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´╗┐Title: The Copeland Method - A Complete Manual for Cleaning, Repairing, Altering and Pressing All Kinds of Garments for Men and Women, at Home or for Busines
Author: Copeland, Vanness
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Copeland Method - A Complete Manual for Cleaning, Repairing, Altering and Pressing All Kinds of Garments for Men and Women, at Home or for Busines" ***

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[Illustration]

The Copeland METHOD

[Illustration]



INDEX.


                                                    PAGE

    Equipment                                          3

    Tools Required and their Use                       3

    Formula for Cleaning Fluid                         6

    Formula, how to make                               7

    Formula for Moth Preventative                      7

    How to Use Cleaning Fluids                         7

    How to Prepare Garments to be Cleaned              7

    How to Clean Garments                              8

    To Remove Stains, etc.                            13

    Repairing                                         14

    Darning a Three-Cornered Tear                     20

    Alterations                                       21

    Pressing                                          28

    How to Clean Cutaway, Prince Albert, Military
       and other Uniforms                             33

    How to Clean and Press Ladies' Jackets, etc.      33

    Selection of Materials, etc.                      37

    Care of Clothes                                   38

    Folding of Clothes                                42

    Testing Goods                                     43

    Price List for Cleaning and Pressing              44

    How to Dress and What to Wear                     45

    Business Etiquette                                55



    The
    Copeland METHOD


    A Complete Manual for
    Cleaning, Repairing, Altering
    and Pressing all kinds
    of Garments for Men and
    Women, at home or for
    business.


    Copyrighted 1908.

    BY

    VANNESS COPELAND,

    BUFFALO, N. Y.



INTRODUCTORY.


High birth and good breeding are the privileges of the few; but the
habits of a gentleman may be acquired by any man. Neatness is not an art
requiring the study of a life time; on the contrary it's principles are
simple, and their practical application involves only ordinary care.

To gain the good opinion of those who surround us is the first interest
and the second duty of men in every profession of life. First
impressions are apt to be permanent; it is therefore of importance that
they should be favorable. Frequently the dress of an individual is that
circumstance from which you first form your opinion. It is even more
prominent than manner. It is indeed one of the first things noticed in a
casual encounter or during the first interview. Chesterfield has said
that "He could not help conceiving some idea of the people's sense and
character from the appearance of their dress which they appeared when
first introduced to him."

In the preparation of this book, it has been the aim of the maker to
give in a concise form, all that is properly embraced in a comprehensive
work on not only keeping our wardrobes in such a state as to cause us to
appear to the best advantage, but also to give a complete instruction in
the manipulation of garments and tools used in the process of properly
cleaning, pressing and repairing all kinds of garments for men and
women.

A few hints may be helpful to the beginner as well as to those in the
business.

Observe a well dressed man or woman on the street or elsewhere, note the
make up and fitting points of their garments, this will help the student
to know good work, and try to do as well when doing the work himself.

When learning the method of cleaning, repairing and pressing all kinds
of garments for men and women, it is a good idea, if possible, to have a
garment of the same sort as one is studying close at hand, following
closely the instructions over all parts of the garment; thereby
understanding the teachings better and become more familiar with the
work.

Should a garment need repairing of any kind or a button sewed on, do it
and charge accordingly.

Never give a customer clothes that are damp from pressing, allow them to
dry before wearing or delivering.



LESSON I.

EQUIPMENT.


Introduction: A few hints to the beginner as well as to those now in the
business. The tools required and the best method of using same, for work
at home or for business.


TOOLS REQUIRED AND THEIR USE:

The tools required for cleaning, repairing and pressing at home, or for
business are as follows:

For work at home, use an ordinary kitchen table with smooth top. For use
in business, a table eight feet long, three feet wide and thirty inches
high (or as high as is convenient for the presser, this may be easily
determined by using). This is called a tailor's bench. The balance of
the tools are the same for work at home or for business.

The kitchen table or tailor's bench may be used for several purposes;
the first of which is to place the iron, press-jack, sponge cloth, and
garment while cleaning and pressing. Also for men to sit on while
sewing.


THE IRON.

One may use an ordinary laundry iron (but would advise the purchase of a
solid iron or tailor's goose, weighing from fourteen to twenty-two
pounds, or according to one's strength), one may heat the iron on a coal
range, gas or oil stove; or one may use a gas or electric iron, which
are being used with great satisfaction, and are easily handled, being of
little trouble to operate, also doing the work well. However, it is best
to use whatever one considers most convenient, cheapest and best for the
locality in which one resides.

The iron is heated and placed on the iron rest, which has been placed on
the table for that purpose, to the right of the presser, and is applied
to the sponge cloth (that has been wrung out almost dry), causing steam
to penetrate that part of the garment being pressed, thereby refreshing
the cloth.

The presser should have control of the iron at all times, also see that
the iron is not too hot before using by testing it on a piece of light
colored woolen material. If it scorches it is too hot for use, wait for
a few minutes to cool.

When pressing move the iron from place to place, on the part to be
pressed, by lifting it clear each time, instead of shoving it along as
some do. (To shove the iron along on the work is apt to stretch garments
where not required, and also cause wrinkles). Keep the face of iron
smooth by rubbing wax over the surface frequently, thereby removing any
lint or dirt that may accumulate from time to time.


THE PRESS-JACK.

A press-jack such as the tailors use, is made of two hardwood boards,
thirty-five inches long, one inch thick, planed both sides and edges and
cut egg-shape; the wide end being eight inches in width, and the narrow
or small end, four inches wide, one forming the top and the other the
bottom.

Between the top and bottom are screwed two blocks of solid wood, four by
four inches, and six inches high. The first one is screwed to the top
and bottom, three inches from the large end, and the second block is
screwed to the top and bottom, seven inches from the large end, thereby
leaving a space to the small end, of twenty-eight inches, for
convenience in handling the garments while pressing.

The top of the press-jack is left perfectly plain and smooth; the
bottom, however, is padded for convenience for pressing with ten-ply of
wadding, cut the same shape of board or bottom of press-jack. Over this
place a piece of white heavy drilling, drawn tight over the wadding to
keep in place and tacked all around the edges with brass head tacks. Cut
cotton off evenly around the edges beyond the tacks. This completes the
press-jack and is ready for use.

The press-jack as tailors term it, is used for the pressing of clothes,
and is also useful to lay clothes on while cleaning.


THE BRUSH.

A brush with a plain back and handle. (Never use a whisk broom to brush
clothes as it injures the fibre of the cloth.)

The brush is used to brush garments thoroughly before cleaning and is
used in connection with the pressing of garments, to slap with the back
the part pressed, thereby keeping the steam in, and making the cloth
sweat. The face to brush the nap of cloth, thereby refreshing the
garment, making it look like new.


THE SPONGE CLOTH.

A sponge cloth is made of heavy unbleached cotton, one yard and a half
long, boiled in soap and water for one hour, then rinse in clean water,
thus removing the lint.

The sponge cloth should be dipped in warm water, and wrung out almost
dry by hand, (or one may use a clothes wringer if preferred) thereby
keeping it clean and free from grease and dirt that may stick to it from
time to time.

The sponge cloth is used to lay over the "woolen press cloth" that has
been placed over that part of the garment to be pressed, also it is the
cloth which is to be dampened and when iron is applied causes steam to
be forced into the garment thereby instilling new life into the cloth as
it were.


THE UNDER WOOLEN PRESS CLOTH.

Is made of a piece of plain light colored unfinished or finished worsted
one yard long and eighteen inches wide.

Place this under woolen press cloth over that part of garment to be
pressed, then lay the sponge cloth on top of this, and apply the iron.

By using these two press cloths together, prevents glossing the garment
to a great extent, and may be used when pressing all kinds of garments
for men and women.


COAT AND TROUSER HANGERS, ETC.

Coat and trouser hangers are used to place the several garments on to
retain their shape after cleaning and pressing. They are also very
essential in the home to place garments on that are not in use or being
worn, it is better to place garments on forms than to hang up by loops
that are placed on garments by tailors.

Other necessities used in the cleaning, repairing and pressing of
garments, are the sponge, tape measure, scissors, tailor's chalk,
needles, thimble, bodkin for pulling bastings, a sewing machine, a large
mirror, fashion plates, chairs, desk and safe, if one wishes.

Afterward one may add as many tools as necessity requires and their
business permits.



LESSON II.

CLEANING.


Consists of several formulas for making Standard cleaning fluids, and
the best method of using same, in the cleaning of all kinds of garments.
How to prepare garments to be cleaned. How to steam clean. How to dry
clean. The secret of success in cleaning. To clean velvet and velveteen.
To remove paint, tar, grease and ink from garments. How to wash woolens.
How to wash black woolen dresses. How to clean silk, satin and lace. To
remove grease from delicate fabrics. To remove stains from linen and
cotton goods. A formula for making moth preventative.


CLEANING FLUID.

(Formula.)

     2 ounces Chloroform.
     3 ounces Wood Alcohol.
     2 ounces Sulphur Ether.
     2 ounces Spirit of Wine.
    10 ounces Ammonia.
     3 ounces Oil of Turpentine.
     2 ounces Glycerine.
     Place all seven chemicals in one bottle.
     3 ounces Borax.
     3 ounces French Castile Soap.


DIRECTIONS TO MIX:

Cut the French Castile Soap in fine shavings, dissolve them together
with the Borax, in four quarts of boiling water, cool this solution,
being careful that all the soap is dissolved, then strain through muslin
or thin woolen cloth, to remove any sediment. Then add the other seven
chemicals, mix and shake well. This will make five quarts Cleaning
Fluid.

This cleaning fluid may be used on any garment with good results, as it
will not injure the fibre of the cloth. Always rinse spot good with
clean water and sponge, after using cleaning fluids.


HOW TO PREPARE A SIMPLE CLEANING FLUID.

(Formula.)

    4 ounces Ammonia.
    4 ounces Bay Rum.
    1-6 ounce Salt Peter.

To this add one pint of clean water, pour in a small neck bottle, keep
well corked to avoid evaporating.

This preparation will remove fresh or hard paint, tar, grease, oil and
in fact any spots from clothing, dress goods, carpets, rugs, and all
woolen goods without injury to the fabric. The above may be obtained at
any drug store.


HOW TO PREPARE MOTH PREVENTATIVE.

(Formula.)

    4 ounces Powder Borax.
    4 ounces Powder Alum.
    4 ounces Powder Camphor.

Mix all three chemicals together thoroughly. This will make a white
powder. Sprinkle freely around and under carpets before laying, also over
clothing not in use. This powder will not leave a stain, and is easily
brushed off. Use freely wherever moths appear.


HOW TO USE THE CLEANING FLUIDS.

Dampen a sponge or woolen cloth (white flannel is the best as there is
no color to come out) by dipping it in the cleaning fluid, which has
been poured into a basin for that purpose and convenience. Rub the spot
to be cleaned with the dampened sponge, woolen cloth (or flannel) with
the thread or nap of the cloth until the grease and dirt is loosened,
then rinse with clean water, (always rinse sponge, cloth or flannel in
clean water before cleaning the stain a second time with pure water)
until stain entirely disappears.

Always clean garments before repairing or relining.


HOW TO PREPARE GARMENTS TO BE CLEANED.

Turn all pockets inside out. Brush thoroughly and whip with cane if
necessary, being careful not to break the buttons on the garment.

See that the dust and dirt is thoroughly removed from the pockets, then
return pockets to their place. This is a very important part and one
which is very often neglected and overlooked. The garment is then ready
to be cleaned. Proceed as above explained. If one application is not
sufficient to remove the spots, repeat until spots are thoroughly
removed.

Coats are usually very dirty and greasy around the collar also down the
fronts, great care should be taken to clean thoroughly and rinse often,
thereby removing all stains.

All coats, vests, trousers, overcoats, ladies' jackets, coats, waists,
and all kinds of skirts should be cleaned by this same method.


HOW TO STEAM CLEAN.

To steam clean coats, vests, trousers, overcoats, ladies jackets and
skirts and all wool garments:

Place each garment in a basin of warm water first, and with soap and a
brush go over the entire garment thoroughly, including sleeve lining.

Second--pour water off and fill basin again with warmer water than at
first, and wash with stiff brush and soap as before, using three waters
or until garment is thoroughly cleaned.

Remove soap water (do not wring garments but allow to drip, or squeeze
water out) and rinse in hot water, then warm, then cooler, and so on
until cold, adding one tablespoonful of coarse salt. (Dissolve salt in
cold water before placing in basin). This will prevent garment from
shrinking. Place on hanger to retain their shape, allowing water to drip
out. Straighten out wrinkles as much as possible when drying, thus
making the pressing easier, and when thoroughly dry, proceed to press as
explained. If any spots remain after this process, remove with ammonia.

For those who perspire under the arms freely, dress shields placed in
the bottom of the arm holes of coats will be of great benefit.


HOW TO DRY CLEAN.

Use a basin large enough to hold one gallon of gasolene and the garment
to be cleaned. (Being careful to keep gasolene away from the stove or a
lighted candle, lamp, or gas.)

Place one gallon of gasolene in the basin with the coat, and swash up
and down until all grease and dirt has been loosened, then place on
hangers in the open air, allowing to dry and gasolene to evaporate.

Before dipping the coat in the basin, see that all dust and dirt is
removed from the pockets by turning them inside out and brushing, also
brush all seams.

Use half a gallon for the vest, and one gallon for the trousers. The
more gasolene used, the better will be the results.

Gasolene may be used a second time on black goods, after filtering or
settling, but never on light colored materials, ladies' jackets, coats,
wool waists, and skirts may be cleaned in the same way.

Gasolene, benzine, naptha, turpentine and ammonia should be of the best
and purest, when used for cleaning purposes.

The secret of success in cleaning, is by dipping the garment in a large
quantity of the liquid. Not less than a gallon of gasolene, benzine or
naptha should be used for a coat, jacket or skirt. Two gallons will do
the work better. One should remove all spots if possible before dipping
in the liquid. It is a good idea to surround each spot with a basting
thread as when wet, some spots do not show. Soak each garment in the
clear liquid, then soap all spots thoroughly, rub gently between the
hands until spots disappear. Then wash and rinse garment in clear
liquid. Place on hangers in the open air, or drying room, allowing odor
to pass away.

Soap may be used for cleaning in connection with gasolene with good
results. One may use a little ammonia with the gasolene and soap. The
goods should be well shaken, and pull all folds out straight with the
threads of the goods. Velveteen, velvet and corduroy may be cleaned with
gasolene, when pile or nap is not much worn.

When cleaning velvet, or any other fabric, the most important part is to
have all the dust and dirt removed, by brushing the garment or fabric
thoroughly.

To clean a velvet collar that is not too greasy, and the nap not worn
off: Wet a piece of woolen cloth or flannel in gasolene and rub lightly,
until the grease and dirt is loosened. Then apply more gasolene with a
clean woolen cloth, and remove all grease and dirt. Place on hanger in
the open air to dry and to evaporate before steaming. When much gasolene
is used hang coat so that the collar hangs down, to allow the gasolene
to drip out and evaporate, before steaming. Always being careful not to
use gasolene near a stove, lighted candle, lamp or gas.

When using gasolene for cleaning purposes, have it in a gasolene or
benzine safety can, used for that purpose, which may be had at any
hardware store.

To remove old hard paint or tar, apply the cleaning fluid freely and
place the sponge cloth over spot and press with the iron, as there is
nothing that will loosen paint or tar as well as steam or heat. If one
application is not sufficient repeat until loosened, then scrape off;
after that use more cleaning fluid to remove any stains that may remain,
then rinse in clean water.

To remove ink stains from woolen materials:

Apply cleaning fluid, two or three times, washing spots each time with
clean water, and sponge until stain disappears.


HOW TO WASH WOOLENS.

Place four ounces of soap bark in a gallon of water in a kettle on a
stove to boil, then add two more gallons of water. Throw this over the
goods, that has been placed in another basin for that purpose and rub
with the hands. Rinse in warm water, and hang up to dry. Iron on the
wrong side when damp, until dry, (this will remove all wrinkles and make
goods look like new). This is especially good for worn garments, that
are to be cut and made over.

Woolens should be squeezed, and not wrung, and the wrinkles straightened
out while drying.


HOW TO WASH BLACK WOOLEN DRESSES.

Have the dress ripped apart, brushed, and all dust and dirt removed from
the seams, also all the old stitches. Pour four gallons of water in a
pail or basin, adding four ounces of ammonia. Dip each piece of the
garment into the liquid, and swash up and down, and squeeze as dry as
possible, then hang over a pole, and when almost dry, iron from the
wrong side until dry, with an iron not too hot.

Woolen dresses, that are much soiled, may be washed in soap and water,
and rinsed out before dipping in the ammonia water, which will improve
the color to a great extent.

Any material, such as worsted, and wool garments should be sponged with
ammonia and water.

When cleaning with gasolene, benzine or naptha, to remove the odor, the
article should be placed as near a steam radiator as possible, or in a
drying room heated by steam or otherwise, this removes the odor, the
steam heat dries out whatever of the fluid may have remained in the
material, and does so without the danger of explosion which makes it
impossible to dry a garment cleaned with the above near a lighted stove,
lamp, candle or gas.


HOW TO WASH CHAMOIS VESTS.

Wash with white soap and warm water, making a good lather and rubbing
well between the hands. Lay flat on a table, and rub with a dry, clean
cloth; rinse; then roll in another cloth and wring as dry as possible.
Unroll and stretch well; hang up, and when nearly dry press with a warm
iron, being careful not to have the iron too hot or it will spoil the
chamois.


HOW TO CLEAN SILK.

Use hot gasolene, heated in a double boiler (never put gasolene on a
stove) place the gasolene in the double boiler, after it has been
removed from the stove and while the water is still boiling, place the
silk to be cleaned in the boiler, and swash up and down until it is
thoroughly cleaned, then remove and place in the open air to dry and
evaporate.


TO CLEAN BLACK SILK.

Brush and wipe with flannel cloth, lay on a table with the side to be
worn up; then sponge with hot coffee (strain coffee through muslin
before using). When damp, lay cloth on and iron until thoroughly dry.


TO REMOVE GREASE FROM SILK.

Use a lump of magnesia (moistened), rub on the spot and allow to dry;
then brush powder off. Repeat if necessary.

Silks and satins should be sponged with ammonia and water. It is not
necessary to soak ribbon, unless they are very dirty. Only black
material should be cleaned with strong ammonia as a difference in the
dye stuffs may cause the material to turn red, wherever the ammonia
touches it.

To clean a colored silk dress, mix together four ounces of soap, six
ounces of honey, and a pint and a quarter of gin, rub in well with small
brush, rinse each piece at once in cold water thoroughly, drain and iron
while wet. This is especially good for black, also black and white
silks.

Silks may be stiffened by adding two or three lumps of sugar, or half a
teaspoonful of gum Arabic to the water. Place over a round pole and
while damp place a piece of muslin over the silk and iron until dry.


TO CLEAN BLACK LACE.

To a cup of strong tea, add one-half teaspoonful of gum Arabic. Dip the
lace into the liquid, and squeeze it dry, two or three times (do not
wring). Roll in a cloth and when almost dry, straighten out all the
scallops carefully by hand, being careful to have it of universal width,
and place on a soft cloth or padded board and lay a piece of muslin over
it, then iron until dry. This is suitable for ordinary lace. But real
lace should be pinned or tacked to a board, being careful to draw out
all loops of the edge, and not drag the lace out of shape.

All stains and spots should be removed as soon as possible. Ink stains
may be taken out of clothing by dipping the spot in milk, and squeezing
the blackened milk into a basin, dipping in clear milk again. Repeat
this process until the ink stain has entirely disappeared; then wash the
cloth in warm water, to remove the fat in the milk.

Some inks are very difficult to remove but with a little patience, one
of the processes will remove any ink stain.

To remove grease spots from delicate fabrics, requires great care. When
the color and fabric will not be injured, use the cleaning fluid.
Otherwise use French chalk or magnesia powder. Place upon the spots,
allow to remain for a short time. This will often absorb the grease. If
one application is not sufficient, brush off and apply again until the
spot disappears.

When water may be used on the cloth, the chalk may be made into a paste
and spread on the spot and left until dry then brush off.

When color of a piece of goods has been accidentally or otherwise
destroyed by acid. Apply ammonia to neutralize the same after which an
application of chloroform will in almost every case restore the spot to
its original color.


TO REMOVE STAINS FROM COTTON AND LINEN GOODS.

To remove stains from linen and cotton, wet spots with luke warm water,
then squeeze the juice of a lemon over the stain, sprinkle with salt,
then place in the sun to hasten bleaching. If one application is not
sufficient to remove the stains, repeat until thoroughly cleaned.

To remove scorch from cotton, place in the hot sun until scorch
disappears.

To remove machine oil from white linen, cotton, or light goods. Rub with
pure white lard, then wash with warm water and soap.

To remove iron rust.--Dip in medium strong solution of oxalic acid, then
hold over the spout of a boiling tea kettle. Rinse the spot in two or
three waters, then wash in the usual way.

To remove Fruit and Berry Stains.--Place spot over a bowl and pour
boiling water through the cloth until stain disappears.

To remove Mildew.--Rub soap on the damaged article then salt and starch
on that; rub well in and place in the sun until spots entirely
disappear.

Fruit, ink, blood and other stains should be removed before the clothes
are wet in the laundry. Tea, coffee, wine and most fruit stains, can be
taken out with clear boiling water, by stretching the stained portions
over a bowl and pouring hot water through. If they do not come out, use
a solution of borax, ammonia and chloride of lime, or burn some sulphur
and hold the stains over the fumes. Fresh ink stains may be removed by
an application of dampened salt, allow to remain for several hours, or
soak in warm milk or vinegar and water. Lemon juice and salt placed on
the spots will often suffice.

Grass stains are most difficult to remove. Dip the spots in molasses;
let it remain until thoroughly saturated, then wash out in clean water.
Repeat if necessary.

Mud Stains--May be removed by soaking spots in a solution of oxalic
acid. Rinse in several waters; then in ammonia and water last.

Cocoa stains may be removed by sprinkling borax over the spot. Then soak
in cold water, and pour on boiling water.

Obstinate blood stains--Should be saturated in kerosene, then rubbed
with soap and washed in luke warm water.

To prevent muslin from fading--Use a weak solution of sugar of lead.



LESSON III.

REPAIRING.


In this lesson is explained how to repair and reline coats, vests,
trousers, overcoats, Tuxedos, Dress Coats, Vests, Prince Alberts, also
Ladies' Jackets and Coats. How to put new Silk facings on coats. How to
repair sleeves that are worn out around the bottom. How to put velvet
collars on coats. The use of basting thread. How to prevent trousers
bagging at the knee. How to prepare button holes for working. How to
make button holes. Darning a three-cornered tear. Hems and felling same.
Back stitching.


INSTRUCTIONS IN REPAIRING.

To reline all kinds of coats and jackets for men and women. When new
lining is required in coats, rip out the old lining, starting to rip the
sleeve lining, first around top or sleeve head, then at the bottom or
cuff. Now remove the whole lining and rip apart and iron out smooth and
use as a pattern for the new, cutting new lining out exactly same size
as the pattern, down the seams, but for convenience in working, allow
two seams longer at the bottom and two seams longer at the top. Place
one top and one bottom sleeve lining together, Baste seams, having the
two right sides of lining together, and seam on machine, (or one may sew
the seams on the machine without basting, this may be done with a little
practice), press seams open on small end of press-jack, baste top of
sleeve lining in; all around, one-quarter of an inch, now turn right
sleeve inside out and baste right sleeve lining in by fastening the
back seam of the sleeve lining to that of the back sleeve seam of coat,
baste with long loose stitches, start basting two inches below top of
sleeve, to two inches within the bottom, being careful not to get lining
in too short (take one quarter inch seam when sewing on machine), as
this will cause sleeve to draw up, and hang in wrinkles, now fasten the
front arm seams same as back, so that each seam will come directly on
top of the sleeve seam. Turn sleeve right side out, and mark with chalk
on lining of coat at each sleeve seam and baste sleeve seams at top of
sleeve lining to correspond with the sleeve seams of garment, and baste
lining all around until one becomes familiar with the work.

Now see that the lining is sufficiently long; cut lining off even with
the bottom of the cuff, and baste sleeve lining up two inches from the
bottom. Then with needle and silk fell around both sleeves, top and
bottom. Turn sleeve right side out and remove basting stitches.

Rip out the body lining, starting at the right facing, and rip down and
around the pocket to one inch above and one inch below the pocket across
bottom, up side seam, and across shoulder. Then remove lining, and iron
out smooth, to use as a pattern, for new lining as before, leaving the
left side of the lining in as a guide to the beginner as to how the
lining should be placed. Then cut the new lining for the right side one
half inch larger all around than the pattern for allowance in shrinking,
and also for convenience while working. Then baste lining in right side,
being careful not to put lining in too tight. Rather have it too long,
but not so long that it hangs below the bottom of garment. Coats will
not hang well with tight or short lining. Turn edge of lining in down
front, and across bottom with basting, and fasten lining to side seam of
forepart with long loose basting stitches. Then rip lining out of left
side and iron out smoothly for a pattern, cut and baste in new lining on
left side the same as explained for the right. Now cut the back lining
double and seam down back centre seam, basting one inch plait for ease,
then press to one side, and baste in back, and turn all edges in, down
side seams, across bottom and shoulders, and back of neck. Now fasten
lining all around arm hole to the seam, thereby holding lining in place,
so as not to allow it to come loose. Cut lining off even with seam all
around arm hole, then baste sleeve lining around.

Cut lining to back of pocket, and at back end, cut lining in a trifle to
allow working, and for turning in around the pocket, and fell lining in
all around the pocket mouth, and proceed to fell the lining, doing the
same with the left side. Now finish felling the entire coat. Remove
basting stitches, and finish garment in the usual way.

Ladies' jackets and coats are relined in the same way, also all kinds of
men's coats and overcoats included.

When new silk facings are required for coats, remove the old facing, and
use it as a pattern for the new, and when cutting the new facing, allow
three quarters of an inch all around for convenience, while working.
Baste new silk facing on very neat, and take time to do good work. When
basting is completed, fell all around with fine silk, being careful not
to draw the stitches tight, nor to contract the edge.

Try to have the new silk facing put on so that it will look better than
the old one did when new. This will bring you customers. The price to
charge for such work is by the hour and for material used.


TO RELINE VESTS.

Rip old lining and back out of right side, and iron out smooth for a
pattern.

Now cut forepart lining one half inch larger all around and baste in
forepart lining, observing how the left is put in. Baste edges of lining
in, down facing, across bottom and around arm hole, (when one becomes
familiar the right sides of lining may be placed to that of the
foreparts and sewed around the armholes by machine, thereby saving the
felling by hand).

Now rip left inside lining out and replace it with new lining, same as
the right. Fell all around, then iron the back lining out smooth for a
pattern, cutting it exactly the same size as the old one, and mark with
chalk, where seam was sewn before. Cut inside lining the same size, and
seam back seams on the machine, and press open (or one may stitch to one
side), place right sides together to sew; smooth with iron, and baste
the right forepart, side seam to that of the back lining, also to the
shoulder. Baste left side the same way. Now baste the inside lining to
inside of vest. This will leave an opening at the top of neck and
bottom. Now baste, placing both back seams together, and baste each way
to the side seams. This will leave an opening, now only at the neck,
thereby forming a pocket, or bag for the vest, as it were. Sew with
machine, in same seam as at first, down side seam, across shoulder, and
bottom, and around arm holes, notch lining around back arm hole. Remove
basting, and turn vest right side out at the neck. Baste lining even
around bottom and arm hole. Now baste lining across back of neck, inside
and out, then fell entire lining.

When basting the shoulders of vest, have the back lining one quarter of
an inch full in the hollow of front of shoulder, to allow for
stretching, and to form a concave.

Should vests require to be made larger, when one has the lining out, all
one has to do, is to mark with chalk or thread, the amount to be made
larger, adding amount from the old seam on back, and baste forepart side
seams to the mark to be made larger. If new pockets are required, and
one is not familiar with the work, remove the pocket very carefully,
observing every detail as to how it should be put together. Iron out
smooth and cut new pocket, seam around, all but mouth, and place inside
of pocket, and turn edges in all around top or mouth of pocket, and fell
with silk same color as pocket (never remove welt from pocket when only
new pockets are required). Should the buttonholes need repairing, repair
them. Also see that the buttons are sewed on firm. Darn all holes, and
clean and allow to dry before new lining is placed.


NEW WAIST BAND LINING IN TROUSERS.

Remove old one, and iron out smooth and use for pattern. Cut new one out
and baste in and fell around tops and down sides, and fasten at pockets
to hold in place. If new buttons are required, sew them on before new
lining is placed, so as not to sew through the lining. Repair trousers
where needed.

=To repair sleeves that are worn out around the bottom= run a basting
thread around both sleeves five inches from the bottom of cuff, to hold
lining in place, then rip sleeve lining around the bottom, unfasten the
turn up of sleeve from the wigan, (darn sleeve edge if necessary when
it is worn through), now baste up firmly one eighth of an inch, or as
much more as the sleeve will allow and still be of sufficient length,
(run basting one-quarter inch from bottom), fasten the turn up back to
the wigan with basting (this basting is left in); now let sleeve lining
come down, and if it is longer than to the end of cuff; cut off what
comes below.

Then turn sleeve lining in on the turn up two inches from the bottom of
cuff with basting stitches, and fell lining with silk same color as the
cloth or lining. Finish both sleeves the same. Remove basting, turn
sleeves right side out; and press all around cuff as explained. When
felling do not take long stitches, short ones look neater and are
stronger and work will have a better appearance when finished. Should
the sleeve be finished with stitching around the cuff, finish the same
when repairing. Sew buttons on, this completes the repairing of sleeves
at the bottom.


HOW TO PUT VELVET COLLARS ON COATS.

Remove old one, pick out old stitches in coat collar (the old stitches
in velvet do not matter), place coat in a convenient manner on the
press-jack and press collar and lapels into shape.

Cut new velvet collar one-eighth inch larger on each side than the
pattern, or larger if necessary, and steam over an iron as explained.
Stretch the edges a trifle on each side of velvet, being careful not to
leave finger or thumb marks, and when cool, baste on coat, (silk thread
should be used when basting velvet) in collar crease through velvet to
hold in place.

Run another basting below crease and in the stand of collar, and another
row of basting on leaf of collar close to the crease. Run another
basting near the outside edge of collar leaf, and form a cushion at each
end to allow ample room for ends to curl under (instead of up). See that
the velvet is not basted on too tight or too short.

Now turn velvet in over old seam or stitches on the inside of coat
collar, from end to end; and baste velvet over edge and all around leaf.
Now cut velvet off even along the leaf, then fell inside of velvet to
coat neck with silk to match; and herringbone velvet to leaf all around
from end to end. Make a loop or hanger out of a straight piece of lining
one-half inch wide, and turn all edges in and fold again and fell
together; now sew to the coat as before, turning both edges of loop in,
and tacking same through stand of collar. Remove all basting by cutting
each stitch and pulling out from the right side, and with the nap of the
velvet.


TO STEAM COLLAR.

Place iron on its side, cover with a piece of paper, over this lay a wet
sponge cloth; then hold coat collar very close to steaming cloth (when
one is familiar with the work they may allow the collar to rest on the
steaming cloth for a minute), and move back and forth, allowing steam to
come through the velvet. Then remove the collar and shape by hand, as
when worn. Brush the nap gently to freshen while steaming, but with a
very soft brush. Place on coat hanger, and allow to dry before wearing
or delivering.

Good sewing, good pressing, well finished ends and corners, lightness of
touch which holds the work without apparently touching it, will give to
the finished garment a fresh look.

All these are important considerations.

When darning, great care must be taken to have the work finished up
neatly, as darning and mending is an art, and like everything else,
requires patience and practice.

=Basting= is only used in the preparation of work, to hold stuff and
lining, or any two or more parts of the work together, while it is being
stitched, as none of the basting is left in the finished garment. It is
also used as a guide for sewing and marking on light colored goods as it
will not leave a mark as would colored chalk. For ordinary work, basting
stitches should be cut every few inches and drawn out.

It is impossible to prevent trousers bagging at the knee, but here is an
idea that will help materially to keep knees in shape. Fasten a piece of
silk to the forepart of trousers on the inside to the seams and across
bottom and top seven inches above and ten inches below the knee, being
careful not to allow stitches to show through on right side.

Buttonholes may be made easy to work by spacing off the number required,
with pins or thread marks.

Mark length of hole, and stitch on a machine the desired length, then
turn at right angles and take two stitches, then turn back and stitch
other side. Turn at right angles and take two more stitches, thereby
tacking both ends. All buttonholes may be stitched in one garment
without removing from the machine.

This method takes the place of serging or overcasting and is much better
for thin ravelly goods.


MAKING BUTTONHOLES.

Buttonholes should be overcasted or serged as soon as cut, with fine
thread or silk, the stitches should be light, loose and even, this is
done with a slanting stitch.

Making buttonholes: Insert the needle on the edge of the material and
when half way through, take the two threads at the eye of the needle
bring them towards you at the right and under the point of the needle,
drawing the thread from you, making the purl or loop stitch come
directly on the edge of the buttonhole. Stitches should lay close
together just far enough apart for the purl or loop stitch to form,
always have each stitch of the universal length so the stitches will look
straight on each side of the buttonhole, the stitches may be placed
closer together at the end as most wear comes there.


DARNING A THREE CORNERED TEAR.

A three cornered tear may be darned in two ways. Commence by darning
diagonally through the center, darning back and forth towards the end of
the tear until one-half has been finished; then begin at the center and
work in the opposite direction. At the corner, the stitches should form
the shape of a fan. Another method which is stronger, is done by darning
a square in the angle, first with the warp threads, then with the woof
threads, and finishing each end across the tear.


HEMS AND THE FELLING OF SAME.

A hem is a fold of goods doubled twice to prevent a raw edge. The fold
should be turned even and straight with the thread of the material, on
this depends the neatness of one's work. The hem should always be turned
in toward the worker and basted firmly not too near the edge, leaving
one-eighth inch space for working. Felling--when felling or hemming, the
needle should take up only the edge to be hemmed or felled down and just
enough to hold on the cloth or lining. When felling or hemming take
small stitches close together, even, and do not draw thread or silk too
tight as to cause the edge to have the appearance of the teeth of a saw.


BACK STITCHING.

The back stitch is made by placing the needle back in the last stitch,
bringing it out once the length of the last stitch, then placing the
needle back into last stitch and so on, being careful not to draw the
thread too tight as to have a drawing appearance, make the stitches
follow each other without leaving a space between. Back stitching is
used in places where much strain is on the seam.

Bias hems, such as sleeve head lining, etc.

All bias hems and curved edges, should have the folds basted in.



LESSON IV.

ALTERATIONS.


How to shorten and lengthen coat sleeves. How to raise and lower
collars. How to alter (or change) a coat that is too large around the
neck and collar. How to make the alteration when a coat is too large
over the chest. How to change a vest that is too large around. How to
make a vest larger around. How to change trousers that are too long. How
to lengthen trousers. How to make trousers smaller around the waist. How
to make trousers larger around the waist, whether there is an outlet or
not. How to make button cords for sewing on buttons. An easy way to hang
a skirt. How to iron over buttons without breaking. Also how to iron
embroidery.


HOW TO MAKE ALTERATIONS ON GARMENTS.

When sleeves are to be shortened or lengthened, have customer try coat
on, and mark with chalk, the length desired. Then remove coat and run a
basting of cotton around both sleeves, five inches above cuff, to hold
lining in place, while doing the work. Then with a knife or scissors,
rip lining around both cuffs. Unfasten turn up from wigan. This will
allow turn up to fall down. Now mark with chalk, around both sleeves,
the correct length. Turn up and baste solid, and fasten turn up, to
wigan, same as before. Now allow lining to fall down, and cut off even
all around the end of the cuff. Baste lining two inches from the edge of
cuff, and fell with silk same color as the cloth or lining. These
instructions are for shortening sleeves.

=When sleeves are to be lengthened=, proceed as before, but with this
difference,--should the lining, and turn up of cuff not meet, it will be
necessary to piece the lining or sew hand facings to the bottom of
sleeve, same as the cloth in garment, or as near as possible. Then fell
sleeve lining to facing.

=When sleeves are to be lengthened=, baste a piece of wigan to that
which is now in place, the amount to be lengthened, and fasten turn up
to the wigan, and turn sleeve lining in two inches from the end of cuff.
Fell sleeve lining to turn up as before.

=Sleeves may be lengthened= all of the turn up, by sewing a piece of
cloth to the sleeve, same as the garment, same size around, and sewn in
a seam on the machine. Baste and turn edges out even, and press firm,
stitch around with machine, thereby making it firm and solid.

Stitch edge of sleeve to match edge of coat.

Fasten ends of silk thread by threading them to a needle and taking a
stitch or two, then cut off. Sew buttons on as required. This completes
the lengthening of sleeves.

=Should coat collar be too high=, run a row of basting cotton, two
inches below the collar seam; mark with chalk the amount to be lowered,
then rip with knife or scissors, inside and out from crease to crease.
Now baste under collar to neck of coat first, and fasten inside of coat
to the stand of collar. Now baste the outside or top collar on the
inside to the coat in keeping with the amount lowered and fell inside
and outside of collar. Sew loop on back of coat collar inside, and
remove basting. Place coat collar on press-jack in a convenient manner
and press in same crease as when worn.

Place on a coat hanger, to retain its proper shape and to dry before
wearing. (When basting under collar to coat neck, start basting from
center back seam, forward to each side.)

=When coat collar is to be raised=, run a row of basting cotton two
inches below the collar seam, from end to end. Rip under collar and
unfasten coat from stand of collar inside and rip inside collar from
crease to crease. Mark with chalk the amount to be raised, and start
basting from the center back seam, forward to each side; then fasten
coat to the stand of collar, and baste inside or top collar to the
inside of coat the amount raised on the outside. Fasten loop to stand of
collar inside, remove bastings and place coat collar on press-jack in a
convenient way, press as before and hang to dry before wearing.

If however, the coat collar is to be raised and one finds that by
raising, that the collar will be too long, the collar may be cut in the
center and seamed or taken off at one end (if only raised on one side)
or both as the case may be; if raised all around, the collar must be
shortened at both ends.

This is a very particular piece of work, and should not be attempted
unless the garment is old, and one wants to practice on it; this may be
had by altering an old garment for practice, as with practice, most
anything may be accomplished. (When one has had considerable experience
in this line, then it may be done without taking it to a tailor; until
then, it will be best to let the experienced tailor do the work on a
good coat.)

=When a coat is too large around the neck and collar=, and falls away at
the bottom when unbuttoned, and bulges at the opening when buttoned, is
an indication that the garment is not balanced properly. This may be
changed to fit perfectly in the following manner: Run a basting three
inches from each side of the shoulder seams and to front of coat to
collar end. Rip collar off from crease to crease, rip shoulder seams
from neck to within two inches of the sleeve seam, and mark with chalk,
the amount to be taken in (as the shoulder strap is too long from neck
to bottom of arm hole and must be shortened so that the coat will hang
squarely and well balanced when unbuttoned as well as when buttoned),
mark from neck gradually to nothing at the end of the two inches, from
the shoulder or sleeve head; this amount to be taken off the forepart in
all cases, baste back to shoulder seam and press open, unless a trifle
may be taken off the center back seam at top, which is a good idea, so
that the collar will fall more closely to the neck. Baste shoulder and
lining together. Now baste collar on, starting at the center back seam,
and baste forward each way, and if found too long, shorten as explained
above; fell shoulders and collar. Finish collar neatly and press
shoulder and collar.

When one side is to be altered (this one may see when customer has coat
on and buttoned, and one side stands away from the neck), in that case,
only change one side.

=When a coat is too large over the chest=, and by setting the buttons
back from the edge two and one-half inches (which is only to be done in
extreme cases) will not have the desired effect; run a row of basting
cotton around arm hole two inches from the sleeve seam, across shoulder
to the front end of collar and two inches from the shoulder seam. Rip
sleeves and shoulders out and collar off from end to end, press seam out
smooth, and mark with chalk the amount shoulder is to be advanced, say
from one-quarter to three-quarters of an inch, as the case may be (this
may be easily determined when the coat is on the customer, notice the
amount of lap and then judge the amount), baste back shoulder to
forepart of coat having the top of back even with the chalk mark; seam
and press open, baste shoulder and lining together, now baste collar on,
then baste sleeve in, and seam and press open seam as before and fix up
sleeve head, and cut off end of shoulder amount shoulder was advanced at
shoulder point. This will take surplus goods away from the front and
allow goods to go back; finish collar, shoulders and sleeves and press.

Double breasted coats are different, the buttons may be set from the
edge, according to style and fashion.

When a coat is too large in the back, take part out in the side seams
and part out in the center back seam; the best way to determine the
amount to be taken out, is to pin each seam a trifle when customer has
coat on, then one will get the proper effect of the alteration.

=When a vest is too large around=, it may be pinned on the customer,
down the side seams and center back the desired amount to be taken out;
this alteration may be done in the following manner: Rip vest across
back of neck, rip each side seam, mark with chalk the amount to be taken
in on each side seam and center back seams. Baste forepart to that of
the back at side seams and baste center back seam together, lining and
outside.

Seam on machine, remove the basting, turn vest right side out and fell
across back of neck. Press side seams, back and around neck; place on
hanger to retain shape.

=When vest is to be made larger=, proceed as follows: Rip side seams and
across the back of neck, press out side seams of back, and remove
stitches, and if there is an outlet, mark with chalk the amount to be
let out on each side, and baste as before and finish the same. If there
is no outlet, one must sew a piece of lining to the outside and inside
lining; press open the seams or stitch to one side and press. Then mark
with chalk the amount to be let out and proceed as explained and finish.

=When trousers are too long=, they may be shortened in the following
manner: Mark with chalk (using the tape line for measuring length) the
desired length, loosen the bottoms, (if felled, rip with knife or
scissors, being careful not to cut the cloth), if there is rubber in the
bottoms, wet a piece of cloth with gasolene, and rub over the outside
and pull turn up free from the bottoms. Turn trousers inside out, allow
to dry after using gasolene before turning up bottoms. If rubber is to
be put in the bottoms, cut a piece one inch and a half wide, and baste
in the turn up or hem and fasten hem to the side seams with silk, only
leave a two inch turn up, cut balance off.

Before pressing, place on the small end of press-jack and press all
around as in pressing cuffs or bottom of trousers as explained. (But not
with sponge cloth, only with iron and wet bottoms with sponge). Press
until rubber is thoroughly melted and set. When one has pressed both
bottoms all around, turn trousers right side out and press bottoms as in
ordinary pressing.

When bottoms are felled, leave two inches for turn up and cut off the
balance. Fell with silk all around, being careful not to let stitches
show through on right side. Press bottoms same as explained.

=When trousers are to be lengthened=, loosen them at the bottom measure
with tape line, the desired length, from crotch down, making them one
inch shorter in the back or according to fashion. Mark with chalk the
desired length, and place rubber or fell as the case may be, and press
as explained; but if trousers are to be lengthened, all. It will be
necessary, to sew a piece of cloth to the bottoms same size and same
cloth (or as near as possible), sew on machine and baste edges out even,
and place rubber or fell; press bottoms and finish in the usual way by
turning trousers right side out, and pressing bottoms and legs. Sew heel
protectors on (they may be made of silesia by turning all edges in, or
made of cloth, same material as trousers) half inch wide and four inches
long, sewn half; each side of the center or crease of back trouser
bottom. This must be sewed to the inside of bottom.

=When trousers are too large around the waist=, mark with chalk (or pin
on customer), the amount to be taken in, rip back seam down as far as is
required. Remove the two back suspender buttons and rip lining back far
enough for convenience in working. Baste the back seam together and sew
in the chalk mark (by machine or by hand) to within two inches of the
top of waist band; press seam open and fasten back seam at waist to the
waist band on each side and leave an outlet one inch and a half wide,
each side of the back seam at the top, tapering to nothing at the bottom
or three inches from the inside leg seam.

Sew back suspender buttons on two inches each side of back seam. Put a
good neck on buttons to allow suspender button holes to fit smoothly
around button. This may be done by placing a match or pin over the top
of button and sewing over it, filling the holes with twisted thread or
button cord made for that purpose, as explained in (how to make button
cord.)

When holes are filled, remove the match or pin, and wind cord around
under button, and fasten by taking two stitches through the neck, and
cut thread off. Now fell lining back in place, leaving an opening at top
of, say two inches in back seam for ease. Press and finish in the usual
way.

=When trousers are to be made larger around waist=, rip lining three
inches each side of the back seam at top and remove the two top back
suspender buttons. Rip back seam down the required amount and press out
the mark made by the seam. Now with the chalk, mark the amount to be
made larger, half the amount on each side of seam, baste seam and sew on
machine or by hand in chalk mark. Remove basting, and press seam open,
fasten to each side of the seam at waist as before, leaving two inches
open at the top for ease. Sew two back suspender buttons on; and fell
waist band lining. Finish and press in the usual way.

=When trousers are to be made larger at the waist=, and there is nothing
to let out, remove back suspender buttons as explained, and waist band
lining. Cut a piece of cloth "V" shape as long as is necessary and of
the same material or as near as possible; make this piece two seams
wider than required. This may be determined by the amount to be made
larger, (the larger the piece at the top, the longer the wedge will have
to be, as it will not do to have an abrupt slant). Baste right sides of
cloth and trousers together, sew on machine and remove basting and press
open the seam. Then baste other side and seam, then press open; fasten a
piece of canvas across the top of waist where piece has been set in, and
stitch with machine across, in keeping with the stitching on the waist
band. If no waist seam, just stitch even with the waist stitching. Sew
back suspender buttons on, and fell waist band lining at top, and finish
as explained, fastening waist band lining to seams to hold it in place;
press and finish. When pressing seams, always press on the smooth side
of the press-jack, and dampen with the wet sponge, this will make
pressing easier; but do not put too much water on seams.

=How to make button cords for sewing on buttons=. Thread a needle with
linen thread double, then rub beeswax up and down the thread; then
twist, and when one has twisted enough, rub with a piece of cloth. This
will help to keep the twist in the cord and make it strong, which is
very essential in sewing on buttons; one knows how annoying it is to
have buttons coming off; this may be prevented by sewing them on good
with twisted thread.

When using silk thread, always draw it through beeswax and rub through
cloth to remove excess wax. This will make the silk stronger, and also
will slip through the cloth more easily when sewing.

=A good method of hanging a skirt.= Have customer stand on top of the
stairs, the fitter sitting on the second step. This is an easy way to
see that skirts hang evenly all around, marking the proper length
without rising, or getting on the knees or sitting on the floor.

=Ironing over buttons made easy and safe.= Place four ply wadding on
press-jack, buttons facing wadding. Iron from the wrong side until dry.
This is equally good in ironing embroidery waists. (When ironing
embroidery white wadding should be used.)



LESSON V.

PRESSING.


How to sponge and shrink all kinds of woolen goods for dressmakers and
tailors, before making into garments, also for one's own use at home.
How to use the iron and sponge cloths. How to press hard finished
worsteds. How to press single and double breasted sack coats, overcoats,
rain coats, Tuxedos, motormen and conductors, also fatigue coats,
cutaways, morning, dress coats, Prince Alberts, military, clerical,
uniforms, footman's liveries, Newmarket, Paddock and Palitot. All kind
of jackets, coats and skirts for ladies. How to press single and double
breasted vests with or without collars, also clerical and fancy vests.
How to press trousers.

How to sponge and shrink all kinds of woolen goods for dressmakers and
tailors, before making into garments, also for one's use at home.

To prepare a sponge cloth for that purpose, use unbleached cotton four
yards long, (or as long as the cloth to be shrunk requires), boil in
soap and water for one hour, rinse in clean water to remove any lint,
then it is ready for use.

Place woolen goods to be sponged on a table or clean floor, then wet the
sponge cloth by dipping it into a pail or basin of warm water so that it
will get thoroughly wet, wring out almost dry (but not so dry as when
pressing) and place over the goods smoothly, see that the cloth is free
from wrinkles. Make a flat roll six inches wide, or as wide as a
wrapping board would be (do not roll on a board as it will leave a mark
difficult to remove). Roll evenly until cloth to be shrunk is thoroughly
covered, sides and ends with sponge cloth.

=Time required for goods to remain in sponge.= Close woven material,
such as hard finished worsteds, broad cloth, kerseys, meltons and
beavers, require to be left in sponge three hours while open wove goods,
such as homespuns, unfinished worsteds, soft overcoatings, and ladies'
cloth requires but two hours. When goods is ready to be taken out of
sponge, unroll and place over a round pole, (sufficient height to allow
cloth to clear the floor), or lay smoothly on a table or floor.

When dry, fold (not roll) double, and so on until you have a fold seven
or eight inches wide, and small enough to place in a package.

The wrinkles may be pressed out with a warm iron, being careful not to
allow gloss to form, and see that iron is not hot enough to burn or
scorch cloth. Also to see that ends are even especially on stripes and
checks, and to see that checks and plaids match.

When pressing always have the iron to the right on the table, the edge
of the garment facing toward the presser. Start pressing the right side
of all garments first. In this way forming a system of doing the work.

When pressing all kinds of coats, vests, ladies' jackets and coats, have
the neck, collar, or waist seam lying on the small end of the
press-jack, and start from the center back seam of all coats and vests,
and press forward on the right side, toward the front edge.

To press the left side of all coats and vests, reverse the press-jack
and garment so that neck, collar waist seam or band is lying to the
left. Commencing as before, from the center back seam of garment, and
continue pressing left side, and around to the front edge, which must be
facing the presser.

Coats, vests, jackets and coats, should be placed on hangers to retain
their proper shape.

A good iron rest for the table, is made by nailing a smooth horseshoe to
a block of wood, a trifle larger than the shoe.

When using the under woolen press cloth, cotton sponge cloth and iron,
lay the under woolen press cloth, and sponge cloth on that part of the
garment to be pressed, and apply the iron until sponge cloth shows signs
of drying. Then remove the cloths and iron, and slap with the back of
the brush that part just pressed, to refreshen same, and brush the part
pressed, with the thread or nap of the fabric; thus making the garment
look like new. Go over the entire garment (and all garments) in this
manner until the whole garment has been pressed.

When trousers have been pressed, place them over a round pole, suspended
from the ceiling, or fastened to the wall with brackets. A still better
way is to place them on individual hangers.

Do not give customers garments damp from pressing, place them on hangers
and allow them to remain for one hour before wearing or delivering.

Do not try to press clothes that are damp from cleaning or otherwise.
Allow them to thoroughly dry, when they will press more easily, and
customers better satisfied, by giving them first-rate work.

When a garment has been pressed all over, examine it thoroughly for
gloss, and where any appears, remove it as explained (in how to press
hard finished worsteds.)

This process should be followed carefully when pressing all kinds of
garments.

When pressing, the iron should never be shoved or pushed, as in ironing,
as before explained; as it is apt to stretch where not required. Only
heavy materials require heavy pressing or great strength. Whatever the
material, pressing is work that requires to be done carefully and
slowly. When pressing seams, allow the iron to touch only the center of
the seam, then the edges of the seam will not be outlined on the outside
of the garment. This however, is only intended for light weight goods,
as when pressing seams in heavy material, it is necessary to press more
solid.

=How to press hard finished worsteds.= When pressing hard finished
worsteds, place under woolen press cloth, and sponge cloth over the part
to be pressed, (wring sponge cloth as nearly dry as possible), and apply
the iron, not too hot, allowing it to rest until sponge cloth is
entirely dry. (This is termed by tailors, as dry pressing or glossing).
Now remove iron, and press cloths and place a damp part of the sponge
cloth over that part just pressed, to remove the gloss, if any, by
applying the iron lightly, and slap with the back of the brush while
steaming. Also brushing the nap of the cloth.

Avoid stretching while pressing especially the edges and collar, unless
it is required, (and the presser understands where to stretch, and is
familiar with the fitting qualities of the garment.) When pressing
around the pockets, have flaps on the outside, and turn pockets inside
out before cleaning, that all dust and dirt may be removed, then return
the pockets to their proper place before starting to press.

When a coat or vest is placed on the table or press-jack, to be pressed,
and one notices fullness along front edges and bottom, press fullness
away by laying under press cloth and sponge cloth over part to be
pressed and leave iron until sponge cloth is entirely dry, then remove
cloths and apply a damp part of the press cloth, and iron again to
remove gloss as explained before. Always have edge of garments pointing
toward the presser. This may be learned and accomplished in a short time
with little practice.

=How to clean and press single and double breasted sack coats, motormen
and conductors, also fatigue=: Brush thoroughly, and if necessary whip
with cane, being careful not to break the buttons on the garment. Turn
all pockets inside out, and have flaps on the outside. Remove all spots;
special care must be taken to remove grease and dirt from the collar,
also the fronts, with the cleaning fluid. Place on coat hangers and when
dry, proceed to press as follows:

Have coat lying on the table or tailor's bench to the right, draw the
right cuff over the small end of the press-jack which should be pointing
to the right. Lay the sponge cloths over that part of the garment to be
pressed, (which you have prepared by wetting in a pail or basin of warm
water used for that purpose and wrung until almost dry), then apply the
iron until the sponge cloths shows sign of drying. Then remove the
sponge cloths and iron, and slap with the back of brush (as has been
explained.)

Continue this around the right sleeve cuff, and also the left. Then with
the coat in the same position, reverse the press-jack and place the
right sleeve, top side up on the large end of the press-jack, being
careful to have the sleeve smoothed out nicely, then lay sponge cloths
over and apply the iron, pressing full length and width, up and down the
sleeve, (being careful to see that no wrinkles are pressed in the
sleeve.)

Remove the cloths and iron as before, slapping with the back of the
brush, then brushing the nap to refreshen the cloth.

Turn sleeve over and press under side of sleeve the same.

Press left sleeve in the same manner. Crease sleeves front and back, if
requested by customer.

Reverse the press-jack and draw right shoulder of coat over the small
end of the press-jack in a convenient manner, and press around the
armholes, by laying the sponge cloths on the part to be pressed. Apply
the iron as before, and then slap with the back of the brush. Now press
around left shoulder and arm hole in the same manner.

Next place the coat so that the collar points to the right on the large
end of the press-jack. Lay the sponge cloths on the back of the coat,
applying the iron as before, and press down back and around right side
of coat to the front edge; always having the edge of the garment toward
the presser. Reverse press-jack and coat, then as before, commence
pressing at the center back seam, and forward to the front edge. This
completes the left side.

Place the coat on table or tailor's bench, and reverse press-jack; lift
coat and place collar or press-jack in a convenient way, so that the
collar and lapel, when pressed, will be creased the same as when worn.

Commence pressing from the center of collar to the right side of lapel,
being careful not to stretch the edges of lapel or collar. Then from the
center of collar at the back, press forward on left side as before. Turn
coat inside out, and smooth lining with cool iron, and with an almost
dry sponge cloth. This will remove any wrinkles, and leave the lining
smooth.

Now press the right side of facing and lapel, by laying four-ply of
wadding on the press-jack, and place right forepart of coat so that the
buttons face toward the wadding, and press on the wrong side, the
buttons will sink into the wadding thereby avoiding the breaking of
same, which is very easily done if great care is not taken. Now remove
the wadding and press left side on the padded side of press-jack in the
usual manner. Now turn the coat right side out, place right shoulder in
a convenient manner on the small end of the press-jack, and if any
wrinkles appear on top of the right sleeve head, press them out. Do the
same with the left side.

Look coat over thoroughly for gloss, if any appears, place coat on
press-jack in a convenient manner and remove as explained.

When pressing coats, be careful to have the flaps on the outside, the
pockets returned to their proper place inside, before starting to press.

Roll fronts of coats to the inside, so that they will retain their
proper shape, also to give to them that chesty effect, which is very
essential, in the pressing of all kinds of coats, and vests. One will
soon become familiar with the work by a little practice.

Place coats on hangers to dry before wearing or delivering. Sack
overcoats, rain-coats and Tuxedos, are pressed in the same way.

=How to clean and press cutaway dress, Prince Albert, military,
clerical, uniforms, footman's liveries, Newmarket, Paddock and Palitot.=
The above garments are cleaned and pressed the same as other garments,
but with this difference:--Coats with skirts are pressed from the collar
or neck to the waist line or seam, then moved up to the waist line or
seam, and pressed from that to the bottom of skirt, and around to the
front, having the edge of the garment pointing toward the presser. All
coats lined with silk are pressed very lightly, especially lapels and
facings (as the mark of the iron shows easy; and on silks is difficult
to remove.)

Silk should look fluffy in a garment, and therefore does not require
much pressing. Great care must be taken when cleaning, pressing, and
repairing dress suits, Tuxedos, Prince Alberts, and any garment that is
silk lined. The price to charge for such work may only be figured by the
amount of silk, and time required to do the work. Silk facings may be
had by mailing samples to this office, and we will send price list.

=How to clean and press ladies' jackets and coats=: Brush thoroughly,
and if necessary, whip with cane to remove all dust and dirt. Remove all
spots with the cleaning fluid, place on hangers, and when dry, press as
follows: Ladies' jackets and coats are pressed the same as men's, but
with the following differences: Press around cuffs, sleeves and
shoulders on the small end of the press-jack, then start at the center
back seam and press forward to the front edge, having the collar or neck
pointing to the right. Always have the edge of the garment facing the
presser. Reverse the press-jack, coat or jacket, and commence pressing
as before, down the back seam and around left side to front edge. Lay
sleeves on the press-jack and press as before, being careful to have
plaits in the right creases and the gatherings in their proper place. Do
not allow more plaits or wrinkles to form on the top of the sleeves than
is needed.

=How to clean and press all kinds of skirts for ladies=, Brush
thoroughly and whip if necessary, turn the skirt inside out, and brush
dust and dirt, from the seams and bottom. Clean all grease spots, if
any, with the cleaning fluid, place on hangers, and when dry, press as
follows: Draw skirt on press-jack with the waist band pointing to the
left, on the small end of the press-jack; the skirt to be drawn on the
press-jack to the left. Use the sponge cloths and iron the same as when
pressing other garments. Press around the top of the skirt and as far
below as the press-jack will allow. If skirt is plaited, be careful to
have the plaits lying smooth on the press-jack, either pin or baste
plaits in their proper creases before starting to press.

When pressing thin skirts, it is not necessary to press very hard, only
until the steam arises, then slap with the back of the brush to keep
steam in the goods, also to refreshen the garment. Place on skirt hangers
to dry before wearing or delivering. Always look for gloss, and if any
appears, remove as explained.

=How to clean and press single and double breasted vests, clerical, with
or without collar=: Brush thoroughly and whip with cane, if necessary,
to remove dust and dirt, being careful not to break the buttons on the
garment. Turn all pockets inside out to remove all dust and dirt from
them. Then remove all spots with the cleaning fluid as explained. Place
on coat hanger, and when dry, press as follows: Place the right forepart
of the vest smooth on the press-jack, with the edge facing the presser,
and the neck or the collar pointing to the right. Cover with sponge
cloths and apply the iron until the cloth shows signs of drying. Remove
and slap with the back of the brush, then brush the nap of the cloth to
refreshen and make it look like new, being careful not to stretch the
opening when pressing the forepart and shoulders.

When pressing the foreparts of vests, start at the side seams, and press
forward to the front edge. Now reverse the press-jack and vest and press
left side in the same manner, around the shoulders and arm holes. Now
smooth the wrinkles from the back, starting from the center and
pressing forward to the right side seam; then press the left side in the
same manner. This removes the wrinkles, and may be done with almost dry
sponge cloth and medium warm iron.

All vests are pressed in the same way, with the exception of fancy or
white vests. With these use a plain white cotton cloth, and wet sponge
with clean water.

Fancy wool vests should be dry cleaned before pressing.

Wash vests require a little thin boiled starch to give body to goods,
then iron when almost dry. Turn all pockets inside out before starting
to press. The pockets are pressed first, then returned to their proper
place, thereby keeping the mouth of the pocket neat and even. Continue
the ironing until the vest is completed. With a little practice, one
will soon become familiar with the work. Always being careful not to
stretch the opening. Rather shrink in, by pressing in a half circle from
left to right toward the front edge.

When pressing vests examine the pockets and see if there is a chamois
watch pocket, if there is sew or fasten a piece of cloth on the outside
of vest pocket as a reminder not to press over the pocket; if you did it
would spoil the chamois, and a new pocket would have to be put in for
the customer.

=How to clean and press trousers=: Brush thoroughly from the right side,
and whip, if necessary, then turn them inside out. Also the pockets. See
that all dust and dirt is thoroughly removed, also lint from the seams.
Then turn right side out, and remove all dirt and grease spots with the
cleaning fluid as explained. Place on hangers, and when dry, proceed to
press as follows: Place trousers flat on a covered table with the knees
up (trousers being turned inside out) wet bags at knee with sponge.
Apply the iron, not too hot and press in a circle to the center, to
remove and shrink away the bag; now do the same with the left leg. Turn
trousers right side out, and press around bottoms, same as in pressing
the cuffs on coats. Reverse press-jack and trousers, and press around
tops with sponge cloths and iron as far down as seat line or end of fly,
starting from the right side of fly and pressing around to the left fly.
Remove the press-jack and lay trousers flat on the table or bench that
has been covered with felt or cloth (melton, kersey or thibet). Place
creases at the bottom together with the left hand, and with the right
hand place the two top suspender buttons together, then lay them flat on
the bench or lengthwise of the table. Then turn the left leg back as far
as the seat line, and straighten the right leg out smooth on the table.
Cover with the sponge cloths and apply the iron, pressing full length of
leg, until cloths shows sign of drying, pressing the front and back
creases sharp. Then remove the iron and sponge cloths, then slap with
the back of the brush to refreshen and brighten the cloth or garment.
Now turn the leg over and press other side in the same manner; then turn
leg over to inside as at first and bring the left leg down to meet the
right bottom. Turn trousers over, and then turn the right leg back, and
proceed to press the left inside leg the same as right. Turn left leg
over and press outside. Now turn left leg over to inside as at first,
bringing the right leg down to meet the left at the bottom, then have
both legs lying perfectly even on top of each other. Press them together
from fly or seat line, down to the bottom. Turn trousers over, and press
other side in the same manner, using the back of brush for slapping and
face to brush nap of cloth. Then place the press-jack on the table
again, with the small end pointing to the right, then draw the right
bottom of the leg over the small end of press-jack, and press crease out
through the turn up. Do this at the front and back about two inches from
the bottom. Now press the bottom of left leg the same way.

Some customers do not want this crease taken out, then of course it is
to be left in. But custom-made trousers are usually not pressed through
the turn up.

This completes the pressing of trousers, place on hangers before wearing
or delivering. By practice, one may soon become an expert.

Broadfalls are pressed in the same way. Examine for gloss, and if any,
remove as explained.



LESSON VI.

SELECTION OF MATERIAL.


Amount required, for suits, vests, trousers, overcoats, dress suits and
Prince Albert suits, Tuxedos, Paddock, Paletot; also ladies' waists,
jackets (long and short), and skirts. The amount of material required to
reline coats, vests, and top of trousers; ladies' coats and jackets;
velvet collars and silk facings.

Amount of goods required for the following garments:

     =Sack Suits=--36 to 42 inches breast measure, 3\xBD yards, 54
     inches wide.

     =Cutaway or Morning Suit=--36 to 42 inches breast measure, 3\xBD
     yards, 54 inches wide.

     =Prince Albert Suit=--36 to 42 inches breast measure, 3\xBE yards,
     54 inches wide.

     =Tuxedo Suit=--36 to 42 inches breast measure, 3\xBD yards, 54
     inches wide.

     =Dress Suit=--36 to 42 inches breast measure, 3\xBD yards, 54
     inches wide.

     =Sack Overcoat=--36 to 42 inches breast measure, 42 inches long,
     2\xBE yards, 54 inches wide.

     =Trousers=--30 to 42 inches waist measure, 36 to 42 seat measure,
     30\xBD to 34 inside leg measure, 1\xBD yards.

     =Vests=--36 to 42 inches breast measure, 1 yard, 54 inches wide.

     =Paddock or Palitot=--36 to 42 inches breast measure, 4 yards, 54
     inches wide.

     =Ladies' Shirt Waist=--30 to 40 inches bust measure, 3\xBD yards,
     27 inches wide.

     =Ladies' Jackets and Coats (short)=--30 to 40 inches bust measure,
     2\xBD yards, 54 inches wide.

     =Ladies' Jackets and Coats (long)=--30 to 40 inches bust measure,
     4\xBD yards, 54 inches wide.

     =Ladies' Skirts=--20 to 42 inches waist measure, 40 to 44 inches
     long, 4\xBD yards, 54 inches wide.

Amount of goods required to reline the following garments:

     =Sack or Tuxedo Coat=--2 yards, 32 inch or 1\xBD yards, 54 inches
     wide. Serge, Alpaca, Italian cloth, or silk, to match. 1 yard fancy
     sateen sleeve lining.

     =Overcoats=--42 inches long, 2\xBD yards, 32 inches wide or 2
     yards, 54 inches wide. Serge, Italian cloth, or Circassian. 1\xBD
     yards satin sleeve lining, 20 inches wide. Or 1 yard, 40 inch
     Lusterene sleeve lining.

     =Overcoats, Silk or Satin Lined Throughout=--Require from 4 to 5
     yards.

     =Vests=--\xBE yard, 32 or 54 inches wide. Serge, Alpaca, Italian
     cloth or silk, for outside back. 1 yard 20 inch fancy sateen, for
     inside body lining.

     =Trousers=--\xBD yard 20 inch colored sateen, for waist band lining.

     =Dress Coats=--Prince Alberts, 3 yards 30 inch silk, for the
     former, and 4 yards, for the latter.

     =Tuxedo Facing=--1 yard heavy corded or fancy weave silk.

     =Dress or Prince Albert (fancy)=--7/8 yard heavy corded or fancy
     weave silk.

     =Velvet Collars for Overcoats=--vary in width from 4\xBD to 6
     inches wide on the bias. This may be determined when velvet collar
     is ripped off by measuring width.

When new buttons are required, replace with as near as possible to the
original.

When using silk, and buttonhole twist, match cloth as near as can be
had.



LESSON VII.

CARE OF CLOTHES.


Under this lesson is explained the care of clothes. How to keep them
looking fresh and clean. How to be well dressed.

=Care of clothes=: Cleaning, brushing, repairing and pressing frequently
is a step in the right channel, for a man's appearance depends largely
upon the care he takes of his clothes. Clothes should be brushed often
especially after being worn in the dust and dirt, and should be hung up
in a clean place where they will be out of the dust. Coats and vest
should always be placed on coat hangers together to retain their shape,
and to be ready for wear when wanted. The loop at the back of the coat
collar, should never be used to hang coats up by but for a few minutes,
as the weight of garments will pull the collar out of shape.

Trousers after being brushed thoroughly, should be turned inside out,
and placed on hangers, by doing this you are reversing the folds and
wrinkles that have formed while wearing, thereby allowing the cloth to
fall back into place. It is impossible to prevent trousers bagging at
the knees, but may be prevented in this way. Fasten a piece of silk to
the forepart of trousers on the inside to both leg seams across top and
bottom of silk, seven inches above and ten inches below the knee, being
careful when sewing not to let the stitches show through on the out
side. Another suggestion and a good one, is to buy two pairs trousers
with each suit (except a dress suit, then it is not necessary) and wear
them alternately, two days at a time, and have them pressed each time
you change, and turned inside out each night.

It is a good idea to have a row of hooks at the top of one's wardrobe
from which to hang these forms, thereby saving much space especially in
the smaller houses. Care should be taken to draw trousers up well when
wearing, so that they will set properly. When trousers are worn without
suspenders, they must be cut shorter waisted, shorter in the legs and
closer around the waist. If one wears suspenders it is a luxury to have
a pair for each pair of trousers. Then when one adjustment is made saves
any further bother.

Brushing clothes is a very simple but necessary operation, a fact which
few people thoroughly appreciate. Fine clothes require brushing lightly
with a soft brush, except when mud is to be removed, then a stiff brush
should be used, after garment has been lightly beaten to loosen the
dirt. Never use a whisk broom to brush clothes as they injure the fibre
of the cloth. When brushing lay the coat on a table, and brush in the
direction of the thread or nap of the fabric.

A well made, well fitting garment should not be thrown away when
slightly worn, but should be repaired, cleaned and pressed. Many times
lasting as long after being repaired as at first. Unless absolutely
necessary never patch, when darning will answer the purpose better. If
the garment is not too badly worn baste a piece of cloth, the same as
the material in the garment (or as near as possible) under the weakened
part and darn to this piece. One may back stitch with silk to match the
cloth, or make a small running stitch. When the entire part has been
thoroughly darned, turn the garment inside out and herringbone all
around the piece of cloth (or patch to the inside) being careful not to
allow stitches to show through on the outside. Press and they are ready
for wear. This is especially good when repairing the seat of trousers.

Tape is invaluable in repairing, as it may be used to strengthen weak
places and where buttons are to be sewed, acting as a stay, also saving
time of turning the edges of the cloth in, and is less clumsy.

Ruskin says, "Clothes carefully cared for, and rightly worn, show a
balance of mind and respect."

The freshness of a garment depends upon the care taken of it, and only
requires a few minutes each time they are taken off; they should be
carefully brushed, to remove all dust and dirt, removing all spots,
buttons sewed on and replaced when worn, new braid on the bottoms of
skirts, cleaning and pressing, making little necessary alterations. All
these little duties given proper attention, will keep a wardrobe fresh
and in good order.

It is not always the wear on the clothes, that tell so sadly upon them.
It is the care that they receive. A few garments, well made and properly
fitted, and good care taken of them, is far more preferable than a
number of inferior quality and make.

When clothing is laid away for another season, they should first be
thoroughly brushed, repaired, cleaned and pressed, to be ready for wear
when needed. If placed in bags or boxes, the moth preventative should be
sprinkled over freely. Tailors' boxes are very good to place garments
in, that are not in use, and should be labeled on the outside as to the
contents.

Fold all articles on the seams, if possible, being careful when folding
sleeves and collars. Coat lapels should be turned to lie flat; collars
turned up, and the coat folded in the center back seam, sleeves lying
together and on top of each other. Then fold in half crosswise, and
place in the box.

If fancy waists and coats are put in drawers, fill the sleeves with
tissue paper. This will prevent wrinkling.

To be well dressed, one's clothes must be of good material and fit well.
The length of waist, and full length should be in proportion to the
wearer, or as near fashion as good taste will permit. Sleeve the right
length, and hang properly, and to come to the root of the thumb. The
collar must fit close around the neck, the lapels should be neat and
even, the opening in front should close without bulging when buttoned,
and should have no cross wrinkles under the back of arms, and no
wrinkles below the collar. The whole appearance of the garment must be
easy, the chest should be of the athletic style (chesty), while the
waist should be close fitting and flat (not tight). The arm hole should
not be too deep so that the coat will remain in its proper position
while sitting as when standing. The buttonholes must be neat, and the
buttons sewed on good and strong with neck.

The overcoat should be easy, not clumsy, and of fashionable length,
sleeves to cover the under coat, and to fit close around the neck
(sleeves of a rain coat may be longer than those of an ordinary
overcoat), and must be the same length at front and back at bottom.

A vest should fit easy to allow the body to slip up and down, whether
sitting or stooping, more especially the former.

A great many people make the mistake by having their vests made snug.
One will never get a good fitting vest in this way. A vest should come
up close around the collar, and high enough, so that it will not crawl
under the linen collar, this may be avoided by having a good tailor make
one's clothes.

Trousers should be the proper length, and of ample size over the hips,
knee, and to fall gracefully over the shoe at the bottom, (some wear
them very short with cuff or French bottoms, this is a style for college
towns, and is not universal.) The waist should be the proper height and
size around, (for trousers worn without suspenders, the waist must fit
closer and cut shorter waisted). Stout men do not want their trousers
very long waisted and up under their arms, therefore great care must be
taken when selecting, cutting and making stout men's trousers. When
trying on a pair of trousers, or in fact any garment, stand before the
mirror in one's natural position, do not twist and turn, and cause
wrinkles to form all over the garment, and when looking at the trousers,
look at them in the mirror; do not look down upon them as many do, and
often condemn a good fitting pair of trousers, because by stooping and
looking down, wrinkles appear that when standing natural, hang smooth
and straight.



LESSON VIII.

FOLDING CLOTHES.


How to fold coats, vests, trousers, ladies' jackets, coats and skirts.
How to place each garment in boxes for storing, delivering, shipping,
the marking names and addresses on same.

How to fold all kinds of coats, for delivery, traveling, storing, or
shipping. Turn sleeves back to the collar, so that the folds come at the
bend of the elbow, now turn the lapels and fronts back over the folded
sleeves, then fold the skirts over and up level with the collar, so that
the crease will fold about the center of the garment, then double
one-half over the other so that the folds come in the center back seam.

=To fold vests=: Place two foreparts together right side out, having the
edges and side seams even and on top of each other, then fold back over
fronts of vest so that back seam lays perpendicular with the front edge,
straighten wrinkles out of shoulder. Then fold neck, or collar down
level with the bottom, so that the crease will fold about the center of
the garment, or bottom of arm hole.

=To fold trousers=: Place two top suspender buttons together and front
creases at bottoms even and on top of each other up and down the leg,
lay smooth on the table, then fold backs over on fronts to meet front
creases and taper to nothing, to about six inches above the knee, then
fold legs, bringing the bottoms up level with the top of trousers, so
that bend will come about the knee or half the entire length of
trousers. Then place in box for delivery. If, however, trousers are to
be placed in a paper package for delivery, or to be folded small for
packing, the following is an easy method, when backs are folded over to
meet the front creases, and legs are lying smooth on the table, divide
the entire length of the trousers in three parts making two folds, one
three inches below the seat line or fork, the other about fifteen inches
from the bottom, place in paper to deliver.

When a suit is to be placed in a box for delivery, lay trousers in
first, (folded as first explained), the vest next and the coat last,
place cover on box, and wrap with heavy cord to hold top and bottom
together, also for convenience when carrying.

Ladies' jackets and coats are folded the same as men's, either short or
long.

Ladies' skirts are folded in this manner, if plain, take front of waist
band in the right hand, and with the left find center front of skirt at
bottom, lay on table and fold front over to meet the center back seam of
skirt, then fold double and place in box or package, for delivery. When
skirt is plaited see that the plaits lay in the proper creases, and fold
as explained above, being careful not to make too small a package so as
not to crush.

The firm name should be printed on the cover of the box together with
these words, "Please unpack and place on hangers as soon as received."
This prevents clothes from wrinkling badly. The customer's name and
address should be written plainly in the space left for that purpose on
the cover of the box.

When sending a package by express or other carrying companies, it is
best to mark the value of the contents of the package on the cover.



LESSON IX.

TESTING WOOLEN CLOTH AND SILK.


=Testing woolen cloth and silk=: The great value of wool as a fibre,
lies in the fact that it is strong, elastic, soft and very susceptible
to dye stuffs, and being woven, furnishes a great number of air spaces,
thereby rendering clothing made from it very warm and light.

Wool may be dissolved completely by a warm solution of caustic soda.

Cloth may be tested by unravelling a corner of a piece of cloth,
lighting it with a match. If the flame runs along, and goes out, leaving
a brown ash, and is smooth when rubbed between the thumb and finger, it
contains cotton. If it burns and curls up into a ball at the end, and
goes out, and the ashes black like charcoal, and is gritty when rubbed
between the thumb and finger, it is a pretty sure indication, that it is
all wool.

The strength of a piece of cloth, may be tested by a thread removed from
the goods, by holding one end with the right hand, and the other with
the left. Pull, and if it breaks off short, it is not a strong piece of
goods, and would not wear well; but if it pulls out long and stringy,
and upon examination one finds the fiber from one to two inches long,
this may be considered a good piece of goods, and would wear well.

Silk may be tested by unravelling an end, and burning the threads. If
the ash is brown and is smooth when rubbed between the thumb and
finger, this would not be considered pure dye silk. If, however, when
lighted, it curls up into a ball at the end, and goes out, and the ash
black and when rubbed between the thumb and finger, and is gritty like
charcoal, one may feel sure that it is pure dye stuff and will give
excellent wear and will not crack.



LESSON X.

PRICE LIST FOR CLEANING AND PRESSING. REPAIRING AND RELINING EXTRA.


Price list for cleaning and pressing the following garments. Repairing
and relining =extra=:

     Business Suits, Tuxedos Suits, Dress Suits, Overcoats, Ladies'
     Coats and Jackets, $1.00 and upwards.

     Single Vests and Trousers, 25c. each and upward.

     Ladies' Skirts, 75 cents and upward.

     Coats, all kinds, steam or dry cleaned, $1.00 extra.

     Ladies' Coats, Jackets and Skirts, steam or dry cleaned $1.00
     extra.

     Vests and Trousers, 50 cents extra.

     Overcoats, all kinds, steam or dry cleaned, $1.00 to $2.00 extra.

     Relining Coats, $3.00 and upward; Vests, $1.25 and upward.

     New Waist Band Lining for Trousers, 75c. and upward.

     New Velvet Collars, $1.50 and upward.

     Single Velvet Collars to buy, cost from 50 cents upward.

     New Silk Facings, $3.00 and upward per yard.

     Body Lining costs from 50 cents upward per yard.

     Sateen Sleeve and Vest Lining costs from 25 cents upward per
     yard.

     Silk and Satin Linings cost from $2.00 and upward per yard.

     Velvet by the yard costs from $3.00 upward.

Workmen are usually paid from 20 cents to 30 cents per hour. Customers
are usually charged 50 cents per hour for time required to do the work.
All work done must be figured by the time required to do the work.



LESSON XI.

HOW TO DRESS AND WHAT TO WEAR.


=How to dress well.= The first thought to consider in supplying our
wardrobe, is the material. Let it be of good quality. Cheap stuff is
never good unless it is good quality at a low price.

One good suit of clothes, or dress, gives better satisfaction (in
lasting qualities, appearance and general makeup) than two suits at the
same price.

A well selected piece of goods, tailored by a reliable tailor, always
looks well, and may be kept repaired, cleaned and pressed into shape
occasionally, a fact that few men properly understand. While the low
priced suit never has the look of that of a well fitted tailored suit,
and cannot be kept looking as neat.

Made to order garments are always fitted and made better (if by a
reliable maker). In this way, one has the privilege of trying on and be
fitted; then when a perfect pattern has been made for you, your future
garments may be made from that pattern (changing the style of course,
but keeping the fitting points the same as the pattern.)

Men and women have their individual peculiarities, such as one shoulder
low, or one may be sloping shouldered, another square, erect and
stooping, etc. All these different variations must be taken into
consideration when making custom made garments (or garments made to
one's individual measurements), and all well dressed men and women
should have their garments made to order. They are more easily cleaned,
pressed and repaired, for their building and make up has been studied
and put together by skilled mechanics.

Men of limited capital who do not wish to spend much money on dress,
should wear dark materials for suitings. Dark morning suits may be worn
on many occasions when a light suit would be bad taste. Fashion should
be followed, but avoid extremes. The wrinkles and bags at the knees
should be pressed out frequently. Close woven cloth keeps its shape in
garments better. The vest should always be buttoned. Remove buttons on
all garments as soon as they show sign of wearing, and replace with new.

Skirted coats and vests should be made to fit closely around the waist,
and loose over the chest to give the wearer that athletic appearance.
This tends to make the wearer stand straighter.

On the other hand, if a coat or vest is tight over the chest, it tends
to make the wearer stoop. The carriage of men who do not wear
suspenders, is generally better than those who wear them.

When a single breasted coat or vest is too tight across the chest, in
many cases it is beyond remedy, as the tailor cannot add anything to the
front after the garment is completed.

Double breasted coats and vests, however, are different, on these; the
buttons may be moved a trifle toward the front edge, thereby giving more
breathing room over the chest, which is very much needed, and adds to
the appearance of the garment.

Single breasted sack overcoats, with fly front, are most desirable from
every point of view. The man of taste and refinement always selects dark,
quiet colors for his overcoats.

Men of taste who carry canes, select those that are strong, plain, light
and small. Large canes are in very bad taste for young men.

A white necktie should never be worn except with a full dress suit, save
by clergymen, and a few elderly men who never wear any other color.

A high silk hat should not be worn with a sack suit. A low hat should
not be worn with a double breasted frock or Prince Albert.

Straw hats should not be worn, only with light summer suits. Dark suits
are preferred on Sundays, especially in town, and light suits should
never be worn to church anywhere.

Double breasted frock coats should be made of black or grey materials.

At small informal gatherings, most men consider themselves sufficiently
dressed when they wear black frock coats and dark trousers. It is not
necessary for men to wear dress suits where ladies are required to be in
full dress. At public entertainments, restaurants and cafes, for
example, where the ladies wear their bonnets, the man who wears a black
frock coat, dark trousers, and light kid gloves, is better dressed;
because more appropriately, than he, who wears a full dress suit.

'Tis true, the practice of wearing such a suit occasions additional
expense, as otherwise a business suit, or walking suit, and a dress suit
may be made to serve all occasions.

When at home, every man goes in for comfort, however it will be well to
remember that it is not polite to appear at the table, whether they are
strangers or not, or will show himself to any one with whom he is not on
a familiar footing, in his shirt sleeves.

A gentleman for an evening visit, should always be in evening dress.
Dress coat, vest and trousers, white linen and white cravat (a black
cravat is permissible, but not in full dress.)

For a dinner party, ball or opera, a man must wear a white cravat. Watch
fob is very fashionable.

On Sunday afternoons and evening at home, gentlemen are permitted to
wear frock coats, and to regard the day as an "off" one, unless invited
to a grand dinner, then you must wear the dress suit.

Men are always ungloved, except when riding or driving.

Colored shirts and flannel shirts are worn in the morning, often until
the dinner hour in the summer, and it is proper to go to an informal
breakfast in the informal dress of the tennis ground.

For a formal luncheon, a man must dress himself in black frock coat, a
colored necktie, and grey or drab stripe trousers, and white shirt.

For lawn tennis,--flannel shirts, rough coats, knickerbockers, long
grey, woolen stockings, and string shoes.

Simplicity, neatness, and fitness mark the gentleman.

Good clothes, manners, breeding, and education, admit one to the better
circles of society. It is not sufficient to do as others do, but we must
dress as they do when we go out in the world.

He is best dressed, whose dress attracts least attention, and in order
to attract attention, one's dress must be seasonable, appropriate, and
conform to the prevailing fashion, without going to extreme, and to
appear comfortable.

=Evening Dress=:--For all formal events after six o'clock, balls, formal
dinners, opera and theater, receptions and weddings.

     Overcoat--Chesterfield, Inverness, or Skirted.

     Coat--Evening dress coat.

     Waistcoat--White or black, single or double breasted. Ribbed silk,
     or flowered patterns of satin and silk.

     Trousers--To match coat, outside seam trimmed with silk braid,
     fitting a trifle closer over the hips than for ordinary wear,
     medium width knees and bottoms.

     Shirts and Cuffs--Plain white, ruffled or plaited bosoms, corded
     stripes, attached cuffs, domestic finish.

     Collars--Standing, Poke or lap front.

     Neckwear--White corded stripe or lawn, string with broad round
     ends.

     Gloves--White or Pearl, Grey glace, one button, self-stitched.

     Jewelry--Plain or Moonstone studs, and links.

     Hat--Silk, cloth band or opera for theater.

     Shoes--Varnished calfskin or patent leather button tops or patent
     leather ties for balls.

     Style--Peaked broad lapels, rolling to waist with two buttons on
     each side, natural shoulders, chesty effect.

     Material--Undressed worsted, English twill or shadow-stripe, in
     black or dark blue.

=Informal=:--Evening dress, for all informal occasions, club, stag, and
at home dinners, theaters and informal dinners.

     Coat--Evening jacket, Tuxedo.

     Waist coat--To match coat, dove grey; black corded silk for winter,
     white for summer, single or double breasted, opening cut "V"
     shaped.

     Trousers--To match coat.

     Shirts--Plaited, or may be of soft or negligee style. Attached
     cuffs, domestic finish.

     Collars--High band, fold or wing.

     Neckwear--String, fancy figured, black or grey ground with black
     figures, or to match material in waist coat, knot drawn tight, and
     wide ends.

     Gloves--Grey, Suede, or tan.

     Jewelry--To match buttons of waist coat, dull chased gold stud,
     links, watch fob and seal.

     Hat--Soft or derby.

     Shoes--Patent or enamel leather, button tops, or ties.

     Style--Chesty effect, shoulders trifle wider than natural, shawl
     collar or peaked lapels rolling low and fronts well cut away below
     bottom button.

     Material--Plain or striped unfinished worsted, black, dark, blue or
     Oxford.

=Informal Day Dress=:--For ordinary occasions, before six o'clock and
Sundays.

     Overcoat--Chesterfield.

     Coat--Morning or Cutaway.

     Waist coat--To match coat, single or double breasted, or quiet
     pattern of fancy vestings.

     Trousers--Dark narrow grey or light stripe worsted or cassimere.

     Shirts and Cuffs--Plain white, attached cuffs.

     Collar--Poke lap front or wing.

     Neckwear--Ascot, once over or four-in-hand in somber effects.

     Gloves--Tan or grey.

     Jewelry--Gold links and studs, scarfpin, with watch guard.

     Hat--High silk.

     Shoes--Varnished calfskin, patent leather, button tops and light
     colored spats.

     Style--Chesty, effect, oval lapels, with concave edge, shoulders
     trifle wider than natural, and wadding on extreme points, to give
     square effect; roll low.

     Material--Unfinished worsted, diagonal or plain Vicuna.

=Day Dress=:--For all occasions, before six o'clock; afternoon calls,
church, day weddings, receptions, and matinees.

     Overcoat--Chesterfield.

     Coat--Morning frock, for informal, double breasted frock or Prince
     Albert for formal occasions.

     Waist Coat--Double or single breasted, to match the coat, or quiet
     fancy vesting, avoiding extremes.

     Trousers--Dark narrow stripe worsted, moderately close fitting with
     slight hip fullness.

     Shirt and Cuffs--Plain white, round or square cornered, attached
     cuffs.

     Collar--Poke, lap front or wing.

     Neckwear--Ascot, black or white effect, once over, white or Pearl.

     Gloves--Brown, light tan, self-figured, closed with one button.

     Jewelry--Gold links, and studs, gold watch guard, and scarfpin.

     Hat--High silk, cloth band.

     Shoes--Varnished calfskin, or patent leather, button top with light
     colored spats.

     Style--Chesty effect, oval lapels, with small rounded corners, roll
     low, shoulders trifle wider than natural, raising extreme points
     with wadding.

     Material--Unfinished worsted, or diagonal, in black or Oxford.

=Morning and Business Dress=:--For general wear during business hours.

     Overcoat--Chesterfield, Newmarket, Covert or top coat.

     Coat--Sack or morning.

     Waist Coat--Single breasted, with or without a collar, to match
     coat or fancy vesting.

     Trousers--To match coat, or striped worsted or cassimere with
     morning coat.

     Shirts and Cuffs--White or colored shirt, stiff or soft bosom,
     attached cuffs.

     Collars--Wing or high band turndown.

     Neckwear--Once over, Ascot, four-in-hand or Imperial.

     Gloves--Tan or grey.

     Jewelry--Gold links and studs, scarfpin and watch guard.

     Hats--Derby or Alpine with sacks, high silk or derby with morning
     coat.

     Shoes--Calfskin, high or low cut.

     Style--Single or double breasted for sacks, chesty athletic
     effect, two or three buttons, morning or English walking coat with
     flaps on side.

     Material--Fancy suitings for sacks. Plain or fancy weave for
     morning coats. Blue, brown or grey mixtures for sacks; grey or
     Oxford for morning dress.

=Seashore and Lounging Dress=:--For summer wear only.

     Coat--Norfolk or lounge coat.

     Belt--Pig or monkey skin.

     Trousers--To match coat or fancy stripe flannel.

     Shirts--Colored negligee, cuffs attached, Madras or Oxford.

     Collar--Fold collar.

     Neckwear--Four-in-hand, or soft silk tie.

     Jewelry--Scarfpin, gold links, stud buttons.

     Hats--Straw, Alpine or golf cap.

     Shoes--Low shoes of calfskin.

     Style--Norfolk coat, skeleton lined, single or double breasted
     sack.

     Material--Tropical worsted or Tweed, flannel Shetland or homespun.
     Brown, grey and mixtures.

=Outing Dress=:--For golf and other sports:

     Overcoats--Peajacket, short Covert or top coat.

     Coat--Norfolk jacket or lounge coat.

     Waist Coat--Double breasted, with or without collar, to match coat,
     flannel or fancy knit.

     Trousers--Knickerbockers, for fall and winter, striped flannel,
     Tweed or homespun matching coat for spring and summer.

     Shirts--Colored negligee, cuffs attached, Madras or Oxford sweater.

     Collar--Soft fold, self-collar or stock.

     Neckwear--Tie or stock.

     Gloves--Tan or chamois, wool knit, heavy golfing gloves.

     Jewelry--Scarfpin, links, with watch guard.

     Hat--Soft felt or cap.

     Shoes--Calf or russet.

     Style--Norfolk with box plaits, yoke and belt or plain sack, chesty
     effect.

     Material--Tweeds, flannel, or homespun, brown, grey and mixtures.

=Driving or Motoring Dress=:

     Overcoat--Burberry of wax waterproof cloth, or duster of linen or
     rubber silk.

     Coat--Norfolk or double breasted sack.

     Waist Coat--Matching coat, flannel or fancy knit.

     Trousers--Knickerbockers or trousers of flannel, Tweed or homespun,
     matching coat; breeches and leggings for motoring.

     Shirts--Fancy flannel. Cheviot or Madras sweater, soft.

     Collar--Soft fold self-collar or stock.

     Neckwear--Stock or tie.

     Gloves--Tan or chamois, soft cape gauntlets, tan or black for the
     motor car.

     Jewelry--Links, scarfpin and watch guard.

     Hat--Soft felt or cap, French chauffeur cap with leather visor for
     motoring.

     Shoes--Calfskin or russet with leggins for automobiling.

     Style--Semi-Norfolk jacket of wax (waterproof) cloth.

     Material--Tweed, flannel or homespun, Oxford, grey or tan.

=Women's Dress=:

Formal dress, for all occasions after six o'clock--weddings, receptions,
formal dinners, theater and balls, high neck, long skirt, hat, coat, and
gloves, and evening slippers.

For morning and afternoon wear, the tailor made suit with short skirt;
for afternoon, the long skirt, hat, high dress walking boot, patent
leather, lace or button with cloth tops.

For outing wear, the coat sweater for skating, golfing, and hockey.

For misses' and children's dresses made of the same material, short
skirts; the coats may cover the dress, or may be three-quarters or
seven-eighths long, may be single or double breasted, to button high
around the neck or roll low.

For house wear, the plain tailored shirt waist suit in becoming colors
are good form.

For school and street wear, the short skirt, coat three-quarters or
seven-eighths long and made of rough material is the more stylish, and
is made in a variety of styles.

Gloves for evening wear, Suede, Mousquetaire, elbow and above; length
arranging in buttons from eight to twenty-four. In tan, mode, slate,
pearl, lavender, yellow, black, and white.

Walking gloves, Havana, Smyrna, tan, oak and mahogany, with two or three
buttons, clasps.

Auto gauntlets, buck and cape skin gauntlets in slate, oak and black.

For automobiling, double and single breasted long loose coats, made in a
variety of styles, water and dust proof, plain or fancy trimmed, with
wind cuffs inside of sleeves, with velvet collars and cuffs.

Material used are rubber faced goods, Mohairs, Chambrays, Satins,
Oxfords and Tan plaids, changeable silks and Crepe de Chines.

When selecting goods for dresses or jackets, bear in mind that stripes
lengthen, plaids, checks and light materials broaden, and enlarge the
person's appearance.

=Boys' and youths' clothing from four to eighteen.= The materials used
for boys' suits, include all the staple cloths, such as unfinished
worsteds in stripes and plaids, tweeds, dark and blue serge, plain
cheviots, and Scotch mixtures, homespun and corduroy.

The sailor suit is more suitable for the younger boy, and may be made of
various materials, such as white, blue, and brown serge or cheviot, and
trimmed with braid in a variety of styles, as occasion require and
surroundings permit.

The most favorite style for the boy who has outgrown the sailor suit, is
the Norfolk coat, single or double breasted, with double or single box
plaits, made with or without straight or pointed yoke.

The next in popularity, comes the double or single breasted sack coat;
with this and the above, bloomers may be worn, finished at the knee with
a buckled band.

The straight trousers are much worn and preferred by some boys, and are
considered more dressy when worn with a plaited skirt bosom with
attached cuffs, pointed Eaton collar, and a narrow four-in-hand scarf
and patent or dull leather shoes.

For every day wear, the plain negligee shirt with yoke back and attached
cuffs are worn. With this style shirt, the younger boys from eight to
twelve, wear the stiff linen or soft white pique, Eaton collar with
round or square corners, or a turn down collar of which the latter is
most popular.

The Windsor bow or the narrow four-in-hand scarf may be worn with the
Eaton collar.

For outing, a soft flannel negligee style made perfectly plain, with
straight attached or the new turn back cuffs, a soft turn down collar
attached to the shirt is preferred by some, while others wear the
separate linen collar, and have the neck band finished plain. This style
of white turndown collar may be worn on all occasions until the age of
eighteen, at which time, he may wear almost any style on the maturer
man, providing his size will permit.

The plaited shirt bosom is the more dressy style, and may be of white or
light colors, with stripes and figures or in solid colors. Young boys do
not wear attached cuffs until they are twelve years old, and only then
if full grown.

For small parties, dancing classes or weddings, a boy under sixteen may
wear a dark blue serge double breasted sack suit or the Norfolk style
with bloomers or straight trousers.

A plain white or finely striped white plaited shirt with turn-over
collar and dark narrow four-in-hand scarf is in good taste with dull
leather or patent leather Oxfords.

=Boys' overgarments=:--For boys up to twelve, wear the straight double
breasted box overcoat; for the older boy, they may be semi-fitting and
slightly tapering at the waist, and medium length; storm coats are very
long and much box, the materials include fancy Tweeds, Diagonals,
Cheviots, Beaver and Kerseys.

At the age of fifteen or sixteen, a boy will require a more distinctive
type of evening dress, and for these, the Tuxedo or Dinner Coat is most
recommended. The Tuxedo or Dinner Suit may be made of unfinished
worsted, diagonal, twills, in black or dark blue, with pointed lapels or
shawn collar, silk or satin faced to the edge, and finished with one
button.

A black or grey vest may be worn with black tie, but if the occasion be
very formal, a white vest and white tie may be substituted, with patent
leather pumps.

After a boy has reached the age of eighteen or nineteen, he may adopt
the styles of men in scarfs, waist coats, evening clothes, gloves, etc.



LESSON XII.

BUSINESS ETIQUETTE.


Business etiquette. Your duty to your customer requires you to treat
them with respect, to do the work to the best of your ability, to give
them the best work of your head and hands, and to treat your customers
with politeness to show a disposition to please and be a lady or
gentleman at all times.

Be independent, but not impertinent.

Do your best to please your customers. Never promise to have garments
finished at a given time unless you intend to have them finished at the
time promised, and never disappoint a customer if it can possibly be
avoided.

Never misrepresent. A reputation for integrity is of almost or quite as
much value in your business as a reputation for skill and taste.

Your most valuable customers are refined ladies and gentlemen; you will
do well therefore to bear in mind that gentlemen love gentlemen.

Do not breathe in a customer's face.

Dress well, and let your linen be clean; your garments kept well
cleaned, pressed and repaired.

Your appearance is a part of your capital in the way of getting
business.

When you have garments that have been ready for customers one month,
notify them, saying that you will hold them for thirty days longer. Say
that in the meantime you wish they would call for them.

Everything for the cleaning, repairing and pressing of clothes may be
had at this office. Send samples or explanation of what is required and
price list will be forwarded to any address. These goods are sold at the
lowest possible margin of profit for handling same, and only to those of
our students who have bought the method.

The following is a partial list of what may be had:

Press-jacks, tables, irons, sponge cloths prepared, brushes, scissors,
sewing machines, mirrors, desks, chairs, coat, vest, trouser, jacket,
and skirt hangers, racks to hang clothes on, chalk, needles, thimbles,
tape measures, basting cotton, linen thread, silk thread, buttonhole
twist, buttons for coats, vests and trousers to match cloth. Sleeve
linings for undercoats, vests, overcoats, waist band lining for
trousers, for ladies' jackets and coats. All kinds of silk and satins
for body linings, heavy silk facings, for Tuxedos, Prince Alberts, and
dress coats; velvet collars, any size, silesias, sateens, rubber tissue,
buckles, haircloth, canvas, beeswax, cleaning fluids, moth preventative,
and anything used by the cleaner and presser.


       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber's Note:

* Apparent spelling and printer's errors normalised.

* Text enclosed between equal signs was in bold face in the original
(=bold=).

* Index had entries for pages 20 and 21 (including page numbers)
reversed in the original.





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