing their Hair--Clothing--Ornaments--Manner of Living--
     Diet--Towns and Cabins--Arms and Implements--Religion--
     Medicine--The Seasons--Hunting--Sham-fights--Music--Indian

THE mounds--monuments of a primitive race, found scattered over
many parts of North America, especially in the valley of the
Mississippi--have long attracted the attention of men curious in such
speculations. These heir-looms of dim, oblivious centuries, seem to
whisper mysteriously of a shadowy race, populous, nomadic, not
altogether uncivilized, idolatrous, worshipping "in high places." The
Anglo-Saxon ploughshare is busy in obliterating these memorials, but
many yet survive, and many, perhaps, remain yet to be discovered.
Whether they were the work of the progenitors of the Indians, or of a
race long since extinct, is a question for such as have taste and
leisure for such abstruse inquiries. The general absence of written
language and of architectural remains, indicates a low grade of
civilization, and yet the relics that have been disinterred, and the
enormous extent of some of their earth-works, would argue a degree of
art, and of collective industry, to which the Indians are entire
strangers. We may, at the least, conclude that either they, in the lapse
of ages, have greatly degenerated, or that the mound-makers were a
distinct and superior race. Some of these mounds are found in Virginia.
The most remarkable of these is the Mammoth Mound, in the County of
Marshall. Mr. Jefferson[85:A] was of opinion that there is nothing
extant in Virginia deserving the name of an Indian monument, as he would
not dignify with that name their stone arrow-points, tomahawks, pipes,
and rude images. Of labor on a large scale there is no remain, unless it
be the barrows, or mounds, of which many are found all over this

They are of different sizes; some of them constructed of earth, and
some of loose stones. That they were repositories of the dead is
obvious, but on what occasion they were constructed is a matter of
doubt. Mr. Jefferson opened one of them near Monticello, and found it
filled with human bones. The Mammoth Mound in Marshall County is 69 feet
high, 900 in circumference at the base; in shape the frustrum of a cone,
with a flat top 50 feet in diameter. An oak standing on the top has been
estimated to be five hundred years old. In the interior have been
discovered vaults, with pieces of timber, human skeletons, ivory beads,
and other ivory ornaments, sea-shells, copper bracelets around the
wrists of skeletons, with laminated mica, and a stone with hieroglyphic
characters inscribed on it, in the opinion of some, of African origin.
The whole mass of the mound is studded with blue spots, supposed to have
been occasioned by deposites of the remains of human bodies consumed by
fire. Seven lesser mounds are connected with the main one by low
entrenchments. Some rude towers of stone, greatly dilapidated, are also
found in the neighborhood. Porcelain beads are picked up, and a stone
idol has been found, as also tubes of lead, blue steatite, syphon-like,
drilled, twelve inches long, and finely polished.

The places of habitation of the Indians may yet be identified along the
banks of rivers, by the deposites of shells of oysters and muscles,
which they subsisted upon, as also of ashes and charred wood,
arrow-points, fragments of pottery, pipes, tomahawks, mortars, etc.
Vestiges may be traced of their moving back their cabins when urged by
the accumulation of shells and ashes. Standing on such a spot one's
fancy may almost repeople it with the shadowy forms of the aborigines,
and imagine the flames of the council-fire projecting its red glare upon
the face of the York or the James, and hear their wild cries mingling
with the dash of waves and the roar of the forest. Here they rejoice
over their victories, plan new enterprises of blood, and celebrate the
war-dance by the rude music of the drum and the rattle, commingled with
their own discordant yells.

The Indians of Virginia were tall, erect, and well-proportioned, with
prominent cheek-bones; eyes dark and brilliant, with an animal
expression, and a sort of squint; their hair dark and straight. The
chiefs were distinguished by a long pendant lock. The Indians had little
or no beard, and the women served as barbers, eradicating the beard, and
grating away the hair with two shells. Like all savages, they were fond
of toys and tawdry ornaments. The principal garment was a mantle, in
winter dressed with the fur in, in summer with it out; but the common
sort had scarce anything to hide their nakedness, save grass or leaves,
and in summer they all went nearly naked. The females always wore a
cincture around the middle. Some covered themselves with a mantle of
curiously interwoven turkey feathers, pretty and comfortable. The
greater part went barefoot; some wore moccasins, a rude sandal of
buckskin. Some of the women tattooed their skins with grotesque figures.
They adorned the ear with pendants of copper, or a small living snake,
yellow or green, or a dead rat, and the head with a bird's wing, a
feather, the rattle of a rattlesnake, or the hand of an enemy. They
stained the head and shoulder red with the juice of the puccoon.

The red men dwelt for the most part on the banks of rivers. They spent
the time in fishing, hunting, war, or indolence, despising domestic
labor, and assigning it to the women. These made mats, baskets, pottery,
hollowed out stone-mortars, pounded the corn in them, made bread,
cooked, planted corn, gathered it, carried burdens, etc. Infants were
inured to hardship and exposure. The Indians kindled a fire quickly "by
chafing a dry pointed stick in a hole of a little square piece of wood,
which, taking fire, sets fire to moss, leaves, or any such dry thing."
They subsisted upon fish, game, the natural fruits of the earth, and
corn, which they planted. The tuckahoe-root, during the summer, was an
important article of diet in marshy places. Their cookery was not less
rude than their other habits, yet _pone_ and _hominy_ have been borrowed
from them, as also, it is said, the mode of _barbecuing_ meat. _Pone_,
according to the historian Beverley, is derived "not from the Latin
panis, but from oppone," an Indian word; according to Smith, _ponap_
signifies meal-dumplings. The natives did not refuse to eat grubs,
snakes, and the insect locust. Their bread was sometimes made of wild
oats, or the seed of the sunflower, but mostly of corn. Their salt was
only such as could be procured from ashes. They were fond of roasting
ears of corn, and they welcomed the crop with the festival of the
green-corn dance. From walnuts and hickory-nuts, pounded in a mortar,
they expressed a liquid called pawcohiccora. The hickory-tree is
indigenous in America. Beverley has fallen into a curious mistake in
saying that the peach-tree is a native of this country. Indian-corn and
tobacco, although called indigenous, appear to have grown only when
cultivated. They are never found of wild spontaneous growth. In their
journeys the Indians were in the habit of providing themselves with
rockahominy, or corn parched and reduced to a powder.

They dwelt in towns, the cabins being constructed of saplings bent over
at the top and tied together, and thatched with reeds, or covered with
mats or bark, the smoke escaping through an aperture at the apex. The
door, if any, consisted of a pendant mat. They sate on the ground, the
better sort on matchcoats or mats. Their fortifications consisted of
palisades ten or twelve feet high, sometimes encompassing an entire
town, sometimes a part. Within these enclosures they preserved, with
pious care, their idols and relics, and the remains of their chiefs. In
hunting and war they used the bow and arrow--the bow usually of locust,
the arrow of reed, or a wand. The Indian notched his arrow with a
beaver's tooth set in a stick, which he used in the place of a file. The
arrow was winged with a turkey-feather, fastened with a sort of glue
extracted from the velvet horns of the deer. The arrow was headed with
an arrow-point of stone, often made of white quartz, and exquisitely
formed, some barbed, some with a serrate edge. These are yet to be found
in every part of the country. For knives the red men made use of
sharpened reeds, or shells, or stone; and for hatchets, tomahawks of
stone, sharpened at one end or both. Those sharpened only at one end, at
the other were either curved to a tapering point, or spheroidally
rounded off, so as to serve the purpose of a hammer for breaking or
pounding. In the middle a circular indenture was made, to secure the
tomahawk to the handle. They soon, however, procured iron hatchets from
the English. Trees the Indians felled by fire; canoes were made by dint
of burning and scraping with shells and tomahawks. Some of their canoes
were not less than forty or fifty feet long. Canoe is a West Indian
word, the Powhatan word is quintan, or aquintan.[89:A] The women
manufactured a thread, or string of bark, or of a kind of grass called
pemminaw, or of the sinews of the deer. A large pipe, adorned with the
wings of a bird, or with beads, was the symbol of friendship, called the
pipe of peace. A war-chief was styled werowance, and a war-council,
matchacomoco. In war, like all savages, they relied mainly on surprise,
treachery, and ambuscade; in the open field they were timid; and their
cruelty, as usual, was proportionate to their cowardice.

The Virginia Indians were of course idolatrous, and their chief idol,
called Okee, represented the spirit of evil, to appease whom they burnt
sacrifices. They were greatly under the influence and control of their
priests and conjurors, who wore a grotesque dress, performed a variety
of divinations, conjurations, and enchantments, called powwowings, after
the manner of wizards, and by their superior cunning and shrewdness, and
some scanty knowledge of medicine, contrived to render themselves
objects of veneration, and to live upon the labor of others. The
superstition of the savages was commensurate with their ignorance. Near
the falls of the James River, about a mile back from the river, there
were some impressions on a rock like the footsteps of a giant, being
about five feet apart, which the Indians averred to be the footprints of
their god. They submitted with Spartan fortitude to cruel tortures
imposed by their idolatry, especially in the mysterious and horrid
ordeal of huskanawing. The avowed object of this ordeal was to
obliterate forever from the memory of the youths subjected to it all
recollection of their previous lives. The house in which they kept the
Okee was called Quioccasan, and was surrounded by posts, with human
faces rudely carved and painted on them. Altars on which sacrifices were
offered, were held in great veneration.

The diseases of the Indians were not numerous; their remedies few and
simple, their physic consisting mainly of the bark and roots of trees.
Sweating was a favorite remedy, and every town was provided with a
sweat-house. The patient, issuing from the heated atmosphere, plunged
himself in cold water, after the manner of the Russian bath.

The Indians celebrated certain festivals by pastimes, games, and songs.
The year they divided into five seasons, Cattapeak, the budding time of
spring; Messinough, roasting ear time; Cohattayough, summer; Taquitock,
the fall of the leaf; and Popanow, winter, sometimes called Cohonk,
after the cry of the migratory wild-geese. Engaged from their childhood
in fishing and hunting, they became expert and familiar with the haunts
of game and fish. The luggage of hunting parties was carried by the
women. Deer were taken by surrounding them, and kindling fires enclosing
them in a circle, till they were killed; sometimes they were driven into
the water, and there captured. The Indian, hunting alone, would stalk
behind the skin of a deer. Game being abundant in the mountain country,
hunting parties repaired to the heads of the rivers at the proper
season, and this probably engendered the continual hostilities that
existed between the Powhatans of the tide-water region and the Monacans,
on the upper waters of the James, and the Mannahoacks, at the head of
the Rappahannock. The savages were in the habit of exercising themselves
in sham-fights. Upon the first discharge of arrows they burst forth in
horrid shrieks and the war-whoop, so that as many infernal hell-hounds
could not have been more terrific. "All their actions, cries, and
gestures, in charging and retreating," says Captain Smith, "were so
strained to the height of their quality and nature, that the strangeness
thereof made it seem very delightful." For their music they used a thick
cane, on which they piped as on a recorder. They had also a rude sort of
drum, and rattles of gourds or pumpkins. The chastity of their women was
not held in much value, but wives were careful not to be suspected
without the consent of their husbands.

The Indians were hospitable, in their manners exhibiting that
imperturbable equanimity and uniform self-possession and repose which
distinguish the refined society of a high civilization. Extremes meet.
Yet the Indians were in everything wayward and inconstant, unless where
restrained by fear; cunning, quick of apprehension, and ingenious; some
were brave; most of them timorous and cautious; all savage. Not
ungrateful for benefits, they seldom forgave an injury. They rarely
stole from each other, lest their conjurors should reveal the offence,
and they should be punished.[91:A]


[85:A] Notes on Va., 104, ed. 1853.

[89:A] Strachey's Virginia Britannica.

[91:A] Smith, ii. 129, 137; Beverley, B. iii.; Drake's Book of the
Indians; Thatcher's Lives of the Indians; Bancroft's History of U. S.,
vol. iii. cap. xxii.



     Condition of the Colony at the time of Smith's Departure--
     Assaults of Indians--"The Starving Time"--The Sea-Venture--
     Situation of the English on the Island of Bermuda--They Embark
     for Virginia--Arrive at Jamestown--Jamestown abandoned--
     Colonists meet Lord Delaware's Fleet--Return to Jamestown--
     Delaware's Discipline--The Church at Jamestown--Sir George
     Somers--Delaware returns to England--Percy, Governor--New
     Charter--Sir Thomas Dale, Governor--Martial Laws--Henrico
     Founded--Plantations and Hundreds settled--Argall makes
     Pocahontas a Prisoner--Dale's expedition up York River--Rolfe
     visits Powhatan--Dale returns to Jamestown--Rolfe marries
     Pocahontas--The Chickahominies enter into Treaty of Peace--
     Community of Goods abolished--Argall's Expeditions against the
     French in Acadia--Captures Fort at New Amsterdam.

CAPTAIN SMITH, upon embarking for England, left at Jamestown three
ships, seven boats, a sufficient stock of provision, four hundred and
ninety odd settlers, twenty pieces of cannon, three hundred muskets,
with other guns, pikes, swords, and ammunition, and one hundred soldiers
acquainted with the Indian language, and the nature of the
country.[92:A] The settlers were, for the most part, poor gentlemen,
serving-men, libertines; and with such materials the wonder is, not that
the settlement was retarded by many disasters, but that it was effected
at all. Lord Bacon says: "It is a shameful and unblessed thing to take
the scum of people, wicked, condemned men, with whom you plant; and not
only so, but it spoileth the plantation, for they will ever live like
rogues, and not fall to work, but be lazy and do mischief; spend
victuals and be quickly weary."[92:B] Immediately upon Smith's
departure the Indians renewed their attacks. Percy, the Earl of
Northumberland's brother, for a time administered the government; but it
soon fell into the hands of the seditious malecontents. Provisions
growing scarce, West and Ratcliffe embarked in small vessels to procure
corn. Ratcliffe, inveigled by Powhatan, was slain with thirty of his
companions, two only escaping, of whom one, a boy, Henry Spilman, a
young gentleman well descended, was rescued by Pocahontas, and he
afterwards lived for many years among the Patawomekes, acquired their
language, and often proved serviceable as an interpreter for his
countrymen. He was slain by the savages, on the banks of the Potomac, in
1622. The loss of Captain Smith was soon felt by the colonists: they
were now continually exposed to the arrow and the tomahawk; the common
store was consumed by the commanders and the savages; swords and guns
were bartered with the Indians for food; and within six months after
Smith's departure the number of English in Virginia was reduced from
five hundred to sixty men, women, and children. These found themselves
in a starving condition, subsisting on roots, herbs, acorns, walnuts,
berries, and fish. Starch became an article of diet, and even dogs,
cats, rats, snakes, toadstools, and the skins of horses. The body of an
Indian was disinterred and eaten; nay, at last, the colonists preyed on
the dead bodies of each other. It was even alleged that a husband
murdered his wife for a cannibal repast; upon his trial, however, it
appeared that the cannibalism was feigned, to palliate the murder. He
was put to death--being burned according to law. This was long
afterwards remembered as "the starving time." Sir Thomas Smith,
treasurer of the Virginia Company, was bitterly denounced by the
sufferers for neglecting to send out the necessary supplies. The
happiest day that many of them expected ever to see, was when the
Indians had killed a mare, the people wishing, while the carcass was
boiling, "that Sir Thomas was upon her back in the kettle." It seemed to
them as if the Earl of Salisbury's threat of abandoning the colony to
its fate, was now to be actually carried into effect; but it is to be
recollected that a large portion of ample supplies, that had been sent
out from England for the colony, had been lost by storm and shipwreck.

It has before been mentioned, that toward the end of July, 1609, in a
violent tempest, the Sea-Venture, with Newport, Gates, and Somers, and
one hundred and fifty souls, had been separated from the rest of the
fleet. Racked by the fury of the sea, she sprang a leak, and the water
soon rose in her hold above two tiers of hogsheads that stood over the
ballast, and the crew had to stand up to their waists in the water, and
bail out with buckets, baricos, and kettles. They continued bailing and
pumping for three days and nights without intermission, yet the water
appeared rather to gain upon them than decrease; so that all hands,
being at length utterly exhausted, came to the desperate resolution to
shut down the hatches and resign themselves to their fate; and some
having "good and comfortable waters fetched them, and drank to one
another as taking their last farewell." During all this time the aged
Sir George Somers, sitting upon the quarter-deck, scarce taking time to
eat or sleep, bearing the helm so as to keep the ship as upright as
possible, but for which she must have foundered,--at last descried land.
At this time many of the unhappy crew were asleep, and when the voice of
Sir George was heard announcing "land," it seemed as if it was a voice
from heaven, and they hurried up above the hatches to look for what they
could scarcely credit. On finding the intelligence true, and that they
were, indeed, in sight of land,--although it was a coast that all men
usually tried to avoid,--yet they now spread all sail to reach it. Soon
the ship struck upon a rock, till a surge of the sea dashed her off from
thence, and so from one to another till, at length, fortunately, she
lodged (July twenty-eighth) upright between two rocks, as if she was
laid up in a natural dry-dock. Till this, at every lurch they had
expected instant death; but now, all at once, the storm gave place to a
calm, and the billows, which at each successive dash had threatened
destruction, were stilled; and, quickly taking to their boats, they
reached the shore, distant upwards of a league, without the loss of a
single man out of upwards of one hundred and fifty. Their joy at an
escape so unexpected and almost miraculous, arose to the pitch of
amazement. Yet their escape was not more wonderful in their eyes than
their preservation after they had landed on the island; for the
Spaniards had always looked upon it as more frightful than purgatory
itself; and all seamen had reckoned it no better than an enchanted den
of Furies and devils--the most dangerous, desolate, and forlorn place in
the whole world; instead of which it turned out to be healthful,
fertile, and charming.

The Bermudas are a cluster of islands lying in the Atlantic Ocean, at
the distance of six hundred miles from the American Continent,
extending, in crescent form, from east to west; in length, twenty miles;
in breadth, two and a half. On the coast of the principal of these
islands, Bermuda, the Sea-Venture was wrecked; and, on landing, the
English found, instead of those gloomy horrors with which a
superstitious fancy had invested it, a terrestrial paradise blessed with
all the charms of exquisite scenery, luxuriant vegetation, and a
voluptuous atmosphere, which have since been celebrated in the verse of
a modern poet. Here they remained for nearly a year. Fish, fowl, turtle,
and wild hogs supplied the English with abundant food; the palmetto leaf
furnished a cover for their cabins. They had daily morning and evening
prayers, and on Sunday divine service was performed and two sermons
preached by the chaplain, the Rev. Mr. Bucke. He was a graduate of
Oxford, and received the appointment of chaplain to the Virginia
expedition upon the recommendation of Dr. Ravis, Bishop of London. Mr.
Bucke was the second minister sent out from England to Virginia, being
successor to Rev. Robert Hunt. The company of the Sea-Venture were
summoned to worship by the sound of the church-going bell, and the roll
was called, and absentees were duly punished. The clergyman performed
the ceremony of marriage once during the sojourn on the island, the
parties being Sir George Somers' cook and a maid-servant, (of one Mrs.
Mary Horton,) named Elizabeth Persons. The communion was once
celebrated. The infant child of one John Rolfe--a daughter, born on the
island--was christened, February eleventh, by the name of Bermuda,
Captain Newport, the Rev. Mr. Bucke, and Mrs. Horton being witnesses. It
would seem from this, that John Rolfe was a widower when he afterwards
married Pocahontas. Another infant, born on the island, a boy, was
christened by the name of Bermudas. Six of the company, including the
wife of Sir Thomas Gates, died there. Living in the midst of peace and
plenty in this sequestered and delightful place of abode, after escaping
from the yawning perils of the deep, many of the English lost all desire
ever to leave the island, and some were even mutinously determined to
remain there. Gates, however, having decked the long-boat of the
Sea-Venture with the hatches, dispatched the mate, Master Raven, an
expert mariner, with eight men, to Virginia for succor; but the boat was
never more heard of. Discord and insubordination found a place among the
exiles of the Bermudas; and even the leaders, Gates and Somers, lived
for awhile asunder. At length, while Somers was engaged in surveying the
islands, Gates completed a vessel of about eighty tons, constructed
somewhat after the manner of Robinson Crusoe, partly from the timber of
the Sea-Venture, and the rest of cedar. A small bark was also built
under the direction of Sir George Somers, of cedar, without the use of
any iron, save a bolt in her keel. These two vessels were named, the one
the "Patience," the other the "Deliverance." Finally, on the 10th day of
May, 1610, after the lapse of nine months spent on the island, and
nearly a year since their departure from England, harmony being
restored, and the leaders reconciled, they embarked in these cedar
vessels for Virginia.

The name of Sir Thomas West, afterwards Lord la Ware, or De la War, or
Delaware, appears in the commission appointed in the year of James the
First, for inquiring into the case of all such persons as should be
found openly opposing the doctrines of the Church of England. Such was
the spirit of that age, by which standard the men of that age ought to
be judged. Lord Delaware was, nevertheless, distinguished for his
virtues and his generous devotion to the welfare of the infant colony of
Virginia--a man of approved courage, temper, and experience. The Rev.
William Crashaw, father of the poet of that name, at the period of Lord
Delaware's appointment to the place of Governor of Virginia, was
preacher at the Temple; and he delivered a sermon before his lordship,
and others of his majesty's council for the Colony of Virginia, and the
rest of the adventurers or stockholders in that plantation, upon
occasion of his lordship's embarkation for Virginia, on the 21st day of
February, 1609-10. The text was from Daniel, xii. 3: "They that turn
many to righteousness shall shine as the stars forever and ever." This
sermon was printed by William Welby, and sold in Paul's Churchyard, at
the sign of the Swan, 1610, and is the first missionary sermon preached
in England to any of her sons embarking for Virginia. Crashaw, in this
discourse, urges it warmly upon his countrymen to aid the enterprise of
planting the colony; rejects, with indignant scorn, the more sordid
motives of mere lucre, and appeals to loftier principles, and the more
elevated motives of Christian beneficence. But although he rejects
motives of mere profit, he tells his auditors that if they will pursue
their object, animated by these enlarged views, they will probably find
the plantation eventually a source of pecuniary profit, the soil being
good, the commodities numerous and necessary for England, the distance
not great, and the voyage easy, so that God's blessing was alone wanting
to make it gainful. In his peroration, the preacher, apostrophizing Lord
Delaware, excites his generous emulation by a personal appeal, reminding
him of the gallant exploit of his ancestor, Sir Roger la Warr, who,
assisted by John de Pelham, captured the King of France at the battle of
Poictiers. In memory of which exploit, Sir Roger la Warr--Lord la Warr
according to Froissart--had the crampet or chape of his sword for a
badge of that honor. Crashaw bitterly denounces the Papists, and the
Brownists, and factious separatists, and exhorts the Virginia Company
not to suffer such to have any place in the new colony. Rome and Geneva
were the Scylla and Charybdis of the Church of England.[97:A] Lord
Delaware sailed in February for Virginia.

Gates and Somers, after leaving the Bermudas in May, in fourteen days
reached Jamestown, where they found only sixty miserable colonists
surviving. Sir Thomas Gates, Lieutenant-Governor, landing on the
twenty-fourth of May, caused the church-bell to be rung; and such as
were able repaired thither, and the Rev. Mr. Bucke delivered an earnest
and sorrowful prayer upon their finding so unexpectedly all things so
full of misery and misgovernment. At the conclusion of the religious
service the new commission of Gates was read; Percy, the acting
president, scarcely able to stand, surrendered up the former charter
and his commission. The palisades of the fort were found torn down; the
ports open; the gates distorted from the hinges; the houses of those who
had died, broken up and burned for firewood, and their store of
provision exhausted. Gates reluctantly resolved to abandon the
plantation, and to return to England by way of Newfoundland, where he
expected to receive succor from English fishing vessels. June seventh,
they buried their ordnance and armor at the gate of the fort, and, at
the beat of drum, embarked in four pinnaces. Some of the people were,
with difficulty, restrained from setting fire to the town; but Sir
Thomas Gates, with a select party, remained on shore until the others
had embarked, and he was the last man that stepped into the boat. They
fired a farewell volley; but not a tear was shed at their departure from
a spot associated with so much misery. How often is the hour of despair
but the deeper darkness that immediately precedes the dawn! At noon they
reached Hog Island, and on the next morning, while anchored off Mulberry
Island, they were met by a long-boat with dispatches from Lord Delaware,
who had arrived with three vessels, after a voyage of three months and a
half from England.[98:A] Upon this intelligence Gates, with his company,
returned up the river to Jamestown on the same day. Lord Delaware
arrived there with his three vessels on the ninth, and on the morning of
the following day (Sunday) he landed at the south gate of the fort, and
although the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Thomas Gates, with his company,
were drawn up to meet him, he fell on his knees, and remained for some
time in silent prayer. After this he repaired to the church, and heard a
sermon delivered by the Rev. Mr. Bucke. A council was then called, and
the governor delivered an address to the colonists. The hand of a
superintending and benignant Providence was plainly manifested in all
these circumstances. The arrival of Sir Thomas Gates rescued the colony
from the jaws of famine; his prudence preserved the fort at Jamestown,
which the unhappy colonists, upon abandoning the place, wished to
destroy, so as to cut off all possibility of a return; had their return
been longer delayed, the savages might have destroyed the fort; had
they set sail sooner, they would probably have missed Lord Delaware's
fleet, as they had intended to sail by way of Newfoundland, in a
direction contrary to that by which Lord Delaware approached.[99:A]

Lord Delaware, Governor and Captain-General, was accompanied by Sir
Ferdinand Waynman, Master of the Horse, who died shortly afterwards;
Captain Holcroft; Captain Lawson; and other gentlemen. Lord Delaware
was the first executive officer of Virginia with the title of Governor;
and the titles of Governor and Captain-General were ever after given to
the colonial chief magistrates of Virginia. Under Lord Delaware's
discreet and energetic management, discipline and industry were speedily
restored, the hours of labor being set from six o'clock in the morning
to ten, and from two to four in the afternoon. The store of provisions
that he had brought over with him was sufficient to supply four hundred
men for twelve months. He gave orders for repairing the church. Its
length was sixty feet, and its breadth twenty-four, and it was to have a
chancel of cedar and a communion-table of black-walnut, and the pews of
cedar, with handsome wide windows, to shut and open according to the
weather, made of the same wood; as also a pulpit with a font hewed out
hollow like a canoe, with two bells at the west end. The building was so
constructed as to be very light within; and the Lord Governor and
Captain-General caused it to be kept passing sweet, and trimmed up with
divers flowers. There was also a sexton belonging to it. Every Sunday
there were two sermons delivered, and every Thursday one--there being
two preachers who took their weekly turns. In the morning of every day,
at the ringing of the bell at ten o'clock, the people attended prayers;
and also again at four in the afternoon, before supper. On Sunday, when
the Governor went to church, he was accompanied by the councillors,
officers, and all the gentlemen, with a guard of halberdiers in his
lordship's livery, handsome red cloaks, to the number of fifty on each
side, and behind him. In the church his lordship had his seat in the
choir, in a green velvet chair, with a cloth, and also a velvet cushion
laid on the table before him on which he knelt. The council and officers
sate on each side of him, and when he returned to his house he was
escorted back in the same manner. The newly appointed council consisted
of Sir Thomas Gates, whose title was changed from that of
Lieutenant-Governor to that of Lieutenant-General; Sir George Somers,
Admiral; Captain George Percy; Sir Ferdinando Wayman, Master of the
Ordnance; Captain Newport, Vice-Admiral; and Mr. Strachey, Secretary and
Recorder. Strachey, who appears to have been a scholar, published an
interesting account of the colony at this period. Some of the houses at
Jamestown were covered with boards; some with Indian mats. They were
comfortable, and securely protected from the savages by the forts. Lord
Delaware was a generous friend of the colony; but it was as yet quite
too poor and too much in its infancy to maintain the state suitable to
him and his splendid retinue. The fashions of a court were preposterous
in a wilderness. On the ninth of June, Sir George Somers was dispatched,
in compliance with his own suggestion, in his cedar vessel to the
Bermudas, accompanied by Argall in another vessel, to procure further
supplies for the colony. Captain Argall, in consequence of adverse winds
and heavy fogs, returned to Jamestown. Sir George Somers, after much
difficulty, reached his destination, where he shortly after died, at a
spot on which the town of St. George commemorates his name. The islands
themselves received the designation of his surname, and were afterwards
called the Summer Islands. It is said that the Bermudas were at first
named in England "Virginiola," but shortly after the "Summer Islands,"
partly in allusion to their temperature, and partly in honor of Sir
George.[102:A] It was remarked of him that he was "a lamb upon land; a
lion at sea." As his life had been divided between the Old World and
the New, so after his death his remains were buried, part at Bermuda,
part at Whitchurch, Dorsetshire, in England.

Lord Delaware dispatched Captain Argall to the Potomac for corn, which
he succeeded in procuring by the aid of the youthful prisoner, Henry
Spilman. His lordship erected two forts, called Henry and Charles, after
the king's sons. These forts were built on a level tract bordering
Southampton River, and it was intended that settlers arriving from
England should first land there, to refresh themselves after the
confinement of the voyage. Sir Thomas Gates, who had before sent his
daughters back to England, now returned there himself, in order to
render to the council an account of all that had happened. Captain Percy
was dispatched with a party to chastise the Paspaheghs, for some
depredations; they fled before the English, who burnt their cabins,
captured their queen and her children, and shortly after barbarously
slew them. Lord Delaware, visiting the falls with a party of soldiers,
was attacked by the Indians, who killed some of his men.

His lordship having suffered much sickness, and finding himself in a
state of extreme debility, embarked,[103:A] in company of Dr. Bohun and
Captain Argall, and about fifty others, for the Island of Mevis, in the
West Indies. Contrary winds drove them to the north, and having put in
at the mouth of a large river, then called Chickohocki, it hence derived
its name of the Delaware.

Lord Delaware upon leaving the colony, committed the charge of it to
Captain George Percy, an honorable and resolute gentleman, but in infirm
health, and deficient in energy. The number of colonists was at this
period about two hundred; the stock of provisions sufficient for ten
months, and the Indians peaceable and friendly. Before Lord Delaware
reached England, the Virginia Council, discouraged by so many disasters
and disappointments, were at a loss to decide whether they should use
any further efforts to sustain the ill-fated colony, or should abandon
the enterprise, and recall the settlers from Virginia. But Sir Thomas
Gates made so strenuous an appeal in favor of sustaining the plantation,
that Sir Thomas Dale was dispatched with three vessels, cattle, hogs,
and other supplies. The title given to Dale was that of High Marshal of
Virginia, indicative of the martial authority with which he was
invested. He was a military man, and had served in the Low Countries,
and he brought over with him an extraordinary code of "laws divine,
moral, and martial," compiled by William Strachey, secretary of the
colony, for Sir Thomas Smith, from the military laws observed during the
wars in the Low Countries. This code was sent over by Sir Thomas Smith,
treasurer or governor of the Virginia Company, without the company's
sanction, as it has been alleged; but since the company in no way
interposed its authority in contravention to the new code, their
sanction of it may be presumed. Several of these laws were barbarous,
inhuman, written in blood.

Arriving in Virginia in the month of May, 1611, Dale touched at
Kiquotan, and set all hands there to planting corn. Reaching Jamestown
on the tenth of May, he found the settlers busily engaged in their usual
occupation, playing at bowls in the streets. He set them to work felling
trees, repairing houses, and providing materials for enclosing the new
town, which he proposed to build. To find a site for it he surveyed the
Nansemond River and the James as far as the falls, and finally pitched
upon a high ground, with steep banks, on the north side of the river,
near Arrohattock, and about twelve miles below the falls of the river.
The site was on a peninsula, known as Farrar's Island, in Varina Neck.
Sir Thomas was prevented for a time from founding the new town by the
disturbances that prevailed in the colony, and to restore order he
enforced martial law with rigor. Eight of the colonists appear to have
been convicted of treasonable plots and conspiracies, and executed by
cruel and unusual modes, before midsummer. Among these was Jeffrey
Abbot, who had served long in the army in Ireland and in the
Netherlands; had been a sergeant of Captain John Smith's company in
Virginia, who avers that he never knew there a better soldier or more
loyal friend of the colony. It must be acknowledged that rigorous
measures were necessary, and it was fortunate for the colony that the
cruel and despotic code of laws, to which it was now subjected, was
administered by so discreet and upright a governor as Dale.

Early in August, 1611, Sir Thomas Gates, commissioned to take charge of
the government of the colony, came over with six vessels, three hundred
men, and abundant supplies. He was accompanied by the Rev. Mr. Glover,
an approved preacher in Bedford and Huntingdonshire, a graduate of
Cambridge, in easy circumstances, and somewhat advanced in years.
Arriving at Jamestown early in August, during the sickly season, he soon
after died.

Dale, relieved from the cares of the chief post, cheerfully occupied a
subordinate position, and now turned his attention to the establishment
of new settlements on the banks of the James, at some distance above
Jamestown. Furnished by Gates with three hundred and fifty men, he
sailed up the river early in September, and on the spot selected before,
he founded the town of Henrico, so called in honor of the heir-apparent,
Prince Henry, eldest son of James the First. The peninsula on which it
was built is formed by a remarkable bend, styled the "Dutch Gap," where
the river, after sweeping a circuit of seven miles, returns within one
hundred and twenty yards from the point of departure. The site commands
an extensive and picturesque view of the winding river, which in this
part of it is called the "Corkscrew." The fertile tract of land there
produced tobacco nearly resembling the Spanish Varinas, and hence
received the appellation of Varina, the name of a well-known plantation.
This was afterwards the residence of the Rev. William Stith, the best of
our early historians, who dates the preface of his History of Virginia
there, in 1746.

The peninsula, surrounded on three sides by the river, was impaled
across the isthmus from water to water. There were three streets of
well-framed houses, a handsome church of wood completed, and the
foundation laid of a better one to be built of brick, besides
store-houses, watch-houses, etc. Upon the river edge there were five
houses, in which lived "the honester sort of people," as farmers in
England, and they kept continual watch for the town's security. About
two miles back from the town was a second palisade, near two miles in
length, from river to river, guarded by several commanders, with a good
quantity of corn-ground impaled, and sufficiently secured.

The breastwork thrown up by Sir Thomas Dale is still to be traced, and
vestiges of the town are indicated by scattered bricks, showing the
positions of the houses.[106:A] Burk[106:B] and Keith[106:C] have fallen
into singular mistakes as to the situation of this town.

On the south side of the river a plantation was established, called Hope
in Faith and Coxendale, with forts, named, respectively, Charity,
Elizabeth, Patience, and Mount Malady, and a guest-house for sick
people, on the spot where afterwards, in Stith's time, Jefferson's
church stood. On the same side of the river the Rev. Alexander Whitaker,
sometimes styled the "Apostle of Virginia," established his parsonage, a
well-framed house and one hundred acres of land, called Rock

The work of William Strachey, already referred to, entitled "The History
of Travel into Virginia Britannia," etc., appears to have been written
before 1616, and two manuscripts of it exist, one in the British Museum,
the other in the Ashmolean manuscripts at Oxford.[106:E]

Sir Thomas Dale, when he came over to Virginia, was accompanied by Rev.
Alexander Whitaker, the son of Dr. William Whitaker, Master of St.
John's College, Cambridge, and also Regius Professor of Divinity there.
The doctor distinguished himself by his controversial writings against
the Church of Rome, and took a leading part in framing and maintaining
the Lambeth Articles, which were Calvinistic, and had they been
established, might have gone far toward healing the divisions between
the Church of England and the Presbyterians. Rev. Alexander Whitaker,
when he reached Virginia, had been a graduate of Cambridge some five or
six years, and had been seated in the North of England, where he was
held in great esteem. He had property of his own and excellent prospects
of promotion; but, animated by a missionary spirit, he came over to
Virginia. The voyage is described as speedy and safe, "being scarce
eight weeks long."

The Appomattox Indians having committed some depredations, Sir Thomas
Dale, about Christmas, 1611, captured their town, near the mouth of the
Appomattox River where it empties into the James. The town was five
miles distant from Henrico. Sir Thomas, pleased with the situation,
established a plantation there, and called it Bermudas, the third town
erected in Virginia, now known as Bermuda Hundred, the port of Richmond
for ships of heavy burden. He laid out several plantations there, the
Upper and Lower Rochdale, West Shirley, and Digges' Hundred. In
conformity with the code of martial law each hundred was subjected to
the control of a captain. The Nether Hundred was enclosed with a
palisade two miles long, running from river to river, and here, within a
half mile of each other, were many neat houses already built. Rochdale,
or Rock's Dale, enclosed by a palisade four miles in length, was dotted
with houses along the enclosure; here the hogs and cattle enjoyed a
range of twenty miles to graze in securely. About fifty miles below
these settlements stood Jamestown, on a fertile peninsula, with two rows
of framed houses, some of them with two stores and a garret, and three
large store-houses. The town was well enclosed, and it and the
neighboring region were well peopled. Forty miles below Jamestown, at
Kiquotan, the settlers enjoyed an abundance of fish, fowl, and

Captain Argall now arriving from England, in a vessel with forty men,
was sent to the Potomac to trade for corn, and he contrived to
ingratiate himself with Japazaws, a friendly chief, and from him learned
that Pocahontas was there. She had never visited Jamestown since Smith's
departure, and on the remote banks of the Potomac she thought herself
unknown. Japazaws, easily bribed, betrayed the artless and unsuspecting
girl into Argall's hands. When she discovered the treachery she burst
into tears. Argall, having sent a messenger to inform Powhatan that his
favorite daughter was a prisoner, and must be ransomed with the men and
arms, conveyed her to Jamestown. Three months thereafter Powhatan
restored seven English prisoners and some unserviceable muskets, and
sent word that if his daughter was released he would make restitution
for all injuries, and give the English five hundred bushels of corn, and
forever remain in peace and amity.[108:A] They refused to surrender
Pocahontas until full satisfaction was rendered.

Powhatan was deeply offended, and nothing more was heard from him for a
long time. At length Governor Dale, with Argall's vessel and some
others, manned with one hundred and fifty men, went up the York River,
taking the young captive with him, to Werowocomoco. Here, meeting with a
scornful defiance, the English landed, burnt the cabins, and destroyed
everything. On the next day Dale, proceeding up the river, concluded a
truce with the savages. He then sailed up to Matchot, another residence
of Powhatan, on the south side of the Pamunkey, where it unites with the
Matapony. Matchot is supposed to be identical with Eltham, the old seat
of the Bassets, in the County of New Kent, and which borrows its name
from an English seat in the County of Kent. At this place, where several
hundred warriors were found, the English landed, and the savages
demanded a truce till Powhatan could be heard from, which being granted,
two of Powhatan's sons went on board the vessel to see their sister
Pocahontas. Finding her well, contrary to what they had heard, they were
delighted, and promised to persuade their father to make peace, and
forever be friends with the English.

John Rolfe, and another of the Englishmen named Sparks, were dispatched
to let Powhatan know these proceedings. He entertained them hospitably,
but would not admit them into his presence; they, however, saw his
brother Opechancanough, who engaged to use his influence with Powhatan
in favor of peace. It now being April, the season for planting corn, Sir
Thomas Dale returned to Jamestown, intending not to renew hostilities
until the next crop was made.

March 12th, 1612, another charter was granted to the Virginia Company,
extending the boundaries of the colony, so as to include all islands
lying within three hundred leagues of the continent. The object of this
extension was to embrace the Bermudas, or Summer Islands; but the
Virginia Company shortly afterwards sold them to one hundred and twenty
of its own members, who became incorporated into a distinct

On the 4th of November, 1612, died Henry, Prince of Wales, a gallant and
generous spirit, the friend of Raleigh, and the idol of the nation; and
his premature death was deplored like that of the Black Prince before,
and the Princess Charlotte in more modern times. He appears to have been
a warm friend of the infant plantation of Virginia, and Sir Thomas Dale
speaks of him "as his glorious master, who would have enamelled with his
favors the labors which were undertaken for God's cause," and laments
that the "whole frame of the enterprise seemed fallen into his grave."

Mr. John Rolfe, a worthy gentleman, who appears to have been a widower,
had been for some time in love with Pocahontas, and she with him; and,
agitated by the conflicting emotions of this singular and romantic
attachment, in a letter he requested the advice of Sir Thomas Dale, who
readily gave his assent to the proposed union. Pocahontas likewise
communicated the affair to her brother; so that the report of the
marriage soon reached Powhatan, and it proved likewise acceptable to
him. Accordingly, within ten days he sent Opachisco, an aged uncle of
Pocahontas, and her two brothers, to attend the wedding, and fill his
place at the ceremony. The marriage took place early in April, 1613, at
Jamestown, and the rites were no doubt performed by the Rev. Mr.

This remarkable union became a happy link of peace and harmony between
the red man and the white; and the warlike Chickahominies now came to
propose a treaty of peace.[110:A] This fierce and numerous tribe,
dwelling on the borders of the Chickahominy River, and near neighbors to
the English, had long maintained their independence, and refused to
acknowledge the sceptre of Powhatan. They now sent two runners to
Governor Dale with presents, apologizing for all former injuries, and
offering to submit themselves to King James, and to relinquish the name
of Chickahominies, and be called Tassautessus (English.) They desired,
nevertheless, still to be governed by their own laws, under the
authority of eight of their own chiefs. Governor Dale, with Captain
Argall and fifty men, on the banks of the Chickahominy, concluded a
treaty of peace with them, and they ratified it by acclamation. An aged
warrior then arose and explained the treaty, addressing himself
successively to the old men, the young, and the women and children. The
Chickahominies, apprehensive of being reduced under the despotism of
Powhatan, sheltered themselves under the protection of the whites--a
striking proof of the atrocious barbarity of a race whose imaginary
virtues have been so often celebrated by poets, orators, and historians,
and who have been described as renewing the golden age of innocent

The system of working in common, and of being provided for out of the
public store, although unavoidable at first, had hitherto tended to
paralyze industry, and to retard the growth of the colony. An important
alteration in this particular was now effected; Sir Thomas Dale allotted
to each man three acres of cleared ground, from which he was only
obliged to contribute to the public store two and a half barrels of
corn. These regulations, raising the colonists above the condition of
absolute dependence, and creating a new incentive to exertion, proved
very acceptable and beneficial.[110:B]

Early in the year 1614 Sir Thomas Gates returned again to England, and
Sir Thomas Dale reassumed the government of the colony. The French
settlers of Acadia had, as early as 1605, built the town of Port Royal,
on the Bay of Fundy; St. Croix was afterwards erected on the other side
of the bay. Dale, looking upon these settlements as an encroachment upon
the territory of Virginia, which extended to the forty-fifth degree of
latitude, dispatched his kinsman, Argall, an enterprising and
unscrupulous man, with a small force, to dislodge the intruders. The
French colony was found situated on Mount Desert Island, near the
Penobscot River, and within the bounds of the present State of Maine.
The French, surprised while dispersed in the woods, soon yielded to
superior force, and Argall, as some accounts say, furnished the
prisoners with a fishing vessel, in which they returned to France,
except fifteen, including a Jesuit missionary, who were brought to
Jamestown. According to other accounts, their vessels were captured, but
the colonists escaped, and went to live among the Indians. On his
return, Argall visited the Dutch settlement near the site of Albany, on
the Hudson, and compelled the governor there to surrender the place; but
it was reclaimed by the Dutch not long afterwards, and during the next
year they erected a fort on Manhattan Island, on which is now seated the
commercial metropolis of the United States.


[92:A] The colony was provided with fishing-nets, working tools,
apparel, six mares and a horse, five or six hundred swine, with some
goats and sheep. Jamestown was strongly fortified with palisades, and
contained fifty or sixty houses. There were, besides, five or six other
forts and plantations. There was only one carpenter in the colony; three
others were learning that trade. There were two blacksmiths and two

[92:B] Bacon's Essays, 123.

[97:A] Anderson's Hist. of Col. Church, i. 232.

[98:A] Anderson's Hist. of Col. Church, i. 263.

[99:A] The wreck of the Sea-Venture appears to have suggested to
Shakespeare the groundwork for the plot of "The Tempest," several
incidents and passages being evidently taken from the contemporary
accounts of that disaster, as narrated by Jordan and the Council of the
Virginia Company.

     "Boatswain, down with the top-mast, yare
      Lower, lower; bring her to try with the main course."

Captain Smith, in his Sea-Grammar, published 1627, under the article how
to handle a ship in a storm, says: "Let us lie as try with our main
course--that is, to haul the tack aboard, the sheet close aft, the
boling set up, and the helm tied close aboard." Again, the boatswain
says: "Lay her a-hold, a-hold; set her two courses." The two courses are
the mainsail and the foresail; and to lay a ship a-hold is to bring her
to lie as near the wind as she can. These, and other nautical orders,
are such as the brave old Somers probably gave when trying to keep the
ship as upright as possible.

     "We are merely cheated of our lives by drunkards."

This was suggested to the poet by the recorded incident of part of the
crew of the Sea-Venture having undertaken to drown their despair in

           "Farewell, my wife and children!
            Farewell, brother!

     _Ant._ Let's all sink with the king.

     _Seb._ Let's take leave of him."

These answer to the leave-taking of the Sea-Venture's crew. Jordan, in
his narrative, says: "It is reported that this land of Bermudas, with
the islands about it, are enchanted and kept by evil and wicked
spirits," etc. Shakespeare accordingly employs Prospero, Ariel, and
Caliban to personate this fabled enchantment of the island. Ariel's task
is, at Prospero's bidding--

                                 "To fly,
     To swim, to dive into the fire, to ride
     On the curled clouds."

The tempest, in which the ship was wrecked, is thus described by

     "I boarded the king's ship; now on the beak,
      Now in the waist, the deck, in every cabin,
      I flamed amazement: sometimes I'd divide,
      And burn in many places; on the top-mast,
      The yards, and bowsprit, would I flame distinctly,
      Then meet and join; Jove's lightnings, the precursors
      O' the dreadful thunder-claps, more momentary
      And sight-outrunning were not; the fire, and cracks
      Of sulphurous roaring, the most mighty Neptune
      Seemed to besiege, and make his bold waves tremble."


                              "Not a soul
     But felt a fever of the mad and played
     Some tricks of desperation."

The almost miraculous escape of all from the very jaws of impending
death, is thus alluded to by Ariel in her report to Prospero:--

                        "Not a hair perished;
     On their sustaining garments not a blemish,
     But fresher than before: and as thou bad'st me,
     In troops I have dispersed them 'bout the isle."

The particular circumstances of the wreck are given quite exactly in the
familiar verses:--

                               "Safely in harbor
     Is the king's ship; in the deep nook, where once
     Thou call'st me up at midnight to fetch dew
     From the still-vexed Bermoothes, there she's hid."

Bermoothes, the Spanish pronunciation of Bermudas, or Bermudez, the
original name of the island, taken, as is said, from that of a Spanish
captain wrecked there. Another real incident is referred to in the
following verses, the time only being transposed:--

     "The mariners all under hatches stowed;
      Whom, with a charm joined to their suffered labor,
      I have left asleep."

The return of the other seven vessels of the fleet is described with a
change, however, of the sea in which they sailed, and in their place of

              "And for the rest of the fleet,
     Which I dispersed, they all have met again;
     And are upon the Mediterranean flote,
     Bound sadly home for Naples;
     Supposing that they saw the king's ship wrecked
     And his great person perish."

For nearly a year after the Sea-Venture's separation from the fleet, it
was believed, in Virginia and in England, that she and her company were
lost. Smith and Pocahontas may have suggested some materials for the
characters of Ferdinand and Miranda.

Shakespeare, after abandoning the stage, in 1607 or 1608, about the time
of the first landing at Jamestown, remained in London for some four or
five years. Smith, and the early colonists of Virginia, had many of them
probably witnessed the theatrical performances at the Globe or Black
Fryars; Beggars' Bush, now Jordan's Point, an early plantation on the
James River, derived its name from a comedy of Fletcher's. Shakespeare
was, no doubt, quite familiar with the more remarkable incidents of the
first settlement of the colony: the early voyages; the first discovery;
the landing; Smith's rencontres with the Indians; his rescue by
Pocahontas; the starving time, etc. Smith, indeed, as has been before
mentioned, complained of his exploits and adventures having been
misrepresented on the stage, in London. That Shakespeare makes few or no
allusions to these incidents, is because they occurred after nearly all
his plays had been composed. "The Tempest," however, was written several
years after the landing at Jamestown, being one of his latest
productions--a creation of his maturest intellect.

[102:A] Court and Times of James the First, 160.

[103:A] March 28th, 1611.

[106:A] Va. Hist. Reg., i. 161.

[106:B] Hist. of Va., i. 166.

[106:C] Hist. of Va., 124.

[106:D] Stith, 124; Keith, 124; Beverley, i. 25; South. Lit. Messr. for
June, 1845; Hawks' Narrative, 29.

[106:E] It has been of late years printed for the first time by the
Hakluyt Society in England. The work is illustrated by etchings,
comprising fac-similes of signatures, Captain Smith's map, and several
engravings from De Bry. It contains also a copious glossary of Indian
words. The first book comprises the geography of the country, with a
full and admirable account of the manners and customs of Powhatan and
his people. It is an important authority, but as it was printed only for
the use of the members of the Hakluyt Society, it is but little known in
this country. The second book treats of Columbus, Vespucius, Cabot,
Raleigh, and Drake, with notices of the early efforts to colonize
Northern Virginia, or New England. The period to which Strachey's
History of Virginia relates includes 1610, 1611, and 1612. The same
author published a map of Virginia at Oxford, in 1612. Mr. Peter Force
has a MS. copy of it.

[107:A] Smith, ii. 13.

[108:A] Court and Times of James the First, i. 262.

[109:A] Hen. Stat., i. 98; Stith, 126, and Appendix No. 3.

[109:B] A letter was written by Dale on the occasion, dated in June,
1614, and addressed to a friend in London; another of Rolfe to Dale,
before mentioned, was published in London, 1615, by Ralph Hamor, in his
work entitled, "A True Discourse of the Present State of Virginia,"
etc.; Rev. Alexander Whitaker addressed a letter on the same subject to
a cousin in London. These letters were republished in this country in
1842, in a pamphlet explanatory of Chapman's picture of the Baptism of

[110:A] Stith, 131.

[110:B] Chalmers, Introduction, i. 10; Grahame's Colonial Hist. U. S.,
i. 64. Compare Belknap's Amer. Biog., ii. 151.



     Hamor visits Powhatan--Richard Hakluyt--Pocahontas Baptized--
     Fixed Property in the Soil established--Dale Embarks for
     England accompanied by Pocahontas--Yeardley, Deputy Governor--
     Culture of Tobacco introduced--Pocahontas in England--
     Tomocomo--Death of Pocahontas--John and Thomas Rolfe--Smith
     and Pocahontas.

RALPH HAMOR[112:A] having obtained permission from Sir Thomas Dale to
visit Powhatan, and taking with him Thomas Savage, as interpreter, and
two Indian guides, started from Bermuda (Hundred) in the morning, and
reached Matchot (Eltham) on the evening of the next day. Powhatan
recognizing the boy Thomas Savage, said to him: "My child, I gave you
leave, being my boy, to go see your friends; and these four years I have
not seen you nor heard of my own man, Namontack, I sent to England,
though many ships have been returned from thence." Turning then to
Hamor, he demanded the chain of beads which he had sent to Sir Thomas
Dale at his first arrival, with the understanding that whenever he
should send a messenger, he should wear that chain about his neck;
otherwise he was to be bound, and sent home. Sir Thomas _had_ made such
an arrangement, and on this occasion had directed his page to give the
necklace to Hamor; but the page had forgotten it. However, Hamor being
accompanied by two of Powhatan's own people, he was satisfied, and
conducted him to the royal cabin, where a guard of two hundred bowmen
stood always in attendance. He offered his guest a pipe of tobacco, and
then inquired after his brother, Sir Thomas Dale, and his daughter,
Pocahontas, and his unknown son-in-law, Rolfe, and "how they lived and
loved." Being answered that Pocahontas was so well satisfied, that she
would never live with him again, he laughed, and demanded the object of
his visit. Hamor gave him to understand that his message was private, to
be made known only to him and to Papaschicher, one of the guides who was
in the secret. Forthwith Powhatan ordered out all his people, except his
two queens "that always sit by him," and bade Hamor deliver his message.
He then, by his interpreter, let him know that Sir Thomas Dale had sent
him pieces of copper, strings of white and blue beads, wooden combs,
fish-hooks, and a pair of knives, and would give him a grindstone, when
he would send for it; that his brother Dale, hearing of the charms of
his younger daughter, desired that he would send her to Jamestown, as
well because he intended to marry her, as on account of the desire of
Pocahontas to see her, and he believed that there could be no better
bond of peace and friendship than such a union. While Hamor was
speaking, Powhatan repeatedly interrupted him, and when he had ended,
the old chief replied: "I gladly accept your salute of love and peace
which, while I live, I shall exactly keep. His pledges thereof I receive
with no less thanks, although they are not so great as I have received
before. But, for my daughter, I have sold her within these few days to a
great werowance, three days journey from me, for two bushels of
rawrenoke." Hamor: "I know your highness, by returning the rawrenoke,
might call her back again, to gratify your brother, Sir Thomas Dale, and
the rather because she is but twelve years old. Besides its forming a
bond of peace, you shall have in return for her, three times the value
of the rawrenoke, in beads, copper, and hatchets." Powhatan: "I love my
daughter as my life, and though I have many children, I delight in none
so much as her, and if I should not often see her I could not possibly
live, and if she lived at Jamestown I could not see her, having resolved
on no terms to put myself into your hands, or go among you. Therefore, I
desire you to urge me no further, but return my brother this answer: I
desire no firmer assurance of his friendship than the promise he hath
made. From me he _has_ a pledge, one of my daughters, which, so long as
she lives, shall be sufficient; when _she_ dies, he shall have another.
I hold it not a brotherly part to desire to bereave me of my two
children at once. Further, tell him that though he had no pledge at all,
he need not fear any injury from me or my people; there have been too
many of his men and mine slain; and, by my provocation, there never
shall be any more, (I who have power to perform it, have said it,) even
if I should have just cause, for I am now old, and would gladly end my
days in peace; if you offer me injury, my country is large enough for me
to go from you. This, I hope, will satisfy my brother. Now, since you
are weary and I sleepy, we will here end." So Hamor and his companions
lodged at Matchot that night. While there they saw William Parker, who
had been captured three years before at Fort Henry. He had grown so like
an Indian in complexion and manner, that his fellow-countrymen
recognized him only by his language. He begged them to intercede for his
release, but upon their undertaking it, Powhatan replied: "You have one
of my daughters, and I am satisfied; but you cannot see one of your men
with me, but you must have him away, or break friendship; but if you
must needs have him, you shall go home without guides, and if any evil
befall you, thank yourselves." They answered him that if any harm befell
them he must expect revenge from his brother Dale. At this Powhatan, in
a passion, left them; but returning to supper, he entertained them with
a pleasant countenance. About midnight he awoke them, and promised to
let them return in the morning with Parker, and charged them to remind
his brother Dale to send him ten large pieces of copper, a
shaving-knife, a frowl, a grindstone, a net, fish-hooks, and other such
presents. Lest they might forget, he made them write down the list of
articles in a blank book that he had. They requesting him to give them
the book, he declined doing so, saying, "it did him much good to show it
to strangers."[114:A]

During the year 1614 Sir Walter Raleigh published his "History of the
World;" Captain John Smith made a voyage to North Virginia, and gave it
the name of New England; and the Dutch, as already mentioned, effected a
settlement near the site of Albany, on the Hudson River. Sir Thomas
Gates, upon his return to England, reported that the plantation of
Virginia would fall to the ground unless soon reinforced with
supplies.[114:B] Martin, a lawyer, employed by the Virginia Company to
recommend some measure to the House of Commons, having spoken
disparagingly of that body, was arraigned at the bar of the House; but,
upon making due acknowledgment upon his knees, was pardoned.[115:A]
During this year died Richard Hakluyt, the compiler of a celebrated
collection of voyages and discoveries. He was of an ancient family in
Herefordshire, and, after passing some time at Westminster School, was
elected to a studentship at Oxford, where he contracted a friendship
with Sir Philip Sydney, to whom he inscribed his first collection of
Voyages and Discoveries printed in 1582. Having imbibed a taste for the
study of geography and cosmography from a cousin of the same name, a
student of law at the Temple, he applied himself to that department of
learning with diligence, and was at length appointed to lecture at the
University on that subject. He contributed valuable aid in fitting out
Sir Humphrey Gilbert's expedition. Soon after, taking holy orders, he
proceeded to Paris as chaplain to Sir Edward Stafford, the English
Ambassador. During his absence he was appointed to a prebendal stall at
Bristol, and upon his return to England he frequently resided there. He
was afterwards preferred to the rectory of Witheringset, in Suffolk. In
1615 he was appointed a prebendary of Westminster, and became a member
of the council of the Virginia Company. He continued to watch over the
affairs of the colony until his death. He was buried in Westminster
Abbey. Hakluyt's Voyages consist of five volumes, folio.

Pocahontas was now carefully instructed in the Christian religion, and
such was the change wrought in her, that after some time she lost all
desire to return to her father, and retained no longer any fondness for
the rude society of her own people. She had already, before her
marriage, openly renounced the idolatry of her country, confessed the
faith of Christ, and had been baptized. Master Whitaker, the preacher,
in a letter dated June 18th, 1614, expresses his surprise that so few of
the English ministers, "that were so hot against the surplice and
subscription," came over to Virginia, where neither was spoken of. At
the end of June Captain Argall returned to England with tidings of the
more auspicious state of affairs. The Virginia Company now proceeded to
draw the lottery, which had been made up to promote the interests of the
colony, and twenty-nine thousand pounds were thus contributed; but
Parliament shortly after prohibited this pernicious practice. It has
been said that this is the first instance of raising money in England by
lottery;[116:A] but this is erroneous, for there had been a lottery
drawn for the purpose of repairing the harbors of the kingdom as far
back as 1569.[116:B]

The year 1615 is remarkable in Virginia history for the first
establishment of a fixed property in the soil, fifty acres of land being
granted by the company to every freeman in absolute right.[116:C] This
salutary reform was brought about mainly by the influence of Sir Thomas
Dale, one of the best of the early governors. Sir Thomas having now,
after a stay of five years in Virginia, established good order at
Jamestown, appointed George Yeardley to be deputy governor in his
absence, and embarked for England, accompanied by John Rolfe and his
wife, the Princess Pocahontas, and other Indians of both sexes. They
arrived at Plymouth on the 12th of June, 1616, about six weeks after the
death of Shakespeare, who died on the twenty-third of April. The arrival
is thus noticed in a news-letter: "Sir Thomas Dale is arrived from
Virginia, and brought with him some ten or twelve old and young of that
country, among whom is Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, a king or
cacique of that country, married to one Rolfe, an Englishman. I hear not
of any other riches or matter of worth, but only some quantity of
sassafras, tobacco, pitch, tar, and clapboard--things of no great value,
unless there were plenty and nearer hand. All I can hear of it is, that
the country is good to live in, if it were stored with people, and might
in time become commodious. But there is no present profit to be

Reverting to the condition of affairs in the colony, it is to be
observed, that the oligarchical government of the president and council,
with all its odious features, had long before this come to an end; order
and diligence had now taken the place of confusion and idleness; peace
with the Indians had given rise to a free trade with them, and the
English acquired their commodities by lawful purchase instead of
extorting them by force of arms. The places inhabited by the whites, at
this time, were Henrico and the limits, Bermuda Nether Hundred, West and
Shirley Hundred, Jamestown, Kiquotan, and Dale's Gift. At Henrico there
were thirty-eight men and boys, of whom twenty-two were farmers. The
Rev. William Wickham was the minister of this place. It was the seat of
the college established for the education of the natives; they had
already brought hither some of their children, of both sexes, to be
taught. At Bermuda Nether Hundred (Presquile) the number of inhabitants
was one hundred and nineteen. Captain Yeardley, deputy governor, lived
here for the most part. The minister here was Master Alexander Whitaker.
At West and Shirley Hundred there were twenty-five men under Captain
Madison. At Jamestown fifty, under Captain Francis West; the Rev. Mr.
Bucke minister. At Kiquotan Captain Webb commanded; Rev. Mr. Mease the
minister. Dale's Gift, on the sea-coast, near Cape Charles, was occupied
by seventeen men under Lieutenant Cradock. The total population of the
colony, at this time, was three hundred and fifty-one.[117:A] Yeardley
directed the attention of the colony to tobacco, as the most saleable
commodity that they could raise, and its cultivation was introduced into
Virginia in this year, 1616, for the first time. The English now found
the climate to suit their constitutions so well, that fewer people died
here in proportion than in England. The Chickahominies refusing to pay
the tribute of corn agreed upon by the treaty, Yeardley went up their
river with one hundred men, and, after killing some and making some
prisoners, brought off much of their corn. On his return he met
Opechancanough at Ozinies, about twelve miles above the mouth of the
Chickahominy. In this expedition Henry Spilman, who had been rescued
from death by Pocahontas, now a captain, acted as interpreter.

In the mean time Pocahontas was kindly received in London; by the care
of her husband and friends she was, by this time, taught to speak
English intelligibly; her manners received the softening influence of
English refinement, and her mind was enlightened by the truths of
religion. Having given birth to a son, the Virginia Company provided for
the maintenance of them both, and many persons of quality were very kind
to her. Before she reached London, Captain Smith, who was well
acquainted at court, and in especial favor with Prince Charles, in
requital for her former preservation of his life, had prepared an
account of her in a small book, and he presented it to Queen Anne. But,
at this time, being about to embark for New England, he could not pay
her such attentions as he desired and she well deserved. Nevertheless,
learning that she was staying at Brentford, where she had repaired in
order to avoid the smoke of the city, he went, accompanied by several
friends, to see her. After a modest salutation, without uttering a word,
she turned away, and hid her face, as if offended. In that posture she
remained for two or three hours, her husband and Smith and the rest of
the company having, in the mean while, gone out of the room, and Smith
now regretting that he had written to the queen that Pocahontas could
speak English. At length she began to talk, and she reminded Captain
Smith of the kindness she had shown him in her own country, saying: "You
did promise Powhatan what was yours should be his, and he the like to
you; you called him father, being in his land a stranger, and for the
same reason so I must call you." But Smith, on account of the king's
overweening and preposterous jealousy of the royal prerogative, felt
constrained to decline the appellation of "father," for she was "a
king's daughter." She then exclaimed, with a firm look: "Were you not
afraid to come into my father's country, and cause fear in him and all
his people (but me,) and fear you here that I should call you father? I
tell you then I will, and you shall call me child, and I will be forever
and ever your countrywoman. They did tell us always you were dead, and I
knew no other till I came to Plymouth; yet Powhatan did command
Uttomattomakkin to seek you, and know the truth, because your countrymen
will lie much." It is remarkable that Rolfe, her husband, must have been
privy to the deception thus practised on her; are we to attribute this
to his secret apprehension that she would never marry him until she
believed that Smith was dead?

Tomocomo, or Uttamattomakkin, or Uttamaccomack, husband of Matachanna,
one of Powhatan's daughters, being a priest, and esteemed a wise and
knowing one among his people, Powhatan, or, as Sir Thomas Dale supposed,
Opechancanough, had sent him out to England, in company of Pocahontas,
to number the people there, and bring back to him an account of that
country. Upon landing at Plymouth he provided himself, according to his
instructions, with a long stick, and undertook, by notching it, to keep
a tally of all the men he could see; but he soon grew weary of the task,
and gave it out in despair. Meeting with Captain Smith in London,
Uttamattomakkin told him that Powhatan had ordered him to seek him out,
that he might show him the English God, the king, queen, and prince.
Being informed that he had already seen the king, he denied it; but on
being convinced of it, he said: "You gave Powhatan a white dog, which
Powhatan fed as himself; but your king gave me nothing, and I am better
than your white dog." On his return to Virginia, when Powhatan
interrogated him as to the number of people in England, he is said to
have replied: "Count the stars in the heavens, the leaves on the trees,
the sands on the sea-shore." Whether this and other such figurative
expressions attributed to the Indians, were actually uttered by them, or
whether they have received some poetical embellishment in the course of
interpretation, the judicious reader may determine for himself.

During Smith's brief stay in London, many courtiers and others of his
acquaintance daily called upon him for the purpose of being introduced
to Pocahontas, and they expressed themselves satisfied that the hand of
Providence was manifest in her conversion, and declared that they had
seen many English ladies worse favored, proportioned, and behaviored.
She was presented at Court by Lady Delaware, attended by the lord her
husband, and other persons of quality, and was graciously received. Her
modest, dignified, and graceful deportment, excited the admiration of
all, and she received the particular attentions of the king and queen.

It is said, upon the authority of a well-established tradition, that
King James was at first greatly offended at Rolfe for having presumed to
marry a princess without his consent; but that upon a fuller
representation of the matter, his majesty was pleased to express himself
satisfied. There is hardly any folly so foolish but that it may have
been committed by "the wisest fool in Christendom."

"The Virginia woman, Pocahontas, with her father counsellor, have been
with the king, and graciously used, and both she and her assistant well
placed at the masque."[120:A] She was styled the "Lady Pocahontas," and
carried herself "as the daughter of a king." Lady Delaware and other
noble persons waited on her to masquerades, balls, plays, and other
public entertainments. Purchas, the compiler of Voyages and Travels, was
present at an entertainment given in honor of her by the Bishop of
London, Doctor King, which exceeded in pomp and splendor any other
entertainment of the kind that the author of "The Pilgrim" had ever
witnessed there.

Sir Walter Raleigh, after thirteen years' confinement in the Tower, had
been released on the seventeenth of March preceding, and, upon gaining
his liberty, he went about the city looking at the changes that had
occurred since his imprisonment. It is not improbable that he may have
seen Pocahontas.

Early in 1617 John Rolfe prepared to embark for Virginia, with his wife
and child, in Captain Argall's vessel, the George. Pocahontas was
reluctant to return. On the eve of her embarkation it pleased God to
take her unexpectedly from the world. She died at Gravesend, on the
Thames, in the latter part of March. As her life had been sweet and
lovely, so her death was serene, and crowned with the hopes of religion.

"The Virginia woman, whose picture I sent you, died this last week at
Gravesend, as she was returning home."[120:B] The parish register of
burials at Gravesend, in the County of Kent, contains the following
entry: "1616, March 21, Rebecca Wrothe, wyffe of Thomas Wrothe, Gent. A
Virginia Lady borne, was buried in the Chancell." The date, 1616,
corresponds with the historical year 1617. It appears that there was
formerly a family of the name of Wrothe resident near Gravesend. This
name might therefore easily be confounded with that of Rolfe, the sound
being similar. Nor is the mistake of Thomas for John at all improbable.
Gravesend Church, in which Pocahontas was buried, was destroyed by fire
in 1727, and no monument to her memory remains, if any ever

According to Strachey, a good authority, the Indians had several
different names given them at different times, and Powhatan called his
favorite daughter when quite young, Pocahontas, that is, "Little
Wanton," but at a riper age she was called Amonate. According to
Stith,[121:B] her real name was Matoax, which the people of her nation
concealed from the English, and changed it to Pocahontas from a
superstitious fear, lest, knowing her true name, they should do her some
injury. Others suppose Matoax to have been her individual name,
Pocahontas her title. After her conversion she was baptized by the name
of Rebecca, and she was sometimes styled the "Lady Rebecca." The
ceremony of her baptism has been made the subject of a picture, (by
Chapman,) exhibited in the rotundo of the Capitol at Washington.

Of the brothers of Pocahontas, Nantaquaus, or Nantaquoud, is especially
distinguished for having shown Captain Smith "exceeding great courtesy,"
interceding with his father, Powhatan, in behalf of the captive, and he
was the "manliest, comeliest, boldest spirit," Smith ever saw in a

Of the sisters of Pocahontas two are particularly mentioned, Cleopatre
and Matachanna. Strachey has recorded the names of the numerous wives
and children of Powhatan, the greater part of which are harsh and
guttural, and apparently almost incapable of being pronounced by the
vocal organs of civilized man.

Smith says that Pocahontas, "with her wild train, visited Jamestown as
freely as her father's habitation." In these visits she had to cross
the York River, some two miles wide, in a canoe, ("quintan" in the
Powhatan language,) and then walk some ten or twelve miles across to
Jamestown. She is described as "being of a great spirit, however her
stature;" from which it may be inferred that she was below the middle
height.[122:A] She died at the age of twenty-two, having been born about
the year 1595. Her infant son, Thomas Rolfe, was left for a time at
Plymouth, under the care of Sir Lewis Stukely, Vice-Admiral of Devon,
who afterwards, by his base treachery toward Sir Walter Raleigh, covered
himself with infamy, and by dishonest and criminal practices reduced
himself to beggary. The son of Pocahontas was subsequently removed to
London, where he was educated under the care of his uncle, Henry Rolfe,
a merchant.[122:B]

Thomas Rolfe came to Virginia and became a person of fortune and note in
the colony. It has been said that he married in England a Miss Poyers;
however that may have been, he left an only daughter, Jane Rolfe, who
married Colonel Robert Bolling. He lies buried at Farmingdale, in the
County of Prince George.[122:C] This Colonel Robert Bolling was the son
of John and Mary Bolling, of Alhallows, Barkin Parish, Tower Street,
London. He was born in December, 1646, and came to Virginia in October,
1660, and died in July, 1709, aged sixty-two years. Colonel Robert
Bolling, and Jane Rolfe, his wife, left an only son, Major John Bolling,
father of Colonel John Bolling and several daughters, who married
respectively, Col. Richard Randolph, Colonel John Fleming, Doctor
William Gay, Mr. Thomas Eldridge, and Mr. James Murray.

Censure is sometimes cast upon Captain Smith for having failed to marry
Pocahontas; but history no where gives any just ground for such a
reproach. The rescue of Smith took place in the winter of 1607, when he
was twenty-eight years of age, and she only twelve or thirteen.[123:A]
Smith left Virginia early in 1609, and never returned. Pocahontas was
then about fourteen years of age; but if she had been older, it would
have been impossible for him to marry her unless by kidnapping her, as
was done by the unscrupulous Argall some years afterwards--a measure
which, if it had been adopted in 1609, when the colony was so feeble,
and so rent by faction, would probably have provoked the vengeance of
Powhatan, and overwhelmed the plantation in premature ruin. It was in
1612 that Argall captured Pocahontas on the banks of the Potomac, and
from the departure of Smith until this time she never had been seen at
Jamestown, but had lived on the distant banks of the Potomac. In the
spring of 1613 it is stated, that long before that time "Mr. John Rolfe
had been in love with Pocahontas, and she with him." This attachment
must, therefore, have been formed immediately after her capture, if it
did not exist before; and the marriage took place in April, 1613. It is
true that Pocahontas had been led to believe that Smith was dead, and in
practising this deception upon her, Rolfe must have been a party; but
Smith was in no manner whatever privy to it; he cherished for her a
friendship animated by the deepest emotions of gratitude; and
friendship, according to Spenser, a cotemporary poet, is a more exalted
sentiment than love.

Pocahontas appears to have regarded Smith with a sort of filial
affection, and she accordingly said to him, in the interview at
Brentford, "I tell you then, I _will_ call you father, and you _shall_
call me child." The delusion practised on her relative to Smith's death
would, indeed, seem to argue an apprehension on the part of Rolfe and
his friends that she would not marry another while Smith was alive, and
the particular circumstances of the interview at Brentford would seem to
confirm the existence of such an apprehension. Yet, however that may
have been, the honor and integrity of Smith remain untarnished.


[112:A] Smith, ii. 19. There appears to be a mistake in affixing William
Parker's name to the account of this visit, for it was evidently written
by Hamor.

[114:A] Smith, ii. 21.

[114:B] Court and Times of James the First, i. 311.

[115:A] Court and Times of James the First, i. 317.

[116:A] Chalmers' Annals, 33.

[116:B] Anderson's Hist. Col. Church, i. 27, in note.

[116:C] Chalmers' Introduc., i. 10.

[116:D] Court and Times of James the First, i. 415.

[117:A] Sir Thomas Dale, at one haul with a seine, had caught five
thousand fish, three hundred of which were as large as cod, and the
smallest of the others a kind of salmon-trout, two feet long. He durst
not adventure on the main school, for fear it would destroy his nets.

[120:A] Court and Times of James the First, i. 388.

[120:B] Letter of John Chamberlain to Sir Dudley Carleton, dated at
London, March, 1617, in Court and Times of James the First, ii. 3.

[121:A] Letter of C. W. Martin, Leeds Castle, England, to Conway
Robinson, Esq., in Va. Hist. Reg, ii. 187.

[121:B] Stith, 136 and 285.

[122:A] Smith, ii. 31; Beverley, B. i. 27.

[122:B] Stith, 144; Beverley, B. i. 34.

[122:C] Of Farmingdale, or Farmingdell, John Randolph of Roanoke said,
in a letter dated 1832: "But the true name is Kippax, called after the
village of Kippax and Kippax Park, adjacent thereto, the seat of my
maternal ancestors, the Blands, of the West Riding of York." Bland, of
Kippax, County York, anciently seated at Bland's Gill, in that county,
was raised to the degree of baronet in 1642. The present representative
(1854) is Thomas Davison Bland, of Kippax Park, Esq. Gill signifies dell
or valley.

[123:A] Inscription of date on Smith's likeness, prefixed to his
history; Stith, 55, 127.



     Argall, Governor--Condition of Jamestown--Death of Lord
     Delaware--Name of Delaware River--Argall's Martial Law--
     Brewster's Case--Argall leaves Virginia--His Character--
     Powhatan's Death--His Name, Personal Appearance, Dominions,
     Manner of Life, Character--Succeeded by Opitchapan.

LORD RICH, an unscrupulous and corrupt head of a faction in the Virginia
Company, having entered into partnership with Captain Samuel Argall, (a
relative of Sir Thomas Smith, the Treasurer or Governor of the Company,)
by his intrigues contrived to have him elected Deputy-Governor of
Virginia and Admiral of that country and the seas adjoining. He sailed
for Virginia early in 1617, accompanied by Ralph Hamor, his
vice-admiral, and arrived at Jamestown in May. Argall was welcomed by
Captain Yeardley and his company, the right file of which was led by an
Indian. At Jamestown were found but five or six habitable houses, the
church fallen, the palisades broken, the bridge foundrous, the well
spoiled, the storehouse used for a church; the market-place, streets,
and other vacant ground planted with tobacco; the savages as frequent in
the houses as the English, who were dispersed about as each man could
find a convenient place for planting corn and tobacco. Tomocomo, who
(together with the other Indians that had gone out to England in the
suite of Pocahontas, as may be presumed, although the fact is not
expressly mentioned,) had returned with Argall, was immediately, upon
his arrival, sent to Opechancanough, who came to Jamestown, and received
a present with great joy and thankfulness. But Tomocomo denounced
England and the English in bitter terms, especially Sir Thomas Dale.
Powhatan having some time before this resigned the cares of government
into the hands of Opechancanough, went about from place to place, still
continuing in friendship with the English, but greatly lamenting the
death of Pocahontas. He rejoiced, nevertheless, that her child was
living, and he and Opechancanough both expressed much desire to see him.
During this year a Mr. Lambert introduced the method of curing tobacco
on lines instead of in heaps, as had been the former practice.[125:A]
Argall's energetic measures procured from the Indians, by trade, a
supply of corn. The whole number of colonists now was about four
hundred, with numerous cattle, goats, and swine. The corn contributed to
the public store was about four hundred and fifty bushels, and from the
tributary Indians seven hundred and fifty, being considerably less than
the usual quantity. Of the "Company's company" there remained not more
than fifty-four, including men, women, and children. Drought, and a
storm that poured down hailstones eight or nine inches in circumference,
greatly damaged the crops of corn and tobacco.

The following is found among the early records:--


     "To all to whom these presents shall come, I, Samuel Argall,
     Esq., admiral, and for the time present principal Governor of
     Virginia, send greeting in our Lord God everlasting, si'thence
     in all places of wars and garrison towns, it is most expedient
     and necessary to have an honest and careful provost marshall,
     to whose charge and safe custody all delinquents and prisoners
     of what nature or quality soever their offences be, are to be
     committed; now know ye that for the honesty, sufficiency, and
     carefulness in the execution and discharge of the said office,
     which I conceived of William Cradock, I do by these presents
     nominate, constitute, ordain, and appoint the said William
     Cradock to be provost marshall of the Bermuda City, and of all
     the Hundred thereto belonging, giving and granting unto the
     said William Cradock, all power and authority to execute all
     such offices, duties, and commands belonging to the said place
     of provost marshall; with all privileges, rights, and
     preëminences thereunto belonging, and in all cases which
     require his speedy execution of his said office, by virtue of
     these presents, he shall require all captains, officers,
     soldiers, or any other members of this colony, to be aiding
     and assisting to him, to oppose all mutinies, factions,
     rebellions, and all other discords contrary to the quiet and
     peaceable government of this Commonwealth, as they will answer
     the contrary at their peril.

     "Given at Bermuda City this twentieth of February, in the 15th
     year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord James, by the Grace of
     God, King of England, and of Scotland the 51st, and in the
     11th year of this Plantation. Anno Domini, 1617.

     "Extract and recorded per John Rolf, Sec'y and Recorder Genl.

     ["Copia. Test. R. Hickman, Ck. Secy's office."]

To reinforce the colony the Company sent out a vessel of two hundred and
fifty tons, well stored, with two hundred and fifty people, under
command of Lord Delaware. They set sail in April, 1618; during the
voyage thirty died, and among them Lord Delaware, a generous friend of
the colony. The intelligence of his death reached London October fifth.
Stith[126:A] says: "And I think I have somewhere seen that he died about
the mouth of Delaware Bay, which thence took its name from him." Stith
fell into a mistake on this point, and Belknap, equally distinguished
for his general accuracy, has followed him.[126:B] Delaware Bay (the
mouth of the river called by the Indians Chihohocki) and River were
named as early as 1611, when Lord Delaware put in there, during his
homeward voyage.[126:C] According to Strachey, the bay was discovered in
1610, by Captain Argall, and he named Cape Delaware, "where he caught
halibut, cod, and ling fish, and brought some of them to Jamestown."

His lordship's family name was West, and persons descended from the same
stock are yet found in Virginia bearing the name. West-Point, at the
head of York, derived its name from the same source, and it was at first
called Delaware. Lord Delaware married, in 1602, the daughter of Sir
Thomas Shirley, of Whiston; and, perhaps, the name of Shirley, the
ancient seat on James River, may be traced to this source.

Martial law had already been established in Virginia by Dale; Argall
came over invested with powers to make the government still more
arbitrary and despotic, and bent upon acquiring gain by all possible
means of extortion and oppression. He decreed that goods should be sold
at an advance of twenty-five per cent., and tobacco rated at the
Procrustean value of three shillings--the penalty for rating it either
higher or lower being three years slavery to the colony; that there
should be no trade or intercourse with the Indians, and that none of
them should be taught the use of fire-arms; the penalty for violating
which ordinance was death to teacher and learner. Yet it has been
contended by some, that the use of fire-arms by the savages hastened
their extermination, because they thus became dependent on the whites
for arms and ammunition; when their guns came to be out of order they
became useless to them, for they wanted the skill to repair them; and,
lastly, fire-arms in their hands when effective, were employed by
hostile tribes in mutual destruction.

     "The white faith of history cannot show
      That e'er a musket yet could beat a bow."[127:A]

Argall also issued edicts that no one should hunt deer or hogs without
his leave; that no man should fire a gun before a new supply of
ammunition, except in self-defence, on pain of a year's slavery; absence
from church on Sundays or holidays, was punished by confinement for the
night and one week's slavery to the colony; for the second offence the
offender should be a slave for a month; and for the third, for a year
and a day. Several of these regulations were highly judicious, but the
penalties of some of them were excessive and barbarous, and the vigorous
enforcement of these, and his oppressive proceedings, rendered Argall
odious to the colony, and a report of his tyranny and extortions having
reached England, Sir Thomas Smith, Alderman Johnson, deputy treasurer,
Sir Lionel Cranfield, and others of the council, addressed a letter
dated August 23, 1618, to him, in which they recapitulated a series of
charges against him of dishonesty, corruption, and oppression. At the
same time a letter, of the same purport, was written to Lord Delaware,
and he was told, that such was the indignation felt by the stockholders
in the Virginia Company against Argall that they could hardly be
restrained from going to the king, although on a distant progress, and
procuring his majesty's command for recalling him as a malefactor. The
letter contained further instructions to Lord Delaware to seize upon all
the goods and property in Argall's possession. These letters, by Lord
Delaware's death, fell into Argall's hands, and finding his sand running
low, he determined to make the best of his remaining time, and so he
multiplied his exactions, and grew more tyrannical than ever. The case
of Edward Brewster was a remarkable instance of this. A person of good
repute in the colony, he had the management of Lord Delaware's estate.
Argall, without any rightful authority, removed the servants from his
lordship's land, and employed them on his own. Brewster endeavored to
make them return, and upon this being flatly refused by one of them,
threatened him with the consequences of his contumacy. Brewster was
immediately arrested by Argall's order, charged with sedition and
mutiny, and condemned to death by a court-martial. The members of the
court, however, and some of the clergy, shocked at such a conviction,
interceded earnestly for his pardon, and Argall reluctantly granted it
on condition that Brewster should depart from Virginia, with an oath
never to return, and never to say or do anything to the disparagement of
the deputy governor. Brewster, nevertheless, upon his return to England,
discarding the obligation of an oath extorted under duress, appealed to
the Company against the tyranny of the deputy governor, and the inhuman
sentence was reversed. John Rolfe, a friend of Argall, made light of the

During this year, 1618, a ship called the Treasurer was sent out from
England by Lord Rich, who had now become Earl of Warwick, a person of
great note afterwards in the civil wars, and commander of the fleet
against the king. This ship was manned with recruits from the colony,
and dispatched on a semi-piratical cruise in the West Indies, where she
committed some depredations on the Spanish possessions.

Upon receiving intelligence of the death of Lord Delaware, the Virginia
Company appointed Captain George Yeardley, who was knighted upon this
occasion, Governor and Captain-General of Virginia. Before his arrival
in the colony Argall embarked for England, in a vessel laden with his
effects, and being a relation of Sir Thomas Smith, and a partner in
trade of the profligate Earl of Warwick, he escaped with impunity. In
1620 Argall commanded a ship-of-war in an expedition fitted out against
the Algerines, and in 1623 was knighted by King James. Argall's
character has been variously represented; he appears to have been an
expert mariner of talents, courage, enterprise, and energy, but selfish,
avaricious, unscrupulous, arbitrary and cruel.

In April, 1618, Powhatan died, being upwards of seventy years of age. He
was, perhaps, so called from one of his places of residence;[129:A] he
was also sometimes styled Ottaniack, and sometimes Mamanatowick,[129:B]
but his proper name was Wahunsonacock. The country subject to him was
called Powhatan, as was likewise the chief river, and his subjects were
called Powhatans. His hereditary domain consisted only of Powhatan,
Arrohattox, Appamatuck, Youghtanund, Pamunkey, and Matapony, together
with Werowocomoco and Kiskiack. All the rest were his conquests, and
they consisted of the country on the James River and its branches, from
its mouth to the falls, and thence across the country to the north,
nearly as high as the falls of all the great rivers over the Potomac, as
far as to the Patuxent in Maryland. Some nations on the Eastern Shore
also owned subjection to this mighty werowance. In each of his several
hereditary dominions he had houses built like arbors, thirty or forty
feet long, and whenever he was about to visit one of these, it was
supplied beforehand with provision for his entertainment. The English
first met with him at a place of his own name, (which it still retains,)
a short distance below the falls of James River, where now stands the
picturesque City of Richmond.[129:C] His favorite residence was
Werowocomoco, on the east bank of what is now known as Timberneck Bay,
on York River, in the County of Gloucester; but in his latter years,
disrelishing the increasing proximity of the English, he withdrew
himself to Orapakes, a hunting-town in the "desert," as it was called,
more properly the wilderness, between the Chickahominy and the Pamunkey.
It is not improbable that he died and was buried there, for a mile from
Orapakes, in the midst of the woods, he had a house where he kept his
treasure of furs, copper, pearl, and beads, "which he storeth up against
the time of his death and burial."[130:A] This place is about twelve
miles northeast from Richmond.

At the time of the first settlement of the colony, Powhatan was usually
attended, especially when asleep, by a body-guard of fifty tall
warriors; he afterwards augmented the number to about two hundred. He
had as many wives as he pleased, and when tired of any one of them, he
bestowed her on some favorite. In the year 1608, by treachery, he
surprised the Payanketanks, his own subjects, while asleep in their
cabins, massacred twenty-four men, and made prisoners their werowance
with the women and children, who were reduced to slavery. Captain Smith,
himself a prisoner, saw at Werowocomoco the scalps of the slain
suspended on a line between two trees. Powhatan caused certain
malefactors to be bound hand and foot, then a great quantity of burning
coals to be collected from a number of fires, and raked round in the
form of a cock-pit, and the victims of his barbarity thrown in the midst
and burnt to death.[130:B] He was not entirely destitute of some better
qualities; in him some touches of princely magnanimity are curiously
blended with huckstering cunning, and the tenderness of a doating father
with the cruelty of an unrelenting despot.

Powhatan was succeeded by his second brother, Opitchapan, sometimes
called Itopatin, or Oeatan, who, upon his accession, again changed his
name to Sasawpen; as Opechancanough, upon the like occasion, changed
his to Mangopeomen. Opitchapan being decrepid in body and inert in mind,
was in a short time practically superseded in the government by his
younger, bolder, and more ambitious brother, the famous Opechancanough;
though for a time he was content to be styled the Werowance of
Chickahominy. Both renewed the assurances of continued friendship with
the English.


[125:A] Stith, 147.

[126:A] Stith, 147.

[126:B] Belknap, ii. 115.

[126:C] Anderson's Hist. of Col. Church, i. 271-311.

[127:A] Cited in Logan's Scottish Gaël, 223.

[128:A] Smith, ii. 37.

[129:A] Stith, 53.

[129:B] Strachey.

[129:C] In an act, dated 1705, found in the old "Laws of Virginia,"
mention is made of a ferry from Powhatantown to the landing at
Swineherd's. The site of this Powhatantown is on the upper part of
Flower de Hundred Plantation. Numerous Indian relics have been found
there, and earthworks, evidently thrown up for fortification, are still
extant. The name of Powhatantown was given to this spot by the whites.
Near Jamestown is the extensive Powhatan Swamp.

[130:A] Smith, i. 143.

[130:B] Smith, i. 144.


     Sir Walter Raleigh--His Birth and Parentage--Student at
     Oxford--Enlists in Service of Queen of Navarre--His stay in
     France--Returns to England--At the Middle Temple--Serves in
     Netherlands and Ireland--Returns to England--His Gallantry--
     Undertakes Colonization of Virginia--Member of Parliament--
     Knighted--In Portuguese Expedition--Loses Favor at Court--
     Retires to Ireland--Spenser--Sir Walter in the Tower--His
     Flattery of the Queen--She grants him the Manor of Sherborne--
     His Expedition to Guiana--Joins Expedition against Cadiz--
     Wounded--Makes another Voyage to Guiana--Restored to Queen's
     Favor--Contributes to Defeat of Treason of Essex--Raleigh made
     Governor of Jersey--His Liberal Sentiments--Elizabeth's Death--
     Accession of James the First--Raleigh confined in the Tower--
     Found guilty of High Treason--Reprieved--Still a Prisoner in
     the Tower--Devotes himself to Study--His Companions--His
     "History of the World"--Lady Raleigh's Petition--Raleigh
     Released--His Last Expedition to Guiana--Its Failure--His
     Son killed--Sir Walter's Return to England--His Arrest,
     Condemnation, Execution, Character.

DURING the same year, 1618, died the founder of Virginia colonization,
the famous Sir Walter Raleigh. He was born at Hayes, a farm in the
Parish of Budley, Devonshire, 1552, being the fourth son of Walter
Raleigh, Esq., of Fardel, near Plymouth, and Catharine, daughter of Sir
Philip Champernon, and widow of Otho Gilbert, of Compton, Devonshire.
After passing some time at Oriel College, Oxford, about the year 1568,
where he distinguished himself by his genius and attainments, at the age
of seventeen he joined a volunteer company of gentlemen, under Henry
Champernon, in an expedition to assist the Protestant Queen of Navarre.
He remained in France five years, and while in Paris, under the
protection of the English embassy, he witnessed the massacre of St.
Bartholomew's day. On returning to England he was for a while in the
Middle Temple; but whether as a student is uncertain. His leisure hours
were devoted to poetry. In the year 1578 he accompanied Sir John Norris
to the Netherlands. In the following year he joined in Sir Humphrey
Gilbert's first and unsuccessful voyage. Now, when at the age of
twenty-seven, it is said that of the twenty-four hours he allotted four
to study and only five to sleep; but this is rather improbable, for so
much activity of employment as always characterized him, demanded a
proportionate degree of repose. In 1580 he served in Ireland as captain
of horse, under Lord Grey, and became familiar with the dangers and
atrocities of civil war. In 1581, the following year, he became
acquainted with the poet Spenser, then resident at Kilcolman. Disgusted
with a painful service, Raleigh returned to England during this year,
and it was at this period that he exhibited a famous piece of gallantry
to the queen. She, in a walk, coming to a "plashy place," hesitated to
proceed, when he "cast and spread his new plush cloak on the ground" for
her to tread on. By his graceful wit and fascinating manners, he rose
rapidly in Elizabeth's favor, and "she took him for a kind of oracle."
His munificent and persevering efforts in the colonization of Virginia
ought to have moderated the too sweeping charge of levity and fickleness
brought against him by Hume.

During the year 1583 Raleigh became member of Parliament for Devonshire;
was knighted, and made Seneschal of Cornwall and Warden of the
Stanneries. Engaged in the expedition whose object was to place Don
Antonio on the throne of Portugal, Sir Walter for his good conduct
received a gold chain from the queen. The rivalship of the Earl of Essex
having driven Raleigh into temporary exile in Ireland, he there renewed
his acquaintance with the author of the "Faëry Queen," who accompanied
him on his return to England.

Sir Walter was arrested in 1592, and confined in the Tower, on account
of a criminal intrigue with one of the maids of honor, who was
imprisoned at the same time; and this incident is alluded to in Sir
Walter Scott's "Fortunes of Nigel." The lady was Elizabeth, daughter of
Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, and a celebrated beauty, whom Raleigh
afterwards married. In a letter written from the Tower, and addressed to
Sir Robert Cecil, Raleigh indulged in a vein of extravagant flattery of
the queen: "I that was wont to behold her riding like Alexander, hunting
like Diana, walking like Venus--the gentle wind blowing her fair hair
about her pure cheeks like a nymph; sometime sitting in the shade like a
goddess; sometime singing like an angel; sometime playing like
Orpheus." Elizabeth was at this time about sixty years old.

In 1593 she granted him the Manor of Sherborne, in Dorsetshire. About
this period he distinguished himself in the House of Commons. In 1595 he
commanded an expedition to Guiana, in quest of the golden El Dorado, and
another in the following year. In an expedition against Cadiz he led the
van in action, and received a severe wound in the leg. Upon his return
to England he embarked in his third voyage to Guiana. In 1597 he was
restored to his place of captain of the guard, and entirely reinstated
in the queen's favor.

Essex having engaged in a rash treasonable conspiracy, the object of
which was to seize upon the queen's person, so as thereby to control the
government, Raleigh aided in defeating his designs. But after the
execution of his popular rival, Raleigh's fortune began to wane.
Nevertheless, in 1600 he was made Governor of the Isle of Jersey. In the
following year, in a speech made in Parliament on an act for sowing
hemp, Sir Walter said: "For my part, I do not like this constraining of
men to manure or use their grounds at our wills, but rather let every
man use his ground to that which it is most fit for, and therein use his
discretion." Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, and Raleigh's happiness ended
with her life.

James the First came to the throne of Great Britain prejudiced against
Raleigh. He was also at this time extremely unpopular, and especially
odious to the friends of the highly gifted, but rash and unfortunate
Earl of Essex. In three months after the arrival of King James in
England, Sir Walter was arrested on a charge of high treason, in
conspiring with the Lords Cobham and Grey to place the Lady Arabella
Stuart on the throne. Arraigned on charges frivolous and contradictory,
tried under circumstances of insult and oppression, he was found guilty
without any sufficient evidence. By their conduct on this occasion, Sir
Edward Coke, Lord Chief Justice Popham, and Sir Robert Cecil proved
themselves fit tools for the abject and heartless James. Raleigh, though
reprieved, remained a prisoner in the Tower at the king's mercy.

Lady Raleigh and her son were not excluded from the Tower, and Carew,
the youngest, was born there. During his long confinement, Sir Walter
devoted himself to literature and science, and enjoyed the society of a
few friends, among them Hariot and the Earl of Northumberland, who was
likewise a State prisoner. Sir Walter was also frequently visited by
Prince Henry, the heir-apparent, who was devotedly attached to him, and
who said that "none but his father would keep such a bird in a cage."
Prince Charles, on the contrary, appears to have entertained a strong
dislike to him. In the Tower Raleigh composed his great work, the
"History of the World," the first volume of which appeared in the year
1614; it extended from the creation to the close of the Macedonian war,
and embraced a period of about four thousand years. It was dedicated to
Prince Henry. Raleigh intended to compose two other volumes, but owing
to the untimely death of that prince, and to the suppression of it by
King James, on the ground that it censured princes too freely, and
perhaps to the magnitude of the task, he proceeded no further than the
first volume. Oliver Cromwell recommended this work to his son.

During his confinement the king gave away Raleigh's estate of Sherborne
to his favorite, Sir Robert Carr, afterwards the infamous Viscount
Rochester and Earl of Somerset, who swayed the influence at Court from
1611 to 1615, when he was supplanted by the equally corrupt George
Villiers, Duke of Buckingham.

When Lady Raleigh, with her children around her, kneeling in tears,
besought James to restore this estate, the only answer she received was,
"I maun have the land, I maun have it for Carr." At length, owing in
part to the death of some of his enemies, and in part to the influence
of money, Sir Walter Raleigh was released from the Tower for the purpose
of making another voyage to Guiana. The expedition failed in its object,
and Sir Walter, after losing his son in an action with the Spaniards,
returned to England, where he was arrested.

James was now wholly bent on effecting a match between his son, Prince
Charles, afterwards Charles the First, and the Spanish Infanta, and to
gratify the Court of Spain and his own malignity, he resolved to
sacrifice Raleigh. He was condemned, after a most eloquent defence,
under the old conviction of 1603, notwithstanding that he had been
recently commissioned commander of a fleet and Governor of Guiana,
which had unquestionably annulled that conviction. "He was condemned
(said his son Carew) for being a friend of the Spaniards, and lost his
life for being their bitter enemy."

Queen Anne, then in declining health, interceded for him, not long
before his execution, in the following note, addressed to the Marquis of

     "MY KIND DOG:--

     "If I have any power or credit with you, in dealing sincerely
     and earnestly with the king, that Sir Walter Raleigh's life
     may not be called in question. If you do it so that the
     success answer my expectation, assure yourself that I will
     take it extraordinarily kindly at your hands, and rest one
     that wisheth you well, and desires you to continue still (as
     you have been) a true servant to your master.

                                            "ANNE R."[136:A]

Sir Walter Raleigh was executed on the twenty-ninth day of October,
1618, in the Old Palace Yard. He died with Christian heroism.
Distinguished as a navigator and discoverer, a naval and military
commander, an author in prose and verse, a wit, a courtier, a statesman
and philosopher, there is perhaps in English history no name associated
with such lofty and versatile genius, so much glorious action, and so
much wise reflection. He was indeed proud, fond of splendor, of a
restless and fiery ambition, sometimes unscrupulous. An ardent
imagination, excited by the enthusiasm of an extraordinary age, infused
an extravagance and marvellousness into some of his relations of his
voyages and discoveries, that gave some occasion for distrust. The ardor
of his temperament and an over-excited imagination involved him in
several projects that terminated unhappily. But with his weaknesses and
his faults he united noble virtues, and Virginia will ever be proud of
so illustrious a founder.[136:B]

The Queen Anne, of Denmark, who had in vain employed her kind offices
in his behalf, did not long survive him; she died in March, 1619.
Without any extraordinary qualities, she was accomplished, distinguished
for the easy elegance of her manners, amiable, and the generous friend
of the oppressed and unfortunate.


[136:A] Miss Strickland's Lives of Queens of England, vii. 357.

[136:B] Oldy's Life of Raleigh, 74; Belknap, i. art. Raleigh, 289, 370;
"A Brief Relation of Sir Walter Raleigh's Troubles," Harleian Mis., No.
100. There are also lives of Raleigh by Birch, Cayley, Southey, and Mrs.



     Sir Edwin Sandys, Treasurer of London Company--Powell, Deputy
     Governor--Sir George Yeardley, Governor--First Assembly
     meets--Its Proceedings.

SIR THOMAS SMITH, Treasurer or Governor of the Virginia Company, was
displaced in 1618, and succeeded by Sir Edwin Sandys.[138:A] This
enlightened statesman and exemplary man was born in Worcestershire, in
1561, being the second son of the Archbishop of York. Educated at Oxford
under the care of "the judicious Hooker," he obtained a prebend in the
church of York. He afterwards travelled in foreign countries, and
published his observations in a work entitled "Europæ Speculum, or a
View of the State of Religion in the Western World." He resigned his
prebend in 1602, was subsequently knighted by James, in 1603, and
employed in diplomatic trusts. His appointment as treasurer gave great
satisfaction to the colony; for free principles were now, under his
auspices, in the ascendant. His name is spelt sometimes Sandis,
sometimes Sands. Sir Thomas Smith was shortly after reappointed, by the
Virginia Company, President of the Somers Islands.

When Argall, in April, stole away from Virginia, he left for his deputy,
Captain Nathaniel Powell,[138:B] who had come over with Captain Smith in
1607, and had evinced courage and discretion. He was one of the writers
from whose narratives Smith compiled his General History. Powell held
his office only about ten days, when Sir George Yeardley, recently
knighted, arrived as Governor-General, bringing with him new charters
for the colony. He added to the council Captain Francis West, Captain
Nathaniel Powell, John Rolfe, William Wickham, and Samuel
Macock.[139:A] John Rolfe, who had been secretary, now lost his place,
probably owing to his connivance at Argall's malepractices, and was
succeeded by John Pory. He was educated at Cambridge, where he took the
degree of Master of Arts, in April, 1610. It is supposed that he was a
member of the House of Commons. He was much of a traveller, and was at
Venice in 1613, at Amsterdam in 1617, and shortly after at Paris. By the
Earl of Warwick's influence he now procured the place of Secretary for
the Colony of Virginia, having come over in April, 1619, with Sir George
Yeardley, who appointed him one of his council.

In June, Governor Yeardley summoned the first legislative assembly that
ever met in America. It assembled at James City or Jamestown, on Friday,
the 30th of July, 1619, upwards of a year before the Mayflower left
England with the Pilgrims. A record of the proceedings is preserved in
the London State Paper Office, in the form of a Report from the Speaker,
John Pory.[139:B]

John Pory, Secretary of the Colony, was chosen Speaker, and John Twine,
Clerk. The Assembly sate in the choir of the church, the members of the
council sitting on either side of the Governor, and the Speaker right
before him, the Clerk next the Speaker, and Thomas Pierse, the Sergeant,
standing at the bar.

Before commencing business, prayer was said by Mr. Bucke, the minister.
Each burgess then, as called on, took the oath of supremacy. When the
name of Captain Ward was called, the Speaker objected to him as having
seated himself on land without authority. Objection was also made to the
burgesses appearing to represent Captain Martin's patent, because they
were, by its terms, exempted from any obligation to obey the laws of the
colony. Complaint was made by Opochancano, that corn had been forcibly
taken from some of his people in the Chesapeake, by Ensign Harrison,
commanding a shallop belonging to this Captain John Martin, "Master of
the Ordinance." The Speaker read the commission for establishing the
Council of State and the General Assembly, and also the charter brought
out by Sir Thomas Yeardley. This last was referred to several committees
for examination, so that if they should find anything "not perfectly
squaring with the state of the colony, or any law pressing or binding
too hard," they might by petition seek to have it redressed, "especially
because this great charter is to bind us and our heirs forever." Mr.
Abraham Persey was the Cape-merchant. The price at which he was to
receive tobacco, "either for commodities or upon bills," was fixed at
three shillings for the best and eighteen pence for the second rate.
After inquiry the burgesses from Martin's patent were excluded, and the
Assembly "humbly demanded" of the Virginia Company an explanation of
that clause in his patent entitling him to enjoy his lands as amply as
any lord of a manor in England, adding, "the least the Assembly can
allege against this clause is, that it is obscure, and that it is a
thing impossible for us here to know the prerogatives of all the manors
in England." And they prayed that the clause in the charter guaranteeing
equal liberties and immunities to grantees, might not be violated, so as
to "divert out of the true course the free and public current of
justice." Thus did the first Assembly of Virginia insist upon the
principle of the Declaration of Rights of 1776, that "no man or set of
men are entitled to exclusive or separate emoluments or privileges from
the community, but in consideration of public services." Certain of the
instructions sent out from England were "drawn into laws" for protection
of the Indians from injury, and regulating intercourse with them, and
educating their children, and preparing some of the most promising boys
"for the college intended for them; that from thence they may be sent to
that work of conversion;" for regulating agriculture, tobacco, and
sassafras, then the chief merchantable commodities raised. Upon Captain
Powell's petition, "a lewd and treacherous servant of his" was sentenced
to stand for four days with his ears nailed to the pillory, and be
whipped each day. John Rolfe complained that Captain Martin had made
unjust charges against him, and cast "some aspersion upon the present
government, which is the most temperate and just that ever was in this
country--too mild, indeed, for many of this colony, whom unwonted
liberty hath made insolent, and not to know themselves." On the last day
of the session were enacted such laws as issued "out of every man's
private conceit." "It shall be free for every man to trade with the
Indians, servants only excepted upon pain of whipping, unless the master
will redeem it off with the payment of an angel." "No man to sell or
give any of the greater hoes to the Indians, or any English dog of
quality, as a mastiff, greyhound, bloodhound, land or water spaniel."
Any man selling arms or ammunition to the Indians, to be hanged so soon
as the fact is proved. All ministers shall duly "read divine service,
and exercise their ministerial function according to the ecclesiastical
laws and orders of the Church of England, and every Sunday, in the
afternoon, shall catechise such as are not ripe to come to the
communion." All persons going up or down the James River were to touch
at James City, "to know whether the governor will command them any
service." "All persons whatsoever, upon the Sabbath days, shall frequent
divine service and sermons, both forenoon and afternoon; and all such as
bear arms shall bring their pieces, swords, powder, and shot."

Captain Henry Spellman, charged by Robert Poole, interpreter, with
speaking ill of the governor "at Opochancano's court," was degraded from
his rank of captain, and condemned to serve the colony for seven years
as interpreter to the governor. Paspaheigh, embracing three hundred
acres of land, was also called Argallstown, and was part of the tract
appropriated to the governor. To compensate the speaker, clerk,
sergeant, and provost marshal, a pound of the best tobacco was levied
from every male above sixteen years of age. The Assembly prayed that the
treasurer, council, and company would not "take it in ill part if these
laws, which we have now brought to light, do pass current, and be of
force till such time as we may know their further pleasure out of
England; for otherwise this people (who now at length have got their
reins of former servitude into their own swindge) would, in short time,
grow so insolent as they would shake off all government, and there would
be no living among them." They also prayed the company to "give us power
to allow or disallow of their orders of court, as his majesty hath given
_them_ power to allow or reject _our_ laws." So early did it appear,
that from the necessity of the case, the colony must in large part
legislate for itself, and so early did a spirit of independence manifest
itself. Owing to the heat of the weather, several of the burgesses fell
sick, and one died, and thus the governor was obliged abruptly, on the
fourth of August, to prorogue the Assembly till the first of
March.[142:A] There being as yet no counties laid off, the
representatives were elected from the several towns, plantations, and
hundreds, styled boroughs, and hence they were called burgesses.


[138:A] Court and Times of James the First, i. 161.

[138:B] A Welsh name.

[139:A] Macocks, the seat on James River, opposite to Berkley, was
called after this planter, who was the first proprietor.

[139:B] This interesting document, discovered by Mr. Bancroft, was
published by the New York Historical Society in 1857, and a number of
copies were sent to Richmond by George Henry Moore, Esq., Secretary of
that Society, for distribution among the members of the Assembly. The
attention of Virginians was first drawn to the existence of this
document by Conway Robinson, Esq., Chairman of the Executive Committee
of the Virginia Historical Society.

The number of burgesses was twenty-two. For James City, Captain William
Powell, Ensign William Spense; for Charles City, Samuel Sharpe and
Samuel Jordan; for the City of Henricus, Thomas Dowse, John Polentine;
for Kiccowtan, Captain William Tucker, William Capp; for Martin-Brandon,
Captain John Martin's Plantation, Mr. Thomas Davis, Mr. Robert Stacy;
for Smythe's Hundred, Captain Thomas Graves, Mr. Walter Shelley; for
Martin's Hundred, Mr. John Boys, John Jackson; for Argall's Gift, Mr.
Pawlett, Mr. Gourgainy; for Flowerdieu Hundred, Ensign Rossingham, Mr.
Jefferson; for Captain Lawne's Plantation, Captain Christopher Lawne,
Ensign Washer; for Captain Ward's Plantation, Captain Ward, Lieutenant

[142:A] Proceedings of the First Assembly of Virginia, in 1619.



     The New Laws--Yeardley, Governor--Affairs of the Colony--
     Landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth--Negroes Imported into
     Virginia--Supplies sent out from England--Wives for the
     Colonists--The Bishops directed to take up Collections for aid
     of the Colony in erecting Churches and Schools--England claims
     a Monopoly of Virginia Tobacco--Charitable Donations.

THUS after eleven years of suffering, peril, discord, and tyranny,
intermingled with romantic adventure, bold enterprise, the dignity of
danger, virtuous fortitude, and generous heroism, were at length
established a local legislature and a regular administration of right.
The Virginia planters expressed their gratitude to the company, and
begged them to reduce into a compend, with his majesty's approbation,
such of the laws of England as were applicable to Virginia, with
suitable additions, "because it was not fit that his subjects should be
governed by any other rules than such as received their influence from
him." The acts of the Assembly were transmitted to England for the
approval of the treasurer and company. They were thought to have been
very judiciously framed, but the company's committee found them
"exceeding intricate and full of labor." There was granted to the old
planters an exemption from all compulsive service to the colony, with a
confirmation of their estates, which were to be holden as by English

It is remarkable, that from about 1614, for some seven years, James the
First had governed England without a parliament; and the Virginia
Company was during this period a rallying point for the friends of civil
and religious freedom, and the colony enjoyed the privilege, denied to
the mother country, of holding a legislative assembly.

Yeardley finding a scarcity of corn, undertook to promote the
cultivation of it, and this year was blessed with abundant crops of
grain. But an extraordinary mortality carried off not less than three
hundred of the people. Three thousand acres of land were allotted to the
governor, and twelve thousand to the company. The Margaret, of Bristol,
arrived with some settlers, and "also many devout gifts." The Trial
brought a cargo of corn and cattle. The expenditure of the Virginia
Company at this period, on account of the colony, was estimated at
between four and five thousand pounds a year.

A body of English Puritans, persecuted on account of their
nonconformity, had, in 1608, sought an asylum in Holland. In 1617 they
conceived the design of removing to America, and in 1619 they obtained
from the Virginia Company, by the influence of Sir Edward Sandys, the
treasurer, "a large patent," authorizing them to settle in Virginia.
They embarked in the latter part of the year 1620, in the Mayflower,
intending to settle somewhere near the Hudson River, which lay within
the Virginia Company's territory. The Pilgrims were, however, conducted
to the bleak and barren coast of Massachusetts, where they landed on the
twenty-second day of December, (new style,) 1620, on the rock of
Plymouth. Thus, thirteen years after the settlement of Jamestown, was
laid the foundation of the New England States. The place of their
landing was beyond the limits of the Virginia Company.

In the month of August, 1619, a Dutch man-of-war visited Jamestown and
sold the settlers twenty negroes, the first introduced into Virginia.
Some time before this, Captain Argall sent out, at the expense of the
Earl of Warwick, on a "filibustering" cruise to the West Indies, a ship
called the Treasurer, manned "with the ablest men in the colony," under
an old commission from the Duke of Savoy against the Spanish dominions
in the western hemisphere. She returned to Virginia after some ten
months, with her booty, which consisted of captured negroes, who were
not left in Virginia, because Captain Argall had gone back to England,
but were put on the Earl of Warwick's plantation in the Somer

It is probable that the planters who purchased the negroes from the
Dutch man-of-war reasoned but little on the morality of the act, or if
any scruples of conscience presented themselves, they could be readily
silenced by reflecting that the negroes were heathens, descendants of
Ham, and consigned by Divine appointment to perpetual bondage.[145:A]
The planters may, if they reasoned at all on the subject, have supposed
that they were even performing a humane act in releasing these Africans
from the noisome hold of the ship. They might well believe that the
condition of the negro slave would be less degraded and wretched in
Virginia than it had been in their native country. This first purchase
was probably not looked upon as a matter of much consequence, and for
several ages the increase of the blacks in Virginia was so
inconsiderable as not to attract any special attention. The condition of
the white servants of the colony, many of them convicts, was so abject,
that men, accustomed to see their own race in bondage, could look with
more indifference at the worse condition of the slaves.

The negroes purchased by the slavers on the coast of Africa were brought
from the interior, convicts sold into slavery, children sold by heathen
parents destitute of natural affection, kidnapped villagers, and
captives taken in war, the greater part of them born in hereditary
bondage. The circumstances under which they were consigned to the
slave-ship evince the wretchedness of their condition in their native
country, where they were the victims of idolatry, barbarism, and war.
The negroes imported were usually between the ages of fourteen and
thirty, two-thirds of them being males. The new negro, just transferred
from the wilds of a distant continent, was indolent, ignorant of the
modes and implements of labor, and of the language of his master, and
perhaps of his fellow-laborers.[145:B] To tame and domesticate, to
instruct in the modes of industry, and to reduce to subordination and
usefulness a barbarian, gross, obtuse, perverse, must have demanded
persevering efforts and severe discipline.

While the cruel slave-trade was prompted by a remorseless cupidity, an
inscrutable Providence turned the wickedness of men into the means of
bringing about beneficent results. The system of slavery, doubtless,
entailed many evils on slave and slave-holder, and, perhaps, the greater
on the latter. These evils are the tax paid for the elevation of the
negro from his aboriginal condition.

Among the vessels that came over to Virginia from England, about this
time, is mentioned a bark of five tons. A fleet sent out by the Virginia
Company brought over, in 1619, more than twelve hundred settlers.[146:A]
The planters at length enjoyed the blessings of property in the soil,
and the society of women. The wives were sold to the colonists for one
hundred and twenty pounds of tobacco, and it was ordered that this debt
should have precedence of all others. The price of a wife afterwards
became higher. The bishops in England, by the king's orders, collected
nearly fifteen hundred pounds to build a college or university at
Henrico, intended in part for the education of Indian children.[146:B]

In July, 1620, the population of the colony was estimated at four
thousand. One hundred "disorderly persons" or convicts, sent over during
the previous year by the king's order, were employed as servants.[147:A]
For a brief interval the Virginia Company had enjoyed freedom of trade
with the Low Countries, where they sold their tobacco; but in October,
1621, this was prohibited by an order in council; and from this time
England claimed a monopoly of the trade of her plantations, and this
principle was gradually adopted by all the European powers as they
acquired transatlantic settlements.[147:B]

Two persons unknown presented plate and ornaments for the
communion-table at the college, and at Mrs. Mary Robinson's Church, so
called because she had contributed two hundred pounds toward the
founding of it. Another person unknown gave five hundred and fifty
pounds for the education of Indian children in Christianity; he
subscribed himself "Dust and Ashes;" and was afterwards discovered to be
Mr. Gabriel Barber, a member of the company.


[144:A] Belknap, art. Argall, citing Declaration of Va. Council, 1623,
and Burk's Hist. of Va., i. 319; Smith, ii. 39, where Rolfe gives the
true date, 1619; Stith, 171; Beverley, B. i. 37; Chalmers' Annals, 49;
Burk, i. 211, and Hening, i. 146, all (as Bancroft, i. 177, remarks,)
rely on Beverley. It may be added, that they were all misled by him in
making the date 1620. I was enabled to rectify this date by an
intimation from the Rev. Dr. Wm. H. Foote, author of "Sketches of

[145:A] Burk, i. 211.

[145:B] Bancroft, iii. 402.

[146:A] They were disposed of in the following way: eighty tenants for
the governor's land, one hundred and thirty for the company's land, one
hundred for the college, fifty for the glebe, ninety young women of good
character for wives, fifty servants, fifty whose labors were to support
thirty Indian children; the rest were distributed among private

[146:B] The following is a copy of the letter addressed by the king on
this occasion to the archbishops, authorizing them to invite the members
of the church throughout the kingdom to assist in the establishment of
the college, and such works of piety. The exact date of the letter has
not been ascertained; but it was about the year 1620. It has never been
published until recently, and is the first document of the kind ever
issued in England for the benefit of the colonies. It is as follows:--

     "Most reverend father in God, right, trusty, and well-beloved
     counsellor, we greet you well. You have heard ere this time of
     the attempt of divers worthy men, our subjects, to plant in
     Virginia, (under the warrant of our letters patents,) people
     of this kingdom as well as for the enlarging of our dominions,
     as for the propagation of the gospel amongst infidels: wherein
     there is good progress made and hope of further increase; so
     as the undertakers of that plantation are now in hand with the
     erecting of some churches and schools for the education of the
     children of those barbarians, which cannot but be to them a
     very great charge and above the expense which, for the civil
     plantation, doth come to them. In which we doubt not but that
     you and all others who wish well to the increase of Christian
     religion, will be willing to give all assistance and
     furtherance, you may, and therein to make experience of the
     zeal and devotion of our well-minded subjects, especially
     those of the clergy. Wherefore we do require you, and hereby
     authorize you to write your letters to the several bishops of
     the dioceses in your province, that they do give order to the
     ministers and other zealous men of their dioceses, both by
     their own example in contribution and by exhortation to others
     to move our people within their several charges to contribute
     to so good a work, in as liberal a manner as they may; for the
     better advancing whereof our pleasure is, that those
     collections be made in all the particular parishes, four
     several times within these two years next coming; and that the
     several accounts of each parish, together with the moneys
     collected, be returned from time to time to the bishops of the
     dioceses, and by them be transmitted half yearly to you; and
     so to be delivered to the treasurer of that plantation to be
     employed for the godly purposes intended, and no other."
     (_Anderson's Hist. of Col. Church_, i. 315; _Stith's Hist. of
     Va._, 159.)

[147:A] Mr. Jefferson appears to have fallen into a mistake as to the
period of time when malefactors were first shipped over to this country
from England, for he says: "It was at a late period of their history
that the practice began." (_Writings of Jefferson_, i. 405.)

[147:B] Chalmers' Introduc., i. 15. The following letter accompanied a
shipment of marriageable females sent out from England to Virginia:--

                                      "LONDON, _August 21, 1621_.

     "We send you a shipment, one widow and eleven maids, for wives
     of the people of Virginia: there hath been especial care had
     in the choice of them, for there hath not one of them been
     received but upon good commendations.

     "In case they cannot be presently married, we desire that they
     may be put with several householders that have wives, until
     they can be provided with husbands. There are nearly fifty
     more that are shortly to come, and are sent by our honorable
     lord and treasurer, the Earl of Southampton, and certain
     worthy gentlemen, who, taking into consideration that the
     plantation can never flourish till families be planted, and
     the respect of wives and children for their people on the
     soil, therefore having given this fair beginning; reimbursing
     of whose charges it is ordered that every man that marries
     them, give one hundred and twenty pounds of best leaf tobacco
     for each of them.

     "We desire that the marriage be free according to nature, and
     we would not have those maids deceived and married to
     servants, but only to such freemen or tenants as have means to
     maintain them. We pray you, therefore, to be fathers of them
     in this business, not enforcing them to marry against their
     wills." (_Hubbard's note in Belknap_, art. ARGALL.)


     Proceedings in London of Virginia Company--Lord Southampton
     elected Treasurer--Sir Francis Wyat appointed Governor--New
     frame of Government--Instructions for Governor and Council--
     George Sandys, Treasurer in Virginia--Notice of his Life and
     published Works--Productions of the Colony.

SIR EDWIN SANDYS held the office of treasurer of the company but for one
year, being excluded from a re-election by the arbitrary interference of
the king. The election was by ballot. The day for it having arrived, the
company met, consisting of twenty peers of the realm, near one hundred
knights, together with as many more of gallant officers and grave
lawyers, and a large number of worthy citizens--an imposing array of
rank, and wealth, and talents, and influence. Sir Edwin Sandys being
first nominated as a candidate, a lord of the bedchamber and another
courtier announced that it was the king's pleasure not to have Sir Edwin
Sandys chosen; and because he was unwilling to infringe their right of
election, he (the king) would nominate three persons, and permit the
company to choose one of them. The company, nevertheless, voted to
proceed to an election, as they had a right to do under the charter. Sir
Edwin Sandys withdrew his name from nomination, and, at his suggestion
it was finally agreed that the king's messengers should name two
candidates, and the company one. Upon counting the ballots, it was
ascertained that one of the royal candidates received only one vote, and
the other only two. The Earl of Southampton received all the rest.

The Virginia Company was divided into two parties, the minority enjoying
the favor of the king, and headed by the Earl of Warwick; the other, the
liberal, or opposition, or reform party, headed by the Earl of
Southampton. The Warwick faction were greatly embittered against
Yeardley, and their virulence was increased by his having intercepted a
packet from his own secretary, Pory, containing proofs of Argall's
misconduct, to be used against him at his trial, which the secretary
had been bribed by his friend, the Earl of Warwick, to convey to him.
The mild and gentle Yeardley, overcome by these annoyances, at length
requested leave to retire from the cares of office. His commission
expired in November, 1621; but he continued in the colony, was a member
of the council, and enjoyed the respect and esteem of the people. During
his short administration, many new settlements were made on the James
and York rivers; and the planters, being now supplied with wives and
servants, began to be more content, and to take more pleasure in
cultivating their lands. The brief interval of free trade with Holland
had enlarged the demand for tobacco, and it was cultivated more

Sir George Yeardley's term of office having expired, the company's
council, upon the recommendation of the Earl of Southampton, appointed
Sir Francis Wyat governor, a young gentleman of Ireland, whose
education, family, fortune, and integrity, well qualified him for the
place. He arrived in October, 1621, with a fleet of nine sail, and
brought over a new frame of government constituted by the company, and
dated July the 24th, 1621, establishing a council of State and a general
assembly--vesting the governor with a negative upon the acts of the
assembly; this body to be convoked by him in general once a year, and to
consist of the council of State and of two burgesses from every town,
hundred, or plantation; the trial by jury secured; no act of the
assembly to be valid unless ratified by the company in England; and, on
the other hand, no order of the company to be obligatory upon the colony
without the consent of the assembly. This last feature displays that
spirit of constitutional freedom which then pervaded the Virginia
Company. A commission bearing the same date with the new frame of
government recognized Sir Francis Wyat as the first governor under it;
and this famous ordinance became the model of every subsequent
provincial form of government in the Anglo-American colonies.[150:A]

Wyat brought with him also a body of instructions intended for the
permanent guidance of the governor and council. He was to provide for
the service of God in conformity with the Church of England as near as
may be; to be obedient to the king, and to administer justice according
to the laws of England; not to injure the natives, and to forget old
quarrels now buried; to be industrious, and to suppress drunkenness,
gaming, and excess in clothes; not to permit any but the council and
heads of hundreds to wear gold in their clothes, or to wear silk, till
they make it themselves; not to offend any foreign prince; to punish
pirates; to build forts; to endeavor to convert the heathen; and each
town to teach some of the Indian children fit for the college which was
to be built; to cultivate corn, wine, and silk; to search for minerals,
dyes, gums, and medicinal drugs, and to draw off the people from the
excessive planting of tobacco; to take a census of the colony; to put
'prentices to trades and not let them forsake them for planting tobacco,
or any such useless commodity; to build water-mills; to make salt,
pitch, tar, soap, and ashes; to make oil of walnuts, and employ
apothecaries in distilling lees of beer; to make small quantity of
tobacco, and that very good.

Wyat, entering on the duties of his office on the eighteenth of
November, dispatched Mr. Thorpe to renew the treaties of peace and
friendship with Opechancanough, who was found apparently well affected
and ready to confirm the pledges of harmony. A vessel from Ireland
brought in eighty immigrants, who planted themselves at Newport's News.
The company sent out during this year twenty-one vessels, navigated with
upwards of four hundred sailors, and bringing over thirteen hundred men,
women, and children. The aggregate number of settlers that arrived
during 1621 and 1622 was three thousand five hundred.

With Sir Francis Wyat came over George Sandys, treasurer in Virginia,
brother of Sir Edwin Sandys, treasurer of the company in England. George
Sandys, who was born in 1577, after passing some time at Oxford, in
1610, travelled over Europe to Turkey, and visited Palestine and Egypt.
He published his travels, at Oxford, in 1615, and they were received
with great favor. The first poetical production in Anglo-American
literature was composed by him, while secretary of the colony; and in
the midst of the confusion which followed the massacre of 1622,--"by
that imperfect light which was snatched from the hours of night and
repose,"--he translated the Metamorphoses of Ovid and the First Book of
Virgil's Æneid, which was published in 1626, and dedicated to King
Charles the First. He also published several other works, and enjoyed
the favor of the literary men of the day. Dryden pronounced Sandys the
best versifier of his age. Pope declared that English poetry owed much
of its beauty to his translations; and Montgomery, the poet, renders his
meed of praise to the beauty of the Psalms translated by him. Having
lived chiefly in retirement, he died in 1643, at the house of Sir
Francis Wyat, in Bexley, Kent. A fine copy of the translation of Ovid
and Virgil, printed in 1632, in folio, elegantly illustrated, once the
property of the Duke of Sussex, is now in the library of Mr. Grigsby.
Mr. Thomas H. Wynne, of Richmond, also has a copy of this rare work.


[150:A] Chalmers' Introduc., i. 13-16; Belknap, art. SIR FRANCIS WYAT.
Belknap is an excellent authority, as accurate as Stith without his
diffuseness; and Hubbard's notes are worthy of the text. The ordinance
and commission may be seen in Hening's Statutes at Large, i. 110-113.


     Use of Tobacco in England--Raleigh's Habits of Smoking--His
     Tobacco-box--Anecdotes of Smoking--King James, his Counterblast
     --Denunciations against Tobacco--Amount of Tobacco Imported.

IN 1615 twelve different commodities had been shipped from Virginia;
sassafras and tobacco were now the only exports. During the year 1619
the company in England imported twenty thousand pounds of tobacco, the
entire crop of the preceding year. James the First endeavored to draw a
"prerogative" revenue from what he termed a pernicious weed, and against
which he had published his "Counterblast;" but he was restrained from
this illegal measure by a resolution of the House of Commons. In 1607 he
sent a letter forbidding the use of tobacco at St. Mary's College,

Smoking was the first mode of using tobacco in England, and when Sir
Walter Raleigh first introduced the custom among people of fashion, in
order to escape observation he smoked privately in his house, (at
Islington,) the remains of which were till of late years to be seen, as
an inn, long known as the Pied Bull. This was the first house in England
in which it was smoked, and Raleigh had his arms emblazoned there, with
a tobacco-plant on the top. There existed also another tradition in the
Parish of St. Matthew, Friday Street, London, that Raleigh was
accustomed to sit smoking at his door in company with Sir Hugh
Middleton. Sir Walter's guests were entertained with pipes, a mug of
ale, and a nutmeg, and on these occasions he made use of his
tobacco-box, which was of cylindrical form, seven inches in diameter and
thirteen inches long; the outside of gilt leather, and within a receiver
of glass or metal, which held about a pound of tobacco. A kind of collar
connected the receiver with the case, and on every side the box was
pierced with holes for the pipes. This relic was preserved in the museum
of Ralph Thoresby, of Leeds, in 1719, and about 1843 was added, by the
late Duke of Sussex, to his collection of the smoking utensils of all

Although Sir Walter Raleigh first introduced the custom of smoking
tobacco in England, yet its use appears to have been not entirely
unknown before, for one Kemble, condemned for heresy in the time of
Queen Mary the Bloody, while walking to the stake smoked a pipe of
tobacco. Hence the last pipe that one smokes was called the Kemble pipe.

The writer of a pamphlet, supposed to have been Milton's father,
describes many of the play-books and pamphlets of that day, 1609, as
"conceived over night by idle brains, impregnated with tobacco smoke and
mulled sack, and brought forth by the help of midwifery of a caudle next
morning." At the theatres in Shakespeare's time, the spectators were
allowed to sit on the stage, and to be attended by pages, who furnished
them with pipes and tobacco.

About the time of the settlement of Jamestown, in 1607, the
characteristics of a man of fashion were, to wear velvet breeches, with
panes or slashes of silk, an enormous starched ruff, a gilt-handled
sword, and a Spanish dagger; to play at cards or dice in the chamber of
the groom-porter, and to smoke tobacco in the tilt-yard, or at the

The peers engaged in the trial of the Earls of Essex and Southampton
smoked much while they deliberated on their verdict. It was alleged
against Sir Walter Raleigh that he used tobacco on the occasion of the
execution of the Earl of Essex, in contempt of him; and it was perhaps
in allusion to this circumstance that when Raleigh was passing through
London to Winchester, to stand his trial, he was followed by the
execrations of the populace, and pelted with tobacco-pipes, stones, and
mud. On the scaffold, however, he protested that during the execution of
Essex he had retired far off into the armory, where Essex could not see
him, although he saw Essex, and shed tears for him. Raleigh used tobacco
on the morning of his own execution.

As early as the year 1610 tobacco was in general use in England. The
manner of using it was partly to inhale the smoke and blow it out
through the nostrils, and this was called "drinking tobacco," and this
practice continued until the latter part of the reign of James the
First. In 1614 the number of tobacco-houses in or near London was
estimated at seven thousand. In 1620 was chartered the Society of
Tobacco-pipe Makers of London; they bore on their shield a tobacco-plant
in full blossom.

The "Counterblast against Tobacco," attributed to James the First, if in
some parts absurd and puerile, yet is not without a good deal of just
reasoning and good sense; some fair hits are made in it, and those who
have ridiculed that production might find it not easy to controvert some
of its views. King James, in his Counterblast, does not omit the
opportunity of expressing his hatred toward Sir Walter Raleigh, in terms
worthy of that despicable monarch. He continued his opposition to
tobacco as long as he lived, and in his ordinary conversation oftentimes
argued and inveighed against it.

The Virginia tobacco in early times was imported into England in the
leaf, in bundles, as at present; the Spanish or West Indian tobacco in
balls. Molasses or other liquid preparation was used in preparing those
balls. Tobacco was then, as now, adulterated in various ways. The nice
retailer kept it in what were called lily-pots, that is, white jars. The
tobacco was cut on a maple block; juniper-wood, which retains fire well,
was used for lighting pipes, and among the rich silver tongs were
employed for taking up a coal of it. Tobacco was sometimes called the
American Silver Weed.

The Turkish Vizier thrust pipes through the noses of smokers; and the
Shah of Persia cropped the ears and slit the noses of those who made use
of the fascinating leaf. The Counterblast says of it: "And for the
vanity committed in this filthy custom, is it not both great vanity and
uncleanness, that at the table--a place of respect of cleanliness, of
modesty--men should not be ashamed to sit tossing of tobacco-pipes and
puffing of smoke, one at another, making the filthy smoke and stink
thereof to exhale athwart the dishes, and infect the air, when very
often men who abhor it are at their repast? Surely smoke becomes a
kitchen far better than a dining-chamber; and yet it makes the kitchen
oftentimes in the inward parts of man, soiling and infecting them with
an unctuous and oily kind of soot, as hath been found in some great
tobacco-takers that after their deaths were opened."

"A Counterblast to Tobacco," by James the First, King of England, was
first printed in quarto, without name or date, at London, 1616. In the
frontispiece was engraved the tobacco-smoker's coat of arms, consisting
of a blackamoor's head, cross-pipes, cross-bones, death's-head, etc. It
is not improbable that it was intended to foment the popular prejudice
against Sir Walter Raleigh, who first introduced the use of tobacco into
England, and who was put to death in the same year, 1616. King James
alludes to the introduction of the use of tobacco and of Raleigh as
follows: "It is not so long since the first entry of this abuse among us
here, as that this present age cannot very well remember both the first
author and the form of the first introduction of it among us. It was
neither brought in by king, great conqueror, nor learned doctor of
physic. With the report of a great discovery for a conquest, some two or
three savage men were brought in together with this savage custom; but
the pity is, the poor wild barbarous men died, but that vile barbarous
custom is still alive, yea, in fresh vigor; so as it seems a miracle to
me how a custom springing from so vile a ground, and brought in by a
father so generally hated, should be welcomed upon so slender a

The king thus reasons against the Virginia staple: "Secondly, it is, as
you use or rather abuse it, a branch of the sin of drunkenness, which is
the root of all sins,[156:A] for as the only delight that drunkards love
any weak or sweet drink, so are not those (I mean the strong heat and
fume) the only qualities that make tobacco so delectable to all the
lovers of it? And as no man loves strong heavy drinks the first day,
(because nemo repente fuit turpissimus,) but by custom is piece and
piece allured, while in the end a drunkard will have as great a thirst
to be drunk as a sober man to quench his thirst with a draught when he
hath need of it; so is not this the true case of all the great takers of
tobacco, which therefore they themselves do attribute to a bewitching
quality in it? Thirdly, is it not the greatest sin of all that you, the
people of all sorts of this kingdom, who are created and ordained by God
to bestow both your persons and goods for the maintenance both of the
honor and safety of your king and commonwealth, should disable yourself
to this shameful imbecility, that you are not able to ride or walk the
journey of a Jew's Sabbath but you must have a reeky coal brought you
from the next poor-house to kindle your tobacco with? whereas he cannot
be thought able for any service in the wars that cannot endure oftimes
the want of meat, drink, and sleep; much more then must he endure the
want of tobacco." A curious tractate on tobacco, by Dr. Tobias Venner,
was published at London in 1621. The author was a graduate of Oxford,
and a physician at Bath, and is mentioned in the Oxoniæ

The amount of tobacco imported in 1619 into England, from Virginia,
being the entire crop of the preceding year, was twenty thousand pounds.
At the end of seventy years there were annually imported into England
more than fifteen millions of pounds of it, from which was derived a
revenue of upwards of £100,000.[157:B]

In April, 1621, the House of Commons debated whether it was expedient to
prohibit the importation of tobacco entirely; and they determined to
exclude all save from Virginia and the Somer Isles. It was estimated
that the consumption of England amounted to one thousand pounds per
diem. This seductive narcotic leaf, which soothes the mind and quiets
its perturbations, has found its way into all parts of the habitable
globe, from the sunny tropics to the snowy regions of the frozen pole.
Its fragrant smoke ascends alike to the blackened rafters of the lowly
hut, and the gilded ceilings of luxurious wealth.


[154:A] Introduction to "A Counterblast to Tobacco, by James the First,
King of England," published at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1843.

[156:A] And one from which the king himself was not free.

[157:A] A copy of this rare pamphlet was lent me by N. S. Walker, Esq.,
of Richmond.

[157:B] Chalmers, Introduc. to Hist. of Revolt of Amer. Colonies, i. 13.



     Silk in Virginia--Endowment of East India School--Ministers in
     Virginia--Sermon at Bow Church--Corporation of Henrico.

IN November and December, 1621, at an assembly held at James City, acts
were passed for encouraging the planting of mulberry-trees, and the
making of silk; but this enterprise, so early commenced in Virginia, and
so earnestly revived of late years, is still unsuccessful; and it may be
concluded that the climate of Virginia is unpropitious to that sort of

The Rev. Mr. Copeland, Chaplain on board of the Royal James, East
Indiaman, on the return voyage from the East Indies, prevailed upon the
officers and crew of that ship to contribute seventy pounds toward the
establishment of a church and school in Virginia, and Charles City
County was selected as the site of it, and it was to be called the East
India School, and to be dependent upon the college at Henrico. The
Virginia Company allotted one thousand acres of land for the maintenance
of the master and usher, and presented three hundred acres to Mr.
Copeland. Workmen were accordingly sent out early in 1622, to begin the
building. The clergymen in Virginia at this time were Messrs. Whitaker,
Mease, Wickham, Stockham, and Bargrave.[158:A]

Early in 1622 very favorable intelligence from Virginia reached
England, and upon this occasion, on the seventeenth of April, the Rev.
Mr. Copeland, by appointment, preached before the Virginia Company, at
Bow Church. He was shortly afterwards appointed a member of the Virginia
Council and rector of the college established for the conversion of the
Indians; but all these benevolent purposes and hopeful anticipations
were suddenly darkened and defeated by the news of a catastrophe which
had, in a few hours, blasted the labors of so many years.


[158:A] The following is found in the early records:--


     On the northerly ridge of James River, from the falls down to
     Henrico, containing ten miles in length, are the public lands,
     surveyed and laid out; whereof, ten thousand acres for the
     university lands, three thousand acres for the company's
     lands, with other lands belonging to the college. The common
     land for that corporation, fifteen hundred acres.

     On the southerly side, beginning from the falls, there are
     there patented, viz.:--

     John Petterson             100
     Anthony Edwards            100
     Nathaniel Norton           100
     John Proctor               200
     Thomas Tracy               100
     John Vithard               100
     Francis Weston             300
     Phettiplace Close          100
     John Price                 150
     Peter Nemenart             110
     William Perry              100
     John Plower                100
       Surveyed for the use of the iron-work.
     Edward Hudson              100
     Thomas Morgan              150
     Thomas Sheffield           150

Cosendale, within the Corporation of Henrico:--

     Lieut. Edward Barckley     112
     Richard Poulton            100
     Robert Analand             200
     John Griffin                50
     Peter Nemenart              40
     Thomas Tindall             100
     Thomas Reed                100
     John Laydon                200



     The Massacre--Its Origin, Nemattanow--Opechancanough--Security
     of Colonists--Perfidy of the Indians--Particulars of Massacre--
     Its Consequences--Brave Defence of some--Supplies sent from
     England--Captain Smith's Offer.

ON the twenty-second day of March, 1622, there occurred in the colony a
memorable massacre, which originated, as was believed, in the following
circumstances: There was among the Indians a famous chief, named
Nemattanow, or "Jack of the Feather," as he was styled by the English,
from his fashion of decking his hair. He was reckoned by his own people
invulnerable to the arms of the English. This Nemattanow coming to the
store of one of the settlers named Morgan, persuaded him to go to
Pamunkey to trade, and murdered him by the way. Nemattanow, in two or
three days, returned to Morgan's house, and finding there two young men,
Morgan's servants, who inquired for their master, answered them that he
was dead. The young men, seeing their master's cap on the Indian's head,
suspected the murder, and undertook to conduct him to Mr. Thorpe, who
then lived at Berkley, on the James River, since well known as a seat of
the Harrisons, and originally called "Brickley." Nemattanow so
exasperated the young men on the way that they shot him, and he falling,
they put him into a boat and conveyed him to the governor at Jamestown,
distant seven or eight miles. The wounded chief in a short time died.
Feeling the approaches of death, he entreated the young men not to
disclose that he had been mortally wounded by a bullet: so strong is the
desire for posthumous fame even in the breast of a wild, untutored

Opechancanough, the ferocious Indian chief, agitated with mingled
emotions of grief and indignation at the loss of his favorite
Nemattanow, at first muttered threats of revenge; but the retorted
defiance of the English made him for a time smother his resentment and
dissemble his dark designs under the guise of friendship. Accordingly,
upon Sir Francis Wyat's arrival, all suspicion of Indian treachery had
died away; the colonists, in delusive security, were in general
destitute of arms; the plantations lay dispersed, as caprice suggested,
or a rich vein of land allured, as for as the Potomac River;[161:A]
their houses everywhere open to the Indians, who fed at their tables and
lodged under their roofs. About the middle of March, a messenger being
sent upon some occasion to Opechancanough, he entertained him kindly,
and protested that he held the peace so firm that "the sky should fall
before he broke it." On the twentieth of the same month, the Indians
guided some of the English safely through the forest, and the more
completely to lull all suspicion, they sent one Brown, who was
sojourning among them for the purpose of learning their language, back
home to his master. They even borrowed boats from the whites to cross
the river when about holding a council on the meditated attack. The
massacre took place on Friday, the twenty-second of March, 1622. On the
evening before, and on that very morning, the Indians, as usual, came
unarmed into the houses of the unsuspecting colonists, with fruits,
fish, turkeys, and venison for sale: in some places they actually sate
down to breakfast with the English. At about the hour of noon the
savages, rising suddenly and everywhere at the same time, butchered the
colonists with their own implements, sparing neither age, nor sex, nor
condition; and thus fell in a few hours three hundred and forty-nine
men, women, and children. The infuriated savages wreaked their vengeance
even on the dead, dragging and mangling the lifeless bodies, smearing
their hands in blood, and bearing off the torn and yet palpitating limbs
as trophies of a brutal triumph.

Among their victims was Mr. George Thorpe, (a kinsman of Sir Thomas
Dale,) who had been of the king's bedchamber, deputy to the college
lands, and one of the principal men of the colony--a pious gentleman,
who had labored zealously for the conversion of the Indians, and had
treated them with uniform kindness. As an instance of this, they having
at one time expressed their fears of the English mastiff dogs, he had
caused some of them to be put to death, to the great displeasure of
their owners. Opechancanough inhabiting a paltry cabin, Mr. Thorpe had
built him a handsome house after the English manner.[162:A] But the
savage miscreants, equally deaf to the voice of humanity and the
emotions of gratitude, murdered their benefactor with every circumstance
of remorseless cruelty. He had been forewarned of his danger by a
servant, but making no effort to escape, fell a victim to his misplaced
confidence. With him ten other persons were slain at Berkley.

Another of the victims was Captain Nathaniel Powell, one of the first
settlers, a brave soldier, and who had for a brief interval filled the
place of governor of the colony. His family fell with him. Nathaniel
Causie, another of Captain Smith's old soldiers, when severely wounded
and surrounded by the Indians, slew one of them with an axe, and put the
rest to flight. At Warrasqueake a colonist named Baldwin, by repeatedly
firing his gun, saved himself and family, and divers others. The savages
at the same time made an attempt upon the house of a planter named
Harrison, (near Baldwin's,) where were Thomas Hamor with some men, and a
number of women and children. The Indians tried to inveigle Hamor out of
the house, by pretending that Opechancanough was hunting in the
neighboring woods and desired to have his company; but he not coming
out, they set fire to a tobacco-house; the men ran toward the fire, and
were pursued by the Indians, who pierced them with arrows and beat out
their brains. Hamor having finished a letter that he was writing, and
suspecting no treachery, went out to see what was the matter, when,
being wounded in the back with an arrow, he returned to the house and
barricaded it. Meanwhile Harrison's boy, finding his master's gun
loaded, fired it at random, and the Indians fled. Baldwin still
continuing to discharge his gun, Hamor, with twenty-two others, withdrew
to his house, leaving their own in flames. Hamor next retired to a new
house that he was building, and there defending himself with spades,
axes, and brickbats, escaped the fury of the savages. The master of a
vessel lying in the James River sent a file of musqueteers ashore, who
recaptured from the enemy the Merchant's store-house. In the
neighborhood of Martin's Hundred seventy-three persons were butchered;
yet a small family there escaped, and heard nothing of the massacre
until two days after.

Thus fell in so short a space of time one-twelfth part of the colonists
of Virginia, including six members of the council. The destruction might
have been universal but for the disclosure of a converted Indian, named
Chanco, who, during the night preceding the massacre, revealed the plot
to one Richard Pace, with whom he lived. Pace, upon receiving this
intelligence, after fortifying his own house, repaired before day to
Jamestown, and gave the alarm to Sir Francis Wyat, the Governor; his
vigilance saved a large part of the colony from destruction.[163:A]
Eleven were killed at Berkley, fifty at Edward Bonit's plantation, two
at Westover, five at Macocks, four on Appomattox River, six at
Flower-de-Hundred, twenty-one of Sir George Yeardley's people at
Weyanoke, and seventy-three at Martin's Hundred, seven miles from

The horrors of famine threatened to follow in the train of massacre, and
the consternation of the survivors was such that twenty or thirty days
elapsed before any plan of defence was concerted. Many were urgent to
abandon the James River, and take refuge on the eastern shore, where
some newly settled plantations had escaped. At length it was determined
to abandon the weaker plantations, and to concentrate their surviving
population in five or six well fortified places, Shirley,
Flower-de-Hundred, Jamestown, with Paspahey, and the plantations
opposite to Kiquotan, and Southampton Hundred. In consequence a large
part of the cattle and effects of the planters fell a prey to the enemy.
Nevertheless, a planter, "Master Gookins," at Newport's News, refused to
abandon his plantation, and with thirty-five men resolutely held it.

The family of Gookins is ancient, and appears to have been found
originally at Canterbury, in Kent, England. The name has undergone
successive changes--Colkin, Cockin, Cockayn, Cocyn, Cokain, Cokin,
Gockin, Gokin, Gookin, Gookins, Gooking, and others. The early New
England chroniclers spelled it "Goggin."[164:A] Daniel Gookin removed to
County Cork, in Ireland, and thence to Virginia, arriving in November,
1621, with fifty men of his own and thirty passengers, exceedingly well
furnished with all sorts of provision and cattle, and planted himself at
Newport's News. In the massacre he held out with a force of thirty-five
men against the savages, disregarding the order to retire. It is
probable that he affected to make a settlement independent of the civil
power of the colony, and it appears to have been styled by his son a
"lordship." It was above Newport's News, and was called "Mary's

To return to the incidents of the massacre. Samuel Jordan, with the aid
of a few refugees, maintained his ground at Beggar's Bush;[164:C] as
also did Mr. Edward Hill, at Elizabeth City. "Mrs. Proctor, a proper,
civil, modest gentlewoman," defended herself and family for a month
after the massacre, until at last constrained to retire by the English
officers, who threatened, if she refused, to burn her house down; which
was done by the Indians shortly after her withdrawal. Captain Newce, of
Elizabeth City, and his wife, distinguished themselves by their
liberality to the sufferers. Several families escaped to the country
afterwards known as North Carolina, and settled there.[164:D]

When intelligence of this event reached England, the king granted the
Virginia Company some unserviceable arms out of the Tower, and "_lent_
them twenty barrels of powder;" Lord St. John of Basing gave sixty coats
of mail; the privy council sent out supplies, and the City of London
dispatched one hundred settlers.[165:A]

One effect of the massacre was the ruin of the iron-works at Falling
Creek, on the south side of the James River, (near Ampthill in the
present County of Chesterfield,) where, of twenty-four people, only a
boy and girl escaped by hiding themselves.[165:B] Lead was found near
these iron-works. King James promised to send over four hundred soldiers
for the protection of the colony; but he never could be induced to
fulfil his promise. Captain John Smith offered, if the company would
send him to Virginia, with a small force, to reduce the savages to
subjection, and protect the colony from future assaults. His project
failed on account of the dissensions of the company, and the niggardly
terms proposed by the few members that were found to act on the matter.
The Rev. Jonas Stockham, in May, 1621, previous to the massacre, had
expressed the opinion that it was utterly in vain to undertake the
conversion of the savages, until their priests and "ancients" were put
to the sword. Captain Smith held the same opinion, and he states that
the massacre drove all to believe that Mr. Stockham was right in his
view on this point.[165:C] The event justified the policy of Argall in
prohibiting intercourse with the natives, and had that measure been
enforced, the massacre would probably have been prevented. The violence
and corruption of such rulers as Argall serve to disgrace and defeat
even good measures; while the virtues of the good are sometimes
perverted to canonize the most pernicious.


[161:A] Beverley, 39.

[162:A] The chief was so charmed with it, especially with the lock and
key, that he locked and unlocked the door a hundred times a day.

[163:A] Purchas, his Pilgrim, iv. 1788; Smith, ii. 65: a list of the
slain may be found on page 70.

[164:A] ARMS. Quarterly: First, gules, a chevron ermine between three
cocks or, two in chief, one in base, Gookin. Second and third, sable, a
cross crosslet, ermine. Fourth, or, a lion rampant, gules between six
crosses fitchée. CREST. On a mural crown, gules, a cock or, beaked and
legged azure, combed and wattled gu.

[164:B] Article by J. Wingate Thornton, Esq., of Boston, in Mass. Gen.
and Antiq. Register, vol. for 1847, page 345, referring, among other
authorities, to Records of General Court of Virginia.

[164:C] Afterwards called and still known as Jordan's Point, in the
County of Prince George, the seat of the revolutionary patriot Richard
Bland. Beggar's Bush, as already mentioned, was the title of one of
Fletcher's comedies then in vogue in England. (_Hallam's Hist. of
Literature_, ii. 210.)

[164:D] Martin's Hist. of North Carolina, i. 87.

[165:A] Smith, ii. 79; Chalmers' Introduction, i. 19; Belknap, art.

[165:B] Beverley, 43.

[165:C] Anderson's Hist. of Col. Church, i. 343; Smith, 139; Stith, 233.



     Crashaw and Opechancanough--Captain Madison massacres a
     Party of the Natives--Yeardley invades the Nansemonds and
     the Pamunkies--They are driven back--Reflections on their

DURING these calamitous events that had befallen the colony, Captain
Raleigh Crashaw had been engaged in a trading cruise up the Potomac.
While he was there, Opechancanough sent two baskets of beads to
Japazaws, the chief of the Potomacs, to bribe him to slay Crashaw and
his party, giving at the same time tidings of the massacre, with an
assurance that "before the end of two moons" there should not be an
Englishman left in all the country. Japazaws communicated the message to
Crashaw, and he thereupon sent Opechancanough word "that he would
nakedly fight him, or any of his, with their own swords." The challenge
was declined. Not long afterwards Captain Madison, who occupied a fort
on the Potomac River, suspecting treachery on the part of the tribe
there, rashly killed thirty or forty men, women, and children, and
carried off the werowance and his son, and two of his people, prisoners
to Jamestown. The captives were in a short time ransomed.

When the corn was ripe, Sir George Yeardley, with three hundred men,
invaded the country of the Nansemonds, who, setting fire to their
cabins, and destroying whatever they could not carry away, fled;
whereupon the English seized their corn, and completed the work of
devastation. Sailing next to Opechancanough's seat, at the head of York
River, Yeardley inflicted the same chastisement on the Pamunkies. In New
England it was said: "Since the news of the massacre in Virginia, though
the Indians continue their wonted friendship, yet are we more wary of
them than before, for their hands have been embrued in much English
blood, only by too much confidence, but not by force."[166:A]

The red men of Virginia were driven back, like hunted wolves, from
their ancient haunts. While their fate cannot fail to excite
commiseration, it may reasonably be concluded that the perpetual
possession of this country by the aborigines would have been
incompatible with the designs of Providence in promoting the welfare of
mankind. A productive soil could make little return to a people so
destitute of the art and of the implements of agriculture, and
habitually indolent. Navigable rivers, the natural channels of commerce,
would have failed in their purpose had they borne no freight but that of
the rude canoe; primeval forests would have slept in gloomy inutility,
where the axe was unknown; and the mineral and metallic treasures of the
earth would have remained forever entombed. In Virginia, since the
aboriginal population was only about one to the square mile, they could
not be justly held occupants of the soil. However well-founded their
title to those narrow portions which they actually occupied, yet it was
found impossible to take possession of the open country, to which the
savages had no just claim, without also exterminating them from those
particular spots that rightfully belonged to them. This inevitable
necessity actuated the pious Puritans of Plymouth as well as the less
scrupulous settlers of Jamestown; and force was resorted to in all the
Anglo-American settlements except in that effected, at a later day, by
the gentle and sagacious Penn. The unrelenting hostility of the savages,
their perfidy and vindictive implacability, made sanguinary measures
necessary. In Virginia, the first settlers, a small company, in an
unknown wilderness, were repeatedly assaulted, so that resistance and
retaliation were demanded by the natural law of self-defence. Nor were
these settlers voluntary immigrants; the bulk of them had been sent
over, without regard to their choice, by the king or the Virginia
Company. Nor did the king or the company authorize any injustice or
cruelty to be exercised toward the natives; on the contrary, the
colonists, however unfit, were enjoined to introduce the Christian
religion among them, and to propitiate their good will by a humane and
lenient treatment. Smith and his comrades, so far from being encouraged
to maltreat the Indians, were often hampered in making a necessary
self-defence, by a fear of offending an arbitrary government at home.

It has been remarked by Mr. Jefferson,[168:A] that it is not so general
a truth, as has been supposed, that the lands of Virginia were taken
from the natives by conquest, far the greater portion having been
purchased by treaty. It may be objected, that the consideration was
often inadequate; but a small consideration may have been sufficient to
compensate for a title which, for the most part, had but little
validity; besides, a larger compensation would oftentimes have been
thrown away upon men so ignorant and indolent. Groping in the dim
twilight of nature, and slaves of a gross idolatry, their lives were
circumscribed within a narrow uniform circle of animal instincts and the
necessities of a precarious subsistence. Cunning, bloody, and
revengeful, engaged in frequent wars, they were strangers to that
Arcadian innocence and the Elysian scenes of a golden age of which
youthful poets so fondly dream. If an occasional exception occurs, it is
but a solitary ray of light shooting across the surrounding gloom. Yet
we cannot be insensible to the many injuries they have suffered, and
cannot but regret that their race could not be united with our own. The
Indian has long since disappeared from Virginia; his cry no longer
echoes in the woods, nor is the dip of his paddle heard on the water.
The exterminating wave still urges them onward to the setting sun, and
their tribes are fading one by one forever from the map of existence.
Geology shows that in the scale of animal life, left impressed on the
earth's strata, the inferior species has still given place to the
superior: so likewise is it with the races of men.


[166:A] Purchas, iv. 1840.

[168:A] Notes on Va., 102.



     James the First jealous of Virginia Company--Gondomar--The
     King takes Measures to annul the Charter--Commissioners
     appointed--Assembly Petitions the King--Disputes between
     Commissioners and Assembly--Butler's Account of the Colony--
     Nicholas Ferrar--Treachery of Sharpless, and his Punishment--
     The Charter of Virginia Company dissolved--Causes of this
     Proceeding--Character of the Company--Records of the Company--
     Death of James the First--Charles the First succeeds him--The
     Virginia Company--Earl of Southampton--Sir Edwin Sandys and
     Nicholas Ferrar--The Rev. Jonas Stockham's Letter--Injustice
     of the Dissolution of the Charter--Beneficial Results--
     Assembly of 1624.

THE Court of James the First, already jealous of the growing power
and republican spirit of the Virginia Company, was rendered still
more inimical by the malign influence of Count Gondomar, the Spanish
ambassador, who was jealous of any encroachment on the Spanish
colony of Florida. He remarked to King James, of the Virginia Company,
that "they were deep politicians, and had further designs than a
tobacco-plantation; that as soon as they should get to be more numerous,
they intended to step beyond their limits, and, for aught he knew, they
might visit his master's mines." The massacre afforded an occasion to
the enemies of the company to attribute all the calamities of the colony
to its mismanagement and neglect, and thus to frame a plausible pretext
for dissolving the charter.

Captain Nathaniel Butler, a dependent of the Earl of Warwick, had, by
his influence, been sent out Governor of Bermudas for three years, where
he exercised the same oppression and extortion as Argall had exhibited
in Virginia. Upon finding himself compelled to leave those islands, he
came to Virginia, in the midst of the winter succeeding the massacre. He
was hospitably entertained by Governor Wyat, which kindness he proved
himself wholly unworthy of, his conduct being profligate and disorderly.
He demanded a seat in the council, to which he was in no way entitled.
He went up the James as far as to the mouth of the Chickahominy, where
"he plundered Lady Dale's cattle;" and after a three months' stay, he
set sail for England. Upon his return, Butler was introduced to the
king, and published "The Unmasked Face of our Colony in Virginia, as it
was in the Winter of 1622," in which he took advantage of the
misfortunes of the colony, and exaggerated its deplorable condition. The
Rev. William Mease, (who had been for ten years resident in the colony,)
with several others, replied to this defamatory pamphlet.[170:A]

The company was divided into two parties, the one headed by the Earl of
Southampton, Lord Cavendish, Sir Edward Sackville, Sir John Ogle, Sir
Edwin Sandys, with several others of less note; on the other side, the
leaders were the Earl of Warwick, Sir Thomas Smith, Sir Nathaniel Rich,
Sir Henry Mildmay, Alderman Johnson, etc. They appeared before the king,
the Earl of Warwick's faction presenting their accusations against the
company, and the other side defending it; and Sir Edward Sackville used
such freedom of language that "the king was fain to take him down
soundly and roundly." However, by the lord treasurer's intervention, the
matter was reconciled on the next day.[170:B]

In May, 1623, a commission was issued authorizing Sir William Jones, a
justice of the common pleas, Sir Nicholas Fortescue, Sir Francis Goston,
Sir Richard Sutton, Sir William Pitt, Sir Henry Bourchier, and Sir Henry
Spilman,[170:C] to inquire into the affairs of the colony. By an order
of the privy council the records of the company were seized, and the
deputy treasurer, Nicholas Ferrar, imprisoned, and on the arrival of a
ship from Virginia, her packets were seized and laid before the privy

Nicholas Ferrar, Jr., was born in London in 1592, educated at Cambridge,
where he was noted for his talents, acquirements, and piety.[171:A]
Upon leaving the university he made the tour of Europe, winning the
esteem of the learned, passing through many adventures and perils with
Christian heroism, and maintaining everywhere an unsullied character.
Upon his return to England, in 1618, he was appointed king's counsel for
the Virginia Plantation. In the year 1622 he was chosen deputy treasurer
of the Virginia Company, (which office his brother John also filled for
some years,) and so remained till its dissolution. In the House of
Commons he distinguished himself by his opposition to the political
corruption of that day, and abandoned public life when little upwards of
thirty years of age, "in obedience to a religious fancy he had long
entertained," and formed of his family and relations a sort of little
half-popish convent, in which he passed the remainder of his

Carlyle[171:C] thus describes this singular place of retirement:
"Crossing Huntingdonshire in his way northward, his majesty[171:D] had
visited the establishment of Nicholas Ferrar, at Little Gidding, on the
western border of that county. A surprising establishment now in full
flower, wherein above fourscore persons, including domestics, with
Ferrar and his brother, and aged mother at the head of them, had devoted
themselves to a kind of Protestant monachism, and were getting much
talked of in those times. They followed celibacy and merely religious
duties; employed themselves in binding of prayer-books, embroidering of
hassocks, in almsgiving also, and what charitable work was possible in
that desert region; above all, they kept up, night and day, a continual
repetition of the English liturgy, being divided into relays and
watches, one watch relieving another, as on shipboard, and never
allowing at any hour the sacred fire to go out."

In October, 1623, the king declared his intention to grant a new charter
modelled after that of 1606. This astounding order was read three
times, at a meeting of the company, before they could credit their own
ears; then, by an overwhelming vote, they refused to relinquish their
charter, and expressed their determination to defend it.

The king, in order to procure additional evidence to be used against the
company, appointed five commissioners to make inquiries in Virginia into
the state and condition of the colony. In November, 1623, when two of
these commissioners had just sailed for Virginia, the king ordered a
writ of _quo warranto_ to be issued against the Virginia Company.

In the colony, hitherto, the proclamations of the governors, which had
formed the rule of action, were now enacted into laws; and it was
declared that the governor should no more impose taxes on the colonists
without the consent of the Assembly, and that he should not withdraw the
inhabitants from their private labor to any service of his; and further,
that the burgesses should be free from arrest during the session of the
Assembly. These acts of the legislature of the infant colony, while
under the control of the Virginia Company, render it certain that there
was more of constitutional and well-regulated freedom in Virginia then,
than in the mother country.

Of the commissioners appointed to make inquiries in Virginia, John
Harvey and John Pory arrived there early in 1624; Samuel Matthews and
Abraham Percy were planters resident in the colony, and the latter a
member of the House of Burgesses; John Jefferson, the other
commissioner, did not come over to Virginia, nor did he take any part in
the matter, being a hearty friend to the company.[172:A] Thomas
Jefferson, in his memoir of himself,[172:B] says that one of his name
was secretary to the Virginia Company. The Virginia planters at first
looking on it as a dispute between the crown and the company, in which
they were not essentially interested, paid little attention to it; but
two petitions, defamatory of the colony and laudatory of Sir Thomas
Smith's arbitrary rule, having come to the knowledge of the Assembly, in
February, 1624, that body prepared spirited replies, and drafted a
petition to the king, which, with a letter to the privy council, and
other papers, were entrusted to Mr. John Pountis, a member of the
council.[173:A] He died during the voyage to England. The letter
addressed to the privy council prayed "that the governors may not have
absolute power, that they might still retain the liberty of popular
assemblies, than which nothing could more conduce to the public
satisfaction and public utility." At the same time the Virginia Company,
in England, presented a petition to the House of Commons against the
arbitrary proceedings of the king; but although favorably received, it
was withdrawn as soon as the king's disapprobation was announced.

In Virginia the commissioners refused to exhibit their commission and
instructions, and the Assembly therefore refused to give them access to
their records. Pory, one of the commissioners, who had formerly lost his
place of secretary of the colony by betraying its secrets to the Earl of
Warwick, suborned Edward Sharpless, clerk of the council, to expose to
him copies of the journal of that body, and of the House of Burgesses.
Sharpless being convicted of this misdemeanor was sentenced to the
pillory, with the loss of his ears.[173:B] Only a part of one ear was
actually cut off.

The commissioners, having failed to obtain from the Assembly a
declaration of their willingness to submit to the king's purpose of
revoking the charter, made a report against the company's management of
the colony and the government of it, as too popular, that is,
democratic, under the present charter. The king, by a proclamation
issued in July, suppressed the meetings of the company, and ordered for
the present a committee of the privy council, and others, to sit every
Thursday, at the house of Sir Thomas Smith, in Philpot Lane, for
conducting the affairs of the colony. Viscount Mandeville was at the
head of this committee: Sir George Calvert, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, Sir
Samuel Argall, John Pory, Sir John Wolstenholme, and others, were
members. At the instance of the attorney-general, to enable the company
to make a defence, their books were restored and the deputy treasurer
released. In Trinity term, 1624, the writ of _quo warranto_ was tried
in the Court of King's Bench, and the charter of the Virginia Company
was annulled. The case was determined only upon a technicality in the

In one of the hearings against the company, before the privy council,
the Marquis of Hamilton said of the letters and instructions of the
company, written by Nicholas Ferrar, Jr.: "They are papers as admirably
well penned as any I ever heard." And the Earl of Pembroke remarked:
"They all deserve the highest commendation: containing advices far more
excellent than I could have expected to have met with in the letters of
a trading company. For they abound with soundness of good matter and
profitable instruction, with respect both to religion and policy; and
they possess uncommon elegance of language."[174:A]

The company had been long obnoxious to the king's ill will for several
reasons; it had become a nursery for rearing and training leaders of the
opposition, many of its members being likewise members of parliament. It
was a sort of reform club. The king, in a speech, swore that "the
Virginia Company was a seminary for a seditious parliament." The company
had chosen a treasurer in disregard of the king's nomination; and in
electing Carew Raleigh, a member, they had made allusions to his father,
Sir Walter Raleigh, which were doubtless unpalatable to the author of
his judicial murder. The king was greedy of power and of money, which he
wanted the sense and the virtue to make a good use of; and he hoped to
find in Virginia a new field for extortion. Fortunately for the history
of the colony, copies of the company's records were made by the
precaution of Nicholas Ferrar: these being deposited in the hands of the
Earl of Southampton, after his death, which took place in 1624,
descended to his son. After his death, in 1667, they were purchased from
his executors, for sixty guineas, by the first Colonel William Byrd,
then in England. From these two folio volumes, in possession of Sir John
Randolph, and from the records of the colony, Stith compiled much of his
History of Virginia, which comes down to the year 1624.[174:B]

On the sixth day of April, 1625, died King James the First, aged
fifty-nine, after a reign of twenty years. By his consort, Anne of
Denmark, he had issue, Henry and Robert, who died young, Charles, his
successor, and Elizabeth, who married Frederic the Fifth, elector
Palatine. Charles the First succeeding to the crown and the principles
of his father, took the government of Virginia into his own hands.

The company thus dissolved, had expended one hundred and fifty thousand
pounds in establishing the colony, and had transported nine thousand
settlers without the aid of government. The number of stockholders was
about one thousand; and the annual value of exports from Virginia was,
at the period of the dissolution of the charter, only twenty thousand

The company embraced much of the rank, wealth, and talents of the
kingdom--near fifty noblemen, several hundred knights, and many
gentlemen, merchants, and citizens. Among the leaders in its courts were
Lord Cavendish, afterwards Earl of Devonshire; Sir Edwin Sandys; and Sir
Edward Sackville, afterwards the celebrated Earl of Dorset; and, above
all, the Earl of Southampton, the friend of Essex, and the patron of
Shakespeare. Henry Wriothesley, third Earl of Southampton, in 1601, was
implicated with the Earl of Essex in his hair-brained and abortive
conspiracy to seize the person of Queen Elizabeth. Essex lost his life.
Southampton was convicted, attainted and imprisoned during the queen's
life. Upon the accession of James the First he was liberated, and
restored in 1603. He was afterwards made Captain of the Isle of Wight
and Governor of Carisbroke Castle; and in 1618 a member of the privy
council. Brave and generous, but haughty and impetuous, he was by no
means adapted to the court and cabinet of James, where fawning servility
and base intrigue were the ordinary stepping-stones of political

About the year 1619, the Earl of Southampton was imprisoned through the
influence of Buckingham, "whom he rebuked with some passion for speaking
often to the same thing in the house, and out of order." In 1620 he was
chosen Treasurer, or Governor of the Virginia Company, contrary to the
king's wishes; but he, nevertheless, continued in that office until the
charter was dissolved, and at its meetings, and in parliament, opposed
the measures of a feeble and corrupt court. He and Sir Edwin Sandys, the
leaders, together with the bulk of the members of the company, shared
largely in the spirit of civil and religious freedom, which was then
manifesting itself so strongly in England. In the hostile course pursued
against the company, the attacks were especially directed against the
earl and his associates Sir Edwin Sandys and Nicholas Ferrar. These
three were celebrated: Lord Southampton for wisdom, eloquence, and sweet
deportment; Sir Edwin Sandys for great knowledge and integrity; and
Nicholas Ferrar for wonderful abilities, unwearied diligence, and the
strictest virtue.[176:A] The earl and Sir Edwin were particular objects
of the king's hatred. Sir Edwin, a member of the House of Commons, was
arbitrarily imprisoned in 1621, during the session of parliament; and
the earl was arrested after its dissolution. Spain had, at this time,
acquired the ascendancy in the English Court, and this malign influence
was skilfully maintained by the intrigues of her crafty ambassador,
Count Gondomar. It was believed by many that James was even willing to
sacrifice the interests of the English colonies for the benefit of those
of Spain. The Rev. Jonas Stockham, a minister in Virginia, in a letter
dated in May, 1621, and addressed to the Council of the Virginia
Company, said: "There be many Italianated and Spaniolized Englishmen
envies our prosperities, and by all their ignominious scandals they can
devise, seeks to dishearten what they can those that are willing to
further this glorious enterprise. To such I wish, according to the
decree of Darius, that whosoever is an enemy to our peace, and seeketh
either by getting monipolical patents, or by forging unjust tales to
hinder our welfare--that his house were pulled down, and a pair of
gallows made of the wood, and he hanged on them in the place."

The Earl of Southampton was grandson of Wriothesley, the famous
Chancellor of Edward the Sixth, father to the excellent and noble
Treasurer Southampton, grandfather to Rachel Lady Russel. In his later
years he commanded an English regiment in the Dutch service, and died in
the Netherlands, 1624. Shakespeare dedicated some of his minor poems to
him; the County of Southampton, in Virginia, probably also took its name
from him. Captain Smith, who had been unjustly displaced by the company,
approved of the dissolution of their charter. Yet, as no compensation
was rendered for the enormous expenditure incurred, it can be looked
upon as little better than confiscation effected by chicane and tyranny.
A parliamentary committee, of which Sir Edwin Sandys was a member, in
the same year, 1624, drew up articles of impeachment against Lord
Treasurer Cranfield for his agency in bringing about the dissolution of
the charter.[177:A] Nevertheless, the result was undoubtedly favorable
to the colony, as is candidly acknowledged by that honest chronicler,
Stith, although no one could be more strenuously opposed to the
arbitrary means employed.

An Assembly had been held in March, 1624, and its acts are preserved:
they are brief and simple, coming directly to the point, without the
redundancy of modern statutes; and refer mainly to agriculture, the
church establishment, and defence against the Indians.[177:B] The
following is a list of the members of this early Assembly:--

                 Sir Francis Wyat, Knt., Governor, etc.
     Captain Francis West,      |   John Pott,
     Sir George Yeardley,       |   Captain Roger Smith,
     George Sandys, Treasurer,  |   Captain Ralph Hamor,
                   And John Pountis, _of the Council_.

         BURGESSES.             |      BURGESSES.
     William Tucker,            |  Nathaniel Bass,
     Jabez Whitakers,           |  John Willcox,
     William Peeine,            |  Nicolas Marten,
     Raleigh Crashaw,           |  Clement Dilke,
     Richard Kingsmell,         |  Isaac Chaplin,
     Edward Blany,              |  John Chew,
     Luke Boyse,                |  John Utie,
     John Pollington,           |  John Southerne,
     Nathaniel Causey,          |  Richard Bigge,
     Robert Adams,              |  Henry Watkins,
     Thomas Harris,             |  Gabriel Holland,
     Richard Stephens,          |  Thomas Morlatt,
                                           R. Hickman, _Clerk_.


[170:A] Stith, 243, 268.

[170:B] Court and Times of James the First, ii. 389.

[170:C] Stith calls him Spilman; Burk, Spiller. (See _Belknap_, art.

[171:A] His father, of the same name, a London merchant, was one of the
leading stockholders in the Virginia Company. Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir
John Hawkins, Sir Francis Drake, Sir Edwin Sandys, and the like, were
frequent guests at his table.

[171:B] Belknap, art. WYAT, in note; Foster's Miscellanies, 368.

[171:C] Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell, i. 69.

[171:D] Charles the First.

[172:A] Stith, 297.

[172:B] Writings of Jefferson, i. 1.

[173:A] Hening, i. 120.

[173:B] Stith, 315.

[174:A] Hist. Mag., ii. 34.

[174:B] It has been said that these folios were sent back to England by
John Randolph of Roanoke, (_Belknap_, art. WYAT;) but it appears that
they came into possession of Congress as part of Mr. Jefferson's
library, and are now in the Law Library at Washington. There is to be
found there also a volume of papers and records of the Virginia Company,
from 1621 to 1625. (See article by J. Wingate Thornton, Esq., of Boston,
in Hist. Mag., ii. 33, recommending that these documents should be
published by Congress.) There are also valuable MS. historical materials
in Richmond which ought to be published. The recent destruction of the
library of William and Mary College shows the precarious tenure by which
the collections of the Virginia Historical Society, and the records
preserved in the State Capitol, are held.

[176:A] Peckard's Life of Ferrar--a work which throws much light on the
early history of Virginia.

[177:A] Belknap.

[177:B] Hening's Statutes, i. 119, 129.



     Charles the First commissions Sir Thomas Wyat, Governor--
     Assemblies not allowed--Royal Government virtually established
     in Virginia--Other Colonies on Atlantic Coast--Wyat returns to
     Ireland--Succeeded by Yeardley--Yeardley succeeded by West--
     Letter of Charles the First directing an Assembly to meet--
     Assembly's Reply--John Pott, Governor--Condition of Colony--
     Statistics--Diet--Pott superseded by Harvey--Dr. John Pott
     Convicted of Stealing Cattle--Sir John Harvey--Lord Baltimore
     visits Virginia--Refuses to take the Oaths tendered to him--
     Procures from Charles the First a Grant of Territory--Acts
     relative to Ministers, Agriculture, Indians, etc.

IN August, 1624, King Charles the First granted a commission appointing
Sir Thomas Wyat Governor, with a council during pleasure, and omitting
all mention of an assembly, thinking so "popular a course" the chief
source of the recent troubles and misfortunes. The eleven members of the
council were, Francis West, Sir George Yeardley, George Sandys, Roger
Smith, Ralph Hamor, who had been of the former council, with the
addition of John Martin, John Harvey, Samuel Matthews, Abraham Percy,
Isaac Madison, and William Clayborne. Several of these were then, or
became afterwards, men of note in the colony. This is the first mention
of William Clayborne, who was destined to play an important part in the
future annals of Virginia.

Thus in effect a royal government was now established in Virginia;
hitherto she had been subject to a complex threefold government of the
company, the crown, and her own president or governor and

From 1624 to 1628 there is no mention in the statute-book of Virginia,
or in the journal of the Virginia Company, of any assembly having been
held in the colony, and in 1628 appeals were made to the governor and
council; whereas had there been an assembly, it would have been the
appellate court.

The French had established themselves as early as 1625 in Canada; the
Dutch were now colonizing the New Netherlands; a Danish colony had been
planted in New Jersey; the English were extending their confines in New
England (where New Plymouth numbered thirty-two houses and one hundred
and eighty settlers) and Virginia; while the Spaniards, the first
settlers of the coast, still held some feeble posts in Florida.

Sir Thomas Wyat, the governor of the colony of Virginia, on the death of
his father, Sir George Wyat, returning, in 1626, to Ireland, to attend
to his private affairs there, was succeeded by Sir George Yeardley. He,
during the same year, by proclamation, which now again usurped the place
of law, prohibited the selling of corn to the Indians; made some
commercial regulations, and directed houses to be palisaded. Yeardley
dying, was succeeded in November, 1627, by Francis West, elected by the
council. He was a younger brother of Lord Delaware.[180:A]

At a court held at James City, November the sixteenth, Lady Temperance
Yeardley came and confirmed the conveyance made by her late husband, Sir
George Yeardley, knight, late governor, to Abraham Percy, Esq., for the
lands of Flowerdieu Hundred, being one thousand acres, and of Weanoke,
on the opposite side of the water, being two thousand two hundred acres.
This lady's Christian name is Puritanical; another such was Obedience
Robins, a burgess of Accomac in 1630.

James the First had extorted a revenue from the tobacco of Virginia by
an arbitrary resort to his prerogative, and in violation of the charter.
Charles the First, in a letter dated June, 1628, proposed that a
monopoly of the tobacco trade should be granted to him, and recommended
the culture of several new products, and desired that an assembly
should be called to take these matters into consideration. The ensuing
assembly replied, demanding a higher price and more favorable terms than
his majesty was disposed to yield. As to the introduction of new
staples, they explained why, in their opinion, that was impracticable.
This letter was signed by Francis West, Governor, five members of the
council, and thirty-one members of the House of Burgesses.

Sir George Yeardley, the late governor, with two or three of the
council, had resided for the most part at Jamestown; the rest of the
council repaired there as occasion required. There was a general meeting
of the governor and council once in every three months. The population
of the colony was estimated at not less than fifteen hundred; they
inhabited seventeen or eighteen plantations, of these the greater part,
lying toward the falls of the James River, were well fortified against
the Indians by means of palisades. The planters dwelling above
Jamestown, found means to procure an abundant supply of fish. On the
banks of that river the red men themselves were now seldom seen, but
their fires were occasionally observed in the woods.[181:A]

There was no family in the colony so poor as not to have a sufficient
stock of tame hogs. Poultry was equally abundant; bread plenty and good.
For drink the colonists made use of a home-made ale; but the better sort
of people were well supplied with sack, aqua-vitæ, and good English
beer. The common diet of the servants was milk-hominy, that is, bruised
Indian-corn, pounded and boiled thick, and eaten with milk. This dish
was also in esteem with the better sort. Hominy, according to Strachey,
is an Indian word; Lord Bacon calls it "the cream of maize," and
commends it as a nutritious diet. The planters were generally provided
with arms and armor, and on every holiday each plantation exercised its
men in the use of arms, by which means, together with hunting and
fowling, the greater part of them became excellent marksmen. Tobacco was
the only staple cultivated for sale. The health of the country was
greatly improved by clearing the land, so that the sun had power to
exhale up the humid vapors. Captain Francis West continued governor till
March, 1628, and he then being about to embark for England, John Pott
was elected governor by the council.

In the year 1629 most of the land about Jamestown was cleared; little
corn planted; but all the ground converted into pasture and gardens,
"wherein doth grow all manners of English herbs and roots and very good
grass." Such is the cotemporaneous statement, but after the lapse of
more than two centuries Eastern Virginia depends largely on the Northern
States for her supply of hay. The greater portion of the cattle of the
colony was kept near Jamestown, the owners being dispersed about on
plantations, and visiting Jamestown as inclination prompted, or, at the
arrival of shipping, come to trade. In this year the population of
Virginia amounted to five thousand, and the cattle had increased in the
like proportion. The colony's stock of provisions was sufficient to feed
four hundred more than its own number of inhabitants. Vessels procured
supplies in Virginia; the number of arrivals in 1629 was twenty-three.
Salt fish was brought from New England; Kecoughtan supplied peaches.

Mrs. Pearce, an honest industrious woman, after passing twenty years in
Virginia, on her return to England reported that she had a garden at
Jamestown, containing three or four acres, where in one year she had
gathered a hundred bushels of excellent figs, and that of her own
provision she could keep a better house in Virginia, than in London for
three or four hundred pounds a year, although she had gone there with
little or nothing. The planters found the Indian-corn so much better for
bread than wheat, that they began to quit sowing it.

An assembly met at Jamestown in October, 1629; it consisted of John
Pott, Governor, four councillors, and forty-six burgesses, returned from
twenty-three plantations. Pott was superseded in the same year by Sir
John Harvey, at some time between October and March. In March, the
quarter court ordered an assembly to be called, to meet Sir John Harvey
on the twenty-fourth of that month; and nothing was done in Pott's name
after October, so far as can be found in the records.

The late governor was, during the ensuing year, Rob-Roy-like, convicted
of stealing cattle. The trial commenced on the ninth of July, 1630; the
number of jurors was thirteen, of whom three were members of the
council. The first day was wholly spent in pleading, the next in
unnecessary disputations, Dr. John Pott endeavoring to prove Mr.
Kingsmell, one of the witnesses against him, a hypocrite by the story of
"Gusman of Alfrach, the Rogue." Pott was found guilty, but in
consideration of his rank and station, judgment was suspended until the
king's pleasure should be known; and all the council became his

Sir John Harvey, the new governor, had been one of the commissioners
sent out by King James to Virginia, in 1623, for the purpose of
investigating the state and condition of the colony, and of procuring
evidence which might serve to justify the dissolution of the charter of
the Virginia Company. Harvey had also been a member of the provisional
government in the year 1625. Returning now to Virginia, no doubt with
embittered recollections of the collisions with the assembly in which he
had been formerly involved, he did not fail to imitate the arbitrary
rule that prevailed "at home," and to render himself odious to the
inhabitants of the colony.

Sir George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, descended from a noble
family in Flanders, born at Kipling, in Yorkshire, England, was educated
partly at Trinity College, Oxford, and partly on the continent. Sir
Robert Cecil, lord treasurer, employed him as his secretary, and he was
promoted to the clerkship of the council. In 1618 he was knighted, and
in the succeeding year he was made a secretary of state, and one of the
committee of trade and plantations, with a pension of one thousand
pounds. Through the influence of Sir Thomas Wentworth, afterwards Earl
of Strafford, he was chosen a member of Parliament. Receiving a patent
for the southeastern peninsula of Newfoundland, he undertook to
establish, in 1621, the plantation of Ferryland, which he called the
Province of Avalon--a name derived from some mediæval legend. In 1624 he
professed the Romish faith, and resigned his place of secretary of
state; but James the First still retained this strenuous defender of
royal prerogative as a member of his privy council, and created
him[183:A] Baron of Baltimore, in the County of Longford, in Ireland,
he being at this time the representative of the University of Oxford in
the House of Commons. Still bent upon establishing a colony in America,
for the promotion of his private interests, and to provide an asylum for
the unmolested exercise of his religion, embarking in a ship lent him by
King Charles the First, he came over to Virginia in the year 1629.

Virginia was founded by men devoted to the principles of the
Reformation, amid vivid recollections of the persecutions of Mary, the
Spanish armada, and the recent gunpowder plot, and when horror of
papists was at its height. The charter of the colony expressly required
that the oaths of allegiance and supremacy should be taken for the
purpose of guarding against "the superstitions of the Church of

The assembly being in session at the time of Lord Baltimore's arrival,
proposed these oaths to him and those with him. He declined complying
with the requisition, submitting, however, a form which he was ready to
accept, whereupon the assembly determined to refer the matter to the
privy council. The virtues of this able and estimable nobleman did not
secure him from personal indignity. In the old records is found this
entry: "March 25th, 1630, Thomas Tindall to be pilloried two hours for
giving my Lord Baltimore the lie, and threatening to knock him

Finding the Virginians unanimously averse to the very name of papist, he
proceeded to the head of Chesapeake Bay, and observing an attractive
territory on the north side of the Potomac River unoccupied, returned to
England, and, in violation of the territorial rights of Virginia,
obtained from Charles the First a grant of the country, afterwards
called Maryland,[184:C] but before the sealing of his patent.

During the session of 1629-30 ministers were ordered to conform
themselves in all things "according to the canons of the Church of
England." It would appear that Puritanism had begun to develope itself
among the clergy as well as the laity of the colony. Measures were
adopted for erecting a fort at Point Comfort; new-comers were exempted
from military service during the first five years after their arrival;
engrossing and forestalling were prohibited. For the furtherance of the
production of potashes and saltpetre, experiments were ordered to be
made; to prevent a scarcity of corn, it was enacted that two acres of
land, or near thereabouts, be planted for every head that works in the
ground; regulations were established for the improvement of the staple
of tobacco. An act provided that the war commenced against the Indians
be effectually prosecuted, and that no peace be concluded with

The first act of the session of February, 1632, provides that there be a
uniformity throughout this colony, both in substance and circumstance,
to the canons and constitution of the Church of England, as near as may
be, and that every person yield ready obedience to them, upon penalty of
the pains and forfeitures in that case appointed. Another act directs
that ministers shall not give themselves to excess in drinking, or riot,
spending their time idly, by day or night, playing at dice, cards, or
any other unlawful game. Another order was, that all the council and
burgesses of the assembly shall in the morning be present at divine
service, in the room where they sit, at the third beating of the drum,
an hour after sunrise. No person was suffered to "tend" above fourteen
leaves of the tobacco-plant, nor to gather more than nine leaves, nor to
tend any slips of old stalks of tobacco, or any of the second crop; and
it was ordained that all tobacco should be taken down before the end of
November. No person was permitted to speak or parley with the Indians,
either in the woods or on any plantation, "if he can possibly avoid it
by any means." The planters, however, were required to observe all terms
of amity with them, taking care, nevertheless, to keep upon their guard.
The spirit of constitutional freedom exhibited itself in an act
declaring that the governor and council shall not lay any taxes or
impositions upon the colony, their land, or commodities, otherwise than
by authority of the grand assembly, to be levied and employed as by the
assembly shall be appointed.

Act XL. provides, that the governor shall not withdraw the inhabitants
from their private labors to service of his own, upon any color
whatsoever. In case of emergency, the levying of men shall be ordered by
the governor, with the consent of the whole body of the council. For the
encouragement of men to plant a plenty of corn, it was enacted, that the
price shall not be restricted, but it shall be free for every man to
sell it as dear as he can. Men were not allowed to work in the grounds
without their arms, and a sentinel on guard; due watch to be kept at
night when necessary; no commander of any plantation shall either
himself spend, or suffer others to spend, powder unnecessarily, that is
to say, in drinking or entertainments. All men fit to bear arms were
required to bring their pieces to the church on occasion of public
worship. No person within the colony, upon any rumor of supposed change
and alteration, was to presume to be disobedient to the present
government, nor servants to their private officers, masters, and
overseers, at their uttermost peril. No boats were permitted to go and
trade to Canada or elsewhere that be not of the burthen of ten tons, and
have a flush deck, or fitted with a grating and a tarpauling, excepting
such as be permitted for discovery by a special license from the


[179:A] Chalmers' Introduction, i. 22. Beverley, B. i. 47, says
expressly that an assembly was allowed. Burk, ii. 15, asserts that
"assemblies convened and deliberated in the usual form, unchecked and
uninterrupted by royal interference, from the dissolution of the
proprietary government to the period when a regular constitution was
sent over with Sir W. Berkeley in 1639." For authority reference is made
to a document in the Appendix, which document, however, is not to be
found there. The opinions of Chalmers--who, as clerk of the privy
council, had access to the archives in England--and Hening, confirmed by
a corresponding hiatus in the records, appear conclusive against the
unsupported statements of Beverley and Burk.

[180:A] Belknap, art. WYAT, errs in making Sir John Harvey the

[181:A] The number of cattle amounted to several thousand head; the
stock of goats was large, and their increase rapid; the forests abounded
with wild hogs, which were killed and eaten by the savages.

[183:A] 1625.

[184:A] Burk, ii. 25; Hen., i. 73, 97.

[184:B] 1 Hen., 552.

[184:C] Belknap, iii. 206; Allen's Biog. Dic., art. CALVERT.

[185:A] 1 Hening, 149.

[186:A] 1 Hening, 155, 175.



     Charles the First appoints Council of Superintendence for
     Virginia--Acts of Assembly--William Clayborne authorized by
     the Crown to make Discoveries and Trade--George Lord Baltimore
     dies--The Patent of Territory granted is confirmed to his Son
     Cecilius, Lord Baltimore--Virginia remonstrates against the
     grant to Baltimore--Lord Baltimore employs his Brother,
     Leonard Calvert, to found the Colony of Maryland--St. Mary's
     Settled--Harvey visits Calvert--Clayborne's Opposition to the
     New Colony--Character of Baltimore's Patent--Contest between
     Clayborne and the Marylanders--He is convicted of High
     Crimes--Escapes to Virginia--Goes to England for trial of the

IN the year 1632 King Charles issued a commission appointing a Council
of Superintendence over Virginia, empowering them to ascertain the state
and condition of the colony. The commissioners were Edward, Earl of
Dorset, Henry, Earl of Derby, Dudley, Viscount Dorchester, Sir John
Coke, Sir John Davers, Sir Robert Killegrew, Sir Thomas Rowe, Sir Robert
Heath, Sir Kineage Tench, Sir Dudley Diggs, Sir John Holstenholm, Sir
Francis Wyat, Sir John Brooks, Sir Kenelm Digby, Sir John Tench, John
Banks, Esq., Thomas Gibbs, Esq., Samuel Rott, Esq., George Sands, Esq.,
John Wolstenholm, Esq., Nicholas Ferrar, Esq., Gabriel Barber, and John
Ferrar, Esquires.[187:A]

Elaborate acts passed by the Colonial Legislature at this period, for
improving the staple of tobacco and regulating the trade in it, evince
the increasing importance of that crop. Tithes were imposed of tobacco
and corn; and the twentieth "calfe, kidd of goates and pigge" granted
unto the minister. During the year 1633 every fortieth man in the neck
of land between the James River and the York, (then called the Charles,)
was directed to repair to the plantation of Dr. John Pott, to be
employed in building of houses and securing that tract of land lying
between Queen's Creek, emptying into Charles River, and Archer's Hope
Creek, emptying into James River. This was Middle Plantation, (now
Williamsburg,) so called as being midway between the James River and the
York. Each person settling there was entitled to fifty acres of land and
exemption from general taxes. All new-comers were ordered to pay
sixty-four pounds of tobacco toward the maintenance of the fort at Point
Comfort.[188:A] Thus far, under Harvey's administration, the Assembly
had met regularly, and several judicious and wholesome acts had been

The Chesapeake Bay is supposed to have been discovered by the Spaniards
as early as the year 1566 or before, being called by them the Bay of
Santa Maria.[188:B] It was discovered by the English in 1585, when Ralph
Lane was Governor of the first Colony of Virginia. In 1620 John Pory
made a voyage of discovery in the Chesapeake Bay, and found one hundred
English happily settled on its borders, (in what particular place is not
known,) animated with the hope of a very good trade in furs.[188:C]
During the years 1627, 1628, and 1629 the governors of Virginia gave
authority to William Clayborne, "Secretary of State of this Kingdom," as
the Ancient Dominion was then styled, to discover the source of the bay,
or any part of that government from the thirty-fourth to the forty-first
degree of north latitude.[188:D] In May, 1631, Charles the First granted
a license to "our trusty and well-beloved William Clayborne," one of the
council and Secretary of State for the colony, authorizing him to make
discoveries, and to trade. This license was, by the royal instructions,
confirmed by Governor Harvey; and Clayborne shortly afterwards
established a trading post on Kent Island, in the Chesapeake Bay, not
far from the present capital of Maryland, Annapolis; and subsequently
another at the mouth of the Susquehanna River. In the year 1632 a
burgess was returned from the Isle of Kent to the Assembly at
Jamestown.[189:A] In 1633 a warehouse was established in Southampton
River for the inhabitants of Mary's Mount, Elizabeth City, Accomac, and
the Isle of Kent.

In the mean time, George, the elder Lord Baltimore, dying on the
fifteenth of April, 1632, aged fifty, at London, before his patent was
issued, it was confirmed June twentieth of this year, to his son
Cecilius, Baron of Baltimore. The new province was named Maryland in
honor of Henrietta Maria, Queen Consort of Charles the First of England,
and daughter of Henry the Fourth of France. For eighteen months from the
signing of the Maryland charter, the expedition to the new colony was
delayed by the strenuous opposition made to the proceeding. The
Virginians felt no little aggrieved at this infraction of their
chartered territory; and they remonstrated to the king in council in
1633, against the grant to Lord Baltimore, alleging that "it will be a
general disheartening to them, if they shall be divided into several
governments." Future events were about to strengthen their sense of the
justice of their cause. In July of this year the case was decided in the
Star Chamber, the privy council, influenced by Laud, Archbishop of
Canterbury, and the Earl of Strafford, deeming it fit to leave Lord
Baltimore to his patent and the complainants to the course of law
"according to their desire," recommending, at the same time, a spirit of
amity and good correspondence between the planters of the two colonies.
So futile a decision could not terminate the contest, and Clayborne
continued to claim Kent Island, and to abnegate the authority of the
proprietary of Maryland.

At length, Lord Baltimore having engaged the services of his brother,
Leonard Calvert, for founding the colony, he with two others, one of
them probably being another brother, were appointed commissioners. The
expedition consisted of some twenty gentlemen of fortune, and two or
three hundred of the laboring class, nearly all of them Roman
Catholics. Imploring the intercession of the Blessed Virgin, St.
Ignatius, and all the guardian angels of Maryland, they set sail from
Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, in November, 1633, St. Cecilia's day. The
canonized founder of the order of the Jesuits, Ignatius Loyola, was the
patron saint of the infant Maryland. February twenty-seventh, 1634, they
reached Point Comfort, filled with apprehensions of the hostility of the
Virginians to their colonial enterprise. Letters from King Charles and
the chancellor of the exchequer conciliated Governor Harvey, who hoped,
by his kindness to the Maryland colonists, to insure the recovery of a
large sum of money due him from the royal treasury. The Virginians were
at this time all under arms expecting the approach of a hostile Spanish
fleet. Calvert, after a hospitable entertainment, embarked on the third
of March for Maryland. Clayborne, who had accompanied Harvey to Point
Comfort to see the strangers, did not fail to intimidate them by
accounts of the hostile spirit which they would have to encounter in the
Indians of that part of the country to which they were destined.
Calvert, on arriving in Maryland, was accompanied in his explorations of
the country by Captain Henry Fleet, an early Virginia pioneer, who was
familiar with the settlements and language of the savages, and in much
favor with them; and it was under his guidance and direction that the
site of St. Mary's, the ancient capital of Maryland, was
selected.[190:A] White, a Jesuit missionary, says of Fleet: "At the
first he was very friendly to us; afterwards, seduced by the evil
counsels of a certain Clayborne, who entertained the most hostile
disposition, he stirred up the minds of the natives against us."[190:B]
White mentions that the Island of Monserrat, in the West Indies, where
they touched, was inhabited by Irishmen who had been expelled by the
English of Virginia "on account of their profession of the Catholic

In a short time after the landing of Leonard Calvert in Maryland, Sir
John Harvey, Governor of Virginia, visited him at St. Mary's. His
arrival attracted to the same place the Indian chief of Patuxent, who
said: "When I heard that a great werowance of the English was come to
Yoacomoco, I had a great desire to see him; but when I heard the
werowance of Pasbie-haye was come thither also to see him, I presently
start up, and without further counsel came to see them both."[191:A]

In March, 1634, at a meeting of the governor and council, Clayborne
inquired of them how he should demean himself toward Lord Baltimore and
his deputies in Maryland, who claimed jurisdiction over the colony at
Kent Isle. The governor and council replied that the right of his
lordship's patent being yet undetermined in England, they were bound in
duty and by their oaths to maintain the rights and privileges of the
colony of Virginia. Nevertheless, in all humble submission to his
majesty's pleasure, they resolved to keep and observe all good
correspondence with the Maryland new-comers.[191:B]

The Maryland patent conferred upon Lord Baltimore, a popish recusant,
the entire government of the colony, including the patronage and
advowson of all churches, the same to be dedicated and consecrated
according to the ecclesiastical law. This charter was illegal, inasmuch
as it granted powers which the king himself did not possess; the grantee
being a papist could not conform to the ecclesiastical laws of England;
and, therefore, the provisions of this extraordinary instrument could
not be, and were not designed to be, executed according to the plain and
obvious meaning. Such was the character of the instrument by which King
Charles the First despoiled Virginia of so large a portion of her
territory. It is true, indeed, that the Virginia charter had been
annulled, but this was done upon the condition explicitly and
repeatedly declared by the royal government, that vested rights should
receive no prejudice thereby.[192:A]

Clayborne, rejecting the authority of the new plantation, Lord Baltimore
gave orders to seize him if he should not submit himself to the
proprietary government of Maryland. The Indians beginning to exhibit
some indications of hostility toward the settlers, they attributed it to
the machinations of Clayborne, alleging that it was he who stirred up
the jealousy of the savages, persuading them that the new-comers were
Spaniards and enemies to the Virginians, and that he had also infused
his own spirit of insubordination into the inhabitants of Kent Island. A
trading vessel called the Longtail, employed by Clayborne in the Indian
trade in the Chesapeake Bay, was captured by the Marylanders. He
thereupon fitted out an armed pinnace with a crew of fourteen men under
one of his adherents, Lieutenant Warren, to rescue the vessel. Two armed
pinnaces were sent out by Calvert under Captain Cornwallis; and in an
engagement that ensued in the Potomac, or, as some accounts have it, the
Pocomoke River, one of the Marylanders fell, and three of the
Virginians, including Lieutenant Warren. The rest were carried prisoners
to St. Mary's. Clayborne was indicted although not arrested, and
convicted of murder and piracy, constructive crimes inferred from his
opposition. The chief of Patuxent was interrogated as to Clayborne's
intrigues among the Indians.[192:B]

Harvey, either from fear of the popular indignation, or from some better
motive, refused to surrender the fugitive Clayborne to the Maryland
commissioners, and according to one authority[192:C] sent him to
England, accompanied by the witnesses. Chalmers, good authority on the
subject, makes no allusion to the circumstance, and it appears more
probable that Clayborne having appealed to the king, went voluntarily to
England.[192:D] It is certain that he was not brought to trial there.


[187:A] 2 Burk's Hist. of Va., 35.

[188:A] 1 Hening, 188, 190, 199, 208, 222. The pay of the officers at
Point Comfort was at this time:--

                                         Lbs. Tobacco.  Bbls. Corn.

     To the captain of the fort              2000          10
     To the gunner                           1000           6
     To the drummer and porter               1000           6
     For four other men, each of them 500
        pounds of tobacco, 4 bbls. corn      2000          16
                                             ----        ----
            Total                            6000          38

[188:B] Early Voyages to America, 483.

[188:C] Chalmers' Polit. Annals, 206.

[188:D] Chalmers' Annals, 227.

[189:A] 1 Hening, 154.

[190:A] White's Relation, 4; Force's Hist. Tracts.

[190:B] White's Relation of the Colony of the Lord Baron of Baltimore in
Maryland, near Virginia, and a Narrative of the Voyage to Maryland, was
copied from the archives of the Jesuit's College at Rome, by Rev.
William McSherry, of Georgetown College, and translated from the Latin.
An abstract of it may be found in chapter first of History of Maryland,
by James McSherry. The first part of the Relation is a description of
the country, and appears to have been written at London previous to the
departure of Calvert; the remainder details the incidents of the voyage
and the first settlement of the colony, especially of the proceedings of
the Jesuit missionaries down to the year 1677.

[191:A] Anderson's Hist. of Col. Church, ii. 120, referring to "Relation
of the successful beginnings of the Lord Baltimore's Plantation, in
Maryland," signed by Captain Wintour, and others, adventurers in the
expedition, and published in 1634.

[191:B] Chalmers' Annals. Chalmers is the more full and satisfactory in
his account of Maryland, because he had resided there for many years.

[192:A] Force's Hist. Tracts, ii.; Virginia and Maryland, 7 et seq.; and
Anderson's Hist. of Col. Church, ii. 113.

[192:B] McSherry's Maryland, 40; Chalmers' Annals, 211, 232; Force's
Historical Tracts, ii. 13.

[192:C] Burk's Hist. of Va., ii. 41, referring to "Ancient Records" of
the London Company.

[192:D] Force's Hist. Tracts, ii.; Maryland and Virginia, 22.



     Eight Shires--Harvey's Grants of Territory--His Corrupt
     and Tyrannical Administration--The Crown guarantees to
     the Virginians the Rights which they enjoyed before the
     Dissolution of the Charter--Burk's Opinion of Clayborne--
     Governor Harvey deposed--Returns to England--Charles the
     First reinstates him--Disturbances in Kent Island--Charles
     reprimands Lord Baltimore for his Maltreatment of Clayborne--
     The Lords Commissioners decide in favor of Baltimore--
     Threatening State of Affairs in England--Harvey recalled--
     Succeeded by Sir Francis Wyat.

IN the year 1634 Virginia was divided into eight shires: James City,
Henrico, Charles City, Elizabeth City, Warrasqueake, Charles River, and
Accomac. The original name of Pamaunkee, or Pamunkey, had then been
superseded by Charles River, which afterwards gave way to the present
name of York. Pamunkey, at first the name of the whole river, is now
restricted to one of its branches. The word Pamaunkee is said to signify
"where we took a sweat."

The grant of Maryland to Lord Baltimore opened the way for similar
grants to other court-favorites, of lands lying to the north and to the
south of the settled portion of the Ancient Colony and Dominion of
Virginia. While Charles the First was lavishing vast tracts of her
territory upon his favorites, Sir John Harvey, a worthy pacha of such a
sultan, in collusion with the royal commissioners, imitated the royal
munificence by giving away large bodies not only of the public, or crown
lands, but even of such as belonged to private planters.[193:A] In the
contests between Clayborne and the proprietary of Maryland, while the
people of Virginia warmly espoused their countryman's cause, Harvey
sided with Baltimore, and proved himself altogether a fit instrument of
the administration then tyrannizing in England. He was extortionate,
proud, unjust, and arbitrary; he issued proclamations in derogation of
the legislative powers of the assembly; assessed, levied, held, and
disbursed the colonial revenue, without check or responsibility;
transplanted into Virginia exotic English statutes; multiplied penalties
and exactions, and appropriated fines to his own use; he added the
decrees of the court of high commission of England to the ecclesiastical
constitutions of Virginia. The assembly, nevertheless, met regularly;
and the legislation of the colony expanded itself in accordance with the
exigencies of an increasing population. Tobacco was subjected, by royal
ordinances, to an oppressive monopoly; and in those days of prerogative,
a remonstrance to the Commons for redress proved fruitless.

At length, in July, 1634, the council's committee for the colonies,
either from policy or from compassion, transmitted instructions to the
governor and council, saying: "That it is not intended that interests
which men have settled when you were a corporation, should be impeached;
that for the present they may enjoy their estates with the same freedom
and privilege as they did before the recalling of their patents," and
authorizing the appropriation of lands to the planters, as had been the
former custom.[194:A]

Whether these concessions were inadequate in themselves, or were not
carried into effect by Harvey, upon the petition of many of the
inhabitants, an assembly was called to meet on the 7th of May, 1635, to
hear complaints against that obnoxious functionary. There is hardly any
point on which a people are more sensitive than in regard to their
territory, and it may therefore be concluded, that one of Harvey's chief
offences was his having sided with Lord Baltimore in his infraction of
the Virginia territory.

Burk, in his History of Virginia, has stigmatized Clayborne as "an
unprincipled incendiary" and "execrable villain;" other writers have
applied similar epithets to him. It appears to have been only his
resolute defence of his own rights and those of Virginia that subjected
him to this severe denunciation. He was long a member of the council;
long filled the office of secretary; was held in great esteem by the
people, and was for many years a leading spirit of the colony.
Burk[195:A] denounces Sir John Harvey for refusing to surrender the
fugitive Clayborne to the demand of the Maryland Commissioners, and
adds: "But the time was at hand when this rapacious and tyrannical
prefect (Harvey) would experience how vain and ineffectual are the
projects of tyranny when opposed to the indignation of freemen." Thus
the governor, who excited the indignation of the Virginians by his
collusion with the Marylanders, was afterwards reprobated by historians
for sympathizing with Clayborne in his defence of the rights of
Virginia, and opposition to the Marylanders. If Harvey, in violation of
the royal license granted to Clayborne in 1631, had surrendered him to
the Maryland Commissioners, he would have exposed himself to the royal
resentment; and nothing could have more inflamed the indignation of
freemen than such treatment of the intrepid vindicator of their
territorial rights.

Before the assembly (called to hear complaints against the governor)
met, Harvey, having consented to go to England to answer them, was
"thrust out of the government" by the council on the 28th of April,
1635, and Captain John West was authorized to act as governor until the
king's pleasure should be known. The assembly having collected the
evidence, deputed two members of the council to go out with Harvey to
prefer the charges against him. It was also ordered that during the
vacancy in the office of governor, the secretary (Clayborne) should sign
commissions and passes, and manage the affairs of the Indians.[195:B]

King Charles the First, offended at the presumption of the council and
assembly, reinstated Sir John, and he resumed his place, in or before
the month of January, 1636. Chalmers[195:C] says that he returned in
April, 1637. Thus the first open resistance to tyranny, and vindication
of constitutional right, took place in the colony of Virginia; and the
deposition of Harvey foreshadowed the downfall of Charles the First. The
laws that had been enacted by the first assembly of Maryland, having
been sent over to England for his approval, he rejected them, on the
ground that the right of framing them was vested in himself; and he
directed an assembly to be summoned to meet in January, 1638, to have
his dissent announced to them.

Early in 1637 a court was established by the Maryland authorities, in
Kent Island, and toward the close of that year Captain George Evelin was
appointed commander of the island. Many of Clayborne's adherents there
refused to submit to the jurisdiction of Lord Baltimore's colony, and
the governor, Leonard Calvert, found it necessary to repair there in
March, 1638, in person, with a military force, to reduce to submission
these Virginia malecontents. The Maryland legislature, convened in
compliance with Lord Baltimore's orders, refused to acquiesce in his
claim of the legislative power, and in the event they gained their
point, his lordship being satisfied with a controlling influence in the
choice of the delegates, and his veto.

The Virginians captured by Cornwallis in his engagement with Warren, had
been detained prisoners without being brought to trial, there being no
competent tribunal in the colony. At length Thomas Smith, second in
command to Warren, was brought to trial for the murder of William
Ashmore, (who had been killed in the skirmish,) and was found guilty,
and sentenced to death; but it is not certain that he was executed.
Clayborne was attainted, and his property confiscated; and these
proceedings probably produced those disturbances in Kent Island which
required the governor's presence.

Harvey, after his restoration, continued to be governor of Virginia for
about three years, during which period there appears to have been no
meeting of the assembly, and of this part of his administration no
record is left.

In July, 1638, Charles the First addressed a letter to Lord Baltimore,
referring to his former letters to "Our Governor and Council of
Virginia, and to others, our officers and subjects in these parts, (in
which) we signified our pleasure that William Clayborne, David Morehead,
and other planters in the island near Virginia, which they have
nominated Kentish Island, should in no sort be interrupted by you or any
other in your right, but rather be encouraged to proceed in so good a
work." The king complains to Baltimore that his agents, in spite of the
royal instructions, had "slain three of our subjects there, and by force
possessed themselves by night of that island, and seized and carried
away both the persons and estates of the said planters." His majesty
concludes by enjoining a strict compliance with his former

In 1639 Father John Gravener, a Jesuit missionary, resided at Kent
Island. In April of this year the Lords Commissioners of Plantations,
with Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, at their head, held a meeting at
Whitehall, and determined the controversy between Clayborne and Lord
Baltimore. This decision was made in consequence of a petition presented
in 1637 by Clayborne to the king, claiming, by virtue of discovery and
settlement, Kent Island and another plantation at the mouth of the
Susquehanna River, and complaining of the attempts of Lord Baltimore's
agents there to dispossess him and his associates, and of outrages
committed upon them. The decision was now absolute in favor of
Baltimore; and Clayborne, despairing of any peaceable redress, returned
to Virginia, and having in vain prayed for the restoration of his
property, awaited some future opportunity to vindicate his rights, and
to recover property amounting in value to six thousand pounds, of which
he had been despoiled.[197:B]

The Governor of Maryland, engaged in hostilities with the Indians,
obtained a supply of arms, ammunition, and provision from the Governor
of Virginia.

Charles the First, bred in all the arts of corrupt and arbitrary
government, had now for many years governed England by prerogative,
without a parliament, until at length his necessities constrained him to
convene one; and his apprehensions of that body, and the revolt of the
Scotch, and other alarming ebullitions of discontent, admonished him and
his advisers to mitigate the high-handed measures of administration. The
severity of colonial rule was also relaxed, and in November, 1639, the
unpopular Sir John Harvey was displaced, and succeeded by Sir Francis
Wyat.[198:A] But Harvey remained in Virginia, and continued to be a
member of the council. About this time mention is made of the
exportation of cattle from Virginia to New England.


[193:A] Beverley, B. i. 50.

[194:A] By the words "for the present," was probably intended "at
present," "now," otherwise their interests might be impeached at a
future day, although not immediately. Chalmers, Hist. of Revolt of Amer.
Colonies, 36, so interprets the expression.

[195:A] Hist. of Va., ii. 40.

[195:B] Hen., i. 223.

[195:C] Hist. of Revolt of Amer. Colonies, i. 36.

[197:A] Chalmers' Annals, 232.

[197:B] Clayborne is the same name with Claiborne; it is found sometimes
spelt Claiborn, and sometimes Cleyborne.

[198:A] 1 Hening's Stat. at Large, 4. Burk, Hist. of Va., ii. 46,
erroneously makes Sir William Berkley succeed Harvey.



     Alarming State of Affairs in England--The Long Parliament
     summoned--In Virginia Stephen Reekes pilloried--Sir William
     Berkley made Governor--Assembly declare against Restoration of
     Virginia Company--The King's Letter--Puritans in Virginia--Act
     against Non-conformists--Massacre of 1644--Opechancanough
     captured--His Death--Civil War in England--Sir William Berkley
     visits England--Clayborne expels Calvert from Maryland, and
     seizes the Government--Treaty with Necotowance--Statistics of
     the Colony.

THE spirit of constitutional freedom awakened by the Reformation, and
which had been long gradually gaining strength, began to develope itself
with new energy in England. The arbitrary temper of Charles the First
excited so great dissatisfaction in the people, and such a strenuous
opposition in parliament, as to exact at length his assent to the
"Petition of Right." The public indignation was carried to a high pitch
by the forced levying of ship-money, that is, of money for the building
of ships-of-war, and John Hampden stood forth in a personal resistance
to this unconstitutional mode of raising money. The Puritans found
within the pale of the Established Church, as well as without, were
arrayed against the despotic rule of the crown and the hierarchy; and
Scotland was not less offended against the king, who undertook to
obtrude the Episcopal liturgy upon the Presbyterian land of his birth.
In the year 1640 Charles the First found himself compelled to call
together the Long Parliament. Virginia meantime remained loyal; the
decrees of the courts of high commission were the rule of conduct, and
the authority of Archbishop Laud was as absolute in the colony as in the
fatherland. Stephen Reekes was pilloried for two hours, with a label on
his back signifying his offence, fined fifty pounds, and imprisoned
during pleasure, for saying "that his majesty was at confession with the
Lord of Canterbury," that is, Archbishop Laud.

In May, 1641, the Earl of Strafford was executed, and Archbishop Laud
sent to the Tower, where he was destined to remain until he suffered
the same fate. The massacre of the Protestants in Ireland occurring in
the latter part of this year, rendered still more portentous the
threatening storm. January tenth, the king left London, to which he was
not destined to return till brought back a prisoner.

In February, 1642, Sir Francis Wyat gave way to Sir William Berkley,
whose destiny it was to hold the office of governor for a period longer
than any other governor, and to undergo extraordinary vicissitudes of
fortune. His commission and instructions declared that it was intended
to give due encouragement to the plantation of Virginia, and that
ecclesiastical as well as temporal matters should be regulated according
to the laws of England; provision was also made for securing to England
a monopoly of the trade of the colony. By some salutary measures which
Sir William Berkley introduced shortly after his arrival, and by his
prepossessing manners, he soon rendered himself very acceptable to the

In April, 1642, the assembly made a declaration against the restoration
of the Virginia Company then proposed, denouncing the company as having
been the source of intolerable calamities to the colony by its illegal
proceedings, barbarous punishments, and monopolizing policy. They
insisted that its restoration would cause them to degenerate from the
condition of their birthright, and convert them from subjects of a
monarchy to the creatures of a popular and tumultuary government, to
which they would be obliged to resign their lands held from the crown;
which they intimate, if necessary, would be more fitly resigned to a
branch of the royal family than to a corporation. They averred that the
revival of the company would prove a deathblow to freedom of trade, "the
life-blood of a commonwealth." Finally, the assembly protested against
the restoration of the company, and decreed severe penalties against any
who should countenance the scheme.[200:A]

At a court holden at James City, June the 29th, 1642, present Sir
William Berkley, knight, governor, etc., Captain John West, Mr. Rich.
Kemp, Captain William Brocas, Captain Christopher Wormley, Captain
Humphrey Higginson. The commission for the monthly court of Upper
Norfolk was renewed, and the commissioners appointed were, Captain
Daniel Gookin, commander, Mr. Francis Hough, Captain Thomas Burbage, Mr.
John Hill, Mr. Oliver Spry, Mr. Thomas Den, Mr. Randall Crew, Mr. Robert
Bennett, Mr. Philip Bennett. The captains of trained bands: Captain
Daniel Gookin, Captain Thomas Burbage.[201:A]

Among the converts made by one of the New England missionaries, named
Thompson, was Daniel Gookin (son of the early settler of that name.) He
removed to Boston in May, 1644, being probably one of those who were
driven away from Virginia for non-conformity. He went away with his
family in a ship bought by him from the governor, and was received with
distinction at Boston. He soon became eminent in New England, and
afterwards enjoyed the confidence of Cromwell, of whom he was a devoted
adherent. He was author of several historical works. He died in March,

The alarming crisis in the affairs of Charles the First strongly
dictated the necessity of a conciliatory course; and the remonstrance,
together with a petition, being communicated to him, then at York, just
on the eve of the "Grand Rebellion," he replied to it, firmly engaging
never to restore the Virginia Company.

The following is a copy of the king's letter:--

     "C. R.

     "Trusty and well-beloved, we greet you all. Whereas, we have
     received a petition from you, our governor, council and
     burgesses of the grand assembly in Virginia, together with a
     declaration and protestation of the first of April, against a
     petition presented in your names to our House of Commons in
     this our kingdom, for restoring of the letters patent for the
     incorporation of the late treasurer and council, contrary to
     our intent and meaning, and against all such as shall go about
     to alienate you from our immediate protection. And whereas,
     you desire by your petition that we should confirm this your
     declaration and protestation under our royal signet, and
     transmit the same to that our colony; these are to signify,
     that your acknowledgments of our great bounty and favors
     toward you, and your so earnest desire to continue under our
     immediate protection, are very acceptable to us; and that as
     we had not before the least intention to consent to the
     introduction of any company over that our colony; so we are by
     it much confirmed in our former resolutions, as thinking it
     unfit to change a form of government wherein (besides many
     other reasons given, and to be given,) our subjects there
     (having had so long experience of it) receive so much content
     and satisfaction. And this our approbation of your petition
     and protestation we have thought fit to transmit unto you
     under our royal signet.

     "Given at our Court, at York, the 5th of July, 1642.

     "To our trusty and well-beloved our Governor, Council, and
     Burgesses of the Grand Assembly of Virginia."[202:A]

It was in this year that the name of Charles City County was changed
into York.

As early as 1619 a small party of English Puritans had come over to
Virginia; and a larger number would have followed them, but they were
prevented by a royal proclamation issued at the instance of Bancroft,
the persecuting Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1642 a deputation was sent
from some Virginia dissenters to Boston, soliciting a supply of pastors
from the New England churches; three clergymen were accordingly sent,
with letters recommending them to the governor, Sir William Berkley. On
their arrival in Virginia they began to preach in various parts of the
country, and the people flocked eagerly to hear them. The following year
the assembly passed the following act: "For the preservation of the
purity of doctrine and unity of the church, it is enacted, that all
ministers whatsoever, which shall reside in the colony, are to be
conformable to the orders and constitutions of the Church of England and
the laws therein established; and not otherwise to be admitted to teach
or preach, publickly or privately; and that the governor and council do
take care, that all non-conformists, upon notice of them, shall be
compelled to depart the colony with all convenience."[203:A] Sir William
Berkley, equally averse to the religious tenets and political principles
of the Puritan preachers, issued a proclamation in consonance with this
exclusive act. Mather says of the three New England missionaries: "They
had little encouragement from the rulers of the place, but they had a
kind entertainment with the people;" and Winthrop: "Though the State did
silence the ministers, because they would not conform to the order of
England, yet the people resorted to them in private houses to hear
them." In a short time the preachers returned to their own country.

The Indians, whose hatred to the whites, although dissembled, had never
been abated, headed by Opechancanough, committed a second massacre on
the 18th day of April, 1644. It was attributed to the encroachments made
upon them by some of Sir John Harvey's grants; but it was suspected by
some that Opechancanough was instigated to this massacre by certain of
the colonists themselves, who informed him of the civil war then raging
in England, and of the dissensions that disturbed the colony, and told
him, that now was his time or never, to root out all of the English.
This is improbable. Had the Indians followed up the first blow, the
colonists must have all been cut off; but after their first treacherous
onslaught, their courage failed them, and they fled many miles from the
settlements. The colonists availed themselves of this opportunity to
gather together, call an assembly, secure their cattle, and to devise
some plan of defence and attack.

Opechancanough, the fierce and implacable enemy of the whites, was now
nearly a hundred years old, and the commanding form, which had so often
shone conspicuous in scenes of blood, was worn down by the fatigues of
war, and bending under the weight of years. No longer able to walk, he
was carried from place to place by his warriors in a litter. His body
was emaciated, and he could only see when his eyelids were opened by his
attendants. Sir William Berkley at length moving rapidly with a party of
horse, surprised the superannuated chief at some distance from his
residence, and he was carried a prisoner to Jamestown, and there kindly
treated. He retained a spirit unconquered by decrepitude of body or
reverse of fortune. Hearing one day footsteps in the room where he lay,
he requested his eyelids to be raised, when, perceiving a crowd of
persons attracted there by a curiosity to see the famous chief, he
called for the governor, and upon his appearance, said to him: "Had it
been my fortune to take Sir William Berkley prisoner, I would have
disdained to make a show of him." He, however, had made a show of
Captain Smith when he was a prisoner. About a fortnight after
Opechancanough's capture, one of his guards, for some private revenge,
basely shot him in the back. Languishing awhile of the wound, he died at
Jamestown, and was probably buried there. His death brought about a
peace with the Indian savages, which endured for many years without

Sir William Berkley left Virginia for England in June, 1644, and
returned in June, 1645, his place being filled during his absence by
Richard Kemp.

The spirit of freedom long gaining ground, like a smothered fire, began
now to flame up and burst forth in England. Charles the First,
incomparably superior to his father in manners, habits, and tastes--a
model of kingly grace and dignity, yet was a more determined and
dangerous enemy to the rights of the people. On the 19th of March, 1642,
having escaped from insurgent London, he reached the ancient capital,
York, and on the twenty-fifth day of August raised his standard, under
inauspicious omens, at Nottingham. The royal forces under Prince Rupert
suffered a disastrous defeat at Marston Moor, July 2d, 1644; and while
Sir William Berkley was crossing the Atlantic, the king was overthrown
at Naseby, on the 4th of June, 1645. In this eventful year, and so
disastrous to the king, of whom the Berkleys were such staunch
supporters, Gloucester, the chief city of the county where they resided,
and which had been ravaged and plundered by Rupert, was now in the hands
of the parliamentary forces, and Cromwell had been early in the year
convoying ammunition thither.[204:A] A sad time for the visit of the
loyal Berkley!

During the troubles in England the correspondence of the colony was
interrupted, supplies reduced, trade obstructed; and the planters looked
forward with solicitude to the issue of such alarming events.

In the mean while Lord Baltimore, taking advantage of the weakness of
the crown, had shown some contempt for its authority, and had drawn upon
himself the threat of a _quo warranto_.

Early in 1645, Clayborne, profiting by the distractions of the mother
country, and animated by an indomitable, or, as his enemies alleged, a
turbulent spirit, and by a sense of wrongs long unavenged, at the head
of a band of insurgents, expelled Leonard Calvert, deputy governor, from
Maryland, and seized the reins of government. In the month of August,
1646, Calvert, who had taken refuge in Virginia, regained command of
Maryland. Nevertheless, Clayborne and his confederates, with but few
exceptions, emerged in impunity from this singular contest.

Opechancanough was succeeded by Necotowance, styled "King of the
Indians," and in October, 1646, a treaty was effected with him, by which
he agreed to hold his authority from the King of England, (who was now
bereft of his own,) while the assembly engaged to protect him from his
enemies; in acknowledgment whereof, he was to deliver to the governor
a yearly tribute of twenty beaver skins at the departure of the
wild-geese.[205:A] By this treaty it was further agreed, that the
Indians were to occupy the country on the north side of York River, and
to cede to the English all the country between the York and the James,
from the falls to Kiquotan; death for an Indian to be found within this
territory, unless sent in as a messenger; messengers to be admitted into
the colony by means of badges of striped cloth; and felony for a white
man to be found on the Indian hunting-ground, which was to extend from
the head of Yapin, the Blackwater, to the old Mannakin town, on the
James River; badges to be received at Fort Royal and Fort Henry, alias
Appomattox. Fort Henry had been established not long before this, at the
falls of the Appomattox, now site of Petersburg; Fort Charles at the
falls of the James; Fort James on the Chickahominy. This one was under
command of Lieutenant Thomas Rolfe, son of Pocahontas.[206:A] Fort Royal
was on the Pamunkey.

The colony bore a natural resemblance to the mother country, no little
modified by new circumstances, and followed her, yet not with equal
step. The government and the people were apparently, in the main, loyal,
but there was a growing Puritan party, and William Clayborne appears to
have been at the head of it. In 1647 certain ministers, refusing to read
the Common Prayer on the Sabbath, were declared not entitled to tythes.
Two years before, mercenary attorneys had been, by law, expelled from
the courts, and now attorneys were prohibited from receiving any
compensation for their services, and the courts were directed not to
allow any professional attorneys to appear in civil causes. In case
there appeared danger of a party suffering in his suit by reason of his
weakness, the court was directed to appoint some suitable person in his
behalf from the people. It has been suggested in modern times, as an
improvement in the administration of justice, to allow the parties to
make their own statements.

There were in Virginia, in 1648, about fifteen thousand English, and of
negroes that had been imported, three hundred good servants. Of cows,
oxen, bulls, and calves, "twenty thousand, large and good;" and the
colonists made plenty of butter and good cheese. The number of horses
and mares, of good breed, was two hundred; of asses fifty. The sheep
numbered three thousand, producing good wool; there were five thousand
goats. Hogs, tame and wild, innumerable, and the bacon excellent;
poultry equally abundant. Wheat was successfully cultivated. The
abundant crop of barley supplied malt, and there were public
brew-houses, and most of the planters brewed a good and strong beer for
themselves. Hops were found to thrive well. The price-current of beef
was two pence halfpenny (about five cents) a pound, pork six cents.
Cattle bore about the same price as in England; most of the vessels
arriving laid in their stores here. Thirty different sorts of river and
sea fish were caught. Thirty species of birds and fowls had been
observed, and twenty kinds of quadrupeds; deer abundant. The varieties
of fruit were estimated at fifteen, and they were comparable to those of
Italy. Twenty-five different kinds of trees were noticed, suitable for
building ships, houses, etc. The vegetables were potatoes, asparagus,
carrots, parsnips, onions, artichokes, peas, beans, and turnips, with a
variety of garden herbs and medicinal flowers. Virginia (or Indian) corn
yielded five hundred fold; it was planted like garden-peas; it made good
bread and furmity, and malt for beer, and was found to keep for seven
years. It was planted in April or May, and ripened in five months. Bees,
wild and domestic, supplied plenty of honey and wax. Indigo was made
from the leaves of a small tree, and great hopes were entertained that
Virginia would in time come to supply all Christendom with the commodity
which was then procured "from the Mogul's country." The Virginia tobacco
was in high esteem, yet the crop raised was so large that the price was
only about three pence, or six cents, a pound. A man could plant enough
to make two thousand pounds, and also sufficient corn and vegetables for
his own support. The culture of hemp and flax had been commenced. Good
iron-ore was found, and there were sanguine anticipations of the profits
to be derived from that source. There were wind-mills and water-mills,
horse-mills and hand-mills: a saw-mill was greatly needed, it being
considered equivalent to the labor of twenty men. There came yearly to
trade above thirty vessels, navigated by seven or eight hundred men.
They brought linens, woollens, stockings, shoes, etc. They cleared in
March, with return cargoes of tobacco, staves, and lumber. Many of the
masters and chief mariners of these vessels had plantations, houses, and
servants, in the colony. Pinnaces, boats, and barges were numerous, the
most of the plantations being situated on the banks of the rivers. Pitch
and tar were made. Mulberry-trees abounded, and it was confidently
believed that silk could be raised in Virginia as well as in France.
Hopeful anticipations of making wine from the native grape were
entertained, but have never been realized. Virginia was now considered
healthy; the colonists being so amply provided with the necessaries and
comforts of life, the number of deaths was believed to be less,
proportionally, than in England. The voyage from England to Virginia
occupied about six weeks; the outward-bound voyage averaging about
twenty-five days.

At this time a thousand colonists were seated upon the Accomac shore,
near Cape Charles, where Captain Yeardley was chief commander. The
settlement was then called Northampton; the name of Accomac having been
changed in 1643 to Northampton, but the original name was afterwards
restored. Lime was found abundant in Virginia; bricks were made, and
already some houses built of them. Mechanics found profitable
employment, such as turners, potters, coopers, sawyers, carpenters,
tilemakers, boatwrights, tailors, shoemakers, tanners, fishermen, and
the like. There were at this time twelve counties. The number of
churches was twenty, each provided with a minister, and the doctrine and
orders after the Church of England. The ministers' livings were worth
one hundred pounds, or five hundred dollars, per annum, paid in tobacco
and corn. The colonists all lived in peace and love, happily exempt by
distance from the horrors of civil war that convulsed the mother
country. The Virginia planters were intending to make further
discoveries to the south and west. A colony of Swedes had made a
settlement on the banks of the Delaware River, within the limits of
Virginia, and were carrying on a profitable traffic in furs. The Dutch
had also planted a colony on the Hudson River, within the Virginia
territory, and their trade in furs amounted to ten thousand pounds per
annum. Cape Cod was then looked upon as the point of demarcation between
Virginia and New England. Cattle, corn, and other commodities were
shipped from Virginia to New England. Sir William Berkley had made an
experiment in the cultivation of rice, and found that it produced thirty
fold, the soil and climate being well adapted to it, as the negroes
affirmed, who, in Africa, had subsisted mostly on that grain. There were
now many thousands of acres of cleared land in Virginia, and about one
hundred and fifty ploughs at work. Captain Brocas of the council, a
great traveller, had planted a vineyard, and made excellent wine.

At Christmas, 1647, there were in the James River ten vessels from
London, two from Bristol, twelve from Holland, and seven from New
England. Mr. Richard Bennet expressed twenty butts of excellent cider
from apples of his own orchard. They began now to engraft on the
crab-apple tree, which was found indigenous. Another planter had for
several years made, from pears of his own raising, forty or fifty butts
of perry. The governor, Sir William Berkley, in his new orchard, had
fifteen hundred fruit trees, besides his apricots, peaches, mellicotons,
quinces, wardens, and the like.

Captain Matthews, an old planter, of above thirty years' standing, one
of the council, and "a most deserving commonwealth man," had a fine
house, sowed much hemp and flax, and had it spun; he kept weavers, and
had a tannery, where leather was dressed; and had eight shoemakers at
work; had forty negro servants, whom he brought up to mechanical trades;
he sowed large crops of wheat and barley. The wheat he sold at four
shillings (about a dollar) a bushel. He also supplied vessels trading in
Virginia, with beef. He had a plenty of cows, a fine dairy, a large
number of hogs and poultry. Captain Matthews married a daughter of Sir
Thomas Hinton, and "kept a good house, lived bravely, and was a true
lover of Virginia."

There was a free school, with two hundred acres of land appurtenant, a
good house, forty milch cows, and other accommodations. It was endowed
by Mr. Benjamin Symms. There were, besides, some small schools in the
colony, probably such as are now known as "old-field schools."[209:A]


[200:A] 1 Hening, 230; Burk, ii. 68.

[201:A] Art. by J. Wingate Thornton, Esq., in Mass Gen. and Antiq.
Register for 1847, page 348.

[201:B] Ibid., 352.

[202:A] Chalmers' Annals, 133.

[203:A] 1 Hening, 277.

[204:A] Carlyle's Cromwell, i. 144.

[205:A] Cohonk, the cry of the wild-geese, was an Indian term for

[206:A] Toward the end of 1641 he had petitioned the governor for
permission to visit his kinsman, Opechancanough, and Cleopatre, his

[209:A] Hening, i. 252.



     Beauchamp Plantagenet visits Virginia--Settlement of other
     Colonies--Dissenters persecuted and banished from Virginia--
     Some take refuge in Carolina; some in Maryland--Charles the
     First executed--Commonwealth of England--Virginia Assembly
     denounces the Authors of the King's Death--Colonel Norwood's
     Voyage to Virginia--The Virginia Dissenters in Maryland--The
     Long Parliament prohibits Trade with Virginia--A Naval Force
     sent to reduce the Colony, Bennet and Clayborne being two of
     the Commissioners--Captain Dennis demands surrender of
     Virginia--Sir William Berkley constrained to yield--Articles
     of Capitulation.

DURING the year 1648 Beauchamp Plantagenet, a royalist with a high-flown
name, flying from the fury of the grand rebellion, visited America in
behalf of a company of adventurers, in quest of a place of settlement,
and in the course of his explorations came to Virginia. At Newport's
News he was hospitably entertained by Captain Matthews, Mr. Fantleroy,
and others, finding free quarter everywhere. The Indian war was now
ended by the courage of Captain Marshall and the valiant Stillwell, and
by the resolute march of Sir William Berkley, who had made the veteran
Opechancanough prisoner. The explorer went to Chicaoen, on the Potomac,
and found Maryland involved in war with the Sasquesahannocks and other
Indians, and at the same time in a civil war. Kent Island appeared to be
too wet, and the water was bad.[210:A]

In the month of March, 1648, Nickotowance, the Indian chief, visited
Governor Berkley, at Jamestown, accompanied by five other chiefs, and
presented twenty beaver skins to be sent to King Charles as tribute.
About this time the Indians reported to Sir William Berkley that within
five days' journey to the southwest there was a high mountain, and at
the foot of it great rivers that run into a great sea; that men came
hither in ships, (but not the same as the English;) that they wore
apparel, and had red caps on their heads, and rode on beasts like
horses, but with much longer ears. These people were probably the
Spaniards. Sir William Berkley prepared to make an exploration with
fifty horse and as many foot,[211:A] but he was disappointed in this

At this period the settlement of all the New England States had been
commenced; the Dutch possessed the present States of New York, New
Jersey, and part of Connecticut, and they had already pushed their
settlements above Albany; the Swedes occupied the shores of Pennsylvania
and Delaware; Maryland was still in her infancy; Virginia was
prosperous; the country now known as the Carolinas belonged to the
assignees of Sir Robert Heath, but as yet no advances had been made
toward the occupation of it.[211:B]

Upon complaint of the necessities of the people, occasioned by barren
and over-wrought land, and want of range for cattle and hogs, permission
was granted them to remove during the following year to the north side
of Charles (York) and Rappahannock rivers.[211:C]

The congregation of dissenters collected by the three missionaries
before mentioned from Massachusetts, amounted in 1648 to one hundred and
eighteen members. They encountered the continual opposition of the
colonial authorities. Mr. Durand, their elder, had already been banished
by the governor; and in the course of this year their pastor, Harrison,
being ordered to depart, retired to New England. On his arrival there he
represented that many of the Virginia council were favorably disposed
toward the introduction of Puritanism, and that "one thousand of the
people, by conjecture, were of a similar mind."[211:D] The members
of the council at that time were Captain John West, Richard Kempe,
secretary, Captain William Brocas, Captain Thomas Pettus, Captain
William Bernard, Captain Henry Browne, and Mr. George Ludlow. When the
prevalence of Puritanism in the mother country is considered, and the
numerous ties of interest and consanguinity that connected it with the
colony, the estimate of the number favorably disposed toward Puritanism
does not appear improbable. John Hammond afterwards gave an account of
the proceedings against the Puritans in Virginia.[212:A] According to
him, during the reign of Charles the First, Virginia "was wholly for
monarchy." A congregation of people calling themselves Independents
having organized a church, (probably in Nansemond County,) and daily
increasing, several consultations were held by the authorities of the
colony how to suppress and extinguish them. At first their pastor was
banished, next their other teachers, then many were confined in prison;
next they were generally disarmed, which was a very harsh measure in
such a country, where they were surrounded by the Indian savages;
lastly, the non-conformists were put in a condition of banishment, so
that they knew not how in those straits to dispose of themselves. The
leader in this persecution, according to Hammond, was Colonel Samuel
Matthews, member of the council in 1643, and subsequently agent for
Virginia to the parliament. A number of these dissenters having gained
the consent of Lord Baltimore and his deputy governor of Maryland,
retired to that colony, and settled there. Among these, one of the
principal was Richard Bennet, a merchant and a Roundhead. For a time
these refugees prospered and remained apparently content with their new
place of abode; and others, induced by their example, likewise removed

King Charles the First, after having been a prisoner for several years,
was beheaded in front of Whitehall Palace, on the 30th day of January,
1648. He died with heroic firmness and dignity.[212:B] The Commonwealth
of England now commenced, and continued till the restoration of Charles
the Second, in 1660. Upon the dissolution of the monarchy in England,
there were not wanting those in Virginia who held that the colonial
government, being derived from the crown, was itself now extinct; but
the assembly, by an act of October of the same year, declared that
whoever should defend the late traitorous proceedings against the king,
should be adjudged an accessory after the fact, to his death, and be
proceeded against accordingly; to asperse the late most pious king's
memory was made an offence punishable at the discretion of the governor
and council; to express a doubt of the right of succession of Charles
the Second, or to propose a change of government, or to derogate from
the full power of the government of the colony, was declared to be high
treason.[213:A] The principle, however, that the authority of the
colonial government ceased with the king's death, was expressly
recognized at the surrender of the colony to the parliamentary naval
force in 1651.

Colonel Norwood, a loyal refugee in Holland, having formed a plan with
two comrades, Major Francis Morrison and Major Richard Fox, to seek
their fortunes in Virginia, they met in London, August, 1649, for the
purpose of embarking. At the time when they had first concerted their
scheme, Charles the First was a prisoner at Carisbrook Castle, in the
Isle of Wight. He had since been executed; the royalists, thunderstruck
at this catastrophe, saw their last gleam of hope extinguished; and
Norwood and his friends were eager to escape from the scene of their
disasters. At the Royal Exchange, whose name was now for a time to be
altered to the "Great Exchange," the three forlorn cavaliers engaged a
passage to Virginia in the "Virginia Merchant," burden three hundred
tons, mounting thirty guns or more. The charge for the passage was six
pounds a head, for themselves and servants. The colony of Virginia they
deemed preferable for them in their straitened pecuniary circumstances;
and they brought over some goods with them for the purpose of mercantile
adventure. September the 23d, 1649, they embarked in the "Virginia
Merchant," having on board three hundred and thirty souls. Touching at
Fayal, Norwood and his companions met with a Portuguese lady of rank
with her family returning, in an English ship, the "John," from the
Brazils to her own country. With her they drank the healths of their
kings, amid thundering peals of cannon. The English gentlemen
discovered a striking resemblance between the lady's son and their own
prince, Charles, which filled them with fond admiration, and flattered
the vanity of the beautiful Portuguese. Passing within view of the
charming Bermuda, the "Virginia Merchant" sailing for Virginia, struck
upon a breaker early in November, near the stormy Cape Hatteras.
Narrowly escaping from that peril, she was soon overtaken by a storm,
and tossed by mountainous towering northwest seas. Amid the horrors of
the evening prospect, Norwood observed innumerable ill-omened porpoises
that seemed to cover the surface of the sea as far as the eye could
reach. The ship at length losing forecastle and mainmast, became a mere
hulk, drifting at the mercy of the winds and waves. Some of the
passengers were swept overboard by the billows that broke over her; the
rest suffered the tortures of terror and famine. At last the tempest
subsiding, the ship drifted near the coast of the Eastern Shore. Here
Norwood and a party landing on an island, were abandoned by the Virginia
Merchant. After enduring the extremities of cold and hunger, of which
some died, Norwood and the survivors in the midst of the snow were
rescued by a party of friendly Indians. In the mean while the ship
having arrived in the James River, a messenger was dispatched by
Governor Berkley in quest of Norwood and his party. Conducted to the
nearest plantation, they were everywhere entertained with the utmost
kindness. Stephen Charlton (afterwards, in 1652, burgess from
Northampton County,) would have the Colonel to put on a good farmer-like
suit of his own. After visiting Captain Yeardley, (son of Sir George
Yeardley, the former governor,) the principal person in that quarter of
the colony, Norwood crossed the Chesapeake Bay in a sloop, and landed at
'Squire Ludlow's plantation on York River. Next he proceeded to the
neighboring plantation of Captain Ralph Wormley, at that time burgess
from York County, and member of his majesty's council. At Captain
Wormley's he found some of his friends, who had likewise recently
arrived from England, feasting and carousing. The cavaliers had changed
their clime but not their habits. These guests were Sir Thomas
Lundsford, Sir Henry Chicheley, (pronounced Chickley,) Sir Philip
Honeywood, and Colonel Hammond. Sir Thomas Lundsford lies buried in the
churchyard of Williamsburg. At Jamestown Norwood was cordially welcomed
by Sir William Berkley, who took him to his house at Greenspring, where
he remained for some months. Sir William, on many occasions, showed
great respect to all the royal party who made that colony their refuge;
and his house and purse were open to all such. To Major Fox, who had no
other friend in the colony to look to for aid, he exhibited signal
kindness; to Major Morrison he gave command of the fort at Point
Comfort, and by his interest afterwards advanced him to be governor of
the colony. In 1650 Governor Berkley dispatched Norwood to Holland to
find the fugitive king, and to solicit for the place of treasurer of
Virginia, which Sir William took to be void by "the delinquency" of
William Clayborne, the incumbent, who had long held that place. The
governor furnished Norwood with money to defray the charge of the
solicitation, which was effectual, although Prince Charles was not found
in Holland, he having gone to Scotland. Charles the Second was crowned
by the Scotch at Scone, in 1651.[215:A]

Bennet and other dissenting Virginians, who had settled in Maryland,
were not long there before they became dissatisfied with the proprietary
government. The authority of Papists was irksome to Puritans, and they
began to avow their aversion to the oath of allegiance imposed upon
them; for by the terms of it Lord Baltimore affected to usurp almost
royal authority, concluding his commissions and writs with "We," "us,"
and "given under our hand and greater seal of arms, in such a year of
our dominion." The Protestants of Maryland, no doubt saw, in the
political character of the Commonwealth of England, a fair prospect of
the speedy subversion of Baltimore's power; nor were they disappointed
in this hope.

In October, 1650, the Long Parliament passed an ordinance prohibiting
trade with Barbadoes, Virginia, Bermuda, and Antigua. The act recited
that these colonies were, and of right ought to be, subject to the
authority of Parliament; that divers acts of rebellion had been
committed by many persons inhabiting Virginia, whereby they have most
traitorously usurped a power of government, and set themselves in
opposition to this commonwealth. It therefore declared such persons
notorious robbers and traitors; forbade all correspondence or commerce
with them, and appointed commissioners, and dispatched Sir George
Ayscue, with a powerful fleet and army, to reduce Barbadoes, Bermuda,
and Antigua to submission.

Charles the Second having invaded England at the head of a Scottish
army, was utterly defeated and overthrown by Cromwell, at Worcester,
September the 3d, 1651. Charles himself, not long after, with difficulty
and in disguise, escaped to France. In September of the same year the
council of state, of which Bradshaw was president, issued instructions
for Captain Robert Dennis, Mr. Richard Bennet, Mr. Thomas Steg,[216:A]
and Captain William Clayborne, appointed commissioners, for the
reducement of Virginia and the inhabitants thereof, to their due
obedience to the Commonwealth of Virginia. A fleet was put under command
of Captain Dennis, and the commissioners embarked in the Guinea frigate.
They were empowered to assure pardon and indemnity to all the
inhabitants of the said plantations that shall submit unto the present
government and authority, as it is established in the Commonwealth of
England. In case they shall not submit by fair ways and means, the
commissioners were to use all acts of hostility that lay in their power
to enforce them; and if they should find the people so to stand out as
that they could by no other ways or means reduce them to their due
obedience, they, or any two or more of them, whereof Captain Robert
Dennis was to be one, had the power to appoint captains and other
officers, and to raise forces within each of the aforesaid plantations,
for the furtherance of the service; and such persons as should come in
and serve as soldiers, if their masters should stand in opposition to
the government of the English Commonwealth, might be discharged and set
free from their masters, by the commissioners. A similar measure was
adopted by Lord Dunmore in 1776. In case of the death of Captain
Dennis, his place was to be filled by Captain Edmund Curtis, commander
of the Guinea frigate.[217:A] It is a mistake to suppose that the
members of the Long Parliament were all of them, or a majority of them,
Puritans, in the religious sense of the term; but they were so in
political principles.

In March, 1652, Captain Dennis arrived at Jamestown, and demanded a
surrender of the colony. It is said by some historians that Sir William
Berkley, either with a hope of repelling them, or of commanding better
terms, prepared for a gallant resistance, and undertook to strengthen
himself by making use of several Dutch ships,[217:B] which happened to
be there engaged in a contraband trade, and which he hired for the
occasion; that there chanced to be on board of the parliament's fleet
some goods belonging to two members of the Virginia council, and that
Dennis sent them word that their goods should be forfeited if the colony
was not immediately surrendered; and that the threat kindled dissensions
in the council, and the governor found himself constrained to yield on
condition of a general amnesty.[217:C]

Such is the account of several chroniclers, but it appears to be based
only on a loose and erroneous tradition. It would have been a mere empty
gasconade for Sir William Berkley to oppose the English naval force, and
the truth appears to be, that as soon as the parliamentary squadron
entered the Chesapeake Bay, all thoughts of resistance were laid aside.
If the story of the preparation for resistance were credited, it must at
the same time be believed that this chivalry and loyalty suddenly
evaporated under the more potent influence of pecuniary interest.[217:D]

The capitulation was ratified on the 12th of March, 1652, by which it
was agreed that the Colony of Virginia should be subject to the
Commonwealth of England; that the submission should be considered
voluntary, not forced nor constrained by a conquest upon the country;
and that "they shall have and enjoy such freedoms and privileges as
belong to the free-born people of England;" the assembly to meet as
formerly, and transact the affairs of the colony, but nothing to be done
contrary to the government of the Commonwealth of England; full
indemnity granted for all offences against the Parliament of England;
Virginia to have and enjoy the ancient bounds and limits granted by the
charters of former kings; "and that we shall seek a new charter from the
Parliament to that purpose, against any that have entrenched upon the
rights thereof," alluding no doubt to Lord Baltimore's intrusion into
Maryland; that the privilege of having fifty acres of land for every
person transported to the colony, shall continue as formerly granted;
that the people of Virginia shall have free trade, as the people of
England do enjoy, to all places, and with all nations, according to the
laws of that Commonwealth; and that Virginia shall enjoy all privileges
equally with any English plantation in America.

The navigation act had been passed in the preceding October, forbidding
any goods, wares, or merchandise, to be imported into England, except
either in English ships, or in ships of the country where the
commodities were produced--a blow aimed at the carrying-trade of the
Dutch. It was further agreed by the articles of surrender, that Virginia
was to be free from all taxes, customs, and impositions whatsoever, and
none to be imposed on them without consent of the grand assembly; and so
that neither forts nor castles be erected, or garrisons maintained,
without their consent: no charge to be made upon Virginia on account of
this present fleet; the engagement or oath of allegiance to be tendered
to all the inhabitants of Virginia; recusants to have a year's time to
remove themselves and their effects out of Virginia, and in the mean
time, during the said year, to have equal justice as formerly; the use
of the Book of Common Prayer to be permitted for one year, with the
consent of a majority of a parish, provided that those things which
relate to kingship, or that government, be not used publicly; and
ministers to be continued in their places, they not misdemeaning
themselves; public ammunition, powder and arms, to be given up,
security being given to make satisfaction for them; goods already
brought hither by the Dutch to remain unmolested; the quit-rents granted
by the late king to the planters of Virginia for seven years, to be
confirmed; finally, the parliamentary commissioners engage themselves
and the honor of the Parliament for the full performance of the
articles, the governor and council and burgesses making the same pledge
for the colony.[219:A]

On the same day some other articles were ratified by the commissioners
and the governor and council, exempting the governor and council from
taking the oath of allegiance for a year, and providing that they should
not be censured for praying for, or speaking well of the king, for one
whole year in their private houses, or "neighboring conference;" Sir
William Berkley was permitted to send an agent to give an account to his
majesty of the surrender of the country; Sir William and the members of
the council were permitted to dispose of their estates, and transport
themselves "whither they please." Protection of liberty and property
were guaranteed to Sir William Berkley.

Major Fox, (comrade of Norwood,) commander of the fort, at Point
Comfort, was allowed compensation for the building of his house on Fort
Island. A general amnesty was granted to the inhabitants, and it was
agreed that in case Sir William or his councillors should go to London,
or any other place in England, that they should be free from trouble or
hindrance of arrests, or such like, and that they may prosecute their
business there for six months. It would seem that some important
articles of surrender were not ratified by the Long Parliament.

The Fourth Article was, "That Virginia shall have and enjoy the ancient
bounds and limits granted by the charters of the former kings, and that
we shall seek a new charter from the Parliament to that purpose, against
any that entrenched against the rights thereof." This article was
referred in August, 1652, to the committee of the navy, to consider what
patent was fit to be granted to the inhabitants of Virginia.

The Seventh Article was, "That the people of Virginia have free trade,
as the people of England do enjoy, to all places and with all nations,
according to the laws of that commonwealth; and that Virginia shall
enjoy all privileges equal with any English plantations in America." The
latter clause was referred to the same committee.

The Eighth Article was, "That Virginia shall be free from all taxes,
customs, and impositions, whatsoever, and none to be imposed on them
without consent of the grand assembly, and so that neither forts nor
castles be erected, or garrisons maintained, without their consent."
This was also referred to the navy committee, together with several
papers relative to the disputes between Virginia and Maryland. The
committee made a report in December, which seems merely confined to the
Fourth Article, relative to the question of boundary and the contest
with Lord Baltimore. In the ensuing July the Long Parliament was

The articles of surrender were subscribed by Richard Bennet, William
Clayborne, and Edmund Curtis, commissioners in behalf of the Parliament.
Bennet, a merchant and Roundhead, driven from Virginia by the
persecution of Sir William Berkley's administration, had taken refuge in
Maryland. Having gone thence to England, his Puritanical principles and
his knowledge of the colonies of Virginia and Maryland, had recommended
him for the place of commissioner. Clayborne, too, who had formerly been
obliged to fly to England, and whose office of treasurer of Virginia Sir
William Berkley had held to be forfeited by delinquency, and which the
fugitive Charles had bestowed on Colonel Norwood--this impetuous and
indomitable Clayborne was another of the commissioners sent to reduce
the colonies within the Chesapeake Bay.

A new era was now opening in these two colonies; and the prominent parts
which Bennet and Clayborne were destined to perform in this novel scene,
exhibit a signal example of the vicissitudes of human fortune. The drama
that was enacted in the mother country was repeated on a miniature
theatre in the colonies.


[210:A] Description of New Albion, in Force's Hist. Tracts, ii.

[211:A] Hening, i. 353.

[211:B] Martin's History of North Carolina, i. 105-6. This is a valuable
work, but marred, especially in the first volume, by the unparalleled
misprinting, the engagements of the author not permitting him to correct
the proofs.

[211:C] Force's Hist. Tracts, ii., "A New Description of Va."

[211:D] Hawks' Narrative, 57, citing Savage's Winthrop, ii. 334.

[212:A] Leah and Rachel, in Force's Hist. Tracts, iii., Leah and Rachel
representing the two sisters, Virginia and Maryland.

[212:B] In the same year the Netherlands became independent.

[213:A] Hening, i. 360.

[215:A] Force's Hist. Tracts, iii.; Churchill's Voyages. A Major Norwood
is mentioned in Pepys' Diary, i. 46.

[216:A] A Mr. Thomas Stagg was a resident planter of Virginia in 1652.
Hening, i. 375.

[217:A] Virginia and Maryland, 18; Force's Hist. Tracts, ii.

[217:B] Only one ship appears to have been confiscated. Hening, i. 382.

[217:C] Chalmers' Annals, 123; Beverley, B. i. 54.

[217:D] Bancroft, Hist. of U. S., i. 223, citing Clarendon, B. xiii.
466, and other authorities, says that the fleet was sent over by
Cromwell, and came to Virginia after having reduced the West India
Islands. Cromwell, however, although at this time the master-spirit of
England, had not yet assumed dictatorial powers.

[219:A] Hening, i. 363.

[220:A] "Virginia and Maryland," Force's Hist. Tracts, ii. 20, in note.
Mr. Force, whose researches have brought to light such a magazine of
curious and instructive historical materials, appears to have been the
first to mention the non-ratification of some of the articles of
surrender. He says: "Three of the articles were not confirmed," and
therefore did not receive the last formal and final and definitive
ratification which Burk [Hist. of Va., ii. 92,] supposes they did. But
it appears that Burk referred only to the ratification by the parties at
Jamestown, and had no reference to the ulterior confirmation by the



     Bennet and Clayborne reduce Maryland--Cromwell's Letter--
     Provisional Government organized in Virginia--Bennet made
     Governor--William Clayborne Secretary of State--The Assembly--
     Counties represented--Cromwell dissolves the Long Parliament,
     and becomes Lord Protector--Sir William Berkley--Francis
     Yeardley's Letter to John Ferrar--Discovery in Carolina--
     Roanoke Indians visit Yeardley--He purchases a large Territory
     --William Hatcher--Stone, Deputy Governor of Maryland, defies
     the Authority of the Commissioners Bennet and Clayborne--They
     seize the Government and entrust it to Commissioners--Battle
     ensues--The Adherents of Baltimore defeated--Several prisoners
     executed--Cromwell's Letters--The Protestants attack the
     Papists on the Birth-day of St. Ignatius.

NOT long after the surrender of the Ancient Dominion of Virginia, Bennet
and Clayborne, commissioners, embarking in the Guinea frigate, proceeded
to reduce Maryland. After effecting a reduction of the infant province,
they, with singular moderation, agreed to a compromise with those who
held the proprietary government under Lord Baltimore. Stone, the
governor, and the council, part of them Papists, none well affected to
the Commonwealth of England, were allowed, until further instructions
should be received, to retain their places, on condition of issuing all
writs in the name of the Keepers of the Liberty of England.[222:A] Sir
William Berkley, upon the surrender of the colony, betook himself into
retirement in Virginia, where he remained free from molestation; and his
house continued to be a hospitable place of resort for refugee
cavaliers. There was, no doubt, before the surrender, a considerable
party in Virginia, who either secretly or openly sympathized with the
parliamentary party in England; and upon the reduction of the colony
these adherents of the Commonwealth found their influence much

On the 30th of April, 1652, Bennet and Clayborne, commissioners,
together with the burgesses of Virginia, organized a provisional
government, subject to the control of the Commonwealth of England.
Richard Bennet, who had been member of the council in 1646, nephew of an
eminent London merchant largely engaged in the Virginia trade,[223:A]
was made governor, April 30, 1652; and William Clayborne, secretary of
state for the colony. The council appointed consisted of Captain John
West, Colonel Samuel Matthews, Colonel Nathaniel Littleton, Colonel
Argal Yeardley, Colonel Thomas Pettus, Colonel Humphrey Higginson,
Colonel George Ludlow, Colonel William Barnett,[223:B] Captain Bridges
Freeman, Captain Thomas Harwood, Major William Taylor, Captain Francis
Eppes, and Lieutenant-Colonel John Cheesman. The governor, secretary,
and council were to have such power and authorities to act from time to
time as should be appointed and granted by the grand assembly.[223:C]
The government of the mother country was entitled "the States," as the
United States are now styled in Canada. The act organizing the
provisional government concludes with: "God save the Commonwealth of
England, and this country of Virginia." The governor and councillors
were allowed to be, ex-officio, members of the assembly. On the fifth
day of May, this body, while claiming the right to appoint all officers
for the colony, yet for the present, in token of their implicit
confidence in the commissioners, referred all the appointments not
already made to the governor and them. The administration of Virginia
was now, for the first time, Puritan and Republican. The act authorizing
the governor and council to appoint the colonial officers was renewed in
the following year. The oath administered to the burgesses was: "You and
every of you shall swear upon the holy Evangelist, and in the sight of
God, to deliver your opinions faithfully and honestly, according to your
best understanding and conscience, for the general good and prosperity
of the country, and every particular member thereof, and to do your
utmost endeavor to prosecute that without mingling with it any
particular interest of any person or persons whatsoever."

The governor and members of the council were declared to be entitled to
seats in the assembly, and were required to take the same oath. This
assembly, which met on the 20th of April, 1652, appears to have sat
about ten days. There were thirty-five burgesses present from twelve
counties, namely: Henrico, Charles City, James City, Isle of Wight,
Nansemond, (originally called Nansimum,) Lower Norfolk, Elizabeth City,
Warwick, York, Northampton, Northumberland, and Gloucester--Lancaster
not being represented.[224:A] Rappahannock County was formed from the
upper part of Lancaster in 1656.

At the commencement of the ensuing session of the assembly, which met in
October, 1652, Mr. John Hammond, returned a burgess from Isle of Wight
County, was expelled from the assembly as being notoriously a scandalous
person, and a frequent disturber of the peace of the country by libel
and other illegal practices. He had passed nineteen years in Virginia,
and now retired to Maryland; he was the author of the pamphlet entitled
"Leah and Rachel."[224:B] Mr. James Pyland, another burgess, returned
from the same county, was expelled, and committed to answer such charges
as should be brought against him as an abettor of Mr. Thomas Woodward,
in his mutinous and rebellious declaration, and concerning his the said
Mr. Pyland's blasphemous catechism. These offenders appear to have been
of the royalist party.

In the year 1653 there were fourteen counties in Virginia, Surry being
now mentioned for the first time, and the number of burgesses was
thirty-four. The people living on the borders of the Appomattox River
were authorized to hold courts, and to treat with the Indians. Colonel
William Clayborne, Captain Henry Fleet, and Major Abram Wood were
empowered to make discoveries to the west and south. In July, some
difference occurred between the governor and council on the one side,
and the house of burgesses on the other, relative to the election of
speaker. The affair was amicably arranged, the governor's views being
assented to. Bennet appears to have enjoyed the confidence of the
Virginians. He was too generous to retaliate upon Sir William Berkley
and the royalists who had formerly persecuted him. Some malecontents
were punished for speaking disrespectfully of him, and refusing to pay
the castle duties. From the charges brought against one of these, it
appears that the Virginians considered themselves, under the articles of
surrender, entitled to free trade with all the world, the navigation act
to the contrary notwithstanding; and that act does not appear to have
been enforced against Virginia during the Commonwealth of
England.[225:A] By the articles of surrender the use of the prayer-book
was permitted, with the consent of a majority of the people of the
parish, for one year; so that it would seem that its use was prohibited
after March 12th, 1653; but the prohibition was not enforced, and public
worship continued as before without interruption.[225:B] In April, 1653,
Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Long Parliament, and in December, in the
same year, assumed the office of Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of
England, Scotland, and Ireland. Owing to the war with Holland, Sir
William Berkley's departure from Virginia was delayed, and, in
conformity with the articles of convention of 1651, he now became
subject to arrest. But the assembly passed an act, stating that as the
war between England and Holland had prevented the confirmation of the
convention of 1651, in England, or the coming of a ship out of Holland,
and Sir William Berkley desiring a longer time, namely, eight months
further, to procure a ship out of Flanders, in respect of the war with
Holland, and that he should be exempted from impost duty on such tobacco
as he should lade in her; "it is condescended that his request shall be
granted." Some seditious disturbances having taken place in Northampton
County, on the Eastern Shore, in which Edmund Scarburgh was a
ringleader, it was found necessary for Governor Bennet, Secretary
Clayborne, and a party of gentlemen, to repair thither for the purpose
of restoring order. Roger Green, and others, living on the Nansemond
River, received a grant of land on condition of their settling the
country bordering on the Moratuck or Roanoke River,[226:A] and on the
south side of the Chowan. Divers gentlemen requesting permission, were
authorized, in 1653, to explore the mountains. The ship Leopoldus, of
Dunkirk, was confiscated for the use of the Commonwealth of England, for
violating the navigation act; and the proceeds, amounting to four
hundred pounds sterling, were given to Colonel Samuel Matthews, agent
for Virginia at the court of the Protector, Colonel William Clayborne,
secretary, and other officers, in return for their services in the
matter of the forfeited ship.

Captain Francis Yeardley, who has been mentioned before, was a son of
Sir George Yeardley, some time governor of Virginia, and Lady
Temperance, his wife, and was born in Virginia. A letter dated in May,
1654, was addressed by him to John Ferrar, at Little Gidding, in
Huntingdonshire, brother to Nicholas Ferrar, whose name is so honorably
connected with the early annals of Virginia. The younger Yeardley
describes the country as very fertile, flourishing in all the exuberance
of nature, abounding especially in the rich mulberry and vine, with a
serene air and temperate clime, and rich in precious minerals. A young
man engaged in the beaver trade having been accidentally separated from
his own sloop, had obtained a small boat and provisions from Yeardley,
and had gone with his party to Roanoke, at which island he hoped to find
his vessel. He there fell in with a hunting party of Indians, and
persuaded them and some of the other tribes, both in the island and on
the mainland, to go back with him and make peace with the English. He
brought some of these Indians with the great man, or chief of Roanoke,
to Yeardley's house, which was probably on the Eastern Shore, where his
father had lived before him. The Indians passed a week at Yeardley's.
While there, the "great man" observing Yeardley's children reading and
writing, inquired of him whether he would take his only son, and teach
him "to speak out of the book, and make a writing." Yeardley assured him
that he would willingly do so; and the chief at his departure expressing
his strong desire to serve the God of the Englishmen, and his hope that
his child might be brought up in the knowledge of the same, promised to
bring him back again in four months. In the mean time Yeardley had been
called away to Maryland; and the planters of the Eastern Shore
suspecting, from the frequent visits and inquiries of the Indian, that
Yeardley was carrying on some scheme for his own private advantage, were
disposed to maltreat the chief. Upon one occasion, when Yeardley's wife
had brought him to church with her, some over-busy justices of the
peace, after sermon, threatened to whip him, and send him away. The
"great man" being terrified, the lady taking him by the hand, resolutely
stood forth in his defence, and pledged her whole property, as a
guarantee, that no harm to the settlement was intended, or was likely to
arise from the Indian's alliance. Upon Yeardley's return from Maryland,
he dispatched, with his brother's assistance, a boat with six men, one
being a carpenter, to build the great man an English house; and two
hundred pounds for the purchase of Indian territory. The terms of the
purchase were soon agreed upon, and Yeardley's people "paid for three
great rivers and also all such others as they should like of,
southerly." In due form they took possession of the country in the name
of the Commonwealth of England, receiving as a symbol of its surrender,
a turf of earth with an arrow shot into it. The territory thus given up
by the Indians was a considerable part of what afterwards became the
province of North Carolina. As soon as the natives had withdrawn from it
to a region farther south, Yeardley built the great commander a handsome
house, which he promised to fit up with English utensils and furniture.

Yeardley's people were introduced to the chief of the Tuscaroras, who
received them courteously, and invited them to visit his country, of
which he gave an attractive account; but his offer could not be
accepted, owing to the illness of their interpreter. Upon the
completion of his house, the Roanoke chief came, with the Tuscarora
chief and forty-five others, to Yeardley's house, presented his wife and
son and himself for baptism, and offered again the same symbol of the
surrender of his whole country to Yeardley; and he in his turn tendering
the same to the Commonwealth of England, prayed only "that his own
property and pains might not be forgotten." The Indian child was
presented to the minister before the congregation, and having been
baptized in their presence, was left with Yeardley to be bred a
Christian, "which God grant him grace (he prays) to become." The charges
incurred by Yeardley in purchasing and taking possession of the country,
had already amounted to three hundred pounds.[228:A]

At the meeting of the assembly in November, 1654, William Hatcher being
convicted of having stigmatized Colonel Edward Hill, speaker of the
house, as an atheist and blasphemer, (from which charges he had been
before acquitted by the quarterly court,) was compelled to make
acknowledgment of his offence, upon his knees, before Colonel Hill and
the assembly. This Hatcher appears to have been a burgess of Henrico
County in 1652. More than twenty years afterwards, in his old age, he
was fined eight thousand pounds of pork, for the use of the king's
soldiers, on account of alleged mutinous words uttered shortly after
Bacon's rebellion.

Upon the dissolution of the Long Parliament and the establishment of the
Protectorate, Lord Baltimore took measures to recover the absolute
control of Maryland; and Stone, (who since June, 1652, had continued in
the place of governor of Maryland,) in obedience to instructions
received from his lordship, violated the terms of the agreement, which
had been arranged with Bennet and Clayborne, acting in behalf of the
Parliament, and set them at defiance. These commissioners having
addressed a letter to Stone proposing an interview, he refused to accede
to it, and gave it as his opinion, that they were "wolves in sheep's
clothing." Bennet and Clayborne, claiming authority derived from his
Highness the Lord Protector, seized the government of the province, and
entrusted it to a board of ten commissioners.[229:A]

When Lord Baltimore received intelligence of this proceeding, he wrote
to his deputy, (Stone,) reproaching him with cowardice, and peremptorily
commanded him to recover the colony by force of arms. Stone and the
Marylanders now accordingly fell to arms, and disarmed and plundered
those that would not accept the oath of allegiance to Baltimore. The
province contained, as has been mentioned before, among its inhabitants
a good many emigrants from Virginia of Puritan principles, and these
dwelt mainly on the banks of the Severn and the Patuxent, and on the
Isle of Kent. They were disaffected to the proprietary government, and
protested that they had removed to Maryland, under the express
engagement with Governor Stone, that they should enjoy freedom of
conscience, and be exempt from the obnoxious oath. These recusants now
took up arms to defend themselves, and civil war raged in infant
Maryland. Stone, to reduce the malecontents, embarking for Providence
with his men, landed on the neck, at the mouth of the Severn. Here, on
the 25th of March, 1654, he was attacked by the Protestant adherents of
Bennet and Clayborne, and utterly defeated; the prisoners being nearly
double of the number of the victors, twenty killed, many wounded, and
"all the place strewed with Papist beads where they fled."

During the action, a New England vessel seized the boats, provision, and
ammunition of the governor and his party. Among the prisoners was this
functionary, who had been "shot in many places." Several of the
prisoners were condemned to death by a court-martial; and four of the
principal, one of them a councillor, were executed on the spot. Captain
William Stone, likewise sentenced, owed his escape to the intercession
of some women, and of some of Bennet and Clayborne's people.[229:B] John
Hammond, (the same who had been, two years before, expelled from the
Virginia Assembly,) also one of the condemned, fled in disguise, and
escaped to England in the ship Crescent. The master of this vessel was
afterwards heavily fined by the Virginia assembly for carrying off
Hammond without a pass. Of the four that were shot, three were
Romanists; and the Jesuit fathers, hotly pursued, escaped to Virginia,
where they inhabited a mean low hut.[230:A]

Thus Maryland became subject to the Protectorate. The administration of
the Puritan commissioners was rigorous, and the Maryland assembly
excluded Papists from the pale of religious freedom. Such were even
Milton's views of toleration;[230:B] but Cromwell, the master-spirit of
his age, soared higher, and commanded the commissioners "not to busy
themselves about religion, but to settle the civil government." He
addressed the following letter, dated at Whitehall, in January, 1654, to
Richard Bennet, Esq., Governor of Virginia:--

     "SIR:--Whereas, the differences between the Lord Baltimore and
     the inhabitants of Virginia, concerning the bounds by them
     respectively claimed, are depending before our council and yet
     undetermined; and whereas, we are credibly informed you have,
     notwithstanding, gone into his plantation in Maryland, and
     countenanced some people there in opposing the Lord
     Baltimore's officers; whereby and with other forces from
     Virginia, you have much disturbed that colony and people, to
     the engendering of tumults and much bloodshed there, if not
     timely prevented:

     "We, therefore, at the request of the Lord Baltimore and
     divers other persons of quality here, who are engaged by great
     adventures in his interest, do, for preventing of disturbances
     or tumults there, will and require you, and all others
     deriving any authority from you, to forbear disturbing the
     Lord Baltimore, or his officers, or people in Maryland, and to
     permit all things to remain as they were before any
     disturbance or alteration made by you, or by any other, upon
     pretence of authority from you, till the said differences,
     above mentioned, be determined by us here, and we give farther
     order herein.

                                "We rest, your loving friend,
                                                     "OLIVER, P."

Cromwell was now endeavoring to heal the wounds of civil war, to allay
animosities, and to strengthen his power by a generous and conciliatory
policy, blended with irresistible energy of action. In return for Lord
Baltimore's ready submission to his authority, the Protector apparently
recognized his proprietary rights in Maryland, yet at the same time, he
sustained and protected his commissioners, only curbing the violent
contest that had arisen between Virginia and Maryland respecting their
boundary. His policy as to the internal government of these colonies was
one of a masterly inactivity.

     "_To the Commissioners of Maryland._

                                "WHITEHALL, 26th September, 1655.

     "SIRS:--It seems to us, by yours of the twenty-ninth of June,
     and by the relation we received by Colonel Bennet, that some
     mistake or scruple hath arisen concerning the sense of our
     letters of the twelfth of January last; as if by our letters
     we had intimated that we should have a stop put to the
     proceedings of those commissioners who were authorized to
     settle the civil government of Maryland. Which was not at all
     intended by us; nor so much as proposed to us by those who
     made addresses to us to obtain our said letter. But our
     intention (as our said letter doth plainly import) was only to
     prevent and forbid any force or violence to be offered by
     either of the plantations of Virginia or Maryland, from one to
     the other, upon the differences concerning their bounds, the
     said differences being then under the consideration of ourself
     and council here. Which, for your more full satisfaction, we
     have thought fit to signify to you, and rest

                                   "Your loving friend,
                                              "OLIVER, P."[231:A]

Remembering, however, Lord Baltimore's ready submission to his
authority, he nominally, at the least, restored him to his control over
the province.

It was the custom of the Maryland Romanists to celebrate, by a salute of
cannon, the thirty-first of July, the birth-day of St.

Ignatius, (Loyola,) Maryland's patron saint. On the 1st of August,
1656, the day following the anniversary, a number of Protestant
soldiers, aroused by the nocturnal report of the cannon, issued from
their fort, five miles distant, rushed upon the habitations of the
Papists, broke into them, and plundered whatever there was found of arms
or powder.


[222:A] "Virginia and Maryland," 11, 34; Force's Hist. Tracts, ii.;
Chalmers' Annals, 221.

[223:A] Stith's Hist. of Va., 199.

[223:B] Properly Bernard: see Hening, i. 408.

[223:C] Hening, i. 372.

[224:A] Gloucester and Lancaster Counties are now named for the first
time; when or how they were formed, does not appear. Sir William Berkley
was of Gloucestershire, England. The name of Warrasqueake was changed to
Isle of Wight in 1637, and first represented in 1642. In that year
Charles River was changed to York, and Warwick River to Warwick. The
boundaries of Upper and Lower Norfolk were fixed in 1642; and Upper
Norfolk was changed to Nansimum (afterwards Nansemond) in 1646.
Northumberland is first mentioned in 1645; Westmoreland in 1653; Surry,
Gloucester, and Lancaster in 1652. New Kent was first represented in
1654, being taken from the upper part of York County. (_McSherry's Hist.
of Maryland._)

[224:B] Force's Hist. Tracts, iii.

[225:A] Burk, ii. 97

[225:B] Virginia's Cure, p. 19, in Force's Hist. Tracts, iii.

[226:A] Called Moratuck or Moratoc above the falls, and Roanoke below.
Roanoke signifies "shell:" Roanoke and Wampumpeake were terms for Indian

[228:A] Anderson's Hist. of Col. Church, ii. 506. The letter is
preserved in Thurloe's State Papers, xi. 273.

[229:A] "Virginia and Maryland," Force's Hist. Tracts, ii.

[229:B] "Leah and Rachel," Force's Hist. Tracts, iii.; Chalmer's Annals,

[230:A] White's Relation, 44, in Force's Hist. Tracts, iv.

[230:B] Milton's Prose Works, ii. 346.

[231:A] Carlyle's Cromwell, ii. 182.



     Digges elected Governor--Bennet goes to England the Colony's
     Agent--Colonel Edward Hill defeated by the Ricahecrians--
     Totopotomoi, with many Warriors, slain--Miscellaneous
     matters--Matthews Elected Governor--Letter to the Protector--
     Acts of Assembly--Magna Charta recognized as in force--
     Governor and Council excluded from Assembly--Matthews declares
     a Dissolution--The House resists--Dispute referred to the
     Protector--Declaration of Sovereignty--Matthews re-elected--
     Council newly reorganized--Edward Hill elected Speaker--Rules
     of the House.

IN March, 1655, Edward Digges was elected by the assembly governor of
the colony of Virginia. He was of an ancient and distinguished family,
and had been made a member of the council in November, 1654, "he having
given a signal testimony of his fidelity to this colony and Commonwealth
of England." He succeeded Bennet, who had held the office since April,
1652, and who was now appointed the colony's agent at London.

In the year 1656, six or seven hundred Ricahecrian Indians having come
down from the mountains, and seated themselves near the falls of the
James River, Colonel Edward Hill, the elder, was put in command of a
body of men, and ordered to dislodge them. He was reinforced by
Totopotomoi, chief of Pamunkey, with one hundred of his tribe. A creek
enclosing a peninsula in Hanover County, retains the name of
Totopotomoy; and Butler, in Hudibras, alludes to this chief:--

     "The mighty Tottipotimoy
      Sent to our elders an envoy,
      Complaining sorely of the breach
      Of league held forth by brother Patch."

Hill was disgracefully defeated, and the brave Totopotomoi, with the
greater part of his warriors, slain. It appears probable that Bloody
Run, near Richmond, derived its name from this sanguinary battle. The
action in which so many Indians were afterwards massacred by Bacon and
his men, and with which a loose tradition has identified Bloody Run, did
not occur near the falls of the James River. Hill, in consequence of his
bad conduct in this affair, was subsequently, by unanimous vote of the
council and the house of burgesses, condemned to pay the expenses of
effecting a peace with the Indians, and was disfranchised.[234:A] During
this year an act was passed allowing all free men the right of voting
for burgesses, on the ground that "it is something hard and unagreeable
to reason that any persons shall pay equal taxes, and yet have no votes
in elections." So republican was the elective franchise in Virginia,
under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell two centuries ago! In this
year, 1656, Colonel Thomas Dew, of Nansemond, sometime before speaker of
the house of burgesses, and others, were authorized to explore the
country between Cape Hatteras and Cape Fear. The County of Nansemond had
long abounded with non-conformists.

The salary of the governor, as ordered at this time, consisted of
twenty-five thousand pounds of tobacco, worth two hundred and fifty
pounds sterling, together with certain duties levied from masters of
vessels, called castle duties, and marriage license fees. A reward of
twenty pounds was offered to any one who should import a minister;
ministers, with six servants each, were exempted from taxes, it being
provided that they should be examined by Mr. Philip Mallory and Mr. John
Green, and should be recommended by them to the governor and council,
who were invested with discretionary control of the matter.[234:B]
Letters were sent to Matthews, Virginia's agent at the Protector's
court, directing him to suspend for the present the further prosecution
of the long and fruitless controversy with Lord Baltimore respecting the
disputed boundary.[234:C] Matthews, returning from England, was elected
by the assembly to succeed Digges in the office of governor, who was now
employed as agent. Colonel Francis Morrison, speaker, was desired by the
assembly to write a letter to the Protector, and another to the
secretary of state, which was as follows:--


     "We could not find a fitter means to represent the condition
     of this country to your highness, than this worthy person, Mr.
     Digges, our late governor, whose occasions calling him into
     England, we have instructed him with the state of this place
     as he left it; we shall beseech your highness to give credit
     to his relations, which we assure ourselves shall be faithful,
     having had many experiences of his candor in the time of his
     government, which he hath managed under your highness, with so
     much moderation, prudence, and justice, that we should be much
     larger in expressing this truth, but that we fear to have
     already too much trespassed, by interrupting your highness'
     most serious thoughts in greater affairs than what can concern
     your highness' most humble, most devoted servants.

     "Dated from the Assembly of Virginia, 15th December, 1656."

     Superscribed, for his "Highness, the Lord Protector."

The letter to the secretary of state was as follows:--


     "Though we are persons so remote from you, we have heard so
     honorable a character of your worth, that we cannot make a
     second choice without erring, of one so fit and proper as
     yourself to make our addresses to his Highness, the Lord
     Protector. Our desires we have intrusted to that worthy
     gentleman, Mr. Digges, our late governor; we shall desire you
     would please to give him access to you and by your highness.
     And as we promise you will find nothing but worth in him, so
     we are confident he will undertake for us that we are a people
     not altogether ungrateful, but will find shortly a nearer way
     than by saying so, to express really how much we esteem the
     honor of your patronage, which is both the hopes and ambition
     of your very humble and then obliged servants.

     "From the Assembly of Virginia, 15th December, 1656."

     Superscribed, to the "Right Honorable John Thurlow, Secretary
     of State."

The allusion in the close of the letter appears to be to a douceur which
it was intended to present to the secretary.

Digges was instructed to unite with Matthews and Bennet, in London, and
to treat with the leading merchants in the Virginia trade, and to let
them know how much the assembly had endeavored to diminish the quantity,
and improve the quality of the tobacco; and to see what the merchants,
on their part, would be willing to do in giving a better price; for if
the planters should find that the bad brought as high a price as the
good, they would of course raise that which could be raised the most
easily.[236:A] It appears that Digges was appointed agent conjointly
with Bennet. Matthews was elected by the assembly to succeed Digges as
governor; but the latter was requested to hold the office as long as he
should remain in Virginia. Digges departing for England toward the close
of 1655, would appear to have co-operated for a short while with both
Matthews and Bennet. By a singular coincidence, Digges, Matthews, and
Bennet, who were the first three governors of Virginia under the
Commonwealth of England, were transferred from the miniature metropolis,
Jamestown, and found themselves together near the court of his Highness
the Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell.

Digges was succeeded as governor by Matthews, early in the year 1656.
The laws of the colony were revised, and reduced into one volume,
comprising one hundred and thirty-one acts, well adapted to the wants of
the people and the condition of the country. Of the transactions from
1656 to 1660, the year of the restoration, Burk says there is an entire
chasm in the records; Hening, on the contrary, declares that, "in no
portion of the colonial records under the Commonwealth, are the
materials so copious as from 1656 to 1660." The editor of the Statutes
at Large is the better authority on this point.

The church government was settled by giving the people the entire
control of the vestry; while the appointment of ministers and church
wardens, the care of the poor, and parochial matters, were entrusted to
the people of each parish. An act was passed for the keeping holy the
Sabbath, and another against divulgers of false news. The ordinary
weight of a hogshead of tobacco at this time did not exceed three
hundred and fifty pounds, and its dimensions by law were forty-three
inches long and twenty-six wide. Letters, superscribed "For the Public
Service," were ordered to be conveyed from one plantation to another,
to the place of destination. A remedy was provided for servants
complaining of harsh usage, or of insufficient food or raiment. The
penalty for selling arms or ammunition to the Indians was the forfeiture
of the offender's whole estate. It was enacted that no sheriff, or
deputy sheriff, then called under-sheriff, should hold his office longer
than one year in any one county. The penalty of being reduced to
servitude was abolished. The twenty-second day of March and the
eighteenth of April were still kept as holy days, in commemoration of
the deliverance of the colonists from the bloody Indian massacres of
1622 and 1644. The planters were prohibited from encroaching upon the
lands of the Indians. The vessels of all nations were admitted into the
ports of Virginia; and an impost duty of ten shillings a hogshead was
laid on all tobacco exported, except that laden in English vessels, and
bound directly for England; from the payment of which duty vessels
belonging to Virginians were afterwards exempted. An act was passed to
prohibit the kidnapping of Indian children.

In the year 1656 all acts against mercenary attorneys were repealed; but
two years afterwards attorneys were again expelled from the
courts,[237:A] and no one was suffered to receive any compensation for
serving in that capacity. The governor and council made serious
opposition to this act, and the following communication was made to the
house of burgesses: "The governor and council will consent to this
proposition so far as shall be agreeable to Magna Charta. WM.
CLAYBORNE." The burgesses replied, that they could not see any such
prohibition contained in Magna Charta; that two former assemblies had
passed such a law, and that it had stood in force upwards of ten years.
It thus appears that Magna Charta was held to be in force in the colony.

The ground leaves of tobacco, or lugs, were declared to be not
merchantable; and it was ordered that no tobacco should be planted after
the tenth day of July, under the penalty of a fine of ten thousand
pounds of that staple. The exportation of hides, wool, and old iron, was
forbidden. The salary of the governor, derived from the impost duty on
tobacco exported, was fixed at sixteen hundred pounds sterling.

The burgesses having rescinded the order admitting the governor and
council as members of the house, and having voted an adjournment,
Matthews, on the 1st of April, 1658, declared a dissolution of the
assembly. The house resisted, and declared that any burgess who should
depart at this conjuncture, should be censured as betraying the trust
reposed in him by his country; and an oath of secrecy was administered
to the members. The governor, upon receiving an assurance that the
business of the house would be speedily and satisfactorily concluded,
revoked the order of dissolution, referring the question in dispute, as
to the dissolving power, to his Highness the Lord Protector. The
burgesses, still unsatisfied, appointed a committee, of which Colonel
John Carter, of Lancaster County, was chairman, to draw up a resolution
asserting their powers; and in consonance with their report the
burgesses made a declaration of popular sovereignty: that they had in
themselves the full power of appointing all officers, until they should
receive an order to the contrary from England; that the house was not
dissolvable by any power yet extant in Virginia but their own; that all
former elections of governor and council should be void; that the power
of governor for the future should be conferred on Colonel Samuel
Matthews, who by them was invested with all the rights and privileges
belonging to the governor and captain-general of Virginia; and that a
council should be appointed by the burgesses then convened, with the
advice of the governor.

The legislative records do not disclose the particular ground on which
the previous elections of governor and appointments of councillors under
the provisional government were annulled; but from the exclusion of the
governor and council from the house, it might be inferred that it was
owing to a jealousy of these functionaries being members of the body
that elected them. Yet Bennet, the first of the three governors, and his
council, were, in 1652, expressly allowed to be _ex officio_ members of
the assembly. An order was also made, April 2d, 1758, by the assembly,
in the name of his Highness the Lord Protector, to the sheriff of James
City, and sergeant-at-arms, to obey no warrant but those signed by the
speaker of the house; and William Clayborne, secretary of state, (under
Bennet, Digges, and Matthews,) was directed to deliver the records to
the assembly. The oath of office was administered to Governor Matthews
by the committee before mentioned, and the members of the council
nominated by the governor and approved by the house, took the same

The number of burgesses present at the session commencing in March,
1659, was thirty. Colonel Edward Hill, who had been disfranchised,
was now unanimously elected speaker. Colonel Moore Fantleroy, of
Rappahannock County, not being present at the election, "moved against
him, as if clandestinely elected, and taxed the house of unwarrantable
proceedings therein." He was suspended until the next day, when,
acknowledging his error, he was readmitted.

Any member absent from the house was subject to a penalty of twenty
pounds of tobacco. A member "disguised with overmuch drink" forfeited
one hundred pounds of tobacco. A burgess was required to rise from his
seat, and to remain uncovered, while speaking. The oath was administered
to the burgesses by a committee of three sent from the council.


[234:A] Hening, i. 402, 422; Burk's Hist. of Va., ii. 107.

[234:B] Hening, i. 424.

[234:C] Burk's Hist. of Va., ii. 116. An Armenian was imported by Digges
for the purpose of making silk.

[236:A] Burk's Hist. of Va., ii. 116.

[237:A] Hening, i. 434, 482.

[239:A] The governor and council were as follows: Colonel Samuel
Matthews, Governor and Captain-general of Virginia, Richard Bennet,
Colonel William Clayborne, Secretary of State, Colonel John West,
Colonel Thomas Pettus, Colonel Edward Hill, Colonel Thomas Dew, Colonel
William Bernard, Colonel Obedience Robins, Lieutenant-Colonel John
Walker, Colonel George Reade, Colonel Abraham Wood, Colonel John Carter,
Mr. Warham Horsmenden, Lieutenant-Colonel Anthony Elliott.



     Death of Oliver Cromwell--Succeeded by his Son Richard--
     Assembly acknowledge his Authority--Character of Government
     of Virginia under the Commonwealth of England--Matthews dies--
     Richard Cromwell resigns the Protectorate--Supreme Power
     claimed now by the Assembly--Sir William Berkley elected
     Governor--Act for suppressing Quakers--Free Trade established--
     Stuyvesant's Letter--Charles the Second restored--Sends a new
     Commissioner to Berkley--His Reply--Grant of Northern Neck--
     The Navigation Act.

ON the 8th of March, 1660, the house of burgesses having sent a
committee to notify the governor that they attended his pleasure, he
presented the following letter:--

     "GENTLEMEN,--His late Highness, the Lord Protector, from that
     general respect which he had to the good and safety of all the
     people of his dominion, whether in these nations, or in the
     English plantations abroad, did extend his care to his colony
     in Virginia, the present condition and affairs whereof
     appearing under some unsettledness through the looseness of
     the government, the supplying of that defect hath been taken
     into serious consideration, and some resolutions passed in
     order thereunto, which we suppose would have been brought into
     act by this time, if the Lord had continued life and health to
     his said highness. But it hath pleased the Lord, on Friday,
     the third of this month, to take him out of the world, his
     said highness having in his lifetime, according to the humble
     petition and advice, appointed and declared the most noble and
     illustrious lord, the Lord Richard, eldest son to his late
     highness, to be his successor, who hath been accordingly, with
     general consent and applause of all, proclaimed Protector of
     this Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the
     dominions and territories thereunto belonging. And, therefore,
     we have thought fit to signify the same unto you, whom we
     require, according to your duty, that you cause his said
     Highness, Richard, Lord Protector, forthwith to be proclaimed
     in all parts of your colony. And his highness' council have
     thought fit hereby to assure you, that the settlement of that
     colony is not neglected; and to let you know, that you may
     expect shortly to receive a more express testimony of his
     highness' care in that behalf; till the further perfecting
     whereof, their lordships do, will, and require you, the
     present governor and council there, to apply yourselves with
     all seriousness, faithfulness, and circumspection, to the
     peaceable and orderly management of the affairs of that
     colony, according to such good laws and customs (not repugnant
     to the laws of England) as have been heretofore used and
     exercised among you, improving your best endeavors as for
     maintaining the civil peace, so for promoting the interest of
     religion, wherein you will receive from hence all just
     countenance and encouragement. And if any person shall
     presume, by any undue ways, to interrupt the quiet or hazard
     the safety of his highness' people there, order will be taken,
     upon the representation of such proceedings, to make further
     provision for securing of your peace in such a way as shall be
     found meet and necessary, and for calling those to a strict
     account who shall endeavor to disturb it.

     "Signed in the name and by the order of the council.

                                       "H. LAWRENCE, _President_.

     "Whitehall, 7th September, 1658."

     Superscription, to the "Governor and Council of his Highness'
     Colony of Virginia."

Upon the reading of this letter, the governor and council withdrew from
the assembly; and the house of burgesses unanimously acknowledged their
obedience to his Highness, Richard, Lord Protector, and fully recognized
his power.[241:A] So much truth is there in Mr. Jefferson's
remark,[241:B] that in the contest with the house of Stuart, Virginia
accompanied the footsteps of the mother country. The government of
Virginia under the Commonwealth of England was wholly provisional. By
the convention of March the 12th, 1652, Virginia secured to herself her
ancient limits, and was entitled to reclaim that part of her chartered
territory which had been unjustly and illegally given away to Lord
Baltimore. In this, however, owing to the perplexed condition of affairs
in England, Virginia was disappointed; but she secured, by the articles
of convention, free trade, exemption from taxation, save by her own
assembly, and exclusion of military force from her borders. Yet all
these rights were violated by subsequent kings and parliaments.[242:A]

The administration of the colonial government, under the Commonwealth of
England, was judicious and beneficent; the people were free, harmonious,
and prosperous; and while Cromwell's sceptre commanded the respect of
the world, he exhibited toward the infant and loyal colony a generous
and politic lenity; and during this interval she enjoyed free trade,
legislative independence, civil and religious freedom, republican
institutions, and internal peace. The Governors Bennet, Digges, and
Matthews, by their patriotic virtues, enjoyed the confidence, and
affection, and respect of the people; no extravagance, rapacity,
corruption, or extortion was charged against their administration;
intolerance and persecution were unknown. But rapine, corruption,
extortion, intolerance, and persecution were all soon to be revived
under the restored dynasty of the Stuarts.

Richard Cromwell resigned the Protectorate on the 22d day of April,
1659. Matthews, the governor, had died in the preceding January. England
was without a monarch; Virginia without a governor. It was during this
interval that public opinion in England was in suspense, the result of
affairs depending upon the line of conduct which might be pursued by
General Monk. The Virginia assembly, convening on the 13th day of March,
1660, declared by their first act that as there was then in England no
resident, absolute, and generally acknowledged power, therefore the
supreme government of the colony should rest in the assembly; and writs
previously issued in the name of his Highness, the Lord Protector, now
issued in the name of the Grand Assembly of Virginia. By the second act,
Sir William Berkley was elected governor; he was required to call a
grand assembly once in two years at the least, and was restricted from
dissolving the assembly without its consent. The circumstances of
this reappointment of Sir William Berkley have been frequently
misrepresented; historians from age to age following each other in
fabulous tradition, erroneous conjecture, or wilful perversion, have
asserted that Sir William was hurried from retirement by a torrent of
popular enthusiasm, and made governor by acclamation, and that Charles
the Second was boldly proclaimed in Virginia, and his standard reared
several months, some say sixteen, before the restoration; and thus the
Virginians, as they had been the last of the king's subjects who
renounced their allegiance, so they were the first who returned to

Error in history is like a flock of sheep jumping over a bridge; if one
goes, the rest all follow. Sir William Berkley, as has been before
mentioned, was not elected by a tumultuary assemblage of the people, but
by the assembly; the royal standard was not raised upon the occasion,
nor was the king proclaimed. The bulk of the Virginia planters
undoubtedly retained their habitual attachment to monarchy and to the
Established Church; and some royalist refugees had been driven hither
by the civil war. Yet, as the colonists had formerly been greatly
dissatisfied with some acts of the government during the reign of
Charles the First, they certainly had much reason to approve of the
wise, and liberal, and magnanimous policy of Cromwell. Besides this, a
good many republicans and Puritans had found their way to Virginia. The
predominant feeling, however, in Virginia as in England, was in favor of
the restoration of Charles the Second. Sir William Berkley, in his
speech addressed to the assembly on their proffer of the place of
governor, said: "I do, therefore, in the presence of God and you, make
this safe protestation for us all, that if any supreme settled power
appears, I will immediately lay down my commission, but will live most
submissively obedient to any power God shall set over me, as the
experience of eight years has shewed I have done." In his address to the
house of burgesses, he alludes to the late king, as "my most gracious
master, King Charles, of ever blessed memory," and as "my ever honored
master, who was put to a violent death." The Berkleys were staunch
adherents of Charles the First, and extreme royalists. Referring in his
address to the surrender of the colony, Sir William said, that the
parliament "sent a small power to force my submission, which, finding me
defenceless, was quietly (God pardon me) effected." Of the several
parliaments and the protectorate he remarked: "And I believe, Mr.
Speaker, (Theodorick Bland,) you think, if my voice had been prevalent
in most of their elections, I would not voluntarily have made choice of
them for my supremes. But, Mr. Speaker, all this I have said, is only to
make this truth apparent to you, that in and under all these mutable
governments of divers natures and constitutions, I have lived most
resignedly submissive. But, Mr. Speaker, it is one duty to live obedient
to a government, and another of a very different nature, to command
under it." It thus appears that Sir William accepted the place hoping
for the restoration of Charles the Second; but with an explicit pledge,
that he would resign in case that event should not occur.[244:A] This
speech was made March the nineteenth, and on the twenty-first the
council unanimously concurred in his election. The members were Richard
Bennet, (late Puritan Governor,) William Bernard, John Walker, George
Reade, Thomas Pettus, William Clayborne, Edward Hill, Thomas Dew, Edward
Carter, Thomas Swan, and Augustine Warner. Nearly all of these were
colonels. The title of colonel and member of the council appears to have
been a sort of order of nobility in Virginia. Sir William Berkley was
elected two months before the restoration of Charles the Second, which
took place on the 20th of May, 1660, that being his birth-day. Yet the
word "king" or "majesty" nowhere occurs in the legislative records, from
the commencement of the Commonwealth of England until the 11th day of
October, 1660, more than four months after the restoration.[244:B]
Virginia was indeed loyal, but she was too feeble to avow her loyalty.

An act was passed, entitled an act for the suppressing the Quakers; the
preamble of which describes them as an unreasonable and turbulent sort
of people, who daily gather together unlawful assemblies of people,
teaching lies, miracles, false visions, prophecies, and doctrines
tending to disturb the peace, disorganize society, and destroy all law,
and government, and religion. Masters of vessels were prohibited from
bringing in any of that sect, under the penalty of one hundred pounds of
tobacco; all of them to be apprehended and committed, until they should
give security that they would leave the colony; if they should return,
they should be punished, and returning the third time should be
proceeded against as felons. No person should entertain any Quakers that
had been questioned by the governor and council; nor permit any assembly
of them in or near his house, under the penalty of one hundred pounds
sterling; and no person to publish their books, pamphlets, and
libels.[245:A] This act was passed in March, 1660, shortly after the
election of Sir William Berkley.

Of late years, certain masters of vessels trading to Virginia, in
violation of the laws and of the articles of surrender granting the
privilege of free trade, had "molested, troubled, and seized divers
ships, sloops, and vessels, coming to trade with us." The assembly
therefore required every master to give bond not to molest any person
trading under the protection of the laws.

Act XVI. establishes free trade: "Whereas, the restriction of trade hath
appeared to be the greatest impediment to the advance of the estimation
and value of our present only commodity, tobacco, _be it enacted and
confirmed_, That the Dutch, and all strangers of what Christian nation
soever, in amity with the people of England, shall have free liberty to
trade with us for all allowable commodities." And it was provided, "That
if the said Dutch, or other foreigners, shall import any negro slaves,
they, the said Dutch, or others, shall, for the tobacco really produced
by the sale of the said negro, pay only the impost of two shillings per
hogshead, the like being paid by our own nation." The regular impost
being ten shillings, this exemption was a bounty of eight shillings per
hogshead for the encouragement of the importation of negroes.[245:B]

When Argall, in 1614, returning from his half-piratical excursion
against the French at Port Royal, entered what is now New York Bay, he
found three or four huts erected there by Dutch mariners and fishermen,
on the Island of Manhattan. Near half a century had since elapsed, and
the colony planted there had grown to an importance that justified
something of diplomatic correspondence. In the spring of 1660 Nicholas
Varleth and Brian Newton were sent by Governor Stuyvesant, celebrated by
Knickerbocker, from Fort Amsterdam to Virginia, for the purpose of
forming a league acknowledging the Dutch title to New York. Sir William
Berkley evaded the proposition in the following letter:--

     "SIR,--I have received the letter you were pleased to send me
     by Mr. Mills his vessel, and shall be ever ready to comply
     with you in all acts of neighborly friendship and amity; but
     truly, sir, you desire me to do that concerning your letter
     and claims to land in the northern part of America which I am
     incapable to do, for I am but a servant of the assembly's;
     neither do they arrogate any power to themselves further than
     the miserable distractions of England force them to. For when
     God shall be pleased in His mercy to take away and dissipate
     the unnatural divisions of their native country, they will
     immediately return to their own professed obedience. What then
     they should do in matters of contract, donation, and
     confession of right, would have little strength or
     signification; much more presumptive and impertinent would it
     be in me to do it, without their knowledge or assent. We shall
     very shortly meet again, and then, if to them you signify your
     desires, I shall labor all I can to get you a satisfactory

                            "I am, sir, your humble servant,
                                                "WILLIAM BERKLEY.

     "Virginia, August 20th, 1660."

Peter Stuyvesant, the last of the Dutch governors of New Amsterdam,
within a few years was dispossessed by a small English squadron, and the
captured colony was retained. Sir William Berkley's letter was written
nearly three months after the actual restoration, and yet, not having
received intelligence of it, he alludes to the English government as in
a state of interregnum, and writes not one word in present recognition
of his majesty Charles the Second; on the contrary, he expressly avows
himself a servant of the assembly.

Tea was introduced into England about this time; the East India Company
made the king a formal present of two pounds and two ounces.[247:A]

The address of the Parliament and General Monk to Charles the Second,
then at Breda, in Holland, was carried over by Lord Berkley, of Berkley
Castle. On the eighth of May Charles was proclaimed in England king, and
he returned in triumph to London on the twenty-ninth of that month,
being his birth-day. The restored monarch transmitted a new commission,
dated July the 31st, 1660, at Westminster, to his faithful adherent Sir
William Berkley. He had remained in Virginia during the Commonwealth of
England under various pretexts, and it is probable that he kept up a
secret correspondence with refugee royalists, and it is said that he
even invited Charles to come over to Virginia. This tradition, however,
is without proof or plausibility; had the exiled Charles sought refuge
in Virginia, an English frigate would have found it easy to make him a
prisoner. Virginia would have presented few attractions to the royal
profligate; and it could have hardly been a matter of regret to the
Virginians that he never came here. Sir William Berkley's letter of
acknowledgment, written in March, 1661, is extravagantly loyal. He
apologizes for having accepted office from the assembly thus: "It was no
more, may it please your majesty, than to leap over the fold to save
your majesty's flock, when your majesty's enemies of that fold had
barred up the lawful entrance into it, and enclosed the wolves of schism
and rebellion, ready to devour all within it," etc. By "the wolves of
schism and rebellion" he probably meant the Puritan and Republican party
in Virginia, and he appears to have looked upon them as formidable

Charles the Second, in the first year of his reign, that is, in the
first year after the death of his father, for he was considered or
imagined to have reigned all the while, had granted all the tract of
land lying between the Rappahannock and the Potomac, known as the
Northern Neck, to Lord Hopton, the Earl of St. Albans, Lord Culpepper,
and others, to hold the same forever, paying yearly six pounds thirteen
shillings and four pence to the crown.

The Anglo-American colonies now established, Virginia, New England, and
Maryland, contained eighty-five thousand inhabitants. The navigation act
had not been recognized by Virginia as obligatory on her; had been
opposed by Massachusetts as an invasion of her rights; and had been
evaded by Maryland. James the First, Charles the First, and the
Commonwealth, had expressly exempted the colonies from direct taxation,
but the Restoration parliament extended the customs of tonnage and
poundage to every part of the dominion of the crown; and the colonists
did not for years resist the collection of those imposts.[248:A]


[241:A] Hening, i. 509.

[241:B] Preface to T. M.'s Account of Bacon's Rebellion, in Kercheval's
History of Valley of Va., 21. The clause quoted from Mr. Jefferson is
omitted in the copy of the same introduction found in Force's Hist.
Tracts, i.

[242:A] Jefferson's Notes, 125.

[243:A] Robertson's Hist. of America, iv. 230; Beverley's Hist. of Va.,
B. i. 55; Chalmers' Annals, 124; Burk's Hist. of Va., ii. 120; Grahame's
Colonial Hist. of U. S., i. 89; Hawks' Prot. Episcopal Church in Va.,
63. See, also, Hening's Statutes at Large of Va., i. 126. Hening first
corrected these errors.

[244:A] Southern Lit. Messenger for January, 1845.

[244:B] Hening, ii. 9, in note.

[245:A] Hening, i. 532.

[245:B] Hening, i. 535.

[247:A] Pepys' Diary, i. 110. Pepys was pronounced _Peeps_.

[248:A] Chalmers' Revolt of Amer. Colonies, 99.



     Settlements of Virginia--The Church--Laws for establishment of
     Towns--Intelligence received of Restoration--Assembly sends
     Address to the King--Demonstrations of Loyalty--Berkley visits
     England--Morrison elected by the Council in his stead--
     Assembly's tone altered--Act for ducking "Brabbling Women"--
     Power of Taxation vested in Governor and Council for three
     years--Miscellaneous Affairs--Act relating to Indians--Persons
     trespassing on the Indians, punished--Sir William Berkley
     returns from England--Instructions relative to the Church--
     Acts against Schismatics and Separatists--Berkley superintends
     establishment of a Colony on Albemarle Sound.

THE settlements of Virginia now included the territory lying between the
Potomac and the Chowan, and embraced, besides, the isolated Accomac.
There were fifty parishes. The plantations lay dispersed along the banks
of rivers and creeks, those on the James stretching westward, above a
hundred miles into the interior. Each parish extended many miles in
length along the river-side, but in breadth ran back only a mile. This
was the average breadth of the plantations, their length varying from
half a mile to three miles or more. The fifty parishes comprehending an
area supposed to be equal to one-half of England, it was inevitable that
many of the inhabitants lived very remote from the parish church. Many
parishes, indeed, were as yet destitute of churches and glebes; and not
more than ten parishes were supplied with ministers. Hammond[249:A]
says: "They then began to provide, and send home for gospel ministers,
and largely contributed for their maintenance; but Virginia savoring not
handsomely in England, very few of good conversation would adventure
thither, (as thinking it a place wherein surely the fear of God was
not,) yet many came, such as wore black coats, and could babble in a
pulpit, roar in a tavern, exact from their parishioners, and rather by
their dissoluteness destroy than feed their flocks." Hammond's
statements are not to be unreservedly received. Where there were
ministers, worship was usually held once on Sunday; but the remote
parishioners seldom attended. The planters, either from indifference or
from the want of means, were remiss in the building of churches and the
maintenance of ministers. Through the licentious lives of many of them,
the Christian religion was dishonored, and the name of God blasphemed
among the heathen natives, (who were near them and often among them,)
and thus their conversion hindered.[250:A]

In 1661 the Rev. Philip Mallory was sent over to England as Virginia's
agent to solicit the cause of the church. The general want of schools,
likewise owing to the sparseness of the population, was most of all
bewailed by parents. The children of Virginia, naturally of beautiful
persons, and generally of more genius than those in England, were doomed
to grow up unserviceable for any great employments in church or state.
As a principal remedy for these ills, the establishment of towns in each
county was recommended. It was further proposed to erect schools in the
colony, and for the supply of ministers to establish, by act of
parliament, Virginia fellowships at Oxford and Cambridge, with an
engagement to serve the church in Virginia for seven years. To raise the
funds necessary for this purpose, it was proposed to take up a
collection in the churches of Great Britain; and the assembly ordered a
petition to the king to that end, to be drawn up.[250:B] Another feature
of this plan was to send over a bishop, so soon as there should be a
city for his see. These recommendations, although urged upon the
attention of the bishop of London, seem, from whatever cause, to have
proved fruitless. The Virginia assembly, in no instance, expressed any
desire for the appointment of a bishop; they remembered with abhorrence
the cruelties that had been exercised by the prelates in England.

Mr. Jefferson remarked that the legislature of Virginia has frequently
declared that there should be towns in places where nature had declared
that they should not be. The scheme of compelling the planters to
abandon their plantations, and to congregate in towns, built by
legislation, was indeed chimerical. The failure of the schemes proposed
in the Virginia assembly for the establishment of towns, is attributed
by the author of "Virginia's Cure" to the majority of the house of
burgesses, who are said to have come over at first as servants, and who,
although they may have accumulated by their industry competent estates,
yet, owing to their mean education, were incompetent to judge of public
matters, either in church or state. Yet many of the early laws appear to
have been judicious, practical, and well adapted to the circumstances of
a newly settled country. The legislature, eventually finding the scheme
of establishing towns by legal enactments impracticable, declared it
expedient to leave trade to regulate itself.

The assembly of March, 1661, consisted in the main of new members. At
another session held in October of the same year, there appeared still
fewer of the members who had held seats during the Commonwealth; and it
may be reasonably inferred that the bulk of the retiring members were
well affected to the Commonwealth of England. Intelligence of the
restoration of Charles the Second had already reached Virginia, and was
joyfully received. The word "king," or "majesty," was used in the public
acts now for the first time, since the commencement of the Commonwealth
of England--an interval of twelve years.

An address was sent to the king, praying him to pardon the inhabitants
of Virginia for having yielded to a force--which they could not resist.
Forty-four thousand pounds of tobacco, worth two thousand and two
hundred dollars, were appropriated to Major-General Hammond and Colonel
Guy Molesworth, for "being employed in the address." Sir Henry Moody was
dispatched on an embassy "to the Manados," or Manhattan. Colonel Carter
was required to declare what passed between him and Colonel William
Clayborne at the assembly of 1653 or 1654, relative to the making an act
of non-address to the Right Honorable Sir William Berkley; but the
particulars of this affair have not been handed down. The rent paid for
the use of the house where the assembly met, was three thousand five
hundred pounds of tobacco, equivalent to one hundred and seventy-five
dollars. Four thousand pounds of tobacco, worth two hundred dollars,
were paid for the rent of the room where the governor and council held
their meetings. The name of Monroe occurs at this early day in the
County of Westmoreland as one of the commissioners, or justices of the

The assembly strove to display its loyalty by bountiful appropriations
to the governor and the leading royalists; the restoration in England
was reflected by the restoration in Virginia. The necessity of the case
had made the government of the colony republican; she was as free and
almost as independent during the Commonwealth of England as after the
revolution of 1776. For a short time even Sir William Berkley appears to
have been identified with this system. He and the new assembly were now
eagerly running in an opposite tack, and were impatient to wipe out all
traces of their late forced disobedience and involuntary recognition of
the popular sovereignty.

Sir William continued as governor till the 30th of April, 1661, when
being about to visit England, Colonel Francis Morrison was elected by
the council in his place. Sir William, it is said, was dispatched to
England as agent to defend the colony against the monopoly of the
navigation act, which threatened to violate their "freedoms," as is
declared by the first act of the assembly held at James City, on the 23d
of March, 1661. Sir William was heartily opposed to the restrictions on
the commerce of Virginia; but any efforts that he may have used in
opposition to them were fruitless.

He embarked in May for England, and returned in the fall of the
following year, 1662. His pay on account of this mission was two hundred
thousand pounds of tobacco, or five hundred and seventy-one hogsheads,
the average weight of a hogshead at this period being three hundred and
fifty pounds.[252:A] This quantity of tobacco was worth two thousand
pounds sterling, or ten thousand dollars.[253:A] The ordinary salary of
the governor consisted of castle duties, license fees, tobacco, corn,
and customs, and probably amounted to not less than twelve thousand
dollars per annum.[253:B]

The assembly's tone was now altered; during the Commonwealth of England,
Oliver Cromwell had been addressed as "His Highness," and the burgesses
had subscribed themselves his "most humble, most devoted servants;" nor
had Richard Cromwell been treated with a less obsequious and respectful
submission. But now the following language was employed: "Whereas, our
late surrender and submission to that execrable power, that so bloodily
massacred the late King Charles the First of ever blessed and glorious
memory, hath made us, by acknowledging them, guilty of their crimes; to
show our serious and hearty repentance and detestation of that barbarous
act, be it enacted, That the thirtieth of January, the day the said king
was beheaded, be annually solemnized with fasting and prayers, that our
sorrows may expiate our crime, and our tears wash away our
guilt."[253:C] Their compulsory acknowledgment of the sovereign power of
the Commonwealth of England, if they all the while remained in their
hearts loyal, could not have implicated them in the execution of the

Colonel Francis Morrison continued to fill the place of Sir William
Berkley until his return, which took place some time between September
and the 21st of November, 1662.

An act was passed, entitled "Women causing scandalous suits, to be
ducked:" "Whereas, oftentimes many brabbling women often slander and
scandalize their neighbors, for which their poor husbands are often
brought into chargeable and vexatious suits, and cast in great damages;
be it therefore enacted by the authority aforesaid, That in actions of
slander occasioned by the wife, as aforesaid, after judgment passed for
the damages, the woman shall be punished by ducking; and if the slander
be so enormous as to be adjudged at a greater damage than five hundred
pounds of tobacco, then the woman to suffer a ducking for each five
hundred pounds of tobacco against the husband adjudged, if he refuse to
pay the tobacco." A ducking-stool had been already established in each

The anniversary both of the birth and the restoration of Charles the
Second was established as a holiday. The navigation act was now enforced
in Virginia, and in consequence the price of tobacco fell very low,
while the cost of imported goods was also augmented. An act prohibiting
the importation of luxuries seems to have been negatived by the
governor. It was ordered that "no person shall trade with the Indians
for any beaver, otter, or any other furs, unless he first obtain a
commission from the governor." This act gave great offence to the
people; it was in effect conferring on the governor an indirect monopoly
of the fur-trade. By a still more high-handed measure the governor and
council were empowered to lay taxes for the ensuing three years, unless
in the mean time some urgent occasion should necessitate the calling
together of the assembly. Thus taxation was dissevered from
representation; the main safeguard of freedom was given to the
executive. Major John Bond, a magistrate in Isle of Wight County, was
disfranchised for "factious and schismatical demeanors." He had
repeatedly been returned as one of the burgesses of his county during
the Commonwealth of England. An act making provision for a college,
appears to have remained a dead letter; other acts equally futile,
passed at ensuing sessions, frequently recur. The assembly ventured to
declare that the king's pardon did not extend to a penalty incurred for
planting tobacco contrary to law.

Colonel William Clayborne, secretary of state, was displaced by Thomas
Ludwell, commissioned by the king. Colonel Francis Morrison and Henry
Randolph, clerk of the assembly, were appointed revisers of the laws.
Beverley[254:A] says that Morrison made an abridgement of the laws. In
this revised code the common law of England is, for the first time,
expressly adopted, being spoken of as "those excellent and oft-refined
laws of England."[254:B] But it has been seen that Magna Charta had been
previously recognized as of force in Virginia. In making a revision of
the laws it was ordered that all acts which "might keep in memory our
forced deviation from his majesty's obedience," should be repealed "and
expunged." In the absence of ministers it was enacted that readers
should be appointed, where they could be found, with the advice and
consent of the nearest ministers, to read the prayers and homilies, and
catechise children and servants, as had been practised in the time of
Queen Elizabeth. Although not more than one-fifth of the parishes were
supplied with ministers, yet the laws demanded a strict conformity, and
required all to contribute to the support of the established church. But
the right of presentation still remained in the people. The number of
the vestry was limited to twelve, elected by the people, but they were
now invested with the power of perpetuating their own body by filling
vacancies themselves.[255:A] Vestries were ordered to procure
subscriptions for the support of the ministry. The number of burgesses
to represent each county was limited to two; the number of magistrates
to twelve. The assembly confirmed an order of the quarter court
prohibiting "Roger Partridge and Elizabeth, his wife, from keeping any
maid-servant for the term of three years."

The assembly say, that "they have set down certain rules to be observed
in the government of the church, until God shall please to turn his
majesty's pious thoughts" toward them, and "provide a better supply of
ministers." "The pious thoughts" of Charles the Second were never turned
to this remote corner of his empire. Magistrates, heretofore called
commissioners, were now styled "justices of the peace," and their courts
"county courts."[255:B] A duty was laid on rum, because "it had, by
experience, been found to bring diseases and death to divers people." An
impost, first established during the Commonwealth of England, was still
levied on every hogshead of tobacco exported; this became a permanent
source of revenue, and rendered the executive independent of the

The numerous acts relating to the Indians were reduced into one:
prohibiting the English from purchasing Indian lands; securing their
persons and property; preventing encroachments on their territory;
ordering the English seated near to assist them in fencing their
corn-fields; licensing them to oyster, fish, hunt, and gather the
natural fruits of the country; prohibiting trade with them without
license, or imprisonment of an Indian chief without special warrant;
bounds to be annually defined; badges of silver and copper plate to be
furnished to Indian chiefs; no Indian to enter the English confines
without a badge, under penalty of imprisonment, till ransomed by one
hundred arms'-length of roanoke; Indian chiefs tributary to the English,
to give alarm of approach of hostile Indians; Indians not to be sold as

It was ordered that a copy of the revised laws should be sent to Sir
William Berkley in England, that he might procure the king's
confirmation of them. Beverley mentions a tradition that the king, in
compliment to Virginia, wore, at his coronation, a robe made of Virginia
silk, and adds, that this was all the country received in return for
their loyalty, the parliament having re-enacted the navigation act,
(first enacted during the Commonwealth,) with still severer restrictions
and prohibitions. Even the traditional compliment of the king's wearing
a robe of Virginia silk appears to be unfounded.

Wahanganoche, chief of Potomac, charged with treason and murder by
Captain Charles Brent, before the assembly, was acquitted; and Brent,
together with Captain George Mason and others, were ordered to pay that
chief a certain sum in roanoke, or in matchcoats, (from matchkore, a
deerskin,) in satisfaction of the injuries. Brent, Mason, and others
were afterwards punished by fines, suspension from office, and
disfranchisement, for offences committed against the Indians, and for
showing contempt to the governor's warrant in relation to the chief of
Potomac. The counties of Westmoreland and Northumberland were especially
exposed to Indian disturbances at this time. Colonel Moore Fantleroy was
disfranchised for maltreating the Rappahannock Indians; Mrs. Mary Ludlow
was restrained from encroaching on the lands of the Chesquiack Indians
at Pyanketanke; Colonel Goodrich was charged with burning the English
house of the chief of the Matapony Indians. George Harwood was ordered
to ask forgiveness in open court on his knees, for speaking
disrespectfully of the right honorable governor, Francis Morrison; and,
at the next court held in Warwick County, to ask forgiveness of Captain
John Ashton for defaming him, and to pay two thousand pounds of tobacco.

It was during this year, 1662, that Charles the Second married
Catherine, the Portuguese Infanta.

The court of Boston, in New England, having discharged a servant
belonging to William Drummond, an inhabitant of Virginia, the assembly
ordered reprisal to be made on the property belonging to inhabitants of
the Northern colony to the amount of forty pounds sterling.[257:A]

Sir William Berkley returned in the fall of 1662 from England, having
accomplished nothing for the colony, but having secured for himself an
interest in a part of the Virginia territory, now North Carolina,
granted to himself and other courtiers and court favorites. He brought
out with him instructions from the crown, comprising directions relative
to church matters; that the Book of Common Prayer should be read, and
the sacrament administered according to the rites of the Church of
England; that the churches should be well and orderly kept; that the
number of them should be increased as the means might justify; that a
competent maintenance should be assigned to each minister, and a house
built for him, and a glebe of one hundred acres attached. It was further
directed that no minister should be preferred by the governor to any
benefice, without a certificate from the Lord Bishop of London; and that
ministers should be admitted into their respective vestries; that the
oaths of obedience and supremacy should be administered to all persons
bearing any part of the government, and to all persons whatsoever of age
in the colony. The last of these instructions is in the following words:
"And because we are willing to give all possible encouragement to
persons of different persuasions in matters of religion, to transport
themselves thither with their stocks, you are not to suffer any man to
be molested or disquieted in the exercise of his religion, so he be
content with a quiet and peaceable enjoying it, not giving therein
offence or scandal to the government; but we oblige you in your own
house and family to the profession of the Protestant religion, according
as it is now established in our kingdom of England, and the recommending
it to all others under your government, as far as it may consist with
the peace and quiet of our said colony. You are to take care that
drunkenness and debauchery, swearing, and blasphemy, be discountenanced
and punished; and that none be admitted to publick trust and employment
whose ill fame and conversation may bring scandal thereupon."[258:A]

The spirit of toleration expressed in these instructions was insincere
and hypocritical, and dictated by the apprehensions of a government yet
unstable, and by a temporizing policy. In December, 1662, the assembly
declared that "many schismatical persons, out of their averseness to the
orthodox established religion, or out of the new-fangled conceits of
their own heretical inventions, refuse to have their children baptized,"
and imposed on such offenders a fine of two thousand pounds of tobacco.

The act for the suppression of the sect of Quakers was now extended to
all separatists, and made still more rigorous. Persons attending their
meetings were fined, for the first offence, two hundred pounds of
tobacco; for the second, five hundred; and for the third, banished. In
case the party convicted should be too poor to pay the fine, it was to
be levied from such of his sect as might be possessed of ampler means.

A Mr. Durand, elder in a Puritan "very orthodox church," in Nansemond
County, had been banished from Virginia in 1648. In 1662, the Yeopim
Indians granted to "George Durant" the neck of land in North Carolina
which still bears his name. He was probably the exile. In April, 1663,
George Cathmaid claimed from Governor Berkley a large tract of land on
the borders of Albemarle Sound, in reward of having colonized a number
of settlers in that province. In the same year Sir William Berkley was
commissioned to organize a government over this newly settled region,
which, in honor of the perfidious General Monk, now made Duke of
Albemarle, received the name which time has transferred to the Sound.


[249:A] "Leah and Rachel," published at London in 1656, in Force's
Historical Tracts, iii.

[250:A] Virginia's Cure, (_Force's Hist. Tracts_, iii.,) printed at
London, 1662, and composed by a minister. The initials on the
title-page, R. G. He appears to have taken refuge in Virginia during the
Commonwealth of England; and it is evident that he had resided in the
colony for a considerable time. "Virginia's Cure" is addressed to the
Bishop of London: it is a clear and vigorous document, acrimonious
toward the late government, but earnest in behalf of the spiritual
welfare of Virginia.

[250:B] Hening, ii. 33.

[252:A] Hening, i. 435.

[253:A] Hening, i. 398, 418.

[253:B] Ibid., i. 545, and ii. 9.

[253:C] Ibid., ii. 24.

[254:A] Hist. of Virginia, second edition.

[254:B] Beverley, B. i. 43; Chalmers' Revolt, i. 101.

[255:A] Ibid., 44.

[255:B] Hening, ii. 69.

[256:A] Hening, ii. 138.

[257:A] Hening, ii. 158.

[258:A] MS. (Virginia) in State Paper office, (London,) cited in
Anderson's Hist. of Colonial Church, ii. 548-9.



     Report of Edmund Scarburgh, Surveyor-General, of his
     Proceedings in establishing the Boundary Line between Virginia
     and Maryland on the Eastern Shore--The Bear and the Cub--
     Extracts from Records of Accomac.

A CONTROVERSY existed between Virginia and Lord Baltimore relative to
the boundary line on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay. The
dispute turned on the true site of Watkins' Point, which was admitted to
be the southern limit of Maryland on that shore. The Virginia assembly,
in 1663, declared the true site of Watkins' Point to be on the north
side of Wicocomoco River, at its mouth, and ordered publication thereof
to be made by Colonel Edmund Scarburgh, his majesty's surveyor-general,
commanding, in his majesty's name, all the inhabitants south of that
Point, "to render obedience to his majesty's government of Virginia." A
conference with Lord Baltimore's commissioners was proposed in case he
should be dissatisfied, and Colonel Scarburgh, Mr. John Catlett, and Mr.
Richard Lawrence were appointed commissioners on the part of Virginia.
Lawrence will reappear in Bacon's Rebellion. The surveyor-general was
further directed "to improve his best abilities in all other his
majesty's concerns of land relating to Virginia, especially that to the
northward of forty degrees of latitude, being the utmost bounds of the
said Lord Baltimore's grant, and to give an account of his proceedings
therein to the right honorable governor and council of Virginia."[259:A]

Colonel Scarburgh's report of his proceedings on this occasion is
preserved.[259:B] He set out with "some of the commission, and about
forty horsemen," an escort which he deemed necessary "to repel the
contempt" which, as he was informed, "some Quakers and a fool in office
has threatened to obtrude." The party reached Anamessecks on Sunday
night, the eleventh of October. On the next day, at the house of an
officer of the Lord Baltimore, the surveyor-general began to publish the
assembly's commands by repeatedly reading the act to the officer, who
labored under the disadvantage of being unable to read. He declared that
he would not be false to the trust put in him by the Lord-Lieutenant of
Maryland. To this Colonel Scarburgh replied, "that there could be no
trust where there was no intrust," (interest.) The officer declining to
subscribe his obedience, lest he might be hanged by the Governor of
Maryland, was arrested and held to security (given by some of
Scarburgh's party) to appear before the governor and council of
Virginia, and "the broad arrow" was set on his door. This matter being
so satisfactorily adjusted, the colonel and his company proceeded to the
house of a Quaker, where the act was published "with a becoming
reverence;" but the Quakers scoffing and deriding it, and refusing their
obedience, were arrested, to answer "their contempt and rebellion," and
it being found impracticable to obtain any security, "the broad arrow
was set on the door." At Manokin the housekeepers and freemen, except
two of Lord Baltimore's officers, subscribed. "One Hollinsworth,
merchant, of a northern vessel," at this juncture, "came and presented
his request for liberty of trade;" which, Scarburgh suspecting to be
"some plan of the Quakers," to defeat their design, "presumed, in their
infant plantation, to give freedom of trade without impositions."
Scarburgh gives a descriptive list of those who stood out against
submitting to the jurisdiction of Virginia: one was "the ignorant yet
insolent officer, a cooper by profession, who lived long in the lower
parts of Accomac; once elected a burgess by the common crowd, and thrown
out of the assembly for a factious and tumultuous person." George
Johnson was "the Proteus of heresy," notorious for "shifting
schismatical pranks." "He stands arrested," and "bids defiance."
"Thomas Price, a creeping Quaker, by trade a leather-dresser," and
"saith nothing else but that he would not obey government, for which he
also stands arrested." "Ambrose Dixon, a caulker by profession," "often
in question for his Quaking profession," "a prater of nonsense," "stands
arrested, and the broad arrow at his door, but bids defiance." "Henry
Boston, an unmannerly fellow, that stands condemned on the records for
fighting and contemning the laws of the country; a rebel to government,
and disobedient to authority, for which he received a late reward with a
rattan, and hath not subscribed; hides himself, so scapes arrest."
"These are all, except two or three loose fellows that follow the
Quakers for scraps, whom a good whip is fittest to reform."

On the 10th day of November, 1663, the county court of Accomac
authorized Captain William Thorn and others to summon the good subjects
of Manokin and other parts of the county, so far as Pocomoke River, to
come together and arm themselves for defence against any that might
invade them, in consequence "of the rumors that the Quakers and factious
fools have spread, to the disturbance of the peace and terror of the
less knowing."

The following extracts, from the records of the county court of Accomac,
exemplify the simplicity of the times, and the quaint orthography, and
the verbosity of the records of courts; while the final decision of the
case is not less equitable than those of Sancho Panza, sometime Governor
of the Island of Barataria, or those celebrated in Knickerbocker's
History of New York.

     "At a Court held in Accomack County, y{e} 16{th} of November,
     by his ma{ties} Justices of y{e} Peace for y{e} s{d} County,
     in y{e} Seaventeenth yeare of y{e} Reigne of o{r} Sovraigne
     Lord Charles y{e} Second, By y{e} Grace of God, of Great
     Britaine, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of y{e} Faith,
     &c.: And in y{e} Yeare of o{r} Lord God 1665.

     "Whereas, Cornelius Watkinson, Philip Howard, and William
     Darby, were this Day accused by Mr. Jno. Fawsett, his ma{ties}
     Attory for Accomack County, for acting a play by them called
     y{e} Bare & y{e} Cubb, on y{e} 27{th} of August last past;
     upon examination of the same, The Court have thought fitt to
     suspend the Cause till y{e} next Court, & doe order y{t} the
     said Cornelius Watkinson, Phillip Howard, & W{m.} Darby,
     appeare y{e} next Court, in those habilemts that they then
     acted in, and give a draught of such verses, or other speeches
     and passages, which were then acted by them; & that y{e} Sherr
     detaine Cornelius Watkinson & Philip Howard in His Custody
     untill they put in Security to performe this order. It is
     ordered y{t} the Sherr. arrest y{e} Body of William Darby, for
     his appearance y{e} next Court, to answere at his ma{ties}
     suit, for being actour of a play commonly called y{e} Beare
     and y{e} Cubb.

     "At a Court held in Accomack County, y{e} 18{th} of December,
     by his ma{ties} Justices of y{e} Peace for y{e} s{d} County,
     in y{e} Seaventeenth yeare of y{e} Raigne of o{r} Sovraigne
     Lord Charles y{e} Second, By y{e} Grace of God, of Great
     Britain, France, & Ireland, King, Defendr of y{e} Faith, &c.:
     And in y{e} yeare of o{r} Lord God 1665.

     "Its ordered y{t} y{e} Sherr sumons Edward Martin to y{e} next
     Court, to show cause why hee should not pay y{e} charges w{ch}
     accrued upon y{e} Information given by him against Cornelius
     Watkinson, Philip Howard, & William Darby.

     "At a Court held in Accomack County, y{e} 17{th} of January,
     by his ma{ties} Justices of y{e} Peace for y{e} s{d} County,
     in the Seaventeenth year of y{e} Reigne of o{r} Sovraigne Lord
     Charles y{e} Second, By y{e} Grace of God, of Great Britain,
     France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c.: And in
     the year of o{r} Lord God 1665.

     "Whereas, Edward Martin was this day examined concerning his
     information given to Mr. Fawset, his ma{ties} Attory for
     Accomack County, about a play called the bare & y{e} Cubb,
     whereby severall persons were brought to Court & charges
     thereon arise, but the Court finding the said p'sons not
     guilty of fault, suspended y{e} payment of Court charges; &
     forasmuch as it appeareth upon y{e} Oath of y{e} said Mr.
     Fawsett, that upon y{e} s{d} Edward Martin's information, the
     Charge & trouble of that suit did accrew, It's therefore
     ordered that y{e} said Edward Martin pay all y{e} Charges in
     y{e} suit Els. Exon."[262:A]


[259:A] Hening, ii. 183.

[259:B] This document, entitled "The Account of Proceedings in his
Majt's Affairs at Anamessecks and Manokin, on the Eastern Shore of
Virginia," is preserved in the records of Accomac County Court, and a
copy, furnished by Thomas R. Joynes, Esq., the clerk, (himself a
descendant of Colonel Edmund Scarburgh,) was published in 1833, by order
of the legislature of Maryland. I am indebted to William T. Joynes,
Esq., of Petersburg, for the use of this report, and for some other
interesting particulars relating to the Eastern Shore.

[262:A] "The foregoing are true transcripts from the Records of the
Court of the County of Accomack, in the State of Virginia."--Test: _J.
W. Gillett, C. A. C._



     Plot discovered--Miscellaneous Matters--England at war with
     the Dutch--The Plague in London--Tobacco--Forts--Cessation of
     planting Tobacco for one year--Drummond's Petition rejected--
     Baptism of Slaves--Tributary Indians--Batt's Expedition--The
     Algonquin Tribes--The Powhatan Confederacy--Convicts sent to
     Virginia--Legislative Acts.

THE Northern colonies appear at this time to have been styled the "Dutch
Plantations."[263:A] The persecution of the dissenters, the restrictions
imposed upon commerce by the navigation act, the low price of tobacco,
and high price of imported goods, so inflamed the discontents of the
poor people as to give rise to a plot, which was well-nigh resulting in
tragical effects in 1663. The conspiracy was attributed to certain
Cromwellian soldiers, who had been sent out to Virginia as servants; but
the real grounds and true character of it can now hardly be ascertained.
The plot was discovered only the night before that appointed for its
execution, (the assembly being then in session,) by one of the
conspirators named Birkenhead, a servant to Mr. Smith, of Purton, in
Gloucester County. Poplar Spring, near that place, was the appointed
rendezvous. As soon as the information reached Sir William Berkley, who
was then at his residence, Green Spring, he issued secret orders to a
party of militia, to meet at Poplar Spring, and anticipate the outbreak.
Only a few were taken, of whom four were hanged. Birkenhead was
rewarded[263:B] with his freedom and five thousand pounds of tobacco;
Beverley[263:C] makes the reward two hundred pounds sterling. The
thirteenth of September, the day fixed for the execution of the plot,
was set apart by the assembly as an anniversary thanksgiving. The news
of this affair being transmitted to the king, he sent orders for the
building of a fort at Jamestown; but the Virginians thinking that the
danger had blown over, only erected a battery of some small pieces of

The Indian chief of Potomac, and other northern werowances and mangais,
were required to give hostages of their children and others, who were to
be kindly treated and instructed in English, as far as practicable.
Measures were taken to bring Indian murderers to justice, especially the
hostile Doeggs. The chief of Potomac was inhibited from holding any
matchacomico, or council, with any strange tribe, before the delivery of

John Bland, a London merchant, and brother of Theodoric Bland, a leading
man in Virginia, received the thanks of the assembly for goods advanced
for the use of the colony. In this year, 1663, a conference was held, by
royal command, at Mr. Aleston's, at Wicocomico, in Virginia, in May, by
commissioners appointed by Governor Berkley, and Charles Calvert,
Governor of Maryland, for the purpose of devising means of improving the
staple of tobacco. The Virginia commissioners were Thomas Ludwell,
secretary, Richard Lee, John Carter, Robert Smith, and Henry Corbin. The
Maryland commissioners were Philip Calvert, Henry Sewall, secretary,
Edward Koydes, and Henry Coursey. They recommended that in the year 1664
no tobacco should be planted after the twentieth day of June.

In 1665 further acts were passed to prevent the depredations of Indians.
If a white should be murdered, the nearest Indian town was held
responsible; the Indian werowances to be in future appointed by the
governor; colonists to go armed to church, court, and other public
meetings; Indians south of the James River, not to cross a line
extending from the head of Blackwater River to the Appomattox Indian
town, (probably where Petersburg now stands,) and thence across to the
Mannakin town.

In the year 1665 Charles the Second, instigated by France, engaged in an
unprovoked war with Holland, the object being mainly to strike a blow at
the Protestant interest.[264:A] During the same year the plague raged in
London, the victims for some time perishing at the rate of ten thousand
weekly. In this fatal year Secretary Bennet, a plausible man, of good
address, but mediocre capacity, was made Lord Arlington. The English
monopolizing laws now reduced the condition of the planters of Virginia
so low, that they proposed to discontinue the planting of tobacco for
one year, so as to enhance the price of it; and an act was passed
preparatory to a "stint or cessation." To render this remedy effectual,
it appeared necessary to obtain the co-operation of the colonies of
Maryland and North Carolina. For some years it was found impracticable
to effect this object, and in the mean time, in order to prevent
Virginia from receiving any supplies, save those sent from England, and
also for defence against the Dutch, the king sent directions that forts
should be built on the rivers, and that ships should lie under them, and
that those places alone should be ports of trade. These instructions
were obeyed for a year; breast-works were erected at places appointed by
the assembly, and the shipping lay at them for a time; but the great
fire and plague occurring in London at this juncture, rendered their
supplies very uncertain, and the fear of the plague being brought over
with the goods imported, prevented the people from living at those
ports, and thus all were again at liberty.[265:A]

The Virginia planters supposed that by lessening the quantity of
tobacco, called a "stint," they would improve the quality and enhance
the price of it. The merchants, to whom the planters were indebted, were
favorable to a stint; but although they would certainly be benefited by
its operation, yet they were apparently not willing to abate any part of
their claims against their debtors. The nett proceeds derived from the
sale of the staple were barely enough to furnish the planters with
clothing. As some remedy for this state of things, the legislature
ordered looms and work-houses to be set in operation at the charge of
each county. Bounties were again offered for encouragement of the
raising of silk, and measures were adopted to foster the culture of flax
and hemp.

In the year 1666, while London was desolated by fire and depopulated by
the plague, war added her horrors. A government imbecile and corrupt, a
court frivolous and debauched, darkened the shadows of the gloomy
picture. The English colonies shared in the miseries of the mother
country. It is remarkable that a book published in England many years
before contained a prediction that the year 1666 would be the very
climax of public disaster.[266:A] It was not unreasonable to conclude,
that the wickedness of men had been directly avenged by a visitation of
Heaven. Evelyn[266:B] says: "These judgments we highly deserved for our
prodigious ingratitude, burning lusts, dissolute court, profane and
abominable lives."

The assembly met in September, 1664, by prorogation from the preceding
September--a compendious mode of dispensing with the popular election.
However, in act vi., the assembly, declaring that the principal end of
their coming together was to provide for the people's safety, and to
redress their grievances, ordered that in future due notice of the
convening of the burgesses should be given to the people by publication
in the parish churches, so that they may then make known their
grievances. The act for a "cessation" passed in June, 1666, commanded
that no tobacco should be planted between the 1st of February, 1667, and
the 1st of February, 1668.[266:C] The governor of Carolina at this time,
and the first governor of that province, was William Drummond, a native
of Scotland.

Similar acts were passed by Maryland and Carolina, but the latter
province, owing to trouble with the Indians, not having given formal
notice by the day agreed upon, Maryland availed herself of the
informality to decline enforcing the cessation. Thus, as has been before
mentioned, action was long delayed. Virginia, nevertheless, adhering to
the scheme, again, at the session of October of the same year, confirmed
her former act, and by dint of negotiation it was finally consummated.

The County of Stafford is mentioned in this year for the first time,
and it was now represented by a burgess, Colonel Henry Mees.

The petition of William Drum, probably a misprint for Drummond,
concerning a grant of land in what was commonly called "the governor's
land," in the main reserve, was rejected, the house being of opinion
that such grants appertained only to the governor and council. The
assembly asserted their right to assess the levy without the
interposition of the governor and council; and Sir William Berkley
assented to this decision; the sincerity of the terms in which he
expressed his willing acquiescence may well be doubted.

The Dutch about this time appear to have surprised several vessels,
laden with tobacco, in the James River; and it was determined to erect
several forts: one on James River, one on Nansemond River, one on York
River at Tindall's Point, (now Gloucester Point,) one on the
Rappahannock at Corotoman, and one on the Potomac at Yeohocomico.

It was declared that baptism did not exempt slaves from bondage. As the
reducing of negroes to slavery was justified on the ground that they
were heathens, so the opinion prevailed among some that when they ceased
to be heathens they were, by the very fact, released from slavery.

In 1668, peace being restored, vessels were relieved from the necessity
of anchoring under the forts. The war with the Dutch, unjustly commenced
by the English, ended very disgracefully to them. A day of humiliation
was appointed, and all persons were required to attend the parish
churches, "with fasting and prayers, to implore God's mercy, and
deprecate the evils justly impending over us."

It was ordered that work-houses should be built in each county, for the
instruction of poor children in spinning, weaving, and other useful
occupations and trades. An act was passed for the "suppressing and
restraint of the exhorbitant number of ordinaries and tippling houses."

The Indians were required to bring in one hundred and forty-five wolves'
heads annually, the reward for each head being one hundred pounds of
tobacco and cask. To prevent fraud, the ears were cut off from the heads
of the wolves.[268:A]

The elective franchise was restricted, in 1670, to freeholders and

Sir William Berkley sent out a company of fourteen English and as many
Indians, under Captain Henry Batt, to explore the country to the west.
Setting out from the Appomattox River, in seven days they reached the
foot of the mountains. The first ridge was not found very high or steep,
but after crossing that they encountered others that seemed to touch the
clouds, and so steep that in a day's march they could not advance more
than three miles. They came upon extensive valleys of luxuriant verdure,
abounding with turkeys, deer, elk, and buffalo, gentle and, as yet,
undisturbed by the fear of man. Grapes were seen of the size of plums.
After crossing the mountains they discovered a charming level country,
and a rivulet that flowed westward. Following this for some days, they
reached old fields and cabins recently occupied by the natives; in these
Batt left toys. Not far from the cabins, at some marshes, the Indian
guides halted and refused to go any farther, saying that not far off
dwelt a powerful tribe, that never suffered strangers, who discovered
their towns, to escape. Batt was therefore reluctantly compelled to
return. Upon receiving his report, Sir William Berkley resolved to make
an exploration himself, but his intention was frustrated by the troubles
that shortly after fell upon the country.[269:A] Beverley alone gives an
account of Batt's explorations, leaving the date of it uncertain between
1666 and 1676. Burk dates it in 1667.

The Algonquin tribes are said to have been included within lines
extending from Cape Hatteras to the head of the Mississippi, and thence
eastward to the coast north of Newfoundland, and thence along the
Atlantic shore to the cape first mentioned.[269:B] The bulk of the
Indians within this triangle spoke various dialects of the same generic

The thirty tribes of Indians comprised within the Powhatan confederacy,
south of the Potomac, at the time of the landing at Jamestown, are
conjecturally estimated at about eight thousand souls, being one to the
square mile.[269:C] The population of the mountain country was probably
sparser than that of the country east of the mountains. The number of
square miles in Virginia at the present day is upwards of sixty-five
thousand. The number of warriors belonging to the tribes tributary to
Virginia in 1669, as has been before mentioned, was seven hundred and
twenty-five, and their proportion to the entire population being
reckoned as three to ten, their aggregate number was about twenty-four
hundred. Thus in about sixty years the diminution of their numbers
amounted to about five thousand six hundred; of these, part had perished
from disease, exposure, famine, and war; the rest were driven back into
the wilderness.

In the year 1670 complaints were made to the general court by members of
the council and others, being gentlemen, of the counties of York,
Gloucester, and Middlesex, representing their apprehensions of danger
from the great number of felons, and other desperate villains, sent
hither from the prisons of England. Masters of vessels were prohibited
from landing any such convicts or jail-birds. In 1671 Captain Bristow
and Captain Walker were required to give security in the sum of one
million pounds of tobacco and cask, that Mr. Nevett should send out the
Newgate-birds within two months. Mr. Jefferson[270:A] has made the
following remark: "The malefactors sent to America were not sufficient
in number to merit enumeration as one class out of three which peopled
America. It was at a late period of their history that the practice
began. I have no book by me which enables me to point out the date of
its commencement; but I do not think the whole number sent would amount
to two thousand." And he supposed that they and their descendants did
not, in 1786, exceed four thousand, "which is little more than
one-thousandth part of the whole inhabitants." Mr. Jefferson appears to
have been mistaken in his opinion, that malefactors were not sent over
until a late period in the annals of Virginia; and he probably
underrated the number of their descendants.

The acts prohibiting the exportation of wool, hides, and iron, were
repealed, and every one was "permitted to make the best he can of his
own commodity." The preamble to the act for the naturalization of
foreigners declares, that "nothing can tend more to the advancement of a
new plantation, either to its defence or prosperity, nor nothing more
add to the glory of a prince, than being a gracious master of many
subjects; nor any better way to produce those effects than the inviting
of people of other nations to reside among us by communication of

In 1672 the assembly provided for the defence of the country by
rebuilding and repairing of forts. Repeated and vigorous laws were
enacted providing for the apprehension of runaways; rewards were offered
the Indians for apprehending them. A negro slave was valued at four
thousand five hundred pounds of tobacco; an Indian slave at three
thousand pounds of tobacco.


[263:A] Hening, ii. 188.

[263:B] Ibid., ii. 204.

[263:C] Beverley, B. i. 61.

[264:A] Evelyn's Diary, i. 391.

[265:A] Beverley, B. i. 63.

[266:A] Pepys' Diary, ii.

[266:B] Diary, ii. 17.

[266:C] The commissioners appointed to treat with Maryland and Carolina
on this subject were, of the council, Thomas Ludwell, Esq., secretary of
Virginia, Major-General Robert Smith, and Major-General Richard Bennet;
and of the burgesses, Robert Wynne, speaker, Colonel Nich. Spencer,
Captain Daniel Parke, Captain Joseph Bridger, Captain Peter Jennings,
and Mr. Thomas Ballard.

[268:A] The tributary Indians of Virginia at this period were, in

                                              Bowmen, or Hunters.
     Nansemond County                                45

     Surrey County         { Powchay-icks            30
                           { Weyenoakes              15
                           { Men Heyricks            50

     Charles City County   { Nottoways, two towns    90
                           { Appamattox              50

     Henrico County        { Manachees               30
                           { Powhites                10

                           { Pamunkeys               50
                           { Chickahominies          60
     New Kent County       { Mattaponeys             20
                           { Rappahannocks           30
                           { Totas-Chees             40

     Gloucester              Chiskoyackes            15

                           { Portobaccoes            60
     Rappahanock           { Nanzcattico  }
                           { Mattehatique }          50

     Northumberland Co.      Wickacomico             70

     Westmoreland County     Appomattox              10
                 Total                              725

[269:A] Beverley, B. i. 64.

[269:B] P. W. Leland, in Hist. Mag., iii. 41.

[269:C] Jefferson's Notes on Virginia, 97; Hening, ii. 274.

[270:A] Writings of Jefferson, i. 405.

[270:B] Hening, ii. 289.



     Governor Berkley's Reply to Inquiries of the Lords Commissioners
     of Plantations--Government of Virginia--Militia--Forts--
     Restrictions on it--Governor's Salary--Quit-rents--Parishes--
     Free Schools, and Printing.

THE lords commissioners of foreign plantations, in 1670, were Arlington,
Ashley, Richard George W. Alington, T. Clifford, S. Trevor, Orlando
Bridgeman, C. S. Sandwich, president, Thomas Grey, ---- Titus, A.
Broucher, H. Slingsby, secretary, Hum. Winch, and Edmund Waller. These,
during this year, propounded inquiries to Sir William Berkley, governor,
respecting the state and condition of Virginia; and his answers made in
the year following present a satisfactory statistical account of the
colony. The executive consisted of a governor and sixteen councillors,
commissioned by the king, to determine all causes above fifteen pounds;
causes of less amount were tried by county courts, of which there were
twenty. The assembly met every year, composed of two burgesses from each
county. Appeals lay to the assembly; and this body levied the taxes.
(This power was delegated for some years to the executive.) The
legislative and executive powers rested in the governor, council,
assembly, and subordinate officers. The secretary of the colony sent the
acts of the assembly to the lord chancellor, or one of the principal
secretaries of state. All freemen were bound to muster monthly in their
own counties; the force of the colony amounted to upwards of eight
thousand horsemen. There were five forts: two on the James, and one on
each of the three rivers, Rappahannock, York, and Potomac; the number of
cannon was thirty. His majesty, during the late Dutch war, had sent over
thirty more, but the most of them were lost at sea. The Indians were in
perfect subjection. The eastern boundary of Virginia, on the sea-coast,
had been reduced from ten degrees to half of one degree. Tobacco was
the only commodity of any great value; exotic mulberry-trees had been
planted, and attempts made to manufacture silk. There was plenty of
timber; of iron ore but little discovered. The whole population was
forty thousand; of which two thousand were negro slaves, and six
thousand white servants. (The negroes had increased one hundredfold in
fifty years, since 1619, when the first were imported.) The average
annual importation of servants was about fifteen hundred; most of them
English, a few Scotch, fewer Irish; and not more than two or three ships
with negroes in seven years. New plantations were found sickly, and in
such four-fifths of the new settlers died. Eighty vessels arrived yearly
from England and Ireland for tobacco; a few small coasters came from New
England. Virginia had not more than two vessels of her own, and those
not over twenty tons. Sir William Berkley complains bitterly of the act
of parliament restricting the commerce of Virginia to the British
kingdom--a policy injurious to both parties; and he adds that "this is
the cause why no small or great vessels are built here; for we are most
obedient to all laws, while the New England men break through and trade
to any place that their interest leads them to." Sir William gave it as
his opinion, that nothing could improve the trade of Virginia, unless
she was allowed to export her staves, timber, and corn to other places
besides the king's dominions. The only duty levied was that of two
shillings on every hogshead of tobacco exported; the exportation of the
year 1671 amounting to fifteen thousand hogsheads. Out of this revenue
the king allowed the governor one thousand pounds, to which the assembly
added two hundred more, making twelve hundred pounds, which was
four-fifths of the entire customs revenue for that year. Yet he
complains: "I can knowingly affirm, that there is no government of ten
years' settlement but has thrice as much allowed him. But I am supported
by my hopes, that his gracious majesty will one day consider me."

The king had no revenue in the colony except quit-rents; these were not
of much value, and the king gave them to Colonel Henry Norwood. Every
man instructed his children at home according to his ability. "There
were forty-eight parishes, and our ministers are well paid; by my
consent should be better, if they would pray oftener, and preach less.
But as of all other commodities, so of this, the worst are sent us; and
we have had few that we could boast of, since Cromwell's tyranny drove
divers men hither. But I thank God there are no free schools, nor
printing, and I hope we shall not have these hundred years; for learning
has brought disobedience into the world, and printing has divulged them
and libels against the best governments. God keep us from both!"[273:A]


[273:A] Hening, ii. 511.



     Acts of Assembly--The Northern Neck--Earl of Arlington--
     Threatened Revolt in 1674--Agents sent to England to solicit
     a Revocation of the Grants of Territory and to obtain a
     Charter--The effort fruitless.

THE acts of a session were headed as follows: "At a Grand Assembly
holden at James City, by prorogation from the 24th day of September,
1672, to the 20th of October, Annoque Regni Regis Caroli Secundi Dei
Gratia Angliæ, Scotiæ, Franciæ et Hiberniæ, Regis, fidei Defensoris,
&c., Anno Domini 1673. To the glory of Almighty God and public weal, of
this his majesty's colony of Virginia, were enacted as followeth."

Provision was made during this year for a supply of arms and ammunition.
The commissioners appointed for determining the boundaries of the
Counties of Northumberland and Lancaster were Colonel John Washington,
Captain John Lee, Captain William Traverse, William Mosely, and Robert

The restoration, that worst of all governments, re-established an
arbitrary and oppressive administration in Virginia in church and state;
and as soon as reinstated, tyranny, confident of its power, rioted in
wanton and unbridled license.

The grant which had been made by Charles the Second in the first year of
his reign, dated at St. Germain en Laye, of the Northern Neck, including
four counties and a half, to Lord Hopton, the Earl of St. Albans, Lord
Culpepper, etc., was surrendered, in May, 1671, to the crown, and new
letters-patent were issued, with some alterations, to the Earl of St.
Albans, Lord Berkley, Sir William Morton, and others,--to hold the same
forever, paying annually the quit-rent of six pounds thirteen shillings
and four pence to his majesty and his successors. In February, 1673, the
king granted to the Earl of Arlington and Thomas, Lord Culpepper, the
entire territory of Virginia, not merely the wild lands, but private
plantations long settled and improved, for the term of thirty-one
years, at the yearly rent of forty shillings. The patents entitled them
to all rents and escheats, with power to convey all vacant lands,
nominate sheriffs, escheators, surveyors, etc., present to all churches
and endow them with lands, to form counties, parishes, etc. Although the
grants to these noblemen were limited to a term of years, yet they were
preposterously and illegally authorized to make conveyances in fee

Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington, said to have been the best bred person
at court, like his master, as far as he had any pretension whatever to
religion, was a disguised Papist. He became allied to the monarch as
father-in-law to the first Duke of Grafton, the king's son by Lady
Castlemaine. Arlington had received, while fighting on the royal side in
the civil war, a wound on the nose, the scar of which was covered with a
black patch. Barbara Villiers, only daughter of William, Viscount
Grandison, and wife of Roger Palmer, created Earl of Castlemaine in
1661, distinguished for her beauty and her profligacy, becoming mistress
to Charles at his restoration, was made, in 1670, Duchess of Cleveland.
Henry Bennet was created Baron of Arlington in 1663, and Viscount
Hetford and Earl of Arlington in 1672. He was also Knight of the Garter
and chamberlain to the king, his chief favorite, companion in profligate
pleasure, and political adviser. He and Culpepper were members of the
commission of trade and plantations.

The Virginians grew so impatient under their accumulated grievances that
a revolt was near bursting forth in 1674, but no person of note taking
the lead, it was suppressed by the advice of "some discreet persons,"
and the insurgents were persuaded to disperse in compliance with the
governor's proclamation. The movement was not entirely ineffectual, for
justices of the peace were prohibited from levying any more taxes for
their own emolument.[275:B] The assembly determined to make an humble
address "to his sacred majesty," praying for a revocation of the
fore-mentioned grants of her territory, and for a confirmation of the
rights and privileges of the colony. Francis Morrison, Thomas Ludwell,
and Robert Smith were appointed agents to visit England and lay their
complaints before the king; and their expenses were provided for by
onerous taxes, which fell heaviest on the poorer class of people. These
expenses included douceurs to be given to courtiers; for without money
nothing could be effected at the venal court of Charles the
Second.[276:A] Besides the revocation of the patents, the Virginia
agents were instructed to endeavor to obtain a new charter for the
colony. They prayed "that Virginia shall no more be transferred in
parcels to individuals, but may remain forever dependent on the crown of
England; that the public officers should be obliged to reside within the
colony; that no tax shall be laid on the inhabitants except by the
assembly." This petition affords a curious commentary on the panegyrics
then but recently lavished by "his majesty's most loyal colony" upon his
"most sacred majesty," who repaid their fervid loyalty by an unrelenting
system of oppression. The negotiations were long, and display evidence
of signal diplomatic ability, together with elevated and patriotic views
of colonial rights and constitutional freedom. After many evasions and
much delay, the mission eventually proved fruitless.[276:B] Application
was also made to Secretary Coventry to secure the place of governor to
Sir William Berkley for life.


[275:A] Hening, ii. 519.

[275:B] Ibid., ii. 315.

[276:A] Account of Bacon's Rebellion in Va. Gazette, 1766.

[276:B] Hening, ii. 518, 531.



     The Reverend Morgan Godwyn's Letter describing Condition of
     the Church in Virginia.

THE Bishop of Winchester, during the whole negotiation, lent his
assistance to the agents; he also brought to their notice a libel which
had been published against all the Anglo-American plantations,
especially Virginia. It was written by the Rev. Morgan Godwyn, who had
served some time in Virginia; and he had given a copy of it to each of
the bishops. The agents make mention of him as "the fellow," and "the
inconsiderable wretch." They sent a copy of it to Virginia, thinking it
necessary that a reply should be prepared, and addressed to the Bishop
of Winchester and the Archbishop of Canterbury. It is probable that this
pamphlet is no longer extant; but the character of its contents may be
inferred from a letter addressed by the author to Sir William Berkley,
and appended to a pamphlet published by him in 1680, entitled the
"Negro's and Indian's Advocate." Indeed this letter may have been itself
the libellous pamphlet circulated in England in 1674, and referred to by
the Virginia agents. In this letter Godwyn gives the following account
of the state of religion, as it was in that province some time before
the late rebellion, _i.e._ Bacon's, which occurred in 1676. Godwyn
acknowledges that Berkley had, "as a tender father, nourished and
preserved Virginia in her infancy and nonage. But as our blessed Lord,"
he reminds him, "once said to the young man in the gospel, 'Yet lackest
thou one thing;' so," he adds, "may we, and I fear too truly, say of
Virginia, that there is one thing, the propagation and establishing of
religion in her, wanting." And this he essays to prove in various ways:
saying that "the ministers are most miserably handled by their plebeian
juntos, the vestries, to whom the hiring (that is the usual word there)
and admission of ministers is solely left. And there being no law
obliging them to any more than to procure a lay reader, (to be obtained
at a very moderate rate,) they either resolve to have none at all, or
reduce them to their own terms; that is, to use them how they please,
pay them what they list, and to discard them whensoever they have a mind
to it. And this is the recompense of their leaving their hopes in
England, (far more considerable to the meanest curate than what can
possibly be apprehended there,) together with the friends and relations
and their native soil, to venture their lives into those parts among
strangers and enemies to their profession, who look upon them as a
burden; as being with their families (where they have any) to be
supported out of their labor. So that I dare boldly aver that our
discouragements there are much greater than ever they were here in
England under the usurper." After citing various evidences in support of
these statements, among which he specifies the hiring of the clergy from
year to year, and compelling them to accept of parishes at under-rates,
Godwyn thus proceeds: "I would not be thought to reflect herein upon
your excellency, who have always professed great tenderness for
churchmen. For, alas! these things are kept from your ears; nor dare
they, had they opportunity, acquaint you with them, for fear of being
used worse. And there being no superior clergyman, neither in council
nor any place of authority, for them to address their complaints to, and
by his means have their grievances brought to your excellency's
knowledge, they are left without remedy. Again, two-thirds of the
preachers are made up of leaden lay priests of the vestry's ordination;
and are both the shame and grief of the rightly ordained clergy there.
Nothing of this ever reaches your excellency's ear; these hungry patrons
knowing better how to benefit by their vices than by the virtues of the
other." And here Godwyn cites an instance of a writing-master, who came
into Virginia, professing to be a doctor in divinity, showing feigned
letters of orders, and under different names continuing in various
places to carry on his work of fraud. He states also that owing to a law
of the colony, which enacted that four years' servitude should be the
penalty exacted of any one who permitted himself to be sent thither free
of charge, some of the clergy, through ignorance of the law, were left
thereby under the mastery of persons who had given them the means of
gratuitous transport; and that they could only escape from such bondage
by paying a ransom four or five times as large as that to which the
expenses of their passage would have amounted. Moreover, he describes
the parishes as extending, some of them, sixty or seventy miles in
length, and lying void for many years together, to save charges.
Jamestown, he distinctly states, had been left, with short intervals, in
this destitute condition for twenty years. "Laymen," he adds, "were
allowed to usurp the office of ministers, and deacons to undermine and
thrust out presbyters; in a word, all things concerning the church and
religion were left to the mercy of the people." And, last of all: "To
propagate Christianity among the heathen--whether natives or slaves
brought from other parts--although (as must piously be supposed) it were
the only end of God's discovering those countries to us, yet is that
looked upon by our new race of Christians, so idle and ridiculous, so
utterly needless and unnecessary, that no man can forfeit his judgment
more than by any proposal looking or tending that way." Such is the Rev.
Mr. Godwyn's account of the state of religion and the condition of the
clergy in Virginia during Sir William Berkley's administration.[279:A]


[279:A] Anderson's Hist. of Col. Church, first edition, ii. 558, 561.



     Lands at Greenspring settled on Sir William Berkley--Indian
     Incursions--Force put under command of Sir Henry Chicheley--
     Disbanded by Governor's Order--The Long Parliament of Virginia
     --Colonial Grievances--Spirit of the Virginians--Elements of

THE lands at Greenspring, near Jamestown, were settled during this year
on Sir William Berkley, the preamble to the act reciting among his
merits, "the great pains he hath taken and hazards he has run, even of
his life, in the government and preservation of the country from many
attempts of the Indians, and also in preserving us in our due allegiance
to his majesty's royal father of blessed memory, and his now most sacred
majesty, against all attempts, long after all his majesty's other
dominions were subjected to the tyranny of the late usurpers; and also
seriously considering that the said Sir William Berkley hath in all time
of his government, under his most sacred majesty and his royal father,
made it his only care to keep his majesty's country in a due obedience
to our rightful and lawful sovereign," etc. The Rev. John Clayton,
(supposed to be father of the Virginia naturalist,) writing in 1688,
says: "There is a spring at my Lady Berkley's called Green Spring,
whereof I have been often told, so very cold, that 'tis dangerous
drinking thereof in summer time, it having proved of fatal consequence
to several. I never tried anything of what nature it is of."

The Indians having renewed their incursions upon the frontier, the
people petitioned the governor for protection. Upon the meeting of the
assembly, war was declared against them in March, 1676; five hundred
men enlisted, and the forts garrisoned. The force raised was put
under command of Sir Henry Chicheley, who was ordered to disarm the
neighboring Indians. The forts were on the Potomac, at the falls of the
Rappahannock, (now Fredericksburg,) on the Matapony, on the Pamunkey, at
the falls of the Appomattox, (now Petersburg,) either at Major-General
Wood's, or at Fleets', on the opposite side of the river, on the
Blackwater, and at the head of the Nansemond. Provision was made for
employing Indians; articles of martial law were adopted; arms to be
carried to church; the governor authorized to disband the troops when
expedient; days of fasting appointed. The Indians having been emboldened
to commit depredations and murders by the arms and ammunition which they
had received, contrary to law, from traders, a rigorous act was passed
to restrain such. When Sir Henry Chicheley was about to march against
the Indians he was ordered by Sir William Berkley to disband his forces,
to the general surprise and dissatisfaction of the colony.

There had now been no election of burgesses since the restoration, in
1660, the same legislature since that time having continued, to hold its
sessions by prorogation. It may be called the Long Parliament of
Virginia in respect to its duration. Among its members may be mentioned
Colonel William Clayborne, Captain William Berkley, Captain Daniel
Parke, Adjutant-General Jennings, Colonel John Washington, Colonel
Edward Scarburgh. Robert Wynne was made speaker shortly after the
restoration, and so continued until 1676, when he was succeeded by
Augustine Warner, of Gloucester. James Minge, of Charles City, was now
the clerk, and had been for several years.

The price of tobacco was depressed by the monopoly of the English
navigation act, and the cost of imported goods, enhanced. Duties were
laid on the commerce between one colony and another, and the revenue
thence derived was absorbed by the collecting officers. The planters, it
is said,[281:A] had been driven to seek a remedy by destroying the crop
in the fields, called "plant cutting." The endeavors of the agents in
England to obtain a release from the grants to the lords and a new
charter, appeared abortive. The Indian incursions occurring at this
conjuncture, filled the measure of panic and exasperation. Groaning
under exactions and grievances, and tortured by apprehensions, the
Virginians began to meditate violent measures of relief. Many of the
feudal institutions of England, the hoary buttresses of mediæval power,
could have no existence in America; a new position gradually moulded a
new system; and men transplanted to another hemisphere changed opinions
as well as clime. Thus, in Virginia, the most Anglican, oldest, and most
loyal of the colonies, a spirit of freedom and independence infused
itself into the minds of the planters. The ocean that separated them
from England lessened the terror of a distant sceptre. The supremacy of
law being less firmly established, especially in the frontier, a wild
spirit of justice had arisen which was apt to decline into contempt of
authority. Added to this, the colony contained malecontent Cromwellian
soldiers reduced to bondage, perhaps some of them men of heroic soul,
victims of civil war, ripe for revolt. The Indian massacres of former
years made the colonists sensitive to alarms, and impatient of
indifference to their cruel apprehensions, which can hardly be realized
by those who have never been subjected to such dangers. The fatigues,
privations, hardships, perils of a pioneer life, imparted energy; the
wild magnificence of nature, the fresh luxuriance of a virgin soil,
unpruned forests, great rivers and hoary mountains, these contributed to
kindle a love of liberty and independence. Moreover, the disaffection of
the colonists was somewhat emboldened by the civil dissensions of
England, which appeared now again to threaten the stability of the


[281:A] Account of Bacon's Rebellion, in Va. Gazette, 1766.



     Three Ominous Presages--Siege of Piscataway--Colonel John
     Washington--Indian Chiefs put to death--Fort evacuated--
     Indians murder Inhabitants of Frontier--Servant and Overseer
     of Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., slain--The People take up Arms--Bacon
     chosen Leader--His Character--Solicits Commission from Berkley
     --He proclaims the Insurgents Rebels--Pursues them--Planters
     of Lower Country revolt--Forts dismantled--Rebellion not the
     Result of Bacon's Pique or Ambition--He marches into the
     Wilderness--Massacre of friendly Indians--Bacon returns--
     Elected a Burgess--Arrested--Released on Parole--Assembly
     meets--Bacon sues for Pardon--Restored to the Council--
     Nathaniel Bacon, Sr.--Berkley issues secret Warrants for
     arrest of the younger Bacon.

"ABOUT the year 1675," says an old writer, "appeared three prodigies in
that country, which, from the attending disasters, were looked upon as
ominous presages. The one was a large comet, every evening for a week or
more at southwest, thirty-five degrees high, streaming like a horse-tail
westward, until it reached (almost) the horizon, and setting toward the
northwest. Another was flights of wild pigeons, in breadth nigh a
quarter of the mid-hemisphere, and of their length was no visible end;
whose weights broke down the limbs of large trees whereon these rested
at nights, of which the fowlers shot abundance, and ate them; this sight
put the old planters under the more portentous apprehensions because the
like was seen (as they said) in the year 1644, when the Indians
committed the last massacre; but not after, until that present year,
1675. The third strange phenomenon was swarms of flies about an inch
long, and big as the top of a man's little finger, rising out of spigot
holes in the earth, which ate the new-sprouted leaves from the tops of
the trees, without other harm, and in a month left us."[283:A]

The author of this account, whose initials are T. M., says of himself,
that he lived in Northumberland County, on the lower part of the
Potomac, where he was a merchant; but he had a plantation, servants,
cattle, etc., in Stafford County, on the upper part of that river; and
that he was elected a burgess from Stafford in 1676, Colonel Mason being
his colleague. T. M., perhaps, was Thomas Matthews, son of Colonel
Samuel Matthews, some time governor. He owned lands acquired from the
Wicocomoco Indians in Northumberland, and it is probable that his son,
Thomas Matthews, came into possession of them.[284:A] He appears to have
lived at a place called Cherry Point, probably on the Potomac, in

On a Sunday morning, in the summer of 1675, a herdsman, named Robert
Hen, together with an Indian, was slain in Stafford County, by a party
of the hostile tribe of Doegs, and the victims were found by the people
on their way to church.[284:C] Colonel Mason and Captain Brent, with
some militia, pursued the offenders about twenty miles up the river, and
then across into Maryland, and, coming upon two parties of armed
warriors, slaughtered indiscriminately a number of them and of the
Susquehannocks, a friendly tribe. These latter, recently expelled from
their own country, at the head of the Chesapeake Bay, by the Senecas, a
tribe of the Five Nations, now sought refuge in a fort of the
Piscataways, a friendly tribe near the head of the Potomac, supposed to
be near the spot where now stands the City of Washington. In a short
time several Marylanders were murdered by the savages, and some
Virginians in the County of Stafford. The fort on the north bank of the
Piscataway consisted of high earth-works having flankers pierced with
loop-holes, and surrounded by a ditch. This again was encircled by a row
of tall trees from five to eight inches in diameter, set three feet in
the earth and six inches apart, and wattled in such a manner as to
protect those within, and, at the same time, to afford them apertures
for shooting through. It was probably an old fort erected by Maryland as
a protection to the frontier, but latterly unoccupied. The
Susquehannocks, to the number of one hundred warriors, with their old
men, women, and children, entrenched themselves in this stronghold.
Toward the end of September they were besieged by a thousand men from
Virginia and Maryland, united in a joint expedition, at the instance of
the latter. The Marylanders were commanded by Major Thomas Truman, the
Virginians by Colonel John Washington.[285:A] John Washington had
emigrated from Yorkshire, England, to Virginia in 1657, and purchased
lands in Westmoreland. Not long after, being, as has been conjectured, a
surveyor, he made a location of lands, which, however, was set aside
until the Indians, to whom these lands had been assigned, should vacate
them. In the year 1667 he was a member of the house of burgesses.[285:B]

To return to the siege: six of the Indian chiefs were sent out from the
fort on a parley proposed by Major Truman. These chiefs, on being
interrogated, laid the blame of the recent outrages perpetrated in
Virginia and Maryland upon the Senecas. Colonel Washington, Colonel
Mason, and Major Adderton now came over from the Virginia encampment,
and charged the chiefs with the murders that had been committed on the
south side of the Potomac. On the next day the Virginia officers renewed
the charges against the Susquehannock chiefs; at this juncture a
detachment of rangers arrived, bringing with them the mangled bodies of
some recent victims of Indian cruelty. Five of the chiefs were instantly
bound, and put to death--"knocked on the head." The savages now made a
desperate resistance; but their sorties were repelled, and they had to
subsist partly on horses captured from the whites. At the end of six
weeks, seventy-five warriors, with their women and children, (leaving
only a few decrepid old men behind,) evacuated the fort during the
night, marching off by the light of the moon, killing ten of the militia
found asleep, as they retired, and making the welkin ring with the
war-whoop and yells of defiance. They pursued their way by the
head-waters of the Potomac, the Rappahannock, the York, and the James,
joining with them the neighboring Indians, slaying such of the
inhabitants as they met with on the frontier, to the number of
sixty--sacrificing ten ordinary victims for each one of the chiefs they
had lost. The Susquehannocks now sent a message to Governor Berkley,
complaining of the war waged upon them, and of the murder of their
chiefs, and proposing, if the Virginians, their old friends, would make
them reparation for the damages which they had suffered, and dissolve
their alliance with the Marylanders, they would renew their ancient
friendship; otherwise they were ready for war.[286:A]

At the falls of the James the savages had slain a servant of Nathaniel
Bacon, Jr., and his overseer, to whom he was much attached. This was not
the place of Bacon's residence; Bacon Quarter Branch, in the suburbs of
Richmond, probably indicates the scene of the murder. Bacon himself
resided at Curles, in Henrico county, on the lower James River.[286:B]
It is said that when he heard of the catastrophe he vowed vengeance. In
that time of panic, the more exposed and defenceless families,
abandoning their homes, took shelter together in houses, where they
fortified themselves with palisades and redoubts. Neighbors banding
together, passed in co-operating parties, from plantation to plantation,
taking arms with them into the fields where they labored, and posting
sentinels, to give warning of the approach of the insidious foe. No man
ventured out of doors unarmed. Even Jamestown was in danger. The red
men, stealing with furtive glance through the shade of the forest, the
noiseless tread of the moccasin scarce stirring a leaf, prowled around
like panthers in quest of prey. At length the people at the head of
the James and the York, having in vain petitioned the governor for
protection, alarmed at the slaughter of their neighbors, often murdered
with every circumstance of barbarity, rose tumultuously in self-defence,
to the number of three hundred men, including most, if not all the
officers, civil and military, and chose Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., for their
leader. According to another authority, Bacon, before the murder of his
overseer and servant, had been refused the commission, and had sworn
that upon the next murder he should hear of, he would march against the
Indians, "commission or no commission." And when one of his own family
was butchered, "he got together about seventy or ninety persons, most
good housekeepers, well armed," etc. Burk[287:A] makes their number
"near six hundred men," and refers to ancient (MS.) records.

Bacon had been living in the colony somewhat less than three years,
having settled at Curles, on the lower James, in the midst of those
people who were the greatest sufferers from the depredations of the
Indians, and he himself had frequently felt the effects of their
inroads. In the records of the county court of Henrico there is a deed
from Randolph to Randolph, dated November 1st, 1706, conveying a tract
of land called Curles, lately belonging to Nathaniel Bacon, Esq., and
since found to escheat to his majesty. At the breaking out of these
disturbances he was a member of the council. He was gifted with a
graceful person, great abilities, and a powerful elocution, and was the
most accomplished man in Virginia; his courage and resolution were not
to be daunted, and his affability, hospitality, and benevolence,
commanded a wide popularity throughout the colony.

The men who had put themselves under Bacon's command made preparations
for marching against the Indians, but in the mean time sent again to
obtain from the governor a commission of general for Bacon, with
authority to lead out his followers, at their own expense, against the
enemy. He then stood so high in the council, and the exigency of the
case was so pressing, that Sir William Berkley, thinking it imprudent to
return an absolute refusal, concluded to temporize. Some of the leading
men about him, it was believed, took occasion to foment the difference
between him and Bacon, envying a rising luminary that threatened to
eclipse them. This conduct is like that of some of the leading men in
Virginia who, one hundred years later, compelled Patrick Henry to resign
his post in the army.

Sir William Berkley sent his evasive reply to the application for a
commission, by some of his friends, and instructed them to persuade
Bacon to disband his forces. He refused to comply with this request, and
having in twenty days mustered five hundred men, marched to the falls of
the James. Thereupon the governor, on the 29th day of May, 1676, issued
a proclamation, declaring all such as should fail to return within a
certain time, rebels. Bacon likewise issued a declaration, setting
forth the public dangers and grievances, but taking no notice of the
governor's proclamation.[288:A] Upon this the men of property, fearful
of a confiscation, deserted Bacon and returned home; but he proceeded
with fifty-seven men. Sir William Berkley, with a troop of horse from
Middle Plantation, pursued Bacon as far as the falls, some forty miles,
but not overtaking him, returned to Jamestown, where the assembly was
soon to meet. During his absence the planters of the lower country rose
in revolt, and declared against the frontier forts as a useless and
intolerable burden; and to restore quiet they were dismantled, and the
assembly, the odious Long Parliament of Virginia, was at last dissolved,
and writs for a new election issued. This revolt in the lower country,
with which Bacon had no immediate connection, demonstrates how widely
the leaven of rebellion, as it was styled, pervaded the body of the
people, and how unfounded is the notion, that it was the result merely
of personal pique and ambition in Bacon. Had he never set his foot on
the soil of Virginia there can be little doubt but that an outbreak
would have occurred at this time. There was no man in the colony with
a brighter prospect before him than Bacon, and he could hardly have
engaged in this popular movement without a sacrifice of selfish
considerations, nor with out incurring imminent risk. The movement was
revolutionary--a miniature prototype of the revolution of 1688 in
England, and of 1776 in America. But Bacon, as before mentioned, with a
small body of men proceeded into the wilderness, up the river, his
provisions being nearly exhausted before he discovered the Indians. At
length a tribe of friendly Mannakins were found entrenched within a
palisaded fort on the further side of a branch of the James. Bacon
endeavoring to procure provisions from them and offering compensation,
they put him off with delusive promises till the third day, when the
whites had eaten their last morsel. They now waded up to the shoulder
across the branch to the fort, again soliciting provisions and tendering
payment. In the evening one of Bacon's men was killed by a shot from
that side of the branch which they had left, and this giving rise to a
suspicion of collusion with Sir William Berkley and treachery, Bacon
stormed the fort, burnt it and the cabins, blew up their magazine of
arms and gunpowder, and with a loss of only three of his own party, put
to death one hundred and fifty Indians. It is difficult to credit,
impossible to justify, this massacre. The Virginians, a hundred years
afterwards, suspected Governor Dunmore of colluding with Indians. Bacon
with his followers returned to their homes, and he was shortly after
elected one of the burgesses for the County of Henrico. Brewse or Bruce,
his colleague and a captain of the insurgents, was not less odious to
the governor. It was subsequently charged by the king's commissioners
that the malecontent voters on this occasion illegally returned freemen,
not being freeholders, for burgesses.[289:A] The charge was well
founded. It is probable also that others were allowed to vote besides
freeholders and housekeepers. Bacon, upon being elected, going down the
James River with a party of his friends, was met by an armed vessel,
ordered on board of her, and arrested by Major Howe, High Sheriff of
James City, who conveyed him to the governor at that place, by whom he
was accosted thus: "Mr. Bacon, you have forgot to be a gentleman." He
replied, "No, may it please your honor." The governor said, "Then I'll
take your parole;" which he accordingly did, and gave him his liberty;
but a number of his companions, who had been arrested with him, were
still kept in irons.

On the 5th day of June, 1676, the members of the new assembly, whose
names are not recorded, met in the chamber over the general court, and
having chosen a speaker, the governor sent for them down, and addressed
them in a brief abrupt speech on the Indian disturbances, and in
allusion to the chiefs who had been slain, exclaimed: "If they had
killed my grandfather and my grandmother, my father and mother, and all
my friends, yet if they had come to treat of peace, they ought to have
gone in peace." After a short interval, he again rose and said: "If
there be joy in the presence of the angels over one sinner that
repenteth, there is joy now, for we have a penitent sinner come before
us. Call Mr. Bacon." Bacon appearing, was compelled upon one knee, at
the bar of the house, to confess his offence, and beg pardon of God, the
king, and governor, in the following words:[290:A] "I, Nathaniel Bacon,
Jr., Esq., of Henrico County, in Virginia, do hereby most readily,
freely, and most humbly acknowledge that I am, and have been guilty of
divers late unlawful, mutinous, and rebellious practices, contrary to my
duty to his most sacred majesty's governor, and this country, by beating
up of drums; raising of men in arms; marching with them into several
parts of his most sacred majesty's colony, not only without order and
commission, but contrary to the express orders and commands of the Right
Honorable Sir William Berkley, Knt., his majesty's most worthy governor
and captain-general of Virginia. And I do further acknowledge that the
said honorable governor hath been very favorable to me, by his several
reiterated gracious offers of pardon, thereby to reclaim me from the
persecution of those my unjust proceedings, (whose noble and generous
mercy and clemency I can never sufficiently acknowledge,) and for the
re-settlement of this whole country in peace and quietness. And I do
hereby, upon my knees, most humbly beg of Almighty God and of his
majesty's said governor, that upon this my most hearty and unfeigned
acknowledgment of my said miscarriages and unwarrantable practices, he
will please to grant me his gracious pardon and indemnity, humbly
desiring also the honorable council of state, by whose goodness I am
also much obliged, and the honorable burgesses of the present grand
assembly to intercede, and mediate with his honor, to grant me such
pardon. And I do hereby promise, upon the word and faith of a Christian
and a gentleman, that upon such pardon granted me, as I shall ever
acknowledge so great a favor, so I will always bear true faith and
allegiance to his most sacred majesty, and demean myself dutifully,
faithfully, and peaceably to the government, and the laws of this
country, and am most ready and willing to enter into bond of two
thousand pounds sterling, and for security thereof bind my whole estate
in Virginia to the country for my good and quiet behavior for one whole
year from this date, and do promise and oblige myself to continue my
said duty and allegiance at all times afterwards. In testimony of this,
my free and hearty recognition, I have hereunto subscribed my name, this
9th day of June, 1676.

                                                   "NATH. BACON."

The intercession of the council was in the following terms: "We, of his
majesty's council of state of Virginia, do hereby desire, according to
Mr. Bacon's request, the right honorable the governor, to grant the said
Mr. Bacon his freedom.

                       PHIL. LUDWELL,             HEN. CHICHELEY,
                       JAMES BRAY,                NATHL. BACON,
                       WM. COLE,                  THOS. BEALE,
                       RA. WORMELEY,              THO. BALLARD,
                                     JO. BRIDGER.

"Dated the 9th of June, 1676."

       +       +       +       +       +

When Bacon had made his acknowledgment, the governor exclaimed: "God
forgive you, I forgive you;" repeating the words thrice. Colonel Cole,
of the council, added, "and all that were with him." "Yea," echoed the
governor, "and all that were with him." Sir William Berkley, starting up
from his chair for the third time, exclaimed: "Mr. Bacon, if you will
live civilly but till next quarter court, I'll promise to restore you
again to your place there," (pointing with his hand to Mr. Bacon's
seat,) he having, as has been already mentioned, been of the council
before those troubles, and having been deposed by the governor's
proclamation. But instead of being obliged to wait till the quarter
court, Bacon was restored to his seat on that very day; and intelligence
of it was hailed with joyful acclamations by the people in Jamestown.
This took place on Saturday. Bacon was also promised a commission to go
out against the Indians, to be delivered to him on the Monday following.
But being delayed or disappointed, a few days after (the assembly being
engaged in devising measures against the Indians) he escaped from
Jamestown. He conceived the governor's pretended generosity to be only a
lure to keep him out of his seat in the house of burgesses, and to quiet
the people of the upper country, who were hastening down to Jamestown to
avenge all wrongs done him or his friends. According to another account,
he obtained leave of absence to visit his wife, "sick, as he pretended;"
but from T. M.'s Account, and others, this version appears to be

There was in the council at this time one Colonel Nathaniel Bacon, a
near relative of Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., who was not yet thirty years of
age. The elder Bacon was a wealthy politic old man, childless, and
intending to make his namesake and cousin his heir. It was by the
pressing solicitations of this old gentleman, as was believed, that
young Bacon was reluctantly prevailed upon to repeat at the bar of the
house the recantation written by the old gentleman. It was he also, as
was supposed, who gave timely warning to the young Bacon to fly for his
life. Three or four days after his first arrest, many country people,
from the heads of the rivers, appeared in Jamestown; but finding him
restored to his place in the council, and his companions at liberty,
they returned home satisfied. But in a short time the governor, seeing
all quiet, issued secret warrants to seize him again, intending probably
to raise the militia, and thus prevent a rescue.


[283:A] T. M.'s Account of Bacon's Rebellion, in Force's Hist. Tracts,

[284:A] Herring, i. 515, and ii. 14.

[284:B] Va. Hist. Reg., i. 167.

[284:C] For the following details, see T. M.'s Account; Hening, ii. 841,
543; Beverley, B. i. 65; Keith's Hist. of Va., 156; Breviarie and
Conclusion, Burk, ii. 250; Account of Bacon's Rebellion, in Va. Gazette,
1766, and Bacon's Proceedings, in Force's Hist. Tracts, i.

[285:A] Chalmers' Annals, 332, 335, 348; The Fall of the Susquehannocks,
by S. F. Streeter, in Hist. Mag., i. 65.

[285:B] Burk, ii. 144; Account of our Late Troubles in Virginia, written
in 1676, by Mrs. Ann Cotton, of Queen's Creek, 3 in Force's Hist.
Tracts, i. This curious narrative was published from the original MS. in
the _Richmond Enquirer_ of September 12th, 1804. T. M.'s Account was
republished in the same paper.

[286:A] Narrative of the Indian and Civil Wars in Va., in the years 1675
and 1676, 1, in Force's Hist. Tracts, i. This account is evidently in
the main, if not altogether, by the same hand with the letter bearing
the signature of Mrs. Ann Cotton. Several passages are identical.

[286:B] Account of Bacon's Rebellion, in Va. Gazette, 1766.

[287:A] In Hist. of Va., ii. 164.

[288:A] Burk, ii. 247

[289:A] Breviarie and Conclusion, Burk, ii. 251.

[290:A] Hening, ii. 543.



     Bacon, with an armed Force, enters Jamestown--Extorts a
     Commission from the Governor--Proceedings of Assembly--Bacon
     marches against the Pamunkies--Berkley summons Gloucester
     Militia--Bacon countermarches upon the Governor--He escapes to
     Accomac--Bacon encamps at Middle Plantation--Calls a
     Convention--Oath prescribed--Sarah Drummond--Giles Bland
     seizes an armed Vessel and sails for Accomac--His Capture--
     Berkley returns to Jamestown--Bacon exterminates the Indians.

WITHIN three or four days after Bacon's escape, news reached James City
that he was some thirty miles above, on the James River, at the head of
four hundred men. Sir William Berkley summoned the York train-bands to
defend Jamestown, but only one hundred obeyed the summons, and they
arrived too late, and one-half of them were favorable to Bacon.
Expresses almost hourly brought tidings of his approach, and in less
than four days he marched into Jamestown unresisted, at two o'clock
P.M., and drew up his force, (now amounting to six hundred men,) horse
and foot, in battle array on the green in front of the state-house, and
within gunshot. In half an hour the drum beat, as was the custom, for
the assembly to meet, and in less than thirty minutes Bacon advanced,
with a file of fusileers on either hand, near to the corner of the
state-house, where he was met by the governor and council. Sir William
Berkley, dramatically baring his breast, cried out, "Here! shoot
me--fore God, fair mark; shoot!" frequently repeating the words. Bacon
replied, "No, may it please your honor, we will not hurt a hair of your
head, nor of any other man's; we are come for a commission to save our
lives from the Indians, which you have so often promised, and now we
will have it before we go." Bacon was walking to and fro between the
files of his men, holding his left arm akimbo, and gesticulating
violently with his right, he and the governor both like men distracted.
In a few moments Sir William withdrew to his private apartment at the
other end of the state-house, the council accompanying him. Bacon
followed, frequently hurrying his hand from his sword-hilt to his hat;
and after him came a detachment of fusileers, who, with their guns
cocked and presented at a window of the assembly chamber, filled with
faces, repeating in menacing tone, "We will have it, we will have it,"
for half a minute, when a well-known burgess, waving his handkerchief
out at the window, exclaimed, three or four times, "You shall have it,
you shall have it;" when, uncocking their guns, they rested them on the
ground, and stood still, till Bacon returning, they rejoined the main
body. It was said that Bacon had beforehand directed his men to fire in
case he should draw his sword. In about an hour after Bacon re-entered
the assembly chamber, and demanded a commission, authorizing him to
march out against the Indians. Godwyn, the speaker,[294:A] who was
himself a Baconian, as were a majority of the house, remaining silent in
the chair, Brewse, (or Bruce,)[294:B] the colleague of Bacon, alone
found courage to answer: "'Twas not in our province, or power, nor of
any other, save the king's vicegerent, our governor." Bacon,
nevertheless, still warmly urged his demand, and harangued the assembly
for nearly half an hour on the Indian disturbances, the condition of the
public revenues, the exorbitant taxes, abuses and corruptions of the
administration, and all the grievances of their miserable country.
Having concluded, and finding "no other answer, he went away

On the following day the governor directed the house to take measures to
defend the country against the Indians, and advised them to beware of
two rogues among them, meaning Lawrence and Drummond, who both lived at
Jamestown. But some of the burgesses, in order to effect a redress of
some of the grievances that the country labored under, made motions for
inspecting the public revenues, the collector's accounts, etc., when
they received pressing messages from the governor to meddle with nothing
else till the Indian business was disposed of. The debate on this matter
rose high, but the governor's orders were finally acquiesced in.

While the committee on Indian affairs was sitting, the Queen of
Pamunkey, a descendant of Opechancanough, was introduced into their
room. Accompanied by an interpreter and her son, a youth of twenty
years, she entered with graceful dignity. Around her head she wore a
plait of black and white wampum-peake, a drilled purple bead of shell,
three inches wide, after the manner of a crown. There is preserved at
Fredericksburg a silver frontlet, purchased from some Indians, with a
coat of arms, and inscribed "The Queen of Pamunkey," "Charles the
Second, King of England, Scotland, France, Ireland, and Virginia," and
"Honi soit qui mal y pense." She was clothed in a mantle of dressed
buckskin, with the fur outward, and bordered with a deep fringe from
head to foot. Being seated, the chairman asked her "How many men she
would lend the English for guides and allies?" She referred him to her
son, who understood English, being the reputed son of an English
colonel. But he declining to answer, she burst forth in an impassioned
speech of a quarter of an hour's length, often repeating the words,
"Totopotomoi dead," referring to her husband, who, as has been seen, had
fallen while fighting under Colonel Hill, the elder. The chairman,
untouched by this appeal, roughly repeated the inquiry, how many men she
would contribute. Averting her head with a disdainful look she sate
silent, till the question being pressed a third time, she replied in a
low tone, "Six." When still further importuned she said "Twelve,"
although she had then one hundred and fifty warriors in her town. She
retired silent and displeased.

The assembly went on to provide for the Indian war, and made Nathaniel
Bacon, Jr., general and commander-in-chief, which was ratified by the
governor and council. An act was also passed indemnifying Bacon and his
party for their violent acts; and a highly applausive letter was
prepared, justifying Bacon's designs and proceedings, addressed to the
king and subscribed by the governor, council, and assembly. Sir William
Berkley at the same time communicated to the house a letter addressed to
his majesty, saying: "I have above thirty years governed the most
flourishing country the sun ever shone over, but am now encompassed with
rebellion like waters, in every respect like that of Massaniello, except
their leader." Massaniello, or Thomas Anello, a fisherman of Naples,
born 1623, exasperated by the oppressive taxes imposed by Austria upon
his countrymen, at the head of two thousand young men, armed with canes,
overthrew the viceroy, seized upon the supreme power, and after holding
it for some years, fell by the hands of assassins in 1647. Some of the
burgesses also wrote to the king, setting forth the circumstances of the
outbreak. The amnesty extended from the 1st day of March to the 25th day
of June, 1676, and excepted only offences against the law concerning the
Indian trade.[296:A] The assembly did not restrict itself to measures
favorable to Bacon. According to the letter of the law, at least, he had
been guilty of rebellion in assuming a military command and marching
against the savages without a commission, and he had so acknowledged.
Yet he was not more guilty than the bulk of the people of the colony,
and probably not more so than a majority of the assembly itself; and the
popular movement seemed justified by an urgent necessity of
self-defence, and an intolerable accumulation of public grievances. On
the other hand, Sir William Berkley had violated his solemn engagement
to grant the commission. Besides, it did not escape the notice of the
assembly that the term of ten years for which, it was believed, he had
been appointed, had expired; and this circumstance, although it might
not be held absolutely to terminate his authority, served at the least
to attenuate it. The assembly adopted measures with a view at once to
vindicate the supremacy of the law; to heal the wounded pride of the
aged governor; to protect the country; to screen Bacon and his
confederates from punishment, and to reform the abuses of the

It is remarkable that the resolutions, instructing the Virginia
delegates in Congress to declare the colonies free and independent, were
passed in June, 1776, and that the assembly, under Bacon's influence,
met in June, 1676. The first act of this session declared war against
the hostile Indians, ordering a levy of one thousand men, and
authorizing General Bacon to receive volunteers; and if their number
should prove sufficient, to dispense with the regular force; Indians
taken in war to be made slaves; the forces divided into southern and
northern, and such officers to be appointed to command these divisions
as the governor should commission. An act was then passed for the
suppressing of tumults, the preamble reciting that there had of late
"been many unlawful tumults, routs, and riots, in divers parts of this
country, and that certain ill-disposed and disaffected people of late
gathered, and may again gather themselves together, by beat of drum and
otherwise, in a most apparent rebellious manner, without any authority
or legal commission, which may prove of very dangerous consequences,"
etc. The act for regulating of officers and offices, shows how many
abuses and how much rapacity had crept into the administration. By this
act it was declared that no person, not being a native or minister,
could hold any office until he had resided in the colony for three
years. The democratic spirit of this assembly displayed itself in a law
"enabling freemen to vote for burgesses;" and another making the church
vestries eligible by the freemen of the parish, once in three years.
Representatives were to be chosen by the people in each parish to vote
with the justices in laying the county levy, and in making by-laws. The
county courts were authorized to appoint their own collectors; and
members of the council were prohibited from voting with the justices. An
act for suppressing of ordinaries, or country taverns, suppressed all
except three, one at James City, and one at each side of York River, at
the great ferries; and these were prohibited from retailing any liquors,
except beer and cider. Lieutenant-Colonel Hill, and Lieutenant John
Stith, both of the parish of Westover, and County of Charles City, were
disabled from holding office in that county, for having fomented
misunderstandings between the honorable governor and his majesty's good
and loyal subjects, the inhabitants of the Counties of Charles City and
Henrico, and having been instrumental in levying unjust and exorbitant
taxes.[297:A] In evidence of the excitement and suspicion then
prevailing, it was observed that some of the burgesses wore distinctive
badges; a hundred years afterwards the opposite parties walked on
opposite sides of the street.

In a few days the assembly was dissolved by the governor, who, seeing
how great Bacon's influence was, apprehended only further mischief from
their proceedings. A number of the burgesses, intending to depart on the
morrow, having met in the evening to take leave of each other, General
Bacon, as he now came to be styled, entered the room with a handful of
papers, and, looking around, inquired, "Which of these gentlemen shall I
interest to write a few words for me?" All present looking aside, being
unwilling to act, Lawrence, Bacon's friend, pointing to one of the
company, (the author of T. M.'s Account,) said: "That gentleman writes
very well," and he, undertaking to excuse himself, Bacon, bowing low,
said: "Pray, sir, do me the honor to write a line for me;" and he now
consenting, was detained during the whole night, filling up commissions
obtained from the governor, and signed by him. These commissions Bacon
filled almost altogether with the names of the militia officers of the
country, the first men in the colony in fortune, rank, and influence.

His vigorous measures at once restored confidence to the planters, and
they resumed their occupations. Bacon, at the head of a thousand men,
marched against the Pamunkies, killing many and destroying their towns.
Meanwhile the people of Gloucester, the most populous and loyal county,
having been disarmed by Bacon, petitioned the governor for protection
against the savages. Reanimated by this petition, he again proclaimed
Bacon a rebel and a traitor, and hastened over to Gloucester. Summoning
the train-bands of that county and Middlesex, to the number of twelve
hundred men, he proposed to them to pursue and put down the rebel
Bacon--when the whole assembly unanimously shouted, "Bacon! Bacon!
Bacon!" and withdrew from the field, still repeating the name of that
popular leader, the Patrick Henry of his day, and leaving the aged
cavalier governor and his attendants to themselves. The issue was now
fairly joined between the people and the governor. Francis Morryson,
afterwards one of the king's commissioners, in a letter dated at London,
November 28th, 1677, and addressed to Secretary Ludwell, says: "I fear
when that part of the narrative comes to be read that mentions the
Gloucester petitions, your brother may be prejudiced, for there are two
or three that will be summoned, will lay the contrivance at your
brother's door and Beverley's, but more upon your brother, who, they
say, was the drawer of it. For at the first sight, all the lords judged
that that was the unhappy accident that made the Indian war recoil into
a civil war; for the reason you alleged that bond and oath were
proffered the governor, intended not against Bacon but the Indians,
confirmed the people that Bacon's commission was good, it never being
before disavowed by proclamation, but by letters writ to his majesty in
commendation of Bacon's acting, copies thereof dispersed among the
people."[299:A] According to another authority[299:B] the people of
Gloucester refused to march against Bacon, but pledged themselves to
defend the governor against him, if he should turn against Sir William
Berkley and his government, which they hoped would never happen. From
the result of this affair of the Gloucester petitions, we may conclude
that either they contained nothing unfavorable to Bacon, or if they did,
that they were gotten up by designing leaders without the consent of the
people. It is certain that now, when Bacon's violent proceedings at
Jamestown were known, the great body of the people espoused his cause
and approved his designs.

Bacon, before he reached the head of York River, hearing from Lawrence
and Drummond of the governor's movements, exclaimed, that "it vexed him
to the heart, that while he was hunting wolves which were destroying
innocent lambs, the governor and those with him should pursue him in the
rear with full cry; and that he was like corn between two mill-stones,
which would grind him to powder if he didn't look to it." He marched
immediately back against the governor, who finding himself abandoned,
again, on the twenty-ninth of July, proclaimed Bacon a rebel, and made
his escape, with a few friends, down York River and across the
Chesapeake Bay to Accomac, on the Eastern Shore. A vindication of Sir
William, afterwards published, says: "Nor is it to be wondered at that
he did not immediately put forth proclamations to undeceive the people,
because he had then no means of securing himself, nor forces to have
maintained such a proclamation by; but he took the first opportunity he
could of doing all this, when Gloucester County, having been plundered
by Bacon before his going out against the Indians, made an

Bacon, upon reaching Gloucester, sent out parties of horse to patrol the
country, and made prisoners such as were suspected of disaffection to
his Indian expedition; releasing on parole those who took an oath to
return home and remain quiet. This oath was strict in form but
practically little regarded.

About this time there was detected in Bacon's camp a spy, who pretended
to be a deserter from the opposite party, and who had repeatedly changed
sides. Upon his being sentenced to death by a court-martial, Bacon
declared that "if any one in the army would speak a word to save him, he
should not suffer;" but no one interceding, he was put to death. Bacon's
clemency won the admiration of the army, and this was the only instance
of capital punishment under his orders, nor did he plunder any private

Having now acquired the command of a province of forty-five thousand
inhabitants, and from which the crown derived a revenue of a hundred
thousand pounds, he sate down with his army at Middle Plantation, and
sent out an invitation, subscribed by himself and four of the council,
to all the principal gentlemen of the country, to meet him in a
convention at his headquarters, to consult how the Indians were to be
proceeded against, and himself and the army protected against the
designs of Sir William Berkley.[300:B] Bacon also put forth a reply to
the governor's proclamations, demanding whether those who are entirely
devoted to the king and country, can deserve the name of rebels and
traitors? In vindication of their loyalty, he points to the peaceable
conduct of his soldiers, and calls upon the whole country to witness
against him if they can. He reproaches some of the men in power with the
meanness of their capacity; others with their ill-gotten wealth; he
inquires what arts, sciences, schools of learning or manufactures they
had promoted; he justifies his warring against the Indians, and
inveighs against Sir William Berkley for siding with them; insisting
that he had no right to interfere with the fur-trade, since it was a
monopoly of the crown, and asserting that the governor's factors on the
frontier trafficked in the blood of their countrymen, by supplying the
savages with arms and ammunition, contrary to law. He concludes by
appealing to the king and parliament.

In compliance with Bacon's invitation, a great convention, including
many of the principal men of the colony, assembled at his quarters in
August, 1676, at Middle Plantation. In preparing an oath to be
administered to the people, the three articles proposed were read by
James Minge, clerk of the house of burgesses: First, that they should
aid General Bacon in the Indian war; second, that they would oppose Sir
William Berkley's endeavors to hinder the same; third, that they would
oppose any power sent out from England, till terms were agreed to,
granting that the country's complaint should be heard against Sir
William before the king and parliament. A "bloody debate" ensued,
especially on this last article, and it lasted from noon till midnight,
Bacon and some of the principal men supporting it, and he protested that
unless it should be adopted he would surrender his commission to the
assembly. Some report[301:A] that Bacon contended in this debate
single-handed against "a great many counted the wisest in the country."
With what interest would we read a report of his speech! But his
eloquence, like Henry's, lives only in tradition. In this critical
conjuncture, when the scales of self-defence and of loyalty hung in
equipoise, the gunner of York Fort brought sudden news of fresh murders
perpetrated by the Indians in Gloucester County, near Carter's Creek,
adding that a great number of poor people had taken refuge in the fort.
Bacon demanded, "How it could be possible that the chief fort in
Virginia should be threatened by the Indians?" The gunner replied, "That
the governor on the day before had conveyed all arms and ammunition out
of the fort into his own vessel." This probably took place on the
twenty-ninth of July. Dunmore removed the gunpowder a century
afterwards. The disclosure produced a deep sensation, and the
convention now became reconciled to the oath. Among the subscribers on
this occasion were Colonel Ballard, Colonel Beale, Colonel Swan, and
'Squire Bray, of the council; Colonels Jordan, Smith, of Purton,
Scarburgh, Miller, Lawrence, and William Drummond. He had been recently
governor of North Carolina. It has been supposed that he was a
Presbyterian. He was a Scotchman; but the command of a colony would
hardly at that time have been intrusted to a Presbyterian.[302:A] Writs
were issued in his majesty's name for an assembly to meet on the fourth
day of September; they were signed by the four members of the council.
The oath was administered to the people of every rank, except servants,
and it was as follows: "Whereas, the country hath raised an army against
our common enemy, the Indians, and the same, under the command of
General Bacon, being upon the point to march forth against the said
common enemy, hath been diverted and necessitated to move to the
suppressing of forces by evil-disposed persons raised against the said
General Bacon purposely to foment and stir up civil war among us, to the
ruin of this, his majesty's country. And whereas, it is notoriously
manifest that Sir William Berkley, Knight, governor of the country,
assisted counselled, and abetted by those evil-disposed persons
aforesaid, hath not only commanded, fomented, and stirred up the people
to the said civil war, but failing therein hath withdrawn himself, to
the great astonishment of the people and the unsettlement of the
country. And whereas, the said army raised by the country for the causes
aforesaid remain full of dissatisfaction in the middle of the country,
expecting attempts from the said governor and the evil counsellors
aforesaid. And since no proper means have been found out for the
settlement of the distractions, and preventing the horrid outrages and
murders daily committed in many places of the country by the barbarous
enemy; it hath been thought fit by the said general to call unto him all
such sober and discreet gentlemen as the present circumstances of the
country will admit, to the Middle Plantation, to consult and advise of
re-establishing the peace of the country. So we, the said gentlemen,
being, this 3d of August, 1676, accordingly met, do advise, resolve,
declare, and conclude, and for ourselves do swear in manner following:
First, That we will at all times join with the said General Bacon, and
his army, against the common enemy in all points whatsoever. Secondly,
That, whereas, certain persons have lately contrived, and designed the
raising forces against the said general and the army under his command,
thereby to beget a civil war, we will endeavor the discovery and
apprehending all and every of those evil-disposed persons, and them
secure until further order from the general. Thirdly, And whereas, it is
credibly reported, that the governor hath informed the king's majesty
that the said general and the people of the country in arms under his
command, their aiders and abettors, are rebellious and removed from
their allegiance, and that upon such like information, he, the said
governor, hath advised and petitioned the king to send forces to reduce
them: we do further declare, and believe in our consciences, that it
consists with the welfare of this country, and with our allegiance to
his most sacred majesty, that we, the inhabitants of Virginia, to the
utmost of our power, do oppose and suppress all forces whatsoever of
that nature, until such time as the king be fully informed of the state
of the case by such person or persons as shall be sent from the said
Nathaniel Bacon, in the behalf of the people, and the determination
thereof be remitted hither. And we do swear that we will him, the said
general, and the army under his command, aid and assist

Drummond advised that Sir William Berkley should be deposed, and Sir
Henry Chicheley substituted in his place; his counsel not being approved
of, he said: "Do not make so strange of it, for I can show from ancient
records, that such things have been done in Virginia," referring
probably to the case of Sir John Harvey. But it was agreed that the
governor's withdrawal should be taken for an abdication. Sarah Drummond,
a patriot heroine, was no less enthusiastic in Bacon's favor than her
husband. She exclaimed, "The child that is unborn shall have cause to
rejoice for the good that will come by the rising of the country."
Ralph Weldinge said: "We must expect a greater power from England that
would certainly be our ruin." But Sarah Drummond remembered that England
was divided into two hostile factions between the Duke of York and the
Duke of Monmouth. Picking up from the ground a small stick and breaking
it, she added: "I fear the power of England no more than a broken
straw." Looking for relief from the odious navigation act, she declared:
"Now we can build ships, and, like New England, trade to any part of the
world;" for New England evaded that act, which her people considered an
invasion of their rights, they not being represented in parliament.

Bacon also issued proclamations, commanding all men in the land, in case
of the arrival of the forces expected from England, to join his standard
and to retire into the wilderness, and resist the troops, until they
should agree to treat of an accommodation of the dispute.

There was a gentleman in Virginia, Giles Bland, only son of John Bland,
an eminent London merchant, who was personally known to the king, and
had a considerable interest at court. He was, as has been seen, also a
generous friend of Virginia. His brother, Theodorick Bland, sometime a
merchant at Luars, in Spain, came over to Virginia in 1654, where,
settling at Westover, upon James River, in Charles City County, he died,
in April, 1671, aged forty-five years, and was buried in the chancel of
the church, which he built, and gave, together with ten acres of land, a
court-house and prison for the county and parish. He lies buried in the
Westover churchyard between two of his friends, the church having long
since fallen down. He was of the king's council and speaker of the house
of burgesses, and was, in fortune and understanding, inferior to no man
of his time in the country. He married Ann, daughter of Richard Bennet,
sometime governor of the colony.[304:A] When John Bland sent out his son
Giles Bland to Virginia to take possession of the estate of his uncle
Theodorick, he got him appointed collector-general of the customs. The
governors had hitherto held this office, and it was in 1676 that a
collector of the revenue was first sent over from England under
parliamentary sanction, and it is therefore probable that the
appointment of Bland diminished the perquisites of Governor Berkley.
Giles Bland, in his capacity of collector, had a right to board any
vessel whenever he might think it proper. He was a man of talents,
education, courage, and haughty bearing, and having before quarrelled
with the governor, now sided warmly with Bacon. There happened to be
lying in York River a vessel of sixteen guns, commanded by a Captain
Laramore, and Bland went on board of her with a party of armed men,
under pretence of searching for contraband goods, and seizing the
captain, confined him in the cabin. Laramore, discovering Bland's
designs, resolved to deceive him in his turn, and entered into his
measures with such apparent sincerity that he was restored to the
command of his vessel. With her, another vessel of four guns, under
Captain Carver, and a sloop, Bland, now appointed Bacon's
lieutenant-general, sailed with two hundred and fifty men for Accomac,
and after capturing another vessel, appeared off Accomac with four sail.

This peninsula, separated from the main land of Virginia by the wide
Chesapeake Bay, was then hardly accessible by land, owing to the great
distance and the danger of Indians. The position was therefore
geographically advantageous for the fugitive governor; but as yet few of
the inhabitants had rallied to his standard. They indeed shared in the
general disaffection, and availed themselves of this occasion to lay
their grievances before Sir William Berkley, who found himself unable to
redress his own. Some of the inhabitants of the Eastern Shore at this
time were engaged in committing depredations on the estates of the
planters on the other side of the bay, just as the adherents of Lord
Dunmore acted a century afterwards. Upon the appearance of Bland and his
little squadron, Sir William Berkley, having not a single vessel to
defend him, was overwhelmed with despair; but at this juncture he
received a note from Laramore, offering, if he would send him some
assistance, to deliver Bland, with all his men, prisoners into his
hands. The governor, having no high opinion of Laramore, suspected that
his note might be only a bait to entrap him; but upon advising with his
friend Colonel Philip Ludwell, he knowing Laramore and having a good
opinion of him, counselled the governor to accept the offer as the best
alternative now left him, and gallantly undertook to engage in the
enterprise at the hazard of his life. Sir William consenting, Ludwell,
with twenty-six well-armed men, appeared at the appointed time alongside
of Laramore's vessel. Laramore was prepared to receive the loyalists,
and Ludwell boarded her without the loss of a man, and soon after
captured the other vessels. According to T. M.'s Account, Captain Carver
was at this time, upon Sir William's invitation, holding an interview
with him on shore. Bland, Carver, and the other chiefs were sent to the
governor, and the rest of the prisoners secured on board of the vessels.
Bland's expedition appears to have been very badly managed, and the
drunkenness of his men probably rendered his party so easy a
prey.[306:A] The greater part of the prisoners screened themselves from
punishment by entering into the governor's service. When Laramore waited
on the governor, he clasped him in his arms, called him his deliverer,
and gave him a large share of his favor. In a few days the brave old
Carver was hanged on the Accomac shore. Sir William Berkley afterwards
described him as "a valiant man and stout seaman, miraculously delivered
into my hand." Sir Henry Chicheley, the chief of the council, who, with
several other gentlemen, was a prisoner in Bacon's hands, afterwards
exclaimed against this act of the governor as most rash and cruel, and
he expected, at the time, to be executed in the same manner by way of
retaliation. Bland was put in irons and badly treated, as it was

Captain Gardner, sailing from the James River, went to the governor's
relief with his own vessel, the Adam and Eve, and ten or twelve sloops,
which he had collected upon hearing of Bland's expedition. Sir William
Berkley, by this unexpected turn of affairs, raised from the abyss of
despair to the pinnacle of hope, resolved to push his success still
further. With Laramore's vessel and Gardner's, and sixteen or seventeen
sloops, and a motley band of six hundred, or, according to another
account, one thousand men in arms, "rogues and royalists," the governor
returned in triumph to Jamestown, September 7th, 1676, where, falling
on his knees, he returned thanks to God, and again proclaimed Bacon and
his adherents rebels and traitors. There were now in Jamestown nine
hundred Baconites, as they had come to be styled, under command of
Colonel Hansford, commissioned by Bacon. Berkley sent in a summons for
surrender of the town, with offer of pardon to all except Drummond and
Lawrence. Upon this, all of them retired to their homes except Hansford,
Lawrence, Drummond, and a few others, who made for the head of York
River, in quest of Bacon, who had returned to that quarter.

During these events Bacon was executing his designs against the Indians.
As soon as he had dispatched Bland to Accomac, he crossed the James
River at his own house, at Curles, and surprising the Appomattox
Indians, who lived on both sides of the river of that name, a little
below the falls, (now Petersburg,) he burnt their town, killed a large
number of the tribe, and dispersed the rest.[307:A] Burk[307:B] places
this battle or massacre on Bloody Run, a small stream emptying into the
James at Richmond, but he refers to no authority, and probably had none
better than a loose tradition. The Appomattox Indians, it appears,
occupied both sides of the river in question, and it is altogether
improbable that Indians still inhabited the north bank of the James
River near Curles. Besides, if they had still inhabited that side, it
would have been unnecessary to cross the James before commencing the
attack. Curles was a proper point for crossing the James with a view of
attacking the Indians on the Appomattox.

From the falls of the Appomattox, Bacon traversed the country to the
southward, destroying many towns on the banks of the Nottoway, the
Meherrin, and the Roanoke. His name had become so formidable, that the
natives fled everywhere before him, and having nothing to subsist upon,
save the spontaneous productions of the country, several tribes
perished, and they who survived were so reduced as to be never
afterwards able to make any firm stand against the Long-knives, and
gradually became tributary to them.


[294:A] Hening, ii. 606.

[294:B] Breviarie and Conclusion, in Burk, ii. 250. T. M. calls him

[296:A] Hening, ii. 363.

[297:A] Hening, ii. 341, 365.

[299:A] Burk, ii. 268.

[299:B] Narrative of Indian and Civil Wars, 14.

[300:A] Burk, ii. 261.

[300:B] T. M. says: "Bacon calls a convention at Middle Plantation,
fifteen miles from Jamestown."

[301:A] Narrative of Indian and Civil Wars, 18.

[302:A] Bancroft, ii. 136; Anderson's Hist. of Col. Church, ii. 519, in

[303:A] Beverley, B. i. 74.

[304:A] Bland Papers, i. 148.

[306:A] Bacon's Proceedings, 20; Force's Hist. Tracts, i.

[307:A] History of Bacon's Rebellion, in Va. Gazette for 1769.

[307:B] Burk, ii. 176.



     Bacon Marches back upon Jamestown--Singular Stratagem--
     Berkley's Second Flight--Jamestown Burnt--Bacon proceeds to
     Gloucester to oppose Brent--Bacon dies--Circumstances of his
     Death and Burial--His Father an Author--Marriage and Fortune
     of Nathaniel Bacon, Jr.--His Widow.

BACON, having exhausted his provisions, had dismissed the greater part
of his forces before Lawrence, Drummond, Hansford, and the other
fugitives from Jamestown joined him. Upon receiving intelligence of the
governor's return, Bacon, collecting a force variously estimated at one
hundred and fifty, three hundred, and eight hundred, harangued them on
the situation of affairs, and marched back upon Jamestown, leading his
Indian captives in triumph before him. The contending parties came now
to be distinguished by the names of Rebels and Royalists. Finding the
town defended by a palisade ten paces in width, running across the neck
of the peninsula, he rode along the work, and reconnoitred the
governor's position. Then, dismounting from his horse, he animated his
fatigued men to advance at once, and, leading them close to the
palisade, sounded a defiance with the trumpet, and fired upon the
garrison. The governor remained quiet, hoping that want of provisions
would soon force Bacon to retire; but he supplied his troops from Sir
William Berkley's seat, at Greenspring, three miles distant. He
afterwards complained that "his dwelling-house at Greenspring was almost
ruined; his household goods, and others of great value, totally
plundered; that he had not a bed to lie on; two great beasts, three
hundred sheep, seventy horses and mares, all his corn and provisions,
taken away."

Bacon adopted a singular stratagem, and one hardly compatible with the
rules of chivalry. Sending out small parties of horse, he captured the
wives of several of the principal loyalists then with the governor, and
among them the lady of Colonel Bacon, Sr., Madame Bray, Madame Page, and
Madame Ballard. Upon their being brought into the camp, Bacon sends one
of them into Jamestown to carry word to their husbands that his purpose
was to place their wives in front of his men in case of a sally.[309:A]
Colonel Ludwell[309:B] reproaches the rebels with "ravishing of women
from their homes, and hurrying them about the country in their rude
camps, often threatening them with death." But, according to another and
more impartial authority,[309:C] Bacon made use of the ladies only to
complete his battery, and removed them out of harm's way at the time of
the sortie. He raised by moonlight a circumvallation of trees, earth,
and brush-wood, around the governor's outworks. At daybreak next morning
the governor's troops, being fired upon, made a sortie; but they were
driven back, leaving their drum and their dead behind them. Upon the top
of the work which he had thrown up, and where alone a sally could be
made, Bacon exhibited the captive ladies to the views of their husbands
and friends in the town, and kept them there until he completed his
works. The peninsula of Jamestown is formed by the James River on the
south, and a deep creek on the north encircling it within ten paces of
the river. This island, for it is so styled, is about two miles long,
east and west, and one mile broad. It is low, consisting mainly of
marshes and swamps, and in consequence very unhealthy. There are no
springs, and the water of the wells is brackish. Jamestown stood along
the river bank about three-quarters of a mile, containing a church, and
some sixteen or eighteen well-built brick houses. The population of this
diminutive metropolis consisted of about a dozen families, (for all of
the houses were not inhabited,) "getting their living by keeping of
ordinaries at extraordinary rates."

Bacon, after completing his works, in which he was much assisted by the
conspicuous white aprons of the ladies, now mounted a small battery of
two or three cannon, according to some commanding the shipping, but not
the town, according to others commanding both. Sir William Berkley had
three great guns planted at the distance of about one hundred and fifty
paces. But such was the cowardice of his motley crowd of followers, the
bulk of them mere spoilsmen, "rogues and royalists," intent only on the
plunder of forfeited estates promised them by "his honor," that although
superior to Bacon's force in time, place, and numbers, yet out of six
hundred of them, only twenty gentlemen were found willing to stand by
him. So great was their fear, that in two or three days after the sortie
they embarked in the night with all the town people and their goods, and
leaving the guns spiked, weighing anchor secretly, and dropping silently
down the river; retreating from a force inferior in number, and which,
during a rainy week of the sickliest season, had been exposed, lying in
open trenches, to far more hardship and privation than themselves. At
the dawn of the following day, Bacon entered, where he found empty
houses, a few horses, two or three cellars of wine, a small quantity of
Indian-corn, "and many tanned hides." It being determined that it should
be burned, so that the "rogues should harbor there no more," Lawrence
and Drummond, who owned two of the best houses, set fire to them in the
evening with their own hands, and the soldiers, following their example,
laid in ashes Jamestown, including the church, the first brick one
erected in the colony. Sir William Berkley and his people beheld the
flames of the conflagration from the vessels riding at anchor, about
twenty miles below.

Bacon now marched to York River, and crossed at Tindall's (Gloucester)
Point, in order to encounter Colonel Brent, who was marching against him
from the Potomac, with twelve hundred men. But the greater part of his
men, hearing of Bacon's success, deserting their colors declared for
him, "resolving with the Persians, to go and worship the rising
sun."[310:A] Bacon, making his headquarters at Colonel Warmer's, called
a convention in Gloucester, and administered the oath to the people of
that county, and began to plan another expedition against the Indians,
or, as some report, against Accomac, when he fell sick of a dysentery
brought on by exposure. Retiring to the house of a Dr. Pate, and,
lingering for some weeks, he died. Some of the loyalists afterwards
reported that he died of a loathsome disease, and by a visitation of
God; which is disproven by T. M.'s Account, by that published in the
Virginia Gazette, and by the Report of the King's Commissioners. Some of
Bacon's friends suspected that he was taken off by poison; but of this
there is no proof. In his last hours he requested the assistance of a
minister named Wading, whom he had arrested not long before for his
opposition to the taking of the oath in Gloucester, telling him that "it
was his place to preach in the church, and not in the camp."

The place of Bacon's interment has never been discovered, it having been
concealed by his friends, lest his remains should be insulted by the
vindictive Berkley, in whom old age appears not to have mitigated the
fury of the passions. According to one tradition, in order to screen
Bacon's body from indignity, stones were laid on his coffin by his
friend Lawrence, as was supposed; according to others, it was
conjectured that his body had been buried in the bosom of the majestic
York where the winds and the waves might still repeat his requiem:--

     "While none shall dare his obsequies to sing
      In deserved measures; until time shall bring
      Truth crowned with freedom, and from danger free,
      To sound his praises to posterity."[311:A]

Lord Chatham, in his letters addressed to his nephew, the Earl of
Camelford, advises him to read "Nathaniel Bacon's Historical and
Political Observations, which is, without exception, the best and most
instructive book we have on matters of that kind." This book, though at
present little known, formerly enjoyed a high reputation. It is written
with a very evident bias to the principles of the parliamentary party,
to which Bacon adhered. It was published in 1647, again in 1651,
secretly reprinted in 1672, and again in 1682, for which edition the
publisher was indicted and outlawed. The author was probably related to
the great Lord Bacon.[312:A] Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., came over to
Virginia about the year 1672, when the third edition of that work was
secretly reprinted in England. In the quarto edition the author,
Nathaniel Bacon, is said to have been of Gray's Inn. It was published
during the Protectorate. He appears probably to have been, in Oliver
Cromwell's time, recorder of the borough of Ipswich, and to have lived
at Freston, near Saxmundham, in Suffolk. His son, Nathaniel Bacon, Jr.,
styled the Rebel, married, against the consent of his father, who
violently exhibited his disapprobation, Elizabeth, eldest daughter of
Sir Edward Duke, and sister to Sir John Duke, of Benhill-lodge, near
Saxmundham. Ray, who set out upon his travels into foreign parts in
1663, says he was accompanied by Mr. Willoughby, Sir Philip Skippon, and
Mr. Nathaniel Bacon, "a hopeful young gentleman."[312:B] He owned lands
in England of the yearly value of one hundred and fifty pounds; and
after his marriage, being straitened for money, he applied to Sir Robert
Jason for assistance, conveyed the lands to him for twelve hundred
pounds sterling,[312:C] and removed with his wife to Virginia. Dying, he
left Elizabeth a widow, and children. She afterwards married in Virginia
Thomas Jervis, a merchant, who lived in Elizabeth City County, on the
west side of Hampton River,[312:D] and upon his death she became his
executrix, and in 1684 claimed her jointure out of the lands sold to
Jason, under a settlement thereof made by Bacon on his marriage, in
consideration of her portion.[312:E] Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., was cousin to
Thomas, Lord Culpepper,[312:F] subsequently governor of Virginia. Jervis
appears to have been owner of a vessel, the "Betty," (so called after
his wife,) in which Culpepper sailed from Virginia for Boston, August
10th, 1680. Elizabeth, relict of Jervis, married third a Mr. Mole. There
are, at the present day, persons in Virginia of the name of Bacon, who
claim to be lineal descendants of the rebel.


[309:A] Mrs. Cotton's Letter.

[309:B] Letter in Chalmers' Annals, 349.

[309:C] Narrative of Indian and Civil Wars.

[310:A] Mrs. Cotton's Letter.

[311:A] Extract from verses on his death, attributed to a servant, or
attendant, who was with him in his last moments, and entitled "Bacon's
Epitaph made by his Man." (_Force's Hist. Tracts_, i.)

[312:A] Hist. Magazine, i. 216.

[312:B] Ibid., i. 125.

[312:C] Hening, ii. 374.

[312:D] Ibid., ii. 472.

[312:E] Vernon's Reports, i. 284.

[312:F] Va. Hist. Reg., iii. 190.



     Bacon succeeded by Ingram--Hansford and others executed--
     Ingram and others hold West Point--They surrender--Close of
     Rebellion--Proceedings of Court-Martial--Execution of
     Drummond--His Character--Mrs. Afra Behn--Richard Lawrence--His

UPON Bacon's death, toward the end of 1676, the exact date of which can
hardly be ascertained, he was succeeded by his lieutenant-general,
Joseph Ingram, (whose real name was said to be Johnson,) who had lately
arrived in Virginia. Ingram, supported by George Wakelet, or Walklett,
his major-general, who was very young, Langston, Richard Lawrence, and
their adherents, took possession of West Point, at the head of York
River, fortified it, and made it their place of arms. West Point, or
West's Point, so called from the family name of Lord Delaware, was at
one time known as "De la War," and is so laid down on John Henry's Map,
dated 1770. There is still extant there[313:A] a ruinous house of
stone-marl, which was probably occupied by Ingram and his confederates.
A bake-oven serves to strengthen the conjecture.

As soon as Berkley heard of Bacon's death, he sent over Robert Beverley,
with a party, in a sloop to York River, where they captured Colonel
Hansford and some twenty soldiers, at the house where Colonel Reade had
lived, which appears to have been at or near where Yorktown now stands.
Hansford was taken to Accomac, tried, and condemned to be hanged, and
was the first native of Virginia that perished in that ignominious form,
and in America the first martyr that fell in defending the rights of the
people. He was described by Sir William Berkley as "one Hansford, a
valiant stout man, and a most resolved rebel." When he came to the place
of execution, distant about a mile from the place of his confinement,
he appeared well resolved to bear his fate, complaining only of the
manner of his death. Neither during his trial before the court-martial,
nor afterwards, did he supplicate any favor, save that "he might be shot
like a soldier, and not hanged like a dog;" but he was told that he was
condemned not as a soldier, but as a rebel. During the short respite
allowed him after his sentence, he professed repentance and contrition
for all the sins of his past life, but refused to acknowledge what was
charged against him as rebellion, to be one of them; desiring the people
present to take notice that "he died a loyal subject and lover of his
country, and that he had never taken up arms but for the destruction of
the Indians, who had murdered so many Christians." His execution took
place on the 13th of November, 1676.[314:A]

Captain Wilford, Captain Farloe, and several others of less note, were
put to death in Accomac. Wilford, younger son of a knight who had lost
his estate and life in defence of Charles the First, had taken refuge in
Virginia, where he became an Indian interpreter, in which capacity he
was very serviceable to Bacon. Farloe had been made an officer by Bacon,
upon the recommendation of Sir William Berkley, or some of the council.
He was a mathematical scholar, and of a peaceable disposition, and his
untimely end excited much commiseration. Major Cheesman died in prison,
probably from ill usage. His wife took to herself the entire blame for
his having joined Bacon, and on her bended knees implored Sir William
Berkley to put her to death in his stead. The governor answered by
applying to her an epithet of infamy. Several other prisoners came to
their death in prison in the same way with Cheesman.

Sir William Berkley now repaired to York River with four merchant-ships,
two or three sloops, and one hundred and fifty men.[314:B] According to
another account,[314:C] he sent Colonel Ludwell with part of his forces
to York River, while he himself with the rest repaired to Jamestown; but
this appears to be erroneous. Sir William proclaimed a general pardon,
excepting certain persons named, especially Lawrence and Drummond.
Greenspring, the governor's residence, still held out, being garrisoned
with a hundred men under a captain Drew, previously a miller, the
approaches barricaded, and three pieces of cannon planted. A party of
one hundred and twenty, dispatched by the governor to surprise at night
a guard of about thirty men and boys, under Major Whaley, at Colonel
Bacon's house on Queen's Creek, were defeated, with the loss of their
commander, named Farrel. Colonel Bacon and Colonel Ludwell were present
at this affair. Major Lawrence Smith, with six hundred Gloucester men,
was likewise defeated by Ingram at Colonel Pate's house, Smith saving
himself by flight, and his men being all made prisoners. The officer
next in command under Smith was a minister. Captain Couset with a party
being sent against Raines, who headed the insurgents on the south side
of James River, Raines was killed, and his men captured.

Meanwhile Ingram, Wakelet, and their companions in arms, foraged with
impunity on the estates of the loyalists, and bade defiance to the aged
governor. They defended themselves against the assaults of Ludwell and
others with such resolution and gallantry, that Berkley, fatigued and
exhausted, at length sent, by Captain Grantham, a complaisant letter to
Wakelet--or, as some say, to Ingram--offering an amnesty, on condition
of surrender. This was agreed to, and in reward for his submission,
Berkley presented to Wakelet all the Indian plunder deposited at West
Point. Greenspring was also surrendered by Drew upon terms offered by
Sir William Berkley. A court-martial was held on board of a vessel in
York River, January the 11th, 1676-7.[315:A] Four of the insurgents were
condemned by this court: one of them, by name Young, had, according to
Sir William Berkley, held a commission under General Monk long before he
declared for the king; another, a carpenter, who had formerly been a
servant of the governor, but had been made a colonel in Bacon's army;
one, Hall, was a clerk of a county court, but, by his writings, "more
useful to the rebels than forty armed men."

When West Point was surrendered, Lawrence and Drummond were at the
Brick-house in New Kent, on the opposite side of the river. On the
nineteenth day of January, Drummond was taken in the Chickahominy Swamp,
half famished, and on the following day was brought in a prisoner to Sir
William Berkley, who was then on board of a vessel at Colonel Bacon's,
on Queen's Creek. The governor, who, through personal hostility, had
vowed that Drummond should not live an hour after he fell into his
power, upon hearing of his arrival, immediately went on shore and
saluted him with a courtly bow, saying, "Mr. Drummond, you are very
_un_welcome; I am more glad to see you than any man in Virginia. Mr.
Drummond, you shall be hanged in half an hour." He replied, "What your
honor pleases." A court-martial was immediately held, in time of peace,
at the house of James Bray, Esq., whither the prisoner was conveyed in
irons. He was stripped; and a ring--a pledge of domestic affection--was
torn from his finger before his conviction; he was condemned without any
charge being alleged, and although he had never borne arms; and he was
not permitted to defend himself. Condemned at one o'clock, he was
hurried away to execution on a gibbet at four o'clock, at Middle
Plantation, with one John Baptista, "a common Frenchman, that had been
very bloody." Drummond was a sedate Scotch gentleman, who had been
governor of the infant colony of North Carolina, of estimable character,
unsullied integrity, and signal ability. He had rendered himself
extremely obnoxious to the governor's hatred by the lively concern which
he had always evinced in the public grievances. Sir William Berkley
mentions him as "one Drummond, a Scotchman, that we all suppose was the
original cause of the whole rebellion." When afterwards the petition of
his widow, Sarah Drummond, depicting the cruel treatment of her husband,
was read in the king's council in England, the lord chancellor, Finch,
said: "I know not whether it be lawful to wish a person alive, otherwise
I could wish Sir William Berkley so, to see what could be answered to
such barbarity; but he has answered it before this."[317:A]

Mrs. Afra Behn celebrated Bacon's Rebellion in a tragi-comedy, entitled
"The Widow Ranter, or the History of Bacon in Virginia." Dryden honored
it with a prologue. The play failed on the stage, and was published in
1690; there is a copy of it in the British Museum.[317:B] It sets
historical truth at defiance, and is replete with coarse humor and
indelicate wit. It is probable that Sarah Drummond may have been
intended by "The Widow Ranter." It appears that one or two expressions
in the Declaration of Independence occur in this old play.

On the 24th of January, 1677, six other insurgents were condemned to
death at Greenspring, and executed. Henry West was banished for seven
years, and his estate confiscated, save five pounds allowed him to pay
his passage. William West and John Turner, sentenced to death at the
same time, escaped from prison. William Rookings, likewise sentenced,
died in prison. Richard Lawrence, with four companions, disappeared
from the frontier, proceeding on horseback and armed, through a deep
snow, preferring to perish in the wilderness rather than to share
Drummond's fate. Lawrence was educated at Oxford, and for wit, learning,
and sobriety, was equalled by few there. He had been one of the
commissioners for adjusting the boundary line between Maryland and
Virginia in 1663. He had been defrauded of a handsome estate by
Berkley's corrupt partiality in behalf of a favorite. The rebellion, as
it was called, was by most people mainly attributed to Lawrence; and it
is said that he had before thrown out intimations that he hoped to find
means by which he not only should be able to repair his own losses, but
also see the country relieved from the governor's "avarice and French
despotic modes." Lawrence had married a rich widow, who kept a large
house of entertainment at Jamestown, which gave him an extensive
influence. Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., probably had lodged at his house when
search was made for him on the morning of his escape. The author of T.
M.'s Account says: "But Mr. Bacon was too young, too much a stranger
there, and of a disposition too precipitate, to manage things to that
length those were carried, had not thoughtful Mr. Lawrence been at the


[313:A] 1847.

[314:A] Ingram's Proceedings, 33; Force's Hist. Tracts, i.

[314:B] T. M. and Mrs. Cotton.

[314:C] In Va. Gazette.

[315:A] Consisting of the Right Honorable Sir William Berkley, Knight,
Governor and Captain-General of Virginia; Colonel Nathaniel Bacon,
Colonel William Clayborne, Colonel Thomas Ballard, Colonel Southy
Littleton, Colonel Philip Ludwell, Lieutenant-Colonel John West, Colonel
Augustine Warner, Major Lawrence Smith, Major Robert Beverley, Captain
Anthony Armistead, Colonel Matthew Kemp, and Captain Daniel Jenifer.

[317:A] Morrison's Letter, in Burk, ii. 268.

[317:B] Thomas H. Wynne, Esq., of Richmond, who is laudably curious in
matters connected with Virginia history, has a copy of this play, and I
have been indebted to him for the use of that and several other rare



     Arrival of an English Regiment--The Royal Commissioners--
     Punishment of Rebels--Execution of Giles Bland--Commissioners
     investigate the Causes of the Rebellion--Seize the Assembly's
     Journals--Number of Persons executed--Cruel Treatment of
     Prisoners--Bacon's Laws repealed--Act of Pardon--Exceptions--
     Singular Penalties--Evaded by the Courts--Many of Bacon's Laws
     re-enacted--Berkley recalled--Succeeded by Jeffreys--Sir
     William Berkley's Death--Notice of his Life and Writings--His

ON the 29th day of January, 1677, a fleet arrived within the capes, from
England, under command of Admiral Sir John Berry, or Barry, with a
regiment of soldiers commanded by Colonel Herbert Jeffreys and Colonel
Morrison. Sir William Berkley held an interview with them at Kiquotan,
on board of the Bristol; and these three were associated in a commission
to investigate the causes of the late commotions and to restore order.
They were instructed to offer a reward of three hundred pounds to any
one who should arrest Bacon, who was to be taken by "all ways of force,
or design." And the other colonies were commanded by the king not to aid
or conceal him; and it was ordered, in case of his capture, that he
should be brought to trial here; or, if his popularity should render it
expedient, be sent to England for trial and punishment. They were
authorized to pardon all who would duly take the oath of obedience, and
give security for their good behavior. Freedom was to be offered to
servants and slaves who would aid in suppressing the revolt.[319:A]
The same measure had been before adopted by the Long Parliament, and
was resorted to a century afterwards by Governor Dunmore. It is
the phenomenon of historical pre-existence. The general court and
the assembly having now met, several more of Bacon's adherents
were convicted by a civil tribunal held at Greenspring, and put to
death--most of them men of competent fortune and respectable character.
Among them was Giles Bland, whose friends in England, it was reported,
had procured his pardon to be sent over with the fleet; but if so, it
availed him nothing. It was indeed whispered that he was executed under
private orders brought from England, the Duke of York having declared,
with an oath, that "Bacon and Bland shall die." Bland was convicted
March eighth, and executed on the fifteenth, at Bacon's Trench, near
Jamestown, with another prisoner, Robert Jones. Three others were put to
death on another day at the same place. Anthony Arnold was hung on the
fifteenth of March, in chains, at West Point. Two others suffered
capitally on the same day, but at what place does not appear, probably
in their own counties.[320:A]

In the month of April, Secretary Ludwell wrote to Coventry, the English
secretary of state, "that the grounds of this rebellion have not
proceeded from any real fault in the government, but rather from the
lewd disposition of desperate fortunes lately sprung up among them,
which easily seduced the willing minds of the people from their
allegiance, in the vain hopes of taking the country wholly out of his
majesty's hands into their own. Bacon never intended more by the
prosecution of the Indian war than as a covert to his villanies."

The commissioners, who assisted in the trial of these prisoners, now
proceeded to inquire into the causes of the late distractions; they sat
at Swan's Point. The insurgents, who comprised the great body of the
people of Virginia, had found powerful friends among the people of
England, and in parliament; and the commissioners discountenanced the
excesses of Sir William Berkley, and the loyalists, and invited the
planters in every quarter to bring in their grievances without fear.
Jeffreys, one of the commissioners, was about to succeed Governor
Berkley. In their zeal for investigation the commissioners seized the
journals of the assembly; and the burgesses in October, 1677, demanded
satisfaction for this indignity, declaring that such a seizure could not
have been authorized even by an order under the great seal, because
"they found that such a power had never been exercised by the king of
England"--an explicit declaration of the legislative independence of the
colony. Their language was stigmatized by Charles the Second as

The number of persons executed was twenty-three,[321:B] of whom twelve
were condemned by court-martial. The jails were crowded with prisoners,
and in the general consternation many of the inhabitants were preparing
to leave the country. During eight months Virginia had suffered civil
war, devastation, executions, and the loss of one hundred thousand
pounds,--so violent was the effort of nature to throw off the malady of
despotism and misrule. Charles the Second, in October, issued two
proclamations, authorizing Berkley to pardon all except Nathaniel Bacon,
Jr.; and afterwards another, declaring Sir William's of February, 1677,
not conformable to his instructions, in excepting others besides Bacon
from pardon, and abrogating it. Yet the king's commissioners assisted in
the condemnation of several of the prisoners. An act of pardon, under
the great seal, brought over by Lord Culpepper, was afterwards
unanimously passed by the assembly in June, 1680, and several persons
are excepted in it who were included in Sir William's "bloody bill" in
February, 1677.[321:C]

The people complained to the commissioners of the illegal seizing of
their estates by the governor and his royalist supporters; and of their
being imprisoned after submitting themselves upon the governor's
proclamation of pardon and indemnity; and of being compelled to pay
heavy fines and compositions by threats of being brought to trial, which
was in every instance tantamount to conviction. Berkley and some of the
royalists that sat on the trial of the prisoners, were forward in
impeaching, accusing, and reviling them--accusing and condemning, both
at once. Sir William Berkley caused Drummond's small plantation to be
seized upon and given to himself by his council, removing and embezzling
the personal property, and thus compelling his widow, with her children,
to fly from her home, and wander in the wilderness and woods until they
were well-nigh reduced to starvation, when relieved by the arrival of
the commissioners. At length the assembly, in an address to the
governor, deprecated any further sanguinary punishments, and he was
prevailed upon, reluctantly, to desist. All the acts of the assembly of
June, 1676, called "Bacon's Laws," were repealed, as well by the order
and proclamation of King Charles, as also by act of the assembly held at
Greenspring, in February, 1677.[322:A]

The assembly granted indemnity and pardon for all acts committed since
the 1st of April, 1676, excepting Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., and about fifty
others, including certain persons deceased, executed, escaped, and
banished. The principal persons excepted were Cheesman, Hunt, Hansford,
Wilford, Carver, Drummond, Crewes, Farloe, Hall, William and Henry West,
Lawrence, Bland, Whaley, Arnold, Ingram, Wakelet, Scarburgh, and Sarah,
wife of Thomas Grindon. Twenty were attainted of high treason, and their
estates confiscated. The provisoes of the act virtually left the whole
power of punishment still in the hands of the governor and council.
Minor punishments were inflicted on others; some were compelled to sue
for pardon on their knees, with a rope about the neck; others fined,
disfranchised, or banished. These penalties did not meet with the
approbation of the people, and were in several instances evaded by the
connivance of the courts. John Bagwell and Thomas Gordon, adjudged to
appear at Rappahannock Court with halters about their necks, were
allowed to appear with "small tape;" in the same county William Potts
wore "a Manchester binding," instead of a halter.

The assembly, in accordance with one of Bacon's laws, declared Indian
prisoners slaves, and their property lawful prize. An order was made for
building a new state-house at Tindall's (Gloucester) Point, on the north
side of York River, but it was never carried into effect. Many of the
acts of this session are almost exact copies of "Bacon's Laws," the
titles only being altered--a conclusive proof of the abuses and
usurpations of those in power, and of the merits of acts passed by those
stigmatized and punished as rebels and traitors. Such likewise was the
conduct of the British Parliament in relation to the legislation of the
Commonwealth of England. The fourth of May was appointed a fast-day, and
August the twenty-second a day of thanksgiving.

Sir William Berkley, worn down with agitations which his age was unequal
to, and in feeble health, being recalled by the king, ceased to be
governor on the 27th of April, 1677, and returned in the fleet to
London, leaving Colonel Herbert Jeffreys in his place, who was sworn
into office on the same day. His commission was dated November the 11th,
1676--the twenty-eighth year of Charles the Second. In July, 1675, Lord
Culpepper had been appointed governor-in-chief of Virginia, but he did
not arrive till the beginning of 1680; had he come over when first
appointed, it might have prevented Bacon's Rebellion.

Sir William Berkley died on the thirteenth of July, 1677, of a broken
heart, as some relate,[323:A] without ever seeing the king, having been
confined to his chamber from the day of his arrival. According to
others, King Charles expressed his approbation of his conduct, and the
kindest regard for him, and made frequent inquiry respecting his
health.[323:B] Others again, on the contrary, report that the king said
of him: "That old fool has hanged more men in that naked country than I
have done for the murder of my father."[323:C] Sir William Berkley was a
native of London, and educated at Merton College, Oxford, of which he
was afterwards a fellow, and in 1629 was made Master of Arts. He made
the tour of Europe in the year 1630. He held the place of governor of
Virginia from 1639 to 1651, and from 1659 to 1677--a period of thirty
years, a term equalled by no other governor of the colony. He published
a tragi-comedy, "The Lost Lady," in 1639, the year in which he came
first to Virginia. Pepys, in his Diary, mentions seeing it acted. Sir
William published also, in 1663, "A Discourse and View of Virginia." He
was buried at Twickenham, since illustrated by the genius of Pope. Sir
William Berkley left no children. By a will, dated May the 2d, 1676, he
bequeathed his estate to his widow. He declares himself to have been
under no obligation whatever to any of his kindred except his sister,
Mrs. Jane Davies, (of whom he appears to have been fond,) and his
brother, Lord Berkley. Sir William married the widow of Samuel Stephens,
of Warwick County, Virginia. She, after Sir William's death, was sued by
William Drummond's widow for trespass, in taking from her land a
quantity of corn, and in spite of a strenuous defence, a verdict was
found against the defendant. In 1680 she intermarried with Colonel
Philip Ludwell, of Rich Neck, but still retained the title of "Dame (or
Lady) Frances Berkley."

Samuel Stephens was the son of Dame Elizabeth Harvey (widow of Sir John
Harvey) by a former marriage.[324:A]

It does not appear when Colonel William Clayborne, first of the name in
Virginia, died, or where he was buried, but probably in the County of
New Kent. There is a novel entitled "Clayborne the Rebel."[324:B]

Colonel William Clayborne, Jr., eldest son of the above mentioned, was
probably the one appointed (1676) to command a fort at Indiantown
Landing, in New Kent, together with Major Lyddal,[324:C] as the father
was probably then too old for that post. Some suppose also that it was
the son that sat on the trial of the rebels. A certificate of the valor
of William Clayborne, Jr., is recorded in King William County
Court-house, signed by Sir William Berkley, dated in March, 1677,
attested by Nathaniel Bacon, Sir Philip Ludwell, Ralph Wormley, and
Richard Lee.

Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Clayborne, only brother of William Clayborne,
Jr., lies buried not far from West Point, in King William County. He was
killed by an Indian arrow which wounded him in the foot. It appears that
each of the sons of Secretary Clayborne had a son named Thomas. Colonel
Thomas Clayborne, son of Captain Thomas Clayborne, is said to have
married three times, and to have been father of twenty-seven children.
One of his daughters married a General Phillips of the British army, and
is said to have been the mother of Colonel Ralph Phillips, of the
British army, who fell at Waterloo, and of the distinguished Irish
orator who died recently. Another son, William Clayborne, married a Miss
Leigh, of Virginia, and was father of William Charles Cole Clayborne,
Governor of Louisiana, and of General Ferdinand Leigh Clayborne, late of
Mississippi. He assisted General Jackson in planning the battle of New
Orleans. The widow of this Governor Clayborne married John R. Grymes,
Esq., the eminent New Orleans lawyer. And a daughter of the governor
married John H. B. Latrobe, Esq., of Baltimore.

Colonel Augustine Clayborne, son of Colonel Thomas Clayborne, was
appointed clerk of Sussex County Court in the year 1754, by William
Adair, secretary of the colony. His son, Buller Clayborne, was
aid-de-camp to General Lincoln, and is said to have received a wound
while interposing himself between the general and a party of British
soldiers. Mary Herbert, a sister of Buller Clayborne, married an uncle
of General William Henry Harrison. Herbert Clayborne, eldest son of
Colonel Augustine Clayborne, married Mary, daughter of Buller Herbert,
of Puddledock, near Petersburg. Puddledock is the name of a street in
London. Herbert Augustine Clayborne was second son of Herbert Clayborne,
of Elson Green, King William County, and Mary Burnet, eldest daughter of
William Burnet Browne, of Elson Green, and before of Salem,

The Honorable William Browne, of Massachusetts, married Mary Burnet,
daughter of William Burnet, (Governor of New York and of Massachusetts,)
and Mary, daughter of Dean Stanhope, of Canterbury. William Burnet was
eldest son of Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury, and Mrs. Mary Scott,
his second wife. Thus it appears that Herbert Clayborne married a
descendant of Bishop Burnet.


[319:A] Chalmers' Annals, 336.

[320:A] Burk, ii. 255.

[321:A] Chalmers' Revolt, i. 163, and Annals, 337.

[321:B] Hening, ii. 370.

[321:C] Hening, ii. 366, 428, 458.

[322:A] Hening, ii. 365.

[323:A] Chalmers' Introduction, i. 164.

[323:B] Beverley, B. i. 79.

[323:C] T. M.'s Account.

[324:A] Mass. Gen. and Antiq. Register for 1847, p. 348.

[324:B] By William H. Carpenter, Esq., of Maryland. Published in 1846.

[324:C] Hening, ii. 526.



     Failure of the Charter--Sir William Berkley's Proclamation
     revoked--Ludwell's Quarrel with Jeffreys--Jeffreys dying is
     succeeded by Sir Henry Chicheley--Culpepper, Governor-in-Chief,
     arrives--His Administration--He returns to England by way of

THE agents of Virginia, in 1675, had strenuously solicited the grant of
a new charter, and their efforts, though long fruitless, seemed at
length about to be crowned with success, when the news of Bacon's
rebellion furnished the government with a new pretext for violating its
engagements. By the report of the committee for plantations, adopted by
the king in council, and twice ordered to be passed into a new charter
under the great seal, it was provided, "that no imposition or taxes
shall be laid or imposed upon the inhabitants and proprietors there, but
by the common consent of the governor, council, and burgesses, as hath
been heretofore used," reserving, however, to parliament the right to
lay duties upon commodities shipped from the colony. The news of the
rebellion frustrated this scheme; the promised charter slept in the
Hamper[326:A] office; and the one actually sent afterwards was meagre
and unsatisfactory. Colonel Jeffreys, successor to Berkley, effected a
treaty of peace with the Indians, each town agreeing to pay three arrows
for their land, and twenty beaver skins for protection, every year. He
convened an assembly at the house of Captain Otho Thorpe, at Middle
Plantation, in October, 1677, being the twenty-ninth year of Charles the
Second. William Traverse was speaker, and Robert Beverley clerk. The
session lasted for one month. According to instructions given to Sir
William Berkley, dated in November, 1676, the governor was no longer
obliged to call an assembly yearly, but only once in two years, and the
session was limited to fourteen days, unless the governor should see
good cause to continue it beyond that time; and the members of the
assembly were to be elected only by freeholders. During this session
regulations were adopted for the Indian trade, and fairs appointed for
the sale of Indian commodities; but the natives being suspicious of
innovations, these provisions soon became obsolete.

In 1677 Colonel Nathaniel Bacon, Sr., by a warrant from the treasury in
England, was appointed auditor of the public accounts. At this time
Colonel Norwood was treasurer, but the governor and council, from
motives of economy, united his office with that of auditor.

It has before been mentioned that the king, by proclamation in 1677,
revoked and abrogated Sir William Berkley's proclamation of February of
the same year, as containing "an exception and exclusion from pardon of
divers and sundry persons in his said proclamation named, for which he
hath no ground or authority from our foresaid proclamation, the same
being free and without exception of any person besides the said
Nathaniel Bacon, who should submit themselves according to the tenor of
our said proclamation."[327:A]

This appears to be unjust to the governor; for the words of the king's
proclamation of October are: "And we do by these presents give and grant
full power and authority to you, our said governor, for us and in our
name to pardon, release, and forgive unto all such our subjects (other
than the said Nathaniel Bacon) as you shall think fit and convenient for
our service, all treasons, felonies," etc., evidently investing the
governor with discretionary powers. The capitulation agreed upon with
Ingram and Walklet, at West Point, appears to have been violated by
Governor Berkley and the assembly. Colonel Philip Ludwell, alleging that
he had suffered loss by Walklet's incursions, sued him in New Kent
for damages. The defendant appealing to Jeffreys, he granted him a
protection. Whereupon, Ludwell declared that "the governor, Jeffreys,
was a worse rebel than Bacon, for he had broke the laws of the country,
which Bacon never did; that he was perjured in delaying or preventing
the execution of the laws, contrary to his oath of governor; that he was
not worth a groat in England; and that if every pitiful little fellow
with a periwig that came in governor to this country had liberty to make
the laws, as this had done, his children, nor no man's else, could be
safe in the title or estate left them." Jeffreys having laid these
charges and criminations before the council, they submitted the case to
a jury who found Ludwell guilty. The matter was referred to the king in
council; and in the mean while the accused was compelled to give
security in the penalty of a thousand pounds, to abide the determination
of the case, and five hundred for his good behavior to the governor.

Westmoreland was the only county that declared that it had no grievances
to complain of, and the sincerity of this declaration may well be
doubted. Accomac claimed as a reward for her loyalty an exemption from
taxation for a period of twenty years. A letter, bearing date December
the 27th, 1677, addressed by the king to Jeffreys, informed him that
Lord Culpepper had been appointed governor, but that while he (Jeffreys)
continued to perform the duties of the office, he should be no loser,
and stating the arrangement which had been made as to the payment of
their salaries. Jeffreys dying in December, 1678, was succeeded by the
aged Sir Henry Chicheley, deputy governor, who entered upon the duties
on the thirteenth of that month, his commission being dated February
28th, 1674.

Thomas, Lord Culpepper, Baron of Thorsway, had been appointed in July,
1675, governor of Virginia for life--an able, but artful and covetous
man.[328:A] He had been one of the commissioners for plantations some
years before. He was disposed to look upon his office as a sinecure, but
being reproved in December, 1679, by the king for remaining so long in
England, he came over to the colony in 1680, and was sworn into office
on the tenth of May. He found Virginia tranquil. He brought over several
bills ready draughted in England to be passed by the assembly, it being
"intended to introduce here the modes of Ireland."[329:A] His lordship
being invested with full powers of pardon, found it the more easy to
obtain from the people whatever he asked. After procuring the enactment
of several popular acts, including one of indemnity and oblivion, he
managed to have the impost of two shillings on every hogshead of tobacco
made perpetual, and instead of being accounted for to the assembly, as
formerly, to be disposed of as his majesty might think fit. Culpepper,
notwithstanding the impoverished condition of the colony, contrived to
enlarge his salary from one thousand pounds to upwards of two thousand,
besides perquisites amounting to eight hundred more. After the
rebellion, the governor was empowered to suspend a councillor from his
place. It was also ordered, that in case of the death or removal of the
governor, the president, or oldest member of the council, with the
assistance of five members of that body, should administer the
government until another appointment should be made by the crown.[329:B]

In the year 1680 Charles the Second granted to William Blathwayt the
place of surveyor and auditor-general of all his revenues in America,
with a salary of five hundred pounds to be paid out of the same,
Virginia's share of the salary being one hundred pounds.

In August of this year, Lord Culpepper returned to England, by way of
Boston, in the ship "Betty," belonging to Jervis, who married the widow
of Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., (a cousin of Culpepper,) Jervis being also a
passenger. Elizabeth, or Betty, was the Christian name of Bacon's widow.
The vessel having run aground in the night, his lordship landed on the
wild New England shore, one hundred and thirty miles from Boston, with
two servants, each carrying a gun, and made his way twenty miles to
Sandwich, where he was furnished with horses and a guide, and so reached
Boston, where the Betty arrived ten days thereafter. In a letter, dated
September the twentieth, addressed to his sister, he mentions that he
has with him, "John Polyn, the cook, the page, the great footman, and
the little one that embroiders." The Betty conveyed soldiers, servants,
plate, goods, and furniture. Culpepper was received at Boston by twelve
companies of militia; and was well pleased with the place, "finding no
difference between it and Old England, but only want of company."[330:A]

Virginia now enjoyed repose, and large crops of tobacco were raised, and
the price again fell to a low ebb. The discontents of the planters were
aggravated by the act "for cohabitation and encouragement of trade and
manufacture," restricting vessels to certain prescribed ports where the
government desired to establish towns.

In the year 1680 Charleston was founded, the metropolis of the infant
colony of South Carolina. By the grant of Pennsylvania, made by Charles
the Second to William Penn, dated in March, 1681, Virginia lost another
large portion of her territory.


[326:A] Hening, ii. 531; Hamper, _i.e._ Hanaper.

[327:A] The direction of this proclamation is as follows: "To our trusty
and well-beloved Herbert Jeffreys, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor, and the
council of our colony and plantation of Virginia in the West Indies."

[328:A] Account of Va. in Mass. Hist. Coll., first series, v. 142.

[329:A] Chalmers' Introduction, i. 164.

[329:B] In 1678 the vestry at Middle Plantation determined to erect a
brick church, the former one being of wood.

[330:A] Va. Hist. Reg., iii. 189.



     Statistics of Virginia--Colonial Revenue--Courts of Law--
     Ecclesiastical Affairs--Militia--Indians--Negroes--Riotous
     cutting up of Tobacco-plants--Culpepper returns--Declaration
     of Assembly expunged--The Governor alters the Value of Coin by

FROM a statistical account of Virginia, as reported by Culpepper to the
committee of the colonies, in 1681, it appears that there were at that
time forty-one burgesses, being two from each of twenty counties, and
one from Jamestown. The colonial revenue consisted--First, of parish
levies, "commonly managed by sly cheating fellows, that combine to cheat
the public." Secondly, public levies raised by act of assembly, both
derived from tithables or working hands, of which there were about
fourteen thousand. The cost of collecting this part of the revenue was
estimated at not less than twenty per centum. Thirdly, two shillings per
hogshead on tobacco exported, which, together with some tonnage duties,
amounted to three thousand pounds a year. The county courts held three
sessions in the year, an appeal lying to the governor and council, and
from them, in actions of three hundred pounds sterling value, to his
majesty; in causes of less consequence, to the assembly.

The ecclesiastical affairs of the colony were subject to the control
of the governor, who granted probates of wills, and had the right
of presentation to all livings, the ordinary value of which was
sixty pounds per annum; but at that particular time, owing to the
impoverishment of the country and the low price of tobacco, not worth
half that sum. The number of livings was seventy-six. Lord Culpepper
adds: "And the parishes paying the ministers themselves, have used to
claim the right of presentation, (or rather of not paying,) whether the
governor will or not, which must not be allowed, and yet must be managed
with great caution." There was no fort in Virginia defensible against a
European enemy, nor any security for ships against a superior sea force.
There were perhaps fifteen thousand fighting men in the country.[332:A]

His lordship describes the north part of Carolina as "the refuge of our
renegades, and till in better order, dangerous to us." Yet it is certain
that some of the early settlers of this part of North Carolina were of
exemplary character, and were driven from Virginia by intolerance and
persecution. According to his lordship, "Maryland is now in a ferment,
and not only troubled with our disease, poverty, but in a great danger
of falling to pieces." The colony of Virginia was at peace with the
Indians; but long experience had taught, in regard to that treacherous
race, that when there was the least suspicion then was there the
greatest danger. But the most ruinous evil that afflicted the colony was
the extreme low price of the sole commodity, tobacco. "For the market is
overstocked, and every crop overstocks it more. Our thriving is our
undoing, and our buying of blacks hath extremely contributed thereto by
making more tobacco."[332:B]

Emancipated Indian or negro slaves were prohibited from buying Christian
servants, but were allowed to buy those of their own nation. Negro
children imported had their ages recorded by the court, and became
tithable at the age of twelve years. In June, 1680, an act was passed
for preventing an insurrection of the negro slaves, and it was ordered
that it should be published twice a year at the county courts of the
parish churches.[332:C] Negroes were not allowed to remain on another
plantation more than four hours without leave of the owner or overseer.

After "his excellency," Lord Culpepper, went away from Virginia in
August, 1680, leaving Sir Henry Chicheley deputy governor, tranquillity
prevailed until the time for shipping tobacco in the following year,
when the trade was greatly obstructed by the act for establishing towns,
which required vessels to be laden at certain specified places. The act
being found impracticable, was disobeyed, and much disturbance ensued.
In compliance with the petitions of several dissatisfied counties, an
assembly was called together in April, 1682, by Sir Henry Chicheley,
without the consent of the council. The session being occupied in
agitating debates, the body was dissolved, and another summoned,
according to an order just received from the crown, to meet in November,
1682, by which time Culpepper was commanded to return to Virginia. The
disaffected in the petitioning counties, Gloucester, New Kent, and
Middlesex, in May proceeded riotously to cut up the tobacco-plants in
the beds, especially the sweet-scented, which was produced nowhere else.
To put a stop to this outbreak, the deputy governor issued sundry

Lord Culpepper having arrived, the assembly met shortly afterwards. He
demanded of the council an account of their administration during his
absence, and it was rendered. In his address to the assembly, he
enlarged upon the king's generous and undeserved concessions to the
colony; he announced the king's high displeasure at the declaration made
by them that the seizing of their records by the king's commissioners
was an unwarrantable violation of their privileges, and, in the king's
name, ordered the same to be expunged from the journal of the house, and
proposed to them a bill asserting the right of the king and his officers
to call for all their records and journals whenever they should think it
necessary for the public service.

The governor claiming authority to raise the value of the coin, the
assembly warmly opposed it, as a dangerous encroachment on their
constitutional rights; and a bill was brought in for regulating the
value of coins, which was interrupted by the governor, who claimed that
power as belonging to the royal prerogative. He issued a proclamation,
in 1683, raising the value of crowns, rix dollars, and pieces of eight,
from five to six shillings, half pieces to three shillings, quarter
pieces to eighteen pence, and the New England coin to one shilling,
declaring money at this rate a lawful tender, except for the duty of two
shillings a hogshead on tobacco, the quit-rents, and other duties
payable to his majesty, and for debts contracted for bills of exchange.
His own salary and the king's revenues were, in this way, in a period
of distress, exempted from the operation of the act, a proceeding
characteristic of the reign of Charles the Second, in which official
energy was mainly exhibited in measures of injustice and extortion.

The ringleaders in the plant cutting were arrested, and some of them
hanged upon a charge of treason; and this, together with the enactment
of a riot act, and making the offence high treason, put a stop to the


[332:A] The number of half-armed train-bands, in 1680, were 7268 foot
and 1300 horse--total, 8568.--_Chalmers' Annals_, 357.

[332:B] Chalmers' Annals, 355.

[332:C] Hening, ii. 481, 492.

[333:A] Hening, ii. 561.

[334:A] Chalmers' Annals, 340; Hening, iii. 10.



     Persecution of Robert Beverley--Plots and Executions in
     England--Culpepper returns to England--Spencer, President--
     Culpepper is displaced--Succeeded by Effingham--Beverley,
     found guilty, asks Pardon, and is released--Miscellaneous
     Affairs--Death of Charles the Second--Succeeded by James the
     Second--Beverley again Clerk--Duke of Monmouth beheaded--
     Adherents of Monmouth sent Prisoners to Virginia--Instructions
     respecting them--Death of Robert Beverley--Despotism of James
     the Second--Servile Insurrection prevented--Virginia refuses
     to contribute to the erection of Forts in New York--Commotions
     in Virginia--Effingham's Corruption and Tyranny--He embarks
     for England--Ludwell dispatched to lay Virginia's Grievances
     before the Government--Abdication of James the Second.

THE vengeance of the government fell heavily upon Major Robert Beverley,
clerk of the house of burgesses, as the chief instigator of these
disturbances. He had incurred the displeasure of the governor and
council by refusing to deliver up to them copies of the legislative
journals, without permission of the house. Beverley had rendered
important services in suppressing Bacon's rebellion, and had won the
special favor of Sir William Berkley; but as circumstances change, men
change with them, and now by a steady adherence to his duty to the
assembly, he drew down upon his head unrelenting persecution. In the
month of May, 1682, he was committed a close prisoner on board the ship
Duke of York, lying in the Rappahannock.[335:A] Ralph Wormley, Matthew
Kemp, and Christopher Wormley, were directed to seize the records in
Beverley's possession, and to break open doors if necessary. He
complained, in a note addressed to the captain, and claimed the rights
of a freeborn Englishman. He was transferred from the Duke of York to
Captain Jeffries, commander of the Concord, and a guard set over him. He
was next sent on board of Colonel Custis's sloop, to be taken to
Northampton. Escaping from the custody of the sheriff of York, the
prisoner was retaken at his own house in Middlesex, and sent to
Northampton, on the Eastern Shore. Some months after, he applied for a
writ of _habeas corpus_, which was refused; and in a short time, being
again found at large, he was remanded to Northampton. In January, 1683,
new charges were brought against him: First, that he had broken open
letters addressed to the secretary's office; Secondly, that he had made
up the journal, and inserted his majesty's letter therein,
notwithstanding it had first been presented at the time of the
prorogation; Thirdly, that in 1682 he had refused copies of the journal
to the governor and council, saying "he might not do it without leave of
his masters."

In the year 1680, England was agitated and alarmed with the "Popish
plot;" and the Earl of Stafford and divers others were executed on the
information of Oates and other witnesses. In July, 1683, Lord Russell
was beheaded on a charge of treason, and others suffered the same fate
as being implicated in what was styled the "Protestant plot."

Culpepper, after staying about a year in Virginia, returned to England,
leaving his kinsman, secretary Nicholas Spencer, president. Thus, again,
quitting the colony in violation of his orders, he was arrested
immediately on his arrival; and having received presents from the
assembly, contrary to his instructions, a jury of Middlesex found that
he had forfeited his commission. This example having shown that he who
acts under independent authority will seldom obey even reasonable
commands, no more governors were appointed for life.[336:A]
Beverley[336:B] gives a different account: "The next year, being 1684,
upon the Lord Culpepper refusing to return, Francis, Lord Howard of
Effingham, was sent over governor." But Chalmers, having access to the
records of the English government, appears to be the better authority.

Lord Culpepper having it in view, as was said, to purchase the propriety
of the Northern Neck, lying between the Rappahannock and the Potomac, in
order to further his design, had fomented a dispute between the house of
burgesses and the council; and the quarrel running nigh, his lordship
procured from the king instructions to abolish appeals from the general
court to the assembly, and transfer them to the crown. However,
Culpepper being a man of strong judgment, introduced some salutary
amendments to the laws. During his time, instead of fixed garrisons,
rangers were employed in guarding the frontier. In October died
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Clayborne, (son of Colonel William Clayborne,)
mortally wounded in an engagement with the Indians, which took place
near West Point, at the head of York River; he lies buried on the same
spot, in compliance with his dying request. The son appears to have
inherited the spirit of his father.

Lord Culpepper was succeeded by Francis, Lord Howard of Effingham, whose
appointment was the last act of Charles the Second in relation to the
colony of Virginia. Lord Effingham was appointed in August, 1683, the
thirty-fifth year of the king's reign, commissioned in September, and
arriving in Virginia during February, 1684, entered upon the duties of
the office in April. The assembly met on the following day. Acts were
passed to prevent plant cutting, and preserve the peace; to supply the
inhabitants with arms and ammunition; to repeal the act for
encouragement of domestic manufactures; to provide for the better
defence of the colony; laying for the first time an impost on liquors
imported from other English plantations; exempting such as were imported
by Virginians for their own use, and in their own vessels. The
burgesses, in behalf of the inhabitants of the Northern Neck, then
called Potomac Neck, prayed the governor to secure them by patent in
their titles to their lands, which had been invaded by Culpepper's
charter. The governor replied that he was expecting a favorable decision
on the matter from the king.

About this time the name of Zach. Taylor, a surveyor, is mentioned, an
ancestor of General Zachary Taylor, some time President of the United

In May, 1684, Robert Beverley was found guilty of high misdemeanors,
but judgment being respited, and the prisoner asking pardon on his
bended knees, was released, upon giving security for his good behavior.
His counsel was William Fitzhugh, of Stafford County, a lawyer of
reputation, and a planter. Beverley was charged with having led the
people to believe that there would be a "cessation" of the tobacco crop
in 1680, and such appears to have been the general impression in the
summer of that year.[338:A] The abject terms in which he now sued for
pardon form a singular contrast to his former constancy; and it is
curious to find the loyal Beverley, the strenuous partizan of Berkley,
now the victim of the tyranny which he had formerly defended with so
much energy and success.

On the twentieth day of May, of this year, Lord Baltimore was at
Jamestown on a visit to the governor, with a view of embarking there for

Owing to the incursions of the Five Nations upon the frontiers of
Virginia, it was deemed expedient to treat with them through the
governor of New York; and for this purpose Lord Effingham, Governor of
Virginia, leaving the administration in the hands of Colonel Bacon, of
the council, and accompanied by two councillors, sailed, June the
twenty-third, in the "Quaker Ketch," to New York, and thence repaired to
Albany, in July. There he met Governor Dongan, of New York, the agent of
Massachusetts, the magistrates of Albany, and the chiefs of the warlike
Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagos, and Cayugas. The tomahawk was buried, the
chain of friendship brightened, and the tree of peace planted. It was
during this year that the charter of Massachusetts was dissolved by a
writ of _quo warranto_. In the same year Talbot, a kinsman of the
Calverts, and a member of the Maryland Council, killed, in a private
rencontre, Rousby, the collector of the customs for that province; he
was tried in Virginia, and convicted, but subsequently pardoned by James
the Second.

Evelyn[338:B] says: "I can never forget the inexpressible luxury, and
profaneness, gaming, and all dissoluteness, and, as it were, total
forgetfulness of God, (it being Sunday evening,) which this day
se'nnight I was witness of, the king sitting and toying with his
concubines, Portsmouth, Cleveland, and Mazarine, etc., a French boy
singing love-songs in that glorious gallery, while about twenty of the
great courtiers, and other dissolute persons, were at basset round a
large table, a bank of at least two thousand pounds in gold before them;
upon which two gentlemen, who were with me, made reflections with
astonishment. Six days after, all was in the dust."

Rochester, in his epigram, described Charles the Second as one

     Who never said a foolish thing, and never did a wise one.

But it is much easier to discover the foolish things that he did, than
the wise things that he said. He was good-natured, free from
vindictiveness, and had some appreciation of science.

The succession of James the Second to the throne was proclaimed in the
Ancient Dominion of Virginia "with extraordinary joy." The enthusiasm of
their loyalty was soon lowered, for the assembly meeting on the 1st day
of October, 1685, and warmly resisting the negative power claimed by the
governor, was prorogued on the same day to the second of November
following. Robert Beverley was again clerk. Strong resolutions,
complaining of the governor's veto, were passed. After sitting for some
time this and other bills were presented to him for his signature, which
he refused to give, and appearing suddenly in the house prorogued it
again to the 20th of October, 1686.

The Duke of Monmouth, an illegitimate son of Charles the Second, failing
in a rash insurrection, was beheaded, July the fourteenth of this year.

The first parliament of the new reign laid an impost on tobacco; the
planters, in abject terms, supplicated James to suspend the duty imposed
on their staple; but he refused to comply. They also took measures to
encourage domestic manufactures, which were disapproved of by the lords
of the committee of colonies, as contrary to the acts of navigation.
Nevertheless, on the reception of the news of the defeat of the Duke of
Monmouth, the Virginians sent a congratulatory address to the king.

A number of the prisoners taken with Monmouth, and who had escaped the
cruelty of Jeffreys, were sent to Virginia; and King James instructed
Effingham on this occasion in the following letter:[340:A]

     "RIGHT TRUSTY AND WELL-BELOVED,--We greet you well. As it has
     pleased God to deliver into our hands such of our rebellious
     subjects as have taken up arms against us, for which
     traitorous practices some of them have suffered death
     according to law; so we have been graciously pleased to extend
     our mercy to many others by ordering their transportation to
     several parts of our dominions in America, where they are to
     be kept as servants to the inhabitants of the same; and to the
     end their punishment may in some measure answer their crimes,
     we do think fit hereby to signify our pleasure unto you, our
     governor and council of Virginia, that you take all necessary
     care that such convicted persons as were guilty of the late
     rebellion, that shall arrive within that our colony, whose
     names are hereunto annexed,[340:B] be kept there, and continue
     to serve their masters for the space of ten years at least.
     And that they be not permitted in any manner to redeem
     themselves by money or otherwise until that term be fully
     expired. And for the better effecting hereof, you are to frame
     and propose a bill to the assembly of that our colony, with
     such provisions and clauses as shall be requisite for this
     purpose, to which you, our governor, are to give your assent,
     and to transmit the same unto us for our royal confirmation.
     Wherein expecting a ready compliance, we bid you heartily
     farewell. Given at our court at Whitehall, the 4th of October,
     1685, in the first year of our reign.


Virginia made no law conformable to the requisitions of the king.

James the Second, strongly resenting the too democratical proceedings of
the Virginia assembly, ordered their dissolution, and that Robert
Beverley, as chief promoter of these disputes, should be disfranchised
and prosecuted,[340:C] and directed that in future the appointment of
the clerk of the house of burgesses should be made by the governor.
Several persons were punished about this time for seditious and
treasonable conduct. In May, 1687, the assembly was dissolved. In the
spring of this year Robert Beverley died--the victim of tyranny and
martyr of constitutional liberty: long a distinguished loyalist, he
lived to become still more distinguished as a patriot. It is thus in
human inconsistency that extremes meet.

The English merchants engaged in the tobacco trade, in August, 1687,
complained to the committee of the colonies of the mischiefs consequent
upon the exportation of tobacco in bulk; and the committee advised the
assembly to prohibit this practice. The assembly refused compliance; but
the regulation was subsequently established by parliament. A meditated
insurrection of the blacks was discovered in the Northern Neck just in
time to prevent its explosion. In November a message had been received
from the Governor of New York, communicating the king's instructions to
him to build forts for the defence of that colony, and the king's desire
that Virginia should contribute to that object, as being for the common
defence of the colonies. This project of James, it was suspected, had
its origin in his own proprietary interest in New York. The Virginians
replied, that the Indians might invade Virginia without passing within a
hundred miles of those forts, and the contribution was refused. In
December, William Byrd succeeded Colonel Nathaniel Bacon, Sr., as
auditor of the accounts of his majesty's revenue in Virginia; he
continued to hold that place for seventeen years. His MS. accounts are
still preserved.

James the Second, influenced by the counsels and the gold of France, and
in violation of the most solemn pledges made to the parliament when he
ascended the throne, showed himself incorrigibly bent upon introducing
absolute government and establishing the Roman Catholic religion in
England. In Virginia the council displayed, as usual, servility to
power. Upon the dissolution of the assembly, the colony was agitated
with apprehensions and alarm. Rumors were circulated of terrible plots,
now of the Papists, then of the Indians. The County of Stafford was
inflamed by the bold harangues of John Waugh, a preacher of the
established church, and three councillors were dispatched to allay the
commotions. Part of Rappahannock County was in arms. Colonel John
Scarburgh, of the Eastern Shore, was prosecuted for saying to the
governor that "his majesty King James would wear out the Church of
England, for that when there were any vacant offices he supplied them
with men of a different persuasion." Scarburgh was discharged by the
council. Others were prosecuted and imprisoned; and James Collins was
put in irons for treasonable words uttered against the king.

Effingham, no less avaricious and unscrupulous than his predecessor
Culpepper, by his extortions and usurpations aroused a general spirit of
indignation. He prorogued and dissolved the assembly; he erected a new
court of chancery, making himself a petty lord chancellor; he multiplied
fees, and stooped to share them with the clerks, and silenced the
victims of his extortions by arbitrary imprisonment. The house of
burgesses, preparing to petition the king against the new invention of a
seal, by which his lordship extracted from the country one hundred
thousand pounds of tobacco per annum of extraordinary fees and
perquisites, and the governor getting wind of it, sent for them, and
they, knowing that his object was to dissolve them, completed the
petition, signed it, and ordered their clerk and one of their members to
transmit it to Whitehall for the king. But instead of being delivered to
his majesty, the original petition was sent back from England to the
governor, with an account of the manner in which it had been
transmitted. In consequence whereof, Colonel Thomas Milner, being a
surveyor and clerk of the house, was removed from those offices, and the
burgess being a lawyer, was prohibited from practising at the

At length, the complaints of the Virginians having reached England,
Effingham embarked, in 1688, for that country, and the assembly
dispatched Colonel Ludwell to lay their grievances before the
government; but before they reached the mother country, the revolution
had taken place, and James the Second[342:B] had closed a short and
inglorious reign, spent in preposterous invasions of civil and religious
liberty, by abdicating the crown.


[335:A] Hening, iii. 540.

[336:A] Chalmers' Annals, 345.

[336:B] Beverley, B. i. 89.

[337:A] One of the James River merchant-vessels mentioned by the first
William Byrd, was called the "Zach. Taylor."

[338:A] Va. Hist. Reg., i. 166.

[338:B] Diary, ii. 211.

[340:A] Chalmers' Annals, 358

[340:B] The list is still preserved in the London state-paper office.

[340:C] Hening, iii. 40.

[342:A] Account of Virginia, in Mass. Hist. Coll., first series.

[342:B] Chalmers' Annals, 347.



     Accession of William and Mary--Proclaimed in Virginia--The
     House of Stuart--President Bacon--Colonel Francis Nicholson,
     Lieutenant-Governor--The Rev. James Blair, Commissary--College
     of William and Mary chartered--Its Endowment, Objects,
     Professorships--Death of John Page--Nicholson succeeded by
     Andros--Post-office--Death of Queen Mary--William the Third--
     Board of Trade.

WILLIAM, PRINCE OF ORANGE, landed at Torbay in November, 1688, and he
and Mary were proclaimed king and queen on the 13th day of February,
1689. The coronation took place on the eleventh day of April. They had
been for several months seated on the throne before they were proclaimed
in Virginia. The delay was owing to the reiterated pledges of fealty
made by the council to James, and from an apprehension that he might be
restored to the kingdom. Some of the Virginians insisted that, as there
was no king in England, so there was also an interregnum in the
government of the colony. At length, in compliance with the repeated
commands of the privy council, William and Mary were proclaimed, at
James City, in April, 1689, Lord and Lady of Virginia. This glorious
event, with the circumstances connected with it, was duly announced to
the lords commissioners of plantations, in a letter, dated on the
twenty-ninth of that month, by Nicholas Spencer, secretary of state.

The accession of the Prince of Orange dispelled the clouds of discontent
and alarm, and inspired the people of the colony with sincere joy. For
about seventy years Virginia had been subject to the house of Stuart,
and there was little in the retrospect to awaken regret at their
downfall. They had cramped trade by monopolies and restrictions,
lavished vast bodies of land on their profligate minions, and often
entrusted the reigns of power to incompetent, corrupt, and tyrannical
governors. The dynasty of the Stuarts fell buried in the ruins of
misused power.

When the last of the Stuart governors, Lord Howard of Effingham,
returned to England, he had left the administration in the hands of
Colonel Nathaniel Bacon, Sr., president of the council. Upon the
accession of William and Mary, England being on the eve of a war with
France, the president and council of Virginia were directed by the Duke
of Shrewsbury to put the colony in a posture of defence.

Colonel Philip Ludwell, who had been sent out as an agent of the colony
to prefer complaints against Lord Howard of Effingham before the privy
council, now at length obtained a decision in some points rather
favorable to the colony, but the question of prerogative was determined
in favor of the crown, and it was declared that an act of 1680 _was_
revived by the king's disallowing the act of repeal.

Bacon's administration was short; he had now obtained an advanced age.
In his time the project of a college was renewed, but not carried into
effect. President Bacon resided in York County. He married Elizabeth,
daughter of Richard Kingsmill, Esq., of James City County. Leaving no
issue, by his will he bequeathed his estates to his niece, Abigail
Burwell, and his "riding horse, Watt, to Lady Berkley," at that time
wife of Colonel Philip Ludwell. President Bacon died on the 16th of
March, 1692, in the seventy-third year of his age, and lies buries on
King's Creek,[344:A] as does also Elizabeth, his wife, who died in the
year 1691, aged sixty-seven.[344:B] The name of the wife of Nathaniel
Bacon, Jr., was likewise Elizabeth.

In the year 1690 Lord Effingham, reluctant to revisit a province where
he was so unacceptable, being still absent from Virginia on the plea of
ill health, Francis Nicholson, who had been driven from New York by a
popular outbreak, came over as lieutenant-governor. He found the colony
ready for revolt. The people were indignant at seeing Effingham still
retained in the office of governor-in-chief, believing that Nicholson
would become his tool. The revolution in England seemed as yet
productive of no amendment in the colonial administration. Nicholson,
however, now courted popularity; he instituted athletic games, and
offered prizes to those who should excel in riding, running, shooting,
wrestling, and fencing. The last alone could need any encouragement in
such a country as Virginia. He proposed the establishment of a
post-office, and recommended the erection of a college, but refused to
call an assembly to further the scheme, being under obligations to
Effingham to stave off assemblies as long as possible, for fear of
complaints being renewed against his arbitrary administration.[345:A]
Nevertheless, Nicholson and the council headed a private subscription,
and twenty-five hundred pounds were raised, part of this sum being
contributed by some London merchants. The new governor made a progress
through the colony, mingling freely with the people, and he carried his
indulgence to the common people so far as frequently to suffer them to
enter the room where he was entertaining company at dinner, and diverted
himself with their scrambling among one another and carrying off the
viands from the table--like Sancho Panza's on the Island of Barataria.
There is but one step from the courtier to the demagogue.

Virginia felt the embarrassments which war had brought upon England, and
acts were passed for encouraging domestic manufactures, for which
Nicholson found an apology in the scanty supplies imported. The assembly
congratulated the Prince of Orange on his accession, and thanking him
for his present of warlike stores, begged for further favors of the
royal bounty.

When Colonel Nicholson entered on the duties of governor, the Rev. James
Blair, a native of Scotland, newly appointed commissary of Virginia,
assumed the supervision of the churches of the colony. He came over to
this country in 1685, and settled in the County of Henrico, where he
remained till 1694, when he removed to Jamestown. The functions of
commissary, who was a deputy of the Bishop of London, had been
previously discharged by the Rev. Mr. Temple, but he was not regularly

At the instance of the Rev. Mr. Blair, in 1691 the assembly entered
heartily into the scheme of a college, and in the same year he was
dispatched with an address to their majesties, King William and Queen
Mary, soliciting a charter.

The first assembly under the new dynasty met at James City, in April,
1691, being the third year of their reign. Acts were passed for putting
the colony in a better state of defence, for reducing the poll tax, and
laying a duty on liquors, and for appointing a treasurer. Colonel Edward
Hill was appointed to that office. The same assembly met again by
prorogation, in April of the ensuing year.

Commissary Blair was graciously received at court, and in February,
1692, their majesties granted the charter.[346:A] The college was named
in honor of their majesties. The king gave about two thousand pounds
toward the building, out of the quit-rents. Seymour, the English
attorney-general, having received the royal commands to prepare the
charter of the college, which was to be accompanied with a grant of
money, remonstrated against this liberality, urging that the nation was
engaged in an expensive war; that the money was wanted for better
purposes, and that he did not see the slightest occasion for a college
in Virginia. The Rev. Mr. Blair, in reply, represented to him that its
intention was to educate and qualify young men to be ministers of the
gospel; and begged Mr. Attorney would consider that the people of
Virginia had souls to be saved as well as the people of England.
"Souls!" exclaimed the imperious Seymour; "damn your souls!--make

The site selected for the college was in the Middle Plantation Old
Fields, near the church. The college was endowed by the crown with
twenty thousand acres of land in Pamunkey Neck, and on the south side of
Blackwater Swamp; the patronage of the office of surveyor-general;
together with the revenue arising from a duty of one penny a pound on
all tobacco exported from Virginia and Maryland to the other
plantations, the nett proceeds being two hundred pounds. The college
was also allowed to return a burgess to the assembly. The assembly
afterwards added to the revenue a duty on skins and furs.[347:A] Dr.
Blair was the first president of the college, being appointed under the
charter to hold the office for life. The plan of the building was the
composition of Sir Christopher Wren. The objects proposed by the
establishment of the college were declared to be the furnishing of a
seminary for the ministers of the gospel, and that the youth may be
piously educated in good letters and manners, and that the Christian
faith should be propagated among the Western Indians.[347:B] In addition
to the five professorships of Greek and Latin, the mathematics, moral
philosophy, and two of divinity provided for by the charter, a sixth,
called the Brafferton, from an estate in England which secured the
endowment, had been annexed by the celebrated Robert Boyle, for the
instruction and conversion of the Indians.

The trustees met with many difficulties in their undertaking during the
administration of Governor Andros, and were involved in a troublesome
controversy concerning the lands appropriated to the institution, with
Secretary Wormley, the most influential man in the colony, next to the

In January, 1692, died John Page, of Rosewell, of the king's council in
the colony, aged sixty--a learned and pious man; first of the name in
Virginia, and father of the Honorable Colonel Matthew Page, who was also
of the council. A religious work, entitled "A Deed of Gift for my Son,"
by this John Page, has been published.

During the same year Governor Nicholson was succeeded by Sir Edmund
Andros, whose high-handed course had rendered him so odious to the
people of New England that they had lately imprisoned him. He was,
nevertheless, kindly received by the Virginians, whose solicitations to
King William for warlike stores he had promoted. He soon gave offence by
ordering ships to cruise against vessels engaged in contraband trade. In
the year 1693 an act was passed for the organizing of a post-office
establishment in Virginia, to consist of a central office, and a
sub-office in each county, fixing the rates of postage to be paid to
Thomas Neale, Esq., who was authorized by an act of parliament to
establish post-offices in the colonies. The postage on a letter
consisting of one sheet, for a distance not exceeding eighty miles, was
three pence. Four companies of rangers protected the frontiers, while
English frigates guarded the coast; and the colony enjoyed a long

The amiable and excellent Queen Mary died on the 28th day of December,
1694; and the king now assumed the title of William the Third. Since the
dissolution of the Virginia Company, the superintendence of the colonies
had been entrusted to a committee of the privy council; in 1696 the
board of trade was established for that purpose.


[344:A] James City Records, cited in "Farmer's Register" for 1839, p.

[344:B] Dr. Williamson, of Williamsburg, obligingly sent me the
inscription and the coat of arms, as copied by him from her tombstone,
which was ploughed up on the banks of Queen's Creek.

[345:A] Beverley, B. i. 92.

[346:A] The following gentlemen, nominated by the assembly, were
constituted a senate, or board of trustees: Francis Nicholson,
lieutenant-governor of the colony; William Cole, Ralph Wormley, William
Byrd, Esquires, of the council; John Leare, James Blair, John Farnifold,
Stephen Fauce, and Samuel Gray, clerks (clergymen;) Thomas Milner,
Christopher Robinson, Charles Scarburgh, John Smith, Benjamin Harrison,
Miles Cary, Henry Hartwell, William Randolph, and Matthew Page,
gentlemen and burgesses.

[346:B] Franklin's Correspondence.

[347:A] Hening, iii. 123, 241, 356: Catalogue of William and Mary

[347:B] Anderson's Hist. of Church of England in the Colonies, second
ed., iii. 108.



     State and Condition of Virginia--Exhausting Agriculture--
     Depression of Mechanic Art--Merchants--Current Coin--Grants of
     Land--Powers of Governor--The Council--Court of Claims--County
     Courts--General Court--Secretary, Sheriffs, Collectors, and
     Vestries--Revenue--The Church.

THE following statistical account of Virginia appears to have been
reported by Lord Culpepper, in 1781, to the Committee of the colonies.
It is to be found in the Historical Collections of Massachusetts,[349:A]
the manuscript having been communicated by Carter B. Harrison, Esq., of
Virginia, by the hands of the Rev. John Jones Spooner, corresponding
member. The picture is harsh, but drawn by a vigorous hand, without
fear, favor, or affection.

In point of natural advantages Virginia was surpassed by few countries
on the globe, but in commerce, manufactures, education, government in
church and state, was one of the poorest and most miserable. The staple
tobacco swallowed up every thing, so that the markets were often glutted
with bad tobacco, which became a mere drug, and would not pay freight
and customs. Perhaps not one hundredth part of the land was yet cleared,
and none of the marsh or swamp drained. As fast as the soil was worn out
by exhausting crops of tobacco and corn, it was left to grow up again in
woods. The plough was not much used, in the first clearing the roots and
stumps being left, and the ground tilled only with hoes, and by the time
the stumps were decayed the ground was worn out. Manure was neglected.
Of grain the planters usually raised only enough for home consumption,
there being no market for it, and scarce any money. But their main labor
in this crop being in the summer, they fell into habits of indolence
for the rest of the year. The circumstances of the country, destitute of
towns, and consisting of dispersed plantations, were unfavorable for
mechanics, then called tradesmen. The depression of this useful and
important class although lessened, continues in the present day, and
appears to be inevitably connected with the system of negro slavery. It
is a tax paid by the whites for the elevation of the black race. The
merchants were the most prosperous class in the colony, but they labored
under great disadvantages, being obliged to sell on credit, and to carry
on "a pitiful retail trade," and to depend on the receivers who went
about among the planters to receive the tobacco due, and this mode of
collecting was subject to great delays and losses. The native-born
Virginians, who for the most part had never been out of the colony, were
averse to town life, and felt dissatisfied, like Daniel Boone in more
modern times, whenever "the settlements became too thick." The scarcity
of money was aggravated by the governor, who found it to his interest to
be paid in tobacco. The current coin of the dominion of Virginia
consisted of pieces of eight, the value of which was fixed by law at
five shillings; and the value being made greater in Pennsylvania money,
they were consequently drained from Virginia, as at the present day gold
and silver are ostracised by a depreciated paper currency.

The method of settling the colonial territory was by the king's grant of
fifty acres to every actual settler, but this rule was evaded and
perverted in various ways, and rights for that quantity of land could
easily be purchased from the clerks in the secretary's office at from
one to five shillings each. The powers of the governor were extensive;
he was a sort of viceroy, being commander-in-chief and vice-admiral,
lord treasurer in issuing warrants for the paying of moneys, lord
chancellor or lord keeper as passing grants under the colony's seal,
president of the council, chief justice of the courts, with some powers
of a bishop or ordinary. The governors managed to evade the king's
instructions, and by official patronage to silence the opposition of the
council, and even to hold the burgesses in check. The governor and
councillors were all colonels and honorable, and their adherents
monopolized the offices. The governor's salary was for many years one
thousand pounds per annum, to which the assembly added perquisites,
amounting to five hundred more, and a further addition of two hundred
pounds was made to Sir William Berkley's salary, making the whole salary
seventeen hundred pounds. The council, in effect the creatures and
clients of the governor, being appointed at his nomination, and
receiving office and place from him, had the powers of council of state,
(in case of vacancy of the governor the oldest of them _ex officio_
acting as president _ad interim_,) of upper house of assembly or house
of lords, in the general court of supreme judges, and as colonels,
answering to the English lord-lieutenants of counties. The councillors
were also naval officers in the customs department, collectors of the
revenue, farmers of the king's quit-rents; out of the council were
chosen the secretary, auditor, and escheators; the councillors were
exempt from arrests, and had a compensation of three hundred and fifty
pounds divided among them, according to their attendance. They met
together after the manner of the king and council. Their clerk received
fifty pounds per annum salary, besides perquisites. The office of
collector, held by members of the council, was indeed incompatible with
their office of judge, and their office of councillor unfitted them for
auditing their own accounts as collectors, and in different capacities
they both bought and sold the royal quit-rents.[351:A]

Upon the election of burgesses there was commonly held a court, called a
court of claims, where all who had any claims against the public might
present them to the burgesses, together with any propositions or
grievances, "all which the burgesses carry to the assembly." There was
at that early day much confusion in the laws, and it was difficult to
know what laws were in force and what were not. All causes were decided
in the county court or in the general court. The county court consisted
of eight or ten gentlemen, receiving their commission from the governor,
who renewed it annually. They met once a month, or once in two months,
and had cognizance of all causes exceeding in value twenty shillings, or
two hundred pounds of tobacco. These country gentlemen, having no
education in law, not unfrequently fell into mistakes in substance and
in form. The insufficiency of these courts was now growing more apparent
than formerly, since the old stock of gentry, who were educated in
England, were better acquainted with law and with the business of the
world than their sons and grandsons, who were brought up in Virginia,
and commonly knew only reading, writing, and arithmetic, and were not
very proficient in them.

The general court, so called because it had jurisdiction of causes from
all parts of the colony, was held twice a year, in April and October, by
the governor and council as judges, at Jamestown. This court was never
commissioned, but grew up by custom or usurpation; from it there was no
appeal, except in cases of over three hundred pounds sterling value, to
the king, which was for most persons impracticable, on account of the
distance and the expensiveness. Virginia appears to have been the only
colony where the executive constituted the supreme court. The general
court tried all causes of above sixteen pounds sterling, or sixteen
hundred pounds of tobacco in value, and all appeals from the county
courts, and it had cognizance of all causes in chancery, in king's
bench, the common pleas, the exchequer, the admiralty, and spirituality.
The forms of proceeding in the general court were quite irregular. The
duties of the secretary were as multifarious as those of the governor;
it was, however, for the most part a sinecure, the business being
performed by a clerk, styled the clerk of the general court, who also
employed one or two clerks under him. The secretary, who was properly
the clerk of the court, yet sate as judge of that court.

The governor signed all patents or deeds of land, and there was a
recital in them that he granted the land "by and with the consent of the
council," yet the patents were never read by the governor, nor did the
council take any notice of them. He likewise countersigned the patents
after the words "compared, and agrees with the original," yet the
secretary never read or compared them, and indeed the patent which he
signed was itself the original. "Men make laws, but we live by custom."
The sheriffs collected all money duties. The auditor audited the
accounts of the collectors, and was receiver-general of all public
moneys. The parish levy, for the support of the church and of the poor,
was assessed by the vestry, about the month of October, when tobacco was
ready; the whole amount assessed was divided by the number of tithables
of the parish, and collected from the heads of families. The county levy
for county expenses was assessed by the justices of the peace, and the
sum divided by the number of tithables in the county. The public levy
was assessed by the assembly for the general expenses of the colony, and
the sum was divided by the number of tithables in the colony, amounting
in the year 1690 to about twenty thousand. The three levies were all
collected by the sheriffs; they averaged about one hundred pounds of
tobacco for each tithable, the aggregate amounting to two millions of
pounds per annum.

The revenues and customs that came into the auditor's hands were of four
kinds: First, the quit-rents, being one shilling per annum on every
fifty acres of land, payable in tobacco, at one penny per pound, or
twenty-four pounds of tobacco for every hundred acres. In the Northern
Neck, lying between the Potomac and Rappahannock, the quit-rents were
paid by the heirs of Lord Culpepper. The tobacco due for quit-rents was
sold by the auditor to the several members of the council, who paid for
it in money, or bills of exchange, according to the quantity. The
quit-rent revenue amounted to about eight hundred pounds sterling per
annum. The second source of revenue consisted of two shillings per
hogshead, export duty, on tobacco, and fort duties, being fifteen pence
per ton on all vessels arriving. These amounted to three thousand pounds
sterling per annum. Ten per cent. of this amount was paid to masters of
vessels, to induce them to give a true account. The collectors received
ten per cent. for collecting, and the auditor seven per cent. The third
source of revenue was one penny per pound upon tobacco exported from
Virginia to any other English plantation in America. This, as has been
mentioned, was, in 1692, granted to the college of William and Mary. The
college paid for collecting it no less than twenty per cent., and to the
auditor five per cent. The nett proceeds were worth one hundred pounds
annually. The fourth source of revenue was any money duty that might be
raised by the assembly.

The governor was lieutenant-general, the councillors lieutenants of
counties, with the title of colonel, and in counties where no councillor
resided, some other person was appointed, with the rank of major. The
people in general professed to be of the Church of England. The only
dissenters were three or four meetings of Quakers and one of
Presbyterians. There were fifty parishes, and in each two, and sometimes
three, churches and chapels. The division of the parishes was unequal
and inconvenient. The governor had always held the government of the
church, as of everything else, in his hands. Ministers were obliged to
produce their orders to him, and show that they had been episcopally
ordained. The power of presentation was, by a colonial law, in the
vestry, but by a custom of hiring preachers by the year, it came to pass
that presentation rarely took place. The consequence was that a good
minister either would not come to Virginia, or if he did, was soon
driven away by the high-handed proceedings of the vestry. The minister
was obliged to be careful how he preached against the vices that any
great man of the vestry was guilty of, else he would be in danger of
losing his living at the end of the year. They held them by a precarious
tenure, like that of chaplains; they were mere tenants at sufferance.
There were not half as many ministers in Virginia as parishes. The
governor connived at this state of things. The minister's salary was
sixteen thousand pounds of tobacco per annum. King Charles the Second
gave the Bishop of London jurisdiction over the church in the
plantations, in all matters except three, viz.: marriage licenses,
probates of wills, and induction of ministers, which were reserved to
the governor. The bishop's commissary made visitation of the churches
and inspection of the clergy. He received no salary, but was allowed, by
the king, one hundred pounds per annum out of the quit-rents.[355:A]


[349:A] First Series, v. 124.

[351:A] The council, in the time of Governor Andros, consisted of Ralph
Wormley, collector and naval officer of Rappahannock River; Colonel
Richard Lee, collector and naval officer of upper district of Potomac
River--these two having been appointed while Sir William Berkley was
governor; Colonel William Byrd, who was appointed auditor during Lord
Culpepper's administration; Colonel Christopher Wormley, collector and
naval officer of the lower district of the Potomac River, appointed
while Lord Effingham was governor; Colonel Edward Hill, collector and
naval officer of upper district of James River; Colonel Edmund Jennings,
collector and naval officer of York River--these two being appointed in
Lord Effingham's time; Colonel Daniel Parke, collector and naval officer
of the lower district of James River, and escheator between York and
Rappahannock Rivers; Colonel Charles Scarburgh, collector and naval
officer on the Eastern Shore, and Mr. John Lightfoot, who had lately
arrived in the country--these last four appointed while Sir Edmund
Andros was governor.

[355:A] Account of Va., in Mass. Hist. Coll., first series.



     Administration of Andros--Controversy with Blair--The Rev.
     Hugo Jones' Account of Maryland--Andros succeeded by Nicholson
     --Alteration in his Conduct--Supposed Cause--Williamsburg made
     the Seat of Government--His tyrannical Proceedings--Prejudice
     of Beverley, the Historian--Act against Pirates--Offices of
     Speaker and Treasurer combined--Capture of a piratical Vessel--
     Death of Edward Hill--Commencement at William and Mary--Demise
     of William the Third--Succeeded by Anne--Nicholson's Description
     of the People of Virginia.

GOVERNOR ANDROS took singular pains in arranging and preserving the
public records; and when, in 1698, the State-house was burned, he caused
the papers that survived to be arranged with more exactness than before.
He ordered that all the English statutes should be law in Virginia; this
preposterous rule gave great dissatisfaction. He was a patron of
manufactures; but the acts for establishing fulling-mills were rejected
by the board of trade. He encouraged the culture of cotton, which,
however, fell into disuse.

By royal instructions, Andros was invested with the powers of ordinary,
or representative of the king and the bishop of London, in the affairs
of the church. This brought him into collision with Commissary Blair,
and in 1694 the governor arbitrarily suspended him from his place in the
council, to which he had been appointed in the preceding year. While in
England on the business of the college, in 1695, the doctor preferred
charges against Andros as an enemy to religion, to the church, the
clergy, and the college. The charges and the proofs covered thirty-two
folio pages of manuscript, and were drawn up with ability. But Blair had
to contend with formidable opposition, for Governor Andros sent over to
London, in his defence, Colonel Byrd, of Westover, Mr. Harrison, of
Surry County, Mr. Povey, who was high in office in the colony, and a Mr.
Marshall, to arraign the Rev. Commissary himself before the Bishop of
London and the Archbishop of Canterbury. Two days were spent at Lambeth
Palace, in the examination, the charges and answers filling fifty-seven
folio pages of manuscript, and Dr. Blair's accusers were signally
discomfited. Much of the prejudice against him was owing to his being a
Scotchman--a prejudice at that time running very high in England. The
result was that Blair returned after successfully accomplishing the
object of his mission, and having been reinstated in the council by the
king. He was, nevertheless, again removed upon a pretence equally
frivolous.[357:A] Andros was sent back to England to answer in person
the charges alleged against him, and eventually, they being
substantiated, he was removed from his office of deputy governor of

William the Third, by the treaty of Ryswick, in 1697, obtained an
acknowledgment of his right to the crown, and vindicated the principles
of constitutional freedom.

The Rev. Hugo Jones, author of a work entitled "Present State of
Virginia," writing from Maryland in this year, says of the people there:
"They are, generally speaking, crafty, knavish, litigious, dissemblers,
and debauched. A gentleman (I mean one of a generous Cambro-Briton
temper) is _rara avis in terris_. A man must be circumspect and prudent
if he will maintain his reputation among them. Of dealing, it is very
true what was told me by a man at London, that none is fit to deal with
a Virginian but a Virginian; however, I having made it my business both
in London and at sea to inquire into the nature of the people, that I
might know the better how to behave myself among them, have gained as
good a reputation as in modesty I could expect; neither have I been much
imposed upon in my bargains. As to the people's disposition in matters
of religion, they will follow none out of the path of interest, and they
heartily embrace none but such as will fill the barn and the basket.
Most sects are here professed, but in general they are practical

The uncharitable judgments of this narrow-minded writer are not
entitled to much weight. Among a people requiring so much ministerial
care, he found ample time to devote to the study of natural history, and
was curious in the examination of "fishes' bones" and "petrified

In the year 1698 died Thomas Ludwell, Esq., some time secretary of
Virginia. He was born at Bruton, County Somerset, England. Sir Edmund
Andros was succeeded in November, 1698, by Colonel Nicholson,
transferred from the government of Maryland. He entertained a plan of
confederating the colonies together, and aspired to become himself the
viceroy of the contemplated union. Finding himself thwarted in these
projects, his conduct became self-willed and overbearing. In a memorial
sent to England, he stated that tobacco bore so low a price as not to
yield even clothes to the planters; yet, in the same paper, advised
parliament to prohibit the plantations from making their own clothing;
in other words, proposing that they should be left to go naked.[358:A]
Indeed, he appeared to be quite altered from what he had been during his
former administration in Virginia; and the change was thought to be not
a little owing to a disappointment in love. He had become passionately
attached to a daughter of Lewis Burwell, Jr., and failing to win her
favor or that of her parents, in his suit, he became infuriated, and
persisted, Quixotically, for years in his fruitless purpose. The young
lady's father, and her brothers, and Commissary Blair, and the Rev. Mr.
Fouace, minister of the parish, were especial objects of his vengeance.
To the young lady he threatened the death of her father and her
brothers, if she did not yield to his suit. He committed other outrages
no less extraordinary.

For the sake of a healthier situation, Governor Nicholson removed the
seat of government from Jamestown, now containing only three or four
good inhabited houses, to Middle Plantation, so called from its lying
midway between James and York Rivers. Here he projected a large town,
laying out the streets in the form of a W and M, in honor of King
William and Queen Mary. This plan, however, appears to have been
abandoned, or only partially carried out.[359:A] According to the
contemporary historian Beverley, Nicholson declared openly to the lower
order of people "that the gentlemen imposed upon them; that the servants
had all been kidnapped, and had a lawful action against their masters."
In the year 1700 Mr. Fowler, the king's attorney-general for the colony,
declaring some piece of service against law, the governor seized him by
the collar, and swore "that he knew no laws they had, and that his
commands should be obeyed without hesitation or reserve." He committed
gentlemen who offended him to prison without any complaint, and refused
to allow bail; and some of them having intimated to him that such
proceedings were illegal, he replied, "that they had no right at all to
the liberties of English subjects, and that he would hang up those that
should presume to oppose him, with magna charta about their necks." He
often extolled the governments of Fez and Morocco, and at a meeting of
the governors of the college, told them "that he knew how to govern the
Moors, and would beat them into better manners." At another time he
avowed that he knew how to govern the country without assemblies, and if
they should deny him anything after he had obtained a standing army, "he
would bring them to reason with halters about their necks." His outrages
made him jealous, and to prevent complaints being sent to England
against him, he is said to have intercepted letters, employed spies, and
even played the eavesdropper himself. He sometimes held inquisitorial
courts to find grounds of accusation against such as incurred his

Robert Beverley, author of a "History of Virginia," published the first
edition of it in 1705. He was a son of Robert Beverley, the persecuted
clerk, who died in 1687. This may account somewhat for his extreme
acrimony against Culpepper and Effingham, who had persecuted his father,
and against Nicholson, who was Effingham's deputy. In his second
edition, when time had, perhaps, mitigated his animosities, Beverley
omitted many of his accusations against these governors. In favor of
Nicholson, it is also to be observed, that his administration in
Maryland and in South Carolina was more satisfactory. But it is certain
that he was an erratic, Quixotic, irascible man, who could not bear
opposition, and an extreme high churchman.

In the eleventh year of William the Third an act was passed for the
restraining and punishing of pirates and privateers, the preamble
reciting that "nothing can more conduce to the honor of his most sacred
majesty than that such articles of peace as are concluded in all
treaties should be kept and preserved inviolable by his majesty's
subjects in and over all his majesty's territories and dominions, and
that great mischief and depredations are daily done upon the high seas
by pirates, privateers, and sea-robbers, in not only taking and
pillaging several ships and vessels belonging to his majesty's subjects,
but also in taking, destroying, and robbing several ships belonging to
the subjects of foreign princes, in league and amity with his majesty;"
and they prayed that crimes committed on the high seas should be
punished as if committed on land, in Virginia.[360:A] A committee was
appointed during the same session "to revise the laws of this his
majesty's ancient and great colony and dominion of Virginia."[360:B]

Among the subjects upon which a tax was laid for the building of a
capitol, were servants imported, not being natives of England or Wales,
fifteen shillings per poll, and twenty shillings on every negro or other
slave. Colonel Robert Carter, speaker of the house, was elected to fill
the office of treasurer; and it came to be the custom for the two
offices of speaker and treasurer to be held by the same person. The
establishment of the office of a treasurer appointed by the assembly,
giving that body control of the colonial purse, added much to the
independence of its legislative power.

In the second year of Nicholson's administration a piratical vessel was
captured within the capes of Virginia. She had taken some
merchant-vessels in Lynhaven Bay, and a small vessel happening to
witness an engagement between her and a merchantman, conveyed
intelligence of it to the Shoram, a fifth-rate man-of-war, commanded by
Captain Passenger, and newly arrived. Nicholson chanced to be at
Kiquotan sealing up his letters, and, going on board the Shoram, was
present in the engagement that followed. The Shoram, by daybreak, having
got in between the capes and the pirate, intercepted her, and an action
took place on the 29th of April, 1700, when the pirate surrendered upon
condition of being referred to the king's mercy. In this affair fell
Peter Heyman, grandson of Sir Peter Heyman, of Summerfield, in the
County of Kent, England. Being collector of the customs in the lower
district of James River, he volunteered to go on board the Shoram, and
after behaving with undaunted courage, standing on the quarter-deck near
the governor, was killed by a small shot.

During this year died the Honorable Colonel Edward Hill, of Shirley, on
the James River, in the sixty-third year of his age; he was of the
council, colonel and commander-in-chief of the Counties of Charles City
and Surry, judge of his majesty's high court of admiralty, and some time
treasurer of Virginia. He lies buried at Shirley, and a portrait of him
and his wife is preserved there.

In the year preceding this, Protestant dissenters, qualified according
to the toleration act of the first year of William and Mary, were
exempted from penalties for not repairing to the parish church, if they
attended some legal place of worship once in two months.[361:A] The
press was not yet free in Virginia, and the writ of _habeas corpus_ was
still withheld.

There was a commencement at William and Mary College in the year 1700,
at which there was a great concourse of people; several planters came
thither in coaches, and others in sloops from New York, Pennsylvania,
and Maryland, it being a new thing in that part of America to hear
graduates perform their exercises. The Indians themselves had the
curiosity, some of them, to visit Williamsburg upon that occasion; and
the whole country rejoiced as if they had some relish of learning.
Fifty-eight years before this there had been celebrated a commencement
at Harvard College, in Massachusetts.[362:A]

In the year 1701 Colonel Quarry, surveyor-general of the customs, wrote
to the board of trade: "This malignant humor is not confined to
Virginia, formerly the most remarkable for loyalty, but is universally

During the month of March of this year died William the Third. His
manner was taciturn, reserved, haughty; his genius military; his
decision inflexible. In his fondness of prerogative he showed himself a
grandson of the first Charles; as the defender of the Protestant
religion, and Prince of Orange, he displayed toleration toward all
except Papists. The government of Virginia under him was not materially
improved. He was succeeded by Anne, daughter of James the Second. Louis
the Fourteenth having recognized the Pretender as lawful heir to the
British crown, Anne, shortly after she succeeded to the throne, in 1702,
declared war against France, and its ally Spain; but Virginia was not
directly affected by the long conflict that ensued. In compliance with
the requests of the assembly, the queen granted the colony warlike
stores, to the value of three thousand and three hundred pounds, which
the governor was directed to pay from the revenue of quit-rents. Her
majesty, at the same time, renewed the requisition formerly made by the
crown for an appropriation in aid of the defences of New York; but the
burgesses still steadily refused.

During the reign of William the Third the commerce of Virginia had been
seriously interrupted, and her customary supplies withheld; she,
therefore, encouraged the domestic manufacture of linen and wool; but an
act for the establishment of fulling-mills was rejected by the board of
trade, as also was one for "the better securing the liberty of the
subject." Governor Nicholson, in a memorial to the council of trade,
described the people of Virginia as numerous, rich, and of republican
principles, such as ought to be lowered in time; that then or never was
the time to maintain the queen's prerogative, and put a stop to those
pernicious notions, which were increasing daily, not only in Virginia,
but in all her majesty's other governments, and that a frown from her
majesty now would do more than an army thereafter; and he insisted on
the necessity of a standing army.[363:A]


[357:A] Account of Va. in Mass. Hist. Coll., first series, v. 144.

[357:B] Old Churches, Ministers, and Families of Virginia, i. 157.

[357:C] European Magazine, 1796.

[358:A] Beverley, B. i. 98.

[359:A] Hugh Jones' Present State of Virginia; Beverley, B. i. 99; Va.
Hist. Reg., vi. 15.

[359:B] Beverley, B. i. 97.

[360:A] Hening, iii. 177.

[360:B] The members of it were Edward Hill, Matthew Page, and Benjamin
Harrison, Esquires, members of the council; and Miles Cary, John Taylor,
Robert Beverley, Anthony Armistead, Henry Duke, and William Buckner,
gentlemen of the house of burgesses.

[361:A] Hening, iii. 171.

[362:A] In 1701 the population of the colonies was as follows:--

     Connecticut             30,000
     Maryland                25,000
     Massachusetts           70,000
     New Hampshire           10,000
     New Jersey              15,000
     New York                30,000
     North Carolina           5,000
     Pennsylvania            20,000
     Rhode Island            10,000
     South Carolina           7,000
     Virginia                40,000
            Total           202,000

(_Compendium of United States Census_.)

[363:A] Beverley, B. i. 104.



     Assembly held in the College--Ceremony of opening the
     Session--The Governor's Speech.

A MEETING of the general assembly was held at her majesty's Royal
College of William and Mary, in March, 1703, being the second year of
Queen Anne's reign, and, by prorogation, again in April, 1704.[364:A]
The clerk of the general assembly was ordered to wait upon the house of
burgesses and inform them that his excellency commanded their immediate
attendance on him in the council chamber. The burgesses having complied
with this order, his excellency was pleased to let them know that her
most sacred majesty having been pleased to renew his commission to be
her majesty's lieutenant and governor-general of this her majesty's most
ancient and great colony and dominion of Virginia, he would cause the
said commission to be read to them. This being done, he read them that
part of his instructions wherein the council are nominated, and informed
the house that upon the death of Colonel Page, the number of councillors
having fallen under nine, he had appointed one to supply that vacancy.
The governor next mentioned to the house that he had commissioned some
of her majesty's honorable council to administer the oath to the
burgesses. Whereupon they withdrew, and the oath was administered by the
Honorable William Byrd, John Lightfoot, and Benjamin Harrison. These
gentlemen returning to the council chamber, the clerk of the assembly
was ordered to wait again upon the house of burgesses, and acquaint them
that his excellency commanded their immediate attendance on him. The
house of burgesses complying with this order, the governor made the
following speech:--


     "God Almighty, I hope, will be graciously pleased so to
     direct, guide, and enable us, as that we may, to all intents
     and purposes, answer her majesty's writ by which this assembly
     was called, and by prorogation is now met in this her majesty
     Queen Anne her royal capitol; which being appointed by law for
     holding general assemblies and general courts, my hopes
     likewise are that they may continue to be held in this place
     for the promoting of God's glory, her majesty, and her
     successors' interest and service with that of the inhabitants
     of this her majesty's most ancient and great colony and
     dominion of Virginia, so long as the sun and moon endure.
     Gentlemen, her most sacred majesty having been graciously
     pleased to send me her royal picture and arms for this her
     colony and dominion, I think the properest place to have them
     kept in, will be this council chamber; but it not being as yet
     quite finished, I cannot have them so placed as I would.

     "By private accounts which I have from England, I understand
     her majesty hath lately thought fit to appoint a day of public
     fasting and humiliation there; but I have not yet seen her
     majesty's royal proclamation for it, which makes me not
     willing to appoint one here till I have. And had it not been
     for this, I designed that her majesty's royal picture and arms
     should have been first seen by you on St. George his day, and
     to have kept it as a day of public thanksgiving, it being the
     day on which her majesty was crowned, and bearing the name of
     his royal highness the Prince of Denmark, and likewise of the
     patron of our mother kingdom of England.

     "Honorable gentlemen, I don't in the least doubt but that you
     will join with me in paying our most humble and dutiful
     acknowledgments and thanks to her most sacred majesty for this
     great honor and favor which she hath been pleased to bestow
     upon your country, and in praying that she may have a long,
     prosperous, successful, and victorious reign, as also that she
     may in all respects not only equal, but even outdo her royal
     predecessor, Queen Elizabeth, of ever-glorious memory, in the
     latter end of whose reign this country was discovered, and in
     honor of her called Virginia.

     "It is now within two years of a century since its being first
     seated, at which time, if God Almighty and her majesty shall
     be so pleased, I design to celebrate a jubilee, and that the
     inhabitants thereof may increase exceedingly, and also abound
     with riches and honors, and have extraordinary good success in
     all their undertakings, but chiefly that they may be exemplary
     in their lives and conversations, continue in their religion
     of the Church of England as by law established, loyal to the
     crown thereof, and that all these things may come to pass, I
     question not but you will most cordially join with me in our
     most unfeigned and hearty prayers to God Almighty for them."

At the close of this verbose speech, the burgesses returned to their
house, and the council adjourned.[366:A]


[364:A] A meeting of the council was held, consisting of his Excellency
Francis Nicholson, Esq., lieutenant and governor-general, and William
Byrd, John Lightfoot, Benjamin Harrison, Robert Carter, John Custis,
Philip Ludwell, William Basset, Henry Duke, Robert Quarry, and John
Smith, Esquires.

[366:A] Documents in S. Literary Messenger, communicated by Wyndham
Robertson, Esq., having been copied by his father, while he was clerk of
the council, from old papers in the council chamber.



     Quit-rents--Northy's Opinion against the Custom of the
     Vestry's employing a Minister by the Year--The Free Church
     Disruption in Scotland--Controversy between Blair and
     Nicholson--Convocation--Nicholson recalled--Notice of his

BY the account of Colonel William Byrd, receiver-general, the nett
proceeds of her majesty's revenue of quit-rents for the year 1703
amounted to five thousand seven hundred and forty-five pounds.

In the Church of England the people have no part in the choice of their
minister; a patron appoints him, and a living supports him. In Virginia,
on the contrary, the salary being levied directly from the people by the
vestries, they fell upon the expedient, as has been repeatedly
mentioned, of employing a minister for a year. Governor Nicholson, an
extreme high-churchman, procured from the attorney-general, Northy, an
opinion against this custom, and it was sent to all the vestries,
with directions to put it on record. The vestries, nevertheless,
pertinaciously resisted this construction of the law. In two important
points the church establishment in Virginia differed from that in
England--in the appointment of the minister by the vestry, according to
the act of 1642, and in the absence of a bishop.

In recent times the disruption of the Scottish general assembly resulted
in the Free Church of Scotland, which thus, by sacrificing the
temporalities, vindicated its independence of the government in things
spiritual. In Virginia the vestries virtually maintained a like
independence. In Scotland the contest arrayed against each other
schismatic parties in the established kirk, known as the Evangelical and
the Moderates, whereas in Virginia it was a mere contest for power
between the vestries and the government. The Free Church of Scotland, at
the time of the disruption, was still in theory in favor of an
establishment in which the clergy should be chosen by the people and
paid by the government.[368:A] Even in England, under the constitution
of the established church, the ministers of certain exceptional chapels
were formerly elected by the freeholders of the parish, subject to the
approval of the vicar, and the violation of their rights in this
particular was sometimes resented in the ruder districts of Yorkshire,
by outrageous insults offered to the new incumbent during the time of
service, and by brutal personal assaults upon the minister.[368:B]

Before the beginning of the eighteenth century the proprietary
government, granted by Charles the First to Lord Baltimore, had at
length been abolished, and the Church of England established there.
There was less tolerance under this establishment than before. In
Maryland as in Virginia, the discipline of the church was loose, the
clergy by no means exemplary, and their condition precarious and

The differences between Dr. Blair and Governor Nicholson led to a
tedious controversy, in which charges of malfeasance in official duty
and private misconduct, especially in the affair of his attachment for
Miss Burwell, and his maltreatment of the Rev. Mr. Fouace, were
transmitted to the government in England, covering forty-four pages
folio of manuscript. The controversy produced no little excitement and
disturbance in the colony; a number of the clergy adhered to the
governor, being those with whom Commissary Blair was unpopular, and whom
the governor had ingratiated by siding with them against the vestries,
and by representing the commissary as less favorable to their cause.
Governor Nicholson ordered a convocation to be assembled, and during its
session held private interviews with his adherents among the clergy, who
signed a paper denying the charges made by the commissary and the
council. A public entertainment given to them was satirized in a ballad,
setting forth their unclerical hilarity, and depicting some of them in
unfavorable colors. This ballad soon appeared in London. In this
convocation seventeen of the clergy were opposed to the commissary, and
only six in his favor. Nevertheless his integrity and indomitable
perseverance and energy triumphed; and at length, upon the complaint
made by him, together with six members of the council and some of the
clergy, particularly the Rev. Mr. Fouace, Colonel Nicholson was
recalled.[369:A] He ceased to be governor in August, 1705. Before
entering on the government of Virginia he had been lieutenant-governor
of New York under Andros, and afterwards at the head of administration
from 1687 to 1689, when he was expelled by a popular tumult. From 1690
to 1692 he was lieutenant-governor of Virginia. From 1694 to 1699 he
held the government of Maryland, where, with the zealous assistance of
Commissary Bray, he busied himself in establishing Episcopacy. Returning
to the government of Virginia, Governor Nicholson remained until 1705.
In the year 1710 he was appointed general and commander-in-chief of the
forces sent against Fort Royal, in Acadia, which was surrendered to him.
During the following year he headed the land force of another expedition
directed against the French in Canada. The naval force on this occasion
was commanded by the imbecile Brigadier Hill. The enterprise was corrupt
in purpose, feeble in execution, and abortive in result. This failure
was attributable to the mismanagement and inefficiency of the fleet. In
1713 Colonel Nicholson was governor of Nova Scotia. Having received the
honor of knighthood in 1720, Sir Francis Nicholson was appointed
governor of South Carolina, where during four years, it is said, he
conducted himself with a judicious and spirited attention to the public
welfare, and this threw a lustre over the closing scene of his long and
active career in America. Returning to England, June, 1725, he died
at London in March, 1728. He is described as an adept in colonial
governments, trained by long experience in New York, Virginia, and
Maryland; brave, and not penurious, but narrow and irascible; of loose
morality, yet a fervent supporter of the church.[369:B]

Upon the revocation of the edict of Nantes, by Louis the Fourteenth, in
1685, more than half a million of French Protestants, called Huguenots,
fled from the jaws of persecution to foreign countries. About forty
thousand took refuge in England. In 1690 William the Third sent over a
number of them to Virginia, and lands were allotted to them on James
River. During the year 1699 another body came over, conducted by their
clergyman, Claude Philippe de Richebourg. He and others were naturalized
some years afterwards. Others followed in succeeding years; the larger
part of them settled at Manakintown, on the south bank of the James
River, about twenty miles above the falls, on rich lands formerly
occupied by the Monacan Indians. The rest dispersed themselves over the
country, some on the James, some on the Rappahannock. The settlement at
Manakintown was erected into the parish of King William, in the County
of Henrico, and exempted from taxation for many years. The refugees
received from the king and the assembly large donations of money and
provisions; and they found in Colonel William Byrd, of Westover, a
generous benefactor. Each settler was allowed a strip of land running
back from the river to the foot of the hill. Here they raised cattle,
undertook to domesticate the buffalo, manufactured cloth, and made
claret wine from wild grapes. Their settlement extended about four miles
along the river. In the centre they built a church; they conducted their
public worship after the German manner, and repeated family worship
three times a day. Manakintown was then on the frontier of Virginia, and
there was no other settlement nearer than the falls of the James River,
yet the Indians do not appear to have ever molested these pious
refugees. There was no mill nearer than the mouth of Falling Creek,
twenty miles distant, and the Huguenots, having no horses, were obliged
to carry their corn on their backs to the mill.

Many worthy families of Virginia are descended from the Huguenots, among
them the Maurys, Fontaines, Lacys, Munfords, Flournoys, Dupuys, Duvalls,
Bondurants, Trents, Moncures, Ligons, and Le Grands. In the year 1714
the aggregate population of the Manakintown settlement was three
hundred. The parish register of a subsequent date, in French, is


[368:A] Memoirs of Dr. Chalmers, iv. 287, 316.

[368:B] Mrs. Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Bronté.

[369:A] Old Churches, etc., i. 158; ii. 291.

[369:B] Bancroft, ii. 82.



     Parishes--The Rev. Francis Makemie--Dissenters--Toleration

IN the year 1702 there were twenty-nine counties in Virginia, and
forty-nine parishes, of which thirty-four were supplied with ministers,
fifteen vacant. In each parish there was a church, of timber, brick, or
stone; in the larger parishes, one or two Chapels of Ease; so that the
whole number of places of worship, for a population of sixty thousand,
was about seventy. In every parish a dwelling-house was provided for the
minister, with a glebe of two hundred and fifty acres of land, and
sometimes a few negroes, or a small stock of cattle. The salary of
sixteen thousand pounds of tobacco was, in ordinary quality, equivalent
to £80; in sweet-scented, to £160. It required the labor of twelve
negroes to produce this amount. There were in Virginia, at this time,
three Quaker congregations, and as many Presbyterian; two in Accomac
under the care of Rev. Francis Makemie; the other on Elizabeth River.

The Rev. Francis Makemie, who is styled the father of the American
Presbyterian Church, was settled in Accomac County before the year 1690,
when his name first appears upon the county records. He appears to have
been a native of the north of Ireland, being of Scotch extraction, and
one of those called Scotch-Irish. Licensed by the presbytery of Lagan in
1680, and in two or three years ordained as an evangelist for America,
he came over, and labored in Barbadoes, Maryland, and Virginia. The
first mention of his name on the records of the county court of Accomac
bears date in 1690, by which he appears to have brought suits for debts
due him in the business of merchandise. He married Naomi, eldest
daughter of William Anderson, a wealthy merchant of Accomac, and thus
acquired an independent estate. In the year 1699 he obtained from the
court of that county a certificate of qualification as a preacher under
the toleration act, the first of the kind known to be on record in
Virginia. At the same time, upon his petition, two houses belonging to
him were licensed as places of public worship.[372:A] In a letter
written in 1710 by the presbytery of Philadelphia to that of Dublin, it
is said: "In all Virginia we have one small congregation on Elizabeth
River, and some few families favoring our way in Rappahannock and York."
Two years after, the Rev. John Macky was the pastor of the Elizabeth
River congregation. It is probable that the congregations organized by
Mr. Makemie, in 1690, were not able to give him a very ample support;
but, prosperous in his worldly affairs, he appears to have contributed
liberally from his own means to the promotion of the religious interests
in which he was engaged. According to tradition, he suffered frequent
annoyances from the intolerant spirit of the times in Virginia; but he
declared that "he durst not deny preaching, and hoped he never should,
while it was wanting and desired." Beverley, in his "History of
Virginia," published in 1705, says: "They have no more than five
conventicles among them, namely, three small meetings of Quakers, and
two of Presbyterians. 'Tis observed that those counties where the
Presbyterian meetings are produce very mean tobacco, and for that reason
can't get an orthodox minister to stay among them; but whenever they
could, the people very orderly went to church."

From this it may be inferred that the Eastern Shore, where Makemie was
settled, produced poor tobacco, and that in consequence of it there was
no minister of the established church in his neighborhood. He is
supposed to have had four places of preaching; his labors proved
acceptable; his hearers and congregations increased in number, and there
was a demand for other ministers of the same denomination. Mr. Makemie,
about the year 1704, returned to the mother country and remained there
about a year. During the following year two ministers, styled his
associates, were licensed, by authority of Governor Seymour, to preach
in Somerset County, in Maryland, notwithstanding the opposition of the
neighboring Episcopal minister. Makemie's imprisonment in New York (by
Lord Cornbury) for preaching in that city, and his able defence upon his
trial, are well known. He died in 1708, leaving a large estate. His
library was much larger than was usually possessed by Virginia clergymen
in that day, and included a number of law books. He appointed the
Honorable Francis Jenkins, of Somerset County, Maryland, and Mary
Jenkins, his lady, executors of his last will and testament, and
guardians of his children.[373:A]

In 1699 a penalty of five shillings was imposed on such persons in
Virginia as should not attend the parish church once in two months; but
dissenters, qualified according to the toleration act of the first year
of William and Mary, were exempted from this penalty, provided they
should attend at "any congregation, or place of religious worship,
permitted and allowed by the said act of parliament, once in two
months."[373:B] Hening remarks of this law: "It is surely an abuse of
terms to call a law a toleration act which imposes a religious test on
the conscience, in order to avoid the penalties of another law equally
violating every principle of religious freedom. The provisions of this
act may be seen in the fourth volume of Blackstone's Commentaries, page
53. Nothing could be more intolerant than to impose the penalties by
this act prescribed for not repairing to church, and then to hold out
the idea of exemption, by a compliance with the provisions of such a law
as the statute of 1 William and Mary, adopted by a mere general
reference, when not one person in a thousand could possibly know its
contents." It was an age when the state of religion was low in England,
and of those ministers sent over to Virginia not a few were incompetent,
some openly profligate; and religion slumbered in the languor of moral
lectures, the maxims of Socrates and Seneca, and the stereotyped routine
of accustomed forms. Altercations between minister and people were not
unfrequent; the parson was a favorite butt for aristocratic ridicule.
Sometimes a pastor more exemplary than the rest was removed from
mercenary motives, or on account of a faithful discharge of his duties.
More frequently the unfit were retained by popular indifference. The
clergy, in effect, did not enjoy that permanent independency of the
people which properly belongs to a hierarchy. The vestry, a
self-perpetuated body of twelve gentlemen, thought themselves "the
parson's master," and the clergy in vain deplored the precarious tenure
of their livings. The commissary's powers were few, limited, and
disputed; he was but the shadow of a bishop; he could not ordain nor
confirm; he could not depose a minister. Yet the people, jealous of
prelatical tyranny, watched his feeble movements with a vigilant and
suspicious eye. The church in Virginia was destitute of an effective


[372:A] It appears from his will, dated in 1708, that he also owned a
house and lot in the new town in Princess Anne County, on the eastern
branch of Elizabeth River, and a house and lot in the new town on
Wormley's Creek, called Urbanna. Whether he used these houses for
merchandise, or for public worship, is not known. It appears from
Commissary Blair's report on the state of the church in Virginia, that
the congregation on Elizabeth River existed before the year 1700. From
the fact of Mr. Makemie's directing, in his will, that his
dwelling-house and lot on that river should be sold, it has been
inferred that he had resided there before he moved to the opposite shore
of the Chesapeake, and that the church in question was gathered by him;
if so, it must have been formed before 1690; for in that year he was
residing on the Eastern Shore. Others have supposed that the
congregation on Elizabeth River was composed of a small company of
Scotch emigrants, whose descendants are still to be found in the
neighborhood of Norfolk.

[373:A] Foote's Sketches of Va., first series, 40, 58, 63, 84; and
Force's Historical Tracts, iv.

[373:B] Hening, iii. 171.

[374:A] Hawks; Bancroft; Beverley, B. iv. 26.



     Edward Nott, Lieutenant-Governor--Earl of Orkney, Titular
     Governor-in-chief--Nott's Administration--Robert Hunter
     appointed Lieutenant-Governor--Captured by the French--The
     Rev. Samuel Sandford endows a Free School--Lord Baltimore.

ON the 13th day of August, 1704, the Duke of Marlborough gained a
celebrated victory over the French and Bavarians at Blenheim.[375:A]
During the same month Edward Nott came over to Virginia,
lieutenant-governor under George Hamilton, Earl of Orkney, who had been
appointed governor-in-chief, and from this time the office became a
pensionary sinecure, enjoyed by one residing in England, and who, out of
a salary of two thousand pounds a year, received twelve hundred. The
Earl of Orkney, who enjoyed this sinecure for forty years, having
entered the army in his youth, was made a colonel in 1689-90, and in
1695-6 was created Earl of Orkney, in consideration of his merit and
gallantry. He was present at the battles of the Boyne, Athlone,
Limerick, Aghrim, Steinkirk, Lauden, Namur, and Blenheim, and was a
great favorite of William the Third. In the first year of Queen Anne's
reign he was made a major-general, and shortly after a Knight of the
Thistle, and served with distinction in all the wars of her reign. As
one of the sixteen peers of Scotland he was a member of the house of
lords for many years. He married, in 1695, Elizabeth, daughter to Sir
Edward Villiers, Knight, (Maid of Honor to Queen Mary,) sister to
Edward, Earl of Jersey, by whom he had three daughters, Lady Anne, who
married the Earl of Inchequin, Lady Frances, who married Sir Thomas
Sanderson, Knight of the Bath, Knight of the Shire of Lincoln, and
brother to the Earl of Scarborough, and Lady Harriet, married to the
Earl of Orrery.

Nott, a mild, benevolent man, did not survive long enough to realize
what the people hoped from his administration. In the fall after his
arrival he called an assembly, which concluded a general revisal of the
laws that had been long in hand. Some salutary acts went into operation,
but those relating to the church and clergy proving unacceptable to the
commissary, as encroaching on the confines of prerogative, were
suspended by the governor, and thus fell through. Governor Nott procured
the passage of an act providing for the building of a palace for the
governor, and appropriating three thousand pounds to that object, and he
dissented to an act infringing on the governor's right of appointing
justices of the peace, by making the concurrence of five of the council
necessary. An act establishing the general court was afterwards
disallowed by the board of trade, because it did not recognize the
appellate rights of the crown. This assembly passed a new act for the
establishment of ports and towns, "grounding it only upon encouragements
according to her majesty's letter;" but the Virginia merchants
complaining against it, this measure also failed.

During the first year of Nott's administration the College of William
and Mary was destroyed by fire.[376:A] The assembly had held their
sessions in it for several years. Governor Nott died in August, 1706,
aged forty-nine years. The assembly erected a monument to his memory in
the graveyard of the church at Williamsburg. In the inscription he is
styled, "His Excellency, Edward Nott, the late Governor of this Colony."
It appears that he and his successors were allowed to retain the chief
title, as giving them more authority with the people, the Earl of Orkney
being quite content with a part of the salary.

England having now adopted the French policy of appointing military men
for the colonial governments, in 1708 Robert Hunter, a brigadier-general,
a scholar, and a wit--a friend of Addison and Swift--was appointed
lieutenant-governor of Virginia; but he was captured on the voyage by
the French. Dean Swift, in January, 1708-9, writes to him, then a
prisoner in Paris, that unless he makes haste to return to England and
get him appointed Bishop of Virginia, he will be persuaded by Addison,
newly appointed secretary of state for Ireland, to accompany him.[377:A]
Two months later he writes to him: "All my hopes now terminate in being
made Bishop of Virginia." In the year 1710 Hunter became Governor of New
York and the Jerseys, and his administration was happily conducted.

Samuel Sandford, who had been some time resident in Accomac County: by
his will, dated at London in this year, he leaves a large tract of land,
the rents and profits to be appropriated to the education of the
children of the poor. It appears probable that he had served as a
minister in Accomac, and at the time of the making of his will was a
minister in the County of Gloucester, England.

About the year 1709, Benedict Calvert, Lord Baltimore, abandoned the
Church of Rome and embraced Protestantism. To Charles Calvert, his son,
likewise a Protestant, the full privileges of the Maryland charter were
subsequently restored by George the First.[377:B]


[375:A] In the following year appeared the first American newspaper,
"The Boston News-Letter."

[376:A] The same disaster has recently befallen this venerable
institution, on the 8th of February, 1859. The library, comprising many
rare and valuable works, shared the fate of the building. The walls are
rising again on the same spot.

[377:A] Anderson's Hist. Col. Church, iii. 127.

[377:B] Ibid., iii. 183.



     Spotswood, Lieutenant-Governor--His Lineage and Early Career--
     Dissolves the Assembly--Assists North Carolina--Sends Cary and
     others Prisoners to England--Death of Queen Anne--Accession of
     George the First--German Settlement--Virginia's Economy--Church

IN the year 1710 Colonel Alexander Spotswood was sent over as
lieutenant-governor, under the Earl of Orkney. He was descended from the
ancient Scottish family of Spottiswoode. The surname is local, and was
assumed by the proprietors of the lands and Barony of Spottiswoode, in
the Parish of Gordon, and County of Berwick, as soon as surnames became
hereditary in Scotland. The immediate ancestor of the family was Robert
de Spotswood, born during the reign of King Alexander the Third, who
succeeded to the crown of Scotland in 1249. Colonel Alexander Spotswood
was born in 1676, the year of Bacon's Rebellion, at Tangier, then an
English colony, in Africa, his father, Robert Spotswood, being physician
to the governor, the Earl of Middleton, and the garrison there. The
grandfather of Alexander was Sir Robert Spotswood, Lord President of the
College of Justice, and Secretary of Scotland in the time of Charles the
First, and author of "The Practicks of the Laws of Scotland." He was the
second son of John Spotswood, or Spottiswoode, Archbishop of St.
Andrews, and author of "The History of the Church of Scotland." The
mother of Colonel Alexander Spotswood was a widow, Catharine Elliott;
his father died at Tangier in 1688, leaving this his only child.[378:A]
Colonel Alexander Spotswood was bred in the army from his childhood, and
uniting genius with energy, served with distinction under the Duke of

He was dangerously wounded in the breast by the first fire which the
French made on the Confederates at the battle of Blenheim. He served
during the heat of that sanguinary war as deputy quartermaster-general.
In after-life, while governor of Virginia, he sometimes showed to his
guests a four-pound ball that struck his coat. Blenheim Castle is
represented in the background of a portrait of him, preserved at
Chelsea, in the County of King William.

The arrival of Governor Spotswood in Virginia was hailed with joy,
because he brought with him the right of Habeas Corpus--a right
guaranteed to every Englishman by Magna Charta, but hitherto denied to
Virginians. He entered upon the duties of his office in June, 1710. The
two houses of the assembly severally returned thanks for an act
affording them "relief from long imprisonments," and appropriated
upwards of two thousand pounds for completing the governor's palace. In
the following year Spotswood wrote back to England: "This government is
in perfect peace and tranquillity, under a due obedience to the royal
authority and a gentlemanly conformity to the Church of England." The
assembly was continued by several prorogations to November, 1711. During
the summer of this year, upon an alarm of an intended French invasion of
Virginia, the governor exerted himself to put the colony in the best
posture of defence. Upon the convening of the assembly their jealousy of
prerogative power revived, and they refused to pay the expense of
collecting the militia, or to discharge the colonial debt, because, as
Spotswood informed the ministry, "they hoped by their frugality to
recommend themselves to the populace." The assembly would only consent
to levy twenty thousand pounds, by duties laid chiefly on British
manufactures; and notwithstanding the governor's message, they insisted
on giving discriminating privileges to Virginia owners of vessels in
preference to British subjects proper, saying that the same exemption
had always existed. The governor declined the proffered levy, and
finding that nothing further could be obtained, dissolved the assembly,
and in anticipation of an Indian war was obliged to solicit supplies
from England.

About this time, the feuds that raged in the adjoining province of
North Carolina, threatening to subvert all regular government there,
Hyde, the governor, called upon Spotswood for aid. He at first sent
Clayton, a man of singular prudence, to endeavor to reconcile the
hostile factions. But Cary, the ringleader of the insurgents, having
refused to make terms, Spotswood ordered a detachment of militia toward
the frontier of North Carolina, while he sent a body of marines, from
the coast-guard ships, to destroy Cary's naval force. In a dispatch,
Spotswood complained to Lord Dartmouth of the reluctance that he found
in the inhabitants of the counties bordering on North Carolina, to march
to the relief of Governor Hyde. No blood was shed upon the occasion, and
Cary, Porter, and other leaders in those disturbances retiring to
Virginia, were apprehended by Spotswood in July, 1711, and sent
prisoners to England, charged with treason. In the ensuing year Lord
Dartmouth addressed letters to the colonies, directing the governors to
send over no more prisoners for crimes or misdemeanors, without proof of
their guilt.

In the Tuscarora war, commenced by a massacre on the frontier of North
Carolina in September of this year, Spotswood again made an effort to
relieve that colony, and prevented the tributary Indians from joining
the enemy. He felt that little honor was to be derived from a contest
with those who fought like wild beasts, and he rather endeavored to work
upon their hopes and fears by treaty. To allay the clamors of the public
creditors the governor convened the assembly in 1712, and demonstrated
to them that during the last twenty-two years the permanent revenue had
been so deficient as to require seven thousand pounds from the monarch's
private purse to supply it. In the month of January, 1714, he at length
concluded a peace with these ferocious tribes, who had been drawn into
the contest, and, blending humanity with vigor, he taught them that
while he could chastise their insolence he commiserated their fate.

On the seventeenth day of November the governor, in his address to the
assembly, announced the death of Queen Anne, the last of the Stuart
monarchs, and the succession of George the First, the first of the
Guelfs, but maternally a grandson of James the First.

The frontier of the colony of Virginia was now undisturbed by Indian
incursions, so that the expenditure was reduced to one-third of what had
been previously required. A settlement of German Protestants had
recently been effected under the governor's auspices, in a region
hitherto unpeopled, on the Rapidan.[381:A] The place settled by these
Germans was called Germanna, afterwards the residence of Spotswood.
These immigrants, being countrymen of the new sovereign, could claim an
additional title to the royal favor on that account. Spotswood was at
the time endeavoring to extend the blessings of a Christian education to
the children of the Indians, and although the beneficial result of this
scheme might to some appear too remote, he declared that for him it was
a sufficient encouragement to think that posterity might reap the
benefit of it. The Indian troubles, by which the frontier of Virginia
had of late years suffered so much, the governor attributed mainly to
the clandestine trade carried on with them by unprincipled men. The same
evil has continued down to the present day. In the before-mentioned
address to the assembly, Spotswood informed them that since their
preceding session he had received a supply of ammunition, arms, and
other necessaries of war, sent out by the late Queen Anne.

During eleven years, from 1707 to 1718, while other colonies were
burdened with taxation for extrinsic purposes, Virginia steadily adhered
to a system of rigid economy, and during that interval eighty-three
pounds of tobacco per poll was the sum-total levied by all acts of
assembly.[381:B] The Virginians now began to scrutinize, with a jealous
eye, the circumstances of the government, and the assembly "held itself
entitled to all the rights and privileges of an English parliament."

The act of 1642, reserving the right of presentation to the parish, the
license of the Bishop of London, and the recommendation of the governor,
availed but little against the popular will, and there were not more
than four inducted ministers in the colony. Republicanism was thus
finding its way even into the church, and vestries were growing
independent. The parish sometimes neglected to receive the minister;
sometimes received but did not present him, the custom being to employ a
minister by the year. In 1703 it was decided that the minister was an
incumbent for life, and could not be displaced by the parish, but the
vestries, by preventing his induction, excluded him from acquiring a
freehold in his living, and he might be removed at pleasure. The
ministers were not always men who could win the esteem of the people or
command their respect. The Virginia parishes were so extensive that
parishioners sometimes lived at the distance of fifty miles from the
parish church, and the assembly would not augment the taxes by narrowing
the bounds of the parishes, even to avoid the dangers of "paganism,
atheism, or sectaries." Schism was threatening "to creep into the
church, and to generate faction in the civil government."[382:A] "In
Virginia," says the Rev. Hugh Jones,[382:B] "there is no ecclesiastical
court, so that vice, profaneness, and immorality are not suppressed. The
people hate the very name of bishop's court." "All which things," he
adds, "make it absolutely necessary for a bishop to be settled there, to
pave the way for mitres in English America."

There is preserved the record of the trial of Grace Sherwood, in the
County of Princess Anne, for witchcraft. Being put in the water, with
her hands bound, she was found to swim. A jury of old women having
examined her, reported that "she was not like them." She was ordered by
the court to be secured "by irons, or otherwise," in jail for farther
trial. The picturesque inlet where she was put in the water is still
known as "Witch Duck." The custom of nailing horse-shoes to the doors to
keep out witches is not yet entirely obsolete.

The Virginians at this time were deterred from sending their children
across the Atlantic to be educated, through fear of the smallpox.[382:C]

From the statistics of the year 1715, it appears that Virginia was, in
population second only to Massachusetts,[383:A] which exceeded her in
total number by one thousand, and in the number of whites by twenty-two
thousand. All the colonies were at this time slave-holding; the seven
Northern ones comprising an aggregate of 12,150 slaves, and the four
Southern ones 46,700. The proportion of whites to negroes in Virginia
was upwards of four to one. Their condition was one of rather rigorous
servitude. The number of Africans imported into Virginia during the
reign of George the First was upwards of ten thousand. In addition to
the slaves, the Virginians had three kinds of white servants,--some
hired in the ordinary way; others, called kids, bound by indenture for
four or five years; the third class consisted of convicts. The two
colonies, Virginia and Maryland, supplied the mother country, in
exchange for her manufactures, with upwards of twenty-five millions of
pounds of tobacco, of which there were afterwards exported more than
seventeen millions, leaving for internal consumption more than eight
millions. Besides the revenue which Great Britain derived from this
source, in a commercial point of view, Virginia and Maryland were at
this period of more consequence to the fatherland than all the other
nine colonies combined. Virginia exchanged her corn, lumber, and salted
provisions, for the sugar, rum, and wine of the West Indies and the


[378:A] Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; Burke's Landed Gentry of Great
Britain and Ireland, ii., Art. SPOTTISWOODE; Chalmers' Introduction, i.
394; Keith's Hist. of Va., 173.

[381:A] There are several rivers in Virginia called after Queen Anne:
the North Anna, South Anna, Rivanna, and Rapidan; and the word Fluvanna
appears to be derived from the same source.

[381:B] Va. Hist. Reg., iv. 11.

[382:A] Bancroft, iii. 27, 28, citing Spotswood MS., an account of
Virginia during his administration, composed by the governor; Hawks, p.

[382:B] The Present State of Virginia.

[382:C] Bishop Meade's "Old Churches."

[383:A] The comparative population of the eleven Anglo-American colonies
in 1715 was as follows:--

                      White Men.  Negroes.  Total.

     New Hampshire       9,500       150     9,650
     Massachusetts      94,000     2,000    96,000
     Rhode Island        8,500       500     9,000
     Connecticut        46,000     1,500    47,500
     New York           27,000     4,000    31,000
     New Jersey         21,000     1,500    22,500
     Pennsylvania       43,300     2,500    45,800
     Maryland           40,700     9,500    50,200
     Virginia           72,000    23,000    95,000
     North Carolina      7,500     3,700    11,200
     South Carolina      6,250    10,500    16,750
                       -------    ------   -------
                       375,750    58,850   434,600

              (_Chalmers' Amer. Colonies_, ii. 7.)



     Indian School at Fort Christanna--The Rev. Mr. Griffin,
     Teacher--Governor Spotswood visits Christanna--Description of
     the School and of the Saponey Indians.

GOVERNOR SPOTSWOOD, who was a proficient in the mathematics, built the
Octagon Magazine, rebuilt the College, and made improvements in the
governor's house and gardens. He was an excellent judge on the bench. At
his instance a grant of £1000 was made by the governors and visitors of
William and Mary College in 1718, and a fund was established for
instructing Indian children in Christianity,[384:A] and he erected a
school for that purpose on the southern frontier, at fort Christanna,
established on the south side of the Meherrin River, in what is now
Southampton County.[384:B] This fort, built on a rising ground, was a
pentagon enclosure of palisades, and instead of bastions, there were
five houses, which defended each other; each side of the fort being
about one hundred yards long. It was mounted with five cannon, and had a
garrison of twelve men. The Rev. Charles Griffin had charge of the
school here, being employed, in 1715, by Governor Spotswood to teach the
Indian children, and to bring them to Christianity. The Rev. Hugh
Jones[384:C] says that he had seen there "seventy-seven Indian children
at school at a time, at the governor's sole expense, I think." This
appears to be a mistake. The school-house was built at the expense of
the Indian Company.[384:D] They were taught the English tongue, and to
repeat the catechism, and to read the Bible and Common Prayers, and to
write. These some of them learned tolerably well. The majority of them
could repeat the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and Ten Commandments, behaved
reverently at prayers, and made the responses. The Indians became so
fond of this worthy missionary, that they would sometimes lift him up in
their arms; and they would have chosen him chief of their tribe, the
Saponeys. They alone remained steadfastly at peace with the whites. They
numbered about two hundred persons, and lived within musket-shot of Fort
Christanna. They had recently been governed by a queen, but she dying
they were now governed by twelve old men. When Governor Spotswood
visited them in April, 1716, these old men waited on him at the Fort,
and laid several skins at his feet, all bowing to him simultaneously.
They complained through their interpreter of fifteen of their young men
having been surprised, and murdered, by the Genitoes, and desired the
governor's assistance in warring against them until they killed as many
of them. They governor agreed that they might revenge themselves, and
that he would furnish them with ammunition. He also made restitution to
them for losses which they complained they had suffered by being cheated
by the English. Sixty young men next made their appearance with feathers
in their hair and run through their ears, their faces painted with blue
and vermilion, their hair cut in fantastic forms, some looking like a
cock's-comb; and they had blue and red blankets wrapped around them.
This was their war-dress, and it made them look like furies. They made
no speech. Next came the young women with long, straight, black hair
reaching down to the waist, with a blanket tied round them, and hanging
down like a petticoat. Most of them had nothing to cover them from the
waist upwards; but some wore a mantle over the shoulders, made of two
deer-skins sewed together. These Indians greased their bodies and heads
with bear's oil, which, with the smoke of their cabins, gave them a
disagreeable odor. They were very modest and faithful to their husbands.
"They are straight and well-limbed, of good shape and extraordinary good
features, as well the men as the women. They look wild, and are mighty
shy of an Englishman, and will not let you touch them."[385:A]

The Saponey town was situated on the bank of the Meherrin, the houses
all joining one another and making a circle. This circle could be
entered by three passages, each about six feet wide. All the doors are
on the inside of the circle, and the level area within was common for
the diversion of the people. In the centre was a large stump of a tree,
on which the head men stood when making a speech. The women bound their
infants to a board cut in the shape of the child; the top of the board
was round, and there was a hole for a string, by which it is hung to the
limb of a tree, or to a pin in a post, and there swings and diverts
himself out of harm's way. The Saponeys lived as lazily and as miserably
as any people in the world. The boys with their bows shot at the eye of
an axe, set up at twenty yards distance, and the governor rewarded their
skill with knives and looking-glasses. They also danced the war-dance;
after which the governor treated them to a luncheon, which they devoured
with animal avidity.


[384:A] Keith's Hist of Va., 173.

[384:B] Huguenot Family, 271, and map opposite page 357. The names on
this little map, taken from a letter by Peter Fontaine, are reversed, by
mistake of the engraver.

[384:C] State and Condition of Virginia.

[384:D] Rev. C. Griffin's Letter, in Bishop Meade's Old Churches, etc.,
i. 287.

[385:A] Huguenot Family, 272.



     Spotswood's Tramontane Expedition--His Companions--Details of
     the Exploration--They cross the Blue Ridge--The Tramontane
     Order--The Golden Horseshoe.

IT was in the year 1716 that Spotswood made the first complete discovery
of a passage over the Blue Ridge of mountains. Robert Beverley, in the
preface to the second edition of his "History of Virginia," published at
London in 1722, says: "I was with the present governor[387:A] at the
head-spring of both those rivers,[387:B] and their fountains are in the
highest ridge of mountains." The governor, accompanied by John Fontaine,
who had been an ensign in the British army, and who had recently come
over to Virginia, started from Williamsburg, on his expedition over the
Appalachian Mountains, as they were then called. Having crossed the York
River at the Brick-house, they lodged that night at the seat of Austin
Moore, now Chelsea, on the Matapony River, a few miles above its
junction with the Pamunkey. On the following night they were hospitably
entertained by Robert Beverley, the historian, at his residence in
Middlesex. The governor left his chaise there, and mounted his horse for
the rest of the journey; and Beverley accompanied him in the
exploration. Proceeding along the Rappahannock they came to the
Germantown, ten miles below the falls, where they halted for some days.
On the twenty-sixth of August Spotswood was joined here by several
gentlemen, two small companies of rangers, and four Meherrin Indians.
The gentlemen of the party appear to have been Spotswood, Fontaine,
Beverley, Colonel Robertson, Austin Smith, who returned home owing to a
fever, Todd, Dr. Robinson, Taylor, Mason, Brooke, and Captains Clouder
and Smith. The whole number of the party, including gentlemen, rangers,
pioneers, Indians, and servants, was probably about fifty. They had
with them a large number of riding and pack-horses, an abundant supply
of provisions, and an extraordinary variety of liquors. Having had their
horses shod, they left Germantown on the twenty-ninth of August, and
encamped that night three miles from Germanna. The camps were named
respectively after the gentlemen of the expedition, the first one being
called "Camp Beverley," where "they made great fires, supped, and drank
good punch."

Aroused in the morning by the trumpet, they proceeded westward, each day
being diversified by the incidents and adventures of exploration. Some
of the party encountered hornets; others were thrown from their horses;
others killed rattlesnakes. Deer and bears were shot, and the venison
and bear-meat were roasted before the fire upon wooden forks. At night
they lay on the boughs of trees under tents. At the head of the
Rappahannock they admired the rich virgin soil, the luxuriant grass, and
the heavy timber of primitive forests. Thirty-six days after Spotswood
had set out from Williamsburg, and on the fifth day of September, 1716,
a clear day, at about one o'clock, he and his party, after a toilsome
ascent, reached the top of the mountain. It is difficult to ascertain at
what point they ascended, but probably it was Swift Run Gap.

As the company wound along, in perspective caravan line, through the
shadowy defiles, the trumpet for the first time awoke the echoes of the
mountains, and from the summit Spotswood and his companions beheld with
rapture the boundless panorama that lay spread out before them, far as
the eye could reach, robed in misty splendor. Here they drank the health
of King George the First, and all the royal family. The highest summit
was named by Spotswood Mount George, in honor of his majesty, and the
gentlemen of the expedition, in honor of the governor, named the next in
height, Mount Spotswood, according to Fontaine, and Mount Alexander,
according to the Rev. Hugh Jones.[388:A] The explorers were on the
water-shed, two streams rising there, the one flowing eastward and the
other westward. Several of the company were desirous of returning, but
the governor persuaded them to continue on. Descending the western side
of the mountain, and proceeding about seven miles farther, they reached
the Shenandoah, which they called the Euphrates, and encamped by the
side of it. They observed trees blazed by the Indians, and the tracks of
elks and buffaloes, and their lairs. They noticed a vine bearing a sort
of wild cucumber, and a shrub with a fruit like the currant, and ate
very good wild grapes. This place was called Spotswood Camp. The river
was found fordable at one place, eighty yards wide in the narrowest
part, and running north. It was here that the governor undertook to
engrave the king's name on a rock, and not on Mount George.

Finding a ford they crossed the river, and this was the extreme point
which the governor reached westward. Recrossing the river, some of the
party using grasshoppers for bait, caught perch and chub fish; others
went a hunting and killed deer and turkeys. Fontaine carved his name on
a tree by the river-side; and the governor buried a bottle with a paper
inclosed, on which he wrote that he took possession for King George the
First of England. Dining here they fired volleys, and drank healths,
they having on this occasion a variety of liquors--Virginia red wine
and white wine, Irish usquebaugh, brandy, shrub, two kinds of rum,
champagne, canary, cherry punch, cider, etc. On the seventh the rangers
proceeded on a farther exploration, and the rest of the company set out
on their return homeward. Governor Spotswood arrived at Williamsburg
on the seventeenth of September, after an absence of about six weeks.
The distance which they had gone was reckoned two hundred and
nineteen miles, and the whole, going and returning, four hundred and
thirty-eight. "For this expedition," says the Rev. Hugh Jones, "they
were obliged to provide a great quantity of horseshoes, things seldom
used in the eastern parts of Virginia, where there are no stones. Upon
which account the governor upon his return presented each of his
companions with a golden horseshoe, some of which I have seen covered
with valuable stones resembling heads of nails, with the inscription on
one side, 'Sic juvat transcendere montes.' This he instituted to
encourage gentlemen to venture backward and make discoveries and
settlements, any gentleman being entitled to wear this golden horseshoe
on the breast who could prove that he had drank his majesty's health on
Mount George." Spotswood instituted the Tramontane Order for this
purpose; but it appears to have soon fallen through. According to
Chalmers, the British government penuriously refused to pay the cost of
the golden horseshoes. A novel called the "Knight of the Horseshoe," by
Dr. William A. Caruthers, derives its name and subject from Spotswood's


[387:A] Spotswood.

[387:B] York and Rappahannock.

[388:A] He says that Spotswood graved the king's name on a rock on Mount
George; but, according to Fontaine, "the governor had graving-irons, but
could not grave anything, the stones were so hard."

[390:A] Memoirs of a Huguenot Family, 281, 292; Introduction to
Randolph's edition of Beverley's Hist. of Va., 5; Rev. Hugh Jones'
Present State of Virginia. The miniature horseshoe that had belonged to
Spotswood, according to a descendant of his, the late Mrs. Susan Bott,
of Petersburg, who had seen it, was small enough to be worn on a
watch-chain. Some of them were set with jewels. One of these horseshoes
is said to be still preserved in the family of Brooke. A bit of colored
glass, apparently the stopper of a small bottle, with a horseshoe
stamped on it, was dug up some years ago in the yard at Chelsea, in King
William County, the residence of Governor Spotswood's eldest daughter.



     Condition of the Colonies--South Carolina appeals to Virginia
     for Succor against the Indians--Proceedings of the Council and
     the Assembly--Disputes between them--Dissensions of Governor
     and Burgesses--He dissolves them--Blackbeard, the Pirate--
     Maynard's Engagement with him--His Death.

THE twenty-five counties of the Ancient Dominion were under a government
consisting of a governor and twelve councillors appointed by the king,
and fifty burgesses elected by the freeholders. The permanent revenue,
established at the restoration, now amounted to four thousand pounds
sterling, and this sum proving inadequate to the public expenditure,
the deficit was eked out by three hundred pounds drawn from the
quit-rents--private property of the king. Relieved from the dangers of
Indian border warfare, and blessed with the able administration of
Governor Spotswood, Virginia, under the tranquil reign of the first
George, advanced in commerce, population, wealth, and power, more
rapidly than any of her sister colonies.

A few of the principal families affected to establish an aristocracy or
oligarchy, and Spotswood, at his first arrival, discovered that it
was necessary "to have a balance on the Bench and the Board." He
subsequently warned the ministers, "that a party was so encouraged by
their success in removing former governors, that they are resolved no
one shall sit easy who doth not entirely submit to their dictates; this
is the case at present, and will continue, unless a stop is put to their
growing power, to whom not any one particular governor, but government
itself, is equally disagreeable."

At a council held at Williamsburg on the 26th day of May, 1715, the
governor presented a letter, received by express, from Governor Craven,
of South Carolina, representing the deplorable condition of that colony
from the murderous inroads of the Indians, the several tribes having
confederated together and threatened the total destruction of the
inhabitants, and requesting a supply of arms and ammunition. The council
unanimously agreed to the request, and, conceiving that Virginia was
also in imminent danger of invasion, desired the Indian Company to
take from the magazine so much ammunition as was necessary for South
Carolina, and to return the same "by the first conveniency, that so this
colony may not be unprovided for its necessary defence." It was further
ordered, that the governors of Maryland, New York, and New England, be
exhorted to send ships of war to Charleston, and that the governor of
South Carolina be invited to send hither their women and children, and
such other persons as are useless in the war. Three pieces of cannon
were sent to Christanna, and ammunition to Germanna, these being the two
frontier settlements. Colonel Nathaniel Harrison was empowered to disarm
the Nottoway Indians.

In June, upon the application of the governor of North Carolina for
preventing the inhabitants of that province from deserting it in that
time of danger, a proclamation was issued by Governor Spotswood ordering
all persons coming thence, without a passport, to be arrested and sent

A letter from the governor of South Carolina, brought by Arthur
Middleton, Esq., requested assistance of men from Virginia. South
Carolina proposed, in order to pay the men, to send to Virginia slaves
to the number of the volunteers, to work on the plantations for their
benefit. The council unanimously resolved to comply with the request,
and to defray the charges incurred until the men should arrive in South
Carolina, and for this purpose the governor and council agreed to
postpone the payment of their own salaries. It was ordered that a party
of Nottoway and Meherrin Indians should be sent to the assistance of the
South Carolinians. An assembly was summoned to meet on the third of
August. The duty of five pounds on slaves imported was suspended for the
benefit of planters sending their slaves from South Carolina to Virginia
as a place of safety. The contract entered into on this occasion between
the two provinces, for the raising of forces, was styled "A treaty made
between this government and the Province of South Carolina." Early in
July, Spotswood dispatched a number of men and arms.

The king of the Saran Indians visited Williamsburg, and agreed to bring
chiefs of the Catawbas and Cherokees to treat of peace, and to aid in
cutting off the Yamasees and other enemies of South Carolina.

The assembly met on the 3d of August, 1715, being the first year of the
reign of George the First. The members of the council were Robert
Carter, James Blair, Philip Ludwell, John Smith, John Lewis, William
Cocke, Nathaniel Harrison, Mann Page, and Robert Porteus, Esquires.
Daniel McCarty, Esq., of Westmoreland, was elected speaker of the house
of burgesses. The governor announced in his speech that the object of
the session was to secure Virginia against the murders, massacres, and
tortures of Indian invasion, and to succor South Carolina in her
distress, and he made known his desire to treat with the Indian chiefs
who were expected, at the head of a body of men, on the frontiers. The
burgesses expressed their hope that as the people of Virginia were so
unable to afford supplies, the king would supply the deficiency out of
his quit-rents, and requested further information as to the treaty made
with South Carolina, and the aid required. A bill was introduced in the
house for amending an act for preventing frauds in tobacco payments, and
improving the staple. The burgesses requested the governor's assistance
in arresting Richard Littlepage and Thomas Butts, who defied their
authority. It appears that these gentlemen, being justices of the peace,
sitting in the court of claims, in which the people presented their
grievances, had refused to certify some such as being false and
seditious. The governor refused to aid in enforcing the warrant. The
house sent up a bill making a small appropriation for the succor of
South Carolina, but clogged with the repeal of parts of the tobacco act,
and the council rejected it, "the tacking things of a different nature
to a money bill" being "an encroachment on the privileges of the

A controversy next ensued between the council and the house as to the
power of redressing the grievances of the people. A dispute also
occurred between the governor and the burgesses relative to the removal
of the court of James City County from Jamestown to Williamsburg. The
governor said: "After five years' residence upon the borders of James
City County, I think it hard I may not be allowed to be as good a judge
as Mr. Marable's rabble, of a proper place for the court-house."

The burgesses declared their sympathy with the suffering Carolinians,
but insisted upon the extreme poverty of the people of Virginia, and so
excused themselves for clogging the appropriation bill with the repeal
of parts of the tobacco act, their object being by one act to relieve
Virginia and succor Carolina. Governor Spotswood, in his reply,
remarked: "When you speak of poverty and engagements, you argue as if
you knew the state of your own country no better than you do that of
others, for as I, that have had the honor to preside for some years past
over this government, do positively deny that any public engagements
have drawn any more wealth out of this colony than what many a single
person in it has on his own account expended in the time, so I do assert
that there is scarce a country of its figure in the Christian world less
burdened with public taxes. If yourselves sincerely believe that it is
reduced to the last degree of poverty, I wonder the more that you should
reject propositions for lessening the charges of assemblies; that you
should expel gentlemen out of your house for only offering to serve
their counties upon their own expense, and that while each day of your
sitting is so costly to your country, you should spend time so
fruitlessly, for now, after a session of twenty-five days, three bills
only have come from your house, and even some of these framed as if you
did not expect they should pass into acts."

On the seventh day of September the council sent to the burgesses a
review of some of their resolutions reflecting upon them, and the
governor, and the preceding assembly. This review is able and severe. On
this day the governor dissolved the assembly, after a speech no less
able, and still more severe. After animadverting upon the proceedings of
the house at length, and paying a high tribute to the merit of the
council, the governor concludes thus:--[394:A]

     "But to be plain with you, the true interest of your country
     is not what you have troubled your heads about. All your
     proceedings have been calculated to answer the notions of the
     ignorant populace, and if you can excuse yourselves to them,
     you matter not how you stand before God, your prince, and all
     judicious men, or before any others to whom you think you owe
     not your elections. The new short method you have fallen upon
     to clear your conduct by your own resolves, will prove the
     censure to be just, for I appeal to all rational men who shall
     read the assembly journals, as well of the last session as of
     this, whether some of your resolves of your house of the
     second instant are not as wide from truth and fair reasoning
     as others are from good manners. In fine, I cannot but
     attribute these miscarriages to the people's mistaken choice
     of a set of representatives, whom Heaven has not generally
     endowed with the ordinary qualifications requisite to
     legislators, for I observe that the grand ruling party in your
     house has not furnished chairmen for two of your standing
     committees[395:A] who can spell English or write common sense,
     as the grievances under their own handwriting will manifest.
     And to keep such an assembly on foot would be the discrediting
     a country that has many able and worthy gentlemen in it. And
     therefore I now dissolve you."

These proceedings throw light on the practical working of the colonial
government, of the vigorous and haughty spirit of Spotswood, who was not
surpassed in ability or in character by any of the colonial governors,
and of the liberty-loving but factious house of burgesses. They also
exhibit the critical condition of South Carolina, and the imminent
danger of Virginia at that period. On this last point Chalmers fell into
an error, in stating that the Indians then had ceased to be objects of
dread in Virginia.

The assembly, as has been seen, expelled two burgesses for serving
without compensation, which they stigmatized as tantamount to
bribery--thus seeming indirectly to charge bribery upon the members of
the British house of commons, who receive no per diem compensation.
After five weeks spent in fruitless altercations, Spotswood, conceiving
the assembly to be actuated by factious motives, dissolved them with
harsh and contemptuous expressions, offending the spirit of the
burgesses. He had previously wounded the pride of the council, long the
oligarchy of the Old Dominion, when "colonel, and member of his
majesty's council of Virginia," was a sort of provincial title of
nobility. Frequent anonymous letters were now transmitted to England,
inveighing against Spotswood. While the board of trade commended his
general conduct, they reproved him for the offensive language which he
had used in his speech to the burgesses, "who, though mean, ignorant
people, and did not comply with his desires, ought not to have been
irritated by sharp expressions, which may not only incense them, but
even their electors." In other points, Spotswood vindicated himself with
vigor and success, and he insisted "that some men are always
dissatisfied, like the tories, if they are not allowed to govern; men
who look upon every one not born in the country as a foreigner."

When, in 1717, the ancient laws of the colony were revised, the acts of
1663, for preventing the recovery of foreign debts, and prohibiting the
assemblage of Quakers, and that of 1676, (one of Bacon's laws,)
excluding from office all persons who had not resided for three years in
Virginia, were repealed by the king.

John Teach, a pirate, commonly called Blackbeard, in the year 1718
established his rendezvous at the mouth of Pamlico River, in North
Carolina. He surrendered himself to Governor Eden, (who was suspected of
being in collusion with him,) and took the oath of allegiance, in order
to avail himself of a proclamation of pardon offered by the king.
Wasting the fruits of sea-robbery in gambling and debauchery, Blackbeard
again embarked in piracy; and having captured and brought in a valuable
cargo, the Carolinians gave notice of it to the government of Virginia.
Spotswood and the assembly immediately proclaimed a large reward for his
apprehension, and Lieutenant Maynard, attached to a ship-of-war
stationed in the Chesapeake Bay, was sent with two small vessels and a
chosen crew in quest of him. An action ensued in Pamlico Bay on the 21st
of November, 1718. Blackbeard, it is said, had posted one of his men
with a lighted match over the powder-magazine, to prevent a capture by
blowing up his vessel, but if so, this order failed to be executed.
Blackbeard, surrounded by the slain, and bleeding from his wounds, in
the act of cocking a pistol, fell on the bloody deck and expired. His
surviving comrades surrendered, and Maynard returned with his prisoners
to James River, with Blackbeard's head hanging from the bowsprit. The
captured pirates were tried in the admiralty court at Williamsburg,
March, 1718, and thirteen of them were hung. Benjamin Franklin, then an
apprentice in a printing-office, composed a ballad on the death of
Teach, which was sung through the streets of Boston.[397:A]


[394:A] Extracts from Journal of the Council of Virginia, sitting as the
upper house of assembly, preserved in the office of the Secretary of the
Commonwealth, in _S. Lit. Messr._, xvii. 585.

[395:A] Privileges and Claims.

[397:A] Grahame's Col. Hist. U. S., ii. 56, citing Williamson's Hist. of
N. C. See, also, A General History of the Pyrates, published at London,
(1726,) and "Lives and Exploits of Banditti and Robbers," by C.



     Complaints against Spotswood--The Governor and the Council--
     Dissension between Spotswood and the Assembly--Convocation of
     the Clergy--Controversy between Blair and Spotswood--Clergy
     address the Bishop of London--The Clergy side with Spotswood--
     Miscellaneous Matters--Governor Spotswood displaced--Succeeded
     by Drysdale--Spotswood's Administration reviewed--Germanna--
     Spotswood Deputy Postmaster General--Engaged in Iron
     Manufacture--His Account of it--Advertisement--Knighted--
     Appointed Commander-in-chief of the Carthagena Expedition--His
     Death--Indian Boys at William and Mary College--Change in
     Spotswood's Political Views--His Marriage--His Children--His
     Widow--Spottiswoode, the Family Seat in Scotland--Portraits of
     Sir Alexander Spotswood and his Lady.

AT length eight members of the council, headed by Commissary Blair,
complained to the government in London, that Governor Spotswood had
infringed the charter of the colony by associating inferior men with
them in criminal trials. It was unfortunate that the Commissary's
position involved him in these political squabbles: he would have been,
doubtless, more usefully employed in those spiritual functions which
were his proper sphere, and which he adorned. The governor lamented to
the board of trade "how much anonymous obloquy had been cast upon his
character, in order to accomplish the designs of a party, which, by
their success in removing other governors, are so far encouraged, that
they are resolved no one shall sit easy who doth not resign his duty,
his reason, and his honor to the government of their maxims and
interests." The domineering ambition of the council was long the
fruitful source of mischiefs to Virginia; and it is on this account that
many of the complaints and accusations against the governors are to be
received with many grains of allowance. The twelve members of the
council had a negative upon the governor's acts; they were members of
the assembly, judges of the highest court, and held command of the
militia as county lieutenants. Stith, in his "History of Virginia,"
complains of their overweening power, and expresses his apprehensions
of its evil consequences.

As early as the year 1692, William the Third had appointed Neal
postmaster for the Northern Colonies, with authority to establish posts.
The rates being afterwards fixed by act of parliament, the system was
introduced into Virginia in the year 1718, and Spotswood wrote to the
board of trade, that "the people were made to believe that the
parliament could not lay any tax (for so they call the rates of postage)
on them without the consent of the general assembly. This gave a handle
for framing some grievance against the new office; and thereupon a bill
was passed by both council and burgesses, which, though it acknowledged
the act of parliament to be in force in Virginia, doth effectually
prevent its ever being put in execution; whence your lordships may judge
how well affected the major part of the assemblymen are toward the
collection of this branch of the revenue." The act, nevertheless, was

The assembly refused to pass measures recommended by the governor;
invaded his powers by investing the county courts with the appointment
of their own clerks; endeavored, as has been seen, to render inoperative
the new post-office system, and transmitted an address to the king,
praying that the instruction which required that no acts should be
passed affecting the British commerce or navigation without a clause of
suspension, might be recalled, and that the governor's power of
appointing judges of oyer and terminer should be limited; and they
complained that the governor's attempts went to the subversion of the
constitution, since he made daily encroachments on their ancient rights.
The governor, perceiving that it was the design of his opponents to
provoke him, and then make a handle of the ebullitions of his
resentment, displayed moderation as well as ability in these disputes,
and when the assembly had completed their charges, prorogued them. This
effervescence of ill humor excited a reaction in favor of Spotswood, and
in a short time addresses poured in from the clergy, the college, and
most of the counties, reprobating the factious conduct of the
legislature, and expressing the public happiness under an administration
which had raised the colony from penury to prosperity. Meantime Colonel
Byrd, who had been sent out to London as colonial agent, having rather
failed in his efforts against Spotswood, begged the board of trade "to
recommend forgiveness and moderation to both parties." The
recommendation, enforced by the advice of Lord Orkney, the
governor-in-chief, the Duke of Argyle, and other great men who
patronized Spotswood, quieted these discords; and the governor, the
council, and the burgesses now united harmoniously in promoting the
public welfare.

The chief apple of discord between the governor and the Virginians was
the old question relating to the powers of the vestry. About this time
Governor Spotswood was engaged in a warm dispute with the vestry of St.
Anne's Parish, Essex, in which he took very high ground. The Rev. Hugh
Jones subsequently, while on a visit in England, reported to the Bishop
of London some things against the rubrical exactness of Commissary
Blair. Evil reports had also reached the mother country as to the moral
character of some of the clergy. A convention of the Virginia clergy
was, therefore, held in compliance with the direction of the Bishop of
London, at the College of William and Mary, in April, 1719. The
governor, in a letter addressed to this body, assails the commissary as
denying "that the king's government has the right to collate ministers
to ecclesiastical benefices within this colony," "deserting the cause of
the church," and countenancing disorders in divine worship "destructive
to the establishment of the church." To all this, Commissary Blair made
a reply, vindicating himself triumphantly.[400:A] He appears to have
sympathized on these matters with the vestries and the people. Governor
Spotswood, on the contrary, was an extreme high churchman and supporter
of royal prerogative, as might have been expected from the descendant of
a long line of ancestors always found arrayed on the side of the crown,
and the church as established, and never with the people. The journal of
this convocation throws much light on the condition of the church and
the clergy of Virginia at that time. The powers exercised by the
vestries, indeed, often made the position of the clergy precarious; but
it would, perhaps, have engendered far greater evils if the governor
had been allowed to be the patron of all the livings. Governor
Spotswood's letter to the vestry of St. Anne's presents an elaborate
argument against the right of the vestry to appoint or remove the
minister; but, notwithstanding the opposition of the governor, bishop,
clergy, and crown, the vestries and the people still steadfastly
maintained this right. This question was the embryo of the revolution;
political freedom is the offspring of religious freedom; it takes its
rise in the church.

In answer to an inquiry made by the Bishop of London, the convention
voted "that no member had any personal knowledge of the irregularity of
any clergyman's life in this colony," a manifest equivocation.[401:A] In
their address to the Bishop of London, the convention state that all the
ministers in Virginia are episcopally ordained, except Mr. Commissary,
of whose ordination a major part doubt;[401:B] that the circumstances of
the country will not permit them to conform to the established liturgy
as they would desire; that owing to the extent of the parishes they have
service but once on Sunday, and but one sermon; that for the same reason
the dead are not buried in churchyards, and the burial-service is
usually performed by a layman; that the people observe no holidays
except Christmas-day and Good Friday, being unwilling to leave their
daily labor; and that of necessity the sacrament of the Lord's Supper is
administered to persons who are not confirmed; that the ministers are
obliged to baptize, and church women, marry, and bury at private houses,
administer the Lord's Supper to a single sick person, perform in church
the office of both sacraments without the habits, ornaments, and vessels
required by the liturgy. The convention press upon his lordship's
attention the precarious tenure of their livings, to which many of these
deviations from the liturgy were attributable; they declare that the
people are adverse to the induction of the clergy, which exposes them to
the great oppression of the vestries. The clergy refer to Governor
Spotswood as, under God, their chief support, whose efforts in their
behalf were, as alleged by the governor, opposed by some of the council
and Commissary Blair, who was himself accused of some irregularities.

The convention also stated that the commissary found great difficulty
in making visitations, owing to the refusal of church wardens to take
the official oath, or to make presentments, and from "the general
aversion of the people to everything that looks like a spiritual court."
The commissary refused to subscribe to it. The contending parties in
these disputes were the governor and the clergy on the one side, and the
commissary with the people on the other. According to the opinion of the
attorney-general, Sir Edward Northey, given in 1703, "the right of
presentation by the laws of Virginia was in the parishioners, and the
right of lapse in the governor;" that is, if the vestry failed to choose
a minister within six months, the governor had the right of appointing
him; but it was a right which the governors, although reinforced by
royal authority, could not enforce. Of the twenty-five members of this
clerical convention only eight appear to have sided with the commissary.
He held that the difference between him and the governor as to the right
of collation was this: the governor claimed the right in the first
instance, like that of the king of England, to bestow livings of which
he himself is patron; the commissary was of opinion that the governor's
power corresponded to that of the bishop, not being original, but only
consequent upon a lapse; that is, a failure of the vestry to present
within the time limited by law. Commissary Blair, throughout these angry
controversies, in the course of which he was very badly treated by the
governor and the clergy, bore himself with singular ability and
excellent temper, and proved himself more than a match for his

Predatory parties of the Five Nations were repelled by force, and
conciliated by presents. The frontier of Virginia was extended to the
foot of the Blue Ridge, and two new Piedmont counties, Spotsylvania and
Brunswick, were established in 1720--the seventh year of George the
First.[402:B] Spotsylvania included the northern pass through the
mountains. At the special solicitation of the governor, the two counties
were exempted from taxation for ten years. An act was passed imposing
penalties on "whosoever shall weed, top, hill, succor, house, cure,
strip or pack any seconds, suckers, or slips of tobacco." Two hundred
pounds of tobacco were offered in reward for every wolf killed.
Warehouses for storing tobacco and other merchandize, when first
established in 1712, were denominated rolling-houses, from the mode of
rolling the tobacco to market, before wagons came into general use or
the navigation of the rivers improved. This mode of transporting tobacco
prevailed generally in 1820, and later.[403:A] Tobacco warehouses in
Virginia are now devoted exclusively to that commodity. In 1720, King
George County was carved off from Richmond County, and Hanover from New
Kent. A house for the governor was completed about this time. An act was
passed to encourage the making of tar and hemp, and another to oblige
ships coming from places infected with the plague to perform quarantine.
The Indians of the Five Nations, warring with the Southern Indians for
many years, had been in the habit of marching along the frontier of
Virginia and committing depredations. To prevent this, a treaty was
effected with them, whereby they bound themselves not to cross Potomac
River, nor to pass to the eastward of the great ridge of mountains,
without a passport from the Governor of New York; and, on the other
hand, the Indians tributary to this government engaged not to pass over
the Potomac, or go westward of the mountains, without a passport from
the Governor of Virginia. This treaty was ratified at Albany, September,
1722. An act concerning servants and slaves was repealed by

Spotswood urged upon the British government the policy of establishing a
chain of posts beyond the Alleghanies, from the lakes to the
Mississippi, to restrain the encroachments of the French. The ministry
did not enter into his views on this subject, and it was not till after
the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that his wise, prophetic admonitions were
heeded, and his plans adopted. He also failed in an effort to obtain
from the government compensation for his companions in the Tramontane
exploration. At length, owing, as his friends allege, to the intrigues
and envious whispers of men far inferior to him in capacity and honesty,
but according to others, on account of his high-handed encroachments on
the rights of the colony, Spotswood was displaced in 1722, and succeeded
by Hugh Drysdale. Chalmers,[404:A] also a native of Scotland, and as
extreme a supporter of prerogative, thus eulogizes Spotswood: "Having
reviewed the uninteresting conduct of the frivolous men who had ruled
before him, the historian will dwell with pleasure on the merits of
Spotswood. There was an utility in his designs, a vigor in his conduct,
and an attachment to the true interest of the kingdom and the colony,
which merit the greatest praise. Had he attended more to the courtly
maxim of Charles the Second, 'to quarrel with no man, however great
might be the provocation, since he knew not how soon he should be
obliged to act with him,' that able officer might be recommended as the
model of a provincial governor. The fabled heroes who had discovered the
uses of the anvil and the axe, who introduced the labors of the plough,
with the arts of the fisher, have been immortalized as the greatest
benefactors of mankind; had Spotswood even invaded the privileges, while
he only mortified the pride of the Virginians, they ought to have
erected a statue to the memory of a ruler who gave them the manufacture
of iron, and showed them by his active example that it is diligence and
attention which can alone make a people great."

Governor Spotswood was the author of an act for improving the staple of
tobacco, and making tobacco-notes the medium of ordinary circulation.
Being a master of the military art, he kept the militia of Virginia
under admirable discipline. In Spotsylvania, Spotswood, previous to the
year 1724, had founded, on a horseshoe peninsula of four hundred acres,
on the Rapidan, the little town of Germanna, so called after the Germans
sent over by Queen Anne, and settled in that quarter, and at this place
he resided. A church was built there mainly at his expense. In the year
1730 he was made deputy postmaster-general for the colonies, and held
that office till 1739; and it was he who promoted Benjamin Franklin to
the office of postmaster for the Province of Pennsylvania. Owning an
extensive tract of forty-five thousand acres of land, and finding it to
abound in iron ore, he engaged largely in partnership with Mr. Robert
Cary, of England, and others in Virginia, in the manufacture of it. He
is styled by Colonel Byrd the "Tubal Cain of Virginia;" he was, indeed,
the first person that ever established a regular furnace in North
America, leading the way and setting the example to New England and
Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania, at this period, was unable to export iron,
owing to the scarcity of ships, and made it only for domestic use.
Spotswood expressed the hope that "he had done the country very great
service by setting so good an example;" and stated "that the four
furnaces now at work in Virginia circulated a great sum of money for
provisions and all other necessaries in the adjacent counties; that they
took off a great number of hands from planting tobacco, and employed
them in works that produced a large sum of money in England to the
persons concerned, whereby the country is so much the richer; that they
are besides a considerable advantage to Great Britain, because it
lessens the quantity of bar iron imported from Spain, Holland, Sweden,
Denmark, and Muscovy, which used to be no less than twenty thousand tons
yearly, though, at the same time, no sow iron is imported thither from
any country, but only from the plantations. For most of this bar iron
they do not only pay silver, but our friends in the Baltic are so nice
they even expect to be paid all in crown pieces. On the contrary, all
the iron they receive from the plantations, they pay for it in their own
manufactures and send for it in their own shipping."[405:A]

There was as yet no forge set up in Virginia for the manufacture of bar
iron. The duty in England upon it was twenty-four shillings a ton, and
it sold there for from ten to sixteen pounds per ton, which paid the
cost of forging it abundantly; but Spotswood "doubted; the parliament of
England would soon forbid us that improvement, lest after that we should
go farther, and manufacture our bars into all sorts of ironware, as they
already do in New England and Pennsylvania. Nay, he questioned whether
we should be suffered to cast any iron which they can do themselves at
their furnaces."

The whole expense was computed at two pounds per ton of sow, (or pig
iron,) and it sold for five or six pounds in England, leaving a nett
profit of three pounds or more on a ton. It was estimated that a furnace
would cost seven hundred pounds. One hundred negroes were requisite, but
on good land these, besides the furnace-work, would raise corn and
provisions sufficient for themselves and the cattle. The people to be
hired were a founder, a mine-raiser, a collier, a stock-taker, a clerk,
a smith, a carpenter, a wheelwright, and some carters, these altogether
involving an annual charge of five hundred pounds.

At Massaponux, a plantation on the Rappahannock, belonging to Governor
Spotswood, he had in operation an air-furnace for casting chimney-backs,
andirons, fenders, plates for hearths, pots, mortars, rollers for
gardeners, skillets, boxes for cart-wheels. These were sold at twenty
shillings a ton and delivered at the purchaser's home, and being cast
from the sow iron were much better than the English, which were made,
for the most part, immediately from the ore.

In 1732, besides Colonel Willis, the principal person of the place,
there were at Fredericksburg only one merchant, a tailor, a blacksmith,
and an ordinary keeper.

The following advertisement is found in the "Virginia Gazette" for 1739:
"Colonel Spotswood, intending next year to leave Virginia with his
family, hereby gives notice that he shall, in April next, dispose of a
quantity of choice household furniture, together with a coach, chariot,
chaise, coach-horses, house-slaves, etc. And that the rich lands in
Orange County, which he has hitherto reserved for his own seating, he
now leases out for lives renewable till Christmas, 1775, admitting every
tenant to the choice of his tenement, according to the priority of
entry. He further gives notice that he is ready to treat with any person
of good credit for farming out, for twenty-one years, Germanna and its
contiguous lands, with the stock thereon, and some slaves. As also for
farming out, for the like term of years, an extraordinary grist-mill and
bolting-mill, lately built by one of the best millwrights in America,
and both going by water taken by a long race out of the Rapidan,
together with six hundred acres of seated land adjoining the said mill.

"N. B.--The chariot (which has been looked upon as one of the best made,
handsomest, and easiest chariots in London,) is to be disposed of at any
time, together with some other goods. No one will be received as a
tenant who has not the character of an industrious man."

Major-General Sir Alexander Spotswood, when on the eve of embarking with
the troops destined for Carthagena, died at Annapolis, on the 7th day of
June, 1740. There is reason to believe that he lies buried at Temple
Farm, his country residence near Yorktown, and so called from a
sepulchral building erected by him in the garden there. It was in the
dwelling-house at Temple Farm (called the Moore House) that Lord
Cornwallis signed the capitulation. This spot, so associated with
historical recollections, is also highly picturesque in its

Governor Spotswood left a historical account of Virginia during the
period of his administration, and Mr. Bancroft had access to this
valuable document, and refers to it in his history.[407:B]

During the sanguinary war with the Indians in which North Carolina had
been engaged, Governor Spotswood demanded of the tribes tributary to
Virginia a number of the sons of their chiefs, to be sent to the College
of William and Mary, where they served as hostages to preserve peace,
and enjoyed the advantage of learning to read and write English, and
were instructed in the Christian religion. But on returning to their own
people they relapsed into idolatry and barbarism.[407:C]

Governor Spotswood's long residence in Virginia, and the identity of his
interests with those of the people of the colony, appear to have greatly
changed his views of governmental prerogative and popular rights, for
during this year he gave it as his opinion that "if the assembly in New
England would stand bluff, he did not see how they could be forced to
raise money against their will, for if they should direct it to be done
by act of parliament, which they have threatened to do, (though it be
against the right of Englishmen to be taxed but by their
representatives,) yet they would find it no easy matter to put such an
act in execution."[408:A]

Governor Spotswood married, in 1724, Miss Butler Bryan, (pronounced
Brain,) daughter of Richard Bryan, Esq., of Westminster, an English
lady, whose Christian name was taken from James Butler, Duke of Ormond,
her godfather. Their children were John and Robert, Anne Catherine and
Dorothea. John Spotswood married, in 1745, Mary Dandridge, daughter of
William Dandridge, of the British navy, Commander of the Ludlow Castle
ship-of-war, and their children were two sons, General Alexander
Spotswood and Captain John Spotswood of the army of the Revolution, and
two daughters, Mary and Anne. Robert, the younger son of the governor,
an officer under Washington in the French and Indian war, being detached
with a scouting party from Fort Cumberland, (1756,) was supposed to have
been killed by the Indians. He died without issue.[408:B] His remains
were found near Fort Du Quesne; and in an elegiac poem published in
"Martin's Miscellany," in London, the writer assumes that young
Spotswood was slain by the savages.

     "Courageous youth! were now thine honored sire
      To breathe again, and rouse his wonted ire,
      Nor French nor Shawnee dare his rage provoke,
      From great Potomac's spring to Roanoke.

     "May Forbes yet live the cruel debt to pay,
      And wash the blood of Braddock's field away;
      The fair Ohio's blushing waves may tell
      How Britons fought, and how each hero fell."[408:C]

Anne Catherine, the elder daughter of Governor Spotswood, married
Bernard Moore, Esq., of Chelsea, in the County of King William.
Dorothea, the other daughter, married Captain Nathaniel West Dandridge,
of the British navy, son of Captain William Dandridge, of Elson

The governor's lady surviving him, and continuing to live at Germanna,
November the 9th, 1742, married second the Rev. John Thompson, of
Culpepper County, a minister of exemplary character. From this union was
descended the late Commodore Thompson of the United States navy. Lady
Spotswood's children objected to the match on the ground of his inferior
rank, so that after an engagement she requested to be released; but he
appears to have overcome her scruples by a curious letter addressed to
her on the subject.[409:B]

The present representative of the family[409:C] is John Spottiswoode,
Esq., M.P., Laird of Spottiswoode.[409:D] His brothers are George
Spottiswoode, of Gladswood, County Berwick, lieutenant-colonel in the
army, and Andrew Spottiswoode, of Broom Hall, County Surrey. The
representative of the family resides during the greater portion of the
year at Spottiswoode, on his extensive hereditary estate, the modern
mansion being one of the finest in Southern Scotland. The old mansion
still remains. Thirty miles of underground drains have been made on this
estate, reclaiming hundreds of acres of land lying between the
Blackadder and the Leader.[409:E]

Governor Spotswood[409:F] was half-brother to a General Elliott. The
governor had a country-seat near Williamsburg, called Porto-Bello.
Besides the portrait of him preserved at Chelsea, in the County of King
William, there is another at the residence of William Spotswood, Esq.,
in Orange County, where there is also a portrait of Lady Spotswood, and
one of General Elliott, half-brother of the governor, in complete armor.
The descendants of Governor Spotswood in Virginia are numerous, and his
memory is held in great respect.


[400:A] Bishop Meade's Old Churches, etc., i. 160, ii. Appendix, 393.

[401:A] Bishop Meade's Old Churches, etc., i. 162.

[401:B] A majority of one only.

[402:A] Bishop Meade's Old Churches, etc., i. 160, ii. Appendix, 1.

[402:B] Spotsylvania, named from the first syllable of the governor's
name, compounded with a Latinized termination answering to the other
syllable--a sort of conceit.

[403:A] Hening, iv. 32, 91.

[404:A] Introduction, ii. 78.

[405:A] Westover MSS., 132.

[407:A] Bishop Meade's Old Churches, etc., 227.

[407:B] This MS., after remaining long in the Spotswood family of
Virginia, was at length communicated to an English gentleman then in
this country, and it is supposed to be still in his possession in
Europe. It is much to be regretted that there is no copy of it in

[407:C] Westover MSS., 36.

[408:A] Westover MSS., 135.

[408:B] Washington's Writings, ii. 239, 252.

[408:C] Lossing's Field-Book of the Revolution, ii. 471. This work is a
reservoir of valuable information.

[409:A] Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; Burke's Landed Gentry, ii., art.

[409:B] See Hist. of St. George's Parish, by Rev. Philip Slaughter, 55,
and Bishop Meade's Old Churches, etc., ii. 77.

[409:C] 1852.

[409:D] Letter of Andrew Spottiswoode, Esq., written in 1852, to Rev.
John B. Spotswood, of New Castle, Delaware.

[409:E] Beattie's Scotland Illustrated, i. 31.

[409:F] _Arms of Governor Spotswood._--Argent, a cheveron gules, between
three oak-trees eradicate, vert. Supporters, two satyrs proper. Crest:
an eagle displayed gules, looking to the sun in his splendor, proper.
Motto: "Patior ut potiar." Chief seat: at the old Castle of Spotswood,
in Berwickshire.--(_Burke's Landed Gentry._)



     Drysdale, Governor--Intemperance among the Clergy--The Rev.
     Mr. Lang's Testimony--Acts of Assembly--Death of Governor
     Drysdale--Colonel Robert Carter, President--Called King
     Carter--Notice of his Family.

IN the month of September, 1722, Hugh Drysdale assumed the
administration of Virginia, amid the prosperity bequeathed him by his
predecessor, and being a man of mediocre calibre, yielded to the current
of the day, solicitous only to retain his place. Commissary Blair wished
the governor, when a vacancy of more than six months occurred, to send
and induct a minister as by law directed; but what Spotswood had not
been bold enough to do, Drysdale feared to undertake without the
authority of a royal order. Opinion is queen of the world.

There were frequent complaints of the scandalous lives of some of the
clergy; but it was difficult to obtain positive proof, there being many
who would cry out against such, and yet would not appear as witnesses to
convict them. Intemperance appears to have been the predominant evil
among the clergy, as it was also among the laity.

The Rev. Mr. Lang, who was highly recommended by the governor and
commissary, wrote, in 1726, to the Bishop of London: "I observe the
people here are very zealous for our holy church, as it is established
in England, so that (except some few inconsiderable Quakers) there are
scarce any dissenters from our communion; and yet, at the same time, the
people are supinely ignorant in the very principles of religion, and
very debauched in morals. This, I apprehend, is owing to the general
neglect of the clergy in not taking pains to instruct youth in the
fundamentals of religion, or to examine people come to years of
discretion, before they are permitted to come to church privileges."
Referring to the prevailing evils he says: "The great cause of all which
I humbly conceive to be in the clergy, the sober part being slothful
and negligent, and others so debauched that they are the foremost and
most bent on all manner of vices. Drunkenness is the common vice."
Mr. Lang was minister of the parish of St. Peters, in New Kent
County.[412:A] The religious instruction of the negroes was for the most
part neglected. There were no schools for the education of the children
of the common people; no parish libraries.

The assembly was held from time to time, according to long established
custom, by writ of prorogation; the people being thus deprived of the
right of frequent elections. An act regulating the importation of
convicts was rejected by the board of trade. To relieve the people from
a poll-tax a duty was laid on the importation of liquors and slaves, but
owing to the opposition of the African Company and interested traders,
the measure was repealed as an encroachment on the trade of England.

Acts prohibiting the importation of negro slaves were repeatedly passed
by New York, Maryland, and South Carolina, and were invariably rejected
in England. Governor Drysdale congratulated the Duke of Newcastle "that
the benign influence of his auspicious sovereign was conspicuous here in
a general harmony and contentment among all ranks of persons." Hugh
Drysdale dying in July, 1726, and Colonel Edmund Jennings, next in order
of succession, being suspended, (for what cause does not appear,)
Colonel Robert Carter succeeded as president of the council. This
gentleman, owing to the extent of his landed possessions, and to his
being agent of Lord Fairfax, proprietary of a vast territory in the
Northern Neck, between the Potomac and the Rappahannock, acquired the
sobriquet of "King Carter." He was speaker of the house of burgesses for
six years, treasurer of the colony, and for many years member of
the council, and as president of that body he was at the head of
the government upwards of a year. He lived at Corotoman, on the
Rappahannock, in Lancaster County. Here a church was completed in the
year 1670, under the direction of John Carter, first of the family in
Virginia, who came over from England, 1649. A fine old church was built
about 1732 by Robert Carter, on the site of the former one, and is
still in good preservation. He married first Judith Armistead, second a
widow, whose maiden name was Betty Landon, of the ancient family of that
name, of Grednal, in Hereford County, England, by whom he left many
children. His portrait and that of one of his wives, are preserved at
Shirley, on James River, seat of Hill Carter, Esq.[413:A] The first John
Carter was a member of the house of burgesses for Upper Norfolk County,
now Nansemond, in 1649 and in 1654, and subsequently for Lancaster
County. Colonel Edward Carter was, in 1658, burgess for Upper Norfolk,
and in 1660 member of the council.


[412:A] Old Churches, i. 385.

[413:A] The Carter arms bear cart-wheels, vert.



     William Gooch, Governor--The Dividing Line--Miscellaneous--
     Colonel Byrd's Opinion of New England--John Holloway--William
     Hopkins--Earl of Orkney--Expedition against Carthagena--Gooch
     commands the Virginia Regiment--Lawrence Washington--Failure
     of attack on Carthagena--Georgia recruits Soldiers in Virginia
     to resist the Spaniards--Acts of Assembly--Printing in
     Virginia--In other Colonies--The Williamsburg Gazette--
     Miscellaneous Items--Proceedings at opening of General
     Assembly--Sir John Randolph, Speaker--Governor Gooch's Speech--
     Richmond laid off--Captain William Byrd--Bacon Quarter--Colonel
     Byrd and others plan Richmond and Petersburg in 1733--Virginia
     Gazette--The Mails.

IN June, 1727, George the Second succeeded his father in the throne of
England. About the middle of October, William Gooch, a native of
Scotland, who had been an officer in the British army, became Governor
of Virginia. The council, without authority, allowed him three hundred
pounds out of the royal quit-rents, and he in return resigned, in a
great measure, the helm of government to them. Owing partly to this
coalition, partly to a well-established revenue and a rigid economy,
Virginia enjoyed prosperous repose during his long administration. There
was at this time one Presbyterian congregation in Virginia, and
preachers from the Philadelphia Synod visited the colony.

During the year 1728 the boundary line between Virginia and North
Carolina was run by Colonel Byrd and Messrs. Fitzwilliam and Dandridge,
commissioners in behalf of Virginia, and others in behalf of North
Carolina. "A History of the Dividing Line," by Colonel Byrd, has been
published in a work entitled the "Westover MSS.;"[414:A] it contains
graphic descriptions of the country passed through, its productions, and
natural history. The author was a learned man and accurate observer.

There remained in their native seat two hundred Nottoway Indians, the
only tribe of any consequence surviving in Virginia.

There were also still remains of the Pamunkey tribe, but reduced to a
small number, and intermixed in blood. The rest of the native tribes had
either removed beyond the limits of the colony, or dwindled to a mere
handful by war, disease, and intemperance. An act of parliament
prohibiting the exportation of stripped or stemmed tobacco was
complained of by the planters as causing a decline of the trade. They
undertook to enhance the value by improving its quality, and in July,
1732, sent John Randolph to lay their complaint before the crown.

With this accomplished and able man, afterwards knighted, and made
attorney-general, Governor Spotswood was engaged in an angry personal
controversy in the _Williamsburg Gazette_. The merits of the dispute
cannot now be ascertained. Spotswood claims to have been Randolph's
benefactor, and to have been the first to promote him in the world.

Virginia, notwithstanding some obstacles in the way of her trade,
continued to prosper, and from the year 1700 her population doubled in
twenty-five years. The New England Colonies improved still more. Colonel
Byrd said of them: "Though these people may be ridiculed for some
Pharisaical particularities in their worship and behavior, yet they were
very useful subjects, as being frugal and industrious, giving no scandal
or bad example, at least by any open and public vices. By which
excellent qualities they had much the advantage of the Southern Colony,
who thought their being members of the established church sufficient to
sanctify very loose and profligate morals. For this reason New England
improved much faster than Virginia, and in seven or eight years New
Plymouth, like Switzerland, seemed too narrow a territory for its

Boston, the principal town in the Anglo-American Colonies, founded in
1630, contained, in 1733, eight thousand houses and forty thousand
inhabitants; and its shipping and trade were already extensive.

In 1734 died John Holloway, Esq., who for thirty years had practised the
law with great reputation and success. He was for fourteen years speaker
of the house of burgesses, and eleven years treasurer. A native of
England, he had first served as a clerk, then went into the army in
Ireland early in the reign of King William the Third; next came to be
one of the attorneys of the Marshalsea Court; afterwards turned
projector, and being unfortunate, came over to Maryland, and thence
removed to Virginia. He is described by Sir John Randolph as more
distinguished for industry than for learning, and as relying more upon
the subtle artifice of an attorney, than the solid reasoning of a
lawyer. His opinions, however, were looked upon as authoritative; and
clients thought themselves fortunate if they could engage his services
upon any terms, and his fees were often exorbitant. He is portrayed by
Sir John as haughty, passionate, and inhospitable; yet it seems
difficult to reconcile this with his acknowledged popularity and
predominant influence. In friendship he was sincere but inconstant. His
management of the treasury contributed to the ruin of his fortune, and
involved him in disgrace. But this account of him must be taken with

About the same time died, in London, William Hopkins, Esq., another
lawyer, who had practised in Virginia about twelve years. He was well
educated, understanding Latin and French well, and gifted with a
retentive memory, quick penetration, sound judgment, and a handsome
person. In spite of some defects of manner, he acquired a large
practice, which he neglected, owing to the versatility of a mind fond of
various knowledge. In fees he was moderate, in argument candid and fair,
never disputing plain points. He is taxed by Sir John Randolph with an
overweening vanity, which made him jealous of any other standing on a
level with him; but as there had been a personal falling out between
them, his testimony in regard to this particular is entitled to the less
weight. Mr. Hopkins appears to have been a man of high order; and his
premature death, in the flower of his age, was a loss to be deplored by

The Earl of Orkney died at his house in Albemarle Street, London,
January, 1737, in the seventy-first year of his age. His titles were
Earl of Orkney, one of the Sixteen Scottish Peers, Governor of Virginia,
Constable, Governor and Captain of Edinburgh Castle, Knight of the most
ancient and most honorable order of the Thistle, one of his Majesty's
Field Marshals, and Colonel of a regiment of foot. By his death his
title became extinct. He left a very large fortune.

During the administration of Governor Gooch, troops for the first time
were transported from the colonies to co-operate with the forces of the
mother country in offensive war. An attack upon Carthagena being
determined on, Gooch raised four hundred men as Virginia's quota, and
the assembly appropriated five thousand pounds for their support.
Major-General Sir Alexander Spotswood, who had been appointed to the
command of the troops raised in the colonies, consisting of a regiment
of four battalions, dying at Annapolis, when on the eve of embarcation,
Governor Gooch assumed command of the expedition. The colonial troops
joined those sent out from England, at Jamaica. The amount of Virginia's
appropriation on this occasion exceeding the sum in the treasury, the
remainder was borrowed from wealthy men, with a view to avoid the frauds
of depreciation, and to secure the benefits of circulation. Lawrence
Washington, half-brother of George, and fourteen years older, obtained a
captain's commission in the newly-raised regiment, and, being now twenty
years of age, embarked with it for the West Indies in 1740.[417:A] An
accomplished gentleman, educated in England, he acquired the esteem of
General Wentworth and Admiral Vernon, the commanders of the British
forces, and after the latter named his seat on the Potomac. The attack
upon Carthagena was unsuccessful; the ships not getting near enough to
throw their shells into the town, and the scaling-ladders of the
soldiers proving to be too short. That part of the attack in which
Lawrence Washington was present, sustained, unflinching, a destructive
fire for several hours. The small land force engaged on this occasion
lost no less than six hundred killed and wounded.

Shortly after the failure at Carthagena, an express from South
Carolina brought tidings that the Spaniards had made a descent upon
Georgia; and Captain Dandridge, commander of the South Sea Castle,
together with the "snows" Hawk and Swift, was dispatched to the
assistance of General Oglethorpe. The Spaniards were repulsed. Georgia
being still threatened by a Spanish force concentrated at St. Augustine,
in Florida, Oglethorpe sent Lieutenant-Colonel Heron to recruit a
regiment in Virginia. Captain Lawrence Washington, with a number of
officers and soldiers of Gooch's Carthagena Regiment, recently
discharged, just now arriving at Hampton, and meeting with Heron, many
of them enlisted again under him.

About this time apprehensions were felt of foreign invasion by sea, of
Indian incursions, and of servile insurrections. An act was passed to
prevent excessive and deceitful gaming, making all gaming obligations
void, imposing heavy penalties upon persons cheating at games, and
declaring them infamous, authorizing justices of the peace to bind
common gamblers over to their good behavior. Means were adopted for
encouraging adventurers in iron works. The towns of Fredericksburg and
Falmouth were established at the head of tide-water, on the
Rappahannock. Caroline County was formed, and Goochland carved out from
Henrico. Long and elaborate acts were passed for amending the staple of
tobacco. The tending of seconds was prohibited; all tobacco exported to
be inspected; to be exported from warehouses only; the planter to
receive from the inspectors a promissory note specifying the quantity of
tobacco deposited, and the quality, whether sweet-scented or Oronoko,
stemmed or leaf; these tobacco-notes were made current within the county
or other adjacent county. This salutary measure of making tobacco the
basis of a currency was devised by Governor Spotswood.[418:A]
Tobacco-notes were still in use in Virginia at the beginning of the
present century. In the year 1730 Prince William County was established.

Sir William Berkley (1671) "thanked God that there were no free schools
nor printing in Virginia." In 1682 John Buckner was called before the
Lord Culpepper and his council for printing the laws of 1680 without
his excellency's license, and he and the printer ordered to enter into
bond in one hundred pounds, not to print anything thereafter, until his
majesty's pleasure should be known.[419:A] The earliest surviving
evidence of printing done in Virginia is the edition of "The Revised
Laws," published in 1733. In 1719 two newspapers were issued at Boston;
in 1725 one at New York, and in the following year a printing-press was
introduced into Maryland. One had been established at Cambridge, in
Massachusetts, before 1647. A printing-press was first established in
South Carolina, and a newspaper published in 1734. The first Virginia
newspaper, "The Virginia Gazette," appeared at Williamsburg, in August,
1736, published by William Parks, weekly, at fifteen shillings per
annum. It was a small sheet, on dingy paper, but well printed. It was in
the interest of the government, and for a long time the only journal of
the colony. Parks printed "Stith's History of Virginia" and "The Laws of

In 1732, in accordance with royal instructions, a duty was laid of five
per centum on the purchase-money of slaves, to be paid by the purchaser.
The difference between sterling money and the ordinary currency was
twenty per centum. Stealing of slaves was made felony, without benefit
of clergy.

The Nottoway Indians (1734) still possessed a large tract of land on the
river of that name, in Isle of Wight County. They were much reduced by
wars and disease, and were allowed to sell part of their lands for their
better support. The tributary Indians now speaking the English language,
the use of interpreters was dispensed with.

An act for regulating the fees of "the practisers in physic," recites
that the practice is commonly in the hands of surgeons, apothecaries, or
such as have only served apprenticeships to those trades, who often
prove very unskilful, and yet demand excessive fees and prices for their

The general assembly met at Williamsburg, in August, 1736, and sixty
burgesses appearing, and it being the first session of this assembly,
they were qualified by taking the oaths and subscribing the test. The
burgesses having attended the governor in the council-chamber, and
having returned, in compliance with the governor's commands, a speaker
was elected, and the choice fell upon Sir John Randolph. He being
conducted to the chair by two members, made a speech to the house. On
the next day the burgesses waited on the governor in the council-chamber
again, and presented their new speaker to his honor, and the speaker
made an address to the governor, giving a concise history of the
constitution of Virginia, from the first period of arbitrary government
and martial law to the charter granted by the Virginia Company,
establishing an assembly, consisting of a council of state and a house
of burgesses, which legislative constitution was confirmed by James the
First, Charles the First, and their successors. Under it the house of
burgesses claimed, as undoubted rights, freedom of speech, exemption
from arrests, protection of their estates, jurisdiction over their own
body, and the sole right of determining all questions concerning
elections. The speaker next eulogized the administration of Governor

The governor then addressed the gentlemen of the council, Mr. Speaker,
and the gentlemen of the house of burgesses. He recommended the better
regulation of the militia for the preventing of servile insurrections,
the danger of which was increased by the large importation of negroes;
mentions that his majesty had been graciously pleased to confirm an act
for the better support and encouragement of the College of William and
Mary, and another facilitating the barring of entails of small value, to
perpetuate which, in a new country like Virginia, could serve only to
impoverish the present possessor. Governor Gooch's reply closed this
long series of addresses.[420:A]

The borough of Norfolk was incorporated in 1736. Sir John Randolph,
Knight, was made recorder, although not a resident.[420:B]

In the year 1737 the town of Richmond was laid off near the falls of
James River, by Colonel William Byrd, of Westover, who was proprietor
of an extensive tract of land there. Shoccoe Warehouse had been already
established there for a good many years. Fort Charles, called after the
prince royal, afterwards Charles the Second, was erected (1645) at the
falls of James River. A tract of land there, extending five miles in
length and three in breadth, and lying on both sides of the river, was
claimed (1679) by Captain William Byrd, father of the first Colonel
William Byrd, of Westover.[421:A] This Captain Byrd was born in London
about the year 1653, and came over to Virginia probably about 1674. He
was a merchant and planter. His residence, appropriately named
Belvidere, was on the north side of the river, opposite the falls. A
large part of this land had, a few years before, belonged to Nathaniel
Bacon, Jr. The names "Bacon Quarter" and "Bacon Quarter Branch," are
still preserved there. The word Quarter thus used, means land owned and
cultivated, but not resided on--a place where servants are quartered,
and is still in common use in the tobacco-growing counties. Captain Byrd
had been active in bringing some of the rebels to punishment. Bacon's
confiscated land at the falls, perhaps, may have been given to him in
reward for his loyal services on that occasion. He was a burgess from
Henrico.[421:B] His letter-book, containing letters from 1683 to 1691,
is preserved in the library of the Virginia Historical Society.

Colonel Byrd, second of the name, made a visit to his plantations on the
Roanoke River, (1733,) accompanied by Major Mayo, Major Munford, Mr.
Banister, and Mr. Peter Jones. While here, he says: "We laid the
foundation of two large cities, one at Shoccoe's, to be called Richmond,
and the other at the Point of Appomattox, to be called Petersburg. These
Major Mayo offered to lay out in lots without fee or reward. The truth
of it is these two places, being the uppermost landing of James and
Appomattox Rivers, are naturally intended for marts where the traffic of
the outer inhabitants must centre. Thus we did not build castles only,
but cities in the air."[421:C] The following advertisement appeared in
April, 1737, in "The Virginia Gazette:"

"This is to give notice that on the north side of James River, near the
uppermost landing, and a little below the falls, is lately laid off by
Major Mayo, a town called Richmond, with streets sixty-five feet wide,
in a pleasant and healthy situation, and well supplied with springs and
good water. It lies near the public warehouse at Shoccoe's, and in the
midst of great quantities of grain and all kinds of provisions. The lots
will be granted in fee simple on condition only of building a house in
three years' time, of twenty-four by sixteen feet, fronting within five
feet of the street. The lots to be rated according to the convenience of
their situation, and to be sold after this April general court by me,
William Byrd." Richmond is said to be named from Richmond, near London,
or, as others think, from the Duke of Richmond, whom Byrd may have known
in England; but this is less probable.

Among the arrivals about this time is mentioned the ship Carter, with
forty-four pipes of wine, "for gentlemen in this country;" and a ship
arrived in the Potomac with a load of convicts. The Hector man-of-war,
Sir Yelverton Peyton commander, arrived in the James River from England,
by way of Georgia, whither he had accompanied the Blandford man-of-war,
and the transport-ships which conveyed General Oglethorpe and his
regiment. Captain Dandridge is mentioned as commanding his majesty's
ship Wolf. "Warner's Almanac" was advertised for sale. According to a
new regulation adopted by the deputy postmaster-general, Spotswood, the
mail from the north arrived at Williamsburg weekly, and William Parks,
printer of "The Virginia Gazette," was commissioned to convey the mail
monthly from Williamsburg, by way of Nansemond Court-house and
Norfolktown, to Edenton, in North Carolina. The general post-office was
then at New Post, a few miles below Fredericksburg.


[414:A] By Edmund and Julian C. Ruffin, at Petersburg, 1841.

[415:A] Westover MSS., 4.

[416:A] Va. Hist. Reg., i. 119.

[417:A] He took with him a number of his neighbors, who had thus an
opportunity of seeing something of war. Some of these men, on their
return, soon emigrated to the Valley of Virginia, and afterwards were
engaged in the Revolution. Among them was John Grigsby, of Stafford,
progenitor of the family of that name in Western Virginia.

[418:A] Keith, 173.

[419:A] Hening, ii. 518.

[420:A] Va. Hist. Register, iv. 121, where a list of the members may be

[420:B] In the colony, _residence_ was not necessary to render a
candidate eligible to a seat in the house of burgesses. The same
practice continues to this day in England.

[421:A] Hening, ii. 453.

[421:B] Va. Hist. Register, i. 61.

[421:C] Westover MSS., 107.



     Scotch-Irish Settlers--Death of Sir John Randolph--Settlement
     of the Valley of Shenandoah--Physical Geography of Virginia--
     John Lewis, a Pioneer in Augusta--Burden's Grant--First
     Settlers of Rockbridge--Character of the Scotch-Irish--German
     Settlers of Valley of Shenandoah.

DURING the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the disaffected and turbulent
Province of Ulster, in Ireland, suffered pre-eminently the ravages of
civil war. Quieted for a time by the sword, insurrection again burst
forth in the second year of James the First, and repeated rebellions
crushed in 1605, left a large tract of country desolate, and fast
declining into barbarism. Almost the whole of six counties of Ulster
thus, by forfeiture, fell into the hands of the king. A London company,
under his auspices, colonized this unhappy district with settlers,
partly English, principally Scotch--one of the few wise and salutary
measures of his feeble reign. The descendants of these colonists of the
plantation of Ulster, as it was now called, came to be distinguished by
the name of Scotch-Irish. Archbishop Usher, who was disposed to
reconcile the differences between the Presbyterians and Episcopalians,
consented to a compromise of them, in consequence of which there was no
formal separation from the established church. But it was not long
before the persecutions of the house of Stuart, inflicted by the hands
of Strafford and Laud, augmented the numbers of the non-conformists,
riveted them more closely to their own political and religious
principles, and compelled them to turn their eyes to America as a place
of refuge for the oppressed. The civil war of England ensuing, they were
for a time relieved from this necessity. Their unbending opposition to
the proceedings of Cromwell drew down upon them (1649) the sarcastic
denunciation of Milton.[423:A]

The persecutions that followed the restoration (1679) and afterwards,
at length compelled the Scotch-Irish to seek refuge in the New World,
and many of them came over from the north of Ireland, and settled in
several of the colonies, especially in Pennsylvania. From thence a
portion of them gradually migrated to the western parts of Virginia and
North Carolina, inhabiting the frontier of civilization, and forming a
barrier between the red men and the whites of the older settlements. The
Scotch-Irish enjoyed entire freedom of religion, for which they were
indebted to their remote situation.[424:A] The people of eastern, or old
Virginia, were distinguished by the name of Tuckahoes, said to be
derived from the name of a small stream; while the hardy mountaineers,
west of the Blue Ridge, were styled Cohees, according to tradition, from
their frequent use of the term "Quoth he," or "Quo-he."

In the month of March, 1737, died the Honorable Sir John Randolph,
Knight, speaker of the house of burgesses, treasurer of the colony, and
representative for William and Mary College. He was interred in the
chapel of the college, his body being borne there at his own request, by
six honest, industrious, poor housekeepers, of Bruton Parish, who had
twenty pounds divided among them. His funeral oration in Latin was
pronounced by the Rev. Mr. Dawson, a professor in the college. Sir John
was, at the time of his death, in his forty-fourth year. His father,
William Randolph, a native of Warwickshire, England, came over to seek
his fortunes in Virginia some time subsequent to the year 1670. He was
poor, and it is said, for a time "made his living by building barns." By
industry, integrity, and good fortune, he acquired a large landed
estate, and became a burgess for the County of Henrico.[424:B] On the
maternal side, Sir John Randolph was descended from the Ishams, an
ancient family of Northamptonshire, in England, which had emigrated to
the colony. A love of learning which he early evinced was improved by
the tuition of a Protestant clergyman, a French refugee. His education
was completed at William and Mary College, for which he retained a
grateful attachment. He studied the law at Gray's Inn and the Temple;
and, after assuming the barrister's gown, returned to Virginia, where he
soon became distinguished at the bar. He was gifted with a handsome
person, and a senatorial dignity. With extraordinary talents he united
extensive learning; in his writings he indulged rather too much the
native luxuriance of his genius. In his domestic relations he is
described as exemplary; his income was ample, and his hospitality
proportionate. Blessed with an excellent judgment, he filled his public
stations with signal ability. He was buried in the chapel of William and
Mary; and his elegant marble tablet, graced with a Latin inscription,
after having endured one hundred and twenty-three years, was recently
destroyed by the fire which consumed the college. Sir John Randolph was
succeeded in the office of treasurer by John Robinson, Jr.

From the preamble to the act for the better preservation of deer, it
appears that in the upper country they were so numerous that they were
killed (as buffalo often are in the far West) for their skins. They were
shot while feeding on the moss growing on the rocks in the rivers; and
their carcases attracted wolves and other wild beasts to the destruction
of cattle, hogs, and sheep. Many deer were also killed by hounds running
at large, and by fire-hunting, that is, by setting on fire, in large
circles, the coverts where the deer lodged, which likewise destroyed the
young timber, and the food for cattle.

From the settlement of Jamestown a century elapsed before Virginia began
to extend her settlements to the foot of the Blue Ridge. Governor
Spotswood (1716) explored those mountains beyond the head-springs of the
confluents of the Rappahannock. After a good many years, Joist Hite, of
Pennsylvania, obtained from the original patentees a warrant for forty
thousand acres of land lying among the beautiful prairies at the
northern or lower end of the valley of the Shenandoah. Hite, with his
own and a number of other families, removed (1632) from Pennsylvania,
and seated themselves on the banks of the Opeckon, a few miles south of
the site of Winchester. This handful of settlers could venture more
securely into this remote country, as coming from Pennsylvania, a
province endeared to the Indians by the gentle and humane policy of
its first founder, William Penn. Toward the Virginians--the "Long
Knives"--the Indians bore an implacable hostility, and warmly opposed
their settling in the valley.[426:A]

In her physical geography Virginia is divided into four sections:
the first, the alluvial section, from the sea-coast to the head of
tide-water; the second, the hilly, or undulating section, from the head
of tide-water to the Blue Ridge; the third, the valley section, lying
between the Blue Ridge and the Alleghanies; and the fourth, the
Trans-Alleghany or western section, the waters of which empty into the
Ohio. The mountains of Virginia are arranged in ridges, one behind
another, nearly parallel to the sea-coast, rather bending toward it to
the northeast. The name Apalachian, borrowed from the country bordering
on the Gulf of Mexico to the southwest, was applied to the mountains of
Virginia in different ways, by the European maps; but none of these
ridges was in fact ever known to the inhabitants of Virginia by that
name. These mountains extend from northeast to southwest, as also do the
limestone, coal, and other geological strata. So also range the falls of
the principal rivers, the courses of which are at right angles with the
line of the mountains, the James and the Potomac making their way
through all the ridges of mountains eastward of the Alleghany range.
The Alleghanies are broken by no water-course, being the spine of
the country between the Atlantic and the Mississippi River. The
spectacle presented at Harper's Ferry--so called after the first
settler--impresses the beholder with the opinion that the mountains were
first upraised, the very signification of the word in the Greek, and the
rivers began to flow afterwards; that here they were dammed up by the
Blue Ridge, and thus formed a sea, or lake, filling the whole valley
lying between that ridge and the Alleghanies. The waters continuing to
rise, they at length burst their way through the mountain, the shattered
fragments of this disruption still remaining to attest the fact. As the
observer lifts his eye from this scene of grandeur, he catches through
the fissure of the mountain a glimpse of the placid blue horizon in the
distant perspective, inviting him, as it were, from the riot and tumult
roaring around to pass through the breach and participate in the calm

A settlement was effected (1734) on the north branch of the Shenandoah,
about twelve miles south of the present town of Woodstock. Other
adventurers gradually extended the settlements, until they reached the
tributaries of the Monongahela. Two cabins erected (1738) near the
Shawnee Springs, formed the embryo of the town of Winchester, long the
frontier out-post of the colony in that quarter. The glowing reports of
the charms of the tramontane country induced other pioneers to plant
themselves in that wild, picturesque region. For the want of towns and
roads the first settlers were supplied by pedlars who went from house to
house. Shortly after the first settlement of Winchester, John Marlin, a
pedlar, who traded from Williamsburg to this new country, and John
Salling, a weaver, two adventurous spirits, set out from that place to
explore the "upper country," then almost unknown. Proceeding up the
valley of the Shenandoah they crossed the James River, and had reached
the Roanoke River, when a party of Cherokees surprised them, and took
Salling prisoner, while Marlin escaped. Carried captive into Tennessee,
Salling remained with those Indians for several years, and became
domesticated among them. While on a buffalo-hunting excursion to the
Salt Licks of Kentucky, a middle or debateable ground of hunting and
war, the Flanders of the Northern and Southern Indians, with a party of
them, he was at length captured by a band of Illinois Indians. They
carried him to Kaskaskia, where an old squaw adopted him for a son.
Hence he accompanied the tribe on many distant expeditions, once as far
as the Gulf of Mexico. But after two years the squaw sold him to some
Spaniards from the Lower Mississippi, who wanted him as an interpreter.
He was taken by them northward, and finally, after six years of
captivity and wanderings through strange tribes and distant countries,
he was ransomed by the Governor of Canada, and transferred to New York.
Thence he made his way to Williamsburg, in Virginia. About the same time
a considerable number of immigrants had arrived there--among them John
Lewis and John Mackey. Lewis was a native of Ireland. In an affray that
occurred in the County of Dublin, with an oppressive landlord and his
retainers, seeing a brother, an officer in the king's army, who lay sick
at his house, slain before his eyes, he slew one or two of the
assailants. Escaping, he found refuge in Portugal, and after some years
came over to Virginia with his family, consisting of Margaret Lynn,
daughter of the Laird of Loch Lynn, in Scotland, his wife, four sons,
Thomas, William, Andrew, and Charles, and one daughter. Pleased with
Salling's glowing picture of the country beyond the mountains, Lewis and
Mackey visited it under his guidance. Crossing the Blue Ridge and
descending into the lovely valley beyond, where virgin nature reposes in
all her native charms, the three determined to fix their abode in that
delightful region. Lewis selected a residence near the Middle River, on
the border of a creek which yet bears his name, in what was denominated
Beverley Manor; Mackey chose a spot farther up that river, near the
Buffalo Gap; and Salling built his log cabin fifty miles beyond, on a
beautiful tract overshadowed by mountains in the forks of the James
River.[428:A] John Lewis erected on the spot selected for his home a
stone-house, still standing, and it came to be known as Lewis's Fort. It
is a few miles from Staunton, of which town he was the founder. It is
the oldest town in the valley. He obtained patents for a hundred
thousand acres of land in different parts of the circumjacent country,
and left an ample inheritance to his children.

In the spring of 1736 John Lewis, the pioneer of Augusta, visiting
Williamsburg, met there with Burden, who had recently come to Virginia
as agent for Lord Fairfax, proprietor of the Northern Neck. Burden, in
compliance with Lewis's invitation, visited him at his sequestered home
in the backwoods; and the visit of several months was occupied in
exploring the teeming beauties of the Eden-like valley, and in hunting,
in company with Lewis and his sons, Samuel and Andrew. A captured
buffalo calf was given to Burden, and he, on returning to Lower
Virginia, where that animal was not found, presented it to Governor
Gooch, who, thus propitiated, authorized him to locate five hundred
thousand acres of land in the vast Counties of Frederick and Augusta,
(formed two years thereafter,) on condition that within ten years he
should settle one hundred families there, in which case he should be
entitled to one thousand acres adjacent to every house, with the
privilege of entering as much more at one shilling per acre. This grant
covered one-half of what is now Rockbridge County, from the North
Mountain to the Blue Ridge. The grantee was required to import and place
on the land one settler for every thousand acres. For this purpose he
brought over from England (1737) upwards of one hundred families from
the north of Ireland, Scotland, and the border counties of England, and
it is said that he resorted to stratagem to comply apparently with the
conditions.[429:A] The first settlers of this Rockbridge tract were
Ephraim McDowell (ancestor of Governor James McDowell) and James
Greenlee, in 1737. Mary Greenlee, his sister, attained the age of one
hundred years and upwards, and was known to two or three generations.
The Scotch-Irish retained much of the superstitious nature of the
Highlanders of Scotland, and Mary Greenlee was by many believed to be a
witch. At a very advanced age she rode erect on horseback. Robert and
Archibald Alexander also settled in the Rockbridge region. Robert, a
graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, taught the first classical school
west of the Blue Ridge. Archibald, who was agent of Burden and drew up
all his complex conveyances, was grandfather of the Rev. Dr. Archibald
Alexander. Besides these, among the early settlers of this part of
Virginia, were the families of Moore, Paxton, Telford, Lyle, Stuart,
Crawford, Matthews, Brown, Wilson, Cummins, Caruthers, Campbell,
McCampbell, McClung, McKee, McCue, Grigsby, and others.[429:B]

An austere, thoughtful race, they constituted a manly, virtuous
population. Their remote situation secured to them religious freedom,
but little interrupted by the ruling powers. Of the stern school of
Calvin and Knox, so much derided for their Puritanical tenets, they were
more distinguished for their simplicity and integrity, their religious
education, and their uniform attendance on the exercises and ordinances
of religion, than for the graceful and courteous manners which lend a
charm to the intercourse of a more aristocratic society. Trained in a
severe discipline, they expressed less than they felt; and keeping their
feelings under habitual restraint, they could call forth exertions equal
to whatever exigencies might arise. In the wilderness they devoted
themselves to agriculture, domestic pursuits, and the arts of peace;
they were content to live at home. Pascal says that the cause of most of
the trouble in the world is that people are not content to live at home.
As soon as practicable they erected churches; and all within ten or
twelve miles, young and old, repaired on horseback to the place of
worship. Their social intercourse was chiefly at religious meetings. The
gay and fashionable amusements of Eastern Virginia were unknown among
them.[430:A] Other colonies, emanating from the same quarters, followed
the first, and settled that portion of the valley intervening between
the German settlements and the borders of the James River. The first
Presbyterian minister settled west of the Blue Ridge was the Rev. John
Craig, a native of the north of Ireland. His congregation was that of
the church then known as the Stone Meeting House, since Augusta Church,
near Staunton, in the County of Augusta. He became pastor there in the
year 1740. Augusta was then a wilderness with a handful of Christian
settlers in it; the Indians travelling through the country among them in
small parties, unless supplied with whatever victuals they called for,
became their own purveyors and cooks, and spared nothing that they chose
to eat or drink. In general they were harmless; sometimes they committed
murders. Such was the school in which the tramontane population were to
be moulded and trained, civilizing the wilderness, and defending
themselves against the savages. In the month of December, 1743, Captain
John McDowell, surveyor of the lands in Burden's grant, falling into an
ambush, was slain, together with eight comrades, in a skirmish with a
party of Shawnee Indians. This occurred at the junction of the North
River with the James. The alarmed inhabitants of Timber-ridge[431:A]
hastened to the spot, and, removing the dead bodies, sorrowfully
performed the rites of burial, while the savages, frightened at their
own success, escaped beyond the mountains.

So rapid was the settlement of the valley about this time, that in this
year it was found necessary to lay off the whole country west of the
Blue Ridge into the two new counties, Frederick and Augusta. The
picturesque and verdant valleys embosomed among the mountains were
gradually dotted with farms. The fertile County of Frederick was first
settled by Germans, Quakers, and Irish Presbyterians, from the adjoining
province of Pennsylvania. A great part of the country lying between the
North Mountain and the Shenandoah River, for one hundred and fifty
miles, and embracing ten counties, now adorned with fine forest trees,
was then an extensive open prairie--a sea of herbage--the pasture ground
of buffalo, elk, and deer. It was a favorite hunting-ground, or middle
ground of the Indians.[431:B] The rich lands bordering the Shenandoah,
and its north and south branches, were settled by a German population
which long retained its language, its simplicity of manners and dress.
Augusta County was settled by Scotch-Irish from Pennsylvania,
(descendants of the Covenanters,) a race respectable for intelligence,
energy, morality, and piety.

In compliance with the petition of John Caldwell and others, the synod
of Philadelphia (1738) addressed a letter to Governor Gooch, soliciting
his favor in behalf of such persons as should remove to Western
Virginia, in allowing them "the free enjoyment of their civil and
religious liberties;" and the governor gave a favorable answer. This
John Caldwell, who was grandfather of John Caldwell Calhoun, of South
Carolina, led the way in colonizing Prince Edward, Charlotte, and
Campbell Counties.

Colonel James Patton, of Donegal, a man of property, commander and owner
of a ship, emigrating to Virginia about this time, obtained from the
governor, for himself and his associates, a grant of one hundred and
twenty thousand acres of land in the valley. He settled on the south
fork of the Shenandoah. John Preston, a shipmaster in Dublin, a
brother-in-law of Patton, came over with him, and subsequently
established himself near Staunton--the progenitor of a distinguished
race of his own name, and of the Browns and Breckenridges.[432:A] While
the first settlement of the valley took place in Hite's patent, nearer
to Pennsylvania, the filling up of that region was somewhat retarded by
a claim which Lord Fairfax set up for a region westward of the Blue
Ridge, comprehending ten counties. This claim was grounded upon the
terms of the conveyance which included all the country between the head
of the Rappahannock and the head of the Potomac; and this river was
found to have its source in the Alleghanies. Although the claim was not
admitted by the Governor of Virginia, yet, as it involved settlers in
the danger of a lawsuit, they preferred moving farther on to the tract
of country in Augusta County, included in the grants to Beverley and to


[423:A] Milton's Prose Works, i. 422, 430, 437.

[424:A] Foote's Sketches of North Carolina; Grahame, ii. 57; Davidson's
Hist. of Presbyterian Church in Kentucky, 16.

[424:B] Va. Convention of '76, by Hugh Blair Grigsby, 77, citing
Carrington Memoranda. Mr. Grigsby has given an interesting account of
several of the distinguished Randolphs in a newspaper article, entitled
"The Dead of the Chapel of William and Mary."

[426:A] De Hass's Hist. of Western Va., 37; Kercheval, 70.

[427:A] Jefferson's Notes, 16.

[428:A] Ruffner, in Howe's Hist. Coll. of Va., 451.

[429:A] Ruffner, ubi supra.

[429:B] The Grigsbys, from whom is descended Hugh Blair Grigsby, removed
into the valley from Eastern Virginia, having originally come into the
colony at the time of the restoration.

[430:A] Ruffner.

[431:A] So called, being a high strip of timber in an open prairie, at
the first settlement.

[431:B] Kercheval's Hist. of the Valley of Virginia, 69; Foote's
Sketches, second series, 14.

[432:A] Foote's Sketches, ii. 36.



     Treaty with the Six Nations--Death and Character of Rev. James
     Blair--Colonel William Byrd--The Pretender's Rebellion--
     Governor Gooch--Dissent in Virginia--Whitefield--Origin of
     Presbyterianism in Hanover--Morris--Missionaries--Rev. Samuel
     Davies--Gooch's Measures against Moravians, New Lights, and

IN 1742 an act was passed to prevent lawyers from exacting or receiving
exorbitant fees. In this year the town of Richmond was established by
law, and the County of Louisa formed from a part of Hanover.

Governor Spotswood had effected a treaty (1722) with the Six Nations, by
which they stipulated never to appear to the east of the Blue Ridge, nor
south of the Potomac. As the Anglo-Saxon race gradually extended itself,
like a vapor, beyond the western base of that range, collisions with the
native tribes began to ensue. A treaty was concluded (July, 1744,) at
Lancaster, in Pennsylvania, by which the Six Nations unwillingly
relinquished, for four hundred pounds paid, and a further sum promised,
the country lying westward of the frontier of Virginia to the River
Ohio. The tomahawk was again buried, and the wampum belts of peace again
delivered, to brighten the silver chain of friendship. The Virginia
commissioners were men of high character, but they negotiated with the
red men according to the custom of that day, and regaled them with
punch, wine, and bumbo--that is, rum and water. The consideration
apparently so inadequate, was yet perhaps equivalent to the value of
their title and the fidelity of their pledge. The expense of this treaty
was paid out of the royal quit-rents.

The Rev. Anthony Gavin, a zealous minister of St. James's Parish,
Goochland, (1738,) complains to the Bishop of London of difficulties
with Quakers, who were countenanced by men in high station, and of the
disregard of Episcopal control in Virginia, the cognizance of spiritual
affairs, by the laws of the colony, being in the hands of the governor
and council, and that the greatest part of the ministers "are taken up
in farming, and buying slaves." The ministers were compelled either to
hire or buy slaves to cultivate their glebes, on which they depended for
a livelihood.[434:A] The Rev. Mr. Gavin, besides his regular duties,
appears to have performed a sort of missionary service, making distant
journeys as far as to the country near the Blue Ridge.

Robert Dinwiddie having been appointed (1741) surveyor-general of the
customs, was named, as his predecessors had been, a member of the
several councils of the colonies. Gooch readily complied with the royal
order, but the council, prompted both by jealousy of Dinwiddie's
functions and by an aristocratic exclusiveness, refused to allow him to
act with them, and sent the king a remonstrance against it. The board of
trade decided the case in Dinwiddie's favor. We may see in this affair
the germ of that mutual jealousy which afterwards grew up between him
and some of the leading characters in Virginia.

In the year 1743 died Edward Barradall, Esq., an eminent lawyer; he held
the office of attorney-general, judge of the admiralty court, and other
high posts. He married Sarah, daughter of the Honorable William
Fitzhugh. He was buried in the churchyard in Williamsburg, where a Latin
epitaph records his worth.

In the same year died the Rev. James Blair, Commissary to the Bishop of
London. Finding his ministry in Scotland obstructed by popular
prejudice, he retired to London, whence he was sent over to Virginia as
a missionary, (1685.) He was minister for Henrico Parish nine years; in
1689 was appointed commissary. From Henrico he removed to Jamestown, in
order to be near the college, which he was raising up. He became (1710)
the minister of Bruton Parish, and resided at Williamsburg. He was a
minister in Virginia for about fifty-eight years, commissary for
fifty-four years, and president of the college fifty years. His sermons,
one hundred and seventeen in number, expository of the Sermon on the
Mount, were published in England, (1722,) and passed through two
editions. They are highly commended by Dr. Waterland and Dr. Doddridge.
Dr. Blair appears to have been a plain-spoken preacher, who had the
courage to speak the truth to an aristocratic congregation. Alluding in
one of these sermons to the custom of swearing, he says: "I know of no
vice that brings more scandal to our Church of England. The church may
be in danger from many enemies, but perhaps she is not so much in danger
from any as from the great number of profane persons that pretend to be
of her, enough to make all serious people afraid of our society, and to
bring down the judgments of God upon us: 'by reason of swearing the land
mourneth.' But be not deceived: our church has no principles that lead
to swearing more than the Dissenters; but whatever church is uppermost,
there are always a great many who, having no religion at all, crowd into
it, and bring it into disgrace and disreputation." Commissary Blair left
his library and five hundred pounds to the college of which he was the
founder, and ten thousand pounds to his nephew, John Blair, and his
children.[435:A] Commissary Blair was alike eminent for energy,
learning, talents, piety, and a catholic spirit; he was a sincere lover
of Virginia and her benefactor; his name is identified with her history,
and his memory deserves to be held in enduring respect and veneration.

In November, 1743, William Fairfax, son of Lord Fairfax, proprietor of
the Northern Neck, was appointed one of the council in the place of Dr.
Blair. The Rev. William Dawson succeeded him as president of the College
of William and Mary, and as commissary.

About this time also died Colonel William Byrd, of Westover, second of
the name, one of the council. A vast fortune enabled him to live in a
style of hospitable splendor before unknown in Virginia. His extensive
learning was improved by a keen observation, and refined by an
acquaintance and correspondence with the wits and noblemen of his day in
England. His writings display a thorough knowledge of the natural and
civil history of the colony, and abound in photographic sketches of
the manners of his age. His diffuse style is relieved by frequent
ebullitions of humor, which, according to the spirit of his times, is
often coarse and indelicate. His sarcasm is sometimes unjust, and his
ridicule frequently misplaced, yet his writings are among the most
valuable that have descended from his era, and to him is due the honor
of having contributed more perhaps to the preservation of the historical
materials of Virginia than any other of her sons, by the purchase of the
Records of the Virginia Company. He lies buried in the garden at
Westover, where a marble monument bears the following inscription: "Here
lieth the Honorable William Byrd, Esq. Being born to one of the amplest
fortunes in this country, he was sent early to England for his
education, where, under the care and direction of Sir Robert Southwell,
and ever favored with his particular instructions, he made a happy
proficiency in polite and various learning. By the means of the same
noble friend he was introduced to the acquaintance of many of the first
persons of that age for knowledge, wit, virtue, birth, or high station,
and particularly contracted a most intimate and bosom friendship with
the learned and illustrious Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery. He was called
to the bar in the Middle Temple; studied for some time in the Low
Countries; visited the court of France, and was chosen Fellow of the
Royal Society. Thus eminently fitted for the service and ornament of his
country, he was made receiver-general of his majesty's revenues here;
was thrice appointed public agent to the court and ministry of England;
and being thirty-seven years a member, at last became president of the
council of this colony. To all this were added a great elegancy of taste
and life, the well-bred gentleman and polite companion, the splendid
economist, and prudent father of a family, withal the constant enemy of
all exorbitant power, and hearty friend to the liberties of his country.
Nat. Mar. 28, 1674. Mort. Aug. 26, 1744. An. Ætat. 70." His portrait, a
fine face, is preserved. Colonel Byrd amassed the finest private library
which had then been seen in the New World, a catalogue of which, in
quarto, is preserved in the Franklin Library, Philadelphia. Sir Robert
Southwell was envoy extraordinary to Portugal in 1665, and to Brussels
in 1671; was subsequently clerk of the privy council, and was repeatedly
chosen president of the Royal Society. He died in 1702.

France, endeavoring to impose a popish pretender of the house of Stuart
upon the people of England, the colonies were advised to put themselves
in readiness against the threatened blow. Accordingly in the following
year the assembly met, but still adhering to a rigid economy, the
burgesses refused to make any appropriation of money for that purpose.
About this time Edward Trelawney, governor of Jamaica, was authorized to
recruit a regiment in Virginia. In 1745 a rebellion burst forth in
Scotland in favor of the Pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, grandson of
James the Second. When intelligence of this event reached Virginia, the
assembly was again called together, and the college, the clergy, and the
assembly, unanimously pledged their private resources and those of the
colony to support the house of Hanover. A proclamation was also issued
against Romish priests, sent, it was alleged, as emissaries from
Maryland, to seduce the people of Virginia from their allegiance. The
tidings of the overthrow of the Pretender by the Duke of Cumberland, at
Culloden, on the 16th of April, 1746, were joyfully received in the
Ancient Dominion, and celebrated by burning the effigies of the
unfortunate prince, and by bonfires, processions, and illuminations.

About this time the Rev. William Stith was engaged in composing his
"History of Virginia," at Varina, on the James River. It is much to be
regretted that this accurate, judicious, and faithful writer did not
receive encouragement to complete the work down to his own times.

In May, 1746, the assembly appropriated four thousand pounds to the
raising of Virginia's quota of troops for the invasion of Canada. They
sailed from Hampton in June, under convoy of the Fowey man-of-war; the
expedition proved abortive. Governor Gooch, who had been appointed
commander, but had declined the appointment, was knighted during this
year. Not long afterwards the capitol at Williamsburg was burnt, and
the burgesses availed themselves of this conjuncture to propose the
establishment of the metropolis at a point more favorable to commerce;
but this scheme was rejected by the council. Governor Gooch, on
this occasion, appears to have exhibited some duplicity: in his
communications to the board of trade he extolled the enlarged views of
the burgesses, while he censured the selfishness of the council; yet in
public he blamed the burgesses, "as he thought this the best method to
stifle the flame of contention." In this case he would seem not to have
reckoned "honesty the best policy;" and it often is not, else there
would perhaps be more of it in the world; but it is certainly always
better than policy.

In the year 1748 Petersburg and Blandford were incorporated. In the same
year the town of Staunton, in Augusta County, was laid off, and it was
incorporated in the following year. This happened to be one of the
acts repealed by the crown under subsequent protest of the house of
burgesses; and another act of incorporation was not applied for until
about 1762-63. Hence originated a mistake in all the histories as to the
date of the charter.[438:A] Staunton thus appears to be the oldest town
in the valley.

The assembly appointed a committee to revise the laws of Virginia; it
consisted of Peyton Randolph, Philip Ludwell, Beverley Whiting, Carter
Burwell, and Benjamin Waller. During this year the vestries were
authorized to make presentation to benefices, an act which Bishop
Sherlock complained of as a serious encroachment on the rights of the

Dissent from the established church began to develope itself in
Virginia. In 1740 the celebrated Whitefield, then about twenty-six years
of age, preached at Williamsburg, by the invitation of Commissary Blair.
The extraordinary religious excitement which took place at this time in
America, and which was increased by the impassioned eloquence of
Whitefield, was styled "the New Light Stir." It produced a temporary
schism in the American Presbyterian Church, and the two parties were
known as Old Side and New Side. The Synod of Philadelphia was Old Side;
the Presbyteries of New Castle, New Brunswick, and New York, New Side.
The preachers of the New Side were often styled "New Lights." A hundred
years before, the Presbyterians of Ireland denounced the sectarian (or
Cromwell) party of England, as those who "vilify public ordinances,
speak evil of church government, and invent damnable errors, under the
specious pretence of a gospel-way and new light."[439:A]

Between the years 1740 and 1743 a few families of Hanover County, in
Lower Virginia, withdrawing themselves from attendance at the services
of the established church, were accustomed to meet for worship at the
house of Samuel Morris, the zealous leader of this little company of
dissenters. One of these, a planter, had been first aroused by a few
leaves of "Boston's Fourfold State," that fell into his hands. Morris,
an obscure man, a bricklayer, of singular simplicity of character,
sincere, devout, earnest, was in the habit of reading to his neighbors
from a few favorite religious works, particularly "Luther on the
Galatians," and his "Table-Talk," with the view of communicating to
others impressions that had been made on himself. Having (1743) come
into possession of a volume of Whitefield's Sermons, preached at
Glasgow, he commenced reading them to his audience, who met to hear them
on Sunday and on other days. The concern of some of the hearers on these
occasions was such that they cried out and wept bitterly. Morris's
dwelling-house being too small to contain his increasing congregation,
it was determined to build a meeting-house merely for reading, and it
came to be called "Morris's Reading-Room." None of them being in the
habit of extemporaneous prayer no one dared to undertake it. Morris was
soon invited to read these sermons in other parts of the country, and
thus other reading-houses were established. Those who frequented them
were fined for absenting themselves from church, and Morris himself
often incurred this penalty. When called on by the general court to
declare to what denomination they belonged, these unsophisticated
dissenters, knowing little of any such except the Quakers, and not
knowing what else to call themselves, assumed for the present the name
of Lutherans, (unaware that this appellation had been appropriated by
any others,) but shortly afterwards they relinquished that name.[439:B]

Partaking in the religious excitement which then pervaded the colonies,
limited in information and in the means of obtaining it, these
unorganized dissenters became bewildered by discordant opinions. Some of
them seemed to be verging toward antinomianism; and it came to be a
question among them whether it was right to pray, since prayer could not
alter the Divine purposes, and it might be impious to desire that it
should. At length, Morris and some of his associates were summoned to
appear before the governor and council at Williamsburg. Having discarded
the name of Lutherans, and not knowing what to call themselves, they
were filled with apprehensions in the prospect of the interview. One of
them making the journey to Williamsburg alone, met with, at a house on
the way, an old Scotch Presbyterian "Confession of Faith," which he
recognized as embodying his own creed. The book being given to him, upon
rejoining his friends at Williamsburg they examined it together, and
they determined to adopt it as their confession of faith. When called
before the governor and council and interrogated, they exhibited the
book as containing their creed. Gooch, being a Scotchman, and, as is
said, having been educated a Presbyterian, immediately remarked, on
seeing the book, "These men are Presbyterians," and recognized their
right to the privileges of the toleration act. The interview between the
governor and council and Morris and his friends, was interrupted by a
thunder-storm of extraordinary fury; the council was softened; and this
was one of a series of incidents which Morris and his companions looked
upon as providentially instrumental in bringing about the favorable
issue of this affair.

The Rev. William Robinson, a Presbyterian, was the first minister, not
of the Church of England, that preached in Hanover. The son of a Quaker
physician near Carlyle, in England, he emigrated to America, and (1743)
sent out by the Presbytery of New Brunswick, visited the frontier
settlements of Virginia and North Carolina. Near Winchester he was
apprehended by the sheriff, to be sent to the governor to answer for
preaching without license, but the sheriff soon released him. He
preached among the Scotch-Irish settlers of Charlotte, Prince Edward,
Campbell, and Albemarle, and in Charlotte established a congregation.
Overtaken at Rockfish Gap by a deputation from Hanover, he was induced
to return and visit that county, and he preached for some days to large
congregations, some of his hearers publicly giving utterance to their
emotions, and many being converted. Before his departure he corrected
some of the errors into which the dissenters had fallen, and taught them
to conduct public worship with better order, prayer and singing being
now introduced, so that "he brought them into some kind of church order
on the Presbyterian model."[441:A] He was followed shortly afterwards by
the Rev. John Blair, whose preaching was equally impressive. Another
missionary, the Rev. John Roan, from the New Castle Presbytery, preached
to crowded congregations there and in the neighboring counties. The
consequent excitement, and his speaking freely in public and in private
of the delinquency of the parish ministers, and his denouncing them with
unsparing invective, in spite of reproaches, ridicule, and threats, gave
alarm to them and their supporters, and measures were concerted to
arrest the inroads of these offensive innovations. To aggravate the
indignation of the government a witness swore "that he heard Mr. Roan
utter blasphemous expressions in his sermons," preached at the house of
Joshua Morris, in James City County.

At the meeting of the general court in April, Governor Gooch, in his
charge to the grand jury, denounced, in strong terms, "certain false
teachers lately crept into this government, who, without order or
license, or producing any testimonial of their education or sect,
professing themselves ministers under the pretended influence of new
light, extraordinary impulse, and such like satirical [sic] and
enthusiastic knowledge, lead the innocent and ignorant people into all
kinds of delusion." He even suspected them to be Romish emissaries,
saying, "their religious professions are very justly suspected to be the
result of jesuitical policy, which also is an iniquity to be punished
by the judges." He calls upon the jury to present and indict these
offenders. On the next day the jury presented John Roan for "reflecting
upon and vilifying the established religion," and Thomas Watkins, of
Henrico County, for saying "your churches and chapels are no better than
the synagogues of Satan," and Joshua Morris, "for permitting John Roan,
the aforementioned preacher, and very many people, to assemble in an
unlawful manner at his house on the seventh, eighth, and ninth of
January last past."

The intolerant spirit of the government continuing unabated, the
Conjunct Presbyteries of New Castle and New Brunswick, at the instance
of Morris and some of his friends, who were apprehensive of severe
measures being adopted against them, sent an address in their behalf to
Governor Gooch, by two clergymen, Gilbert Tennent and Samuel Finley.
They were respectfully received, and allowed to preach in Hanover, where
they remained for a week.

The Synod of Philadelphia being now apprehensive that their
congregations in the valley of Virginia might also be involved in the
penalties threatened by the governor, in May, 1745, in an address to
him, disclaimed all connection with the Presbytery of New Castle, which
had commissioned Mr. Roan, and expressed their deep regret that any who
assume the name of Presbyterians should be guilty of conduct so
uncharitable and so unchristian as that mentioned in his honor's charge
to the grand jury; and they assure him that these persons never belonged
to their body, but were missionaries sent out by some who, in May, 1741,
had been excluded from the Synod of Philadelphia by reason of their
divisive and uncharitable doctrines and practices, and whose object was,
in a spirit of rivalry, "to divide and trouble the churches." To this
address Gooch made a very kind and respectful reply.

In the summer of the ensuing year he issued a proclamation against the
Moravians, New Lights, and Methodists, prohibiting their meetings under
severe penalties. There would seem to be some inconsistency in bringing
such harsh and sweeping charges against those ministers whom he had
recently received so courteously, and had permitted to preach. Perhaps
when he at first reckoned the visits of these missionaries transient,
and their influence inconsiderable, he was willing to indulge his
courtesy and obliging disposition toward them; but when dissent was
found spreading with such unexpected rapidity, Gooch, together with the
clergy and other friends of the establishment, became alarmed, and had
recourse to measures of intolerance, which they would rather have
avoided. Besides this, the address of the Synod of Philadelphia could
not but confirm the unfavorable opinion at first formed of the


[434:A] Bishop Meade's Old Churches, etc., i. 456.

[435:A] Old Churches, i. 154, 165; Evang. and Lit. Mag., ii. 341.

[438:A] Letter from Bolivar Christian, Esq., of Staunton, referring to
the records of Augusta.

[439:A] Milton's Prose Works, i. 423.

[439:B] Memoir of Samuel Davies, in Evang. and Lit. Mag., (edited by
Rev. Dr. John H. Rice,) ii. 113, 186, 201, 330, 353, 474. "Origin of
Presbyterianism," ib., 346. "Sketch of Hist. of the Church in Va." (by
Rev. Moses Hoge, President of Hampden Sidney College,) appended to J. W.
Campbell's Hist. of Va., 290; Hawks, chap. 6: Burk, iii. 119: Hodge's
Hist. of Presbyterian Church, part ii. 42, 284; Foote's Sketches of Va.,

[441:A] Evang. and Lit. Mag., ii. 351.



     Statistics of Virginia--Whitefield--Davies--Conduct of the
     Government toward Dissenters--Resignation of Governor Gooch--
     His Character--The People of the Valley and of Eastern
     Virginia--John Robinson, Sr., President--Richard Lee,
     President--Earl of Albemarle, Governor-in-Chief--Lewis
     Burwell, President--Population of the Colonies.

FROM Bowen's Geography, published at London in 1747, the following
particulars are gathered: in 1710 the total population of Virginia was
estimated to be 70,000, and in 1747 at between 100,000 and 140,000. The
number of burgesses was 52. Of the fifty-four parishes, thirty or forty
were supplied. The twelve vestrymen having the presentation of ministers
were styled "the patrons of the church." The governor's salary, together
with perquisites, amounted to three thousand pounds per annum. The
president of the council acting as governor received a salary of five
hundred pounds, and also a small amount paid him as a councillor. The
professors of William and Mary College, when they began with experiments
on plants and minerals, were assisted by the French refugees at
Manakintown. Dr. Bray procured contributions of books for the

Sweet-scented tobacco, the most valuable in the world, was found in the
strip of country between the York and the James. The number of hogsheads
of tobacco shipped from Virginia and Maryland together annually was
70,000, of which half was consumed in England, and half exported to
other countries.

This trade employed two hundred ships, and yielded his majesty's
treasury a revenue of upwards of £300,000, in time of peace. Jamestown
at this time contained several brick houses, with sundry taverns and
eating-houses,--sixty or seventy houses in all. Williamsburg or
Williamstadt contained twenty or thirty houses. There was a fort or
battery erected there mounting ten or twelve guns. Governor Nicholson
caused several streets to be laid out in the form of a W, in honor of
King William the Third, but a V or one angle of it was not as yet
completed, and the plan appears to have been given up. The main street
was three-quarters of a mile long, and very wide; at one end of it was
the college, and at the other the capitol. The college was thought to be
something like Chelsea Hospital. The capitol, in the shape of an H, is
described as "a noble pile." The church was "adorned and convenient as
the best churches in London." Besides these there were an octagon
magazine for arms and ammunition, a bowling-green, and a play-house.
There were several private houses of brick, with many rooms on a floor,
but not high. It was observed that wherever the water was brackish, it
was sickly; but Williamsburg was on a healthy site.[445:A] Gloucester
was at this time the most populous county; Essex or Rappahannock
"overrun with briars, thorns, and wild beasts." The Atlantic Ocean is
denominated the "Virginian Sea."[445:B]

Whitefield, while at Charleston, in South Carolina, during the spring of
1747, being presented with a sum of money, expended it in the purchase
of a plantation and negroes for the support of the orphan-house.[445:C]
Having come on to Virginia, in a letter written from Williamsburg in
April of that year, he says to a friend in Philadelphia: "Men in power
here seem to be alarmed; but truth is great and will prevail. I am to
preach this morning." By a remarkable coincidence, Samuel Davies, so
pre-eminently instrumental in organizing and extending Presbyterianism
in Middle Virginia, happened to come to Virginia about the same time. He
was born in the County of New Castle, Pennsylvania, now Delaware,
November 3d, 1723, of Welsh extraction, on both paternal and maternal
side. He was educated principally in Pennsylvania, under the care of the
Rev. Samuel Blair, at Fagg's Manor, where he was thoroughly instructed
in the classics, sciences, and theology. By close study his slender
frame was enfeebled. He married Sarah Kirkpatrick in October, 1746.
Deputed to perform a mission in so perplexing a field, without
experience, and in delicate health, he started with hesitation and
reluctance. Passing down the Eastern Shore associated with the labors of
Makemie, Davies came to Williamsburg. Here he applied to the general
court for license to preach at three meeting-houses in Hanover, and one
in Henrico. The council hesitated to comply; but, by the governor's
influence, the license was obtained on the fourteenth of April. The
members of the court present on this occasion were William Gooch,
Governor; John Robinson, John Grymes, John Custis, Philip Lightfoot,
Thomas Lee, Lewis Burwell, William Fairfax, John Blair, William Nelson,
Esqs.; William Dawson, Clerk. This was only two days after Whitefield
had preached in Williamsburg, and he and Davies were probably there at
the same time. Davies, proceeding at once to Hanover, was received with
joy, since, on the preceding Sunday, a proclamation had been attached to
the door of Morris's Reading-house, requiring magistrates to suppress
itinerant preachers, and warning the people against gathering to hear
them. After a brief sojourn, returning home, he languished under ill
health, aggravated by the sudden death of his wife, and threatening to
cut him off prematurely. He, however, recovered sufficient strength to
return to Hanover in May, 1748, and settled at a place about twelve
miles from the falls of the James River. In this second visit he was
accompanied by the Rev. John Rodgers, who, finding it impossible to
obtain permission to settle in Virginia, returned to the North. Governor
Gooch favored the application, but a majority of the council stood out
against it, saying: "We have Mr. Rodgers out, and we are determined to
keep him out." Some of the clergy of the established church were
vehement in their opposition to Davies and Rodgers. A majority of the
council lent their countenance to this opposition, but Gooch took
occasion to rebuke it in severe terms. John Blair, nephew of the
commissary, Commissary Dawson, and another member of the council, whose
name is forgotten, united with the governor on this occasion in treating
the strangers kindly, and endeavored to procure a reconsideration of the
case, but in vain. According to Burk,[447:A] most of the intelligent men
of that day, including Edmund Pendleton, appear in the character of
persecutors. It must be remembered, however, that the council and its
friends had no right to proclaim religious freedom, and that the
controversy depended on the true interpretation of the act of parliament
and the Virginia statutes. These made the law, and the council was but
the executive of the law, without authority to repeal or amend it.

Davies was now left to labor alone in Virginia. In April the court
decided the long-pending suits against Isaac Winston, Sr., and Samuel
Morris, by fining them each twenty shillings and the costs of
prosecution. Severe laws had been passed in Virginia in accordance with
the English act of uniformity, and enforcing attendance at the parish
church. The toleration act was little understood in Virginia; Davies
examined it carefully, and satisfied himself that it was in force in the
colony, not, indeed, by virtue of its original enactment in England, but
because it had been expressly recognized and adopted by an act of the
Virginia assembly.

In October, 1748, licenses were with difficulty obtained upon the
petitions of the dissenters for three other meeting-houses lying in
Caroline, Louisa, and Goochland. Davies was only about twenty-three
years of age; yet his fervid eloquence attracted large congregations,
including many churchmen. On several occasions he found it necessary to
defend the cause of the dissenters at the bar of the general court. When
on one occasion, by permission, he rose to reply to the argument of
Peyton Randolph, the king's attorney-general, a titter at first ran
through the court; but it ceased at the utterance of the very first
sentence, and his masterly argument extorted admiration; and during his
stay in Williamsburg he received many civilities, especially from the
Honorable John Blair, of the council, and Sir William Gooch. Samuel
Davies happening to be in London at the same time with Peyton Randolph,
some years afterwards, mentions him in his Diary as "my old adversary,"
and adds, "he will, no doubt, oppose whatever is done in favor of the
dissenters in Hanover." Davies, who was a man of exquisite sensibility,
repeatedly alludes to the torture to which his feelings had been
subjected by the mortifications that he suffered when appearing before
the general court.

There was eventually obtained from Sir Dudley Rider, the king's
attorney-general in England, a decision confirming the view which Davies
had taken of the toleration act. He expressed himself in regard to the
governor and council as follows: "The Honorable Sir William Gooch, our
late governor, discovered a ready disposition to allow us all claimable
privileges, and the greatest aversion to persecuting measures; but
considering the shocking reports spread abroad concerning us by
officious malignants, it was no great wonder the council discovered a
considerable reluctance to tolerate us. Had it not been for this, I
persuade myself they would have shown themselves the guardians of our
legal privileges, as well as generous patriots to their country, which
is the character generally given them."

In his "State of Religion among the Dissenters," Davies remarks: "There
are and have been in this colony a great number of Scotch merchants, who
were educated Presbyterians, but (I speak what their conduct more loudly
proclaims) they generally, upon their arrival here, prove scandals to
their religion and country by their loose principles and immoral
practices, and either fall into indifferency about religion in general,
or affect to be polite by turning deists, or fashionable by conforming
to the church." Of the dissenters in Virginia he says, that at the first
they were not properly dissenters from the original constitution of the
Church of England, but rather dissented from those who had forsaken it.

Sir William Gooch, who had now been governor of Virginia for twenty-two
years, left the colony, with his family, in August, 1749, amid the
regrets of the people. Notwithstanding some flexibility of principle, he
appears to have been estimable in public and private character. His
capacity and intelligence were of a high order, and were adorned by
uniform courtesy and dignity, and singular amenity of manners. If he
exhibited something of intolerance toward the close of his
administration, he seems, nevertheless, to have commanded the esteem and
respect of the dissenters. After his departure from Virginia he
continued to be the steady friend of the colony. A county was named
after him.[449:A] During Sir William Gooch's administration, from 1728
to 1749, the population of Virginia had nearly doubled, and there had
been added one-third to the extent of her settlements.[449:B] The taxes
were light, industry revived, foreign commerce increased, and Virginia
enjoyed a prosperity hitherto unknown. The frugal and industrious
Germans were filling up one portion of the valley and the Piedmont
country; the hardy, well-disciplined, and energetic Scotch-Irish were
peopling the other portion of the valley, and planting colonies eastward
of the Blue Ridge. Like the strawberry, the population continually sent
out "runners" to possess the land. The contact and commingling of the
English, the French, the German, the Scotch, the Irish, while it brought
about some collision, yet produced an excitement which was salutary and
beneficial to all. So the meeting of the opposite currents of
electricity, although accompanied by a shock, results in the renovation
of the atmosphere. The people of Eastern Virginia and the inhabitants of
the valley have each been benefited by the other; each section has its
virtues and its faults, its advantages and its disadvantages, and
Virginia does not derive its character from either one, but the elements
of both are mixed up in her. This is not the result of chance, or the
mere work of man, but the order of a superintending Providence that
presides in human affairs.

The government of Virginia now devolved upon John Robinson, Sr.,
president of the council, but he dying in a few days, Thomas Lee
succeeded as president. Had Lee lived longer, it was believed his
influence and connexions in England would have secured for him the
appointment of deputy governor. He was father of Philip Ludwell, Richard
Henry, Thomas L., Arthur, Francis Lightfoot, and William. As
Westmoreland, their native county, is distinguished above all others in
Virginia as the birth-place of great men, so perhaps no other Virginian
was the father of so many distinguished sons as President Lee.

The Earl of Albemarle, after whom the county of that name was called,
was still titular governor-in-chief. Of this nobleman, when ambassador
at Paris, Horace Walpole says: "It was convenient to him to be anywhere
but in England. His debts were excessive, though ambassador, groom of
the stole, governor of Virginia, and colonel of a regiment of guards.
His figure was genteel, his manner noble and agreeable. The rest of his
merit was the interest Lady Albemarle had with the king through Lady
Yarmouth. He had all his life imitated the French manners till he came
to Paris, where he never conversed with a Frenchman. If good breeding is
not different from good sense, Lord Albemarle, at least, knew how to
distinguish it from good nature. He would bow to his postillion while he
was ruining his tailor."

Lee was succeeded by Lewis Burwell, of Gloucester County, also president
of the council. During his brief administration, some Cherokee chiefs,
with a party of warriors, visited Williamsburg for the purpose, as they
professed, of opening a direct trade with Virginia. A party of the
Nottoways, animated by inveterate hostility, approached to attack them;
and the Cherokees raised the war song; but President Burwell effected a
reconciliation, and they sat down and smoked together the pipe of peace.
A New York company of players were permitted to erect a theatre in
Williamsburg. President Burwell, who was educated in England, was
distinguished for his scholarship; he is said to have embraced almost
every branch of human knowledge within the circle of his studies. The
Burwells are descended from an ancient family of that name of the
Counties of Bedford and Northampton, England. The first of the family,
Major Lewis Burwell, came over to Virginia at an early date, and settled
in Gloucester. He died in 1658, two hundred years ago. He appears to
have married Lucy, daughter of Captain Robert Higginson, one of the
first commanders that "subdued the country of Virginia from the power of
the heathen." She survived till the year 1675.

Matthew Burwell married Abigail Smith, descended from the celebrated
family of Bacon, and heiress of the Honorable Nathaniel Bacon, President
of Virginia. Nathaniel Burwell, who died in 1721, married Elizabeth,
eldest daughter of Robert Carter, Esq. Carter's Creek, the old seat of
the Burwells, is situated in Gloucester, on a creek of that name, and
not far back from the York River. The stacks of antique diamond-shaped
chimneys, and the old-fashioned panelling of the interior, remind the
visitor that Virginia is truly the "Ancient Dominion." There is the
family graveyard shaded with locusts, and overrun with parasites and
grape-vines. The family arms are carved on some of the tomb-stones; and
hogs show that the Bacon arms are quartered upon those of the


[444:A] The value of coins in Virginia was:--

                                 £  s.  d.
     Spanish double doubloons    3  10  00
     Doubloons                   1  15  00
     Pistole                     0  17  06
     Arabian Chequin             0  10  00
     Pieces of eight             0   5  00
     French crowns               0   5  00
     Dutch dollars               0   5  00

All English coins at the same value as in England.

[445:A] Williamsburg is said to be now a very healthy place, except
during the months of vacation.

[445:B] Bowen's Geography, ii. 649, 652.

[445:C] Port Folio for 1812, p. 152.

[447:A] Hist. of Va., iii. 121.

[449:A] His son married a Miss Bowles, of Maryland, who, after his
death, married Colonel William Lewis.

[449:B] Chalmers' Introduction, ii. 202.

[451:A] The population of the colonies at this time was as follows:--

                                      Increase per cent.
      COLONIES.                           per annum.
     Connecticut            100,000         4·65
     Georgia                  6,000          ...
     Maryland                85,000         5·00
     Massachusetts          220,000         4·46
     New Hampshire           30,000         4·17
     New Jersey              60,000         6·25
     New York               100,000         4·86
     North Carolina          45,000        16·67
     Pennsylvania[451:B]    250,000        23·96
     Rhode Island            35,000         5·21
     South Carolina          30,000         6·84
     Virginia                85,000         2·34
                          ---------         ----
         All classes      1,046,000         6·23

By this table it appears that the greatest advance in population took
place in Pennsylvania and North Carolina; the least in Virginia. The
average increase of all the colonies was a little more than six per
cent. in forty-eight years, from 1701 to 1749.

[451:B] Delaware included in Pennsylvania.



     Dinwiddie, Governor--Ohio Company--Lawrence Washington--His
     Views on Religious Freedom--Davies and the Dissenters--
     Dissensions between Dinwiddie and the Assembly--George
     Washington--His Lineage--Early Education--William Fairfax--
     Washington a Surveyor--Lord Fairfax--Washington Adjutant-General.

A NEW epoch dawns with the administration of Robert Dinwiddie, who
arrived in Virginia as lieutenant-governor early in 1752, with the
purpose of repressing the encroachments of the French, of extending the
confines of Virginia, and of enlarging the Indian trade. A vast tract of
land, mostly lying west of the mountains and south of the Ohio, was
granted by the king about the year 1749, to a company of planters and
merchants. This scheme appears to have been brought forward in the
preceding year by Thomas Lee of the council, and he became associated
with twelve persons in Virginia and Maryland, and with Mr. Hanbury, a
London Quaker merchant, and they were incorporated as "The Ohio
Company." Lawrence and Augustine Washington were early and prominent
members of this company. The company sent out Mr. Christopher Gist to
explore the country on the Ohio as far as the falls. He was, like Boone,
from the banks of the Yadkin, an expert pioneer, at home in the
wilderness and among the Indians, adventurous, hardy, and intrepid.
Crossing the Ohio, he found the country well watered and wooded, with
here and there plains covered with wild rye, or meadows of blue grass
and clover. He observed numerous buffaloes, deer, elk, and wild turkeys.
Returning to the Ohio and recrossing it, Gist proceeded toward the
Cuttawa or Kentucky River. Ascending to the summit of a mountain, he
beheld that magnificent region long before it was seen by Daniel

On the 13th of June, 1752, a treaty was effected with the western
Indians at Logstown, on the Ohio, by which they agreed not to molest any
settlements that might be made on the southeast side of the Ohio.
Colonel Fry and two other commissioners represented Virginia on this
occasion, while Gist appeared as agent of the Ohio Company.

Thomas Lee, the projector of this company, having not survived long
after its incorporation, the chief conduct of it fell into the hands of
Lawrence Washington. Governor Dinwiddie and George Mason were also
members. There were twenty shares and as many members. Lawrence
Washington, being desirous of colonizing Germans on the company's lands,
wrote to Mr. Hanbury as follows: "While the unhappy state of my health
called me back to our springs,[453:B] I conversed with all the
Pennsylvanian Dutch whom I met with, either there or elsewhere, and much
recommended their settling on the Ohio. The chief reason against it was,
the paying of an English clergyman, when few understood and none made
use of him. It has been my opinion, and I hope ever will be, that
restraints on conscience are cruel in regard to those on whom they are
imposed, and injurious to the country imposing them. England, Holland,
and Prussia, I may quote as examples, and much more, Pennsylvania, which
has flourished under that delightful liberty so as to become the
admiration of every man who considers the short time it has been
settled. As the ministry have thus far shown the true spirit of
patriotism, by encouraging the extending of our dominions in America, I
doubt not by an application they would still go farther, and complete
what they have begun, by procuring some kind of charter to prevent the
residents on the Ohio and its branches from being subject to parish
taxes. They all assured me that they might have from Germany any number
of settlers, could they but obtain their favorite exemption. I have
promised to endeavor for it, and now do my utmost by this letter. I am
well assured we shall never obtain it by a law here. This colony was
greatly settled, in the latter part of Charles the First's time and
during the usurpation, by the zealous churchmen, and that spirit which
was then brought in has ever since continued, so that, except a few
Quakers, we have no dissenters. But what has been the consequence? We
have increased by slow degrees, except negroes and convicts, while our
neighboring colonies, whose natural advantages are greatly inferior to
ours, have become populous."[454:A] He also wrote to Governor Dinwiddie,
then in England, to the same effect. He replied that it would be
difficult to obtain the desired exemption for the Dutch settlers, but
promised to use his utmost endeavors to effect it. It does not appear
whether the ministry ever came to a decision on this subject. The
non-conformists augured favorably of Dinwiddie's administration. The
Rev. Jonathan Edwards, in a letter addressed to Rev. John Erskine, of
the Kirk of Scotland, says: "What you write of the appointment of a
gentleman to the office of lieutenant-governor of Virginia, who is a
friend to religion, is an event that the friends of religion in America
have great reason to rejoice in, by reason of the late revival of
religion in that province, and the opposition that has been made against
it, and the great endeavors to crush it by many of the chief men of the
province. Mr. Davies, in a letter I lately received from him, dated
March 2d, 1752, mentions the same thing. His words are, 'We have a new
governor who is a candid, condescending gentleman. And as he has been
educated in the Church of Scotland, he has a respect for the
Presbyterians, which I hope is a happy omen.'" Jonathan Edwards was
invited in the summer of 1751 to come and settle in Virginia, and a
handsome sum was subscribed for his support; but he was installed at
Stockbridge, in Massachusetts, before the messenger from Virginia
reached him.[454:B]

Dinwiddie, the new governor, an able man, had been a clerk to a
collector in a West India custom-house, whose enormous defalcation he
exposed to the government; and for this service, it is said, he was
promoted, in 1741, to the office of surveyor of the customs for the
colonies, and now to the post of governor of Virginia. She was at this
time one of the most populous and the most wealthy of all the
Anglo-American colonies. Dinwiddie, upon his arrival, gave offence by
declaring the king's dissent to certain acts which Gooch had approved;
and in June, 1752, the assembly remonstrated against this exercise of
the royal prerogative; but their remonstrance proved unavailing. The
Virginians were in the habit of acquiring lands without expense, by
means of a warrant of a survey without a patent. Dinwiddie found a
million of unpatented acres thus possessed, and he established, with the
advice of the council, a fee of a pistole (equivalent to three dollars
and sixty cents) for every seal annexed to a grant. Against this measure
the assembly, in December, 1753, passed strong resolutions, and declared
that whoever should pay that fee should be considered a betrayer of the
rights of the people; and they sent the attorney-general, Peyton
Randolph, as their agent, to England, with a salary of two thousand
pounds, to procure redress. The board of trade, after virtually deciding
in favor of Dinwiddie, recommended a compromise of the dispute, and
advised him to reinstate Randolph in the office of attorney-general, as
the times required harmony and mutual confidence. The assembly appear to
have been much disturbed upon a small occasion. During Randolph's
absence Dinwiddie wrote to a correspondent in England: "I have had a
great deal of trouble and uneasiness from the factious disputes and
violent heats of a most impudent, troublesome party here, in regard to
that silly fee of a pistole; they are very full of the success of their
party, which I give small notice to."

The natural prejudice felt by the aristocracy of Virginia against
Dinwiddie, as an untitled Scotchman, was increased by a former
altercation with him. When, in 1741, he was made surveyor-general of the
customs, he was appointed, as his predecessors had been, a member of the
several councils of the colonies. Gooch obeyed the order; but the
council, prompted by their old jealousy of the surveyor-general's
interfering with their municipal laws, and still more by their
overweening exclusiveness, refused to permit him to act with them,
either in the council or on the bench. The board of trade decided the
controversy in favor of Dinwiddie.[456:A]

It was during Dinwiddie's administration that the name of George
Washington began to attract public attention. The curiosity of his
admirers has traced the family back to the Conquest. Sir William
Washington, of Packington, in the County of Kent, married a sister of
George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, and favorite of Charles the First.
Lieutenant-Colonel James Washington, taking up arms in the royal cause,
lost his life at the siege of Pontefract Castle. Sir Henry Washington,
son and heir of Sir William, distinguished himself while serving under
Prince Rupert, at the storming of Bristol, in 1643, and again a few
years after, while in command of Worcester. His uncles, John and
Lawrence Washington, in the year 1657, emigrated to Virginia, and
settled in Westmoreland. John married a Miss Anne Pope, and resided at
Bridge's or Bridge Creek, in that county. It is he who has been before
mentioned as commanding the Virginia troops against the Indians not long
before the breaking out of Bacon's rebellion. He and his brother
Lawrence both died in 1677; their wills are preserved; they both appear
to have had estates in England as well as in Virginia. His grandson,
Augustine, father of George, born in 1694, married first in April, 1715,
Jane Butler; and their two sons, Lawrence and Augustine, survived their
childhood. In March, 1730, Augustine Washington, Sr., married secondly,
Mary Ball. The issue of this union were four sons, George, Samuel, John
Augustine, and Charles, and two daughters, Elizabeth or Betty, and
Mildred, who died an infant. George Washington was born on the
twenty-second day of February, N. S., 1732. The birth-place is sometimes
called Bridge's Creek, and sometimes Pope's Creek; the house stood about
a mile apart between the two creeks, but nearer to Pope's. Of the
steep-roofed house which overlooked the Potomac, a brick chimney and
some scattered bricks alone remain. George, it is seen, was the eldest
child of a second marriage.

Not long after his birth his father removed to a seat opposite
Fredericksburg; and this was the scene of George's boyhood; but the
house has disappeared. He received only a plain English education,
having obtained his first instruction at an old field school, under a
teacher named Hobby--the parish sexton. The military spirit pervading
the colony reached the school; in these military amusements George
Washington was predominant; but he found a competitor in William Bustle.

Augustine Washington, the father of George, died in April, 1743, aged
forty-nine years. He left a large estate. Not long afterwards Lawrence
Washington married Anne, eldest daughter of the Honorable William
Fairfax, and took up his residence at Mount Vernon, in Fairfax County.
Augustine resided at Bridge's Creek, and married Anne, daughter of
William Aylett, Esq., of Westmoreland County. George remained under the
care of his mother, and was sent to stay for a time with his brother
Augustine, to go to a school under charge of a teacher named Williams.
It is probable that, as he taught him his daily lesson, he little
anticipated the figure which his pupil was destined to make in the
world. While he became thorough in what he learned he became expert in
manly and athletic exercises. As he advanced in years he was a frequent
guest at Mount Vernon, and became familiar with the Fairfax family at
Belvoir, (called in England Beaver,) a few miles below, on the Potomac.

In the year 1747, when George was in his fourteenth year, a midshipman's
warrant was obtained for him by his brother Lawrence. His father-in-law,
William Fairfax, in September of the preceding year, had written to him:
"George has been with us, and says he will be steady, and thankfully
follow your advice as his best friend." From his promise to be steady,
it may be inferred that he was then not so. And from his consenting to
follow thankfully his brother's advice, it would appear that the plan of
his going to sea originated with Lawrence, and not from George's strong
bent that way, as has been commonly stated.

While the matter was still undetermined, his uncle, Joseph Ball, who,
having married an English lady, had settled as a lawyer in London, wrote
as follows to his sister Mary, the mother of Washington, in a letter
dated at Strafford-by-Bow, May the 19th, 1747: "I understand that you
are advised, and have some thoughts of putting your son George to sea.
I think he had better be put apprentice to a tinker; for a common sailor
before the mast has by no means the liberty of the subject; for they
will press him from a ship where he has fifty shillings a month, and
make him take twenty-three, and cut, and slash, and use him like a
negro, or rather like a dog. And as to any considerable preferment in
the navy, it is not to be expected, as there are always so many gaping
for it here who have interest, and he has none. And if he should get to
be master of a Virginia ship, (which it is very difficult to do,) a
planter that has three or four hundred acres of land, and three or four
slaves, if he be industrious, may live more comfortably and have his
family in better bread, than such a master of a ship can. He must not be
too hasty to be rich, but go on gently and with patience as things will
naturally go. This method without aiming at being a fine gentleman
before his time, will carry a man more comfortably and surely through
the world than going to sea, unless it be a great chance indeed. I pray
God keep you and yours.

                     "Your loving brother,
                                            "JOSEPH BALL."[458:A]

At length the mother's affectionate opposition prevented the execution
of this scheme. George Washington now devoted himself to his studies,
especially the mathematics and surveying.

The marriage of his brother, Lawrence Washington, with Miss Fairfax,
introduced George to the favor of Thomas Lord Fairfax, proprietor of the
Northern Neck, who gave him an appointment as surveyor. He was now
little more than sixteen years of age. After crossing the Blue Ridge,
the surveying party, including George Fairfax, entered a wilderness
where they were exposed to the inclemency of the season, and subjected
to hardship and fatigue. It was in the month of March, in the eventful
year 1748; snow yet lingered on the mountain-tops, and the streams were
swollen into torrents. The survey-lands lay on the Shenandoah, near the
site of Winchester, and beyond the first range of the Alleghanies, on
the south branch of the Potomac, about seventy miles above Harper's
Ferry. This kind of life was well fitted to train young Washington for
his future career: a knowledge of topography taught him how to select a
ground for encampment or for battle; while hardy exercise and exposure
invigorated a frame naturally athletic, and fitted him to endure the
privations and encounter the dangers of military life. He now became
acquainted with the temper and habits of the people of the frontier, and
the Indians; and grew familiar with the wild country which was to be the
scene of his early military operations. His regular pay was a doubloon
(seven dollars and twenty cents) a day, and occasionally six pistoles
(twenty-one dollars and sixty cents.)

Appointed by the president of William and Mary College, in July, 1749, a
public surveyor, he continued to engage in this pursuit for three years,
except during the rigor of the winter months. Lord Fairfax had taken up
his residence at Greenway Court, thirteen miles southeast of the site of
Winchester. A graduate of Oxford, accustomed to that society in England
to which his rank entitled him, fond of literature, and having
contributed some numbers to the _Spectator_, this nobleman, owing to a
disappointment in love, had come to superintend his vast landed
possessions, embracing twenty-one large counties, and live in the
secluded Valley of the Shenandoah. Here Washington, the youthful
surveyor, was a frequent inmate; and here he indulged his taste for
hunting, and improved himself by reading and conversing with Lord


[453:A] Sparks' Writings of Washington, ii. 478; Irving's Washington, i.

[453:B] At Bath, in Virginia.

[454:A] Sparks' Writings of Washington, ii. 481.

[454:B] Foote's Sketches, 219.

[456:A] Chalmers' Hist. of Revolt of Amer. Colonies, ii. 199.

[458:A] Bishop Meade's Old Churches, etc.


     French Encroachments--Mission of Washington--Virginia
     resists the French--First Engagement--Death of Jumonville--
     Lieutenant-Colonel Washington retreats--Surrenders at Fort

AT the age of nineteen, in 1751, Washington was appointed one of the
adjutants-general of Virginia, with the rank of major. In the autumn of
that year he accompanied his brother Lawrence, then in declining health,
to Barbadoes, in the West Indies, who returned to Virginia, and after
lingering for awhile died at Mount Vernon, aged thirty-four.

In the same year also died the Rev. William Dawson, Commissary and
President of William and Mary College. Davies expresses veneration for
his memory.

After the arrival of Governor Dinwiddie, the colony was divided into
four military districts, and the northern one was allotted to Major
Washington. France was now undertaking to stretch a chain of posts from
Canada to Louisiana, in order to secure a control over the boundless and
magnificent regions west of the Alleghanies, which she claimed by a
vague title of La Salle's discovery. The French deposited, (1749,) under
ground, at the mouth of the Kenhawa and other places, leaden plates, on
which was inscribed the claim of Louis the Fifteenth to the whole
country watered by the Ohio and its tributaries. England claimed the
same territory upon a ground equally slender--the cession made by the
Iroquois at the treaty of Lancaster. A more tenable ground was, that
from the first discovery of Virginia, England had claimed the territory
to the north and northwest from ocean to ocean, and that the region in
question was the contiguous back country of her settlements. The title
of the native tribes actually inhabiting the country commanded no
consideration from the contending powers. The French troops had now
commenced establishing posts in the territory on the Ohio claimed by
Virginia. Dinwiddie having communicated information of these
encroachments to his government, had been instructed to repel force by
force if necessary, after he had remonstrated with them; he had also
received a supply of cannon and warlike stores. A treaty with the Ohio
tribes was held September, 1753, at Winchester, when, in exchange for
presents of arms and ammunition, they promised their aid, and consented
that a fortlet should be erected by the governor of Virginia on the

Dinwiddie, deeming it necessary to remonstrate against the French
encroachments, found in Major Washington a trusty messenger, who
cheerfully undertook the hazardous mission. Starting from Williamsburg
on the last day of October, he reached Fredericksburg on the next day,
and there engaged as French interpreter Jacob Van Braam, who had served
in the Carthagena expedition under Lawrence Washington. At Alexandria
they provided necessaries, and at Winchester baggage and horses, and
reached Will's Creek, now Cumberland River, on the fourteenth of
November. Thence, accompanied by Van Braam, Gist, and four other
attendants, he traversed a savage wilderness, over rugged mountains
covered with snow, and across rapid swollen rivers. He reconnoitred the
face of the country with a sagacious eye, and selected the confluence of
the Alleghany and Monongahela Rivers, where they form the beautiful
Ohio, as an eligible site for a fort. Fort Du Quesne was afterwards
erected there by the French. After conferring, through an Indian
interpreter, with Tanacharisson, called the half-king, (as his authority
was somewhat subordinate to that of the Iroquois,) Washington provided
himself with Indian guides, and, accompanied by the half-king and some
other chiefs, set out for the French post. Ascending the Alleghany River
by way of Venango, he at length delivered Dinwiddie's letter to the
French commander, Monsieur Le Gardeur de St. Pierre, a courteous Knight
of the Order of St. Louis. Detained there some days, young Washington
examined the fort, and prepared a plan and description of it. It was
situated on a branch of French Creek, about fifteen miles south of Lake
Erie, and about seven hundred and fifty from Williamsburg. When he
departed with a sealed reply, a canoe was hospitably stocked with
liquors and provisions, but the French gave him no little anxiety by
their intrigues to win the half-king over to their interests, and to
retain him at the fort. Getting away at last with much difficulty, after
a perilous voyage of six days they reached Venango, where they met their
horses. They growing weak, and being given up for packs, Washington put
on an Indian dress and proceeded with the party for three days, when,
committing the conduct of them to Van Braam, he determined to return in
advance. With an Indian match-coat tied around, taking his papers with
him, and a pack on his back and a gun in his hand, he proceeded on foot,
accompanied by Gist. At a place of ill-omened name, Murderingtown, on
the southeast fork of Beaver Creek, they met with a band of French
Indians lying in wait for them, and one of them, being employed as a
guide, fired at either Gist or the major, at the distance of fifteen
steps, but missed. Gist would have killed the Indian at once, but he was
prevented by the prudence of Washington. They, however, captured and
detained him till nine o'clock at night, when releasing him, they
pursued their course during the whole night. Upon reaching the Alleghany
River they employed a whole day in making a raft with the aid only of a
hatchet. Just as the sun was sinking behind the mountains they launched
the raft and undertook to cross: the river was covered with ice, driving
down the impetuous stream, by which, before they were half way over,
they were blocked up and near being sunk. Washington, putting out his
setting-pole to stop the raft, was thrown by the revulsion into the
water, but recovered himself by catching hold of one of the logs. He and
his companion, forced to abandon it, betook themselves to an island near
at hand, where they passed the night, December the twenty-ninth, in wet
clothes and without fire: Gist's hands and feet were frozen. In the
morning they were able to cross on the ice, and they passed two or three
days at a trading-post near the spot where the battle of the Monongahela
was afterwards fought. Here they heard of the recent massacre of a white
family on the banks of the Great Kenhawa. Washington visited Queen
Aliquippa at the mouth of the Youghiogeny. At Gist's house, on the
Monongahela, he purchased a horse, and, separating from this faithful
companion, proceeded to Belvoir, where he rested one day, and arrived
at Williamsburg on the 16th day of January, 1754, after an absence of
eleven weeks, and a journey of fifteen hundred miles, one-half of it
being through an untrodden wilderness. A journal which he kept was
published in the colonial newspapers and in England. For this hazardous
and painful journey he received no compensation save the bare amount of
his expenses.

The governor and council resolved to raise two companies, of one hundred
men each, the one to be enlisted by him at Alexandria, and the other by
Captain Trent on the frontier, the command of both being given to
Washington. He received orders to march as soon as practicable to the
fork of the Ohio, and complete a fort, supposed to have been already
commenced there by the Ohio Company. The assembly which met December,
1753, refused Dinwiddie supplies for resisting the French encroachments,
"because they thought their privileges in danger," and they did not
apprehend much danger from the French. The governor called the assembly
together again in January, 1754, when at length, after much persuasion,
they appropriated ten thousand pounds of the colonial currency for
protecting the frontier against the hostile attempts of the French. The
bill, however, was clogged with provisoes against the encroachments of
prerogative. Dinwiddie increased the military force to a regiment of
three hundred men, and the command was given to Colonel Joshua Fry, and
Major Washington was made lieutenant-colonel. Cannon and other military
equipments were sent to Alexandria. The English minister, the Earl of
Holdernesse, also ordered the governor of New York to furnish two
independent companies, and the governor of South Carolina one, to
co-operate in this enterprise.

Early in April, 1754, Washington, with two companies, proceeded to the
Great Meadows. At Will's Creek, on the twenty-fifth, he learned that an
ensign, in command of Trent's company, had surrendered, on the
seventeenth, the unfinished fort at the fork of the Ohio, (now
Pittsburg,) to a large French force, which had come down under
Contrecoeur from Venango, with many pieces of cannon, batteaux, canoes,
and a large body of men. This was regarded as the first open act of
hostility between France and England in North America. In the war which
ensued Great Britain indeed triumphed gloriously, yet that triumph
served only to bring on in its train the revolt of the colonies and the
dismemberment of the empire.

Washington, upon hearing of the surrender of the fort, marched slowly
for the mouth of Red Stone Creek, preparing the roads for the passage of
cannon which were to follow. Governor Dinwiddie, about the same time,
repaired to Winchester for the purpose of holding a treaty with the
Indians, which, however, failed, only two or three chiefs of inferior
note attending.

Virginia refused to send delegates to the Albany Convention; and the
assembly and governor united in disapproving of Franklin's Plan of
Union, adopted on that occasion. Dinwiddie during the previous year had
proposed to Lord Halifax a plan of colonial government, dividing the
colonies into two districts, northern and southern, in each of which
there should be a congress, or general council, for the regulation of
their respective interests.

The money appropriated by the assembly for the support of the troops was
expended under the care of a committee of the assembly, associated with
the governor, and the niggardly economy of this committee gave great
disgust to Washington and the officers under him. He declared that he
would prefer serving as a volunteer to "slaving dangerously for the
shadow of pay through woods, rocks, mountains." Expecting a collision
with the enemy, he wrote to Governor Dinwiddie, "We have prepared
a charming field for an encounter." Ascertaining that a French
reconnoitering detachment was near his camp, and believing their
intentions hostile, he determined to anticipate them. Guided by friendly
Indians, in a dark and rainy night he approached the French encampment,
and early on the twenty-eighth of May, with forty of his own men and a
few Indians, surrounded the French. A skirmish ensued; M. De Jumonville,
the officer in command, and ten of his party were killed, and twenty-two
made prisoners. Several of them appeared to have a mixture of Indian
blood in them. The death of Jumonville created no little indignation in
France, and became the subject of a French poem. It is said that
Washington, in referring to this affair, remarked that "he knew of no
music so pleasing as the whistling of bullets." This being mentioned in
the presence of George the Second, he observed, "He would not say so if
he had been used to hear many." The king had himself fought at the
battle of Dettingen. Inquiry being many years afterwards made of
Washington as to the expression, he replied, "If I said so, it was when
I was young." Charles the Twelfth, of Sweden, expressed delight when he
first heard the whistling of bullets. Of Washington's men one was killed
and two or three were wounded. While the regiment was on its march to
join the detachment in advance, the command devolved, at the end of May,
on Lieutenant-Colonel Washington by the death of Colonel Fry. This
officer, a native of England, was educated at Oxford. Coming over to
Virginia, he appears to have resided for a time in the County of Essex.
He was some time professor of mathematics in the College of William and
Mary, and afterwards a member of the house of burgesses, and engaged in
running a boundary line between Virginia and North Carolina to the
westward. In concert with Peter Jefferson, father of Thomas, he made
a map of Virginia, and he was, as has been mentioned before, a
commissioner at the treaty of Logstown, in June, 1752. He died
universally lamented.

Washington, in a letter addressed to Governor Dinwiddie about this time,
said: "For my own part, I can answer that I have a constitution hardy
enough to encounter and undergo the most severe trials, and I flatter
myself, resolution to face what any man dares, as shall be proved when
it comes to the test, which I believe we are upon the borders of." The
provisions of the detachment being nearly exhausted, and the ground
occupied disadvantageous, and the French at the fork of the Ohio, now
called Fort Du Quesne, having been reinforced, and being about to march
against the English, a council of war, held June the twenty-eighth, at
Gist's house, thirteen miles beyond the Great Meadows, advised a
retreat, and Colonel Washington fell back to the post at the Great
Meadows, now styled Fort Necessity, which he reached on the first of
July. His force, amounting, with the addition of an independent company
of South Carolinians, to about four hundred men, were at once set to
work to raise a breast-work and to strengthen the fortification as far
as possible. Forty or fifty Indian families took shelter in the fort,
and among them Tanacharisson, or the half-king, and Queen Aliquippa.
They proved to be of more trouble than advantage, being as spies and
scouts of some service when rewarded, but in the fort useless. Before
the completion of the ditch, M. De Villiers, a brother of De Jumonville,
appeared on the 3d of July, 1754, in front of the fort with nine hundred
men, and at eleven o'clock A.M., commenced an attack by firing at the
distance of six hundred yards, but without effect. The assailants
fought, under cover of the trees and high grass, on rising ground near
the fort. They were received with intrepidity by the Americans. Some of
the Indians climbed up trees overlooking the fort, and fired on
Washington's men, who returned the compliment in such style that the red
men slipped down the trees with the celerity of monkeys, which excited a
loud laugh among the Virginians.

The rain fell heavily during the day; the trenches were filled with
water; and many of the arms of Washington's men were out of order. The
desultory engagement lasted till eight o'clock in the evening, when the
French commander, having twice sounded a parley, and the stock of
provisions and ammunition in the fort being much reduced, it was
accepted. About midnight, during a heavy rain, one half of the garrison
being drunk, a capitulation took place, after the articles had been
modified in some points at Washington's instance. The French at first
demanded a surrender of the cannon; but this being resisted it was
agreed that they should be destroyed, except one small piece reserved by
the garrison upon the point of honor; but which they were eventually
unable to remove.

These guns, probably only spiked and abandoned, were subsequently
restored, and lay for a long time on the Great Meadows. After the
Revolution it was an amusement of settlers moving westward, to discharge
them. They were at last removed to Kentucky.

The troops were to retain their other arms and baggage; to march out
with drums beating and colors flying, and return home unmolested. The
terms of the surrender, as published at the time from the duplicate copy
retained by Colonel Washington, implied ("by the too great condescension
of Van Braam," the interpreter) an acknowledgment on his part that M. de
Jumonville had been "assassinated." It appears that Washington was
misled by the inaccuracy of Van Braam in translating the word, he being
a Dutchman, and the only officer in the garrison who was acquainted with
the French language. It was so stormy at the time that he could not give
a written translation of the articles, and they could scarcely keep a
candle lighted to read them by, so that it became necessary to rely upon
the interpreter's word. The American officers present afterwards averred
that the word "assassination" was not mentioned, and that the terms
employed were, "the death of Jumonville." The affair is involved in
obscurity: for why should the French require Washington to acknowledge
himself the author of "his death," unless the killing was unjustifiable?
On the other hand, with what consistency could Villiers allow such
honorable terms in the same articles in which it was demanded of
Washington that he should sign a confession of his own disgrace?

Of the Virginia regiment, three hundred and five in number, twelve were
killed, and forty-three wounded. The loss sustained by Captain Mackay's
Independent Company was not ascertained. Villiers' loss was three
killed, and seventeen dangerously wounded. The horses and cattle having
been captured or killed by the enemy, it was found necessary to abandon
a large part of the baggage and stores, and to convey the remainder,
with the wounded, on the backs of the soldiers. Washington had agreed to
restore the prisoners taken at the skirmish with Jumonville; and to
insure this, two captains, Van Braam and Stobo, were given up as

Washington, early on the 4th of July, 1754, perhaps the most humiliating
of his life, marched out according to the terms; but in the confusion
the Virginia standard, which was very large, was left behind, and was
carried off in triumph by the enemy. But the regimental colors were
preserved. In a short time the Virginians met a body of Indians who
plundered the baggage, and were with difficulty restrained from
attacking the men. Washington hastened back to Will's Creek, whence he
proceeded to Williamsburg. The assembly voted him and his officers
thanks, and gave him three hundred pistoles to be distributed among his
men; but dissatisfaction was expressed at some of the articles of
capitulation when they came to be made public.[468:A] Among the
prisoners taken at the time when Jumonville was killed, was La Force,
who, on account of his influence among the Indians, was looked upon as a
dangerous character, and was imprisoned at Williamsburg. He managed to
escape from prison in the summer of 1756, but was recaptured near West
Point; and he was now kept in irons. This severe usage, and his being
detained by Dinwiddie a prisoner, in violation of the treaty of Fort
Necessity, cannot be justified, and was unjust to Stobo and Van Braam,
who were, consequently, long retained as prisoners of war, and for some
time confined in prison at Quebec. It is true that the French suffered
the Indians to violate the article of the treaty securing the troops
from molestation; but an excuse might be found in the difficulty of
restraining savages.

Much blame was laid on poor Van Braam at the time, and in the thanks
voted by the assembly his name was excepted, as having acted
treacherously in interpreting the treaty. Washington, who had shortly
before the surrender pronounced him "an experienced, good officer, and
very worthy of the command he has enjoyed," appears to have been at a
loss whether to attribute his misinterpretation to "evil intentions or
negligence," but was rather disposed to believe that it was owing to his
being but little acquainted with the English language. Van Braam appears
to have been rather hardly judged in this affair.[468:B] Stobo, a native
of Scotland, who emigrated early to Virginia, was brave, energetic, and
a man of genius, but eccentric; his fidelity was never doubted. He was
an acquaintance of David Hume, and a friend of Smollett, and was, it is
said, the original of the character of Lismahago.


[468:A] Washington's Writings, ii. 456.

[468:B] Ibid., ii. 365, 456; Va. Hist. Register, v. 194; Hist. of
Expedition against Fort Du Quesne, edited by Winthrop Sargent, Esq., and
published by the Pennsylvania Hist. Society, 51.



     Dinwiddie's injudicious Orders--Washington resigns--Statistics--
     Braddock's arrival--Washington joins him as aid-de-camp--
     Braddock's Expedition--His Defeat--Washington's Bravery--His
     account of the Defeat.

THE Virginia regiment quartered at Winchester being re-enforced by some
companies from Maryland and North Carolina, Dinwiddie injudiciously
ordered this force to march at once again over the Alleghanies, and
expel the French from Fort Du Quesne, or build another near it. This
little army was under command of Colonel Innes, of North Carolina, who,
having brought three hundred and fifty men with him from that colony,
had been appointed, upon Colonel Fry's death, commander-in-chief. Innes
had been with Lawrence Washington at Carthagena. The force under Innes
did not exceed half the number of the enemy, and was unprovided for a
winter campaign. The assembly making no appropriation for the
expedition, it was fortunately abandoned.

Two independent companies, ordered from New York by Dinwiddie, arrived
in Hampton Roads, in his majesty's ship Centaur, Captain Dudley Digges,
in June, 1754. They were marched to Will's Creek, where they were joined
by an independent company from South Carolina; and these troops, under
command of Colonel Innes, during the autumn, built Fort Cumberland in
the fork between Will's Creek and the north branch of the Potomac, on
the Maryland side, about fifty-five miles northwest of Winchester. It
was called after the Duke of Cumberland, captain-general of the British
army. The fort was mounted with ten four-pounders, and some swivels; and
contained magazines and barracks. A prosperous town has arisen on the

The North Carolina troops at Winchester, not duly receiving their pay,
disbanded themselves in a disorderly way, and returned home. Dinwiddie
wrote to the board of trade that "the progress of the French would
never be effectually opposed, but by means of an act of parliament
compelling the colonies to contribute to the common cause independently
of assemblies;" and to the secretary of state: "I know of no method to
compel them to their duty to the king, but by an act of parliament for a
general poll-tax of two shillings and six pence a head, from all the
colonies on this continent." This scheme had been suggested a long time

In 1738 the assembly of Virginia, which had long exercised the right of
choosing a treasurer, had placed their speaker, John Robinson, in that
office; and he continuing to hold both places for many years, exerted an
undue influence over the assembly by lending the public money to the
members. Dinwiddie ruled on ordinary occasions, but Robinson was
dictator in all extraordinary emergencies.[470:A]

When the assembly met in October, 1754, they granted twenty thousand
pounds for the public exigencies; Maryland and New York also contributed
their quotas to the common cause; and Dinwiddie received ten thousand
pounds from England. He now enlarged the Virginia forces to ten
companies, under the pretext of peremptory orders from England, and made
each of them independent, with a view, as was alleged, of terminating
the disputes between the regular and provincial officers respecting
command. The effect of this upon Washington would have been to reduce
him to the grade of captain, and to subject him to officers whom he had
commanded; officers of the same rank, but holding the king's commission,
would rank before him. This would have been the more mortifying to him,
after the catastrophe of the Great Meadows. He, therefore, although his
inclinations were still strongly bent to arms, resigned, and passed the
winter at Mount Vernon. He was now twenty-two years of age.

In the meanwhile Horatio Sharpe, professionally a military man, and Lord
Baltimore's lieutenant-governor of Maryland, was appointed by the crown
commander-in-chief of the forces against the French. Colonel William
Fitzhugh, of Virginia, who was to command in the absence of Sharpe, had
endeavored to persuade Washington to continue in the service, retaining
for the present his commission of colonel. Replying in November, 1754,
he said: "If you think me capable of holding a commission that has
neither rank nor emolument annexed to it, you must entertain a very
contemptible opinion of my weakness, and believe me to be more empty
than the commission itself." Washington was dissatisfied with
Dinwiddie's action in this matter.

The population of the American colonies at this period was estimated at
1,485,000, of whom 292,000 were blacks, and the number of fighting men
240,000; while the French population in Canada was not over 90,000.
Virginia was reckoned the first of the colonies in power, Massachusetts
the second, Pennsylvania the third, and Maryland the fourth; and either
one of these had greater resources than Canada. Yet the power of the
French was more concentrated; they were better fitted for the
emergencies of the war, and they had more regular troops.[471:A] The
colonies were not united in purpose; and the Virginians were described
by Dinwiddie as "an indolent people, and without military ardor."

Sharpe's appointment was sent over by Arthur Dobbs, Governor of North
Carolina, who arrived in Hampton Roads on the first of October. Sharpe,
proceeding to Williamsburg, concerted with Dinwiddie and Dobbs a plan of
operations against Fort Du Quesne. This plan was abandoned, owing to
intelligence of the French being re-enforced by numerous Indian allies.

In February, 1755, General Edward Braddock, newly appointed
commander-in-chief of all the military forces in America, arrived in
Virginia with a small part of the troops of the intended expedition, the
remainder arriving afterwards, being two British regiments, each
consisting of five hundred men, the forty-fourth commanded by Sir Peter
Halket, the forty-eighth by Colonel Dunbar. Braddock went immediately to
Williamsburg to confer with Dinwiddie. Sir John St. Clair, who had come
over to America some time before, was already there awaiting the
general's arrival.

In compliance with Braddock's invitation, dated the second of March,
Washington entered his military family as a volunteer, retaining his
former rank. This proceeding aroused his mother's tender solicitude, and
she hastened to Mount Vernon to give expression to it.

From Williamsburg Braddock proceeded to Alexandria, then sometimes
called Belhaven, the original name, where he made his headquarters, the
troops being quartered in that place and the neighborhood until they
marched for Will's Creek. On the thirteenth of April the governors of
Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, met
General Braddock at Alexandria, to concert a plan of operations.
Washington was courteously received by the governors, especially by
Shirley, with whose manners and character he was quite fascinated.
Overtaking Braddock (who marched from Alexandria on the twentieth) at
Frederictown, Maryland, he accompanied him to Winchester, and thence to
Fort Cumberland. Early in May Washington was made an aid-de-camp to the
general. Being dispatched to Williamsburg to convey money for the
army-chest, he returned to the camp with it on the thirtieth.

The army consisted of the two regiments of British regulars, together
originally one thousand men, and augmented by Virginia and Maryland
levies to fourteen hundred. The Virginia captains were Waggener, Cock,
Hogg, Stephen, Poulson, Peyrouny, Mercer, and Stuart. The provincials
included the fragments of two independent companies from New York, one
of which was commanded by Captain Horatio Gates, afterwards a
major-general in the revolutionary war. Of the remaining provincials one
hundred were pioneers and guides, called Hatchetmen: there were besides
a troop of Virginia light-horse, and a few Indians. Thirty sailors were
detached by Commodore Keppel, commander of the fleet that brought
over the forces. The total effective force was about two thousand one
hundred and fifty, and they were accompanied by the usual number of
non-combatants. The army was detained by the difficulty of procuring
provisions and conveyances. The apathy of the legislatures and the bad
faith of the contractors, so irritated Braddock that he indulged in
sweeping denunciations against the colonies. These led to frequent
disputes between him and Washington, who found the exasperated general
deaf to his arguments on that subject. The plan suggested by him of
employing pack-horses for transportation, instead of wagons, was
afterwards in some measure adopted.

Benjamin Franklin, deputy postmaster-general of the colonies, who, at
Governor Shirley's instance, had accompanied him to the congress at
Alexandria, visited Braddock at Frederictown, for the purpose of opening
a post-route between Will's Creek and Philadelphia. Learning the
general's embarrassment, he undertook to procure the requisite number of
wagons and horses from the Pennsylvania farmers. Issuing a handbill
addressed to their interests and their fears, and exciting among the
Germans an apprehension of an arbitrary impressment to be enforced by
Sir John St. Clair, "the Hussar," he was soon able to provide the
general with the means of transportation.[473:A] It was a long time
before Franklin recovered compensation for the farmers; Governor Shirley
at length paid the greater part of the amount, twenty thousand pounds;
but it is said that owing to the neglect of Lord Loudoun, Franklin was
never wholly repaid. Washington and Franklin were both held in high
estimation by Braddock, and they were unconsciously co-operating with
him in a war destined in its unforeseen consequences to dismember the
British empire.

Braddock's army, with its baggage extending (along a road twelve feet
wide) sometimes four miles in length, moved from Fort Cumberland, at the
mouth of Will's Creek, early in June, and advanced slowly and with
difficulty, five miles being considered a good day's march. There was
much sickness among the soldiers: Washington was seized with a fever,
and obliged to travel in a covered wagon. Braddock, however, continued
to consult him, and he advised the general to disencumber himself of his
heavy guns and unnecessary baggage, to leave them with a rear division,
and to press forward expeditiously to Fort Du Quesne. In a council of
war it was determined that Braddock should advance as rapidly as
possible with twelve hundred select men, and Colonel Dunbar follow on
slowly with a rear-guard of about six hundred,--a number of the soldiers
being disabled by sickness. The advance corps proceeded only nineteen
miles in four days, losing occasionally a straggler, cut off by the
French and Indian scouts. Trees were found near the road stripped of
their barks and painted, and on them the French had written many of
their names and the number of scalps recently taken, with many insolent
threats and scurrilous bravados.

Washington was now (by the general's order) compelled to stop, his
physician declaring that his life would be jeoparded by a continuance
with the army, and Braddock promising that he should be brought up with
it before it reached Fort Du Quesne. On the day before the battle of the
Monongahela, Washington, in a wagon, rejoined the army, at the mouth of
the Youghiogany River, and fifteen miles from Fort Du Quesne. On the
morning of Wednesday, the 9th of July, 1755, the troops, in high
spirits, confident of entering the gates of Fort Du Quesne triumphantly
in a few hours, crossed the Monongahela, and advanced along the southern
margin. Washington, in after-life, was heard to declare it the most
beautiful spectacle that he had ever witnessed--the brilliant uniform of
the soldiers, arranged in columns and marching in exact order; the sun
gleaming on their burnished arms; the Monongahela flowing tranquilly by
on the one hand, on the other, the primeval forest projecting its
shadows in sombre magnificence. At one o'clock the army again crossed
the river at a second ford ten miles from Fort Du Quesne. From the river
a level plain extends northward nearly half a mile, thence the ground,
gradually ascending, terminates in hills. The road from the
fording-place to the fort led across this plain, up this ascent, and
through an uneven country covered with woods.[474:A] Beyond the plain on
both sides of the road were ravines unnoticed by the English. Three
hundred men, under Lieutenant-Colonel Gage, subsequently commander of
the British troops at Boston, made the advanced party, and it was
immediately followed by another of two hundred. Next came Braddock with
the artillery, the main body, and the baggage. Brigadier-General Sir
Peter Halket was second in command. No sooner had the army crossed the
river, at the second ford, than a sharp firing was heard upon the
advanced parties, who were now ascending the hill about a hundred yards
beyond the edge of the plain.[475:A]

At an early hour De Beaujeu had been detached from Fort Du Quesne, at
the head of about two hundred and thirty French and Canadians, and six
hundred and thirty Indian savages, with the design of attacking the
English at an advantageous ground selected on the preceding evening.
Before reaching it he came upon the English. The greater part of Gage's
command was advanced beyond the spot where the main battle was fought,
when Mr. Gordon, one of the engineers in front marking out the road,
perceived the enemy bounding forward. Before them with long leaps came
Beaujeu, the gay hunting-shirt and silver gorget denoting him as the
chief. Halting he waved his hat above his head, and at this signal the
Indians dispersed themselves to the right and left, throwing themselves
flat on the ground, or gliding behind rocks and trees into the ravines.
The French occupied the centre of the Indian semicircle, and a fierce
attack was commenced. Gage's troops, recovering from their first
surprise, opened a fire of grape and musketry. Beaujeu and twelve others
fell dead upon the spot; the Indians, astonished by the report of the
cannon, began to fly. Rallied by Dumas, who succeeded Beaujeu, they
resumed the combat: the French in front, the Indians on the flank. For a
time the issue was doubtful: cries of "Vive le Roi" were answered by the
cheers of the English. But while the officers of the Forty-fourth led on
their men with waving swords, the enemy, concealed in the woods and
ravines, secure and invisible, kept up a steady, well-aimed, and fatal
fire. Their position was only discovered by the smoke of their muskets.
Gage, not reinforcing his flanking parties, they were driven in, and the
English, instead of advancing upon the hidden enemy, returned a random
and ineffectual fire in full column.

In the mean time Braddock sent forward Lieutenant-Colonel Burton with
the vanguard. And while he was forming his men to face a rising ground
on the right, the advanced detachment, overwhelmed with consternation by
the savage war-whoop and the mysterious danger, fell back upon him in
great confusion, communicating a panic from which they could not be
recovered. Braddock now came up and endeavored to form the two regiments
under their colors, but neither entreaties nor threats could prevail.
The baggage in the rear was attacked, and many horses killed; some of
the drivers fell, the rest escaped by flight. Two of the cannon flanking
the baggage for some time protected it from the Indians; the others
fired away most of their ammunition, and were of some service in awing
the enemy, but could do but little execution against a concealed foe.
The enemy extended from front to rear, and fired upon every part at
once. The general finding it impossible to persuade his men to advance,
many officers falling, and no enemy appearing in sight, endeavored to
effect a retreat in good order, but such was the panic that he could not
succeed. They were loading as fast as possible and firing in the air.

Braddock and his officers made every effort to rally them, but in vain;
in this confusion and dismay they remained in a road twelve feet wide,
enclosed by woods, for three hours, huddled together, exposed to the
insidious fire, doing the enemy little hurt, and shooting one another.
None of the survivors could afterwards say that they saw one hundred of
the enemy, and many of the officers that were in the heat of the action
would not assert that they saw one.[477:A]

The Virginia troops preserved their presence of mind, and behaved with
the utmost bravery, adopting the Indian mode of combat, and fighting
each man for himself behind a tree. This was done in spite of the orders
of Braddock, who still endeavored to form his men into platoons and
columns, as if they had been manoeuvring in the plains of Flanders or
parading in Hyde Park. Washington and Sir Peter Halket in vain advised
him to allow the men to shelter themselves: he stormed at such as
attempted to take to the trees, calling them cowards, and striking them
with his sword. Captain Waggoner, of the Virginia troops, resolved to
take advantage of the trunk of a tree five feet in diameter, lying
athwart the brow of a hill. With shouldered firelocks he marched a party
of eighty men toward it, and losing but three men on the way, the
remainder throwing themselves behind it, opened a hot fire upon the
enemy. But no sooner were the flash and report of their muskets
perceived by the mob behind, than a general discharge was poured upon
them, by which fifty were killed and the rest compelled to fly.[477:B]

The French and Indians, concealed in deep ravines, and behind trees, and
logs, and high grass, and tangled undergrowth, kept up a deadly fire,
singling out their victims. The mounted officers were especially aimed
at, and shortly after the commencement of the engagement, Washington was
the only aid not wounded. Although still feeble from the effects of his
illness, on him now was devolved the whole duty of carrying the
general's orders, and he rode a conspicuous mark in every direction. Two
horses were killed under him, four bullets penetrated his coat, but he
escaped unhurt, while every other officer on horseback was either killed
or wounded. Dr. Craik afterwards said: "I expected every moment to see
him fall. His duty and situation exposed him to every danger. Nothing
but the superintending care of Providence could have saved him from the
fate of all around him." Washington, writing to his brother, said: "By
the all-powerful dispensations of Providence I have been protected
beyond all human probability or expectation, for I had four bullets
through my coat and two horses shot under me, yet escaped unhurt,
although death was levelling my companions on every side."

More than half of the army were killed or wounded, two-thirds of them,
according to Washington's conjecture, by their own bullets; Sir Peter
Halket was killed on the field; Shirley, Braddock's secretary, was shot
through the head; Colonels Burton, Gage, and Orme, Major Sparks,
Brigade-Major Halket, Captain Morris, etc., were wounded. Out of
eighty-six officers, twenty-six were killed and thirty-seven wounded.
The whole number of killed was estimated at four hundred and fifty-six,
wounded four hundred and twenty one, the greater part of whom were
brought off; the aggregate loss, eight hundred and seventy-seven. The
enemy's force, variously estimated, did not exceed eight hundred and
fifty men, of whom six hundred, it was conjectured, were Indians. The
French loss was twenty-eight killed, including three officers, one of
whom, Beaujeu, was chief in command; and twenty-nine badly wounded,
including two officers. The French and Indians being covered by ravines,
the balls of the English passed harmless over their heads; while a
charge with the bayonet, or raking the ravines with cannon, would have
at once driven them from their lurking places, and put them to flight,
or, at the least, dispersed them in the woods. Any movement would have
been better than standing still.

During the action, or massacre, of three hours, Braddock had three
horses killed under him, and two disabled. At five o'clock in the
afternoon, while beneath a large tree standing between the heads of two
ravines, and in the act of giving an order, he received a mortal wound.
Falling from his horse, he lay helpless on the ground, surrounded by the
dead. His army having fired away all their ammunition, now fled in
disorder back to the Monongahela. Pursued to the water's edge by a party
of savages, the regulars threw away arms, accoutrements, and even
clothing, that they might run the faster. Many were tomahawked at the
fording-place; but those who crossed were not pursued, as the Indians
returned to the harvest of plunder. The provincials, better acquainted
with Indian warfare were less disconcerted, and retreated with more

Not one of his British soldiers could be prevailed upon to stay and aid
in bearing off the wounded general. In vain Orme offered them a purse of
sixty guineas. Braddock begged his faithful friends to provide for their
own safety, and declared his resolution to die on the field. Orme
disregarded these desperate injunctions; and Captain Stewart, of the
Virginia Light-horse, (attached to the general's person,) and his
servant, together with another American officer, hastening to Orme's
relief, brought off Braddock, at first on a small tumbrel, then on a
horse, lastly by the soldiers.

According to Washington's account, in a letter written to Dinwiddie:
"They were struck with such an inconceivable panic, that nothing but
confusion and disobedience of orders prevailed among them. The officers
in general behaved with incomparable bravery, for which they greatly
suffered, there being upwards of sixty killed and wounded, a large
proportion out of what we had. The Virginia companies behaved like men
and died like soldiers; for, I believe, out of three companies on the
ground that day, scarcely thirty men were left alive. Captain Peyrouny,
a Frenchman by birth, and all his officers down to a corporal, were
killed. Captain Poulson had almost as hard a fate, for only one of his
escaped. In short, the dastardly behavior of the regular troops (so
called) exposed those who were inclined to do their duty to almost
certain death; and, at length, in spite of every effort to the contrary,
they broke and ran like sheep before hounds, leaving the artillery,
ammunition, provisions, baggage, and, in short, everything a prey to the
enemy; and when we endeavored to rally them in hopes of regaining the
ground and what we had left upon it, it was with as little success as if
we had attempted to have stopped the wild bears of the mountains, or the
rivulets with our feet; for they would break by in spite of every effort
to prevent it."

Braddock was brave and accomplished in European tactics; but not an
officer of that comprehensive genius which knows how to bend and
accommodate himself to circumstances. Burke says that a wise statesman
knows how to be governed by circumstances: the maxim applies as well to
a military commander. Braddock, headstrong, passionate, irritated, not
without just grounds, against the provinces, and pursuing the policy of
the British government to rely mainly on the forces sent over, and to
treat the colonial troops as inferior and only secondary, rejected the
proposal of Washington to lead in advance the provincials, who,
accustomed to border warfare, knew better how to cope with a savage
foe.[480:A] Braddock, however, showed that although he could not
retrieve these errors, nor reclaim a degenerate soldiery, he could at
any rate fall like a soldier.[480:B]

Although no further pursued, the remainder of the army continued their
flight during the night and the next day. Braddock continued for two
days to give orders; and it was in compliance with them that the greater
part of the artillery, ammunition, and other stores were destroyed. It
was not until the thirteenth that the general uttered a word, except for
military directions. He then bestowed the warmest praise on his gallant
officers, and bequeathed, as is said, his charger, and his body-servant,
Bishop, to Washington.[480:C] The dying Braddock ejaculated in reference
to the defeat, "Who would have thought it?" Turning to Orme he remarked,
"We shall better know how to deal with them another time;" and in a few
moments expired, at eight o'clock, in the evening of Sunday, the 13th of
July, 1755, at the Great Meadows. On the next morning he was buried in
the road, near Fort Necessity, Washington, in the absence of the
chaplain, who was wounded, reading the funeral service. Washington
retired to Mount Vernon, oppressed with the sad retrospect of the recent
disaster. But his reputation was greatly elevated by his signal
gallantry on this occasion. Such dreary portals open the road of fame.

The green and bosky scene of battle was strewn with the wounded and the
dead. Toward evening the forest resounded with the exulting cries and
war-whoop of the returning French and Indians, the firing of small arms,
and the responsive roar of the cannon at the fort. A lonely American
prisoner confined there listened during this anxious day to the various
sounds, and with peering eye explored the scene. Presently he saw the
greater part of the savages, painted and blood-stained, bringing scalps,
and rejoicing in the possession of grenadiers' caps, and the laced hats
and splendid regimentals of the English officers. Next succeeded the
French, escorting a long train of pack-horses laden with plunder. Last
of all, just before sunset, appeared a party of Indians conducting
twelve British regulars, naked, their faces blackened, their hands tied
behind them. In a short while they were burned to death on the opposite
bank of the Ohio, with every circumstance of studied barbarity and
inhuman torture, the French garrison crowding the ramparts of the fort
to witness the spectacle.

The remains of the defeated detachment retreated to the rear division in
precipitate disorder, leaving the road behind them strewed with signs of
the disaster. Shortly after, Colonel Dunbar marched with the remaining
regulars to Philadelphia. Colonel Washington returned home, mortified
and indignant at the conduct of the regular troops.


[470:A] Chalmers' Revolt, ii. 353.

[471:A] Chalmers' Revolt, ii. 273.

[473:A] Gordon's Hist. of Pa.; Braddock's Expedition, 163.

[474:A] A plan of the ground is given in Washington's Writings, ii. 90.

[475:A] The surprise of the Roman army under Titurius Sabinus on his
march, by the Gauls (as described by Cæsar) resembles Braddock's defeat
in several particulars.

     "At hostes, posteaquam ex nocturno fremitu vigiliis que de
     profectione eorum senserunt, collocatis insidiis bipartito in
     silvis opportuno atque occulto loco, a millibus passuum
     circiter duobus, Romanorum adventum expectabant: et cum se
     major pars agminis in magnam convallem demisisset, ex utraque
     parte ejus vallis subito se ostenderunt, novissimosque premere
     et primos prohibere ascensu atque iniquissimo nostris loco
     proelium committere coeperunt." Lucius Cotta was the
     Washington of that defeat: but he fell in the general
     massacre. "At Cotta qui cogitasset hæc posse in itinere
     accidere, atque ob eam causam profectionis auctor non fuisset,
     nulla in re communi saluti deerat, et in appellandis
     cohortandisque militibus, imperatoris, et in pugna, militis
     officia præstabat."

The following sentence describes the war-whoop: "Tum vero suo more
victoriam conclamant, atque ululatum tollunt, impetuque in nostros
facto, ordines perturbant."

[477:A] Bancroft, iv. 189.

[477:B] Braddock's Expedition, 231.

[480:A] Chalmers' Hist. of Revolt, ii. 276. True to his unvarying
prejudice against the colonies, he justifies the conduct of Braddock.

[480:B] The History of Braddock's Expedition, by Winthrop Sargent, Esq.,
is full, elaborate, and authentic. The volume, a beautiful specimen of
typography, was printed, 1856, by Messrs. J. B. Lippincott & Co., for
the Pennsylvania Historical Society. I am indebted to Townsend Ward,
Esq., Librarian, for a copy of it.

[480:C] Gilbert, a slave, is said to have been with Washington at the
battle of the Monongahela, and at the siege of York. John Alton is
likewise mentioned as a servant attending him during Braddock's



     Stith--Davies visits England and Scotland--Patriotic Discourse--
     Waddel, the Blind Preacher--Washington made Colonel of Virginia
     Regiment--Indian Incursions--Washington visits Boston.

DURING the year 1755 died the Rev. William Stith, president of the
College of William and Mary, and author of an excellent "History of
Virginia," from the first settlement to the dissolution of the London
Company. He was of exemplary character and catholic spirit, a friend of
well-regulated liberty, and a true patriot.

The Rev. Samuel Davies, during the year 1754, went on a mission to
England and Scotland for the purpose of raising a fund for the endowment
of a college at Princeton, New Jersey. His eloquence commanded
admiration in the mother country. The English Presbyterians he found
sadly fallen away from the doctrines of the Reformation, and their
clergy, although learned and able, deeply infected with the "modish
divinity"--Socinianism and Arminianism. In Scotland, where he met a warm
welcome, he found the young clergy no less imbued with the "modish
divinity," and the cause of religion and the spiritual independence of
the kirk lamentably impaired by the overweening influence of secular
patronage. Davies was of opinion that in genuine piety the Methodists,
who commenced their reform in the Church of England, ranked the highest.
He returned to Virginia early in 1755, and during the French and Indian
wars he often employed his eloquence in arousing the patriotism of the

After Braddock's defeat, such was the general consternation that many
seemed ready to desert the country. On the 20th of July, 1755, Davies
delivered a discourse, in which he declared: "Christians should be
patriots. What is that religion good for that leaves men cowards upon
the appearance of danger? And permit me to say, that I am particularly
solicitous that you, my brethren of the dissenters, should act with
honor and spirit in this juncture, as it becomes loyal subjects, lovers
of your country, and courageous Christians. That is a mean, sordid,
cowardly soul that would abandon his country and shift for his own
little self, when there is any probability of defending it. To give the
greater weight to what I say, I may take the liberty to tell you, I have
as little personal interest, as little to lose in the colony, as most of
you. If I consulted either my safety or my temporal interest, I should
soon remove with my family to Great Britain, or the Northern colonies,
where I have had very inviting offers. Nature has not formed me for a
military life, nor furnished me with any great degree of fortitude and
courage; yet I must declare, that after the most calm and impartial
deliberation, I am determined not to leave my country while there is any
prospect of defending it."[483:A]

Dejection and alarm vanished under his eloquence, and at the conclusion
of his address every man seemed to say, "Let us march against the
enemy!" A patriotic discourse was delivered by him on the 17th of
August, 1755, before Captain Overton's company of Independent
Volunteers, the first volunteer company raised in Virginia after
Braddock's defeat. In a note appended to this discourse, Davies said:
"As a remarkable instance of this, I may point out to the public that
heroic youth, Colonel Washington, whom I cannot but hope Providence has
hitherto preserved in so signal a manner for some important service to
his country."[483:B]

It is probable that Patrick Henry caught the spark of eloquence from
Davies, as in his early youth, and in after years, he often heard him
preach. They were alike gifted with a profound sensibility. Henry always
remarked that Mr. Davies was "the greatest orator he had ever heard."
Presbyterianism steadily advanced in Virginia under the auspices of
Davies and his successors, particularly Graham, Smith, Waddell, "the
blind preacher" of Wirt's "British Spy," and Brown.

The Rev. James Waddell, a Presbyterian minister, was born in the North
of Ireland, in July, 1739, as is believed. He was brought over in his
infancy by his parents to America; they settled in the southeastern part
of Pennsylvania, on White-clay Creek. James was sent to school at
Nottingham to Dr. Finley, afterwards president of the College of New
Jersey. In the school young Waddell made such proficiency in his studies
as to become an assistant teacher; and Dr. Benjamin Rush, the signer of
the Declaration of Independence, recited lessons to him there. He
devoted his attention chiefly to the classics, in which he became very
well versed. He was afterwards an assistant to the elder Smith, father
of the Rev. John Blair Smith, president of Hampden Sidney College,
Virginia, and of the Rev. Samuel Stanhope Smith, president of the
College of New Jersey. Waddell, intending to pursue the vocation of a
teacher, and to settle with that view at Charleston, in South Carolina,
set out for the South. In passing through Virginia he met with the
celebrated preacher, Davies, and that incident gave a different turn to
his life. Shortly after, he became an assistant to the Rev. Mr. Todd in
his school in the County of Louisa, with whom he studied theology. He
was licensed to preach in 1761, and ordained in the following year, when
he settled as pastor in Lancaster County. Here, about the year 1768, he
married Mary, daughter of Colonel James Gordon, of that county,[484:A] a
wealthy and influential man. In the division of the Presbyterian Church
Mr. Waddell was of the "New Side," as it was termed. The Rev. Samuel
Davies often preached to Mr. Waddell's congregation; as also did
Whitefield several times.

In the year 1776 Mr. Waddell removed from Lower Virginia, in very feeble
health, to Augusta County. His salary was now only forty-five pounds,
Virginia currency, per annum. In 1783 he came to reside at an estate
purchased by him, and called Hopewell, at the junction of Louisa,
Orange, and Albemarle--the dwelling-house being in Louisa. Here he again
became a classical teacher, receiving pupils in his own house. James
Barbour, afterwards governor of Virginia, was one of these, and
Merriwether Lewis, the companion of Clarke in the exploration beyond the
Rocky Mountains, another. Mr. Waddell resided in Louisa County about
twenty years, and died there, and was buried, according to his request,
in his garden. During his residence here he was, for a part of the time,
deprived of his sight; but he continued to preach. In person he was tall
and erect; his complexion fair, with a light blue eye. His deportment
was dignified; his manners elegant and graceful. He is represented by
Mr. Wirt, in the "British Spy," as preaching in a white linen cap; this
was, indeed, a part of his domestic costume, but when he went abroad he
always wore a large full-bottomed wig, perfectly white. Mr. Wirt held
him as equal to Patrick Henry, in a different species of oratory. In
regard to place, time, costume, and lesser particulars, Mr. Wirt used an
allowable liberty in grouping together incidents which had occurred
apart, and perhaps imagining, as in a sermon, expressions which had been
uttered at the fire-side. Patrick Henry's opinion of Mr. Waddell's
eloquence has been before mentioned. It was the remark of another
cotemporary, that when he preached, "whole congregations were bathed in
tears." It might also be said by his grave, as at that of John Knox,--

     "Here lies one who never feared the face of man."

The late Rev. Dr. Archibald Alexander married a daughter of Dr. Waddell,
and the late Rev. Dr. James Waddell Alexander thus derived his middle

August, 1755, the assembly voted forty thousand pounds for the public
service, and the governor and council immediately resolved to augment
the Virginia Regiment to sixteen companies, numbering fifteen hundred
men. To Washington was granted the sum of three hundred pounds in reward
for his gallant behavior and in compensation for his losses at the
battle of Monongahela. Colonel Washington was, during this month,
commissioned commander-in-chief of the forces, and allowed to appoint
his own officers. The officers next in rank to him were
Lieutenant-Colonel Adam Stephen and Major Andrew Lewis. Washington's
military reputation was now high, not only in Virginia, but in the other
colonies. Peyton Randolph raised a volunteer company of one hundred
gentlemen, who, however, proved quite unfit for the frontier service.

After organizing the regiment and providing the commissariat, Washington
repaired early in October to Winchester, and took such measures as lay
in his power to repel the cruel outrages of a savage irruption. Alarm,
confusion, and disorder prevailed, so that he found no orders obeyed but
such as a party of soldiers, or his own drawn sword, enforced. He beheld
with emotion calamities which he could not avert, and he strenuously
urged the necessity of an act to enforce the military law, to remedy the
insolence of the soldiers and the indolence of the officers. He even
intimated a purpose of resigning, unless his authority should be
re-enforced by the laws, since he found himself thwarted in his
exertions at every step by a general perverseness and insubordination,
aggravated by the hardships of the service and the want of system. At
length, by persevering solicitations, he prevailed on the assembly to
adopt more energetic military regulations. The discipline thus
introduced was extremely rigorous, severe flogging being in
ordinary use. The penalty for fighting was five hundred lashes;
for drunkenness, one hundred. The troops were daily drilled and
practised in bush-fighting. A Captain Dagworthy, stationed at Fort
Cumberland, commissioned by General Sharpe, governor of Maryland,
refusing, as holding a king's commission, to obey Washington's orders,
the dispute was referred by Governor Dinwiddie to General Shirley,
commander-in-chief of his majesty's armies in America, who was then at
Boston. He was also requested to grant royal commissions to Colonel
Washington and his field-officers, such commissions to imply rank but to
give no claim to pay.

The Indians, after committing murders and barbarities upon the unhappy
people of the border country, retired beyond the mountains. Colonel Byrd
and Colonel Randolph were sent out with presents to the Cherokees,
Catawbas, and other Southern Indians, in order to conciliate their
good-will and counteract the intrigues of the French.

Colonel Washington obtained leave to visit General Shirley, so as to
deliver in person a memorial from the officers of the Virginia Regiment,
requesting him to grant them king's commissions; and also in order to
make himself better acquainted with the military plans of the North. He
set out from Alexandria early in February, 1756, accompanied by his
aid-de-camp, Colonel George Mercer, and on his route passed through
Philadelphia, New York, New London, Newport, and Providence. He visited
the governors of Pennsylvania and New York, and spent several days in
each of the principal cities. He was well received by General Shirley,
with whom he continued ten days, mingling with the society of Boston,
attending the sessions of the legislature, and visiting Castle William.
During the tour he was everywhere looked upon with interest as the hero
of the Monongahela. Shirley decided the contested point between
Dagworthy and him in his favor.

While in New York he was a guest of his friend Beverley Robinson
(brother of the speaker.) Miss Mary Philipse, a sister of Mrs. Robinson,
and heiress of a vast estate, was an inmate of the family, and
Washington became enamored of her. The flame was transient; he probably
having soon discovered that another suitor was preferred to him. She
eventually married Captain Roger Morris, his former associate in arms,
and one of Braddock's aids. She and her sister, Mrs. Robinson, and Mrs.
Inglis, were the only females who were attainted of high treason during
the Revolution. Imagination dwells on the outlawry of a lady who had won
the admiration of Washington. Humanity is shocked that a woman should
have been attainted of treason for clinging to the fortunes of her
husband.[487:A] Mary Philipse is the original of one of the characters
in Cooper's "Spy."


[483:A] Davies' Sermons, iii. 169; Sermon on the defeat of General
Braddock going to Fort Du Quesne; Memoir of Davies in Evan. and Lit.

[483:B] Davies' Sermons, iii. 38. "Who is Mr. Washington?" inquired Lord
Halifax. "I know nothing of him," he added; "but they say he behaved in
Braddock's action as bravely as if he really loved the whistling of

[484:A] Ancestor of the late General Gordon, of Albemarle.

[487:A] Sabine's Loyalists, 476.



     First Settlers of the Valley--Sandy Creek Expedition--Indian
     Irruption--Measures of Defence--Habits of Virginians--
     Washington and Dinwiddie--Congress of Governors--Dinwiddie
     succeeded by Blair--Davies' Patriotic Discourse.

THE inhabitants of tramontane Virginia are very imperfectly acquainted
with its history. This remark applies particularly to that section
commonly called the Valley of Virginia, which, lying along the Blue
Ridge, stretches from the Potomac to the Alleghany Mountains. Of this
many of the inhabitants know little more than what they see. They see a
country possessing salubrity and fertility, yielding plentifully, in
great variety, most of the necessaries of life, a country which has
advantages, conveniences, and blessings, in abundance, in profusion, it
may almost be said in superfluity. But they know not how it came into
the hands of the present occupants; they know not who were the first
settlers, whence they came, at what time, in what numbers, nor what
difficulties they had to encounter, nor what was the progress of
population. One who would become acquainted with these matters must
travel back a century or more; he must witness the early adventurers
leaving the abodes of civilization, and singly, or in families, or in
groups composed of several families, like pioneers on a forlorn hope,
entering the dark, dreary, trackless forest, which had been for ages the
nursery of wild beasts and the pathway of the Indian. After traversing
this inhospitable solitude for days or weeks, and having become weary of
their pilgrimage, they determined to separate, and each family taking
its own course in quest of a place where they may rest, they find a spot
such as choice, chance, or necessity points out; here they sit down;
this they call their home--a cheerless, houseless home. If they have a
tent, they stretch it, and in it they all nestle; otherwise the umbrage
of a wide-spreading oak, or mayhap the canopy of heaven, is their only
covering. In this newfound home, while they are not exempt from the
common frailties and ills of humanity, many peculiar to their present
condition thicken around them. Here they must endure excessive labor,
fatigue, and exposure to inclement seasons; here innumerable perils and
privations await them; here they are exposed to alarms from wild beasts
and from Indians. Sometimes driven from home, they take shelter in the
breaks and recesses of the mountains, where they continue for a time in
a state of anxious suspense; venturing at length to reconnoitre their
home, they perhaps find it a heap of ruins, the whole of their little
_peculium_ destroyed. This frequently happened. The inhabitants of the
country being few, and in most cases widely separated from each other,
each group, fully occupied with its own difficulties and distresses,
seldom could have the consolation of hoping for the advice, assistance,
or even sympathy of each other. Many of them, worn out by the hardships
inseparable from their new condition, found premature graves; many
hundreds, probably thousands, were massacred by the hands of the
Indians; and peace and tranquillity, if they came at all, came at a late
day to the few survivors.

     "Tantæ erat molis--condere gentem."

Here have been stated a few items of the first cost of this country, but
the half has not been told, nor can we calculate in money the worth of
the sufferings of these people, especially we cannot estimate in dollars
and cents the value of the lives that were lost.[489:A]

In the year 1756 took place the "Sandy Creek Expedition" against the
Shawnees on the Ohio River. With the exception of a few Cherokees, it
consisted exclusively of Virginia troops, under the conduct of Major
Andrew Lewis.[489:B] Although this expedition proved in the event
abortive, yet its incidents, as far as known, are interesting. Nor are
such abortive enterprises without their useful effects: they are the
schools of discipline, the rehearsals of future success. The rendezvous
from which the expedition started was Fort Frederick, on New River, in
what was then Augusta County. Under Major Andrew L