Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Chess Fundamentals
Author: Capablanca, José Raúl, 1888-1942
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chess Fundamentals" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Illustration: JOSÉ R. CAPABLANCA]

CHESS
FUNDAMENTALS

BY

JOSÉ R. CAPABLANCA

_CHESS CHAMPION OF THE WORLD_



NEW YORK HARCOURT, BRACE & WORLD, INC.
LONDON: G. BELL AND SONS, LTD.

       *       *       *       *       *


COPYRIGHT, 1921, BY

HARCOURT, BRACE & WORLD, INC.

© 1949 BY OLGA CAPABLANCA

_All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval
system, without permission in writing from the publisher._

_Seventeenth Printing_



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

       *       *       *       *       *


PREFACE

_Chess Fundamentals_ was first published thirteen years ago. Since then
there have appeared at different times a number of articles dealing with
the so-called Hypermodern Theory. Those who have read the articles may well
have thought that something new, of vital importance, had been discovered.
The fact is that the Hypermodern Theory is merely the application, during
the opening stages generally, of the same old principles through the medium
of somewhat new tactics. There has been no change in the fundamentals. The
change has been only a change of form, and not always for the best at that.

In chess the tactics may change but the strategic fundamental principles
are always the same, so that _Chess Fundamentals_ is as good now as it was
thirteen years ago. It will be as good a hundred years from now; as long in
fact as the laws and rules of the game remain what they are at present. The
reader may therefore go over the contents of the book with the assurance
that there is in it everything he needs, and that there is nothing to be
added and nothing to be changed. _Chess Fundamentals_ was the one standard
work of its kind thirteen years ago and the author firmly believes that it
is the one standard work of its kind now.

J. R. CAPABLANCA

_New York_

_Sept. 1, 1934_

       *       *       *       *       *


LIST OF CONTENTS

  PART I

  CHAPTER I

  First Principles: Endings, Middle-game and Openings

                                                          PAGE

  1. SOME SIMPLE MATES                                       3

  2. PAWN PROMOTION                                          9

  3. PAWN ENDINGS                                           13

  4. SOME WINNING POSITIONS IN THE MIDDLE-GAME              19

  5. RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES                           24

  6. GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE OPENING                        25

  7. CONTROL OF THE CENTRE                                  28

  8. TRAPS                                                  32

  CHAPTER II

  FURTHER PRINCIPLES IN END-GAME PLAY

  9. A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE                                   35

  10. A CLASSICAL ENDING                                    37

  11. OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN                               40

  12. HOW TO FIND OUT WHICH PAWN WILL BE THE FIRST TO QUEEN 41

  13. THE OPPOSITION                                        43

  14. THE RELATIVE VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP               50

  15. HOW TO MATE WITH KNIGHT AND BISHOP                    59

  16. QUEEN AGAINST ROOK                                    62

  CHAPTER III

  PLANNING A WIN IN MIDDLE-GAME PLAY

  17. ATTACKING WITHOUT THE AID OF KNIGHTS                  68

  18. ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS AS A PROMINENT FORCE           71

  19. WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK                            75

  CHAPTER IV

  GENERAL THEORY

  20. THE INITIATIVE                                        77

  21. DIRECT ATTACKS EN MASSE                               78

  22. THE FORCE OF THE THREATENED ATTACK                    82

  23. RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE                          89

  24. CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM THE SCENE OF ACTION           94

  25. A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED IN A SPECIMEN GAME      99

  CHAPTER V

  END-GAME STRATEGY

  26. THE SUDDEN ATTACK FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE              111

  27. THE DANGER OF A SAFE POSITION                        120

  28. ENDINGS WITH ONE ROOK AND PAWNS                      122

  29. A DIFFICULT ENDING: TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS              127

  30. ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS _v._ ROOK, KNIGHT AND PAWNS   138
  (A Final Example of preserving Freedom whilst
  imposing restraint.)

  CHAPTER VI

  FURTHER OPENINGS AND MIDDLE-GAMES

  31. SOME SALIENT POINTS ABOUT PAWNS                      143

  32. SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS FROM A RUY LOPEZ
  (showing the weakness of a backward Q B P; the
  power of a Pawn at K 5, etc.)                            146

  33. THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE"                            150

  PART II

  ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES

  GAME.

   1. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (MATCH, 1909)                159
      White: F. J. Marshall. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

   2. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (SAN SEBASTIAN, 1911)        163
      White: A. K. Rubinstein. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

   3. IRREGULAR DEFENCE (HAVANA, 1913)                     169
      White: D. Janowski. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

   4. FRENCH DEFENCE (ST. PETERSBURG, 1913)                174
      White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: E. A. Snosko-Borovski.

   5. RUY LOPEZ (ST. PETERSBURG, 1914)                     181
      White: Dr. E. Lasker. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

   6. FRENCH DEFENCE (RICE MEMORIAL TOURNAMENT, 1916)      189
      White: O. Chajes. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

   7. RUY LOPEZ (SAN SEBASTIAN, 1911)                      197
      White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: A. Burn.

   8. CENTRE GAME (BERLIN, 1913)                           201
      White: J. Mieses. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

   9. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (BERLIN, 1913)               209
      White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: R. Teichmann.

  10. PETROFF DEFENCE (ST. PETERSBURG, 1914)               215
      White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: F. J. Marshall.

  11. RUY LOPEZ (ST. PETERSBURG, 1914)                     221
      White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: D. Janowski.

  12. FRENCH DEFENCE (NEW YORK, 1918)                      225
      White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: O. Chajes.

  13. RUY LOPEZ (NEW YORK, 1918)                           231
      White: J. S. Morrison. Black: J.R. Capablanca.

  14. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED (NEW YORK, 1918)             238
      White: F. J. Marshall. Black: J.R. Capablanca.

       *       *       *       *       *


{3}

CHESS FUNDAMENTALS

PART I

CHAPTER I

FIRST PRINCIPLES: ENDINGS, MIDDLE-GAME AND OPENINGS

The first thing a student should do, is to familiarise himself with the
power of the pieces. This can best be done by learning how to accomplish
quickly some of the simple mates.

1. SOME SIMPLE MATES

EXAMPLE 1.--The ending Rook and King against King.

_The principle is to drive the opposing King to the last line on any side
of the board_.

[Illustration] {4}

In this position the power of the Rook is demonstrated by the first move,
R - R 7, which immediately confines the Black King to the last rank, and
the mate is quickly accomplished by: 1 R - R 7, K - Kt 1; 2 K - Kt 2.

The combined action of King and Rook is needed to arrive at a position in
which mate can be forced. The general principle for a beginner to follow is
to

_keep his King as much as possible on the same rank, or, as in this case,
file, as the opposing King._

When, in this case, the King has been brought to the sixth rank, it is
better to place it, not on the same file, but on the one next to it towards
the centre.

2...K - B 1; 3 K - B 3, K - K 1; 4 K - K 4, K - Q 1; 5 K - Q 5, K - B 1;
6 K - Q 6.

Not K - B 6, because then the Black King will go back to Q 1 and it will
take much longer to mate. If now the King moves back to Q 1, R - R 8 mates
at once.

6...K - Kt 1; 7 R - Q B 7, K - R 1; 8 K - B 6, K - Kt 1; 9 K - Kt 6,
K - R 1; 10 R - B 8 mate.

It has taken exactly ten moves to mate from the original position. On move
5 Black could have played K - K 1, and, according to principle, White would
have continued 6 K - Q 6, K - B 1 (the Black King will ultimately be forced
to move in front of the White King and be mated by R - R 8); 7 K - K 6,
K - Kt 1; 8 K - B 6, K - R 1; 9 K - Kt 6, K - Kt 1; 10 R - R 8 mate. {5}

EXAMPLE 2.

[Illustration]

Since the Black King is in the centre of the board, the best way to proceed
is to advance your own King thus: 1 K - K 2, K - Q 4; 2 K - K 3. As the
Rook has not yet come into play, it is better to advance the King straight
into the centre of the board, not in front, but to one side of the other
King. Should now the Black King move to K 4, the Rook drives it back by
R - R 5 ch. On the other hand, if 2... K - B 5 instead, then also
3 R - R 5. If now 3... K - Kt 5, there follows 4 K - Q 3; but if instead
3... K - B 6; then 4 R - R 4, keeping the King confined to as few squares
as possible.

Now the ending may continue: 4...K - B 7; 5 R - B 4 ch, K - Kt 6;
6 K - Q 3, K - Kt 7; 7 R - Kt 4 ch, K - R 6; 8 K - B 3, K - R 7. It should
be noticed how often the White King has moved next to the Rook, not only to
defend it, but also to reduce the mobility of the opposing King. Now {6}
White mates in three moves thus: 9 R - R 4 ch, K - Kt 8; 10 R -  any square
on the Rook's file, forcing the Black King in front of the White, K - B 8;
11 R - R 1 mate. It has taken eleven moves to mate, and, under any
conditions, I believe it should be done in under twenty. While it may be
monotonous, it is worth while for the beginner to practice such things, as
it will teach him the proper handling of his pieces.

EXAMPLE 3.--Now we come to two Bishops and King against King.

[Illustration]

Since the Black King is in the corner, White can play 1 B - Q 3, K - Kt 2;
2 B - K Kt 5, K - B 2; 3 B - B 5, and already the Black King is confined to
a few squares. If the Black King, in the original position, had been in the
centre of the board, or away from the last row, White should have advanced
his King, and then, with the aid of his Bishops, restricted {7} the Black
King's movements to as few squares as possible.

We might now continue: 3...K - Kt 2; 4 K - B 2. In this ending the Black
King must not only be driven to the edge of the board, but he must also be
forced into a corner, and, before a mate can be given, the White King must
be brought to the sixth rank and, at the same time, in one of the last two
files; in this case either K R 6, K Kt 6, K B 7, K B 8, and as K R 6 and
K Kt 6 are the nearest squares, it is to either of these squares that the
King ought to go. 4...K - B 2; 5 K - Kt 3, K - Kt 2; 6 K - R 4, K - B 2;
7 K - R 5, K - Kt 2; 8 B - Kt 6, K - Kt 1; 9 K - R 6, K - B 1. White must
now mark time and move one of the Bishops, so as to force the Black King to
go back; 10 B - R 5, K - Kt 1; 11 B - K 7, K - R 1. Now the White Bishop
must take up a position from which it can give check next move along the
White diagonal, when the Black King moves back to Kt 1. 12 B - K Kt 4,
K - Kt 1; 13 B - K 6 ch, K - R 1; 14 B - B 6 mate.

It has taken fourteen moves to force the mate and, in any position, it
should be done in under thirty.

In all endings of this kind, care must be taken not to drift into a stale
mate.

In this particular ending one should remember that the King must not only
be driven to the edge of the board, but also into a corner. In all such
endings, however, it is immaterial whether the King is forced {8} on to the
last rank, or to an outside file, e.g. K R 5 or Q R 4, K 1 or Q 8.

EXAMPLE 4.--We now come to Queen and King against King. As the Queen
combines the power of the Rook and the Bishop, it is the easiest mate of
all and should always be accomplished in under ten moves. Take the
following position:

[Illustration]

A good way to begin is to make the first move with the Queen, trying to
limit the Black King's mobility as much as possible. Thus: 1 Q - B 6,
K - Q 5; 2 K - Q 2. Already the Black King has only one available square
2...K - K 4; 3 K - K 3, K - B 4; 4 Q - Q 6, K - Kt 4. (Should Black play
K - Kt 5, then Q - Kt 6 ch); 5 Q - K 6, K - R 5 (if K - R 4, K - B 4 and
mate next move); 6 Q - K Kt 6, K - R 6; 7 K - B 3, K moves; 8 Q mates.

In this ending, as in the case of the Rook, the Black King must be forced
to the edge of the board; only {9} the Queen being so much more powerful
than the Rook, the process is far easier and shorter. These are the three
elementary endings and in all of these the principle is the same. In each
case the co-operation of the King is needed. In order to force a mate
without the aid of the King, at least two Rooks are required.

       *       *       *       *       *

2. PAWN PROMOTION

The gain of a Pawn is the smallest material advantage that can be obtained
in a game; and it often is sufficient to win, even when the Pawn is the
only remaining unit, apart from the Kings. It is essential, speaking
generally, that

_the King should be in front of his Pawn, with at least one intervening
square_.

If the opposing King is directly in front of the Pawn, then the game cannot
be won. This can best be explained by the following examples.

EXAMPLE 5.

[Illustration] {10}

The position is drawn, and the way to proceed is for Black to keep the King
always directly in front of the Pawn, and when it cannot be done, as for
instance in this position because of the White King, then the Black King
must be kept in front of the White King. The play would proceed thus:
1 P - K 3, K - K 4; 2 K - Q 3, K - Q 4. This is a very important move. Any
other move would lose, as will be shown later. As the Black King cannot be
kept close up to the Pawn, it must be brought as far forward as possible
and, at the same time, in front of the White King.

3 P - K 4 ch, K - K 4; 4 K - K 3, K - K 3; 5 K - B 4, K - B 3. Again the
same case. As the White King comes up, the Black King must be kept in front
of it, since it cannot be brought up to the Pawn.

6 P - K 5 ch, K - K 3; 7 K - K 4, K - K 2; 8 K - Q 5, K - Q 2;
9 P - K 6 ch, K - K 2; 10 K - K 5, K - K 1; 11 K - Q 6, K - Q 1. If now
White advances the Pawn, the Black King gets in front of it and White must
either give up the Pawn or play K - K 6, and a stale mate results. If
instead of advancing the Pawn White withdraws his King, Black brings his
King up to the Pawn and, when forced to go back, he moves to K _in front_
of the Pawn ready to come up again or to move in front of the White King,
as before, should the latter advance.

The whole mode of procedure is very important and the student should become
thoroughly conversant {11} with its details; for it involves principles to
be taken up later on, and because many a beginner has lost identical
positions from lack of proper knowledge. At this stage of the book I cannot
lay too much stress on its importance.

EXAMPLE 6.--In this position White wins, as the King is in front of his
Pawn and there is one intervening square.

[Illustration]

The method to follow is to

_advance the King as far as is compatible with the safety of the Pawn and
never to advance the Pawn until it is essential to its own safety_.

Thus:

        1. K - K 4, K - K 3.

Black does not allow the White King to advance, therefore White is now
compelled to advance his Pawn so as to force Black to move away. He is then
able to advance his own King.

        2. P - K3, K - B 3; 3. K - Q 5, K - K 2.

{12} If Black had played 3...K - B 4, then White would be forced to advance
the Pawn to K 4, since he could not advance his King without leaving Black
the opportunity to play K - K 5, winning the Pawn. Since he has not done
so, it is better for White not to advance the Pawn yet, since its own
safety does not require it, but to try to bring the King still further
forward. Thus:

        4. K - K 5, K - Q 2; 5. K - B 6, K - K 1.

Now the White Pawn is too far back and it may be brought up within
protection of the King.

        6. P - K 4, K - Q 2.

Now it would not do to play K - B 7, because Black would play K - Q 3, and
White would have to bring back his King to protect the Pawn. Therefore he
must continue.

        7. P - K 5, K - K 1.

Had he moved anywhere else, White could have played K - B 7, followed by
the advance of the Pawn to K 6, K 7, K 8; all these squares being protected
by the King. As Black tries to prevent that, White must now force him to
move away, at the same time always keeping the King in front of the Pawn.
Thus:

        8. K - K 6.

P - K 6 would make it a draw, as Black would then play K - B, and we would
have a position similar to the one explained in connection with Example 5.

        8...K - B 1;  9. K - Q 7.

{13} King moves and the White Pawn advances to K 8, becomes a Queen, and it
is all over.

This ending is like the previous one, and for the same reasons should be
thoroughly understood before proceeding any further.

       *       *       *       *       *

3. PAWN ENDINGS

I shall now give a couple of simple endings of two Pawns against one, or
three against two, that the reader may see how they can be won. Fewer
explanations will be given, as it is up to the student to work things out
for himself. Furthermore, nobody can learn how to play well merely from the
study of a book; it can only serve as a guide and the rest must be done by
the teacher, if the student has one; if not, the student must realise by
long and bitter experience the practical application of the many things
explained in the book.

EXAMPLE 7.

[Illustration]

{14} In this position White cannot win by playing 1 P - B 6, because Black
plays, not P × P, which would lose, but 1...K - Kt 1, and if then 2 P × P,
K × P, and draws, as shown in a previous case. If 2 P - B 7 ch, K - B 1,
and White will never be able to Queen his Pawn without losing it. If
2 K - K 7, P × P; 3 K × P, K - B 1, and draws. White, however, can win the
position given in the diagram by playing:

1 K - Q 7, K - Kt 1; 2 K - K 7, K - R 1; 3 P - B 6, P × P. If 3...K - Kt 1;
4 P - B 7 ch, K - R 1; 5 P - B 8 (Q) mate.

4 K - B 7, P - B 4; 5 P - Kt 7 ch, K - R 2; 6 P - Kt 8 (Q) ch, K - R 3;
7 Q - Kt 6 mate.

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 8.--In the above position White can't win by 1 P - B 5. Black's
best answer would be P - Kt 3 draws. (The student should work this out.) He
cannot win by 1 P - Kt 5, because P - Kt 3 draws. (This, because of the
principle of the "_opposition_" {15} which governs this ending as well as
all the Pawn-endings already given, and which will be explained more fully
later on.)

White can win, however, by playing: 1 K - K 4, K - K 3. (If 1...P - Kt 3;
2 K - Q 4, K - K 3; 3 K - B 5, K - B 3; 4 K - Q 6, K - B 2; 5 P - Kt 5,
K - Kt 2; 6 K - K 7, K - Kt 1; 7 K - B 6, K - R 2; 8 K - B 7 and White wins
the Pawn.)

2 P - B 5 ch, K - B 3; 3 K - B 4, P - Kt 3. (If this Pawn is kept back we
arrive at the ending shown in Example 7.) 4 P - Kt 5 ch, K - B 2;
5 P - B 6, K - K 3; 6 K - K 4, K - B 2; 7 K - K 5, K - B 1. White cannot
force his Bishop's Pawn into Q (find out why), but by giving his Pawn up he
can win the other Pawn and the game. Thus:

8 P - B 7, K × P; 9 K - Q 6, K - B 1; 10 K - K 6, K - Kt 2; 11 K - K 7,
K - Kt 1; 12 K - B 6, K - R 2; 13 K - B 7, K - R 1; 14 K × P , K - Kt 1.

There is still some resistance in Black's position. In fact, the only way
to win is the one given here, as will easily be seen by experiment.

15 K - R 6 (if K - B 6, K - R 2; and in order to win White must get back to
the actual position, as against 16 P - Kt 6 ch, K - R 1 draws), K - R 1;
16 P - Kt 6, K - Kt 1; 17 P - Kt 7, K - B 2; 18 K - R 7, and White queens
the Pawn and wins.

This ending, apparently so simple, should show the student the enormous
difficulties to be surmounted, {16} even when there are hardly any pieces
left, when playing against an adversary who knows how to use the resources
at his disposal, and it should show the student, also, the necessity of
paying strict attention to these elementary things which form the basis of
true mastership in Chess.

EXAMPLE 9.--In this ending

[Illustration]

White can win by advancing any of the three Pawns on the first move, but it
is convenient to follow the general rule, whenever there is no good reason
against it, of _advancing the Pawn that has no Pawn opposing it_. Thus we
begin by--

        1. P - B 5, K - K 2.

If P - Kt 3, P - B 6; and we have a similar ending to one of those shown
above. If 1...P - R 3; 2 P - Kt 5.

        2. K - K 5, K - B 2; 3. P - Kt 5, K - K 2.

{17} If 3...P - Kt 3; 4 P - B 6, and if 3...P - R 3; 4 P - Kt 6 ch, and in
either case we have a similar ending to one of those already shown.

        4. P - R 5,

and by following it up with P - Kt 6 we have the same ending previously
shown. Should Black play 4...P - Kt 3, then R P × P, P × P; P - B 6 ch with
the same result.

Having now seen the cases when the Pawns are all on one side of the board
we shall now examine a case when there are Pawns on both sides of the
board.

EXAMPLE 10.--In these cases the general rule is to _act immediately on the
side where you have the superior forces_. Thus we have:

[Illustration]

        1. P - K Kt 4.

{18} It is generally advisable to advance the Pawn that is free from
opposition.

        1. ........               P - Q R 4.

Black makes an advance on the other side, and now White considers whether
or not he should stop the advance. In this case either way wins, but
generally the advance should be stopped when the opposing King is far away.

        2. P - Q R 4, K - B 3; 3. P - R 4, K - K 3.

If 3...K - Kt 3, then simple counting will show that White goes to the
other side with his King, wins the P at Q R 4, and then Queens his single
Pawn long before Black can do the same.

        4. P - Kt 5, K - B 2; 5. K - B 5, K - Kt 2; 6. P - R 5, K - B 2.

If 6...P - R 3; 7 P - Kt 6, and then the two Pawns defend themselves and
White can go to the other side with his King, to win the other Pawn.

        7. K - K 5.

Now it is time to go to the other side with the King, win the Black Pawn
and Queen the single Pawn. This is typical of all such endings and should
be worked out by the student in this case and in similar cases which he can
put up. {19}

       *       *       *       *       *

4. SOME WINNING POSITIONS IN THE MIDDLE-GAME

By the time the student has digested all that has been previously
explained, he, no doubt, is anxious to get to the actual game and play with
all the pieces. However, before considering the openings, we shall devote a
little time to some combinations that often arise during the game, and
which will give the reader some idea of the beauty of the game, once he
becomes better acquainted with it.

EXAMPLE 11.

[Illustration]

It is Black's move, and thinking that White merely threatens to play
Q - R 6 and to mate at K Kt 7, Black plays 1 ... R - K 1, threatening mate
by way of R - K 8. White now uncovers his real and most effective threat,
viz.:

1 ... R - K 1; 2 Q × P ch, K × Q; 3 R - R 3 ch, K - Kt 1; 4 R - R 8 mate.
{20}

This same type of combination may come as the result of a somewhat more
complicated position.

EXAMPLE 12.

[Illustration]

White is a piece behind, and unless he can win it back quickly he will
lose; he therefore plays:

        1. Kt × Kt                B - Kt 4

He cannot take the Kt because White threatens mate by Q × P ch followed by
R - R 3 ch.

        2. Kt - K 7 ch            Q × Kt

Again if B × Kt; Q × P ch, K × Q; R - R 3 ch, King moves; R - R 8 mate.

        3. R × Q                  B × R
        4. Q - Q 7

and White wins one of the two Bishops, remains with a Q and a B against a R
and B, and should therefore win easily. These two examples show the {21}
danger of advancing the K Kt P one square, after having Castled on that
side.

EXAMPLE 13.

[Illustration]

This is another very interesting type of combination. Black has a R for a
Kt and should therefore win, unless White is able to obtain some
compensation immediately. White, in fact, mates in a few moves thus:

        1. Kt - B 6 ch            P × Kt

Forced, otherwise Q X P mates.

        2. Q - Kt 3 ch            K - R 1
        3. B × P mate.

EXAMPLE 14.--The same type of combination occurs in a more complicated form
in the following position. {22}

[Illustration]

        1. B × Kt                 Q × B.

If ...B × Kt; Q - B 3 threatens mate, and therefore wins the Q, which is
already attacked.

        2. Kt - B 6 ch            P × Kt
        3. R - Kt 3 ch            K - R 1
        4. B × P mate.

EXAMPLE 15.--A very frequent type of combination is shown in the following
position.

[Illustration] {23}

Here White is the exchange and a Pawn behind, but he can win quickly thus:
1 B × P ch, K × B. (If 1...K - R 1; 2 Q - K R 5, P - K Kt 3; 3 Q - R 6, and
wins.)

2 Q - R 5 ch, K - Kt 1; 3 Kt - Kt 5, and Black cannot stop mate at K R 7
except by sacrificing the Queen by Q - K 5, which would leave White with a
Q for a R.

EXAMPLE 16.--This same type of combination is seen in a more complicated
form in the following position.

[Illustration]

White proceeds as follows: 1 Kt × Kt ch (this clears the line for the B);
B × Kt (to stop the Kt from moving to Kt 5 after the sacrifice of the B);
2 R × B, Kt × R best; 3 B × P ch, K × B. (If 3..K - R 1; 4 Q - R 5,
P - K Kt 3; 5 B × P ch, K - Kt 2; 6 Q - R 7 ch, K - B 3; 7 P - Kt 5 ch,
K - K 3; 8 B × P ch, R × B; 9 Q - K 4 mate.) 4 Q - R 5 ch, K - Kt 1;
5 Kt - Kt 5, R - B 1; {24} 6 Q - R 7 ch, K - B 1; 7 Q - R 8 ch, Kt - Kt 1;
8 Kt - R 7 ch, K - K 2; 9 R - K 1 ch, K - Q 1; 10 Q × Kt mate.

This combination is rather long and has many variations, therefore a
beginner will hardly be able to fathom it; but, knowing the type of
combination, he might under similar circumstances undertake and carry out a
brilliant attack which he would otherwise never think of. It will be seen
that all the combinations shown have for a foundation the proper
co-ordination of the pieces, which have all been brought to bear against a
weak point.

       *       *       *       *       *

5. RELATIVE VALUE OF THE PIECES

Before going on to the general principles of the openings, it is advisable
to give the student an idea of the proper relative value of the pieces.
There is no complete and accurate table for all of them, and the only thing
to do is to compare the pieces separately.

For all general theoretical purposes the Bishop and the Knight have to be
considered as of the same value, though it is my opinion that the Bishop
will prove the more valuable piece in most cases; and it is well known that
two Bishops are almost always better than two Knights.

The Bishop will be stronger against Pawns than the Knight, and in
combination with Pawns will also be stronger against the Rook than the
Knight will be. {25}

A Bishop and a Rook are also stronger than a Knight and a Rook, but a Queen
and a Knight may be stronger than a Queen and a Bishop.

A Bishop will often be worth more than three Pawns, but a Knight very
seldom so, and may even not be worth so much.

A Rook will be worth a Knight and two Pawns, or a Bishop and two Pawns,
but, as said before, the Bishop will be a better piece against the Rook.

Two Rooks are slightly stronger than a Queen. They are slightly weaker than
two Knights and a Bishop, and a little more so than two Bishops and a
Knight. The power of the Knight decreases as the pieces are changed off.
The power of the Rook, on the contrary, increases.

The King, a purely _defensive_ piece throughout the middle-game, becomes an
_offensive_ piece once all the pieces are off the board, and sometimes even
when there are one or two minor pieces left. The handling of the King
becomes of paramount importance once the end-game stage is reached.

       *       *       *       *       *

6. GENERAL STRATEGY OF THE OPENING

The main thing is to _develop the pieces quickly_. Get them into play as
fast as you can.

From the outset two moves, 1 P - K 4  or 1 P - Q 4, open up lines for the
Queen and a Bishop. Therefore, theoretically one of these two moves must be
the best, as no other first move accomplishes so much. {26}

EXAMPLE 17.--Suppose we begin:

        1. P - K 4                P - K 4
        2. Kt - K B 3

This is both an attacking and a developing move. Black can now either reply
with the identical move or play

        2. ........               Kt - Q B 3

This developing move at the same time defends the King's Pawn.

        3. Kt - B 3               Kt - B 3

These moves are of a purely developing nature.

        4. B - Kt 5

_It is generally advisable not to bring this Bishop out until one Knight is
out_, preferably the King's Knight. The Bishop could also have been played
to B 4, but it is advisable whenever possible to combine development and
attack.

        4. ........               B - Kt 5

Black replies in the same manner, threatening a possible exchange of Bishop
for Knight with Kt × P to follow.

        5. O - O

an indirect way of preventing 5...B × Kt, which more experience or study
will show to be bad. At the same time _the Rook is brought into action in
the centre, a very important point_. {27}

        5. ........               O - O

Black follows the same line of reasoning.

        6. P - Q 3                P - Q 3

These moves have a two-fold object, viz.: to protect the King's Pawn and to
open the diagonal for the development of the Queen's Bishop.

        7. B - Kt 5

[Illustration]

A very powerful move, which brings us to the middle-game stage, as there is
already in view a combination to win quickly by Kt - Q 5. This threat makes
it impossible for Black to continue the same course. (There is a long
analysis showing that Black should lose if he also plays B - Kt 5.) He is
now forced to play 7...B × Kt, as experience has shown, thus bringing up to
notice three things.

First, the complete development of the opening has taken only seven moves.
(This varies up to ten or twelve moves in some very exceptional cases. As a
rule, eight should be enough.) Second, Black has {28} been compelled to
exchange a Bishop for a Knight, but as a compensation he has isolated
White's Q R P and doubled a Pawn. (This, at such an early stage of the
game, is rather an advantage for White, as the Pawn is doubled towards the
centre of the board.) Third, White by the exchange brings up a Pawn to
control the square Q 4, puts Black on the defensive, as experience will
show, and thus keeps _the initiative_, an unquestionable advantage.[1]

The strategical principles expounded above are the same for all the
openings, only their tactical application varies according to the
circumstances.

Before proceeding further I wish to lay stress on the following point which
the student should bear in mind.

_Before development has been completed no piece should be moved more than
once, unless it is essential in order to obtain either material advantage
or to secure freedom of action._

The beginner would do well to remember this, as well as what has already
been stated: viz., _bring out the Knights before bringing out the Bishops_.

       *       *       *       *       *

7. CONTROL OF THE CENTRE

The four squares, K 4 and Q 4 on each side respectively, are the centre
squares, and control of these squares is called control of the centre. _The
control of the centre is of great importance._ No violent attack can
succeed without controlling at least two of these {29} squares, and
possibly three. Many a manoeuvre in the opening has for its sole object the
control of the centre, which invariably ensures the initiative. It is well
always to bear this in mind, since it will often be the reason of a series
of moves which could not otherwise be properly understood. As this book
progresses I shall dwell more fully on these different points. At present I
shall devote some time to openings taken at random and explain the moves
according to general principles. The student will in that way train his
mind in the proper direction, and will thus have less trouble in finding a
way out when confronted with a new and difficult situation.

EXAMPLE 18.

        1. P - K 4                P - K 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             P - Q 3

A timid move. Black assumes a defensive attitude at once. On principle the
move is wrong. In the openings, whenever possible, _pieces should be moved
in preference to Pawns_.

        3. P - Q 4

White takes the offensive immediately and strives to control the centre so
as to have ample room to deploy his forces.

        3. ........               Kt - Q 2

Black does not wish to relinquish the centre and also prefers the text move
to Kt - Q B 3, which would be the more natural square for the Kt. But on
{30} principle the move is wrong, because it blocks the action of the
Queen's Bishop, and instead of facilitating the action of Black's pieces,
tends, on the contrary, to cramp them.

        4. B - Q B 4              P - K R 3

Black is forced to pay the penalty of his previous move. Such a move on
Black's part condemns by itself any form of opening that makes it
necessary. White threatened Kt - Kt 5 and Black could not stop it with
4...B - K 2, because of 5 P × P, Kt × P (if 5...P × P, 6 Q - Q 5);
6 Kt × Kt, P × Kt; 7 Q - R 5, and White wins a Pawn and has besides a
perfectly safe position.

        5. Kt - B 3               K Kt - B 3
        6. B - K 3                B - K 2
        7. Q - K 2

It should be noticed that White does not Castle yet. The reason is that he
wants to deploy his forces first, and through the last move force Black to
play P - Q B 3 to make room for the Queen as White threatens R - Q 1, to be
followed by P × P. Black's other alternatives would finally force him to
play P × P, thus abandoning the centre to White.

        7. ........               P - B 3
        8. R - Q 1                Q - B 2
        9. O - O

With this last move White completes his development, while Black is
evidently somewhat hampered. A simple examination will suffice to show that
White's position {31} is unassailable. There are no weak spots in his
armour, and his pieces are ready for any manoeuvre that he may wish to
carry out in order to begin the attack on the enemy's position. The student
should carefully study this example. It will show him that it is sometimes
convenient to delay Castling. I have given the moves as they come to my
mind without following any standard book on openings. Whether the moves
given by me agree or not with the standard works, I do not know, but at the
present stage of this book it is not convenient to enter into discussions
of mere technicalities which the student will be able to understand when he
has become more proficient.

EXAMPLE 19.

        1. P - K 4                P - K 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             P - Q 3
        3. P - Q 4                B - Kt 5

A bad move, which violates one of the principles set down, according to
which at least one Knight should be developed before the Bishops are
brought out, and also because it exchanges a Bishop for a Knight, which in
the opening is generally bad, unless there is some compensation.

        4. P × P                  B × Kt

4...P × P loses a Pawn.

        5. Q × B                  P × P
        6. B - Q B 4              Q - B 3

If Kt - B 3; Q - Q Kt 3 wins a Pawn.

{32} /*    7. Q - Q Kt 3 P - Q Kt 3    8. Kt - B 3 P - Q B 3 */

To prevent Kt - Q 5.

[Illustration]

Black, however, has no pieces out except his Queen, and White, with a
Bishop and a Knight already developed, has a chance of obtaining an
advantage quickly by playing Kt - Q 5 anyway. The student is left to work
out the many variations arising from this position.

These examples will show the practical application of the principles
previously enunciated. The student is warned against playing Pawns in
preference to pieces at the beginning of the game, especially P - K R 3 and
P - Q R 3, which are moves very commonly indulged in by beginners.

       *       *       *       *       *

8. TRAPS

I shall now give a few positions or traps to be avoided in the openings,
and in which (practice has shown) beginners are often caught. {33}

EXAMPLE 20.

[Illustration]

White plays:

        1. P × P                  Kt × P

Black should have recaptured with the Pawn.

        2. Kt × Kt                B × Q
        3. B × P ch               K - K 2
        4. Kt - Q 5 mate.

EXAMPLE 21.

[Illustration]

{34} Black, having the move, should play P - K 3. But suppose he plays
Kt - K B 3 instead, then comes--

        1. B × P ch

Kt - K 5 would also give White the advantage, the threat being of course if
B × Q; 2 B × P mate. Nor does B - R 5 help matters, because of 2 Q × B,
1... B - K 3 leaves Black with the inferior position. But White's move in
the text secures an immediate material advantage, and the beginner at any
rate should never miss such an opportunity for the sake of a speculative
advantage in position.

        1. ........               K × B
        2. Kt - K 5 ch            K moves
        3. Kt × B

and White has won a Pawn besides having the better position.

There are a good many other traps--in fact, there is a book written on
traps on the chess board; but the type given above is the most common of
all.

       *       *       *       *       *


{35}

CHAPTER II

FURTHER PRINCIPLES IN END-GAME PLAY

We shall now go back to the endings in search of a few more principles,
then again to the middle-game, and finally to the openings once more, so
that the advance may not only be gradual but homogeneous. In this way the
foundation on which we expect to build the structure will be firm and
solid.

9. A CARDINAL PRINCIPLE

[Illustration]

In the position shown above, White can draw by playing P - Kt 4 according
to the general rule that governs such cases, i.e. _to advance the Pawn that
is free from opposition_. But suppose that White, either because he does
not know this principle or because he {36} does not, in this case,
sufficiently appreciate the value of its application; suppose, we say, that
he plays 1 P - Q R 4. Then Black can win by playing 1... P - Q R 4,
applying one of the cardinal principles of the high strategy of chess--

        _A unit that holds two._

In this case one Pawn would hold two of the opponent's Pawns. The student
cannot lay too much stress on this principle. It can be applied in many
ways, and it constitutes one of the principal weapons in the hands of a
master.

EXAMPLE 22.--The example given should be sufficient proof. We give a few
moves of the main variation:--

        1. P - R 4                P - Q R 4
        2. K - Kt 2               K - B 5
            (Best; see why.)
        3. P - Kt 4               P × P
            (Best.)
        4. P - R 5                P - Kt 6
        5. P - R 6                P - Kt 7
        6. P - R 7                P - Kt 8 (Q)
        7. P - R 8 (Q)            Q - K 5 ch
        8. Q × Q                  K × Q

This brings the game to a position which is won by Black, and which
constitutes one of the classical endings of King and Pawns. I shall try to
explain the guiding idea of it to those not familiar with it. {37}

       *       *       *       *       *

10. A CLASSICAL ENDING

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 23.--In this position White's best line of defence consists in
keeping his Pawn where it stands at R 2. As soon as the Pawn is advanced it
becomes easier for Black to win. On the other hand, Black's plan to win
(supposing that White does not advance his Pawn) may be divided into three
parts. The first part will be to get his King to K R 6, at the same time
keeping intact the position of his Pawns. (This is all important, since, in
order to win the game, it is essential at the end that Black may be able to
advance his rearmost Pawn one or two squares according to the position of
the White King.)

        1. K - Kt 3               K - K 6
        2. K - Kt 2

If 2 K - Kt 4, K - B 7; 3 P - R 4, P - Kt 3 will win. {38}

        2. ........               K - B 5
        3. K - B 2                K - Kt 5
        4. K - Kt 2               K - R 5
        5. K - Kt 1               K - R 6

The first part has been completed.

[Illustration]

The second part will be short and will consist in advancing the R P up the
K.

        6. K - R 1                P - R 4
        7. K - Kt 1               P - R 5

This ends the second part.

[Illustration] {39}

The third part will consist in timing the advance of the Kt P so as to play
P - Kt 6 when the White King is at R 1. It now becomes evident how
necessary it is to be able to move the Kt P either one or two squares
according to the position of the White King, as indicated previously.[2] In
this case, as it is White's move, the Pawn will be advanced two squares
since the White King will be in the corner, but if it were now Black's move
the Kt P should only be advanced one square since the White King is at
Kt 1.

        8. K - R 1                P - Kt 4
        9. K - Kt 1               P - Kt 5
       10. K - R 1                P - Kt 6
       11. P × P

If K - Kt 1, P - Kt 7.

       11. ........               P × P
       12. K - Kt 1               P - Kt 7
       13. K - B 2                K - R 7

and wins.

It is in this analytical way that the student should try to learn. He will
thus train his mind to follow a logical sequence in reasoning out any
position. This example is excellent training, since it is easy to divide it
into three stages and to explain the main point of each part.

The next subject we shall study is the simple {40} opposition, but before
we devote our time to it I wish to call attention to two things.

       *       *       *       *       *

11. OBTAINING A PASSED PAWN

When three or more Pawns are opposed to each other in some such position as
the one in Example 24, there is always a chance for one side or the other
of obtaining a passed Pawn.

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 24.--In the above position the way of obtaining a passed Pawn is to
advance the centre Pawn.

        1. P - Kt 6               R P × P
  If B P × P; P - R 6,
        2. P - B 6                P × B P
        3. P - R 6

and as in this case the White Pawn is nearer to Queen than any of the Black
Pawns, White will {41} win. Now if it had been Black's move Black could
play

        1. ........               P - Kt 3
        2. B P × P                B P × P

It would not be advisable to try to obtain a passed Pawn because the White
Pawns would be nearer to Queen than the single Black Pawn.

        3. P × P                  P × P

and the game properly played would be a draw. The student should work this
out for himself.

       *       *       *       *       *

12. HOW TO FIND OUT WHICH PAWN WILL BE FIRST TO QUEEN

When two Pawns are free, or will be free, to advance to Queen, you can find
out, by counting, which Pawn will be the first to succeed.

EXAMPLE 25.--In this position whoever moves first wins.

[Illustration] {42}

The first thing is to find out, by counting, whether the opposing King can
be in time to stop the passed Pawn from Queening. When, as in this case, it
cannot be done, the point is to count which Pawn comes in first. In this
case the time is the same, but the Pawn that reaches the eighth square
first and becomes a Queen is in a position to capture the adversary's Queen
when he makes one. Thus:

        1. P - R 4                P - K R 4
        2. P - R 5                P - R 5
        3. P - Kt 6               P × P

Now comes a little calculation. White can capture the Pawn, but if he does
so, he will not, when Queening, command the square where Black will also
Queen his Pawn. Therefore, instead of taking, he plays:

        4. P - R 6                P - R 6
        5. P - R 7                P - R 7
        6. P - R 8 (Q), and wins.

The student would do well to acquaint himself with various simple endings
of this sort, so as to acquire the habit of counting, and thus be able to
know with ease when he can or cannot get there first. Once again I must
call attention to the fact that a book cannot by itself teach how to play.
It can only serve as a guide, and the rest must be learned by experience,
and if a teacher can be had at the same time, so much the faster will the
student be able to learn. {43}

       *       *       *       *       *

13. THE OPPOSITION

When Kings have to be moved, and one player can, by force, bring his King
into a position similar to the one shown in the following diagram, so that
his adversary is forced to move and make way for him, the player obtaining
that advantage is said to have _the opposition_.

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 26.--Suppose in the above position White plays

        1. K - Q 4

Now Black has the option of either opposing the passage of the White King
by playing K - Q 3 or, if he prefers, he can _pass_ with his own King by
replying K - B 4. Notice that the Kings are directly opposed to each other,
and the number of intervening squares between them is odd--one in this
case.

The opposition can take the form shown above, {44} which can be called
actual or close frontal opposition; or this form:

[Illustration]

which can be called actual or close diagonal opposition, or, again, this
form:

[Illustration]

which can be called actual or close lateral opposition.

In practice they are all one and the same. The Kings are always on squares
of the same colour, there is only one intervening square between the Kings,
and the player who has moved last "_has the opposition_." {45}

Now, if the student will take the trouble of moving each King backwards as
in a game in the same frontal, diagonal or lateral line respectively shown
in the diagrams, we shall have what may be called _distant_ frontal,
diagonal and lateral opposition respectively.

The matter of the opposition is highly important, and takes at times
somewhat complicated forms, all of which can be solved mathematically; but,
for the present, the student should only consider the most simple forms.
(An examination of some of the examples of King and Pawns endings already
given will show several cases of close opposition.)

In all simple forms of opposition,

_when the Kings are on the same line and the number of intervening squares
between them is even, the player who has the move has the opposition_.

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 27.--The above position shows to advantage the enormous value of
the opposition. The {46} position is very simple. Very little is left on
the board, and the position, to a beginner, probably looks absolutely even.
It is not the case, however. _Whoever has the move wins._ Notice that the
Kings are directly in front of one another, and that the number of
intervening squares is _even_.

Now as to the procedure to win such a position. The proper way to begin is
to move straight up. Thus:

        1. K - K 2                K - K 2
        2. K - K 3                K - K 3
        3. K - K 4                K - B 3

Now White can exercise the option of either playing K - Q 5 and thus
passing with his King, or of playing K - B 4 and prevent the Black King
from passing, thereby keeping the opposition. Mere counting will show that
the former course will only lead to a draw, therefore White takes the
latter course and plays:

        4. K - B 4                K - Kt 3

If 4...K - K 3; 5 K - Kt 5 will win.

        5. K - K 5                K - Kt 2

Now by counting it will be seen that White wins by capturing Black's Knight
Pawn.

The process has been comparatively simple in the variation given above, but
Black has other lines of {47} defence more difficult to overcome. Let us
begin anew.

        1. K - K 2                K - Q 1

Now if 2 K - Q 3, K - Q 2, or if 2 K - K 3, K - K 2, and Black obtains the
opposition in both cases. (When the Kings are directly in front of one
another, and the number of intervening squares between the Kings is _odd_,
the player who has moved last has the opposition.)

Now in order to win, the White King must advance. There is only one other
square where he can go, B 3, and that is the right place. Therefore it is
seen that in such cases when the opponent makes a so-called waiting move,
you must advance, leaving a rank or file free between the Kings. Therefore
we have--

        2. K - B 3                K - K 2

Now, it would be bad to advance, because then Black, by bringing up his
King in front of your King, would obtain the opposition. It is White's turn
to play a similar move to Black's first move, viz.:

        3. K - K 3

which brings the position back to the first variation shown. The student
would do well to familiarise himself with the handling of the King in all
examples of opposition. It often means the winning or losing of a game.

{48} EXAMPLE 28.--The following position is an excellent proof of the value
of the opposition as a means of defence.

[Illustration]

White is a Pawn behind and apparently lost, yet he can manage to draw as
follows:

        1. K - R 1 !

The position of the Pawns does not permit White to draw by means of the
actual or close opposition, hence he takes the distant opposition: in
effect if 1 K - B 1 (actual or close opposition), K - Q 7; 2 K - B 2,
K - Q 6 and White cannot continue to keep the lateral opposition essential
to his safety, because of his own Pawn at B 3. On the other hand, after the
text move, if

        1. ........               K - Q 7
        2. K - R 2                K - Q 6
        3. K - R 3 !              K - K 7
  {49}
        4. K - Kt 2               K - K 6
        5. K - Kt 3               K - Q 5
        6. K - Kt 4

attacking the Pawn and forcing Black to play 6... K - K 6 when he can go
back to Kt 3 as already shown, and always keep the opposition.

Going back to the original position, if

        1. K - R 1                P - Kt 5

White does not play P × P, because P - K 5 will win, but plays:

        2. K - Kt 2               K - Q 7

If 2...P × P ch; 3 K × P, followed by K - K 4, will draw.

        3. P × P                  P - K 5

and mere counting will show that both sides Queen, drawing the game.

If the student will now take the trouble to go back to the examples of King
and Pawns which I have given in this book,[3] he will realise that in all
of them the matter of the opposition is of paramount importance; as, in
fact, it is in nearly all endings of King and Pawns, except in such cases
where the Pawn-position in itself ensures the win.

{50}

       *       *       *       *       *

14. THE RELATIVE VALUE OF KNIGHT AND BISHOP

Before turning our attention to this matter it is well to state now that
_two Knights alone cannot mate_, but, under certain conditions of course,
they can do so if the opponent has one or more Pawns.

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 29.--In the above position White cannot win, although the Black
King is cornered, but in the following position, in which Black has a Pawn,

[Illustration]

White wins with or without the move. Thus:

        1. Kt - Kt 6              P - R 5

{51} White cannot take the Pawn because the game will be drawn, as
explained before.

        2. Kt - K 5               P - R 6
        3. Kt - B 6               P - R 7
        4. Kt - Kt 5              P - R 8 (Q)
        5. Kt - B 7 mate

The reason for this peculiarity in chess is evident.

_White with the two Knights can only stalemate the King, unless Black has a
Pawn which can be moved._

EXAMPLE 30.--Although he is a Bishop and a Pawn ahead the following
position cannot be won by White.

[Illustration]

It is the greatest weakness of the Bishop, that when the Rook's Pawn Queens
on a square of opposite colour and the opposing King is in front of the
Pawn, the Bishop is absolutely worthless. All that Black has to do is to
keep moving his King close to the corner square. {52}

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 31.--In the above position White with or without the move can win.
Take the most difficult variation.

        1. ........               K - R 7
        2. Kt - Kt 4 ch           K - R 8
        3. K - B 1                P - Kt 4
        4. K - B 2                P - R 7
        5. Kt - K 3               P - Kt 5
        6. Kt - B 1               P - Kt 6 ch
        7. Kt × P mate

Now that we have seen these exceptional cases, we can analyse the different
merits and the relative value of the Knight and the Bishop.

It is generally thought by amateurs that the Knight is the more valuable
piece of the two, the chief reason being that, unlike the Bishop, the
Knight can command both Black and White squares. However, the fact is
generally overlooked that the Knight, at any one time, {53} has the choice
of one colour only. It takes much longer to bring a Knight from one wing to
the other. Also, as shown in the following Example, a Bishop can stalemate
a Knight; a compliment which the Knight is unable to return.

EXAMPLE 32.

[Illustration]

The weaker the player the more terrible the Knight is to him, but as a
player increases in strength the value of the Bishop becomes more evident
to him, and of course there is, or should be, a corresponding decrease in
his estimation of the value of the Knight as compared to the Bishop. In
this respect, as in many others, the masters of to-day are far ahead of the
masters of former generations. While not so long ago some of the very best
amongst them, like Pillsbury and Tchigorin, preferred Knights to Bishops,
there is hardly a master of to-day who would not completely agree with the
statements made above. {54}

EXAMPLE 33.--This is about the only case when the Knight is more valuable
than the Bishop.

[Illustration]

It is what is called a "_block position_," and all the Pawns are on one
side of the board. (If there were Pawns on both sides of the board there
would be no advantage in having a Knight.) In such a position Black has
excellent chances of winning. Of course, there is an extra source of
weakness for White in having his Pawns on the same colour-squares as his
Bishop. This is a mistake often made by players. The proper way, generally,
in an ending, is to have your Pawns on squares of opposite colour to that
of your own Bishop. When you have your Pawns on squares of the same colour
the action of your own Bishop is limited by them, and consequently the
value of the Bishop is diminished, since the value of a piece can often be
measured by the number of squares it commands. While on this subject, I
shall also call attention to the {55} fact that it is generally preferable
to keep your Pawns on squares of the same colour as that of the opposing
Bishop, particularly if they are passed Pawns supported by the King. The
principles might be stated thus:

_When the opponent has a Bishop, keep your Pawns on squares of the same
colour as your opponent's Bishop._

_Whenever you have a Bishop, whether the opponent has also one or not, keep
your Pawns on squares of the opposite colour to that of your own Bishop._

Naturally, these principles have sometimes to be modified to suit the
exigencies of the position.

EXAMPLE 34.--In the following position the Pawns are on one side of the
board, and there is no advantage in having either a Knight or a Bishop. The
game should surely end in a draw.

[Illustration] {56}

EXAMPLE 35.--Now let us add three Pawns on each side to the above position,
so that there are Pawns on both sides of the board.

[Illustration]

It is now preferable to have the Bishop, though the position, if properly
played out, should end in a draw. The advantage of having the Bishop lies
as much in its ability to command, at long range, both sides of the board
from a central position as in its ability to move quickly from one side of
the board to the other.

[Illustration] {57}

EXAMPLE 36.--In the above position it is unquestionably an advantage to
have the Bishop, because, although each player has the same number of
Pawns, they are not balanced on each side of the board. Thus, on the King's
side, White has three to two, while on the Queen's side it is Black that
has three to two. Still, with proper play, the game should end in a draw,
though White has somewhat better chances.

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 37.--Here is a position in which to have the Bishop is a decided
advantage, since not only are there Pawns on both sides of the board, but
there is a passed Pawn (K R P for White, Q R P for Black). Black should
have extreme difficulty in drawing this position, if he can do it at all.
{58}

EXAMPLE 38.--Again Black would have great difficulty in drawing this
position.

[Illustration]

The student should carefully consider these positions. I hope that the many
examples will help him to understand, in their true value, the relative
merits of the Knight and Bishop. As to the general method of procedure, a
teacher, or practical experience, will be best. I might say generally,
however, that the proper course in these endings, as in all similar
endings, is: Advance of the King to the centre of the board or towards the
passed Pawns, or Pawns that are susceptible of being attacked, and rapid
advance of the passed Pawn or Pawns as far as is consistent with their
safety.

To give a fixed line of play would be folly. Each ending is different, and
requires different handling, according to what the adversary proposes to
do. Calculation by visualising the future positions is what will count.
{59}

       *       *       *       *       *

15. HOW TO MATE WITH A KNIGHT AND A BISHOP

Now, before going back again to the middle-game and the openings, let us
see how to mate with Knight and Bishop, and, then, how to win with a Queen
against a Rook.

With a Knight and a Bishop _the mate can only be given in the corners of
the same colour as the Bishop_.

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 39.--In this example we must mate either at Q R 1 or K R 8. The
ending can be divided into two parts. Part one consists in driving the
Black King to the last line. We might begin, as is generally done in all
such cases, by advancing the King to the centre of the board:

        1. K - K 2                K - Q 2

Black, in order to make it more difficult, goes towards the white-squared
corner:

        2. K - Q 3                K - B 3
        3. B - B 4                K - Q 4
  {60}
        4. Kt - K 2               K - B 4
        5. Kt - B 3               K - Kt 5
        6. K - Q 4                K - R 4
        7. K - B 5                K - R 3
        8. K - B 6                K - R 2
        9. Kt - Q 5               K - R 1

The first part is now over; the Black King is in the white-squared corner.

[Illustration]

The second and last part will consist in driving the Black King now from
Q R 8 to Q R 1 or K R 8 in order to mate him. Q R 1 will be the quickest in
this position.

       10. Kt - Kt 6 ch           K - R 2
       11. B - B 7                K - R 3
       12. B - Kt 8               K - R 4
       13. Kt - Q 5               K - R 5

Black tries to make for K R 1 with his King. White has two ways to prevent
that, one by 14 B - K 5, {61} K - Kt 6; 15 Kt - K 3, and the other which I
give as the text, and which I consider better for the student to learn,
because it is more methodical and more in accord with the spirit of all
these endings, _by using the King as much as possible_.

       14. K - B 5 !              K - Kt 6
       15. Kt - Kt 4              K - B 6
       16. B - B 4                K - Kt 6
       17. B - K 5                K - R 5
       18. K - B 4                K - R 4
       19. B - B 7 ch             K - R 5
       20. Kt - Q 3               K - R 6
       21. B - Kt 6               K - R 5
       22. Kt - Kt 2 ch           K - R 6
       23. K - B 3                K - R 7
       24. K - B 2                K - R 6
       25. B - B 5 ch             K - R 7
       26. Kt - Q 3               K - R 8
       27. B - Kt 4               K - R 7
       28. Kt - B 1 ch            K - R 8
       29. B - B 3 mate

It will be seen that the ending is rather laborious. There are two
outstanding features: the close following by the King, and the controlling
of the squares of opposite colour to the Bishop by the combined action of
the Knight and King. The student would do well to exercise himself
methodically in this ending, as it gives a very good idea of the actual
power of the pieces, and it requires foresight in order to accomplish the
{62} mate within the fifty moves which are granted by the rules.

       *       *       *       *       *

16. QUEEN AGAINST ROOK

This is one of the most difficult endings without Pawns. The resources of
the defence are many, and when used skilfully only a very good player will
prevail within the limit of fifty moves allowed by the rules. (The rule is
that at any moment you may demand that your opponent mate you within fifty
moves. However, every time a piece is exchanged or a Pawn advanced the
counting must begin afresh.)

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 40.--This is one of the standard positions which Black can often
bring about. Now, it is White's move. If it were Black's move it would be
simple, as he would have to move his Rook away from the King (find out
why), and then the Rook would be {63} comparatively easy to win. We deduce
from the above that the main object is to force the Black Rook away from
the defending King, and that, in order to compel Black to do so, we must
bring about the position in the diagram with _Black_ to move. Once we know
what is required, the way to proceed becomes easier to find. Thus:

        1. Q - K 5 ch

Not 1 Q - R 6, because R - B 2 ch; 2 K - Kt 6, R - B 3 ch; 3 K × R.
Stalemate. (The beginner will invariably fall into this trap.)

        1. ........               K to R 1 or to R 2
        2. Q - R 1 ch             K - Kt 1
        3. Q - R 5

In a few moves we have accomplished our object. The first part is
concluded. Now we come to the second part. The Rook can only go to a White
square, otherwise the first check with the Queen will win it. Therefore

        3. ........               R - Kt 6
        4. Q - K 5 ch             K - R 1 best
        5. Q - R 8 ch             K - R 2
        6. Q - Kt 7 ch            K - R 1
        7. Q - Kt 8 ch            R - Kt 1
        8. Q - R 2 mate

(The student should find out by himself how to win when 3...R - Kt 8;
4 Q - K 5 ch, K - R 2.) {64}

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 41.--The procedure here is very similar. The things to bear in mind
are that the Rook must be prevented from interposing at Kt 1 because of an
immediate mate, and in the same way the King must be prevented from going
either to R 3 or B 1.

EXAMPLE 42.--We shall now examine a more difficult position.

[Illustration] {65}

Many players would be deceived by this position. The most likely looking
move is not the best. Thus suppose we begin

        1. Q - K 5 ch             K - B 1
        2. K - Kt 6               R - Q 2

The only defence, but, unfortunately, a very effective one, which makes it
very difficult for White, since he cannot play 3 Q - K 6 because of
3...R - Kt 2 ch; 4 K - B 6, R - Kt 3 ch draws. Nor can he win quickly by
3 Q - Q B 5 ch because 3...K - K 1, 4 K - B 6, R - Q 3 ch ! driving back
the White King.

Now that we have seen the difficulties of the situation let us go back. The
best move is

        1. Q - Kt 5 ch !          K - R 1

If K - R 2; 2 Q - Kt 6 ch, K - R 1; 3 K - R 6 !

        2. Q - K 5 ch !           K - R 2 best
        3. K - Kt 5               R - R 2 ! best

If 3...R - Kt 2 ch; 4 K - B 6 leads to a position similar to those in
Examples 40 and 41.

        4. Q - K 4 ch             K - Kt 1
        5. Q - B 4 ch             K - R 2
        6. K - B 6                R - K Kt 2
        7. Q - R 4 ch             K - Kt 1
        8. Q - R 5

{66} and we have the position of Example 40 with Black to move.

Let us go back again.

        1. Q - Kt 5 ch            K - B 1
        2. Q - Q 8 ch             K - Kt 2
        3. K - Kt 5               R - B 6

The best place for the Rook away from the King. 3...K - R 2; 4 Q - Q 4,
R - Kt 2 ch; 5 K - B 6 would lead to positions similar to those already
seen.

        4. Q - Q 4 ch             K - B 1
        5. K - Kt 6

5 Q - Q 6 ch, K - Kt 2; 6 Q - K 5 ch, K - B 1; 7 K - Kt 6 would also win
the Rook. The text move, however, is given to show the finesse of such
endings. White now threatens mate at Q 8.

        5. ........               R - Kt 6 ch
        6. K - B 6                R - B 6 ch
        7. K - K 6                R - K R 6

White threatened mate at K R 8.

        8. Q - B 4 ch

and the Rook is lost.

Note, in these examples, that the checks at long range along the diagonals
have often been the key to all the winning manoeuvres. Also that the Queen
and {67} King are often kept on different lines. The student should
carefully go over these positions and consider all the possibilities not
given in the text.

He should once more go through everything already written before proceeding
further with the book.

       *       *       *       *       *


{68}

CHAPTER III

PLANNING A WIN IN MIDDLE-GAME PLAY

I shall now give a few winning positions taken from my own games. I have
selected those that I believe can be considered as _types_, i.e. positions
that may easily occur again in a somewhat similar form. A knowledge of such
positions is of great help; in fact, one cannot know too many. It often may
help the player to find, with little effort, the right move, which he might
not be able to find at all without such knowledge.

17. ATTACKING WITHOUT THE AID OF KNIGHTS

[Illustration] {69}

EXAMPLE 43.--It is Black's move, and as he is a Kt and P behind he must win
quickly, if at all. He plays:

        1. ........               Q R - Kt 1 !
        2. R - B 2

If, Q × Q, R × P ch; K - R 1, B - Q 4 and mate follows in a few moves.

        2. ........               R × P ch
        3. K - B 1                B - B 5 ch
        4. Kt × B                 R - Kt 8 mate

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 44.--Black's last move was P - K 6, played with the object of
stopping what he thought was White's threat, viz.: R - Q R 5, to which he
would have answered Q - B 5 ch and drawn the game by perpetual check.
White, however, has a more forceful move, and he mates in three moves as
follows: {70}

        1. R × P ch               Q × R
        2. R - Q R 5              Black moves
        3. White mates

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 45.--White has a beautiful position, but still he had better gain
some material, if he can, before Black consolidates his defensive position.
He therefore plays:

        1. R × Kt !               P × R
        2. B × P ch               K - K 2

If Kt × B; R × Kt and Black would be helpless.

        3. Q - R 7 ch             K - K 1
        4. Q × Kt ch              K - Q 2
        5. Q - R 7 ch             Q - K 2
        6. B - B 8                Q × Q
        7. R × Q ch               K - K 1
        8. R × R                  Resigns

In these few examples the attacking has been done by Rooks and Bishops in
combination with the Queen. {71} There have been no Knights to take part in
the attack. We shall now give some examples in which the Knights play a
prominent part as an attacking force.

       *       *       *       *       *

18. ATTACKING WITH KNIGHTS AS A PROMINENT FORCE

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 46.--White is two Pawns behind. He must therefore press on his
attack. The game continues:

        1. Kt (B 5) × Kt P        Kt - B 4

Evidently an error which made the winning easier for White, as he simply
took the Rook with the Knight and kept up the attack. Black should have
played: 1 ... Kt × Kt. Then would have followed: 2 Kt - B 6 ch, K - Kt 3;
3 Kt × B, P - B 3 (best); 4 P - K 5, K - B 2; 5 Kt × P, R - K 2;
6 Kt - K 4, and Black should lose.[4]

{72}

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 47.--The student should carefully examine the position, as the
sacrifice of the Bishop in similar situations is typical, and the chance
for it is of frequent occurrence in actual play. The game continues:

        1. B × P ch               K × B
        2. Kt - Kt 5 ch           K - Kt 3

Best. If 2...K - R 3; 3 Kt × P ch wins the Queen, and if 2...K - Kt 1;
3 Q - R 5, with an irresistible attack.

        3. Q - Kt 4               P - B 4
        4. Q - Kt 3               K - R 3

White finally won.[5]

{73}

       *       *       *       *       *

19. WINNING BY INDIRECT ATTACK

We have so far given positions where the attacks were of a violent nature
and directed against the King's position. Very often, however, in the
middle-game attacks are made against a position or against pieces, or even
Pawns.

_The winning of a Pawn among good players of even strength often means the
winning of the game._

Hence the study of such positions is of great importance. We give below two
positions in which the attack aims at the gain of a mere Pawn as a means of
ultimately winning the game.

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 48.--Black is a Pawn behind, and there is no violent direct attack
against White's King. Black's pieces, however, are very well placed and
free to act, and by co-ordinating the action of all his pieces he is soon
able not only to regain the Pawn but to obtain the better game. The student
should carefully {74} consider this position and the subsequent moves. It
is a very good example of proper co-ordination in the management of forces.
The game continues:

        1. ........               R - R 1
        2. P - Q R 4

White's best move was P - Q Kt 3, when would follow Kt × B; 3 Q × Kt,
R - R 6 and Black would ultimately win the Q R P, always keeping a slight
advantage in position. The text move makes matters easier.

        2. ........               Kt × B
        3. Q × Kt                 Q - B 5
        4. K R - Q 1              K R - Kt 1

Black could have regained the Pawn by playing B × Kt, but he sees that
there is more to be had, and therefore increases the pressure against
White's Queen side. He now threatens, among other things, R × Kt P.

        5. Q - K 3                R - Kt 5

Threatening to win the exchange by B - Q 5.

        6. Q - Kt 5               B - Q 5 ch
        7. K - R 1                Q R - Kt 1

This threatens to win the Kt, and thus forces White to give up the
exchange.

        8. R × B                  Q × R
        9. R - Q 1                Q - B 5

Now Black will recover his Pawn. {75}

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 49.--An examination of this position will show that Black's main
weakness lies in the exposed position of his King, and in the fact that his
Q R has not yet come into the game. Indeed, if it were Black's move, we
might conclude that he would have the better game, on account of having
three Pawns to two on the Queen's side, and his Bishop commanding the long
diagonal.

It is, however, White's move, and he has two courses to choose from. The
obvious move, B - B 4, might be good enough, since after 1 B - B 4,
Q R - Q 1; 2 P - Q Kt 4 would make it difficult for Black. But there is
another move which completely upsets Black's position and wins a Pawn,
besides obtaining the better position. That move is Kt - Q 4 ! The game
continues as follows:

        1. Kt - Q 4 !             P × Kt
        2. R × B                  Kt - Kt 5

{76}

There is nothing better, as White threatened B - B 4.

        3. B - B 4 ch             K - R 1
        4. R - K 6                P - Q 6
        5. R × P

And White, with the better position, is a Pawn ahead.

These positions have been given with the idea of acquainting the student
with different types of combinations. I hope they will also help to develop
his imagination, a very necessary quality in a good player. The student
should note, in all these middle-game positions, that--

_once the opportunity is offered, all the pieces are thrown into action "en
masse" when necessary;_ and that _all the pieces smoothly co-ordinate their
action with machine-like precision._

That, at least, is what the ideal middle-game play should be, if it is not
so altogether in these examples.

       *       *       *       *       *


{77}

CHAPTER IV

GENERAL THEORY

Before we revert to the technique of the openings it will be advisable to
dwell a little on general theory, so that the openings in their relation to
the rest of the game may be better understood.

20. THE INITIATIVE

As the pieces are set on the board both sides have the same position and
the same amount of material. White, however, has the move, and the move in
this case means _the initiative_, and the initiative, other things being
equal, is an advantage. Now this advantage must be kept as long as
possible, and should only be given up if some other advantage, material or
positional, is obtained in its place. White, according to the principles
already laid down, develops his pieces as fast as possible, but in so doing
he also tries to hinder his opponent's development, by applying pressure
wherever possible. He tries first of all to control the centre, and failing
this to obtain some positional advantage that will make it possible for him
to keep on harassing the enemy. He only relinquishes the initiative when he
gets for it some material advantage under such favourable conditions as to
make him feel {78} assured that he will, in turn, be able to withstand his
adversary's thrust; and finally, through his superiority of material, once
more resume the initiative, which alone can give him the victory. This last
assertion is self-evident, since, in order to win the game, the opposing
King must be driven to a position where he is attacked without having any
way of escape. Once the pieces have been properly developed the resulting
positions may vary in character. It may be that a direct attack against the
King is in order; or that it is a case of improving a position already
advantageous; or, finally, that some material can be gained at the cost of
relinquishing the initiative for a more or less prolonged period.

       *       *       *       *       *

21. DIRECT ATTACKS _EN MASSE_

In the first case the attack must be carried on with sufficient force to
guarantee its success. Under no consideration must a direct attack against
the King be carried on _à outrance_ unless there is absolute certainty in
one's own mind that it will succeed, since failure in such cases means
disaster.

EXAMPLE 50.--A good example of a successful direct attack against the King
is shown in the following diagram:

In this position White could simply play B - B 2 and still have the better
position, but instead he prefers an immediate attack on the King's side,
with {79} the certainty in his mind that the attack will lead to a win. The
game continues thus:[6]

[Illustration]

       12. B × P ch               K × B
       13. Kt - Kt 5 ch           K - Kt 3
       14. Q - Kt 4               P - B 4

Best. P - K 4 would have been immediately fatal. Thus: 14...P - K 4;
15 Kt - K 6 ch, K - B 3; 16 P - B 4 ! P - K 5; 17 Q - Kt 5 ch, K × Kt;
18 Q - K 5 ch, K - Q 2; 19 K R - Q 1 ch, Kt - Q 6; 20 Kt × P, K - B 3 (if
K - K 1, Kt - Q 6 ch wins the Queen); 21 R × Kt, Q × R; 22 R - B 1 ch,
K - Kt 3 (if K - Q 2 mate in two); 23 Q - B 7 ch and mate in five moves.

{80}

       15. Q - Kt 3               K - R 3
       16. Q - R 4 ch             K - Kt 3
       17. Q - R 7 ch             K - B 3

If K × Kt; Q × Kt P ch and mate in a few moves.

       18. P - K 4                Kt - Kt 3
       19. P × P                  P × P
       20. Q R - Q 1              Kt - Q 6
       21. Q - R 3                Kt (Q 6) - B 5
       22. Q - Kt 3               Q - B 2
       23. K R - K 1              Kt - K 7 ch

This blunder loses at once, but the game could not be saved in any case;
e.g. 23...B - K 3; 24 R × B ch, Kt × R; 25 Kt - Q 5 mate.

       24. R × Kt                 Q × Q
       25. Kt - R 7 ch            K - B 2
       26. R P × Q                R - R 1
       27. Kt - Kt 5 ch           K - B 3
       28. P - B 4                Resigns

EXAMPLE 51.--Another example of this kind:

[Illustration] {81}

In the above position the simple move Kt × P would win, but White looks for
complications and their beauties. Such a course is highly risky until a
wide experience of actual master-play has developed a sufficient insight
into all the possibilities of a position. This game, which won the
brilliancy prize at St. Petersburg in 1914, continued as follows:--

       21. B - R 4                Q - Q 2
       22. Kt × B                 Q × R
       23. Q - Q 8 ch             Q - K 1

If K - B 2; 24 Kt - Q 6 ch, King moves; 25 mate.

       24. B - K 7 ch             K - B 2
       25. Kt - Q 6 ch            K - Kt 3
       26. Kt - R 4 ch            K - R 4

If 26...K - R 3; 27 Kt (Q 6) - B 5 ch, K - R 4; 28 Kt × P ch, K - R 3;
29 Kt (R 4) - B 5 ch, K - Kt 3; 30 Q - Q 6 ch and mate next move.

       27. Kt × Q                 R × Q
       28. Kt × P ch              K - R 3
       29. Kt (Kt 7) - B 5 ch     K - R 4
       30. P - K R 3 !

The climax of the combination started with 21 B - R 4. White is still
threatening mate, and the best way to avoid it is for Black to give back
all the material he has gained and to remain three Pawns behind.

The student should note that in the examples given the attack is carried
out with every available piece, {82} and that often, as in some of the
variations pointed out, it is the coming into action of the last available
piece that finally overthrows the enemy. It demonstrates the principle
already stated:

_Direct and violent attacks against the King must be carried _en masse_,
with full force, to ensure their success. The opposition must be overcome
at all cost; the attack cannot be broken off, since in all such cases that
means defeat._

       *       *       *       *       *

22. THE FORCE OF THE THREATENED ATTACK

Failing an opportunity, in the second case, for direct attack, one must
attempt to increase whatever weakness there may be in the opponent's
position; or, if there is none, one or more must be created. It is always
an advantage to threaten something, but such threats must be carried into
effect only if something is to be gained immediately. For, holding the
threat in hand, forces the opponent to provide against its execution and to
keep material in readiness to meet it. Thus he may more easily overlook, or
be unable to parry, a thrust at another point. But once the threat is
carried into effect, it exists no longer, and your opponent can devote his
attention to his own schemes. One of the best and most successful
manoeuvres in this type of game is to make a demonstration on one side, so
as to draw the forces of your opponent to that side, then through the
greater mobility of your pieces to shift your forces quickly {83} to the
other side and break through, before your opponent has had the time to
bring over the necessary forces for the defence.

A good example of positional play is shown in the following game:

EXAMPLE 52.--Played at the Havana International Masters Tournament, 1913.
(French Defence.) White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: R. Blanco.

        1. P - K 4                P - K 3
        2. P - Q 4                P - Q 4
        3. Kt - Q B 3             P × P
        4. Kt × P                 Kt - Q 2
        5. Kt - K B 3             K Kt - B 3
        6. Kt × Kt ch             Kt × Kt
        7. Kt - K 5

[Illustration]

This move was first shown to me by the talented Venezuelan amateur, M.
Ayala. The object is to {84} prevent the development of Black's Queen's
Bishop _viâ_ Q Kt 2, after P - Q Kt 3, which is Black's usual development
in this variation. Generally it is bad to move the same piece twice in an
opening before the other pieces are out, and the violation of that
principle is the only objection that can be made to this move, which
otherwise has everything to recommend it.

        7. ........               B - Q 3
        8. Q - B 3

[Illustration]

B - K Kt 5 might be better. The text move gives Black an opportunity of
which he does not avail himself

        8. ........               P - B 3

P - B 4 was the right move. It would have led to complications, in which
Black might have held his own; at least, White's play would be very
difficult. The text move accomplishes nothing, and puts Black {85} in an
altogether defensive position. The veiled threat B × Kt; followed by
Q - R 4 ch; is easily met.

        9. P - B 3                O - O
       10. B - K Kt 5             B - K 2

The fact that Black has now to move his Bishop back clearly demonstrates
that Black's plan of development is faulty. He has lost too much time, and
White brings his pieces into their most attacking position without
hindrance of any sort.

       11. B - Q 3                Kt - K 1

The alternative was Kt - Q 4. Otherwise White would play Q - R 3, and Black
would be forced to play P - K Kt 3 (not P - K R 3, because of the sacrifice
B × P), seriously weakening his King's side.

       12. Q - R 3                P - K B 4

White has no longer an attack, but he has compelled Black to create a
marked weakness. Now White's whole plan will be to exploit this weakness
(the weak K P), and the student can now see how the principles expounded
previously are applied in this game. Every move is directed to make the
weak King's Pawn untenable, or to profit by the inactivity of the Black
pieces defending the Pawn, in order to improve the position of White at
other points.

       13. B × B                  Q × B
       14. O - O                  R - B 3
       15. K R - K 1              Kt - Q 3
       16. R - K 2                B - Q 2

{86} At last the Bishop comes out, not as an active attacking piece, but
merely to make way for the Rook.

       17. Q R - K 1              R - K 1
       18. P - Q B 4              Kt - B 2

A very clever move, tending to prevent P - B 5, and tempting White to play
Kt × B, followed by B × P, which would be bad, as the following variation
shows: 19 Kt × B, Q × Kt; 20 B × P, Kt - Kt 4; 21 Q - Kt 4, R × B;
22 P - K R 4, P - K R 4; 23 Q × R, P × Q; 24 R × R ch, K - R 2; 25 P × Kt,
Q × P. But it always happens in such cases that, if one line of attack is
anticipated, there is another; and this is no exception to the rule, as
will be seen.

[Illustration]

       19. P - Q 5 !              Kt × Kt

Apparently the best way to meet the manifold threats of White. B P × P
would make matters worse, as the White Bishop would finally bear on the
weak King's Pawn _viâ_ Q B 4. {87}

       20. R × Kt                 P - K Kt 3
       21. Q - R 4                K - Kt 2
       22. Q - Q 4                P - B 4

Forced, as White threatened P × K P, and also Q × P

       23. Q - B 3                P - Kt 3

Q - Q 3 was better. But Black wants to tempt White to play P × P, thinking
that he will soon after regain his Pawn with a safe position. Such,
however, is not the case, as White quickly demonstrates. I must add that in
any case Black's position is, in my opinion, untenable, since all his
pieces are tied up for the defence of a Pawn, while White's pieces are free
to act.

       24. P × P                  B - B 1

[Illustration]

       25. B - K 2 !

The deciding and timely manoeuvre. All the Black pieces are useless after
this Bishop reaches Q 5. {88}

       25. ........               B × P
       26. B - B 3                K - B 2
       27. B - Q 5                Q - Q 3

Now it is evident that all the Black pieces are tied up, and it only
remains for White to find the quickest way to force the issue. White will
now try to place his Queen at K R 6, and then advance the K R P to R 5 in
order to break up the Black Pawns defending the King.

       28. Q - K 3                R - K 2

If 28...P - B 5; 29 Q - K R 3, P - K R 4; 30 Q - R 4, R - K 2; 31 Q - Kt 5,
K - Kt 2; 32 P - K R 4, Q - Q 2; 33 P - K Kt 3, P × P; 34 P - B 4, and
Black will soon be helpless, as he has to mark time with his pieces while
White prepares to advance P - R 5, and finally at the proper time to play
R × B, winning.

       29. Q - R 6                K - Kt 1
       30. P - K R 4              P - R 3
       31. P - R 5                P - B 5
       32. P × P                  P × P
       33. R × B                  Resigns.

Commenting on White's play in this game, Dr. E. Lasker said at the time
that if White's play were properly analysed it might be found that there
was no way to improve upon it.

These apparently simple games are often of the most difficult nature.
Perfection in such cases is much more difficult to obtain than in those
positions calling {89} for a brilliant direct attack against the King,
involving sacrifices of pieces.

       *       *       *       *       *

23. RELINQUISHING THE INITIATIVE

In the third case, there is nothing to do, once the material advantage is
obtained, but to submit to the opponent's attack for a while, and once it
has been repulsed to act quickly with all your forces and win on material.
A good example of this type of game is given below.

EXAMPLE 53.--From the Havana International Masters Tournament, 1913. (Ruy
Lopez.) White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: D. Janowski.

        1. P - K 4                P - K 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             Kt - Q B 3
        3. B - Kt 5               Kt - B 3
        4. O - O                  P - Q 3
        5. B × Kt ch              P × B
        6. P - Q 4                B - K 2
        7. Kt - B 3

P × P might be better, but at the time I was not familiar with that
variation, and therefore I played what I knew to be good.

        7. ........               Kt - Q 2
        8. P × P                  P × P
        9. Q - K 2                O - O
       10. R - Q 1                B - Q3
       11. B - Kt 5               Q - K 1
       12. Kt - K R 4             P - Kt 3

{90} Black offers the exchange in order to gain time and to obtain an
attack. Without considering at all whether or not such a course was
justified on the part of Black, it is evident that as far as White is
concerned there is only one thing to do, viz., to win the exchange and then
prepare to weather the storm. Then, once it is passed, to act quickly with
all forces to derive the benefit of numerical superiority.

       13. B - R 6                Kt - B 4
       14. R - Q 2                R - Kt 1
       15. Kt - Q 1               R - Kt 5

To force White to play P - Q B 4, and thus create a hole at Q 5 for his
Knight.[7] Such grand tactics show the hand of a master.

       16. P - Q B 4              Kt - K 3
       17. B × R                  Q × B
       18. Kt - K 3

Kt - K B 3 was better.

       18. ........               Kt - Q 5
       19. Q - Q 1                P - Q B 4

In order to prevent R × Kt giving back the exchange, but winning a Pawn and
relieving the position.

       20. P - Q Kt 3             R - Kt 1

In order to play B - Kt 2 without blocking his Rook.

{91} Black's manoeuvring for positional advantage is admirable throughout
this game, and if he loses it is due entirely to the fact that the
sacrifice of the exchange, without even a Pawn for it, could not succeed
against sound defensive play.

[Illustration]

       21. Kt - B 3               P - B 4
       22. P × P                  P × P

[Illustration]

The position begins to look really dangerous for White. In reality Black's
attack is reaching its maximum force. Very soon it will reach the apex, and
then {92} White, who is well prepared, will begin his counter action, and
through his superiority in material obtain an undoubted advantage.

       23. Kt - B 1               P - B 5
       24. Kt × Kt                B P × Kt
       25. Q - R 5                B - Kt 2
       26. R - K 1                P - B 4

He could not play R - K 1 because of R × Q P. Besides, he wants to be ready
to play P - K 5. At present White cannot with safety play R × K P, but he
will soon prepare the way for it. Then, by giving up a Rook for a Bishop
and a Pawn, he will completely upset Black's attack and come out a Pawn
ahead. It is on this basis that White's whole defensive manoeuvre is
founded.

       27. P - B 3                R - K 1
       28. R (Q 2) - K 2          R - K 3

[Illustration]

Now the Black Rook enters into the game, but White is prepared. It is now
time to give back the exchange. {93}

       29. R × P                  B × R
       30. R × B                  R - K R 3
       31. Q - K 8                Q × Q
       32. R × Q ch               K - B 2
       33. R - K 5                R - Q B 3
       34. Kt - Q 2

R - B 5 ch might have been better. The text move did not prove as strong as
anticipated.

       34. ........               K - B 3
       35. R - Q 5                R - K 3
       36. Kt - K 4 ch            K - K 2

R × Kt would lose easily

       37. R × B P                P - Q 6 !

Very fine. White cannot play R B 7 ch because of K - Q 1; R × B, R × Kt
winning.

       38. K - B 2                B × Kt
       39. P × B                  R × P
       40. R - Q 5                R - K 6

The ending is very difficult to win. At this point White had to make the
last move before the game was adjourned.

[Illustration] {94}

       41. P - Q Kt 4 !           R - K 5
       42. R × P                  R × P
       43. R - K R 3              R × P
       44. R × P ch               K - B 3
       45. R × P                  K - B 4
       46. K - B 3                R - Kt 7
       47. R - R 5 ch             K - B 3
       48. R - R 4                K - Kt 4
       49. R × P                  R × R P
       50. P - R 4 ch             K - R 4
       51. R - B 5 ch             K - R 3
       52. P - Kt 4               Resigns

I have passed over the game lightly because of its difficult nature, and
because we are at present concerned more with the opening and the
middle-game than we are with the endings, which will be treated separately.

       *       *       *       *       *

24. CUTTING OFF PIECES FROM THE SCENE OF ACTION

Very often in a game a master only plays to cut off, so to speak, one of
the pieces from the scene of actual conflict. Often a Bishop or a Knight is
completely put out of action. In such cases we might say that from that
moment the game is won, because for all practical purposes there will be
one more piece on one side than on the other. A very good illustration is
furnished by the following game. {95}

EXAMPLE 54.--Played at the Hastings Victory Tournament, 1919. (Four
Knights.) White: W. Winter. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

        1. P - K 4                P - K 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             Kt - Q B 3
        3. Kt - B 3               Kt - B 3
        4. B - Kt 5               B - Kt 5
        5. O - O                  O - O
        6. B × Kt

Niemzowitch's variation, which I have played successfully in many a game.
It gives White a very solid game. Niemzowitch's idea is that White will in
due time be able to play P - K B 4, opening a line for his Rooks, which, in
combination with the posting of a Knight at K B 5, should be sufficient to
win. He thinks that should Black attempt to stop the Knight from going to
K B 5, he will have to weaken his game in some other way. Whether this is
true or not remains to be proved, but in my opinion the move is perfectly
good. On the other hand, there is no question that Black can easily develop
his pieces. But it must be considered that in this variation White does not
attempt to hinder Black's development, he simply attempts to build up a
position which he considers impregnable and from which he can start an
attack in due course.

        6. ........               Q P × B

{96} The alternative, Kt P × B; gives White the best of the game, without
doubt.[8]

        7. P - Q 3                B - Q 3
        8. B - Kt 5

This move is not at all in accordance with the nature of this variation.
The general strategical plan for White is to play P - K R 3, to be followed
in time by the advance of the K Kt P to Kt 4, and the bringing of the Q Kt
to K B 5 via K 2 and K Kt 3 or Q 1 and K 3. Then, if possible, the K Kt is
linked with the other Kt by placing it at either K R 4, K Kt 3, or K 3 as
the occasion demands. The White King sometimes remains at Kt 1, and other
times it is placed at K Kt 2, but mostly at K R 1. Finally, in most cases
comes P - K B 4, and then the real attack begins. Sometimes it is a direct
assault against the King,[9] and at other times it comes simply to
finessing for positional advantage in the end-game, after most of the
pieces have been exchanged.[10]

        8. ........               P - K R 3
        9. B - R 4                P - B 4

{97}

[Illustration]

To prevent P - Q 4 and to draw White into playing Kt - Q 5, which would
prove fatal. Black's plan is to play P - K Kt 4, as soon as the
circumstances permit, in order to free his Queen and Knight from the pin by
the Bishop.

       10. Kt - Q 5

White falls into the trap. Only lack of experience can account for this
move. White should have considered that a player of my experience and
strength could never allow such a move if it were good.

       10. ........               P - K Kt 4

[Illustration] {98} After this move White's game is lost. White cannot play
Kt × Kt P, because Kt × Kt will win a piece. Therefore he must play
B - Kt 3, either before or after Kt × Kt, with disastrous results in either
case, as will be seen.

       11. Kt × Kt ch             Q × Kt
       12. B - Kt 3               B - Kt 5
       13. P - K R 3              B × Kt
       14. Q × B                  Q × Q
       15. P × Q                  P - K B 3

[Illustration]

A simple examination will show that White is minus a Bishop for all
practical purposes. He can only free it by sacrificing one Pawn, and
possibly not even then. At least it would lose time besides the Pawn. Black
now devotes all his energy to the Queen's side, and, having practically a
Bishop more, the result cannot be in doubt. The rest of the game is given,
so that the student may see how simple it is to win such a game. {99}

       16. K - Kt 2               P - Q R 4
       17. P - Q R 4              K - B 2
       18. R - R 1                K - K 3
       19. P - R 4                K R - Q Kt 1

There is no necessity to pay any attention to the King's side, because
White gains nothing by exchanging Pawns and opening the King's Rook file.

       20. P × P                  R P × P
       21. P - Kt 3               P - B 3
       22. R - Q R 2              P - Kt 4
       23. K R - R 1              P - B 5

If White takes the proffered Pawn, Black regains it immediately by
R - Kt 5, after P × B P.

       24. R P × P                P × P (Kt 6)
       25. B P × P                R × P
       26. R - R 4                R × P
       27. P - Q 4                R - Kt 4
       28. R - B 4                R - Kt 5
       29. R × B P                R × P
           Resigns

       *       *       *       *       *

25. A PLAYER'S MOTIVES CRITICISED IN A SPECIMEN GAME

Now that a few of my games with my own notes have been given, I offer for
close perusal and study a very fine game played by Sir George Thomas, one
of England's foremost players, against Mr. F. F. L. Alexander, in the
championship of the City of London Chess Club in the winter of 1919-1920.
It has the {100} interesting feature for the student that Sir George Thomas
kindly wrote the notes to the game for me at my request, and with the
understanding that I would make the comments on them that I considered
appropriate. Sir George Thomas' notes are in brackets and thus will be
distinguished from my own comments.

EXAMPLE 55.--Queen's Gambit Declined. (_The notes within brackets by Sir
George Thomas._) White: Mr. F. F. L. Alexander. Black: Sir George Thomas.

        1. P - Q 4                P - Q 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             Kt - K B 3
        3. P - B 4                P - K 3
        4. Kt - B 3               Q Kt - Q 2
        5. B - Kt 5               P - B 3
        6. P - K 3                Q - R 4

[Illustration]

(One of the objects of Black's method of defence is to attack White's Q Kt
doubly by Kt - K 5, followed by P × P. But 7 Kt - Q 2 is probably a strong
way {101} of meeting this threat.) There are, besides, two good reasons for
this method of defence; first, that it is not as much played as some of the
other defences and consequently not so well known, and second that it
leaves Black with two Bishops against B and Kt, which, in a general way,
constitutes an advantage.

        7. B × Kt                 Kt × B
        8. P - Q R 3              Kt - K 5
        9. Q - Kt 3               B - K 2

This is not the logical place for the B which should have been posted at
Q 3. In the opening, time is of great importance, and therefore the player
should be extremely careful in his development and make sure that he posts
his pieces in the right places.

       10. B - Q 3                Kt × Kt
       11. P × Kt                 P × P
       12. B × B P                B - B 3

(I did not want White's Kt to come to K 5, from where I could not dislodge
it by P - K B 3 without weakening my K P.) The same result could be
accomplished by playing B - Q 3. Incidentally it bears out my previous
statement that the B should have been originally played to Q 3.

       13. O - O

The alternative was P - K 4, followed by P - K 5, and then O - O. White
would thereby assume the initiative but would weaken his Pawn position
considerably, and might be compelled to stake all on a {102} violent attack
against the King. This is a turning point in the game, and it is in such
positions that the temperament and style of the player decide the course of
the game.

       13. ........               O - O
       14. P - K 4                P - K 4

[Illustration]

       15. P - Q 5

(White might play 15 K R - Q 1, keeping the option of breaking up the
centre later on. I wanted him to advance this P as there is now a fine post
for my B at Q B 4.) By this move White shows that he does not understand
the true value of his position. His only advantage consisted in the
undeveloped condition of Black's Q B. He should therefore have made a plan
to prevent the B from coming out, or if that were not possible, then he
should try to force Black to weaken his Pawn position in order to come out
with the B. There were three moves to consider: first, {103} P - Q R 4, in
order to maintain the White B in the dominating position that it now
occupies. This would have been met by Q - B 2; second, either of the Rooks
to Q 1 in order to threaten 16 P × P, B × P; 17 Kt × B, Q × Kt;
18 B × P ch. This would have been met by B - Kt 5; and third, P - K R 3 to
prevent B - Kt 5 and by playing either R to Q 1, followed up as previously
stated to force Black to play P - Q Kt 4, which would weaken his Queen's
side Pawns. Thus by playing P - K R 3 White would have attained the desired
object. The text move blocks the action of the White B and facilitates
Black's development. Hereafter White will act on the defensive, and the
interest throughout the rest of the game will centre mainly on Black's play
and the manner in which he carries out the attack.

       15. ........               Q - B 2
       16. B - Q 3

(This seems wrong, as it makes the development of Black's Queen wing
easier. At present he cannot play P - Q Kt 3, because of the reply P × P
followed by B - Q 5.)

       16. ........               P - Q Kt 3
       17. P - B 4                B - Kt 2
       18. K R - B 1

(With the idea of Q R - Kt 1 and P - B 5. But it only compels Black to
bring his B to Q B 4, which he would do in any case.)

{104} /*    18. ........ B - K 2    19. R - B 2 B - B 4    20. Q - Kt 2
P - B 3 */

(It would have been better, probably, to play 20...K R - K 1, with the idea
of P - B 4 presently.) Black's play hereabout is weak; it lacks force, and
there seems to be no well-defined plan of attack. It is true that these are
the most difficult positions to handle in a game. In such cases a player
must conceive a plan on a large scale, which promises chances of success,
and with it all, it must be a plan that can be carried out with the means
at his disposal. From the look of the position it seems that Black's best
chance would be to mass his forces for an attack against White's centre, to
be followed by a direct attack against the King. He should, therefore, play
Q R - K 1, threatening P - K B 4. If White is able to defeat this plan, or
rather to prevent it, then, once he has fixed some of the White pieces on
the King's side, he should quickly shift his attack to the Queen's side,
and open a line for his Rooks, which, once they enter in action, should
produce an advantage on account of the great power of the two Bishops.

       21. Q R - Kt 1             Q R - Q 1
       22. P - Q R 4              B - R 3
       23. R - Q 1

(White has clearly lost time with his Rook's moves.)

       23. ........               K R - K 1
       24. Q - Kt 3

{105}

(To bring his Queen across after Kt - R 4 and B - K 2.)

       24. ........               R - Q 3
       25. Kt - R 4               P - Kt 3
       26. B - K 2

[Illustration]

       26. ........               P × P

(I thought this exchange necessary here, as White is threatening to play
his Bishop via Kt 4 to K 6. If he retook with the Bishop's Pawn I intended
to exchange Bishops and rely on the two Pawns to one on the Queen's wing. I
did not expect him to retake it with the King's Pawn, which seemed to
expose him to a violent King's side attack.) Black's judgment in this
instance I believe to be faulty. Had White retaken with the B P, as he
expected, he would have had the worst of the Pawn position, as White would
have had a passed Pawn well supported on the Queen's side. His only
advantage would lie in his having a very well posted Bishop against a badly
{106} posted Knight, and on the fact that in such positions as the above,
the Bishop is invariably stronger than the Knight. He could and should have
prevented all that, by playing B - B 1, as, had White then replied with
Q - Kt 3, he could then play P × P, and White would not have been able to
retake with the B P on account of B × P ch winning the exchange.

       27. K P × P                P - K 5
       28. P - Kt 3               P - K 6

I do not like this move. It would have been better to hold it in reserve
and to have played P - B 4, to be followed in due time by P - K Kt 4 and
P - B 5, after having placed the Q at Q 2, K B 2, or some other square as
the occasion demanded. The text move blocks the action of the powerful B at
Q B 4, and tends to make White's position safer than it should have been.
The move in itself is a very strong attacking move, but it is isolated, and
there is no effective continuation. Such advances as a rule should only be
made when they can be followed by a concerted action of the pieces.

       29. P - B 4                B - B 1
       30. Kt - B 3               B - B 4
       31. R - Kt 2               R - K 5
       32. K - Kt 2               Q - B 1
       33. Kt - Kt 1              P - K Kt 4

{107}

(If now 34 B - B 3, P × P; 35 B × R, B × B ch, with a winning attack.)

       34. P × P                  P × P
       35. R - K B 1              P - Kt 5

R - R 3 was the alternative. White's only move would have been K - R 1. The
position now is evidently won for Black, and it is only a question of
finding the right course. The final attack is now carried on by Sir George
Thomas in an irreproachable manner.

       36. B - Q 3                R - K B 3
       37. Kt - K 2               Q - B 1

[Illustration]

(Again preventing B × R, by the masked attack on White's Rook. White
therefore protects his Rook.) If Kt - B 4, P - K 7 !; 39 Kt × P, R × Kt ch;
40 R × R, B - K 5 ch !!; 41 B × B, best, R × R and White is lost. If,
however, against 38 Kt - B 4, Black plays Q - R 3, and White 39 Q - B 2, I
take pleasure {108} in offering the position to my readers as a most
beautiful and extraordinary win for Black, beginning with
39...Q - R 6 ch !!! I leave the variations for the student to work out.

       38. R (Kt 2) - Kt 1        Q - R 3
       39. Q - B 2

(Making a double attack on the Rook--which still cannot be taken--and
preparing to defend the K R P.) If either the Rook or Bishop are taken
White would be mated in a few moves.

       39. ........               Q - R 6 ch
       40. K - R 1                R × P !!

[Illustration]

(If 40...R - R 3; 41 Kt - Kt 1, Q × Kt P; 42 Q - K Kt 2. Black therefore
tries to get the Queen away from the defence.) A very beautiful move, and
the best way to carry on the attack.

       41. Q × R

{109}

(The best defence was 41 R × B, but Black would emerge with Queen against
Rook and Knight.)

       41. ........               B × B

(Again, not R - K R 3; because of P - Q 6 dis. ch.)

       42. R × R

(If 42 Q × B, then, at last, R - R 3 wins.)

       42. ........               B × Q
       43. Kt - B 4               P - K 7 !

[Illustration]

(The Queen has no escape, but White has no time to take it.)

       44. R - K Kt 1             Q - B 8

White resigns. A very fine finish.

       *       *       *       *       *


{110}

CHAPTER V

END-GAME STRATEGY

We must now revert once more to the endings. Their importance will have
become evident to the student who has taken the trouble to study my game
with Janowski (Example 53). After an uneventful opening--a Ruy Lopez--in
one of its normal variations, my opponent suddenly made things interesting
by offering the exchange; an offer which, of course, I accepted. Then
followed a very hard, arduous struggle, in which I had to defend myself
against a very dangerous attack made possible by the excellent manoeuvring
of my adversary. Finally, there came the time when I could give back the
material and change off most of the pieces, and come to an ending in which
I clearly had the advantage. But yet the ending itself was not as simple as
it at first appeared, and finally--perhaps through one weak move on my
part--it became a very difficult matter to find a win. Had I been a weak
end-game player the game would probably have ended in a draw, and all my
previous efforts would have been in vain. Unfortunately, that is very often
the case among the large majority of players; they are weak in the endings;
a failing from which masters of the first rank are at times not free. {111}
Incidentally, I might call attention to the fact that all the world's
champions of the last sixty years have been exceedingly strong in the
endings: Morphy, Steinitz, and Dr. Lasker had no superiors in this
department of the game while they held their titles.

26. THE SUDDEN ATTACK FROM A DIFFERENT SIDE

I have previously stated, when speaking about general theory, that at times
the way to win consists in attacking first on one side, then, granted
greater mobility of the pieces, to transfer the attack quickly from one
side to the other, breaking through before your opponent has been able to
bring up sufficient forces to withstand the attack. This principle of the
middle-game can sometimes be applied in the endings in somewhat similar
manner.

EXAMPLE 56.

[Illustration] {112}

In the above position I, with the Black pieces, played:

        1. ........               R - K 5 ch
        2. R - K 2                R - Q R 5
        3. R - R 2                P - K R 4

The idea, as will be seen very soon, is to play P - R 5 in order to fix
White's King's side Pawns with a view to the future. It is evident to Black
that White wants to bring his King to Q Kt 3 to support his two weak
isolated Pawns, and thus to free his Rooks. Black, therefore, makes a plan
to shift the attack to the King's side at the proper time, in order to
obtain some advantage from the greater mobility of his Rooks.

        4. R - Q 1                R (Q 4) - Q R 4

in order to force the Rook to Rook's square, keeping both Rooks tied up.

        5. R (Q 1) - R 1          P - R 5
        6. K - Q 2                K - Kt 2
        7. K - B 2                R - K Kt 4

Black begins to transfer his attack to the King's side.

        8. R - K Kt 1

A serious mistake, which loses quickly. White should have played
8 K - Kt 3, when Black would have answered 8...R (R 5) - R 4; 9 P - B 3,
and Black would have obtained an opening at K Kt 6 for his King, which in
the end might give him the victory.

        8. ........               R - K B 5

{113} Now the King cannot go to Kt 3, because of R - Kt 4 ch.

        9. K - Q 3                R - B 6 ch
       10. K - K 2

If P × R, R × R; followed by R - K R 8 winning,

       10. ........               R × R P

and Black won after a few moves.

EXAMPLE 57.--Another good example, in which is shown the advantage of the
greater mobility of the pieces in an ending, is the following from a game
Capablanca-Kupchick played at the Havana Masters Tournament, 1913. The full
score and notes of the game can be found in the book of the tournament.

[Illustration]

White's only advantage in the above position is that he possesses the open
file and has the move, which will secure him the initiative. There is also
the slight advantage of having his Pawns on the Queen's side united, while
Black has an isolated Q R P. The {114} proper course, as in the previous
ending, is to bring the Rooks forward, so that at least one of them may be
able to shift from one side of the board to the other, and thus keep
Black's Rooks from moving freely. What this means in general theory has
been stated already; it really means: _keep harassing the enemy; force him
to use his big pieces to defend Pawns. If he has a weak point, try to make
it weaker, or create another weakness somewhere else and his position will
collapse sooner or later. If he has a weakness, and he can get rid of it,
make sure that you create another weakness somewhere else_.

From the position in question the game continued thus:

        1. R - K 4                K R - K 1

with the object of repeating White's manoeuvre, and also not to allow White
the control of the open file.

        2. Q R - K 1              R - K 3
        3. Q R - K 3              R (B 1) - K 1
        4. K - B 1                K - B 1

Black wants to bring his King to the centre of the board in order to be
nearer to whatever point White decides to attack. The move is justified at
least on the general rule that in such endings the King should be in the
middle of the board. He does nothing after all but follow White's
footsteps. Besides, it is hard to point out anything better. If
4...P - Q 4; 5 R - Kt 4 ch, followed by K - K 2, would leave Black in {115}
a very disagreeable position. If 4...P - K B 4; 5 R - Q 4! R × R? 6 P × R,
R × P; 7 K - B 2, R - K 2; 8 R - Q R 4, winning the Q R P, which would
practically leave White with a passed Pawn ahead on the Queen's side, as
the three Pawns of Black on the King's side would be held by the two of
White.

        5. K - K 2                K - K 2
        6. R - Q R 4              R - Q R 1

The student should note that through the same manoeuvre Black is forced
into a position similar to the one shown in the previous ending.

        7. R - R 5!

This move has a manifold object. It practically fixes all of Black's Pawns
except the Q P, which is the only one that can advance two squares. It
specially prevents the advance of Black's K B Pawns, and at the same time
threatens the advance of White's K B Pawns to B 4 and B 5. By this threat
it practically forces Black to play P - Q 4, which is all White desires,
for reasons that will soon become evident.

        7. ........               P - Q 4
        8. P - Q B 4!             K - Q 3

Evidently forced, as the only other move to save a Pawn would have been
P × P, which would have left all Black's Pawns isolated and weak. If
8...P - Q 5; 9 R - K 4, K - Q 3; 10 P - Q Kt 4! R - K 4; 11 R - R 6, and
Black's game is hopeless.

        9. P - B 5 ch             K - Q 2
       10. P - Q 4                P - B 4

{116} Apparently very strong, since it forces the exchange of Rooks because
of the threat R - R 3; but in reality it leads to nothing. The best chance
was to play R - K K 1.

       11. R × R                  P × R
       12. P - B 4

Up to now White had played with finesse, but this last move is weak.
R - R 6 was the proper way to continue, so as to force Black to give up his
Q R P or Q B P.

       12. ........               K - B 1
       13. K - Q 2

Again a bad move. 13 R - R 3 was the proper continuation, and if then
13...R - Kt 1; 14 P - Kt 3, K - Kt 2; 15 P - Kt 4, K - R 1; 16 R - Q Kt 3,
with excellent winning chances; in fact, I believe, a won game.

[Illustration]

       13. ........               K - Kt 2

Black misses his only chance. R - Kt 1 would have drawn. {117}

       14. R - R 3                R - K Kt 1
       15. R - R 3                R - Kt 2
       16. K - K 2                K - R 3
       17. R - R 6                R - K 2
       18. K - Q 3                K - Kt 2

He goes back with the King to support his K P, and thus be able to utilise
his Rook. It is, however, useless, and only White's weak play later on
gives him further chances of a draw.

       19. P - K R 4              K - B 1
       20. R - R 5

To prevent the Black Rook from controlling the open file

       20. ........               K - Q 2
       21. R - Kt 5               R - B 2
       22. K - B 3                K - B 1

He must keep his King on that side because White threatens to march with
his King to R 6 via Kt 4.

       23. K - Kt 4               R - B 3
       24. K - R 5                K - Kt 2
       25. P - R 4                P - Q R 3
       26. P - R 5                R - R 3

He can do nothing but wait for White. The text move stops White from moving
his Rook, but only for one move.

       27. P - Kt 4               R - B 3

The only other move was K - R 2; when White could play R - Kt 7, or even
P - Kt 5. {118}

[Illustration]

       28. P - Kt 5

A weak move, which gives Black a fighting chance. In this ending, as is
often the case with most players, White plays the best moves whenever the
situation is difficult and requires careful handling, but once his position
seems to be overwhelming he relaxes his efforts and the result is nothing
to be proud of. The right move was 28 R - Kt 7.

       28. ........               R P × P
       29. P × P                  R - B 1 !
       30. R - Kt 7               R - R 1 ch
       31. K - Kt 4               P × P
       32. K × P                  R - R 7
       33. P - B 6 ch             K - Kt 1
       34. R × R P                R - Kt 7 ch
       35. K - R 5                R - R 7 ch
       36. K - Kt 4               R × P

Black misses his last chance: R - Kt 7 ch, forcing the King to B 3, in
order to avoid the perpetual, {119} would probably draw. The reader must
bear in mind that my opponent was then a very young and inexperienced
player, and consequently deserves a great deal of credit for the fight he
put up.

       37. R - K 7                R × P

R - Kt 7 ch; followed by R - K R 7, offered better chances.

       38. P - R 6!               R × P ch
       39. K - Kt 5               R - Q 8
       40. P - R 7                R - Kt 8 ch
       41. K - B 5                R - B 8 ch
       42. K - Q 4                R - Q 8 ch
       43. K - K 5                R - K 8 ch
       44. K - B 6                R - K R 8
       45. R - K 8 ch             K - R 2
       46. P - R 8 (Q)            R × Q
       47. R × R                  K - Kt 3
       48. K × P                  K × P
       49. K × P                  K - B 4
       50. K - K 5                Resigns.

This ending shows how easy it is to make weak moves, and how often, even in
master-play, mistakes are made and opportunities are lost. It shows that,
so long as there is no great advantage of material, even with a good
position, a player, no matter how strong, cannot afford to relax his
attention even for one move. {120}

       *       *       *       *       *

27. THE DANGER OF A SAFE POSITION

EXAMPLE 58.--A good proof of the previous statement is shown in the
following ending between Marshall and Kupchick in one of their two games in
the same Tournament (Havana, 1913).

[Illustration]

It is evident that Marshall (White) is under great difficulties in the
above position. Not only is he bound to lose a Pawn, but his position is
rather poor. The best he could hope for was a draw unless something
altogether unexpected happened, as it did. No reason can be given for
Black's loss of the game except that he felt so certain of having the best
of it with a Pawn more and what he considered a safe position, that he
became exceedingly careless and did not consider the danger that actually
existed. Let us see how it happened.

        1. P - Kt 4               R × R P

{121} The mistakes begin. This is the first. Black sees that he can take a
Pawn without any danger, and does not stop to think whether there is
anything better. R - B 7 ch was the right move. If then K - Kt 3, R × P. If
instead White played K - K 4, then R - K 4 ch followed by R × R P.

        2. R - Q 1                R - R 5 ch

Mistake number two, and this time such a serious one as to almost lose the
game. The proper move was to play P - B 4 in order to break up White's
Pawns and at the same time make room for the Black King, which is actually
in danger, as will soon be seen.

        3. R - Q 4                R (R5) - R 4

Mistake number three and this time fatal. His best move was R (Kt 4) - R 4.
After the text move there is no defence. Black's game is lost. This shows
that even an apparently simple ending has to be played with care. From a
practically won position Black finds himself with a lost game, and it has
only taken three moves.

        4. R (Q 4) - Q 8          R - Kt 2

If 4...P - B 4; 5 R - R 8 ch, K - Kt 3; 6 R (B 8) - Kt 8 ch, K - B 3;
7 R × P ch, R - Kt 3; 8 P - Kt 5 ch, K - K 2; 9 R (R 6) × R, P × R;
10 R - Kt 7 ch, K - K 1; 11 R × Kt P, and wins easily.

        5. P - R 4                P - R 4
        6. R - R 8 ch             Resigns.

The reason is evident. If 6...K - Kt 3; 7 P × P ch, {122} R × P; 8 R × R,
K × R; 9 R - R 8 ch, K - Kt 3; 10 P - R 5 mate.

       *       *       *       *       *

28. ENDINGS WITH ONE ROOK AND PAWNS

The reader has probably realised by this time that endings of two Rooks and
Pawns are very difficult, and that the same holds true for endings of one
Rook and Pawns. Endings of two Rooks and Pawns are not very common in
actual play; but endings of one Rook and Pawns are about the most common
sort of endings arising on the chess board. Yet though they do occur so
often, few have mastered them thoroughly. They are often of a very
difficult nature, and sometimes while apparently very simple they are in
reality extremely intricate. Here is an example from a game between
Marshall and Rosenthal in the Manhattan Chess Club Championship Tournament
of 1909-1910.

EXAMPLE 59.

[Illustration]

{123} In this position Marshall had a simple win by R - B 7 ch, but played
P - B 6, and thereby gave Black a chance to draw. Luckily for him Black did
not see the drawing move, played poorly, and lost. Had Black been up to the
situation he would have drawn by playing R - Q 3.

        1. P - B 6                R - Q 3 !

Now White has two continuations, either (_a_) P - B 7, or (_b_) R - B 7 ch.
We have therefore:

  (a)   2. P - B 7                R - Q 1 !
        3. R - R 5 ch             K - B 5

and White will finally have to sacrifice the Rook for Black's Pawn. Or--

  (b)   2. R - B 7 ch             K - Q 5 !
        3. P - B 7                R - Kt 3 ch !

a very important move, as against R - K B 3, R - K 7 wins.

        4. K - B 1                R - K B 3
        5. R - Kt 7               K - B 6

and White will finally have to sacrifice the Rook for the Pawn, or draw by
perpetual check.

If there were nothing more in the ending it would not be of any great
value, but there are other very interesting features. Now suppose that
after 1 P - B 6, R - Q 3; 2 P - B 7, Black did not realise that R - Q 1 was
the only move to draw. {124} We would then have the following position:

[Illustration]

Now there would be two other moves to try: either (_a_) R - Kt 3 ch, or
(_b_) R - K B 3. Let us examine them.

  (a)   1. ........               R - Kt 3 ch
        2. K - B 3                R - B 3 ch
        3. K - K 3                R - K 3 ch

If P - Kt 6; R - R 5 ch wins, because if the King goes back, then R - R 6,
and if the King goes up, then R - R 4 ch, followed by R - K B 4 wins.

        4. K - Q 3                R - K B 3

If R - Q 3 ch; K - K 4 wins.

        5. R - R 5 ch             K moves
        6. R - R 6 wins



  (b)   1. ........               R - B 3
        2. R - Kt 7 !             K - B 5

If P - Kt 6; R - Kt 3, and White will either capture the Pawn or go to
K B 3, and come out with a winning ending. {125}

        3. P - R 4                P - Kt 6
        4. R - Kt 4 ch            K moves
        5. R - Kt 3

and White will either capture the Pawn or play R - K B 3, according to the
circumstances, and come out with a winning ending.

Now, going back to the position shown on page 122, suppose that after
1 P - B 6, R - Q 3; 2 R - B 7 ch, Black did not realise that K - Q 5 was
the only move to draw, and consequently played K - Kt 3 instead, we would
then have the following position:

[Illustration]

Now the best continuation would be:

        1. P - B 7                R - Kt 3 ch (best)
        2. K - B 1                R - K B 3
        3. R - K 7 !              K - B 4 (best)

White threatened to check with the Rook at K 6.

        4. K - K 2                P - Kt 6

{126} Best. If K - B 5; both P - R 4 and K - K 3 will win; the last-named
move particularly would win with ease.

        5. R - K 3                P - Kt 7 (best)
        6. R - Q Kt 3             R × P
        7. R × P                  R - K R 2
        8. R - Q 2                R × P
        9. K - K 3

[Illustration]

This position we have arrived at is won by White, because there are two
files between the opposing King and the Pawn from which the King is cut off
by the Rook, and besides, the Pawn can advance to the fourth rank before
the opponent's Rook can begin to check on the file. This last condition is
very important, because if, instead of the position on the diagram, the
Black Rook were at K R 1, and Black had the move, he could draw by
preventing the {127} advance of the Pawn, either through constant checks or
by playing R - K B 1 at the proper time.

Now that we have explained the reasons why this position is won, we leave
it to the student to work out the correct solution.

The fact that out of one apparently simple ending we have been able to work
out several most unusual and difficult endings should be sufficient to
impress upon the student's mind the necessity of becoming well acquainted
with all kinds of endings, and especially with endings of Rook and Pawns.

       *       *       *       *       *

29. A DIFFICULT ENDING: TWO ROOKS AND PAWNS

Following our idea that the best way to learn endings as well as openings
is to study the games of the masters, we give two more endings of two Rooks
and Pawns. These endings, as already stated, are not very common, and the
author is fortunate in having himself played more of these endings than is
generally the case. By carefully comparing and studying the endings already
given (Examples 56 and 57) with the following, the student no doubt can
obtain an idea of the proper method to be followed in such cases. The way
of procedure is somewhat similar in all of them.

EXAMPLE 60.--From a game, Capablanca-Kreymborg, in the New York State
Championship Tournament of 1910. {128}

[Illustration]

It is Black's move, and no doubt thinking that drawing such a position
(that was all Black played for) would be easy, he contented himself with a
waiting policy. Such conduct must always be criticised. It often leads to
disaster. _The best way to defend such positions is to assume the
initiative and keep the opponent on the defensive._

        1. ........               Q R - K 1

The first move is already wrong. There is nothing to gain by this move.
Black should play P - Q R 4; to be followed by P - Q R 5; unless White
plays P - Q Kt 3. That would _fix_ the Queen's side. After that he could
decide what demonstration he could make with his Rooks to keep the
opponent's Rooks at bay.

        2. R - Q 4

This move not only prevents P - B 5 which Black intended, but threatens
P - Kt 3, followed, after {129} P × P ch, by the attack with one or both
Rooks against Black's Q R P.

        2. ........               R - B 3

probably with the idea of a demonstration on the King's side by R - Kt 3
and Kt 7.

        3. P - Kt 3               P × P ch
        4. P × P                  K - B 2
        5. K - Q 3

R - Q R 1 should have been played now, in order to force Black to defend
with R - K 2. White, however, does not want to disclose his plan at once,
and thus awaken Black to the danger of his position, hence this move, which
seems to aim at the disruption of Black's Queen's side Pawns.

        5. ........               R - K 2
        6. R - Q R 1              K - K 3

This is a mistake. Black is unaware of the danger of his position. He
should have played P - Kt 4; threatening R - R 3, and, by making this
demonstration against White's K R P, stop the attack against his Queen's
side Pawns, which will now develop.

        7. R - R 6                R - Q B 2

He could not play K - Q 3, because P - Q B 4 would win at least a Pawn.
This in itself condemns his last move K - K 3, which has done nothing but
make his situation practically hopeless.

        8. R (Q 4) - Q R 4        P - K Kt 4

Now forced, but it is a little too late. He could not play 8...K R - B 2,
because P - K B 4 would have {130} left his game completely paralysed.
Black now finally awakens to the danger, and tries to save the day by the
counter-demonstration on the King's side, which he should have started
before. Of course, White cannot play R × R P, because of R × R, followed by
R - R 3, recovering the Pawn with advantage.

        9. P - K R 4 !            P - Kt 5

Black is now in a very disagreeable position. If he played 9...P × P;
10 R × P would leave him in a very awkward situation, as he could not go
back with the King, nor could he do much with either Rook. He practically
would have to play 10...P - K R 3, when White would answer 11 P - Kt 4,
threatening to win a Pawn by P - Kt 5, or, if that were not enough, he
might play K - Q 4, to be followed finally by the entry of the King at B 5
or K 5.

       10. K - K 2

[Illustration]

{131} /*    10. ........ P × P ch */

Again he cannot play P - K R 4, because P - K B 4 would leave him
paralysed. The advance of his K R P would make White's K R P safe, and
consequently his K R would have to retire to K B 2 to defend the Q R P.
That would make it impossible for his King to go to Q 2, because of the
Q R P, nor could he advance a single one of his Pawns. On the other hand,
White would play P - Kt 4, threatening to win a Pawn by P - Kt 5, or he
might first play K - Q 4, and then at the proper time P - Kt 5, if there
was nothing better. Black meanwhile could really do nothing but mark time
with one of his Rooks. Compare this bottling-up system with the ending in
Example 57, and it will be seen that it is very similar.

       11. K × P                  R (B 3) - B 2
       12. K - K 2

Probably wrong. P - Kt 4 at once was the right move. The text move gives
Black good chances of drawing.

       12. ........               K - Q 3
       13. P - Kt 4               R - Q Kt 2

This could never have happened had White played 12 P - Kt 4, as he could
have followed it up by P - Kt 5 after Black's K - Q 3.

       14. P - R 5

Not good. P - K B 4 offered the best chances of {132} winning by force. If
then 14...R - Kt 2; 15 P - R 5, R - Kt 7 ch; 16 K - Q 3, R - K R 7;
17 R × P, R × R; 18 R × R, R × P; 19 R - R 6, with winning chances.

[Illustration]

       14. ........               P - R 3

Black misses his last chance. P - B 5 would draw. If then 15 P × P,
R (Kt 2) - K 2 ch !; 16 K - B 1, R × P; 17 R × P, R - K 6 !

       15. P - K B 4              R - Kt 2
       16. K - Q 3                R (K Kt 2) - K 2
       17. R - R 1                R - Kt 2
       18. K - Q 4                R - Kt 7
       19. R (R 6) - R 2          R (Kt 2) - Kt 2

R (Kt 7) - Kt 2 would have offered greater resistance, but the position is
lost in any case. (I leave the student to work this out.)

       20. K - Q 3 !              R × R
       21. R × R                  R - K 2

{133} Nothing would avail. If 21...R - Kt 8; 22 R - R 6 ! R - Q 8 ch;
23 K - B 2, R - K R 8; 24 P - Kt 5, R × P; 25 R × P ch, K - Q 2;
26 R - Q R 6, and White will win easily.

       22. R - K Kt 2             R - K 3
       23. R - Kt 7               R - K 2
       24. R - Kt 8               P - B 4

Black is desperate. He sees he can no longer defend his Pawns.

       25. R - Kt 6 ch            R - K 3
       26. P × P ch               K - Q 2
       27. R - Kt 7 ch            K - B 3
       28. R × P                  K × P
       29. R - K B 7              Resigns.

EXAMPLE 61.--From the game Capablanca-Janowski, New York National
Tournament of 1913.

[Illustration]

Black's game has the disadvantage of his double Q B P, which, to make
matters worse, he cannot {134} advance, because as soon as Black plays
P - Q Kt 3, White replies P - Q Kt 4. It is on this fact that White builds
his plans. He will stop Black's Queen's side Pawns from advancing, and will
then bring his own King to K 3. Then in due time he will play P - Q 4, and
finally P - K 5, or P - K Kt 5, thus forcing an exchange of Pawns and
obtaining in that way a clear passed Pawn on the King's file. It will be
seen that this plan was carried out during the course of the game, and that
White obtained his winning advantage in that way. The play was based
throughout on the chance of obtaining a passed Pawn on the King's file,
with which White expected to win.

        1. P - K Kt 4

already preparing to play P - K Kt 5 when the time comes.

        1. ........               P - Q Kt 3

Black wants to play P - Q B 4, but White, of course, prevents it.

        2. P - Kt 4 !             K - Kt 2

This King should come to the King's side, where the danger lurks.

        3. K - B 2                P - Q Kt 4

With the object of playing K - Kt 3 and P - Q R 4, followed by P × P, and
thus have an open file for his Rook and be able to make a
counter-demonstration {135} on the Queen's side in order to stop White's
advance on the right. White, however, also prevents this.

        4. P - Q R 4 !            R - Q 5

Of course if P × P; Black will have all his Pawns on the Queen's side
disrupted and isolated, and White can easily regain the lost Pawn by
playing either Rook on the Q R file.

        5. R - Q Kt 1             R - K 4

He still wants to play P - Q B 4, but as it is easy to foresee that White
will again prevent it, the text move is really a serious loss of time.
Black should bring his King over to the other side immediately.

        6. K - K 3                R - Q 2
        7. P - R 5

The first part of White's strategic plan is now accomplished. Black's Pawns
on the Queen's side are _fixed_ for all practical purposes.

        7. ........               R - K 3

If R × R; Kt P × R would have given White a very powerful centre. Yet it
might have been the best chance for Black.

        8. R (Kt) - K B 1         R (Q 2) - K 2
        9. P - Kt 5               P × P
       10. R × P

{136}

[Illustration]

The second part of White's strategical plan is now accomplished. It remains
to find out if the advantage obtained is sufficient to win. White not only
has a passed Pawn, but his King is in a commanding position in the centre
of the board ready to support the advance of White's Pawns, or, if
necessary, to go to Q B 5, or to move to the right wing in case of danger.
Besides, White holds the open file with one of his Rooks. Altogether
White's position is superior and his chances of winning are excellent.

       10. ........               R - R 3
       11. R - Kt 3               R (R 3) - K 3

to prevent P - Q 4. Also Black fears to keep his Rook in front of his two
King's side Pawns which he may want to utilise later.

       12. P - R 4                P - Kt 3
       13. R - Kt 5               P - R 3

{137} White threatens P - R 5, which would finally force Black to take, and
then White would double his Rooks against the isolated Pawn and win it, or
tie up Black's Rooks completely. The text move, however, only helps White;
therefore Black had nothing better than to hold tight and wait. R - K 4
would not help much, as White would simply answer R - B 8, R - K 1;
R (Kt 5) × R, and whichever Rook Black took, White would have an easy game.
(The student should carefully study these variations.)

       14. R - Kt 4               R - Kt 2
       15. P - Q 4                K - B 1
       16. R - B 8 ch             K - Kt 2

K - Q 2 would not help much, but since he made the previous move he should
now be consistent and play it.

       17. P - K 5                P - Kt 4
       18. K - K 4                R (K 3) - K 2
       19. P × P                  P × P
       20. R - B 5                K - B 1
       21. R (Kt 4) × P           R - R 2
       22. R - R 5                K - Q 2
       23. R × R                  R × R
       24. R - B 8                R - R 5 ch
       25. K - Q 3                R - R 6 ch
  {138}
       26. K - Q 2                P - B 4
       27. Kt P × P               R - Q R 6
       28. P - Q 5                Resigns.

The winning tactics in all these endings have merely consisted in keeping
the opponent's Rooks tied to the defence of one or more Pawns, leaving my
own Rooks free for action. This is a general principle which can be equally
applied to any part of the game. It means in general terms--

_Keep freedom of manoeuvre while hampering your opponent._

There is one more thing of great importance, and that is that the winning
side has always had a general strategical plan capable of being carried out
with the means at his disposal, while often the losing side had no plan at
all, but simply moved according to the needs of the moment.

       *       *       *       *       *

30. ROOK, BISHOP AND PAWNS _v._ ROOK, KNIGHT AND PAWNS

We shall now examine an ending of Rook, Bishop and Pawns against Rook,
Knight and Pawns, where it will be seen that the Rook at times is used in
the same way as in the endings already given.

EXAMPLE 62.--From the first game of the Lasker-Marshall Championship Match
in 1907. {139}

[Illustration]

In this position it is Black's move. To a beginner the position may look
like a draw, but the advanced player will realise immediately that there
are great possibilities for Black to win, not only because he has the
initiative, but because of White's undeveloped Queen's side and the fact
that a Bishop in such a position is better than a Knight (see Section 14).
It will take some time for White to bring his Rook and Knight into the
fray, and Black can utilise it to obtain an advantage. There are two
courses open to him. The most evident, and the one that most players would
take, is to advance the Pawn to Q B 4 and Q B 5 immediately in conjunction
with the Bishop check at R 3 and any other move that might be necessary
with the Black Rook. The other, and more subtle, course was taken by Black.
It consists in utilising his Rook in the same way as shown in the previous
endings, forcing White to defend something all the time, restricting the
action of White's Knight and {140} White's Rook, while at the same time
keeping freedom of action for his own Rook and Bishop.

        1. ........               R - Kt 1

This forces P - Q Kt 3, which blocks that square for the White Knight.

        2. P - Kt 3               R - Kt 4

bringing the Rook to attack the King's side Pawns so as to force the King
to that side to defend them, and thus indirectly making more secure the
position of Black's Queen's side Pawns.

        3. P - B 4                R - K R 4
        4. K - Kt 1               P - B 4

Note that the White Knight's sphere of action is very limited, and that
after Kt - Q 2 White's own Pawns are in his way.

        5. Kt - Q 2               K - B 2
        6. R - B 1 ch

This check accomplishes nothing. It merely drives Black's King where it
wants to go. Consequently it is a very bad move. P - Q R 3 at once was the
best move.

        6. ........               K - K 2
        7. P - Q R 3              R - R 3

Getting ready to shift the attack to the Queen's side, where he has the
advantage in material and position.

        8. P - K R 4              R - R 3

{141}

Notice how similar are the manoeuvres with this Rook to those seen in the
previous endings.

        9. R - R 1                B - Kt 5

Paralysing the action of the Knight and _fixing_ the whole King's side.

       10. K - B 2                K - K 3

White cannot answer Kt - B 3, because B × Kt followed by K - K 4 will win a
Pawn, on account of the check at K B 3 which cannot be stopped.

       11. P - R 4                K - K 4
       12. K - Kt 2               R - K B 3
       13. R - K 1                P - Q 6
       14. R - K B 1              K - Q 5

Now the King attacks White's Pawns and all will soon be over.

       15. R × R                  P × R
       16. K - B 2                P - B 3

Merely to exhaust White's move, which will finally force him to move either
the King or the Knight.

       17. P - Q R 5              P - Q R 3
       18. Kt - B 1               K × P
       19. K - K 1                B - K 7
       20. Kt - Q 2 ch            K - K 6
       21. Kt - Kt 1              P - B 4
       22. Kt - Q 2               P - R 4
       23. Kt - Kt 1              K - B 6
       24. Kt - B 3               K × P
  {142}
       25. Kt - R 4               P - B 5
       26. Kt × P                 P - B 6
       27. Kt - K 4 ch            K - B 5

The quickest way to win. White should resign.

       28. Kt - Q 6               P - B 4
       29. P - Kt 4               P × P
       30. P - B 5                P - Kt 6
       31. Kt - B 4               K - Kt 6
       32. Kt - K 3               P - Kt 7
            Resigns.

A very good example on Black's part of how to conduct such an ending.

       *       *       *       *       *


{143}

CHAPTER VI

FURTHER OPENINGS AND MIDDLE-GAMES

31. SOME SALIENT POINTS ABOUT PAWNS

Before going back to the discussion of openings and middle-game positions,
it might be well to bear in mind a few facts concerning Pawn positions
which will no doubt help to understand certain moves, and sometimes even
the object of certain variations in the openings, and of some manoeuvres in
the middle-games.

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 63.--In the position of the diagram we have an exceedingly bad Pawn
formation on Black's side. Black's Q B P is altogether backward, and White
could by means of the open file concentrate {144} his forces against that
weak point. There is also the square at White's Q B 5, which is controlled
by White, and from where a White piece once established could not be
dislodged. In order to get rid of it, Black would have to exchange it,
which is not always an easy matter, and often when possible not at all
convenient. The same holds true with regard to Black's K P, K B P and
K Kt P, which create what is called a "hole" at Black's K B 3. Such Pawn
formations invariably lead to disaster, and consequently must be avoided.

[Illustration]

EXAMPLE 64.--In this position we might say that the White centre Pawns have
the attacking position, while the Black centre Pawns have the defensive
position. Such a formation of Pawn occurs in the French Defence. In such
positions White most often attempts, by means of P - K B 4 and K B 5, to
obtain a crushing attack against Black's King, which is generally Castled
on the King's side. To prevent that, {145} and also to assume the
initiative or obtain material advantage, Black makes a
counter-demonstration by P - Q B 4, followed by P × P (when White defends
the Pawn by P - Q B 3), and the concentrating of Black's pieces against the
White Pawn at Q 4. This in substance might be said to be a determined
attack against White's centre in order to paralyse the direct attack of
White against Black's King. It must be remembered that at the beginning of
the book it was stated that _control of the centre was an essential
condition to a successful attack against the King_.

In an abstract way we may say that two or more Pawns are strongest when
they are in the same rank next to one another. Thus the centre Pawns are
strongest in themselves, so to speak, when placed at K 4 and Q 4
respectively, hence the question of advancing either the one or the other
to the fifth rank is one that must be most carefully considered. The
advance of either Pawn often determines the course the game will follow.

Another thing to be considered is the matter of one or more passed Pawns
when they are isolated either singly or in pairs. We might say that a
passed Pawn is either very weak or very strong, and that its weakness or
strength, whichever happens to be in the case to be considered, increases
as it advances, and is at the same time in direct relation to the number of
pieces on the board. In this last respect it might be generally said that
_a passed Pawn increases in strength as the number of pieces on the board
diminishes_. {146}

Having all this clear in mind we will now revert to the openings and
middle-game. We will analyse games carefully from beginning to end
according to general principles. I shall, whenever possible, use my own
games, not because they will better illustrate the point, but because,
knowing them thoroughly, I shall be able to explain them more
authoritatively than the games of others.

32. SOME POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS FROM A RUY LOPEZ

That some of the variations in the openings and the manoeuvres in the
middle-game are often based on some of the elementary principles just
expounded can be easily seen in the following case:

EXAMPLE 65.

        1. P - K 4                P - K 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             Kt - Q B 3
        3. B - Kt 5               P - Q R 3
        4. B - R 4                Kt - B 3
        5. O - O                  Kt × P
        6. P - Q 4                P - Q Kt 4
        7. B - Kt 3               P - Q 4
        8. P × P                  B - K 3
        9. P - B 3                B - K 2
       10. R - K 1                Kt - B 4
       11. B - B 2                B - Kt 5
       12. Q Kt - Q 2             O - O
       13. Kt - Kt 3              Kt - K 3

{147}

So far a very well-known variation of the Ruy Lopez. In fact, they are the
moves of the Janowski-Lasker game in Paris, 1912.

       14. Q - Q 3                P - Kt 3

Let us suppose the game went on, and that in some way White, by playing one
of the Knights to Q 4 at the proper time, forced the exchange of both
Knights, and then afterwards both the Bishops were exchanged, and we
arrived at some such position as shown in the following diagram. (I
obtained such a position in a very similar way once at Lodz in Poland. I
was playing the White pieces against a consulting team headed by Salwe.)

[Illustration]

Now we would have here the case of the backward Q B P, which will in no way
be able to advance to Q B 4. Such a position may be said to be
theoretically lost, and in practice a first-class master will invariably
win it from Black. (If I may be excused the reference, I will say that I
won the game above referred to.)

After a few moves the position may be easily thus: {148}

[Illustration]

The Black pieces can be said to be _fixed_. If White plays Q - Q B 3, Black
must answer Q - Q 2, otherwise he will lose a Pawn, and if White returns
with the Queen to Q R 3 Black will have again to return to Q Kt 2 with the
Queen or lose a Pawn. Thus Black can only move according to White's lead,
and under such conditions White can easily advance with his Pawns to K B 4
and K Kt 4, until Black will be forced to stop P - B 5 by playing
P - K B 4, and we might finally have some such position as this:

EXAMPLE 66.

[Illustration] {149}

In this situation the game might go on as follows:

        1. P × P, P × P; 2. Q - K B 3, Q - Q 2

White threatened to win a Pawn by Q × P, and Black could not play
2...R - K B 1, because 3 R × B P would also win a Pawn at least.

        3. R (B 5) - B 2,         R - Kt 3;
        4. R - Kt 2,              K - R 1;
        5. R (B 1) - K Kt 1,      R (B 1) - K Kt 1;
        6. Q - R 5,               R × R;
        7. R × R,                 R × R;
        8. K × R,                 Q - Kt 2 ch;
        9. K - R 2,               Q - Kt 3;
       10. Q × Q,                 P × Q;
       11. P - Kt 4, and White wins.

Now suppose that in the position in the preceding diagram it were Black's
move, and he played R - K B 1. White would then simply defend his K B P by
some move like Q - K B 3, threatening R × Q B P, and then he would bring
his King up to Kt 3, and when the time came, break through, as in the
previous case. White might even be able to obtain the following position:

[Illustration] {150}

Black would now be forced to play R - B 1, and White could then play
Q - B 2, and follow it up with K B 3, and thus force Black to play P × P,
which would give White a greater advantage.

A careful examination of all these positions will reveal that, besides the
advantage of freedom of manoeuvre on White's part, the power of the Pawn at
K 5 is enormous, and that it is the commanding position of this Pawn, and
the fact that it is free to advance, once all the pieces are exchanged,
that constitute the pivot of all White's manoeuvres.

I have purposely given positions without the moves which lead to them so
that the student may become accustomed to build up in his own mind possible
positions that may arise (out of any given situation). Thus he will learn
to make strategical plans and be on his way to the master class. The
student can derive enormous benefit by further practice of this kind.

33. THE INFLUENCE OF A "HOLE"

The influence of a so-called "hole" in a game has already been illustrated
in my game against Blanco (page 81), where has been shown the influence
exercised by the different pieces posted in the hole created at White's
K 5. {151}

EXAMPLE 67.--In order to further illustrate this point, I now give a game
played in the Havana International Masters Tournament of 1913. (Queen's
Gambit Declined.) White: D. Janowski. Black: A. Kupchick.

        1. P - Q 4                P - Q 4
        2. P - Q B 4              P - K 3
        3. Kt - Q B 3             Kt - K B 3
        4. B - Kt 5               B - K 2
        5. P - K 3                Q Kt - Q 2
        6. B - Q 3                P × P
        7. B × P                  Kt - Kt 3

Of course the idea is to post a Knight at Q 4, but as it is the other
Knight which will be posted there this manoeuvre does not seem logical. The
Knight at Kt 3 does nothing except to prevent the development of his own
Q B. The normal course O - O, followed by P - Q B 4, is more reasonable.
For a beautiful illustration of how to play White in that variation, see
the Janowski-Rubinstein game of the St. Petersburg Tournament of 1914.

        8. B - Q 3

B - Kt 3 has some points in its favour in this position, the most important
being the possibility of advancing the King's Pawn immediately after
8. ... K Kt - Q 4; 9 B × B, Q × B.

        8. ........               K Kt - Q 4
        9. B × B                  Q × B
       10. Kt - B 3

{152} Had White's Bishop been at Q Kt 3 he could now play P - K 4 as
indicated in the previous note, a move which he cannot make in the present
position, because of Kt - K B 5 threatening, not only the K Kt P, but also
Kt × B ch. As White's King's Bishop should never be exchanged in this
opening without a very good reason White therefore cannot play P - K 4.

       10. ........               O - O
       11. O - O                  B - Q 2
       12. R - B 1

[Illustration]

White is perfectly developed, and now threatens to win a Pawn as follows:
Kt × Kt, Kt × Kt; P - K 4, followed by R × P.

       12. ........               P - Q B 3

The fact that Black is practically forced to make this move in order to
avoid the loss of a Pawn is sufficient reason in itself to condemn the
whole system of development on Black's part. In effect, he plays B - Q 2
and now he has to shut off the action of his {153} own Bishop, which
thereby becomes little more than a Pawn for a while. In fact, it is hard to
see how this Bishop will ever be able to attack anything. Besides, it can
be easily seen that White will soon post his two Knights at K 5 and Q B 5
respectively, and that Black will not be able to dislodge them without
seriously weakening his game, if he can do it at all. From all these
reasons it can be gathered that it would probably have been better for
Black to play Kt × Kt and thus get rid of one of the two White Knights
before assuming such a defensive position. In such cases, the less the
number of pieces on the board, the better chances there are to escape.

       13. Kt - K 4               P - K B 4

This practically amounts to committing suicide, since it creates a hole at
K 5 for White's Knight, from where it will be practically impossible to
dislodge him. If Black intended to make such a move he should have done it
before, when at least there would have been an object in preventing the
White Knight from reaching B 5.

       14. Kt - B 5               B - K 1
       15. Kt - K 5

The position of White's Knights, especially the one at K 5, might be said
to be ideal, and a single glance shows how they dominate the position. The
question henceforth will be how is White going to derive the full benefit
from such an advantageous situation, This we shall soon see. {154}

[Illustration]

       15. ........               R - Kt 1

There is no object in this move, unless it is to be followed by Kt - Q 2.
As that is not the case, he might have gone with the Rook to B 1, as he
does later.

       16. R - K 1                R - B 3
       17. Q - B 3                R - R 3
       18. Q - Kt 3               R - B 1

White threatened to win the exchange by playing either Kt - B 7 or
Kt - Kt 4.

       19. P - B 3                R - B 2
       20. P - Q R 3              K - R 1
       21. P - R 3

Perhaps all these precautions are unnecessary, but White feels that he has
more than enough time to prepare his attack, and wants to be secure in
every way before he begins. {155}

       21. ........               P - Kt 4
       22. P - K 4                P - B 5
       23. Q - B 2                Kt - K 6

He had better have played Kt - B 3; and tried later on to get rid of
White's Knights by means of Kt - Q 2.

[Illustration]

       24. R × Kt

with this sacrifice of the Rook for a Knight and Pawn White obtains an
overwhelming position.

       24. ........               P × R
       25. Q × P                  Kt - B 1

Kt - Q 2 was better in order to get rid of one of the two White Knights.
There were, however, any number of good replies to it, among them the
following: Kt (B 5) × Kt, B × Kt; Q × P, Q × Q; Kt - B 7 ch, K - Kt 2;
Kt × Q, and with two Pawns for the exchange, and the position so much in
his favour, White should have no trouble in winning. {156}

       26. Kt - Kt 4              R - Kt 3
       27. P - K 5                R - Kt 2
       28. B - B 4                B - B 2

All these moves are practically forced, and as it is easily seen they tie
up Black's position more and more. White's manoeuvres from move 24 onwards
are highly instructive.

       29. Kt - B 6               Kt - Kt 3

This wandering Knight has done nothing throughout the game.

       30. Kt (B5) - K 4          P - K R 3
       31. P - K R 4              Kt - Q 4
       32. Q - Q 2                R - Kt 3
       33. P × P                  Q - B 1

If P × P; K - B 2, and Black would be helpless.

       34. P - B 4                Kt - K 2
       35. P - K Kt 4             P × P
       36. P × P                  Resigns.

There is nothing to be done. If B - Kt 1; Q - R 2 ch, K - Kt 2; B × P.

The student should notice that, apart from other things, White throughout
the game has had control of the Black squares, principally those at K 5 and
Q B 5.

From now on to the end of the book I shall give a collection of my games
both lost and won, chosen so as to serve as illustrations of the general
principles laid down in the foregoing pages.

       *       *       *       *       *


{159}

PART II

GAME 1. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED

(Match, 1909)

White: F. J. Marshall. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

        1. P - Q 4                P - Q 4
        2. P - Q B 4              P - K 3
        3. Kt - Q B 3             Kt - K B 3
        4. B - Kt 5               B - K 2
        5. P - K 3                Kt - K 5

I had played this defence twice before in the match with good results, and
although I lost this game I still played it until the very last game, when
I changed my tactics. The reason was my total lack of knowledge of the
different variations in this opening, coupled with the fact that I knew
that Dr. E. Lasker had been successful with it against Marshall himself in
1907. I thought that since Dr. Lasker had played it so often, it should be
good. The object is to exchange a couple of pieces and at the same time to
bring about a position full of possibilities and with promising chances of
success once the end-game stage is reached. On general principles it should
be wrong, because the {160} same Knight is moved three times in the
opening, although it involves the exchange of two pieces. In reality the
difficulty in this variation, as well as in nearly all the variations of
the Queen's gambit, lies in the slow development of Black's Queen Bishop.
However, whether this variation can or cannot be safely played is a
question still to be decided, and it is outside the scope of this book. I
may add that at present my preference is for a different system of
development, but it is not unlikely that I should some time come back to
this variation.

        6. B × B                  Q × B
        7. B - Q 3

P × P is preferable for reasons that we shall soon see.

        7. ........               Kt × Kt
        8. P × Kt                 Kt - Q 2

Now P × P would be a better way to develop the game. The idea is that after
8...P × P; 9 B × B P, P - Q Kt 3, followed by B - Kt 2, would give Black's
Bishop a powerful range. For this variation see the eleventh game of the
match.

        9. Kt - B 3               O - O

No longer would 9...P × P; 10 B × P, P - Q Kt 3 be good, because
11 B - Kt 5 would prevent B - Kt 2 on account of Kt - K 5. {161}

       10. P × P                  P × P
       11. Q - Kt 3               Kt - B 3
       12. P - Q R 4              P - B 4

Played with the intention of obtaining the majority of Pawns on the Queen's
side. Yet it is doubtful whether this move is good, since it leaves Black's
Queen's-side Pawns disrupted in a way. The safer course would have been to
play P - B 3.

       13. Q - R 3                P - Q Kt 3

[Illustration]

This exposes Black to further attack by P - R 5 without any compensation
for it. If I had to play this position nowadays I would simply play
13...R - K 1. Then after 14 Q × P, Q × Q would follow, and I believe that
Black would regain the Pawn. If, instead, White played 14 P × P then
B - Kt 5 would give Black an excellent game.

       14. P - R 5                B - Kt 2
       15. O - O                  Q - B 2
       16. K R - Kt 1             Kt - Q 2

{162}

[Illustration]

Black's position was bad and perhaps lost in any case, but the text move
makes matters worse. As a matter of fact I never saw White's reply B - B 5.
It never even passed through my mind that this was threatened. Black's best
move would have been 16...K R - Kt 1. If that loses, then any other move
would lose as well.

       17. B - B 5                K R - B 1

From bad to worse. Kt - B 3 offered the only hope.

       18. B × Kt                 Q × B
       19. P - R 6                B - B 3
       20. P × P                  P × P
       21. Q × P                  Q R - Kt 1

The game was lost. One move was as good as another.

       22. R × R                  R × R
       23. Kt - K 5               Q - B 4
       24. P - K B 4              R - Kt 3
       25. Q × R !                Resigns.

{163} Of course, if 25 Kt × B, R - Kt 8 ch would have drawn. The text move
is pretty and finishes quickly. A well-played game on Marshall's part.

       *       *       *       *       *

GAME 2. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED

(San Sebastian, 1911)

White: A. K. Rubinstein. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

        1. P - Q 4                P - Q 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             P - Q B 4
        3. P - B 4                P - K 3
        4. P × Q P                K P × P
        5. Kt - B 3               Kt -Q B 3
        6. P - K Kt 3             B - K 3

Kt - B 3 is the normal move in this variation. White's development was
first introduced by Schlechter and elaborated later on by Rubinstein. It
aims at the isolation of Black's Q P, against which the White pieces are
gradually concentrated. In making the text move I was trying to avoid the
beaten track. Being a developing move there should be no objection to it in
the way of general principles, except that the Knights ought to come out
before the Bishops.

        7. B - Kt 2               B - K 2
        8. O - O                  R - B 1

In pursuance of the idea of changing the normal {164} course of this
variation, but with very poor success. The move in theory ought to be
unsound, since Black's K Kt is yet undeveloped. I had not yet learned of
the attack founded on Kt - Kt 5 and the exchange of the B at K 3. Either
Kt - B 3 or P - K R 3; to prevent either B or Kt - K Kt 5, was right.

[Illustration]

        9. P X P                  B × P
       10. Kt - K Kt 5            Kt - B 3
       11. Kt × B                 P × Kt
       12. B - R 3                Q - K 2
       13. B - Kt 5               O - O

This is a mistake. The right move was R - Q 1 in order to get the Rook away
from the line of the Bishop at R 3 and at the same time to support the Q P.
Incidentally it shows that White failed to take proper advantage of Black's
weak opening moves. Against the text move White makes a very fine
combination {165} which I had seen, but which I thought could be defeated.

       14. B × Kt                 Q × B

I considered P × B, which it seemed would give me a playable game, but I
thought White's combination unsound and therefore let him play it, to my
lasting regret.

[Illustration]

       15. Kt × P !               Q - R 3

[Illustration] {166}

       16. K - Kt 2 !

_This_ is the move which I had not considered. I thought that Rubinstein
would have to play B - Kt 2, when I had in mind the following winning
combination: 16 B - Kt 2, Kt - K 4 ! 17 Kt - B 4 (if R - B 1, Q × R !!
Q × Q, B × P ch wins), Kt - Kt 5; 18 P - K R 3 (if Kt - R 3, B × P ch wins
the exchange), Kt × P; 19 R × Kt, B × R ch; 20 K × B, P - K Kt 4, and Black
should win. It is curious that this combination has been overlooked. It has
been taken for granted that I did not see the 17th move Q - B 1.

       16. ........               Q R - Q 1

After White's last move there was nothing for me to do but submit to the
inevitable.

       17. Q - B 1 !              P × Kt
       18. Q × B                  Q - Q 7
       19. Q - Kt 5               Kt - Q 5
       20. Q - Q 3                Q × Q
       21. P × Q                  K R - K 1
       22. B - Kt 4

This gives Black a chance. He should have played K R - K 1. If then
Kt - B 7; R × R ch, R × R; R - Q B 1, R - K 7; K - B 1, Kt - Q 5 (if
R - Q 7; B - K 6 ch, K - B 1; B × P would win); R - B 8 ch, K - B 2;
R - B 7 ch, R - K 2; R - B 5 wins. {167}

       22. ........               R - Q 3
       23. K R - K 1              R × R
       24. R × R                  R - Q Kt 3
       25. R - K 5                R × P
       26. R × P                  Kt - B 3
       27. B - K 6 ch             K - B 1
       28. R - B 5 ch             K - K 1
       29. B - B 7 ch             K - Q 2
       30. B - B 4

[Illustration]

       30. ........               P - Q R 3

A bad move, which gives away any legitimate chance Black had to draw. It
loses a very important move. In fact, as the course of the game will show,
it loses several moves. The proper way was to play K - Q 3. If then
R - Q Kt 5, R × R; B × R, Kt - Q 5; followed by P - Q Kt 4; and White would
have an exceedingly difficult game to draw on account of the dominating
position of the Knight at {168} Q 5 in conjunction with the extra Pawn on
the Queen's side and the awkward position of White's King. (See how this is
so.)

       31. R - B 7 ch             K - Q 3
       32. R × K Kt P             P - Kt 4
       33. B - Kt 8               P - Q R 4
       34. R × P                  P - R 5
       35. P - R 4                P - Kt 5
       36. R - R 6 ch             K - B 4
       37. R - R 5 ch             K - Kt 3
       38. B - Q 5

With these last three moves White again gives Black a chance. Even before
the last move B - B 4 would have won with comparative ease, but the text
move is a downright blunder, of which, fortunately for him, Black does not
avail himself.

[Illustration]

       38. ........               P - Kt 6

R × P would make it practically impossible for White to win, if he can win
at all. White's best {169} continuation then would have been: 39 B - B 4,
R - B 7; 40 R - Kt 5 ch, K - B 2; 41 B - Kt 8, P - R 6; 42 P - R 5,
P - R 7; 43 B × P, R × B, and if there is a win it is very difficult to
find it, as against 44 P - R 6, R - R 3 ! offers excellent chances for a
draw.

       39. P × P                  P - R 6
       40. B × Kt                 R × Kt P

If 40...P - R 7; 41 R - Kt 5 ch, K - R 3; 42 R - Kt 8.

       41. B - Q 5                P - R 7
       42. R - R 6 ch             Resigns.

As an end game, this is rather a sad exhibition for two masters. The
redeeming feature of the game is Rubinstein's fine combination in the
middle game, beginning with 14 B × Kt.

       *       *       *       *       *

GAME 3. IRREGULAR DEFENCE

(Havana, 1913)

White: D. Janowski. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

        1. P - Q 4                Kt - K B 3
        2. Kt - K B 3             P - Q 3
        3. B - Kt 5               Q Kt - Q 2
        4. P - K 3                P - K 4
        5. Kt - B 3               P - B 3
        6. B - Q 3                B - K 2
        7. Q - K 2                Q - R 4
        8. O - O                  Kt - B 1
        9. K R - Q 1              B - Kt 5

{170}

At last Black is on his way to obtain full development. The idea of this
irregular opening is mainly to throw White on his own resources. At the
time the game was played, the system of defence was not as well known as
the regular forms of the Queen's Pawn openings. Whether it is sound or not
remains yet to be proved. Its good features are that it keeps the centre
intact without creating any particular weakness, and that it gives plenty
of opportunity for deep and concealed manoeuvring. The drawback is the long
time it takes Black to develop his game. It is natural to suppose that
White will employ that time to prepare a well-conceived attack, or that he
will use the advantage of his development actually to prevent Black's
complete development, or failing that, to obtain some definite material
advantage.

       10. P - K R 3              B - R 4
       11. P × P                  P × P
       12. Kt - K 4

[Illustration] {171}

       12. ........               Kt × Kt

A very serious mistake. I considered castling, which was the right move,
but desisted because I was afraid that by playing 13 B × Kt, P × B;
14 Kt - Kt 3, B - Kt 3; 15 Kt - B 5, White would obtain a winning position
for the end game. Whether right or wrong this shows how closely related are
all parts of the game, and consequently how one will influence the other.

       13. B × B                  K × B
       14. B × Kt                 B - Kt 3

Not good. The natural and proper move would have been Kt - K 3, in order to
bring all the Black pieces into play. B × Kt at once was also good, as it
would have relieved the pressure against Black's King's Pawn, and at the
same time have simplified the game.

Here it is seen how failure to comply with the elementary logical reasons,
that govern any given position, often brings the player into trouble. I was
no doubt influenced in my choice of moves by the fear of B - B 5, which was
a very threatening move.

       15. Q - B 4                Kt - K 3
       16. P - Q Kt 4             Q - B 2
       17. B × B                  R P × B
       18. Q - K 4                K - B 3

{172}

[Illustration]

       19. R - Q 3

P - K R 4, to be followed by P - Kt 4, might have been a more vigorous way
to carry on the attack. Black's weak point is unquestionably the Pawn at
K 4, which he is compelled to defend with the King. The text move aims at
doubling the Rooks, with the ultimate object of placing one of them at Q 6,
supported by a Pawn at Q B 5, Black could only stop this by playing P - B 4
which would create a "hole" at Q 5; or by playing P - Kt 3, which would tie
the Black Queen to the defence of the Q B P as well as the K P, which she
already defends. Black, however, can meet all this by offering the exchange
of Rooks, which destroys White's plans. For this reason P - K R 4 appears
the proper way to carry on the attack.

       19. ........               Q R - Q 1
       20. Q R - Q 1              P - K Kt 4

This move is preparatory to P - K Kt 3, which would {173} make Black's
position secure. Unfortunately for Black, he did not carry out his original
plan.

       21. P - B 4                R × R

P - K Kt 3 would have left Black with a perfectly safe game.

       22. R × R                  R - Q 1

A very serious mistake, which loses a Pawn. P - K Kt 3 was the right move,
and would have left Black with a very good game. In fact, if it should come
to a simple ending, the position of the Black King would be an advantage.

       23. R × R                  Kt × R

[Illustration]

       24. P - K R 4

This wins a Pawn, as will soon be seen. Black cannot reply 24...Kt - K 3;
because 25 P × P ch, Kt × P; 26 Q - R 4 wins the Knight. {174}

       24. ........               P × P
       25. Q × P ch               K - K 3
       26. Q - Kt 4 ch            K - B 3
       27. Q - Kt 5 ch            K - K 3
       28. Q × P                  Q - Q 3
       29. P - B 5                Q - Q 4
       30. P K 4 !                Q - Q 8 ch
       31. K - R 2                P - B 3
       32. Q - Kt 4 ch !          K - K 2
       33. Kt × P                 Q × Q
       34. Kt × Q                 Kt - K 3
       35. P - K 5                P × P
       36. Kt × P                 Kt - Q 5

The game went on for a few more moves, and, there being no way to
counteract the advance of White's two passed Pawns, Black resigned.

       *       *       *       *       *

GAME 4. FRENCH DEFENCE

(St. Petersburg, 1913)

White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: E. A. Snosko-Borovski.

        1. P - Q 4                P - K 3
        2. P - K 4                P - Q 4
        3. Kt - Q B 3             Kt - K B 3
        4. B - Kt 5               B - Kt 5

This constitutes the _McCutcheon Variation_. It aims at taking the
initiative away from White. Instead {175} of defending, Black makes a
counter demonstration on the Queen's side. It leads to highly interesting
games.

        5. P × P

At the time this game was played the variation 5 P - K 5 was in vogue, but
I considered then, as I do now, the text move to be the stronger.

        5. ........               Q × P

This is considered superior to P × P. It has for its object, as I said
before, to take the initiative away from White by disrupting White's
Queen's side. White, however, has more than ample compensation through his
breaking up Black's King's side. It might be laid down as a principle of
the opening that _the breaking up of the King's side is of more importance
than a similar occurrence on the Queen's side_.

        6. B × Kt                 B × Kt ch
        7. P × B                  P × B
        8. Kt - B 3               P - Q Kt 3

The plan of Black in this variation is to post his Bishop on the long
diagonal so as to be able later on, in conjunction with the action of his
Rooks along the open K Kt's file, to make a violent attack against White's
King. It is, of course, expected that White will Castle on the King's side
because of the broken-up condition of his Queen's side Pawns. {176}

        9. Q - Q 2                B - Kt 2
       10. B - K 2                Kt - Q 2
       11. P - B 4                Q - K B 4
       12. O - O - O

An original idea, I believe, played for the first time in a similar
position in a game against Mr. Walter Penn Shipley, of Philadelphia. My
idea is that as there is no Black Bishop and because Black's pieces have
been developed with a view to an attack on the King's side, it will be
impossible for Black to take advantage of the apparently unprotected
position of White's King. Two possibilities must be considered. Firstly: If
Black Castles on the Queen's side, as in this game, it is evident that
there is no danger of an attack. Secondly: If Black Castles on the King's
side, White begins the attack first, taking advantage of the awkward
position of Black's Queen. In addition to the attacking probabilities of
the text move, White in one move brings his King into safety and brings one
of his Rooks into play. Thus he gains several moves, "tempi" as they are
called, which will serve him to develop whatever plan he may wish to
evolve.

       12. ........               O - O - O
       13. Q - K 3                K R - Kt 1
       14. P - Kt 3               Q - Q R 4

Unquestionably a mistake, overlooking White's fine {177} reply, but a
careful examination will show that White already has the better position.

       15. R - Q 3 !              K - Kt 1
       16. K R - Q 1              Q - K B 4

[Illustration]

       17. Kt - R 4

This move has been criticised because it puts the Knight out of the way for
a few moves. But by forcing Q - K Kt 4; White gains a very important move
with P - B 4, which not only consolidates his position, but also drives the
Queen away, putting it out of the game for the moment. Certainly the Queen
is far more valuable than the Knight, to say nothing of the time gained and
the freedom of action obtained thereby for White's more important pieces.

       17. ........               Q - K Kt 4
       18. P - B 4                Q - Kt 2
       19. B - B 3

{178} In such positions it is generally very advantageous to get rid of the
Black Bishop controlling his Q R 3 and Q B 3, which form "holes" for
White's pieces. The Bishop in such positions is of very great defensive
value, hence the advantage of getting rid of it.

       19. ........               K R - K 1
       20. B × B                  K × B
       21. P - Q B 5 !            P - B 3

White threatened P - B 6 ch.

       22. Kt - B 3               Q - B 1

To prevent the Knight from moving to Q 6 via Q 2 and K 4 or Q B 4. It is
self-evident that White has a great advantage of position.

[Illustration]

       23. Kt - Q 2 ?

I had considered R - Kt 3, which was the right move, but gave it up because
it seemed too slow, and {179} that in such a position there had to be some
quicker way of winning.

       23. ........               P × P
       24. Kt - B 4

Kt - K 4 or Kt - Kt 3 would have brought about an ending advantageous to
White.

       24. ........               Kt - Kt 3
       25. Kt - R 5 ch            K - R 1
       26. P × P                  Kt - Q 4
       27. Q - Q 4                R - B 1

If R - Kt 1; 28 Kt × P, R (Kt 1) - B 1; 29 Kt × P would win.

[Illustration]

       28. P - B 4

Kt - B 4 was the right move. I was, however, still looking for the "grand
combination," and thought that the Pawn I would later on have at Q 6 would
win the game. Black deserves great credit for the way in which he conducted
this exceedingly difficult {180} defence. He could easily have gone wrong
any number of times, but from move 22 onwards he always played the best
move.

       28. ........               P - K 4 !
       29. Q - Kt 1               P - K 5
       30. P × Kt                 P × R
       31. P - Q 6                R - K 7
       32. P - Q 7                R - B 7 ch
       33. K - Kt 1               R - Kt 1 ch
       34. Kt - Kt 3              Q - K 2

[Illustration]

       35. R × P

The position is most interesting. I believe I lost here my last chance to
win the game, and if that is true it would vindicate my judgment when, on
move 28, I played P - B 4. The student can find out what would happen if
White plays Q - Q 4 ! at once. I have gone over the following variations:
35 Q - Q 4, R × K R P (of course if R × B P, P - Q 8 wins); {181}
36 Q × Q P ! R - Q 1; 37 Q - R 6, K - Kt 1 best (if Q - Q 5 ch; K - R 1,
K - Kt 1; R - Q Kt 1 wins); 38 Q × B P and White will at least have a draw.

       35. ........               R - K 7
       36. Q - Q 4                R - Q 1
       37. Q - R 4                Q - K 5
       38. Q - R 6                K - Kt 1

There is nothing to be done against this simple move, since White cannot
play Kt - Q 4, because Q - R 8 mates.

       39. K - B 1                R × Q P
       40. Kt - Q 4               R - K 8 ch
            Resigns.

A very interesting battle.

       *       *       *       *       *

GAME 5. RUY LOPEZ

(St. Petersburg, 1914)

White: Dr. E. Lasker. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

        1. P - K 4                P - K 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             Kt - Q B 3
        3. B - Kt 5               P - Q R 3
        4. B × Kt

The object of this move is to bring about speedily a middle-game without
Queens, in which White {182} has four Pawns to three on the King's side,
while Black's superiority of Pawns on the other side is somewhat balanced
by the fact that one of Black's Pawns is doubled. On the other hand, Black
has the advantage of remaining with two Bishops while White has only one.

        4. ........               Q P × B
        5. P - Q 4                P × P
        6. Q × P                  Q × Q
        7. Kt × Q                 B - Q 3

Black's idea is to Castle on the King's side. His reason is that the King
ought to remain on the weaker side to oppose later the advance of White's
Pawns. Theoretically there is very much to be said in favour of this
reasoning, but whether in practice that would be the best system would be
rather difficult to prove. The student should notice that if now all the
pieces were exchanged White would practically be a Pawn ahead, and would
therefore have a won ending.

        8. Kt - Q B 3             Kt - K 2

A perfectly sound form of development. In any other form adopted the Black
Kt could not be developed either as quickly or as well. K 2 is the natural
position for the Black Kt in this variation, in order not to obstruct
Black's Pawns, and also, in some eventualities, in order to go to K Kt 3.
There is {183} also the possibility of its going to Q 5 via Q B 3 after
P - Q B 4.

        9. O - O                  O - O
       10. P - B 4

This move I considered weak at the time, and I do still. It leaves the K P
weak, unless it advances to K 5, and it also makes it possible for Black to
pin the Kt by B - Q B 4.

       10. ........               R - K 1

Best. It threatens B - B 4; B - K 3, Kt - Q 4. It also prevents B - K 3
because of Kt - Q 4 or B 4.

       11. Kt - Kt 3              P - B 3

Preparatory to P - Q Kt 3, followed by P - Q B 4 and B - Kt 2 in
conjunction with Kt - Kt 3, which would put White in great difficulties to
meet the combined attack against the two centre Pawns.

       12. P - B 5

[Illustration] {184}

It has been wrongly claimed that this wins the game, but I would like
nothing better than to have such a position again. It required several
mistakes on my part finally to obtain a lost position.

       12. ........               P - Q Kt 3
       13. B - B 4

[Illustration]

       13. ........               B - Kt 2

Played against my better judgment. The right move of course was B × B. Dr.
Lasker gives the following variation: 13...B × B; 14 R × B, P - B 4;
15 Q R - Q 1, B - Kt 2; 16 R - B 2, Q R - Q 1; 17 R × R, R × R; 18 R - Q 2,
R × R; 19 Kt × R, and he claims that White has the best of it. But, as
Niemzovitch pointed out immediately after the game, 16...Q R - Q 1 given in
Dr. Lasker's variation, is not the best. If 16...Q R - B 1 ! then White
will have great difficulty in drawing the game, {185} since there is no
good way to stop Black from playing Kt - B 3, followed by Kt - K 4,
threatening Kt - B 5. And should White attempt to meet this manoeuvre by
withdrawing the Kt at Kt 3; then the Black Knight can go to Q 5, and the
White Pawn at K 4 will be the object of the attack. Taking Dr. Lasker's
variation, however, whatever advantage there might be disappears at once if
Black plays 19...Kt - B 3, threatening Kt - Kt 5 and also Kt - Q 5, neither
of which can be stopped. If White answers 20 Kt - Q 5, Kt - Q 5 for Black
will at least draw. In fact, after 19...Kt - B 3 Black threatens so many
things that it is difficult to see how White can prevent the loss of one or
more Pawns.

       14. B × B                  P × B
       15. Kt - Q 4

It is a curious but true fact that I did not see this move when I played
13...B - Kt 2, otherwise I would have played the right move 13...B × B.

       15. ........               Q R - Q 1

The game is yet far from lost, as against the entry of the Knight, Black
can later on play P - B 4, followed by P - Q 4.

       16. Kt - K 6               R - Q 2
       17. Q R - Q 1

{186}

[Illustration]

I now was on the point of playing P - B 4, to be followed by P - Q 4, which
I thought would give me a draw, but suddenly I became ambitious and thought
that I could play the text move, 17...Kt - B 1, and later on sacrifice the
exchange for the Knight at K 6, winning a Pawn for it, and leaving White's
K P still weaker. I intended to carry this plan either before or after
playing P - K Kt 4 as the circumstances demanded. Now let us analyse:
17...P - B 4. If 18 Kt - Q 5, B × Kt; 19 P × B, P - Q Kt 4; and a careful
analysis will show that Black has nothing to fear. Black's plan in this
case would be to work his Kt around to K 4, via Q B 1, Q Kt 3, and Q B 5 or
Q 2. Again, 17...P - B 4; 18 R - B 2, P - Q 4; 19 P × P, B × P; 20 Kt × B
(best, since if R (B 2) - Q 2, B × Kt give Black the advantage), R × Kt;
21 R × R, Kt × R; and there is no good reason why Black should lose.

       17. ........               Kt - B 1
       18. R - B 2                P - Q Kt 4
  {187}
       19. K R - Q 2              R (Q 2) - K 2
       20. P - Q Kt 4             K - B 2
       21. P - Q R 3              B - R 1

Once more changing my plan and this time without any good reason. Had I now
played R × Kt; P × R ch, R × P; as I intended to do when I went back with
the Knight to B 1, I doubt very much if White would have been able to win
the game. At least it would have been extremely difficult.

       22. K - B 2                R - R 2
       23. P - Kt 4               P - R 3
       24. R - Q 3                P - Q R 4
       25. P - K R 4              P × P
       26. P × P                  R (R 2) - K 2

This, of course, has no object now. Black, with a bad game, flounders
around for a move. It would have been better to play R - R 6 to keep the
open file, and at the same time to threaten to come out with the Knight at
Kt 3 and B 5.

       27. K - B 3                R - Kt 1
       28. K - B 4                P - Kt 3

Again bad. White's last two moves were weak, since the White King does
nothing here. He should have played his Rook to Kt 3 on the 27th move.
Black now should have played P - Kt 4 ch. After missing this chance White
has it all his own way, and finishes the game most accurately, and Black
becomes more {188} helpless with each move. The game needs no further
comment, excepting that my play throughout was of an altogether irresolute
character. When a plan is made, it must be carried out if at all possible.
Regarding the play of White, I consider his 10th and 12th moves were very
weak; he played well after that up to the 27th move, which was bad, as well
as his 28th move. The rest of his play was good, probably perfect.

       29. R - Kt 3               P - Kt 4 ch
       30. K - B 3                Kt - Kt 3
       31. P × P                  R P × P
       32. R - R 3                R - Q 2
       33. K - Kt 3 !             K - K 1
       34. Q R - K R 1            B - Kt 2
       35. P - K 5                Q P × P
       36. Kt - K 4               Kt - Q 4
       37. Kt (K 6) - B 5         B - B 1
       38. Kt × R                 B × Kt
       39. R - R 7                R - B 1
       40. R - R 1                K - Q 1
       41. R - R 8 ch             B - B 1
       42. Kt - B 5               Resigns.

       *       *       *       *       *

{189}

GAME 6. FRENCH DEFENCE

(Rice Memorial Tournament, 1916)

White: O. Chajes. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

        1. P - K 4                P - K 3
        2. P - Q 4                P - Q 4
        3. Kt - Q B 3             Kt - K B 3
        4. B - Kt 5               B - Kt 5

Of all the variations of the French Defence I like this best, because it
gives Black more chances to obtain the initiative.

        5. P - K 5

Though I consider P × P the best move, there is much to be said in favour
of this move, but not of the variation as a whole, which White adopted in
this game.

        5. ........               P - K R 3
        6. B - Q 2                B × Kt
        7. P × B                  Kt - K 5
        8. Q - Kt 4               K - B 1

The alternative, P - K Kt 3; leaves Black's King's side very weak. White by
playing P - K R 4 would force Black to play P - K R 4; and later, on
White's Bishop by going to Q 3, would threaten the weakened K Kt P. By the
text move Black gives up Castling, but gains time for an attack against
White's centre and Queen's side. {190}

        9. B - B 1                P - Q B 4

Threatening Q - R 4 and stopping thereby White's threat of B - R 3. It
demonstrates that White's last move was a complete loss of time and merely
weakened his position.

       10. B - Q 3                Q - R 4
       11. Kt - K 2               P × P
       12. O - O                  P × P
       13. B × Kt                 P × B
       14. Q × P                  Kt - B 3

[Illustration]

Black has come out of the opening with a Pawn to the good. His development,
however, has suffered somewhat, and there are Bishops of opposite colour,
so that it cannot be said as yet, that Black has a won game; but he has
certainly the best of the position, because, besides being a Pawn to the
good, he threatens White's K P, which must of course be {191} defended, and
this in turn will give him the opportunity to post his Knight at Q 4 via
K 2. When the Black Knight is posted at Q 4, the Bishop will be developed
to B 3 via Q 2, as soon as the opportunity presents itself, and it will be
Black that will then have the initiative, and can consequently decide the
course of the game.

       15. R - Q 1

To prevent Kt - K 2; which would be answered by Kt × P, or still better by
B - R 3. The move, however, is strategically wrong, since by bringing his
pieces to the Queen's side, White loses any chance he might have of making
a determined attack on the King's side before Black is thoroughly prepared
for it.

       15. ........               P - K Kt 3
       16. P - B 4                K - Kt 2
       17. B - K 3

Better would have been P - Q R 4, in order to play B - R 3. The White B
would be much better posted on the open diagonal than here, where it acts
purely on the defensive.

       17. ........               Kt - K 2
       18. B - B 2                Kt - Q 4

This Knight completely paralyses the attack, as it dominates the whole
situation, and there is no way to dislodge it. Behind it Black can quietly
develop his pieces. The game can now be said to be won for Black
strategically. {192}

       19. R - Q 3                B - Q 2
       20. Kt - Q 4               Q R - Q B 1
       21. R - Kt 3               K - R 2
       22. P - K R 4              K R - Kt 1
       23. P - R 5                Q - Kt 5

In order to pin the Knight and be ready to come back to either K 2 or B 1.
Also to prevent Q R - Kt 1. In reality nearly all these precautions are
unnecessary, since White's attack amounts to nothing. Probably Black should
have left aside all these considerations, and played Q - R 5 now, in order
to follow it up with P - B 4, as he did later, but under less favourable
circumstances.

       24. R - R 3

[Illustration]

       24. ........               P - B 4

Not the best, as White will soon prove. Q - B 1 would have avoided
everything, but Black wants to assume the initiative at once and plunges
into {193} complications. However, as will soon be seen, the move is not a
losing one by any means.

       25. P × P e.p.             Kt × P (B 3)
       26. P × P ch               R × P

[Illustration]

       27. R × P ch

This wins the Queen.

       27. ........               K × R
       28. Kt - B 5 ch            P × Kt
       29. Q × Q

[Illustration] {194}

The position looks most interesting. I thought it would be possible to get
up such an attack against the White King as to make it impossible for him
to hold out much longer, but I was wrong, unless it could have been done by
playing B - B 3 first, forcing P - Kt 3 and then playing K - R 4. I
followed a similar plan, but lost a very important move by playing
Q R - K Kt 1; which gave White time to play R - Q 1. I am convinced,
however, that B - B 3 at once was the right move. White would be forced to
play P - Kt 3, and Black would reply with either K - R 4; as already
indicated, which looks the best (the plan, of course, is to play R - K R 1;
and follow it up with K - Kt 5; threatening mate, or some other move
according to circumstances. In some cases, of course, it will be better
first to play K - Kt 5), or Kt - K 5, which will at least give him a draw.
There are so many possibilities in this position that it would be
impossible to give them all. It will be worth the reader's time to go
carefully through the lines of play indicated above.

       29. ........               Q R - K Kt 1

As stated B - B 3 was the best move.

       30. P - Kt 3               B - B 3
       31. R - Q 1                K - R 4

The plan, of course, as explained above, is to go to Kt 5 in due time and
threaten mate at K R 8, but it is now too late, the White Rook having come
in {195} time to prevent the manoeuvre. Instead of the text move,
therefore, Black should have played Kt - K 5; which would have given him a
draw at the very least. After the text moves the tables are turned. It is
now White who has the upper hand, and Black who has to fight for a draw.

       32. R - Q 6                B - K 5

Kt - K 5 was still the right move, and probably the last chance Black had
to draw against White's best play.

       33. Q × B P                Kt - Q 4
       34. R × R                  K × R

Kt × Q; R × R, Kt × P was no better.

       35. Q - K 5                K - B 2
       36. P - B 4                R - K 1
       37. Q - Kt 2               Kt - B 3
       38. B - Q 4                R - K R 1
       39. Q - Kt 5               R - R 8 ch
       40. K - B 2                P - R 3
       41. Q - Kt 6               R - R 7 ch
       42. K - K 1                Kt - Q 2
       43. Q - Q 6                B - B 3
       44. P - Kt 4               P × P
       45. P - K B 5              R - R 8 ch
       46. K - Q 2                K - K 1
       47. P - B 6                R - R 2
       48. Q - K 6 ch             K - B 1
       49. B - K 3                R - B 2
       50. B - R 6 ch             K - Kt 1

{196}

Most players will be wondering, as the spectators did, why I did not
resign. The reason is that while I knew the game to be lost, I was hoping
for the following variation, which Chajes came very near playing:
51 Q × P ch, K - R 2; 52 Q - R 5, R × P; 53 B - Kt 5 ch, K - Kt 2;
54 B × R ch, K × B; and while White has a won game it is by no means easy.
If the reader does not believe it, let him take the White pieces against a
master and see what happens. My opponent, who decided to take no chances,
played 51 B - Kt 7, and finally won as shown below.

       51. B - Kt 7               P - Kt 6
       52. K - K2                 P - Kt 7
       53. K - B 2                Kt - B 1
       54. Q - Kt 4               Kt - Q 2
       55. K - Kt 1               P - R 4
       56. P - R 4                B × P
       57. Q - R 3                R × P
       58. B × R                  Kt × B
       59. Q × P ch               K - B 1
       60. Q × P

and after a very few more moves Black resigned.

A very fine game on Chajes' part from move 25 on, for while Black, having
the best of the position, missed several chances, White, on the other hand,
missed none.

       *       *       *       *       *

{197}

GAME 7. RUY LOPEZ

(San Sebastian, 1911)

White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: A. Burn

        1. P - K 4                P - K 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             Kt - Q B 3
        3. B - Kt 5               P - Q R 3
        4. B - R 4                Kt - B 3
        5. P - Q 3

This is a very solid development, to which I was much addicted at the time,
because of my ignorance of the multiple variations of the openings.

        5. ........               P - Q 3
        6. P - B 3                B - K 2

In this variation there is the alternative of developing this Bishop via
Kt 2, after P - K Kt 3.

        7. Q Kt - Q 2             O - O
        8. Kt - B 1               P - Q Kt 4
        9. B - B 2                P - Q 4
       10. Q - K 2                P × P
       11. P × P                  B - Q B 4

Evidently to make room for the Queen at K 2, but I do not think the move
advisable at this stage. B - K 3 is a more natural and effective move. It
develops a piece and threatens B - B 5, which would have to be stopped.

       12. B - Kt 5               B - K 3

{198} Now it is not so effective, because White's Q B is out, and the
Knight, in going to K 3 to defend the square Q B 4, does not block the Q B.

       13. Kt - K 3               R - K 1
       14. O - O                  Q - K 2

This is bad. Black's game was already not good. He probably had no choice
but to take the Knight with the Bishop before making this move.

[Illustration]

       15. Kt - Q 5               B × Kt
       16. P × B                  Kt - Kt 1

in order to bring it to Q 2, to support the other Knight and also his
King's Pawn. White, however, does not allow time for this, and by taking
advantage of his superior position is able to win a Pawn.

       17. P - Q R 4              P - Kt 5

Since he had no way to prevent the loss of a Pawn, he should have given it
up where it is, and played Q Kt - Q 2, in order to make his position more
solid. {199} The text move not only loses a Pawn, but leaves Black's game
very much weakened.

       18. P × P                  B × P
       19. B × Kt                 Q × B
       20. Q - K 4                B - Q 3
       21. Q × P ch               K - B 1

[Illustration]

With a Pawn more and all his pieces ready for action, while Black is still
backward in development, it only remains for White to drive home his
advantage before Black can come out with his pieces, in which case, by
using the open K R file, Black might be able to start a strong attack
against White's King. White is able by his next move to eliminate all
danger.

       22. Kt - R 4               Q - R 3

This is practically forced. Black could not play P - Kt 3 because of B × P,
and White meanwhile threatened Q - R 8 ch followed by Kt - B 5 ch and
Q × P. {200}

       23. Q × Q                  P × Q
       24. Kt - B 5               P - K R 4
       25. B - Q 1                Kt - Q 2
       26. B × P                  Kt - B 3
       27. B - K 2                Kt × P
       28. K R - Q 1              Kt - B 5
       29. B - B 4                K R - Q 1
       30. P - R 4                P - R 4

Black must lose time assuring the safety of this Pawn.

       31. P - Kt 3               Kt - K 3
       32. B × Kt                 P × B
       33. Kt - K 3               K R - Kt 1
       34. Kt - B 4               K - K 2

Black fights a hopeless battle. He is two Pawns down for all practical
purposes, and the Pawns he has are isolated and have to be defended by
pieces.

       35. Q R - B 1              R - R 2

White threatened Kt × B, followed by R - B 7 ch.

       36. R - K 1                K - B 3
       37. R - K 4                R - Kt 5
       38. P - Kt 4               R - R 3

If R × R P; Kt × B of course would win a piece

       39. R - B 3                B - B 4
       40. R - B 3 ch             K - Kt 2
       41. P - Kt 3               B - Q 5
       42. K - Kt 2               R - R 1
  {201}
       43. P - Kt 5               R - R 3
       44. P - R 5                R × Kt
       45. P × R                  R - B 3
       46. P - Kt 6               Resigns.

       *       *       *       *       *

GAME 8. CENTRE GAME

(Berlin 1913)

White: J. Mieses. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

        1. P - K 4                P - K 4
        2. P - Q 4                P × P
        3. Q × P                  Kt - Q B 3
        4. Q - K 3                Kt - B 3
        5. Kt - Q B 3             B - Kt 5
        6. B - Q 2                O - O
        7. O - O - O              R - K 1

In this position, instead of the text move, P - Q 3 is often played in
order to develop the Q B. My idea was to exert sufficient pressure against
the K P to win it, and thus gain a material advantage, which would, at
least, compensate whatever slight advantage of position White might have.
The plan, I think, is quite feasible, my subsequent difficulties being due
to faulty execution of the plan.

        8. Q - Kt 3               Kt × P
        9. Kt × Kt                R × Kt
       10. B - K B 4

{202}

[Illustration]

       10. ........               Q - B 3

White's threat to regain the Pawn was merely with the idea of gaining time
to develop his pieces. Black could have played P - Q 3; opening the way for
his Q B, when would have followed, 11 B - Q 3, R - K 1; 12 Kt - B 3, and
White would soon start a powerful direct attack against Black's King. With
the text move Black aims at taking the initiative away from White in
accordance with the principles laid down in this book.

       11. Kt - R 3

If B × P, P - Q 3; and White's Bishop would be completely shut off, and
could only be extricated, if at all, with serious loss of position. The
text move aims at quick development to keep the initiative.

       11. ........               P - Q 3

This now is not only a developing move, but it also threatens to win a
piece by B × Kt. {203}

       12. B - Q 3                Kt - Q 5

This complicates the game unnecessarily. R - K 1; was simple, and perfectly
safe.

       13. B - K 3

[Illustration]

       13. ........               B - Kt 5

This is a serious mistake. The position was most interesting, and though in
appearance dangerous for Black, not so in reality. The right move would
have been 13...R - Kt 5, when we would have 14 B × Kt, R × B; 15 P - Q B 3,
B × P; 16 P × B, R - K Kt 5; 17 Q - K 3 (best), Q × P ch; 18 B - B 2,
Q × Q; 19 P × Q, R × P, and Black has the best of the game with four Pawns
for a Knight, besides the fact that all the White Pawns are isolated.

       14. Kt - Kt 5 !            R × B

There was nothing better.

       15. Q × B !                Kt - K 7 ch

{204}

[Illustration]

       16. B × Kt !               R × B
       17. Kt - K 4 !             R × Kt
       18. Q × R                  Q - Kt 4 ch
       19. P - K B 4              Q - Kt 4
       20. P - B 3                B - B 4
       21. K R - K 1              Q - B 3
       22. R - Q 5

Q × Q would have given White a decided advantage, enough to win with proper
play. Mieses, however, feared the difficulties of an ending where, while
having the exchange, he would be a Pawn minus. He preferred to keep the
Queens on the board and keep up the attack. At first sight, and even after
careful thought, there seems to be no objection to his plan; but in truth
such is not the case. From this point the game will gradually improve in
Black's favour until, with the exchange ahead, White is lost. {205}

       22. ........               Q - Q 2
       23. P - B 5                P - Q B 3
       24. R - Q 2                P - Q 4

[Illustration]

My plan for the moment is very simple. It will consist in bringing my
Bishop around to B 3. Then I shall try to paralyse White's attack against
my King by playing P - K R 3, and also prevent White from ever playing
P - K Kt 5. Once my King is safe from attack I shall begin to advance my
Queen's side Pawns, where there are four to three; and that advantage,
coupled with the enormous attacking power of my Bishop at B 3, will at
least assure me an even chance of success.

       25. Q - B 3                B - K 2
       26. Q R - K 2              B - B 3
       27. Q - R 5                P - K R 3
       28. P - K Kt 4             K - R 2 !

{206} To prevent P - K R 4, which I would answer with P - K Kt 3, winning
the Queen. It can now be considered that my King is safe from attack. White
will have to withdraw his Queen via R 3, and Black can use the time to
begin his advance on the Queen's side.

       29. K - Kt 1               R - Q 1
       30. R - Q 1                P - B 4

Notice that, on assuming the defensive, White has placed his Rooks
correctly from the point of view of strategy. They are both on white
squares free from the possible attack of the Black Bishop.

       31. Q - R 3                Q - R 5

This gains time by attacking the Rook and holding the White Q at R 3 for
the moment, on account of the K Kt P. Besides, the Queen must be in the
middle of the fray now that the attack has to be brought home. White has
actually more value in material, and therefore Black must utilise
everything at his command in order to succeed.

       32. R (K2) - Q 2           Q - K 5 ch
       33. K - R 1                P - Q Kt 4

threatening P - Kt 5; which would open the line of action of the Bishop and
also secure a passed Pawn.

       34. Q - Kt 2               Q - R 5

indirectly defending the Q P, which White cannot take on account of
Q × R ch.

{207} /*    35. K - Kt 1 P - Kt 5 */

The attack increases in force as it is gradually brought home directly
against the King. The position now is most interesting and extremely
difficult. It is doubtful if there is any valid defence against Black's
best play. The variations are numerous and difficult.

[Illustration]

       36. P × P                  Q × P

Black has now a passed Pawn, and his Bishop exerts great pressure. White
cannot very well play now 37 R × P because of R × R; 38 R × R, B × P; and
White could not take the Bishop because Q - K 5 ch would win the Rook,
leaving Black a clear passed Pawn ahead.

       37. P - Q R 3              Q - R 5 !
       38. R × P                  R - Q Kt 1
       39. R (Q 1) - Q 2          P - B 5
       40. Q - Kt 3               R - Kt 6
       41. Q - Q 6

{208}

[Illustration]

       41. ........               P - B 6

B × P would also win, which shows that White's game is altogether gone. In
these cases, however, it is not the prettiest move that should be played,
but the most effective one, the move that will make your opponent resign
soonest.

       42. R - Q B 2              P × P
       43. R - Q 3                Q - K 5 !
       44. R - Q 1                R - Q B 6
            Resigns.

Of course White must play Q - Q 2, and Black then plays R × P.

       *       *       *       *       *

{209}

GAME 9. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED

(Berlin, 1913)

White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: R. Teichmann.

        1. P - Q 4                P - Q 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             Kt - K B 3
        3. P - B 4                P - K 3
        4. B - Kt 5               B - K 2
        5. Kt - B 3               Q Kt - Q 2
        6. P - K 3                O - O
        7. R - B 1                P - Q Kt 3
        8. P × P                  P × P
        9. B - Kt 5

An invention of my own, I believe. I played it on the spur of the moment
simply to change the normal course of the game. Generally the Bishop goes
to Q 3, or to R 6, after Q - R 4. The text move is in the nature of an
ordinary developing move, and as it violates no principle it cannot be bad.

        9. ........               B - Kt 2
       10. O - O                  P - Q R 3
       11. B - R 4                R - B 1
       12. Q - K 2                P - B 4
       13. P × P                  Kt × P

If P × P; K R - Q 1, and White would play to win one of Black's centre
Pawns. The drawback to the {210} text move is that it leaves Black's Q P
isolated, and consequently weak and subject to attack.

       14. K R - Q 1              Kt × B

The alternative would have been 14...P - Kt 4; 15 B - B 2, P - Kt 5;
16 Kt - Q R 4, Kt (B 4) - K 5.

       15. Kt × Kt                P - Kt 4
       16. R × R                  Q × R
       17. Kt - B 3               Q - B 5

Black aims at the exchange of Queens in order to remain with two Bishops
for the ending, but in this position such a course is a mistake, because
the Bishop at Kt 2 is inactive and cannot come into the game by any means,
unless Black gives up the isolated Queen's Pawn which the Bishop must
defend.

       18. Kt - Q 4

Not, of course, R - Q 4, because of Q × Q; Kt × Q, R - B 1; and there would
be no good way to prevent R - B 7.

       18. ........               Q × Q
       19. Kt (B 3) × Q !

Notice the co-ordination of the Knights' moves. They are manoeuvred
chain-like, so to speak, in order to maintain one of them, either at Q 4 or
ready to go there. Now White threatens to take the open file, and therefore
forces Black's next move.

       19. ........               R - B 1

{211}

[Illustration]

The student should examine this position carefully. There seems to be no
particular danger, yet, as White will demonstrate, Black may be said to be
lost. If the game is not altogether lost, the defence is at least of the
most difficult kind; indeed, I must confess that I can see no adequate
defence against White's next move.

       20. Kt - B 5 !             K - B 1

If 20...B - Q 1; 21 Kt - Q 6, R - B 2; 22 Kt × B, R × Kt; 23 B × Kt, B × B;
24 R × P, R - B 2; 25 R - Q 2, and White is a Pawn ahead. If 20...B moves
anywhere else, then B × Kt, doubling the K B P and isolating all of Black's
King's side Pawns.

       21. Kt × B                 K × Kt
       22. Kt - Q 4               P - Kt 3

This is practically forced, as White threatened Kt - B 5 ch. Notice that
the Black Knight is pinned in such a way that no relief can be afforded
except by giving up the K R P or abandoning the open file {212} with the
Rook, which would be disastrous, as White would immediately sieze it.

       23. P - B 3 !

[Illustration]

       23. ........               P - R 3

Black could do nothing else except mark time with his Rook along the open
file, since as soon as he moved away White would take it. White, on the
other hand, threatens to march up with his King to K 5 via K B 2, K Kt 3,
K B 4, after having, of course, prepared the way. Hence, Black's best
chance was to give up a Pawn, as in the text, in order to free his Knight.

       24. B × P                  Kt - Q 2
       25. P - K R 4              Kt - B 4
       26. B - B 4                Kt - K 3

Black exchanges Knights to remain with Bishops of {213} opposite colours,
which gives him the best chance to draw.

       27. Kt × Kt                K × Kt

27...P × Kt would be worse, as White would then be able to post his Bishop
at K 5.

       28. R - Q 2                R - K R 1

[Illustration]

Black wants to force B - Kt 3. P - K Kt 3 would be bad, on account of
P - Q 5; which would get the Black Bishop into the game, even though White
could answer P - K 4. The text move is, however, weak, as will soon be
seen. His best chance was to play P - Kt 5; and follow it up with P - R 4
and B - R 3. White meanwhile could play P - Kt 4 and R 5, obtaining a
passed Pawn, which, with proper play, should win.

       29. R - Q B 2 !            R - Q B 1
       30. R × R                  B × R

There are now Bishops of opposite colour, but nevertheless White has an
easily-won game. {214}

       31. K - B 2

[Illustration]

       31. ........               P - Q 5

Practically forced. Otherwise the White King would march up to Q 4 and then
to B 5 and win Black's Queen's side Pawns. If Black attempted to stop this
by putting his King at Q B 3 then the White King would enter through K 5
into Black's King's side and win just as easily.

       32. P × P                  K - Q 4
       33. K - K 3                B - K 3
       34. K - Q 3                K - B 3
       35. P - Q R 3              B - B 5 ch
       36. K - K 3                B - K 3
       37. B - R 6

It is better not to hurry P - K Kt 4 because of P - B 4; for although White
could win in any case, it would take longer. Now the White King threatens
to help by going in through K B 4 after posting the Bishop {215} at Kt 7,
where it not only protects the Q P, but indirectly also the Q Kt P.

       37. ........               K - Q 4
       38. B - Kt 7               Resigns.

The student ought to have realised by this time the enormous importance of
playing well every kind of ending. In this game again, practically from the
opening, White aimed at nothing but the isolation of Black's Q P. Once he
obtained that, he tried for and obtained, fortunately, another advantage of
position elsewhere which translated itself into the material advantage of a
Pawn. Then by accurate playing in the ending he gradually forced home his
advantage. This ending has the merit of having been played against one of
the finest players in the world.

       *       *       *       *       *

GAME 10. PETROFF DEFENCE

(St. Petersburg, 1914)

White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: F. J. Marshall

        1. P - K 4                P - K 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             Kt - K B 3
        3. Kt × P                 P - Q 3
        4. Kt - K B 3             Kt × P
        5. Q - K 2                Q - K 2
        6. P - Q 3                Kt - K B 3
        7. B - Kt 5

{216} Played by Morphy, and a very fine move. The point is that should
Black exchange Queens he will be a move behind in development and
consequently will get a cramped game if White plays accurately.

        7. ........               B - K 3

Marshall thought at the time that this was the best move and consequently
played it in preference to Q × Q ch.

        8. Kt - B 3               P - K R 3
        9. B × Kt                 Q × B
       10. P - Q 4                B - K 2
       11. Q - Kt 5 ch            Kt - Q 2
       12. B - Q 3 !

[Illustration]

It is now time to examine the result of the opening. On White's side we
find the minor pieces well posted and the Queen out in a somewhat odd
place, it is true, but safe from attack and actually attacking a Pawn.
{217} White is also ready to Castle. White's position is evidently free
from danger and his pieces can easily manoeuvre.

On Black's side the first thing we notice is that he has retained both his
Bishops, unquestionably an advantage; but on the other hand we find his
pieces bunched together too much, and the Queen in danger of being attacked
without having any good square to go to. The Bishop at K 2 has no freedom
and it blocks the Queen, which, in its turn, blocks the Bishop. Besides,
Black cannot Castle on the King's side because Q × P, R - Kt 1; Q - K 4
threatening mate, wins a Pawn. Nor can he Castle on the Queen's side
because Q - R 5 would put Black's game in imminent danger, since he cannot
play P - R 3 because of B × P; nor can he play K - Kt 1 because of
Kt - Kt 5. Consequently we must conclude that the opening is all in White's
favour.

       12. ........               P - Kt 4

To make room for his Queen, threatening also P - Kt 5.

       13. P - K R 3              O - O

giving up a Pawn in an attempt to free his game and take the initiative. It
was difficult for him to find a move, as White threatened Kt - K 4, and
should Black go with the Queen to Kt 2, then P - Q 5, B - B 4; Kt × P ch,
followed by B × B. {218}

       14. Q × P                  Q R - Kt 1
       15. Q - K 4                Q - Kt 2
       16. P - Q Kt 3             P - Q B 4

In order to break up White's centre and bring his Knight to B 4 and thus
lay the foundation for a violent attack against White's King. The plan,
however, fails, as it always must in such cases, because Black's
development is backward, and consequently his pieces are not properly
placed.

       17. O - O                  P × P
       18. Kt - Q 5 !

A simple move, which destroys Black's plan utterly. Black will now have no
concerted action of his pieces, and, as his Pawns are all weak, he will
sooner or later lose them.

[Illustration]

       18. ........               B - Q 1
       19. B - B 4                Kt - B 4
       20. Q × P                  Q × Q

{219} The fact that he has to exchange Queens when he is a Pawn behind
shows that Black's game is lost.

       21. Kt × Q                 B × Kt
       22. B × B                  B - B 3
       23. Q R - Q 1              B × Kt

The Knight was too threatening. But now the ending brought about is one in
which the Bishop is stronger than the Knight; which makes Black's plight a
desperate one. The game has no further interest, and it is only because of
its value as a study of this variation of the Petroff that I have given it.
Black was able to fight it out until the sixtieth move on account of some
poor play on White's part. The rest of the moves are given merely as a
matter of form.

       24. R × B                  K - Kt 2
       25. B - B 4                R - Kt 3
       26. R - K 1                K - B 3
       27. P - B 4                Kt - K 3
       28. P × P ch               P × P
       29. R - B 1 ch             K - K 2
       30. R - Kt 4               R - K Kt 1
       31. R - B 5                R - B 3
       32. P - K R 4              K R - Q B 1
       33. P × P                  R - B 4
       34. B × Kt                 P × B
       35. R × R                  R × R
       36. P - Kt 6               K - B 1
       37. R - Q B 4              R - Q R 4
  {220}
       38. P - R 4                K - Kt 2
       39. R - B 6                R - Q 4
       40. R - B 7 ch             K × P
       41. R × P                  R - Q 8 ch
       42. K - R 2                P - Q 4
       43. P - R 5                R - Q B 8
       44. R - B 7                R - Q R 8
       45. P - Q Kt 4             R - R 5
       46. P - B 3                P - Q 5
       47. R - B 6                P × P
       48. R × P                  R × Kt P
       49. R - Q R 3              R - Kt 2
       50. P - R 6                R - Q R 2
       51. R - R 5                K - B 3
       52. P - Kt 4               K - K 2
       53. K - Kt 3               K - Q 3
       54. K - B 4                K - B 2
       55. K - K 5                K - Q 2
       56. P - Kt 5               K - K 2
       57. P - Kt 6               K - B 1
       58. K × P                  K - K 1
       59. P - Kt 7               R × P
       60. P - R 7                R - Kt 3 ch
       61. K - B 5                Resigns.

       *       *       *       *       *

{221}

GAME 11. RUY LOPEZ

(St. Petersburg, 1914)

White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: D. Janowski.

        1. P - K 4                P - K 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             Kt - Q B 3
        3. B - Kt 5               P - Q R 3
        4. B × Kt                 Q P × B
        5. Kt - B 3

I played this move after having discussed it with Alechin on several
occasions. Alechin considered it, at the time, superior to P - Q 4, which
is generally played. He played it himself later on in the Tournament, in
one of his games against Dr. E. Lasker, and obtained the superior game,
which he only lost through a blunder.

        5. ........               B - Q B 4

P - B 3 is probably the best move in this position. I do not like the text
move.

        6. P - Q 3                B - K Kt 5
        7. B - K 3                B × B

This opens the K B file for White, and also reinforces his centre, but
Black naturally did not want to make a second move with this Bishop.

        8. P × B                  Q - K 2
        9. O - O                  O - O - O

Bold play, typical of Janowski. {222}

       10. Q - K 1                Kt - R 3

[Illustration]

The problem for White now is to advance his Q Kt P to Kt 5 as fast as he
can. If he plays P - Q Kt 4 at once, Black simply takes it. If he plays
first P - Q R 3 and then P - Q Kt 4, he will still have to protect his
Q Kt P before he can go on and play P - Q R 4 and P - Kt 5. As a matter of
fact White played a rather unusual move, but one which, under the
circumstances, was the best, since after it he could at once play
P - Q Kt 4 and then P - Q R 4 and P - Kt 5.

       11. R - Kt 1 !             P - B 3
       12. P - Kt 4               Kt - B 2
       13. P - Q R 4              B × Kt

He simplifies, hoping to lighten White's attack, which will have to be
conducted practically with only the heavy pieces on the board. He may have
also done it in order to play Kt - Kt 4 and K 3. {223}

       14. R × B

Taking with the Pawn would have opened a possibility for a counter attack.

       14. ........               P - Q Kt 3

He is forced to this in order to avoid the breaking up of his Queen's side
Pawns. The only alternative would have been P - Q Kt 4; which on the face
of it looks bad.

       15. P - Kt 5               B P × P
       16. P × P                  P - Q R 4
       17. Kt - Q 5               Q - B 4
       18. P - B 4

[Illustration]

The White Knight is now a tower of strength. Behind it White will be able
to prepare an attack, which will begin with P - Q 4, to drive away the
Black Queen and thus leave himself free to play P - B 5. There is only one
thing to take care of and that {224} is to prevent Black from sacrificing
the Rook for the Knight and a Pawn.

       18. ........               Kt - Kt 4
       19. R - B 2                Kt - K 3
       20. Q - B 3                R - Q 2

Had White on his 19th move played K R - B 1 instead of R - B 2, Black could
have played now instead of the text move, R × Kt; K P × R, Q × P ch;
followed by Kt - B 4 with a winning game.

       21. R - Q 1                K - Kt 2

It would have been better for Black to play K - Q 1. The text move loses
very rapidly.

       22. P - Q 4                Q - Q 3
       23. R - B 2                P × P
       24. P × P                  Kt - B 5
       25. P - B 5                Kt × Kt
       26. P × Kt                 Q × Q P
       27. P - B 6 ch             K - Kt 1
       28. P × R                  Q × P (Q 2)
       29. P - Q 5                R - K 1
       30. P - Q 6                P × P
       31. Q - B 6                Resigns.

       *       *       *       *       *

{225}

GAME 12. FRENCH DEFENCE

(New York, 1918)

White: J. R. Capablanca. Black: O. Chajes.

        1. P - K 4                P - K 3
        2. P - Q 4                P - Q 4
        3. Kt - Q B 3             Kt - K B 3
        4. B - Q 3

Not the most favoured move, but a perfectly natural developing one, and
consequently it cannot be bad.

        4 ........                P × P

P - Q B 4 is generally played in this case instead of the text move.

        5. Kt × P                 Q Kt - Q 2
        6. Kt × Kt ch             Kt × Kt
        7. Kt - B 3               B - K 2

[Illustration] {226}

        8. Q - K 2

This is played to prevent P - Q Kt 3, followed by B - Kt 2, which is the
general form of development for Black in this variation. If Black now plays
8...P - Q Kt 3; 9. B - Kt 5 ch, B - Q 2; 10. Kt - K 5 and White obtains a
considerable advantage in position.

        8. ........               O - O
        9. B - K Kt 5             P - K R 3

Of course Black could not play P - Q Kt 3 because of B × Kt, followed by
Q - K 4.

       10. B × Kt                 B × B
       11. Q - K 4                P - K Kt 3

This weakens Black's King's side. R - K 1 was the right move.

       12. P - K R 4

[Illustration]

       12. ........               P - K 4

This is merely giving up a Pawn in order to come out quickly with his Q B.
But as he does not obtain {227} any compensation for his Pawn, the move is
bad. He should have played Q - Q 4 and tried to fight the game out that
way. It might have continued thus: 13. Q - B 4, B - Kt 2; 14. Q × B P,
B × P; 15. Kt × B, Q × Kt; 16. O - O - O with considerable advantage of
position for White. The text move might be considered a mild form of
suicide.

       13. P × P                  B - B 4
       14. Q - K B 4              B × B
       15. O - O - O              B - Kt 2
       16. R × B                  Q - K 2
       17. Q - B 4

In order to keep the Black Queen from coming into the game.

       17. ........               Q R - Q 1
       18. K R - Q 1

A better plan would have been to play R - K 1, threatening P - K 6.

       18. ........               R × R
       19. R × R                  R - K 1
       20. P - B 3                P - Q B 3

Of course if B × P; Kt × B, Q × Kt; R - K 3. Black with a Pawn minus fights
very hard.

       21. R - K 3

The Pawn had now to be defended after Black's last move, because after
B × P; Kt × B, Q × Kt; {228} R - K 3, Black could now play Q - Kt 1
defending the Rook.

       21. ........               P - Q B 4
       22. K - B 2                P - Kt 3
       23. P - R 4

White's plan now is to _fix_ the Queen's side in order to be able to
manoeuvre freely on the other side, where he has the advantage of material.

       23. ........               Q - Q 2
       24. R - Q 3                Q - B 1
       25. Q - K 4                Q - K 3
       26. R - Q 5                K - B 1
       27. P - B 4                K - Kt 1

[Illustration]

Black sees that he now stands in his best defensive position, and therefore
waits for White to show how he intends to break through. He notices, of
course, that the White Knight is in the way of the K B P, which cannot
advance to K B 4 to defend, or support rather, the Pawn at K 5. {229}

       28. P - Q Kt 3             K - B 1
       29. K - Q 3                K - Kt 1
       30. R - Q 6                Q - B 1
       31. R - Q 5                Q - K 3
       32. P - K Kt 4             K - B 1
       33. Q - B 4                K - Kt 1
       34. Q - K 4                K - B 1

[Illustration]

Black persists in waiting for developments. He sees that if P - K R 5,
P × P; P × P, the Queen goes to R 6, and White will have to face serious
difficulties. In this situation White decides that the only course is to
bring his King to K Kt 3, so as to defend the squares K R 3 and K Kt 4,
where the Black Queen might otherwise become a source of annoyance.

       35. K - K 2                K - Kt 1
       36. K - B 1                K - B 1
       37. K - Kt 2               K - Kt 1
       38. K - Kt 3               K - B 1

{230}

Now that he has completed his march with the King, White is ready to
advance.

[Illustration]

       39. P - K R 5              P × P

39...P - K Kt 4 would be answered by Q - B 5, with a winning game.

       40. P × P                  Q - K 2

Against K - Kt 1; White would play Q - Kt 4, practically forcing the
exchange of Queens, after which White would have little trouble in winning
the ending, since Black's Bishop could not do much damage in the resulting
position.

       41. Q - B 5                K - Kt 1

Black overlooks the force of 42 R - Q 7. His best defence was R - Q 1;
against which White could either advance the King or play Kt - R 4,
threatening Kt - Kt 6 ch.

       42. R - Q7                 B × P ch

{231}

This loses a piece, but Black's position was altogether hopeless.

       43. K - Kt 4               Q - B 3
       44. Kt × B                 Q - Kt 2 ch
       45. K - B 4                Resigns.

The interest of this game centres mainly on the opening and on the march of
the White King during the final stage of the game. It is an instance of the
King becoming a fighting piece, even while the Queens are still on the
board.

       *       *       *       *       *

GAME 13. RUY LOPEZ

(New York, 1918)

White: J. S. Morrison. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

        1. P - K 4                P - K 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             Kt - Q B 3
        3. B - Kt 5               P - Q 3
        4. Kt - B 3               B - Q 2
        5. P - Q 4                P × P
        6. Kt × P                 P - K Kt 3

In this form of defence of the Ruy Lopez the development of the K B via
Kt 2 is, I think, of great importance. The Bishop at Kt 2 exerts great
pressure along the long diagonal. At the same time the position of the
Bishop and Pawns in front of the King, once it is Castled, is one of great
defensive strength. Therefore, in this form of development, the Bishop,
{232} we might say, exerts its maximum strength (Compare this note with the
one in the Capablanca-Burn game at San Sebastian, page 197.)

        7. Kt - B 3               B - Kt 2
        8. B - Kt 5               Kt - B 3

Of course not K Kt - K 2; because of Kt - Q 5. The alternative would have
been P - B 3; to be followed by K Kt - K 2; but in this position it is
preferable to have the Kt at K B 3.

        9. Q - Q 2                P - K R 3
       10. B - K R 4

An error of judgment. White wants to keep the Knight pinned, but it was
more important to prevent Black from Castling immediately. B - K B 4 would
have done this.

       10. ........               O - O
       11. O - O - O

Bold play, but again faulty judgment, unless he intended to play to win or
lose, throwing safety to the winds. The Black Bishop at Kt 2 becomes a very
powerful attacking piece. The strategical disposition of the Black pieces
is now far superior to White's, therefore it will be Black who will take
the offensive.

       11. ........               R - K 1
       12. K R - K 1

{233}

[Illustration]

White wanted to keep his Q R on the open file, and consequently brings over
his other Rook to the centre to defend his K P, which Black threatened to
win by P - K Kt 4, followed by Kt × P.

       12. ........               P - Kt 4 !

Now that the K R is in the centre, Black can safely advance, since, in
order to attack on the King's side, White would have to shift his Rooks,
which he cannot do so long as Black keeps up the pressure in the centre.

       13. B - Kt 3               Kt - K R 4

Uncovering the Bishop, which now acts along the long diagonal, and at the
same time preventing P - K 5, which would be answered by Kt × B; P × Kt,
Kt × P; etc., winning a Pawn.

       14. Kt - Q 5               P - R 3

Black drives the Bishop away so as to _unpin_ his pieces and be able to
manoeuvre freely. {234}

       15. B - Q 3                B - K 3

Preparing the onslaught. Black's pieces begin to bear against the King's
position.

       16. P - B 3

[Illustration]

With the last move White not only blocks the action of Black's K B, but he
also aims at placing his Bishop at Q Kt 1 and his Queen at Q B 2, and then
advancing his K P, to check at K R 7.

       16. ........               P - B 4 !

Initiating an attack to which there is no reply, and which has for its
ultimate object either the winning of the White Q B or cutting it off from
the game. (Compare this game with the Winter-Capablanca game at Hastings.)

       17. P - K R 4              P - B 5

The Bishop is now out of action. White naturally counter attacks violently
against the seemingly {235} exposed position of the Black King, and, with
very good judgment, even offers the Bishop.

[Illustration]

       18. P × P !                P × P !

Taking the Bishop would be dangerous, if not actually bad, while the text
move accomplishes Black's object, which is to put the Bishop out of action.

       19. R - R 1                B - B 2
       20. K - Kt 1

This move unquestionably loses time. Since he would have to retire his
Bishop to R 2 sooner or later, he might have done it immediately. It is
doubtful, however, if at this stage of the game it would be possible for
White to save the game.

       20. ........               Kt - K 4
       21. Kt × Kt                R × Kt

It was difficult to decide which way to retake. I {236} took with the Rook
in order to have it prepared for a possible attack against the King.

       22. B - R 2                Kt - B 3

Now that the White Bishop has been driven back, Black wants to get rid of
White's strongly posted Knight at Q 5, which blocks the attack of the
Bishop at B 2. It may be said that the Knight at Q 5 is the key to White's
defence.

[Illustration]

       23. P - Kt 3

White strives not only to have play for his Bishop, but also he wants to
break up Black's Pawns in order to counter-attack. The alternative would
have been 23 Kt × Kt ch, Q × Kt; and Black would be threatening R - R 4,
and also Q - K 3. The student should notice that Black's drawback in all
this is the fact that he is playing minus the services of his Q R. It is
this fact that makes it possible for White to hold out longer. {237}

       23. ........               Kt × P
       24. B × Kt                 R × B
       25. P × P                  P - B 3

[Illustration]

       26. Kt - K 3

Kt - Kt 4 was the alternative, but in any event White could not resist the
attack. I leave it to the reader to work this out for himself, as the
variations are so numerous that they would take up too much space.

       26. ........               Q - R 4
       27. P - B 4                Q × Q
       28. R × Q                  P × P
       29. Kt - Kt 4              B - Kt 3

This forces the King to the corner, where he will be in a mating net.

       30. K - R 1                Q R - K 1

Now at last the Q R enters into the game and soon the battle is over.

       31. P - R 3

If R × P, R - K 8 ch; R - Q 1, R (K 1) - K 7. {238}

       31. ........               R - K 8 ch
       32. R × R                  R × R ch
       33. K - R 2                B - B 2
       34. K - Kt 3               P - Q 4

the quickest way to finish the game.

       35. B × P                  P × P ch
       36. K - Kt 4               P - B 6
       37. P × P                  R - K 5 ch
       38. P - B 4                R × P ch
       39. K - R 5                R × B
       40. R - Q 8 ch             K - R 2
       41. R - Q 7                B - K 3
            Resigns.

A very lively game.

       *       *       *       *       *

GAME 14. QUEEN'S GAMBIT DECLINED

(New York, 1918)

White: F. J. Marshall. Black: J. R. Capablanca.

        1. P - Q 4                P - Q 4
        2. Kt - K B 3             Kt - K B 3
        3. P - B 4                P - K 3
        4. Kt - B 3               Q Kt - Q 2
        5. B - Kt 5               B - K 2
        6. P - K 3                O - O
        7. R - B 1                P - B 3

This is one of the oldest systems of defence against the Queen's Gambit. I
had played it before in this Tournament against Kostic, and no doubt
Marshall expected it. At times I change my defences, {239} or rather
systems of defence; on the other hand, during a Tournament, if one of them
has given me good results, I generally play it all the time.

        8. Q - B 2                P × P
        9. B × P                  Kt - Q 4
       10. B × B                  Q × B
       11. O - O                  Kt × Kt
       12. Q × Kt                 P - Q Kt 3

This is the key to this system of defence. Having simplified the game
considerably by a series of exchanges, Black will now develop his Q B along
the long diagonal without having created any apparent weakness. The proper
development of the Q B is Black's greatest problem in the Queen's Gambit.

       13. P - K 4                B - Kt 2
       14. K R - K 1              K R - Q 1

[Illustration]

The developing stage can now be said to be complete on both sides. The
opening is over and the middle-game begins. White, as is generally the
case, has {240} obtained the centre. Black, on the other hand, is
entrenched in his first three ranks, and if given time will post his Q R at
Q B 1 and his Knight at K B 3, and finally play P - Q B 4, in order to
break up White's centre and give full action to the Black Bishop posted at
Q Kt 2. In this game White attempts to anticipate that plan by initiating
an advance on the centre, which, when carefully analysed, is truly an
attack against Black's K P.

       15. P - Q 5                Kt - B 4 !

Against Kostic in a previous game I had played Kt - B 1. It was
carelessness on my part, but Marshall believed differently, otherwise he
would not have played this variation, since, had he analysed this move, he
would, I think, have realised that Black would obtain an excellent game.
Black now threatens not only B P × P; but also Kt × P; followed by B P × P.
The position is very interesting and full of possibilities.

[Illustration] {241}

       16. P × K P                Kt × P (K 3)
       17. B × Kt                 Q × B

played under the impression that White had to lose time in defending his
Q R P, when I could play P - Q B 4, obtaining a very superior game. But, as
will be seen, my opponent had quite a little surprise for me.

       18. Kt - Q 4 !

[Illustration]

       18. ........               Q - K 4 !

Of course, if 18...Q × R P; 19 R - R 1 would win the Queen. The text move
is probably the only satisfactory move in the position. The obvious move
would have been Q - Q 2 to defend the Q B P, and then would have come
19 Kt - B 5, P - B 3; 20 Q - K Kt 3 (threatening Q R - Q 1), K - R 1;
21 Q R - Q 1, Q - K B 2; 22 P - K R 4, with a tremendous advantage in
position. The text move, on the other hand, assures Black an even game at
the very least, as will soon be seen. {242}

       19. Kt × P                 Q × Q
       20. R × Q                  R - Q 7
       21. R - Kt 1

A very serious error of judgment. White is under the impression that he has
the better game, because he is a Pawn ahead, but that is not so. The
powerful position of the Black Rook at Q 7 fully compensates Black for the
Pawn minus. Besides, the Bishop is better with Rooks than the Knight (see
pages 48-56, where the relative values of the Knight and Bishop are
compared), and, as already stated, with Pawns on both sides of the board
the Bishop is superior because of its long range. Incidentally, this ending
will demonstrate the great power of the Bishop. White's best chance was to
take a draw at once, thus. 21 Kt - K 7 ch K - B 1; 22 R - B 7 R - K 1 (not
B × P; because P - B 3 would give White the best of it); 23 R × B (best;
not Kt - Kt 6 ch, because of B P × Kt; followed by R × K P), R × Kt;
24 R - Kt 8 ch, R - K 1; 25 R × R ch, K × R, and with proper play White
will draw.

It is curious that, although a Pawn ahead, White is the one who is always
in danger. It is only now, after seeing this analysis, that the value of
Black's 18th move Q - K 4 can be fully appreciated.

       21. ........               R - K 1

With this powerful move Black begins, against White's centre, an assault
which will soon be shifted against {243} the King itself. White is afraid
to play 22 P - B 3 because of P - B 4.

       22. P - K 5                P - K Kt 4

To prevent P - B 4. The White Knight is practically pinned, because he does
not dare move on account of R × K P.

[Illustration]

       23. P - K R 4

This is a sequel to the previous move. White expects to disrupt Black's
Pawns, and thus make them weak.

       23. ........               P × P

Though doubled and isolated this Pawn exercises enormous pressure. Black
now threatens R - K 3; to be followed by R - Kt 3 and P - R 6 and R 7 at
the proper time.

       24. R - K 1

White cannot stand the slow death any longer. {244} He sees danger
everywhere, and wants to avert it by giving up his Queen's side Pawns,
expecting to regain his fortunes later on by taking the initiative on the
King's side.

       24. ........               R - K 3 !

Much better than taking Pawns. This forces White to defend the Knight with
the Rook at K 1, because of the threat R - Kt 3.

       25. R (K1) - Q B 1         K - Kt 2

Preparatory to R - Kt 3. The game is going to be decided on the King's
side, and it is the isolated double Pawn that will supply the finishing
touch.

       26. P - Q Kt 4             P - Kt 4

To prevent P - Kt 5, defending the Knight and liberating the Rooks.

       27. P - R 3                R - Kt 3
       28. K - B 1                R - R 7

[Illustration] {245}

Notice the remarkable position of the pieces. White cannot move anything
without incurring some loss. His best chance would have been to play
29 P - K 6, but that would only have prolonged the game, which is lost in
any case.

       29. K - Kt 1               P - R 6
       30. P - Kt 3               P - Q R 3

Again forcing White to move and to lose something thereby, as all his
pieces are tied up.

[Illustration]

       31. P - K 6                R × K P

Not even now can White move the Knight because of P - R 7 ch; K × P,
R - R 3 ch; K - Kt 1, R - R 8 mate.

       32. P - Kt 4               R - R 3
       33. P - B 3

If 33 P - Kt 5, P - R 7 ch; 34 K - R 1, R × Kt; 35 R × R, R × P, winning
easily. {246}

       33. ........               R - Q 3
       34. Kt - K 7               R (Q3) - Q 7
       35. Kt - B 5 ch            K - B 3
       36. Kt - R 4               K - Kt 4
       37. Kt - B 5               R - Kt 7 ch
       38. K - B 1                P - R 7
       39. P - B 4 ch             K × B P
       40. Resigns.

An ending worth very careful study.

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes

[1] The value of the initiative is explained in section 20, p. 77.

[2] See page 37.

[3] See page 13.

[4] Full score and notes are given in My Chess Career, by J. R. Capablanca
(Game No. 11).

[5] This position is elaborated under Example 50 (p. 80.).

[6] We give, from now on, games and notes, so that the student may
familiarise himself with the many and varied considerations that constantly
are borne in mind by the Chess Master. We must take it for granted that the
student has already reached a stage where, while not being able fully to
understand every move, yet he can derive benefit from any discussion with
regard to them.

[7] A "hole" in chess parlance has come to mean a defect in Pawn formation
which allows the opponent to establish his forces in wedge formation or
otherwise without the possibility of dislodging him by Pawn moves. Thus, in
the following diagram, Black has two holes at K B 3 and K R 3, where White
forces, e.g. a Kt or B, could establish themselves, supported by pieces or
Pawns.

[8] See game Capablanca-Kupchick, from Havana International Masters
Tournament Book, 1913, by J. R. Capablanca; or a game in the Carlsbad
Tournament of 1911, Vidmar playing Black against Alechin.

[9] See Niemzowitch's game in the All Russian Masters Tournament, 1914, at
St. Petersburg, against Levitzki, I believe.

[10] See Capablanca-Janowski game, New York Masters Tournament, 1913.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chess Fundamentals" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home