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Title: Stories Pictures Tell - Book Two
Author: Carpenter, Flora L., 1880-
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Stories Pictures Tell - Book Two" ***

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[Illustration: Book title decoration]

  STORIES
  PICTURES TELL

  BOOK TWO

  _By_

  FLORA L. CARPENTER
  _Instructor in drawing in Waite High School, Toledo, Ohio
  Formerly supervisor of drawing, Bloomington, Illinois_

  _Illustrated with Half Tones from
  Original Photographs_

  RAND McNALLY & COMPANY
  CHICAGO       NEW YORK



  _Copyright, 1918, by_
  RAND MCNALLY & COMPANY

[Illustration: Publisher's symbol]

  Made in U. S. A.



THE CONTENTS


  SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER                                  PAGE

    "Shoeing the Bay Mare"        _Landseer_                1

    "Angels' Heads"               _Reynolds_               13


  NOVEMBER, DECEMBER, AND JANUARY

    "The First Step"              _Millet_                 21

    "A Fascinating Tale"        _Mme Ronner_               29

  FEBRUARY AND MARCH

    "A Helping Hand"              _Renouf_                 37

    "The Strawberry Girl"         _Reynolds_               43

  APRIL, MAY, AND JUNE

    "The Return to the Farm"      _Troyon_                 51

    Review of Pictures and Artists Studied

  _The Suggestions to Teachers_                            56



THE PREFACE


Art supervisors in the public schools assign picture-study work in
each grade, recommending the study of certain pictures by well-known
masters. As Supervisor of Drawing I found that the children enjoyed
this work but that the teachers felt incompetent to conduct the
lessons as they lacked time to look up the subject and to gather
adequate material. Recourse to a great many books was necessary and
often while much information could usually be found about the artist,
very little was available about his pictures.

Hence I began collecting information about the pictures and preparing
the lessons for the teachers just as I would give them myself to
pupils of their grade.

My plan does not include many pictures during the year, as this is to
be only a part of the art work and is not intended to take the place
of drawing.

The lessons in this grade may be used for the usual drawing period of
from twenty to thirty minutes, and have been successfully given in
that time. However, the most satisfactory way of using the books is as
supplementary readers, thus permitting each child to study the
pictures and read the stories himself.

                                                  FLORA L. CARPENTER

[Illustration: SHOEING THE BAY MARE]



STORIES PICTURES TELL



SHOEING THE BAY MARE

  =Original Picture:= National Gallery, London,
                             England.
  =Artist:= Sir Edwin Landseer (lănd´´sēr).
  =Birthplace:= London, England.
  =Dates:= Born, 1802; died, 1873.


=Questions to arouse interest.= What is the man in this picture doing?
How many have watched a blacksmith shoe a horse? Why does he wear an
apron made of leather? From what do the sparks fly? What has the
blacksmith in his hand? Why do you suppose this horse wears no halter?
What other animals do you see in this picture? Which has the larger
ears, the donkey or the horse? Which seems to have the softer coat?
Which can run the faster? What do you see on the donkey's back? What
kind of dog is that in the picture? Why do you suppose the hound is so
interested in what the blacksmith is doing? What else can you see in
the picture? What makes you think the man is fond of animals? Where is
the bird? Why do you like this picture?


=The story of the picture.= Here in a building that once may have been
a home, we see an old-fashioned country blacksmith shop. The wide door
has been made in two parts so that the upper part can be swung open to
let in the sunlight. The lower part of the doorway remains closed and
is just high enough to keep the horse and donkey shut in. But the dog
could easily jump over it should he become frightened by the flying
sparks of fire.

The smith is trying a shoe on the hind foot of the beautiful horse,
but neither the man nor the horse seems quite satisfied with it. The
horse has an anxious look in her intelligent eyes as she turns her
head to watch the smith. Though she knows he will do the work
carefully she cannot help being a little nervous about it. The dog and
the donkey are also very much interested in what the smith is doing,
though the dog seems ready to run at any moment. Behind the dog we see
the blacksmith's anvil on which he hammers the shoe into shape. Every
time the hammer strikes the red-hot iron, burning sparks fly in all
directions and the blacksmith wears a leather apron, to keep them from
burning holes in his clothes.

On the ground beside the blacksmith is a box in which are the tools
the smith must use. It has a handle so that the smith may carry it
with him and place it within reach when he is fitting the shoe.

Years ago, when the artist painted this picture, a blacksmith had to
make each shoe by hand from a bar of iron. Now horseshoes are made
rapidly by machinery and the blacksmith gets them from the factory. They
are made in all shapes and sizes and the smith will try several shoes
until he finds one that fits the horse's hoof. If it needs to be shaped
a little he must heat it red hot before he can bend it. He puts it into
the great bed of red-hot coals in his forge, and then blows upon the
coals with his bellows to make the fire hotter. His heavy iron tongs are
used to take the red-hot shoe from the coals and to hold it upon the
anvil while he pounds it into shape. Next he drops it into cold water
until it is cool enough to try on. The smith must be a strong man to do
his work well, and in this picture our attention is drawn to the great
muscles on his arms and the firm strength of his large hands.

It takes great skill to drive the nails into the horse's hoof in just
such a way that they will hold the shoe firmly and at the same time
not hurt the hoof. Sometimes, but not very often, a blacksmith drives
a nail in the wrong direction, and the horse becomes lame. Horses grow
accustomed to being shod, and seem to like to have comfortable new
shoes put on. How glad they must be in the winter to have their hoofs
sharp shod, so they do not slip on the ice!

Betty, the bay mare in this picture, liked to be shod, and as she never
wore a halter and could go where she pleased, she sometimes went to see
the blacksmith. The story is told that one day while she was galloping
over the fields one of her shoes became loose. Betty seemed to know just
what to do; it was not long before the blacksmith heard a gentle neigh,
and there was Betty with her head over the gate, asking to be let in.
Once inside she held up the foot with the loose shoe for the blacksmith
to fix. You may be sure he patted her velvety neck, and told her that he
knew just what the trouble was and would fix her up all right.

The shaggy little donkey you see in the picture had to wait until the
blacksmith had attended to Betty. But he did not care about having his
shoes fixed anyway, and so did not mind waiting.

The man who owned Betty was Mr. Jacob Bell, and he was so proud of her
that he wanted her picture painted. In fact, once when Betty had had a
beautiful colt, Mr. Bell asked Sir Edwin Landseer to paint a picture of
the two together. But the artist had such a long waiting list of animals
to paint that he did not get around to Betty's turn for a long time.
Betty had another colt, but it, too, had grown to be as tall as Betty
herself before Sir Edwin Landseer at last came out to see her.

He came on the very day that Betty paid her visit to the blacksmith
shop, and so it was there that Mr. Bell took the artist to see her.
Landseer had planned to paint the horse out in the green fields; but
when he saw her in the blacksmith shop, watching every movement of the
smith with such perfect understanding in her great, intelligent eyes,
he decided to paint her there.

One can see at a glance that this horse is well cared for; her silky
coat makes us wish to pet her. Notice the white star-shaped mark on
her forehead.

The hound must have followed the horse, for he does not look as if he
belonged in the blacksmith shop. He seems to be a little afraid of the
hot tongs placed in front of him, and looks as if he might run away
the next time the sparks begin to fly.

That sleepy-looking little donkey must belong to some child, for you
can see the saddle on his back. Probably some boy will call for him,
and ride him home.

Notice how the light comes in through the upper half of the doorway
and falls upon the figures. Can you see where the light from the fire
in the forge is shining?

We cannot see the bird in the cage hanging from the roof of the
blacksmith shop, but no doubt it sang very merrily on the bright sunny
day this must have been. The smith has placed its cage a safe distance
from the heat, and where it can get plenty of air and sunlight. No doubt
they are great friends, but how the bird must wish to try its wings in a
long flight up beyond the treetops and into the bright blue sky!

When the shoe is fixed the blacksmith will open the door and Betty
will trot home by herself. No wonder Mr. Bell was proud of a horse
that knew so much and was so beautiful. Would you not like to have a
horse like Betty?


=Questions to help the pupil understand the picture.= When a horse
needs new shoes, where does its owner take it? What is the name of the
horse in our picture? Why did Betty come to the blacksmith shop? How
did she let the blacksmith know what she wanted? Does she seem pleased
with the shoe he is trying on? How can he make it fit? Why does he
heat the shoe red hot? Upon what does he place the red-hot shoe to
pound it into shape? On the blackboard draw a picture of an anvil.
What does the blacksmith use when he blows the coals to make a hotter
fire? With what does he hold the hot shoes? Why does he put them in
cold water before trying them on? How does he fasten the shoe on the
horse's hoof? Why does it not hurt a horse to be shod? What do you see
on the donkey's back? Of what is the dog afraid? What does the
blacksmith wear to keep the sparks from burning his clothes? Why is
that low gate placed in the doorway? To whom did Betty belong? Who
came to paint her picture? Why did he paint her in the blacksmith
shop? What makes you think she was well cared for? Why do you suppose
she is so gentle and patient? Where does the light in the picture come
from? Why do you like Betty?


=To the Teacher:= Have the pupils memorize the following lines from
Longfellow's _The Village Blacksmith_:

    And children coming home from school
      Look in at the open door;
    They love to see the flaming forge,
      And hear the bellows roar,
    And catch the burning sparks that fly
      Like chaff from a threshing-floor.


=The story of the artist.= Sir Edwin Landseer had three sisters and two
brothers who liked to draw and paint as well as he did. The father was
an artist, and he taught them all how to draw when they were very young.

They lived in the country, and often the father went with his children
for a walk through the fields. There were two very large fields
separated from each other by a fence with an old-fashioned stile for a
gate. This stile had several steps, and was built high so that the
sheep and cows could not jump over. One day when Edwin was six years
old, and so little that he had to be lifted over this stile, his
father tells us that "At his request I lifted him over, and finding a
scrap of paper and a pencil in my pocket, I made him sketch a cow."
After this Edwin came here nearly every day, and his father called
these two fields "Edwin's studio."

When Edwin was only thirteen years old two of his pictures were
exhibited at the Royal Academy. One was a portrait of a mule; the
other, of a dog and puppies.

Edwin painted always from life, not caring to make copies from the
work of others. All the sketches he made when he was a little boy were
carefully kept by the father, and now if you go to England you may see
them in the South Kensington Museum in London.

Edwin, we are told, was a bright, gentle little boy, with blue eyes
and light curly hair. At fourteen years of age he became a pupil at
the Royal Academy. The keeper there was an old man who grew very fond
of the boy. He would look all about for him, and if he could not find
him he would say, "Where is my little dog boy?" At this time Edwin had
three dogs of his own, which he called Brutus, Vixen, and Boxer. They
were his inseparable companions, and so intelligent that they seemed
almost able to speak.

For many years he lived and painted in his father's house in a poor
little room without even a carpet. All the furniture, we are told,
consisted of three cheap chairs and an easel. Later, he had a fine
studio not far from a park. There was a small house and garden here,
and the barn was made over into a studio.

Sir Edwin was not a very good business man, and he left the management
of all his affairs to his father, who sold his pictures for him and
kept his accounts.

Landseer was only sixteen years old when he exhibited his wonderful
picture called "Fighting Dogs Getting Wind." A very rich man whose
praise meant a great deal at that time bought the picture, and Sir
Edwin's success was assured. After that so many people brought their
pets for him to paint that he had to keep a list, and each must wait
his turn.

It was about this time, too, that he painted an old white horse in the
stable of another wealthy man. After the picture was finished, ready
to deliver, it suddenly disappeared. Search was made for it
everywhere, but it was not found until twenty-four years afterwards. A
servant had stolen it and hidden it in a hayloft. He was afraid to
sell it, or even to keep it in his home, for every one would recognize
the great artist's work.

At the age of twenty-four, Landseer became a member of the Royal
Academy, which was an unusual honor for so young a man.

The story is told that at an evening party in the home of a well-known
leader of society in London where Landseer was present, the guests had
been talking about skill with the hands. One of the guests said that
no one had ever been found who could draw two things at once. Landseer
remarked, "Oh, I can do that; lend me two pencils, and I will show you."

He then quickly drew the head of a horse with one hand, at the same
time drawing a deer's head and antlers with the other hand. Both
sketches were so good that they might well have been drawn with the
same hand and with much more study.

Landseer made a special study of lions, too, and painted many pictures
of them. The great lions at the base of the famous Nelson Monument in
Trafalgar Square, London, were modeled by him.

Although Landseer painted so many wild animals, birds, and hunting
scenes, he did not care to hunt or shoot. Sometimes he would hire
guides to take him into the wildest parts in search of game. But these
guides felt thoroughly disgusted with him when, a great wild deer
bounding toward them, he would merely make a sketch of it in his book.

Landseer knew how to use a gun, however, and sometimes did use it with
great success. But it was the study of live animals that interested
him most. He often said that to kill a bird was to lose it.

He believed that animals understand, feel, and reason just like people;
so he represented them in his pictures as happy, sad, gay, dignified,
frivolous, rich, poor, and in all ways just like human beings.

Landseer did and said all he could against the custom of cutting, or
"cropping," the ears of dogs. He said that nature intended to protect
the ears of dogs that "dig in the dirt," and man should not interfere.
People paid a great deal of attention to what he said, and the custom
lost favor.

In 1850 the honor of knighthood was conferred upon Landseer. He was
popular alike with patron and peasant, and no English painter has ever
been more appreciated in his own country.

Landseer died in London in 1873, at the age of seventy-one.


=Questions about the artist.= What can you tell about the artist who
painted this picture? Where did he live when he was a boy? How many
brothers and sisters did he have? Where did they often walk with their
father? What separated the two fields? How many of you ever saw a
stile? What animal did Edwin sketch first? Where was "Edwin's studio"?
What became of the pictures Edwin drew and painted when he was a boy?
Tell about the keeper of the Royal Academy and Edwin; tell about Edwin
and his picture of an old white horse; tell about his fine new studio.
How did Sir Edwin Landseer think animals felt and understood? Tell how
he went hunting. How well could he draw with his left hand? Why did
people like him? Why do you think he was a great artist?



ANGELS' HEADS

  =Original Picture:= National Gallery, London,
                             England.
  =Artist:= Sir Joshua Reynolds (rĕn´´ŭldz).
  =Birthplace:= Plympton, Devonshire, England.
  =Dates:= Born, 1723; died, 1792.


=Questions to arouse interest.= What do you see in this picture? Why
do you think these heads look alike? How do they differ? How many are
looking up? Which one is looking right at you? Where are the others
looking? Where does the light come from? Where does the ray of light
strike each head? Which looks the happiest? the most thoughtful? Which
one seems to be singing? Which one do you like best? why? How many
know a little girl with blue eyes and light hair who looks something
like one of these?


=The story of the picture.= Far back in a beautiful yard, so large
that it was almost a park, was a house so fine that people drove past
just to see it. In this house lived a nobleman, his wife, and one
lovely little daughter. Their names were Lord and Lady William Gordon,
and the little girl's name was Frances Isabelle Gordon. Perhaps you
have already guessed that she was the little girl we see in this
picture. And this is how she happened to have her picture painted:
The artist, Sir Joshua Reynolds, was a great friend of Lord and Lady
Gordon and used to visit them very often. He would ride in a splendid
carriage which was gilded and carved on the outside and decorated with
wonderful pictures painted by himself. He had a coachman and footman,
too, and when he came riding up the long driveway, little Frances must
have run out to see the great carriage, for no one else had one like it.

Soon Sir Joshua Reynolds and Frances Isabelle became great friends. He
could tell such good stories! And then he liked to play games with
her, and above all he liked to tease her. But she did not mind his
teasing, for she could run away from him when she did not like it.

Sometimes he would invite her to ride home with him in his carriage.
Then he would show her his studio where he painted, and let her play
with some of the toys he always kept ready for his little friends. Very
likely her mother would tell him to send her home in an hour. How she
must have enjoyed the ride back all alone in the big carriage, with the
tall coachman and footman sitting so straight! No doubt she pretended
she was a great lady riding in state, and sat very still and proper.

Sir Joshua Reynolds loved this little girl very much, and he was glad
indeed when one day her mother brought her to have her picture painted.

[Illustration: _Angels' Heads_]

There were no photograph galleries then such as we have now, so there
was no other way to have one's picture taken. The great artist put
his piece of canvas on an easel and mixed his colors. Then he told
Frances Isabelle just where to sit. Although Sir Joshua Reynolds
painted very rapidly, she had to sit still for a long time, and come
several days, before the picture could be finished.

First he drew her looking straight at him watching him arrange his
paints. Then he began to make sketches of her in different positions,
but he liked her so much in all, that he could not decide which one to
use. Finally, he thought of painting them all in one picture. Then, as
little Frances looked so lovely and so like an angel, he decided to
add the wings and clouds and call his picture "Angels' Heads."

You see at that time, not having any photographers, no one thought of
showing a person in different positions all in one picture as we do
nowadays. People were very glad then to have one good picture of their
friends.

Imagine how pleased and delighted Lord and Lady Gordon must have been
with these five pictures instead of one, and all so like their little
girl! The angel heads seem to be floating in the clouds, their faces
lighted up by the bright ray of sunlight which is reflected in the
golden hair of each. For Frances Isabelle had the most beautiful
golden hair and the bluest of blue eyes.

The head at the lower left-hand side of the picture is serious and
thoughtful, as if some hard question had to be answered. The one just
above seems quiet, as if listening to the two other angels, who are
singing happily. These four have quite forgotten us, but the little
girl who looks straight at us seems to be right here in the room,
watching us and wondering about us. A happy, healthy little girl, she
looks as if she would like to run and play with us. Such a sweet,
winsome face! No wonder Sir Joshua loved her very much.

People came from far and near to see this beautiful painting when it
was finished. Finally, years later, Lord and Lady Gordon gave it to
the city of London to hang in the National Gallery of paintings for
all to see. There it still hangs, and people who go to London always
look for it, and find it just as lovely as ever.


=Questions to help the pupil understand the picture.= Of whom is this
a picture? Where did she live? How did she happen to have her picture
painted? Who painted it? What kind of a carriage did he have? What did
he sometimes ask her to do? Why did she not go to a photographer to
have her picture taken? How long did it take Sir Joshua Reynolds to
paint her picture? Why did he paint so many pictures of her? Why did
he call the picture "Angels' Heads"? How many faces are looking at
us? Where do they seem to be? Which one is the prettiest? Did Lord and
Lady Gordon like this picture?


=The story of the artist.= Sir Joshua Reynolds's father was a teacher
in a private school, and to this school Joshua was sent as soon as he
was old enough. Even when a very little boy Joshua liked to draw. He
liked so well to draw that it was very hard for him to study in
school. He always saw so many things to draw that he could not wait
until after school, but drew them on the back of his lesson papers.

One day he drew all over his number paper, and when he handed it in,
his father could not read the numbers on account of the drawing. His
father was disappointed because his son's paper did not look so neat
as the other boys', and so he wrote at the top of the paper, "Done by
Joshua out of pure idleness."

Joshua had five brothers and sisters who liked to draw just as well as
he did, and who could all draw very much better than he could.

It took so much paper and so many pencils for all his children, that
finally the father told them they might draw on the walls of the
halls. These walls had been whitewashed and the children used burnt
sticks for pencils.

At first the older brothers and sisters used to help little Joshua by
guiding his hand, but he soon learned to draw as well as they. His
first drawings had been so funny that they had laughed at him. Now
they praised him instead.

When he was only eight years old Joshua drew a picture that every one
praised very much. It was a picture of the schoolhouse. His father was
so pleased when he saw it that he said, "This is wonderful!"

In the little town where Joshua lived the people went to church on
Sundays, of course, and sometimes also during the week. One day,
Joshua went to church. At first he sat very still; but the sermon was
a very long one, and finally he grew so tired he could not listen
another minute. He thought he would like to draw a picture of the
minister, but he had nothing to draw it on. Then he remembered that he
had a pencil in his pocket, and that he could draw the picture on his
thumb nail. That is just what he did.

The church was near the river, and after church Joshua went down to
the river bank. Finding a piece of an old sail, he carried it to a
boathouse, and here, from the picture on his thumb nail, he drew on
the piece of sail the portrait of the minister. Then he painted it,
using common paint such as is used to paint boats. Joshua was only
eleven years old, and had finished his first oil painting. His father
had wanted him to be a doctor, but after seeing this picture he
decided to let Joshua have his own way and be a painter. He sent him
to a good teacher, and lived to see his son a great artist.


=Questions about the artist.= Who painted this picture? What did Sir
Joshua Reynolds like to do when he was a boy? Who was his teacher? How
did he spoil his number paper? Why was his father disappointed? How
many brothers and sisters did he have? On what did they draw? With
what did they draw? How old was Joshua when he drew the picture of the
schoolhouse? What did his father say when he saw this picture? How did
Joshua happen to paint a picture of the minister? On what did he make
his first sketch? Where did he finish the picture? On what did he
paint it? What kind of paints did he use? What did Joshua's father
want him to be when he grew up? After he had seen this picture, what
did he say Joshua might be? Why do we want to remember him?



THE FIRST STEP

  =Artist:= Jean François Millet (zhäN fräN´ swä´ mēlĕ´´).
  =Birthplace:= Gruchy, France.
  =Dates:= Born, 1814; died, 1875.


=Questions to arouse interest.= What do you see in this picture? What is
the father doing? Who holds the baby? What is the baby trying to do? Why
is the picture called "The First Step"? How many have a baby brother or
sister who is just learning to walk? What has the father been doing? Why
do you think so? Why did he stop? What is on the ground beside him? How
is the man dressed? Where do these people live? What separates the house
from the garden? What can you see next to the fence? Why do you think it
is not a very warm day? Why do you like this picture?


=The story of the picture.= One bright day in the early fall of the
year, when the leaves of the trees were thickest and the woodbine on
the fence was just beginning to turn red, a little child was fretting
to go outdoors. He was tired of staying in when all was beautiful
outside, and he wanted his mother to stop her work and take him out
into the sunshine, to the garden where his father was working. And by
and by that is just what she did. Putting on her own cap, and a bonnet
on the child's head, so there would be no danger of his taking cold,
she carried him out to the old fence.

When the father saw them coming through the gate he dropped his spade
and started to meet them. The little boy began to wave his arms,
impatient to reach his father. Then the mother thought this would be a
good time to let him try to walk. Placing him on the ground, she holds
him safely while the father holds out his arms invitingly.

See, the baby has stepped forward! Now the mother will let him try to
walk alone, keeping close behind, and ready to catch him if he should
fall, until he reaches his father's arms. How proud they will be when
their baby takes his first step all alone! He has been creeping and
crawling for a long time, but now he is big enough to stand on his feet.

This family of hard-working peasants have little time for play; they
must work to keep up their home. The father, as you see, has been
digging potatoes with that heavy spade. He will put them in his
wheelbarrow and take them to the house. Perhaps he will have enough to
last him all winter, and some to sell, too.

The potatoes he wants to keep he will bury in the ground. In those
days very few people had cellars in which to keep their vegetables.
Instead, they would dig a great hole in the ground, line it with
straw, and then put the potatoes in, covering them with straw and
earth. Then, instead of going to the grocery to buy potatoes as we do,
they went out into the yard and dug them up.

[Illustration: _The First Step_]

No doubt the father made this fence, the spade, the pitchfork, and
even the wheelbarrow we see in the picture, while the mother, we are
sure, made all their clothes except the wooden shoes. Perhaps the
father made them.

In those days the mothers could not go down to the store to buy the
goods for their clothes as we do now. Instead they spun thread out of
flax or wool, and then wove it into cloth on a great loom something
like the small looms we use in school to make rugs and hammocks. This
they usually did during the winter when there was less work to do, for
there were so many more things that had to be done during the summer
than during the winter.

In summer they had to take care of the fruit just as our mothers do.
But they did not know anything about canning it,--they would cook it a
long time and make preserves or else they would dry it. They dried
most of their fruit, making it just like the dried apples, peaches,
and apricots we buy at the store.

In France, where this picture was painted, the women worked out in the
fields just like the men. So you see how very busy they must have
been. And yet they always found time to love and care for their little
children.

We do not know even the name of this baby, or of his mother or father.
The artist, Millet, thought that of no importance at all. He did not
even care to show us their faces, any more than he would care to show
us the buttons on their clothes. The important thing is the love and
tenderness of this mother and father as they stop their work to guide,
help, and encourage their baby in taking his first step. All his life
the baby will find them never too tired or weary to help him when he
needs it most.

Peasants like these, we know, lived in France, and as a rule they were
very poor, although the two in our picture seem thrifty and
comfortable. The trees, even the grass growing up beside the fence,
seem sturdy and strong like the peasants to whom they belong.

We feel the strength of the father's extended arms, so ready and able
to protect this baby. The mother, too, will do her share. Even the
trees seem to bend toward these three as if to assure them of their
protection.

This is a simple, homelike picture, whose chief beauty lies in its
strong appeal to our feeling of sympathy with, and interest in, these
honest country people.


=Questions to help the pupil understand the picture.= What has the man
been doing? With what did he dig the potatoes? Where will he put them?
Why does he not put them in the cellar? How will he keep them all
winter? How will he bury them? Who made these peasants' clothes? the
wheelbarrow, the spade, and the pitchfork? Why did they not buy them?
How did the mother make the cloth for their clothes? When did she do
this? What must she do during the summer? How did they keep their
fruit? Why do you think they are a happy family?


=The story of the artist.= Jean François Millet was the son of French
peasants who must have been very much like the father and mother in
this picture. But a picture of Millet's boyhood would not be complete
unless it included his grandmother. You see, that dear old lady rocked
him to sleep, played with him, and kept him happy all day long while
his mother, like all French peasants, worked out in the fields with
his father.

It was she who was the first to discover that her little grandson
liked to draw. His first drawings were copies of pictures in his
grandmother's old illustrated Bible. He would listen to stories read
to him from the Bible and then he would take a piece of chalk and draw
a picture of what happened in the story.

Soon he began to draw large, bold pictures which covered the stone
wall of their house. The grandmother was much pleased! She found a new
story to read or tell him nearly every day.

Of course his father and mother saw the pictures as soon as they came
home, and encouraged the boy as much as they could. The father liked
to draw, too, but he could not see why Millet should be making up
pictures from imagination when there were so many real things to draw.
So he called his son's attention to the trees, the fields, and houses
in the distance, and soon the boy began to draw these, too.

One Sunday when Millet was coming home from church he met an old man,
his back bent over a cane as he walked slowly along. Something about the
bent figure made Millet feel he would like to draw a picture of the man
just as he looked then. Taking a piece of charcoal from his pocket, he
drew a picture of him from memory. He drew it on a stone wall, and as
people passed that way they recognized the man. All liked the picture
very much, and told Millet so. His father, too, was delighted, and
decided that his son should have a chance to become an artist.

One day the two went to an artist who lived in a neighboring town and
showed him some of Millet's sketches. The artist was amazed, and at
first would not believe the boy had drawn them. You may be sure he was
glad to have this bright boy for a pupil. But Millet studied with him
only two months, when he was called home by the death of his father.

At first it seemed as if they needed him so much at home he would
never be able to go on with his studies. But soon the good people in
the little village collected a sum of money and gave it to Millet,
telling him it was for him to use to go to Paris and study. Millet was
almost a grown man by this time, and you may be sure he was grateful
and that he worked very hard while in Paris. But people did not like
his pictures, and he was very poor. Other artists painted pictures of
beautiful people dressed in fine clothes and living in rich homes, and
so nobody cared for Millet's poor, humble peasants, dressed in their
working clothes and doing the work they had to do.

It was not until Millet was an old man that people began to appreciate
his work. Now most of those fashionable artists of his time have been
forgotten, while the paintings of Jean François Millet have become
more and more valuable.


=Questions about the artist.= Where did the artist live? Who took care
of Millet when he was little? Why was his mother away from home so
much? Who was the first one to see his drawings? What did he draw?
What did he use to make the drawings? Who helped him? how? How did his
father help him? Tell about the old man leaning on a cane. Where did
Millet draw his picture? Who saw it? What did they say? Where did his
father take him to study? What did the artist think when he saw
Millet's sketches? Why did Millet go home? What did his neighbors do
for him? Where did he go then? Why was he so poor there? Why did not
people like his pictures? What do people think of his pictures now?



A FASCINATING TALE

  =Artist:= Madame Henriette Ronner (rön´´nẽr).
  =Birthplace:= Amsterdam, Holland.
  =Dates:= Born, 1821. Still living, 1916.


=Questions to arouse interest.= In what room are these kittens? Why do
you think so? Where is the mother cat? the kittens? What are they
looking at? Why do you think the mouse does not know that the kittens
can see his tail? Which one do you think will catch the mouse? Which
one has the sharpest eyes? Which one looks frightened? Which one looks
surprised? Why do you suppose they did not catch the mouse before it
tried to hide? If they keep very still, what will the mouse think?
What will he do? What will happen then? What is on the table beside
the kittens? What may happen to the ink bottle if the big cat jumps?
What is the color of these kittens' fur? How many of you have a pet
kitten at home? Which one of these would you rather have? Why is the
picture called "A Fascinating Tale"?


=The story of the picture.= Early one morning two plump little kittens
started out in search of adventure. The library door was open, and
both little kittens heard a queer rustling noise on the big library
table. Up on a chair they jumped, then up on the table, just in time
to see a little mouse darting under some papers. The mouse thought
the kittens would not know where it was if it kept very still; but
there was its tail in plain sight.

The kittens were so frightened they did not know what to do. They
tried to remember all their mother had taught them about catching a
mouse, but they could only watch that tail, scarcely breathing for
fear it would move. The mother cat came just then, hunting for her
kittens. When she saw them keeping so still she knew there must be
something the matter.

In the picture she is all ready to spring upon the mouse as soon as he
moves, so she can be sure to catch him. How confident she looks, and
how pleased she is that the kittens found the mouse and will help her
catch it! The kittens are so excited it is doubtful whether they can
help very much; but if she can persuade one of them just to touch that
tail, then all will be a scramble. More likely they will all keep so
still that the mouse will think he is alone and come out.

[Illustration: _A Fascinating Tale_]

Which cat do you think will catch him? The little white kitten is the
more daring of the two, as she stands there, paws braced wide apart,
all ready to spring either toward the mouse or away from it. She is
quite undecided which to do. The little black kitten wants to see
all that is going on, but at a safe distance.

How those books and papers will be scattered about when the old cat
jumps for the mouse! The ink bottle is in a very bad place, although
the inkstand looks as if it were a heavy one and would be hard to
overturn, even if the cat does jump on it.

Did you ever watch a cat catch a mouse? My! how fast that mouse will
have to run if he is to get away! Notice the long, graceful, curving
body of the mother cat, and how she holds her head alert as she plans
how to catch the mouse.

Although these three cats are all still for the moment, we are made to
feel that each is about to do something, and we wonder just what that
something will be. Notice the different colors of the cats' fur and of
the books placed carelessly in a row. Let us think how this table will
look in just a few moments.


A FASCINATING TALE

    Books and ink, and kittens three
    In this picture we can see
    All upon a table wide.
    What is that from them would hide?

    Little mouse, your tail's too long;
    It's your fault; if they do wrong.
    All these books will surely fall,
    Ink stains soon will cover all.

    Did you think that you were hid?
    Or perchance of them were rid?
    Don't you know your tail's in sight
    Of those kittens' eyes so bright?

    You are wise to keep quite still,
    For they're watching with a will.
    Maybe you can make them think
    It's the cord that ties the ink.

    Mother Cat looks very wise;
    She will know it by its size.
    She has taught her kittens, too,
    Just exactly what to do.

    Which will get you? Have a care,
    For to lose you they'll not dare.
    Though they're frightened, we can see
    With her help it's you must flee.

    Ah, you moved it! Such a fuss!
    All the things are in a muss!
    And they caught you, as I thought;
    You're a nuisance, so they ought.

    Which one did it? I can't tell.
    All I know is, something fell.
    But they all look very proud,
    And their purr is very loud.


=Questions to help the pupil understand the picture.= How did the
kittens happen to find the mouse? How did they get up on the table?
Where did the mouse try to hide? Why was that not a good place? What
were the kittens afraid of? Who came to help them? What did she do?
How does she look? Which kitten is the more daring? What is between
the black kitten and the mouse? What will very likely happen to the
books and papers? Which way do you think the white kitten will jump?
the mother cat? Which one will catch the mouse?


=To the Teacher:= Encourage the children to talk about their own pets
at home, and to draw pictures of them. The drawings may not be good in
themselves, but such practice will make the children more observant,
and so prepare the way for better drawing later.


=The story of the artist.= Madame Ronner, the woman who painted this
picture, was very fond of cats, as you can easily imagine. She had a
very large cage made for her pets, with wire over the top and glass
for the sides. She had the sides made of glass so that she could
always watch the cats when she painted, no matter in what part of the
cage they happened to be; and of course the top was of wire so they
could have plenty of air. The floor of the cage was well cushioned,
and there were several hanging bobs for the cats to play with.

Her father was an artist, and he, although blind, was her only
teacher in drawing and painting. She would describe her pictures to
him, and he would criticize and tell her how to improve them.

When she was only sixteen years old she exhibited her first picture,
which she called "Cats in the Window." The picture received a great
deal of praise and was sold immediately. Every one supposed she would
paint more pictures of cats, because she could paint them so well, but
for some reason she began to paint dogs instead. Her dog pictures won
much popularity also and for many years she supported herself and her
blind father by her paintings of dogs.

After her father's death she married and moved from Amsterdam to
Brussels, where she again became interested in painting cats. It was
then that she did her best work. One of her best pictures painted at
that time was "A Fascinating Tale."

Madame Ronner had so much care and trouble all her life, it is a wonder
she could paint such bright, happy pictures. She was very poor much of
her life, and had not only the care and support of her blind father but
later on of an invalid husband and several little children. Still with
it all she must have found time for a frolic with these fluffy little
kittens, to have known just how to paint them at their best.

Her little children must have liked to play with them, too.


=Questions about the artist.= Who painted this picture? Who taught her
to draw and paint? How could he, when he was blind? What other animals
did Madame Ronner paint besides cats? Which did she paint the better?
What makes you think she must have liked cats? Where did she put them
when she wanted to paint them? Why did the cage have glass sides? Why
did it have wire over the top? the soft cushions on the floor? What
did she have for the cats to play with?



A HELPING HAND

  =Original Picture:= Corcoran Gallery, Washington,
                           D.C.
  =Artist:= Emile Renouf (rẽ n[=oo]f´´).
  =Birthplace:= Paris, France.
  =Dates:= Born, 1845; died, 1894.


=Questions to arouse interest.= Of what is this a picture? Where are
this man and little girl? Where do you think they are going? What do
you suppose the man does for a living? why? How is he dressed? What
makes you think he loves the little girl? For what is the long pole
with the rope around it used? How is the man guiding the boat now?
What do you see ahead that he is trying to turn away from? What is the
little girl doing? How is she dressed? Why do you think she cannot
help very much? What kind of a boat is it? What else do you see in the
boat? in the picture? Why is it called "A Helping Hand"?


=The story of the picture.= When we go fishing for a few hours or half a
day we think it great fun, but a real fisherman, who earns his living
that way, has to work very hard. Fishermen usually start out at four or
five o'clock in the morning, and do not come home again until late at
night. Sometimes they go away for several days, fishing night and day.

Very probably this little girl is not awake mornings when her father
eats his breakfast and starts out. He wears a rain-proof hat and heavy
coat, for one never can tell what the weather will be out on the
water. He must take a good lunch with him, too, for he is sure to get
hungry. The mother will see that the lunch is ready.

When the wind is blowing in the right direction he puts up the heavy
pole you see in the center of the boat, lets out the sail, and
tightens the rope. Then, with a good wind, how fast he can go! He
knows just where each kind of fish likes to stay, and goes straight to
the very best place. Here he drops his heavy iron anchor into the
water. This anchor is fastened to the boat and keeps it from drifting.
Sometimes the fish do not bite at all, and he has very few to carry
home after his hard day's work. Then again his great boat is filled
full of shiny fish. "Fisherman's luck," that is called.

He probably uses that net with the long wooden handle to help him
catch the big fish. He may have used it also to catch his minnows for
bait. No doubt he catches all the minnows he needs before he starts,
because they live in the shallow water near the shore and it is easier
to catch them there.

Some fishermen use very long nets, something like those you see on a
tennis court, only wider and stronger. It takes several men to manage
them. The fish get tangled up in the net, and then it is very easy to
catch them.

[Illustration: From a Thistle Print, Copyright Detroit Publishing Co.

_A Helping Hand_]

A flat-bottomed boat is the best for fishing, they say. You can move
about in it without much danger of tipping over, and it holds more.
The fish often think it is a wharf or a good cool place under which to
hide, and you can catch them easily.

Very likely this little girl has never been out with her father on one
of his long trips, for it would be much too tiresome for so small a
girl. It would seem, rather, as if he had finished his day's work,
and was taking his little daughter with him on some short errand.
Perhaps they are on their way home, and there is something in that
sack the mother needs. Just now there is no wind, or it is not in the
right direction, for they do not use the sail.

Can you see the other oar? It must be in the bottom of the boat. The
man must row hard with the oar he is pulling at or they will run into
that great rock you see ahead.

It looks as if those little sailboats far off in the distance are
standing still. Perhaps they have no oars, and are waiting for the wind
to come up and blow them home. If they were anchored the sails would be
rolled up and put away. A good sailor must take good care of his boat
and sails. If a sail is not stretched out in the sun and allowed to dry
after a heavy dew or rain, it will rot and soon fall to pieces.

A sailor knows how to tie a very tight knot which is called a
"sailor's knot." He needs to know how to tie this, for if the knots
are not tight and his rope should come untied, or anything give way
when there is a heavy wind, the boat would very likely be overturned.

The little girl looks as if she were putting all her strength into
those tiny hands that cannot near go around the oar. How pleased her
father seems to be to have her try to help him! He knows she is doing
the best she can, and he lets her think she is helping row the boat.
It must help him somewhat, just to know that she is trying so hard and
wants to help.

She must slip about on that seat every time the oar moves, for her
feet do not touch the bottom of the boat. She will be tired when she
reaches home, and warm too, no doubt.

They will not lose their hats even if the wind does blow, for the
little girl's bonnet is tied under her chin, and her father has pulled
his rubber hat tight over his head. Often, when he is out fishing on
the deep sea, the spray dashes over the fisherman's boat, and he is
glad to have a rubber hat and coat to wear.

The little girl wears a large handkerchief around her neck, fastened
under her arms. What do you think is in the pockets of her apron to
make them puff out so? It must be in the summer time, or she would
surely wear a coat and rubber boots. What a big, heavy boat it is! No
wonder it takes such a large oar to row it.


=Questions to help the pupil understand the picture.= Tell something
about a fisherman's day. When does he start? How does he go? Where?
How does he keep his boat from drifting while he fishes? What is meant
by "fisherman's luck"? What is his net for? What makes you think the
fisherman is going home now? Why does he not use his sail? Why does he
have a flat-bottomed boat? How does a good sailor care for his boat
and sails? What is a "sailor's knot"? Of what use is it? Why does the
fisherman wear a rubber hat and coat? How many think the little girl
is helping? Why do you think her father is so pleased to have her try?
What has she on her head? around her neck? What time of the year do
you think it is?


=To the Teacher:= The children might be allowed to draw or cut out a
sailboat and a fisherman's hat.


=The story of the artist.= Very little is known about the boyhood of
the man who painted this picture. His paintings were usually of
fisherfolk, and of boats on the water. We know that in 1886 he came to
America and spent one year in New York City. It was during this time
that he painted his picture of Brooklyn Bridge, now in the museum in
Le Havre, the town in France where he died. "A Helping Hand" is the
most popular of his pictures, and may be seen in the Corcoran Gallery
at Washington, D.C.


=Questions about the artist.= Who painted this picture? What class of
people did he like to paint? What did he paint during his visit to
America? Where may this picture be seen?



THE STRAWBERRY GIRL

  =Original Picture:= Wallace Collection, London, England.
  =Artist:= Sir Joshua Reynolds (rĕn´´ŭldz).
  =Birthplace:= Plympton, Devonshire, England.
  =Dates:= Born, 1723; died, 1792.


=Questions to arouse interest.= What do you see in this picture? Where
do you think she is going? What has she on her arm? What is it for?
Why do you suppose she stands so still? Do you think she looks
frightened, or shy? What has she on her head? How is she dressed? How
is she holding her hands? Why would she not carry strawberries in her
apron? What can you see behind her? How many of you like this picture?


=The story of the picture.= We all know the story about the great
artist, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and his picture called "Angels' Heads."
We know, too, how very fond of children he was, and how much they
liked to go to see him.

Having no children of his own, perhaps he would not have understood them
so well if his little niece had not come to live with him when she was a
very little girl. Her name was Theophila Palmer, but every one called
her "Offy." When her father died the family was left very poor, and so
Sir Joshua Reynolds wanted to help her mother, who was his sister. He
offered to adopt Offy as his own little daughter and to take her home to
live with him and his sister in his great house in London.

After living on a farm out in the country all her life, you can
imagine how excited Offy was when it was finally decided that she
should go. Her uncle came for her in that same big coach or carriage
in which little Frances Isabelle Gordon liked so much to ride.

What a fine time she must have had playing in the great yard with Sir
Joshua, and with the children who came to him to have their pictures
painted! Very often she would go home to see her mother and sister.
Then Sir Joshua would send his carriage to bring them all back for a
visit with him. What fun it was to show them all around the great
house and yard! There were fine, large trees in the yard, and behind
the house was a small garden with a strawberry patch at one end.

One bright spring morning Offy woke up with a beautiful plan in her
head. She would surprise her uncle. He had been so very busy she felt
sure he had not looked at the strawberry bed for several days, and did
not know the berries were ripe. She would take her little basket and
pick it full of the largest ones for him.

[Illustration: _The Strawberry Girl_]

It was great fun hunting for them, and her basket was almost full when
suddenly she heard steps. It was her uncle and two strange men who
walked with him. She did not have time to hide, but stood there with
her basket on her arm, waiting to hear what they would say.

At first she thought her uncle was going to scold her, and that is why
she looks so shy and half afraid. But no, Sir Joshua soon guessed why
she was picking the strawberries, and he was very glad he could offer
some to his friends. One of the men called Offy "the little strawberry
girl," and kept her with him all the rest of the day.

Sir Joshua seemed to like to look at her that day, and she was not
surprised the next morning when he asked her to bring the basket and
come into his studio, for he wanted to paint her picture. She had had
her picture painted several times before, and knew just about what he
would want her to do.

But this time he had a surprise for her. It was a large mirror which
he placed in such a way that she could look in it and see every stroke
of his pencil and brush as he painted her. He had her stand just as
she did when he surprised her out in the strawberry patch.

As she watched him paint he talked to her about the garden and the
strawberries. Then she told him how she used to gather wild
strawberries out in the country, and that she and her sister and
brother started very early in the morning because they wanted to find
them while they were still wet with dew. There was one place not far
from their house where there were many rocks, and one that was very
large. The very largest, sweetest berries grew in the shade of this
great rock. The children used to try to see who would reach it first;
then they would divide the berries they found, for there were only a
few of them, and all wanted a taste.

As Offy told about the rock Sir Joshua Reynolds sketched it in the
background of his picture, just as he thought it must have looked.

The little girl looks as if she had just started away with her basket
of berries when we stopped her to take her picture. She is looking
straight at us, with her head bent forward a little as she smiles
shyly at us with her big eyes. Her basket, cap, and dress seem strange
to us, for little girls do not dress that way now. She looks quaint
and old-fashioned as she stands there, with her hands clasped so
primly. But one glance at her face tells us that she is just a merry,
happy little child, ready to dart away at any moment for a romp in the
woods we can see in the distance.

Sir Joshua Reynolds always said that this was the best child's picture
he ever painted.

Offy was very happy in his home, and lived there until she grew up and
married. Then when she had a little girl of her own she let her visit
Sir Joshua and have her picture painted, too. It is Offy's little
daughter we see in the picture called "Simplicity." Her name was Offy,
too.

With so many lovely pictures of children it is no wonder Sir Joshua
Reynolds was called the "Prince of Child Painters."


=Questions to help the pupil understand the picture.= Who painted this
picture? What other picture of his have we studied? Who can tell
something about Sir Joshua Reynolds? What little girl came to live with
him? How did she happen to come? Where had she lived? Who brought her,
and how? Tell about Sir Joshua Reynolds's house and yard. Where was the
strawberry patch? What did Offy plan to do to surprise her uncle? What
happened? What did one of the men call Offy? What did her uncle do the
next morning? How was Offy surprised? Of what use was the mirror? Tell
how Offy gathered strawberries in the country. Where did the largest
berries grow? Why did Sir Joshua Reynolds paint the rock in the picture?
What did he say about this picture? What became of Offy? Why do you
think Sir Joshua Reynolds liked to paint this little girl?


=To the Teacher:= Illustrate the story of a little girl picking
strawberries. Use charcoal and manila paper. Ask some child to pose
for the picture, and encourage the children to draw a background that
tells the story.


=The story of the artist.= The great room or studio in which Sir Joshua
Reynolds painted was a wonderful place for a child to visit. In it one
could find all kinds of toys, as well as birds and other pets. Most of
the children who came to see Sir Joshua were of very wealthy families,
but he did not care for that. He always asked their mothers to please
let them wear their oldest clothes so they could have a good time. In
fact, he did not like fine clothes, and usually the children in his
pictures are dressed so simply you cannot tell whether they are rich or
poor. He played games with them and told them stories. They were always
sure of a good time and so no wonder they liked to visit him.

Many artists have been poor, and have had to work very hard just to
earn enough to eat, but Sir Joshua was not one of these. He was
fortunate in being able to sell all his pictures as fast as he could
paint them and so always had plenty of money.

Many strange stories are told of Joshua's father because he was such
an absent-minded man. One day he rode to town on horseback. He was
wearing high-topped boots which were so loose that one fell off while
he was riding along. He did not notice it at all, for he was thinking
of something else. But when he reached town and got off his horse he
was very much surprised and embarrassed to find himself wearing only
one boot.

When Sir Joshua went to London to learn how to paint he wrote to his
father, "While I am doing this, I am the happiest creature alive."
After he had been away several years he met a young sailor, Admiral
Keppel, who invited him to go on a long sail on the Mediterranean Sea.
This was a great opportunity for Sir Joshua, and he was glad to go. He
spent some time in Italy, and when he came home he painted a portrait
of his friend, Admiral Keppel, which every one admired. It was this
picture that first made him famous.


=Questions about the artist.= Tell about Sir Joshua Reynolds's studio.
Why did children like to visit him? How did he wish them to dress?
why? Tell about his father and the boot. Was Sir Joshua Reynolds rich
or poor? When he was away from home, learning to paint, what did he
write to his father? Tell about Admiral Keppel and his picture.



THE RETURN TO THE FARM

  =Original Picture:= The Louvre (l[=oo]´vr'), Paris, France.
  =Artist:= Constant Troyon (trwä´yôn´´)
  =Birthplace:= Sèvres (Sâ´´vr'), France.
  =Dates:= Born, 1810; died, 1865.


=Questions to arouse interest.= What do you see in this picture? Where
are the animals going? Where do you think they have been? Who is
driving them? What time of day do you think it is? Do you think it is
a warm or a cold day? why? Which is the leader of the sheep? Notice
the knees of the animals. What do they show? Where is the donkey? Why
does the dog seem so anxious? From what direction are the animals
coming? See if you can find any two sheep just alike. What can you see
in the distance? Where is the shady part in the picture? Do you like
this picture?


=The story of the picture.= It is at the close of day; the cows, the
sheep, and the donkey have been out in the pasture all day, and when
the dog and his master came for them they were ready to start for home.

We can hardly see the man in the picture. He is walking along the
river bank farther back. Perhaps he is walking slowly so as to give
the cows time to wade out into that cool little pond, where they can
drink and refresh themselves. But the dog feels that he must look
after them, so he tries his best to keep them out of the water. That
one dark cow has just about made up her mind to follow the others into
the water, and the dog is barking at her, trying to persuade her not
to go. The cow just leaving the water turns around to call the rest,
half wishing to go back herself. When the man comes along they will
know it is time for them to be on their way again.

The dog has an anxious time of it, for he never knows when the sheep,
too, may see a green field and start away from the road in spite of
him. Even now one is looking away from the leader.

The donkey seems to be following along very quietly. It may be that
the man has stayed behind to look after him, or perhaps there are more
cattle coming around the curve in the road, or stopping to rest in the
deep shade of those heavy trees.

This picture was painted in France, but it might well have been done
in our own country, for we have all seen grass-covered, shady roads
like this one, and just such a group of animals. Is it not strange
that, although all the animals in the road are coming toward us, no
two are in the same position?

[Illustration: _The Return to the Farm_]

The sun is steadily going down; soon all the animals will be at home,
the cows will be milked, the sheep safe in the fold, and the donkey in
his stall. Then the good old dog will be glad to have his supper and
lie down and rest. It is wonderful how much a dog can help on a farm,
and how many steps he saves the farmer by his willing, cheerful help.
It is very unusual indeed to find a farmer without a dog.

If you look at the long shadows on the road of the sheep and the cows
you can tell easily in what direction they are going so late in the
afternoon.

Constant Troyon, the man who painted this picture, delighted in painting
groups of animals coming toward us. No matter where we stand, so long
as we can see them, they are coming to meet us. It makes us feel as if
we must step aside and let them pass, they are so real.


=Questions to help the pupil understand the picture.= Who goes after the
cows and sheep? Where will they find them? Where is the man in the
picture? Why do you suppose he is walking slowly? What does the dog
think he must do? What is he trying to persuade that dark cow not to do?
What does the cow which is just leaving the water seem to want to do?
Why does the dog look so worried? Where was this picture painted? Where
have you seen a road that looks like this? What will probably happen
when these cows and sheep reach home? Of what use is the dog? Why do
most farmers have a dog? How can a dog help his master in the city? In
what direction are the cows and sheep going? What makes you think so?


=The story of the artist.= When Constant Troyon was a little boy he
used to love to go to visit his father at the big factory where all
kinds of china and pottery were made. He liked to watch the men
decorate the china, and as soon as he was old enough he went into the
factory and learned how to do it himself. This was the way he first
learned how to draw.

He was not long content with china painting, however, and soon began
painting large pictures of places he cared about near home. He would
take his paints and search out just the place he liked to paint; then
he would stay there all day long, as happy as could be.

At first he painted just because he liked to, and did not try to paint
pictures to sell or to please others, for he earned all the money he
needed in the porcelain factory. After a while his friends persuaded
him to exhibit his paintings so that all the people could see them,
and when he did so he was amazed to find that every one admired them,
and that he had become very popular.

Of a powerful frame, he could be seen tramping about in all kinds of
weather. He made friends wherever he went, for he was always
good-natured and kind-hearted. People usually speak of him as a painter
of cattle, but he painted quite as many pictures of sheep and dogs.


=Questions about the artist.= Who painted this picture? What did he
like to paint best? Where did Constant Troyon learn to draw? What was
made at his father's factory? What did Troyon do when he was old
enough? Where did he paint his large pictures? Why did he paint? How
did people like his pictures? How did they like him? What other
animals did he like to paint besides cattle?



THE SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS


=Studying the picture.= Several days before the lesson is to be taken
up, the picture to be studied should be placed where every pupil can
see it.

First of all, the children should find out for themselves what is in
the picture. The questions accompanying the story of each picture are
intended to help them to do this.


=Language work.= The pupils should be encouraged in class to talk
freely and naturally. In this way the lesson becomes a language
exercise in which the pupils will gain in freedom of expression and in
the ability to form clear mental images.

If a lesson does not occupy the entire drawing period, the children
should be asked to retell the story of the picture.


=Dramatization and drawing.= Most of the stories told by the pictures
lend themselves readily to dramatization and, whenever practicable,
such stories should be acted out. The stories also offer numerous
interesting situations that may be used as subjects for drawing lessons.


=The review lesson.= The review lesson should cover all pictures and
artists studied throughout the year. At this time other pictures
available by the same artists should be on exhibition.

The review work may be conducted as a contest in which the pictures
are held up, one at a time, while the class writes the name of the
picture and the artist on slips of paper which have been prepared and
numbered for that purpose. One teacher who used this device surprised
her class by presenting those whose lists were correct with their
choice of any of the large-sized Perry pictures studied.

Many teachers, however, will prefer to use this time for composition
work, although the description of pictures is often given as an
English lesson. Pupils may write a description of their favorite
picture. In fact, the lessons can be made to correlate with history,
geography, English, spelling, reading, or nature study.

In any event the real purpose of the work is that the pupils shall
become so familiar with the pictures that they will recognize them as
old friends whenever and wherever they may see them.

It is hoped that acquaintance with the picture and the interest
awakened by its story will grow into a fuller appreciation and
understanding of the artist's work. Thus the children will have many
happy hours and will learn to love the good, the true, and the
beautiful in everything about them.



[Transcriber's Note:


* Text enclosed between equal signs was in bold face in the original
(=bold=).

* Some words have accents of different weights. The heavier accent is
marked double (''). (Example: bo'nur'')

* Pg 21 Pronunciation guide for (zhäN fräN´ swä´ mēlĕ´´)
presents a Latin letter small capital "N", a voiced uvular nasal.

* Pg 37 Emile Renouf (rẽ n[=oo]f´´) and Pg 51 Louvre (l[=oo]´vr')
contains [=oo] representing a "long oo" sound not represented in any
charts.

* Pg 41 Changed "where" to "Where" in "How does he go? where?".]





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