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Title: Narrative of a Voyage to India; of a Shipwreck on board the Lady Castlereagh; and a Description of New South Wales
Author: Cramp, W. B.
Language: English
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                              NARRATIVE

                                OF A

                           VOYAGE TO INDIA;

                                OF A

                              SHIPWRECK

                    ON BOARD THE LADY CASTLEREAGH;

                                AND A

                  _DESCRIPTION OF NEW SOUTH WALES_.



                           BY W. B. CRAMP.



                               LONDON:

 PRINTED FOR SIR RICHARD PHILLIPS AND Co. BRIDE-COURT, BRIDGE-STREET.

                                1823.

       *       *       *       *       *



NARRATIVE

OF A

VOYAGE TO INDIA,

&c. &c. &c.

       *       *       *       *       *



SECTION I.

     THE AUTHOR'S DEPARTURE FROM ENGLAND--DESCRIPTION OF THE
     CEREMONY ON CROSSING THE EQUINOCTIAL LINE, AND HIS ARRIVAL
     AT MADRAS.


On the 8th or 9th of January, 1815, we proceeded, in the Princess
Charlotte, Indiaman, to North-fleet Hope, and received on board our
cargo. On February 28th, we sailed to Gravesend, in company with the
Company's ships Ceres, Lady Melville, Rose, and Medcalfe, and arrived
at the Downs on the 3d of March. Our dispatches not being expected for
some time, we moored ship. Our time passed on very pleasantly till the
27th inst., when the weather became rather boisterous, and accompanied
by a heavy swell. On the evening of the 28th, as the Hon. Company's
ship Tarva, from Bengal, was rounding the Foreland, she struck on the
Goodwin Sands, and was forced to cut away her masts to lighten her,
and get her clear off. The Ceres drifted almost on board us; we
slipped our cables, and with difficulty escaped the Goodwin Sands.

On the 1st of April the pursers joined their respective ships, and on
the 3d we made sail with a fair breeze, and soon cleared the English
channel. Nothing was now heard but confusion; the pilot having just
left the ship, the hoarse voice of the captain resounded through a
speaking trumpet, while the seamen were busy in making sail. We had a
fine steady breeze till we made the Bay of Biscay, when we had a
strong gale for three days.

After the hurry and bustle of the gale was over, we had a fine steady
breeze; I then began to feel an inward pleasure, and to rejoice in the
predilection I had imbibed from my earliest years.

We arrived on the equinoctial about eight o'clock in the evening of
the 19th of April, when one of the oldest seamen is deputed Neptune;
when he went into the head and hailed the ship in the usual form,
Ship, hoa! ship, hoa! what ship is that? The chief officer replied,
The Hon. Company's ship Princess Charlotte of Wales, and that he would
be glad of his company on the morrow. Gladly would I have dispensed
with it. On his quitting the vessel, as is supposed, a pitch cask was
thrown overboard on fire, which had the appearance of a boat till lost
to view.

The next morning, about nine A. M., Neptune hailed the ship again,
when he was invited on board (from the head). On the fore-part of the
gang-way and after-part of the long-boat, a boom was placed across,
and a tarpauling was hung in form of a curtain, so that when they were
in readiness they took it down, and the procession moved on towards
the cuddy, twelve of the officers walking in the front, two by two
with staves (broomsticks); next followed Neptune's car, (a grating
with a chair covered with sheep skins) with Neptune, and his wife and
child, (a recruit's child, as we had 250 on board, of his majesty's
46th regiment) Neptune bearing in his hand the granes with forks
uppermost, and the representation of a dolphin on the middle prong,
and Neptune's footman riding behind (barber) his carriage, dragged by
the constables. The captain and officers came out to meet him, and
presented him with a glass of gin, which was on this occasion termed
wine. After the captain's health was drank, he desired them to proceed
to business, and to make as much haste as possible; they then
proceeded to the starboard gang-way, and Neptune placed himself upon
his throne (on the boom, close to the long-boat and wash-deck tub) the
slush tub being filled with balls, and lather made of slush, and the
barber standing ready to begin his work with a razor made of a long
piece of iron hoop well notched; the engine was brought on the quarter
deck, and began to play, to force those below that had not crossed the
line. I had not been long below before an officer from Neptune came to
me, and demanded me, in his name to appear before him at the starboard
gang-way, whose summons must not be disobeyed. On my arrival at the
gang-way, the usual questions were asked me, whether I had been that
way before? Without waiting for an answer they placed me on the
wash-deck tub, and the barber rubbed me with the back of his razor and
then let me go, upon my previously having given an order upon my
bottle.

I had hardly got upon the poop, when one of the men was brought upon
deck who was neither beloved by the men nor officers; they then placed
him upon the tub, and asked him several questions, and while he was in
the act of answering them, they thrust some black balls into his
mouth, and then rubbed his face and neck over with lather, and scraped
it in an unmerciful manner till the blood run in several places; they
next pushed him into the tub of water and kept him under for the space
of a minute, which tended to smart and inflame the wounds. It was at
least a fortnight before he could wash himself perfectly clean; but
now several more shared the same fate. The sun was setting fast before
the amusements of the day were finished. The clouds presented the most
beautiful appearance, and the rippling of the sea, together with the
flying fish, scudding along the surface of the water, afforded the
mariner a great field of thought. At so grand a display of the great
and wonderful works of God, what mortal can be unmoved, or deny the
existence of a BEING which nature herself proclaims!

The evening was very fine and beautifully star-light, and the moon
shone with resplendent brightness. After the company had withdrawn to
their evening refreshments, I amused myself with walking on the
solitary poop. The sea appeared to be an immense plain, and presented
a watery mirror to the skies. The infinite height above the firmament
stretched its azure expanse, bespangled with unnumbered stars, and
adorned with the moon '_walking in brightness_;' while the transparent
surface both received and returned her silver image. Here, instead of
being covered with sackcloth,[A] she shone with resplendent lustre; or
rather with a lustre multiplied in proportion to the number of
beholders.

[Footnote A: I must be excused for the ideal extravagance of
"clothing" this nocturnal luminary in "SACKCLOTH," on adverting to
that unlimited flight of poetic imagination, which speaks of "_Heaven
peeping through the blanket of the deep_." _Vide Shakspeare's
Macbeth._]

Such I think is the effect of exemplary behaviour in persons of
exalted rank; their course as it is nobly distinguished, so it will be
happily influential; others will catch the diffusive rays, and be
ambitious to resemble a pattern so commanding. Their amiable qualities
will not terminate in themselves, but we shall see them reflected in
their families.

My readers, I trust, will not wonder at my meditations on these
sublunary objects, when they consider that they are the seaman's
guide, and from them the greatest sources of nautical information are
derived.

In the midst of these pleasing reveries, I was aroused by the ship
being taken a-back, the watch being completely intoxicated, and it was
only with difficulty that they could do their duty. Nothing material
happened till our arrival at the Cape, when we experienced a severe
gale for three days. The sea being heavy, she pitched her portals
under water. We were running at the rate of ten knots per hour, under
bare poles; and we soon after made the trade winds.

On the 23d of June we arrived in Madras roads; from the deck the view
of the land has a magnificent appearance; the different offices have,
to the beholder, the appearance of stone, and they are formed along
the beach in a beautiful manner; they are built with piazzas and
verandahs, and they extend about one mile along a sandy beach, while
the natives parading along the shore, and the surf spraying upon the
beach, gave the scene a very picturesque appearance. The surf beats
here with so much violence that it is impossible for any ship's boats
to land without being dashed to pieces.

On our making land we espied a small craft, called a kattamaran,
making towards us; it was manned with two of the natives naked, except
a handkerchief round their waist, and a straw round cap (turban) made
with a partition in it to keep letters dry. This bark is made of three
long hulls of trees, about ten or twelve feet in length, tied together
with a rope so as to make in the centre a little hollow; they sit upon
their knees in the centre, and have a long flat piece of wood, about
five feet in length and five inches in width, which they hold in the
centre, and keep continually in motion, first on one side and then on
the other, and in that manner they force the kattamaran swiftly
through the water.

It is very remarkable that these poor creatures risk themselves
through the surf for a mere trifle, to carry letters for the different
commanders to their respective vessels, at a time when the surf is at
a dreadful height. When these poor fellows lay themselves flat on the
kattamaran, and then trust themselves to the mercy of the surf, they
are often driven back with great force, and they as often venture
again, till they effect their purpose. They generally get their living
by fishing, which is done by hook and line, and they offer them
alongside the different ships for sale.

For two days the surf being so violent no boats could come off; but
early on the third morning there were several came off with debashees
(merchants) on board. They brought such things as might be wanted by
the ship's company and officers. Their boats are made to carry
passengers and cargo. There is not a vestige of a nail to be seen in
them, their seams, instead of being nailed, are sewed together with
coir rope; and they are generally manned with six or eight men.



SECTION II.

     THE AUTHOR'S DEPARTURE FROM MADRAS AND ARRIVAL AT
     BENGAL--DEPARTURE THEREFROM--HIS VESSEL RUNS ASHORE ON THE
     PULICAT SHOALS, AND GETS SAFE AFLOAT AGAIN, AFTER BEATING
     SIX HOURS AND FORTY MINUTES--HIS SAFE ARRIVAL AT MADRAS, AND
     DESCRIPTION OF THE DIVERS--ARRIVAL AT BOMBAY--THE SHIP BEING
     DOCKED, THE AUTHOR IS SENT TO BUTCHER'S ISLAND WITH THE
     SHIP'S COMPANY--A DESCRIPTION OF THE ISLAND OF
     ELEPHANTA--HIS JOINING THE SHIP AFTER HER LEAVING THE
     DOCK--HIS WORDS WITH HIS COMMANDER, AND BEING TURNED BEFORE
     THE MAST IN CONSEQUENCE--HIS DEPARTURE FROM BOMBAY, AND
     AFTER A SHORT PERIOD HE IS REPLACED IN HIS FORMER
     SITUATION--AND ARRIVES AT MADRAS.


We sailed from Madras, August 23d, and arrived at Bengal on the 30th.
The scenery on the entrance up the river was indeed sublime, and
inspired us with a sensation of gratitude to the Giver of all good. I
went up to Calcutta with a craft of cargo; but having been sent down
immediately, I could form no idea of the place.

On the 20th December we sailed from Bengal bound to Madras, in company
with the Honourable Company's ship Marquis of Wellington. We kept
a-head of her on the morning of the 25th, till she was almost mast
down, and expected to bring-to about twelve o'clock in the Madras
roads; but our expectations were greatly damped by the following
circumstances:--At 8 A. M. the ship struck on the Pulicat rocks with
such great violence, as to knock almost every man off his legs; the
lead was immediately called, which, to the disgrace of some one, was
not on deck; in the course of two minutes she struck again with as
much violence as before; sail was immediately taken in, and after
sounding, we found we drew about three and a half feet water. We then
made signal of distress, by hoisting the ensign union downwards, and
firing a gun. The Marquis of Wellington by this time hove in sight;
all was confusion and consternation, the ship having beat several
times with great violence. The Wellington hove to, and sent their
cutter with four men and a second mate to our assistance, and then
made sail and passed us, without rendering us any other assistance.
The pinnace and long-boats, booms and spars, were immediately sent
over the side, and the kedge-anchor was placed in the long-boat; but
she leaked so very fast, that with all the united efforts of the
seamen they could not keep her above water.

The weather was now very cloudy and black, and threatened a severe
gale; so that our present situation became very disagreeable, as no
assistance could be rendered us off shore, should necessity require
it. But owing to the exertions of the officers and men, we effectually
swung her head to the wind, which was blowing strong from the shore,
and by 7 P. M. we anchored safe in the roads.

On the following morning we were busily employed in discharging our
cargo and sending it on board its destined ships, (Honourable
Company's ships Stratham and Rose.) After our clearance, the divers
were expected from off shore, to examine the damage the ship's bottom
had received; but, owing to the inclemency of the weather, it was
impossible for them to get off from shore.

A seaman on board, by birth a West Indian, engaged to dive under the
ship's bottom, and to acquaint us with the state of it, which was
gladly accepted. In his youth he had been a fisherman on the coast of
the island of Jamaica: the weather being rough, it was thought unsafe
for him to venture; but on the following morning, it being quite calm,
he prepared himself for his expedition: after he had jumped overboard,
he walked, or rather trod water, round the ship; he informed us the
copper was much battered above water, and in many places whole sheets
of it were broken off; and after he had made us perfectly acquainted
with the damages we had received above, he dived under her counter,
and abreast of the after, main, and fore hatchways;--when he came on
board, he informed us, that about twelve feet of our false-keel was
knocked off, and about six feet of our copper abreast of the
main-hatchway, besides a quantity of copper in different places, all
of which we found to be true after we were docked.

We received considerable damage on board; the bolts were started from
her side about three inches, and the main-beams sprung. Three days
after he had dived, the captain came on board with two native divers,
and several officers of the different vessels lying in the roads, to
survey the ship. When they went under they brought up the same
account as our man had first given. After about an hour's
consultation, our ship was ordered to Bombay to be docked, it being
the most convenient one for a ship of our burden. In a few days after
we proceeded on our passage, and arrived in safety, keeping the pumps
in continual motion during our passage.

The Island of Bombay is situated on the west coast of the ocean, and
one of the three Presidencies belonging to the Honourable East India
Company, and is in Lat. 18° 55' N. and Lon. 72° 54' E. of Greenwich.
As soon as we had discharged all our cargo, and the ship was docked,
the ship's company and officers were sent to Butcher's Island.

Butcher's Island is a small island situated about four miles and a
half to the westward of Bombay, and is in circumference about one mile
and a half, and has been a very formidable garrison. In the centre is
a small fort and two barracks, the latter we took possession of for
the ship's company. Soon after our landing on the island, a party of
us went over to the Island of Elephanta.

The Island of _Elephanta_ is about one mile and a half to the west of
Butcher's Island, and is inhabited by 100 poor Indian families. It
contains one of the most stupendous antiquities in the world: the
figure of an elephant of the natural size, cut coarsely in black
stone, appears in an open plain, near the landing place, from which an
easy slope leads to an immense subterraneous cavern, hewn out of the
solid rock, eighty or ninety feet long and forty broad, the roof of
which is cut flat, and supported by regular rows of pillars, about ten
feet high, with capitals resembling round cushions, and at the farther
end of it are three gigantic figures, mutilated by the bigoted zeal of
the Portuguese, when this island was in their possession. After
spending the day very pleasantly we returned.

The Sergeant (an old invalid) who had charge of the fort, had a
beautiful little garden; thither in the morning I frequently resorted,
to enjoy one of the most charming pieces of morning scenery that I had
ever witnessed.

    "Awake! the morning shines, and the fresh fields
    Call you; ye lose the prime to mark how spring
    The tender plants; how blows the citron grove;
    What drops the myrrh, and what the balmy reed;
    How nature paints her colours; how the bee
    Sits on the bloom, extracting liquid sweets."

                                 MILTON'S PARADISE LOST.

How delightful this fragrance. It is distributed in the nicest
proportion; neither so strong as to depress the organs, nor so faint
as to elude them. We are soon cloyed at a sumptuous banquet, but this
pleasure never loses its poignancy, never palls the appetite; here
luxury itself is innocent; or rather, in this case, indulgence is not
capable of excess. Our amusements for the forenoon were our nautical
studies, and in the afternoon officers and men joined in cricket. In
the evening, after my duty of the day was dispatched, and the sultry
heats were abated, I enjoyed the recreation of a walk in one of the
finest recesses of the Island, and in one of the pleasantest evenings
which the season produced.

The trees uniting their branches over my head, formed a verdant
canopy, and cast a most refreshing shade; under my feet lay a carpet
of Nature's velvet; grass intermingled with moss, and embroidered with
the evening dew; jessamines, united with woodbines, twined around the
trees, displaying their artless beauties to the eye, and diffusing
their delicious sweets through the air. On either side, the boughs
rounding into a set of regular arches, opened a view into the distant
seas, and presented a prospect of the convex heavens. The little birds
all joyous and grateful for the favours of the light, were paying
their acknowledgments in a tribute of harmony, and soothing themselves
to rest with songs. All these beauties of Nature were for a while
withdrawn. The stars served to alleviate the frown of night, rather
than to recover the objects from their obscurity. A faint ray scarcely
reflected, and only gave the straining eye a very imperfect glimpse.

The day following that the ship came out of dock we joined her. Our
labours were now unremitted, to get her in readiness for sea. Amidst
all our exertions it was impossible to give any satisfaction; our
chief mate was very arbitrary, and vented his spleen upon the
defenceless midshipmen, besides making the backs of the poor seamen
sore with _starting_. Starting is a term used for rope's-ending a man,
or otherwise laying a _Point_ severely across their shoulders till
they have not the strength to wield it any longer; a point is a flat
platted rope, made for the purpose of taking in reefs, or otherwise to
fasten the sail upon the yards.

At length my life became so truly miserable, that I was determined in
my own mind not to endure it, if there was any possibility of avoiding
it. For that purpose I wrote on board his Majesty's frigate,
Revolutionnaire, for a situation, when Captain Wolcombe generously
offered me one, provided I could get permission of Captain Craig to
leave my present ship. I was at length forced to leave Bombay,
through this and other circumstances.

On our arrival at Madras every preparation was made for receiving our
cargo on board, which was speedily done, and in a short time was ready
for sea.



SECTION III.

     THE AUTHOR'S DEPARTURE FROM MADRAS, DESCRIPTION OF A
     WATER-SPOUT--HIS ARRIVAL AT ST. HELENA AND DEPARTURE
     THEREFROM, ARRIVAL IN ENGLAND--JOINS HIS MAJESTY'S TRANSPORT
     SHIP, TOTTENHAM, BOUND FOR NEW SOUTH WALES--HER RUNNING ON
     SHORE IN THE RIVER AND PUTTING BACK TO DOCK--HE AFTERWARDS
     JOINS HIS MAJESTY'S TRANSPORT SHIP, LADY CASTLEREAGH. HIS
     DEPARTURE FROM DEPTFORD AND ARRIVAL AT PORTSMOUTH--HIS
     DEPARTURE THEREFROM AND ARRIVAL AT NEW SOUTH WALES.


As soon as our dispatches were in readiness, we proceeded on our
passage for England; the morning was beautiful, and as the men were
heaving up the anchor, my heart felt an inward sensation of joy and
gratitude to our Creator, that he had been pleased to bring us so far
safe on our voyage; we made sail with a steady breeze, and soon lost
sight of land. After we had been at sea about two days, close on our
weather-bow we observed a water-spout; when we first saw it, it was
whole and entire, and was in shape like a speaking trumpet, the small
end downwards, and reaching to the sea, and the large end terminating
in a black thick cloud: the spout itself was very black, and the more
so the higher up; it seemed to be exactly perpendicular to the
horizon, and its sides perfectly smooth, without the least ruggedness
where it fell. The spray of the sea rose to a considerable height,
which had somewhat the appearance of smoke; from the first time we saw
it, it continued whole about a minute, and till it was quite
dissipated three minutes; it began to waste from below, and gradually
up, while the upper part remained entire, without any visible
alteration, till at last it ended in black clouds, upon which a heavy
rain fell in the neighbourhood. There was but little wind, and the sky
was otherwise serene.

On our rounding the Cape we experienced a very heavy gale, which
continued for the space of ten days. We arrived at St. Helena in about
ten days after clearing the Cape of Good Hope.

The approach to this Island is tremendous, it being an immense large
rock in the midst of the sea, on which there is not the least
appearance of verdure, houses, or indeed any sign of inhabitants, till
you arrive at the anchorage, which is to leeward of the Island; and in
turning round the corner of the rock is a fort, close to the water's
edge, from whence they make all ship's heave to, till they have sent a
boat on board from the Admiral; and in case no attention is paid to
their signal, they fire a shot. After proceeding a little way, the
town is discovered in the midst of a valley, and has a very
picturesque appearance.

The produce of the Island is potatoes and yams. The yams are used in
time of great scarcity of wheat, for bread; the inhabitants are under
the necessity of boiling them 12 hours and baking them, before they
can eat them; and in fact, many of the Islanders prefer them to bread.
The coast produces an amazing quantity of fish, particularly mackarel,
which are in great abundance, and run in shoals about six fathom under
water. At this time Napoleon resided at Longwood.

After staying here 12 days, we proceeded on our passage to England,
and arrived there in six weeks and two days.--The distressed state of
England, and scarcity of employment determined me again to try my
fortune abroad, and for that purpose I made several applications to
the different owners, but for some time was very unsuccessful. At
length I was engaged by Messrs. Robinson, to join his Majesty's Ship
Tottenham, bound to New South Wales with 200 convicts. On June the 8th
I joined her. After receiving all the ship's and government stores on
board, we proceeded to Woolwich, and received on board 50 of our
number, and in the afternoon of the same day we made sail, and on a
sudden struck on a reef at low water; we were lying high and dry;
every means was used to get her off, but without success, till we sent
our convicts up to the hulks, and discharged our stores into the
different crafts sent for that purpose, and by that means lightened
her so, that at the flood she drifted; she was so materially damaged,
it was deemed necessary she should return back to Deptford to Dock.

I had not waited long in London, before another vacancy occurred on
board His Majesty's Transport Ship Lady Castlereagh, lying at
Deptford, bound to the same Port. Shortly after I had joined her, we
sailed to Woolwich, and received on board our guard, which was
composed of a detachment of his Majesty's 46th regiment of foot, and
after receiving a portion of our convicts, we proceeded on our passage
to Portsmouth: we received another portion from Sheerness, and in two
days arrived at Portsmouth. The remainder of our prisoners not being
in readiness, we were forced to bring up and moor ship a cable each
way.

Spithead is a spacious road for shipping, between Portsmouth and the
Isle of Wight, and where they in general lie after they are in
readiness for sea. I went on shore to see the town of Portsmouth. It
is situated inland of Portsea; the streets are generally narrow, and
rather dirty, owing to their not being properly paved.

The Dock-yards, as there are several, resemble distinct towns, and are
under a government separate from the garrison. Here is a commodious
arsenal for laying up cannon, and the fortress may be justly
considered as the most regular one in Great Britain. The number of men
employed in the different rope-yards generally is considered to be
between eight or nine hundred, and the garrison is very large. The
town of Portsmouth contains about 40,000 inhabitants, and the harbour
is reckoned one of the finest in the world, as there is water
sufficient for the largest ships, and is so very capacious that the
whole of the British navy may ride in safety. The principal branch run
up to Fareham, a second to Pouchester and a third to Portsea Bridge;
besides these channels there are several rithes, or channels, where
the small men of war lie at their moorings. Opposite the town is the
spacious road of Spithead. On the 20th of December we received our
convicts, and the following day we made sail and passed through the
Needles, which are two sharp-pointed rocks at the N. W. end of the
Isle of Wight, so called from their sharp extremities.

The prisoners, during their voyage, behaved themselves with great
propriety, considering the variety of characters which we had on
board. We arrived at New South Wales on the 26th of April, 1818, after
a pleasant passage.



SECTION IV.

     DESCRIPTION OF NEW SOUTH WALES--DEPARTURE THEREFROM--ARRIVAL
     AT VAN DIEMAN'S LAND.


We now made for the eastern coast of New Holland, southward of Port
Jackson; the coast has a most beautiful appearance, being constantly
green during the year. From the south cape, about five leagues to the
northward, is a most spacious bay with good anchorage, and sheltered
from all winds. The natives are very ferocious; few vessels put in
without partially suffering by their depredations, particularly seamen
who, having ventured from their parties, have been by them cut off,
robbed, and murdered. This place is called Two-fold Bay; ten leagues
farther north is Bateman's Bay. Here is good anchorage and plenty of
fresh water, but it lies open to the E. N. E. winds, and when they
prevail they are accompanied by a heavy swell, so that it is
impossible for vessels to lie secure. Seventeen leagues farther north
is Jervis's Bay, and an excellent harbour and good shelter from all
winds, with a fine sandy bottom. Round two small islands, at the mouth
of the bay, there are two very large kinds of fish, which are caught
in abundance with hook and line, called king fish and snappers.

The next harbour to the northward is Botany Bay, which is a capacious
bay, with excellent anchorage for shipping; but the entrance is very
dangerous to those commanders who are strangers to the coast. At the
head of the bay is George's River, which extends about sixty miles up
the country, and is navigable for small vessels of about 40 tons
burden; on the banks of this river there are several settlements,
which I shall hereafter describe. Nine miles farther north are the
heads of Port Jackson; on approaching the heads from sea, the entrance
is so narrow, and the rocks so perpendicular, that the opening is not
perceivable at a distance.

On the south head is a look-out house, and a flag staff, on which a
yellow flag is hoisted on the approach of any vessels from sea, which
is answered by another signal staff on a battery at the north end of
the town, called Davis's Point Battery, which is to be seen from all
parts of the town, so that a vessel is known to be approaching before
she enters the port. After entering the heads, the river runs due
south for six miles, it then turns short round a point of land on the
north shore, called Bradley's Head, which runs due west for
twenty-four miles. After rounding Bradley's Head, the town of Sydney
is perceivable, about three miles distant on the south shore. The
anchorage is a small cove, as still as a mill-pond, land-locked around
on all sides; the principal buildings in view are the stores and
dwelling of Mr. Campbell, a Bengal merchant; they are built of white
stone and have a noble appearance: the next is the government stores,
a large stone building, at the end of which is the hospital, wharf,
and stairs, the only public-landing place in the cove; here are two
centinels continually parading the quay. From the landing place is a
fine wide street, called George Street, with several fine stone and
brick buildings, extending a mile and a half long, and joining the
race ground. The public buildings in this line are the governor's
secretary's office, an orphan school for female children, and the
military barracks, with many fine private buildings, shops, &c. On the
S. E. side of the cove is the government house, a low but very
extensive building, surrounded with verandahs, and built in the
eastern style, with an extensive park and garden surrounded with a
high stone wall. About a quarter of a mile south of the government
house is the general hospital, a large and extensive building, erected
without any expense to government, the whole having been completed and
paid for by three private gentlemen of the colony, for the grant of
certain privileges. One mile further S. E. is Wallamolla, a fine brick
and stone mansion, the property and dwelling house of John Palmer,
Esq., formerly Commandant-general of the colony.

Between the general hospital and Wallamolla is the race ground, a fine
level course three miles long, planned and laid out after the model of
Doncaster race course, by order of his excellency Lochlin Macquarie.
The races commence on the 12th of August, and last three days, during
which time the convicts are exempt from all government duties.
Convicts that are placed in the town of Sydney are in many respects
happier than those farther inland; those who are employed in the
service of government are under the inspection of the superintendent
of the public works; they assemble at the ringing of a bell, in the
government-yard, soon after day-light, and are mustered by their
respective overseers and conducted to their work by them, having
received their orders from the superintendent on the preceding
evening. The overseers are themselves convicts of good character, and
perfect masters of their different trades. They labour from day-light
until nine o'clock, and they have then one hour allowed them to
breakfast, then they return and work till three in the afternoon, and
from that time they are at liberty to work for whom they think proper.

On leaving Sydney, the next settlement is Rose Hill, or, called by the
natives, Paramatta, and it is situated due west up the river. Between
Sydney and Paramatta there is but one settlement, about half way,
which is called Kissing Point, and close on its banks is a large farm,
kept by Mr. Squires, who likewise carries on an extensive brewery. The
principal edifice at Paramatta is the government stores, a large stone
building; close to the landing-place, and leading into the town, is a
street about a mile long. They are generally small cottages, and are
mostly inhabited by the convicts; and to each is attached a small
garden, which they are compelled to keep in good order.

There is also a large manufactory of flax, the produce of the country,
of which they make coarse cloth of different descriptions. This town
is under the direction of the bishop of New South Wales (Samuel
Marsden) and is the place where the noted George Barrington resided
many years as chief constable, and died in the year 1806, highly
respected by the principal men of the colony. At eight miles distance,
in a westerly direction, is the village of Galba, which is a very
fertile soil, the farms being in high cultivation, the ground clear of
timber, and numbers of sheep and oxen seen grazing in its fields. Two
miles south of Galba is the village of Castle Hills, in appearance
resembling Galba; and a number of farm houses scattered about as far
as the eye can reach. About fourteen miles, in a S. E. direction, is
the town of Liverpool, on the banks of George's River; here
cultivation is making rapid progress; and on each side of the river
are numerous farms, till the traveller arrives at its termination.
From George's River a branch runs in a N. W. direction, is about
twenty miles in length, and is called the Nepean River. Here the eye
of the agriculturist would be highly delighted at the verdure that
constantly appears in view; the farms are but thinly dispersed, as the
Nepean is not navigable.

At the extremity of the Nepean is the most extensive tract of land
that has yet been discovered. This tract is laid out in pastures,
which are literally covered with wild cattle, the produce of six cows
and a bull which escaped from the colony about forty years ago. They
were discovered by a runaway convict, who returned to the settlement
and reported his discovery, for which they pardoned him his crime of
desertion. After leaving the cow pastures, due north is the town of
Windsor, the most productive place in the colony for grain of every
description, which is brought to be shipped on the River Hawksborough,
in small crafts for that purpose. Windsor is sixty miles from Sydney,
and the river is navigable all the way from the sea; its entrance is
called Broken Bay, and is fourteen miles north of Port Jackson, and
thirty miles north of Broken Bay.

The town of Newcastle is situated about seven miles up the river,
called the Coal River, in consequence of coals being found there in
great abundance, of very good quality. This town is a place where all
are sent to that prove refractory, or commit any crimes or
misdemeanors in the colony, and is much dreaded by the convicts as a
place of punishment.

Newcastle is the last settlement to the northward of Sydney; the
natives are black, and appear to be a most miserable race of people:
they live entirely naked, both men, women, and children, and they
possess not the least shame. They carry fish and game to the different
towns and villages inhabited by the English, which they barter for
bread, tobacco, or spirits; they are, in general, of a light make,
straight limbed, with curly black hair, and their face, arms, legs,
and backs are usually besmeared with white chalk and red ochre. The
cartilage of their nose is perforated, and a piece of reed, from eight
to ten inches long, thrust through it, which seamen whimsically term
their spritsail-yard. They seem to have no kind of religion; they bury
their dead under ground, and they live in distinct clans, by the terms
Gull, Taury Gull, or Uroga Gull, &c. They are very expert with their
implements of war, which are spears made of reed, pointed with crystal
or fish bone; they have a short club made of iron wood, called a
waday, and a scimeter made of the same wood. Those inhabiting the
coast have canoes; but the largest I ever saw would not hold more than
two men with safety.

Their marriage ceremony is truly romantic; all the youth of a clan
assemble, and are each armed with wadays; they then surround the young
woman, and one seizes her by the arm, he is immediately attacked by
another, and so on till he finds no combatant on the field, and then
the conquering hero takes her to his arms.

The different kinds of game which the colony produces, are several
kinds of kangaroos, of the same species, but differing in size and
colour. Beasts of prey have never been seen in the colony. The birds
are, parrots, cockatoos, and a large one called _emus_, which have
very long legs and scarcely any wings; they in general live upon fern,
and weigh from seventy to eighty pounds; there are likewise a number
of black swans. The woods abound with a number of dangerous reptiles,
such as centipedes and scorpions.

Government not being disposed to receive all our convicts, we were
taken up to proceed to Van Diemen's Land, with a crew of two hundred
convicts, besides a detachment of one hundred and sixty rank and file
of his Majesty's 46th regiment of foot. We sailed from hence, and
arrived at Van Diemen's Land after a pleasant passage of six days.

Van Diemen's Land is situated south of the Cape of New Holland, and is
a dependency under the control of the Governor-General. Here is a
Deputy-Governor, who resides at the principal town, called Hobart's
Town, situated about thirty miles up the Derwent; it is a town at
present consisting of small cottages, or huts, built of wood, and with
but few free inhabitants. The soil of the country is good; but there
is a very inconsiderable trade. The Derwent runs ninety miles due west
up the country. North of the Derwent, about twenty miles, is Frederick
Henry's Bay, an immense deep bay, with good anchorage and shelter for
shipping; and north-west of Henry's Bay is another fine river, called
Port Dalrymple; it runs south-west ninety miles inland; at the head of
it is a town, called Launceston; the inhabitants are principally
convicts, and are employed in clearing the land for government. The
native inhabitants of Van Diemen's Land are nearly the same as those
of New Holland; and they at present hold no intercourse with the
European inhabitants. After our prisoners were received on shore, they
sent us another detachment of 150 rank and file of his Majesty's 46th
regiment for Madras, and we began to prepare for sea.



SECTION V.

     DEPARTURE FROM VAN DIEMEN'S LAND AND ARRIVAL AT MADRAS--AN
     ACCOUNT OF A SEVERE GALE, AND THE GREAT DANGER OF SHIPWRECK,
     TOGETHER WITH HER WONDERFUL ESCAPE FROM IT, AND HER SAFE
     ARRIVAL IN CUDDALORE.


The morning was beautiful, and the noise of the crew weighing the
anchor, created much life and bustle; and as we proceeded out of the
harbour Nature seemed to smile, and bid us welcome to the watery
element we had been so long traversing. A few days after, we entered
the Endeavour Straits, which are about ten leagues long and five
broad. We had several canoes off from the shore of New Guinea. It is a
long narrow island of the South Pacific Ocean, and north of New
Holland, from which it is separated by this strait, except on the
north-east entrance, where it is counteracted by a group of islands,
called the Prince of Wales's Islands. The land is generally low, and
covered with an astonishing luxuriance of wood and herbage. The
inhabitants resemble those of New Holland, omitting the quantity of
grease and red-ochre with which the New Hollanders besmear their
skins.

Their canoes are neatly carved, and are about twelve feet in length;
they have outriggers to keep them firm on the water, and they are
formed out of the hulls of trees; they carry about five or six men.
They brought on board a quantity of shells, bows, arrows, and clubs,
besides other trifling articles, and they would exchange with us for
bits of old iron-hoops, or in fact any old thing, however trifling.
The breeze freshening, we soon lost sight of the native merchants.

We arrived at Madras on the 12th of September, 1818, after a tedious
passage. Owing to General Munro's intended departure for England, our
cargo was immediately got ready, and as expeditiously received by us,
and we were ready for sea on the 20th of October; but our dispatches
not being in readiness, we were forced to remain at our anchorage, and
on the morning of the 24th the clouds looked very black, and
threatened a severe storm; but no preparations were made on board, and
at 4 P. M. signal was made from the shore for all ships to leave the
roads, which unfortunately was not noticed by many of the officers of
the different vessels. At 5 P. M. the gale commenced; but through
neglect the royal and top-gallant yards were not sent down, nor could
the officer commanding be persuaded that any danger would arise from
remaining at our anchorage; the ship's company now came aft and
expostulated; but the officer in command called them all cowards, and
said he would not start her anchor if it blew the masts out of her.

About 2 A. M. on the 25th, the gale commenced with the utmost fury,
and she rode her scuttles under water, but as they were not secure,
the sea came inboard and made very fast upon us. At 6 A. M. the water
was three feet on the lee-side of our gun-deck, and from the continual
working of the ship the chests broke from their fastenings.

After seeing a vessel go down at her anchors close on our starboard
bow, the officer then gave orders for our cable to be slipped, which
was immediately put into execution. John Gardener, a seaman, wishing
to go aloft, and not taking proper hold, was blown from the rigging,
and never seen again. We set the fore-sail, which immediately split;
the mainsail, met with the same fate; the gaskets of the topsails gave
way, and the sails split. At half past eight we found we had sprung a
leak, owing to the ship's labouring so much; in the course of ten
minutes we sounded, and found three feet water in the hold. The pumps
were choaked; by 9 A. M. they were cleared, and by this time we had
eight feet water in the well, and three on the gun-deck; the ship
rolled very much, and the chests, guns, and water-casks, being all
cast adrift, were dashing from larboard to starboard with the greatest
fury. At 10 A. M. the ship labouring so much, and her being eight
streaks of her main-deck under water, abreast of her main-hatchway, so
that we had very little prospect of her living two minutes above
water, it was thought necessary to send her mizen-mast by the board,
in order to righten her; but while going, the mizen-mast heeled to
windward and caught her royal-yards in the top-sail tye, and stayed
her so, that we were compelled to cut away the main-mast, which
carried the fore-top-mast and jib-boom; and, while in the act of going
by the board, it knocked an invalid down and killed him on the spot.
The ship rightened a little; but the sea was very boisterous, and we
appeared to be in a valley in the midst of a number of tremendous high
mountains, which to all appearance seemed ready to fall and crush us.
The carpenter came forward, and informed us, that we had sprung
another leak, and that we had ten feet water in the well; the men, as
by one accord, dropped the pumps, and appeared to despair; we might
all have well exclaimed with the poet,

    "Heaven have mercy here upon us!
    For only that can save us now."

"The atmosphere was hurled into the most tremendous confusion, the
aerial torment burst itself over mountains, seas, and continents. All
things felt the dreadful shock; all things trembled under her scourge,
her sturdy sons were strained to the very nerves, and almost swept her
headlong to the deep."

It would be in vain to attempt to give a description of our feelings
at this critical moment, tortured as we were with anguish and despair.
Every man seemed now as if all was given over for lost, when the
carpenter came forward and informed us the leak was found out, and
that with a little exertion it might be stopped; the men then rose
with great vigour, flew to the pumps with renovated strength, and gave
three cheers. The cabins were all washed down, and a party of men were
busily employed throwing every thing overboard,--self was not
considered,--the very last rag was committed to the furious elements
without a sigh. At 11 A. M. the sea struck her starboard
quarter-gallery and forced it from its birth, and as we were busily
employed, a cry was heard, the starboard fore-mast port was carried
away, and the sea forced itself with great rapidity along the deck;
but the seamen flew to meet this new misfortune with the vigour of
tigers, not considering the dangers they had to encounter, and thus
effectually succeeded in stopping the leak.

While the seamen were busily employed, the troops were desired to
pump, which they firmly refused, and said they would sooner sink,
except a poor blind man, who could not keep from them; his reply was
truly noble, and, I am sure, my readers will excuse my repeating it.
"I am unworthy of the life I have if I do not exert myself in this
hour of distress; if it has pleased God to deprive me of the blessing
of sight, he has not of the feelings of a Christian." At half past
eleven the gale greatly abated, and by this time the carpenter had
stopped the leak, by using all the gunny bags and blankets that could
be found; the damage was occasioned by the masts beating under her
counter. By 12 A. M. it was a perfect calm; the men were now busily
employed clearing the gun-deck, and securing every port-hole and
scuttle in which they effectually succeeded by 1 P. M.

"For a moment the turbulent and outrageous sky seemed to be assuaged;
but it intermitted its wrath only to increase its strength; soon the
sounding squadrons of the air returned to their attack, and renewed
their ravages with redoubled fury; and the stately dome rocked amidst
the wheeling clouds. The impregnable clouds tottered on its basis, and
threatened to overwhelm those whom it was intended to protect, the
vessel was almost rent in pieces, and scarcely secure; where then was
a place of safety? Sleep affrighted flew, diversion was turned into
horror; all was uproar in the elements; all was consternation among
us, and nothing was seen but one wide picture of rueful devastation.

"The ocean swelled with tremendous commotions; the ponderous waves
were heaved from their capacious beds, and almost lay bare the
unfathomed deep; flung into the most rapid agitation, they swept over
us, and tossed themselves into the clouds. We were rent from our
anchors, and with all our enormous load were whirled swift as an arrow
along the vast abyss. Now we climb the rolling mountains, we plough
the frightful ridge, and seem to skim the skies; anon we plunge into
the opening gulf, we reel to and fro, and stagger in the jarring
decks, or climb the cordage, whilst bursting seas foam over the decks.
Despair is in every face, and death sits threatening in every surge."
The whistling of the wind and roaring of the sea, together with the
voice of despairing seamen, and the dreadful shrieks of the women,
made us truly miserable; but we were forced to exert ourselves with
assumed courage and vigour, which could only be imagined but by those
placed in a similar situation,--our exertions were for life or death,
knowing that if they once failed, that nothing was to be expected but
to perish in a watery grave.

We kept the water under to about three feet during the time of this
dreadful gale; about 4 P. M. it abated, and about 5 P. M. it blew a
steady breeze from the south-west; and at 6 P. M. we went round her to
examine the damage we had sustained; when, dreadful to relate, we
found that a man and child had been washed out of their hammocks and
perished; on proceeding along the waste we found two invalids had been
jammed to death between two water-casks and the ship's sides, making a
total of six lives lost during the storm.

The hatches were opened about 8 P. M.; but the provisions being so
salt and sodden with the sea water, they could not be eaten, on
account of the scarcity of fresh water. After the watch was set we
laid ourselves down upon the upper-deck with no other covering than
the starry heavens.

On the following day we commenced clearing the wreck, and rigging up
jurymasts, which we happily effected before sun-set; and on the 28th
we arrived at Sadras, which lay south by west of Madras, distant
fifteen miles. We lay here till the 30th without any tidings of the
captain.

The men from fatigue and pain, from sleeping on the wet decks, and
continual pumping, came aft, and said the clouds threatened another
storm, and that the monsoons were growing very strong, and in case the
weather should alter for the worse, they had not strength left to
work the ship in another gale, from want of nourishment; and that
provided the officers did not think proper to remove to a place of
safety, they were determined to take charge of her and proceed to
Trincomalee, and deliver the vessel into the hands of the
under-writers. All our remonstrances to them were in vain, until the
chief mate pledged his word and honour, that if the captain did not
join her the next morning, he would, ill as he was, take charge of her
and proceed there himself.

On the following morning the captain joined her, with the hon. L. G.
K. Murray, secretary to the board of trade at Madras, when they
brought on board a quantity of provisions, which we stood very much in
need of, and immediately made sail and arrived the same day at
Pondicherry. The governor sent us on board a new anchor, as our own
was sprung. Pondicherry is a town of Hindostan, under the French
government, and situated on the coast of Coromandel, seventy-five
miles S. S. W. of Madras.

On the following day we run into Cuddalore, a little above the first
bar. Cuddalore is a town of Hindostan, one hundred miles S. S. W. of
Madras. Thirty of the ship's company being sick, they, with me, were
compelled to leave the ship, and forced to proceed on shore to the
hospital. I was about this time seized with a violent fit of the
cholera morbus. It is supposed to originate from the cold damp airs
which are very prevalent at this time of the season. A gentleman's
bungalow was humanely given up as a hospital, or friendly receptacle,
for our incapacitated seamen, during our sojourn at Cuddalore.

The possibility of visiting the native town was precluded by the
peculiar strictness of the regulations imposed upon us.



SECTION VI.

     THE AUTHOR'S DEPARTURE FROM CUDDALORE AND ARRIVAL AT
     PONDICHERRY--DEPARTURE THEREFROM, AND ARRIVAL AT MADRAS,
     WITH A DESCRIPTION OF THE SAME--ACCOUNT OF THE RELIGION,
     CUSTOMS, AND MANNERS OF THE NATIVES--DEPARTURE FROM MADRAS,
     ON HIS ROUTE TO NAGPORE,--ARRIVAL AT PONAMALEE, AND
     DESCRIPTION OF THE SAME--HIS DEPARTURE AND ARRIVAL AT
     CUDDAPAH.


After I had thoroughly recovered, through the interest of a young
German widow, I obtained my acquittal from the ship, and then
proceeded to New Town for my passport. New Town lies about two miles
and a half E. N. E. of Cuddalore, and is the residence of the
Europeans in that neighbourhood; the houses of the Europeans are
generally built of brick and those of the natives of wood. The day
after I had obtained my passport I proceeded on my route and arrived
at Pondicherry the same evening.

Pondicherry is about four leagues in extent; the houses are built with
brick, but the Indians use only wood, in the manner which we call lath
and plaster. In a few days after I arrived in Madras, and took up my
residence with a friend in Pursevaulkum.

A few days after my arrival I proceeded with my friend to town.
Madras, or Fort St. George, is a fort and town of the peninsula, on
the coast of Coromandel. It is the principal settlement of the English
on the east side of the peninsula, and is a fortress of great extent,
including within it a regular well-built city. It is close to the sea
shore, from which it has a rich and beautiful appearance, the houses
being covered with a stucco, called _chunam_, which, in itself, is as
compact as the finest marble, bears as high a polish, and is equally
as splendid as that elegant material. There is a second city, called
Black Town, nearly four miles in circumference, separated from Madras
by the breadth of a proper esplanade. Madras, in common with all the
European settlements on this coast, has no port for shipping, the
coast forming nearly a straight line, and being incommoded with a high
and dangerous surf. The citadel is situated in the middle of the
White, or English Town, and is one of the best fortresses in the
British possessions. The town is also encompassed with a strong wall
of the same stone as that with which the citadel is built, and is
defended by bastions, batteries, half-moons, flankers, and mortars.
Opposite the west gate of the citadel are barracks and a convenient
hospital for the company's soldiers, and at the other end is a mint
where the company coin gold and silver.

I was shortly after engaged as an overseer in the Madras Advertiser
printing office, and as an assistant to the Madras Nautical Academy;
but not agreeing with my employer I left it, and obtained permission
to stop in the country as a free merchant.

Mr. M. R----, with whom I resided, used all his interest to obtain for
me some permanent situation under government, but it could not be
effected. At length, being tired of an indolent life, I opened a
school, which succeeded very well, when I was forced to relinquish
it, owing to my ill state of health the confinement and severity of
the weather brought on a languishing complaint, which would have
terminated in my death had I persisted in continuing in my present
employment.

My friend being obliged to quit Madras, left me and his brother in
charge of his house. My friends, during his absence, greatly
contributed to my amusement, and, in short, spared no expense. One
morning, passing through Vessory Bazar, I was greatly shocked at
seeing the nabob's elephant take up a little child in his trunk and
dash its brains out against the ground; the only reason that could be
observed was, that the child had thrown some pebble stones at it; and
the only redress the poor disconsolate mother could obtain was a gift
of fifty pagodas from the nabob, which is about equal to twenty pounds
sterling.

During my friend's absence his mother and brother were carried off
with the cholera morbus. The general estimate of deaths through the
settlement is at least three hundred and fifty in one day; the natives
have been known to sacrifice in one day and at one pagoda, fifty cocks
and fifty kids, to appease their angry gods, and, in fact, some of the
poor deluded creatures will go with a sword run through their cheeks
in the fleshy part, and kept hanging in that position for some days,
continually dance backwards and forwards through the different bazars;
others have the palms of their hands pierced with a sword; others have
their breasts burnt, and others again have an instrument run through
their tongue in order to calm the wrath of their offended deities; nor
can they, in their opinions, put themselves to sufficient torture.

Shortly after my friend returned, I went to reside with a friend at
Royaporum, south of Black Town, and soon afterwards I was engaged as
an examiner in the accountant-general's office. After I had been a
short time in this employ, I received an order to prepare for my
departure for Nagpore, in the service of his highness the Rajah. On my
return from the Fort St. George, I was greatly surprised at seeing an
old man standing with his bare feet upon two pieces of wood in the
form of a pair of pattens, with pointed pegs uppermost; he stood in
that position for several days, with the blood running in torrents,
and several of those who passed by gave him what their circumstances
could well afford. A few days after I was invited to witness an Hindoo
ceremony. We took our station at the top of a rich Persian's house,
opposite a spacious esplanade and contiguous to a large pagoda; in the
centre of the esplanade was fixed a capstern, with a pole about sixty
feet long, which was fixed so as to be occasionally raised or
lowered. Shortly after our arrival, a native, decorated with flowers,
proceeded slowly towards the pagoda with tom-toms, and all kinds of
Asiatic music; after he had prostrated himself in the pagoda, the
Brahmin, a kind of priest, struck his side with a leather thong till
it swelled to a considerable size, and then forced a butcher's hook
through his side; he then composedly walked to the machine, and
suffered himself to be fastened to a rope and suspended in the air
with no other support than the butcher's hook; he went at least three
times round a circle of about one hundred feet, and he kept his arms
continually in motion during the whole time, fencing and throwing
flowers among the bye standers, which were immediately picked up by
them and kept as a religious relic. This ceremony is performed yearly
for the purpose of those who have lost their cast, and may regain it
by voluntarily undergoing this treatment. Eleven of them went through
this torturing ceremony.

I now began to put myself in readiness for my departure. On the
morning of the 8th I dispatched my baggage and tents, together with a
guard of eight peons (native police), which my friends had obtained
for me, through their interest with the superintendent of the police.
By the time I had taken leave of all my friends, and thanked them for
their disinterested protection to a distressed seaman, I proceeded on
my route (after receiving several more marks of their favours, Mr.
C---- having presented me with an Arab horse, four baggage bullocks,
and five hundred rupees, besides several letters of introduction) at
eight o'clock in the evening. I travelled about five miles down the
Ponamalee Road, and stopped at a village a little below the main
guard, a small place with scarcely any fodder for the cattle. On the
following morning, at a very early hour, we proceeded on our march,
and arrived at Ponamalee about eight o'clock, where I found several of
my friends waiting to take leave, as they expected that Ponamalee
would have been the first stage.

After having taken farewell of each other they returned back to
Madras, and I hired for the day a small bungalow (or garden house)
opposite the fort, where I determined to stay. Ponamalee is about
fourteen miles W. S. W. of Madras. This small and beautiful town is
situated upon a rising ground, which commands an extensive view of the
adjacent country. The number of Europeans residing here is but few, as
it is entirely out of the road for traffic. There is a fort which is
situated upon a rising ground, and gives the village a romantic
appearance. It forms a complete square, and on each angle is a small
place erected in form of the body of a wind-mill, which was used
formerly for the purpose of solitary confinement when the troops were
quartered here, but is now occupied as lumber rooms; the fort is
garrisoned by pensioners. The grand entrance is on the south side,
and a small wicket is usually on the west. The fort is surrounded by a
large moat about thirty feet in depth, the water is very clear and
good, and is drank by the natives. The inner part is far from being
roomy, owing to the extreme width of the ramparts. There are two or
three small buildings for the use of the commanding officers, but now
the residence of a school-master and two sergeants; in the centre is a
small building with a dome on the top, which was used formerly for a
chapel, but is now converted into a school for the instruction of the
poor soldiers' children, and the two barracks are occupied by
pensioners.

On the following morning, about two o'clock, we prepared for our
journey, and in a few days arrived at Naggery, a distance of about two
hundred miles W. N. W. of Madras. The natives here are Hindoos, and
the village is remarkably clean. The pagoda, or place of worship, is a
fine large building, built in an oblong form, and beautifully gilt and
carved all round with monkeys and apes. The Hindoos, in their manner
of diet, are very abstemious, refraining from flesh; in fact, they
will not eat any animal food; they are very regular in their morning
ablutions, which they do by washing and marking themselves with chunam
in the centre of their foreheads, according to the mark of their
different casts. If any one neglects it he is immediately turned out
of the cast, and his relations disown him, nor will they permit him
once to enter their house. Such is their strictness, that the father
has refused to see his son and the mother her daughter; and if they
happen to perceive him at any distance they fly from him as they would
from a serpent, thinking that his touch would pollute them.

The roads here are very bad, being principally jungle; their principal
cultivation is paddy (a kind of oats). On my arrival at Nundihall I
was determined to rest for a couple of days, as two of my servants
were in a very ill state of health. Nundihall is a beautiful town, the
houses are built of brick, and are generally from three to four
stories high; the streets were very dirty, owing to the number of
paddy fields that surround the city, as the growth of it requires that
the earth should be completely covered with water. The natives are
generally Hindoos and Moors. The town is surrounded by a high brick
wall.

After leaving the town of Nundihall the roads were very bad, owing to
the quantity of stones, and hills which were very steep and difficult
to ascend. On the roads I had several disputes with the natives
passing through Wuntimuttall, owing to my servants and the peons
stealing the toddy from the trees. Toddy is a liquor which is
extracted from the top veins of the cocoa-nut trees, which runs
continually into a pot placed for that purpose. The liquor is very
pleasant, and is reckoned very wholesome when drank early in the
morning in a small quantity; if drunk in the heat of the day it causes
acidity in the bowels, and often is the cause of the death of many
Europeans. The natives drink it continually, and often get quite
intoxicated with it.

We arrived at Cuddapah on the 21st instant; it is a large and
commodious town, and is inhabited by Mussulmen. Cuddapah is situated
N. W. of Madras, one hundred and fifty-one miles distant, and the
general estimate of inhabitants is at about two hundred thousand. The
principal houses are built of brick and the inferior ones of mud.

The Mahometans divide their religion into two general parts, faith and
practice, of which the first is divided into six distinct
branches--belief in God, in his angels, in his scriptures, in his
prophets, in the resurrection and final judgment, and lastly, in God's
absolute decrees. The points relating to practice, are prayer with
washings, &c., alms, fasting, pilgrimages, and circumcision.

The Mahometans pray five times in twenty-four hours, viz.: in the
morning before sun-rise, when noon is past and the sun begins to
decline from the meridian, in the afternoon before sun-set, in the
evening after sun-set and before day is closed, and again in the
evening and before the watch of the night. They fast with great
strictness during the whole month of Ramadan, from the time the new
moon first appears, during which period they must abstain from eating,
drinking, and all other indulgences, from day-break till night or
sun-set.

The Europeans reside about two miles to the west of the native town,
and have commodious houses, with fine spacious gardens; they are built
of brick and much after the form of a gentleman's seat in England, but
on a larger scale. I proceeded to the house of the collector, and on
my road, my horse taking fright, I was thrown, and lost my purse
containing all my money. My distress was now indescribable. Being left
pennyless in the midst of a people totally destitute of Christian
feeling, and without the probable means of obtaining the common
necessaries of life, I arrived, in this miserable state of mind,
bordering on despair, at the collector's, Mr. Hanbury, and after
making him acquainted with my circumstances, he generously rendered me
his assistance, paid my servants' wages that were in arrear, and
kindly advanced what I thought sufficient to defray my expenses,
having previously sent my peons back to Madras, and supplied me with
fresh ones to proceed with me to Hydrabad.

On the following day the rain came down in torrents, accompanied with
thunder and lightning, which kept me within my tent and caused me to
exclaim with Dr. Henry, "O, ye lightnings, that brood and lie couchant
in the sulphureous vapours, that glance with forked fury from the
angry gloom, swifter and fiercer than the lion rushes from his den, or
open with vast expansive sheets of flame, sublimely waved over the
prostrate world, and fearfully lingering in the affrighted skies!" "Ye
thunders, that awfully grumble in the distant clouds, seem to meditate
indignation, and from the first essays of a far more frightful peal;
or suddenly bursting over your heads, rend the vault above and shake
the ground below with a hideous and horrid crack!" In the evening the
weather began to clear up, which induced me to walk out, when taking
two peons as a guard, I proceeded south of the town, on a beautiful
plain: the pleasantness of the weather, and the stillness of the
evening, tempted me to prolong my walk, and inspired my mind to
contemplate on the wonderful works of Providence, who had so lately
showered down his blessings upon me, in preserving me from want in the
midst of a heathen world. The sun had almost finished his daily
course, and sunk lower and lower till he seemed to hover on the verge
of the sky!

The globe is now half immured beneath the dusky earth; or, as the
ancient poet speaks, "is shooting into the ocean, and sinks into the
western sea." The whole face of the ground was overspread with shades,
and what the painters of nature call "dun obscurity." Only a few
superior eminences, tipt with streaming silver, the tops of groves and
lofty towers that catch the last smiles of day, were still irradiated
by the departing beams. But, O how transient is the destination--how
momentary the gift! like all the blessings which mortals enjoy below,
it is gone almost as soon as granted. How languishingly it trembled on
the leafy spire, and glimmered with dying faintness on the mountain's
sable brow! till it expired and resigned the world to the gradual
approaches of night.



SECTION VII.

     THE AUTHOR'S DEPARTURE FROM CUDDAPAH--DESCRIPTION OF THE
     DIFFERENT VILLAGES, AND ARRIVAL AT HYDRABAD--DESCRIPTION OF
     HYDRABAD, AND DEPARTURE THEREFROM--ARRIVAL AT NERMUL.


On the morning of the 27th, I proceeded on my route over the chain
hills, with which the town of Cuddapah is surrounded; the roads are
very good, but the steepness of the hills made it very fatiguing: in
six hours I arrived at Batoor, a distance of twelve miles. Batoor is a
large village, the houses are built of mud and bamboo, and form a
motley group; the only protection they have from the number of robbers
which infest that part, is a small fort, about two hundred square
feet; the ramparts are about fourteen feet in thickness, and at each
angle a small gun is mounted upon a pivot, about three feet from its
walls; the fort in general is very much out of repair; the inhabitants
are Hindoos, and are very indolent; the land is quite barren and free
from cultivation. The cruelty with which Europeans in general act
towards these poor captives is really disgraceful, and cannot but be
censured by all who cherish the least trait of humanity with their
breast.

When an European passes through any of the villages, and is in want of
any coolies, or porters, to carry his baggage, he orders his guards to
press every man he can meet with, and compel him to carry whatever his
barbarous protector chooses he should labour under, and if there is
not sufficient men, to press the women, without considering whether
they have any family to provide for. It has been frequently known,
that the mother has been forced to leave her infant babe from her
breast upon the bare earth to provide for itself, to carry the baggage
of a merciless enemy, whose only payment, after going fifteen or
sixteen Indian miles, is, if she complains, a _bambooing_, (that is a
caning,) and, perhaps, after she gets home, which cannot be till the
next day, she finds her poor infant dead for want.

We passed through Parmunsa, and arrived at Moorkandah, which is a
small village, and in a very ruinous condition, as it is at the foot
of the Ghaut; the inhabitants are but few in number, and are
principally Brahmins, consequently provisions are very scarce; on my
requesting the cutwall, or headman of the village, to bring some
fowls, he refused, and said there were none in the place, although I
repeatedly heard the crowing of a cock. The impudent manner in which
the man answered me, made me doubt the truth of what he said; in order
to ascertain it, I took two peons and my gun and went round the
village, and found a full grown cock; I caught it, and ordered it to
be carried to my tent and killed; the natives by this time were in
arms, and before any of us were aware of it, they had secured the
peons and surrounded me, demanding the cock: when they were informed
of its death, they all began to weep and raised a most lamentable cry,
and said it was devoted to their god, and that the heaviest curses
would follow me. I expected their denunciations would have paid for
it; but in that I was greatly mistaken, for they demanded payment for
it; and to avoid any injury to my peons, I offered them one rupee,
considering that it would be equal to the price of eighteen cocks; but
they disdainfully refused it, and said that they must offer gifts to
their god to appease his anger, and to pay their sadura to intercede
in their behalf. I remonstrated with them; but to no avail, as they
would not take less than ten rupees. I tried all in my power to make
my escape from them; but when they perceived my intentions, they drew
their scimitars, and held them to my breast, and said, provided I did
not accede to their offer, they would not spare the lives of my peons
nor myself, as they could not get it replaced for forty times that
sum, which was presented to them by their rajah. The price I
considered to be extortionate, (but I paid it,) as fowls are sold in
the different villages round that neighbourhood for one penny each,
sheep for ten-pence, and every other article in proportion.

On the following morning, at a very early hour, I crossed the Ghaut;
in the centre there is a very great declivity on each side the road,
about two hundred feet in depth, and the Ghaut is very steep, and
covered with flint-stone, which made it very difficult for the horse
and cattle to pass: it is about twelve miles in length, and at the
foot of it is the village of Badnapore. The inhabitants are very
peaceable, and the village is close on the borders of Khristnah river.
We made all possible haste to cross, which was effected by means of a
large round basket, which is continually whirling round in the river.
The river is about a quarter of a mile in width, but the heavy current
carried us nearly two miles down; and owing to the exertions of the
cattle, we encamped close on its banks. On the following day we passed
Pungall-hill fort, which is situate on the summit of a very steep
mount, and is built of mud, and large enough to contain ten thousand
troops; it is only accessible on the north-east angle, which is easily
blockaded in case of necessity. In five days we arrived at Hydrabad.

Hydrabad lies about 350 miles north-west of Madras; the houses are
built of brick, and generally run four and five stories high. The
inhabitants are principally Mahometans interspersed with Hindoos.

The Mahometans will not suffer a Christian to touch their cooking
utensils or fuel by any means, and if such should be done, they
consider them as polluted, and they will instantly break and destroy
them; and while they are in the act of eating, if touched by any one
of another sect, they will not swallow what is even in their mouth,
but will throw it out, and go through a regular purification by
washing and prayer.

After I had been at Hydrabad a few days, I joined a small party to
view the interior: while we were taking breakfast, a cavalcade of
elephants came up to the door with a number of peons. After we had
mounted them we proceeded through the south gate into the city; the
streets were particularly dirty, owing to there being no drains. The
town is supplied with water by a well about two hundred feet in
circumference.

On our entrance into the minister's house we were surprised at seeing
a battalion of female sepoys (soldiers) presenting arms to us. We
stood to see them go through their military manoeuvres, which they
did with dexterity; we then proceeded towards the house, which is
built entirely of cedar-wood, but in a very ordinary manner, owing to
the number of apartments: every room is carved in a beautiful and
masterly style, from the ceiling to the floor. This ornament is very
common among the lower classes, who have the devices of their gods
carved on the doors of their houses. The apartments form a complete
square, and in the centre is a stone tank. We next proceeded to a
gallery of looking-glasses; the only one worthy of notice is about
eighteen feet long and sixteen wide; there is likewise a whole length
painting of Earl Moira, Governor-General of India. We afterwards
proceeded to the palace of the Rajah: on our entrance into the inner
court, we were agreeably surprised at seeing a quantity of tea-cups,
saucers, &c. of various colours, placed against the wall in form of
elephants, tigers, serpents, &c. in the most superb manner; in the
centre is a large tank, containing a great quantity of salmon-trout. I
had the honour of being introduced to the Rajah's sons, but his
Highness was not present.

After having obtained a guard of twelve sepoys and two naigues, I
proceeded on my route, and in a few days arrived at Nermul.

Nermul is a large and beautiful city, surrounded by a fort, and is
about three miles in circumference, and is on a rising ground, 205
miles north-north-east of Hydrabad, and in the heart of the jungle,
it is under the command of Major Woodhouse. The inhabitants are
principally Moors.

I pitched my tent in the middle of a burying-ground, by the side of a
running stream, and owing to the fatigue I had experienced, I now
resolved to sojourn for two days. This place suited my present state
of mind.

My attention was soon attracted by a magnificent tomb, and upon
examining the inscription, it proved to be a rajah's. The gardens were
ingeniously planned, and a thousand elegant decorations designed; but,
alas! their intended possessor is gone down "to the place of sculls!"

While I am recollecting, many, I question not, are experiencing the
same tragical vicissitude. The eyes of the Sublime Being, who sits
upon the circle of the earth, and views all its inhabitants with one
incomprehensive glance, even now behold as many tents in affliction as
overwhelmed the Egyptians in that fatal night when the destroying
angel sheathed his arrows in all the pride of their strength; some
sinking to the floor from their easy chair, and deaf even amidst the
piercing shrieks of their distracted relations; some giving up the
ghost as they retired, or lay reclined under the shady harbour to
taste the sweets of the flowery scene; some as they sail with a party
of pleasure along the silver stream and through the laughing meads!
nor is the grim intruder terrified though wine and music flow around.

"Those who received vast revenues, and called whole lordships their
own, are reduced to half a dozen feet of earth, or confined in a few
sheets of lead! Rooms of state and sumptuous furniture are resigned
for no other ornament than the _shroud_, for no other apartment than
the darksome _niche_! Where is the star that blazed upon the breast,
or the glittered sceptre? The only remains of departed dignity are the
weather-beaten hatchment. I see no splendid retinue surrounding this
solitary dwelling. The princely equipage hovers no longer about their
lifeless master, he has no other attendant than a dusty _statue_;
which, while the regardless world is as gay as ever, the sculptor's
hand has taught to weep."



SECTION VIII.

     THE AUTHOR'S DEPARTURE FROM NERMUL AND ARRIVAL AT
     NAGPORE--HIS DEPARTURE, AND ARRIVAL AT JAULNAH--THE AUTHOR'S
     DEPARTURE FROM JAULNAH AND ARRIVAL AT POONAH, AND
     DESCRIPTION OF THE VILLAGES WITH THEIR RELIGION--HIS ARRIVAL
     AT BOMBAY, AND HIS DISTRESS--SKETCH OF BOMBAY AND ACCOUNT OF
     THE PERSIAN RELIGION--HE JOINS THE HONOURABLE COMPANY'S SHIP
     MARQUIS OF HUNTLY, AS CAPTAIN'S CLERK--HIS DEPARTURE FROM
     BOMBAY AND ARRIVAL AT BENGAL.


After remaining two days, I proceeded on my route; and on the
following day arrived at Wadoor, a distance of fourteen miles, across
a long succession of hills, the roads over which are very rugged and
covered with stones; Wadoor lies in a valley, at the foot of a large
mountain, and is hardly perceivable from the top.

On the 20th December, we travelled along a beautiful and finely
cultivated country, the produce of which is cholum and paddy, which
grows in great quantities; the inhabitants are very civil, and
principally Moor men. On the 25th December, 1821, I arrived at
Nagpore, and on the same evening was seized with the Nagpore fever,
which is always accompanied by fits of the ague. The fever is supposed
to originate from the excessive heats of the day, and the extreme cold
of the night.

I endeavoured as much as possible that my ill state of health should
not keep me from my employment, but attended to it very assiduously;
which I persevered in till the 27th of March, when the doctor informed
me, that I had better leave the Presidency or I should endanger my
life, as the hot winds generally set in in the middle of April, which
frequently prove very dangerous to European invalids.

On the 2nd of April, after having previously obtained my passport and
a guard of twelve Seapoys, I proceeded on my route, and towards
evening arrived at Tukea, where, owing to my ill state of health, I
was compelled to stop two days.

On the 12th I arrived at Ouronty, which is S. W. by W. of Nagpore,
about 100 miles. The town is very large, and is surrounded by a brick
wall; the houses are built of brick, and are generally three stories
high. The inhabitants are Mussulmen. In the afternoon I went to the
palace of the Rajah, (Rajah ram.) His palace outside is very dirty,
owing to his guard making fires against the walls for cooking. On my
desiring to see the Rajah, I was conducted through a long dreary
passage, with the walls, to all appearance, covered with grease and
filth, at the end of which is a large court-yard, which has a very
different appearance, the Rajah's apartments being all round; at the
end were six Peons waiting to conduct me to his highness, with silver
staves, about eleven feet long, with a device of Mahomet on the top;
on my introduction to the Rajah's apartment, he was sitting
cross-legged with his hooker; at my entrance he arose and made three
salams in token of respect to the British nation. After questioning me
where I was going to, and my reasons for so doing, he presented me
with two camel-hair shawls, by placing them across my shoulder; then
taking his leave.

On the following day, I proceeded on my route, and on the 20th arrived
at Luckenwarry; where there is good encampment and water, and the
natives are principally Hindoos. Early on the following morning we
began to cross the Luckenwarry Ghaut; the roads were steep and not
above ten feet wide, and on each side a vacuity of about 250 feet
deep. The light in the lantern being extinguished, and the moon being
obscured, my horse, had it not been for the horse-keeper, would have
precipitated me to the bottom; I instantly dismounted, and the
horse-keeper led him till he was clear of the Ghaut. On the centre is
a large gate, which stands about forty feet high, and which, during
the war, had withstood a three months' siege.

Passing through the jungle between the villages of Currone and
Chickly, we were greatly surprised at seeing a large party on camels;
we hailed them and enquired who they were, but we could not by any
means obtain an answer; when finding they persisted in their
obstinacy, the Naigues suspected them of belonging to the party of
Sheik Dullah, a noted robber who had already committed many
depredations in that neighbourhood, and on our desiring them to move
to the left of us if they were friends, they made a sudden halt; the
sepoys then drew up in a line, and the followers began to guard their
baggage, but when they saw our number, they went off to the left of
us, grumbling.

On the 24th, we arrived at Jaulnah. It bears W. by S., of Nagpore,
distant 180 miles. On the following day, after I had taken sufficient
rest, I presented my passport to the Adjutant-General, and delivered
up the guard, having previously obtained another. Jaulnah is a large
town, surrounded by a brick wall, about twenty feet in height; the
houses are generally of brick, and from three to four stories; the
inhabitants are principally Hindoos, interspersed with Persians and
Mussulmen. The cantonment is the head quarters of the British army on
this side the Deccan.--Jaulnah has a civil and military government.

After staying two days, I proceeded on my route, and on the 19th of
May I arrived at Poonah. It bears S. S. E. of Bombay, and is in the
territories of the Peishwa: it is about forty miles distant from
Bombay. I took up my residence with a friend, commander of the
Sebundaries; during my route, I passed through Armigabad, Amednagur,
and Seroor; which is the residence of Europeans, and has detachments
of different regiments quartered at each town: their houses are in
general of brick and stone, their religion is Hindoo.

The Hindoos are divided into four tribes, first the Brahmin; second,
the Khatry; third, the Bhyse; fourth, the Sooders; all these have
their distinct sects, and cannot intermingle with each other; but for
some offences they are expelled their sects, which is the highest
punishment they can suffer. In this manner a kind of fifth sect,
called Pariah, is formed of the dregs of the people, who are employed
only in the meanest capacity. There is a kind of division which
pervades the four sects indiscriminately; which is taken from the
worship of their gods VISHNOU and SHEEVAH; the worshippers of the
former being named Vishnou bukht, and of the latter, Sheevah bukht.

Of these four sects the Brahmins have the superiority, and all the
laws show such a partiality towards them, as cannot but induce us to
suppose that they have had the principal hand in framing them. They
are not allowed the privilege of sovereignty; but are solely kept for
the instruction of the people. They are alone allowed to read the Veda
or Sacred Books. The Khatries or sect next in dignity, being only
allowed to hear them read, while the other two read the Satras, or
commentaries upon them; but the poor Chandalas are not allowed to
enter their temple, or to be present at any religious ceremony.

In point of precedence, the Brahmins claim a superiority even to
princes, the latter being chosen of Khatry or second sect. In fact the
Brahmin claims every privilege, and the inferior sects give place to
him; the Hindoos are allowed to eat no flesh nor to shed blood. Their
food is rice and dholl, and other vegetables, dressed with ghee (dholl
is a kind of split pea, ghee, a kind of butter, melted and refined to
make it capable of being kept a long time) and seasoned with ginger
and other spices. The food which they most esteem is milk, as coming
from the cow; an animal for which they have the most extravagant
veneration, insomuch that it is enacted in the code of Gentoo laws,
that any one who exacts labour from a bullock that is hungry or
thirsty, or shall oblige him to labour when fatigued, is liable to be
fined by the magistrates.

The Hindoos are remarkable for their ingenuity in all kinds of
handicraft; but their utensils are simple and in many respects
inconvenient, so that incredible labour and patience are necessary,
for the accomplishment of any work; and for this the Hindoos are
remarkable. The religion of the Hindoos is contained in certain books,
called Vedas; and, though now involved in superstition, seems to have
been originally pure, inculcating the belief of an Eternal Being,
possessed of every divine perfection. Their subordinate deities,
Brahma, Vishnou, and Sheevah, are only representatives of the wisdom,
goodness, and power of the supreme god Brahma; whom they call the
principles of Truth, the spirit of Wisdom, and the Supreme Being; so
that it is probable that all their idols were at first only designed
to represent these attributes: they believe in ten Avators, or
incarnation of the Deity, nine of which have taken place for the
punishment of tyrants, or removing some great natural calamity; and
the tenth is to take place at the dissolution of the universe. Several
of the Avators inculcate the transmigration of souls, and the ninth of
them, which forbids the sacrifices of animals, gave rise to the
religion of Gauda Boodma, or Fo.

Their deities are extremely numerous, and are generally supposed to
have first originated in Italy and Greece.

After stopping six days, I proceeded to Bombay, and on the 30th of May
I arrived there. After delivering my passport, I made application for
a ship for England, and was some time before I could get one; and the
great expense I incurred in living at a tavern, made me entirely
pennyless, so that I was forced to dispose of the shawls which I had
presented me by the Rajah of Omrouty, and for which I received three
hundred rupees each. But before I was finally settled, I had not above
ten rupees left.

Bombay is an island of Hindostan, on the west coast of the Deccan,
seven miles in length, and about twenty-one miles in circumference;
the ground is barren, and good water scarce; it was formerly
considered very unhealthy, but by draining the swamps and bogs the air
is much improved; the inhabitants are of several nations and very
numerous, but are principally Persians.

The religion of the Persians is, generally, Paganism, directed
principally by the priests of magi, men of strict austere life,
forbidding the use of either ornament or gold; making the ground their
bed, and herbs their food. Their whole time is spent in offering to
the gods the prayers and sacrifices of the people, as they only might
be heard.

The people are _Gentiles_; as to their religion, they worship the sun
and moon, and various heavenly bodies, from whom they suppose they
derive every blessing of light and warmth; and every morning they
gather themselves round the beech and present their morning oblations,
by pouring into the sea quantities of milk and odoriferous flowers,
and prostrating themselves with their faces to the earth, as a mark of
adoration to their rising deity (the sun.) Besides other gods which
the Gentiles worship, they are great idolaters of fire, which they
offer sacrifices to in time of peace, and carry it with them, as their
tutelar deity in time of war. Their adoration is so great, that the
first candle they see lighted, let it be in whose place it will, they
immediately stop and repeat a prayer. In their habitation they never
put it out after it is once lighted.

Besides the town of Bombay, which is about a mile in length, with mean
houses (a few only excepted), there is a capacious harbour or bay,
reckoned the finest haven in the east, where all ships may find
security from the inclemency of the different seasons. After remaining
here for the space of three months, I was engaged as captain's clerk
on board the Hon. Company's Ship Marquis of Huntly. We sailed from
hence July 25, 1820, and arrived at the new anchorage in nineteen
days' sail; soon after I went up to Calcutta on duty for the ship.

Calcutta, or _Fort William_, the emporium of Bengal, and principal
seat of India, is situated on the western side of the Hoogely river,
at about ninety-six miles from its mouth, which is navigable up to the
town for large ships. This extensive and beautiful town is supposed to
contain between four and five hundred thousand inhabitants. The houses
are variously built, some of brick, others of mud and cow-dung, and a
great number with bamboos (a large kind of reed or cane) and mats. The
bamboos are placed as stakes in the ground, and crossed with others in
different ways, so as to enable them to make the matting fast, when
for the roofing they lay them one upon the other, when a large family
lie in that small compass of about six feet square, which makes a very
motley appearance. The mixture of European and Asiatic manners
observed in Calcutta is wonderful; coaches, phaetons, hackeries,
two-wheeled carriages drawn by bullocks, palanquins carried by the
natives, and the passing ceremonies of Hindoos, and the different
appearance of the faquirs, form a diversified and curious appearance.
The European houses have, many of them, the appearance of palaces or
temples, and the inhabitants are very hospitable.

After the cargo was sent on board I returned to the ship, but on our
passage down the river we were compelled to lie out in the river,
owing to the great boar, as it is called; it is a quick overflowing of
the water, which rises in a great body and with such violence that it
breaks down all before it. It arises from the narrowness of the river,
and the force which it makes from the sea; in the course of two
minutes it rises to the height of four or five feet.

Lying in one of the creeks till the tide was turned, I was greatly
alarmed by the men getting into the boat in great disorder and
telling me that it was a crocodile which I had for a long time
observed, and mistaken for the hull of a tree. A crocodile is an
amphibious voracious animal, in shape resembling a lizard. It is
covered with very hard scales, which cannot but with difficulty be
pierced, except under the belly, where the skin is tender. It has a
wide throat, with several rows of teeth, sharp and separated, which
enter one another.

On my arrival on board every thing was in confusion, as we expected to
sail in a few days.



SECTION IX.

     THE AUTHOR'S DEPARTURE FROM CALCUTTA, AND ARRIVAL AT
     CHINA--AN ACCOUNT OF THEIR RELIGION, CUSTOMS, AND MANNERS,
     AND OF HIS BEING ROBBED ON DANES' ISLAND--THE AUTHOR'S
     DEPARTURE FROM CHINA AND ARRIVAL AT ANJURE POINT--THE
     CUSTOMS AND MANNERS OF THE MALAYS--DEPARTURE THEREFROM, AND
     ARRIVAL AT ST. HELENA--DESCRIPTION OF THE EMPEROR NAPOLEON'S
     TOMB AND HOUSES--DEPARTURE FROM ST. HELENA, AND ARRIVAL IN
     ENGLAND.


We sailed from Bengal in company with the Hon. Company's Ship Dunira,
October 19th, 1820, with a fine breeze, and arrived at Pulo Penang, or
Prince of Wales's Island, on the 6th of November. The houses have a
noble appearance, and are built after the form of those in Calcutta.
The inhabitants are principally Malays; of them I shall speak more
hereafter. After having received on board a quantity of rattan, as
private trade for the captain, we made sail and arrived at Macao, on
January 26th, 1821, after a long and tedious voyage.

Macao, a town of China, in the province of Canton, is seated in an
inland at the entrance of the river Tae. The Portuguese have been in
possession of the town and harbour since the early part of the
seventeenth century. The houses are low and built after the European
manner; the Portuguese are properly a mixed breed, having been married
to Asiatic women. Here is a Portuguese Governor as well as a Chinese
Mandarin. The former nation pays a great tribute to choose their own
magistrates. The city is defended by three forts, built upon
eminences; and the works are good and well planted with artillery.

On the 29th we anchored off the second bar, and found lying here the
Hon. Company's Ship Canning, and two or three other Company's ships;
on the 30th weighed and made sail, but there not being water enough,
removed back to our old station. On the following day we crossed
Whampo. After the cargo was discharged I went up to Canton.

Canton is a large and populous city, situated in one of the first
rivers in the empire. It is the capital of the province of Quan-tong,
and the centre of the European trade in that country. The streets are
long and straight, paved with flag stones, and adorned with lofty
arches. The houses are remarkably neat, but consist only of one story,
and they have no windows to the streets. The covered market place is
full of shops. The inhabitants are estimated at about 1,000,000; many
of whom reside in barks, which touch one another, form a kind of
floating city, and are so arranged as to form streets. Each bark
lodges a family and their grand children, who have no other dwelling.
At break of day all the people who inhabit them depart to fish or to
cultivate their rice.

The frugal and laborious manner in which the great live, the little
attention which is paid to the vain and ridiculous prejudice of
marrying below rank; the ancient policy of giving distinction to men
and not to families, by attaching nobility only to employments and
talents, without suffering it to be hereditary; and the decorum
observed in public, are admirable traits in the Chinese character.

There is little distinction in the dress of men and women; rank and
dignity are only distinguished by the ornaments they wear, and they
dare not presume to wear any thing without proper authority, without
being severely chastised for it. Their dress in general consists of a
long vest, which reaches to the ground, one part of it, on the left
side, folds over the other, and is fastened to the right by four or
five small gold or silver buttons placed at a little distance from one
another. The sleeves are wide towards the shoulder, and grow narrow
towards the wrist--they terminate in the form of a horse-shoe--round
their middle they wear a large girdle of silk, the ends of which hang
down to their knees; from this girdle is suspended a sheath,
containing a knife, and over all they wear a loose jacket down to the
middle, with loose short sleeves, generally lined with fur, and under
all they wear a kind of net to prevent it from chafing. The general
colour of these dresses is black or blue.

Their religion is idolatry, their principal idol is _Fong Chon_, and
they are very superstitious, believing in magic and invocation of
spirits, and the art of foretelling events by divination.

While receiving our cargo on board, a Chinaman belonging to one of the
craft, stole a box of tea, but, by the exertion of our officers, the
culprit was taken and immediately sent on shore to Dane's Island to
the mandarine. He was found guilty of the crime, and his punishment
three dozen blows with the bastinado. The instrument of correction,
called pan-tsee, is a bamboo a little flattened, broad at the bottom,
and polished at the upper extremity, in order to manage it more easily
with the hand.

The culprit, after the mandarin has given the signal for punishment,
is seized and stretched out with his belly flat on the ground, his
breeches are pulled down to his heels, and on the mandarine throwing
down a stick, of which he has a number by him, one of the officers in
attendance uses the pan-tsee, and gives him five severe blows, which
are succeeded by several others till the number is complete. When it
is over, the criminal must throw himself on his knees, incline his
body three times to the earth, and thank his judge for the trouble he
has taken in his correction.

The mandarins are of two classes, viz.; those of letters, and the
inferior sort are styled mandarins of arms. The latter class do not
enjoy the same consideration as the former.

The Chinese in general are much addicted to commit depredations on the
pockets, or, in fact, on any unguarded property. After all our cargo
was received on board, I went in company with two midshipmen, Mr.
C---- and Mr. R----, on Dane's Island. After we landed some Chinese
came and decoyed us to their village, which was at the back of a
number of hills and out of sight of the shipping, under a promise that
they would let us have some of their country fruit, such as they sent
us on board. The length of time that some of them were absent, and the
sun going down fast, made us rather doubt the sincerity of their
intentions; those that were with us begged that we would stop till the
sun was down, but we began to be afraid of our lives. When the men saw
that we were determined to wait no longer, they gave a dreadful whoop,
which was answered by others stationed on the hills; they immediately
seized hold of us and rifled our pockets.

On March 25th we sailed down to Macao, and on the following day we
took our departure, and on the 24th of April arrived at Anjier point,
and is a settlement belonging to the Dutch; it lies to the east of
Batavia. The houses are generally built of bamboo; the inhabitants are
of various casts, Pagans, Mahometans, and Chinese. The barbarism of
the Batta Tribes is horrible, for they kill and eat their criminals or
prisoners of war, or even sacrifice their own relations when aged and
infirm, not so much with a view to gratify their appetites, as to
perform a pious ceremony. Thus, when a man becomes infirm and weary of
the world, he is said to invite his own children to eat him when salt
and limes are cheapest. He then ascends a tree, round which his
friends and offspring assemble, and as they shake the tree they join
in a funeral dirge, the import of which is, the season is come, the
fruit is ripe, and it must descend. The victim descends, and those
that are nearest deprive him of life, and devour his remains in a
solemn banquet.

In a few days we made sail. We arrived at St. Helena, on the 10th of
July, 1821. This island is situated in the South Atlantic Ocean, its
circumference is about twenty miles, and at a distance it has the
appearance of a large rock rising out of the sea. On rounding the
island it has a very romantic appearance; the town lying in a valley
presents to the eye a beautiful chain of scenery. It has some very
high mountains, particularly one called Diana's Peak, which is covered
with wood to the very summit. There are other hills also, which bear a
volcanic appearance, and some have huge rocks of lava, and a kind of
half-vitrified flags. James Town is erected in a valley at the bottom
of a bay, between two steep dreary mountains, and has from the
shipping a noble appearance.

Accommodations are tolerably good, and the inhabitants, generally
speaking, are very hospitable. Their villas are pleasantly situated,
and have a fine view of the sea; the whole face of the country is
really romantic; the hills are immensely high, and the valleys very
narrow; and in many of them there are a few houses, which give the
whole island a very picturesque appearance.

After obtaining a passport from the Adjutant-General, I went over a
long succession of hills to see the habitations of the late Emperor
Napoleon Bonaparte. The roads were very difficult to ascend, and
particularly rugged. The remains of this great and illustrious
personage are buried in a deep valley, about three miles from James
town, and about two miles from his late residence at Longwood, under
the peaceful shade of three weeping willows, and which also, (as in
respect to his dust,) lend a solemn air of reverential darkness to the
memorable _well_, from which, during his pilgrimages, he was wont to
receive his refreshing draughts.

No stately monument marks the spot; no polished alabaster, or the
mimicry of sculptured marble marks his grave: the real excellency of
the patriot is written on the minds of his countrymen; it will be
remembered with applause as long as the nation subsists, without this
artificial expedient to perpetuate it.

Let the poor pass by his grave, and thankfully acknowledge, there lies
the man who gloriously fought for his country and his subjects, to
free them from the galling yoke of tyranny and oppression: no tablets
are written to mark his actions, but those which are written in the
heart of his subjects.

The depth of his tomb is about twenty feet, and his coffin rests upon
two pedestals, ten feet high. His body is enclosed in four coffins,
first lead, second deal, third mahogany, and fourth marble. What is
very remarkable is, that part of his tomb is made of the flag-stones
of his new house, taken out of one of the kitchens. After viewing the
tomb of the man who was the most brilliant meteor in the political
world, I proceeded up to Longwood, to take a view of the habitation in
which he died.

After presenting my passport I had permission to inspect the premises:
the officer took great pains in shewing me the very spot on which he
quitted his troubles and persecutions, when he kindly left me to make
what sort of reflections I thought proper. The darkness of the room
gave it a very solemn appearance, and suited the mind to contemplate
upon this late extraordinary character;--but a short period past he
was the terror of the world, and now, alas! what is he? He is laid low
in the tomb, unregretted and unpitied by his merciless enemies. A
gleam of light through the casements reflected a dead glimmer through
the gloomy mansion. The _most illustrious_ have claimed the _tomb_ for
their last retreat; rooms of state are resigned! the sceptre has
ceased to wield, and sumptuous banquets are neglected for no other
ornament than the winding sheet! "Where is the star that blazed upon
his breast, or the coronet that glittered round his temples?" Alas!
they are resigned and given over, through the power of the tyrant hand
of death.

I have often walked between the impending promontory's craggy cliff; I
have sometimes trod the vast spaces of the lonely desert, and
penetrated the inmost recesses of the dreary cavern; but never beheld
Nature lowering with so dreadful a form; never felt impressions of
such awe striking cold on my heart, as under this roof; every thing
seemed to participate in grief for their deceased lord. The rooms were
very dirty and much neglected. The plants in his late garden seemed to
droop their heads in sorrow for the loss of the hand that reared them.

I next proceeded to the palace which had been sent from England, and
really it would have reflected honour on the British nation, and no
sovereign in the world need wish for a more magnificent one, had it
been placed in a more healthy part of the island.

We sailed for England on the 29th, and arrived on the 13th of
September, 1821, after a speedy and pleasant passage.


THE END.

       *       *       *       *       *





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