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Title: The Style Book of The Detroit News
Author: Detroit news
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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The Style Book of the Detroit News



_For helpful suggestions the editor is beholden to the style books of
the United States Government Printing Office, the Universities of
Missouri, Iowa and Montana, the Indianapolis News, the Chicago Herald,
and the New York Evening Post; to "Newspaper Writing and Editing," by
Willard G. Bleyer; "Newspaper Editing," by Grant M. Hyde; "The Writing
of News," by Charles G. Ross; and to the New York Tribune for permission
to make applicable to Michigan its digest of the libel laws of New
York._

_The inscriptions on the building of The News, reprinted in this book in
boxes, were written by Prof. Fred N. Scott, of the University of
Michigan._



[Illustration: THE HOME OF THE DETROIT NEWS

_Fort Street, Second Avenue and Lafayette Boulevard_]


    Founded by James Edmund Scripps            August 23, 1873

    Absorbed the subscription lists of the
    Detroit Daily Union                          July 27, 1876

    Established a Sunday edition                 Nov. 30, 1884

    Sunday News and Sunday Tribune
    combined as Sunday News-Tribune           October 15, 1893

    Daily Tribune merged with The News
    and discontinued                          February 1, 1915

    Ground broken for present building          November, 1915

    Sunday News-Tribune became The
    Sunday News                               October 14, 1917

    The News entered new building             October 15, 1917



    _The_
    STYLE BOOK
    OF
    The Detroit News

    Edited by

    A. L. WEEKS

    Published and Copyrighted 1918 by

    The Evening News Association
    Detroit



    This edition consists of
    1,000 copies, of which
    this is No. 625



TABLE OF CONTENTS


    The Aim of The Detroit News                            1

    Instructions to Reporters                              4

    Instructions to Copy Readers                           6

    Preparing Copy                                         7

    Leads                                                  7

    Heads                                                  8

    Diction                                               14

    A. P. Style                                           15

    Capitalization                                        17

    Punctuation                                           22

    Quotations                                            23

    Nouns                                                 24

    Pronouns                                              27

    Conjunctions                                          28

    Verbs                                                 29

    Adverbs                                               33

    Adjectives                                            34

    Prepositions                                          37

    Articles                                              38

    Numbers                                               38

    Roman Numerals                                        39

    Weights and Measures                                  40

    Abbreviation                                          42

    Names and Titles                                      45

    Jew and Hebrew                                        46

    Church Titles                                         48

    Compounds                                             48

    Superfluous Words                                     49

    Vital Statistics                                      50

    Spelling                                              51

    Popular Names of Railroads                            52

    Do and Don't                                          54

    The Cannery                                           57

    Michigan Institutions                                 59

    Army and Navy Organization                            60

    Dates Often Called For                                62

    The Law of Libel                                      64

    First Three Years of the War                          72

    Index                                                 77



THE AIM OF THE DETROIT NEWS


Formation of a newspaper's ideals comes through a process of years. The
best traditions of the past, blending with hopes of the future, should
be the writer's guide for the day. Nov. 1, 1916, the editor-in-chief of
The Detroit News, in a letter to the managing editor, wrote his
interpretation of the principles under which the staff should work, in
striving toward those journalistic ideals to which this paper feels
itself dedicated. His summary of the best practices of the profession
follows:

The Detroit News should be:

Vigorous, but not vicious.

Interesting, but not sensational.

Fearless, but fair.

Accurate as far as human effort can obtain accuracy.

Striving ever to gain and impart information.

As bright as possible, but never sacrificing solid information for
brilliancy.

Looking for the uplifting rather than the depraved things of life.

We should work to have the word RELIABLE stamped on every page of the
paper.

The place to commence this is with the staff members: First, getting men
and women of character to do the writing and editing; and then training
them in our way of thinking and handling news and other reading matter.

If you make an error you have two duties to perform--one to the person
misrepresented and one to your reading public. Never leave the reader of
The News misinformed on any subject. If you wrongfully write that a man
has done something that he did not do, or has said something that he did
not say, you do him an injustice--that's one. But you also do thousands
of readers an injustice, leaving them misinformed as to the character of
the man dealt with. Corrections should never be made grudgingly. Always
make them cheerfully, fully, and in larger type than the error, if there
is any difference.

The American people want to know, to learn, to get information. To quote
a writer: "Your opinion is worth no more than your information." Give
them your information and let them draw their own conclusions. Comment
should enlighten by well marshaled facts, and by telling the readers
what relation an act of today has to an act of yesterday. Let them come
to their own conclusions as far as possible.

No issue is worth advocating that is not strong enough to withstand all
the facts that the opposition to it can throw against it. Our readers
should be well informed on both sides of every issue.

Kindly, helpful suggestions will often direct officials in the right,
when nagging will make them stay stubbornly on the wrong side. That does
not mean that there should be any lack of diligence in watching for, and
opposing, intentional criminals.

A staff can be good and strong only by having every part of it strong.
The moment it becomes evident that a man, either by force of
circumstance or because of his own character, does not fit into our
organization, you do him a kindness and do justice to the paper by
letting him know, so he can go to a calling in which he can succeed, and
will not be in the way of filling the place with a competent man.

No one on the staff should be asked to do anything that will make him
think less of himself or the paper.

MAKE THE PAPER GOOD ALL THE WAY THROUGH, so there will not be
disappointment on the part of a reporter if his story is not found on
the first page, but so he will feel that it must have merit to get into
the paper at all. Avoid making it a "front-page paper."

Stories should be brief, but not meager. Tell the story, all of it, in
as few words as possible.

Nature makes facts more interesting than any reporter can imagine them.
There is an interesting feature in every story, if you will dig it out.
If you don't get it, it is because you don't dig deep enough.

The most valuable asset of any paper is its reputation for telling the
truth; the only way to have that reputation is to tell the truth.
Untruth due to carelessness or excessive imagination injures the paper
as much as though intentional.

Everyone with a grievance should be given a respectful and kindly
hearing; especial consideration should be given the poor and lowly, who
may be less capable of presenting their claims than those more favored
in life. A man of prominence and education knows how to get into the
office and present his complaint. A washerwoman may come to the door,
timidly, haltingly, scarcely knowing what to do, and all the while her
complaint may be as just as that of the other complainant, perhaps more
so. She should be received kindly and helped to present what she has to
say.

Simple, plain language is strongest and best. A man of little education
can understand it, while the man of higher education, usually reading a
paper in the evening after a day's work, will read it with relish. There
is never any need of using big words to show off one's learning. The
object of a story or an editorial is to inform or convince; but it is
hard to do either if the reader has to study over a big word or an
involved sentence. Use plain English all the time. A few readers may
understand and appreciate a Latin or French quotation, or one from some
other foreign language, but the big mass of our readers are the plain
people, and such a quotation would be lost on the majority.

Be fair. Don't let the libel laws be your measure in printing of a
story, but let fairness be your measure. If you are fair, you need not
worry about libel laws.

Always give the other fellow a hearing. He may be in the wrong, but even
that may be a matter of degree. It wouldn't be fair to picture him as
all black when there may be mitigating circumstances.

It is not necessary to tell the people that we are honest, or bright, or
alert, or that a story appeared exclusively in our paper. If true, the
public will find it out. An honest man does not need to advertise his
honesty.

Time heals all things but a woman's damaged reputation. Be careful and
cautious and fair and decent in dealing with any man's reputation, but
be doubly so--and then some--when a woman's name is at stake. Do not by
direct statement, jest or careless reference raise a question mark after
any woman's name if it can be avoided--and it usually can be. Even if a
woman slips, be generous; it may be a crisis in her life. Printing the
story may drive her to despair; kindly treatment may leave her with
hope. No story is worth ruining a woman's life--or a man's, either.

Keep the paper clean in language and thought. Profane or suggestive
words are not necessary. When in doubt, think of a 13-year-old girl
reading what you are writing.

Do not look on newspaper work as a "game," of pitilessly printing that
on which you are only half informed, for the mere sake of beating some
other paper; but take it rather as a serious, constructive work in which
you are to use all your energy and diligence to get all the worth-while
information for your readers at the earliest possible moment.



INSTRUCTIONS TO REPORTERS


When you go after a story, make sure that you get all of it.

Drill yourself into searching for facts; almost anybody can write a
story--it takes real brains and resourcefulness to get one.

You are urged to call the city editor for instructions whenever in
doubt, and it is a good idea to call as often as possible to keep the
office informed and also to get any information on your story that may
have come in from other sources.

Before you write or telephone your story, make sure that you have all
your facts marshaled in your own mind. A good reporter usually plans his
story, lead and details in his head on his way to the office.

NEVER GUESS.

KNOW WHAT YOU ARE WRITING ABOUT.

When you turn in a story KNOW that everything in that story is true--and
if you feel there is a statement you can not prove, call your city
editor's attention to it.

To color or fake a story is not newspaper work--it is prostitution of
the profession of journalism.

Be sure of your sources of information. Never take anything for
granted--find out for yourself. You will discover that many persons talk
convincingly about things although they have no actual knowledge of the
subject under discussion.

Remember always that a newspaper has to prove what it says--and any
decent newspaper is eager to.

If you don't know, tell the city editor you don't know. To guess is
criminal because nobody can guess with any consistent degree of
accuracy. And accuracy should be your guide.

Reporters should study their stories after they are printed, with the
realization that any changes made in them were made to better them. Ask
why your stories have been changed so your next story will be better
through avoidance of the same mistake.

Never be afraid to ask anybody anything.

The mainspring of a good newspaper man is a wholesome curiosity.

The essentials of newspaper writing are accuracy and simplicity. The
newspaper is no place for fine writing. Simplicity means directness and
conciseness in telling the story as well as an avoidance of hifalutin
phrases, obsolete words and involved sentences.

Walt Whitman wrote: "The art of arts, the glory of expression, and the
sunshine of the light of letters, is simplicity. Nothing is better than
simplicity--nothing can make up for excess or the lack of definiteness."

Every worker on a newspaper knows the value of accuracy. Accuracy is the
god before whom all newspaper men bow. If one could analyze the effort
put forth in one day in this office, one might discover that perhaps a
third of that effort was in an attempt to obtain accuracy. The city
directory is the newspaper man's Bible because accuracy is his deity.

The hardest lesson the journalist must learn is the development of the
impersonal viewpoint. He must learn to write what he sees and hears,
clearly and accurately, with never a tinge of bias. His own views, his
personal feelings and his friendships should have nothing to do with
what he writes in a story.

The ideal reporter would be a man who could give the public facts about
his bitterest enemy even though such facts would make the man he
personally hated a hero before the public.

In journalism more than in any other profession does the advice hold
good: "Beware of your friends; your enemies will take care of
themselves." By this is meant: Learn well the code of ethics which
governs your profession, and when any man in the guise of friendship
asks you to violate that code, you may say to him, "If you were truly my
friend, you would not ask me to do this any more than you would ask a
physician as a matter of friendship to perform an illegal operation, or
a lawyer to stoop to shyster practices."

Supplying his editors with the truth, the whole truth and nothing but
the truth, is the only mission of the reporter, and any man who asks the
reporter to deviate from that principle asks that which is dishonest.


BE TRUE

Thomas Carlyle: To every writer we might say: Be true, if you would be
believed. Let a man but speak forth with genuine earnestness the
thought, the emotion, the actual condition of his own heart; and other
men, so strangely are we all knit together by the tie of sympathy, must
and will give heed to him. In culture, in extent of view, we may stand
above the speaker, or below him; but in either case, his words, if they
are earnest and sincere, will find some response within us; for in spite
of all casual varieties in outward rank or inward, as face answers to
face, so does the heart of man to man.

    +-------------------------------------------+
    | ... VOICE OF THE LOWLY AND OPPRESSED ...  |
    | ADVOCATE OF THE FRIENDLESS ... RIGHTER OF |
    | PUBLIC AND PRIVATE WRONGS.                |
    +-------------------------------------------+



INSTRUCTIONS TO COPY READERS


The copy reader's position carries with it larger responsibilities than
the position of any other member of the staff. He can mar or ruin a good
story; he can redeem the poor story; he can save the reporter from
errors of commission or omission in the matter of his story or in the
manner of its writing. No matter how accomplished a writer a reporter
may be, the copy reader who handles his story can destroy his product.
Then, too, it is the function of the copy reader, if he believes that a
better story can be written with the same facts as a basis, to suggest
to the city editor that the story be rewritten by the reporter, by
another reporter or by the copy reader himself. Because a man is reading
copy, he should not imagine that he is not to write a story or rewrite
one when occasion demands.

Charles G. Ross writes: "His [the copy reader's] work is critical rather
than creative. It is destructive so far as errors of grammar, violations
of news style and libel are concerned. But if his sense of news is keen,
as that of every copy reader should be, he will find abundant
opportunity for something more than mechanical deletion and
interlineation. He may insert a terse bit of explanation to clear away
obscurity, or may add a piquant touch that will redeem a story from
dullness. To the degree that he edits news with sympathy and
understanding, with a clear perception of news values, his work may be
regarded as creative. If, on the other hand, he conceives it his duty to
reduce all writing to a dead level of mediocrity * * * * he richly
deserves the epithet that is certain to be hurled at the copy reader by
the reporter whose fine phrases have been cut out--he is in truth a
'butcher' of copy."

Dr. Willard G. Bleyer writes: "The reading and editing of copy consists
of (1) correcting all errors whether in expression or in fact; (2)
making the story conform to the style of the newspaper; (3) improving
the story in any respect; (4) eliminating libelous matter; (5) marking
copy for the printer; (6) writing headlines and subheads."


LEARNING THE METIER

Said Robert Louis Stevenson to a painter friend: "You painter chaps make
lots of studies, don't you? And you don't frame them all and send them
to the Salon, do you? You just stick them up on the studio wall for a
bit, and presently you tear them up and make more. And you copy
Velasquez and Rembrandt and Vandyke and Corot; and from each you learn
some little trick of the brush, some obscure little point of technic.
And you know damn well that it is the knowledge thus acquired that will
enable you later on to deliver your own message with a fine and
confident bravado. You are simply learning your metier; and believe me,
mon cher, an artist in any line without the metier is just a blind man
with a stick. Now, in the literary line I am simply doing what you
painter men are doing in the pictorial line--learning the metier."



PREPARING COPY


Use the typewriter. See that the keys are clean. Use triple space. Write
on one side of the paper. Do not paste sheets together. Leave wide
margins on both sides and at the top. Write your name and a brief
description of the story in two or three words at top of first sheet.
Number sheets. Never write perpendicularly in the margin. Never divide a
word from one page to another, and if possible do not divide a word from
one line to the next. Try to make each page end with a completed
paragraph to aid the composing room in setting the story in "takes."
When necessary to write in long hand, underscore _u_ and overscore _n_,
and print proper names and unusual words. Ring periods or write _x_ to
stand for them. When there is a chance that a word intentionally
misspelled will be changed by the printer, write _Follow Copy_ in the
margin. Indent deeply for paragraphs. Use an end-mark to indicate your
story is completed. Avoid interlining by crossing out the sentence you
desire to correct and writing it again.

Save time for your office by care in writing and editing. A little
thought before setting down a sentence will save you the trouble of
rewriting and the copy reader the annoyance of reading untidy copy.



LEADS


There is generally a better way to begin a story than with _A_, _An_,
_The_, _It is_, _There is_, _There are_.

Avoid beginning a story with figures, but when this must be done, then
spell out, as: _Ten thousand men marched away today._

The comprehensive A. P. lead is generally preferable, but in writing
some stories, particularly feature stories, a reporter may find a more
effective lead than the sentence or sentences that summarize the story.

Remember that your reader's time may be limited and that if your story
begins with a striking sentence, arresting either because of what it
says or the manner in which it says it, your story will be read.


THE CUTTLEFISH

He that uses many words for the explaining of any subject doth, like the
cuttlefish, hide himself in his own ink.--Anon.

    +---------------------------------------------+
    | BEARER OF INTELLIGENCE ... DISPELLER OF     |
    | IGNORANCE AND PREJUDICE ... A LIGHT SHINING |
    | INTO ALL DARK PLACES.                       |
    +---------------------------------------------+



HEADS


"The head," says Ross, "is an advertisement, and like all good
advertisements it should be honest, holding out no promise that the
story does not fulfill. It should be based on the facts as set forth in
the story and nothing else."

The head should be a bulletin or summary of the important facts, not a
mere label.

It is usually best to base the head on the lead of the story. The first
deck should tell the most important feature. Every succeeding deck
should contribute new information, not merely explain previous
statements or repeat them in different language.

The function of the head is to tell the facts, not to give the writer's
comment on the facts.

The head for the feature story, the special department, the editorial or
the illustration may properly be a title that suggests the material it
advertises instead of summarizing it. Indeed, the success of a feature
story often depends on its having a head that directs the reader to the
story and arouses his curiosity in it without disclosing the most
interesting content. Head writers should beware of revealing in the head
the surprise of a story, if it has one.

Never turn in a head that you _guess_ will fit. Make sure. Heads that
are too long cause delay and confusion.

As a general rule write heads in the present tense.

Principal words should not be repeated. Do not, however, use impossible
synonyms, as _canine_ for _dog_ or _inn_ for _hotel_.

Make every deck complete in itself.

Use articles sparingly. Occasionally they are needed. Observe the
difference in meaning between _King George Takes Little Liquor_ and
_King George Takes a Little Liquor_.

Avoid such overworked and awkward words as _probe_, _rap_, _quiz_,
_Russ_.

Never abbreviate _President_ to _Pres._

Avoid ending a line with a preposition, an article or a conjunction, as,

    TO MAKE PLANS FOR
        AMERICAN DEFENSE

Do not divide phrases, as,

    CUT IN SCHEDULE
        "K" IS PROBABLE

    CAMP PICKS ALL-
        AMERICAN TEAM

Try to make each line of the first deck a unit, as,

    POSTOFFICE ROBBED
        BY BAND OF TRAMPS

    TARIFF BOARD REPORTS
        ON ALL WOOL SCHEDULES

    STORY OF DYING MAN
        REOPENS GRAFT CASE

Observe that in reading these heads there is a natural pause that comes
at the end of the line. The same principle may govern the writing of
three-line heads, as,

    ONE GIRL'S ACT
        PREVENTS 60,000
            FROM WORKING

    WAYNE MEN WANT
        CANAL TO CONNECT
            CITY WITH DETROIT

In the head just written observe that the first line has fewer letters
because it contains two W's and an M. Either an M or a W is equal to a
letter and a half, and an I and a space are each equal to half a letter.
The first line contains 14½ units; the second line contains 15 units;
the third line contains 15 units. And yet the first line contains 14
letters and spaces, the second 16, and the third 17.

Every deck should contain a verb, expressed or implied. In this head,

    THIEVES BUSY
        IN NORTH END

the verb _are_ is understood.

If the subject of the verb in the first deck is not written, it should
be the first word of the second deck, as,

    INVESTIGATE
        WET VICTORY

    Texas Senators All Agreed
       to Inquire Into Late
            Election.

Omit all forms of the verb _to be_ whenever possible. This head,

    ASKED HOW HE GOT
        STOLEN AUTOMOBILE

is more effective than this,

    IS ASKED HOW HE GOT
        THE STOLEN AUTOMOBILE

Avoid expressions that are awkward because of omission of some form of
the verb _to be_ such as this:

    U. S. WEATHER MAN
        SAYS SUMMER HERE

Negatives should be avoided. The head should as a rule tell what
happened, not what did not happen.

Avoid the word _may_. The head should as a rule tell what happened, not
what is going to take place, perhaps.

Beware of heads that contain words of double meaning, as,

    NURSES HOPE
        TO WIN GAME

The word _nurses_ may be taken as a noun or a verb.

In this head the first word might be read as a noun or as a verb:

    SCOUTS CLAIM KAISER
        IS TO BLAME FOR WAR

Use as little punctuation as possible in the first deck.

Avoid alliteration.

Use few abbreviations.

Use figures sparingly.

Insert subheads in long stories at intervals of 150 to 200 words. Use at
least two subheads or none.

When there is a paragraph ending, _The President spoke as follows:_,
place the subhead before this paragraph and not between it and the
quoted matter.

Avoid such makeshift constructions as

    M A Y O R WILL
        RESIGN, SAID
    WILSON WON'T
        REPLY, RUMOR

Avoid beginning a head with quotation marks because the white space
destroys the balance of the head. When it is unavoidable, use single
quotation marks.

Avoid heads in which a dash takes the place of _says_, as,

    SHIPPING BOARD
        MUST GO--WILSON

When this style is necessary, use quotation marks.

It is permissible to make the first deck of a head a quotation without
quotation marks, writing the name of the person quoted in full-face caps
immediately below the deck. One need seldom resort to this expedient.

Be careful of the present tense in writing of historical events. The
head on a story about the legality of Christ's trial should not read,

    JESUS CHRIST IS
        ILLEGALLY SLAIN

nor should it read

    JESUS CHRIST WAS
        ILLEGALLY SLAIN

but it should read

    SAYS CHRIST WAS
        ILLEGALLY SLAIN

Remember always in writing heads that although a newspaper man seldom
reads more than the first deck, deciding by that whether to read the
story, many readers of the paper read no more than the head, and for
them it should summarize the story, embodying all its salient features.


GRAMMAR

The most common errors in grammar to be found in copy are in:

The agreement of a verb with its subject.

The relation of pronouns to their antecedents.

The position of participles in relation to the words they modify.

The use of co-ordinate conjunctions to connect elements of the same
kind.

The position of correlative conjunctions with relation to the elements
they connect.

To gain grace in writing one must either be born with a natural aptitude
in the use of words--and such men: Stevenson, Poe, Walter Pater and
others, are geniuses--or one must study the writings of these masters of
prose and attempt to discover the secret of their success. It is not
necessary that a good writer should know rules of grammar, but he must
know enough to observe them. A writer may be unable to tell why a
dangling participle is faulty English by testing it with a rule, but he
may nevertheless avoid such a construction because his ear tells him it
is not the best style.

Copies of the best grammars may be found in the office library and
should be consulted when reporters and copy readers are in doubt.


SIMPLICITY

In character, in manners, in style and in all things the supreme
excellence is simplicity.--Longfellow.


NOTES



DICTION


The newspaper writer must beware of two pitfalls in writing: Fine
writing and dialect. Stilted English, pompous and high-sounding, is in
just as bad taste as garish clothing or pungent perfume. Reporters often
give to their stories a wordy and turgid flavor by their refusal to
repeat a word, preferring a synonym. One often sees such sentences as
this: "The policeman took his pistol away as he was about to shoot at
the bluecoat's partner, another officer of the law." This is a quite
unnecessary avoidance of the repetition of the word policeman.

Fine writing is quite out of place at all times in a newspaper and
is particularly obnoxious when a reporter quotes a person of
inferior mentality in polished--or what the reporter thinks are
polished--phrases. Things like this shouldn't get into the paper:
_"It is with poignant grief that I gaze on the torn frame of my dear
spouse," said Mrs. Sowikicki, as she stood beside a slab in the morgue._

On the other hand reporters should not try to be funny at the expense of
someone inexpert in the use of the language. If a person interviewed
uses bad grammar, correct him when you write the story. To make a person
say _Hadn't ought to of_ or _Hain't got no_ is not only insulting to
that person and to your readers, but is poor comedy.

Dialect must be absolutely accurate if it is used. Finley Peter Dunne
can write Irish dialect and not many other persons in America can write
as good. Probably no reporter on The News can write it. Dialect that
might hurt the feelings of others who speak the same way should not be
used. In fact as a general rule: DON'T WRITE DIALECT. The greatest
masters of humor, such as Moliere, Cervantes, Shakespeare, Mark Twain,
have obtained their best effects by writing their language
straightforwardly.


THE GRIT OF COMPACT, CLEAR TRUTH

I began to compose by imitating other authors. I admired, and I worked
hard to get, a smooth, rich, classic style. The passion I afterwards
formed for Heine's prose forced me from this slavery, and taught me to
aim at naturalness. I seek now to get back to the utmost simplicity of
expression, to disuse the verbosity I tried so hard to acquire, to get
the grit of compact, clear truth, if possible, informal and direct. It
is very difficult. I should advise any beginner to study the raciest,
strongest, best spoken speech and let the printed speech alone; that is
to say, to write straight from the thought without bothering about the
manner, except to conform to the spirit or genius of the language. I
once thought Latinized diction was to be invited; I now think Latinized
expression is to be guarded against.--W. D. Howells.



A. P. STYLE


What M. E. Stone says to his correspondents on story writing may be read
with profit by any newspaper man. The following is clipped from the
monthly bulletin issued by the Associated Press to its correspondents:

A plain statement of fact is the best introduction to a news story. A
simple, direct style--which does not mean a wooden style--is always
desirable. In the opening sentence it is of particular value.

The news which a story contains is the one thing which entitles it to
place in the Associated Press report. It is the news, not the manner of
telling the news, on which the story must stand. It is therefore
essential to present the vital point at the outset, in such form as will
enable the reader to grasp it quickly, clearly and easily. For this
purpose there is no acceptable substitute for plain English.

In an effort to make the most vivid and emphatic impression at the
opening, objectionable forms of construction often are employed. A
highly-colored or strained introduction almost always fails of its
purpose of enlisting interest at once, since it tends to divert the
attention of the reader from the subject-matter of the story to the
writer's manner of telling it. This renders the introduction cloudy and
lessens interest instead of stimulating it. Once the main point is
established, the well known rules of news writing should be observed.

To say that "'William Brown may obtain a fair trial in Greene County,'
Judge Smith so ruled today," is to misstate the facts. It places the
Associated Press on record as making a statement made by the court. Use
of this and similar introductory sentences which require subsequent
qualification is objectionable.

Opening sentences frequently lose directness and clearness because of
the effort to crowd too much into them. All that is essential is to
cover the vital point, leaving details for subsequent narration.

Introductions must be impartial. It is possible to take almost any given
set of statements and present them in such a way as to convey any one of
several shades of meaning. This may depend merely on the order of
presentation. Associated Press stories must be accurate and accuracy
involves not only the truthfulness of individual statements but the
co-relation of these statements in such a way as to convey to the reader
a fair and unbiased impression of the story as a whole. An account of a
court proceeding, a political debate, or any other event which involves
conflicting claims or interests, should not be introduced by singling
out a particular phase of the story which is limited to one side of the
controversy, simply because that is the most striking feature. Such a
form of introduction tends to place the emphasis on one side of the
case, giving bias to the entire story.

Stereotyped introductions should be avoided. One of the most common is
the "When" introduction, as: "Two men were killed when a train struck
..." etc. "If" and "After" often are used similarly. Inverted sentences
are also frequent; as "That the prisoner was guilty was the opinion
expressed by ..." etc. Constant employment of these fixed styles becomes
monotonous. Moreover, it is possible to state the facts more simply,
directly and effectively without them.


BROADEN THE VOCABULARY

Edward Harlan Webster gives this excellent advice on how to broaden the
vocabulary:

Practice is the first aid. Actually get hold of new words and then use
them. You will perceive that you will not startle others so much as
yourself. Gradually the words will begin to assume a standing in your
vocabulary, and before long, they will seem like old friends.

To obtain these words, various practical methods are possible. Here are
a few:

1. Find synonyms for words which you have a tendency to overuse.

2. Record words with which you are familiar but you never use--and then
"work" them.

3. Make a list of important, unfamiliar words which you hear, or
discover in your reading.

4. Listen carefully to the conversations or addresses of educated
people.

5. If possible, try to translate from a foreign language. In this way a
fine perception of shades of meaning, almost unattainable by any other
method, is acquired.

6. Get interested in the dictionary, where you can trace the life
history of words.


THE PICTORIAL POWER OF WORDS

"Words have a considerable share in exciting ideas of beauty--they
affect the mind by raising in it ideas of those things for which custom
has appointed them to stand. Words, by their original and pictorial
power have great influence over the passions; if we combine them
properly, we may give new life and beauty to the simplest object. In
painting, we may represent any fine figure we please, but we never can
give it those enlivening touches which it may receive from words. For
example, we can represent an angel in a picture by drawing a young man
winged: but what painting can furnish out anything so grand as the
addition of one word--'the angel of the Lord'? Is there any painting
more grand and beautiful?"--Edmund Burke.



CAPITALIZATION


Capitalize titles preceding names, as, Chief of Detectives Fox, Gen.
Bell. Lower-case titles following names, as John Downey, superintendent
of police, except these which are capitalized always:

    President       }
    Vice-President  }
    Cabinet         } of the United States.
    Government      }
    Administration  }
    Supreme Court   }
    Governor (of Michigan).
    Lieutenant-Governor (of Michigan).
    Mayor (of Detroit).
    Supreme Court (of Michigan).
    Judges and Justices of all courts of record.
    The names of all courts of record.
    King, Emperor, Czar, Kaiser, Sultan, Viceroy, etc.
    The Crown Prince.
    The Duke of Blank.
    The Prince of Dash.

Do not capitalize _former_ preceding a title, as _former Senator
Wilson_. _Former_ is preferred to _ex-_.

Capitalize the full names of associations, clubs, societies, companies,
etc., as Michigan Equal Suffrage Association, Detroit Club, Society for
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Star Publishing Company. _The_
preceding such a name is not to be capitalized. Do not capitalize
_association_, _club_, etc., when not attached to a specific name.

Capitalize _university_, _college_, _academy_, etc., when part of a
title, as University of Detroit, Olivet College. But do not capitalize
when the plural is used, as the state universities of Michigan, Kansas
and Ohio.

Capitalize the first word after a colon in giving a list, as, _The
following were elected: President, William Jones; vice-president, Sam
Smith_, etc. _Try this menu: Rice, milk and fruit._ When the colon is
used merely to indicate a longer pause than a semicolon, it is not
followed by a capital, as, _A tire blew out: the car skidded: we were in
the ditch_.

Capitalize _building_, _hall_, _house_, _hotel_, _theater_, _hospital_,
etc., when used with a distinguishing name, as Book Building, Hull
House, Cadillac Hotel, Garrick Theater, Harper Hospital.

Capitalize the names of federal and state departments and bureaus, as
Department of Agriculture, State Insurance Department, Bureau of Vital
Statistics. But lower-case municipal departments, as fire department,
water and light department, street department.

Capitalize the names of national legislative bodies, as Congress, House
of Representatives or House, Senate, Parliament, Reichstag, Duma,
Chamber (France).

Capitalize _state legislature_ and synonymous terms (_legislature_,
_assembly_, _general assembly_) only when the Michigan Legislature is
meant.

Capitalize the names of all political parties, in this and other
countries, as Democratic, Republican, Progressive, Socialist, Liberal,
Tory, Union. But do not capitalize these or similar words, or their
derivatives, when used in a general sense, as republican form of
government, democratic tendencies, socialistic views.

Capitalize _pole_, _island_, _isthmus_, _cape_, _ocean_, _bay_, _river_,
and in general all such geographical terms when used in specific names,
as North Pole, South Sea Islands, Cape Hatteras, Hudson Bay, Pacific
Ocean, Mississippi River, Isthmus of Panama.

Capitalize _county_ when used in a specific name, as Wayne County.

Capitalize the _East_, the _West_, the _Middle West_, the _Orient_ and
other terms used for definite regions; but do not capitalize _east_,
_west_, etc., when used merely to designate direction or point of
compass, as "west of here." Do not capitalize _westerner_, _southerner_,
_western states_ and other such derivatives.

Capitalize sections of a state, as Upper Peninsula, Western Michigan,
etc., but not the _northern part of Michigan_, etc.

Capitalize, when used with a distinguishing name, _ward_, _precinct_,
_square_, _garden_, _park_, etc., as First Ward, Eighth Precinct,
Cadillac Square, Madison Square Garden, Palmer Park.

Capitalize _Jr._ and _Sr._ after a name.

Capitalize _room_, etc., when followed by a number or letter, as Room
18, Dime Bank Building; Parlor C, Normandie Hotel.

Capitalize distinctive names of localities in cities, as North End, Nob
Hill, Back Bay, Happy Hollow.

Capitalize the names of holidays and days observed as holidays by
churches, as Fourth of July, Dominion Day, Good Friday, Yom Kippur,
Columbus Day, Washington's Birthday.

Capitalize the names of notable events and things, as the Declaration of
Independence, the War of 1812, the Revolution, the Reformation, the
Civil War, the Battle of the Marne.

Capitalize _church_ when used as a specific name, as North Woodward
Methodist Church, First Christian Church. But write: a Methodist church,
a Christian church.

Capitalize the names of all religious denominations, as Baptist, Quaker,
Mormon, Methodist.

Capitalize names for the Bible, as the Holy Scriptures, the Book of
Books. But do not capitalize adjectives derived from such names, as
biblical, scriptural.

Capitalize all names and pronouns used for the Deity.

Capitalize the Last Supper, Lord's Prayer, Ten Commandments, Book of
Ruth, etc.

Capitalize the names of races and nationalities, as Italian, American,
Indian, Gypsy, Caucasian and Negro.

Capitalize titles of specific treaties, laws, bills, etc., as Treaty of
Ghent, Eleventh Amendment, Workmen's Compensation Act, Good Roads Bill.
But when the reference is general use lower-case, as the good roads
legislation of the last congress.

Capitalize such terms as Stars and Stripes, Old Glory, Union Jack, Stars
and Bars, etc.

Capitalize U. S. Army and Navy.

Capitalize names of military organizations, as First Regiment, B Company
(do not quote letter), National Guard, Grand Army of the Republic,
Michigan State Militia, University Cadet Corps (but University cadets).

Capitalize such names as Triple Alliance, Triple Entente, Quadruple
Entente, Allies (in the European war).

Capitalize the fanciful titles of cities and states, as the City of the
Straits, the Buckeye State.

Capitalize the nicknames of base ball, foot ball and other athletic
teams, as Chicago Cubs, Boston Braves, Tigers.

Capitalize epithets affixed to or standing for proper names, as
Alexander the Great, the Pretender.

Capitalize the names of stocks in money markets, as Federal Steel, City
Railway.

Capitalize college degrees, whether written in full or abbreviated, as
Bachelor of Arts, Doctor of Laws, Bachelor of Science in Education:
A.B., LL.D., B.S. in Ed.

Capitalize _high school_ when used thus: Central High School (but the
high school at Port Huron).

Capitalize, but do not quote, the titles of newspapers and other
periodicals, the New York World, the Outlook, the Saturday Evening Post.
Do not capitalize _the_, except The Detroit News.

Capitalize and quote the titles of books, plays, poems, songs, speeches,
etc., as "The Scarlet Letter," "Within the Law," "The Man With the Hoe."
_The_ beginning a title must be capitalized and included in the
quotation. All the principal words--that is, nouns, pronouns, verbs,
adjectives, adverbs and interjections--are to be capitalized, no matter
how short; thus: "The Man Who Would Be King." Other parts of
speech--that is, prepositions, conjunctions and articles--are to be
capitalized only when they contain four or more letters; thus: at, in,
a, for, Between, Through, Into. The same rules apply to capitalization
in headlines.

Capitalize adjectives derived from proper nouns, as English,
Elizabethan, Germanic, Teutonic. But do not capitalize proper names and
derivatives whose original significance has been obscured by long and
common usage. Under this head fall such words as india rubber, oriental
colors, street arab, pasteurize, macadam, axminster, gatling, paris
green, plaster of paris, philippic, socratic, herculean, guillotine,
utopia, bohemian, philistine, platonic. When, however, a name is
comparatively recent, use capitals, as in Alice blue, Taft roses,
Burbank cactus.

Capitalize the particles in French names, as _le_, _la_, _de_, _du_,
when used without a Christian name or title preceding, as Du Maurier.
But lower-case when preceded by a name or title, as George du Maurier.
The same rule applies to the German _von_: Field Marshal von Mackensen,
but, without Christian name or title, Von Mackensen. Always capitalize
_Van_ in Dutch names unless personal preference dictates an exception,
as Henry van Dyke.

Capitalize the names of French streets and places, as Rue de la Paix,
Place de la Concorde.

Do not capitalize _street_, _avenue_, _boulevard_, _place_, _lane_,
_terrace_, _way_, _road_, _highway_, etc., as Ninth street, Boston
boulevard, Maryland place, Rosemary lane, Seven Mile road.

Do not capitalize _addition_, _depot_, _elevator_, _mine_, _station_,
_stockyards_, etc., as Wabash freight depot, Yellow Dog mine, Union
station, Chicago stockyards.

Do not capitalize _postoffice_, _courthouse_, _poorhouse_, _council
chamber_, _armory_, _cadets_, _police court_, _women's parlors_.

White House, referring to President's residence, should be capitalized.

Capitalize only the distinguishing words if two or more names are
connected, as the Wabash and Missouri Pacific railroad companies. (In
singular form, Wabash Railroad Co.)

Do not capitalize the seasons of the year unless they are personified.

Do not capitalize _a. m._ and _p. m._ except in headlines.

Capitalize O. K., write it with periods, and form present tense, O. K.'s
and past tense, O. K.'d.

Capitalize _Boy Scouts_ (referring to organization). Make _Campfire_
(referring to the girls' organization) one word, capitalized.

Capitalize _Constitution_ referring to that of the United States. But
state constitution (lower-case).


NOTES



PUNCTUATION


A series of three or more words takes commas except before conjunctions,
as: _There were boxes of guns, bayonets, cartridges and bandages_.
Separate members of the series with semicolons if there are commas
within the phrase, as: __There were boxes of guns, bayonets and
cartridges; casks of powder, high explosives and chemicals; and many
other prohibited articles_._

Use asterisks to indicate that part of quoted matter has been omitted,
as, _He said: "I favor all measures that * * * will help the people."_

Use leaders to indicate a pause in the thought.

_He said he would never return . . . . . ._

_When the news reached his mother, she fainted._

Commas set off an explanatory phrase but not a restrictive phrase of
inclusive qualification. One writes: Poe, a poet of America, wrote "The
Raven." But one writes: Poe the poet is a finer craftsman than Poe the
fiction writer.

Use commas before conjunctions in a sentence made up of separate
clauses, each with its own subject nominative, as, _The horse is old,
but it is still willing_. If the same subject, write it: _The horse is
old but willing_.

Use no period after letters used in place of numbers, as, =B Company=.
(Companies of soldiers are designated as _B Company_, not _Company B_.)

Use hyphen and no apostrophe when dates are joined, as, _1861-65_.

Write the _caliber_ of a revolver or rifle with a period, as _.22_.

Use no commas in years and street numbers, as, _1904_, not _1,904_; and
_2452 High street_. But write: _2,156 persons_ and _$1,560_.

Follow this style in date lines:

    CHICAGO, May 10.--
    BROWNSVILLE, Mich., May 10.--

Avoid this form as hackneyed: _His wealth (?) has disappeared._

Place a comma or a colon after _said_, _remarked_ and similar words when
quoted matter follows.


THREE RULES

Writes the Duke of Argyll: I have always held that clear thinking will
find its own expression in clear writing. As to mere technical rules,
there are very few that occur to me, except such as these--first, to aim
at short sentences, without involution or parenthetical matter; second,
to follow a logical order in construction of sentences, and in the
sequence of them; third, to avoid absolutely such phrases as "the
former" and "the latter," always preferring repetition to the use of
such tiresome references. The last rule, and in some measure the other,
I learned from Macaulay, and have found it of immense use. There is some
mannerism in his style, but it is always clear as crystal, and this rule
of repetition contributed much to this.



QUOTATIONS


Quotation marks are not needed when matter is indented, thus: _The
speaker said in part_:

    _I do not believe that, etc._

Sometimes marks of punctuation belong inside quotation marks and
sometimes outside, as: "_Did you hear him say, 'I am here'?_" But in
this case: "_I heard him say, 'Are you here?'_" Continental usage
permits this form: "_Are you shot!?_" but it is not in good use on this
side.

Use no quotation marks with slang of your own writing.

Use no quotes in writing testimony with question and answer. This is the
style:

    Q.--What is your name?
    A.--John Jones.

Observe the style on quotes within quotes: _The witness said: "I asked
him, 'Where is my copy of "Paradise Lost"?'"_


OBSERVATION

Writes Arnold Bennett: One is curious about one's fellow-creatures:
therefore one watches them. And generally the more intelligent one is,
the more curious one is, and the more one observes. The mere
satisfaction of this curiosity is in itself a worthy end, and would
alone justify the business of systemized observation. But the aim of
observation may, and should, be expressed in terms more grandiose. Human
curiosity counts among the highest social virtues (as indifference
counts among the basest defects), because it leads to a disclosure of
the causes of character and temperament and thereby to a better
understanding of the springs of human conduct. Observation is not
practiced directly with this high end in view (save by prigs and other
futile souls); nevertheless it is a moral act and must inevitably
promote kindliness--whether we like it or not. It also sharpens the
sense of beauty. An ugly deed--such as a deed of cruelty--takes on
artistic beauty when its origin and hence its fitness in the general
scheme begin to be comprehended. In the perspective of history we can
derive esthetic pleasure from the tranquil scrutiny of all kinds of
conduct--as well, for example, of a Renaissance Pope as of a Savonarola.
Observation endows our day and our street with the romantic charm of
history, and stimulates charity--not the charity which signs cheques,
but the more precious charity which puts itself to the trouble of
understanding. The condition is that the observer must never lose sight
of the fact that what he is to see is life, is the woman next door, is
the man in the train--and not a concourse of abstractions. To appreciate
all this is the first inspiring preliminary to sound observation.



NOUNS


Watch for nouns ending in _-ics_. Many of them are singular, such as
_politics_, _mathematics_, _ethics_.

Make sums of money singular: _Five dollars was spent_, unless individual
pieces of money are meant, as: _Five silver dollars were placed on the
table_. Write _moneys_, not _monies_.

Remember that _data_, _memoranda_, _phenomena_, _paraphernalia_,
_bacteria_ and _strata_ are plural.

Distinguish between _majority_ and _plurality_. _Majority_ means the
lead of a candidate over _all other_ candidates. _Plurality_ means the
lead of a candidate over _one other_ candidate.

_Event_, _incident_, _affair_, _occurrence_, _happening_, _circumstance_
do not mean the same things. Look them up.

Use _preventive_, not _preventative_.

Distinguish between _ambassador_, _minister_, _consul_, _envoy_.

Avoid feminine forms of such words as _author_, _artist_, _dancer_,
_violinist_, _pianist_, _poet_. It may be necessary occasionally to
change more than the spelling. For example, _the world's greatest
pianiste_ may not mean _the world's greatest pianist_.

Prefer motorist to automobilist and autoist.

_Sewer_ is a drain. _Sewage_ is what goes through it. _Sewerage_ is a
system of drains.

Don't use _divine_ as a noun.

Don't write _couple_ unless you mean two things joined and not merely
two.

Don't write _party_ for _person_, nor _people_ for _persons_.

Don't use _citizens_ when you mean simply _persons_.

Don't write _a large per cent of_ when speaking of persons when you mean
_a large proportion_.

When nouns are attended by participles, two constructions are possible.
One may say either _I know of John's being there_, or _I know of John
being there_; _The fact of the battle's having been lost_, or _The fact
of the battle having been lost_. The possessive is to be preferred with
proper names and in most simple constructions; it is _altogether to be
preferred with pronouns_ when the principal idea is in the participle.
One says: _I saw him going_, _I heard them singing_; but _I heard of his
going_; _I urged his going_; _I advised their attending_; _I objected to
his staying_; _I opposed their going_; _the fact of his being there made
a difference_; _On his saying this the people shouted_; _With their
consenting the thing was settled_; _He spoke of my setting out as
already agreed to_; _He found fault with our accepting the place_, etc.

Collective nouns are usually singular, as, _The club has increased its
membership_. However, a collective noun, when it is used to refer more
particularly to individuals than to the mass, is plural, as _The crowd
was orderly_, but, _The crowd threw up their hats_. In using collective
nouns beware of mixing the number. Do not write, _The audience was in
their seats_, but _The audience was seated_, or _The audience were in
their seats_.

PREFER

    _Station to depot_
    _House or home to residence_
    _Woman to lady_
    _Man to gentleman_
    _Telephone to phone_
    _Automobile to auto_
    _Motor car to motor_
    _Bridegroom to groom_
    _Rest to balance_


THE JOURNALIST'S CREED

_By WALTER WILLIAMS_

I believe in the profession of journalism.

I believe that the public journal is a public trust; that all connected
with it are, to the full measure of their responsibility, trustees for
the public; that acceptance of lesser service than the public service is
betrayal of this trust.

I believe that clear thinking and clear statement, accuracy and fairness
are fundamental to good journalism.

I believe that a journalist should write only what he holds in his heart
to be true.

I believe that suppression of the news for any consideration other than
the welfare of society is indefensible.

I believe that no one should write as a journalist what he would not say
as a gentleman; that bribery by one's own pocketbook is as much to be
avoided as bribery by the pocketbook of another; that individual
responsibility may not be escaped by pleading another's instruction or
another's dividends.

I believe that advertising, news and editorial columns should alike
serve the best interests of the readers; that a single standard of
helpful truth and clearness should prevail for all; that the supreme
test of good journalism is the measure of its public service.

I believe that the journalism which succeeds best--and best deserves
success--fears God and honors man; is stoutly independent, unmoved by
pride of opinion or greed of power; constructive, tolerant, but never
careless; self controlled, patient; always respectful of its readers,
but always unafraid; is quickly indignant at injustice; is unswayed by
the appeal of privilege or the clamor of the mob; seeks to give every
man a chance and, as far as law and honest wages and recognition of
human brotherhood can make it so, an equal chance; is profoundly
patriotic, while sincerely promoting international good will and
cementing world comradeship; is a journalism of humanity, of and for
today's world.


NOTES



PRONOUNS


Never use _I_ in referring to yourself except in a signed article.

Avoid the use of _he or she_ and _his or her_. The use of either phrase
is seldom required for clearness' sake. When a noun is used which may
refer indifferently to both sexes, the accepted practice is to use the
masculine pronoun. For example, say: _Let the teacher do his duty and he
need not fear criticism_, not _Let the teacher do his or her duty and he
or she need not fear criticism_.

Similarly after indefinite singulars like _each_, _every_, _somebody_,
_anybody_, use the masculine singular pronoun. Thus, _Everyone should do
his duty and he should do it every day_. Here one is not only to avoid
the use of _he or she_ and _his or her_, but also particularly and
constantly to be on guard against _they_ and _their_. Sentences like
_Nobody knows what they can do till they try_; _Everyone is urged to
come and bring their pocketbooks with them_, are frequently heard and
often get into print.

Do not use _the same_ for a third personal or a demonstrative pronoun.
_The farmer brought a load of wheat to town and sold it_ (not _the
same_) _at the mill_.

Do not make _such_ a pronoun, except in the phrase _such as_. _He has
fruits of all sorts and his prices for such are unreasonable_, is the
sort of use to be avoided.

Distinguish between _its_, possessive pronoun, and _it's_, contraction
of _it is_.

Use _either_ or _neither_ only of two, _any one_ or _none_ of more than
two, as: _In one group are Russia, Germany and Austria, in another
France and England. Any one of the first group acting with either of the
second could determine the question_. (As conjunctions, _either_ and
_neither_ may introduce the first of a series of particulars consisting
of three or more. It is correct to say _Neither this nor that nor the
other thing_; but when used as pronouns, _either_ and _neither_ should
be rigidly confined to use with reference to two only.)

Prefer always _no one_ and _nobody_ to _not any one_ or _not anybody_,
as _It is no one's_ (or _nobody's_) _business_, not, _It is not any
one's_ (or _not anybody's_) _business_.

Do not use _apiece_ for _each_ of persons. Say: _The men each took an
apple_ or _took an apple each_, not _The men took an apple apiece_. But
they might have bought the apples at so much _apiece_.

Be careful not to say _these sort of things_, _these kind of men_, for
_this sort of things_ or _this kind of men_.

In questions direct or indirect be careful to use _whom_ when the
objective case is required. Do not say, _Who did you see there?_ or, _I
do not know who he meant_.

The relative _who_ should be used only of persons (or of beasts or
things personified). Do not say: _The dog whom you saw_ or _He drove the
horse who made the best record_. The relative _which_ should be used
only of beasts and inanimate objects. Do not say: _The women and
children which were numerous then came trooping in_.

The relative _that_ may be used regardless of gender and the antecedent.

_That_ should be used after a compound antecedent mentioning both
persons and animals or things, as, _The soldiers, the ambulances and the
pack mules that were recaptured, were sent to the rear_.

Be careful of the case of _who_ if a parenthetical sentence intervenes
between it and its verb. _He said that Gen. Harrison, whom, everybody
well knew, had long been interested in the case, would make the closing
argument._ Such faulty objective is often heard in daily speech and not
infrequently gets into the papers. Of course _who_ should be used. But
_whom_ should be used when the infinitive follows: _He said that Gen.
Harrison, whom everybody admitted to be profoundly versed in the law,
would discuss the point_.

It is proper to omit the relative pronoun on occasion when it is the
object of the following verb, as _He was among the men (whom) I saw_.



CONJUNCTIONS


Never use _like_ as a conjunction. John may look _like_ James or act
_like_ James or speak _like_ James, but he never looks, acts or speaks
_like_ James looks, acts or speaks; he never looks _like_ he wanted to
do something, nor conducts himself _like_ he thought he owned the earth,
or _like_ he was crazy. _Like_ (as in the first example) may be followed
by an objective case of a substantive, with which the construction is
completed: _You are like me in this_; _You, like me, believe this_; _He
conducted himself like a crazy man_. When a clause is demanded, _as if_
should be used: _He looks as if he wanted something_; _he acts as if he
were crazy_.

Do not use _if_ for _whether_ in introducing indirect questions: _I
doubt whether_ (not _if_) _this is true_; _I asked whether_ (not _if_)
_he would go_.

Do not use _as_ for _that_. Not _I do not know as this is so_, but _I do
not know that this is so_.

Do not use _without_ for _unless_. _We cannot go unless_ (not _without_)
_he comes_.

Do not use _but what_ for _but that_ or _that_. _I do not doubt that_
(or _but that_) _he will come_, not _but what he will come_; _They did
not know but that_ (not _but what_) _they might accept it_.

Do not use _while_ for _although_, as, _while it is probable_. _While_
refers to time.



VERBS


The verb should agree with its subject in person and number. It ought
not to be necessary to give this obvious rule, but hardly a day passes
without violation of it in almost every paper. Its violation is
especially common in the inverted sentence, introduced with _there_.
_There is likely to be some changes_; _There is, at the present writing,
some hopes of peace_; _There seems to be, in view of all the conditions,
many objections to this plan_, are examples of the faulty usage.

The _to_ should not be separated from the infinitive by word or phrase.
The modifier should precede the _to_ or follow the verb. Do not say _to
promptly act_, but _to act promptly_ or _promptly to act_. Such use as
in the example just given is bad enough, but it is not so offensive as
the intrusion of time adverbs and negatives as, for example, _He decided
to now go_, or _He expected to not only go but to stay_, or _He
preferred to not stay_.

Do not end a sentence with the _to_ of an omitted infinitive; as: _He
could not speak but tried to_; but _He refused to go but he ought to
go_, or _He ought to go but he refuses_.

Subordinate infinitives and participles take their time from the verb in
the principal clause. They should therefore be the simple so-called
present forms. Do not say: _I intended to have gone_, or _I intended
having gone_, but _I intended to go_, _I intended going_; not _He had
expected to have been present_, but _He had expected to be present_; not
_He would have liked to have seen you_; but _He would have liked to see
you_; not _I was desirous to have gone_, but _I was desirous to go_.

With the verbs _appear_ (in the sense of _seem to be_) and _feel_,
_look_, _smell_ and _sound_ (used intransitively) use an adjective and
not an adverb, i. e., _The rose smells sweet_; _Miss Coghlan as Lady
Teazle looked charming_; _She appeared happy_. But _appear_ in the same
sense of _behave_ is followed by an adverb, as _He appears well_; and
the other verbs used transitively of course take an adverb, as _He
looked sharply at the man_.

When one wishes to imply doubt or denial in a condition of present or
indefinite time, the imperfect subjunctive should be used, as _If the
book were here, I should show you_--but the book is not here; _If it
were true, you would long ago have heard it_--but it is not true. But if
one is referring to past time, the imperfect indicative must be used,
as, _If he was here yesterday, I did not know it_.

Be careful to distinguish between _lay_ and _lie_, _raise_ and _rise_,
_set_ and _sit_. The first of each pair is transitive, and always
requires an object; the second is intransitive and never takes an
object. (The only exception is _sit_ used of a rider, as, _He sits his
horse well_.) One _lays_ or _sets_ a thing down and _raises_ it up. One
_lies_ or _sits_ down and _rises_ from one's place. Land _lies_ this way
or that. (But we speak of the _lay_ of the land.)

Especially pains must be taken to keep straight the past tenses and
past participles of _lay_ and _lie_. Of _lay_ past tense and participle
are alike _laid_. _He laid_ or _he has laid the case before the
authorities_. The past tense of _lie_ is _lay_ (the same as the present
tense of the transitive verb), the past participle is _lain_. These
forms are seldom if ever used for parts of _lay_; but for them _laid_ is
very often used, as, _He laid_ or _he has laid down to take a nap_,
where the correct usage is _He lay_ or _he has lain down_, etc.

Prices _rise_, wages _rise_, bread _rises_, bread is _set_ to _rise_;
men _raise_ prices or wages; _He rose and raised his hand_. Clothing of
every sort _sits_ well or ill, it does not _set_. The corresponding
noun, however, is _set_; _He admired the set of the garment_. You _set_
a hen, but the hen _sits_ and is a _sitting_ hen. The heavenly bodies
_set_, but that is another word, which means to _sink_ or to _settle_.

Inanimate objects are not _injured_ but _damaged_.

Use _wish_ to mean simple desire, as, _I wish to see him_. Use _want_ to
mean acute need, as, _I want food_.

Only moving objects _collide_. Two automobiles may _collide_, but an
automobile does not _collide_ with a fence.

PREFER:

    _lend_ to _loan_
    _lives_ to _resides_
    _leaves_ to _departs_
    _obtain_ or _procure_ to _secure_
    _turn over_ to _turn turtle_
    _bought_ to _purchased_
    _live at hotel_ to _stop at hotel_
    _robbed of_ to _relieved of_

Things of a general class are compared _with_ each other to bring out
points of similarity or dissimilarity. One thing is compared _to_
another of a different class. He compared Detroit _with_ Cleveland. He
compared Detroit _to_ a busy hive of bees.

Things _occur_ or _happen_ by chance and _take place_ by design. An
accident _happens_ or _occurs_; a pre-arranged act _takes place_.

Except in legal papers use _proved_ instead of _proven_.

_Transpire_ does not mean to take place but to leak out, as, _They tried
to keep their deliberations secret, but it transpired that * * *_

_Enthuse_ is not a good word. Say _become enthusiastic_.

Medicine, laws and oaths are _administered_; blows and punishment are
_dealt_.

_Allege_ is used only in referring to formal charges and not as a
synonym for _say_ or _assert_.

The past tense and past participle of _dive_ are _dived_. Don't use
_dove_.

The past tense and past participle of _forecast_ are _forecast_. Don't
use _forecasted_.

The past tense and past participle of _hang_ are _hung_, except in
reference to an execution; then write, _He was hanged_.

The past tense and past participle of _plead_ are _pleaded_ and not
_plead_ or _pled_. Don't write, _He plead guilty_, but _He pleaded
guilty_.

The past tense of _swim_ is _swam_, and the past participle is _swum_.


BARRED BY THE SUN

Newspaper men can read with profit this list of words and phrases to be
avoided, compiled by Charles A. Dana for his associates on the New York
Sun:

    _above_ or _over_ for _more than_
    _aggregate_ for _total_
    _balance_ for _remainder_
    _call attention_ for _direct attention_
    _claim_ for _assert_
    _commence_ for _begin_
    _comprise_ for _compose_
    _conscious_ for _aware_
    _couple_ for _two_
    _cultured_ for _cultivated_
    _date back to_ for _date from_
    _donate_ for _give_
    _fall_ for _autumn_
    _from whence_ for _whence_
    _indorse_ for _approve_
    _inaugurate_ for _establish_, _institute_
    _individual_ for _person_
    _infinite_ for _great_, _vast_
    _last_ for _latest_
    _less_ for _fewer_
    _materially_ for _largely_
    _named after_ for _named for_
    _notice_ for _observe_
    _onto_ for _on_ or _upon_
    _partially_ for _partly_
    _past two years_ for _last two years_
    _practically_ for _virtually_
    _party_ for _person_

DOUBLING UP HAVE'S

Mark Twain in "A Tramp Abroad" wrote: "Harris said that if the best
writer in the world once got the slovenly habit of 'doubling up his
have's,' he could never get rid of it; that is to say, if a man gets the
habit of saying 'I should have liked to have known more about it'
instead of saying 'I should have liked to know more about it,' his
disease is incurable."

    +-----------------------------------------+
    | ... REFLECTOR OF EVERY HUMAN INTEREST   |
    | ... FRIEND OF EVERY RIGHTEOUS CAUSE ... |
    | ENCOURAGER OF EVERY GENEROUS ACT.       |
    +-----------------------------------------+



NOTES



ADVERBS


Great liberty may be exercised in placing the adverb according to the
emphasis desired. In general it should be placed near the word or phrase
it modifies to express the thought most clearly. One should not say,
_Not only he spoke forcefully but eloquently_; nor _He was rather
forceful than eloquent_, but _He was forceful rather than eloquent_.

Note particularly that when the adverb is placed within the verb, it
should regularly follow the first auxiliary. For example: _This can
truthfully be said_, not _This can be truthfully said_; _He will
probably have set out by noon_, not _He will have probably_, etc.; _It
has long been expected_, not _It has been long expected_.

If the adverb is intended to modify the whole sentence, it very properly
stands first, as, _Decidedly, this is not true_; _Assuredly, he does not
mean that_. In such sentences the adverb really modifies some verb
understood, as, _I say decidedly this is not true_.

Do not use _this_, _that_ and _some_ as adverbs. Never say _this high_,
_this long_, _that broad_, _that good_, _this much_, _that much_, _some
better_, _some earlier_. Say _thus_ or _so_ whenever tempted to use
_this_ or _that_ in such connections, and use _somewhat_ instead of
_some_.

Do not say a man is _dangerously ill_; say _alarmingly_ or _critically_.
Never use _illy_; you might as well say _welly_.

After a negative use _so_ in a comparison. _This is as good as that_,
but _This is not so good as that_.

Say _as far as_, _as long as_, etc.; not _so far as_, _so long as_.
Thus, _As far as I know, this is true_; _As long as I stay here, you may
use my book_.

Use _previously to_, _agreeably to_, _consistently with_, etc., instead
of the adjective forms, in such expressions as _Previously to my
arrival, he had been informed_; _We acted agreeably to the
instructions_.

Beware of _only_. Better not use it unless you are sure it is correctly
placed. Observe the difference in the meaning here: I have _only_ spoken
to him. I have spoken _only_ to him.

Don't use _liable_ when you mean _likely_. A man is _likely_ to park his
automobile so he will be _liable_ to arrest.

Don't use _painfully cut_ and similar expressions. One is not
_pleasantly cut_.

_Occasionally_ means _on occasion_. So don't write _very occasionally_,
but _very seldom_ or _infrequently_.

_Farther_ is used to denote distance; _further_ in other senses, as, _I
told him further that I walked farther than he_.



ADJECTIVES


Be sparing in the use of epithets and of adjectives and adverbs
generally. Especially avoid the use of superlatives. Superlatives are
seldom true. Rarely is a man the most remarkable man in the country in
any particular; rarely is an accident the worst in the history of the
city. Better understate than overstate; better err on the side of
moderation than excess. William Cobbett says: "Some writers deal in
expletives to a degree that tires the ear and offends the understanding.
With them everything is excessively, or immensely, or extremely, or
vastly, or surprisingly, or wonderfully, or abundantly, or the like. The
notion of such writers is that these words give strength to what
they are saying. This is a great error. Strength must be found in the
thought or it will never be found in the words. Big sounding words,
without thoughts corresponding, are effort without effect."

Be sure to remember that _nee_ means born. It is of course impossible
then to speak of _Mrs. Doe, nee Mary Roe_, as one is never born with a
Christian name, but _Mrs. Doe, nee Roe_. And, of all things when a widow
has remarried, do not write _Mrs. Richard Roe, nee Mrs. John Doe_.

Adjectives, if wisely used, give desirable color to a story. A thesaurus
will brighten up a reporter's adjectival vocabulary. These are
suggestions for possible substitutions of fresh words for more or less
hackneyed words:

    _fast_--_fleet_, _swift_
    _good_--_meritorious_, _laudable_
    _repentant_--_penitent_, _contrite_
    _temperate_--_abstemious_
    _intemperate_--_inabstinent_
    _modest_--_decorous_
    _distressing_--_piteous_, _pitiable_, _rueful_
    _witty_--_jocose_, _nimble-witted_
    _fearful_--_timid_, _apprehensive_, _tremulous_
    _crafty_--_cunning_, _artful_
    _frank_--_ingenuous_, _guileless_

Prefer _agreeable_ to _nice_, which means accurate; and _long_ to
_lengthy_.

Words like _perfect_ and _unique_ cannot be compared. Never write, _more
perfect_, _most perfect_, _most unique_.

Eschew the word _very_. It seldom strengthens a sentence.

It is better to use such words as _feline_, _bovine_, _canine_, _human_
as adjectives only.

Prefer _several_ or _many_ to _a number of_.

_Healthy_ means possessing health, as, _a healthy man_. _Healthful_
means conducive to health, as, _healthful climate_, _surroundings_,
_employment_. Do not use _healthful_ in speaking of food, but
_wholesome_.

_Parlous_ is archaic. Don't use the phrase _in these parlous times_. The
word in good usage is _perilous_.

Nobody has explained the difference between _actual photographs_ and
_photographs_.

_Awful_ means inspiring _awe_, _fearful_ inspiring _fear_, and
_terrible_ inspiring _terror_.

_Anxious_ implies _anxiety_. Say _eager_ if you mean it.

The first meaning of _hectic_ is habitual. The second meaning is
_fevered_. It connotes _heat_ more particularly than _red_.

Great care is needed in using these three words: _livid_, _lurid_ and
_weird_. _Livid_ means primarily black and blue. It also means a
grayish blue or lead color, as flesh by contusion. It doesn't mean
anything else. _Lurid_ means a pale yellow, ghastly pale, wan;
figuratively it means gloomy or dismal, grimly terrible or sensational.
When used in its first sense it is properly applicable to the yellow
flames seen through smoke. It does not mean fiery red. In its figurative
sense it can be used to describe a series of incidents calculated to
shock or to stun by the enormity of them. _Weird_ means primarily
pertaining to witchcraft and is used in reference to the witches in
"Macbeth." It also means unearthly, uncanny, eerie. A green light might
be called _weird_. It must not be used to mean peculiar, as, _She wore
a weird hat_.


YOUR AUDIENCE

Says Irvin S. Cobb: I'd rather have my work read by thousands of people
throughout the country than be the author of the greatest classic that
ever mouldered on a shelf.

In my opinion, the masses are worth our art. If we believe in a
democratic form of government we should believe in a democratic attitude
toward the art of the short story, and I, for one, frankly admit that I
write for the shop girl and business man rather than for the high-brow
critic. That does not mean you must necessarily choose between them, but
if I had to choose I would let the critic go.

    +----------------------------------------------+
    | DEFENDER OF CIVIL LIBERTY ... STRENGTHENER   |
    | OF LOYALTY ... PILLAR AND STAY OF DEMOCRATIC |
    | GOVERNMENT.                                  |
    +----------------------------------------------+


NOTES



PREPOSITIONS


Be careful to use the proper prepositions in all connections.

Say _different from_, not _different to_.

We say a man lives _on_, not _in_, a street, an avenue, etc. Children
play _in_ the street, but _on_ the pavement.

One writes _under_, not _over_, a signature. The preposition has no
reference to the place of the signature.

Do not overwork _on the part of_. This phrase is often used where _by_
or _among_ is to be preferred, as, _Much patriotism is displayed on the
part of the Greeks_.

Say _off_, not _off from_ or _off of_. _He fell off his horse_, or _He
fell from his horse_.

Discriminate carefully between _beside_ and _besides_. The first is
always a preposition and means either _by the side of_, as, _He stood
beside me_, or _aside from_, or _out of_, as, _This is beside our
present purpose_; _He was beside himself for joy_. _Besides_ is either
preposition or adverb: as the former it means _in addition to_, as
_Several others were present besides those you saw_; as adverb it means
_moreover_ or _more than that_, as _There were, besides, many pompous
volumes_.

Be careful with _between_ and _among_; _between_ is used with reference
to two persons, parties or things; _among_ with reference to many: _In
this city Democrats and Republicans divide the offices between them; in
some cities they are distributed among all the parties_.

Distinguish between _in_ and _into_. _Into_ implies action. A man goes
_into_ his house and then he is _in_ the house.

A person dies _of_ typhoid fever rather than _from_ typhoid fever.

Distinguish between _consist in_ and _consist of_. Virtue consists _in_
right living. The family consists _of_ seven persons.

A book is illustrated _with_ sketches and it is illustrated _by_ the
artist who made the sketches.

Omit _from_ from the phrases _from hence_, _from thence_, _from whence_.

    +-------------------------------------------+
    | MIRROR OF THE PUBLIC MIND ... INTERPRETER |
    | OF THE PUBLIC INTENT ... TROUBLER OF THE  |
    | PUBLIC CONSCIENCE.                        |
    +-------------------------------------------+



ARTICLES


Use an article with every noun of a series unless the nouns are so
closely related that one concept is implied. Say, _The bread and jam was
good_, but _The bread and the jam were good_. Say, _A horse and buggy_,
but _A man and a woman_.

Do not repeat an article before each adjective of a series when all
modify the same noun. Say, _A red, white and blue flag_. If you mean
three flags, say, _A red, a white, and a blue flag_.

Do not write _a_ or _an_ after _sort of_ and _kind of_. Make it: _He is
the right sort of man for mayor_.

The definite article is used too often when it might better be omitted,
as in this sentence: _The study of the dictionary is helpful_. Write it:
_Study of the dictionary_.



NUMBERS


The general rule on The News is that all numbers above nine shall be
written in figures, and that all numbers below 10 shall be spelled out.
There are, of course, many exceptions to this rule. Figures are always
used for degrees of latitude and longitude, degrees of temperature, per
cent, prices, racing time, scores, definite sums of money, time, votes,
dates (as Sept. 27), ages, street numbers and tabulated statistics.

Spell out indefinite figures, as _about a dollar's worth_.

Use Roman numerals in writing of kings, as _George V_, and then without
a period. Do not use Roman numerals in designating centuries. Write it
_fourteenth century_, not _XIVth century_.

Write _Monday at 8 a. m._, not _at 8 o'clock on Monday morning_.

Spell out such expressions as _the early seventies_.

Use figures in dimensions when written thus: _a lot 4×6
feet_.

All ages shall be written thus: _John Smith, 8 years old_. Do not write
it: _John Smith, aged 8_, or _aged eight_. It will be easy to remember
the rule if you observe that in writing it thus: _John Smith, aged 18,
48 Jones street_, you are opening an opportunity for an error easily
made. It may appear: _John Smith, aged 184, 8 Jones street_.

All ordinals are spelled out. Write it _thirtieth_, not _30th_. Write a
date: _Feb. 6_, not _February 6th_, or _February sixth_.

Do not use both numerals and figures spelled out in one phrase. Write
it: _Eight feet eleven inches_. If in a phrase a number over 10 precedes
a number under 10, express both in figures, thus _18 hours 4 minutes_.
If vice versa, express it thus: _two hours eighteen minutes_.



ROMAN NUMERALS


        I        1
       II        2
      III        3
       IV        4
        V        5
       VI        6
      VII        7
     VIII        8
       IX        9
        X       10
      XIX       19
       XX       20
      XXX       30
       XL       40
        L       50
       LX       60
      LXX       70
     LXXX       80
       XC       90
        C      100
       CL      150
       CC      200
      CCC      300
     CCCC      400
        D      500
       DC      600
      DCC      700
     DCCC      800
    DCCCC      900
        M    1,000



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES


    7.92 inches make 1 link.

    25 links make 1 rod.

    16.50 feet make 1 rod.

    4 rods make 1 chain.

    10 chains make 1 furlong.

    8 furlongs make 1 mile.

    320 rods make 1 mile.

    5,280 feet make 1 mile.

    10 square chains make 1 acre.

    160 square rods make 1 acre.

    640 acres make 1 square mile.

    43,560 square feet make 1 acre.

    69 geographical miles make 1 degree of latitude.

    1,728 cubic inches make 1 cubic foot.

    27 cubic feet make 1 cubic yard.

    Gunter's chain, 22 yards of 100 links.

    A section is 640 acres.

    A township is 36 sections, each 1 square mile.

    A span is 9 inches.

    A hand--horse measurement--is 4 inches.

    A knot--nautical--is 6,086 feet.

    A fathom--nautical--is 6 feet.

    A stone is 14 pounds.

    A square acre is 208 7-10 feet on each side.

The metric system is the system of measurement of which the meter is the
fundamental unit. It was first adopted in France and is now in general
use in most civilized countries except the English-speaking countries.
The system is now used throughout the world for scientific measurements.
Its use was legalized in the United States in 1866.

The meter, the unit of length, was intended to be one ten-millionth part
of the earth's meridian quadrant and is nearly so. Its length is 39.370
inches. The unit of surface is the are, which is 100 square meters. The
theoretical unit of volume is the stere, which is a cubic meter. The
unit of volume for the purposes of the market is the liter, which is the
volume of one kilogram of distilled water at its maximum density and is
intended to be one cubic decimeter. For 10 times, 100 times, 1,000
times and 10,000 times one of these units, the prefixes, deca-, hecto-,
kilo- and myria- are used. For 1-10, 1-100 and 1-1,000 of the units, the
prefixes deci-, centi- and milli- are used.

In this table the equivalents are measures common in the United States
and are not to be confused with British measures, which in some cases
vary slightly.

    1 myriameter               5.4 nautical miles or 6.21 statute miles.
    1 kilometer                0.621 statute mile or nearly 5/8 mile.
    1 hectometer               109.4 yards.
    1 decameter                1.988 rods.
    1 meter                    39.37 inches or about 1 yard 3 inches.
    1 decimeter                3.937 inches.
    1 centimeter               0.3937 inch.
    1 millimeter               0.03937 inch.
    1 hectare                  2.471 acres.
    1 are                      119.6 square yards.
    1 centiare (square meter)  10.764 square feet.
    1 decastere                13 cubic yards or about 2¾ cords.
    1 stere (cubic meter)      1.308 cubic yards or 35.3 cubic feet.
    1 decistere                3½ cubic feet.
    1 hectoliter               26.4 gallons.
    1 decaliter                Little more than 2 gallons 5 pints.
    1 liter                    1 quart ½ gill.
    1 deciliter                0.845 gill.
    1 millier                  2,204.6 pounds avoirdupois.
    1 kilogram                 Little more than 2 pounds 3 ounces.
    1 hectogram                Little more than 3 ounces 8 drams.
    1 decagram                 154.32 grains troy.
    1 gram                     15.43234 grains.
    1 decigram                 1.543234 grains.
    1 centigram                0.154323 grains.
    1 milligram                0.015432 grains.

    +-----------------------------------------+
    | ... CHRONICLER OF FACTS ... SIFTER OF   |
    | RUMORS AND OPINIONS ... MINISTER OF THE |
    | TRUTH THAT MAKES MEN FREE.              |
    +-----------------------------------------+



ABBREVIATION


This is the style of The News on abbreviating the names of states and
territories:

    Ala.
    Alaska
    Ariz.
    Ark.
    Calif.
    Colo.
    Conn.
    D. C.
    Ga.
    Fla.
    Ida.
    Ill.
    Ind.
    Ia.
    Kan.
    Ky.
    La.
    Me.
    Mass.
    Md.
    Mich.
    Minn.
    Miss.
    Mo.
    Mont.
    N. C.
    N. D.
    Neb.
    Nev.
    N. H.
    N. J.
    N. M.
    N. Y.
    O.
    Okla.
    Ore.
    Pa.
    P. I. (Philippine Islands)
    P. R. (Porto Rico)
    R. I.
    S. C.
    S. D.
    Tenn.
    Tex.
    T. H. (Territory of Hawaii)
    Utah
    Va.
    Vt.
    Wash.
    Wis.
    W. Va.
    Wyo.

Do not abbreviate _Port_ to _Pt._

Abbreviate _Fort_ to _Ft._, whether a city or a post.

Abbreviate _Mount_ to _Mt._ in names like Mt. Vernon.

Do not abbreviate names of cities, as Kazoo, Frisco, St. Joe.

Do not use state with names of well-known cities, such as Chicago,
Cleveland, Denver, etc.

Follow a firm name as the firm writes it, except in the capitalization
of _the_, as _the Ford Motor Co._ Later in the story the name may appear
as _the Ford company_. It is _the J. L. Hudson Company_. However, one
may say, after writing the firm name, that _the Hudson company will_,
etc.

Use _Mich._ after the names of all places in the state except:

    Adrian
    Ann Arbor
    Alpena
    Battle Creek
    Bay City
    Calumet
    Flint
    Grand Rapids
    Jackson
    Kalamazoo
    Lansing
    Muskegon
    Mt. Clemens
    Marquette
    Port Huron
    Saginaw
    Ypsilanti
    and places so near Detroit that they are generally known.

Beware of the names of cities in other states identical with those in
Michigan. Also watch for the names of cities identical with those in
other states, as Portland, Me., and Portland, Ore. A few cities that
should carry a state designation because there are places of the same
name in Michigan are:

    Akron, O.
    Atlanta, Ga.
    Augusta, Me., or Ga.
    Bangor, Me.
    Birmingham, Ala.
    Brooklyn, N. Y.
    Canton, O.
    Caro, Ill.
    Chatham, Ont.
    Concord, N. H.
    Erie, Pa., or N. Y.
    Fargo, N. D.
    Frankfort, Ky.
    Grand Rapids, Wis., or Minn.
    Hanover, N. H.
    Helena, Mont.
    Jackson, Miss.
    Lincoln, Neb.
    Lowell, Mass.
    Manchester, N. H.
    Memphis, Tenn.
    Nashville, Tenn.
    Phoenix, Ariz.
    Plymouth, Mass.
    Pontiac, Ill.
    Portland, Me., or Ore.
    Quincy, Ill., or Mass.
    Rochester, N. Y., or Minn.
    Richmond, Va.
    Sandusky, O.
    St. Louis, Mo.
    Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.
    Trenton, N. J.
    Vicksburg, Miss.

Do not abbreviate _Attorney_ to _Atty._ before a name.

Do not abbreviate first names except in reproducing signatures, as, _Wm.
H. Taft_, if Mr. Taft wrote it that way.

Abbreviate _senior_ and _junior_ with commas on each side, as _John
Jones, Jr., spoke_.

Do not make _Tom_, _Dan_, _Ben_, _Joe_, etc., abbreviations unless you
are sure they are. _Alex Dow_ is written without the period.

Write _S O S_ and similar telegraphic abbreviations, and _I O U_ without
periods.

Use _Bros._ only when firm name is so written.

Use ampersand (&) in firm name only when the firm uses it.

Abbreviate _number_ when followed by numerals, as _No. 10_.

Spell out United States except in addresses or in army and navy phrases.
Military and naval titles should be written thus:

    Adjt.
    Adjt.-Gen.
    Brig.-Gen.
    Capt.
    Col.
    Corp.
    First Lieut.
    Gen.
    Lieut.
    Lieut.-Col.
    Lieut.-Gen.
    Maj.
    Maj.-Gen.
    Private
    Q. M.-Gen.
    Q. M.-Sergt.
    Second Lieut.
    Second Sergt.
    Sergt.
    Sergt.-Maj.
    Surg.-Gen.
    Surg.-Maj.

_Class of '08_ may be used for _Class of 1908_.

Abbreviate _degrees_ after a name.

Book sizes, _4to_, _8vo_, _12mo_, should be written without periods.

Use only abbreviations that will surely be understood, such as
_Y. M. C. A._, _W. C. T. U._, etc., in referring to organizations.

Never write _Xmas_.

These abbreviations should be used:

    Ald.
    Atty.-Gen.
    Gov.
    Lieut.-Gov.
    Sen.
    Rep.
    Cong.
    Supt.

Abbreviate _saint_ and _saints_ in proper names, as _St. Louis_, _Sault
Ste. Marie_, _Ste. Anne's_, _SS. Peter and Paul's church_.

Write scriptural texts _Gen. xiv, 24_; _II Kings viii, 11-15_.

Abbreviate names of political parties only thus, _Smith (Rep.) defeated
Jones (Dem.) for alderman_.

Do not abbreviate street, avenue, boulevard, place or other designation
of a thoroughfare.

Abbreviate clock time when immediately connected with figures to _a. m._
and _p. m._

Prefer _for example_ to _e. g._

Prefer _namely_ to _viz._

Prefer _that is_ to _i. e._

Write English money _£5 4s 6d_, without commas.

Abbreviate the months thus:

    Jan.
    Feb.
    March
    April
    May
    June
    July
    Aug.
    Sept.
    Oct.
    Nov.
    Dec.

Use _don't_ only when you may substitute do not. Perhaps you have seen
the advertisement which reads: "Hand Made Tobacco Don't Bite the
Tongue."



NAMES AND TITLES


The one infallible way to insult a man is to misspell his name; that is
an old newspaper maxim. More care should be taken with the spelling of
the names in a story than with any other mechanical detail. Often a name
is misspelled because a typewriter is not clean and an _e_ or an _a_ is
mistaken for an _o_ or a _u_. It is wise for the reporter to make sure
these letters particularly print clearly or he may be held to account
for an error. An even better way is to write a proper name in CAPS if it
is at all uncommon. When the reporter writes a name such as Willson or
Jonnes or Georg, a name which deviates slightly from a familiar name, it
is wise to write it thus "... _and Georg (Correct) Brandes who ..._"
then the copy reader knows that the reporter has not left off a letter
and the printer and proof reader also know that the word must stand as
written.

All proper names should be looked up in the directory, dictionary or
encyclopedia unless the reporter or copy reader is sure of the spelling.
To misspell a man's name shakes that man's faith in the newspaper; leads
him to believe that if the newspaper can't write his name correctly, it
is likely to make other mistakes.

Never use _Mr._ before a man's Christian name. Give his full name and
then speak of him thereafter as Mr. Blank. Do not write: Mr. John J.
Blank.

Do not quote familiar nicknames, such as Billy Sunday, Ty Cobb, Sam
Crawford, Jim Corbett.

Do not write: Superintendent of Police Marquardt, but Supt. Marquardt,
or Ernst Marquardt, superintendent of police.

Never refer to a woman, no matter how lowly her social position, as "the
Smith woman." Call her Mrs. Smith or Miss Smith.

Do not use the title _professor_ unless the person spoken of is or was a
member of a college or university faculty. Because a man is a principal
of a high school, a mesmerist or the trainer of sea lions, he is not for
that reason entitled to call himself Prof. Blank.

Do not use name handles, such as _Butcher Smith_, _Grocer Jones_.

Do not use _master_ in referring to a boy.

Write _Mr. and Mrs. James Smith_, not _James Smith and wife._

Do not write Mrs. Judge Smith, or Mrs. Dr. Jones.

Use the indefinite article, as _Frank Smith, a plumber_; _William Jones,
a barber_. Use the definite article in naming persons of distinction, as
_William Dean Howells, the writer_; _Sarah Bernhardt, the actress_.

The surname is written first among the Chinese. _Sun Yat Sen_ is _Dr.
Sun_. _Li Hung Chang_ is _Mr. Li_. Chinese is a monosyllabic language
and all names should be written with each syllable capitalized, but
hyphens are used with geographical names, as, _Yang-Tse-Kiang_,
_Ho-Hang-Ho_, except _Pekin_, _Nankin_, _Shanghai_, _Hankow_ and
_Canton_. Drop unnecessary letters in Chinese names whenever possible,
as _Pekin(g)_, _Yuan Shi(h) Kai_, _Ho(w)-Hang-Ho_.

Write a man's name as he writes it. It is not _A. H. Frazer_; it is not
_Allan Frazer_; but _Allan H. Frazer_. It is not _F. H. Croul_ or _Frank
Croul_, but _Frank H. Croul_.

It is the King of the Belgians, not the King of Belgium.

Writing of a knight, be sure that you use his first name with the title
_Sir_. He is _Sir Arthur Conan Doyle_, not _Sir Conan Doyle_. Never
write _Sir Doyle_. The wife of a knight, however, is addressed as _Lady
Blank_, not necessarily _Lady Mary Blank_.



JEW AND HEBREW


The proper use of the words "Hebrew" and "Jew" has been explained by the
American Jewish Committee, as follows: "Although no hard and fast rules
can be laid down, the word 'Hebrew' has come to have a purely racial
connotation. It refers to a race and to the language of that race. Thus
we hear of a 'Hebrew Christian,' meaning a person of Hebrew descent who
has been raised in or adopted the Christian religion. The word 'Jew,'
although often used for denoting a member of the Hebrew race without
reference to religion or nationality, has come, in the best usage, to
have two restricted meanings--a national and a religious meaning. It
used to mean a person who was a subject of the Kingdom of Judah, in the
southern part of Palestine, and later it was also applied to those who
were subjects of the northern Kingdom of Israel. Under Roman domination
Palestine was called 'Judea' and its inhabitants 'Jews.' The word Jew
has the same sense now among those who believe that the dispersion of
the Jewish people and the fact that they possess no territory of their
own has not deprived them of their character as a nation or nationality.
The other meaning of 'Jew' is any one who professes the religious
principles laid down in the Old Testament as interpreted in the Talmud.
Thus, a Gentile who adopts the Jewish faith may be called a Jew, but may
not be called a Hebrew, because he does not descend from that sub-class
of the Semitic race from which the Hebrews are reputed to come. Up to
the last quarter of the nineteenth century the Jews rarely applied the
term 'Jew' to themselves, as it was used as a term of opprobrium and as
a contemptuous epithet. The Jews preferred to call themselves 'Hebrews'
or 'Israelites.' Since about 1880, however, the Jewish people have come
to adopt this name more and more generally, and it has begun to lose its
derogatory meaning. The word 'Jew' is always a noun, and its use as an
adjective in such cases as 'Jew boy' and 'Jew peddler,' etc., is as
ungrammatical as it is vulgar."

Don't use _Jew_ as a verb, as, _I jewed him down to a dollar_.


NOTES



CHURCH TITLES


Writing of clergymen, follow this style: _the Rev. Dr. John J. Blank_,
_Dr. Blank_, the _Rev. Mr. Blank_. Never _Rev. Blank_ or _the Rev.
Blank_.

Bishops of the Catholic, Anglican or Episcopal communions use the prefix
_Right Reverend_, abbreviated _Rt. Rev._

Bishops of the Methodist church NEVER use the prefix _Rt. Rev._ They
make no claim to apostolic succession. The usage of Methodism is to
write, for example, "Bishop Theodore Somers Henderson, of the Methodist
Episcopal area of Detroit."

In the Methodist church an episcopal division is denominated, Area; in
the Catholic and Anglican communions, Diocese.

Deans of the Catholic and Anglican churches use the prefix _Very Rev._

Under no circumstances call priests of the Roman Catholic church
_ministers_. Call them either priests or pastors.

The denominational usage in the Methodist church is to call clergymen
_preachers_. In the Congregational and Presbyterian churches it is in
accord with denominational usage to call clergymen _ministers_.

Archbishops of the Catholic church carry the prefix _Most Rev._;
cardinals, _His Eminence_; as, _His Eminence, James, Cardinal Gibbons_.

Invariably the word _Rabbi_ should be placed before the name of a Jewish
pastor. It should be written, _Rabbi Leo M. Franklin, of the Temple Beth
El_; never _Dr. Leo M. Franklin, rabbi of the Temple Beth El_.

Never use indiscriminately the prefix _Dr._ in the case of a clergyman.
Clergymen of any denomination are not entitled to the prefix _Dr._
unless the degree of Doctor of Divinity has been conferred on them by
some recognized college or university.

Write a priest's name, _the Rev. Fr. Blank_, or _Fr. Blank_.



COMPOUNDS


Webster's New International Dictionary is the standard of the office on
compounding words, on hyphenation and on spelling, except as the style
of The News noted in this book is different.

    +----------------------------------------------+
    | REPORTER OF THE NEW ... REMEMBRANCER OF THE  |
    | OLD AND TRIED ... HERALD OF WHAT IS TO COME. |
    +----------------------------------------------+



SUPERFLUOUS WORDS


Avoid awkward phrases as _a man of the name of_. A _man named_ is not
only better style but shorter. Do not write _at the corner of State and
Griswold streets_, but simply _at State and Griswold streets_. In place
of _so that_ use either _so_ or _that_. In the phrases that follow,
observe that the italicized words are not needed.

    throughout the _whole of the_ state
    throughout the _entire_ state
    _in order_ to
    a hill resembling _in its form_ a hat
    the problem is _a difficult one_
    he addressed the _different_ schools
    _As yet_ no clue has been found
    he works _equally_ as hard
    most are _of a_ large _size_
    _the color of_ the hat was green

Don't say _invited guest_. It is supposed that a guest is invited.

Don't say _They both went_. Omit _they_.

Write _equally well_, or _as well_, not _equally as well_.

Don't write _new beginner_ or _new recruit_.

Don't write _general consensus of opinion_. Omit the _general_.
Consensus means _a general agreement_.

Don't say _entirely completed_. _Completed_ means finished in entirety.

Don't say _partly completed_; that phrase involves a contradiction.

Don't write that he has _a brilliant future before him_. Futures do not
lie in the past.

Don't say _present incumbent_. _Incumbent_ means at present in office.

Don't say _old adage_. If it's an adage, it's old.

Don't write _widow woman_, _true facts_, _old veterans_, _the la
grippe_, _the hoi polloi_.

Don't say _possibly may_ or _possibly might_. The verb conveys the idea
of possibility.

Two words may be discarded generally in the phrase _whether or not_.
Write it: _He doesn't know whether he will go._

Omit the italicized phrase in He was thrown _a distance of_ 50 feet.

Don't write _regular monthly meeting_. If it's monthly, it's _regular_.

If a man is _well known_, it is not necessary to say so.

Omit the adverb in the phrase _totally destroyed_.

Don't write _still persists_. _Still_ is superfluous.

Make it _noon_, not _high noon_.



VITAL STATISTICS


In writing obituaries the reporter must use the greatest care, for it is
very easy to offend the family of the subject of the obituary. Avoid the
conventional euphemisms.

Prefer:

    _body_ to _remains_
    _send body_ to _ship body_
    _coffin_ to _casket_
    _flowers_ to _floral offerings_
    _funeral_ to _obsequies_
    _widow_ to _wife_
    _burial_ to _interment_
    _the dead man_ to _deceased_ or _defunct_

Avoid:

    _the late_
    _late residence_
    solemn black__
    _sable hearse_
    _last sad rites_

_Marriage_ is a state. The ceremony is a _wedding_. Don't marry the man
_to_ the woman. The woman is always married to the man.

Don't say a marriage was _consummated_.

_Funeral_ means _interment_. Write: _Funeral services were held at the
church and burial was in Evergreen Cemetery._

Do not use _heart failure_ for _heart disease_. All persons die because
the heart fails to beat.

Write simply, _he died_, and not _passed away_, _shuffled off this
mortal coil_, _gave up the ghost_, or any similarly amateurish phrase.
There is no occasion for clothing the incident of death in a panoply of
words, nor should birth be written of except simply. Do not say, _a
little stranger was ushered into a cold world_, but _a child was born_.
In writing of vital statistics--death, birth, marriage--be content to
state the facts without unnecessary embellishment. Forget about the
stork, the grim reaper, Hymen and Cupid.


A DICTIONARY

Wrote Sir Clifford Allbutt: "A dictionary 'sanctions' nothing of its
contents, but it enables us by consultation of its stores to compare and
choose for ourselves. In using this liberty we shall neither be
subservient to the prescriptions of age, nor scornful of modern freedom;
in every use we shall be guided by historical growth, the example of the
best authors, and our present necessities."

    +---------------------------------------------+
    | SCOURGE OF EVIL DOERS ... EXPOSER OF SECRET |
    | INIQUITIES ... UNRELENTING FOE OF PRIVILEGE |
    | AND CORRUPTION.                             |
    +---------------------------------------------+



SPELLING


LOOK IT UP IF YOU ARE NOT SURE.

BETTER LOOK IT UP ANYWAY.

If two spellings are given in the dictionary, the first cited is
preferable.

Follow these spellings:

    _airplane_
    _ayes and noes_
    _ax_
    _base ball_
    _basket ball_
    _bazar_
    _birdseye_
    _blond_ (both noun and adjective)
    _Budapest_
    _can not_
    _Chile_ (South America)
    _Chili_ (Africa)
    _clue_
    _decollete_
    _dispatch_
    _draft_
    _drouth_
    _Duma_
    _employe_
    _Eskimo_
    _facsimile_
    _Filipino_
    _foot ball_
    _gaily_
    _gaiety_
    _goodby_
    _guarantee_ (verb)
    _guaranty_ (noun)
    _Hayti_
    _Hindu_
    _Khartum_
    _kidnaped_
    _Korea_
    _Leipzig_
    _Macaulay's History_
    _Mohammed_
    _nearby_
    _plow_
    _Porto Rico_
    _repertory_
    _Shakespeare_
    _Shakespearean_
    _skilful_
    _technic_
    _Tibet_
    _today_
    _Tolstoy_
    _tomorrow_
    _Turgenieff_
    _tying_
    _vilify_
    _vying_
    _whisky_
    _Wilkes-Barre_
    _woolly_
    _world series_

Write: _Parcel post_, not _parcels post_.

Be sure that proper names are spelled uniformly throughout a story.

Use the form _in_ instead of _en_ in such words as _indorse_, _inclose_.

Write it: _Trade unions_, not _trades unions_.

Use no diphthongs when they can be avoided. Write: _anesthetic_,
_esthetic_, _medieval_, _maneuver_, _subpena_, _homeopathic_.

Follow the American spelling on _checks_, _tires_, _curb_, _pajamas_,
disregarding the British _cheques_, _tyres_, _kerb_, _pyjamas_.

Make the plural of _Knight Templar_, _Knights Templar_.

Don't add _s_ to: _afterward_, _backward_, _forward_, _toward_.

As a general rule change _-re_ to _-er_ when it is the last syllable, as
in _theater_, _caliber_, _timber_.

Beware of _effect_ and _affect_, and use them carefully.

A long _way_, not a long _ways_.

Distinguish between: _depository_ and _depositary_; between _insanitary_
and _unsanitary_; between _immoral_ and _unmoral_; between _councilor_,
_consular_ and _counselor_; between _council_ and _counsel_ and
_consul_; between _capitol_ and _capital_; between _clamant_ and
_claimant_; between _sear_ and _seer_ and _sere_; between _emigrant_ and
_immigrant_; between _faker_ and _fakir_; between _breech_ and _breach_;
between _auger_ and _augur_; between _hoard_ and _horde_; between
_lessen_ and _lesson_; between _principle_ and _principal_; between
_prophecy_ and _prophesy_; between _advice_ and _advise_; between
_maize_ and _maze_; between _site_ and _sight_.

The people of Panama are Panamans, not Panamanians, just as we are
Americans, not Americanians.

Two cities in the United States take final _gh_. They are _Pittsburgh,
Pa._, and _Newburgh, N. Y._ Also write it _Edinburgh_.

Drop the unsounded final letters in such words as _program_, _catalog_,
_suffraget_, _dialog_, _cigaret_, _decalog_. Similarly, write _armor_,
_favor_, _color_, and _Savior_.

Some words have lost prefix or suffix, and if they are in good use in
their curtailed form, they should be written without apostrophes, as,
_cello_ and _varsity_.



POPULAR NAMES OF RAILROADS


    Big Four                    Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis.
    Burlington                  Chicago, Burlington & Quincy.
    Clover Leaf                 Toledo, St. Louis & Western.
    Cotton Belt                 St. Louis Southwestern.
    Katy                        Missouri, Kansas & Texas.
    Lackawanna                  Delaware, Lackawanna & Western.
    Lake Shore                  Lake Shore & Michigan Southern.
    Lookout Mountain            Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis.
    Monon                       Chicago, Indiana & Louisville.
    Nickel Plate                New York, Chicago & St. Louis.
    Pan Handle                  Pittsburg, Cleveland, Chicago &
                                    St. Louis.
    Queen & Crescent            Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas.
    Rock Island                 Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific.
    Soo                         Milwaukee & Sault Ste. Marie.
    St. Paul, or Milwaukee      Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul.


NOTES



DO AND DON'T


Don't use the words _suicide_ and _murder_ in heads on stories
recounting the details of specific crimes or their prosecution. However,
should a story of the sociological type appear, dealing with, for
example, the increase in the number of suicides or the attempts of the
police to reduce the number of murders, the use of either word in the
headline is allowed. In the body of the story the most natural
expression and good taste must guide the writer, and the use of these
words is permissible if they most clearly and effectively express the
information in hand.

Names of girls or women who are the victims of actual or attempted
indecent attack are not to be published under ordinary circumstances.
Authority for exceptions will be granted by the editor when there is
sufficient reason.

Use the names of POISONS only when essential to the story.

Never call _a policeman a cop_.

Keep the reporter or a representative of The News out of the story. It
is understood that a reporter and a reporter for The News writes a story
that appears in The News.

Write the English language. For _sine qua non_, write _essentials_; for
_de riguer_, _coup d'etat_, _coup de grace_, _Sturm und Drang_, _au
fait_ and similar phrases use English equivalents. Some exceptions are
_decollete_, _fiancee_ and _fiance_, and other words which have been
taken over into the language. Don't mix languages. Write _a day_, not
_per day_. As a general rule use _per_ only in the phrase _per cent_.

_Comatose_ means in a state of _profound insensibility_, not merely
dazed as some writers believe.

_Et al._ stands for the Latin _et alii_, _et aliae_, or _et alia_,
meaning _and others_. Of course it should never be written _et als._ to
form a fancied plural.

_Prone_ means lying flat and face downward. One can not lie prone on the
back. _Supine_ means lying on the back.

Use _pseudonym_, a good English word, or _pen name_, and not _nom de
plume_, which isn't even good French. Says L'Intermediaire, a French
journal: "We do not know in our language the expression _nom de plume_.
We have the phrase _nom de guerre_."

Don't use _most_ for _almost_, as, _I am most as tall as you_.

Never write _kiddies_ or _tots_. Write _kids_ when referring to young
goats or to children in stories written in a spirit of levity, as, _This
is the big day for the kids on Belle Isle_. Don't try to arouse sympathy
for children in unfortunate circumstances by calling them _poor little
tots_, or _poor kiddies_.

Avoid words borrowed from the yellow-backs, such as, _The bullet crashed
through his brain_, _She tripped down the steps_. Try such sentences as
this on your hisser: _"I will not go," he hissed._

In news stories don't use thieves' slang, as, _dick_, _frisk_, _dip_,
_gat_.

Don't use the editorial _we_. It is old-fashioned. Say _The Detroit
News_.

Don't refer to the Darwinian theory or to Dr. Osler's theory without
knowing what they mean.

Don't call _a revolver a gun_ or _a pistol a revolver_. It is _automatic
pistol_.

Reporters frequently quote Kipling to the effect that west is west, east
is east, and never the twain shall meet. But if they knew the poem, they
would be aware of the fact that the next line qualifies the quoted lines
and vitiates the observation.

_The exception proves the rule_ is a phrase that arises from ignorance,
though common to good writers. The original word was _preuves_, which
did not mean _proves_ but _tests_.

Say in bad _condition_, not in bad _shape_.

A toga was a garment worn by a Roman citizen. The word is persistently
misused to refer to senatorial honors.

Avoid newspaper slang. To all but a few of our readers the word _story_
means not _an item of news_ in the paper but a _piece of fiction_. To
speak of a _story_ meaning a piece for the paper is to confuse them. Say
_article_ or _item_.

Don't write _alright_. There is no such word in the language.

Avoid poetic forms. Do not use _amongst_ for _among_. _Thither_ and
_whither_ have a bookish sound. Prefer the simple _while_ to the fancy
_whilst_.

There are no degrees of _certainty_. Don't write a thing seems _more
certain_.

_Amateur_ means _non-professional_, not necessarily _unskilled_.
_Novice_ implies lack of skill.

_Spectators_ see; an _audience_ is a collection of _auditors_.
_Spectators_ go to ball games and motion picture theaters.

Use _render_ in speaking of lard and not of songs.

Don't use _complected_ for _complexioned_.

Don't write _better half_ for _wife_.

Do not write that a thing _grows smaller_.

We write _wages are_. The biblical phrase is, _The wages of sin is
death_.

Don't write _the three first_. You mean _the first three_.

A _justice_ presides in police court, in justice court and in the
supreme court. A _judge_ presides in other courts except the recorder's
court, which is presided over by the _recorder_ and his associate.
Justices of the supreme court of the states and the nation are referred
to as _Mr. Justice Jones_ or _Chief Justice White_.

Avoid the hackneyed phrase, _a miraculous escape_.

It is almost an unbreakable rule that reporters and copy readers shall
verify all quotations. Many of the most familiar phrases are popularly
misquoted.

Don't write _the above statement_ or _the statement given above_. It may
not be _above_ when it gets into the paper. Write _the foregoing
statement_.

Don't use _about_ meaning _approximately_ except with round numbers. Do
not write _about 27 cents_ or _about 12 minutes after 8 o'clock_, but
write _about $10_ or _about 10,000 persons_.

Don't confuse _O_ and _Oh_. The former is the formal spelling of the
interjection and is used usually in poetry, as, _Sail on, O Ship of
State!_ It is used in supplication, as, _O God, hear our prayer!_ The
_Oh_ spelling is that commonly used, as, _Oh, dear_; _Oh, what shall I
do?_ It is usually written with a comma.


DANA'S EIGHT RULES

Charles A. Dana's eight rules for the guidance of a newspaper man are:

1. Get the news, all the news, and nothing but the news.

2. Copy nothing from another publication without giving perfect credit.

3. Never print an interview without the knowledge and consent of the
party interviewed.

4. Never print a paid advertisement as news matter. Let every
advertisement appear as an advertisement; no sailing under false colors.

5. Never attack the weak and defenseless, either by argument, by
invective, or by ridicule, unless there is some absolute public
necessity for so doing.

6. Fight for your opinions, but do not believe that they contain the
whole truth or the only truth.

7. Support your party, if you have one; but do not think that all the
good men are in it or all the bad ones outside.

8. Above all, believe that humanity is advancing, that there is progress
in human affairs, and that as sure as God lives the future will be
better than the past or present.

    +-----------------------------------------+
    | ... PROMOTER OF CIVIC WELFARE AND       |
    | CIVIC PRIDE ... BOND OF CIVIC UNITY ... |
    | PROTECTOR OF CIVIC RIGHTS.              |
    +-----------------------------------------+



THE CANNERY


Dean Alford says: "Be simple, be unaffected, be honest in your speaking
and writing. Call a spade a spade, not a well known oblong instrument of
manual husbandry. Elegance of language may not be in the power of all of
us, but simplicity and straightforwardness are."

Many pages would be required to list all the so-called bromides that
have been worn threadbare by constant use and abuse in newspapers. Often
these phrases are used to avoid what the writer believes to be annoying
repetition. It is better to use the word _fire_ many times in a
paragraph than to use the word _conflagration_ once.

So many phrases have become hackneyed in newspapers that the comic
magazines make jokes about them. This is from Puck:


A NEWSPAPER DICTIONARY

=Appropriate Exercises.=--What the celebration opened with.

=Good-Natured Crowd.=--People out on election night.

=Firm, Clear Tones.=--What the bride uttered the responses in.

=Heart of the Business Section.=--District threatened by fire. (See =under
control=.)

=Land Office Business.=--What the charity bazaar did. (See =pretty girls=.)

=Luscious Bivalve.=--What the pearl was found in. (See =poor shoemaker=.)

=Musical Circles.=--What the hostess is prominent in. (See =artistic
interpretation=.)

=Pool of Blood.=--What the body was lying in.

=Sensational Failure.=--A Wall street bankruptcy.

=Trojans.=--What the men were working like.

=Undercurrent of Excitement.=--Something that ran through the audience.
(See =tense moment=.)

=Well-Known Southern Family.=--What the bridegroom is a member of.


Avoid such phrases as:

    burly Negro
    smoking revolver
    cheered to the echo
    in durance vile
    herculean efforts
    it goes without saying
    limps into port
    daring robber
    bolt from a clear sky
    facile pen
    breathless silence
    crisp bill
    grim reaper
    dusky damsel
    tonsorial parlor
    vale of tears
    denizens of the deep
    finny tribe
    knights of the grip
    like rats in a trap
    speculation is rife
    for 10 long years
    severed his connection (say _he quit_)
    solon
    probe
    city father
    leave no stone unturned
    whipped out a gun
    old Sol
    fair Luna
    Dan Cupid
    Dame Fashion
    milady
    Jupiter Pluvius
    affixed his signature
    vast concourse
    edifice was consumed
    infuriated animal
    summoned a physician
    busy marts of trade
    breakneck speed
    high dudgeon
    fragrant Havana
    divine passion
    city bastile
    immaculate linen
    minions of the law
    rash act
    never in the history of
    sad rites
    tidy sum
    light collation
    pale as death
    totally destroyed
    news leaked out
    rooted to the spot
    war to the knife
    fair sex
    white as a sheet
    to the bitter end
    well-known clubman
    pillar of the church
    large and enthusiastic audience
    natty suit
    giant pachyderm
    swathed in bandages
    tiny tots
    checkered career
    angry mob
    dull, sickening thud
    foeman worthy of his steel
    great beyond
    downy couch
    toothsome viands

Study of a thesaurus--there is one in the library--will enlarge the
vocabulary and help the writer to rid himself of these trite phrases.
How fresh words may give life to a piece of writing is shown in the
chapter in this book on the use of adjectives.


CLARITY, FORCE, GRACE

"Of the three generally recognized qualities of good style--clarity,
force and grace--it is the last and the last alone in which critics of
newspaper English find their material," reads an editorial in the New
York Evening Post. "Beauty, grace, suggestion of that final touch which
confers on its object the immortality of perfect art, are nearly always
conspicuously absent."



MICHIGAN INSTITUTIONS


There are no convicts in Michigan except men who have escaped or who
have been discharged from institutions in other states. The Michigan
State Prison at Jackson houses inmates. The same is true of the Michigan
Reformatory at Ionia and the State House of Correction at Marquette.
Industrial schools, homes, hospitals and a state public school have
succeeded reform schools in Michigan. The humanizing movement has led
the state to declare that persons detained in such institutions shall be
designated pupils, patients or inmates. There are no prisoners in
Michigan juvenile institutions.

The practice of printing the prison record of a man arrested in
connection with the commission of a crime but not convicted of that
crime is discouraged on The News. Often, former inmates of prisons,
striving to lead decent lives, are brought in by the police on
suspicion. To print their names may be to injure them needlessly without
imparting valuable information to our readers.

The correct names of state institutions as given in the Michigan
Official Directory and Legislative Manual (the red book) are:

    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Michigan Agricultural College, East Lansing.
    State Normal College, Ypsilanti.
    Central Michigan Normal School, Mt. Pleasant.
    Northern State Normal School, Marquette.
    Western State Normal School, Kalamazoo.
    Michigan College of Mines, Houghton.
    Michigan School for the Deaf, Flint.
    Michigan School for the Blind, Lansing.
    Michigan Employment Institution for the Blind, Saginaw.
    State Public School, Coldwater.
    Industrial School for Boys, Lansing.
    Industrial Home for Girls, Adrian.
    Michigan Soldiers' Home, Grand Rapids.
    State Psychopathic Hospital, Ann Arbor.
    Kalamazoo State Hospital.
    Pontiac State Hospital.
    Traverse City State Hospital.
    Newberry State Hospital.
    Michigan Home and Training School, Lapeer.
    Michigan Farm Colony for Epileptics, Wahjamega.
    Ionia State Hospital.
    Michigan State Prison, Jackson.
    State House of Correction, Marquette.
    Michigan Reformatory, Ionia.
    Detroit House of Correction.
    State Sanitorium, Howell.



ARMY AND NAVY ORGANIZATION


The United States Army consists of officers, non-commissioned officers
and privates. Officers hold commissions. Non-commissioned officers hold
warrants. Officers in the regular army engage to serve the United States
for life and may leave the service only on the acceptance of their
resignations, on retirement or on dismissal imposed by sentence of a
general court martial. Enlisted men in time of peace engage to serve for
a definite term of years and at the expiration of this term, return to
civil life or re-enlist as they may elect. Non-commissioned officers are
enlisted men and the duration of their service is governed by the same
rules that apply to privates.

The grades of commissioned officers, given in accordance with their
relative rank are: General, lieutenant-general, major-general,
brigadier-general, colonel, lieutenant-colonel, major, captain, first
lieutenant, second lieutenant. The grades of enlisted men are sergeant,
corporal and private. There are numerous special grades in each of these
general classes. Master sergeants, master electricians, etc., are the
highest paid enlisted men and rank all others. Every commissioned
officer ranks every enlisted man regardless of the length of their
respective services. All officers are of equal social rank. Officers and
enlisted men are forbidden to associate socially.

Cadets at the United States Military Academy are neither enlisted nor
commissioned but have a status of their own. Socially they rank with
officers. They are required to salute all officers but are not entitled
to the salutes of enlisted men. Flying cadets in the Signal Corps, who
are candidates for commissions as aviators or aeronauts, also have a
status of their own. They are required to salute officers but do not
receive the salutes of enlisted men. Officers salute one another, the
juniors saluting the seniors, who acknowledge the courtesy.

The infantry organization is based on the company. Under war conditions,
the company consists of 250 men. Four companies form a battalion, and
three battalions a regiment. A headquarters company, a supply company
and a machine gun company also are attached to each regiment. These
three are smaller than the other companies. The band is part of the
headquarters company.

The cavalry organization includes the troop, squadron of four troops,
and regiment of three squadrons, with headquarters, machine gun and
supply organizations. The field artillery regiment is made up of six
batteries, divided into two battalions. It also has headquarters and
supply companies.

The infantry company is divided into platoons and the platoons into
squads of eight men each. The field artillery battery is divided into
platoons and sections. The coast artillery until the war had no
regimental organization but consisted of several separate companies. All
the companies stationed in a coast defense district were under the
command of the ranking officer in that district. For service abroad with
heavy mobile artillery, several coast artillery regiments were organized
on the infantry model.

The United States Navy consists of commissioned officers, warrant
officers, petty officers and enlisted men without ratings. The officers'
grades are: Admiral of the Navy, vice-admiral, rear-admiral, captain,
commander, lieutenant-commander, lieutenant, lieutenant junior grade,
ensign. The warrant officers rank below commissioned officers and above
enlisted men. Gunners, boatswains, machinists, etc., are warrant
officers. They wear a uniform similar to that of commissioned officers
but with different insignia. Chief petty officers and petty officers are
enlisted men. Chief petty officers wear a double-breasted blouse and a
cap similar to that won by officers but with a different ornament. Petty
officers and unrated enlisted men wear the sailor shirt and either the
flat hat or the watch cap. Petty officers are rated first, second and
third class, the first the highest. Men aboard ship are organized in
divisions. The commander of a ship is called captain by courtesy
regardless of his real grade.

The marine corps is under the control of the Navy Department but has an
organization separate from the Navy proper. It has the same grades of
officers and non-commissioned officers (with some exceptions among the
latter) as the army. The corps is commanded by a major-general, which is
the highest grade to which marine corps officers are eligible.


THE WAY TO BECOME ORIGINAL

Here is a classic bit of advice given by Flaubert to de Maupassant:

"Whatever one wishes to say, there is only one noun to express it, only
one verb to give it life, only one adjective to qualify it. Search,
then, till that noun, that verb, that adjective are discovered; never
be content with 'very nearly,' never have recourse to tricks, however
happy; or to buffooneries of language; to avoid a difficulty. This is
the way to become original."

    +--------------------------------------------+
    | UPBUILDER OF THE HOME ... NOURISHER OF THE |
    | COMMUNITY SPIRIT ... ART LETTERS AND       |
    | SCIENCE OF THE COMMON PEOPLE.              |
    +--------------------------------------------+



DATES OFTEN CALLED FOR


    Battleship Maine blown up in Havana harbor, Feb. 15, 1898.

    Baltimore fire, Feb. 7, 1904.

    Black Friday, Sept. 24, 1869.

    Columbus discovered America, Oct. 12, 1492.

    Chicago destroyed by fire, Oct. 8-11, 1871.

    Dayton flood, March 24, 1913.

    Emancipation Proclamation by Lincoln, Jan. 1, 1863.

    Equitable Building fire, New York, Jan. 9, 1912.

    Ft. Sumter fired on, April 12, 1861.

    Francis Ferdinand, Austrian archduke, assassinated at Sarajevo,
    Bosnia, June 28, 1914, by Gavrio Prinzip, a Bosnian.

    Galveston flood, Sept. 8, 1900; hurricane blew 18 hours and attained
    velocity of 135 miles an hour; 5,000 lives lost; $17,000,000 damage.

    Garfield assassinated, July 2, 1881.

    Halifax explosion and fire, December 6, 1917, 150 killed, 2,000
    injured, property loss, $40,000,000.

    Iroquois Theater fire, Chicago, Dec. 30, 1903.

    Johnstown flood, May 31, 1889; 2,235 lives lost; $10,000,000 damage.

    Lincoln born near Hodgenville, Larue County, Ky., Feb. 12, 1809.

    Lincoln assassinated, April 14, 1865.

    Mayflower Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, Dec. 11, 1620, O. S., or Dec.
    21, N. S., but landing is celebrated Dec. 22.

    Mount Pelee eruption and destruction of Martinique, May 8, 1902.

    McKinley assassinated, Sept. 6, 1901.

    North Pole discovered by Peary, April 6, 1909.

    New York great fire, Dec. 16, 1835.

    Republic sunk in collision with Florida off Nantucket, Jan. 23,
    1909; six lives lost.

    South Pole discovered by Amundsen, Dec. 14, 1911.

    San Francisco earthquake, April 18-19, 1906.

    Steamship Eastland capsized in Chicago River, July 24, 1915; more
    than 800 lives lost.

    Steamship Lusitania sunk by German submarine, May 7, 1915; 1,149
    lives lost.

    Steamship Titanic wrecked, April 14, 1912, 1,503 lives lost.

    Steamboat Gen. Slocum burned in East River New York, June 15, 1904;
    more than 1,000 lives lost.

    Steamer Larchmont sunk in Long Island Sound, Feb. 12, 1907; 131
    lives lost.

    Volturno burned at sea, Oct. 9, 1913.

    Washington died, Dec. 14, 1799.

    Woodrow Wilson born, Dec. 28, 1856.


NOTES



THE LAW OF LIBEL


The following general statement of some of the fundamental principles
governing the law of libel is intended to enable the newspaper writer to
guard against the publication of indefensible libelous matter.

The intention is to state the rules and principles, as far as possible,
without legal technicalities, and to include only such portions of the
law on the subject as may be necessary or essential for the
accomplishment of the double object desired.

For the purposes of the newspaper writer, libel may be defined as
malicious defamation, either written or printed, charging on or imputing
to another that which renders him liable to imprisonment, or tends to
injure his reputation in the common estimation of mankind, or to hold
him up as an object of hatred, scorn, ridicule or contempt.

Slander is malicious defamation by speech or oral language; hence the
newspaper writer has no especial concern for the law relating to it,
further than to remember one general principle--that the law of libel is
much stricter than the law of slander. Thus, one may apply to another
_orally_ words of personal vituperation and abuse that would not render
him liable in a suit for slander, but which if published of another in a
newspaper would be libelous and actionable.

The definition of libel here given is broad enough to cover all the
experiences of the newspaper office. But the character of defamatory
publication that is brought within its scope is best shown by the
language of the courts in individual instances.


ACTIONABLE LANGUAGE

Language in writing has been held to be actionable _per se_ which
"denies to a man the possession of some such worthy quality as every man
is _a priori_ to be taken to possess"; "which _tends_ to bring a party
into public hatred or disgrace"; which "tends to degrade him in
society"; which "tends to expose him to hatred, contempt or ridicule";
which "reflects on his character"; which "imputes something disgraceful
to him"; which "throws contumely and odium on him"; which "tends to
vilify him"; which "tends to injure his character or diminish his
reputation"; which is "injurious to his social character"; which "shows
him to be immoral or ridiculous"; which "induces an ill opinion of him";
which "detracts from his character as a man of good morals"; which
"imputes to him a bad reputation" or "degradation of character" or
"ingratitude," and "_all defamatory words injurious in their nature_."

Each of the following terms charged on one personally in writing or in
print has been adjudged in one or more reported cases to be libelous and
actionable, namely:

That he was a "villain"; "liar"; "rogue"; "rascal"; "swindler";
"drunkard"; "informer"; that he was the author or the publisher of a
libel or slander; that he was a "libelous journalist"; "a hypocrite, and
using the cloak of religion for unworthy purposes"; "an imp of the
devil"; "a miserable fellow it is impossible for a newspaper article to
injure to the extent of six cents"; and "that the community can hardly
despise him worse than they do now"; that he had paid money to procure
an appointment to an office; that he had received money for offices;
that he had been "deprived of the ordinances of the church"; that he was
"thought no more of than a horsethief and a counterfeiter"; that he had
infringed a patent; that he had been guilty of falsehood; of
"dishonesty"; or "moral obliquity"; of "smuggling"; of "blasphemy"; of
"false swearing"; that he was "insane"; that he was "fit for a lunatic
asylum and unsafe to go at large"; that he had been guilty of gross
misconduct in insulting females, etc. Where quotation marks are used,
they indicate the exact language used in the respective publications
complained of on which the suit was brought.


OBJECTIONABLE PUBLISHED CHARGES

The following published charges have been held to be objectionable,
namely:

Want of chastity (as applied to women, at all events) or adultery
(charged on either man or woman); the publication of the obituary of a
person known to the writer to be living; a charge that a member of
Congress was a "misrepresentative" and a groveling office-seeker; that a
juror agreed with another juror to rest the determination of the damages
in a case upon a game of checkers; characterizing a verdict of a jury as
"infamous" and charging the jurors with having done injustice to their
oaths; stating in the criticism of a book that the motives of the author
are dishonorable or disreputable.

The illustrations of this character might be multiplied indefinitely,
but these cover the general range of libelous expressions when
personally applied to an individual.

Imputations on character in allegory or irony may amount to a libel.

Imputing to a person the qualities of a frozen snake in the fable;
_heading_ an article in regard to a lawyer's sharp practices, "An Honest
Lawyer."

The general rule is that it is libelous _per se_ to impute to a person
in his official capacity, profession, trade or business any kind of
fraud, dishonesty, misconduct, incapacity or unfitness--any imputation,
in fact, which would _tend_ to prevent him deriving that pecuniary
reward from a _legitimate_ business which otherwise he would have
obtained.

It has been held actionable to publish of a _butcher_ that he used false
weights; of a _jeweler_ that he was a "cozening knave" who sold a
sapphire for a diamond; of a _brewer_ that he makes and sells
unwholesome beer or uses filthy water in the malting of grain for
brewing; of a _tradesman_ that he adulterates the article he sells; of a
_schoolmaster_ that he is an "ignoramus" on the subject he pretends to
teach; of a _clergyman_ that he is immoral, or "preaches lies" or is a
"drunkard" or "perjurer"; of an _attorney_ that he offered himself as a
witness in order to divulge the secrets of his client, or that he
"betrayed his client," or "would take a fee from both sides," or that he
"deserves to be struck off the roll"; of a _physician_ that he is an
"empiric," or "mountebank," or "quack," or "vends quack medicines"; of a
_mechanic_ that he is ignorant of his trade; of a _judge_ that he lacks
capacity and has abandoned the common principles of truth; and of anyone
_in public office_ of a charge of malfeasance or want of capacity to
fulfill its duties.

So also personal criticism of an _author_ might go so far as to injure
him in his business as an author and come within the rule. And so of any
other occupation from which the injured person derives pecuniary
benefit.


CHARGING WITH A CRIME

It is hardly necessary, except for completeness, to add that to charge a
person with _any crime_ brings the publication within the definition of
libel.

If matter libelous _per se_ is published falsely concerning a person he
is _presumed_ to have suffered loss without proving the specific amount
or the manner of loss, the amount of damages being found by the jury in
accordance with the circumstances of the case and various legal rules.

If the language complained of does not come within the foregoing
definitions and limitations, and is not therefore libelous _per se_,
still, if untrue, it may furnish the basis for a libel suit _where it
has resulted in pecuniary loss or the loss of other material advantage_.

"Any false words are actionable," say the courts, "by which the party
has sustained _special damage_."

But special damages have to be proved. That is to say, in such case,
excluding general damages arising from a _per se_ libel, the character
and manner of the loss and the amount in dollars and cents must be
proved, and the verdict should not exceed such amount.

A single illustration will be sufficient for this class.

A newspaper _falsely_ publishes that a man has died of the smallpox at a
certain hotel. The proprietor brings a libel suit, claiming loss of
custom by way of special damage. His recovery would be limited to such
special damages as he could fairly show.

Libel has been defined above as "_malicious_ defamation," etc. But it is
not generally necessary that the injured complainant should prove actual
malice. If the defamatory matter complained of is _false_, the law
_presumes_ that the publication was malicious, unless it can be shown
either that it was "privileged" by statute or otherwise, or the
presumption of malice is overcome by actual proof. That is to say, if
the publisher claims that, although false and not privileged, the
defamatory publication was not malicious, he must prove it.

Of course, if it was not false, it would not be legally malicious.


THE THREE DEFENSES

The defense to libel suits, therefore, are three, namely:

(1) To prove the published charge is true. This is called a
"justification."

(2) To show that the publication was "privileged."

(3) To prove circumstances connected with the publication tending to
show that it was not malicious, or was provoked and excused by the
conduct of the complainant. This is called a defense "in mitigation of
damages."

To prove that the defamatory publication complained of is _true_ is an
absolute and complete defense.

The old maxim of the English criminal law, "The greater the truth the
greater the libel," frequently quoted erroneously in this connection,
has no application to actions in the civil courts, and at the present
time would scarcely be invoked even in any of the criminal courts of
this country, except under the most extraordinary circumstances.

But it is not enough that the writer of defamatory articles himself
knows that they are true, unless he is able to produce, when required,
_competent legal proof of their truth_. What he himself has witnessed
is, of course, competent evidence as far as it goes; when such proof can
be strengthened by official records or other documentary proof, and by
the evidence of other persons who can testify of their personal
knowledge to the truth of the publications, a defense of the strongest
character is presented.

But one distinction should be observed carefully, a misconception in
regard to which has given rise to many libel suits that have been
difficult to defend. When it is said that "the truth is a complete
defense," the literal truth of the published statement is not meant;
_but the truth of the defamatory charge_.

_To illustrate_: A prominent official, say a judge, during the progress
of a political campaign, either in the course of an interview or of a
public speech, makes the charge against a candidate for an important
office that he (the candidate) obtained his naturalization papers either
through perjury or subornation of perjury. A newspaper publishes the
interview or the speech, giving the speaker's name and the exact
language he used. If the candidate referred to should sue the newspaper
for libel because of this publication, it would be no defense for the
publishers to show that it was _true_ that the speaker had said just
exactly what the newspaper represented him to have said. To justify they
would have to show that the defamatory charge was true, that the
candidate had been guilty of perjury or subornation of perjury in
obtaining his naturalization papers.

In other words, no publishers or writers can escape responsibility for
defaming a man's character by showing that it was on the authority of
some other individual.

The same principle applies to defamatory accusations republished from
another newspaper, whether the name of the newspaper from which they
are copied is given or not.


PRIVILEGED PUBLICATIONS

There is a certain class of publications concerning official proceedings
which, although they be defamatory in character, public policy demands
that publishers should be protected in making, entirely regardless of
the question whether the defamatory matter be true or false. These are
termed "privileged publications" and are defined by law.

The mere fact that a paper is _entitled_ as being in a certain suit or
that _its contents are sworn to_ does not necessarily make it a part of
any "judicial, legislative or other public and official proceedings."
Such proceedings must actually and legally have been instituted before
it becomes entitled to the privilege.

_An instance_ would be the publication of libelous statements taken from
a complaint or affidavit that had been sworn to in a suit but before
_the paper had been actually introduced in the trial of the case_. Here
there would be no privilege.

The same would be true of an affidavit charging crime on a person which
had not before the publication of it been presented to and judicially
recognized by the committing or police magistrate.

Criticism is also privileged in a limited degree. Nowhere else in the
world, not even in England, is so great freedom of legitimate criticism
allowed and protected by law as in the United States.

The Constitution of the United States provides: "Congress shall make no
law abridging the freedom of speech or of the press."

The Constitution of Michigan provides: "Every citizen may freely speak,
write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for
the abuse of that right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or
abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all prosecutions for
libel the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall
appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true and was
published with good motives and for justifiable ends, accused shall be
acquitted."

But the right to criticise is general, and belongs quite as much to any
other individual as to the newspaper writer, editor or publisher.

The _actions_ of individuals are always legitimate subjects of
discussion and criticism.

"In this country," says Judge Smith, of the New Hampshire Supreme Court,
"every citizen has the right to call the attention of his
fellow-citizens to the maladministration of public affairs or the
misconduct of public servants, if his real motive in so doing is to
bring about a reform of abuses or to defeat the re-election or
reappointment of an incompetent officer."

"No one can doubt the importance," is the language of Judge Story, "in a
free government of the right to canvass the _acts_ of public men and the
tendency of public measures--to censure boldly the conduct of rulers and
to scrutinize the policy and plans of government."

The language of the English courts is nearly as broad.

"God forbid that you should not be allowed to comment on the _conduct_
of all mankind, providing you do it justly and honorably," says Baron
Alderson.

Chief Justice Cockburn said: "It is of vast importance that criticism,
so long as it is fair, reasonable and just, should be allowed the utmost
latitude, and that the most unsparing censure of works which are fairly
subject to it should not be held libelous."


CRITICISM DOES NOT EXTEND TO PERSON

But the privilege of criticism extends only to the _actions_ or _works_
of an individual; it does not extend to the _person_. In the case of an
author, his _works_ may be criticised as severely as the occasion
demands. "Every man who publishes a book commits himself to the judgment
of the public," says an eminent English judge; but this can not be made
the excuse for personal abuse of the author himself.

The author, the artist, the architect, who produces a book, a painting
or a building, is in this respect in the same position as the maker or
producer of a watch, a piano or a carving-knife.

The thing produced in either case may be "criticised." But if the
_person_ who produces it is defamed, this must be defended, if at all,
upon some other ground than that it is _criticism_.

Moreover, to justify such comment on men's actions or on the products of
their hands or brains _as criticism_, it is essential that the acts or
things so criticised should have actual existence.

_For instance_, a newspaper comments with great severity on certain
occurrences which it publishes as the official acts of a mayor of its
city. Before these strictures can be defended as _criticism_, it must
appear that such official acts really occurred.

Again, newspaper proprietors might well be held liable for publishing a
ridiculing criticism of language pretended to be quoted from the book
which the critic is reviewing, but which language the author of the book
had not actually used.

If the publishers who are defendants in a libel suit are unable to show
that the defamatory publication is _true_ or that it is _privileged_,
then the injured plaintiff is entitled to a verdict _in some amount_.
How small this sum shall be will depend upon how good a case the
defendants can make out _in mitigation of damages_. The range of
defenses that may be interposed for this purpose is very broad. The
following may be enumerated as the most important:

(1) That the general conduct of the plaintiff gave the defendant
"probable cause" for believing the charges to be true.

(2) That the complainant's general character is bad.

(3) That the publication was made in heat and passion, provoked by the
acts of the plaintiff.

(4) That the charge published had been made orally in the presence of
the plaintiff before publication, and he had not denied it.

(5) That the publication was made of a political antagonist in the heat
of a political campaign.

(6) That as soon as the defendant discovered that he was in error he
published a retraction, correction or apology.

(7) That the defamatory publication had reference not to the plaintiff,
but to another person of a similar name, concerning whom the charges
were true, and that readers understood this other individual to be
meant.


ABSENCE OF ACTUAL MALICE

The principle underlying all the above defenses is that they tend to
show an absence of _actual malice_. Many other circumstances, too
numerous and varied to be classified, and which properly could be used
in the same manner and for the same reason to reduce damages, will
readily suggest themselves to every one.

The successful defense of libel suits depends largely on having clear
and trustworthy proof of the facts sought to be sustained promptly at
hand as soon as the suit is brought.

Any metropolitan newspaper that deserves the name finds itself compelled
every day to publish matter that is defamatory in character. Otherwise
there would be no journalistic records of crimes or of a large portion
of the other occurrences in which the public is interested. The
publisher's concern in that particular is a double one--that whatever of
that nature is published in his newspaper should be _true_ or
_privileged_ and that there should be clear _proof_ of the truth or
privilege.

Every newspaper writer frequently finds himself called upon to deal with
such matter. If it is the report of a trial in court, he need have
regard, so far as his report is concerned, to four points: (1) that the
judicial or official proceedings have been already begun in open court;
(2) that his report of the testimony, etc., or synopsis of the sworn
papers is fair and impartial; (3) that he knows where he can put his
hands on the official records to sustain the privilege at any time; and
(4) that both sides are similarly published.

If the matter is defamatory and not privileged in any way, then the
utmost care before publication with regard to the proof of its truth
will be the only safeguard against libel suits.

The publication of such matter on the authority of any person's mere
word, however truthful, trustworthy and careful that person may be
believed to be, will always be attended with danger. The statements may
be entirely true, and yet the giver of the information when called upon
may not be able to furnish the proof. If he is, probably he could
furnish it as well before as after publication.

The only absolutely certain way for any newspaper writer to avoid all
risk of this sort is for him to furnish for publication such defamatory
matter only as he can sustain by his own testimony as an eye-witness, or
such as he has seen the proofs of before writing the article.

The almost certain result will be to prevent the bringing of a libel
suit--the first consideration in this connection. If, on the other hand,
a libel suit should be brought, the writer would be able to furnish the
publishers with the best means of defense, namely, proof of the truth of
the publication--which is of next importance.


PRECISION, SIMPLICITY, EUPHONY

Adams Sherman Hill, professor of rhetoric at Harvard University for
nearly 30 years, gives these three rules for good writing:

Precision: Of two forms of expression which may be used in the same
sense, that one should be chosen which is susceptible of only one
interpretation. Observance of this rule tends to give each word a
meaning of its own.

Simplicity: Of two forms of expression which may be used in the same
sense, the simpler should be chosen. The simpler a word or phrase, the
more likely it is to be understood, and simplicity in language, like
simplicity in dress or manners, belongs to the best society.

Euphony: Of two forms of expression which may be used in the same sense,
that one should be chosen which is the more agreeable to the ear. It is
of course wrong to give undue weight to considerations of euphony, but
when no sacrifice is involved it is desirable to avoid an expression
that is unusually difficult to pronounce or to substitute for an
extremely disagreeable word one that is agreeable to the ear.



FIRST THREE YEARS OF THE WAR


    June 28, 1914--Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to throne of
    Austria-Hungary, and wife shot by Gavrio Prinzip, a Bosnian, at
    Sarajevo, Bosnia.

    July 28--Austria declares war on Serbia.

    Aug. 1--Germany declares war on Serbia.

    Aug. 4--Great Britain declares war on Germany.
            Germany proclaims state of war between Germany and Belgium.
            Wilson proclaims U. S. neutrality.

    Aug. 6--Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.

    Aug. 7--Montenegro declares war on Austria.

    Aug. 8--British troops land in France.

    Aug. 12--Great Britain declares state of war with
    Austria-Hungary.

    Aug. 19--Germans occupy Louvain.

    Aug. 20--Germans occupy Brussels.

    Aug. 23--Japan declares war on Germany.

    Aug. 31--St. Petersburg becomes Petrograd.

    Sept. 1--After seven days' battle Russians take Lemberg.

    Sept. 3--French capital transferred to Bordeaux.

    Sept. 4--Germans occupy Rheims.

    Sept. 10--Joffre reports five-day battle at the Marne a victory.

    Sept. 28--Japanese invest Tsing-Tau.

    Oct. 9--Antwerp surrenders.

    Oct. 13--Seat of Belgian capital moved from Ostend to Havre.

    Oct. 21-31--First battle of Ypres.

    Nov. 5--Great Britain and France declare war on Turkey.

    Nov. 10-12--Second battle of Ypres.

    Dec. 2--Austrians capture Belgrade.

    Dec. 8--British sink German fleet off Falkland islands.

    Dec. 14--Serbians force evacuation of Belgrade.

    Dec. 20--Germans evacuate Dixmude.

    Jan. 24, 1915--Naval battle in North Sea.

    Feb. 4--Germany declares war zone about England and Ireland
    after Feb. 18.

    Feb. 25--Allied fleet reduces four forts at Dardanelles
    entrance.

    March 22--Austrian fortress of Przemysl surrenders to Russians.

    April 22--Gas first used in war by Germans at Ypres.

    May 1--American steamer Gulflight sunk.

    May 7--Lusitania sunk by German submarine off Ireland; 1,149
    lost, 707 rescued.

    May 23--Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.

    June 3--Teutons recapture Przemysl.

    June 8--Bryan resigns.

    June 22--Russians driven out of Lemberg.

    Aug. 6--Germans occupy Warsaw.

    Sept. 9--U. S. asks recall by Austria-Hungary of Ambassador
    Dumba.

    Sept. 18--Germans capture Wilna.

    Oct. 5--King Constantine of Greece won't support Allies and Premier
              Venizelos resigns.
            Allies land at Saloniki.

    Oct. 11--Bulgaria enters war by sending army into Serbia.

    Dec. 4--Ford peace party sails.

    Dec. 19--Allies evacuate Gallipoli.

    Jan. 17, 1916--Montenegro surrenders to Austria-Hungary, first
    belligerent to withdraw.

    Jan. 26--Compulsory service measure passes final reading in
    British House of Lords.

    Feb. 23--Germans open Verdun offensive.

    March 8--Germany declares war on Portugal.

    March 15--Von Tirpitz resigns as German minister of marine;
    succeeded by Admiral von Capelle.

    April 24--Sinn Feiners' revolution breaks out in Dublin.

    April 28--British besieged in Kut-el-Amara, Mesopotamia,
    surrender.

    May 25--King George signs compulsory bill, applicable to all men
    from 18 to 41.

    May 30--Battle of Jutland.

    June 5--Lord Kitchener drowned.

    July 9--German submarine Deutschland arrives at Baltimore.

    Aug. 27--Rumania enters the war on side of Allies.

    Nov. 10--First great air battle; 67 airplanes brought down.

    Nov. 21--Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary,
    dies; 86.

    Dec. 6--Germans occupy Bucharest.

    Feb. 3, 1917--U.S. severs diplomatic relations with Germany.

    Feb. 26--Cunard liner Laconia sunk.

    Feb. 27--Wilson asks authority to arm merchantmen; declares
    sinking of Laconia is overt act.

    March 11--British take Bagdad.

    March 15--Czar Nicholas II abdicates in favor of his brother,
    Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch.

    April 2--American steamer Aztec sunk.

    April 6--U. S. declares state of war with Germany. April
    7--Cuba declares war on Germany.

    April 11--Brazil severs diplomatic relations with Germany.

    May 18--Wilson signs selective conscription bill for army of
    500,000.

    June 5--Americans register for draft.

    June 8--Gen. Pershing in England.

    June 12--King Constantine abdicates.

    June 15--American mission reaches Russia.

    June 26--First U. S. troops arrive in France.

    June 29--Greece severs relations with Germany and her allies.

    July 2--Chinese empire re-established for three days.

    July 14--Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg resigns, Dr. George
    Michaelis succeeding.

    July 22--Kerensky made dictator in Russia.

    Aug. 28--U. S. rejects pope's peace proposal.

    Sept. 3--Germans capture Riga.

    Sept. 16--Kerensky proclaims Russia a republic.

    Oct. 6--Peru severs diplomatic relations with Germany.

    Oct. 7--Uruguay severs diplomatic relations with Germany.

    Oct. 19--U. S. transport Antilles torpedoed.

    Oct. 23--First of U. S. troops enter French trenches.

    Oct. 26--Brazil declares war on Germany.

    Nov. 2--Three-cent postage in effect.

    Nov. 8--Bolsheviki in control of Russian government.

    Nov. 10--Lenine made Russian premier.

    Nov. 18--British capture Jaffa.

    Dec. 4--Wilson asks congress to declare war on Austria-Hungary.

    Dec. 6--Part of Halifax wrecked by explosion and fire.

    Dec. 7--Congress declares war on Austria-Hungary.

    Dec. 10--British capture Jerusalem.

    Dec. 26--U. S. takes over the railroads.


NOTES



INDEX


    A

    Abbreviations in heads, 10
                  rules governing, 42

    _about_, use of, meaning approximately, 55

    _above statement_ barred, 56

    _academy_, capitalization of, 17

    Accuracy, 4-5

    _acts_, capitalization of, 19

    _actual photographs_ barred, 35

    _a day_ preferred to _per day_, 54

    Adjectives, capitalization of, 20
                rules governing, 34

    _administered_, use of, 30

    _administration_, capitalization of, 17

    Adverbs, rules governing, 33

    _advice_ confused with _advise_, 52

    _advise_ confused with _advice_, 52

    _affair_, misuse of, 24

    _affect_ confused with _effect_, 52

    _afterward_, spelling of, 52

    Ages, writing of, 38

    _agreeable_ preferred to _nice_, 34

    _agreeably to_ preferred to _agreeable to_, 33

    Agreement of verbs, 29

    _airplane_, spelling of, 51

    _alarmingly_ preferred to _dangerously_, 33

    Alford, Dean, quoted, 57

    Allbutt, Sir Clifford, quoted, 50

    _allege_ not a synonym for _say_, 30

    _alliance_, capitalization of, 19

    _allies_, capitalization of, 19

    Alliteration in heads, 10

    _almost_ preferred to _most_, 54

    _alright_ barred, 55

    _although_ preferred to _while_, 28

    _a. m._, capitalization of, 20
             use of, 38-44

    _amateur_, meaning of, 55

    _ambassador_, misuse of, 24

    _amendment_, capitalization of, 19

    _among_, misused for _between_, 37
             preferred to _amongst_, 55

    _amongst_, prefer _among_ to, 55

    Ampersand, use of, 43

    _anesthetic_, spelling of, 51

    _a number of_, prefer _several_ to, 34

    _anxious_ misused for _eager_, 35

    _anybody_, use masculine pronoun with, 27

    A. P., leads, 7
           style, 15

    _apiece_ misused for _each_, 27

    Apostrophe, use of, 22

    _appear_, use of, intransitively, 29

    _approximately_ preferred to _about_, 56

    _Arab_, capitalization of, 20

    _armor_, spelling of, 52

    _armory_, capitalization of, 20

    _army_, abbreviation of titles of, 44
            capitalization of, 19
            organization of, 60

    Articles, in heads, 8
              rules governing, 38
              use of, with names, 45

    _artist_, avoid feminine form of, 24

    _as far as_, use of, 33
        misused for _that_, 28
        _long as_, use of, 33

    _assembly_, capitalization of, 18

    Associated Press, see A. P.

    _associations_, capitalization of, 17

    Asterisks, use of, 22

    _as yet_ superfluous, 49

    _at the corner of_ superfluous, 49

    _attorney_, abbreviation of, 43

    _audience_, meaning of, 55

    _au fait_ to be avoided, 54

    _auger_ confused with _augur_, 52

    _augur_ confused with _auger_, 52

    _author_, avoid feminine form of, 24

    _auto_, prefer _automobile_ to, 25

    _autoist_, prefer _motorist_ to, 24

    _automatic pistol_ preferred to _automatic revolver_, 55

    _automobile_ preferred to _auto_, 25

    _automobilist_, prefer _motorist_ to, 24

    _avenue_, capitalization of, 20

    _awful_, meaning of, 35

    _ax_, spelling of, 51

    _axminster_, capitalization of, 20

    _ayes and noes_, spelling of, 51


    B

    _backward_, spelling of, 52

    _bacteria_, plural of, 24

    _balance_ misused for _rest_, 25

    Barred by the Sun, 31

    _base ball_, spelling of, 51

    _basket ball_, spelling of, 51

    _battle_, capitalization of, 18

    _bay_, capitalization of, 18

    _bazar_, spelling of, 51

    _be_, forms of, in heads, 9
          omission of, in heads, 10

    Belgians, king of, 46

    Belgium, king of, misused, 46

    Bennett, Arnold, quoted, 23

    _beside_ not to be misused for _besides_, 37

    _besides_ not to be misused for _beside_, 37

    _better half_, prefer _wife_ to, 55

    _between_ not to be misused for _among_, 37

    _Bible_, capitalization of, 19

    _bills_, capitalization of, 19

    _birdseye_, spelling of, 51

    _birth_, avoid euphemisms regarding, 50

    _birthday_, capitalization of, 18

    _bishop_, use of, 48

    Bleyer, Dr. Willard G., quoted, 6

    _blond_, spelling of, 51

    _body_ preferred to _remains_, 50

    _Bohemian_, capitalization of, 20

    Book sizes, 44

    _bought_ preferred to _purchased_, 30

    _boulevard_, capitalization of, 20

    _bovine_ used as adjective, 34

    _boy scouts_, capitalization of, 20

    _breach_ misused for _breech_, 52

    Brevity, 2, 22

    _bridegroom_ preferred to _groom_, 25

    Bromides, 57

    _bros._, use of, 43

    _Budapest_, spelling of, 51

    _building_, capitalization of, 17

    _bureau_, capitalization of, 17

    _burial_ preferred to _interment_, 50

    Burke, Edmund, quoted, 16

    _but that_ preferred to _but what_, 28

    _but what_ misused for _but that_, 28

    _by_, book illustrated, artist, 37


    C

    _cabinet_, capitalization of, 17

    _cadets_, capitalization of, 20

    _caliber of guns_, punctuation of, 22

    _caliber_, spelling of, 52

    _campfire girls_, capitalization of, 20

    _canine_, use as adjective, 34

    Cannery, 57

    _can not_, spelling of, 51

    _cape_, capitalization of, 18

    _capital_ misused for _capitol_, 52

    Capitalization, rules governing, 17

    _capitol_ misused for _capital_, 52

    _cardinals_, how referred to, 48

    Carlyle, Thomas, quoted, 5

    _casket_, prefer _coffin_ to, 50

    _catalog_, spelling of, 52

    _cello_, spelling of, 52

    _century_, use ordinal with, 38

    _certainly_, no degrees of, 55

    _chamber_, _of deputies_, etc., capitalization, 18

    _checks_, spelling of, 51

    _Chile_, spelling of, 51

    _Chili_, spelling of, 51

    Chinese names, 45

    Christmas preferred to _Xmas_, 18

    _church_, capitalization of, 18
              titles, 48

    _cigaret_, spelling of, 52

    _circumstance_, meaning of, 24

    _cities_, abbreviation of, 42

    _citizens_ misused for _persons_, 24

    City directory, importance of, 5

    City editor, telephone to, 4

    _civil war_, capitalization of, 18

    _claimant_ misused for _clamant_, 52

    Clarity, 22-58

    Clauses, punctuation of, 22

    Cleanliness of thought, 3

    Clemens, Samuel L., see Mark Twain, 31

    Clock time, how to write, 44

    _clubs_, capitalization of, 17

    _clue_, spelling of, 51

    Cobb, Irvin S., quoted, 35

    Cobbett, William, quoted, 34

    _coffin_ preferred to _casket_, 50

    Collective nouns, 25

    _college_, capitalization of, 17

    _college degrees_, abbreviation of, 44
                       capitalization of, 19

    _collide_, only moving objects, 30

    Colon, use of, 22
           capitalization after, 17

    _color_, spelling of, 52
             of, 49

    _comatose_, meaning of, 54

    Commas, use of, 22

    _compared to_, meaning of, 30

    _compared with_, meaning of, 30

    _Complected_ preferred to _complexioned_, 55

    Compounds, how formed, 48

    _consistently with_ preferred to _consistent with_, 33

    _condition_, bad, preferred to _bad shape_, 55

    _congress_, capitalization of, 18

    Conjunctions, punctuation before, 22
                  in heads, 8
                  rules governing, 28

    _consensus of opinion_, use of, 49

    _consist in_ misused for _consist of_, 37

    _consist of_ misused for _consist in_, 37

    _constitution_, capitalization of, 20

    _consul_, confused with _ambassador_, etc., 24
              confused with _counsel_, 52

    _consummated_, when to avoid, 50

    _convict_, prefer _inmate_ to, 59

    _cop_ barred, 54

    Copy, reading, 6
          preparation of, 7

    Corrections, making, 1

    _council_ confused with _counsel_, 52

    _council chamber_, capitalization of, 20

    _councilor_ confused with _counselor_, 52

    _counsel_ confused with _council_, 52

    _counselor_ confused with _councilor_, 52

    _county_, capitalization of, 18

    _coup de grace_, use of, 54

    _coup d'etat_, use of, 54

    _couple_, misuse of, 24

    _courthouse_, capitalization of, 20

    _courts_, capitalization of, 17

    Creed, journalist's, 25

    _critically_ preferred to _dangerously_, 33

    _crown prince_, capitalization of, 17

    _Cupid_, avoid use of, 50

    _curb_, spelling of, 51

    Curiosity, 4

    Cuttlefish, 7

    _czar_, capitalization of, 17


    D

    _damaged_, inanimate things are, 30

    Dana, Charles A., quoted, 31, 55

    dancer, avoid feminine form of, 24

    _dangerously_, prefer _alarmingly_ to, 33

    Dangling participle, 11

    Darwinian theory, 55

    Dash in heads, 10

    _data_, number of, 24

    Date lines, punctuation and capitalization of, 22

    Dates, how to write, 38
           often called for, 62

    _day_, capitalization of, 18

    _dealt_, use of, 30

    _death_, write simply of, 50

    _decalog_, spelling of, 52

    _deceased_, prefer _dead_ man to, 50

    _declaration of independence_, capitalization of, 18

    _decollete_, spelling of, 51

    _decoration day_, capitalization of, 18

    Definite article misused, 38

    _defunct_, avoid use of, 50

    _degree of temperature_, use figures for, 38
                             abbreviation of, 44
                             capitalization of, 19

    _deity_, capitalization of names and pronouns used for, 19

    _democrat_, _-ic_, capitalization of, 18

    _denial_, use of subjunctive to imply, 29

    Department head, 8
      capitalization of, 17

    _departs_, prefer _leaves_ to, 30

    _depositary_ confused with _depository_, 52

    _depot_, prefer _station_ to, 25
             capitalization of, 20

    _de riguer_ to be avoided, 54

    Derivatives, capitalization of, 20

    Dialect, 14

    _dialog_, spelling of, 52

    _dick_ to be avoided, 55

    Diction, 14

    Dictionary, get interested in, 16
                sanctions nothing, 50

    _different_, when superfluous, 49

    _different from_, preferred to _different to_, 37

    Dimensions, how to write, 38

    _dip_ to be avoided, 55

    _dispatch_, spelling of, 51

    _distance of_ superfluous, 49

    _dive_, past tense of, 30

    _dived_ preferred to _dove_, 30

    _divine_ to be avoided as noun, 24

    Do and don't, 54

    _dominion day_, capitalization of, 18

    _don't_, use of, 44

    Double meaning in heads, 10

    Doubling up have's, 31

    _dove_, prefer _dived_ to, 30

    _Dr._, use of, 48

    _draft_, spelling of, 51

    _drouth_, spelling of, 51

    _duke_, capitalization of, 17

    Duke of Argyll, quoted, 22

    _duma_, capitalization of, 18
            spelling of, 51


    E

    _each_, preferred to _apiece_, 27
            use masculine pronoun with, 27

    _eager_ preferred to _anxious_, 35

    _East_, _-ern_, _-erner_, capitalization of, 18

    Editing copy, 6

    Editorial head, 8

    _effect_ confused with _affect_, 52

    _E. G._, use of, 44

    _either_, use of, 27

    _emigrant_ confused with _immigrant_, 52

    _Emperor_, capitalization of, 17

    _employe_, spelling of, 51

    Ending a sentence with _to_, 29

    End-mark, use of, 7

    English money, abbreviation of, 44

    _entente_, capitalization of, 19

    _enthuse_ to be avoided, 30

    _entirely completed_, use of, 49

    _envoy_, use of, 24

    Epithets, capitalization of, 19

    _equally well_, use of, 49

    Errors in grammar, 11

    _Eskimo_, spelling of, 51

    _esthetic_, spelling of, 51

    _et al._, use of, 54

    Ethics of the profession, 5

    Euphony, 71

    _event_, use of, 24

    Events, names of notable, capitalization of, 18

    _every_, use masculine pronoun with, 27

    _ex-_, use of, 17

    Exception proves the rule, 55


    F

    _facsimile_, use of, 51

    Facts, 2, 4, 8

    _faker_ misused for _fakir_, 52

    _fakir_ misused for _faker_, 52

    _farther_ distinguished from _further_, 33

    _favor_, spelling of, 52

    _fearful_, meaning of, 35

    Feature heads, 8

    _feel_, use of, intransitively, 29

    _feline_ misused as a noun, 34

    Feminine forms of words, 24

    _fiance_ and _fiancee_, use of, 54

    Fictitious names, capitalization of, 19

    Figures, beginning a story, 7
             rules governing, 38
             punctuation of, 22

    _Filipino_, spelling of, 51

    Fine writing, 4, 14

    Firm names, use of, 42

    _first of series_, writing of, 55

    First three years of the war, 72-74

    _flag_, capitalization of, 19

    Flaubert, Camille, quoted, 61

    _floral offerings_, use of, 50

    _flowers_, use of, 50

    _follow copy_, use of phrase, 7

    _foot ball_, spelling of, 51

    Force, 58

    _forecast_, past tense of, 31

    _forecasted_, prefer _forecast_ to, 31

    _foregoing statement_, use of, 56

    Foreign phrases, 2, 14, 54

    _former_, capitalization of, 17

    _fort_, abbreviation of, 42

    _forward_, spelling of, 52

    _Fourth of July_, capitalization of, 18

    _Fr._, use of, 48

    _frisk_, misuse of, 55

    _from_ misused with diseases, 37
           when to omit, 37

    Front page paper, 2

    _funeral_, terms referring to, 50

    _further_ distinguished from _farther_, 33

    _future before him_, phrase to avoid, 49


    G

    _gaiety_, spelling of, 51

    _gaily_, spelling of, 51

    Game, newspaper work as a, 3

    _garden_, capitalization of, 18

    _gat_, misuse of, 55

    _gatling_, capitalization of, 20

    _gentleman_, use of, 25

    Geographical terms, capitalization of, 18

    Girls, protection of good name of, 54

    _goodby_, spelling of, 51

    _government_, capitalization of, 17

    _governor_, capitalization of, 17

    Grace, 58

    Grammar, 11
             bad, not funny, 14

    Grievance, treatment of reader with a, 2

    _grim reaper_ to be avoided, 50

    _groom_ misused for _bridegroom_, 25

    _guarantee_ misused for _guaranty_, 51

    _guillotine_, capitalization of, 20

    _grows smaller_, misuse of, 55

    _gun_, misuse of, 55


    H

    Hackneyed phrases, 57

    _hall_, capitalization of, 17

    Handles, name, 45

    _hang_, past tense of, 31

    _hanged_, use of, 31

    _happen_, use of, 30

    _happening_, use of, 24

    Heads, 8

    _heart disease_, use of, 50
           _failure_, use of, 50

    _Hebrew_, rules governing use of, 46

    _he or she_, avoid, 27

    _healthful_, use of, 35

    _healthy_, use of, 35

    _Herculean_, capitalization of, 20

    _high noon_, avoid, 49

    _high school_, capitalization of, 19

    _highway_, capitalization of, 20

    Hill, Adams Sherman, quoted, 71

    _Hindu_, spelling of, 51

    _his or her_, avoid, 27

    _hoard_ confused with _horde_, 52

    _hoi polloi_, use of, without article, 49

    _holidays_, capitalization of, 18

    _holy names_, _places_, _events_, etc., capitalization of, 19

    _home_ preferred to _residence_, 25

    _homeopathic_, spelling of, 51

    _horde_ confused with _hoard_, 52

    _hospital_, capitalization of, 17

    _hotel_, capitalization of, 17

    _house_, _of representatives_, etc., capitalization of, 18
             _Hull_, _Palmer_, etc., capitalization of, 17
             preferred to _residence_, 25

    Howells, William Dean, quoted, 14

    _human_ used as adjective, 34

    _hung_, use of, 31

    _Hymen_, avoid use of, 50

    Hyphens, use of, 22


    I

    _I_, when barred, 27

    _-ics_, nouns ending in, 24

    _i. e._, use of, 44

    _if_ misused for _whether_, 28

    Illustration head, 8

    _illy_, never use, 33

    _immigrant_ confused with _emigrant_, 52

    _immoral_ confused with _unmoral_, 52

    Impersonal viewpoint, 5

    _in a street_, prefer _on a street_ to, 37

    _incident_, meaning of, 24

    Indefinite figures, 38

    Indentions, 7

    _india rubber_, capitalization of, 20

    _in_ distinguished from _into_, 37

    Infinitives, split, 29
                 time of, 29

    _injured_, inanimate things not, 30

    inmate preferred to convict, 59

    _in order to_, avoid use of, 49

    _insanitary_ misused for _unsanitary_, 52

    Institutions, Michigan, 59

    Instructions, to reporters, 4
                  to copy readers, 6

    Interlining, 7

    _interment_, use of, 50

    Interrogation point, use of, 22

    _into_ distinguished from _in_, 37

    _invited guest_, misuse of, 49

    _I O U_ written without periods, 43

    _island_, capitalization of, 18

    _isthmus_, capitalization of, 18

    _item_ used for _story_, 55

    _its_ distinguished from _it's_, 27


    J

    _Jew_, use of, 46

    Journalist's creed, 25

    _judge_, capitalization of, 17
             distinguished from justice, 55

    _junior_, abbreviation of, 43
              capitalization of, 18

    _justice_, capitalization of, 17
               distinguished from _judge_, 55
               of supreme court, 56


    K

    _kaiser_, capitalization of, 17

    _Khartum_, spelling of, 51

    _kiddies_, avoid use of, 54

    _kidnaped_, spelling of, 51

    _kids_, use of, 54

    _kind of_ not followed by article, 38

    _king_, capitalization of, 17
            with Roman numerals, 38

    _knight_, use of title of, 46

    _Knight Templar_, plural of, 52

    _Korea_, spelling of, 51


    L

    _Labor Day_, capitalization of, 18

    _lady_, use of, 25

    _la grippe_, omit article with, 49

    _lane_, capitalization of, 20

    _late_, _the_, use of, 50

    _latitude_, use figures to express, 38

    Law of libel, 3, 64-71

    _laws_, capitalization of, 19

    _lay_, use of, 29-30

    Leaders, use of, 22

    Leads, 7
           A. P., 15

    _leaves_ preferred to _departs_, 30

    _legislative bodies_, capitalization of, 18

    _legislature_, capitalization, 18

    _Leipzig_, spelling of, 51

    _lend_ preferred to _loan_, 30

    _lengthy_, prefer _long_ to, 34

    _lessen_ confused with _lesson_, 52

    Libel laws, 3, 64-71

    _liable_ misused for _likely_, 33

    Liberal, capitalization of, 18

    _lie_, use of, 29-30

    _lieutenant-governor_, capitalization of, 17

    _like_ misused as conjunction, 28

    _likely_ preferred to _liable_, 33

    _live at hotel_ preferred to _stop at hotel_, 30

    _lives_ preferred to _reside_, 30

    _livid_, use of, 35

    _loan_, prefer _lend_ to, 30

    _localities_, capitalization of names of, 18

    _long_ preferred to _lengthy_, 34

    Longfellow, Henry W., quoted, 11

    _longitude_, use figures with, 38

    _long way_, spelling of, 52

    _look_, use of, intransitively, 29

    _lurid_, use of, 35


    M

    _M_ in heads, 9

    _macadam_, capitalization of, 20

    Macaulay, Thomas Babington, quoted, 51

    _maize_ confused with _maze_, 52

    _majority_, meaning of, 24

    _man_ preferred to _gentleman_, 25

    _maneuver_, spelling of, 51

    _many_ preferred to _a number of_, 34

    Margins, 7

    _marriage_ confused with _wedding_, 50

    _master_ to be avoided, 45

    _may_ in heads, 10

    _mayor_, capitalization of, 17

    _maze_ confused with _maize_, 52

    _medieval_, spelling of, 51

    _memoranda_, number of, 24

    Metric system, 40-41

    Metier, learning the, 6

    _Mich._, use of, 43

    Michigan Institutions, 59

    _middle west_, capitalization of, 18

    Military titles, punctuation of, 19
                     capitalization of, 19
                     abbreviation of, 44

    _minister_, diplomatic, 24
                of gospel, 48

    _miraculous escape_, avoid use of, 56

    Misspelled names, 45

    _Mohammed_, spelling of, 51

    Money, sums of, 24
           how written, 38
           English, abbreviation of, 44

    _months_, abbreviation of, 44

    _more certain_ to be avoided, 55

    _most_ misused for _almost_, 54

    _Most Rev._, use of, 48

    _motor car_ preferred to _auto_, 25

    _motorist_ preferred to _autoist_, 24

    _mount_, abbreviation of, 42

    _murder_ not always barred, 54

    _Mrs. Judge_, use of, barred, 45


    N

    Names, abbreviation of, 43
           connected, capitalization of, 20
           holy, capitalization of, 19
           of railroads, 52
           rules governing use of, 45
           rules governing capitalization of, 17

    _nationalities_, capitalization of, 19

    _navy_, abbreviation of titles of, 44
            capitalization of, 19
            organization of, 60

    _nearby_, spelling of, 51

    _nee_, use of, 34

    Negatives in heads, 10

    _neither_, use of, 27

    _Newburgh_, spelling of, 52

    _new recruit_ to be avoided, 49

    News, aim of, The, 1
          capitalization of The, 19

    Newspapers, capitalization, of names of, 19

    _New Year's_, capitalization of, 18

    New York Sun, words barred by the, 31

    _nice_, prefer _agreeable_ to, 34

    Nicknames, use of, 45
               capitalization of, 19

    _No._, use of, 43

    _nobody_ preferred to _not anybody_, 27

    _no one_ preferred to _not any one_, 27

    _nom de guerre_ in good usage, 54

    _nom de plume_ to be avoided, 54

    _north_, _-ern_, _-erner_, capitalization of, 18

    Nouns, rules governing, 24

    _novice_, meaning of, 55

    Numbers, rules governing, 38
             punctuation of, 22
             street, 22, 38


    O

    _O_, use of, 55

    _obsequies_ to be avoided, 50

    Observation, 23

    _obtain_ preferred to _secure_, 30

    _occasionally_, use of, 33

    _occur_, use of, 30

    _occurrence_, meaning of, 24

    _ocean_, capitalization of, 18

    _off from_, prefer _off_ to, 37

    _off of_, prefer _off_ to, 37

    _off_, use of, 37

    _of_ when used with diseases, 37

    _oh_, use of, 55

    _O. K._, use of, 20

    _old adage_ to be avoided, 49

    _Old Glory_, capitalization of, 19

    _old veterans_ to be avoided, 49

    _on a street_ preferred to _in a street_, 37

    _on the part of_ to be avoided, 37

    _only_, beware of, 33

    Ordinals, 38

    _orient_, capitalization of, 17

    _oriental_, capitalization of, 20

    Originality, 61

    Oslerian theory, 55

    _over a signature_ to be avoided, 37

    Overscore _n_, 7


    P

    _pajamas_, spelling of, 51

    _Panamans_, spelling of, 52

    _pants_, prefer _trousers_ to, 55

    _painfully_, when to avoid, 33

    _paraphernalia_, number of, 24

    _parcel post_, spelling of, 51

    _paris green_, capitalization of, 20

    _park_, capitalization of, 18

    _parliament_, capitalization of, 18

    _parlor_, capitalization of, 18

    _parlous_, prefer _perilous_ to, 35

    Participial construction, 24

    Participle, dangling, 11

    Particles, capitalization of, in foreign names, 20

    _parties_, _political_, capitalization of, 18
               _political_, abbreviation of, 44

    _partly completed_ to be avoided, 49

    _party_ misused for _person_, 24

    Paste sheets, do not, 7

    _pasteurize_, capitalization of, 20

    _pen name_ preferred to _nom de plume_, 54

    _people_ misused for _persons_, 24

    _per_, use of, 54

    _per cent_, use of, 38, 54

    _per day_, prefer _a day_ to, 54

    _perilous_ preferred to _parlous_, 35

    Period, use of, 22
            ring, 7

    _periodicals_, capitalization, of names of, 19

    _person_ preferred to _party_, 24

    _phenomena_, number of, 24

    _philistine_, capitalization of, 20

    _philippic_, capitalization of, 20

    _phone_, prefer _telephone_ to, 25

    Phrases, holy, capitalization of, 19

    _pianist_, avoid feminine form of, 24

    Pictorial power of words, 16

    _pistol_ confused with _revolver_, 55

    _Pittsburgh_, spelling of, 52

    _place_, capitalization of, 20

    _platonic_, capitalization of, 20

    _plead_, past tense of, 31

    _pleaded_ preferred to _pled_, 31

    _pled_, prefer _pleaded_ to, 31

    _plow_, spelling of, 51

    _plurality_, meaning of, 24

    _p. m._, use of, 38, 44
             capitalization of, 20

    _poet_, avoid feminine form of, 24

    Poisons, use of names of, 54

    _pole_, capitalization of, 18

    _police court_, capitalization of, 20

    _policeman_ preferred to _cop_, 54

    _poorhouse_, capitalization of, 20

    _port_, abbreviation of, 42

    _Porto Rico_, spelling of, 51

    _possibly_, redundant with _may_, 49

    Post, New York Evening, quoted, 58

    _postoffice_, capitalization of, 20

    _preachers_, use of, 48

    _precinct_, capitalization of, 18

    Precision, 71

    Preparing copy, 7

    Prepositions in heads, 8
                 rules governing, 37

    _present incumbent_ to be avoided, 49

    _present tense_, heads in, 8, 10

    president, abbreviation of, 8
               capitalization of, 17

    _preventative_, prefer _preventive_ to, 24

    _previously to_ preferred to _previous to_, 33

    Prices written in figures, 38

    _priest_, use of, 48

    _princes_, capitalization of, 17

    _principal_ confused with _principle_, 52

    Prison record, do not print, 59

    _procure_ preferred to _secure_, 30

    Profanity, use of, 3

    _professor_, use of, 45

    _program_, spelling of, 52

    _progressive_, capitalization of, 18

    _prone_, meaning of, 54

    Pronouns, rules governing, 27

    Proper nouns and derivatives, capitalization of, 20

    _prophecy_ confused with _prophesy_, 52

    _proportion_ preferred to _per cent_, 24

    _proven_, prefer _proved_ to, 30

    _pseudonym_ preferred to _nom de plume_, 54

    Punctuation, in heads, 10
                 inside quotation marks, 23
                 rules governing, 22

    _purchased_, prefer _bought_ to, 30


    Q

    Question mark, use of, 2

    Quotation marks, in heads, 10
                     use of, 23

    Quotations misapplied, 55
               verify, 56


    R

    _rabbi_, use of, 48

    _racing_ time written in figures, 38

    _races_, capitalization of, 19

    _raise_, use of, 29, 30

    Reading copy, 6

    _recorder_, definition of, 55

    _reformation_, capitalization of, 18

    _regular monthly meeting_ to be avoided, 49

    _reichstag_, capitalization of, 18

    _relieved of_, prefer _robbed of_ to, 30

    _religious denominations_, capitalization of, 18

    _remains_, prefer _body_ to, 18

    _render_ to be avoided, 55

    _repertory_, spelling of, 51

    Reporters, instructions to, 4
               kept out of story, 54

    _republican_, capitalization of, 18

    Reputation, woman's, 3

    _residence_, prefer _home_ to, 25

    _rest_ preferred to _balance_, 25

    _resides_, prefer _lives_ to, 30

    _Rev._, use of, 48

    _revolution_, capitalization of, 18

    _revolver_ misused for _pistol_, 55

    _rise_, use of, 29, 30

    _river_, capitalization of, 18

    _road_, capitalization of, 20

    _robbed of_ preferred to _relieved of_, 20

    Roman numerals, use of, 38
                    table of, 39

    _room_, capitalization of, 18

    Ross, Charles G., quoted, 6, 8


    S

    _sable hearse_ to be avoided, 50

    _sad rites_ to be avoided, 50

    _saint_, abbreviation of, 44

    _same, the_, use of, 27

    _Savior_, spelling of, 52

    Scores written in figures, 38

    _Scriptural texts_, how to write, 44

    _sear_ confused with _sere_, 52

    _seasons_, capitalization of, 20

    _sections of states_, etc., capitalization of, 18

    _secure_, prefer _obtain_ to, 30

    _seer_ confused with _sear_, 52

    Semicolons, use of, 22

    _senate_, capitalization of, 18

    _senior_, abbreviation of, 43
              capitalization of, 18

    _sere_ confused with _seer_, 52

    _set_, use of, 29, 30

    _several_ preferred to _a number of_, 34

    _sewage_, meaning of, 24

    _sewer_, meaning of, 24

    _sewerage_, meaning of, 24

    _Shakespeare_, spelling of, 51

    _Shakespearean_, spelling of, 51

    _shape_, prefer _condition_ to, 55

    _ship body_ to be avoided, 50

    _sight_ confused with _site_, 52

    _signature_, write _under a_, 37

    _sine qua non_ to be avoided, 54

    _sit_, use of, 29, 30

    _site_ confused with _sight_, 52

    _skilful_, spelling of, 51

    Simplicity, 2, 4, 5, 11, 71

    Sincerity, 5

    Slang, use of, 55
           punctuation of, 23

    _smell_, use of, intransitively, 29

    _socialist_, _-ic_, capitalization of, 18

    _societies_, capitalization of, 17

    _socratic_, capitalization of, 20

    _so far as_ to be avoided, 33

    _so_ followed by negative, 33

    _solemn black_ to be avoided, 50

    _so long as_, use of, 33

    _some_, barred as adverb, 33
            prefer _somewhat_ to, 33

    _somebody_, use masculine pronoun with, 27

    _somewhat_ preferred to _some_, 33

    _sort of_, omit article after, 38

    _S O S_, punctuation of, 43

    _so that_ to be avoided, 49

    _sound_, use of, intransitively, 29

    Sources of information, 4

    _south_, _-ern_, _-erner_, capitalization of, 18

    Space, triple, 7

    _spectators_, meaning of, 55

    Spelling, 51

    Split infinitives, 29

    _square_, capitalization of, 18

    _Stars and Bars_, capitalization of, 19

    _Stars and Stripes_, capitalization of, 19

    States, abbreviations of, 42

    _station_, preferred to _depot_, 25
               capitalization of, 20

    Statistics, use figures in, 38
                vital, 50

    Stevenson, Robert Louis, quoted, 6

    _stocks_, capitalization of names of, 19

    _stop at hotel_ to be avoided, 30

    _stork_, avoid reference to, 50

    _story_, prefer _item_ to, 55

    _street_, capitalization of, 20

    _strata_, number of, 24

    _street numbers_, writing of, 38
                      punctuation of, 22

    _sturm und drang_ to be avoided, 54

    _subpena_, spelling of, 51

    Subjunctive, use of, 29

    _such_, use of, as pronoun, 27

    _suffraget_, spelling of, 52

    _suicide_, when to use, 54

    _sultan_, capitalization of, 17

    Sun, the New York, words barred by, 31

    Superfluous words, 49

    Superlatives to be avoided, 34

    _supine_, meaning of, 54

    _supreme court_, capitalization of, 17

    Synonyms, search for, 16
              in heads, 8
              misuse of, 14


    T

    _take place_, use of, 30

    _technic_, spelling of, 51

    _telephone_ preferred to _phone_, 25

    _temperature_, how to write, 38

    _terrace_, capitalization of, 20

    _terrible_, meaning of, 35

    _testimony_, punctuation of, 23

    _Thanksgiving Day_, capitalization of, 18

    _that_, barred as adverb, 33
            preferred to _as_, 28
            use of, 28

    _the_, capitalization of, 17

    _theater_, capitalization of, 17
               spelling of, 52

    Thesaurus, use of, 58

    _these sort_ misused, 27

    _things_, names of notable, capitalization of, 18

    _this_ barred as adverb, 33

    _thither_ to be avoided, 55

    Three rules, 22

    _Tibet_, spelling of, 51

    _timber_, spelling of, 52

    Time, how to write, 38

    _tires_, spelling of, 51

    Titles, capitalization of, 17
            church, 49
            punctuation of, 19
            rules governing, 45

    _to_, different, barred, 37
          in infinitives, 29
          things compared, 30

    _today_, spelling of, 51

    _toga_, misuse of, 55

    _Tolstoy_, spelling of, 51

    _tomorrow_, spelling of, 51

    _tory_, capitalization of, 18

    _totally destroyed_ to be avoided, 49

    _tots_ to be avoided, 54

    _toward_, spelling of, 52

    _trade unions_, plural of, 51

    _transpire_, meaning of, 30

    _treaties_, capitalization of, 19

    _triple entente_, etc., capitalization of, 19

    Trite phrases, 58

    _trousers_ preferred to _pants_, 55

    _true facts_ to be avoided, 49

    Truth, 2, 5, 14

    _Turgenieff_, spelling of, 51

    _turn over_ preferred to _turn turtle_, 30

    Twain, Mark, quoted, 31

    _tying_, spelling of, 51


    U

    _under a signature_ preferred, 37

    Underscore _u_, 7

    _union_, _-ist_, capitalization of, 18

    _Union Jack_, capitalization of, 19

    Unit lines in heads, 9

    _university_, capitalization of, 19

    _unless_ preferred to _without_, 28

    _unmoral_ confused with _immoral_ 52

    _unsanitary_ confused with _insanitary_, 52

    Untruth, 2

    _upper peninsula_, etc., capitalization of, 18

    _utopia_, capitalization of, 20


    V

    _varsity_, punctuation of, 52

    Verbs, in heads, 9
      rules governing, 29

    _very_, eschew the word, 34

    _Very Rev._, use of, 48

    _vice-president_, capitalization of, 17

    _viceroy_, capitalization of, 17

    _violinist_, avoid feminine form of, 24

    Vital statistics, 50

    _viz._, use of, 44

    Vocabulary, broaden the, 16

    _votes_, use figures for, 38

    _vilify_, spelling of, 51

    _vying_, spelling of, 51


    W

    _want_ preferred to _wish_, 30

    War, first three years of, 72-74

    _ward_, capitalization of, 18

    _war_, capitalization of, 18

    _W_ in heads, 9

    _wages_, number of, 55

    _way_, capitalization of, 20

    Way to become original, 61

    _we_, _editorial_, use of, 55

    Webster, Edward Harlan, quoted, 16

    Webster's dictionary, 48

    _wedding_ confused with _marriage_, 50

    Weights and measures, 40

    _weird_, use of, 35

    well known, use of, 49

    _west_, _-ern_, _-erner_, capitalization of, 18

    _whether, or not_, 49
              preferred to _if_, 28

    _while_ misused for _although_, 28
            preferred to _whilst_, 55

    _whilst_ to be avoided, 55

    _whisky_, spelling of, 51

    _White House_, capitalization of, 20

    _whither_ to be avoided, 55

    Whitman, Walt, quoted, 4

    _wholesome_ preferred to _healthful_, 35

    _who_, use of, 28

    _whom_, use of, 27

    _widow_, use of, 50

    _widow woman_ to be avoided, 49

    _wife_, use of, 50, 55

    _Wilkes-Barre_, spelling of, 51

    Williams, Walter, quoted, 25

    _wish_ preferred to _want_, 30

    _with_, book illustrated, sketches, 37
            things compared, 30

    _without_ misused for _unless_, 28

    _woman_ preferred to _lady_, 25

    Women, protection of good name of, 54

    Words, pictorial power of, 16
           superfluous, 49

    _woolly_, spelling of, 51

    _world series_, spelling of, 51


    X

    _Xmas_, prefer Christmas to, 44


    Y

    _years_, punctuation of, 22

    Your audience, 35



Transcriber's Note:

    Spelling, grammar and punctuation have been preserved as they
    appear in the original publication except as follows:

    Page 22

    cartridges and bandages_, _changed to_
    cartridges and bandages_.

    Page 34

    thay are saying _changed to_
    they are saying

    Page 35

    care is needed is using _changed to_
    care is needed in using

    anything else. Lurid means a  _changed to_
    anything else. _Lurid_ means a

    Page 49

    general concensus of opinion  _changed to_
    general consensus of opinion

    Page 52

    Pittsburg, Cleveland, Chicago  _changed to_
    Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Chicago

    Page 54

    _de rigueur_  _changed to_
    _de riguer_

    Page 55

    call a _revolver a gun_  _changed to_
    call _a revolver a gun_

    Page 61

    one adjective to quality it _changed to_
    one adjective to qualify it

    Page 78

    avoid euphuisms regarding _changed to_
    avoid euphemisms regarding

    Page 80

    lines, punctuatuon and capitalization _changed to_
    lines, punctuation and capitalization

    _democrat_, _-ic._, capitalization _changed to_
    _democrat_, _-ic_, capitalization

    Page 101

    _repertory_, spelling of, 51
        In the original this entry appeared between "room"
        and Ross. For this ebook it has been placed in
        alphabetical order between render and reporters





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