Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: What Bird is That? - A Pocket Museum of the Land Birds of the Eastern United - States Arranged According to Season
Author: Chapman, Frank M.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "What Bird is That? - A Pocket Museum of the Land Birds of the Eastern United - States Arranged According to Season" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



WHAT BIRD IS THAT?



By FRANK M. CHAPMAN


          AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A BIRD-LOVER

          HANDBOOK OF BIRDS OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA

          MY TROPICAL AIR CASTLE

          BIRD-LIFE

          CAMPS AND CRUISES OF AN ORNITHOLOGIST

          COLOR KEY TO NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS

          THE TRAVELS OF BIRDS

          OUR WINTER BIRDS

          WHAT BIRD IS THAT?

          BIRD STUDIES WITH A CAMERA

          LIFE IN AN AIR CASTLE

[Illustration: 'MAP' OF A BIRD (Bluebird not quite life size).]

The student should learn to name the parts of a bird's plumage in order
that he may write, as well as understand, descriptions of a bird's color
and markings.



WHAT BIRD IS THAT?

A POCKET MUSEUM OF THE LAND BIRDS OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES ARRANGED
ACCORDING TO SEASON

BY

FRANK M. CHAPMAN

CURATOR OF BIRDS IN THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND EDITOR OF
"BIRD-LORE"

[Illustration]

WITH 301 BIRDS IN COLOR

BY

EDMUND J. SAWYER

          D. APPLETON-CENTURY COMPANY
          INCORPORATED
          NEW YORK  LONDON



          COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY
          D. APPLETON & COMPANY

          _All rights reserved. This book, or parts
          thereof, must not be reproduced in any
          form without permission of the publishers._



          PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



INTRODUCTION


AS Curator of the Department of Birds of the American Museum of Natural
History I have had exceptional facilities for the arrangement of
collections designed to give students a comprehensive view of local
bird-life without confusing them with unnecessary details.

Among other aids to this end a collection of 'Birds Found within 50
Miles of New York' has been placed in a special hall and so grouped that
the visitor who wishes to identify some bird seen within these limits
may do so with the least possible difficulty. In addition to the
'General Systematic Collection,' containing specimens of the 350-odd
species of birds which have been recorded from the New York City region,
there is also a 'Seasonal Collection.' This Seasonal Collection contains
only the birds of the month. Its base is the 'Permanent Resident Birds,'
or those which, like the Crow, are with us throughout the year. To
these, the migratory species are added or subtracted, as they come or
go. The collection of migratory species is therefore revised the first
of each month. Birds which are due to arrive during the month are added,
those which have left us are withdrawn. The Seasonal Collection thus
gives us, at a glance, a picture of the bird-life of the month and
correspondingly limits the field of our inquiry when we go to it to
learn the name of some strange bird recently observed. In January,
therefore, we have not to consider the birds of June, nor need we be
concerned with winter birds in summer. The season of occurrence thus
gives us an important clue to a bird's identity.

For somewhat more than a quarter of a century this small collection has
achieved its object so effectively that I have attempted to embody the
idea it demonstrates in a series of drawings which have been admirably
executed by Mr. Edmund Sawyer. As foundation plates or 'collections,' we
have first two 'cases' of the winter land birds of the Northeastern
States, or from about Maryland northward, containing the Permanent
Residents, which form part of the bird-life of every month of the year,
and the Winter Visitants, or those birds which come from the North in
the fall to remain with us until the following spring.

Cases 3 and 4 contain the Permanent Resident and Winter Visitant land
birds of the Southern States. Whether the student is in the North or in
the South he has, therefore, a 'collection' of the land birds which he
may expect to find during the winter months.

Cases 5 to 8 contain the migrants arranged according to the order of
their arrival from the South in the vicinity of New York City. Since it
is not practicable to have cases containing collections of migrants for
other latitudes, data are given showing what changes in dates should be
made to adapt the schedule presented to other localities, including
Washington, D.C., Ossining, N.Y., Cambridge, Mass., northern Ohio, Glen
Ellyn, near Chicago, and southeastern Minnesota. The records for these
localities are quoted from the author's 'Handbook of Birds of Eastern
North America' to which they were contributed respectively by Dr. C.W.
Richmond, Dr. A.K. Fisher, William Brewster, Lynds Jones, B.T. Gault,
and Dr. Thos. S. Roberts.

With these facts, the cases in a large measure tell their own story,
just as does our Museum Seasonal Collection; but further to assist the
student I have added what may be termed a 'label' for each of the
'specimens' they contain. These labels include comments on each bird's
distinctive characters, a statement of its nesting and winter range, the
notes on its status at various localities, to which I have just
referred, and brief remarks on its habits.

It is the specimens, however, not the labels, which warrant the
publication of this little volume, for I hope that, like their
prototypes in the American Museum, they will be a means of acquainting
us with "the most eloquent expressions of Nature's beauty, joy and
freedom," and thereby add to our lives a resource of incalculable value.

While the birds in the cases are small, they are drawn and reproduced
with such accuracy that no essential detail of color or form is lost.
Above all, they have the rare merit of being all drawn to nearly the
same scale. One will soon learn therefore to measure the proportions of
unknown birds by comparison with those with which one is familiar, and
since relative size is the most obvious character in naming birds in
nature, this is a feature of the first importance.

The student is strongly urged _first_, to become thoroughly familiar
with the 'map' of a bird given in the frontispiece: _second_, to use an
opera- or field-glass when observing birds: _third_, to write
descriptions of unknown birds _while they are in view_ stating their
length, shape, and as many details of their color and markings as can be
seen: _fourth_, to remember that one is not likely to find birds except
in their regular seasons: and, _fifth_, to take this book afield with
him and make direct comparison of the living bird with its colored
figure. The wide margins are designed for use in recording field-notes.

                                                   FRANK M. CHAPMAN.

  American Museum of Natural History.
          New York City.



CONTENTS



                                                PAGE

  INTRODUCTION                                   vii

  BIRDS AND SEASONS                               xi

  ABBREVIATIONS                                 xxvi

  LAND BIRDS OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES          1


THE POCKET MUSEUM

  CASE                                   FACING PAGE

  NO. 1 PERMANENT RESIDENT LAND BIRDS OF THE
          NORTHERN UNITED STATES               xviii

  NO. 2 PERMANENT RESIDENTS (CONCLUDED) AND
          WINTER VISITANTS LAND BIRDS OF THE
          NORTHERN UNITED STATES                 xix

  NO. 3 WINTER LAND BIRDS OF THE SOUTHERN
          UNITED STATES                           xx

  NO. 4 WINTER LAND BIRDS (CONCLUDED)            xxi

  NO. 5 EARLY SPRING MIGRANT LAND BIRDS OF
          THE EASTERN UNITED STATES             xxii

  NO. 6 EARLY SPRING MIGRANT LAND BIRDS
          (CONCLUDED)                          xxiii

  NO. 7 LATE SPRING MIGRANT LAND BIRDS OF
          THE EASTERN UNITED STATES             xxiv

  NO. 8 LATE SPRING MIGRANT LAND BIRDS
          (CONCLUDED)                            xxv



BIRDS AND SEASONS


BEFORE a leaf unfolds or a flower spreads its petals, even before the
buds swell, and while yet there is snow on the ground, the birds tell us
that spring is at hand. The Song Sparrow sings "Spring, spring, spring,
sunny days are here"; the Meadowlark blows his fife, the Downy rattles
his drum, and company after company of Grackles in glistening black
coats, and of Red-wings with scarlet epaulets, go trooping by. For the
succeeding three months, in orderly array, the feathered army files by,
each member of it at his appointed time whether he comes from the
adjoining State or from below the equator.

Besides the Blackbirds, March brings the Robin and Bluebird, Woodcock,
Phœbe, Meadowlark, Cowbird, Kingfisher, Mourning Dove, Fox, Swamp,
White-throated and Field Sparrows.

Near New York City the New Year of the birds has now passed its infancy
and in April each day adds perceptibly to its strength. 'Pussy' willows
"creep out along each bough," skunk cabbage rears its head in low, wet
woods, and in sun-warmed places early wild flowers peep from beneath the
sodden leaves. With swelling ranks the migratory army moves more
steadily northward. Species which arrived late in March become more
numerous, and to them are soon added the Vesper, Savannah, and Chipping
Sparrows, and other seed-eaters; and when, with increasing warmth,
insects appear, the pioneer Phœbe is followed by other insect-eating
birds, like the Swallows, Pipit, Hermit Thrush, Myrtle and Palm
Warblers, Louisiana Water-thrush and Ruby-crowned Kinglet.

The true bird student will now pass every available moment afield,
eagerly watching for the return of old friends and more eagerly still
for possible new ones. But enjoyment of this yearly miracle should not
be left only to the initiated. We need not be ornithologists to be
thrilled when the Robin's song in March awakes long silent echoes, or
the Thrasher's solo rings loud and clear on an April morning. The
Catbird singing from near his last year's home in the thickening
shrubbery, the House Wren whose music bubbles over between bustling
visits to an oft-used bird-box, the Chimney Swift twittering cheerily
from an evening sky, may be heard without even the effort of listening
and each one, with a hundred others, brings us a message if we will but
accept it. And I make no fanciful statement when I say that it is a
message we can ill afford to lose.

[Illustration: "RED-WINGS WITH SCARLET EPAULETS GO TROOPING BY"]

With May come the Thrushes--Wood Thrush, Veery, Olive-back and
Gray-cheek, the last two en route to the north--the Orioles, Cuckoos,
Vireos, and the Bobolink who began his four thousand mile journey from
northern Argentina in March. But May is preëminently the Month of
Warblers, "most beautiful, most abundant, and least known" of our birds.
To the eight species which have already arrived, there may be added over
twenty more, represented by a number of individuals beyond our power to
estimate. We may hear the Robin, Thrasher, and Wren, without listening,
but we will see few Warblers without looking; and this, in a measure,
accounts for the fascination which attends their study.

After May 15 there is an evident thinning in the ranks of the migrating
army, and by June 1 we shall see only a few stragglers. The Transient
Visitors will have gone to their more northern homes and our bird
population will then consist only of the ever present Permanent
Residents and the Summer Residents which the great northward march of
the birds has brought us from the South.

Although June may be called the Month of Nests, nest-building begins
long before the migration ends. Some Owls and Hawks lay in March, and
the Bluebird, White-breasted Nuthatch and Robin have eggs by April 20,
while most of our birds go to housekeeping during the latter half of
May. Nevertheless, it is in June that their domestic life is at its
height; and to the student of birds' habits this is by far the most
interesting month in the year.

[Illustration: TREE SWALLOWS . . . RESTING IN ROWS ON WAYSIDE WIRES]

Birds that raise two or even three broods will still be occupied with
household affairs in July, but one-brooded birds, having launched their
families, will seek retirement to undergo the trying ordeal of molt,
whereby they will get a complete new costume. Often this will be quite
unlike the one in which they arrived from the South--as the student will
discover, sometimes to his confusion! In August, the Month of Molt, the
seclusion sought by many of our summer birds induces the belief that
they have left us, but toward the latter part of the month they
reappear. The first week in August virtually marks the end of the song
season. The Wood Pewee and Red-eyed Vireo remain in voice throughout the
month, but the great chorus which has made May, June and most of July
vocal, we shall not hear before another spring--so short is the time
when we are blessed by the songs of birds.

Meanwhile the feathered army has begun its retreat to winter quarters.
As early as July 15, Tree Swallows will arrive and by the end of the
month will be seen resting in rows on wayside telegraph wires, or en
route to their roosts in the marshes. In the now heavily leaved forests
the returning Warblers and Flycatchers will not be so easily observed as
they were in May, but in September they become too abundant to be
overlooked. The southward movement grows in strength until late
September, when the greater part of the insect-eating birds have left
us, and it is terminated by the frosts, and consequent falling leaves,
of October.

But just as in the spring some of the northbound migrants drop from the
ranks to spend the summer with us, so in the fall some of the southbound
travelers will remain with us for the winter. The Junco, which we are
wont to think of as only a winter bird, arrives the latter part of
September to remain until April, and with him come the Golden-crowned
Kinglet, Brown Creeper and Winter Wren--all to stay until spring.
October will bring the Horned Lark, Pine Finch, Snow Bunting, Tree
Sparrow and Northern Shrike and these birds with the ones just
mentioned, and the ever faithful Permanent Residents, give us a goodly
winter company.

But the possibilities do not end here; there may be Redpolls, American
and also White-winged Crossbills, perhaps Pine Grosbeaks, and, best of
all, Evening Grosbeaks, who of recent years have been coming to us more
or less regularly from no man knows where.

So from one year's end to the other, there is not a month, a week or day
which has not interests of its own. The bird student may pass his life
in one place, but he can never say "I have finished" for the morrow may
bring some new bird or new fact. How immeasurably this association with
the birds adds to the joy of life! What new meanings their comings and
goings give to the changing seasons; the very air is made eloquent by
their calls and songs. Why should we not all "come at these
enchantments"?

[Illustration: IN OCTOBER, WHEN MIGRATING HAWKS DOT THE SKY, THE GREAT
SOUTHWARD MARCH OF THE BIRDS IS NEARING ITS END.]



          A POCKET
          MUSEUM

          OF THE

          LAND BIRDS

          OF THE

          EASTERN
          UNITED STATES

          _Arranged according_
          TO SEASON

[Illustration: CASE NO. 1 FIGS. 1-19]


CASE NO. 1 FIGS. 1-19

PERMANENT RESIDENT LAND BIRDS OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES

     1 Bob-white, male, p. 1
     2 Bob-white, female, p. 1
     3 Ruffed Grouse, p. 2
     4 Red-shouldered Hawk, adult, p. 12
     5 Red-tailed Hawk, young, p. 11
     6 Red-tailed Hawk, adult, p. 11
     7 Sparrow Hawk, male, p. 17
     8 Sparrow Hawk, female, p. 17
     9 Cooper's Hawk, young female, p. 10
    10 Cooper's Hawk, adult male, p. 10
    11 Sharp-shinned Hawk, adult male, p. 9
    12 Sharp-shinned Hawk, young female, p. 9
    13 Screech Owl, gray phase, p. 22
    14 Screech Owl, rufous phase, p. 22
    15 Barred Owl, p. 20
    16 Great Horned Owl, p. 22
    17 Long-eared Owl, p. 19
    18 Short-eared Owl, p. 20
    19 American Crow, p. 46

[Illustration: PERMANENT RESIDENTS]


CASE NO. 2 FIGS. 20-63

PERMANENT RESIDENT LAND BIRDS OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES

    20 Blue Jay, p. 44
    21 Flicker, male, p. 32
    22 Flicker, female, p. 32
    23 Meadowlark, p. 50
    24 Starling, winter, p. 47
    25 Starling, summer, p. 47
    26 Downy Woodpecker, male, p. 28
    27 Downy Woodpecker, female, p. 28
    28 Hairy Woodpecker, male, p. 28
    29 Hairy Woodpecker, female, p. 28
    30 English Sparrow, male, p. 57
    31 English Sparrow, female, p. 57
    32 Purple Finch, female, p. 57
    33 Purple Finch, male, p. 57
    34 Song Sparrow, p. 74
    35 Goldfinch, female, p. 60
    36 Goldfinch, male, p. 60
    37 Chickadee, p. 125
    38 White-breasted Nuthatch, male, p. 123
    39 White-breasted Nuthatch, female, p. 123
    40 Cedar Waxwing, p. 85


WINTER VISITANT LAND BIRDS OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES

or those which come from the North in the Fall and usually remain until
Spring:

    41 Saw-whet Owl, p. 21
    42 Prairie Horned Lark, p. 43
    43 Junco, p. 73
    44 Tree Sparrow, p. 71
    45 White-throated Sparrow, adult, p. 70
    46 White-throated Sparrow, young, p. 70
    47 Redpoll, female, p. 59
    48 Redpoll, male, p. 59
    49 American Crossbill, male, p. 58
    50 American Crossbill, female, p. 58
    51 White-winged Crossbill, male, p. 58
    52 White-winged Crossbill, female, p. 58
    53 Pine Grosbeak, male, p. 56
    54 Pine Grosbeak, female, p. 56
    55 Siskin, p. 60
    56 Northern Shrike, p. 86
    57 Snow Bunting, p. 61
    58 Winter Wren, p. 120
    59 Brown Creeper, p. 122
    60 Red-breasted Nuthatch, male p. 124
    61 Red-breasted Nuthatch, female, p. 124
    62 Golden-crowned Kinglet, female, p. 127
    63 Golden-crowned Kinglet, male, p. 127

[Illustration: CASE NO. 3 FIGS. 1-27]


CASE NO. 3 FIGS. 1-27

WINTER LAND BIRDS OF THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES


Permanent Resident species, or those which are present throughout the
year, are marked "R." Winter Visitant species, or those which come from
the North in the Fall and remain until Spring, are marked "W."

     1  Bob-white, male, R., p. 1
     2  Bob-white, female, R., p. 1
     3  Mourning Dove, R., p. 5
     4  Ground Dove, R., p. 5
     5  Sparrow Hawk, female, R., p. 17
     6  Sparrow Hawk, male, R., p. 17
     7  Sharp-shinned Hawk, adult male, R., p. 9
     8  Sharp-shinned Hawk, young female, R., p. 9
     9  Turkey Vulture, R., p. 6
    10  Black Vulture, R., p. 7
    11  Bald Eagle, adult, R., p. 14
    12  Red-shouldered Hawk, adult, R., p. 12
    13  Red-tailed Hawk, adult, R., p. 11
    14  Osprey, R., p. 18
    15  Marsh Hawk, adult male, R., p. 9
    16  Barred Owl, R., p. 20
    17  Barn Owl, R., p. 19
    18  Belted Kingfisher, male, R., p. 26
    19  Screech Owl, gray phase, R., p. 22
    20  Flicker, male, R., p. 32
    21  Red-headed Woodpecker, adult, R., p. 31
    22  Red-headed Woodpecker, young, R., p. 31
    23  Red-bellied Woodpecker, male R., p. 32
    24  Hairy Woodpecker, male, R., p. 28
    25  Downy  Woodpecker, male, R., p. 28
    26  Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, adult male, W., p. 30
    27  American Crow, R., p. 46

[Illustration: CASE NO. 4 FIGS. 28-82]


CASE NO. 4 FIGS. 28-82

WINTER LAND BIRDS OF THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES


Permanent Resident species, or those which are present throughout the
year, are marked "R." Winter Visitant species, or those which come from
the North in the Fall and remain until Spring, are marked "W."

    28  Red-winged Blackbird,  male R., p. 49
    29  Red-winged Blackbird, female, R., p. 49
    30  Cowbird, male, R., p. 48
    31  Cowbird, female, R., p. 48
    32  Towhee, female, R., p. 76
    33  Towhee, male, R., p. 76
    34  Cardinal, female, R., p. 77
    35  Cardinal, male, R., p. 77
    36  Vesper Sparrow, W., R., [A]p. 63
    37  Fox Sparrow, W., p. 76
    38  House (or "English") Sparrow, male, R., p. 57
    39  House (or "English") Sparrow, female, R., p. 57
    40  White-throated Sparrow, adult, W., p. 70
    41  Junco, W., p. 73
    42  Song Sparrow, R., p. 74
    43  Field Sparrow, R., p. 72
    44  Swamp Sparrow, W., p. 75
    45  Chipping Sparrow, winter, R., p. 71
    46  Tree Sparrow, W., p. 71
    47  Savannah Sparrow, W., p. 64
    48  Purple Finch, adult male, W., p. 57
    49  Purple  Finch,  female  and young male, W., p. 57
    50  Goldfinch, male, summer, R., p. 60
    51  Goldfinch, female and winter, R., p. 60
    52  Phœbe, R., p. 38
    53  Tree Swallow, W., p. 83
    54  Cedar Waxwing, R., W., [A]p. 85
    55  Loggerhead Shrike, R., p. 87
    56  Myrtle Warbler, winter, W., p. 100
    57  Pine Warbler, R., p. 107
    58  Palm Warbler, winter, W., p. 108
    59  Yellow Palm Warbler, winter, W., p. 108
    60  Maryland Yellow-throat, male, R., p. 113
    61  Maryland Yellow-throat, female, R., p. 113
    62  Pipit, W., p. 116
    63  House Wren, R., p. 120
    64  Carolina Wren, R., p. 119
    65  White-breasted Nuthatch, R., p. 123
    66  Brown-headed Nuthatch, R., p. 124
    67  Tufted Titmouse, R., p. 125
    68  Carolina Chickadee, R., p. 126
    69  Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, R., p. 129
    70  Ruby-crowned Kinglet, male, W., p. 128
    71  Ruby-crowned  Kinglet, female, W., p. 128
    72  Golden-crowned Kinglet, male, W., p. 127
    73  Golden-crowned Kinglet, female, W., p. 127
    74  Florida Grackle, R., p. 53
    75  Blue Jay, R., p. 44
    76  Mockingbird, R., p. 117
    77  Hermit Thrush, W., p. 132
    78  Bluebird, male, R., p. 134
    79  Meadowlark, R., p. 50
    80  Robin, R., W., [A]p. 133
    81  Catbird, R., p. 117
    82  Brown Thrasher, R., p. 118

[Footnote A: Winter Visitant only in the more southern States; a
Permanent Resident in North Carolina and Virginia.]

[Illustration: CASE NO. 5 FIGS. 1-38]


CASE NO. 5 FIGS. 1-38

EARLY SPRING MIGRANT LAND BIRDS OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES


The birds are arranged in the order of their arrival from the South in
the vicinity of New York City. Nos. 1-19, 22-24, 26, 27, 30, 31, 36-38
winter in the Southern (chiefly Gulf) States. The remainder winter in
the tropics and reach the Southern States a month or more before they
arrive at New York. Compared with the dates here given for New York
City, Washington dates are from ten to fifteen days earlier; Boston,
about a week later; northern Ohio, eight to twelve days earlier;
northern Illinois, six to ten days earlier; southeastern Minnesota,
about the same as those for New York.

     1  Purple Grackle, male, p. 53
     2  Bronzed Grackle, male, p. 53
     3  Rusty Blackbird, female, p. 52
     4  Rusty Blackbird, male, p. 52
     5  Red-winged Blackbird, female, p. 49
     6  Red-winged Blackbird, male, p. 49
     7  Fox Sparrow, p. 76
     8  Cowbird, male, p. 48
     9  Cowbird, female, p. 48
    10  Kingfisher, male, p. 26
    11  Mourning Dove, p. 5
    12  Robin, p. 133
    13  Bluebird, male, p. 134
    14  Field Sparrow, p. 72
    15  Phœbe, p. 38
    16  Vesper Sparrow, p. 63
    17  American Pipit, p. 116
    18  Yellow-throated Warbler, p. 105 (Southern States)
    19  Sycamore Warbler, p 105. (lower Mississippi Valley)
    20  Bachman's Warbler, female, p. 94 (Southern States)
    21  Bachman's Warbler, male, p. 94 (Southern States)
    22  Swamp Sparrow, p. 75
    23  Savannah Sparrow, p. 64
    24  Tree Swallow, p. 83
    25  Purple Martin, male, p. 82
    26  Hermit Thrush, p. 132
    27  Myrtle Warbler, p. 100
    28  Swainson's Warbler, p. 93 (Southern States)
    29  Prothonotary Warbler, male, p. 93 (Southern States and Mississippi Valley)
    30  Sapsucker, male, p. 30
    31  Chipping Sparrow, p. 71
    32  Barn Swallow, p. 83
    33  Summer Tanager, male, p. 81 (Southern States)
    34  Summer Tanager, female, p. 81 (Southern States)
    35  Louisiana Water-Thrush, p. 110
    36  Ruby-crowned Kinglet, male, p. 128
    37  Ruby-crowned  Kinglet,  female, p. 128
    38  Yellow Palm Warbler, p. 108

[Illustration: CASE NO. 6 FIGS. 39-74]


CASE NO. 6 FIGS. 39-74

EARLY SPRING MIGRANT LAND BIRDS OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES


The birds are arranged in the order of their arrival from the South in
the vicinity of New York City. Nos. 43, 46, 47, 51, 57, 60-64, 67, 68,
70-72 winter in the Southern (chiefly Gulf) States. The remainder winter
in the tropics and reach the Southern States a month or more before they
arrive at New York. Compared with the dates here given for New York
City, Washington dates are from ten to fifteen days earlier; Boston,
about a week later; northern Ohio, eight to twelve days earlier;
northern Illinois, six to ten days earlier; southeastern Minnesota,
about the same as those for New York.

    39  Nighthawk, male, p. 34
    40  Chuckwill's Widow (Southern States), p. 33
    41  Whip-poor-will, male, p. 34
    42  Chimney Swift, p. 35
    43  Red-headed Woodpecker, p. 31
    44  Least Flycatcher, p. 42
    45  Yellow-headed Blackbird, male, p. 49 (Mississippi Valley)
    46  Seaside Sparrow, p. 67
    47  Sharp-tailed Sparrow, p. 66
    48  Clay-colored Sparrow, p. 72 (Mississippi Valley)
    49  Painted Bunting, female, p. 79 (Southern States)
    50  Painted Bunting, male, p. 79 (Southern States)
    51  Towhee, male, p. 76
    52  Blue Grosbeak, male, p. 78 (Southern States)
    53  Blue Grosbeak, female, p. 78 (Southern States)
    54  Bank Swallow, p. 84
    55  Cliff Swallow, p. 82
    56  Rough-winged Swallow, p. 84
    57  Black and White Warbler, p. 92
    58  Black-throated Blue Warbler, male, p. 99
    59  Black-throated Blue Warbler, female, p. 99
    60  Pine Warbler, p. 107
    61  Palm Warbler, p. 108
    62  Black-throated Green Warbler, p. 106
    63  Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, p. 129 (Southern States)
    64  Oven-bird, p. 109
    65  Bell's Vireo, p. 92 (Mississippi Valley)
    66  Red-eyed Vireo, p. 88
    67  White-eyed Vireo, p. 91
    68  Blue-headed Vireo, p. 90
    69  Yellow-throated Vireo, p. 90
    70  House Wren, p. 120
    71  Catbird, p. 117
    72  Brown Thrasher, p. 118
    73  Veery, p. 130
    74  Wood Thrush, p. 129

[Illustration: CASE NO. 7 FIGS. 1-39]


CASE NO. 7 FIGS. 1-39

LATE SPRING MIGRANT LAND BIRDS OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

For times of arrival at other localities see remarks under Case No. 6

     1 Yellow-billed Cuckoo, p. 25
     2 Black-billed Cuckoo, p. 25
     3 Ruby-throated Hummingbird, female, p. 36
     4 Ruby-throated Hummingbird, male, p. 36
     5 Crested Flycatcher, p. 38
     6 Kingbird, p. 37
     7 Gray Kingbird, p. 37 (Southern States)
     8 Baltimore Oriole, male, p. 52
     9 Baltimore Oriole, female, p. 52
    10 Orchard Oriole, adult male, p. 51
    11 Orchard Oriole, female, p. 51
    12 Orchard Oriole, young male, p. 51
    13 Bobolink, female, p. 48
    14 Bobolink, male, p. 48
    15 Lincoln's Sparrow, p. 75
    16 Grasshopper Sparrow, p. 64
    17 Henslow's Sparrow, p. 65
    18 Leconte's Sparrow, p. 65 (Mississippi Valley)
    19 Lark Sparrow, p. 68 (Mississippi Valley)
    20 Dickcissel, p. 80 (Mississippi Valley)
    21 Harris's Sparrow, p. 69 (Mississippi Valley)
    22 White-crowned Sparrow, p. 69
    23 Indigo Bunting, male, p. 79
    24 Indigo Bunting, female, p. 79
    25 Rose-breasted Grosbeak, female, p. 78
    26 Rose-breasted Grosbeak, male, p. 78
    27 Scarlet Tanager, male, p. 80
    28 Scarlet Tanager, p. 80
    29 Warbling Vireo, p. 89
    30 Philadelphia Vireo, p. 89
    31 Worm-eating Warbler, p. 93
    32 Orange-crowned Warbler, p. 96
    33 Nashville Warbler, p. 96
    34 Golden-winged Warbler, male, p. 95
    35 Blue-winged Warbler, p. 94
    36 Golden-winged Warbler, female, p. 95
    37 Lawrence's Warbler, p. 95
    38 Brewster's Warbler, p. 95
    39 Parula Warbler, p. 97

[Illustration: CASE NO. 8. FIGS. 40-82]


CASE NO. 8. FIGS. 40-82

LATE SPRING MIGRANT LAND BIRDS OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

For times of arrival at other localities see remarks under Case No. 6.

    40 Yellow Warbler, female, p. 99
    41 Yellow Warbler, male, p. 99
    42 Magnolia Warbler, p. 101
    43 Chestnut-sided Warbler, male, p. 102
    44 Chestnut-sided Warbler, female, p. 102
    45 Kirtland's Warbler, p. 106
    46 Cerulean Warbler, female, p. 102
    47 Cerulean Warbler, male, p. 102
    48 Prairie Warbler, p. 108
    49 Chat, p. 113
    50 Maryland Yellow-throat, male, p. 113
    51 Maryland Yellow-throat, female, p. 113
    52 Kentucky Warbler, p. 111
    53 Canadian Warbler, p. 115
    54 Hooded Warbler, male, p. 114
    55 Hooded Warbler, female, p. 114
    56 Northern Water-Thrush, p. 110
    57 Redstart, female, p. 115
    58 Redstart, male, p. 115
    59 Olive-sided Flycatcher, p. 39
    60 Acadian Flycatcher, p. 41
    61 Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, p. 40
    62 Alder Flycatcher, p. 41
    63 Wood Pewee, p. 40
    64 Tennessee Warbler, p. 97
    65 Cape May Warbler, male, p. 98
    66 Cape May Warbler, female, p. 98
    67 Blackburnian Warbler, male, p. 104
    68 Blackburnian Warbler, female, p. 104
    69 Bay-breasted Warbler, male, p. 103
    70 Bay-breasted Warbler, female, p. 103
    71 Blackpoll Warbler, male, p. 103
    72 Blackpoll Warbler, female, p. 103
    71 Wilson's Warbler, female, p. 114
    74 Wilson's Warbler, male, p. 114
    75 Mourning Warbler, male, p. 112
    76 Mourning Warbler, female, p. 112
    77 Connecticut Warbler, male, p. 111
    78 Connecticut Warbler, female, p. 111
    79 Long-billed Marsh Wren, p. 122
    80 Short-billed Marsh Wren, p. 121
    81 Olive-backed Thrush, p. 131
    82 Gray-cheeked Thrush, p. 130



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


    A.V.  Accidental Visitant. A bird found beyond the
             limits of its usual range.

    L.     Length of a bird from the tip of its bill to the end
             of its tail. Remember that living birds look
             shorter than the measurements of specimens
             given beyond.

    P.R.  Permanent Resident. A species which is found in
             the same locality throughout the year. The Bob-white,
             Ruffed Grouse, most Owls, and Hawks,
             the Crow, Jays, Black-capped Chickadee and
             the White-breasted Nuthatch are Permanent
             Residents.

    S.R.  Summer Resident. A species which comes from
             the South in the spring and, after nesting, returns
             to its winter quarters.

    T.V.  Transient Visitant. A species which visits us in
             the spring while en route to its more northern
             nesting grounds, and in the fall when returning
             to its winter home in the South. Most Transient
             Visitants are found both in the spring and fall,
             but some, like the Connecticut Warbler, are found
             in the North Atlantic States only in the fall.

    W.V.  Winter Visitant. A species which comes from the
             North to remain with us all, or part of the winter
             and then return to the North. Winter Visitants
             may arrive in September and remain until April,
             or they may come later and only for a brief stay.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTE. Measurements are in inches.



Land Birds of the Eastern United States



GALLINACEOUS BIRDS. ORDER GALLINÆ



AMERICAN QUAIL. FAMILY ODONTOPHORIDÆ


BOB-WHITE

_Colinus virginianus virginianus. Case 1. Figs. 1, 2_

          The black and white markings of the male are
          respectively buff and brown in the female. In
          flight the Bob-white, or Quail, suggests a
          Meadowlark, but the tail is without white
          feathers. L. 10.

          _Range._ Eastern United States north to Minnesota
          and Maine south to the Gulf. A Permanent Resident.
          Severe winters and much shooting have made it rare
          in the more northern parts of its range.

          Washington, common P.R. Ossining, common P.R.
          Cambridge, P.R. N. Ohio, not common P.R. Glen
          Ellyn, rare P.R. SE. Minn., common P.R.

Except when nesting Bob-whites live in flocks or "coveys" usually
composed of the members of one family. Their song, heard in spring and
summer, is the clear, ringing two- or three-noted whistle which gives
them their common name. Their fall and winter notes, which sportsmen
term "scatter calls" are signals by which the members of a flock keep
within speaking distance of one another. "_Where_ are you?" "_Where_ are
you?" they seem to say. As with other protectively colored,
ground-inhabiting birds, Bob-whites do not take wing until one almost
steps upon them. Then, like a bursting bomb, the covey seems to explode,
its brown pieces flying in every direction. The nest is on the ground
and the 10-18 white, pear-shaped eggs are laid in May or June.

The Florida Bob-white (_C. v. floridanus_, Case 3, Figs. 1, 2), a
smaller darker race is resident in Florida, except in the northern part
of the state. It begins to nest in April.



GROUSE. FAMILY TETRAONIDÆ


CANADA SPRUCE PARTRIDGE

_Canachites canadensis canace_

          The male is a grayish bird with a jet black throat
          and breast, the former bordered with white; the
          skin above the eye is red. The female is barred
          with black and reddish brown with a black mottled
          tail tipped with brown. L. 15.

          _Range._ Northern parts of United States from New
          Brunswick to Manitoba. Other races are found
          throughout the wooded parts of Canada and Alaska.

An unsuspicious inhabitant of swampy coniferous forests. Now rare in the
United States. It nests on the ground in June, laying 9-16 eggs, buff,
lightly speckled with brown.


RUFFED GROUSE

_Bonasa umbellus umbellus. Case 1, Fig. 3_

          The female resembles the male in color but has the
          black neck-tufts smaller. The tail-feathers vary
          from gray to bright rusty. L. 17.

          _Range._ Eastern United States south in the
          Alleghanies to Georgia. In the southern states the
          Grouse is often called 'Pheasant.' A Permanent
          Resident.

          Washington, not common P.R. Ossining, common P.R.
          Cambridge, P.R., formerly very common. N. Ohio,
          rare P.R. Glen Ellyn, rare and local P.R.

On our western plains and prairies there is a Grouse which we call
Prairie Hen and we might well apply the name Wood Hen to this Grouse of
our forests. To flush a Grouse in the quiet of the woods always makes
the "heart jump." His whirring wings not only produce the roar which
accompanies his flight, but they are also responsible for the "drumming"
which constitutes the Grouse's song as sitting upright on some favorite
log, he rapidly beats the air with his wings.

The horny fringes which in winter border the toes of the Grouse, or
Partridge, as he is also called, form in effect snow-shoes which help to
support the bird on soft snow. At this season they also feed in trees on
buds and catkins, and they may roost in trees or seek a bed by plunging
into a snow-bank.

The nest, lined with leaves, is placed at the base of a tree or stump;
the 8-14 buffy eggs are laid in May.

The Canada Ruffed Grouse (_B. u. togata_), of northern New England and
northwards is grayer above and more distinctly barred below.


PRAIRIE CHICKEN

_Tympanuchus americanus_

          The Prairie Hen has a rounded or nearly square
          tail and a barred breast; in the Sharp-tailed
          Grouse the tail is pointed, the breast with
          V-shaped markings. L. 18.

          _Range._ Central Plains region from Texas to
          Manitoba, east to Indiana. Migratory at its
          northern limits.

          Glen Ellyn, P.R. local, S.E. Minn., P.R. much
          decreased in numbers.

The Ruffed Grouse sounds his rolling, muffled drum-call in the seclusion
of the forest, but the Prairie Hen beats his loud _boom-ah-boom_ in the
open freedom of the plains. Hardy and strong of wing, he can cope with
winter storms and natural enemies, but against the combined assault of
man, dog, and gun, he cannot successfully contend.

About a dozen buff-olive eggs are laid on the ground in April or early
May.


HEATH HEN

_Tympanuchus cupido_

This is a close relative of the Prairie Hen, having the black neck-tuft
of less than ten feathers with pointed, not rounded, ends. It is now
found only on the Island of Martha's Vineyard, but formerly inhabited
plains or barrens, locally, from New Jersey to Massachusetts. It nests
in June.



TURKEYS. FAMILY MELEAGRIDÆ


WILD TURKEY

_Meleagris gallopavo silvestris_

          The Wild Turkey was formerly found as far north as
          Maine and Ontario but it is unknown now north of
          central Pennsylvania. South of Maryland it is not
          uncommon locally.

          _Range._ Kansas and central Pennsylvania to the
          Gulf coast, and northern Florida. Non-migratory.

          Washington, rare P.R.

Our domestic Turkey is descended from the Mexican Wild Turkey and like
that race has the upper tail-coverts and tail tipped with whitish,
whereas in our eastern Wild Turkey these tips are chestnut. The nest is
on the ground and 10-14 eggs, pale cream-color finely speckled with
brownish, are laid in April.

The Florida Wild Turkey (_M. g. osceola_), of southern Florida, is
smaller and the white bars on the primaries are narrower and more
broken.



PIGEONS AND DOVES. ORDER COLUMBÆ



PIGEONS AND DOVES. FAMILY COLUMBIDÆ


MOURNING DOVE

_Zenaidura macroura carolinensis. Case 3, Fig. 3; Case 5, Fig. 11_

          Except the southern little Ground Dove, this is
          our only Dove. Its long, pointed tail and the
          swift, darting flight are its field characters. It
          is often mistaken for the Wild or Passenger
          Pigeon, now extinct. The two birds differ in size
          and in color, but size is a matter of distance,
          and color, of comparison, so it seems probable
          that as long as there is a possibility of seeing a
          Passenger Pigeon, Mourning Doves will be mistaken
          for them. L. 11¾. The Wild Pigeon is about five
          inches longer.

          _Range._ North America. In a railway journey from
          the Atlantic to the Pacific one may expect to see
          the Dove daily. Winters from Virginia southward,
          migrating northward in March.

          Washington, P.R., common, except in midwinter.
          Ossining, common S.R., Mch. 3-Nov. 27; a few
          winter. Cambridge, rather rare T.V., Apl. 8-June
          18; Sept. 18-Nov. 15. N. Ohio, common S.R., Mch.
          20-Oct. 25; rare W.V. Glen Ellyn, tolerably common
          S.R., formerly common, Mch. 12-Oct. 21. S.E.
          Minn., common S.R., Mch. 15-Dec. 25.

Doves are particularly common in the southern states where, ranked as
game-birds, they are shot in large numbers. The Wild Pigeon's note was
an explosive squawk; the Dove's is a soft, mournful _coo-oo-ah,
coo-o-o-coo-o-o-coo-o-o-_. During the winter, Doves are usually found in
small flocks but, unlike the Wild Pigeon, they nest in scattered pairs.
The nest is in a tree or on the ground. Two white eggs are laid in
April.


GROUND DOVE

_Chæmepelia passerina terrestris. Case 3, Fig. 4_

          The female is duller than the male. L. 6¾.

          _Range._ Tropical and subtemperate parts of the
          Western Hemisphere. Our form is found in Florida
          and on the coast region from North Carolina to
          Texas.

          Washington, accidental; two records, Sept., Oct.

This dainty, miniature Pigeon is common in southern gardens and old
fields. It runs gracefully before one, and when flushed rises with a
whirring flight but soon alights, usually on the ground. Its call is a
crooning _coo_. The nest is placed on the ground and in low trees and
bushes. Two white eggs are laid in March.



BIRDS OF PREY. ORDER RAPTORES



AMERICAN VULTURES. FAMILY CATHARTIDÆ


TURKEY VULTURE

_Cathartes aura septentrionalis. Case 3, Fig. 9_

          Head red, plumage with a brownish cast. Young
          birds have the head covered with brownish down. L.
          30.

          _Range._ Most of the Western Hemisphere in several
          subspecies; in the eastern states north to
          northern New Jersey and, locally, southern New
          York. Migrating south from the northern part of
          its range.

          Washington, abundant P.R. Ossining, A.V.
          Cambridge, casual, two records. N. Ohio, tolerably
          common S.R., Mch. 5-Oct. 30. SE. Minn., common
          S.R., Apl. 27.

The 'Turkey Buzzard' has a wider wing-stretch and is a better aviator
than the Black Vulture. It is more a bird of the country than the
last-named species which is the common Vulture of the streets in many
southern cities. Extremely graceful in the air, it is far from pleasing
when at rest. The two dull white, brown-marked eggs are laid on the
ground under logs, in crevices in rocks, etc., in March in Florida, in
April in Virginia.


BLACK VULTURE

_Catharista urubu urubu. Case 3, Fig. 10_

          Head black, plumage without the brownish cast of
          the Turkey Vulture.

          _Range._ Eastern U.S., north to Virginia; an
          abundant Permanent Resident. Washington, casual,
          Mch., July, Dec.

The Vulture of southern cities; a frequenter of slaughter houses and
markets. In flight the under surfaces of the wing look silvery. It is by
no means so impressive a figure in the air as the Turkey Vulture. Two
pale bluish white eggs, generally with brown markings, are laid on the
ground under logs, bushes, palmettoes, etc., in March and April.



HAWKS, EAGLES, KITES, ETC. FAMILY BUTEONIDÆ


SWALLOW-TAILED KITE

_Elanoides forficatus forficatus_

          The head and lower parts are white, the rest of
          the plumage glossy black; the tail deeply forked.
          L. 24.

          _Range._ Florida to South Carolina, and up the
          Mississippi Valley rarely to Saskatchewan; winters
          south of the United States, returning in March.

          Washington, three records, Aug.; Apl. SE. Minn.,
          uncommon S.R., May 4.

Color, form, grace, and power of motion combine to make the flight of
the Swallow-tail an impressive demonstration of the bird's mastery of
the air. It feeds on lizards and small snakes which it captures when on
the wing from the branches of trees. The nest is placed in the upper
branches of tall trees, 2-3 eggs heavily marked with brown being laid in
Florida in April; in Iowa in June.


WHITE-TAILED KITE

_Elanus leucurus_

          A gray bird with white underparts, rather short
          white tail and black shoulders. L. 15½.

          _Range._ Chiefly southwestern United States and
          southward east to the lower Mississippi Valley.

This is a rare bird east of the Mississippi. It frequents open marshy
places and feeds upon small snakes, lizards, grasshoppers, etc., which
it captures on the ground. The nest is built in trees, and the 3-5 eggs,
heavily marked with brown, are laid in May.


MISSISSIPPI KITE

_Ictinia mississippiensis_

          A slaty-blue bird with black tail and wings and
          red eyes. L. 14.

          _Range._ Southern United States, north to South
          Carolina, and southern Indiana; winters chiefly
          south of the United States and returns in April.

A low-flying hunter of insects, snakes and frogs. It migrates in loose
flocks sometimes near the earth, at others far above it. The nest is
placed in tall trees. The eggs are laid in May; they number 1-3, and are
dull white, occasionally with a bluish tinge.


EVERGLADE KITE

_Rostrhamus sociabilis_

          A dark slate-colored bird with a white rump and a
          rather slender hooked bill. The young are quite
          different; black above, tipped with reddish brown,
          below mottled and barred with black, reddish brown
          and buff, but with the white rump-patch of the
          adult. L. 18.

          _Range._ Tropical America north to southern
          Florida.

The Everglade Kite is found in marshes and about lakes and ponds hunting
for its favorite food of large snails, which it extracts from their
shells by means of its hooked bill. It is rarely seen north of southern
Florida. The nest is placed in bushes or among reeds. The 2-3 eggs,
which are heavily marked with brown, are laid in March.


MARSH HAWK

_Circus hudsonius. Case 3, Fig. 15_

          The immature bird and adult female are dark brown
          above, reddish brown below, but, in any plumage,
          the species may be known by the white upper
          tail-coverts which show clearly in flight. L.,
          male, 19; female, 22.

          _Range._ North America, wintering from New Jersey
          southward; migrates northward in March.

          Washington, common W.V., July-Apl. Ossining,
          tolerably common S.R., Mch. 6-Oct. 30; a few
          winter. Cambridge, common T.V., Mch. 20-Nov. 10,
          one breeding record. N. Ohio, not common S.R.,
          Mch. 5-Nov. 30. Glen Ellyn, S.R., several pairs,
          Apl. 4-Nov. 6. SE. Minn., common S.R., Mch. 6-Nov.
          1.

The Marsh Hawk quarters low over the fields turning sharply here and
there to follow the course of a meadow mouse in the grass forest below.
As a rule the bird is silent but in the mating season he repeats a
'screeching' note. The nest is made on the ground in the marshes; the
4-6 white eggs are laid in May.


SHARP-SHINNED HAWK

_Accipiter velox. Case 1, Figs. 11, 12; Case 3, Figs. 7, 8_

          The sexes differ only in size, the female being
          much the larger. There is a marked difference in
          color between adult and immature birds, the latter
          being more commonly seen. L. male, 11¼; female,
          13½.

          _Range._ North America; wintering from
          Massachusetts southward.

          Washington, common P.R. Ossining, common P.R.
          Cambridge, common T.V., Apl. 3-May 11; Sept.
          5-Oct. 25; rare S.R., uncommon W.V. N. Ohio, not
          common P.R., a few winter. Glen Ellyn, not common
          S.R., Mch. 19-Dec. 9. SE. Minn., common S.R., Mch.
          28-Dec 28.

This small, bird-killing Hawk dashes recklessly after its victims,
following them through thick cover. It is less often seen in the open
than the Sparrow Hawk, which it resembles in size, but from which it may
be known by its different color, longer tail, and much shorter wings. It
nests in trees 15-40 feet from the ground. The eggs, 3-6 in number, are
bluish white or cream, marked with brown and are laid in May.

[Illustration: SHARP-SHINNED HAWK.

Note the Long Tail.]


COOPER'S HAWK

_Accipiter cooperi. Case 1, Figs. 9, 10_

          A large edition of the Sharp-shinned Hawk, with
          the tail more rounded, the adult with a darker
          crown. L. male, 15½; female, 19.

          _Range._ Nests throughout United States; winters
          from southern New England southward.

          Washington, common S.R., less common W.V.
          Ossining, tolerably common P.R. Cambridge, common
          T.V., not uncommon S.R., rare W.V., Apl. 10-Oct.
          20. N. Ohio, not common, Mch. 20-Nov. 1; a few
          winter. Glen Ellyn, local S.R., a few winter. SE.
          Minn., common S.R., Mch. 3.

This is the real 'Chicken Hawk,' but it is less often seen and heard
than the soaring, screaming Buteos to which the name is usually applied.
It resembles the Sharp-shinned in habits but being larger may prey on
larger birds. The female may be easily distinguished from the
Sharp-shinned by her larger size, but the male is not appreciably larger
than a female Sharp-shin.

The nest is built in a tree 25-50 feet up. The bluish white, rarely
spotted eggs are laid in late April or early May.


GOSHAWK

_Astur atricapillus_

          The adult is blue-gray above with a darker crown
          and a white line over the eye. The underparts are
          finely and beautifully marked with gray and white.
          Young birds resemble the young of Cooper's Hawk,
          but are much larger. L., male, 22; female, 24.

          _Range._ North America, nests chiefly north of the
          United States and winters southward, usually
          rarely, as far as Virginia.

          Washington, casual in winter. Ossining, rare W.V.,
          Oct. 10-Jan. 14. Cambridge, irregular and uncommon
          W.V. SE. Minn., W.R., Nov. 5-Apl. 4.

Like its smaller relatives the Sharp-shin and Cooper's Hawks, this
powerful raptor is a relentless hunter of birds. It is particularly
destructive to Ruffed Grouse. Fortunately it does not often visit us in
numbers. It nests in trees, laying 2-5 white eggs, rarely marked with
brownish, in April.


RED-TAILED HAWK

_Buteo borealis borealis. Case 1, Figs. 5, 6; Case 3, Fig. 13._

          This, the largest of our common Hawks, is a
          heavy-bodied bird with wings which when closed,
          reach nearly to the end of the tail. The adult has
          the tail bright reddish brown with a narrow black
          band near the tip. The immature bird has the tail
          rather inconspicuously barred with blackish, and a
          broken band of blackish spots across the
          underparts. L. male, 20; female, 23.

          _Range._ Eastern North America, migrating only at
          the northern limit of its range. There are several
          races, Krider's Red-tail, a paler form inhabiting
          the great Plains, and Harlan's Hawk, a darker form
          with a mottled tail, the lower Mississippi Valley.

          Washington, common W.V., rare S.R. Ossining,
          common P.R., less common in winter. Cambridge,
          rare T.V., locally W.V., Oct. 10-Apl. 20. N. Ohio,
          common P.R. Glen Ellyn, P.R., not common, chiefly
          T.V. SE. Minn., common S.R., Mch. 2.

The Red-tail resembles the Red-shoulder in general habits, but it is
more a bird of the fields, where it may be seen perched on the limb of a
dead tree or similar exposed situation. Its note, a long-drawn,
squealing whistle, is quite unlike that of the Red-shoulder. The
Red-tail feeds chiefly on mice and other small mammals. With the
Red-shoulder it is often called 'Chicken Hawk,' but does not deserve the
name. It nests in trees 30-70 feet up and in April lays 2-4 eggs, dull
white sparingly marked with brown.


RED-SHOULDERED HAWK

_Buteo lineatus lineatus. Case 1, Fig. 4; Case 3 Fig. 12_

[Illustration: RED-SHOULDERED HAWK. ADULT.

Note the Barred Tail.]

          Seen from below the reddish brown underparts and
          black and white barred tail will identify adults
          of this species. Immature birds are streaked below
          with blackish; the tail is dark grayish brown
          indistinctly barred, but the shoulder is always
          rusty, though this is not a marking one can see in
          life. L., male. 18½; female, 20¼.

          _Range._ Eastern North America from northern
          Florida to Canada; resident except in the northern
          part of its range.

          Washington, common P.R. Ossining, common P.R.
          Cambridge, common, Apl.-Nov., less common in
          winter. N. Ohio, common P.R. Glen Ellyn, P.R.,
          more common than the Red-tail; chiefly T.V.

A medium-sized, heavy-bodied Hawk with wings which, when closed, reach
well toward the tip of the tail. It lives both in the woods and open
places, and may be flushed from the border of a brook or seen soaring
high in the air. Its note, frequently uttered, as it swings in wide
circles, is a distinctive _Kèe-you, Kèe-you_, quite unlike the call of
any of our other Hawks. It is often well imitated by the Blue Jay. The
Red-shoulder feeds chiefly on mice and frogs. It nests in trees 30-60
feet up and, in April, lays 3-5 eggs, white marked with brown.

The Florida Red-shouldered Hawk (_Buteo lineatus alleni_), a smaller
form with grayer head and paler underparts, is a resident in Florida and
along the coast from South Carolina to Mexico. It nests in February.


BROAD-WINGED HAWK

_Buteo platypterus_

          With a general resemblance to the Red-shouldered
          Hawk, but smaller; no red on the bend of the wing,
          or rusty in the primaries, only the outer three of
          which are 'notched.' L., male, 15¾; female, 16¾.

          _Range._ Eastern North America. Breeding from the
          Gulf States to the St. Lawrence; winters from Ohio
          and Delaware to S.A.; migrates northward in March.

          Washington, uncommon P.R. Ossining, tolerably
          common S.R., Mch. 15-Oct. 23. Cambridge, uncommon
          T.V. in early fall, rare in spring and summer;
          Apl. 25-Sept. 30. N. Ohio, not common P.R. Glen
          Ellyn, not common S.R., Apl. 10-Oct. 4. SE. Minn.,
          common S.R., Mch. 11.

A rather retiring, unwary Hawk which nests in thick woods and is less
often seen in the open than the Red-shoulder, but, when migrating,
hundreds pass high in the air, with other Hawks. Its call is a high,
thin, penetrating whistle. It nests in late April and early May, laying
2-4 whitish eggs marked with brown.


ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK

_Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis_

          Legs feathered to the toes; basal half of tail
          white; belly black. Some individuals are wholly
          black. L., male, 21; female, 23.

          _Range._ Breeds in northern Canada; usually rare
          and irregular in the northern U.S., from November
          to April.

          Washington, rare and irregular W.V. Ossining,
          casual. Cambridge, T.V., not common, Nov.-Dec.;
          Mch.-Apl. N. Ohio, not common W.V., Nov. 20-Apl.
          3. Glen Ellyn, quite common W.V., Oct. 12-Apl. 30.
          SE. Minn., W.V., Oct. 15-Mch.

Frequents fields and marshes, where it hunts to and fro after mice,
which form its principal fare.


GOLDEN EAGLE

_Aquila chrysaetos_

          With the Bald Eagle, largest of our raptorial
          birds; with a general resemblance to the young of
          that species, in which the head and tail are dark,
          but with the legs feathered to the toes. L., male,
          32½; female, 37½.

          _Range._ Northern parts of the northern
          Hemisphere; in the United States, rare east of the
          Mississippi.

          Washington, rare W.V., Ossining, A.V. Cambridge, 1
          record. N. Ohio, rare W.V. SE. Minn., P.R.

The Golden Eagle is so rare in the eastern United States and its general
resemblance to a young Bald Eagle is so close, that only an experienced
ornithologist could convince me that he had seen a Golden Eagle east of
the Mississippi.


BALD EAGLE

_Haliæetus leucocephalus leucocephalus. Case 3, Fig. 11_

          When immature the head and tail resemble the body
          in color, and at this age the bird is sometimes
          confused with the more western Golden Eagle. The
          latter has the head browner and the legs feathered
          to the toes. L., male, 33; female, 35½.

          _Range._ North America but rare in the interior
          and in California, migratory at the northern limit
          of its range.

          Washington, not common P.R. Ossining, common P.R.
          Cambridge, of irregular occurrence at all seasons.
          N. Ohio, tolerably common P.R. SE. Minn., P.R.,
          becoming rare.

An adult Bald Eagle will at once be recognized by its white head and
tail; the immature birds by their large size. Eagles are usually found
near the water where fish may be obtained either on the shore or from
the Osprey. The call of the male is a human-like, loud, clear
_cac-cac-cac_; that of the female is said to be more harsh and often
broken. Eagles nest in tall trees and on cliffs, and lay two or three
dull white eggs, in Florida, in November and December; in Maine, in
April.



FALCONS, CARACARAS, ETC. FAMILY FALCONIDÆ


GYRFALCON

_Falco rusticolus gyrfalco_

          A large Hawk with long, pointed wings, the upper
          parts brown with numerous narrow, buffy bars or
          margins, the tail evenly barred with grayish and
          blackish, the underparts white lightly streaked
          with black. L. 22.

          _Range._ Arctic regions; south in winter rarely to
          New York and Minnesota. The Gray Gyrfalcon (_F. r.
          rusticolus_) a paler form, with a streaked crown,
          the Black Gyrfalcon (_F. r. obsoletus_) a
          slate-colored race, and the White Gyrfalcon (_F.
          islandus_) are also rare winter visitants to the
          northern United States.

These great Falcons are so rare in the United States that unless they
are seen by an experienced observer, under exceptionally favorable
conditions, authentic records of their visits can be based only on the
actual capture of specimens.


DUCK HAWK

_Falco peregrinus anatum_

          The adult is slaty blue above; buff below marked
          with black, and with black cheek-patches. Immature
          birds are blackish above margined with rusty,
          below deep rusty buff streaked with blackish. L.,
          male, 16; female, 19.

          _Range._ Northern Hemisphere, breeding south
          locally to New Jersey and in Alleghanies to South
          Carolina; winters from New Jersey southward.

          Washington, rare and irregular W.V. Ossining,
          casual. Cambridge, rare T.V., casual in winter,
          SE. Minn., uncommon S.R., Apl. 4.

As the Peregrine of falconry we know of the Duck Hawk as a fearless,
dashing hunter of greater power of wing and talon. It nests in rocky
cliffs in April and from its eyrie darts upon passing Pigeons and other
birds. It is most often seen following the coast-line during migrations
where it takes toll of Ducks and shore-birds. Three to four heavily
marked, brownish eggs are laid in April.


PIGEON HAWK

_Falco columbarius_

          A small Hawk, about the size of a Sparrow Hawk.
          The adult is slaty blue above, with a rusty collar
          and a barred, white-tipped tail; below buff,
          streaked with blackish. Young birds have the
          upperparts blackish brown. L. 11.

          _Range._ Breeds north of, and winters chiefly
          south of the United States. Migrates northward in
          April and May, and southward in September and
          October.

          Washington, not uncommon T.V. Ossining, tolerably
          common T.V., Apl. 1-May 11; Aug. 10-Oct. 15.
          Cambridge, common T.V., Apl. 25-May 5; Sept.
          25-Oct. 20; occasional in winter. N. Ohio, rare
          P.R. Glen Ellyn, regular but rare T.V., Apl.
          26-May 5; Sept. 1-Oct. 16. SE. Minn., Apl. 13.

We know this Hawk as a not common migrant generally seen in open places
and along the shores. It feeds chiefly on small birds.


SPARROW HAWK

_Falco sparverius sparverius. Case 1, Figs. 7, 8; Case 3, Figs. 5, 6_

          The male has the tail with only one bar; the
          breast unmarked; the abdomen with black spots;
          while the female has the tail with several bars,
          the underparts streaked with brownish. In both
          sexes the bright reddish brown of the upperparts,
          black markings about the head, and small size are
          gold field characters. L. 10.

          _Range._ Sparrow Hawks are found throughout the
          greater part of the Western Hemisphere. Our
          eastern race inhabits the region east of the
          Rockies and is migratory at the northern limit of
          its range. Southern Florida specimens are slightly
          smaller and darker and are known as the Florida
          Sparrow Hawk (_F. s. paulus_).

[Illustration: SPARROW HAWK HOVERING ABOVE ITS PREY.]

          Washington, common W.V., rare S.R. Ossining,
          rather rare P.R. Cambridge, P.R., common in
          summer, rare in winter. N. Ohio, common P.R. Glen
          Ellyn, rather rare S.R., Mch. 10-Oct. 26.

The Sparrow Hawk is one of our commonest and most familiar Hawks. He is
a handsome little Falcon, and though his prey is chiefly humble
grasshoppers, he captures them in a sportsmanlike manner by "waiting on"
or hovering on rapidly beating wings over his game and dropping on it
with deadly aim. His call is a high, rapidly repeated
_Killy-killy-killy_. The three to seven eggs, finely marked with reddish
brown, are laid in a hollow limb or similar situation in April.


AUDUBON'S CARACARA

_Polyborus cheriway cheriway_

          A falcon-like Vulture with a bare face, black cap,
          white throat, breast and nape; the rest of the
          plumage is black, the tail barred with white. L.
          22.

          _Range._ Mexican border and southward; south
          central Florida.

In the eastern United States the Caracara is found only in the Kissimmee
prairie region of southern Florida where its presence, so far from
others of its kind, furnishes one of the problems in distribution which
stimulate the imagination of the faunal naturalist.



OSPREYS. FAMILY PANDIONIDÆ


OSPREY

_Pandion haliætus carolinensis. Case 3, Fig. 14_

          The Osprey or Fish Hawk is often miscalled
          'Eagle,' but it is a smaller bird with white,
          instead of blackish underparts. L. 23.

          _Range._ The Osprey is found throughout the
          greater part of the world; the American form
          occurs in both North and South America and winters
          from the southern United States southward,
          starting northward in March.

          Washington, uncommon S.R., Mch. 19-Nov. 30.
          Ossining, common T.V., rare S.R., Apl. 3-May 26;
          Sept. 29-Oct. 20. Cambridge, rather common T.V.,
          Apl.-May; Sept.-Oct. N. Ohio, rare S.R., Apl.
          20-Oct. Glen Ellyn, two records, May and Sept.

The Osprey, or Fish Hawk, feeds on fish and nothing but fish. He is,
therefore, never found far from his fishing grounds, where no one who
has seen him plunge for his prey and rise with it from the water will
doubt his ability to supply his wants. Ospreys usually nest in trees at
varying distances from the ground, but sometimes on cliffs or even on
the ground itself, and return year after year to the same nest. The
Osprey's alarm note is a high, loud, complaining whistle, frequently
repeated. The eggs are laid in late April and early May. They are
usually four in number, buffy white, heavily marked with chocolate.



BARN OWLS. FAMILY ALUCONIDÆ


BARN OWL

_Aluco pratincola pratincola. Case 3, Fig. 17_

          A light-colored Owl, looking almost white in the
          dusk. L. 18.

          _Range._ Barn Owls are found throughout the world.
          Our species is rare north of New Jersey and Ohio.
          It is migratory only at the northern limit of its
          range.

          Washington, not rare P.R. Ossining, A.V.

This is the 'Monkey-faced Owl' of towers and steeples. Few who hear its
loud, sudden scream or rapidly repeated _crree-crree-crree_ know their
author, who may live for years in the heart of a village a stranger to
its human inhabitants. The mice, however, have tragic evidence of his
presence in the nightly raids he makes upon their ranks. The nest is
made in the diurnal retreat, 5-9 white eggs being laid in April.



HORNED OWLS, HOOT OWLS, ETC. FAMILY STRIGIDÆ


LONG-EARED OWL

_Asio wilsonianus. Case 1, Fig. 17_

          Distinguished by very long ear-tufts. L. 14¾.

          _Range._ Temperate North America. Winters south to
          Georgia and Louisiana.

          Washington, common P.R. Ossining, common P.R.
          Cambridge, rare, P.R. but sometimes common in fall
          and winter. N. Ohio, uncommon P.R. Glen Ellyn,
          rare, fall records only, Nov. 7-Dec. 14.

An Owl of evergreen clumps and dense growths, where its presence is
often betrayed by the litter below of undigested pellets of hair and
bones which Owls eject at the mouth. It is not a "hoot" Owl, and even
many ornithologists have not heard its notes, which are described as a
"soft-toned, slow _wu-hunk, wu-hunk_, and a low twittering, whistling
_dicky, dicky, dicky_." It is not a hole-inhabiting Owl and like the
Great Horned nests in an old Hawk, Crow, or Squirrel nest. Three to six
white eggs are laid in April.


SHORT-EARED OWL

_Asio flammeus. Case 1, Fig. 18_

          The 'ears' are barely evident, the eyes are
          yellow; underparts streaked. L. 15½.

          _Range._ Found throughout the greater part of the
          world; migrating southward at the northern part of
          its North American range.

          Washington, common W.V. Ossining, casual.
          Cambridge, T.V., Mch. 15-Apl. 15, rare; Oct.-Nov.,
          uncommon. N. Ohio, uncommon P.R. Glen Ellyn, rare,
          Dec. 11-May 15. SE. Minn., common S.R.

This is a marsh Owl and we are therefore not likely to find it
associated with other members of its family. Its notes are said to
resemble the _ki-yi_ of a small dog. Four to seven white eggs are laid
in an open nest in the grasses in April.


BARRED OWL

_Strix varia varia. Case 1, Fig. 15_

          A large Owl with black eyes (the figure is
          incorrect) and no 'ears.' L. 20.

          _Range._ Eastern North America. Generally a
          Permanent Resident. The Florida Barred Owl (_S. v.
          alleni_, Case 3, Fig. 16), is somewhat darker than
          the northern form and has nearly naked toes. It
          inhabits Florida and the coast region from South
          Carolina to Texas.

          Washington, not common, rare P.R. Ossining, rare
          P.R. Cambridge, P.R., sometimes common in Nov. and
          Dec. N. Ohio, common P.R. Glen Ellyn, rare and
          local P.R. SE. Minn., common P.R.

An Owl of the woods, common in the less thickly settled parts of its
range. Its loud, sonorous notes, _whoo, whoo-whoo who-whoo, to-whoo-ah_,
are often uttered. When two birds come together their united calls
produce some of the most startling sounds to be heard in nature. The
Barred Owl feeds chiefly on mice. It nests in hollow trees in March,
laying 2-4 white eggs.


GREAT GRAY OWL

_Scotiaplex nebulosa nebulosa_

          Largest of American Owls, with a general
          resemblance to the Barred Owl, but nearly a third
          larger and with yellow eyes. L. 27.

          _Range._ Northern North America, rarely straggling
          to United States in winter.

          Cambridge, very rare and irregular W.V. SE. Minn.,
          rare W.V.


RICHARDSON'S OWL

_Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni_

          A small Owl about the size of a Screech Owl, but
          without ear-tufts. It is grayish brown above and
          both head and back are spotted with black; the
          underparts are white heavily streaked with grayish
          brown.

          _Range._ Northern Canada and Alaska, rarely
          visiting the eastern United States in winter. We
          are not likely to meet this Owl.

          Cambridge, very rare W.V.


SAW-WHET OWL

_Cryptoglaux acadica acadica. Case 2, Fig. 41_

          Smallest of our Owls; eyes yellow, no ear-tufts.
          L. 8.

          _Range._ Nests in the northern United States and
          northward, south in the Alleghanies to Maryland;
          winters rather rarely and irregularly southward to
          Virginia.

          Washington, rare W.V., Oct.-Mch. Ossining, rather
          rare W.V., Oct. 28-Jan. 13. Cambridge, not
          uncommon, W.V., Nov.-Mch. N. Ohio, rare P.R. SE.
          Minn., uncommon. P.R.

A tame little Owl which sometimes may be caught in one's hand. It passes
the day in dense growth, usually evergreens. Its note resembles the
"sound made when a large-tooth saw is being filed."


SCREECH OWL

_Otus asio asio. Case 1, Figs. 13, 14_

          The two sexes are alike, the two color phases
          being individual and representing dichromatism.
          Among animals, gray and black squirrels furnish a
          similar case. The ear-like feather-tufts give the
          bird a cat-like appearance, hence the name 'Cat
          Owl.' The young are downy-looking creatures evenly
          barred with dusky. L. 9½.

          _Range._ Screech Owls are found throughout the
          greater part of the Western Hemisphere. Our
          eastern form occurs in the eastern United States
          from Canada southward. The Florida race (_O. a.
          floridanus_, Case 3, Fig. 19) is smaller and of a
          darker gray than the northern bird. The 'red'
          phase is rare.

          Washington, common P.R. Ossining, common P.R.
          Cambridge, common P.R. N. Ohio, common P.R. Glen
          Ellyn, common P.R. SE. Minn., common P.R.

This, the smallest of our 'horned' Owls, is also the commonest. It lives
near and sometimes in our homes even when they are situated in towns.
Its tremulous, wailing whistle (in no sense a 'screech') is therefore
one of our most characteristic twilight bird-notes. Mice and insects
form the greater part of the Screech Owl's fare. Four to six white eggs
are laid in a hollow tree, bird-box, or similar site in April.


GREAT HORNED OWL

_Bubo virginianus virginianus. Case 1, Fig. 16_

          Largest of the 'horned' Owls. L. 22.

          _Range._ Western Hemisphere in many forms; our
          form is confined to the eastern United States. A
          Permanent Resident.

          Washington, rare P.R. Ossining, tolerably common
          P.R. Cambridge, uncommon, autumn or winter. N.
          Ohio, rare P.R. SE. Minn., common P.R.

The Great Horned Owl retreats before the civilization that destroys the
forests in which it lives. In thinly settled regions its deep-toned,
monotone, _whoo-hoo-hoo-hoo, whooo, whooo_ is still a characteristic
bird voice, but most of us hear it only when we camp in the wilderness.
The bird's fierce nature has won for it the name of "tiger among birds."
Rabbits, skunks, game birds and smaller prey form its fare. The 2-3
white eggs are laid in an abandoned Hawk, Crow, or squirrel nest in
February; it is the first of our northern birds to nest.


SNOWY OWL

_Nyctea nyctea_

          A large Owl with no 'ear' tufts and yellow eyes;
          chiefly white with small brownish or blackish
          markings. L. 25.

          _Range._ Nests in Arctic regions, migrating
          southward irregularly in winter to the northern
          United States.

          Washington, casual W.V. Ossining, A.V. Cambridge,
          rare and irregular W.V. N. Ohio, rare W.V. Glen
          Ellyn, very rare W.V. SE. Minn., common W.V.,
          Oct.-Apl.

A rare winter visitant which is more often seen along the seashore.
Unlike most Owls it hunts by day, feeding chiefly on mice but also on
birds.


HAWK OWL

_Surnia ulula caparoch_

          A medium-sized Owl with a whitish face and yellow
          eyes and a _long, rounded_ tail; the head is
          spotted, the back barred with whitish; the
          underparts are barred with white and blackish. L.
          15; T. 7¼.

          _Range._ Northern North America, rarely visiting
          the northern United States in winter.

          Cambridge, very rare in late fall. N. Ohio, rare
          W.V. SE. Minn., uncommon W.V., Oct.-Mch.

"The Hawk Owl is strictly diurnal, as much so as any of the Hawks, and
like some of them often selects a tall shrub or dead-topped tree in a
comparatively open place for a perch, where it sits in the bright
sunlight watching for its prey" (Fisher).


FLORIDA BURROWING OWL

_Speotyto cunicularia floridana_

          A small, ground Owl, with nearly naked legs and
          feet and no ear-tufts. The upperparts are grayish
          brown marked with white; the throat is white, rest
          of underparts barred with grayish brown and white.
          L. 9.

          _Range._ Southern Florida, chiefly in the
          Kissimmee Prairie region.

This is a representative of our western Burrowing Owl, which, in some
way unknown to man, has established itself far from others of its kind
in central southern Florida, where it is locally common. It nests in a
hole in the ground, excavated by itself, and lays 5-7 white eggs in
March.



PARROTS, MACAWS, PAROQUETS, COCKATOOS. ORDER PSITTACI



PARROTS AND PAROQUETS. FAMILY PSITTACIDÆ


CAROLINA PAROQUET

_Conuropsis carolinensis carolinensis_

          A long-tailed, green Paroquet with a yellow head,
          orange forehead and cheeks. L. 12½.

          _Range._ Formerly southeastern United States north
          to Virginia, west to Nebraska and Texas; now
          southern Florida where it is on the verge of
          extinction, if not extinct.

          Washington, extinct, known only from specimens
          shot in Sept., 1865.

The Paroquet has paid the penalty of wearing bright plumes, of making a
desirable cage-bird, of being destructive to fruit, and of having little
fear of man. Once abundant and wide-spread, for nearly the past half a
century it has been restricted to Florida, where the species will soon
go out of existence, if it has not already done so. Its nesting habits
are unknown.



CUCKOOS, KINGFISHERS, ETC. ORDER COCCYGES



CUCKOOS, ANIS, ETC. FAMILY CUCULIDÆ


YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO

_Coccyzus americanus americanus. Case 7, Fig. 1_

          Broadly white-tipped tail-feathers, a partly
          yellow bill, and largely reddish brown primaries
          distinguish this species from its black-billed
          cousin. L. 12½, of which one-half is tail.

          _Range._ Nests from northern Florida to Canada;
          winters in tropical America, returning to the
          United States in April.

          Washington, common S.R., May 3-Oct. 13. Ossining,
          common S.R., May 4-Oct. 31. Cambridge, common
          S.R., May 12-Sept. 15. N. Ohio, common S.R., Apl.
          20-Sept. 25. Glen Ellyn, quite common S.R., May
          15-Sept. 29. SE. Minn., common S.R., May 21-Aug.
          20.

Cuckoos are common birds, but are more often heard than seen. Their
notes are not like those of the cuckoo clock, which exactly imitates the
voice of the European Cuckoo, but a series of _cuck-cuck-cucks_ and
_cow-cows_ repeated a varying number of times. The Cuckoo rarely makes
long flights but slips from one tree to another, seeking at once the
inner branches and avoiding an exposed perch. The nest, a platform of
sticks, thinly covered, is placed in low trees or bushes. The 3-5
greenish blue eggs are laid in May.


BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO

_Coccyzus erythrophthalmus. Case 7, Fig. 2_

          A wholly black bill (note that in both our Cuckoos
          it is slightly curved), wings without reddish
          brown, and small, inconspicuous white tips to the
          tail-feathers distinguish this species from the
          preceding.

          _Range._ A more northern species than the
          Yellow-billed Cuckoo. Nests from Virginia (Georgia
          in the mountains) to Quebec; winters in tropical
          America, reaching the southern States in April.

          Washington, rather rare S.R., May 5-Oct. 6.
          Ossining, common S.R., May 3-Oct. 7. Cambridge,
          common S.R., May 12-Sept. 20. N. Ohio, tolerably
          common S.R., May 1-Sept. 25. Glen Ellyn, S.R., May
          5-Oct. 21. SE. Minn., common S.R., May 8-Sept. 27.

The day after penning the foregoing notes on the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, I
saw a Black-bill make a prolonged, dashing flight through the open,
alight on the limb of a dead, leafless tree, directly over a young girl
who was calling loudly to an active dog near her, and from this
conspicuous perch utter its low _coo-coo_ notes, both looking and
sounding more like a Dove than a conventional Cuckoo. So while we may
say that the Cuckoos are much alike in habits one must not accept
generalized statements too literally. There is much individuality among
birds, a fact that makes their study far more interesting than if all
were cast in the same mold.

The notes of this species are softer than those of the Yellow-bill, but
the difference between the calls of the two species must be learned from
the birds, not from books. The nest of the Black-bill is the more
compactly built of the two, and its eggs are of a deeper shade.



KINGFISHERS. FAMILY ALCEDINIDÆ


BELTED KINGFISHER

_Ceryle alcyon. Case 3, Fig. 18; Case 5, Fig. 10_

          The female resembles the male, but the sides and
          the band across the breast are reddish brown. This
          is our only Kingfisher. Crest, color, size,
          habits, all distinguish him. L. 13.

          _Range._ North America; winters from Illinois and
          Virginia, southward; migrates north in early
          April.

          Washington, common P.R., except in midwinter.
          Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 1-Nov. 23; casual in
          winter. Cambridge, common S.R., Apl. 10-Nov. 1;
          rare W.V. N. Ohio, common S.R., Mch. 20-Nov. 1;
          rare W.V. Glenn Ellyn, isolated pairs, Apl. 1-Nov.
          19. SE. Minn., common S.R., Mch. 21-Dec. 12.

The Belted Kingfisher is a watchman of the waterways who sounds his loud
rattle when we trespass on his territory, a gallant fisherman, who, like
a Falcon 'waits on' with fluttering wing, and the moment his aim is
taken plunges headlong with a splash on some fish that has ventured too
near the surface.

The nest is made at the end of a burrow in a bank; 5-8 white eggs are
laid in May.



WOODPECKERS, WRYNECKS, ETC. ORDER PICI



WOODPECKERS. FAMILY PICIDÆ


IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER

_Campephilus principalis_

          Our largest Woodpecker, black with a white stripe
          down each side of the neck, white showing in the
          wing in flight, the male with a flaming red crest,
          the female with a black one and both with an
          ivory-white bill. L. 20.

          _Range._ Formerly southeastern United States to
          North Carolina; now rare and local in the wilder,
          less settled portions of the Gulf States.

When man appears, the Ivory-bill disappears. This is not alone due to
the destruction of the birds' haunts but to the bird's shy, retiring
nature. Its days are numbered even more surely than are those of the
forests it inhabits.

The nesting cavity is usually made in a cypress some forty feet from the
ground, and 3-5 white eggs are laid in March.


HAIRY WOODPECKER

_Dryobates villosus villosus. Case 2, Figs. 28, 29_

          The Hairy is a large edition of the Downy with
          white, unmarked outer tail-feathers. The male has
          a red head-band. L. 9½.

          _Range._ Middle and northern states; a permanent
          resident. The southern Hairy Woodpecker (_D. v.
          auduboni_) inhabits the southeastern United States
          north to southern Virginia. It is smaller than the
          Hairy and has less white in the plumage. L.
          8-1/10.

          The Northern Hairy Woodpecker (_D. v. leucomelas_)
          is found from the northern United States
          northward. It is larger and whiter than the Hairy.
          L. 10.

          The Newfoundland Hairy Woodpecker (_D. v.
          terrænovæ_) is larger and darker than the Hairy;
          it inhabits Newfoundland.

          Washington, rare P.R. Ossining, rare P.R.
          Cambridge, uncommon W.V., one summer record. N.
          Ohio, common P.R. Glen Ellyn, fairly common P.R.

The Hairy is not so common as his small cousin the Downy, and does not
so readily make friends. He prefers the woods to our orchards and is for
these reasons less often seen at our feeding-stands. The Hairy's notes
are noticeably louder than the Downy's. The nest-hole is usually in a
dead tree. The 2-4 white eggs are laid the last half of April.


DOWNY WOODPECKER

_Dryobates pubescens medianus. Case 2, Figs. 26, 27_

          The Downy differs from the Hairy Woodpecker in
          color by having the outer tail-feathers with black
          bars, but it is the bird's obviously smaller size
          that will serve to distinguish it. L. 6¾.

          _Range._ From Virginia northward into Canada. A
          Permanent Resident. The Southern Downy Woodpecker
          (_D. p. pubescens_, Case 3, Fig. 25) is smaller,
          darker below and with the white markings smaller.
          L. 6. It inhabits the south Atlantic and Gulf
          States north to North Carolina.

          Washington, common P.R. Ossining, common P.R.
          Cambridge, common P.R. N. Ohio, common P.R. Glen
          Ellyn, common P.R. SE. Minn., common P.R.

Our commonest Woodpecker; an alert, active little driller for insects
and their eggs and larvæ, and frequent visitor to our lunch-counters,
particularly if we supply them with suet. His sharp _peek, peek_,
running at times into a diminishing string of _peeks_, and his rolling
tatoo, as he pounds a limb with amazing rapidity, are prominent parts of
every-day bird language, the tatoo being a 'song' of the breeding
season.

Four to six white eggs are laid in a hole, usually in a dead tree, the
first week in May. The Southern Downy nests in April.


RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER

_Dryobates borealis_

          Between the Downy and Hairy in size (L. 8½) with a
          general resemblance to both, but the male with a
          small tuft of red feathers on each _side_ of the
          back of the head.

          _Range._ Southeastern States north to North
          Carolina.

An inhabitant of the pine woods, who utters a coarse _yank-yank_ note
and may at times be seen feeding from the terminal tufts of pine
'needles' in the higher branches. The nest is usually in a living pine;
the 2-5 white eggs are laid in April.


ARCTIC THREE-TOED WOODPECKER

_Picoides arcticus_

          Two toes in front and one behind, a solid black
          back and an orange-yellow crown in the male
          distinguish this from all our other Woodpeckers.
          Size of the Hairy, L. 9½.

          _Range._ Canada, and northern parts of our border
          states, rarely south in winter, as far as Nebraska
          and Ohio.

          Cambridge, one record. N. Ohio, rare W.V. SE.
          Minn., rare.

An inhabitant of the spruce and balsam forests of our northern states,
occasionally straggling southward in winter. Nests in May.


THREE-TOED WOODPECKER

_Picoides americanus americanus_

          Two toes in front and one behind, an orange-yellow
          crest in the male, and a black back _closely and
          evenly barred with white_ distinguish this bird;
          it is somewhat smaller than the preceding, L. 8¾.

          _Range._ Canada, south to the northern parts of
          our boundary states; unknown south of
          Massachusetts.

Not so common as the Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker, and less often found
south of its breeding range. Nests in early June.


YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER

_Sphyrapicus varius varius. Case 3, Fig. 26, Case 5, Fig. 30_

          The female has the throat white, and rarely, crown
          wholly black. Young birds have the throat whitish,
          crown dull black, breast brownish. The black
          breast-patch and red forehead, and red or white
          throat are distinguishing characters. L. 8½.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England and
          Minnesota (in Alleghanies from North Carolina) to
          Canada; winters from Pennsylvania (rarely)
          southward to the Gulf States.

          Washington, common T.V., Mch.-May; Sept. and Oct.,
          Occasional in winter. Ossining, common T.V., Apl.
          5-May 13; Sept. 18-Oct. 23; casual in winter.
          Cambridge, not uncommon T.V., Apl. and Sept.
          15-Nov. 1; occasional W.V. N. Ohio, common T.V.,
          Apl. 1-May 20; Sept. 15-Oct. 20. Glen Ellyn,
          common T.V., Mch. 31-May 12; Sept. 14-Oct. 13. SE.
          Minn., common S.R., Mch. 25-Oct. 19.

This is the mysterious maker of the rows of little holes drilled in even
lines, like hieroglyphics, on the trunks of apple and other trees. Using
his brush-tipped tongue as a swab, he drinks the sap that oozes from
these punctures.

As a migrant the Yellow-belly is not conspicuous. His business takes him
into the heart of living trees and he is usually seen only when flying
from one to another. His low 'snarling' note attracts the attention of
only the observant.

The nest-hole is 25-40 feet up; the 5-7 white eggs are laid in May.


PILEATED WOODPECKER

_Phlœotomus pileatus pileatus_

          Next to the nearly extinct Ivory-bill this is the
          largest of our Woodpeckers. (L. 17.) Both sexes
          have a flaming red crest (reaching the forehead in
          the male) the remainder of the plumage being
          black, with the throat, a stripe from the bill
          down the sides of the neck, and the basal half of
          the wing-feathers white; bill horn-color.

          _Range._ Southeastern and Gulf States, north to
          North Carolina. The Northern Pileated Woodpecker
          (_P. p. abieticola_) is found thence northward
          into Canada and west to the Pacific. It is a
          larger bird, with the white areas larger.

In the south the Pileated is by no means rare and seems not averse to
the presence of man; but in the north he retires to the wilder forested
areas and we are apt to see him only when we go a-camping. And he is
well worth seeing with his flaming crest and powerful bill which, used
either as a chisel or drum-stick, produces impressive results. Strangely
enough the Pileated's notes resemble those of the Flicker but are
louder.

The nest is usually well up; the 3-5 white eggs are laid in April in the
south, in May in the north.


RED-HEADED WOODPECKER

_Melanerpes erythrocephalus. Case 3, Figs. 21, 22; Case 6, Fig. 43_

          Adults of both sexes have the whole head red;
          young, during their first winter, have the head
          grayish brown, and a black band across the white
          wing-feathers. L. 9¾.

          _Range._ Eastern United States, west to Rockies;
          local east of the Alleghanies and north of
          Pennsylvania.

          Washington, rather common S.R., rare W.V.
          Ossining, rare P.R., common in fall, Aug. 27-Oct.
          12. Cambridge, irregular at all seasons; sometimes
          common in fall. N. Ohio, common S.R., Apl.
          20-Sept. 25; occasionally winters. Glen Ellyn,
          common S.R., Feb. 19-Nov. 6; a few winter. SE.
          Minn., common S.R., Apl. 4-Sept. 17; rare in
          winter.

Adding to the normal habits of a Woodpecker marked skill as a
flycatcher, the Red-head stops his grub-hunting and swings out after a
passing insect with a dazzling display of red, white and blue-black.
Noisy as he is conspicuous, he beats his log-drum, rolls a tree
toad-like _krrring_, or, with tireless persistency utters a whistled
croak. In the northeastern states Red-heads are distributed irregularly.
They are rarely common in the summer, but in the fall they sometimes
appear in numbers. Whenever they come we are soon aware of their
presence.

The nest is generally in a dead tree; the 4-6 white eggs are laid in
May.


RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER

_Centurus carolinus. Case 3, Fig. 23_

          Back and wings evenly barred with black and white,
          hence the name 'Zebra'; the female and young have
          the front part of the crown gray. L. 9½.

          _Range._ Eastern United States, north to southern
          Pennsylvania, western New York and southern
          Minnesota; casually further.

          Washington, locally common P.R. Cambridge, A.V.,
          one record. N. Ohio, tolerably common P.R. SE.
          Minn., uncommon P.R.

A common, hoarse-voiced resident of orange groves and gardens who with a
_chuh-chuh_, jerkily hitches himself upward in the routine of the daily
grub hunt. It is rare at the northern part of its range, but resident
wherever found. The nest is in dead or living trees; the 4-6 white eggs
are laid in late April or early May.


NORTHERN FLICKER

_Colaptes auratus luteus. Case 2, Figs. 21, 22; Case 3, Fig. 20_

          The white rump and yellow wing-linings, displayed
          in flight; black breast-crescent, spotted
          underparts and fairly large size, readily
          distinguish this beautiful bird. The female very
          properly lacks the male's 'moustache.' L. 12.

          _Range._ Eastern North America, from North
          Carolina and southern Illinois to Canada and
          Alaska. The Southern Flicker (_C. a. auratus_) a
          smaller, darker race, inhabits the South Atlantic
          and Gulf States.

          Washington, common S.R., rare W.V. Ossining,
          common S.R., Mch. 25-Oct. 30; a few winter.
          Cambridge, very common S.R., common W.V. N. Ohio,
          common S.R., Mch. 10-Nov. 15 a few winter. Glen
          Ellyn, common S.R., Mch. 7-Dec. 24; a few winter.
          SE. Minn., common S.R., Mch. 21-Oct. 16.

Thirty years ago the Flicker, High-hole or Yellow-hammer, was prey of
any boy with a gun and was correspondingly wild and little known; now,
thanks to the Audubon Society, he is almost as domestic as the Robin. In
search of ants and their eggs, he hunts our lawns and even accepts the
hospitality of our nest-logs. A great acquisition to our dooryard life
is this bird of beautiful colors, quaint habits, and strange notes. His
loud, strongly accented call, _kée-yer_, his rapidly repeated mellow
_weéchew, weéchew_, possess character even if they lack musical quality.

The Flicker nests in holes and lays from 5-9 white eggs in late April or
early May.



GOATSUCKERS, SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRDS. ORDER MACROCHIRES



NIGHTHAWKS, WHIP-POOR-WILLS, ETC. FAMILY CAPRIMULGIDÆ


CHUCKWILL'S WIDOW

_Antrostromus carolinensis. Case 6, Fig. 40_

          A larger, browner bird than the Whip-poor-will,
          with branched, not simple bristles at the sides of
          the bill. Breast-patch whiter in the male than in
          the female. L. 12.

          _Range._ Southern states north to Virginia;
          wintering from southern Florida southward and
          migrating northward in March.

          Washington, one record. Cambridge, A.V., one
          record, Dec.

What the Whip-poor-will is to the north the Chuckwill is to the south.
The difference in their names expresses the syllabic difference in
their calls, but the Chuckwill's notes are uttered more evenly and lack
the marked accent on the first "Whip" of its northern cousin's song.

The Chuckwill lays its two eggs in April on the ground in the woods,
where it lives. They are white with delicate lilac markings and a few
brownish spots.


WHIP-POOR-WILL

_Antrostomus vociferus vociferus. Case 6, Fig. 41_

          Outer wing-quills barred with rusty, breast-band
          white in the male, buff in the female. L. 9¾.

          _Range._ Breeds from northern Georgia north to
          Canada, winters from the Gulf States southward,
          starting north in April.

          Washington, common S.R., Apl. 13-Oct 13. Ossining,
          common S.R., Apl. 19-Oct. 17. Cambridge, formerly
          S.R., now chiefly T.V., Apl. 30-Sept. 20. N. Ohio,
          locally common S.R., Apl. 29-Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn,
          rare, spring records only, Apl. 19-May 21. SE.
          Minn., common S.R., Apl. 17-Sept. 28.

A mysterious, silent, flitting shadow, should we chance to arouse it
from its sleep in the forest by day, at dusk the Whip-poor-will takes
the center of the stage and announces his presence to the world.
_Whi['p]-poor-will, whi['p]-poor-will_ he calls with a snap and a
swinging rhythm that makes the twilight ring with the oft-repeated
notes.

Two eggs are laid on the ground in the woods in May. They are dull white
with delicate obscure lilac markings, and a few brownish gray spots.


NIGHTHAWK

_Chordeiles virginianus virginianus. Case 6, Fig. 39_

          A white mark across the black outer wing-quills is
          very conspicuous in flight; seen from below it
          suggests a hole in the bird's wing. The female has
          the throat buff and no white band in the tail. L.
          10.

          _Range._ Eastern North America from the Gulf
          States and Georgia north to Canada and Alaska.
          Winters in the tropics coming north in April. The
          Florida Nighthawk (_C. v. chapmani_) a smaller
          race (L. 8½) is a Summer Resident in the Gulf
          States.

          Washington, not common S.R.; abundant T.V., Apl.
          19-Oct. 8. Ossining, common S.R., May 9-Oct. 11.
          Cambridge, rare S.R., common T.V., May 15-Sept.
          25. N. Ohio, locally common S.R., May 1-Sept. 20.
          Glen Ellyn, not common S.R., common T.V., May
          1-Oct. 14. SE. Minn., common S.R.. May 4-Sept. 30.

Doubtless because we see the Nighthawk and only hear the Whip-poor-will
the notes of the latter have been often attributed to the former, with
the result that many people think there is but one species. While it is
true that there is a general resemblance in form, in details of color
and markings, the two birds are quite unlike, while so far as notes and
habits are concerned, few members of the same family differ more. The
Whip-poor-will haunts the shadows of the woods and rarely flies far
above the ground, the Nighthawk, like a Swift, courses high in the open,
even over city house-tops, where anyone who looks may see him. The
Whip-poor-will's notes have made him famous, the Nighthawk calls only a
nasal _peent, peent_, and, diving earthward on set wings, produces a
hollow, booming sound. Both nest on the ground, but the Nighthawk lays
in the fields or on pebbly roofs, and its two finely marked eggs (laid
in May or June) are quite unlike those of the Whip-poor-will.



SWIFTS. FAMILY MICROPODIDÆ


CHIMNEY SWIFT

_Chætura pelagica. Case 6. Fig. 42_

          A near relative of the Hummingbird, not of
          Swallows. Note the 'spine'-tipped tail-feathers.

          _Range._ Eastern North America; winters in Central
          America; reaches the Gulf States in March.

          Washington, abundant S.R., Apl. 6-Oct. 27.
          Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 19-Oct. 23. Cambridge,
          abundant S.R., Apl. 25-Sept. 20. N. Ohio, abundant
          S.R., Apl. 10-Oct. 20. Glen Ellyn, common S.R.,
          Apl. 16-Sept. 29. SE. Minn., common S.R., Apl.
          20-Sept. 18.

A twittering courser of evening skies who makes his home in our
chimneys. Here the bracket-like nest of dead twigs is attached to the
bricks by the bird's saliva, to be loosened, at times, after heavy rains
and fall to the fire-place below. In the fall great flocks roost in
chimneys, generally large ones, returning night after night.

The 4-6 white eggs are laid in May.



HUMMINGBIRDS. FAMILY TROCHILIDÆ


RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD

_Archilochus colubris. Case 7, Figs. 4, 3_

          Females and young lack the 'ruby' throat.

          _Range._ Eastern North America, nesting from
          Florida to Quebec; winters from central Florida to
          Panama.

          Washington, common S.R., Apl. 23-Oct. 23.
          Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 30-Oct. 3. Cambridge,
          very common T.V., uncommon S.R., May 10-Sept. 20.
          N. Ohio, common S.R., May 1-Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn,
          rare S.R., May 1-Sept. 22. SE. Minn., common S.R.,
          May 19-Oct. 8.

Any Hummingbird seen east of the Mississippi may, with confidence, be
called a Ruby-throat; exceptions will probably prove to be sphinx moths,
which, it must be confessed, look singularly hummingbird-like as they
hover before flowers. When the eggs are laid the male deserts the
female, leaving to her the task of incubation and care of the young.

The nest, most exquisite of bird homes, is saddled to a limb usually 15
or more feet up. The two bean-like white eggs are laid in May.



PERCHING BIRDS. ORDER PASSERES



FLYCATCHERS. FAMILY TYRANNIDÆ


KINGBIRD

_Tyrannus tyrannus. Case 7, Fig. 6_

          Note the white-tipped tail; young birds lack the
          orange crest. L. 8½.

          _Range._ North America; nests from northern
          Florida to Canada; winters in South America,
          reaching Florida in March.

          Washington, common S.R., Apl. 18-Sept. 23.
          Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 29-Sept. 10.
          Cambridge, common S.R. May 5-Sept. 1. N. Ohio,
          common S.R., Apl. 20-Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn, fairly
          common S.R., Apl. 16-Sept. 6. SE. Minn., common
          S.R., Apl. 26-Aug. 31.

A valiant defender of his home who, at the approach of Crow or Hawk,
utters his steely, chattering, battle-cry and sallies forth to attack.
Fearlessly he plunges down on an enemy many times his size who dodging
this way and that beats a hasty retreat before his active, aggressive
assailant. In the fall migration Kingbirds gather in loose flocks.

The nest is placed near the end of a branch about 20 feet up; the 3-5
white eggs spotted with dark brown, are laid in May.


GRAY KINGBIRD

_Tyrannus dominicensis dominicensis. Case 7, Fig. 7_

          Resembles the Kingbird but is lighter gray, and
          the tail lacks the conspicuous white tip.

          _Range._ West Indies, nesting north through
          Florida to southeastern South Carolina; winters to
          South America; reaches Florida early in May.

A not uncommon summer resident in parts of Florida and the coastal
region of Georgia and South Carolina, with the general habits and
appearance of our Kingbird, but with a quite different call which
suggests the words _pitírri-pitírri_. It nests in May, laying four
salmon-colored eggs, marked with dark brown and lilac.


CRESTED FLYCATCHER

_Myiarchus crinitus. Case 7, Fig. 5_

          The reddish brown tail-feathers may sometimes be
          seen and the crest is usually evident. L. 9.

          _Range._ Eastern North America; nests from Florida
          to Canada; winters in the tropics, reaching
          Florida on its northward journey in March.

          Washington, very common S.R., Apl. 20-Sept. 29.
          Ossining, common S.R., May 7-Sept. 12. Cambridge,
          rare S.R., May 15-Sept. 11. N. Ohio, common S.R.,
          Apl. 25-Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn, not common S.R., May
          1-Sept. 18. SE. Minn., common S.R., Apl. 25.

A character of the woods distinguished alike by appearance, voice and
habits. His crested head seems too big for his body; his exclamatory
whistle, which sounds like a shout above a monotone of conversation, his
habit of always lining his nest with a cast-off snake skin, all mark him
as an odd genius. Even his wife's eggs, with their long chocolate
streaks, are quite unlike any other birds' eggs. They are laid in a hole
in a tree in May or June.


PHŒBE

_Soyornis phœbe. Case 4, Fig. 52; Case 5, Fig. 15_

          Head slightly crested, somewhat darker than body.
          In the fall the underparts are tinged with yellow.
          L. 7.

          _Range._ Eastern North America; nests from
          northern Mississippi and northwestern Georgia to
          Canada; winters from South Carolina to Mexico. The
          only Flycatcher to winter in the eastern United
          States and hence the first to reach us in the
          spring.

          Washington, common S.R., Feb. 25-Oct.;
          occasionally winters. Ossining, common S.R., Mch.
          14-Oct. 29. Cambridge, common T.V., and not
          uncommon S.R., Mch. 25-Oct. 10. N. Ohio, common
          S.R., Mch. 14-Oct. 15. Glen Ellyn, S.R., Mch.
          13-Oct. 6. SE. Minn., common S.R., Mch. 22-Oct.
          11.

The Phœbe is the best known member of a group of small Flycatchers which
the beginner, and not infrequently the advanced student, names with more
or less uncertainty. Fortunately for the field student, and as if to
compensate for their close resemblance in plumage, they all possess
distinctive, quite unlike, and easily recognizable calls, and
consequently can readily be identified by their voices if not by their
colors.

The Phœbe shows so marked a fondness for our society, nesting under our
piazzas, in barns or outbuildings, and calls his _pewit-phœbe_ so
plainly, wagging his tail the while in a friendly, sociable kind of a
way, that there is never any doubt about his identity; but we will not
make the acquaintance of his less common, less confiding relatives so
readily.

The Phœbe's 4-6 white eggs (rarely with a few brown spots) are laid the
latter half of April.


OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER

_Nuttalornis borealis. Case 8, Fig. 59_

          With the general appearance of a large Phœbe, but
          with the breast and sides the color of the back,
          and a tuft of white feathers on each flank. L. 7½.

          _Range._ North America; nests from northern New
          England northward (southward in the Alleghanies to
          North Carolina); winters in the tropics.

          Washington, casual T.V. Ossining, tolerably common
          T.V., May 20; Aug. 15-Sept. 16. Cambridge, rare
          T.V., May 20-June 6; formerly not uncommon S.R.,
          one Sept. record. Glen Ellyn, not common T.V., May
          13-June 11; Aug. 11-Sept. 15. SE. Minn., common
          T.V., May 10-Sept. 9.

To most of us the Olive-sided is known as a rare migrant passing
northward in May, among the later transients, and southward in
September. When traveling the bird retains the fondness of its kind for
perching on tall tree-tops, but its loud, unmistakable, whistled "come
right _here_, come right _here_" is usually heard only on the nesting
ground.

The nest is placed in coniferous trees about 25 feet up, and 3-5 white,
brown-spotted eggs are laid in June.


WOOD PEWEE

_Myiochanes virens. Case 8, Fig. 63_

          Resembles the Phœbe but is smaller with relatively
          longer wings and more evident wing-bars. L. 6½.

          _Range._ Eastern North America; nesting from
          Florida to Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, common S.R., Apl. 20-Oct. 12.
          Ossining, common S.R., May 10-Oct. 2. Cambridge,
          common T.V., not uncommon S.R., May 18-Sept. 15.
          N. Ohio, abundant S.R., May 2-Sept. 27. Glen
          Ellyn, fairly common S.R., May 9-Sept. 29. SE.
          Minn., common S.R., May 10-Sept. 23.

In color Phœbe and Pewee are much alike and both are Flycatchers, but
the resemblance ends there. Pewee loves the solitude of the forest
rather than the sociability of the barnyard, and his pensive _pee-a-wee_
does not even suggest the business-like _pewit-phœbe_ of his
better-known cousin. Nor does his dainty lichen-covered nest saddled so
skillfully on the limb of a forest tree, recall the Phœbe's bulky moss
and mud dwelling. Finally, the Pewee's eggs, laid in May, are wreathed
with brown.


YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER

_Empidonax flaviventris. Case 8. Fig. 61_

          The entire underparts, including the throat, are
          unquestionably sulphur-yellow. L. 5½

          _Range._ Eastern North America; nests from
          northern New York and northern New England
          northward into Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, rather common T.V., May; July 28-Oct.
          6. Ossining, common T.V., May 17-June 4; Aug.
          8-Sept. 20. Cambridge, T.V., sometimes rather
          common, May 25-June 3; Aug. 28-Sept. 8. N. Ohio,
          rare T.V., May 10. Glen Ellyn, rather rare T.V.,
          May 20-June 5; Sept. 3. SE. Minn., common T.V.,
          May 19.

Known chiefly as a not common migrant who visits our woods on his
journey to and from his northern home. He is a silent traveler and gives
no clue to his identity by calling or singing, but his underparts are so
much yellower than those of any other of our small Flycatchers that they
make a definite field character. Nests in coniferous forests on the
ground, laying 4 white, lightly spotted eggs in June.


ACADIAN FLYCATCHER

_Empidonax virescens. Case 8, Fig. 60_

          Throat white, upperparts bright, light
          olive-green, without tinge of brown as in the
          Alder Flycatcher.

          _Range._ Eastern North America; rather southern,
          nesting from Florida north to Connecticut and
          Michigan; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, common S.R., May 1-Sept. 15. Ossining,
          common S.R., May 10-Aug. 27. N. Ohio, common S.R.,
          May 4-Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn, not common S.R., May
          6-Aug. 27, and probably later.

On the low-sweeping limb of a beech over a stream is an ideal site for
the frail nest of the Acadian. The bird is never found far from it and
its low-ranging habits permit us to see its characteristic markings and
hear its peculiar sudden, explosive little _pee-e-yúk_ and more commonly
uttered _spee_ or _peet_.

The creamy white, brown-spotted eggs are laid the latter part of May.


ALDER FLYCATCHER

_Empidonax trailli alnorum. Case 8, Fig. 62_

          Larger than the Least Flycatcher, but resembling
          it in having the back olive-brown instead of
          olive-green as in the Acadian and Yellow-bellied
          Flycatchers. L. 6.

          _Range._ Eastern North America; nests from
          northern New Jersey (locally) and mountains of
          West Virginia to Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, irregularly common T.V., May 8-May 28;
          Aug. 16-Sept. 17. Ossining, rare T.V., May 19-May
          31; Aug. 29. Cambridge, rare T.V., May 28-June 6;
          Aug.; occasional in summer.

          Traill's Flycatcher (_E. t. trailli_), a slightly
          browner bird is the Mississippi Valley form. N.
          Ohio, common S.R., May 7-Sept. 10. Glen Ellyn,
          quite common S.R., May 14-Sept. 19. S.E. Minn.,
          common S.R., May 6-Aug. 10.

A rare recluse of the alders who, traveling silently between his summer
and his winter homes, makes few friends among men. Dwight describes its
call note as "a single _pep_," and its song as _ee-zee-e-up_, resembling
that of the Acadian. The bird places the nest low down in the crotch of
one of the bushes among which it lives and lays 3-4 white, brown-spotted
eggs in June.


LEAST FLYCATCHER

_Empidonax minimus. Case 6, Fig. 44_

          Smallest of the Flycatchers; like the Alder
          Flycatcher its back is olive-brown rather than
          olive-green; no evident yellow on the underparts.
          L. 5½.

          _Range._ Eastern North America; nests from Iowa,
          Pennsylvania and New Jersey to Canada; winters in
          the tropics.

          Washington, common T.V., Apl. 20-May 20; Aug.
          13-Sept. 15. Ossining, tolerably common S.R., Apl.
          25-Aug. 26. Cambridge, very common S.R., May
          1-Aug. 25. N. Ohio, common T.V. Apl. 15-May 25;
          Aug. 25-Oct. 1; rare in summer. Glen Ellyn, not
          common S.R., chiefly T.V., May 4-Sept. 24. SE.
          Minn., common S.R., Apl. 30-Sept. 13.

A Flycatcher of lawns and orchard, seldom going far from the tree in
which its nest with its white eggs is placed. A dry-voiced little bird
whose unmusical, but distinctly uttered _chebéc, chebéc_ makes up in
character what it lacks in sweetness. Between whiles he swings out for a
passing insect only to call _chebéc, chebéc, chebéc_ when he returns to
his perch.



LARKS. FAMILY ALAUDIDÆ


PRAIRIE HORNED LARK

_Otocoris alpestris praticola. Case 2, Fig. 42_

          Note the long hind-toe nail (or the track it
          leaves), the little feathered 'horns,' the black
          patch on cheeks and breast (less evident in
          winter). Smaller than the Northern Horned Lark,
          which visits the United States only in winter,
          with the line over the eye white, and throat but
          faintly tinged with yellow. L. 7¼.

          _Range._ Nests in the Upper Mississippi Valley
          from Missouri and in the Atlantic States
          (locally), from Connecticut northward; winters
          southward to Texas and Georgia. The Horned Lark
          (_Otocoris alpestris alpestris_), is a more
          northern race, nesting in the Arctic regions and
          migrating southward as far as Ohio and rarely
          Georgia, when it is often associated with the
          resident Prairie Horned Lark. It is larger than
          that race (L. 7¾) and has the throat and line over
          the eye yellow.

          Washington, common W.V., Aug. 11-Apl. Cambridge,
          one record. N. Ohio, common P.R. Glen Ellyn,
          common P.R. SE. Minn., S.R., Mch.-Nov., a few in
          mild winters.

A bird of open places--shores, plains, and prairies, and roadways--who
runs (not hops) nimbly ahead of one, or, with a short note, rises, and
on its long, pointed wings, flies on ahead. He usually returns to the
ground, but may alight on a fence; his long hind toe-nail not being
suited to grasping a small perch. The weak, twittering song is uttered
on the wing, when the bird, like its relative the Skylark, mounts into
the air. It also sings from a perch near the ground.

The Prairie Horned Lark is the first of our small birds to nest, making
its home on the ground and laying four finely speckled eggs early in
March. After the nesting season the birds gather in flocks.



CROWS, JAYS, ETC. FAMILY CORVIDÆ


BLUE JAY

_Cyanocitta cristata cristata. Case 2, Fig. 20_

          Color, habits and voice combine to render the Blue
          Jay conspicuous. L. 11¾.

          _Range._ Eastern North America from Georgia to
          Quebec; migratory only at the northern limit of
          its range. The Florida Blue Jay (_Cyanocitta
          cristata florincola_, Case 4, Fig. 75) is smaller
          (L. 10¾) and grayer above. It is found throughout
          Florida.

          Washington, rather rare P.R., common T.V., Apl.
          28-May 15; Sept. 15-Oct. 15. Ossining, tolerably
          common P.R. Cambridge, common P.R., abundant T.V.,
          Apl. and May; Sept. and Oct. N. Ohio, common P.R.
          Glen Ellyn, common P.R. SE. Minn., common P.R.

If the Blue Jay were as good as he is beautiful he would be our most
popular bird. But fine feathers do not always make fine birds, and to
those who judge birds by human standards the Blue Jay's loud, harsh
voice, overbearing manners, and nest-robbing habits are unpardonable.
With all his faults, however, the true bird enthusiast loves him still.
His bright colors, dashing ways and intelligence win our admiration and
we feel honored when he makes his home near ours, building in early May
a well-made nest in a tree-crotch, for the reception of the 4-6
olive-green, thickly speckled eggs.


FLORIDA JAY

_Aphelocoma cyanea_

          Size of the Blue Jay but quite unlike it in color.
          The head, wings and tail are grayish blue without
          white markings; the back is pale brown, the
          underparts dirty white, with the throat
          inconspicuously streaked and a faint bluish
          breast-band.

          _Range._ Florida between lat. 27° and 30°, and
          chiefly along the coasts.

This is the 'Scrub-Jay' of Florida and is not to be confused with the
Florida Blue Jay. It lives in districts where scrub palmetto grows, but
also comes into gardens and grows where it soon responds to proper
treatment and becomes semi-domesticated. It nests early in April.


CANADA JAY.

_Perisoreus canadensis canadensis_

          Size of the Blue Jay; a gray bird with a black
          crown and white forehead, cheeks and throat.

          _Range._ Northern New England and northern New
          York, northward; resident, rarely straggling
          southward.

          Cambridge, A.V., one record, Oct.

It is singular that the Canada Jay at the north and the Florida Jay in
the south should show exceptional confidence in man, while the Blue Jay
always seems to regard him with suspicion. The very day we make camp in
the north woods the Canada Jay or Whiskey Jack becomes our guest. As
though assured of a welcome he fearlessly joins our party, helping
himself to such supplies as please his fancy. Long before our arrival,
when snow still covered the ground, he has reared his family and for the
rest of the year has only his own wants to fill.


RAVEN

_Corvus corax principalis_

          Much larger than the Crow, the throat with long,
          pointed feathers, instead of short, rounded ones.
          L. 24.

          _Range._ North America rare and local in the
          Eastern States, south to New Jersey on the coast
          and to Georgia in the mountains.

Crows _caw_, while Ravens _croak_; but to be sure that you have actually
seen a Raven he should be with Crows, when the Raven's much larger size
is evident. Unless, however, you should visit the few localities in the
eastern States where Ravens live you are not likely to make the bird's
acquaintance. Ravens nest on cliffs as well as in trees. Their eggs,
which resemble those of the Crow in color, are laid in April.


CROW

_Corvus brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos. Case 1, Fig. 19; Case 3, Fig. 27_

          Sexes alike in color. L. 19½.

          _Range._ North America; migratory at the northern
          limit of its range; roosting in colonies in
          winter.

          Washington, abundant P.R. Ossining, common P.R.
          Cambridge, common P.R. abundant T.V. N. Ohio,
          common P.R. Glen Ellyn, common P.R. SE. Minn.,
          common S.R., Mch.-Nov., uncommon W.V.

The Crow and the Robin are probably the best known of all our birds. The
former we treat as an enemy and the latter as a friend, and one
therefore is as wild as the other is tame. Whether the Crow deserves to
be outlawed has not as yet been decided. But we should not condemn him
out of court and let us remember that as an intelligent, self-respecting
citizen, who animates wintry wastes with his shining sable form and
clarion call, he has other than economic claims to our consideration.
The nest is placed in a tree about 30 feet up, and 4-6 eggs, green
thickly marked with brownish are laid in April.

The Florida Crow (_C. b. pascuus_) is very near the northern bird, but
has the wings and tail smaller, the bill and feet larger. It lives
chiefly in the pine barrens of Florida and is much less common in the
state than the Fish Crow.


FISH CROW

_Corvus ossifragus_

          Brighter, more uniformly colored above and below,
          the feathers without dull tips.

          _Range._ Atlantic and Gulf coast region from the
          lower Hudson Valley and Long Island Sound
          southward. Migratory only at the northern limit
          of its range. Found throughout Florida, but
          elsewhere usually not far from tidal water.

          Washington, rather common P.R. Cambridge, A.V.,
          one record, Mch.

In life the Fish Crow may be distinguished from the common Crow by its
smaller size and hoarser voice. The difference in size, however, is
evident only when the two are together, but once the cracked, reedy
_car_ (not _caw_) of the Fish Crow has been learned the species may
always be identified when heard. It is somewhat like the note of a young
Crow, but less immature. The nest and eggs are much like those of the
common Crow. The eggs are laid in May.



STARLINGS. FAMILY STURNIDÆ


STARLING

_Sturnus vulgaris. Case 2, Figs. 24, 25_

          In winter conspicuously dotted with whitish; in
          summer with but few dots and a yellow bill; at all
          times with a short tail and long wings. L 8½.

          _Range._ Introduced from Europe into Central Park,
          New York City, in 1890, now more or less numerous
          from Virginia to Maine; occasional west of the
          Alleghanies. It is a quick, active bird, probing
          the ground now this side, now that, as it walks
          rapidly over our lawns. The short tail and long
          wings are most noticeable in the air and
          distinguish the Starling from our other black
          birds.

A long-drawn whistle, such as one calls to a dog, is the Starling's most
common note, but it has many others. It nests in April, often after
quarreling with Flickers for possession of a nest-hole in which to lay
its pale bluish eggs. The young appear in mid-May and their harsh,
rasping food-call is a common note for several weeks; then the birds
begin to gather in companies which, later, form flocks of thousands.



BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. FAMILY ICTERIDÆ


BOBOLINK

_Dolichonyx oryzivorus. Case 7, Figs. 13, 14_

          In July, after nesting, the male molts into a
          plumage resembling that of the female, when both
          are known as Reedbird. L 7¼.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New Jersey and
          northern Missouri to southern Canada and westward
          to British Columbia; leaves the United States
          through Florida and winters chiefly in
          northwestern Argentina; returns to United States
          early in April.

          Washington, T.V., common in spring, abundant in
          fall; Apl. 26-May 30; July 23-Nov. 14. Ossining,
          tolerably common S.R., May 1-Oct. 5. Cambridge,
          very common S.R., May 8-Sept. 10. N. Ohio, common
          S.R., Apl. 10-Oct. 10. Glen Ellyn, S.R., Apl.
          27-Oct. 9. SE. Minn., common S.R., Mch. 5-Aug. 27.

A bird with a dual personality; welcome minstrel of the meadows when
nesting, dread scourge of the rice-fields when traveling. With the loss
of his trim suit of black, white, and buff, Bob loses also his merry
tinkling, rippling song, and acquires with his streaked Reedbird suit a
single watchword. _Tink, tink_ he calls from somewhere overhead, and
_tink, tink_ his comrades answer as they follow a trackless path through
the sky on their 5000-mile journey.

The nest is placed on the ground and 4-7 grayish, blotched eggs are laid
late in May or early in June.


COWBIRD

_Molothrus ater ater. Case 5, Figs. 8, 9_

          The male's brown head distinguishes him from other
          Blackbirds; the female wears a dull gray garb well
          designed to make her inconspicuous. L. 8.

          _Range._ North America; nesting from North
          Carolina and Louisiana to Canada; winters from
          Virginia and Ohio southward.

          Washington, rather rare P.R., common T.V.
          Ossining, common S.R., Mch. 23-Nov. 11.
          Cambridge, common S.R., Mch. 25-Nov. 1; occasional
          in winter. N. Ohio, abundant S.R., Mch. 10-Nov.
          15. Glen Ellyn, common S.R., Mch. 15-Sept. 10. SE.
          Minn., common S.R., Apl. 11-Aug. 19.

Outlaws among birds, they pair not neither do they build. Without moral
standards or maternal instincts the female accepts the attention of any
male that chances to win her fancy and deposits her eggs in the nests of
other birds. She is a slacker and a shirker, who keeps much in the
background during the breeding season. Color, habit, his sliding, glassy
whistle, and guttural gurgling, make the male conspicuous. Leaving the
care of their foster parents the young join others of their kind and
flock in the grainfields or about cattle in the pastures.


YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD

_Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus. Case 6, Fig. 45_

          Large size and a yellow head distinguish the male;
          the female is duller, the body brownish, the head
          yellowish. L. 10.

          _Range._ Mississippi Valley and westward, breeding
          from northern Illinois northward to Canada;
          winters from the west Gulf coast and southern
          California into Mexico; accidental east of the
          Alleghanies.

          Washington, A.V., one instance, Aug. Cambridge,
          A.V., one record, Oct. Glen Ellyn, A.V., May 21,
          1898. SE. Minn., common S.R., Apl. 21.

Hanging their cradle nest in the quill-reeds or rushes, the Yellow-heads
are not found far from it until the young take wing. The male entertains
his mate with a variety of strange calls and whistles, but leaves to her
the hatching of the brown speckled eggs and care of the young while they
are in the nest. Like other Blackbirds they migrate and winter in
flocks.


RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD

_Agelaius phœniceus phœniceus. Case 5, Figs. 5, 6_

          The male in spring and early summer is
          unmistakable; in winter his feathers are tipped
          with brownish, more pronounced in the young. The
          streaked females require closer scrutiny. L. 9½.

          _Range._ Eastern North America, nests from Florida
          to Canada; winters from Maryland southward,
          sometimes farther north. The Florida Red-wing (_A.
          p. floridanus_, Case 4, Figs. 28, 29) is smaller
          and with a slenderer bill. It inhabits Florida
          (except the southeast coast and Keys) and ranges
          west along the Gulf coast to Texas. The Bahama
          Red-wing (_A. p. bahamensis_) is still smaller. It
          is resident in southeastern Florida, the Keys and
          Bahamas.

          Washington, common P.R., abundant in migration.
          Ossining, common S.R., Feb. 25-Nov. 11. Cambridge,
          abundant S.R., Mch. 10-Aug. 30; a few winter. N.
          Ohio, abundant S.R., Mch. 1-Nov. 15. Glen Ellyn,
          common S.R., Mch. 5-Nov. 19. SE. Minn., common
          S.R., Mch. 8-Nov. 14.

The Red-wing's mellow _kong-quer-reee_ is as certain an indication of
the presence of water as is the piping of frogs in the spring. It may be
only a bit of boggy marshland, it may be a reedy lakeside, but water
there will surely be. On a frequented perch he half spreads his wings,
fluffs out his scarlet epaulets, bursting into bloom, as it were, when
he utters his notes--a singing flower! The nest is in the alders,
button-bushes, or reeds, or even on the ground, and although the birds
come in March, their pale blue, spotted, blotched, and scrawled eggs are
not laid until May. Except when nesting, Red-wings live in flocks.


MEADOWLARK

_Sturnella magna magna. Case 2, Fig. 23_

          A large, quail-like bird which shows white outer
          tail-feathers when it flies; if one can obtain a
          front view, the yellow underparts and black
          breast-crescent are conspicuous. L. 10¾.

          _Range._ Eastern North America, rare west of the
          Mississippi; nesting from North Carolina and
          Missouri to Canada; winters from southern New
          England and northern Ohio southward. The Southern
          Meadowlark (_S. m. argutula_, Case, 4, Fig. 79) is
          smaller and darker. It is resident in the south
          Atlantic and Gulf States.

          Washington, common P.R., less common in winter.
          Ossining, tolerably common S.R., Feb. 20-Nov. 27;
          a few winter. Cambridge, common S.R., not common
          W.V. N. Ohio, abundant S.R., Mch. 5-Nov. 15; a
          few winter. Glen Ellyn, common S.R., Jan. 24-Nov.
          15; irregular W.V. SE. Minn., common S.R., Mch.
          25-Oct. 15; rare W.V.

The Meadowlark is a fifer of the fields, whose high, clear whistle is
one of the most welcome bird songs of early spring. In May, when
nesting, it often sings an ecstatic twittering warble on the wing. The
alarm calls are an unmusical _dzit_ or _yert_ and a string of beady,
metallic notes.

The nest is placed on the ground. The 4-6 eggs are white, speckled with
brown.


WESTERN MEADOWLARK

_Sturnella neglecta_

          Grayer than the Eastern Meadowlark, with
          disconnected tail-bars and yellow spreading to the
          sides of the throat.

          _Range._ Western United States, rare east of the
          Mississippi. SE. Minn., common S.R., Mch. 25-Oct.
          15.

With the general appearance and habits of the Eastern Meadowlark, but
differing in its call-notes and song. Instead of the sharp _dzit_ or
_yert_ and metallic twitter of the eastern bird, the western species
calls _chuck_, _chuck_, followed by a rolling _b-r-r-r-_. The eastern
bird plays the fife but the western uses the flute, and its bubbling
grace-notes are easily distinguishable from the _straight_ whistling of
its eastern cousin.


ORCHARD ORIOLE

_Icterus spurius. Case 7, Figs. 10-12_

          Adult males are unmistakable, but females and
          young males in their first fall wear a
          non-committal costume and must be looked at
          sharply. In their first nesting season, young
          males resemble the female but have a black throat.
          This is a smaller, more slender bird than the
          Baltimore Oriole, and the female is less orange.
          L. 7¼.

          _Range._ Eastern United States, nesting from the
          Gulf States to Massachusetts and Minnesota;
          winters in the tropics.

          Washington, common S.R., Apl. 20-Aug. 22.
          Ossining, common S.R., May 2-Aug. 6. Cambridge,
          S.R., sometimes rather common, May 15-July. N.
          Ohio, common S.R., Apl. 28-Sept. 5. Glen Ellyn,
          not common S.R., Apl. 38. SE. Minn., uncommon
          S.R., May 10-Aug. 26.

In the northern part of its range, the Orchard Oriole is somewhat less
common, and more local than the Baltimore Oriole, while its duller
colors and more retiring habits make it more difficult to see. The voice
is richer, more cultured--if one may use the term--than that of its
brilliant orange-plumed cousin; indeed, in my opinion, this species
deserves a place in the first rank of our songsters. The nest of finely
woven grasses is not so deep as that of the Baltimore. Three to five
bluish white eggs, spotted and scrawled with black, are laid the latter
part of May.


BALTIMORE ORIOLE

_Icterus galbula. Case 7, Figs. 8, 9_

          The orange and black male needs no introduction;
          the female is tinted with orange strongly enough
          to show her relationship. L. 7½.

          _Range._ Eastern North America; nests from
          northern Georgia to Canada; winters in the
          tropics.

          Washington, rather common S.R., Apl. 29-Aug. 26.
          Ossining, common S.R., May 2-Sept. 1. Cambridge,
          very common S.R., May 8 through Aug. N. Ohio,
          common S.R., Apl. 15-Sept. 10. Glen Ellyn, common
          S.R., Apl. 26-Sept. 4. SE. Minn., common S.R., May
          1-Sept. 1.

This is the orange-and-black whistler of our fruit and shade trees,
whose wife skillfully weaves a pendant cradle at the end of some
drooping branch, therein to lay her white eggs curiously marked with
fine lines and blotches of black. The young, after leaving the nest in
June, have a loud, babyish food-call, _dee-dee-dee-dee_, repeated time
after time until their wants are satisfied.


RUSTY BLACKBIRD

_Euphagus carolinus. Case 5, Figs. 3, 4_

          The bird's common name is based on the fall
          plumage of the male, which is broadly margined
          with rusty. By spring these tips wear off and the
          bird is glossy black. Size of the Red-wing but
          with a whitish eye and no red; the female
          unstreaked.

          _Range._ Eastern North America; nests from the
          northern part of the northern states to Canada;
          winters from New Jersey and Ohio to the Gulf
          States.

          Washington, common W.V., Oct. 13-Apl. 30.
          Ossining, common T.V., Mch. 26-May 8; Sept.
          28-Nov. 27. Cambridge, very common T.V., Mch.
          10-May 8; Sept. 15-Oct. 31. N. Ohio, common T.V.,
          Mch. 5-May 10; Sept. 10-Nov. 15. Glen Ellyn,
          common T.V., Mch. 3-May 8; Sept. 12-Nov. 15;
          uncommon W.V. SE. Minn., common T.V., Mch. 26-Nov.
          24.

This is the least conspicuous of our Blackbirds. It nests chiefly north
of the United States, migrates in small flocks, and is less noisy than
the Red-wing or Grackle and not so much in evidence as the Cowbird.
Dwight describes its notes as "a confused medley of whistles, sweeter
and higher-pitched than those of the Red-wing." It nests in May,
building in coniferous trees or near the ground, and laying 4-7 greenish
eggs, heavily marked with brown and purple.


PURPLE GRACKLE

_Quiscalus quiscula quiscula. Case 5, Fig. 1_

          Plumage varied with metallic and iridescent
          reflections; tail long, fan-shaped, often 'keeled'
          in flight; eye pale yellow. Male, L. 12½. The
          female is smaller and duller; L. 10½.

          _Range._ Eastern North America; nests east of the
          Alleghanies from northern Georgia to Connecticut;
          winters from Maryland southward.

          Washington, common T.V. and S.R., Feb. 20; a few
          winter. Ossining, tolerably common S.R., Feb.
          15-Nov. 8. Cambridge, rare S.R.

The Florida Grackle (_Quiscalus quiscula aglæus_, Case 4, Fig. 74) is
smaller than the Purple Grackle and has the head and neck violet-purple,
the back bottle-green. It is resident in Florida and the Gulf States
north to South Carolina.

The Bronzed Grackle (_Quiscalus quiscula œneus_, Case 5, Fig. 2) is the
same size as the Purple Grackle, but has the body bronzy without
iridescent markings. It nests from Texas up the Mississippi Valley and
eastward through central New York and Massachusetts to New Brunswick,
north to Canada; and in migration is found in the range of the Purple
Grackle. It winters from the Ohio Valley southward.

          Washington, rare T.V., Feb 20-Apl. 17. Ossining,
          common T.V., Apl; Nov. Cambridge, abundant. S.R.,
          Mch. 10-Nov. 1; occasional in winter. N. Ohio,
          abundant, S.R., Mch. 1-Nov. 15; rarely winters.
          Glen Ellyn, common S.R., Mch. 5-Nov. 15, SE. Minn,
          common S.R., Mch, 18-Nov. 1; rare in winter.

The Grackle is the largest of our northern Blackbirds. In the south it
is exceeded in size only by the Boat-tailed Grackle. It migrates in
flocks and nests in colonies, often in parks and cemeteries. It feeds
chiefly on the ground and is frequently seen upon our lawns when it may
be known by its rather waddling, walking gait, and its long tail. Its
notes are harsh, cracked and discordant, but when heard in chorus make a
pleasing medley. The nest is sometimes placed in pines about 30 feet up,
but also in bushes and even in holes in trees. The 3-7 eggs are usually
pale bluish, heavily blotched and scrawled with brown and black.


BOAT-TAILED GRACKLE

_Megaquiscalus major major_

          The male is a long-tailed, glossy blue-black bird.
          (L. 16.) The female is much smaller (L. 12),
          blackish brown above, buff below.

          _Range._ Florida north on the Atlantic coast to
          Virginia; west to Texas.

This giant Grackle frequents lakes, lagoons and bays, where it feeds
along the shore or among aquatic plants. The male, a poseur among birds,
strikes strange attitudes with bill pointing skyward, and with apparent
effort forces out hoarse whistles. The female is quiet and unassuming.
They nest in colonies, building in bushes and laying in April 3-5 bluish
white eggs, strikingly blotched and scrawled with blackish.



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. FAMILY FRINGILLIDÆ


EVENING GROSBEAK

_Hesperiphona vespertina vespertina_

          A large, thick-set, heavy-billed, black and yellow
          Finch. The male with the forehead and most of the
          body yellow, the crown, wings and tail black; the
          inner wing-quills white. The female is brownish
          gray, more or less tinged with yellow, the wings
          and tail black with white markings. L. 8.

          _Range._ Western North America, wintering
          regularly eastward to Minnesota and irregularly to
          the North Atlantic States.

          Glen Ellyn, one record, Dec. 11, 1889. SE. Minn.,
          common W.V., Oct. 17-May 19.

[Illustration: EVENING GROSBEAK.

Male and Female.]

The Evening Grosbeak is a notable traveler from the far northwest whose
rare, irregular, and unheralded visits and striking appearance make him
always a welcome and distinguished guest. Of recent years these birds
have come to the east with greater frequency, arriving in November and
remaining as late as May. They feed largely on the buds and seeds of
trees--maple and box-elder--and can often be attracted to our
feeding-stations by the offer of sunflower seeds. They are usually
associated in flocks of from six to eight to ten birds, and their notes
when perching, have been described as resembling the jingle of small
sleigh-bells, while their song is said to be a "wandering jerky warble."


PINE GROSBEAK

_Pinicola enucleator leucura. Case 2, Figs. 53, 54_

          Adult males are unmistakable; but young males and
          female might be confused with the female Evening
          Grosbeak, but they lack the conspicuous white
          markings in the wings and tail of that species. L.
          9.

          _Range._ Northern North America, wintering
          southward irregularly to Indiana and New Jersey;
          rarely as far as Kentucky and Washington.

          Washington, casual in winter. Ossining, irregular
          W.V., Dec. 18-Apl. 12. Cambridge, irregular W.V.,
          frequently common, sometimes abundant, Nov. 1-Mch.
          25. N. Ohio, occasional W.V. Glen Ellyn, uncommon
          and irregular W.V., Oct. 25-? SE. Minn., uncommon
          W.V.

In the summer the Pines Grosbeak lives in coniferous forests, but on its
irregular wanderings southward, like the Evening Grosbeak, it feeds upon
the seeds of deciduous trees and bushes. The Grosbeak's call-note is a
clear whistle of three or four notes which may be easily imitated; its
song is said to be prolonged and melodious.

The Pine and Evening Grosbeaks would be notable figures in any gathering
of birds, but coming at the most barren time of the year when our bird
population is at the minimum and the trees are leafless, they are as
welcome as they are conspicuous.


PURPLE FINCH

_Carpodacus purpureus purpureus. Case 2, Figs. 32, 33; Case 4, Figs. 48,
49_

          The adult male is dull rose rather than purple,
          the female is sparrow-like in appearance but may
          be known by a whitish line over the eye and the
          company she keeps. Young males resemble their
          mother their first winter. L. 6¼.

          _Range._ Eastern North America; nesting from
          northern Illinois and northern New Jersey
          northward to Canada; winters from the Middle
          States to the Gulf.

          Washington, common W.V., Sept. 12-May 26, largely
          a migrant. Ossining, rare P.R., common T.V.
          Cambridge, P.R. common from Apl. to Oct.;
          irregular, but sometimes abundant in winter. N.
          Ohio, common W.V., Sept. 1-May 20. Glen Ellyn,
          fairly common T.V., Mch.-Apl., Sept.-Oct.,
          uncommon W.V.

Erratic wanderers which travel on no fixed schedule but seem to feel at
home wherever they find themselves. Except when nesting, they usually
live in small flocks which, if the fare of our feeding-stands please
them, will sometimes live with us for weeks. The call-note is
_creak-creak_, the song a flowing, musical warble often uttered in
detached fragments. Four to six bluish, spotted eggs are laid in May;
the nest being generally built in a coniferous tree.


ENGLISH SPARROW; HOUSE SPARROW

_Passer domesticus domesticus. Case 2, Figs. 30, 31; Case 4, Figs. 38,
39_

          Unfortunately too well known to require
          description. L. 6½.

          _Range._ First introduced into this country at
          Brooklyn, N.Y., from Europe in 1851; now found
          everywhere at all times.

Hardy, pugnacious and adaptable, the Sparrow is a notable success in the
bird world. We could overlook his objectionable traits if he possessed a
pleasant voice, but his harsh, discordant notes and incessant chatter
are unfortunately in harmony with his character. After all he gives a
welcome touch of life to city streets and yards. Sparrows' nests are
made of almost anything the birds can carry and built in any place that
will hold them. The 4-7 finely speckled eggs are laid as early as March,
and several broods are raised.


AMERICAN CROSSBILL

_Loxia curvirostra minor. Case 2 Figs. 49, 50_

          Crossbills have the mandibles crossed; the absence
          of wing-bars distinguishes this species from the
          usually less common White-winged Crossbill. L. 6¼.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England to Canada
          and southward in the Alleghanies to northern
          Georgia. Winters irregularly southward, rarely as
          far as Florida and Louisiana.

          Washington, irregular W.V., sometimes abundant.
          Ossining, irregular; noted in almost every month.
          Cambridge, of common but irregular occurrence at
          all seasons. N. Ohio, irregular, often common,
          sometimes breeds. Glen Ellyn, uncommon and
          irregular, Oct. 20-June 11. SE. Minn., W.V., Oct.
          25.

Crossbills and Grosbeaks are among winter's chief attractions. While the
latter, as I have said above, will leave their summer homes in
coniferous forests to feed in winter on the seeds of deciduous trees,
the Crossbills are less adaptable. They are specialists in
cone-dissecting. Their singularly shaped bills prevent them from eating
many kinds of food available to other birds, but no other birds can
compete with them in extracting the seeds from cones. Having had too
limited an experience with man to have learned to fear him, they are so
surprisingly tame that I have known birds to be plucked from trees as
one would pick off the cones on which they were feeding. In March, while
the ground is still snow-covered, they lay 3-4 pale greenish, spotted
eggs in a well-formed nest, 15-30 feet up in a coniferous tree.


WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL

_Loxia leucoptera. Case 2, Figs. 51, 52_

          Both sexes have white wing-bars and the male is of
          a paler, more rosy red than the male of the
          American Crossbill.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England to
          Canada; winters irregularly to southern Illinois
          and North Carolina.

          Washington, casual. Ossining, rare T.V., Oct.
          29-Dec. 6, Cambridge, irregular W.V. N. Ohio, rare
          W.V. Glen Ellyn, rare, fall records only, Nov. SE.
          Minn., W.V., latest record Mch. 4.

A rarer bird than the American Crossbill which, however, it resembles in
habits. Both climb about the branches of cone-bearing trees like little
Parrots, while feeding keep up a low conversational chatter, and take
wing with a clicking note. They have been found nesting in Nova Scotia
as early as February 6.


REDPOLL

_Acanthis linaria linaria. Case 2. Figs. 47, 48_

          Any little sparrow-like bird with a red cap is a
          Redpoll. Adult males have the breast also red. L.
          5½.

          _Range._ Nests in Canada and Alaska; winters
          irregularly south ward to Ohio and Virginia.

          Washington, very rare and irregular W.V. Ossining,
          regular W.V., Nov. 25-Mch. 26. Cambridge,
          irregular W.V., often very abundant, Oct. 25-Apl.
          10. N. Ohio, rare W.V. Glen Ellyn, irregular W.V.,
          Nov. 6-Mch. 7. SE. Minn., common W.V., Oct.
          31-Apl. 7.

A winter visitor from the far North whose coming never can be foretold.
Years may pass without seeing them, then late some fall, they may appear
in numbers. They are usually in flocks and feed upon seeds as well as
birch and alder catkins. In notes and general habits the Redpoll
resembles the Goldfinch.

Holbœll's Redpoll (_A. holbœlli_) is a slightly larger race, with a
longer, more slender bill. It is a more northern form than the
preceding, and rarely visits the United States. The Greater Redpoll (_A.
l. rostrata_) is also larger than the common Redpoll, but has a shorter,
stouter bill. It nests in Greenland and is of casual occurrence in the
northern United States. The Hoary Redpoll (_A. hornemanni exilipes_) is
a whiter bird than the preceding with no streaks on the rump and
comparatively few on the underparts. It nests within the Arctic Circle
and rarely visits the northern United States in winter.

Satisfactory identification of these races of the Redpoll can be made
only by expert examination of specimens. The field student, however, may
call any Redpoll he sees the Common Redpoll with the chances of being
right largely in his favor.


GOLDFINCH

_Astragalinus tristis tristis. Case 2. Figs. 35, 36; Case 4, Figs. 50,
51_

          While he wears his 'Goldfinch' costume, the male
          will be known at a glance, but in winter, when he
          takes the dull yellow-olive dress of his mate,
          several glances may be required to recognize him,
          and this remark, of course, applies to the female
          at all seasons. L. 5.

          _Range._ North America; the eastern form nests
          from Arkansas and northern Georgia to Canada and
          winters from the Northern to the Gulf States.

          Washington, common P.R. Ossining, common P.R.
          Cambridge, very common P.R. N. Ohio, common P.R.
          Glen Ellyn, common P.R. SE. Minn., P.R., common in
          summer, uncommon in winter.

A beautiful, musical, cheerful bird, as sweet of disposition as he is of
voice. To hear a merry troop of Goldfinches singing their spring chorus
is to hear the very spirit of the season set to music. Their call-note
is a questioning _dearie, dearie_, their flight-call _per-chié-o-ree,
per-chié-o-ree_, as in long undulations they swing through the air.
Their song is suggestive of a Canary's. They are late housekeepers, not
nesting before the latter half of June, when 3-6 pale bluish white eggs
are laid in a nest warmly lined with plant down.


PINE SISKIN

_Spinus pinus pinus. Case 2. Fig. 55_

          A streaked, sparrow-like bird, with yellow
          markings in wings and tail which show in flight.
          L. 5.

          _Range._ North America; nests from northern New
          England north to Canada and in the mountains,
          south to North Carolina; in winter southward to
          the Gulf States.

          Washington, irregularly abundant W.V., Oct. 24-May
          20. Ossining, irregular P.R. Cambridge, irregular
          W.V., Oct. 15-May 10; sometimes very abundant; one
          breeding record. N. Ohio, tolerably common W.V.,
          Sept. 20-May 15. Glen Ellyn, irregular T.V., Apl.
          8-May 24; Sept. 8-Nov. 29. SE. Minn., uncommon
          T.V., and W.V. Oct. 20-Apl. 9.

The Siskin belongs in the group of winter visitants whose coming cannot
be foretold. Some years it is rare or wanting, others abundant, a flock
sometimes, containing several hundred birds. In general habits it
resembles the Goldfinch, feeding on weed seeds and catkins, particularly
of the alder, and on the seeds of conifers. The call-note is a high
_e-eep_; its song like that of the Goldfinch but less musical.


SNOW BUNTING

_Plectrophanes nivalis nivalis. Case 2, Fig. 57_

          The prevailing tone of plumage is white,
          particularly when the bird is on the wing; the
          long, hind toe-nail should be noted. L. 6¾.

          _Range._ Nests in Arctic regions, winters
          irregularly south to Kansas and Virginia.

          Washington, W.V., casual, one instance. Ossining,
          irregular W.V., Oct. 25-Mch. 22. Cambridge, common
          W.V., Nov. 1-Mch. 15; abundant in migrations. N.
          Ohio, tolerably common W.V., Dec. 10-Mch. 15. SE.
          Minn., common W.V., Oct. 9-Mch. 14.

Snow Buntings live in flocks and love open places, such as Horned Larks
frequent, and are often found with them in fields or along the shore.
Like the Horned Larks they are walkers, not hoppers, and like most
walkers, it is exceptional for them to perch in trees. Hoffman described
their notes as "a high, sweet, though slightly mournful _tee_, or
_tee-oo_, a sweet rolling whistle, and a harsh _bzz_."


LAPLAND LONGSPUR

_Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus_

          A sparrow-like bird, with reddish brown wings, a
          black or blackish breast, white, streaked
          underparts and a brownish back. L. 6¼.

          _Range._ Nests in Arctic regions, wintering
          southward, rarely and irregularly in the Atlantic
          States, to New York (casually South Carolina) and
          more commonly in the Mississippi Valley to Ohio
          and Texas.

          Washington, W.V. one instance, Dec. Ossining.
          W.V., casual, Cambridge, one record. N. Ohio,
          tolerably common W.V., Nov. 15-Apl. 25. Glen
          Ellyn, common W.V., Oct. 16-May 16. SE. Minn.,
          common W.V.

[Illustration: LAPLAND LONGSPUR.

Adult male in summer. In winter the throat and breast are mixed black
and white.]

A rare visitor from the far North who, if we see it at all will probably
be found in the company of Horned Larks or Snow Buntings. It is a
browner bird than either of them, so while this is not a case of 'birds
of a feather' it _is_ a case of birds of a long hind toe-nail, since all
three are distinguished by having a toe-nail actually longer than its
toe. All three are walkers, which means also that they are ground-birds
rather than tree-birds, and the tracks they leave in the snow, or on the
beach, distinguish them from other birds if not from each other.


VESPER SPARROW

_Poœcetes gramineus gramineus. Case 4, Fig. 36; Case 5, Fig. 16_

          Paler than any of our other field inhabiting
          Sparrows, except the Savannah, which is smaller;
          and differing from them all by having a reddish
          brown shoulder-patch and white outer
          tail-feathers. L. 6.

          _Range._ Nests from North Carolina and Kentucky to
          Canada; winters from its southern nesting limits
          to the Gulf States.

          Washington, P.R., very common T.V., less so in
          summer and winter. Ossining, tolerably common
          S.R., Apl. 2-Nov. 4. Cambridge, common S.R., Apl.
          5-Oct. 25. N. Ohio, abundant S.R., Mch. 20-Nov. 7.
          Glen Ellyn, fairly common S.R., Mch. 21-Oct. 25.
          SE. Minn., common S.R., Apl. 1-Oct. 29.

A Sparrow of broad fields and plains whose song voices the spirit of
open places. Neither words nor musical notation can describe it
recognizably. It has somewhat the form of the Song Sparrow's song, just
as the two birds resemble each other in form but are unlike in detail.
One must, therefore, first learn to know the bird--an easy matter, since
it is common and can be readily identified by its white outer
tail-feathers--and thereafter you will be the richer for a knowledge of
this rarely appealing bit of bird music.

The nest, as one might suppose, is built on the ground, and the 4-5
whitish spotted eggs are laid early in May.


IPSWICH SPARROW

_Passerculus princeps_

          With a general resemblance to the Savannah Sparrow
          (Case 5. Fig. 23) but larger, L. 6¼, and decidedly
          paler.

          _Range._ Nests on Sable Island off Nova Scotia;
          winters south, along the coast, regularly to New
          Jersey; rarely to Georgia.

          Cambridge, casual, two instances, Oct.

Few migratory birds have a more restricted breeding range than the
Ipswich Sparrow. Confined to a sandbar island during the summer where it
is never out of sight or sound of the sea, it seeks similar haunts
during the winter when it is rarely found far from the immediate
vicinity of the ocean. In general habits and nesting, it resembles the
Savannah Sparrow, of which indeed, it is doubtless an island
representative.


SAVANNAH SPARROW

_Passerculus sandwichensis savanna. Case 4, Fig. 47; Case 5, Fig. 23_

          In general color slightly paler than the Vesper
          Sparrow; smaller than that species; no white
          tail-feathers; a touch of yellow before the eye
          and on the bend of the wing. L. 5¾.

          _Range._ Nests from Long Island and northern Iowa
          to Canada; winters from southern New Jersey and
          southern Indiana southward to Mexico.

          Washington, abundant T.V., Mch. 20-May 11; Sept.
          21-Oct. 23; a few winter. Ossining, common T.V.,
          Apl. 3-May 13; Aug. 28-Oct. 28. Cambridge,
          abundant T.V., Apl., Oct.; breeds sparingly. N.
          Ohio, not common T.V., Mch. 20-May 12. Glen Ellyn,
          fairly plentiful S.R., Apl. 8-Oct. 20. SE. Minn.,
          common S.R., Apl. 17-Oct. 23.

An abundant Sparrow known only to bird students. It prefers fields to
door-yards; lives much on the ground, and its darting flight, followed
by a sudden dive to cover, and insignificant song all combine to make it
rather difficult of identification. It nests in May, laying 4-5 white,
speckled eggs in a nest on the ground.


GRASSHOPPER SPARROW

_Ammodramus savannarum australis. Case 7, Fig. 16_

          A small, short-tailed Sparrow, without streaks on
          the underparts and a back pattern which suggests
          'feather scales.' L. 5½.

          _Range._ Eastern United States, nesting as far
          north as southern Minnesota, and southern New
          Hampshire; winters from southern Illinois and
          North Carolina to the tropics. The Florida
          Grasshopper Sparrow (_A. s. floridanus_) a
          smaller, darker race, is resident in the Kissimmee
          prairies of south central Florida.

          Washington, very common S.R., Apl. 17-Nov. 20.
          Ossining common S.R., Apl. 27-Oct. 23. Cambridge,
          rare S.R., May 16-Sept. 1. N. Ohio, common S.R.,
          Apl. 20-Sept. 20. Glen Ellyn, not common S.R., May
          4-Sept. 13. SE. Minn., common S.R., Apl. 25-Sept.
          6.

Grasshopper, he is called, because his unmusical little song, _pit-túck,
zee-e-e-e-e_, sung from a low perch, resembles the sound produced by
that insect. He is a common inhabitant of old fields, where sorrel and
daisies grow, and when flushed at one's feet darts away to drop suddenly
to the ground beyond. The 4-5, white, spotted eggs are laid in a ground
nest in late May or early June.


HENSLOW'S SPARROW

_Passerherbulus henslowi henslowi. Case 7, Fig. 17_

          With the general proportions of the Grasshopper
          Sparrow, but the underparts distinctly streaked
          and the nape olive. L. 5.

          _Range._ Nests from southern Missouri and Virginia
          to central Minnesota and New Hampshire; winters in
          the Southern States.

          Washington, common S.R., Apl. 10-Oct. 21.
          Ossining, rare T.V., Oct. 5-Oct. 10. Cambridge,
          very rare S.R. N. Ohio, S.R., Glen Ellyn, not
          common S.R., May 8-Sept. 26. SE. Minn., common
          S.R.

Henslow's Sparrow lives in isolated and sometimes widely separated
communities, frequenting wet meadows in summer, but visiting, also, dry
fields in winter. It has the general habits of the Grasshopper Sparrow
and its notes are equally unmusical. The 4-5 grayish white, thickly
speckled eggs are laid in a ground nest the latter half of May.


LECONTE'S SPARROW

_Passerherbulus lecontei. Case 7, Fig. 18_

          The underparts are but slightly streaked, the
          crown is striped, and the nape reddish brown. L.
          5.

          _Range._ Nesting in the interior of North America
          from our border States, northward and east to
          Minnesota; migrates southward and south-eastward,
          and winters locally from South Carolina to Florida
          and Texas.

          Glen Ellyn, not common T.V., May 4-?; Sept. 8-Oct.
          6. SE. Minn, uncommon S.R., May 1-Oct. 17.

This is the third and rarest member of the trio of small, retiring
Sparrows of which the Grasshopper Sparrow is the commonest. It is found
east of the Mississippi only in the winter when it may be associated
with the Grasshopper and Henslow's Sparrows.


SHARP-TAILED SPARROW

_Passerherbulus caudacutus. Case 6, Fig. 47_

          A buffy Sparrow with the underparts sharply
          streaked with black. L. 5¾.

          _Range._ Salt marshes of the Atlantic coast; nests
          from Virginia to Massachusetts; winters from New
          Jersey to Florida.

          Cambridge, formerly common S.R., but occurs no
          longer.

An abundant inhabitant of salt marshes. There is, or was, a colony on
the Hudson River immediately south of the long pier from which Piermont
takes its name, but with this exception I have never seen this Sparrow
beyond the sound of the surf. It runs about through the thick marsh
grasses taking wing only when hard pressed. Its song is short and
insignificant. It nests on the ground, the 3-4 grayish white, finely
speckled eggs being laid in late May or early June.


NELSON'S SHARP-TAILED SPARROW

_Passerherbulus nelsoni nelsoni_

          Resembles the Sharp-tailed but is smaller and has
          the throat, breast and sides deeper, very
          slightly, if at all, streaked with blackish; the
          upperparts more broadly margined with whitish. L.
          5½.

          _Range._ Nests in the interior from South Dakota
          northward to Great Slave Lake; migrates south to
          Texas and southeast through New York and
          Massachusetts to North Carolina and Florida.

          Washington, rare T.V., May-Sept. Ossining,
          tolerably common T.V., Sept. 28-Oct. 17.
          Cambridge, formerly uncommon T.V. Glen Ellyn, one
          record, Oct. 2, 1893. SE. Minn., uncommon T.V.

This is a fresh-water representative of the Sharp-tail which nests in
the prairie sloughs of the interior and reaches the Atlantic coast
during its migrations and in the winter. It resembles the Sharp-tail in
habits and when on the coast, may be found associated with it.

The Acadian Sharp-tailed Sparrow (_P. n. subvirgatus_) is similar to the
Sharp-tailed Sparrow but is paler above; the throat, breast and sides
are washed with cream-buff and indistinctly streaked with ashy. It nests
on the salt marshes of the Atlantic coast from Maine to Cape Breton and
in Prince Edward Island; and winters from South Carolina to Florida. In
general habits it resembles the two preceding.

The three Sharp-tails may be distinguished chiefly by the color and
markings of the breast. In the Sharp-tail these are _pale_ buff
_distinctly_ streaked with blackish. In Nelson's they are _deep_ buff
lightly if at all streaked. In the Acadian they are cream-buff
indistinctly streaked with _grayish_. The Sharp-tail may be known from
the other two by its distinct black marks below, but the other two
cannot certainly be distinguished from each other in life where both may
be expected to occur.


SEASIDE SPARROW

_Passerherbulus maritimus maritimus. Case 6, Fig. 46_

          An olive-greenish Sparrow, with a yellow mark
          before the eye and on the bend of the wing; the
          underparts _not_ distinctly streaked. L. 6.

          _Range._ Salt marshes of the Atlantic Coast; nests
          from Virginia to Massachusetts; winters from
          Virginia to Georgia.

In the Piermont marsh, referred to under the Sharp-tailed Sparrow, there
are Seasides as well as Sharp-tails, but this is the only place in which
I have seen Seasides away from the sea. There they are abundant in the
grassy marshes. Their song is weak and unattractive. Like the Sharp-tail
they nest on the ground, laying 3-4 white or bluish white eggs, clouded
or finely speckled with cinnamon-brown, the latter part of May.

This northern Seaside Finch is migratory, coming the latter part of
April and remaining until the latter half of October, but in the South
there are several races which for the most part are resident in the same
locality throughout the year. Thus we have:

Macgillivray's Seaside Sparrow (_P. m. macgillivraii_).--Atlantic Coast
from North Carolina south to Matanzas Islet, Florida. Dusky Seaside
Sparrow (_P. nigrescens_), an almost black species from Merritt's
Island, at the head of Indian River, Florida. Cape Sable Sparrow (_P. m.
mirabilis_), Cape Sable, Florida. Scott's Seaside Sparrow (_P. m.
peninsulæ_), Gulf Coast of Florida from Tampa to St. Marks; Northwest
Florida Sparrow (_P. m. juncicola_) Coast of Florida west of St. Marks;
Alabama Seaside Sparrow (_P. m. howelli_), Coast of Alabama and
Mississippi. Louisiana Seaside Sparrow (_P. m. fisheri_), Coast of
Louisiana to Northeast Texas; and Sennett's Seaside Sparrow (_P. m.
sennetti_), Coast of Texas from Galveston at least to Corpus Christi.


LARK SPARROW

_Chondestes grammacus grammacus. Case 7, Fig. 19_

          The chestnut and white head markings and the
          white-tipped tail-feathers are conspicuous
          field-marks. L. 6¼.

          _Range._ Mississippi Valley; nests from Louisiana
          to Minnesota and Ohio; winters from Mississippi
          southward; casual east of the Alleghanies, chiefly
          in the fall.

          Washington, A.V., Aug., two captures. N. Ohio,
          rare S.R., Apl. 28. Glen Ellyn, local and uncommon
          S.R. SE. Minn., common S.R., Apl. 20-Aug. 2.

Few field experiences have given me more pleasure than the discovery
near my home at Englewood one November 2, many years ago, of a Lark
Finch--one of the 'casuals' which had presumably been carried far from
its course by a severe storm of the preceding days. The bird's strongly
marked face and conspicuously white-tipped tail-feathers made an
impression which testifies to their value as field-characters. In its
own range this beautiful Sparrow is a sweet-voiced inhabitant of the
fields, nesting on the ground or in low trees and bushes, and laying 3-5
white eggs, spotted and blotched with blackish, in May.


HARRIS'S SPARROW

_Zonotrichia querula. Case 7, Fig. 21_

          A large Sparrow, larger even than the Fox Sparrow;
          with a pinkish bill, the crown, throat and breast
          more or less blackish; cheeks buff. L. 7½.

          _Range._ Interior of North America, nesting in
          North Carolina; winters from Kansas to Texas; rare
          east of Wisconsin. Glen Ellyn, one record, May 19.
          SE. Minn., common T.V., May 6; Sept. 21-Oct. 25.

When migrating this Sparrow reminds one of a White-throat. It has a
sharp _clink_ note and frequents brier patches and bushy places.


WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW

_Zonotrichia leucophrys. Case 7, Fig. 22_

          Resembles the White-throat but throat gray, like
          the breast, space before the eye black, not
          yellow, white in the crown more conspicuous. L.
          6¾.

          _Range._ Nests in Canada; winters from Virginia
          and Ohio to Mexico; not a common migrant in the
          Atlantic States.

          Washington, irregularly common W.V. and T.V., May
          1-17; Oct. 7-Nov. 20. Ossining, rare T.V., May
          9-26; Oct. 3-30. Cambridge, uncommon T.V., May
          12-22; Oct. 1-20. N. Ohio, common T.V., Apl.
          22-May 20; Sept. 5-Oct. 16. Glen Ellyn, not common
          T.V.; chiefly spring, Apl. 24-May 31; Oct. 2-21.
          SE. Minn., common T.V., Apl. 30-; Sept. 26-Oct.
          14.

This distinguished-looking cousin of our White-throated Sparrow is rare
enough in the Eastern States, always to command our attention when we
are so fortunate as to meet him. He resembles the White-throat in habits
and choice of haunts but his song has a tender, appealing quality,
lacking in the White-throat's more cheerful lay, charming as that is.


WHITE-THROATED SPARROW

_Zonotrichia albicollis. Case 2. Figs. 45, 46; Case 4, Fig. 40_

          The adults may be recognized at sight by their
          white throat, but this character is less prominent
          and sometimes almost wanting in young birds (Fig.
          46) which will require close scrutiny. L. 6¾.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England and
          central Minnesota northward; winters from southern
          New England and Ohio to the Gulf.

          Washington, very common W.V., abundant T.V., Mch.
          18-May; Sept. 15-Dec. 16. Ossining, common T.V.,
          Apl. 10-May 21; Sept. 20-Oct. 30; a few winter.
          Cambridge, very common T.V., Apl. 25-May 15; Oct.
          1-Nov. 10; a few winter. N. Ohio, common T.V.,
          Apl. 1-May 21; Sept. 10-Nov. 7. Glen Ellyn, common
          T.V., Apl. 9-May 26; Sept. 13-Nov. 7. SE. Minn.,
          common T.V., Apl. 8-; Sept. 2-Nov. 13.

This clear-voiced whistler is known to many persons who have never seen
it. When anyone returning from the bird's summer range tells me "I heard
a bird sing like this," I know before he whistles a note that he will
probably imitate the White-throat. Fortunately the song has so much
character and its intervals conform so closely to those of our musical
scale, that a recognizable imitation of it is within the power of
everyone. There is much variation in the arrangement of the notes and
migrants never seem to sing with the power of nesting birds, nor do fall
songs compare in volume or execution with those of spring. The call-note
is a characteristic sharp _clink_.

The White-throat is abundant, migrating and wintering in companies which
frequent bushy places, hedgerows and undergrowth generally. The nest is
placed on the ground or in bushes in late May or early June. The eggs.
4-5 in number, are bluish white, speckled or blotched with brown.


TREE SPARROW

_Spizella monticola monticola. Case 2, Fig. 44; Case 4, Fig. 46_

          A dusky spot in the center of the breast and a
          reddish brown cap and streak behind the eye are
          distinguishing characters. L. 6½.

          _Range._ Nests in Canada; winters from southern
          Canada south to Arkansas and South Carolina.

          Washington, abundant W.V., Oct.-Apl. 1. Ossining,
          common W.V., Oct. 10-Apl. 27. Cambridge, common
          W.V., abundant T.V., Oct. 25-Nov. 25; Mch. 20-Apl.
          20. N. Ohio, abundant W.V., Oct. 24-May 3. Glen
          Ellyn, common W.V., Oct. 4-Apl. 28. SE. Minn.,
          common T.V., Oct. 6-May 5; a few winter.

From October to April companies of Tree Sparrows harvest the season's
crop of weed seeds, feeding usually near woods or hedge-rows to which
they go to rest and roost. Their merry chatter is one of the season's
most cheerful notes, and in the spring we may hear their canary-like
song.


CHIPPING SPARROW

_Spizella passerina passerina. Case 4, Fig. 45; Case 5, Fig. 31_

          In summer, the chestnut cap, black bill, and
          whitish line over the eye mark the 'Chippy'; but
          in the fall and winter the crown is like the back,
          the line over the eye is brownish, and the bill is
          brown; but the gray rump, shown well in flight, is
          a good character the year around. L. 5½.

          _Range._ Nests from Georgia and Mississippi to
          Canada; winters from South Carolina to the Gulf.

          Washington, common S.R., abundant T.V., Mch.
          9-Nov. 11, occasionally winters. Ossining, common
          S.R., Apl. 5-Nov. 7. Cambridge, abundant S.R.,
          Apl. 12-Oct. 25. N. Ohio, abundant S.R., Mch.
          23-Oct. 10. Glen Ellyn, not very common S.R., Apl.
          5-Nov. 5. SE. Minn., common S.R., Apl. 8-Oct. 26.

The friendly Chippy is the most familiar and domestic of any of our
native Sparrows. He makes tentative visits to our piazzas and, cats
permitting, will take up his residence there, building a neat,
hair-lined nest in the vines or a nearby bush. Unassuming in voice as he
is in manner, his _Chippy-chippy-chippy_, many times repeated,
expresses contentment, even if it does not attain high musical rank.
Madame Chippy has fine taste in eggs, laying, in early May, little blue
gems, beautifully marked with brown or black.


CLAY-COLORED SPARROW

_Spizella pallida. Case 6, Fig. 48_

          The Clay-colored Sparrow resembles a winter
          Chipping Sparrow, but is paler and has a white
          line over the eye and a brownish rump. L. 5½.

          _Range._ Interior states east to Illinois; winters
          from Texas southward. SE. Minn., common S.R., Apl.
          26-Oct. 19.

A Chipping Sparrow of the Plains which nests on the ground and in low
bushes. It is not common east of the Mississippi.


FIELD SPARROW

_Spizella pusilla pusilla. Case 4, Fig. 43; Case 5, Fig. 14_

          The upperparts are brighter reddish brown than in
          any of our other Sparrows, and the bill is
          'pinker.' L. 5½.

          _Range._ Nests from northern Florida and central
          Louisiana to Minnesota and Maine; winters from New
          Jersey and Illinois to the Gulf States.

          Washington, very common P.R. Ossining, common
          S.R., Apl. 2-Nov. 7. Cambridge, common S.R., Apl.
          12-Nov. 1; casual in winter. N. Ohio, abundant in
          summer, Mch. 6-Oct. 25. Glen Ellyn, tolerably
          common S.R., Mch. 27-Oct. 11. SE. Minn., common
          S.R., Apl. 1-Dec. 28.

'Bush Sparrow,' Mr. Roosevelt always called this bird, and the name
gives a better conception of its haunts than that of Field Sparrow,
since it is found in bush-grown fields. From a bush-top it sings its
clearly whistled, sweet, appealing song, varying the relation of notes
and trills, but never their musical quality. In a bush also it nests,
laying 3-5 white eggs, marked with reddish brown, in May.


SLATE-COLORED JUNCO

_Junco hyemalis hyemalis. Case 2, Fig. 43; Case 4, Fig. 41_

          The plumage of the female is tinged with brownish,
          but the prevailing tone is slate-gray, unlike that
          of any of our other Sparrows. The white outer-tail
          feathers are conspicuously flashed in flight. L.
          6¼.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England and
          northern New York to Canada and southward in the
          mountains to Pennsylvania; winters in all the
          Eastern States. The Carolina Junco (_J. h.
          carolinensis_), a slightly larger race without a
          brownish tinge, nests in the higher parts of the
          Alleghanies from Maryland to northern Georgia,
          descending to the adjacent lowlands in winter.

          Washington, abundant W.V., Sept. 26-May 12.
          Ossining, common W.V., Sept. 19-May 4. Cambridge,
          rather common W.V., abundant T.V., Sept. 20-Nov.
          25; Mch. 20-Apl. 20. N. Ohio, abundant W.V., Oct.
          2-May 5. Glen Ellyn, W.V., abundant spring and
          fall, Aug. 30-May 13, SE, Minn., common T.V., Mch.
          4-; Sept. 20-Nov. 12.

Gray skies and a snow-covered earth are the Junco colors, and when he
flashes them along the hedgerows and wood borders we know that although
it is only late September, winter will soon be with us. From that time
until April the Junco is of our commonest birds. He visits our
food-shelf and roosts in our evergreens, becoming almost as domestic as
the Chipping Sparrow. The Junco's call-notes are a sharp _tsip_, a
contented _chew-chew-chew_, and a sharp kissing call. Its modest,
musical little trill we shall not hear until spring. The nest is built
on the ground, and the 4-5 white, speckled, or spotted, eggs are laid
late in May.


BACHMAN'S SPARROW

_Peucæa æstivalis bachmani_

          With a general resemblance to a Field Sparrow but
          bill black and larger, cheeks and underparts more
          buffy, tail shorter, no evident wing bars.

          _Range._ Southeastern United States from central
          Georgia to Virginia and from northwestern Florida
          to central Illinois; winters from North Carolina
          to northern Florida.

Where 'scrub' oaks grow beneath the pines, or post, or white oaks form
open woods, there one may look for this rather retiring, sweet-voiced
Sparrow. If one can imagine a Hermit Thrush singing the Field Sparrow's
chant, he will have some conception of the rare quality of Bachman's
Sparrow's song. The nest is built on the ground, the white unmarked eggs
being laid early in May.

The Pine Woods Sparrow (_P. æ. æstivalis_), is a darker race, more
streaked above with black. It is resident in Florida (except the
northwestern part) and southern Georgia where it frequents pine forests
undergrown with scrub palmetto.


SONG SPARROW

_Melospiza melodia melodia. Case 2, Fig. 34; Case 4, Fig. 42_

          Streaked below, with a conspicuous spot in the
          center of the breast.

          _Range._ Most of North America, the eastern form
          west to the Rockies, nesting from Virginia and
          Missouri to Canada and wintering from Illinois and
          Massachusetts to the Gulf.

          Washington, common P.R., abundant T.V., Mch. and
          Oct. Ossining, common P.R. Cambridge, very
          abundant S.R., Mch. 10-Nov. 1; locally common W.V.
          N. Ohio, P.R., abundant in summer, common in
          winter; Glen Ellyn, common S.R. Feb. 12-Nov. 2.
          SE. Minn., common S.R., Mch. 16-Nov. 11.

If the so-called 'English' Sparrow is the European Sparrow, the Song
Sparrow is the American Sparrow. He is found in every State and from the
Valley of Mexico to Alaska. He is abundant, musical, and familiar and
probably better known than any other member of his family native to this
country. His is one of the first birds' songs to be heard in the spring,
and the last in the fall, and when in midsummer, the adults, while
molting, are silent, the rambling, formless song of the young may be
heard.

Usually the Song Sparrow is found near water and not far from bushes
into which he flies when alarmed. Then we hear his characteristic
call-note, an impatient _chimp_, _chimp_, unlike that of any other of
our Sparrows. The nest is built on the ground and the 4-5 bluish white
brown-marked eggs are laid late in April.


LINCOLN'S SPARROW

_Melospiza lincolni lincolni. Case 7, Fig. 15_

          A broad band of buff across the streaked breast.

          _Range._ Chiefly western United States; in the
          East, nests from northern New York and northern
          Minnesota into Canada; winters from Mississippi to
          Central America; rare east of the Alleghanies.

          Washington, rare T.V., May 8-21; Sept. 30-Oct. 1.
          Ossining, rare T.V., Sept. 29-Oct. 16. Cambridge,
          not uncommon T.V., May 15-May 25; Sept. 14-Oct.
          10. N. Ohio, tolerably common T.V., Apl. 25-May
          25. Glen Ellyn, not common T.V., fall records
          only, Sept. 11-Oct. 9. SE. Minn., common T.V.,
          Apl. 17-; Sept. 10-Oct. 30.

We know the species only as a rare, retiring migrant, frequenting
hedgerows, and undergrowth. I have never heard its song while migrating.


SWAMP SPARROW

_Melospiza georgiana. Case 4, Fig. 44; Case 5, Fig. 22_

          Note the bright chestnut cap, grayish, unstreaked
          breast, and reddish brown rump of the summer
          plumage; in winter, the crown is darker and
          streaked with black. L. 5¼.

          _Range._ Nests from New Jersey and Illinois to
          Canada; winters from Nebraska and New Jersey to
          the Gulf.

          Washington, very common T.V., Apl. 12-May 19;
          Sept, 28-Oct. 29; a few winter. Ossining,
          tolerably common S.R., Apl. 4-Dec. 2; a few
          winter. Cambridge, abundant S.R., Apl. 12-Nov. 10;
          a few winter. N. Ohio, common T.V., Mch. 23-May
          20. Glen Ellyn, tolerably common T.V., Apl. 2-May
          26; Sept. 2-Oct. 24; possibly S.R. SE. Minn.,
          common S.R., Apl. 5-Nov. 18.

The Swamp Sparrow is a Sparrow of the marshes whose _tweet-tweet-tweet_
many times repeated, is associated with the music of Marsh Wrens. It
nests on the ground in May, laying eggs not unlike those of the Song
Sparrow.


FOX SPARROW

_Passerella iliaca iliaca. Case 4, Fig. 37; Case 5, Fig. 7_

          A large, bright, reddish brown Sparrow, which,
          because of its red-brown tail, and in spite of its
          stout bill, is sometimes mistaken for the Hermit
          Thrush. L. 7½.

          _Range._ Nests in northern Canada; winters from
          Ohio and Maryland to the Gulf States.

          Washington, very abundant T.V., Mch. 13-May 11;
          Oct. 23-Nov. 15: a few winter. Ossining, tolerably
          common T.V., Mch. 4-Apl. 20; Oct. 14-Nov. 28.
          Cambridge, abundant T.V., Mch. 15-Apl. 12; Oct.
          20-Nov. 15; occasional in winter. N. Ohio, common
          T.V., Mch. 12-Apl. 23; Oct. 1-Nov. 16. Glen Ellyn,
          fairly common T.V., Mch. 11-Apl. 28; Sept. 22-Nov.
          8. SE. Minn., common T.V., Mch. 12-; Sept. 17-Nov.
          12.

A vigorous scratcher in the undergrowth who, using both feet at once,
kicks the leaves out behind him; a master musician among our Sparrows
whose loud, clear, joyous notes form one of our most notable bird songs.
We hear it only for a brief time in spring and fall as the birds pass us
on their migration.


TOWHEE

_Pipilo erythrophthalmus erythrophthalmus. Case 4, Figs. 32, 33; Case 6.
Fig. 51_

          The female is brown where the male is black; both
          are unmistakable L. 8¼.

          _Range._ Nests from northern Georgia and central
          Kansas; winters from Ohio and Potomac Valleys to
          the Gulf.

          Washington, common S.R., very common T.V., Apl.
          5-Oct. 21; a few winter. Ossining, common S.R.,
          Apl. 21-Oct. 31. Cambridge, common S.R., Apl.
          25-Oct. 15. N. Ohio, common S.R., Mch. 10-Oct. 25.
          Glen Ellyn, not common, S.R., Mch. 30-Nov. 18, SE.
          Minn., common S.R., Apl. 11-Nov. 8.

_Chewińk, towheé_, the clear, emphatic, strongly accented call announces
the presence of a bird whose colors are as distinctive as its notes. The
Towhee feeds on the ground in and near bushy places, but when the desire
to sing comes upon him he leaves his lowly haunts and taking a more or
less exposed perch, fifteen to twenty feet from the ground, utters his
_sweet-bird-sin-n-n-g_, with an earnestness which goes far to atone for
his lack of striking musical ability. The nest is built on the ground
and the 4-5 white, finely speckled eggs are laid during the first half
of May.

The White-eyed Towhee (_P. e. alleni_) of Florida and the coast region
north to Charleston, South Carolina, has the eye yellowish instead of
red and the white markings are more restricted. Its call is higher than
that of the northern bird and its song shorter.


CARDINAL

_Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis. Case 4, Figs. 34, 35._

          The male, with his conspicuous crest and bright
          colors, can be confused with no other species; the
          female is much duller and the crest is less
          prominent but still evident. L. 8¼.

          _Range._ Resident from the Gulf States to southern
          New York and northern Ohio; rarely found further
          north.

          Washington, common P.R.; less common than
          formerly. Ossining, A.V. Cambridge, irregular but
          not very infrequent at all seasons. N. Ohio,
          common P.R. Glen Ellyn, rare S.R. SE. Minn., rare.

Next to the Mockingbird's medley, the rich, mellow whistle of the
Cardinal is the most prominent bird voice in the choir of southern
songsters. Passing most of the time in the undergrowth, where, in spite
of his brilliant colors, he readily conceals himself, he makes no
attempt, when singing, to hide his fiery plumes, but selecting a
conspicuous perch, challenges the attention of the world.

The female Cardinal also sings, but her song has much less volume than
that of her mate, and is more rarely heard. The call-note of both sexes
is a minute; sharp, _cheep_, which one would attribute to a bird half
their size. The Cardinal nests in bushes, laying 3-4 whitish eggs
speckled and spotted with brown, in April.

The Florida Cardinal (_C. c. floridanus_), a slightly smaller, deeper
colored (especially in the female) race of the preceding, inhabits the
peninsula of Florida.


BLUE GROSBEAK

_Guiraca cærulea cærulea. Case 6, Figs. 52, 53_

          Should be confused only with the Indigo Bunting,
          but it is larger and the male is darker and has
          brown wing-bars. L. 7.

          _Range._ Nests from Florida to Maryland and
          southern Illinois; winters in the tropics,
          uncommon east of the Alleghanies.

          Washington, very uncommon, S.R., May 1-Sept. 20.
          Cambridge, A.V., one instance, May.

The Blue Grosbeak is an unfamiliar bird to most eastern students.
Ridgway states that its haunts resemble those of the Field Sparrow or
Indigo Bunting. Its call is a strong, harsh _ptchick_, its song a
beautiful, but rather feeble warble. The nest is usually built in bushes
and the 3-4 pale bluish white eggs are laid in May.


ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK

_Zamelodia ludoviciana. Case 7, Figs. 25, 26_

          The male needs no introduction; the streaked
          plumage of the female betrays her Sparrow
          ancestry; the white stripe over her eye is a
          conspicuous mark. Young males in the fall resemble
          the female, but have a rose-tinted breast. L. 8.

          _Range._ Nests from central Kansas and central New
          Jersey north to Canada, and, in the mountains,
          south to northern Georgia; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, rather common T.V., May 1-30; Aug.
          29-Oct. 6. Ossining, tolerably common S.R., May
          3-Oct. 1. Cambridge, very common S.R., May
          10-Sept. 10. N. Ohio, common S.R., Apl. 27-Sept.
          15. Glen Ellyn, fairly common S.R., common T.V.,
          Apl. 27-Sept. 28. SE. Minn., common S.R., Apl.
          27-Sept. 23.

Distinguished alike by plumage and song, the Rose-breast is one of our
most notable bird citizens. His song resembles in form that of the
Robin, but has a more lyrical, flowing, joyous quality, and, unlike the
Robin, he often sings while flying. The call-note of both sexes is a
sharp _peek_ which, like the Cardinal's _cheep_, seems too small for the
bird.

The Rose-breast lives and nests in woodland, particularly
second-growths, building a frail nest ten to twenty feet from the
ground. The 4-5 blue, brown-marked eggs are laid the latter half of May.


INDIGO BUNTING

_Passerina cyanea. Case 7, Figs. 23, 24_

          The male, well seen, is unmistakable. The female
          is very 'sparrowy' and, unless one gets a
          suggestion of blue in her plumage, can best be
          identified by her unsparrow-like, sharp _pit_. L.
          5½.

          _Range._ Nests from Georgia and Louisiana to
          Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, common S.R., Apl. 29-Oct. 9. Ossining,
          common S.R., May 4-Oct. 17. Cambridge, common
          S.R., May 15-Oct. 1. N. Ohio, common S.R., Apl.
          26-Oct. 10. Glen Ellyn, fairly common S.R., May
          1-Sept. 22. SE. Minn., common S.R. Apl. 28-Oct. 2.

"July, July, summer-summer's here; morning, noontide, evening, list to
me" the Indigo sings in rather hard but brilliant little voice. To me
the words express the rhythm as well as the spirit of the song. We hear
them most often in bushy fields and open second-growths, along
hedge-rows or from briery clumps in which the bird's nest may be hidden.
The pale, bluish white eggs are laid the latter half of May.


PAINTED BUNTING

_Passerina ciris. Case 6, Figs. 49, 50_

          The male is one of our most brilliantly colored
          birds, the female has the color of a Vireo but the
          bill of a Sparrow.

          _Range._ Southern States north to southeastern
          North Carolina and southern Kansas; winters from
          southern Florida southward.

"Painted" Bunting he is called, but the brilliancy and luster of his
plumage were not painted by human hands. 'Nonpareil' he has also been
named, and, in the eastern United States, at least, he is without equal
in the brightness of his colors. The bird's haunts are not unlike those
of the Indigo Bunting, and its song is said to resemble the Indigo's but
to be more feeble. It builds in bushes and low trees, laying 3-4 bluish
white, brown-spotted eggs in May.


DICKCISSEL

_Spiza americana. Case 7, Fig. 20_

          The yellow on the breast and, in the male, black
          crescent will distinguish this species from all
          its Sparrow kin. L. 6.

          _Range._ Chiefly prairies of the Mississippi
          Valley, from Texas and Mississippi north to
          Minnesota and southern Ontario; now rare east of
          the Alleghanies.

          Washington, formerly "very abundant," now seen
          only occasionally, May-Aug. Cambridge, casual,
          found nesting at Medford, June 9. 1877, where
          several birds were observed; not uncommon in
          1833-34 (see Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, III, 1878, 45.
          190). N. Ohio, rare S.R., May 1. Glen Ellyn,
          rather rare and local S.R., formerly common. May
          3-Sept. 5. SE. Minn., common S.R., May 11-Aug. 20.

The Dickcissel is a bird of the fields who, from a weed-stalk or fence
by the wayside, sings his unmusical _dick-dick cissel, cissel, cissel_.
The nest is built on the ground or in a bush and the 4-5 pale blue eggs
are laid the latter half of May.



TANAGERS. FAMILY TANGARIDÆ


SCARLET TANAGER

_Piranga erythromelas. Case 7, Figs. 27, 28_

          The black wings and tail of the male will
          distinguish him from our other two red birds--the
          Cardinal and Summer Tanager. The olive-green
          female may be known from all our other olive-green
          birds by her larger size. L. 7¼.

          _Range._ Nests from northern Georgia and southern
          Kansas to Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, common T.V., less common S.R., Apl.
          17-Oct. 15. Ossining, common S.R., May 4-Oct. 9.
          Cambridge, rather common S.R., May 12-Oct. 1. N.
          Ohio, common S.R., Apl. 28-Oct. 2. Glen Ellyn, not
          common S.R., Apl. 30-Sept. 29. SE. Minn., common
          S.R., Apl. 29-Sept. 11.

As a family Tanagers are the most strikingly colored of American birds,
but among the nearly 400 species none appears more brilliant in life
than the male Scarlet Tanager. The leaf-colored female is as difficult
to see as the male is conspicuous. Both have the same characteristic
call--_chip-chúrr, chip-chúrr_. The song suggests a Robin's but is more
forced and has a hoarse undertone. They live and nest in the woods,
building on a horizontal limb 10-20 feet up. The 3-4 greenish blue,
brown-marked eggs are laid late in May.


SUMMER TANAGER

_Piranga rubra rubra. Case 5, Figs. 33, 34_

          The male is usually red like the Cardinal, but
          lacks the Cardinal's crest; the female is more
          yellow than the female of the Scarlet Tanager.

          _Range._ Southern States; nesting north to
          Maryland and Illinois; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, uncommon S.R., Apl. 18-Sept. 19.
          Cambridge, one record.

The "Summer Redbird's" _chicky-tucky-tuck_, is as clearly pronounced and
unmistakable as the Scarlet Tanager's _chip-chúrr_. Its song is somewhat
sweeter than that of its scarlet cousin, but bears a general resemblance
to it. Both pine and deciduous woods are inhabited by this bird. Its
nesting habits resemble those of the Scarlet Tanager.



SWALLOWS. FAMILY HIRUNDINIDÆ


PURPLE MARTIN

_Progne subis subis. Case 5, Fig. 25_

          Largest of our Swallows. The female is duller
          above than the male, and below is brownish gray.
          L. 8.

          _Range._ Nests locally from the Gulf to Canada;
          winters in the tropics.

          Washington, rather common S.R., Apl. 1-Sept. 14.
          Ossining, tolerably common S.R., Apl. 27-Sept. 11.
          Cambridge, formerly locally common S.R., Apl.
          20-Aug. 25. N. Ohio, common S.R. Apl. 1-Sept. 5.
          Glen Ellyn, local S.R., Mch. 23-Sept. 10. SE.
          Minn., common S.R., Apl. 1-Sept. 9.

Fortunate is the man whose hospitality the Martins accept. Their cheery
notes and sociability make them the best kind of guests. The Audubon
Society will send one plans for a Martin house, and tell one where to
place it. Martins nest in May and lay white eggs.


CLIFF SWALLOW

_Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons. Case 6, Fig. 55_

          The rusty rump is distinctive. L. 6.

          _Range._ Nests locally from Georgia to Canada;
          winters in the tropics.

          Washington, rare S.R., Apl. 10-Sept.--? Ossining,
          common S.R., May 1-Sept. 12. Cambridge, S.R., much
          less than formerly. Apl. 28-Aug. 25. N. Ohio,
          tolerably common S.R., Apl. 6-Sept. 25. Glen
          Ellyn, not common, local S.R., Apl. 25-Sept. 16.
          SE. Minn., common S.R., Apl. 13-Sept. 12.

Cliff Swallow it is in the West, but "Eave" Swallow it should be in the
East where the rows of flask-shaped mud nests cluster thick beneath
projecting roofs. They prefer unpainted buildings and the modern barn
rarely knows them. The white, brown-spotted eggs are laid in the latter
half of May.


BARN SWALLOW

_Hirundo erythrogaster. Case 5, Fig. 32_

          Chestnut underparts and a forked tail are the
          chief characters of this beautiful Swallow. L. 7.

          _Range._ Nests from North Carolina and Arkansas to
          Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, common S.R., more abundant T.V., Mch.
          30-Sept. 17. Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 15-Sept.
          22. Cambridge, common S.R., but fast decreasing,
          Apl. 20-Sept. 10. N. Ohio, abundant S.R., Mch.
          30-Sept. 22. Glen Ellyn, S.R., fairly common and
          increasing. Apl. 7-Sept. 1. SE. Minn., common
          S.R., Apl. 28-Aug. 31.

Barn Swallows are far more beautiful, more graceful and more
companionable than Purple Martins. But while we are erecting special
dwellings for the Martins we are making our barns Swallow-proof. A pair
of Barn Swallows are not only cheerful neighbors but good investments.
Let us make it possible for them to enter the hay-mow. We may even
supply shelves as foundations for their open mud nests. The white,
spotted eggs are laid in the latter half of May.


TREE SWALLOW

_Iridoprocne bicolor. Case 5, Fig. 24_

          Silky white below and shining bluish green above;
          young birds are mouse-colored above but below are
          snowy white, unmarked, as in the adult. L. 6.

          _Range._ Nests chiefly from southern New England
          northward and winters from South Carolina to
          Central America.

          Washington, common T.V., Mch. 26-May 26; July
          8-Oct. 14. Ossining, common T.V., Apl. 4-May 26;
          Aug. 4-Oct. 16. Cambridge, S.R., formerly common,
          now common only as a migrant, Apl. 5-Oct. 8. N.
          Ohio, common S.R., Apl. 10-Sept. 20. Glen Ellyn,
          not common T.V., rare S.R., Apl. 21-Sept. 8. SE.
          Minn., common S.R., Mch. 30-Aug. 31.

We see comparatively few Tree Swallows during the spring, but from July
to October, as they journey slowly southward, they are the most abundant
members of their family. In countless thousands long ropes of Swallows
crowd the wayside wires from pole to pole. At night, with others of
their tribe, they roost in the marshes.

Tree Swallows they are called because they nest in hollow trees and,
like some other hole-nesting birds, they may be induced to occupy
nesting-boxes, making a welcome addition to our list of bird tenants.
The 4-7 white eggs are laid in May.


BANK SWALLOW

_Riparia riparia. Case 6. Fig. 54_

          Note the small size, dull plumage, and
          breast-band. L. 5¼.

          _Range._ A native of the Old World as well as of
          the New. In North America nesting from Louisiana
          and Virginia nearly to the Arctic Circle; winters
          in the tropics.

          Washington, common S.R., more common T.V., Apl.
          13-Sept. 19. Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 18-Oct.
          1. Cambridge, formerly common S.R., Apl. 28-Sept.
          1; common T.V. N. Ohio, common S.R., Apl. 6-Sept.
          20. Glen Ellyn, fairly common T.V.; a few S.R.,
          Apl. 22-Sept. 3. SE. Minn., common S.R., Apl.
          10-Sept. 25.

The Bank Swallow is a bird of the air who tunnels the earth for a
nesting-place. Where river or road has left a bank, its face may be
dotted with the entrances to the Bank Swallow's dwellings. At the end of
two or three feet the nest of grass and feathers is placed, fit
receptacle for the pearl-white eggs, which are usually laid the latter
half of May.

During the migrations the Bank Swallow travels with other members of its
family, sharing their roost in the marshes by night and their wayside
perch by day.


ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW

_Stelgidopteryx serripennis. Case 6, Fig. 56_

          With the general appearance of the Bank Swallow,
          but slightly larger, grayer below, and with no
          breast-band. L. 5¾.

          _Range._ Nests from the Gulf States north to
          Massachusetts and Minnesota: winters in the
          tropics.

          Washington, common S.R., Apl. 2-Sept. 3. Ossining,
          common S.R., Apl. 17-Aug. 12. N. Ohio, common
          S.R., Apl. 15-Sept. 20. SE. Minn., common S.R.,
          Apl. 14-Aug. 26.

Least common of our Swallows. It nests in small colonies of about half a
dozen pairs, sometimes in holes, at others under bridges, crevices in
cliffs and similar situations. In the fall, it flocks with other species
of its family. Its 4-8 white eggs are laid the latter half of May.



WAXWINGS. FAMILY BOMBYCILLIDÆ


BOHEMIAN WAXWING

_Bombycilla garrula_

          Similar to the Cedar Waxwing, but larger, the
          primary coverts and secondaries tipped with white,
          the primaries tipped with white or yellow, the
          under tail-coverts chestnut. L. 8.

          _Range._ Western Canada; in winter east to
          Minnesota and rarely as far as Connecticut.

          Glen Ellyn, one record, Jan. 22, 1908. SE. Minn.,
          irregular W.V., until Apl. 1.

There are comparatively few authentic records of this beautiful bird
east of the Alleghanies. Enthusiastic bird-students are, I fear, apt to
give Waxwings, seen in winter, the benefit of the doubt and call them
'Bohemians.' Look especially for the white marks on the Bohemian's
wings. Its large size might not be apparent unless the two species were
seen together.


CEDAR WAXWING

_Bombycilla cedrorum. Case 2, Fig. 40; Case 4, Fig. 54_

          Crest usually conspicuous; tail tipped with
          yellow; a black 'bridle.'

          _Range._ Nests from North Carolina and Kansas to
          Canada; winters irregularly throughout the United
          States.

          Washington, very common P.R., less so in winter.
          Ossining, common P.R. Cambridge, not common P.R.,
          common S.R., abundant T.V. in spring, Feb. 1-Apl.
          25. N. Ohio, irregularly common in summer. Glen
          Ellyn. S.R., Jan. 21-Sept. 24; occasional W.V. SE.
          Minn., common S.R., Feb. 25-Sept. 28.

A Waxwing's crest is as expressive as a horse's ears. One moment it
points skyward the next it flattens and disappears. They are as sociable
as "Love Birds," traveling in small flocks which, like one bird, dive
into a tree and perch so close together that often several will be
almost touching, and with common accord they take wing. They feed mainly
on small fruit both wild and cultivated but are also expert flycatchers.
They nest in June, usually in shade or fruit trees, building a well-made
nest for the beautiful, clay-colored, black-spotted eggs.



SHRIKES. FAMILY LANIIDÆ


NORTHERN SHRIKE

_Lanius borealis. Case 2, Fig. 56_

          Larger than the Migrant and Loggerhead Shrikes
          with a grayish, not black, forehead and a lightly
          barred, not plain white breast. L. 10¼.

          _Range._ Nests in Canada, winters south to Texas
          and Virginia.

          Washington, rare and irregular W.V., Oct.-Feb.
          Ossining, tolerably common W.V., Oct. 26-Apl. 17.
          Cambridge, common W.V., Nov. 1-Apl. 1. N. Ohio,
          not common W.V., Nov. 6-Apl. 3. Glen Ellyn, not
          common W.V., Oct. 24-June 5. SE. Minn., common
          W.V., Oct. 17-Mch. 28.

A grim, gray bird that comes out of the far North in the fall. His
mission is death to birds and mice and he makes no attempt to disguise
it but boldly advertises his presence by perching where he may be seen
as well as see. Mice he can plunge on, but Sparrows, Siskins or Redpolls
he may have to pursue on the wing, following every twist and turn until
he reaches striking distance. Slowly he bears his victim, in his feet,
to some tree there to hang it on thorn or in crotch from which it may be
devoured at leisure. An executioner by birth, the Shrike or "Butcher
Bird" evidently pursues his calling with no regrets and when spring
time approaches adds his voice to the chorus of bird song.


LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE

_Lanius ludovicianus ludovicianus. Case 4, Fig. 55_

          A gray bird with black wings and tail marked with
          white which shows in flight; smaller than the
          Northern Shrike with a black forehead and unmarked
          breast. L. 9.

          _Range._ Florida north to North Carolina, west to
          Louisiana.

The Loggerhead has the general habits of his larger northern cousin the
"Butcher-bird," but he feeds, as a rule, on smaller game. Grasshoppers
and lizards form the larger part of his fare and the barbed wire fences
not infrequently are his shambles. A flight is ended by an upward swing
to the chosen perch which may be a tree-top, a telegraph wire, or
lightning-rod tip. From such a lookout he keeps a sharp watch for his
prey, which he detects at surprisingly long distances; meanwhile
uttering the gurgles, squeaks and pipes which constitute his song. The
nest is built in hedges or low trees in early March. The 3-5 eggs are
dull white thickly marked with brown and lavender.

The Migrant Shrike (_Lanius ludovicianus migrans_) is a northern race of
the Loggerhead from which it differs only in being somewhat paler above
and grayer below. It is a Summer Resident from Kansas and western North
Carolina to Minnesota and Maine and winters from the Middle States
southward.

Generally speaking, it may be said that any Shrike found north of
Maryland in the winter is a Northern Shrike; that any Shrike found north
of Virginia in the summer is a Migrant Shrike, and that any Shrike found
south of that state in the summer is a Loggerhead.



VIREOS. FAMILY VIREONIDÆ


BLACK-WHISKERED VIREO

_Vireosylva calidris barbatula_

          Resembles the Red-eyed Vireo but has a dusky
          streak on each side of the throat.

          _Range._ Cuba and Bahamas, north in spring to
          southern Florida.

This is a tropical species which reaches southern Florida early in May
and returns to its winter home after nesting. In general habits and
notes it resembles the Red-eye.


RED-EYED VIREO

_Vireosylva olivasceus. Case 6, Fig. 66_

          An olive-green bird, silky white below, a white
          line, bordered by black over the red eye, a
          grayish cap and no white band on the wings. L. 6¼.

          _Range._ Nests from the Gulf to Canada; winters in
          the tropics.

          Washington, very common S.R., Apl. 21-Oct. 17.
          Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 29-Oct. 19. Cambridge,
          abundant S.R., May 10-Sept. 10. N. Ohio, abundant
          S.R., Apl. 27-Oct. 1. Glen Ellyn, common S.R., May
          5-Oct. 5. SE. Minn., common S.R., May 5-Sept. 15.

A tireless soliloquist, the Red-eyed Vireo repeats from our shade and
fruit trees in endless succession the broken phrases of his monotonous,
rambling recitation. He sings all day and he sings throughout the
summer, pausing only to sleep or to swallow the caterpillar he hunts
while singing. Patient, persistent mediocrity is expressed by the
Red-eye's song, and only his nasal, petulant call-note, _whang_,
suggests that he is not altogether satisfied with life as he finds it.

The nest, like that of our other Vireos, is a deep cup hung from between
a crotch from 5 to about 40 feet above the ground. The 3-4 eggs, which
are laid in late May, are white spotted with reddish brown.


WARBLING VIREO

_Vireosylva gilva gilva. Case 7, Fig. 29_

          Smaller than the Red-eye, without black and white
          lines over the brown eye, the underparts faintly
          tinged with yellowish. L. 5¾.

          _Range._ Nests from Louisiana and North Carolina
          to Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, rather common S.R., Apl. 21-Sept. 12.
          Ossining, tolerably common S.R., May 3-Sept. 18.
          Cambridge, locally common S.R., May 5-Sept. 15. N.
          Ohio, abundant S.R., Apl. 17-Oct. 10. Glen Ellyn,
          not common S.R., May 1-Sept. 15. SE. Minn., common
          S.R., May 3-Sept. 15.

While the Red-eye's song lasts the greater part of the day, the Warbling
Vireo's continues for only about four seconds, then, after an interval,
it is repeated. It is an unbroken strain running up and down the middle
of the scale and has it in a reminder of the Purple Finch's lay. This
species is less generally distributed than the Red-eye. It may be common
in one locality and absent from another. Its nesting habits and eggs are
much like those of the Red-eye, but the male has the singular custom of
singing while it sits upon the nest.


PHILADELPHIA VIREO

_Vireosylva philadelphicus. Case 7, Fig. 30_

          A small, olive-green Vireo, with pale yellow
          underparts and a whitish line over the eye. L.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England and
          northern Michigan into Canada; winters in the
          tropics.

          Washington, very rare T.V., May; Sept. Ossining,
          rare T.V., Sept. 20-Oct. 20. Cambridge, rare T.V.
          Glen Ellyn, rather rare T.V., May 14, 15; Aug.
          21-Sept. 30. SE. Minn., uncommon T.V., May 9.

Rarest of our Vireos; but few students know it as a migrant and fewer
still as a nesting bird. Its song and nesting habits resemble those of
the Red-eye.


YELLOW-THROATED VIREO

_Lanivireo flavifrons. Case 6, Fig. 69_

          Breast bright yellow; a yellow ring around the
          eye, two white wing-bands, bill rather stout. L.
          6.

          _Range._ Nests from Florida and Texas to Canada;
          winters in the tropics.

          Washington, common S.R., Apl. 19-Sept. 29.
          Ossining, tolerably common S.R., Apl. 30-Sept. 7.
          Cambridge, commons S.R., May 6-Sept. 10. N. Ohio,
          common S.R., Apl. 25-Sept. 25. Glen Ellyn, not
          common S.R., May 2-Sept. 26. SE Minn., common
          S.R., Apl. 27-Sept. 15.

A less common bird than the Red-eye, but like it generally distributed
through woodland, garden and orchard. It's song resembles the Red-eye's
in form but is richer in tone, more deliberately uttered, and not
continuous. "See me--I'm here--where are you?" he seems to say, and
after a pause repeats the query.

The nest has the deep cup-shape of our other Vireo's but is externally
covered with lichens. The eggs, laid the latter part of May, are white
with a few specks of black or brown.


BLUE-HEADED VIREO

_Lanivireo solitarius solitarius. Case 6, Fig. 68_

          Eye-ring and lores white, head grayish blue,
          underparts white, the sides yellowish; two
          wing-bars. L. 5½.

          _Range._ Nests from the mountains of northern New
          Jersey and of Pennsylvania to Canada; winters from
          the Gulf States southward.

          Washington, common T.V., Apl. 6-May 18; Sept.
          6-Nov. 3. Ossining, tolerably common T.V., Apl.
          23-May 14; Sept. 8-Oct. 20. Cambridge, common
          T.V., rare S.R., Apl. 20-May 8; Sept. 15-Oct. 5.
          N. Ohio, common T.V., Apl. 17-May 20; Sept. 1-30.
          Glen Ellyn, not common T.V., May 9-19; Aug.
          11-Oct. 9. SE. Minn., common T.V., May 3-Sept. 28.

We know this Vireo chiefly as a migrant, one of the earliest of the
group of small arboreal wood-haunting birds (Vireos and Warblers) to
reach us in the spring. Its song, as well as its movements, are
deliberate. Vireo-like it peers beneath the leaves or inspects the
blossoms, removing a caterpillar here or an insect's egg there, the
while singing leisurely a rich-toned rendering of the Red-eye's theme.

It nests late in May, hanging its cup-shaped basket to a crotch usually
five to ten feet above the ground. The eggs are white with a few black
or brown spots.

The Mountain Solitary Vireo (_L. s. alticola_) has a slightly larger
bill and bluer back. It nests in the mountains from Maryland to Georgia
and winters southward to Florida.


WHITE-EYED VIREO

_Vireo griseus griseus. Case 6, Fig. 67_

          White or yellowish white eyes; whitish underparts,
          washed with yellow on the sides. L. 5¼.

          _Range._ Nests from Florida and Texas to Wisconsin
          and Massachusetts; winters from South Carolina to
          the tropics.

          Washington, common S.R., Apl. 18-Oct. 19.
          Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 29-Oct. 3. Cambridge,
          rare S.R., May 8-Sept. 20; formerly common. Glen
          Ellyn, rare, spring only, May 24-June 5.

An inhabitant of bushy undergrowths whose snappy calls possess almost
the character of human speech, so clearly and emphatically are the
syllables enunciated. One's presence seems to excite both his curiosity
and his disapproval, for he looks one over from this side and that all
the while giving expression to remarks which sound far from
complimentary. The nest is hung from a crotch, rarely more than 6 feet
from the ground. The eggs laid in April, in the South, in May in the
North, are white with a few blackish spots.

The Key West Vireo (_V. g. maynardi_) has a longer bill and is somewhat
paler below than the White-eye. It is resident in southern Florida and
the Keys.


BELL'S VIREO

_Vireo belli belli. Case 6, Fig. 65_

          Smallest of our Vireos; crown ashy, lores and
          eye-ring whitish. L. 4¾.

          _Range._ Mississippi Valley; nests from Texas to
          northwestern Indiana and South Dakota; winters in
          the tropics.

Resembles the White-eye in habits, notes, and choice of haunts, but,
according to Goss, its notes are not so harsh and emphatic.



WOOD WARBLERS. FAMILY MNIOTILTIDÆ


BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER

_Mniotilta varia. Case 6, Fig. 57_

          The female is less conspicuously striped than the
          male, but both are quite unlike any of our other
          birds. L. 5¼.

          _Range._ Nests from Georgia and Louisiana to
          Canada; winters from Florida southward.

          Washington, abundant T.V., less common S.R., Apl.
          8-Oct. 18. Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 18-Oct. 1.
          Cambridge, very common S.R., Apl. 25-Sept. 5. N.
          Ohio, common T.V., a few S.R., Apl. 22-Sept. 26.
          Glen Ellyn, common T.V., Apl. 28-May 28; Aug.
          11-Sept. 27. SE. Minn., common T.V., uncommon
          S.R., Apl. 23-Oct. 12.

This species and the three Nuthatches are our only birds that creep down
as well as up; but the Nuthatches wear no body stripes and are otherwise
too unlike the Creeper to be confused with him. The Downy Woodpecker
'hitches' himself upward advancing by jerks; the Brown Creeper, true to
its name, _creeps_. The nest is built on the ground and the white,
brown-marked eggs are laid in April in the South, in May in the North.


PROTHONOTARY WARBLER

_Protonotaria citrea. Case 5, Fig. 29_

          The female is duller than the male, but is too
          like him to be mistaken for the mate of any other
          Warbler, while he is in a class by himself. L. 5½.

          _Range._ Nests from Florida to Delaware and
          southeastern Minnesota; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, of irregular occurrence in May. N.
          Ohio, one record, May 9. Glen Ellyn, rare, spring
          only, May 13-15. SE. Minn., common S.R., of
          Mississippi bottoms, May 7-Aug. 16.

No description or illustration prepares one for the gleaming beauty of
the Golden Swamp Warbler. Cypress swamps or willow-bordered sloughs,
where it may nest in the opening in old stubs, are its chosen haunts,
and in such places it is sometimes found in numbers. The white eggs,
thickly marked with brown, are laid in May.


SWAINSON'S WARBLER

_Helinaia swainsoni. Case 5, Fig. 28_

          No wing-bars, plain brown above, white below. L.
          5.

          _Range._ In summer from Florida and Louisiana
          north to southern Illinois and southeastern
          Virginia; winters in the tropics.

Comparatively few bird students have seen this retiring Warbler in its
haunts. "Water, tangled thickets, patches of cane, and a rank growth of
semi-aquatic plants," Brewster states, seem indispensable to its
existence. Its song in general effect, the same writer says, recalls
that of the Northern Water-Thrush. The nest is built in bushes, canes,
etc., and the white eggs are laid in May.


WORM-EATING WARBLER

_Helmitheros vermivorus. Case 7, Fig. 31_

          Head striped with black and buff; body unstreaked,
          no wing-bars. L. 5½.

          _Range._ Nests from South Carolina and Missouri to
          Connecticut and Iowa; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, quite common S.R., Apl. 28-Sept. 15.
          Ossining, common S.R., May 7-Aug. 23. Cambridge,
          A.V., one instance, Sept.

Comparatively few bird students can claim close acquaintance with this
slow-moving, dull-colored bird who lives on or near the ground, usually
in dry woodlands. Its song, resembling that of the Chipping Sparrow,
will attract only an attentive ear, while its local distribution further
prevents it from being more commonly known. It nests on the ground, the
white, brown-marked eggs being laid in May.


BACHMAN'S WARBLER

_Vermivora bachmani. Case 5, Figs. 20, 21_

          All but the central pair of feathers with white
          spots near the end; no wing-bars; size small, the
          bill sharply pointed and slightly decurved. L. 4½.

          _Range._ In summer known from Virginia, North
          Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Arkansas and
          Missouri; in winter recorded only from Cuba.

When migrating, this little-known species associates with other bird
travelers and may be found high or low. When nesting, it frequents
swampy woods and, although it usually sings from the tree-tops, it
builds in bushes within a few feet of the ground, laying 3-4 white eggs
in the latter half of April or in May. Its song has been compared to
that of both the Parula Warbler and the Chipping Sparrow.


BLUE-WINGED WARBLER

_Vermivora pinus. Case 7, Fig. 35_

          Outer tail-feathers white near the end; two white
          wing-bars; female duller than the male.

          _Range._ Nests from Missouri and Virginia north to
          Minnesota and Connecticut; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, rather uncommon T.V., Apl. 26-May 22;
          Aug. 13-Sept. 2; a few breed. Ossining, common
          S.R., May 4-Sept. 7. N. Ohio, common S.R., Apl.
          27-Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn, irregular, possibly
          S.R., May 1-Sept. 15. SE. Minn., uncommon S.R.,
          Apl. 30-Sept. 1.

In second growths, among birches, and at the border of the woods one may
hear the wheezy, lazy, _swee-chee_ of the Blue-wing. I make it a rule to
see the singer always with the hope that he may prove to be the rare
Brewster's Warbler, which usually sings like the Blue-wing, but in color
is nearer the Golden-wing, being, in fact, like the Golden-wing but with
the underparts and cheeks white unmarked with black. It appears to be a
hybrid between the Blue-wing and Golden-wing. (Case 7, Fig. 38.)

A much rarer supposed hybrid between these two Warblers is known as
Lawrence's Warbler. It is yellow below, like the Blue-wing, but has the
black throat and cheeks of the Golden-wing. Some individuals sing like
the Blue-wing, others like the Golden-wing, and this is true also of
Brewster's Warbler. (Case 7, Fig. 37.)

The Blue-wing nests on the ground, laying 4-5 white delicately speckled
eggs the latter part of May.


GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER

_Vermivora chrysoptera. Case 7, Figs. 34, 36_

          A gray bird with a yellow patch on the wings and a
          black or blackish breast.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New Jersey and
          southern Iowa north to Massachusetts and central
          Minnesota and south in the mountains to northern
          Georgia; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, uncommon, T.V., May 1-30; Aug. 8-21.
          Ossining, rare S.R., May 8-Aug. 25. Cambridge,
          rather common S.R., May 12-Aug. 25. N. Ohio, rare
          T.V., Glen Ellyn, irregular, not common T.V., May
          4-18; Aug. 16-Sept. 24. SE. Minn., common S.R.,
          May 5-Sept. 9.

The Golden-wing's _zee-zee-zee-zee_ resembles the Blue-wing's song in
tone but the syllables are all on one note. When nesting, the
Golden-wing prefers second growths, and birches, but when migrating it
may be found in the woods with others of its family. The nest is made
on the ground, and the eggs, which resemble those of the Blue-wing, but
are more heavily marked, are laid in May or early June.


NASHVILLE WARBLER

_Vermivora rubricapilla rubricapilla. Case 7, Fig. 33_

          No wing-bars or white in the tail; adult with a
          partly concealed chestnut patch in the gray crown;
          eye-ring white. L. 4¾.

          _Range._ Nests from northern Pennsylvania and
          Nebraska to Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, uncommon T.V., Apl. 28-May 19; Sept.
          5-Oct. 2. Ossining, tolerably common T.V., May
          7-27; Aug. 11-Oct. 4; may breed. Cambridge, rather
          common S.R., May 5-Sept. 15; abundant T.V. N.
          Ohio, common T.V., Apl. 28-May 27; Sept. 1-Oct.
          16. Glen Ellyn, regular T.V., Apl. 27-May 25; Aug.
          20-Oct. 19. SE. Minn., common S.R., May 1-Sept.
          29.

Thayer in "Warblers of North America" says that the Nashville is one of
the most agile and restless of the gleaning Warblers. It prefers
birches, but is found in rather open growths of other trees. Its
commoner song consists of a string of six or eight or more lively rapid
notes, running into a rolling twitter. It has also a flight-song.

The nest is placed on the ground; the eggs, which are laid in May or
early June, are white, spotted with reddish brown.


ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER

_Vermivora celata celata. Case 7, Fig. 32_

          A dusky, olive-green bird, obscurely streaked
          below; without wing-bars or white patches in tail.
          L. 5.

          _Range._ Chiefly the interior, nests from Manitoba
          northward; winters in Florida and the Gulf States.

          Washington, casual T.V., two records, Oct.
          Ossining, A.V. Cambridge, rare T.V., in fall. Oct.
          5-Nov. 15. N. Ohio, rare T.V., Apl. 27-May 21.
          Glen Ellyn, not common T.V., May 1-21; July
          28-Oct. 7. SE. Minn., common T.V., Apl. 25-; Aug.
          18-Oct. 16.

The Orange-crown is a rare fall migrant in the North Atlantic States,
but common in Florida and southern Georgia in the winter. It frequents
the upper branches of trees though, as with most members of its genus,
it nests on the ground. Its call-note is a sharp, characteristic _chip_;
its song is said to resemble that of the Chipping Sparrow.


TENNESSEE WARBLER

_Vermivora peregrina. Case 8, Fig. 64_

          Adult male in spring with a grayish blue crown and
          white underparts; female and young bright
          olive-green above, yellowish below; no wing-bars.
          L. 5.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England
          northward; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, T.V., rare in May; occasionally
          common, Aug. 31-Nov. 30. Ossining, rare T.V., May
          22-27; Aug. 22-Oct. 2. Cambridge, rare T.V., May
          15-25; Sept. N. Ohio, common T.V., May 4-25; Sept.
          10-Oct. 10. Glen Ellyn, common T.V., Apl. 30-June
          6; July 29-Oct. 9. SE. Minn., common T.V., Apl.
          30-; Sept. 30-.

A dull-colored little Warbler which we know as a rather rare migrant,
associated with the traveling companies of its family on their northward
and southward journeys. The song is described by Mrs. Farwell as
noticeable but not musical and resembling that of the Chipping Sparrow.


NORTHERN PARULA WARBLER

_Compsothlypis americana usneæ. Case 7, Fig. 39_

          A small, bluish Warbler with a yellow patch on the
          back, a dark band on the breast, and white
          wing-bars. L. 4¾.

          _Range._ Nests from Virginia and Louisiana to
          Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, T.V., but dates not distinguishable
          from those of _americana_. Ossining, common T.V.,
          May 2-28; Sept. 21-Oct. 7. Cambridge, common T.V.,
          May 1-28; Sept. 10-30. N. Ohio, not common T.V.,
          May 1-18. Glen Ellyn, not common T.V., May 3-28;
          Aug. 25-Oct. 1. SE. Minn., common T. V., May
          5-Sept. 9.

A common migrant, traveling with other Wood Warblers, but in summer
usually restricted to swampy localities where usnea moss flourishes. Of,
or rather _in_ this, it makes its nest, laying 4-5 white, brown-marked
eggs the latter half of May. To describe its song as several wheezy
notes running into a little trill, conveys no idea of pleasing
character. It is easily recognized and, in time, acquires associations
with what, to bird-lovers, is the most delightful season of the year.

The Southern Parula Warbler (_C. a. americana_) is a slightly smaller
race with less black about the lores and on the breast in the male. It
summers in the Southeastern States north to Virginia, and winters in the
tropics. Its habits resemble those of the northern race, but it nests in
the hanging, gray tillandsia or Spanish 'moss' instead of in usnea.


CAPE MAY WARBLER

_Dendroica tigrina. Case 8, Figs. 65, 66_

          Male with chestnut cheek-patches and a white patch
          on the wing; female and young streaked below, the
          rump more yellow than the back; tail-feathers with
          terminal spots. L. 5.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England
          northward; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, sometimes very common, usually
          uncommon T.V., May 1-20; Aug. 4-Oct. 17. Ossining,
          tolerably common T.V., Aug. 20-Oct. 1. Cambridge,
          rare T.V., May 15-25; Aug. 25. N. Ohio, not common
          T.V., May 4-18. Glen Ellyn, irregular T.V., Apl.
          30-May 21; Sept. 8-15. SE. Minn., common T.V., May
          8.

This beautiful Warbler was formerly considered one of our rarer
migrants, but of recent years it appears to be increasing in numbers. On
its nesting ground the bird is said to frequent the upper branches of
tall evergreens (though one of the few nests which has been found was
within three feet of the ground), but when migrating it may be found in
the trees of lawns, orchards, and woodland and I have seen it among
poke-berries. The Cape May's song is a thin squeak which is compared to
the songs of the Black and White and also Blackpoll Warblers.


YELLOW WARBLER

_Dendroica æstiva æstiva. Case 8, Figs. 40, 41_

          A small yellow bird streaked below with brownish;
          inner webs of tail-feathers yellow. L. 5.

          _Range._ Nests from Missouri and South Carolina to
          Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, common S.R., abundant T.V., Apl.
          4-Sept. 28. Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 30-Sept.
          27. Cambridge, abundant S.R., May 1-Sept. 15. N.
          Ohio, abundant S.R., Apl. 14-Sept. 10. Glen Ellyn,
          not very common S.R., Apl. 30-Sept. 6. SE. Minn.,
          common S.R., Apl. 28-Sept. 10.

Show me willows over water and any day in May or June I'll show you a
Yellow Warbler. Shade and fruit trees also attract him and he may build
his cotton-padded nest in their branches or in the shrubbery below. The
song is a simple _we-chee, chee, chee, chee, cher-wee_, resembling that
of the Chestnut-side, but has its own distinctive tone which permits of
ready identification, once it has been learned. The bluish white eggs,
thickly marked with shades of brown, are laid the latter half of May.


BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER

_Dendroica cærulescens cærulescens. Case 6, Figs. 58, 59_

          The male is unmistakable; the female may be known
          by the white spot at the base of the outer
          wing-feathers. L. 5¼.

          _Range._ Nests from northern Connecticut, the
          mountains of Pennsylvania, and southern Michigan
          north to Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, very common T.V., Apl. 19-May 30; Aug.
          4-Oct. 9. Ossining, common T.V., Apl. 25-May 28;
          Aug. 26-Oct. 10. Cambridge, rather common. T.V.,
          May 10-25; Sept. 20-Oct. 10. N. Ohio, common.
          T.V., Apl. 27-May 29; Sept. 5-Oct. 16. Glen
          Ellyn, common T.V., Apl. 29-May 29; Aug. 25-Oct.
          10. SE. Minn., uncommon T.V., May 11.

A true Wood Warbler, traveling through the trees with the scattered
bands of other members of his family as he journeys to and from his
summer home. This, in the northern part of his nesting range, is in
coniferous forests, in the southern part, deciduous forests. In both,
however, the birds require heavy undergrowth in which their bark-covered
nest is built within a foot or two of the ground. The grayish white,
brown-marked eggs are laid in late May or early June. Miss Paddock in
"Warblers of North America" describes the Black-throated Blue's song as
"an insect-like buzzing note repeated three or four times with a rising
inflection."

Cairn's Warbler (_D. c. cairnsi_) is a nearly related race having, in
the male, black centers to the feathers of the back. It nests in the
upper parts of the Alleghanies, from Maryland to Georgia, and winters in
the West Indies.


MYRTLE WARBLER

_Dendroica coronata. Case 5, Fig. 27_

          The yellow rump is always evident, but in fall and
          winter the whole plumage is duller, more brownish
          and the yellow patches at the sides of the breast
          and in the crown are less conspicuous. A rather
          large Warbler. L. 5¾.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England and
          northern Minnesota to Canada; winters from Kansas
          and southern New England to the tropics.

          Washington, abundant W.V., Aug. 7-May 23.
          Ossining, common T.V., Apl. 13-May 28; Aug.
          16-Nov. 11; a few winter. Cambridge, abundant
          T.V., Apl. 12-May 20; Sept. 1-Nov. 1; a few
          winter. N. Ohio, common T.V., Apl. 12-May 20;
          Sept. 15-Nov. 3. Glen Ellyn, common T.V., Apl.
          8-May 28; Sept. 25-Dec. 29. SE. Minn., common
          T.V., Apl. 6-; Sept. 9-Oct. 28.

A hardy Warbler which, like the Tree Swallow, can substitute bayberries
for insects. When the former are available some individuals remain in
the North, enduring our winters without apparent discomfort. Its
call-note, _tchep_, is as distinctive as its markings, and this fact
connected with its general distribution and abundance, makes it one of
the best known members of this little-known family.

Thayer in "Warblers of North America" describes its common song as "a
loud silvery 'sleigh-bell' trill, a vivid, sprightly utterance."

It nests in coniferous forests, building from four to twenty feet from
the ground and laying 3-5 white eggs marked with shades of brown, in
late May or early June.


MAGNOLIA WARBLER

_Dendroica magnolia. Case 8, Fig. 42_

          The female is duller than the male, but both have
          the crown gray, a white stripe behind the eye, a
          yellow rump and the white tail-patches near the
          middle of the tail, making the tail, when seen
          from below, appear white, broadly banded with
          black. L. 5

          _Range'_ Nests from northern Massachusetts and
          northern Michigan, and in the Alleghanies, from
          West Virginia to Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, common T.V., Apl. 22-May 30; Aug.
          15-Oct. 6. Ossining, common T.V., May 9-28; Aug.
          13-Oct. 11. Cambridge, T.V., rather common, May
          12-25; not uncommon, Sept. 10-25. N. Ohio, common
          T.V., Apl. 28-May 27; Sept. 1-Oct. 10. Glen Ellyn,
          common T.V., May 3-June 5; Aug. 12-Oct. 9. SE.
          Minn., common T.V., May 6-; Aug. 12-Sept. 9.

A common migrant distinguished by the beauty of his costume even in this
family of gayly clad birds. When traveling, the Magnolia may be found in
woods and woody growth of varied character, but when nesting, it shows a
fondness for spruce forests, building in small spruces usually within
six feet of the ground.

The Magnolia's song resembles the Yellow Warbler's in tone. Thayer in
"Warblers of North America" describes it as "peculiar and easily
remembered; _weeto: weeto-weeeéte-eet_, or _witchi, witchi, witchi tit_,
the first four notes deliberate and even and comparatively low in tone,
the last three hurried and higher pitched, with decided emphasis on the
antepenult _weet_ or _witch_."

The eggs, laid in the first half of June, are white marked with brown.


CERULEAN WARBLER

_Dendroica rara. Case 8, Figs. 46, 47_

          The adult male will be recognized at sight, but
          the female and young must be looked at sharply.
          The whitish or yellowish line over the eye, in
          connection with the white wing-bars make a fair
          field-mark. L. 4½.

          _Range._ Nests from Texas and Alabama to Minnesota
          and western New York; locally from North Carolina
          to Delaware.

          Washington, several records in May, one in fall.
          N. Ohio, common S.R., Apl. 29-Sept. 20. Glen
          Ellyn, not common, local S.R., May 8-Aug. 19. SE.
          Minn., rare S.R.

A tree-top Warbler of deciduous forests, nesting from 25 to 60 feet
above the ground. Its song bears a marked resemblance to that of the
Parula and its call-note is said to be like the _tchep_ of the Myrtle
Warbler. The white eggs, heavily blotched with brown, are laid in May.


CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER

_Dendroica pensylvanica. Case 8, Figs. 43, 44_

          Adults are distinguished by their chestnut sides,
          yellow crown and wing-bars, but the young are
          wholly different, silky white below, yellowish
          green above. L. 5½.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New Jersey and, in
          the Alleghanies, South Carolina, north to Canada;
          winters in the tropics.

          Washington, abundant T.V., Apl. 19-May 30; Aug.
          10-Oct. 14. Ossining, tolerably common S.R., May
          2-Sept. 24. Cambridge, abundant S.R., May 5-Sept.
          10. N. Ohio, T.V., May 2-25. Glen Ellyn, rare
          S.R., common T.V., May 1-Sept. 26. SE. Minn.,
          common S.R., May 3-Sept. 15.

Scrubby second growths undergrown with bushes, roadside borders of trees
and bushes, and the brushy margins of woods are all resorts of the
Chestnut-side. Here he attracts our attention by his rather loud,
frequently uttered song, which strongly suggests that of the Yellow
Warbler. The nest is built within a few feet of the ground and the
white, brown-marked eggs are laid the latter part of May.


BAY-BREASTED WARBLER

_Dendroica castanea. Case 8, Figs. 69, 70_

          The adult male is unmistakable; the female has
          chestnut on sides and crown, a grayish streaked
          back and white wing-bars; the young bird in the
          fall cannot, in the field, be certainly
          distinguished from the young Blackpoll, but has
          the underparts tinted with buff instead of with
          yellow. L. 5¾.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England into
          Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, sometimes abundant, usually uncommon
          T.V., May 2-27; Aug. 29-Nov. Ossining, tolerably
          common T.V., May 14-28; Aug. 5-Sept. 26.
          Cambridge, rather rare T.V., May 15-25; Sept.
          12-28. N. Ohio, common T.V., May 4-23; Sept.
          7-Oct. 10. Glen Ellyn, tolerably common; T.V., May
          8-June 5; Aug. 13-Oct. 4. SE. Minn., uncommon
          T.V., May 13-; Aug. 18-Sept. 15.

The Bay-breast is one of the rarer members of its family. Most of us
know it only as a migrant passing northward in May and southward in
September, when it may be found in woodlands associated with other
migrating Warblers. Its song resembles that of the Black and White
Warbler. Mrs. Farwell describes it as "a poor, weak, monotonous
saw-filing note." The nest has been found in hemlocks 15-20 feet from
the ground. The white eggs, finely marked with shades of brown, are laid
in June.


BLACK-POLL WARBLER

_Dendroica striata. Case 8, Figs. 71, 72_

          In the spring, a black cap, white cheeks and a
          gray, black streaked back distinguish the male; a
          gray, black-streaked back, the female. In the
          fall, young and old are olive-green, streaked with
          black above; yellowish white below, and thus
          closely resembles the young Bay-breast. L. 5½.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England and
          northern Michigan into Canada; winters in the
          tropics.

          Washington, abundant T.V., Apl. 28-June 16; Aug.
          31-Oct. 20. Ossining, common T.V., May 7-June 6;
          Aug. 30-Oct. 16. Cambridge, abundant T.V., May
          12-June 5; Sept. 8-Oct. 20. N. Ohio, common T.V.,
          May 6-June 2; Sept. 1-Oct. 16. Glen Ellyn, common
          T.V., May 2-June 8; Aug. 23-Sept. 27. SE. Minn.,
          common T.V., May 8-; Aug. 27-.

Toward the end of the May Warbler 'waves' the Blackpolls come in force.
They are excessively fat and, perhaps for this reason, move rather
slowly for a Warbler. They are Wood Warblers, but at this season may
overflow into the trees of our lawns and orchards. Mrs. Farwell
describes the Blackpoll's song as "a succession of hesitating, staccato,
unmusical notes varying greatly in volume. The notes separated, not
combined in twos, as in the Black and White Warbler's song." When
nesting this Warbler frequents stunted spruce forests, placing its nest
in these trees a few feet above the ground, and laying 4-5 white,
brown-marked eggs the latter part of June.


BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER

_Dendroica fusca. Case 8, Figs. 67, 68_

          The orange breast, fiery in the spring male,
          duller in the female and fall males, is
          distinctive. L. 5¼.

          _Range._ Nests from Massachusetts (locally) and
          central Minnesota north to Canada and southward in
          the Alleghanies to Georgia; winters in the
          tropics.

          Washington, common T.V., Apl. 30-June 3; Aug.
          14-Oct. 7. Ossining, common T.V., May 10-29; Aug.
          15-Oct. 15. Cambridge, T.V., uncommon, May 12-22;
          rare, Sept. 15-30. N. Ohio, common T.V., May
          4-June 8; Aug. 12-Sept. 22. SE. Minn., common
          T.V., May 3-; Sept. 4.

The remoteness of their homes prevents us from making the acquaintance
of the brilliantly plumaged birds of the tropics, but among them all we
will find none more beautiful than this flame-breasted Warbler, which
each spring comes from his tropical winter home almost to our doors. In
the summer he seeks the seclusion of coniferous forests and the higher
branches of spruce or hemlock. There his nest is made sometimes 80 or
more feet above the ground, and in late May or early June the white
eggs, spotted, speckled and blotched with brown, are laid. The
Blackburnian's song is described by Miss Paddock in "Warblers of North
America" as "very shrill and fine, growing even more shrill and wiry as
it rises toward the end."


YELLOW-THROATED WARBLER

_Dendroica dominica dominica. Case 5, Fig. 18_

          A gray Warbler with a yellow throat. L. 5¼.

          _Range._ Southeastern States, nesting north to
          Maryland; wintering from central Florida
          southward.

          Washington, rare S.R., rather common late in July
          and Aug.; Apl. 19-Sept. 4.

The loud, ringing _ching-ching-ching, chicker, cherwee_ of the
Yellow-throated Warbler is one of the characteristic bird songs of
spring in southern woods. The bird usually sings from the upper branches
of tall trees, often cypresses, in Florida, but further north, from
pines, where he can be far more easily heard than seen. The nest is
placed 30-40 feet from the ground and the white eggs, thickly marked
with shades of brown, are laid in April.

The Sycamore Warbler (_D. d. albilora, Case 5, Fig. 19_) is a nearly
related race of the Yellow-throat which inhabits the Mississippi Valley
nesting as far north as southern Michigan and wintering in the tropics.
It differs from the Atlantic coast form in having a smaller bill and no
yellow in front of the eye. As its name implies, it favors sycamore
trees.


BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER

_Dendroica virens virens. Case 6, Fig. 62_

          The female has a yellow throat and a band of black
          spots on the breast, but both sexes may be known
          by the yellow cheeks and the large amount of white
          in the tail. L. 5.

          _Range._ Nests from Long Island and northern Ohio
          north to Canada and south in the Alleghanies to
          Georgia.

          Washington, very common T.V., Apl. 22-May 30; Aug.
          26-Oct. 21. Ossining, common T.V., Apl. 30-June 3;
          Sept. 1-Oct. 26; a few breed. Cambridge, abundant
          S.R., May 1-Oct. 15. N. Ohio, common T.V., Apl.
          25-May 24; Sept. 1-Oct. 16; a few breed. Glen
          Ellyn, common T.V., Apl. 29-June 6; Aug. 22-Oct.
          12. SE. Minn., common T.V., uncommon S.R., Apl.
          29-Sept. 22.

The quiet little _zee-zee, zee-ee-zee_ of the Black-throated Green
announces the arrival of the vanguard of true Wood Warblers, which for
the succeeding two weeks will pass in countless numbers through our
woodlands, still almost leafless. At this time we may find him wherever
trees grow, but his real summer home is coniferous forests, especially
of hemlocks, in which he often builds his nests 15-20 feet above the
ground. The eggs, laid in late May or early June, are white spotted and
speckled with brown.

A southern form of this Warbler (_D. v. waynei_) has been described from
the vicinity of Charleston, S.C.


KIRTLAND'S WARBLER

_Dendroica kirtlandi. Case 8, Fig. 45_

          A large Warbler, pale yellow below; crown slaty;
          back brownish streaked with black.

          _Range._ Nests in Oscoda, Crawford and Roscommon
          Counties, Michigan, winters in the Bahamas; in
          migration has been found within the area from
          Minneapolis, Minn., to Toronto, Ont., south to St.
          Louis, Mo., and Fort Myer, Va., and
          south-eastward.

          Washington, one record, Sept. 25, 1887. N. Ohio,
          rare T.V., May 9 and 11. Glen Ellyn, one record,
          May 7, 1894. SE. Minn., one record, Minneapolis,
          May 13.

Kirtland's Warbler has one of the smallest nesting areas of any North
American bird and consequently is one of our rarest species. In the
summer it lives among the jack-pines of north central Michigan, nesting
on the ground beneath them. When migrating, it may be found usually near
the ground, where it may be identified by its habit of tail-wagging. Its
song is described by Wood in "Warblers of North America" as belonging to
the whistling type with the clear, ringing quality of the Oriole's. The
3-5 eggs, laid early in June, are white speckled with brown in a wreath
at the larger end.


PINE WARBLER

_Dendroica vigorsi vigorsi. Case 4, Fig. 57; Case 6, Fig. 60_

          The male is bright greenish yellow below,
          sometimes duskily streaked; the female is tinged
          with brown above, below is soiled whitish, tinged
          with yellow. L. 5½.

          _Range._ Nests from the Gulf States to Canada;
          winters from southern Illinois and Virginia
          southward.

          Washington, quite uncommon S.R., Mch. 20-Oct. 29,
          abundant in fall. Ossining, casual. Cambridge,
          locally common S.R., Apl. 10-Oct. 20; occasional
          W.V. N. Ohio, rare T.V., Apl. 29-May 15. Glen
          Ellyn, not common T.V., spring records only, Apl.
          17-May 24. SE. Minn., common T.V., Apl. 26-.

Pine Warblers seem almost as much a part of pine woods as the trees
themselves. They feed on the ground below the pines, they glean from the
bark of the trunk, or from the clusters of 'needles' on the topmost
boughs, the very peace of the pines is expressed in their calm, even,
musical trill; and where there are no pines there are no Pine Warblers.
During the migration, it is true, they may be found elsewhere, but at
that season they are travelers, and travelers cannot always be
responsible for their surroundings. Their nest, of course, is always
built in pines, usually from 30-50 feet above the ground. The eggs laid
in March in the South, and early June in the North, are white wreathed
with brown at the larger end.


YELLOW PALM WARBLER

_Dendroica palmarum hypochrysea. Case 6, Fig. 61_

          Underparts bright yellow streaked with reddish
          brown; cap reddish brown; line over the eye
          yellow. L. 5¼.

          _Range._ Nests from Maine northward; winters from
          North Carolina to the Florida Keys; west to
          Louisiana.

          Washington, T.V., common. Mch. 31-Apl. 29; Sept.
          4-Oct. 28. Ossining, tolerably common T.V., Apl.
          11-May 5; Sept. 20-Nov. 8. Cambridge, usually
          common, sometimes abundant, T.V., Apl. 15-May 5;
          Oct. 1-15.

A tail-wagging Warbler that frequents bushy places, weedy fields and
open pine woods and gardens, living near the ground where it may be
easily seen. Its call-note, _chip_, is distinctive and one learns in
time to recognize it. Its song is a trill, clear and sweet, but by no
means loud.

The Palm Warbler (_D. p. palmarum_) is the Mississippi Valley form of
the Atlantic coast race, from which it differs in having the line over
the eye white instead of yellow; the yellow of the underparts paler and
confined to the throat and breast. It is not infrequent during the fall
migration in the North Atlantic States and, in Florida, is far more
common than the Yellow Palm.

          Washington, rare T.V., Apl. 22-May 18; Sept.
          18-Oct. 11. Ossining. T.V., Apl. 29; Sept. 30-Oct.
          12. Cambridge, uncommon T.V. in fall, Sept.
          15-Oct. 10. N. Ohio, tolerably common T.V., Apl.
          24-May 20; Sept. 10-Oct. 16. Glen Ellyn, common
          T.V., Apl. 23-May 19; Sept. 4-Oct. 18. SE. Minn.,
          common T.V., Apl. 23; Sept. 17-Oct. 3.

Both races nest on the ground.


PRAIRIE WARBLER

_Dendroica discolor. Case 8, Fig. 48_

          A small Warbler with a reddish brown patch in the
          back, yellowish wing-bars, and much white in the
          tail. L. 4¾.

          _Range._ Nests from Florida and northern
          Mississippi to Michigan and New Hampshire.

          Washington, very common S.R., Apl. 12-Sept. 20.
          Ossining, rare S.R., May 2-Sept. 14. Cambridge,
          locally common S.R., May 8-Sept. 15. N. Ohio,
          rare, Apl. 29, May 9, and 14.

Scrubby second growths, hillsides with scattered cedars and barberries,
and, sometimes, bushy places in the pines are the haunts of the
miscalled Prairie Warbler. Common and generally distributed in the
South, it is local in the North and not always found in districts which
seem to supply all its wants. Its song is composed of six or seven
minute _zees_, the next to the last one usually the highest. The nest is
generally built within 4 feet of the ground, the eggs, laid in May, are
white marked with shades of brown, often wreathed about the larger end.


OVEN-BIRD

_Seiurus aurocapillus. Case 6, Fig. 64_

          An olive brownish bird, white streaked with black
          below, with an orange, black-bordered crown and no
          white on wings or in tail. L. 6¼.

          _Range._ Nests from Georgia and Missouri to
          Canada; winters from Florida southward.

          Washington, very common S.R., Apl. 10-Oct. 17.
          Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 27-Oct. 10. Cambridge,
          very common S.R., May 6-Sept. 15. N. Ohio,
          abundant S.R., Apl. 22-Oct. 1. Glen Ellyn, not
          common S.R., common T.V., Apl. 28-Sept. 30. SE.
          Minn., common S.R., Apl. 27-Sept. 22.

The Oven-bird, and its near relatives the Water-Thrushes, bear so little
resemblance in color and habits to the true Wood Warblers, that one
might well think they were members of another family. Their plumage
lacks the bright colors, white wing-bars and tail-patches possessed by
most Warblers, and, instead of hopping and flitting from twig to twig,
they spend their time chiefly _walking_ on the ground, where they find
their food.

It is not so much its abundance as its song which makes the Oven-bird
well known. Years ago Mr. Burroughs wrote it, _teacher, teacher,
teacher, teacher, teacher_, and no one has improved on this description.
The Oven-bird also sings an ecstatic warbling on the wing; a thrilling
performance. The nest is built on the ground and, like a Dutch oven, is
roofed over with the entrance at one side. The eggs, laid in May, are
white, marked chiefly at the larger end with brown.


NORTHERN WATER-THRUSH

_Seiurus noveboracensis noveboracensis. Case. 8, Fig. 56_

          Underparts white tinged with pale _yellow_,
          everywhere--_including throat_--streaked with
          black; no white in tail or wings. L. 6.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England to
          Canada, south in the mountains, to West Virginia;
          winters in the tropics.

          Washington, common T.V., Apl. 22-June 2; July
          21-Oct. 6. Ossining, tolerably common T.V., May
          11-21; July 28-Oct. 3. Cambridge, abundant T.V.,
          May 8-June 1; Aug. 10-Oct. 10. N. Ohio, common,
          T.V., Apl. 26-May 25; Sept. 1-15.

The two Water-Thrushes and the Oven-bird are _walking_ Warblers, and the
Water-Thrushes, furthermore, are _teeterers_, nervously tipping tail and
body with apparently exhaustless energy. When migrating, the Northern
Water-Thrush often seeks refuge beneath the shrubbery of our lawns, but
when nesting it frequents the borders of streams in deep woods, building
its home on the ground or in the roots of an upturned tree. Its
call-note is a sharp _chink_; its song a hurried rush of loud musical
notes, closing abruptly. The 4-5 eggs, laid in the latter half of May or
early June, are white with numerous brown markings chiefly about the
larger end.

Grinnell's Water-Thrush (_S. n. notabilis_), a slightly larger and
darker form, nests in the Northwest and is casually found as a migrant
on the Atlantic coast.


LOUISIANA WATER-THRUSH

_Seiurus motacilla. Case 5, Fig. 5_

          Line over eye and underparts white, the latter
          tinted with _buff_ (not with yellow, as in the
          preceding species); the throat white _unmarked_;
          no white in wings or tail. L. 6¼.

          _Range._ Nests from Georgia and Texas to southern
          New England and southeastern Minnesota; winters in
          the tropics.

          Washington, rare S.R., Apl. 2-Sept. 14. Ossining,
          common S.R., Apl. 9-Aug. 24. N. Ohio, tolerably
          common S.R., Mch. 28-Sept. 15. SE. Minn., uncommon
          S.R., Apl. 17-Aug. 26.

A shy spirit of woodland brooks, the Louisiana Water-Thrush resembles
the Northern Water-Thrush in habits but is more difficult to see; its
call-note is louder, its song, wilder, more ringing. Like the Oven-bird
it also has a flight, or 'ecstasy'-song. It nests in a bank or among the
roots of a fallen tree, laying 4-6 eggs, white with numerous brown
markings, in late April or early May.


KENTUCKY WARBLER

_Oporornis formosus. Case 8, Fig. 52_

          A yellow line from the bill around the eye; crown
          blackish; no white on wings or tail. L. 5½.

          _Range._ Nests from Georgia and Texas to southern
          Wisconsin and the lower Hudson Valley; winters in
          the tropics.

          Washington, not very uncommon S.R., Apl. 29-Sept.
          2. Ossining, common S.R., May 2-Aug. 27. N. Ohio,
          rare, Apl. 27 and May 12.

Wet woodland with luxuriant undergrowth of bushes, ferns and skunk
cabbage are the favorite haunts of this sweet-voiced Warbler, and its
nest is usually built among vegetation of this character. Its freely
uttered song is a loud, clear two-syllabled whistle, in tone like the
voice of the Carolina Wren or Cardinal. Its 4-5 eggs, laid in late May
or early June, are white, speckled chiefly about the larger end with
shades of brown.


CONNECTICUT WARBLER

_Oporornis agilis. Case 8, Figs. 77, 78_

          A complete white eye-ring; male without black on
          the gray breast. L. 5½.

          _Range._ Nests in the interior from north Michigan
          to Manitoba; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, T.V., very rare in spring, May 24-30;
          common from Aug. 28-Oct. 24. Ossining, rare T.V.,
          Aug. 26-Oct. 9. Cambridge, fall T.V., sometimes
          locally abundant, Sept. 10-30. N. Ohio, tolerably
          common T.V., May 7-24. Glen Ellyn, fairly common
          T.V., May 12-June 28; Aug. 14-Sept. 22. SE. Minn.,
          uncommon T.V., June 1.

In the Atlantic Coast States this Warbler is found only as a fall
migrant, at times in considerable numbers. It lives on the ground in or
at the border of woods usually where there is dense undergrowth, and
would easily escape observation were it not for its sharp call-note,
_peek_, by which it may be identified. Its song, heard only on its
migrations up the Mississippi Valley and on its nesting ground, has been
described as resembling that of both the Oven-bird and Maryland
Yellow-throat. The only nest recorded was found by Ernest Seton near
Carberry, Manitoba, June 21, 1883. It was on the ground and contained 4
eggs, white with a few spots about the larger end.


MOURNING WARBLER

_Oporornis philadelphia. Case 8, Figs. 75, 76_

          Male without white eye-ring; and with a black
          breast veiled with gray. L. 5½.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New York and Michigan
          to Canada, south in the mountains to West
          Virginia; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, very rare T.V., May 6-30; Aug. 17-Oct.
          1. Ossining, rare T.V., May 28-29; Aug. 18-Oct. 1.
          Cambridge, rare T.V., May 22-June 5; Sept. 12-25.
          N. Ohio, tolerably common T.V., May 5-28. Glen
          Ellyn, rather rare T.V., May 18-June 8; Aug. 17-.
          SE. Minn., uncommon T.V., May 13-; Aug. 1-Sept.
          10.

The Mourning Warbler is one of the rarer Warblers which, by good
fortune, we may occasionally see toward the end of the spring migration.
It is usually found in the lower growth, being a brush and tangle
haunter of woods and clearings. Its song, which is described as clear
and ringing, is uttered frequently, often from a dead limb. The nest is
built in briars or bushes within a foot or two of the ground. The eggs,
laid in the first half of June, are white with a few brownish spots at
the larger end.


MARYLAND YELLOW-THROAT

_Geothlypis trichas trichas. Case 8, Figs. 50, 51_

          The gray-bordered, black mask of the male makes
          him unmistakable. The female is without
          distinctive markings, but may easily be identified
          by her notes and actions. L. 5¼.

          _Range._ Nests from Virginia and the lower
          Mississippi Valley northward; winters from North
          Carolina to Florida.

          Washington, abundant S.R., Apl. 13-Oct. 21.
          Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 28-Oct. 23. Cambridge,
          abundant S.R., May 5-Oct. 20; occasional in
          winter. N. Ohio, abundant S.R., Apl. 25-Sept. 25.
          Glen Ellyn, common S.R., May 2-Oct. 2. SE. Minn.,
          common S.R.

A fidgety, inquisitive inhabitant of bushy undergrowth along roadsides
and wood borders, whose impatient off-repeated call-note, _chack,
chack_, and energetic song of _wichity, wichity, wichity_, soon become
familiar to the bird-student. It nests on or near the ground and the
white, lightly spotted eggs are laid in the latter half of May.

The Florida Yellow-throat (_G. t. ignota_), a more deeply colored race,
is found from North Carolina to southern Florida. In the last-named
State it usually inhabits scrub palmetto growths.


YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT

_Icteria virens virens. Case 8, Fig. 49_

          A large bird, superficially, quite unlike the true
          Warblers but nevertheless agreeing with them in
          essential structure. L. 7½.

          _Range._ Nests from Texas and northern Florida to
          southern Minnesota and (locally) Massachusetts;
          winters in the tropics.

          Washington, common S.R., Apl. 16-Sept. 28.
          Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 28-Aug. 29. Cambridge,
          rather rare and irregular S.R., May 15-Sept. N.
          Ohio, common S.R., May 1-Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn,
          local, not common. May 10-Aug. 16. SE. Minn., rare
          S.R. (?).

If the Chat lived in England what a wealth of lore, legend, and
literature would owe its origin to his strange ways and stranger notes!
Here he is known to few but the initiated, who find an endless interest
in his odd song-medley and peculiar antics. Go yourself to the
brush-grown, thickety wood borders and clearings he loves and let him be
his own interpreter. You may even find his nest low down in some crotch
with its white, evenly speckled eggs, and hear his angry _chŭt_ as he
resents your presence.


HOODED WARBLER

_Wilsonia citrina. Case 8, Figs. 54, 55_

          The yellow face and black 'hood' distinguishes the
          male, but both sexes may be known by the large
          amount of white in the outer tail-feathers. L. 5¾.

          _Range._ Nests from Georgia and Louisiana north to
          Michigan and Connecticut; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, locally common, S.R., Apl. 19-Oct. 1.
          Ossining, rare S.R., to Sept. 1. N. Ohio, rare.
          May 8, 9, 12 and 22.

Color, song, habit and temperament combine to make the Hooded Warbler
one of the most attractive members of its family. As one sees it
flitting from bush to bush in woodland undergrowth, displaying its white
outer tail-feathers as it flies, pausing now and again to utter its
simple, sweet whistled song, one is impressed not only by its beauty but
by its gentleness. It nests in a bush within a foot or two of the
ground, laying 3-5 white eggs, wreathed with shades of brown spots,
early in May, in the South, in June, in the North.


WILSON'S WARBLER

_Wilsonia pusilla pusilla. Case 8, Figs. 73, 74_

          The female usually lacks the black cap, when she
          resembles the female Hooded, but is smaller and
          has no white in the tail. L. 5.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England and
          northern Minnesota northward; winters in the
          tropics.

          Washington, rather common T.V., May 1-26; Aug.
          27-Oct. 6. Ossining, tolerably common T.V., May
          9-30; Aug. 10-Sept. 9. Cambridge, common T.V., May
          12-25; uncommon, Sept. 5-20. N. Ohio, tolerably
          common T.V., May 5-June 2; Sept. 5-15. Glen Ellyn,
          not common T.V., May 7-June 26; Aug. 16-Sept. 21.
          SE. Minn., common T.V., May 2-; Aug. 23-Sept. 27.

Wilson's Warbler, a flycatching Warbler of the lower growth, favors
bushes near water, but is also found in dryer places. Thayer in
"Warblers of North America" says that its "song has much of the ringing
clarity of the Canada's and Hooded's songs." It nests on the ground,
laying 4 eggs, usually with a wreath of spots at the larger end, early
in June.


CANADIAN WARBLER

_Wilsonia canadensis. Case 8, Fig. 53_

          Above gray, no white in wings or tail; breast with
          a necklace of black spots, paler and less numerous
          in the female. L. 5½.

          _Range._ Nests from Massachusetts and central
          Minnesota northward, south in the mountains to
          Tennessee; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, very common T.V., May 5-June 2; July
          31-Sept. 25. Ossining, common T.V., May 6-June 2;
          Aug. 10-Oct. 11. Cambridge, common, May 12-30,
          rare, Sept. 1-15; rare S.R. N. Ohio, common T.V.,
          Apl. 28-May 27; Sept. 1-18. Glen Ellyn, common
          T.V., May 5-June 6; Aug. 15-Sept. 22. SE. Minn.,
          common T.V., May 8-; Aug. 18-Sept. 5.

The Canadian Warbler haunts the lower growth of deciduous forests. It is
"a sprightly, wide-awake, fly-snapping Warbler, vivid in movement and in
song" (Thayer). "The song is liquid, uncertain, varied, bright and
sweet" (Farwell). It nests on the ground early in June, laying 4-5 eggs
much like those of Wilson's Warbler.


REDSTART

_Setophaga ruticilla. Case 8, Figs. 57, 58_

          The female is yellow where the male is
          flame-color; young males resemble the female, but
          usually have more or less black on the breast. L.
          5½.

          _Range._ Nests from Arkansas and North Carolina to
          Canada; winters in the tropics.

          Washington, very abundant T.V., Apl, 15-May; Aug.
          19-Sept. 30; a few breed. Ossining, common S.R.,
          May 1-Oct. 3. Cambridge, abundant S.R., May
          5-Sept. 20. N. Ohio, common S.R., Apl. 27-Sept.
          20. Glen Ellyn. not common S.R., common T.V., May
          3-Oct. 5. SE. Minn., common S.R., May 2-Sept. 22.

His bright colors, graceful, aerial pirouetting, abundance, and
frequently uttered song make the Redstart the most conspicuous as well
as one of the most attractive of our woodland Warblers. So exquisite a
creature should be as widely known as are violets or daisies. The
Redstart builds its well-made nest in a crotch, usually about fifteen
feet above the ground. The 4-5 grayish white eggs, spotted and blotched
chiefly at the larger end, are laid in mid-May.



WAGTAILS AND PIPITS. FAMILY MOTACILLIDÆ


AMERICAN PIPIT

_Anthus rubescens. Case 4, Fig. 62; Case 5, Fig. 17_

          Outer tail-feathers white, bill slender, back
          grayish. L. 6½.

          _Range._ Nests from Newfoundland to Greenland;
          winters from Maryland to Florida and Mexico.

          Washington, W.V., sometimes abundant, Oct. 2-May
          12. Ossining, common T.V., Mch. 26-(?); Sept.
          24-Nov. 16. Cambridge, T.V., abundant Sept.
          20-Nov. 10; rare Apl. 10-May 20. N. Ohio, common
          T.V., Apl. 6-May 20; Oct. 19. Glen Ellyn, not
          common T.V., Apl. 15-; Sept. 30-Oct. 18. SE.
          Minn., common T.V., May 4-; Oct.

At first glance a Pipit might be mistaken for a Sparrow--let us say, a
Vesper Sparrow; but note that it walks, instead of hops, that it
constantly wags or 'tips' its tail, that it has a slender, not stout
bill. Meadows, pastures, plowed fields, golf-courses, are frequented by
Pipits, usually in flocks of a dozen or more. When flushed, with a
faint _dee-dee_, they bound lightly into the air but usually soon return
to earth.

Sprague's Pipit (_Anthus spraguei_), a slightly smaller species, nests
in Montana, Dakota, and northward, and is sometimes found in small
numbers on the coast of South Carolina and Georgia in winter.



THRASHERS, MOCKINGBIRDS, ETC. FAMILY MIMIDÆ


MOCKINGBIRD

_Mimus polyglottos polyglottos. Case 4; Fig. 76_

          To be confused in color only with the Loggerhead
          Shrike, but larger, with a longer tail, no black
          on the face and totally different habits. L. 10½.

          _Range._ Nests from the Gulf to Iowa and Maryland;
          rarely to Massachusetts; winters from Maryland
          southward.

          Washington, uncommon P.R., less numerous in
          winter. Cambridge, rare S.R., Mch. to Nov.

No southern garden is complete without a Mockingbird to guard its
treasures with his harsh alarm-note and extol its beauties in his
brilliant, varied song. He is to the South what the Robin is to the
North--and more, for he is present throughout the year while the Robin
is with us only during the nesting season.

The Mocker builds in bushes, orange-trees or other dense vegetation,
from late March, in southern Florida, to early May in Virginia. The 4-6
eggs are blue heavily marked with brown.


CATBIRD

_Dumatella carolinensis. Case 4, Fig. 81; Case 6, Fig. 71_

          Both sexes of the Catbird wear the same costume at
          all seasons and all ages. L. 9.

          _Range._ Nests from Florida and Texas to Canada
          winters from South Carolina to the tropics.

          Washington, abundant S.R., Apl. 34-Oct. 11;
          occasionally winters. Ossining, common S.R. Apl.
          28-Oct. 25. Cambridge, abundant S.R., May 6-Oct.
          1; occasional in winter. N. Ohio, common S.R.,
          Apl. 21-Oct. 5. Glen Ellyn, common S.R., Apl.
          29-Oct. 6. SE. Minn., common S.R., Apl. 30-Oct. 6.

If the Catbird's name were based on his song instead of on his
call-note, he might have won the popularity he deserves, but which seems
forever denied him. Taking kindly to civilization he makes his home near
ours, asking only the shelter of our shrubbery and a share of our small
fruits in return for three months of music such as but few birds can
produce.

The Catbird nests in bushes and thickets laying 3-5 greenish blue eggs
in May.


BROWN THRASHER

_Toxostoma rufum. Case 4, Fig. 82; Case 6, Fig. 72_

          Tail and bill much longer than in the Thrushes;
          white wing-bars; eye pale yellow. L. 11½.

          _Range._ Nests from Florida and Louisiana to
          Canada; winters from North Carolina and SE.
          Missouri to Florida and Texas.

          Washington, very common S.R., Apl. 8-Oct.;
          occasionally winters. Ossining, common S.R., Apl.
          22-Oct. 28. Cambridge common S.R., Apl. 36-Oct.
          20. N. Ohio, common S.R., Apl. 6-Oct. 15. Glen
          Ellyn, common S.R., Apl. 9-Oct. 11. SE. Minn.,
          common S.R., Apl. 15-Oct. 7.

In the wealth of new experiences and awakened associations which crowd
the bird-lover's days in April and May, none stands out more clearly in
my memory than the first Thrasher's song.

The rich, distinctly enunciated notes ring loud and clear above all
other songs as the bird from some tree-top gives his musical message to
the world. The performance concluded he returns to the undergrowth
whence one may hear his explosive, whistled _wheèu_ or sharp kissing
note. The nest is built in bushy growths or on the ground in May. The
3-6 eggs are grayish white finely speckled with reddish brown.



WRENS. FAMILY TROGLODYTIDÆ


CAROLINA WREN

_Thryothorus ludovicianus ludovicianus. Case 4. Fig. 64_

          Largest and most brightly colored of our Wrens.
          Note the buff or whitish line over the eye. L. 5½.

          _Range._ Gulf States north to Connecticut and
          Iowa; non-migratory. The Florida Wren (_T. l.
          miamensis_) a slightly larger, more richly colored
          form, inhabits Florida from Palatka southward.

          Washington, common P.R. Cambridge, rare or casual.
          N. Ohio, tolerably common P.R.

The Carolina Wren is a bird of the woods, whose loud, musical whistles
are among the most conspicuous of southern bird notes. They suggest
those of both the Cardinal and Tufted Titmouse, but are more varied in
character. A common scolding call is recognizably wren-like, while
another suggests a tree-toad's _krrring_. The nest is built in holes, in
April. The 4-6 eggs are white with numerous reddish brown and lavender
markings.


BEWICK'S WREN

_Thryomanes bewicki bewicki_

          Size of the House Wren, but with the tail nearly
          half an inch longer; its outer feathers tipped
          with gray.

          _Range._ Mississippi Valley from the Gulf States
          to southern Michigan; rare east of the
          Alleghanies.

          Washington, rare and local T.V., Mch. 26-July-;
          may winter, Nov. 24-Dec. 22.

A house Wren of the States west of the Alleghanies with a tail that
seems to be at the mercy of passing breezes, and a song resembling the
Song Sparrow's, but louder. Its nesting habits resemble those of the
House Wren. The 4-6 eggs, laid in April, are white speckled with reddish
brown and lavender.


HOUSE WREN

_Troglodytes aëdon aëdon. Case 4, Fig. 63; Case 6, Fig. 70_

          No introduction is needed to this feathered tenant
          of many bird-lovers. L. 5.

          _Range._ Nests from Virginia and Kentucky to
          Canada; winters from South Carolina and lower
          Mississippi Valley to Mexico.

          Washington, common S.R., Apl. 13-Oct. 11.
          Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 23-Oct. 14. Cambridge,
          formerly abundant S.R., Apl. 28-Sept. 25; now rare
          and local. N. Ohio, common S.R., Apl. 17-Oct. 5.
          Glen Ellyn, S.R. in isolated pairs; Apl. 26-Oct.
          13. SE. Minn., common S.R., Apl. 27-Sept. 18.

The familiar inhabitant of our bird-houses whose numbers seem limited
only by the nesting-sites we offer him. His little fountain of melody
bubbles forth irrepressibly to cheer his mate or challenge a rival. With
the exhaustless energy of their kind they fill their nest-box with
twigs, grasses and feathers, wherein are laid 6-8 minutely and evenly
speckled pinkish eggs.


WINTER WREN

_Nannus hiemalis hiemalis. Case 2, Fig. 58_

          Smaller than the House Wren; underparts brownish,
          flanks and belly finely barred. L. 4.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England and
          Central Michigan north to Canada and, in the
          Alleghanies, south to North Carolina; winters from
          the Northern States to the Gulf.

          Washington, rather common W.V., Aug. 10-May 1.
          Ossining, tolerably common W.V., Sept. 18-Apl. 27.
          Cambridge, T.V. uncommon, Sept. 20-Nov. 25; rare,
          Apl. 10-25; a very few winter. N. Ohio, tolerably
          common. W.V., Sept. 14-May 17. Glen Ellyn, fairly
          common T.V., Apl. 1-May 10; Sept. 9-Nov. 7. SE.
          Minn., common T.V., rare W.V., Sept. 22-Apl. 3.

The Winter Wren comes to us from the North when the House Wren leaves
for the South and remains with us until the House Wren returns in the
spring. But one by no means takes the place of the other. The Winter
Wren is a wood Wren that lives in fallen tree-tops, old brush-piles or
similar retreats, and his nervous _chimp, chimp_, as with cocked-up tail
he hops into view for a second, is like the call of the Song Sparrow
rather than the scolding note of most Wrens; nor does his rippling,
trickling song resemble the House Wren's sudden outburst.

The nest is built in the roots of a tree or similar location. The 5-7
eggs, laid in early June, are white, finely, but rather sparingly
speckled with brownish.


SHORT-BILLED MARSH WREN

_Cistothorus stellaris. Case 8, Fig. 80_

          Smallest of our Wrens; the head and back streaked
          with white. L. 4.

          _Range._ Nests from central Missouri and northern
          Delaware to Saskatchewan and southern Maine;
          winters from southern Illinois and southern New
          Jersey to the Gulf.

          Washington, very rare T.V., two instances, May.
          Ossining, rare S.R., to Oct. 16. Cambridge,
          formerly locally common S.R., May 12-Sept. 25; now
          chiefly T.V. N. Ohio, rare, May 12, 14, 16 and 19.
          Glen Ellyn, fairly common S.R., May 8-Oct. 17. SE.
          Minn., common S.R., May 13-Sept. 19.

Although we have only six species of Wrens in the eastern United States,
they are so unlike in their choice of haunts that few localities which
will afford them the hiding places they all love are without one or more
of them. The House and Bewick's Wrens make their homes near ours; the
Carolina and Winter Wrens prefer the woods; the Long-billed Marsh Wren's
haunts have given him his name, and if we should call the present
species Meadow Wren, its home would be similarly indicated, for it lives
in wet, grassy places rather than among the cat-tails.

Ernest Seton describes its note as resembling the sound produced by
striking two pebbles together, while its song is a series of _chaps_,
running into _chap-r-r-rrr_. The globular nest is built on the ground,
and the 6-8 eggs, laid in May, are usually pure white.


LONG-BILLED MARSH WREN

_Telmatodytes palustris palustris. Case 8, Fig. 79_

          Darker and larger than the Short-billed Marsh
          Wren, with a blackish brown crown and white stripe
          over the eye. L. 5¼.

          _Range._ Nests from Virginia to Canada; winters
          from southern New Jersey to South Carolina.
          Worthington's Marsh Wren (_T. p. griseus_) is the
          form of the Atlantic coast from South Carolina to
          Florida. Marian's Marsh Wren (_T. p. marianæ_) is
          found on the more southern Atlantic coast and on
          the Gulf coast of Florida; while the Prairie Marsh
          Wren (_T. p. iliacus_) nests in the Mississippi
          Valley east to Indiana north to Canada, and
          winters along the Gulf coast. Where two races may
          be expected to occur together (for example, in the
          South, during the winter) field identification of
          the various races may be left to experts and the
          average observer must be content with plain "Marsh
          Wren."

          Washington, very numerous S.R., Apl. 15-Nov. 1.
          Ossining, common S.R., May 10-Oct. 28. Cambridge,
          locally abundant S.R., May 15-Oct. 1; sometimes a
          few winter. N. Ohio, common S.R., Apl. 21-Sept.
          20. Glen Ellyn, fairly common S.R., May 16-Oct.
          10. SE. Minn., common S.R., May 5-Sept. 9.

As well look for pond lilies on a rocky hillside as a Marsh Wren outside
a marsh. Give him cat-tails for cover and to support his bulky nest and
he is at home. His scolding notes betray his ancestry and his reeling,
rippling song, delivered both from a perch and on fluttering wings above
the reeds, suggests in form, at least, that of the House Wren. The 5-9
eggs, laid in early June are uniform chocolate or thickly marked with
brown.



CREEPERS. FAMILY CERTHIIDÆ


BROWN CREEPER

_Certhia familiaris americana. Case 2, Fig. 59_

          Tail-feathers with stiffened points, bill slender
          and slightly carved. L. 5¾.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England and south
          along the Alleghanies to North Carolina; winters
          south to Florida.

          Washington, common W.V., Sept. 22-May 1. Ossining,
          tolerably common W.V., Sept. 20-May 7. Cambridge,
          common T.V., rather common W.V.. Sept. 25-May 1;
          one summer record N. Ohio, common W.V., Oct. 1-May
          9. Glen Ellyn, tolerably common W.V., Sept. 15-May
          19. SE. Minn., common T.V., uncommon W.V., Sept.
          25-Mch. 30.

To see the Brown Creeper is to knew him but so inconspicuous is he that
unless you chance to observe him drop from one to tree near the foot of
another, you may overlook the little figure creeping spirally upward.
Nor are his thin, weak, squeaky call-notes more likely to attract
attention than he is himself. A true bird of the bark, he not only hunts
upon it but builds his nest behind it, laying 5-8 white, brown-spotted
eggs in May.



NUTHATCHES. FAMILY SITTIDÆ


WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH

_Sitta carolinensis carolinensis. Case 2, Figs. 38, 39; Case 4, Fig. 65_

          Crown black, cheeks white; breast white; the
          female with a gray crown. L. 6.

          _Range._ Nests from Gulf States to Canada; a
          Permanent Resident. The Florida White-breasted
          Nuthatch (_S. c. atkinsi_) a slightly smaller form
          in which the female as well as the male has the
          crown black, is the race inhabiting Florida, the
          Atlantic coast to South Carolina and the Gulf
          coast to Mississippi.

          Washington, common T.V. and W.V., less common S.R.
          Ossining, common P.R. Cambridge, P.R., rare in
          summer, uncommon in winter, common in migrations;
          most numerous in Oct. and Nov. N. Ohio, common
          P.R. Glen Ellyn, fairly common P.R. SE. Minn.,
          common P.R.

During the summer we will see comparatively little of this bird who,
with equal ease, climbs either down or up a tree trunk, but in the
winter he will be a constant patron of the nuts and suet on our lunch
counters. Habit, markings, his unmistakable _yank-yank_, all distinguish
him from our other birds, except his Canadian cousin to which, after
all, he bears only a family resemblance.

In April, 5-7 white, brown speckled eggs are laid in a hole in a tree,
lined with feathers, etc.


RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH

_Sitta canadensis. Case 2, Figs. 60, 61_

          Underparts brownish, a line through the eye, black
          in the male, slate in the female. Smaller than the
          White-breasted Nuthatch. L. 4¾.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England and
          northern Minnesota into Canada; south along the
          Alleghanies to North Carolina; winters from
          southern Canada to the Gulf States.

          Washington, irregularly abundant W.V., sometimes
          rare, Sept. 15-May 10. Ossining, irregular W.V.,
          Aug. 8-May 8. Cambridge, irregular T.V., and W.V.,
          Aug. 15-Nov. 25; Nov. 25-Apl. 15. N. Ohio,
          tolerably common W.V., Sept. 4-May 22. Glen Ellyn,
          irregular T.V., Apl. 24-May 21; Aug. 19-Dec. 12.
          SE. Minn., common T.V., uncommon W.V., Sept.
          24-Apl. 21.

Late in August when I hear a note such as one might imagine a baby
Nuthatch would utter, I know that the Red-breasted Nuthatch has arrived
from the north perhaps to spend the winter, or, may be, to go farther
south. He never seems quite as familiar as his larger, louder-voiced,
white-breasted cousin, and if one wants to make his acquaintance it is
well to follow the sound of his penny-trumpet-like notes until their
author is discovered.


BROWN-HEADED NUTHATCH

_Sitta pusilla. Case 4, Fig. 66_

          The head is browner than in the figure; the nape
          has a downy white patch. Smallest of our
          Nuthatches. L. 4½.

          _Range._ Nests from Florida to southern Delaware
          and southern Missouri; a Permanent Resident.

The Brown-headed Nuthatch is a bird of southern pine forests; one may
travel for miles without seeing a single individual and then discover a
company of a score or more. They pass most of their time among the upper
branches uttering a _pit-pit_ as they hunt for food, or all suddenly
joining in a metallic _tnee-tnee-tnee_, when they are apt to take flight
to the adjoining trees. The nest is in a hole in a tree or stump,
generally near the ground; 5-6 white, heavily marked eggs being laid in
March.



TITMICE. FAMILY PARIDÆ


TUFTED TITMOUSE

_Bæolophus bicolor. Case 4, Fig. 67_

          A large, gray Titmouse, with a conspicuous crest,
          black forehead, and reddish brown flanks. L. 6.

          _Range._ Nests from the Gulf States north to New
          Jersey and Nebraska. Resident, except at the
          northern limit of its range.

          Washington, very common P.R., more so in winter.
          N. Ohio, common P.R. Glen Ellyn, only two records,
          Apl. 4 and Nov. 19.

The loud _peto, peto, peto_ of the Tufted Tit can be confused only with
certain notes of the Carolina Wren, but while skilfull stalking is
required to see the Wren, one may walk up and inspect the Tit with
little or no caution. When he sees us he may change his call to a hoarse
_dee-dee-dee_ which at once betrays his relationship to the Chickadee.
The nest is made in a hole, and the 5-8 white, brown-marked eggs are
laid in April.


BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE

_Penthestes atricapillus atricapillus. Case 2, Fig. 37_

          Crown black, wing-coverts margined with whitish.
          L. 5¼.

          _Range._ Nests from central Missouri and northern
          New Jersey north into Canada, south, along the
          Alleghanies to North Carolina; winters south to
          Maryland.

          Washington, rare and irregular W.V., Oct. 19-Apl.
          19. Ossining, tolerably common P.R. Cambridge,
          common P.R., more numerous in fall and winter. N.
          Ohio, common P.R. Glen Ellyn, fairly common P.R.
          SE. Minn., common P.R.

While the Chickadee is with us throughout the year, it is during the
winter that he takes first place in our affections. Active, cheerful,
friendly, he is an ever welcome visitor to our lunch-counters, and often
shows complete and winning confidence in us by perching on our hands.
His clearly enunciated _chick-a-dee_, with its variations, we accept as
his characteristic language, but the sentiment expressed in his two- or
three-noted whistle seems to belong to the Pewee rather than the
sprightly Black-cap. It is, in fact, often falsely attributed to that
bird, even when our books tell us that the Pewee is wintering in the
tropics!

The Chickadee nests in holes, usually within ten feet of the ground,
laying 5-9 white, brown-speckled eggs in the first half of May.


CAROLINA CHICKADEE

_Penthestes carolinensis carolinensis. Case 4, Fig. 68_

          Smaller than the Black-cap; without white margins
          on the wing-coverts. L. 4½.

          _Range._ Southeastern United States, north to
          northern New Jersey and central Missouri. The
          south Florida form (_P. c. impiger_) is slightly
          smaller and darker.

          Washington, very common P.R., particularly in
          winter.

Whether because of a different temperament or because milder winters
make him less dependent on man's bounty, the Carolina Chickadee does not
show that unquestioning confidence in our good faith which makes the
Black-cap so dear to us.

The _chick-a-dee_ note is less clearly and more hurriedly given by the
Carolina, and the _pe-wee_ whistle is not so loud and usually consists
of four notes instead of two. The nesting habits and eggs of the two
species are alike, but the southern bird begins to lay in March.


BROWN-CAPPED CHICKADEE

_Penthestes hudsonicus_

          Similar to the Black-cap but crown dark brown;
          back brownish ashy.

          _Range._ Northern New England and Canada; rarely
          further south in winter. Represented by three
          races: the Acadian Brown-capped Chickadee (_P. h.
          littoralis_) of northern New England, New
          Brunswick. Nova Scotia and Newfoundland; the
          Labrador Brown-capped Chickadee (_P. h.
          nigricans_) of Labrador, and the Hudsonian
          Brown-capped Chickadee (_P. h. hudsonicus_) of the
          region west of Hudson Bay.

Until recent years the Brown-capped Chickadee was rarely seen far south
of its breeding range, but during several winters it has invaded New
England in considerable numbers and has been found in the lower Hudson
Valley, Long Island, Staten Island and northern New Jersey. At close
range an experienced observer may know it by its dark brown head, while
Brewster states that its "nasal, drawling, _tchick, chee-day-day_" at
once distinguishes it from the Black-cap. All three races have been
reported in these winter migrations and only expert examination of
specimens can determine whether the little wanderer is from Labrador,
New Brunswick, or the country west of Hudson Bay.



OLD-WORLD WARBLERS, KINGLETS AND GNATCATCHERS. FAMILY SYLVIIDÆ


GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET

_Regulus satrapa satrapa. Case 2, Figs. 62, 63; Case 4, Figs. 72, 73_

          Very small, olive-green birds with a flame and
          yellow crown-patch in the male and a yellow
          crown-patch in the female. L. 4.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New England northward
          and, in the Alleghanies, south to North Carolina.

          Washington, abundant W.V., Sept. 30-Apl. 27.
          Ossining, common W.V., Sept. 20-Apl. 28.
          Cambridge, very common T.V., not uncommon W.V.,
          Sept. 25-Apl. 20. N. Ohio, common W.V., Sept.
          26-May 4. Glen Ellyn, common T.V., irregular W.V.,
          Sept. 19-May 8. SE. Minn., common T.V., Mch. 30-;
          Sept. 21-Dec. 1.

It is surprising, in the depth of winter, when in great coat and muffler
we keep warm only by vigorous exercise, to see these dainty, feathered
mites, unconcerned by the temperature, flitting here and there in their
search for insects' eggs and larvæ. They have small fear of man and we
may readily approach near enough to hear their thin _ti-ti_ or see their
golden-crown. In proportion to its size, this diminutive species lays a
larger number of eggs than any other of our birds, as many as 9 or 10
white, brown-marked eggs being laid in their pensile, mossy nest in the
latter part of May.


RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET

_Regulus calendula calendula. Case 4. Figs. 70, 71; Case 5. Figs. 36,
37_

          A white eye-ring; two whitish wing-bars, no white
          in the tail; adult male with a ruby crown-patch;
          absent in females and young. L. 4½.

          _Range._ Nests chiefly north of the United States;
          winters from Virginia and Iowa southward.

          Washington, abundant T.V., Apl. 12-May 15; Sept.
          25-Nov. 1; occasionally winters. Ossining, common
          T.V., Apl. 8-May 13; Sept. 16-Nov. 3. Cambridge,
          rather common T.V., Apl. 12-May 5; Oct. 10-30. N.
          Ohio, common T.V., Apl, 1-May 23; Sept. 9-Nov. 3.
          Glen Ellyn, fairly common T.V., Mch. 22-May 19;
          Sept. 9-Oct. 27. SE. Minn., Mch. 12-; Sept.
          18-Oct. 24.

A tiny, olive-green bird, with a large white eye-ring, fluttering
actively among the yellowing leaves, uttering from time to time a
wren-like _cack_ as he twitches his wings and showing little or no fear
of man can be only the Ruby-crown, southward bound. He returns before
the trees are clad, as the author of a song as marvelous in volume as it
is musical in tone; a whistled song of rare sweetness.


BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER

_Polioptila cærulea cærulea. Case 4. Fig. 69_

          A slender, gray mite with a comparatively long
          tail of which the central feathers are black, the
          outer ones white. L. 4½.

          _Range._ Nests from the Gulf States to southern
          Wisconsin and southern New Jersey; winters from
          the Gulf States southward.

          Washington, rather common S.R., Mch. 30-Nov. 23.
          N. Ohio, common S.R., Apl. 20-Sept. 15. Glen
          Ellyn, not common S.R., Apl. 22-Aug. 20; possibly
          later. SE. Minn., rare S.R.

In color, form, proportions and voice, the Gnatcatcher may properly be
called 'dainty.' His slightly explosive call-note _tin-ng_, is louder
than his exquisitely finished, varied, miniature song. The nest is
almost as fine in workmanship as a Hummer's. The 4-5 white, thickly
speckled eggs, are laid in April and early May.



THRUSHES, BLUEBIRDS, ETC. FAMILY TURDIDÆ


WOOD THRUSH

_Hylocichla mustelina. Case 6, Fig. 74_

          Head brighter than tail; underparts _white_,
          heavily spotted with large, round black dots.
          Largest of our Thrushes. L. 8¼.

          _Range._ Nests from Florida and Texas north to
          central Minnesota and southern New Hampshire;
          winters in the tropics.

          Washington, common S.R., Apl. 10-Oct. 10.
          Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 30-Oct. 2. Cambridge,
          locally common S.R., May 10-Sept. 15. N. Ohio,
          common S.R., Apl. 20-Oct. 1. Glen Ellyn, fairly
          common S.R., Apl. 30-Sept. 29 SE. Minn., common
          S.R., May 1-Sept. 19.

Most familiar of our Thrushes. From late April to early August his
bell-like notes are heard, not only in the forest, but in wood-bordered
village streets and from the shade trees of our lawns. His sharp,
pebbly, _pit-pit_, is prominent in the chorus of protesting notes which
greet the Screech Owl should he leave his retreat before diurnal birds
have gone to bed.

The nest is usually built in small trees about 8 feet from the ground.
The 3-5 greenish blue eggs are laid in May. There is a second brood in
June.


VEERY

_Hylocichla fuscescens fuscescens. Case 6, Fig. 73_

          Upperparts, including tail, uniform
          cinnamon-brown, breast buff with indistinct
          brownish spots; sides white. L. 7½.

          _Range._ Nests from northern New Jersey and
          northern Illinois into Canada and south in the
          Alleghanies to Georgia; winters in the tropics. A
          closely related western form, the Willow Thrush
          (_H. f. salicicola_) nests in Minnesota and
          westward, and migrates through the Mississippi
          Valley. To the field naturalist it is essentially
          the Veery.

          Washington, common T.V., Apl. 26-June 2. Aug.
          18-Sept. 25. Ossining, common S.R., Apl. 29-Sept.
          5. Cambridge, locally abundant S.R., May 8-Sept.
          5. N. Ohio, common S.R., Apl. 20-Oct. 1. Glen
          Ellyn, tolerably common T.V., Apl. 24-May 29; Aug.
          26-Sept. 3; SE. Minn., common S.R. May 5.

Low, wet woods with considerable undergrowth, where skunk cabbage and
hellebore flourish are the home of the Veery. Here he winds his
mysterious double-toned spiral song, and here, on the ground, hidden
beneath the rank vegetation, he builds his nest. The eggs, laid late in
May, resemble those of the Wood Thrush. The Veery's common call is a
clearly whistled _wheé-you_, quite unlike the _quirt_ or _pit-pit_ of
the Wood Thrush. Except in mountainous regions and some local
'stations,' the Wood Thrush and Veery are the only Thrushes which nest
in the eastern United States south of Massachusetts.


GRAY-CHEEKED THRUSH

_Hylocichla aliciæ aliciæ. Case 8, Fig. 82_

          Upperparts uniform olive; eye-ring whitish, not
          buffy as in the Olive-backed Thrush (Case 8, Fig.
          81); sides of throat and breast less buffy than in
          the Olive-back. L. 7½.

          _Range._ Nests north of the United States.
          Bicknell's Thrush (_H. a. bicknelli_) a slightly
          smaller, southern form, nests in the higher parts
          of the Catskills, the mountains of northern New
          York and northern New England, and northward and
          eastward into Canada; both visit us in migration
          and both winter in the tropics.

          Washington, rather common T.V., May 8-31; Sept.
          15-Oct. 20. Ossining, tolerably common T.V., May
          15-June 1; Sept. 20-Oct. 17. Cambridge, uncommon
          T.V., May 18-28; Sept. 15-Oct. 9. N. Ohio, not
          common T.V., Apl. 29-May 23. Glen Ellyn, common
          T.V., May 7-June 4; Aug. 26-Oct. 9. SE. Minn.,
          common T.V., May 7-; Sept. 8.

The Gray-cheeked and Bicknell's Thrushes are merely the larger northern
and smaller southern forms, respectively, of the same species. They are
known in the United States chiefly as migrants and can be distinguished
with certainty in life only by an expert under favorable conditions. The
larger form is the commoner. The species may be known from the Veery and
Wood Thrush by its olive, instead of cinnamon-brown back, and from the
Olive-backed Thrush by its whitish eye-ring and paler breast.

Brewster describes the song of the southern form (Bicknell's Thrush) as
exceedingly like that of the Veery but more interrupted, while the
ordinary call-note is practically identical with the _pheu_ of the
Veery. The nest is placed in low trees or bushes. The eggs are greenish
blue spotted with brown.


OLIVE-BACKED THRUSH

_Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni. Case 8, Fig. 81_

          Upperparts uniform olive; eye-ring buff; breast
          and sides of the throat deeper than in the
          Gray-cheeked Thrush. L. 7¼.

          _Range._ Nests from northern Michigan and northern
          New England northward into Canada and southward in
          the mountains to West Virginia; winters in the
          tropics.

          Washington, common T.V., Apl. 19-June 2; Sept.
          2-Nov. 1. Ossining, tolerably common T.V., May
          2-30; Sept. 19-Oct. 22. Cambridge, common T.V.,
          May 13-28; Sept. 15-Oct. 5. N. Ohio, common T.V.,
          Apl. 22-June 13; Sept. 2-Oct. 24. Glen Ellyn,
          common T.V., Apl. 23-June 6; Aug. 16-Oct. 24. SE.
          Minn., common T.V., May 1-; Sept. 25-.

We know this Thrush chiefly as a migrant when, in the latter part of
May, and again in September and October, it passes us _en route_ to and
from its northern home. At these seasons we may even hear its whistled
_puit_ from the sky as it journeys through the night. "Its song," Dwight
says, "lacks the leisurely sweetness of the Hermit Thrush's outpourings,
nor is there pause, but in lower key and with greater energy it bubbles
on rapidly to a close rather than fading out with the soft melody of its
renowned rival."

The Olive-back nests in bushes or low trees, and lays 3-4 greenish blue
brown-spotted eggs in June.


HERMIT THRUSH

_Hylocichla guttata pallasi. Case 4, Fig. 77; Case 5, Fig. 26_

          Back midway in color between Figs. 77 and 26; the
          tail noticeably brighter, more rusty. L. 7¼.

          _Range._ Nests from Long Island (locally), the
          higher parts of Connecticut, and central Minnesota
          northward to Canada, and southward in the
          mountains to Maryland; winters from New Jersey and
          Ohio Valley to the Gulf States and Cuba.

          Washington, very common T.V., sometimes not
          uncommon W.V., Apl. 6-May 17; Sept. 18-Nov. 12.
          Ossining, common T.V.. Apl. 5-May 9; Oct. 18-Nov.
          26. Cambridge, very common T.V., Apl. 15-May 5;
          Oct. 5-Nov. 15; occasionally one or two may
          winter; one summer record. N. Ohio, common T.V.,
          Mch. 21-May 10; Oct. 2-28. Glen Ellyn, common
          T.V., Mch. 18-May 11; Sept. 14-Nov. 1. SE. Minn.,
          common T.V. Apl. 1-; Sept. 13-Oct. 26.

The Hermit is the only one of the Thrushes to winter in the eastern
United States and it is, therefore, the first one to reach us in the
spring. It comes early in April and takes about a month to complete its
migration. It rarely sings at this season and then only an echo of the
heavenly music which has won for it first place among American
songsters.

We may know the Hermit Thrush by the season in which he visits us, by
his reddish brown tail, which he slowly raises and lowers after
alighting, and by the low _chuck_ note with which he usually
accomplishes this movement.

The Hermit nests on the ground, laying, in the latter part of May, 3-4
greenish-blue eggs, slightly lighter in tint than those of the Wood
Thrush.


ROBIN

_Planesticus migratorius migratorius. Case 4, Fig. 80; Case 5, Fig. 12_

          In spring and summer the head is blacker, the
          breast brighter, the bill more yellow than in fall
          and winter. L. 10.

          _Range._ Nests from Virginia (in the mountains,
          northern Georgia) and northern Mississippi to
          Labrador and Alaska; winters from New Jersey and
          Ohio Valley to the Gulf. Birds from the lowlands,
          from Maryland southward, are somewhat smaller and
          paler and are known as the Southern Robin (_P. m.
          achrusterus_).

          Washington, rather common S.R., abundant T.V.,
          from Feb-Apl.; irregularly common W.V. Ossining,
          common S.R., Mch. 4-Oct. 30; a few winter.
          Cambridge, very abundant S.R., common but
          irregular W.V. N. Ohio, abundant S.R., Feb.
          26-Nov. 30; a few winter. Glen Ellyn, very common
          S.R., rare W.V., Jan. 25-Nov. 19. SE. Minn.,
          common S.R., rare W.V., Mch. 8-Nov. 11.

The Robin is the best-known and probably most abundant of our native
birds. Civilization agrees with him. Man has destroyed many of his
enemies and has provided him with a bountiful supply of fruits and a
vast area of lawns where worms are at his mercy. Sociable and trustful
he has taken up his abode with us and become as much a part of our
outdoor life as the flowers in our gardens and trees in our lawns. His
varied calls have an intimate association with the hour and season and
spring itself speaks through his cheerful song.

Robins show their confidence in us by building their nests in situations
where few birds would venture to rear a family, and from mid-April to
July they are occupied with household cares.


BLUEBIRD

_Sialis sialis sialis. Case 4, Fig. 78; Case 5, Fig. 13_

          The Bluebird's red, white and blue mark him as a
          truly American bird. L. 7.

          _Range._ Nests from the Gulf States to Florida;
          winters from Connecticut and northern Ohio
          southward.

          Washington, common S.R., and W.V. Ossining, common
          P.R. Cambridge, common S.R., Mch. 6-Nov. 1; more
          numerous during migrations, in Mch. and Nov. N.
          Ohio, common S.R., Feb. 17-Nov. 18; a few winter.
          Glen Ellyn, fairly common S.R., Feb. 19-Nov. 18.
          SE. Minn., common S.R., Mch. 16-Oct. 31.

Not many years ago the Bluebird was as familiar as he was welcome about
our homes; but too gentle to battle effectively with English Sparrows
and Starlings for the possession of bird houses, he has sought such
nesting sites in the orchard as the 'tree surgeons' have left. If we
would not lose this bird, "beloved of children, bards and spring," who
wears our national colors so modestly, we must supply him with a home in
which he may rear his family in peace. It may be placed not only in our
garden, but also in the orchard where it is less likely to be occupied
by Sparrows or Starlings. It should be erected not later than March 15,
for the Bluebird's bluish white eggs are laid in the first half of
April.



INDEX


    Blackbird, Bahama Red-wing, 50
      Cow. _See_ Cowbird
      Crow. _See_ Grackles, Purple and Bronzed
      Florida Red-wing, 50; Case 4, Figs. 28, 29
      Red-winged, 49, Case 5, Figs. 5, 6
      Rusty, 52; Case 5, Figs. 3, 4
      Yellow-headed, 49; Case 6, Fig. 45

    Black-cap, Wilson's. _See_ Warbler, Wilson's

    Bluebird, 134; Case 4, Fig. 78; Case 5, Fig. 13

    Bobolink, 48;
      Case 7, Figs. 13, 14

    Bob-white, 1; Case 1, Figs. 1, 2
      Florida, 2; Case 3, Figs. 1, 2

    Bull-bat. _See_ Nighthawk

    Bunting, Bay-winged. _See_ Sparrow, Vesper
      Black-throated. _See_ Dickcissel
      Indigo, 79; Case 7, Figs. 23, 24
      Painted, 79; Case 6, Figs. 49, 50
      Snow, 61; Case 2, Fig. 57

    Butcher-bird. _See_ Shrike, Northern

    Buzzard, Turkey, 6; Case 3. Fig. 9


    Canary, Wild. _See_ Goldfinch

    Caracara, Audubon's, 18

    Cardinal, 77; Case 4, Figs. 34, 35
      Florida, 78
      Kentucky. _See_ Cardinal

    Catbird, 117; Case 4, Fig. 81; Case 6, Fig. 71

    Cedar-bird. _See_ Waxwing, Cedar

    Chat, Yellow-breasted, 113; Case 8, Fig. 49

    Chebec. _See_ Flycatcher, Least

    Cherry-bird. _See_ Waxwing, Cedar

    Chewink. _See_ Towhee

    Chickadee, Acadian, 127
      Black-capped, 125; Case 2, Fig. 37
      Brown-capped, 127
      Carolina, 126; Case 4, Fig. 68
      Florida, 126
      Hudsonian, 127
      Labrador, 127

    Chicken, Prairie, 3

    Chippy. _See_ Sparrow, Chipping
      Winter. _See_ Sparrow, Tree

    Chuck-will's-widow, 33; Case 6, Fig. 40

    Clape. _See_ Flicker

    Cowbird, 48; Case 5, Figs. 8, 9

    Creeper, Black and White. _See_ Warbler, Black and White
      Brown, 122; Case 2, Fig. 59

    Crossbill, American, 58; Case 2, Figs. 49, 50
      White-winged, 58; Case 2, Figs. 51, 52

    Crow, 46; Case 1, Fig. 19; Case 3, Fig. 27
      Carrion. _See_ Vulture, Black
      Fish, 46
      Florida, 46

    Cuckoo, Black-billed, 25; Case 7, Fig. 2
      Yellow-billed, 25; Case 7, Fig. 1


    Darter, Little Blue. _See_ Hawk, Sharp-Shinned
      Big Blue. _See_ Hawk, Cooper's

    Dickcissel, 80; Case 7, Fig. 20

    Dove, Carolina. _See_ Dove, Mourning
      Ground, 5; Case 3, Fig. 4
      Mourning, 5; Case 3, Fig. 3; Case 5, Fig. 11
      Turtle. _See_ Dove, Mourning


    Eagle, Bald, 14; Case 3, Fig. 11
      Golden, 14


    Falcon, Peregrine, 16

    Finch, Grass. _See_ Sparrow, Vesper
      Lark. _See_ Sparrow, Lark
      Pine. _See_ Siskin, Pine
      Purple, 57; Case 2, Figs 32, 33; Case 4, Figs. 48, 49

    Firebird. _See_ Oriole, Baltimore

    Flicker, Northern, 32; Case 2, Figs. 21, 22; Case 3, Fig. 20
      Southern, 32

    Flycatcher, Acadian, 41; Case 8, Fig. 60
      Alder, 41; Case 8, Fig. 62
      Crested, 38; Case 7, Fig. 5
      Least, 42; Case 6, Fig. 44
      Olive-sided, 39; Case 8, Fig. 59
      Traill's, 42
      Yellow-bellied, 40; Case 8, Fig. 61


    Gnatcatcher, Blue-gray, 129; Case 4, Fig. 69

    Goldfinch, 60; Case 2, Figs. 35, 36; Case 4. Figs. 50, 51

    Goshawk, 11

    Grackle, Boat-tailed, 54
      Bronzed, 53; Case 5, Fig. 2
      Florida, 53; Case 4, Fig. 74
      Purple, 53; Case 5, Fig. 1

    Grosbeak, Blue, 78; Case 6, Figs. 52, 53
      Cardinal. _See_ Cardinal Evening, 55
      Pine, 56; Case 2, Figs. 53, 54
      Rose-breasted, 78; Case 7, Figs. 25, 26

    Grouse, Canada. _See_ Partridge, Spruce
      Canada, Ruffed, 3
      Pinnated. _See_ Chicken, Prairie
      Ruffed, 2; Case 1, Fig. 3
      Spruce. _See_ Partridge, Canada Spruce

    Gyrfalcon, 15
      Black, 15
      Gray, 15
      White, 15


    Hair-bird. _See_ Sparrow, Chipping

    Hang-nest. _See_ Oriole, Baltimore

    Harrier. _See_ Hawk, Marsh

    Hawk, Broad-winged, 13
      Chicken. _See_ Hawks, Red-shouldered and Red-tailed
      Cooper's, 10; Case 1, Figs. 9, 10
      Duck, 16
      Fish, 18; Case 3, Fig. 14
      Florida Red-shouldered, 13
      Florida Sparrow, 17
      Harlan's, 11
      Hen. _See_ Hawks, Red-shouldered and Red-tailed
      Killy. _See_ Hawk, Sparrow
      Krider's, 11
      Marsh, 9; Case 3, Fig. 15
      Pigeon, 16
      Red-shouldered, 12; Case 1, Fig. 4; Case 3, Fig. 12
      Red-tailed, 11; Case 1, Figs. 5, 6; Case 3, Fig. 13
      Rough-legged, 14
      Sharp-shinned, 9; Case 1, Figs. 11, 12; Case 3, Figs. 7, 8
      Sparrow, 17; Case 1, Figs. 7, 8; Case 3, Figs. 5, 6

    Hen, Heath, 4
      Mud. _See_ Rail, Clapper and Coot, American
      Prairie. _See_ Chicken, Prairie

    High-hole. _See_ Flicker

    Hummingbird, Ruby-throated, 36; Case 7, Figs. 3, 4


    Indigo-bird. _See_ Bunting, Indigo


    Jackdaw. _See_ Grackle, Boat-tailed

    Jay, Blue, 44; Case 2, Fig. 20
      Canada, 45
      Florida, 44
      Florida Blue, 44; Case 4, Fig. 75
      Scrub, 44

    Joree. _See_ Towhee

    Junco, Carolina, 73
      Slate-colored, 73; Case 2, Fig. 43; Case 4, Fig. 41


    Kingbird, 37; Case 7, Fig. 6 Gray, 37; Case 7, Fig. 7

    Kingfisher, Belted, 26; Case 3, Fig. 18; Case 5, Fig. 10

    Kinglet, Golden-crowned, 127; Case 2, Figs. 62, 63; Case 4, Figs. 72, 73
      Ruby-crowned, 128; Case 4, Figs. 70, 71; Case 5, Figs. 36, 37

    Kite, Everglade, 8
      Mississippi, 8
      Swallow-tailed, 7
      White-tailed, 8


    Lark, Field. _See_ Meadowlark Horned, 43
      Prairie. _See_ Meadowlark
      Prairie Horned, 43; Case 2, Fig. 42
      Shore. _See_ Lark, Horned

    Longspur, Lapland, 62


    Martin, Bee. _See_ Kingbird
      Purple, 82; Case 5, Fig. 25

    Meadowlark, 50; Case 2, Fig. 50
      Southern, 50; Case 4, Fig. 79
      Western, 51

    Merlin,

    Mockingbird, 117; Case 4, Fig. 76

    Moose-bird. _See_ Jay, Canada


    Nighthawk, 34; Case 6, Fig. 39
      Florida, 34

    Nonpareil, _See_ Bunting, Painted

    Nuthatch, Brown-headed, 124; Case 4, Fig. 66
      Florida White-breasted, 123
      Red-breasted, 124; Case 2, Figs. 60, 61
      White-breasted, 123; Case 2, Figs. 38, 39; Case 4, Fig. 65


    Oriole, Baltimore, 52; Case 7, Figs. 8, 9
      Orchard, 51; Case 7, Figs. 10-12

    Osprey, 18; Case 3, Fig. 14

    Oven-bird, 109; Case 6, Fig. 64

    Owl, Acadian. _See_ Owl, Saw-whet
      Barn, 19; Case 3, Fig. 17
      Barred, 20; Case 1, Fig. 15
      Cat. _See_ Owl, Screech
      Florida Barred, 20; Case 3, Fig. 16
      Florida Burrowing, 24
      Florida Screech, 22; Case 3, Fig. 19
      Great Gray, 21
      Great Horned, 22; Case 1, Fig. 16
      Hawk, 23
      Hoot. _See_ Owl, Barred
      Long-eared, 19; Case 1, Fig. 17
      Marsh, 20
      Monkey-faced. _See_ Owl, Barn
      Mottled. _See_ Owl, Screech
      Richardson's, 21
      Saw-whet, 21; Case 2, Fig. 41
      Screech, 22; Case 1, Figs. 13, 14
      Short-eared, 20; Case 1, Fig. 18
      Snowy, 23


    Paroquet, Carolina, 24

    Partridge. _See_ Grouse, Ruffed, and Bob-white
      Canada Spruce, 2

    Peregrine. _See_ Hawk, Duck

    Peewee, Wood, 40; Case 8, Fig. 63

    Pheasant. _See_ Grouse, Ruffed

    Phœbe, 38; Case 4, Fig. 52; Case 5, Fig. 15

    Pigeon, Passenger, 5 Wild, 5

    Pipit, American, 116; Case 4, Fig. 62; Case 5, Fig. 17
      Sprague's, 117


    Quail. _See_ Bob-white


    Raven, 45

    Red-bird. _See_ Cardinal

    Redpoll, 59; Case 2, Figs. 47, 48
      Greater, 59
      Hoary, 59
      Holbœll's, 59
      Mealy. _See_ Redpoll, Hoary

    Redstart, 115; Case 8, Figs. 57, 58

    Reedbird. _See_ Bobolink

    Ricebird. _See_ Bobolink

    Robin, 133; Case 4, Fig. 80; Case 5, Fig. 12
      Southern, 133


    Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied, 30; Case 3, Fig. 26; Case 5, Fig. 30

    Shrike, Loggerhead, 87; Case 4, Fig. 55
      Migrant, 87
      Northern, 86; Case 2, Fig. 56

    Siskin, Pine, 60; Case 2, Fig. 55

    Snail-hawk. _See_ Kite, Everglade

    Snowbird. _See_ Junco, Slate-colored

    Snow Bunting, 61; Case 2, Fig. 57

    Snowflake. _See_ Snow Bunting

    Sparrow, Acadian Sharp-tailed, 67
      Alabama Seaside, 68
      Bachman's, 73
      Bush. _See_ Sparrow, Field
      Cape Sable, 68
      Chipping, 71; Case 4, Fig. 45; Case 5. Fig. 31
      Clay-colored, 72; Case 6, Fig. 48
      Dusky Seaside, 68
      English, 57; Case 2, Figs. 30, 31; Case 4, Figs. 38, 39
      Field, 72; Case 4, Fig. 43; Case 5, Fig. 14
      Florida Grasshopper, 64
      Fox, 76; Case 4, Fig. 37; Case 5, Fig. 7
      Grasshopper, 64; Case 7, Fig. 16
      Harris's, 69; Case 7, Fig. 21
      Henslow's, 65; Case 7, Fig. 17
      House, 57; Case 2, Figs. 30, 31; Case 4, Figs. 38, 39
      Ipswich, 63
      Lark, 68; Case 7, Fig. 19
      Leconte's, 65; Case 7, Fig. 18
      Lincoln's, 75; Case 7, Fig. 15
      Louisiana Seaside, 68
      Macgillivray's Seaside, 68
      Nelson's, 66
      Northwest Florida, 68
      Pine-woods, 74
      Savannah, 64; Case 4, Fig. 47; Case 5, Fig. 23
      Scott's Seaside, 68
      Seaside, 67; Case 6, Fig. 46
      Sharp-tailed, 66; Case 6, Fig. 47
      Song, 74; Case 2, Fig. 34, Case 4, Fig. 42
      Swamp, 75; Case 4, Fig. 44; Case 5, Fig. 22
      Tree, 71; Case 2, Fig. 44; Case 4, Fig. 46
      Vesper, 63; Case 4, Fig. 36; Case 5, Fig. 16
      White-crowned, 69; Case 7, Fig. 22
      White-throated, 70; Case 2, Figs. 45, 46; Case 4, Fig. 40
      Yellow-winged. _See_ Sparrow, Grasshopper

    Starling, 47; Case 2, Figs. 24, 25

    Swallow, Bahama Bank, 84; Case 6, Fig. 54
      Barn, 83; Case 5, Fig. 32
      Chimney. _See_ Swift, Chimney
      Cliff, 82; Case 6, Fig. 55
      Eaves. _See_ Swallow, Cliff
      Rough-winged, 84; Case 6, Fig. 56
      Tree, 83; Case 5, Fig. 24
      White-bellied. _See_ Swallow, Tree

    Swift, Chimney, 35; Case 6, Fig. 42


    Tanager, Scarlet, 80; Case 7, Figs. 27, 28
      Summer, 81; Case 5, Figs. 33, 34

    Thistle-bird. _See_ Goldfinch

    Thrasher, Brown, 118; Case 4, Fig. 82; Case 6, Fig. 72

    Thrush, Alice's. _See_ Thrush, Gray-cheeked
      Bicknell's, 131
      Brown. _See_ Thrasher, Brown
      Golden-crowned. _See_ Oven-bird
      Gray-cheeked, 130; Case 8, Fig. 82
      Hermit, 132; Case 4, Fig. 77; Case 5, Fig. 26
      Olive-backed, 131; Case 8, Fig. 81
      Swainson's. _See_ Thrush, Olive-backed
      Tawny. _See_ Veery
      Willow, 130
      Wood, 129; Case 6, Fig. 74

    Titlark. _See_ Pipit, American

    Titmouse, Tufted, 125; Case 4, Fig. 67

    Towhee, 76; Case 4, Figs. 32, 33; Case 5, Fig. 51
      White-eyed, 77

    Turkey, Florida, 4
      Wild, 4


    Veery, 130; Case 6, Fig. 73

    Vireo, Bell's, 92; Case 6; Fig. 65
      Black-whiskered, 88
      Blue-headed, 90; Case 6, Fig. 68
      Key West, 91
      Mountain Solitary, 91
      Philadelphia, 89; Case 7, Fig. 30
      Red-eyed, 88; Case 6, Fig. 66
      Solitary. _See_ Vireo, Blue-headed
      Warbling, 89; Case 7, Fig. 29
      White-eyed, 91; Case 6, Fig. 67
      Yellow-throated, 90; Case 6, Fig. 69

    Vulture, Black, 7; Case 3, Fig. 10
      Turkey, 6; Case 3, Fig. 9


    Warbler, Bachman's, 94; Case 5, Figs. 20, 21
      Bay-breasted, 103; Case 8, Figs. 69, 70
      Black and White, 92; Case 6, Fig. 57
      Black and Yellow. _See_ Warbler, Magnolia
      Blackburnian, 104; Case 8, Figs. 67, 68
      Black-throated Blue, 99; Case 6, Figs. 58, 59
      Black-throated Green, 106; Case 6, Fig. 62
      Blackpoll, 103; Case 8, Figs. 71, 72
      Blue-winged, 94; Case 7, Fig. 35
      Brewster's, 95; Case 7, Fig. 38
      Cairns's, 100
      Canadian, 115; Case 8, Fig. 53
      Cape May, 98; Case 8, Figs. 65, 66
      Cerulean, 102; Case 8, Figs. 46, 47
      Chestnut-sided, 102; Case 8, Figs. 43, 44
      Connecticut, 111; Case 8, Figs. 77, 78
      Golden-winged, 95; Case 7, Figs. 34, 36
      Hooded, 114; Case 8, Figs. 54, 55
      Kentucky, 111; Case 8, Fig. 52
      Kirtland's, 106; Case 8, Fig. 45
      Lawrence's, 95; Case 7, Fig. 37
      Magnolia, 101; Case 8, Fig. 42
      Mourning, 112; Case 8, Figs. 75, 76
      Myrtle, 100; Case 5, Fig. 27
      Nashville, 96; Case 7, Fig. 33
      Northern Parula, 97; Case 7, Fig. 39
      Orange-crowned, 96; Case 7, Fig. 32
      Palm, 108; Case 6, Fig. 61
      Parula, 97, 98
      Pine, 107; Case 4; Fig. 57; Case 6, Fig. 60
      Prairie, 108; Case 8, Fig. 48
      Prothonotary, 93; Case 5, Fig. 29
      Redpoll. _See_ Warblers, Palm and Yellow Palm
      Summer. _See_ Warbler, Yellow
      Swainson's, 93; Case 5, Fig. 28
      Sycamore, 105; Case 5, Fig. 19
      Tennessee, 97; Case 8, Fig. 64
      Wilson's, 114; Case 8, Figs. 73, 74
      Worm-eating, 93; Case 7, Fig. 31
      Yellow, 99; Case 8, Figs. 40, 41
      Yellow Palm, 108; Case 6, Fig. 61
      Yellow-rumped. _See_ Warbler, Myrtle
      Yellow-throated, 105; Case 5, Fig. 18

    Water-Thrush, Grinnell's, 110
      Louisiana, 110; Case 5, Fig. 5
      Northern, 110; Case 8, Fig. 56

    Waxwing, Bohemian, 85
      Cedar, 85; Case 2, Fig. 40; Case 4, Fig. 54

    Whip-poor-will, 34; Case 6, Fig. 41

    Whiskey-Jack. _See_ Jay, Canada

    Woodpecker, American Three-toed, 30
      Arctic Three-toed, 29
      Downy, 28; Case 2, Figs. 26, 27
      Golden-winged. _See_ Flicker
      Hairy, 28; Case 2, Figs. 28, 29
      Ivory-billed, 27
      Ladder-backed. _See_ Woodpecker, American Three-toed
      Northern Hairy, 28
      Northern Pileated, 31
      Pileated, 31
      Red-bellied, 32; Case 3, Fig. 23
      Red-cockaded, 29
      Red-headed, 31; Case 3, Figs. 21, 22; Case 6, Fig. 43
      Southern Downy, 28
      Southern Hairy, 28
      Three-toed, 30
      Yellow-bellied. _See_ Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied

    Wren, Bewick's, 119
      Carolina, 119; Case 4, Fig. 64
      Florida, 119
      House, 120; Case 4, Fig. 63; Case 6, Fig. 70
      Long-billed Marsh, 122; Case 8, Fig. 79
      Marian's Marsh, 122
      Prairie Marsh, 122
      Short-billed Marsh, 121; Case 8, Fig. 80
      Winter, 120; Case 2, Fig. 58
      Worthington's Marsh, 122


    Yellow-bird. _See_ Goldfinch
      Summer. _See_ Warbler, Yellow
      Yellow-hammer. _See_ Flicker

    Yellow-throat, Florida, 113
      Maryland, 113; Case 8, Figs. 50, 51


This book is made in full compliance with Government Directive L 120
limiting the bulk of paper.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired.

Page vii, "give" changed to "gives" (thus gives us)

Page 4, "an" changed to "and" (Turkey and like that)

Page 8, "redish" changed to "reddish" (black, reddish brown and buff)

Page 32, "of" changed to "or" (April or early May)

Page 42, "Adler" changed to "Alder" (like the Alder Flycatcher)

Page 52, "is" changed to "it" (it more difficult to)

Page 56, "irreguarly" changed to "irregularly" (irregularly to Indiana
and)

Page 59, "rostreta" changed to "rostrata" (A. l. rostrata)

Page 70, "th" changed to "the" (sing with the power)

Page 76, "5" changed to "6" under Towhee (Case 6. Fig. 51)

Page 89, under PHILADELPHIA VERIO, the length is left blank.

Page 125, "Tenessee" changed to "Tennessee" (the mountains to Tennessee)

Page 138, Index, there is no reference for Merlin as there is no mention
of Merlin anywhere in the book except in the index.

Page 139, "Holboell's" changed to "Holbœll's" to match usage in text
(Holbœll's, 59)





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "What Bird is That? - A Pocket Museum of the Land Birds of the Eastern United - States Arranged According to Season" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home