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Title: Bibliomania; or Book-Madness - A Bibliographical Romance
Author: Dibdin, Thomas Frognall, 1776-1847
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Bibliomania; or Book-Madness - A Bibliographical Romance" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Transcriber's Note:

      Thomas Frognall Dibdin's _Bibliomania_ was originally published
      in 1809 and was re-issued in several editions, including one
      published by Chatto & Windus in 1876. This e-book was prepared
      from a reprint of the 1876 edition, published by Thoemmes Press
      and Kinokuniya Company Ltd. in 1997. Where the reprint was
      unclear, the transcriber consulted a copy of the actual 1876
      edition.

      Footnotes

         The original contains numerous footnotes, denoted by numbers
         prior to Part I, and by symbols in the remainder of the book.
         All of the footnotes are consecutively numbered in this
         e-book; footnotes within footnotes are lettered.

         Some of the footnotes contain lengthy book catalogues with
         descriptions and prices. For ease of reading, in this e-book
         these catalogues have been formatted as lists rather than
         tables.

      Text that in the original was rendered in blackletter is
      enclosed between equal signs (=bold face=).

      Letters with macrons are enclosed in brackets and preceded by
      an equal sign, e.g. [=a].

      Spelling and typographical errors are retained as they appear
      in the original, with a [Transcriber's Note] containing the
      correct spelling. Minor obvious punctuation and font errors
      have been corrected without note. Inconsistent diacriticals and
      hyphenation have been retained as they appear in the original.

      There are frequent inconsistencies in the spelling of certain
      proper names. These have been retained as they appear in the

         Bibliothèque/Bibliothéque
         Boccaccio/Bocaccio/Boccacio
         De Foe/Defoe
         Français/François
         Loménie/Lomenie
         Montfauçon/Montfaucon
         Roxburgh/Roxburghe
         Shakspeare/Shakespeare
         Spenser/Spencer
         Tewrdannckhs/Tewrdranckhs/Teurdanckhs (and other variations)
         Vallière/Valliere



BIBLIOMANIA.

[Illustration]

     _Libri quosdam ad Scientiam, quosdam AD INSANIAM, deduxêre._
       GEYLER: Navis Stultifera: sign. B. iiij. rev.


BIBLIOMANIA;

OR

=Book-Madness;=

A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ROMANCE.

ILLUSTRATED WITH CUTS.

BY THOMAS FROGNALL DIBDIN, D.D.

=New and improved Edition,=

TO WHICH ARE ADDED
PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS, AND A SUPPLEMENT INCLUDING A KEY
TO THE ASSUMED CHARACTERS IN THE DRAMA.



[Illustration: _Engraved by S. Freeman._]


=London:=
Chatto & Windus, Piccadilly.
MDCCCLXXVI.


[Illustration: T.F. DIBDIN, D.D.

_Engraved by James Thomson from the Original Painting by T. Phillips,
Esqr. R.A._

Published by the Proprietors (for the New Edition) of the Rev. Dr.
Dibdins Bibliomania 1840.]



[Illustration]

TO

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

THE EARL OF POWIS,

PRESIDENT OF

=The Roxburgh Club,=

THIS

NEW EDITION

OF

BIBLIOMANIA

IS

RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED BY

THE AUTHOR.



[Illustration]

ADVERTISEMENT.


_The public may not be altogether unprepared for the re-appearance of
the BIBLIOMANIA in a more attractive garb than heretofore;--and, in
consequence, more in uniformity with the previous publications of the
Author._

_More than thirty years have elapsed since the last edition; an
edition, which has become so scarce that there seemed to be no
reasonable objection why the possessors of the_ other _works of the
Author should be deprived of an opportunity of adding the_ present
_to the number: and although this re-impression may, on first glance,
appear something like a violation of contract with the public, yet,
when the length of time which has elapsed, and the smallness of the
price of the preceding impression, be considered, there does not
appear to be any very serious obstacle to the present republication;
the more so, as the number of copies is limited to five hundred._

_Another consideration deeply impressed itself upon the mind of the
Author. The course of thirty years has necessarily brought changes and
alterations amongst "men and things." The dart of death has been so
busy during this period that, of the Bibliomaniacs so plentifully
recorded in the previous work, scarcely_ three,_--including the
Author--have survived. This has furnished a monitory theme for the
APPENDIX; which, to the friends both of the dead and the living,
cannot be perused without sympathising emotions--_

     _"A sigh the absent claim, the DEAD a tear."_

_The changes and alterations in "things,"--that is to say in the_
=Bibliomania= _itself--have been equally capricious and unaccountable:
our countrymen being, in_ these _days, to the full as fond of novelty
and variety as in those of Henry the Eighth. Dr. Board, who wrote his_
Introduction of Knowledge _in the year 1542, and dedicated it to the
Princess Mary, thus observes of our countrymen:_

     _I am an Englishman, and naked do I stand here,
     Musing in my mind what raiment I shall wear;
     For now I will wear_ this, _and now I will wear_ that,
     _Now I will wear--I cannot tell what._

_This highly curious and illustrative work was reprinted, with all its
wood-cut embellishments, by Mr. Upcott. A copy of the original and
most scarce edition is among the Selden books in the Bodleian library,
and in the Chetham Collection at Manchester. See the_ Typographical
Antiquities, _vol._ iii. _p._ 158-60.

_But I apprehend the general apathy of Bibliomaniacs to be in a great
measure attributable to the vast influx of BOOKS, of every
description, from the Continent--owing to the long continuance of
peace; and yet, in the appearance of what are called_ English
Rarities, _the market seems to be almost as barren as ever. The
wounds, inflicted in the HEBERIAN contest, have gradually healed, and
are subsiding into forgetfulness; excepting where, from_ collateral
_causes, there are too many_ striking _reasons to remember their
existence._

_Another motive may be humbly, yet confidently, assigned for the
re-appearance of this Work. It was thought, by its late
proprietor,--MR. EDWARD WALMSLEY[1]--to whose cost and liberality this
edition owes its appearance--to be a volume, in itself, of pleasant
and profitable perusal; composed perhaps in a quaint and original
style, but in accordance with the characters of the_ Dramatis Personæ.
_Be this as it may, it is a work divested of all acrimonious
feeling--is applicable to all classes of society, to whom harmless
enthusiasm cannot be offensive--and is based upon a foundation not
likely to be speedily undermined._

_T.F. DIBDIN._

_May_ 1, 1842.

     [Footnote 1: _Mr. EDWARD WALMSLEY, who died in 1841, at an
     advanced age, had been long known to me. He had latterly
     extensive calico-printing works at Mitcham, and devoted much
     of his time to the production of beautiful patterns in that
     fabrication; his taste, in almost every thing which he
     undertook, leant towards the fine arts. His body was in the
     counting-house; but his spirit was abroad, in the studio of
     the painter or engraver. Had his natural talents, which were
     strong and elastic, been cultivated in early life, he would,
     in all probability, have attained a considerable reputation.
     How he loved to embellish--almost to satiety--a favourite
     work, may be seen by consulting a subsequent page towards
     the end of this volume. He planned and published the_
     Physiognomical Portraits, _a performance not divested of
     interest--but failing in general success, from the prints
     being, in many instances, a repetition of their precursors.
     The thought, however, was a good one; and many of the heads
     are powerfully executed. He took also a lively interest in
     Mr. Major's splendid edition of Walpole's_ Anecdotes of
     Painting in England, _a work, which can never want a reader
     while taste has an abiding-place in one British bosom._

     _Mr. Walmsley possessed a brave and generous spirit; and I
     scarcely knew a man more disposed to bury the remembrance of
     men's errors in that of their attainments and good
     qualities._]



THE BIBLIOMANIA;

OR

=Book-Madness;=

CONTAINING SOME ACCOUNT OF THE

HISTORY, SYMPTOMS, AND CURE OF THIS FATAL DISEASE.

IN AN EPISTLE ADDRESSED TO

RICHARD HEBER, ESQ.

BY THE

REV. THOMAS FROGNALL DIBDIN, F.S.A.


     Styll am I besy bokes assemblynge,
     For to have plenty it is a pleasaunt thynge
     In my conceyt, and to have them ay in honde:
     But what they mene I do nat understonde.

     =Pynson's Ship of Fools.= Edit. 1509.


LONDON

REPRINTED FROM THE FIRST EDITION, PUBLISHED IN 1809.



=Advertisement.=


_In laying before the public the following brief and superficial
account of a disease, which, till it arrested the attention of Dr.
Ferriar, had entirely escaped the sagacity of all ancient and modern
physicians, it has been my object to touch chiefly on its leading
characteristics; and to present the reader (in the language of my old
friend Francis Quarles) with an "honest pennyworth" of information,
which may, in the end, either suppress or soften the ravages of so
destructive a malady. I might easily have swelled the size of this
treatise by the introduction of much additional, and not incurious,
matter; but I thought it most prudent to wait the issue of the present
"recipe," at once simple in its composition and gentle in its
effects._

_Some apology is due to the amiable and accomplished character to whom
my epistle is addressed, as well as to the public, for the apparently
confused and indigested manner in which the notes are attached to the
first part of this treatise; but, unless I had thrown them to the end
(a plan which modern custom does not seem to warrant), it will be
obvious that a different arrangement could not have been adopted; and
equally so that the perusal, first of the text, and afterwards of the
notes, will be the better mode of passing judgment upon both._

T.F.D.

_Kensington, June_ 5, 1809.



[Illustration]

TO THE READER.


_A short time after the publication of the first edition of this work,
a very worthy and shrewd Bibliomaniac, accidentally meeting me,
exclaimed that "the book_ would do, _but that there was not_ gall
_enough in it." As he was himself a_ Book-Auction-loving Bibliomaniac,
_I was resolved, in a future edition, to gratify him and similar
Collectors by writing_ PART III. _of the present impression; the motto
of which may probably meet their approbation._

_It will be evident, on a slight inspection of the present edition,
that it is so much altered and enlarged as to assume the character of
a new_ work. _This has not been done without mature reflection; and a
long-cherished hope of making it permanently useful to a large class
of General Readers, as well as to Book-Collectors and Bibliographers._

_It appeared to me that notices of such truly valuable, and oftentimes
curious and rare, books, as the ensuing pages describe; but more
especially a_ Personal History of Literature, _in the characters of_
Collectors of Books; _had long been a desideratum even with classical
students: and in adopting the present form of publication, my chief
object was to relieve the dryness of a didactic style by the
introduction of_ Dramatis Personæ.

_The worthy Gentlemen, by whom the_ Drama _is conducted, may be
called, by some, merely wooden machines or_ pegs _to hang notes upon;
but I shall not be disposed to quarrel with any criticism which may be
passed upon their acting, so long as the greater part of the
information, to which their dialogue gives rise, may be thought
serviceable to the real interests of_ Literature _and_ Bibliography.

_If I had chosen to assume a more imposing air with the public, by
spinning out the contents of this closely-printed book into two or
more volumes--which might have been done without violating the
customary mode of publication--the expenses of the purchaser, and the
profits of the author, would have equally increased: but I was
resolved to bring forward as much matter as I could impart, in a
convenient and not inelegantly executed form; and, if my own
emoluments are less, I honestly hope the reader's advantage is
greater._

_The_ Engraved Ornaments of Portraits, Vignettes, and Borders, _were
introduced, as well to gratify the eyes of tasteful Bibliomaniacs, as
to impress, upon the minds of readers in general, a more vivid
recollection of some of those truly illustrious characters by whom
the_ HISTORY OF BRITISH LITERATURE _has been preserved._

_It remains only to add that the present work was undertaken to
relieve, in a great measure, the anguish of mind arising from a severe
domestic affliction; and if the voice of those whom we tenderly loved,
whether parent or_ child, _could be heard from the_ grave, _I trust it
would convey the sound of approbation for thus having filled a part of
the measure of that time which, every hour, brings us nearer to those
from whom we are separated._

_And now_, BENEVOLENT READER, _in promising thee as much amusement and
instruction as ever were offered in a single volume, of a nature like
to the present, I bid thee farewell in the language of_ Vogt,[2] _who
thus praises the subject of which we are about to treat:--"Quis non_
AMABILEM _eam laudabit_ INSANIAM, _quæ universæ rei litterariæ non
obfuit, sed profuit; historiæ litterariæ doctrinam insigniter
locupletavit; ingentemque exercitum voluminum, quibus alias aut in
remotiora Bibliothecarum publicarum scrinia commigrandum erat, aut
plane pereundum, a carceribus et interitu vindicavit, exoptatissimæque
luci et eruditorum usui multiplici felicitur restituit?"_

T.F.D.

_Kensington, March_ 25, 1811.

     [Footnote 2: Catalogus Librorum Rariorum, præf. ix. edit.
     1793.]



[Illustration]

CONTENTS.


PART I. THE EVENING WALK.
_On the right uses of Literature_                             p. 3-20.

II. THE CABINET.
_Outline of Foreign and Domestic Bibliography_               p. 23-92.

III. THE AUCTION-ROOM.
_Character of Orlando. Of ancient Prices of Books,
and of Book-Binding. Book-Auction Bibliomaniacs_           p. 103-139.

IV. THE LIBRARY.
_Dr. Henry's History of Great Britain. A Game at
Chess. Of Monachism and Chivalry. Dinner at Lorenzo's.
Some Account of Book Collectors in England_                p. 143-207.

V. THE DRAWING ROOM.
_History of the Bibliomania, or Account of Book
Collectors, concluded_                                     p. 211-463.

VI. THE ALCOVE.
_Symptoms of the Disease called the Bibliomania.
Probable Means of its Cure_                                p. 467-565.

SUPPLEMENT.

CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX.

GENERAL INDEX.



[Illustration: LUTHER.]

[Illustration: MELANCTHON.]

PUBLISHED BY THE PROPRIETOR (FOR THE NEW EDITION) OF THE REV. Dr.
DIBDINS BIBLIOMANIA, 1840.



[Illustration]

=The Bibliomania.=


MY DEAR SIR,

When the poetical Epistle of Dr. Ferriar, under the popular title of
"THE BIBLIOMANIA," was announced for publication, I honestly confess
that, in common with many of my book-loving acquaintance, a strong
sensation of fear and of hope possessed me: of fear, that I might have
been accused, however indirectly, of having contributed towards the
increase of this Mania; and of hope, that the true object of
book-collecting, and literary pursuits, might have been fully and
fairly developed. The perusal of this elegant epistle dissipated alike
my fears and my hopes; for, instead of caustic verses, and satirical
notes,[3] I found a smooth, melodious, and persuasive panegyric;
unmixed, however, with any rules for the choice of books, or the
regulation of study.

     [Footnote 3: There are, nevertheless, some satirical
     allusions which one could have wished had been suppressed.
     For instance:

          He turns where PYBUS rears his atlas-head
          Or MADOC'S mass conceals its veins of lead;

     What has Mr. Pybus's gorgeous book in praise of the late
     Russian Emperor Paul I. (which some have called the
     chef-d'oeuvre of Bensley's press[A]) to do with Mr.
     Southey's fine Poem of Madoc?--in which, if there are "veins
     of lead," there are not a few "of silver and gold." Of the
     extraordinary talents of Mr. Southey, the indefatigable
     student in ancient lore, and especially in all that regards
     Spanish Literature and Old English Romances, this is not the
     place to make mention. His "_Remains of Henry Kirk White_,"
     the sweetest specimen of modern biography, has sunk into
     every heart, and received an eulogy from every tongue. Yet
     is his own life

          "The more endearing song."

     Dr. Ferriar's next satirical verses are levelled at Mr.
     THOMAS HOPE.

          "The lettered fop now takes a larger scope,
          With classic furniture, design'd by HOPE.
          (HOPE, whom upholsterers eye with mute despair,
          The doughty pedant of an elbow chair.")

     It has appeared to me that Mr. Hope's magnificent volume on
     "_Household Furniture_" has been generally misunderstood,
     and, in a few instances, criticised upon false
     principles.--The first question is, does the _subject_ admit
     of illustration? and if so, has Mr. Hope illustrated it
     properly? I believe there is no canon of criticism which
     forbids the treating of such a subject; and, while we are
     amused with archæological discussions on Roman tiles and
     tesselated pavements, there seems to be no absurdity in
     making the decorations of our sitting rooms, including
     something more than the floor we walk upon, a subject at
     least of temperate and classical disquisition. Suppose we
     had found such a treatise in the volumes of Gronovius and
     Montfaucon? (and are there not a few, apparently, as
     unimportant and confined in these rich volumes of the
     Treasures of Antiquity?) or suppose something similar to Mr.
     Hope's work had been found among the ruins of Herculaneum?
     Or, lastly, let us suppose the author had printed it only as
     a _private_ book, to be circulated as a present! In each of
     these instances, should we have heard the harsh censures
     which have been thrown out against it? On the contrary, is
     it not very probable that a wish might have been expressed
     that "so valuable a work ought to be made public."

     Upon what principle, _a priori_, are we to ridicule and
     condemn it? I know of none. We admit Vitruvius, Inigo Jones,
     Gibbs, and Chambers, into our libraries: and why not Mr.
     Hope's book? Is decoration to be confined only to the
     exterior? and, if so, are works, which treat of these only,
     to be read and applauded? Is the delicate bas-relief, and
     beautifully carved column, to be thrust from the cabinet and
     drawing room, to perish on the outside of a smoke-dried
     portico? Or, is not _that_ the most deserving of
     commendation which produces the most numerous and pleasing
     associations of ideas? I recollect, when in company with the
     excellent DR. JENNER,

          ----[clarum et venerabile nomen
          Gentibus, et multum nostræ quod proderat urbi]

     and a half dozen more friends, we visited the splendid
     apartments in Duchess Street, Portland Place, we were not
     only struck with the appropriate arrangement of every thing,
     but, on our leaving them, and coming out into the dull foggy
     atmosphere of London, we acknowledged that the effect
     produced upon our minds was something like that which might
     have arisen had we been regaling ourselves on the silken
     couches, and within the illuminated chambers, of some of the
     enchanted palaces described in the Arabian Nights'
     Entertainments. I suspect that those who have criticised Mr.
     Hope's work with asperity have never seen his house.

     These sentiments are not the result of partiality or
     prejudice, for I am wholly unacquainted with Mr. Hope. They
     are delivered with zeal, but with deference. It is quite
     consolatory to find a gentleman of large fortune, of
     respectable ancestry, and of classical attainments, devoting
     a great portion of that leisure time which hangs like a
     leaden weight upon the generality of fashionable people, to
     the service of the Fine Arts, and in the patronage of merit
     and ingenuity. How much the world will again be indebted to
     Mr. Hope's taste and liberality may be anticipated from the
     "_Costume of the Ancients_," a work which has recently been
     published under his particular superintendence.]

     [Footnote A: This book is beautifully executed, undoubtedly,
     but being little more than a thin folio pamphlet devoid of
     _typographical_ embellishment--it has been thought by some
     hardly fair to say this of a press which brought out so many
     works characterized by magnitude and various elegance. B.B.]

To say that I was not gratified by the perusal of it would be a
confession contrary to the truth; but to say how ardently I
anticipated an amplification of the subject, how eagerly I looked
forward to a number of curious, apposite, and amusing anecdotes, and
found them not therein, is an avowal of which I need not fear the
rashness, when the known talents of the detector of Stern's
plagiarisms[4] are considered. I will not, however, disguise to you
that I read it with uniform delight, and that I rose from the perusal
with a keener appetite for

     "The small, rare volume, black with tarnished gold."

     _Dr. Ferriar's Ep._ v. 138.

     [Footnote 4: In the fourth volume of the Transactions of the
     Manchester Literary Society, part iv., p. 45-87, will be
     found a most ingenious and amusing Essay, entitled
     "_Comments on Sterne_," which excited a good deal of
     interest at the time of its publication. This discovery may
     be considered, in some measure, as the result of the
     BIBLIOMANIA. In my edition of Sir Thomas More's Utopia, a
     suggestion is thrown out that even Burton may have been an
     imitator of Boisatuau [Transcriber's Note: Boiastuau]: see
     vol. II. 143.]

Whoever undertakes to write down the follies which grow out of an
excessive attachment to any particular pursuit, be that pursuit
horses,[5] hawks, dogs, guns, snuff boxes,[6] old china, coins, or
rusty armour, may be thought to have little consulted the best means
of ensuring success for his labours, when he adopts the dull vehicle
of _Prose_ for the commnication [Transcriber's Note: communication] of
his ideas not considering that from _Poetry_ ten thousand bright
scintillations are struck off, which please and convince while they
attract and astonish. Thus when Pope talks of allotting for

     "Pembroke[7] Statues, dirty Gods and Coins;
     Rare monkish manuscripts for Hearne[8] alone;
     And books to Mead[9] and butterflies to Sloane,"[10]

when he says that

     These Aldus[11] printed, those Du S[=u]eil has bound[12]

moreover that

     For Locke or Milton[13] 'tis in vain to look;
     These shelves admit not any modern book;

he not only seems to illustrate the propriety of the foregoing
remark, by shewing the immense superiority of verse to prose, in
ridiculing reigning absurdities, but he seems to have had a pretty
strong foresight of the BIBLIOMANIA which rages at the present day.
However, as the ancients tell us that a Poet cannot be a
_manufactured_ creature, and as I have not the smallest pretensions
to the "rhyming art," [although in former times[14] I did venture to
dabble with it] I must of necessity have recourse to _Prose_; and, at
the same time, to your candour and forbearance in perusing the pages
which ensue.

     [Footnote 5: It may be taken for granted that the first book
     in this country which excited a passion for the _Sports of
     the field_ was Dame Juliana Berners, or Barnes's, work, on
     _Hunting and Hawking_, printed at St. Alban's, in the year
     1486; of which Lord Spencer's copy is, I believe, the only
     perfect one known. It was formerly the Poet Mason's, and is
     mentioned in the quarto edition of Hoccleve's Poems, p. 19,
     1786. See too Bibl. Mason. Pt. iv. No. 153. Whether the
     forementioned worthy lady was really the author of the work
     has been questioned. Her book was reprinted by Wynkyn de
     Worde in 1497, with an additional Treatise on _Fishing_. The
     following specimen, from this latter edition, ascertains the
     general usage of the French language with our huntsmen in
     the 15th century.

          Beasts of Venery.

          Where so ever ye fare by frith or by fell,
          My dear child, take heed how Trystram do you tell.
          How many manner beasts of Venery there were:
          Listen to your dame and she shall you _lere_.
          Four manner beasts of Venery there are.
          The first of them is the _Hart_; the second is the _Hare_;
          The _Horse_ is one of them; the _Wolf_; and not one _mo_.

          Beasts of the Chace.

          And where that ye come in plain or in place
          I shall tell you which be beasts of enchace.
          One of them is the _Buck_; another is the _Doe_;
          The _Fox_; and the _Marteron_, and the wild _Roe_;
          And ye shall see, my dear child, other beastes all:
          Where so ye them find _Rascal_ ye shall them call.

          Of the hunting of the Hare.

          How to speke of the haare how all shall be wrought:
          When she shall with houndes be founden and sought.
          The fyrst worde to the ho[=u]dis that the hunter shall
            out pit
          Is at the kenell doore whan he openeth it.
          That all maye hym here: he shall say "_Arere!_"
          For his houndes would come to hastily.
          That is the firste worde my sone of Venery.
          And when he hath couplyed his houndes echoon
          And is forth wyth theym to the felde goon,
          And whan he hath of caste his couples at wyll
          Thenne he shall speke and saye his houndes tyll
          "_Hors de couple avant, sa avant!_" twyse soo:
          And then "_So ho, so ho!_" thryes, and no moo.

     And then say "_Sacy avaunt, so how_," I thou praye, etc. The
     following are a few more specimens--"_Ha cy touz cy est
     yll_--_Venez ares sa how sa_--_La douce la eit a venuz_--_Ho
     ho ore, swet a lay, douce a luy_--_So how, so how, venez
     acoupler!!!_"

     Whoever wishes to see these subjects brought down to later
     times, and handled with considerable dexterity, may consult
     the last numbers of the Censura Literaria, with the
     signature J.H. affixed to them. Those who are anxious to
     procure the rare books mentioned in these bibliographical
     treatises, may be pretty safely taxed with being infected by
     the BIBLIOMANIA. What apology my friend Mr. Haslewood, the
     author of them, has to offer in extenuation of the mischief
     committed, it is _his_ business, and not mine, to consider;
     and what the public will say to his curious forthcoming
     reprint of the ancient edition of Wynkyn De Worde _on
     Hunting, Hawking, and Fishing_, 1497 (with wood cuts), I
     will not pretend to divine!

     In regard to Hawking, I believe the enterprising Colonel
     Thornton in [Transcriber's Note: is] the only gentleman of
     the present day who keeps up this custom of "good old
     times."

     The Sultans of the East seem not to have been insensible to
     the charms of Falconry, if we are to judge from the evidence
     of Tippoo Saib having a work of this kind in his library;
     which is thus described from the Catalogue of it just
     published in a fine quarto volume, of which only 250 copies
     are printed.

     "_Sh[=a]bb[=a]r N[=a]meh_, 4to. a Treatise on Falcony;
     containing Instructions for selecting the best species of
     Hawks, and the method of teaching them; describing their
     different qualities; also the disorders they are subject to,
     and method of cure. Author unknown."--Oriental Library of
     Tippoo Saib, 1809, p. 96.]

     [Footnote 6: Of _Snuff boxes_ every one knows what a
     collection the great Frederick, King of Prussia, had--many
     of them studded with precious stones, and decorated with
     enamelled portraits. Dr. C. of G----, has been represented
     to be the most successful rival of Frederick, in this "line
     of collection," as it is called; some of his boxes are of
     uncommon curiosity. It may gratify a Bibliographer to find
     that there are other MANIAS besides that of the book; and
     that even physicians are not exempt from these diseases.

     Of _Old China_, _Coins_, and _Rusty Armour_, the names of
     hundreds present themselves in these departments; but to the
     more commonly-known ones of Rawle and Grose, let me add that
     of the late Mr. John White, of Newgate-Street; a catalogue
     of whose curiosities [including some very uncommon books]
     was published in the year 1788, in three parts, 8vo. Dr.
     Burney tells us that Mr. White "was in possession of a
     valuable collection of ancient rarities, as well as natural
     productions, of the most curious and extraordinary kind; no
     one of which however was more remarkable than the obliging
     manner in which he allowed them to be viewed and examined by
     his friends."--_History of Music_, vol. II. 539, note.]

     [Footnote 7: The reader will find an animated eulogy on this
     great nobleman in Walpole's _Anecdotes of Painters_, vol.
     iv. 227: part of which was transcribed by Joseph Warton for
     his Variorum edition of Pope's Works, and thence copied into
     the recent edition of the same by the Rev. W.L. Bowles. But
     PEMBROKE deserved a more particular notice. Exclusively of
     his fine statues, and architectural decorations, the Earl
     contrived to procure a number of curious and rare books; and
     the testimonies of Maittaire [who speaks indeed of him with
     a sort of rapture!] and Palmer shew that the productions of
     Jenson and Caxton were no strangers to his library. _Annales
     Typographici_, vol. I. 13. edit. 1719. _History of
     Printing_, p. v. "There is nothing that so surely proves the
     pre-eminence of virtue more than the universal admiration of
     mankind, and the respect paid it even by persons in opposite
     interests; and more than this, it is a sparkling gem which
     even time does not destroy: it is hung up in the Temple of
     Fame, and respected for ever." _Continuation of Granger_,
     vol. I. 37, &c. "He raised, continues Mr. Noble, a
     collection of Antiques that were unrivalled by any subject.
     His learning made him a fit companion for the literati.
     Wilton will ever be a monument of his extensive knowledge;
     and the princely presents it contains, of the high
     estimation in which he was held by foreign potentates, as
     well as by the many monarchs he saw and served at home. He
     lived rather as a primitive christian; in his behaviour,
     meek: in his dress, plain: rather retired, conversing but
     little." Burnet, in the _History of his own Times_, has
     spoken of the Earl with spirit and propriety.]

     [Footnote 8: In the recent Variorum Edition of Pope's Works,
     all that is annexed to Hearne's name, as above introduced by
     the Poet, is, "well known as an Antiquarian."

     ALAS, POOR HEARNE!

     thy merits, which are now fully appreciated, deserve an
     ampler notice! In spite of Gibbon's unmerciful critique
     [_Posthumous Works_, vol. II. 711.], the productions of this
     modest, erudite, and indefatigable antiquary are rising in
     price proportionably to their worth. If he had only edited
     the _Collectanea_ and _Itinerary_ of his favourite Leland,
     he would have stood on high ground in the department of
     literature and antiquities; but his other and numerous works
     place him on a much loftier eminence. Of these, the present
     is not the place to make mention; suffice it to say that,
     for copies of his works, on LARGE PAPER, which the author
     used to advertise as selling for 7_s._ or 10_s._, or about
     which placards, to the same effect, used to be stuck on the
     walls of the colleges,--these very copies are now sometimes
     sold for more than the like number of guineas! It is amusing
     to observe that the lapse of a few years only has caused
     such a rise in the article of HEARNE; and that the Peter
     Langtoft on large paper, which at Rowe Mores's sale [Bibl.
     Mores. No. 2191.] was purchased for £1. 2_s._ produced at
     a late sale, [A.D. 1808] £37! A complete list of Hearne's
     Pieces will be found at the end of his Life, printed with
     Leland's, &c., at the Clarendon Press, in 1772, 8vo. Of
     these the "_Acta Apostolorum_, Gr. Lat;" and "_Aluredi
     Beverlacensis Annales_," are, I believe, the scarcest. It is
     wonderful to think how this amiable and excellent man
     persevered "through evil report and good report," in
     illustrating the antiquities of his country. To the very
     last he appears to have been molested; and among his
     persecutors, the learned editor of Josephus and Dionysius
     Halicarnasseus, Dr. Hudson, must be ranked, to the disgrace
     of himself and the party which he espoused. "Hearne was
     buried in the church yard of St. Peter's (at Oxford) in the
     East, where is erected over his remains, a tomb, with an
     inscription written by himself,

          Amicitiæ Ergo.
          Here lyeth the Body of
          THOMAS HEARNE, M.A.
          Who studied and preserved
          Antiquities.
          He dyed June 10, 1735.
          Aged 57 years.
          Deut. xxxii: 7.
          Remember the days of old;
          consider the years
          of many generations;
          ask thy Father
          and he will shew thee;
          thy elders
          and they will tell thee.
          Job. viii. 8, 9, 10.
          Enquire I pray thee."

          _Life of Hearne_, p. 34.]

     [Footnote 9: Of Dr. MEAD and his Library a particular
     account is given in the following pages.]

     [Footnote 10: For this distinguished character consult
     Nichols's _Anecdotes of Bowyer_, 550, note*; which, however,
     relates entirely to his ordinary habits and modes of life.
     His magnificent collection of Natural Curiosities and MSS.
     is now in the British Museum.]

     [Footnote 11: The annals of the Aldine Press have had ample
     justice done to them in the beautiful and accurate work
     published by Renouard, under the title of "_Annales de
     L'Imprimerie des Alde_," in two vols., 8vo. 1804. One is
     rather surprised at not finding any reference to this
     masterly piece of bibliography in the last edition of Mr.
     Roscoe's Leo X., where there is a pleasing account of the
     establishment of the Aldine Press.]

     [Footnote 12: I do not recollect having seen any book bound
     by this binder. Of Padaloup, De Rome, and Baumgarten, where
     is the fine collection that does not boast of a few
     specimens? We will speak "anon" of the Roger Paynes,
     Kalthoebers, Herrings, Stagemiers, and in Macklays of the
     day!]

     [Footnote 13: This is not the reproach of the age we live
     in; for reprints of Bacon, Locke, and Milton have been
     published with complete success. It would be ridiculous
     indeed for a man of sense, and especially a University man,
     to give £5 or £6 for "_Gosson's School of Abuse, against
     Pipers and Players_," or £3. 3_s._ for a clean copy of
     "_Recreation for Ingenious Head Pieces_, or a _Pleasant
     Grove for their Wits to walk in,"_ and grudge the like sum
     for a dozen handsome octavo volumes of the finest writers of
     his country.]

     [Footnote 14: About twelve years ago I was rash enough to
     publish a small volume of Poems, with my name affixed. They
     were the productions of my juvenile years; and I need hardly
     say, at this period, how ashamed I am of their author-ship.
     The monthly and Analytical Reviews did me the kindness of
     just tolerating them, and of warning me not to commit any
     future trespass upon the premises of Parnassus. I struck off
     500 copies, and was glad to get rid of half of them as waste
     paper; the remaining half has been partly destroyed by my
     own hands, and has partly mouldered away in oblivion amidst
     the dust of Booksellers' shelves. My only consolation is
     that the volume is _exceedingly rare_!]

If ever there was a country upon the face of the globe--from the days
of Nimrod the beast, to Bagford[15] the book-hunter--distinguished for
the variety, the justness, and magnanimity of its views; if ever there
was a nation which really and unceasingly "felt for another's woe" [I
call to witness our Infirmaries, Hospitals, Asylums, and other public
and private Institutions of a charitable nature, that, like so many
belts of adamant, unite and strengthen us in the great cause of
HUMANITY]; if ever there was a country and a set of human beings
pre-eminently distinguished for all the social virtues which soften
and animate the soul of man, surely OLD ENGLAND and ENGLISHMEN ARE
THEY! The common cant, it may be urged, of all writers in favour of
the country where they chance to live! And what, you will say, has
this to do with Book Collectors and Books?--Much, every way: a nation
thus glorious is, at this present eventful moment, afflicted not only
with the Dog[16], but the BOOK, disease--

     Fire in each eye, and paper in each hand
     They rave, recite,----

     [Footnote 15: "JOHN BAGFORD, by profession a bookseller,
     frequently travelled into Holland and other parts, in search
     of scarce books and valuable prints, and brought a vast
     number into this kingdom, the greatest part of which were
     purchased by the Earl of Oxford. He had been in his younger
     days a shoemaker; and, for the many curiosities wherewith he
     enriched the famous library of Dr. John Moore, Bishop of
     Ely, his Lordship got him admitted into the Charter House.
     He died in 1706, aged 65: after his death Lord Oxford
     purchased all his collections and papers, for his library:
     these are now in the Harleian collection in the British
     Museum. In 1707 were published, in the Philosophical
     Transactions, his Proposals for a General History of
     Printing."--Bowyer and Nichols's _Origin of Printing_, p.
     164, 189, note.

     It has been my fortune (whether good or bad remains to be
     proved) not only to transcribe the slender memorial of
     Printing in the Philosophical Transactions, drawn up by
     Wanley for Bagford, but to wade through _forty-two_ folio
     volumes, in which Bagford's materials for a History of
     Printing are incorporated, in the British Museum: and from
     these, I think I have furnished myself with a pretty fair
     idea of the said Bagford. He was the most hungry and
     rapacious of all book and print collectors; and, in his
     ravages, spared neither the most delicate nor costly
     specimens. His eyes and his mouth seem to have been always
     open to express his astonishment at, sometimes, the most
     common and contemptible productions; and his paper in the
     Philosophical Transactions betrays such simplicity and
     ignorance that one is astonished how my Lord Oxford and the
     learned Bishop of Ely could have employed so credulous a
     bibliographical forager. A modern collector and lover of
     _perfect_ copies will witness, with shuddering, among
     Bagford's immense collection of Title Pages, in the Museum,
     the frontispieces of the Complutensian Polyglot, and
     Chauncy's History of Hertfordshire, torn out to illustrate a
     History of Printing. His enthusiasm, however, carried him
     through a great deal of laborious toil; and he supplied, in
     some measure, by this qualification, the want of other
     attainments. His whole mind was devoted to book-hunting; and
     his integrity and diligence probably made his employers
     overlook his many failings. His hand-writing is scarcely
     legible, and his orthography is still more wretched; but if
     he was ignorant, he was humble, zealous, and grateful; and
     he has certainly done something towards the accomplishment
     of that desirable object, an accurate General History of
     Printing. In my edition of _Ames's Typographical
     Antiquities_, I shall give an analysis of Bagford's papers,
     with a specimen or two of his composition.]

     [Footnote 16: For an eloquent account of this disorder
     consult the letters of Dr. Mosely inserted in the Morning
     Herald of last year. I have always been surprised, and a
     little vexed, that these animated pieces of composition
     should be relished and praised by every one--but _the
     Faculty_!]

Let us enquire, therefore, into the origin and tendency of the
BIBLIOMANIA.

In this enquiry I purpose considering the subject under three points
of view: I. THE HISTORY OF THE DISEASE; or an account of the eminent
men who have fallen victims to it: II. THE NATURE, OR SYMPTOMS OF THE
DISEASE: and III. THE PROBABLE MEANS OF ITS CURE. We are to consider,
then,

1. THE HISTORY OF THE DISEASE. In treating of the history of this
disease, it will be found to have been attended with this remarkable
circumstance; namely, that it has almost uniformly confined its
attacks to the _male_ sex, and, among these, to people in the higher
and middling classes of society, while the artificer, labourer, and
peasant have escaped wholly uninjured. It has raged chiefly in
palaces, castles, halls, and gay mansions; and those things which in
general are supposed not to be inimical to health, such as
cleanliness, spaciousness, and splendour, are only so many inducements
towards the introduction and propagation of the BIBLIOMANIA! What
renders it particularly formidable is that it rages in all seasons of
the year, and at all periods of human existence. The emotions of
friendship or of love are weakened or subdued as old age advances; but
the influence of this passion, or rather disease, admits of no
mitigation: "it grows with our growth, and strengthens with our
strength;" and is oft-times

     ----The ruling passion strong in death.[17]

     [Footnote 17: The writings of the Roman philologers seem to
     bear evidence of this fact. Seneca, when an old man, says
     that, "if you are fond of books, you will escape the ennui
     of life; you will neither sigh for evening, disgusted with
     the occupations of the day--nor will you live dissatisfied
     with yourself, or unprofitable to others." _De
     Tranquilitate_, ch. 3. Cicero has positively told us that
     "study is the food of youth, and the amusement of old age."
     _Orat. pro Archia_. The younger Pliny was a downright
     Bibliomaniac. "I am quite transported and comforted," says
     he, "in the midst of my books: they give a zest to the
     happiest, and assuage the anguish of the bitterest, moments
     of existence! Therefore, whether distracted by the cares or
     the losses of my family, or my friends, I fly to my library
     as the only refuge in distress: here I learn to bear
     adversity with fortitude." _Epist._ lib. viii. cap. 19. But
     consult Cicero _De Senectute_. All these treatises afford
     abundant proof of the hopelessness of cure in cases of the
     Bibliomania.]

We will now, my dear Sir, begin "making out the catalogue" of victims
to the BIBLIOMANIA! The first eminent character who appears to have
been infected with this disease was RICHARD DE BURY, one of the tutors
of Edward III., and afterwards Bishop of Durham; a man who has been
uniformly praised for the variety of his erudition, and the
intenseness of his ardour in book-collecting.[18] I discover no other
notorious example of the fatality of the BIBLIOMANIA until the time of
Henry VII.; when the monarch himself may be considered as having added
to the number. Although our venerable typographer, Caxton, lauds and
magnifies, with equal sincerity, the whole line of British Kings, from
Edward IV. to Henry VII. [under whose patronage he would seem, in some
measure, to have carried on his printing business], yet, of all these
monarchs, the latter alone was so unfortunate as to fall a victim to
this disease. His library must have been a magnificent one, if we may
judge from the splendid specimens of it which now remain.[19] It would
appear, too, that, about this time, the BIBLIOMANIA was increased by
the introduction of foreign printed books; and it is not very
improbable that a portion of Henry's immense wealth was devoted
towards the purchase of VELLUM copies, which were now beginning to be
published by the great typographical triumvirate, Verard, Eustace, and
Pigouchet.

     [Footnote 18: It may be expected that I should notice a few
     book-lovers, and probably BIBLIOMANIACS, previously to the
     time of Richard De Bury; but so little is known with
     accuracy of Johannes Scotus Erigena, and his patron Charles
     the Bald, King of France, or of the book tête-a-têtes they
     used to have together--so little, also, of Nennius, Bede,
     and Alfred [although the monasteries at this period, from
     the evidence of Sir William Dugdale, in the first volume of
     the Monasticon were "opulently endowed,"--inter alia, I
     should hope, with magnificent MSS. on vellum, bound in
     velvet, and embossed with gold and silver], or the
     illustrious writers in the Norman period, and the fine books
     which were in the abbey of Croyland--so little is known of
     book-collectors, previously to the 14th century, that I
     thought it the most prudent and safe way to begin with the
     above excellent prelate.

     RICHARD DE BURY was the friend and correspondent of
     Petrarch; and is said by Mons. de Sade, in his Memoires pour
     la vie de Petrarque, "to have done in England what Petrarch
     did all his life in France, Italy, and Germany, towards the
     discovery of MSS. of the best ancient writers, and making
     copies of them under his own superintendence." His passion
     for book-collecting was unbounded ["vir ardentis ingenii,"
     says Petrarch of him]; and in order to excite the same
     ardour in his countrymen, or rather to propagate the disease
     of the BIBLIOMANIA with all his might, he composed a
     bibliographical work under the title of _Philobiblion_;
     concerning the first edition of which, printed at Spires in
     1483, Clement (tom. v. 142) has a long gossiping account;
     and Morhof tells us that it is "rarissima et in paucorum
     manibus versatur." It was reprinted in Paris in 1500, 4to.,
     by the elder Ascensius, and frequently in the subsequent
     century, but the best editions of it are those by Goldastus
     in 1674, 8vo., and Hummius in 1703. Morhof observes that,
     "however De Bury's work savours of the rudeness of the age,
     it is rather elegantly written, and many things are well
     said in it relating to Bibliothecism." _Polyhist. Literar._
     vol. i. 187, edit. 1747.

     For further particulars concerning De Bury, read Bale,
     Wharton, Cave, and Godwin's Episcopal Biography. He left
     behind him a fine library of MSS. which he bequeathed to
     Durham, now Trinity, College, Oxford.

     It may be worth the antiquary's notice, that, in consequence
     (I suppose) of this amiable prelate's exertions, "in every
     convent was a noble library and a great: and every friar,
     that had state in school, such as they be now, hath AN HUGH
     LIBRARY." See the curious Sermon of the Archbishop of
     Armagh, Nov. 8, 1387, in Trevisa's works among the _Harleian
     MSS._ No. 1900. Whether these Friars, thus affected with
     the frensy of book-collecting, ever visited the "old
     chapelle at the Est End of the church of S. Saink
     [Berkshire], whither of late time resorted in pilgrimage
     many folkes for the disease of _madness_," [see Leland's
     _Itinerary_, vol. ii. 29, edit. 1770] I have not been able,
     after the most diligent investigation, to ascertain.]

     [Footnote 19: The British Museum contains a great number of
     books which bear the royal stamp of Henry VII.'s arms. Some
     of these printed by Verard, UPON VELLUM, are magnificent
     memorials of a library, the dispersion of which is for ever
     to be regretted. As Henry VIII. knew nothing of, and cared
     less for, fine books, it is not very improbable that some of
     the choicest volumes belonging to the late king were
     presented to Cardinal Wolsey.]

During the reign of Henry VIII., I should suppose that the Earl of
Surrey[20] and Sir Thomas Wyatt were a little attached to
book-collecting; and that Dean Colet[21] and his friend Sir Thomas
More and Erasmus were downright Bibliomaniacs. There can be little
doubt but that neither the great LELAND[22] nor his Biographer
Bale,[23] were able to escape the contagion; and that, in the ensuing
period, Rogar [Transcriber's Note: Roger] Ascham became notorious for
the Book-disease. He purchased probably, during his travels
abroad[24] many a fine copy of the Greek and Latin Classics, from
which he read to his illustrious pupils, Lady Jane Grey, and Queen
Elizabeth: but whether he made use of an _Editio Princeps_, or a
_Large paper copy_, I have hitherto not been lucky enough to discover.
This learned character died in the vigour of life, and in the bloom
of reputation: and, as I suspect, in consequence of the
BIBLIOMANIA--for he was always collecting books, and always studying
them. His "Schoolmaster" is a work which can only perish with our
language.

     [Footnote 20: The EARL of SURREY and SIR THOMAS WYATT were
     among the first who taught their countrymen to be charmed
     with the elegance and copiousness of their own language. How
     effectually they accomplished this laudable object, will be
     seen from the forthcoming beautiful and complete edition of
     their works by the Rev. Dr. Nott.[B]]

     [Footnote B: It fell to the lot of the printer of this
     volume, during his apprenticeship to his father, to correct
     the press of nearly the whole of Dr. Nott's labours, which
     were completed, after several years of toil, when in the
     extensive conflagration of the printing-office at Bolt
     Court, Fleet-street, in 1819, all but _two_ copies were
     totally destroyed!]

     [Footnote 21: COLET, MORE, and ERASMUS [considering the
     latter when he was in England] were _here_ undoubtedly the
     great literary triumvirate of the early part of the 16th
     century. The lives of More and Erasmus are generally read
     and known; but of DEAN COLET it may not be so generally
     known that his ardour for books and for classical literature
     was keen, and insatiable; that, in the foundation of ST.
     PAUL'S SCHOOL, he has left behind a name which entitles him
     to rank in the foremost of those who have fallen victims to
     the BIBLIOMANIA. How anxiously does he seem to have watched
     the progress, and pushed the sale, of his friend Erasmus's
     first edition of the Greek Testament! "Quod scribis de Novo
     Testamento intelligo. Et libri _novæ editionis tuæ hic avide
     emuntur et passim leguntur_!" The entire epistle (which may
     be seen in Dr. Knight's dry Life of Colet, p. 315) is
     devoted to an account of Erasmus's publications. "I am
     really astonished, my dear Erasmus [does he exclaim], at the
     fruitfulness of your talents; that, without any fixed
     residence, and with a precarious and limited income, you
     contrive to publish so many and such excellent works."
     Adverting to the distracted state of Germany at this period,
     and to the wish of his friend to live secluded and
     unmolested, he observes--"As to the tranquil retirement
     which you sigh for, be assured that you have my sincere
     wishes for its rendering you as happy and composed as you
     can wish it. Your age and erudition entitle you to such a
     retreat. I fondly hope, indeed, that you will choose this
     country for it, and come and live amongst us, whose
     disposition you know, and whose friendship you have proved."

     There is hardly a more curious picture of the custom of the
     times, relating to the education of boys, than the Dean's
     own Statutes for the regulation of St. Paul's School, which
     he had founded. These shew, too, the _popular books_ then
     read by the learned. "The children shall come unto the
     School in the morning at seven of the clock, both winter and
     summer, and tarry there until eleven; and return against one
     of the clock, and depart at five, &c. In the school, no time
     in the year, they shall use tallow candle in no wise, but
     _only wax candle_, at the costs of their friends. Also I
     will they bring no meat nor drink, nor bottle, nor use in
     the school no breakfasts, nor drinkings, in the time of
     learning, in no wise, &c. I will they use no cockfightings,
     nor riding about of victory, nor disputing at Saint
     Bartholomew, which is but foolish babbling and loss of
     time." The master is then restricted, under the penalty of
     40 shillings, from granting the boys a holiday, or "remedy,"
     [play-day,] as it is here called "except the King, an
     Archbishop, or a Bishop, present in his own person in the
     school, desire it." The studies for the lads were,
     "Erasmus's Copia & Institutum Christiani Hominis (composed
     at the Dean's request) Lactantius, Prudentius, Juvencus,
     Proba and Sedulius, and Baptista Mantuanus, and such other
     as shall be thought convenient and most to purpose unto the
     true Latin speech: all barbary, all corruption, all Latin
     adulterate, which ignorant blind fools brought into this
     world, and with the same hath distained and poisoned the old
     Latin speech, and the _veray_ Roman tongue, which in the
     time of Tully and Sallust and Virgil and Terence was used--I
     say that filthiness, and all such abusion, which the later
     blind world brought in, which more rather may be called
     _Bloterature_ that [Transcriber's Note: than] _Literature_,
     I utterly banish and exclude out of this school." _Life of
     Knight's Colet_, 362-4.

     What was to be expected, but that boys, thus educated, would
     hereafter fall victims to the BIBLIOMANIA?]

     [Footnote 22: The history of this great men [Transcriber's
     Note: man], and of his literary labours, is most
     interesting. He was a pupil of William Lilly, the first
     head-master of St. Paul's School; and, by the kindness and
     liberality of a Mr. Myles, he afterwards received the
     advantage of a College education, and was supplied with
     money in order to travel abroad, and make such collections
     as he should deem necessary for the great work which even
     then seemed to dawn upon his young and ardent mind. Leland
     endeavoured to requite the kindness of his benefactor by an
     elegant copy of Latin verses, in which he warmly expatiates
     on the generosity of his patron, and acknowledges that his
     acquaintance with the _Almæ Matres_ [for he was of both
     Universities] was entirely the result of such beneficence.
     While he resided on the continent, he was admitted into the
     society of the most eminent Greek and Latin Scholars, and
     could probably number among his correspondents the
     illustrious names of Budæus, Erasmus, the Stephani, Faber
     and Turnebus. Here, too, he cultivated his natural taste for
     poetry; and from inspecting the fine BOOKS which the Italian
     and French presses had produced, as well as fired by the
     love of Grecian learning, which had fled, on the sacking of
     Constantinople, to take shelter in the academic bowers of
     the Medici, he seems to have matured his plans for carrying
     into effect the great work which had now taken full
     possession of his mind. He returned to England, resolved to
     institute an inquiry into the state of the LIBRARIES,
     Antiquities, Records and Writings then in existence. Having
     entered into holy orders, and obtained preferment at the
     express interposition of the King, (Henry VIII.), he was
     appointed his Antiquary and Library Keeper, and a royal
     commission was issued in which Leland was directed to search
     after "ENGLAND'S ANTIQUITIES, and peruse the LIBRARIES of
     all Cathedrals, Abbies, Priories, Colleges, etc., as also
     all the places wherein Records, Writings, and Secrets of
     Antiquity were reposited." "Before Leland's time," says
     Hearne, in the Preface to the Itinerary, "all the literary
     monuments of Antiquity were totally disregarded; and
     Students of Germany, apprised of this culpable indifference,
     were suffered to enter our libraries unmolested, and to cut
     out of the books deposited there whatever passages they
     thought proper--which they afterwards published as relics of
     the ancient literature of their own country."

     Leland was occupied, without intermission, in this immense
     undertaking, for the space of six years; and, on its
     completion, he hastened to the metropolis to lay at the feet
     of his Sovereign the result of his researches. This was
     presented to Henry under the title of A NEW YEAR'S GIFT; and
     was first published by Bale in 1549, 8vo. "Being inflamed,"
     says the author, "with a love to see thoroughly all those
     parts of your opulent and ample realm, in so much that all
     my other occupations intermitted, I have so travelled in
     your dominions, both by the sea coasts and the middle parts,
     sparing neither labour nor costs, by the space of six years
     past, that there is neither cape nor bay, haven, creek, or
     pier, river, or confluence of rivers, breeches, wastes,
     lakes, moors, fenny waters, mountains, vallies, heaths,
     forests, chases, woods, cities, burghes, castles, principal
     manor places, monasteries and colleges, but I have seen
     them; and noted, in so doing, a whole world of things very
     memorable." Leland moreover tells his Majesty--that "By his
     laborious journey and costly enterprise, he had conserved
     many good authors, the which otherwise had been like to have
     perished; of the which, part remained in the royal palaces,
     part also in his own custody, &c."

     As Leland was engaged six years in this literary tour, so he
     was occupied for a no less period of time in digesting and
     arranging the prodigious number of MSS. he had collected.
     But he sunk beneath the immensity of the task! The want of
     amanuenses, and of other attentions and comforts, seems to
     have deeply affected him; in this melancholy state, he wrote
     to Archbishop Cranmer a Latin epistle, in verse, of which
     the following is the commencement--very forcibly describing
     his situation and anguish of mind.

          Est congesta mihi domi supellex
          Ingens, aurea, nobilis, venusta
          Qua totus studeo Britanniarum
          Vero reddere gloriam nitori.
          Sed fortuna meis noverca coeptis
          Jam felicibus invidet maligna.
          Quare, ne pereant brevi vel hora
          Multarum mihi noctium labores
          Omnes----
          CRANMERE, eximium decus piorum!
          Implorare tuam benignitatem
          Cogor.

     The result was that Leland lost his senses; and, after
     lingering two years in a state of total derangement, he died
     on the 18th of April, 1552. "Prôh tristes rerum humanarum
     vices! prôh viri optimi deplorandam infelicissimamque
     sortem!" exclaims Dr. Smith, in his preface to Camden's
     Life, 1691, 4to.

     The precious and voluminous MSS. of Leland were doomed to
     suffer a fate scarcely less pitiable than that of their
     owner. After being pilfered by some, and garbled by others,
     they served to replenish the pages of Stow, Lambard, Camden,
     Burton, Dugdale, and many other antiquaries and historians.
     Polydore Virgil, who had stolen from them pretty freely, had
     the insolence to abuse Leland's memory--calling him "a vain
     glorious man;" but what shall we say to this flippant
     egotist? who, according to Caius's testimony [_De Antiq.
     Cantab. head. lib._ 1.] "to prevent a discovery of the many
     errors of his own History of England, collected and burnt a
     greater number of ancient histories and manuscripts than
     would have loaded a waggon." The imperfect remains of
     Leland's MSS. are now deposited in the Bodleian Library, and
     in the British Museum.

     Upon the whole, it must be acknowledged that Leland is a
     melancholy, as well as illustrious, example of the influence
     of the BIBLIOMANIA!]

     [Footnote 23: In spite of BALE'S coarseness, positiveness,
     and severity, he has done much towards the cause of
     learning; and, perhaps, towards the propagation of the
     disease under discussion. His regard for Leland does him
     great honour; and although his plays are miserably dull,
     notwithstanding the high prices which the original editions
     of them bear, (vide ex. gr. Cat. Steevens, No. 1221;
     which was sold for £12 12_s._ See also the reprints in the
     Harleian Miscellany) the lover of literary antiquities must
     not forget that his "_Scriptores Britanniæ_" are yet quoted
     with satisfaction by some of the most respectable writers of
     the day. That he wanted delicacy of feeling, and
     impartiality of investigation, must be admitted; but a
     certain rough honesty and prompt benevolence which he had
     about him compensated for a multitude of offences. The
     abhorrence with which he speaks of the dilapidation of some
     of our old libraries must endear his memory to every honest
     bibliographer: "Never (says he) had we been offended for the
     loss of our LIBRARIES, being so many in number, and in so
     desolate places for the more part, if the chief monuments
     and most notable works of our excellent writers had been
     reserved. If there had been in every shire of England, but
     one SOLEMPNE LIBRARY, to the preservation of those noble
     works, and preferment of good learning in our posterity, it
     had been yet somewhat. But to destroy all without
     consideration, is, and will be, unto England for ever, a
     most horrible infamy among the grave seniors of other
     nations. A great number of them which purchased those
     superstitious mansions, reserved of those library-books,
     some to serve the _jakes_, some to scour their candlesticks,
     and some to rub their boots: some they sold to the grocers
     and soap-sellers; some they sent over sea to the
     book-binders, not in small number, but at times whole ships
     full, to the wondering of the foreign nations. Yea, the
     Universities of this realm are not all clear of this
     detestable fact. But cursed is that belly which seeketh to
     be fed with such ungodly gain, and shameth his natural
     country. I know a merchant man, which shall at this time be
     nameless, that _bought the contents of two noble libraries
     for forty shillings price_; a shame it is to be spoken! This
     stuff hath he occupied in the stead of grey paper, by the
     space of more than ten years, and yet he hath store enough
     for as many year to come!" Bale's Preface to Leland's
     "_Laboryouse journey_, &c." Emprented at London by John
     Bale. Anno M.D. xlix. 8vo.

     After this, who shall doubt the story of the Alexandrian
     Library supplying the hot baths of Alexandria with fuel for
     six months! See Gibbon on the latter subject; vol. ix. 440.]

     [Footnote 24: ASCHAM'S English letter, written when he was
     abroad, will be found at the end of Bennet's edition of his
     works, in 4to. They are curious and amusing. What relates to
     the BIBLIOMANIA I here select from similar specimens. "Oct.
     4. At afternoon I went about the town [of Bruxelles]. I went
     to the frier [Transcriber's Note: friar] Carmelites house,
     and heard their even song: after, I desired to see the
     LIBRARY. A frier [Transcriber's Note: friar] was sent to me,
     and led me into it. There was not one good book but _Lyra_.
     The friar was learned, spoke Latin readily, entered into
     Greek, having a very good wit, and a greater desire to
     learning. He was gentle and honest, &c." p. 370-1. "Oct. 20.
     to Spira: a good city. Here I first saw _Sturmius de
     periodis_. I also found here _Ajax_, _Electra_, and
     _Antigone Sophocles_, excellently, by my good judgment,
     translated into verse, and fair printed this summer by
     Gryphius. Your stationers do ill, that at least do 'not
     provide you the register of all books, especially of old
     authors, &c.'" p. 372. Again: "Hieronimus Wolfius, that
     translated Demosthenes and Isocrates, is in this town. I am
     well acquainted with him, and have brought him twice to my
     Lord's to dinner. He looks very simple. He telleth me that
     one Borrheus, that hath written well upon Aristot. priorum,
     &c., even now is printing goodly commentaries upon
     Aristotle's Rhetoric. But Sturmius will obscure them all."
     p. 381.

     It is impossible to read these extracts without being
     convinced that Roger Ascham was a book-hunter, and infected
     with the BIBLIOMANIA!]

If we are to judge from the beautiful Missal lying open before Lady
Jane Grey, in Mr. Copley's elegant picture now exhibiting at the
British Institution, it would seem rational to infer that this amiable
and learned female was slightly attacked by the disease. It is to be
taken for granted that Queen Elizabeth was not exempt from it; and
that her great Secretary,[25] Cecil, sympathised with her! In regard
to Elizabeth, her _Prayer-Book_[26] is quite evidence sufficient for
me that she found the BIBLIOMANIA irresistible! During her reign, how
vast and how frightful were the ravages of the Book-madness! If we are
to credit Laneham's celebrated Letter, it had extended far into the
country, and infected some of the worthy inhabitants of Coventry; for
one "Captain Cox,[27] by profession a mason, and that right skilful,"
had "as fair a library of sciences, and as many goodly monuments both
in Prose and Poetry, and at afternoon could talk as much without book,
as any Innholder betwixt Brentford and Bagshot, what degree soever he
be!"

     [Footnote 25: It is a question which requires more time for
     the solution than I am able to spare, whether CECIL'S name
     stands more frequently at the head of a Dedication, in a
     printed book, or of State Papers and other political
     documents in MS. He was a wonderful man; but a little
     infected--as I suspect--with the BOOK-DISEASE.

          ----Famous Cicill, treasurer of the land,
          Whose wisedom, counsell, skill of Princes state
          The world admires----
          The house itselfe doth shewe the owners wit,
          And may for bewtie, state, and every thing,
          Compared be with most within the land.

          _Tale of Two Swannes_, 1590. 4_to._

     I have never yet been able to ascertain whether the owner's
     attachment towards VELLUM, or LARGE PAPER, Copies was the
     more vehement!]

     [Footnote 26: Perhaps this conclusion is too precipitate.
     But whoever looks at Elizabeth's portrait, on her bended
     knees, struck off on the reverse of the title page to her
     prayer book (first printed in 1565) may suppose that the
     Queen thought the addition of her own portrait would be no
     mean decoration to the work. Every page is adorned with
     borders, engraved on wood, of the most spirited execution:
     representing, amongst other subjects, "The Dance of Death."
     My copy is the reprint of 1608--in high preservation. I have
     no doubt that there was a _presentation_ copy printed UPON
     VELLUM; but in what cabinet does this precious gem now
     slumber?]

     [Footnote 27: Laneham gives a splendid list of Romances and
     Old Ballads possessed by this said CAPTAIN COX; and tells
     us, moreover, that "he had them all at his fingers ends."
     Among the ballads we find "Broom broom on Hil; So Wo is me
     begon twlly lo; Over a Whinny Meg; Hey ding a ding; Bony
     lass upon Green; My bony on gave me a bek; By a bank as I
     lay; and two more he had fair wrapt up in parchment, and
     bound with a whip cord." Edit. 1784, p. 36-7-8. Ritson, in
     his Historical Essay on _Scottish Song_, speaks of some of
     these, with a zest, as if he longed to untie the "whip-cord"
     packet.]

While the country was thus giving proofs of the prevalence of this
disorder, the two Harringtons (especially the younger)[28] and the
illustrious Spenser[29] were unfortunately seized with it in the
metropolis.

     [Footnote 28: SIR JOHN HARRINGTON, knt. Sir John, and his
     father John Harrington, were very considerable literary
     characters in the 16th century; and whoever has been
     fortunate enough to read through Mr. Park's new edition of
     the _Nugæ Antiquæ_, 1804, 8vo., will meet with numerous
     instances in which the son displays considerable
     bibliographical knowledge--especially in _Italian_
     literature; Harrington and Spenser seem to have been the
     Matthias and Roscoe of the day. I make no doubt but that the
     former was as thoroughly acquainted with the _vera edizione_
     of the Giuntæ edition of Boccaccio's Decamerone, 1527, 4to.,
     as either Haym, Orlandi, or Bandini. Paterson, with all his
     skill, was mistaken in this article when he catalogued
     Croft's books. See Bibl. Crofts. No. 3976: his true
     edition was knocked down for 6_s._!!!]

     [Footnote 29: Spenser's general acquaintance with Italian
     literature has received the best illustration in Mr. Todd's
     Variorum edition of the poet's works; where the reader will
     find, in the notes, a constant succession of anecdotes of,
     and references to, the state of anterior and contemporaneous
     literature, foreign and domestic.]

In the seventeenth century, from the death of Elizabeth to the
commencement of Anne's reign, it seems to have made considerable
havoc; yet, such was our blindness to it that we scrupled not to
engage in overtures for the purchase of Isaac Vossius's[30] fine
library, enriched with many treasures from the Queen of Sweden's,
which this versatile genius scrupled not to pillage without confession
or apology. During this century our great reasoners and philosophers
began to be in motion; and, like the fumes of tobacco, which drive the
concealed and clotted insects from the interior to the extremity of
the leaves, the infectious particles of the BIBLIOMANIA set a thousand
busy brains a-thinking, and produced ten thousand capricious works,
which, over-shadowed by the majestic remains of Bacon, Locke, and
Boyle, perished for want of air, and warmth, and moisture.

     [Footnote 30: "The story is extant, and written in very
     choice _French_." Consult Chauffepié's _Supplement to
     Bayle's Dictionary_, vol. iv. p. 621. note Q. Vossius's
     library was magnificent and extensive. The University of
     Leyden offered not less than 36,000 florins for it. _Idem._
     p. 631.]

The reign of Queen Anne was not exempt from the influence of this
disease; for during this period, Maittaire[31] began to lay the
foundation of his extensive library, and to publish some
bibliographical works which may be thought to have rather increased,
than diminished, its force. Meanwhile, Harley[32] Earl of Oxford
watched its progress with an anxious eye; and although he might have
learnt experience from the fatal examples of R. Smith,[33] and T.
Baker,[34] and the more recent ones of Thomas Rawlinson,[35]
Bridges,[36] and Collins,[37] yet he seemed resolved to brave and to
baffle it; but, like his predecessors, he was suddenly crushed within
the gripe of the demon, and fell one of the most splendid of his
victims. Even the unrivalled medical skill of Mead[38] could save
neither his friend nor himself. The Doctor survived his Lordship about
twelve years; dying of the complaint called the BIBLIOMANIA! He left
behind an illustrious character; sufficient to flatter and soothe
those who may tread in his footsteps, and fall victims to a similar
disorder.

     [Footnote 31: Of MICHAEL MAITTAIRE I have given a brief
     sketch in my Introduction to the _Greek and Latin Classics_,
     vol. I, 148. Mr. Beloe, in the 3rd vol. of his _Anecdotes of
     Literature_, p. ix., has described his merits with justice.
     The principal value of Maittaire's _Annales Typographici_
     consists in a great deal of curious matter detailed in the
     notes; but the absence of the "lucidus ordo" renders the
     perusal of these fatiguing and dissatisfactory. The author
     brought a full and well-informed mind to the task he
     undertook--but he wanted taste and precision in the
     arrangement of his materials. The eye wanders over a vast
     indigested mass; and information, when it is to be acquired
     with excessive toil, is, comparatively, seldom acquired.
     Panzer has adopted an infinitely better plan, on the model
     of Orlandi; and, if his materials had been _printed_ with
     the same beauty with which they appear to have been
     composed, and his annals had descended to as late a period
     as those of Maittaire, his work must have made us,
     eventually, forget that of his predecessor. The
     bibliographer is, no doubt, aware that of Maittaire's first
     volume there are two editions. Why the author did not
     reprint, in the second edition (1733), the facsimile of the
     epigram and epistle of LASCAR prefixed to the edition of the
     Anthology 1496, and the disquisition concerning the ancient
     editions of Quintilian (both of which were in the first
     edition of 1719), is absolutely inexplicable. Maittaire was
     sharply attacked for this absurdity, in the "Catalogus
     Auctorum," of the "_Annus Tertius Sæcularis Inv. Art.
     Topog._" Harlem, 1741, 8vo. p. 11. "Rara certe Librum
     augendi methodus (exclaims the author)! Satis patet auctorem
     hoc eo fecisse consilio, ut et primæ et secundæ Libri sive
     editioni pretium suum constaret, et una æque ac altera
     Lectoribus necessaria esset."

     The catalogue of Maittaire's library [1748, 2 parts, 8vo.],
     which affords ample proof of the BIBLIOMANIA of its
     collector, is exceedingly scarce. A good copy of it, even
     unpriced, is worth a guinea: it was originally sold for 4
     shillings; and was drawn up by Maittaire himself.]

     [Footnote 32: In a periodical publication called "_The
     Director_," to which I contributed under the article of
     "_Bibliographiana_" (and of which the printer of this work,
     Mr. William Savage, is now the sole publisher), there was
     rather a minute analysis of the famous library of HARLEY,
     EARL OF OXFORD: a library which seems not only to have
     revived, but eclipsed, the splendour of the Roman one formed
     by Lucullus. The following is an abridgement of this
     analysis:

                                                          VOLUMES.

     1. Divinity: _Greek, Latin, French and Italian_--about 2000
        ----      _English_                                 2500
     2. History and Antiquities                             4000
     3. Books of Prints, Sculpture, and Drawings--
          _Twenty Thousand Drawings and Prints._
          _Ten Thousand Portraits._
     4. Philosophy, Chemistry, Medicine, &c.                2500
     5. Geography, Chronology, General History               600
     6. Voyages and Travels                                  800
     7. Law                                                  800
     8. Sculpture and Architecture                           900
     9. Greek and Latin Classics                            2400
     10. Books printed UPON VELLUM                           220
     11. English Poetry, Romances, &c.                      1000
     12. French and Spanish do.                              700
     13. Parliamentary Affairs                               400
     14. Trade and Commerce                                  300
     15. Miscellaneous Subjects                             4000
     16. Pamphlets--_Four Hundred Thousand_!

     Mr. Gough says, these books "filled thirteen handsome
     chambers, and two long galleries." Osborne the bookseller
     purchased them for £13,000: a sum little more than two
     thirds of the price of the binding, as paid by Lord Oxford.
     The bookseller was accused of injustice and parsimony; but
     the low prices which he afterwards affixed to the articles,
     and the tardiness of their sale, are sufficient refutations
     of this charge. Osborne opened his shop for the inspection
     of the books on Tuesday the 14th of February, 1744; for fear
     "of the curiosity of the spectators, before the sale,
     producing disorder in the disposition of the books." The
     dispersion of the HARLEIAN COLLECTION is a blot in the
     literary annals of our country: had there then been such a
     Speaker, and such a spirit in the House of Commons, as we
     now possess, the volumes of Harley would have been reposing
     with the MARBLES OF TOWNLEY!]

     [Footnote 33: "BIBLIOTHECA SMITHIANA: sive Catalogus
     Librorum in quavis facultate insigniorum, quos in usum suum
     et Bibliothecæ ornamentum multo ære sibi comparavit vir
     clarissimus doctissimusque D. RICHARDUS SMITH, &c., Londini,
     1682," 4to. I recommend the collector of curious and
     valuable catalogues to lay hold upon the present one (of
     which a more particular description will be given in another
     work) whenever it comes in his way. The address "To the
     Reader," in which we are told that "this so much celebrated,
     so often desired, so long expected, library is now exposed
     to sale," gives a very interesting account of the owner.
     Inter alia, we are informed that Mr. Smith "was as
     constantly known every day to walk his rounds through the
     shops, as to sit down to his meals, &c.;" and that "while
     others were forming arms, and new-modelling kingdoms, _his_
     great ambition was to become master of a good book."

     The catalogue itself justifies every thing said in
     commendation of the collector of the library. The
     arrangement is good; the books, in almost all departments of
     literature, foreign and domestic, valuable and curious; and
     among the English ones I have found some of the rarest
     Caxtons to refer to in my edition of Ames. What would Mr.
     Bindley, or Mr. Malone, or Mr. Douce, give to have the
     _creaming_ of such a collection of "Bundles of Stitcht Books
     and Pamphlets," as extends from page 370 to 395 of this
     catalogue! But alas! while the Bibliographer exults in, or
     hopes for, the possession of such treasures, the
     physiologist discovers therein fresh causes of disease, and
     the philanthropist mourns over the ravages of the
     BIBLIOMANIA!]

     [Footnote 34: Consult Masters's "_Memoirs of the Life and
     Writings of the late Rev._ THOMAS BAKER," Camb. 1864, 8vo.
     Let any person examine the catalogue of _Forty-two_ folio
     volumes of "MS. collections by Mr. Baker," (as given at the
     end of this piece of biography) and reconcile himself, if he
     can, to the supposition that the said Mr. Baker did not fall
     a victim to the _Book-disease_! For some cause, I do not now
     recollect what, Baker took his name off the books of St.
     John's College, Cambridge, to which he belonged; but such
     was his attachment to the place, and more especially to the
     library, that he spent a great portion of the ensuing twenty
     years of his life within the precincts of the same:
     frequently comforted and refreshed, no doubt, by the sight
     of the magnificent LARGE PAPER copies of Walton and Castell,
     and of Cranmer's Bible UPON VELLUM!]

     [Footnote 35: This THOMAS RAWLINSON, who is introduced in
     the Tatler under the name _Tom Folio_, was a very
     extraordinary character, and most desperately addicted to
     book-hunting. Because his own house was not large enough, he
     hired _London House_, in Aldersgate Street, for the
     reception of his library; and here he used to regale himself
     with the sight and the scent of innumerable black letter
     volumes, arranged in "sable garb," and stowed perhaps "three
     deep," from the bottom to the top of his house. He died in
     1725; and Catalogues of his books for sale continued, for
     nine succeeding years, to meet the public eye. The following
     is a list of all the parts which I have ever met with; taken
     from copies in Mr. Heber's possession.

     _Part_ 1. _A Catalogue of choice and valuable Books in most
     Faculties and Languages_: being the sixth part of the
     collection made by THOS. RAWLINSON, Esq., &c., to be sold on
     Thursday, the 2d day of March, 1726; beginning every evening
     at 5 of the clock, by Charles Davis, Bookseller. Qui non
     credit, eras credat. Ex Autog. T.R.

     2. _Bibliotheca Rawlinsoniana_; sive Delectus Librorum in
     omni ferè Linguâ et Facultate præstantium--to be sold on
     Wednesday 26th April, [1726] by Charles Davis, Bookseller.
     2600 Numbers.

     3. _The Same_: January 1727-8. By Thomas Ballard,
     Bookseller, 3520 Numbers.

     4. _The Same_: March, 1727-8. By the same. 3840 Numbers.

     5. _The Same_: October, 1728. By the same. 3200 Numbers.

     6. _The Same_: November, 1728. By the same. 3520 Numbers.

     7. _The Same_: April, 1729. By the same. 4161 Numbers.

     8. _The Same_: November, 1729. By the same. 2700 Numbers.

     9. _The Same_: [Of Rawlinson's MANUSCRIPTS] By the same.
     March 1733-4. 800 Numbers.

     10. _Picturæ Rawlinsonianæ._ April, 1734. 117 Articles.

     At the end, it would seem that a catalogue of his prints,
     and MSS. missing in the last sale, were to be published the
     ensuing winter.

     N.B. The black-letter books are catalogued in the Gothic
     letter.]

     [Footnote 36: "BIBLIOTHECÆ BRIDGESIANÆ CATALOGUS: or, A
     Catalogue of the Entire Library of JOHN BRIDGES, late of
     _Lincoln's Inn_, Esq., &c., which will begin to be sold, by
     Auction, on Monday the seventh day of February, 1725-6, at
     his chambers in _Lincoln's Inn_, No. 6."

     From a priced copy of this sale catalogue, in my possession,
     once belonging to Nourse, the bookseller in the Strand, I
     find that the following was the produce of the sale:

     The Amount of the books         £3730  0  0
     Prints and books of Prints        394 17  6
                                     -----------
     Total Amount of the Sale        £4124 17  6

     Two different catalogues of this valuable collection of
     books were printed. The one was analysed, or a _catalogue
     raisonné_; to which was prefixed a print of a Grecian
     portico, &c., with ornaments and statues: the other
     (expressly for the sale) was an indigested and extremely
     confused one--to which was prefixed a print, designed and
     engraved by A. Motte, of an oak felled, with a number of men
     cutting down and carrying away its branches; illustrative of
     the following Greek motto inscribed on a scroll
     above--[Greek: Dryos pesousês pas anêr xyleuetai]: "An
     affecting memento (says Mr. Nichols, very justly, in his
     _Anecdotes of Bowyer_, p. 557) to the collectors of great
     libraries, who cannot, or do not, leave them to some public
     accessible repository."]

     [Footnote 37: In the year 1730-1, there was sold by auction,
     at St. Paul's Coffee-house, in St. Paul's Church-yard
     (beginning every evening at five o'clock), the library of
     the celebrated Free-Thinker,

     ANTHONY COLLINS, ESQ.

     "Containing a collection of several thousand volumes in
     Greek, Latin, English, French, and Spanish; in divinity,
     history, antiquity, philosophy, husbandry, and all polite
     literature: and especially many curious travels and voyages;
     and many rare and valuable pamphlets." This collection,
     which is divided into _two parts_ (the first containing 3451
     articles, the second 3442), is well worthy of being
     consulted by the theologian, who is writing upon any
     controverted point of divinity: there are articles in it of
     the rarest occurrence. The singular character of its owner
     and of his works is well known: he was at once the friend
     and the opponent of Locke and Clarke, who were both anxious
     for the conversion of a character of such strong, but
     misguided, talents. The former, on his death-bed, wrote
     Collins a letter to be delivered to him, after his decease,
     which was full of affection and good advice.]

     [Footnote 38: It is almost impossible to dwell on the memory
     of this GREAT MAN without emotions of delight--whether we
     consider him as an eminent physician, a friend to
     literature, or a collector of books, pictures, and coins.
     Benevolence, magnanimity, and erudition were the striking
     features of his character: his house was the general
     receptacle of men of genius and talent, and of every thing
     beautiful, precious, or rare. His curiosities, whether
     books, or coins, or pictures, were freely laid open to the
     public; and the enterprising student, and experienced
     antiquary, alike found amusement and a courteous reception.
     He was known to all foreigners of intellectual distinction,
     and corresponded both with the artisan and the potentate.
     The great patron of literature, and the leader of his
     profession (which he practised with a success unknown
     before), it was hardly possible for unbefriended merit, if
     properly introduced to him, to depart unrewarded. The
     clergy, and in general, all men of learning, received his
     advice _gratuitously_: and his doors were open every morning
     to the _most indigent_, whom he frequently assisted with
     money. Although his income, from his professional practice,
     was very considerable, he died by no means a rich man--so
     large were the sums which he devoted to the encouragement of
     literature and the fine arts!

     The sale of Dr. Mead's _books_ commenced on the 18th of
     November, 1754, and again on the 7th of April, 1755: lasting
     together 57 days. The sale of the _prints_ and _drawings_
     continued 14 nights. The _gems_, _bronzes_, _busts_, and
     _antiquities_, 8 days.

     His books produced          £5496  15  0
       Pictures                   3417  11  0
       Prints and drawings        1908  14  0
       Coins and medals           1977  17  0
       Antiquities                3246  15  0
                               --------------
     Amount of all the sales   £16,047  12  0

     It would be difficult to mention, within a moderate compass,
     all the rare and curious articles which his library
     contained--but the following are too conspicuous to be
     passed over. The _Spira Virgil_ of 1470, _Pfintzing's
     Tewrkdrancs_, 1527, _Brandt's Stultifera Navis_, 1498, and
     the _Aldine Petrarch_ of 1501, ALL UPON VELLUM. The large
     paper _Olivet's Cicero_ was purchased by Dr. Askew for £14
     14_s._ and was sold again at his sale for £36 15_s._ The
     King of France bought the editio princeps of _Pliny Senr._
     for £11 11_s._; and Mr. Willock, a bookseller, bought the
     magnificently illuminated _Pliny by Jenson_ of 1472, for £18
     18_s._: of which Maittaire has said so many fine things. The
     _French_ books, and all the works upon the _Fine Arts_, were
     of the first rarity, and value, and bound in a sumptuous
     manner. Winstanley's _Prospects of Audley End_ brought £50.
     An amusing account of some of the pictures will be found in
     Mr. Beloe's "_Anecdotes of Literature and Scarce Books_,"
     vol. i. 166. 71. But consult also _Nichol's Anecdotes of
     Bowyer_, p. 225, &c. Of the catalogue of Dr. Mead's books
     there were only six copies printed on LARGE PAPER. See Bibl.
     Lort, no. 1149.]

The years 1755-6 were singularly remarkable for the mortality excited
by the BIBLIOMANIA; and the well known names of Folkes,[39] and
Rawlinson,[40] might have supplied a modern Holbein a hint for the
introduction of a new subject in the "_Dance of Death_." The close of
George the Second's reign witnessed another instance of the fatality
of this disease. Henley[41] "bawled till he was hoarse" against the
cruelty of its attack; while his library has informed posterity how
severely and how mortally he suffered from it.

     [Footnote 39: "A Catalogue of the entire and valuable
     library of MARTIN FOLKES, ESQ., President of the Royal
     Society, and member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at
     Paris, lately deceased; which will be sold by auction by
     Samuel Baker, at his house, in York Street, Covent Garden.
     To begin on Monday, February 2, 1756, and to continue for
     forty days successively (Sundays excepted). Catalogues to be
     had at most of the considerable places in Europe, and all
     the booksellers of Great Britain and Ireland, Price
     Sixpence."

     This collection was an exceedingly fine one; enriched with
     many books of the choicest description, which Mr. Folkes had
     acquired in his travels in Italy and Germany. The works on
     natural history, coins, medals, and inscriptions, and on the
     fine arts in general, formed the most valuable
     department--those in the Greek, Latin and English classics,
     were comparatively of inferior importance. It is a great
     pity the catalogue was not better digested; or the books
     classed according to the nature of their contents.

     The following prices, for some of the more rare and
     interesting articles, will amuse a bibliographer of the
     present day. The chronicles of Fabian, Hall, and Grafton,
     did not altogether bring quite £2: though the copies are
     described as perfect and fair. There seems to have been a
     fine set of Sir Wm. Dugdale's Works (Nos. 3074-81) in 13
     vols. which, collectively, produced about 30 guineas.

     In _Spanish literature_, the history of South America, By
     Don Juan and Ant. di Ulloa, Madr. fol. in 5 vols., was sold
     for £5: a fine large paper copy of the description of the
     Monastery of St. Lorenzo, and the Escorial, Madr. 1657,
     brought £1 2_s._: de Lastanosa's Spanish Medals, Huesca,
     fol. 1645, £2 2_s._

     In _English_, the first edition of Shakespeare, 1623, which
     is now what a French bibliographer would say "presque
     introuvable," produced the sum of £3 3_s._; and Fuller's
     Worthies, 18_s._!

     _Fine Arts, Antiquities, and Voyages._ Sandrart's works, in
     9 folio volumes (of which a fine perfect copy is now rarely
     to be met with, and of very great value) were sold for £13
     13_s._ only: Desgodetz Roman edifices, Paris, 1682, £4
     10_s._: Galleria Giustiniano, 2 vols., fol. £13 13_s._ Le
     Brun's Voyages in Muscovy, &c., in large paper, £4 4_s._ De
     Rossi's Raccolta de Statue, &c. Rom. 1704, £6 10_s._
     Medailles du Regne de Louis le Grand, de l'imp. Roy. 1. p.
     fol. 1702, £5 15_s._ 6_d._

     The works on _Natural History_ brought still higher prices;
     but the whole, from the present depreciation of specie, and
     increased rarity of the articles, would now bring thrice the
     sums then given.

     Of the _Greek and Latin Classics_, the Pliny of 1469 and
     1472 were sold to Dr. Askew for £11 11_s._ and £7 17_s._
     6_d._ At the Doctor's sale they brought £43 and £23:
     although the first was lately sold (A.D. 1805) among some
     duplicates of books belonging to the British Museum, at a
     much lower price: the copy was, in fact, neither large nor
     beautiful. Those in the Hunter and Cracherode collections
     are greatly superior, and would each bring more than double
     the price.

     From a priced copy of the sale catalogue, in my possession,
     I find that the amount of the sale, consisting of 5126
     articles, was £3091 5_s._

     The _Prints and Drawings_ of Mr. Folkes occupied a sale of 8
     days; and his _pictures_, _gems_, _coins_, and _mathematical
     instruments_, of five days.

     Mr. MARTIN FOLKES may justly be ranked among the most
     useful, as well as splendid, literary characters of which
     this country can boast. He appears to have imbibed, at a
     very early age, an extreme passion for science and
     literature; and to have distinguished himself so much at the
     University of Cambridge, under the able tuition of Dr.
     Laughton, that, in his 23rd year, he was admitted a Fellow
     of the Royal Society. About two years afterwards he was
     chosen one of the council, and rose, in gradual succession,
     to the chair of the presidentship, which he filled with a
     credit and celebrity that has since never been surpassed. On
     this occasion he was told by Dr. Jurin, the Secretary, who
     dedicated to him the 34th vol. of the Transactions, that
     "the greatest man that ever lived (Sir Isaac Newton) singled
     him out to fill the chair, and to preside in the society,
     when he himself was so frequently prevented by
     indisposition: and that it was sufficient to say of him that
     he was _Sir Isaac's friend_."

     Within a few years after this, he was elected President of
     the Society of Antiquaries. Two situations, the filling of
     which may be considered as the _ne plus ultra_ of literary
     distinction. Mr. Folkes travelled abroad, with his family,
     about two years and a half, visiting the cities of Rome,
     Florence, and Venice--where he was noticed by almost every
     person of rank and reputation, and whence he brought away
     many a valuable article to enrich his own collection. He was
     born in the year 1690, and died of a second stroke of the
     palsy, under which he languished for three years, in 1754.
     Dr. Birch has drawn a very just and interesting character of
     this eminent man, which may be found in Nichol's _Anecdotes
     of Bowyer_, 562. 7. Mr. Edwards, the late ornithologist, has
     described him in a simple, but appropriate, manner. "He
     seemed," says he, "to have attained to universal knowledge;
     for, in the many opportunities I have had of being in his
     company, almost every part of science has happened to be the
     subject of discourse, all of which he handled as an adept.
     He was a man of great politeness in his manners, free from
     all pedantry and pride, and, in every respect, the real
     unaffected fine gentleman."]

     [Footnote 40: "BIBLIOTHECA RAWLINSONIANA, sive Catalogus
     Librorum Richardi Rawlinson, LL.D. Qui prostabunt Venales
     sub hasta, Apud Samuelem Baker. In Vico dicto _York Street,
     Covent Garden Londini, Die Lunæ_, 22 Martii MDCCLVI."

     This valuable library must have contained about 20,000
     volumes; for the number of Articles amounted to 9405. On
     examining a priced catalogue of it, which now lies before
     me, I have not found any higher sum offered for a work than
     £4 1_s._ for a collection of fine prints, by Aldegrave (No.
     9405). The Greek and Latin classics, of which there were few
     _Editiones Principes_, or on _large paper_, brought the
     usual sums given at that period. The old English
     black-lettered books, which were pretty thickly scattered
     throughout the collection, were sold for exceedingly low
     prices--if the copies were perfect. Witness the following:

                                                       £  _s._ _d._

     The Newe Testament in English, 1530               0   2    9
     The Ymage of both Churches, after the Revelation
       of St. John, by Bale, 1550                      0   1    6
     The boke called the Pype or Tonne of Perfection,
       by Richard Whytforde, 1532                      0   1    9
     The Visions of Pierce Plowman, 1561               0   2    0
     The Creede of Pierce Plowman, 1553                0   1    6
     The Bookes of Moses, in English, 1530             0   3    9
     Bale's Actes of Englishe Votaryes, 1550           0   1    3
     The Boke of Chivalrie, by Caxton                  0  11    0
     The Boke of St. Albans, by W. de Worde            1   1    0

     These are only very few of the rare articles in English
     literature, of the whole of which (perhaps upwards of 200 in
     number) I believe, the 'Boke of St. Albans,' brought the
     highest sum. Hence it will be seen that this was not the age
     of curious research into the productions of our ancestors.
     Shakspeare had not then appeared in a proper _Variorum
     edition_. Theobald, and Pope, and Warburton, had not
     investigated the black-letter lore of ancient English
     writers, for the illustration of their favourite author.
     This was reserved for Farmer, for Steevens, for Malone, for
     Chalmers, Reed and Douce: and it is expressly to these
     latter gentlemen (for Johnson and Hanmer were very sparing,
     or very shy, of the black letter), that we are indebted for
     the present spirit of research into the works of our
     ancestors.

     The sale of the books lasted 50 days. There was a second
     sale of pamphlets, books of prints, &c., in the following
     year, which lasted 10 days; and this was immediately
     succeeded by a sale of the Doctor's single prints and
     drawings, which continued 8 days.]

     [Footnote 41: This gentleman's library, not so remarkable
     for the black letter as for whimsical publications, was sold
     by auction, by Samuel Paterson, [the earliest sale in which
     I find this well known book-auctioneer engaged] in June,
     1759, and the three ensuing evenings. The title of the Sale
     Catalogue is as follows:

     "A Catalogue of the original MSS. and manuscript collections
     of the late Reverend Mr. JOHN HENLEY, A.M., Independent
     Minister of the Oratory, &c., in which are included sundry
     collections of the late Mons. des Maizeaux, the learned
     editor of Bayle, &c., Mr. Lowndes, author of the Report for
     the Amendment of Silver Coins, &c., Dr. Patrick Blair,
     Physician at Boston, and F.R.S. &c., together with original
     letters and papers of State, addressed to Henry d'Avenant,
     Esq., her Britannic Majesty's Envoy at Francfort, from 1703
     to 1708 inclusive."

     Few libraries have contained more curious and remarkable
     publications than did this. The following articles, given as
     notable specimens, remind us somewhat of Addison's Memoranda
     for the Spectator, which the waiter at the coffee-house
     picked up and read aloud for the amusement of the company.

     No. 166. God's Manifestation by a Star to the Dutch. A
     mortifying Fast Diet at Court. On the Birth Day of the first
     and oldest young gentleman. All corrupt: none good: no not
     one.

     No. 168. General Thumbissimo. The Spring reversed, or the
     Flanderkin's Opera and Dutch Pickle Herrings. The Creolean
     Fillip, or Royal Mishap. A Martial Telescope, &c., England's
     Passion Sunday, and April Changelings.

     No. 170. Speech upon Speech. A Telescope for Tournay. No
     Battle, but worse, and the True Meaning of it. An Army
     Beaten and interred.

     No. 174. Signs when the P. will come. Was Captain Sw----n a
     Prisoner on Parole, to be catechised? David's Opinion of
     like Times. The Seeds of the plot may rise, though the
     leaves fall. A Perspective, from the Blair of Athol, the
     Pretender's Popery. Murder! Fire! Where! Where!

     No. 178. Taking Carlisle, catching an eel by the tail.
     Address of a Bishop, Dean and Clergy. Swearing to the
     P----r, &c., Anathema denounced against those Parents,
     Masters, and Magistrates, that do not punish the Sin at
     Stokesley. A Speech, &c. A parallel between the Rebels to K.
     Charles I. and those to his Successor. _Jane Cameron_ looked
     killing at _Falkirk_.

     No. 179. Let stocks be knighted, write, Sir Banks, &c. the
     Ramhead Month. A Proof that the Writers against Popery fear
     it will be established in this Kingdom. A Scheme, wisely
     blabbed to root and branch the Highlanders. Let St. Patrick
     have fair play, &c.

     Of ORATOR HENLEY I have not been able to collect any
     biographical details more interesting than those which are
     to be found in Warburton's notes to Pope's Dunciad.]

We are now, my dear Sir, descending rapidly to our own times; and, in
a manner sufficiently rough, have traced the _History of the
Bibliomania_ to the commencement of the present illustrious reign:
when we discover, among its victims, a General, who had probably
faced many a cannon, and stormed many a rampart, uninjured. The name
of Dormer[42] will remind you of the small but choice library which
affords such a melancholy proof of its owners' fate; while the more
splendid examples of Smith[43] and West[44] serve to shew the
increased ravages of a disease, which seemed to threaten the lives of
all, into whose ears (like those of "Visto,") some demon had
"whispered" the sound of "TASTE." These three striking instances of
the fatality of the Bibliomania occurred--the first in the year 1764;
and the latter in 1773. The following year witnessed the sale of the
Fletewode[45] library; so that nothing but despair and havoc appeared
to move in the train of this pestiferous malady. In the year 1775 died
the famous Dr. Anthony Askew, another illustrious victim to the
Bibliomania. Those who recollect the zeal and scholarship of this
great book-collector, and the precious gems with which his library[46]
was stored from the cabinets of De Boze and Gaignat, as well as of
Mead and Folkes, cannot but sigh with grief of heart on the thought
of such a victim! How ardently, and how kindly [as I remember to have
heard his friend Dr. Burges say], would Askew unfold his glittering
stores--open the magnificent folio, or the shining duodecimo, UPON
VELLUM, embossed and fast held together with golden knobs and silver
clasps! How carefully would he unroll the curious MS.--decipher the
half effaced characters--and then, casting an eye of ecstacy over the
shelves upon which similar treasures were lodged, exult in the
glittering prospect before him! But death--who, as Horace tells us,
raps equally at the palaces of kings and cottages of peasants, made
no scruple to exercise the knocker of the Doctor's door, and sent, as
his avant-courier, THIS DEPLORABLE MANIA! It appeared; and even Askew,
with all his skill in medicine and books, fell lifeless before
it--bewailed, as he was beloved and respected!

     [Footnote 42: "A Catalogue of the genuine and elegant
     Library of the late Sir C.C. DORMER, collected by
     Lieutenant-General James Dormer, which will be sold, &c., by
     Samuel Baker, at his house in York Street, Covent Garden; to
     begin on Monday, February the 20th, 1764, and to continue
     the nineteen following evenings." At the end of the
     catalogue we are told that the books were "in general of the
     best editions, and in the finest condition, many of them in
     _large paper_, bound in morocco, gilt leaves, &c."

     This was a very choice collection of books, consisting
     almost entirely of Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish and
     French. The number of articles did not exceed 3082, and of
     volumes, probably not 7000. The catalogue is neatly printed,
     and copies of it on _large paper_ are exceedingly scarce.
     Among the most curious and valuable articles were those
     numbered 599, 604, 2249, 2590; from no. 2680, to the end,
     was a choice collection of Italian and Spanish books.]

     [Footnote 43: In the year 1755 was published at Venice,
     printed by J.B. Pasquali, a catalogue of the books of JOSEPH
     SMITH, Esq., Consul at Venice.

     The catalogue was published under the following Latin title:
     "Bibliotheca Smitheana, seu Catalogus Librorum D. Josephi
     Smithii, Angli, per Cognomina Authorum dispositus, Venetiis,
     typis Jo. Baptistæ Pasquali, M,DCCLV.;" in quarto; with the
     arms of Consul Smith. The title page is succeeded by a Latin
     preface of Pasquali, and an alphabetical list of 43 pages of
     the authors mentioned in the catalogue: then follow the
     books arranged alphabetically, without any regard to size,
     language, or subject. These occupy 519 pages, marked with
     the Roman numerals; after which are 66 pages, numbered in
     the same manner, of "addenda et corrigenda." The most
     valuable part of the volume is "The Prefaces and Epistles
     prefixed to those works in the Library which were printed in
     the 15th century:" these occupy 348 pages. A Catalogue, (in
     three pages) of the Names of the illustrious Men mentioned
     in these prefaces, &c., closes the book.

     It would be superfluous to mention to bibliographers the
     rare articles contained in this collection, which are so
     generally known and so justly appreciated. They consist
     chiefly of early editions of _Italian_, _Greek_, and _Latin
     classics_; and of many copies of both printed UPON VELLUM.
     The library, so rich in these articles, was, however,
     defective in English Literature and Antiquities. There was
     scarcely any thing of Shakspeare or Dugdale.

     On the death of Mr. Smith in 1772, his collection was sold
     in 1773, 8vo., by Baker and Leigh; and the books were
     announced to the public, as being "in the finest
     preservation, and consisting of the very best and scarcest
     editions of the Latin, Italian, and French authors, from the
     invention of printing; with manuscripts and missals, upon
     vellum, finely illuminated." A glance upon the prices for
     which most of these fine books were sold made Mr. Cuthell
     exclaim, in my hearing, that "_they were given away_." On
     these occasions, one cannot help now and then wishing, with
     father Evander,

          "O mihi præteritos referat si Jupiter annos!"

     On comparing Pasquali's, with the sale, catalogue, it will
     be obvious that a great number of rare and valuable articles
     was disposed of before the books came to public auction.
     Indeed it is known that his present MAJESTY enriched his
     magnificent collection with many of the Consul's _first
     editions_, and _vellum copies_, during the life of the
     latter. The sale continued thirteen days only; and on the
     last day were sold all the English books in the
     _black-letter_. Some of these are rather curious.

     Of CONSUL SMITH I am unable to present the lover of VIRTU
     with any particulars more acceptable than the following.
     Pasquali (whose Latin preface is curious enough--abounding
     with as many interrogatories as Hamlet's soliloquies) has
     told us that "as the Consul himself was distinguished for
     his politeness, talents, and prudence, so was his house for
     splendid and elegant decorations. You might there view, says
     he, the most beautifully painted pictures, and exquisite
     ornaments, whether gems, vases, or engravings. In short, the
     whole furniture was so brilliant and classical that you
     admired at once the magnificence and judgment of the owner."
     He tells us, a little further, that he had frequently
     solicited the Consul to print a catalogue of his books;
     which proposition his modesty at first induced him to
     reject; but, afterwards, his liberality, to comply with. He
     then observes that, "in the compilation of the catalogue, he
     has studied brevity as much as it was consistent with
     perspicuity; and that he was once desirous of stating the
     _value_ and _price_ of the books, but was dissuaded from it
     by the advice of the more experienced, and by the singular
     modesty of the Collector."

     It must be confessed that Pasquali has executed his task
     well, and that the catalogue ranks among the most valuable,
     as well as rare, books of the kind.]

     [Footnote 44: "BIBLIOTHECA WESTIANA; A catalogue of the
     curious and truly valuable library of the late James West,
     Esq., President of the Royal Society, deceased, &c.
     Including the works of CAXTON, LETTOU, MACHLINIA, the
     anonymous ST. ALBANS SCHOOLMASTE [Transcriber's Note:
     Schoolmaster], WYNKYN DE WORDE, PYNSON, and the rest of the
     old English typographers. Digested by Samuel Paterson,"
     1773, 8vo.

     ANALYSIS OF THE CATALOGUE.

     1. _Volumes of Miscellaneous Tracts._

     These volumes extend from No. 148 to 200, from 915 to
     992, from 1201 to 1330, and from No. 1401 to 1480.

     2. _Divinity._

     In the whole, 560 articles; probably about 1200 volumes;
     some of them exceedingly scarce and valuable.

     3. _Education, Languages, Criticism, Classics, Dictionaries,
     Catalogues of Libraries, &c._

     There were about 700 volumes in these departments. The
     catalogues of English books, from that of Maunsell, in 1595,
     to the latest before Mr. West's time, were very complete.
     The treatises on education and translations of the ancient
     classics comprehended a curious and uncommon collection. The
     Greek and Latin classics were rather select than rare.

     4. _English Poetry, Romance, and Miscellanies._

     This interesting part of the collection comprehended about
     355 articles, or probably about 750 volumes: and if the
     singularly rare and curious books which may be found _under
     these heads alone_ were now concentrated in one library, the
     owner of them might safely demand 4000 guineas for such a
     treasure.

     5. _Philosophy, Mathematics, Inventions, Agriculture and
     Horticulture, Medicine, Cookery, Surgery, etc._

     Two hundred and forty articles, or about 560 volumes.

     6. _Chemistry, Natural History, Astrology, Sorcery,
     Gigantology._

     Probably not more than 100 volumes.

     7. _History and Antiquities._

     This comprehended a great number of curious and valuable
     productions, relating both to foreign and domestic
     transactions.

     8. _Heraldry and Genealogy._

     A great number of curious and scarce articles may be found
     under these heads.

     9. _Ancient Legends and Chronicles._

     To the English antiquary, few departments of literature are
     more interesting that these. Mr. West seems to have paid
     particular attention to them, and to have enriched his
     library with many articles of this description, of the
     rarest occurrence. The lovers of Caxton, Fabian, Hardyng,
     Hall, Grafton, and Holinshed, may be highly gratified by
     inspecting the various editions of these old chroniclers. I
     entreat the diligent bibliographer to examine the first
     eight articles of page 209 of the catalogue. Alas, when will
     all these again come under the hammer at one sale?!

     10. _Topography._

     Even to a veteran, like the late Mr. GOUGH, such a
     collection as may be found from p. 217 to p. 239 of this
     catalogue, would be considered a first-rate acquisition. I
     am aware that the gothic wainscot, and stained glass
     windows, of _Enfield Study_ enshrined a still more exquisite
     topographical collection! But we are improved since the days
     of Mr. West; and every body knows to _whom_ these
     improvements are, in a great measure, to be attributed. When
     I call to mind the author of '_British Topography_' and
     '_Sepulchral Monuments_,' I am not insensible to the taste,
     diligence, and erudition of the "par nobile fratrum," who
     have gratified us with the '_Environs of London_,' '_Roman
     Remains_,' and the first two volumes of '_Magna Britannia_!'

     The preceding is to be considered as a very general, and
     therefore superficial, analysis of the catalogue of Mr.
     West's library; copies of it, with the sums for which the
     books were sold, are now found with difficulty, and bring a
     considerable price. I never saw or heard of one on LARGE
     PAPER!]

     [Footnote 45: "A catalogue of rare books and tracts in
     various languages and faculties; including the _Ancient
     Conventual Library_ of Missenden-Abbey, in Buckinghamshire;
     together with some choice remains of that of the late
     eminent Serjeant at law, WILLIAM FLETEWODE, Esq., Recorder
     of London, in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth; among which are
     several specimens of the earliest Typography, foreign and
     English, including CAXTON, WYNKYN DE WORDE, PYNSON, and
     others; a fine collection of English Poetry, some scarce old
     law-books, a great number of old English plays, several
     choice MSS. upon vellum, and other subjects of literary
     curiosity. Also several of the best editions of the
     Classics, and modern English and French books. To begin
     _December_ 5, 1774, and the 17 following evenings, precisely
     at half an hour after five."

     I am in possession of a _priced Catalogue_ of this
     collection, which once belonged to Herbert, and which
     contains all the purchasers' names, as well as the sums
     given. The purchasers were principally Herbert, Garrick,
     Dodd, Elmsley, T. Payne, Richardson, Chapman, Wagstaff,
     Bindley, and Gough. The following is a specimen of some
     curious and interesting articles contained in this
     celebrated library, and of the prices for which they once
     sold!

     No. 172. _Bale's brefe Chronycle relating to Syr Johan
     Oldecastell_, 1544. The Life off the 70th Archbishopp off
     Canterbury presentleye sittinge, 1574, &c. Life of Hen.
     Hills, Printer to O. Cromwell, _with the Relation of what
     passed between him and the Taylor's Wife in Black Friars_,
     1688, _&c._ £0 7_s._ 9_d._

     Purchased by Mores.

     Nos. 361 to 367. Upwards of thirty _scarce Theological
     Tracts_, in Latin and English 1 5 0

     Nos. 746 to 784. A fine collection of early English
     Translations, in black letter, with some good foreign
     editions of the classics. Not exceeding, in the whole 10 10 0

     Nos. 837, 838. Two copies of the _first edition_ of Bacon's
     Essays, 1597! 0 0 6

     The reader will just glance at No. 970, in the catalogue,
     en passant, to

     Nos. 1082 (£1 2s.) and 1091 (12s.); but more particularly to

     No. 1173. Caxton's _Boke of Tulle of olde age_, &c. 1481.
     Purchased by the late Mr. T. Payne 8 8 0

     No. 1174. CAXTON'S _Boke which is sayd or called Cathon_,
     &c. 1483. 5 0 0

     Purchased by Alchorn.

     No. 1256. CAXTON'S _Doctrinal of Sapyence_, 1489 6 6 0

     Purchased by Alchorn.

     No. 1257. CAXTON'S _Cordyal_, 1479 6 12 6

     No. 1258. WYNKYN DE WORDE'S _Ocharde of Syon_, &c. 1519. 1 13 0

     I will, however, only add that there were upwards of 150
     articles of _Old Plays_, mostly in quarto. See page 73. Of
     _Antiquities_, _Chronicles_, and _Topography_, it would be
     difficult to pitch upon the rarest volumes. The collection,
     including very few MSS., contained 3641 articles, or
     probably nearly 7000 volumes. The Catalogue is uncommon.]

     [Footnote 46: I am now arrived, pursuing my chronological
     arrangement, at a very important period in the annals of
     book-sales. The name and collection of Dr. ASKEW are so well
     known in the bibliographical world that the reader need not
     be detained with laboured commendations on either: in the
     present place, however, it would be a cruel disappointment
     not to say a word or two by way of _preface_ or _prologue_.

     Dr. ANTHONY ASKEW had eminently distinguished himself by a
     refined taste, a sound knowledge, and an indefatigable
     research relating to every thing connected with Grecian and
     Roman literature. It was to be expected, even during his
     life, as he was possessed of sufficient means to gratify
     himself with what was rare, curious, and beautiful in
     literature and the fine arts, that the public would, one
     day, be benefited by such pursuits: especially as he had
     expressed a wish that his treasures might be unreservedly
     submitted to sale, after his decease. In this wish the
     Doctor was not singular. Many eminent collectors had
     indulged it before him: and, to my knowledge, many modern
     ones still indulge it. Accordingly on the death of Dr.
     Askew, in 1774, appeared, in the ensuing year, a catalogue
     of his books for sale, by Messrs. Baker and Leigh, under the
     following title:

     "BIBLIOTHECA ASKEVIANA, sive Catalogus Librorum Rarissimorum
     ANTONII ASKEW, M.D., quorum Auctio fiet apud S. Baker et G.
     Leigh, in Vico dicto _York Street, Covent Garden_, Londini.
     _Die Lunæ_, 13 _Februarii_, MDCCLXXV, et in undeviginti
     sequentes dies." A few copies were struck off on large
     paper.

     We are told by the compiler of the catalogue that it was
     thought unnecessary to say much with respect to this Library
     of the late Dr. Anthony Askew, as the Collector and
     Collection were so well known in almost all parts of Europe.
     Afterwards it is observed that "The books in general are in
     very fine condition, many of them bound in morocco, and
     Russia leather, with gilt leaves." "To give a particular
     account," continues the Compiler, "of the _many scarce
     editions_ of books in this Catalogue would be almost
     endless, therefore the _first editions_ of the Classics, and
     some _extremely rare books_ are chiefly noticed. The
     catalogue, without any doubt, contains the best, rarest, and
     most valuable collection of GREEK and LATIN BOOKS that were
     ever sold in England." This account is not overcharged. The
     collection, in regard to Greek and Roman literature, was
     _unique_ in its day.

     The late worthy and learned Mr. M. CRACHERODE, whose library
     now forms one of the most splendid acquisitions of the
     British Museum, and whose _bequest_ of it will immortalize
     his memory, was also among the "Emptores literarii" at this
     renowned sale. He had enriched his collection with many
     _Exemplar Askevianum_; and, in his latter days, used to
     elevate his hands and eyes, and exclaim against the prices
     _now_ offered for EDITIONES PRINCIPES!

     The fact is, Dr. Askew's sale has been considered a sort of
     _æra_ in bibliography. Since that period, rare and curious
     books in Greek and Latin literature have been greedily
     sought after, and obtained at most extravagant prices. It is
     very well for a veteran in bibliography, as was Mr.
     Cracherode, or as are Mr. Wodhull and Dr. Gosset, whose
     collections were formed in the days of Gaignat, Askew, Duke
     de la Valliere, and Lamoignon--it is very well for such
     gentlemen to declaim against _modern prices_! But what is to
     be done? Books grow scarcer every day, and the love of
     literature, and of possessing rare and interesting works,
     increases in an equal ratio. Hungry bibliographers meet, at
     sales, with well furnished purses, and are resolved upon
     sumptuous fare. Thus the hammer _vibrates_, after a bidding
     of _Forty pounds_, where formerly it used regularly to
     _fall_ at _Four_!

     But we lose sight of Dr. Askew's _rare editions_, and _large
     paper copies_. The following, gentle Reader, is but an
     imperfect specimen!

     No. 168. Chaucer's Works, by PYNSON, no date £7 17_s._ 6_d._

     No. 172. Cicero of Old Age, by Caxton, 1481 13 13 0

     No. 518. Gilles' (Nicole) Annales, &c. de France. Paris,
     fol. 1520. 2 tom. SUR VELIN 31 10 6

     No. 647. Æginetæ (Pauli) Præcepta Salubria. Paris, quarto,
     1510. ON VELLUM 11 0 0

     No. 666. Æsopi Fabulæ. EDIT. PRIN. _circ._ 1480 6 6 0

     No. 684. Boccacio, la Teseide _Ferar._ 1475. PRIMA EDIZIONE
     85 0 0

     No. 1433. Catullus Tibullus, et Propertius, Aldi. 8vo. 1502.
     IN MEMBRANA 17 10 0

     This copy was purchased by the late Mr. M.C. Cracherode, and
     is now, with his library, in the British Museum. It is a
     beautiful book, but cannot be compared with Lord Spencer's
     Aldine VELLUM Virgil, of the same size.

     No. 1576. Durandi Rationale, &c. 1459. IN MEMBRANA 61 0 0

     The beginning of the 1st chapter was wanting. Lord Spencer
     has a perfect copy of this rare book on spotless VELLUM!

     No. 2656. Platonis Opera, apud Aldum. 2 vol. fol. 1513.
     _Edit. Prin._ ON VELLUM 55 13 0

     Purchased by the late Dr. W. Hunter; and is at this moment,
     in his Museum at _Glasgow_. The reader who has not seen them
     can have no idea of the beauty of these vellum leaves. The
     ink is of the finest lustre, and the whole typographical
     arrangement may be considered a master-piece of printing.
     Lord Oxford told Dr. Mead that he gave 100 guineas for this
     very copy.]

After this melancholy event, one would have thought that future
_Virtuosi_ would have barricadoed their doors, and fumigated their
chambers, to keep out such a pest;--but how few are they who profit by
experience, even when dearly obtained! The subsequent history of the
disease is a striking proof of the truth of this remark; for the
madness of book-collecting rather increased--and the work of death
still went on. In the year 1776 died John Ratcliffe[47] another, and
a very singular, instance of the fatality of the BIBLIOMANIA. If he
had contented himself with his former occupation, and frequented the
butter and cheese, instead of the book, market--if he could have
_fancied himself_ in a brown peruke, and Russian apron, instead of an
embroidered waistcoat, velvet breeches, and flowing perriwig, he
might, perhaps, have enjoyed greater longevity; but, infatuated by the
Caxtons and Wynkyn De Wordes of Fletewode and of West, he fell into
the snare; and the more he struggled to disentangle himself, the more
certainly did he become a prey to the disease.

     [Footnote 47: BIBLIOTHECA RATCLIFFIANA; or, "A Catalogue of
     the elegant and truly valuable Library of JOHN RATCLIFFE,
     Esq. late of Bermondsey, deceased. The whole collected with
     great judgment and expense, during the last thirty years of
     his life: comprehending a large and most choice collection
     of the rare old English _black-letter_, in fine
     preservation, and in elegant bindings, printed by CAXTON,
     LETTOU, MACHLINIA, the anonymous St. Albans Schoolmaster,
     Wynkyn de Worde, Pynson, Berthelet, Grafton, Day, Newberie,
     Marshe, Jugge, Whytchurch, Wyer, Rastell, Coplande, and the
     rest of the _Old English Typographers_: several missals and
     MSS., and two Pedigrees on vellum, finely illuminated." The
     title page then sets forth a specimen of these
     black-lettered gems; among which our eyes are dazzled with a
     galaxy of Caxtons, Wynkyn de Wordes, Pynsons, &c. &c. The
     sale took place on March 27, 1776.

     If ever there was a _unique_ collection, this was one--the
     very essence of Old Divinity, Poetry, Romances, and
     Chronicles! The articles were only 1675 in number, but their
     intrinsic value amply compensated for their paucity.

     The following is but an inadequate specimen.

     No. 1315. Horace's Arte of Poetrie, Pistles and Satyres, by
     Drant. 1567, _first English edition_ £0 16_s._ 6_d._

     No. 1321. The Sheparde's Calender, 1579. Whetstone's Castle
     of Delight, 1576 1 2 0

     No. 1392. The Pastyme of the People, printed by Rastell.
     Curious wood cuts. A copy of this book is not now to be
     procured. I have known £40 offered for it, and rejected with
     disdain 7 7 0

     No. 1403. Barclay's Shyp of Folys, printed by Pynson, 1508,
     _first edit._ fine copy 2 10 0

     No. 1426. The Doctrinal of Sapyence, printed by CAXTON, 1489
     8 8 0

     No. 1427. The Boke, called Cathon, DITTO, 1483. _Purchased
     by Dr. Hunter_, and now in his Museum 5 5 0

     No. 1428. The Polytyque Boke, named Tullius de Senectute, in
     Englishe, by CAXTON, 1481. _Purchased for his Majesty_ 14 0 0

     No. 1429. The Game of Chesse Playe. 1474 16 0 0

     No. 1665. The Boke of Jason, printed by CAXTON 5 10 0

     No. 1669. The Polychronicon of Ranulph Higden, printed by
     CAXTON, 1482. _Purchased by Dr. Hunter_ 5 15 6

     No. 1670. Legenda Aurea, or the Golden Legende 1483 9 15 0

     No. 1674. Mr. Ratcliffe's MS. Catalogues of the _rare old
     black letter_, and other curious and uncommon books, 4 vols.
     7 15 0

     This would have been the most delicious article to _my_
     palate. If the present owner of it were disposed to part
     with it, I could not find it in my heart to refuse him
     _compound interest_ for his money. As is the wooden
     frame-work to the bricklayer in the construction of his
     arch, so might Mr. Ratcliffe's MS. Catalogues be to me in
     the compilation of a certain _magnum opus_!

     The memory of such a man ought to be dear to the
     "_black-lettered dogs_" of the present day; for he had
     [mirabile dictu!] _upwards of_ THIRTY CAXTONS!

     If I might hazard a comparison between Mr. James West's and
     Mr. John Ratcliffe's collections, I should say that the
     former was more extensive, the latter more curious: Mr.
     West's, like a magnificent _champagne_, executed by the hand
     of Claude or Both, and enclosing mountains, and meadows, and
     streams, presented to the eye of the beholder a scene at
     once extensive, luxuriant, and fruitful: Mr. Ratcliffe's,
     like one of those delicious pieces of scenery, touched by
     the pencil of Rysdael or Hobbima, exhibited to the
     beholder's eye a spot equally interesting, but less varied
     and extensive. The sweeping foliage and rich pasture of the
     former could not, perhaps, afford greater gratification than
     did the thatched cottage, abrupt declivities, and gushing
     streams of the latter. To change the metaphor--Mr. West's
     was a magnificent repository, Mr. Ratcliffe's a choice
     cabinet of gems.]

Thirty years have been considered by Addison (somewhere in his
Spectator) as a pretty accurate period for the passing away of one
generation and the coming on of another. We have brought down our
researches to within a similar period of the present times; but, as
Addison has not made out the proofs of such assertion, and as many of
the relatives and friends of those who have fallen victims to the
BIBLIOMANIA, since the days of Ratcliffe, may yet be alive; moreover,
as it is the part of humanity not to tear open wounds which have been
just closed, or awaken painful sensibilities which have been well nigh
laid to rest; so, my dear Sir, in giving you a further account of this
fatal disorder, I deem it the most prudent method _not to expatiate_
upon the subsequent examples of its mortality. We can only mourn over
such names as BEAUCLERK, CROFTS, PEARSON, LORT, MASON, FARMER,
STEEVENS, WOODHOUSE, BRAND, and REED! and fondly hope that the list
may not be increased by those of living characters!

We are, in the SECOND place, to describe the SYMPTOMS OF THE DISEASE.

The ingenious Peignot, in the first volume of his 'Dictionnaire
Bibliologie,' p. 51, defines the Bibliomania[48] to be "a passion for
possessing books; not so much to be instructed by them, as to gratify
the eye by looking on them. He who is affected by this mania knows
books only by their titles and dates, and is rather seduced by the
exterior than interior"! This is, perhaps, too general and vague a
definition to be of much benefit in the knowledge, and consequent
prevention, of the disease: let us, therefore, describe it more
certainly and intelligibly.

     [Footnote 48: There is a short, but smart and interesting,
     article on this head in Mr. D'Israeli's _Curiosities of
     Literature_, vol. 1. 10. "Bruyere has touched on this mania
     with humour; of such a collector (one who is fond of superb
     bindings only) says he, as soon as I enter his house, I am
     ready to faint on the stair-case from a strong smell of
     morocco leather. In vain he shows me fine editions, gold
     leaves, Etruscan bindings, &c.--naming them one after
     another, as if he were showing a gallery of pictures!"
     Lucian has composed a biting invective against an ignorant
     possessor of a vast library. "One who opens his eyes, with
     an hideous stare, at an old book, and, after turning over
     the pages, chiefly admires the _date_ of its publication."]

Symptoms of this disease are instantly known by a passion for I.
_Large Paper Copies_: II. _Uncut Copies_: III. _Illustrated Copies_:
IV. _Unique Copies_: V. _Copies printed upon Vellum_: VI. _First
Editions_: VII. _True Editions_: VIII. _A general desire for the Black
Letter_. We will describe these symptoms more particularly.

I. _Large Paper Copies._ These are a certain set or limited number of
the work printed in a superior manner, both in regard to ink and press
work, on paper of a larger size, and better quality, than the ordinary
copies. Their price is enhanced in proportion to their beauty and
rarity. In the note below[49] are specified a few works which have
been published in this manner, that the sober collector may avoid
approaching them.

     [Footnote 49: 1. _Lord Bacon's Essays_, 1798, 8vo., of which
     it is said only five copies were struck off on royal folio.
     In Lord Spencer's and the Cracherode, collection I have seen
     a copy of this exquisitely printed book; the text of which,
     surrounded by such an amplitude of margin, in the language
     of Ernesti [see his Critique on Havercamp's Sallust] "natut
     velut cymba in oceano."

     2. _Twenty Plays of Shakespeare_ published by Steevens from
     the old quarto editions, 1766, 8vo. 6 vols. Of this edition
     there were only twelve copies struck off on large paper. See
     Bibl. Steevens, No. 1312.

     3. _Dodsley's Collection of Old Plays_, 1780, 8vo., 12 vols.
     only six copies printed on large paper. See Bibl. Woodhouse,
     No. 198.

     4. _The Grenville Homer._ Græce, 1800. 4to. 4 vols. Fifty
     copies with plates were struck off on large paper, in royal
     quarto. A copy of this kind was purchased at a sale in 1804,
     for £99 15s.

     5. _Sandford's Genealogical History_, etc. 1707, fol. Mr.
     Arch of Cornhill purchased a copy of this work on large
     paper, at the late sale of Baron Smyth's books, for £46. If
     the largest paper of Clarke's Cæsar be excepted, this is the
     highest priced single volume on large paper, that I just now
     recollect.

     6. _Hearne's Works_ on large paper.

     Something relating to Hearne will be found in the note at
     page 7 ante. Here it will be only necessary to observe that
     the Hernëan rage for Large Paper is quite of recent growth,
     but it promises to be giant-like. When the duplicates of a
     part of Mr. Woodhull's library, in 1803, were sold, there
     was a fine set of copies of this kind; but the prices,
     comparatively with those now offered, were extremely
     moderate. Mr. Otridge, the bookseller, told me an amusing
     story of his going down to Liverpool, many years ago, and
     accidentally purchasing from the library of the late Sir
     Thomas Hanmer, a _magnificent set of Large Paper Hearnes_
     for about 40 Guineas. Many of these are now in the choice
     library of his Grace the Duke of Grafton. The copies were
     catalogued as _small_ paper. Was there ever a more provoking
     blunder?!]

This[50] symptom of the Bibliomania is, at the present day, both
general and violent, and threatens to extend still more widely. Even
modern publications are not exempt from its calamitous influence; and
when Mr. Miller, the bookseller, told me with what eagerness the large
paper copies of Lord Valentia's Travels were bespoke, and Mr. Evans
shewed me that every similar copy of his new edition of "Burnett's
History of his own Times" was disposed of, I could not help elevating
my eyes and hands, in token of commiseration at the prevalence of
this Symptom of the BIBLIOMANIA!

     [Footnote 50: Analogous to Large Paper Copies are _tall
     Copies_; that is, copies of the work published on the
     ordinary size paper and not much cut down by the binder. The
     want of _margin_ is a serious grievance complained of by
     book-collectors; and when there is a contest of
     margin-measuring, with books never professedly published on
     large paper, the anxiety of each party to have the largest
     copy is better conceived than described! How carefully, and
     how adroitly, are the golden and silver rules then
     exercised!]

II. _Uncut Copies._ Of all the symptoms of the Bibliomania, this is
probably the most extraordinary. It may be defined as a passion to
possess books of which the edges have never been sheared by the
binder's tools. And here, my dear Sir, I find myself walking upon
doubtful ground;--your UNCUT HEARNES rise up in "rough majesty" before
me, and almost "push me from my stool." Indeed, when I look around in
my book-lined tub, I cannot but be conscious that this symptom of the
disorder has reached my own threshold; but when it is known that a few
of my bibliographical books are left with the edges uncut _merely to
please my friends_ (as one must sometimes study their tastes and
appetites as well as one's own), I trust that no very serious
conclusions will be drawn about the probable fatality of my own case.
As to uncut copies, although their inconvenience [an uncut lexicon to
wit!] and deformity must be acknowledged, and although a rational man
can want for nothing better than a book _once well bound_, yet we find
that the extraordinary passion for collecting them not only obtains
with full force, but is attended with very serious consequences to
those "qui n'ont point des pistoles" (to borrow the language of
Clement; vol. vi. p. 36). I dare say an uncut _first Shakspeare_, as
well as an uncut _first Homer_[51] would produce a little annuity!

     [Footnote 51: "Un superbe exemplaire de cette édition
     _princeps_ a été vendu, chez M. de Cotte, en 1804, la somme
     de 3601 livres; mais il faut ajouter que cet exemplaire
     très-precieux est de la plus belle conservation; on dirait
     qu'il sort dessous presse. De plus, il est peut-être
     _l'unique dont les marges n'ont pas été rognées ni
     coupées_!"

     Peignot's _Curiosités Bibliographiques_, lxv-vi.]

III. _Illustrated Copies._ A passion for books illustrated or adorned
with numerous prints, representing characters or circumstances
mentioned in the work, is a very general and violent symptom of the
Bibliomania, which has been known chiefly within the last half
century. The origin, or first appearance, of this symptom has been
traced by some to the publication of Granger's "Biographical History
of England;" but whoever will be at the pains of reading the preface
of this work will see that Granger sheltered himself under the
authorities of Evelyn, Ashmole, and others; and that he alone is not
to be considered as responsible for all the mischief which this
passion for collecting prints has occasioned. Granger, however, was
the first who introduced it in the form of a treatise, and surely "in
an evil hour" was this treatise published--although its amiable author
must be acquitted of "malice prepense." His History of England[52]
seems to have sounded the tocsin for a general rummage after, and
slaughter of, old prints: venerable philosophers and veteran heroes,
who had long reposed in unmolested dignity within the magnificent
folio volumes which recorded their achievements, were instantly
dragged from their peaceful abodes to be inlaid by the side of some
spruce, modern engraving, within an ILLUSTRATED GRANGER! Nor did the
madness stop here. Illustration was the order of the day; and
Shakspeare[53] and Clarendon[54] became the next objects of its
attack. From these it has glanced off in a variety of directions, to
adorn the pages of humbler wights; and the passion, or rather this
symptom of the Bibliomania,[55] yet rages with undiminished force. If
judiciously[56] treated, it is, of all the symptoms, the least liable
to mischief. To possess a series of well executed portraits of
illustrious men, at different periods of their lives, from blooming
boyhood to phlegmatic old age, is sufficiently amusing[57]; but to
possess _every_ portrait, _bad, indifferent, and unlike_, betrays
such a dangerous and alarming symptom as to render the case almost
incurable!

     [Footnote 52: It was first published in two quarto volumes,
     1766; and went through several editions in octavo. The last
     is, I believe, of the date of 1804; to which three
     additional volumes were published by William Noble, in 1806;
     the whole seven volumes form what is called an excellent
     library work.]

     [Footnote 53: About two or three years ago there was an
     extraordinary set of prints disposed of, for the
     illustration of Shakspeare, collected by a gentleman in
     Cornwall, with considerable taste and judgment. Lord
     Spencer's beautiful octavo illustrated Shakespeare,
     bequeathed to him by the late Mr. Steevens, has been
     enriched, since it came into the library of its present
     noble possessor, with many a rare and many a beauteous
     specimen of the graphic art.]

     [Footnote 54: I have heard of an illustrated Clarendon
     (which was recently in the metropolis), that has been valued
     at 5000 Guineas! "a good round sum!"]

     [Footnote 55: One of the most striking and splendid
     instances of the present rage for illustration may be seen
     in Mr. Miller's own copy of the Historical Work of Mr. Fox,
     in two volumes, imperial quarto. Exclusively of a great
     variety of Portraits, it is enriched with the original
     drawing of Mr. Fox's bust from which the print, attached to
     the publication, is taken; and has also many original notes
     and letters by its illustrious author. Mr. Walter Scott's
     edition of Dryden has also received, by the same publisher,
     a similar illustration. It is on large paper, and most
     splendidly bound in blue morocco, containing upwards of 650
     portraits.]

     [Footnote 56: The fine copy of Granger, illustrated by the
     late Mr. Bull, is now in the library of the Marquis of Bute,
     at Lutton. It extends to 37 atlas folio volumes, and is a
     repository of almost every rare and beautiful print, which
     the diligence of its late, and the skill, taste, and
     connoisseurship of its present, noble owner have brought
     together.]

     [Footnote 57: In the Memoirs of Mr. Thomas Hollis there is a
     series of the portraits of Milton (not executed in the best
     manner) done in this way; and a like series of Pope's
     portraits accompanies the recent edition of the poet's works
     by the Rev. W.L. Bowles.]

There is another mode of illustrating copies by which this symptom of
the Bibliomania may be known: it consists in bringing together, from
different works, [by means of the scissors, or otherwise by
transcription] every page or paragraph which has any connection with
the character or subject under discussion. This is a useful and
entertaining mode of illustrating a favourite author; and copies of
works of this nature, when executed by skilful[58] hands, should be
preserved in public repositories. I almost ridiculed the idea of an
ILLUSTRATED CHATTERTON, in this way, till I saw Mr. Haslewood's copy,
in twenty-one volumes, which rivetted me to my seat!

     [Footnote 58: Numerous are the instances of the peculiar use
     and value of copies of this kind, especially to those who
     are engaged in publication, of a similar nature. Oldys's
     interleaved Langbaine is re-echoed in almost every recent
     work connected with the belles-lettres of our country. Oldys
     himself was unrivalled in this method of illustration; if,
     besides his Langbaine, his copy of 'Fuller's Worthies' [once
     Mrs. Steevens's, now Mr. Malone's, See Bibl. Steevens,
     no. 1799] be alone considered! This Oldys was the oddest
     mortal that ever scribbled for bread. Grose, in his _Olio_,
     gives an amusing account of his having "a number of small
     parchment bags inscribed with the names of the persons whose
     lives he intended to write; into which he put every
     circumstance and anecdote he could collect, and thence drew
     up his history." See Noble's _College of Arms_, p. 420.

     Of illustrated copies in this way, the Suidas of Kuster,
     belonging to the famous D'Orville, is a memorable instance.
     This is now in the Bodleian library. I should suppose that
     one Narcissus Luttrell, in Charles the Second's reign, had a
     number of like illustrated copies. His collection of
     contemporaneous literature must have been immense, as we may
     conclude from the account of it in Mr. Walter Scott's
     Preface to his recent edition of Dryden's works. Luckily for
     this brilliant poet and editor, a part of Luttrell's
     collection had found its way into the libraries of Mr.
     Bindley and Mr. Heber, and thence was doomed to shine, with
     renewed lustre, by the side of the poetry of Dryden.]

IV. _Unique Copies._ A passion for a book which has any peculiarity
about it, by either, or both, of the foregoing methods of
illustration--or which is remarkable for its size, beauty, and
condition--is indicative of a rage for _unique copies_, and is
unquestionably a strong prevailing symptom of the Bibliomania. Let me
therefore urge every sober and cautious collector not to be fascinated
by the terms "_Matchless, and Unique_;" which, "in slim Italicks" (to
copy Dr. Ferriar's happy expression) are studiously introduced into
Bookseller's catalogues to lead the unwary astray. Such a Collector
may fancy himself proof against the temptation; and will, in
consequence, _call only to look at_ this unique book, or set of books;
but, when he views the morocco binding, silk water-tabby lining,
blazing gilt edges--when he turns over the white and spotless
leaves--gazes on the amplitude of margin--on a rare and lovely print
introduced--and is charmed with the soft and coaxing manner in which,
by the skill of Herring or Mackinlay,[59] "leaf succeeds to leaf"--he
can no longer bear up against the temptation--and, confessing himself
vanquished, purchases, and retreats--exclaiming with Virgil's
shepherd--

     Ut vidi, ut perii--ut me malus abstulit error!

     [Footnote 59: At page 8, note--the reader has been led to
     expect a few remarks upon the luxuriancy of modern
     book-binding. Mr. Roscoe, in his Lorenzo de Medici, vol.
     ii., p. 79., edit. 8vo., has defended the art with so much
     skill that nothing further need be said in commendation of
     it. Admitting every degree of merit to our present
     fashionable binders, and frankly allowing them the
     superiority over De Rome, Padaloup, and the old school of
     binding, I cannot but wish to see revived those beautiful
     portraits, arabesque borders, and sharp angular ornaments,
     that are often found on the outsides of books bound in the
     16th century, with calf leather, upon oaken boards. These
     brilliant decorations almost make us forget the ivory
     crucifix, guarded with silver doors, which is frequently
     introduced in the interior of the sides of the binding. Few
     things are more gratifying to a genuine collector than a
     fine copy of a book in its _original binding_!]

V. _Copies printed on vellum._ A desire for works printed in this
manner is an equally strong and general symptom of the Bibliomania;
but as these works are rarely to be obtained of modern[60] date, the
collector is obliged to have recourse to specimens, executed three
centuries ago, in the printing-offices of Aldus, Verard, and the
Juntæ. Although the Bibliothéque Imperiale, at Paris, and the library
of Count Macarty, at Toulouse, are said to contain the greatest number
of books printed upon vellum, yet, those who have been fortunate
enough to see copies of this kind in the libraries of his Majesty, the
Duke of Marlborough, Earl Spencer, Mr. Johnes, and the late Mr.
Cracherode (now in the British Museum), need not travel on the
Continent for the sake of being convinced of their exquisite beauty
and splendour. Mr. Edward's _unique_ copy (he will forgive the
epithet) of the first Livy, upon vellum, is a Library of itself!--and
the recent discovery of a vellum copy of Wynkyn De Worde's reprint of
_Juliana Barnes's book_,[61] complete in every respect, [to say
nothing of his Majesty's similar copy of Caxton's _Doctrinal of
Sapience_, 1489, in the finest preservation] are, to be sure,
sufficient demonstrations of the prevalence of this symptom of the
Bibliomania in the times of our forefathers; so that it cannot be
said, as some have asserted, to have appeared entirely within the last
half century.

     [Footnote 60: The modern books, printed upon vellum, have in
     general not succeeded; whether from the art of preparing the
     vellum, or of printing upon it, being lost I will not
     presume to determine. The reader may be amused with the
     following prices for which a few works, executed in this
     manner, were sold in the year 1804:

     NO.                                                    £ _s._ _d._

     250. Virgilii Opera, 1789, 4to.                        33 12   0
     251. Somervile's Chase, 1796, 4to.                     15  4   6
     252. Poems by Goldsmith and Parnell, 1795, 4to.        15 15   0
     253. The Gardens, by Abbé Delille, 1798, 4to.          14  3   6
     254. Castle of Otranto, printed by Bodoni, 1791, 4to.  13  2   6
     260. La Guirlande Julie, 1784, 8vo.                    37 17   6
     263. Economy of Human Life, 1795, 8vo.                 15 15   0

     See "_Catalogue of a most splendid and valuable Collection
     of Books, Superb Missals, &c._," sold by Mr. Christie, on
     April 24, 1804. But the reader should procure the Catalogue
     of Mr. Paris's Books, sold in the year 1790, which, for the
     number of articles, is unrivalled. The eye is struck, in
     every page, with the most sumptuous copies on VELLUM, AND
     LARGE PAPER.]

     [Footnote 61: See page 5, ante, for some account of this
     curious work.]

VI. _First Editions._ From the time of Ancillon[62] to Askew, there
has been a very strong desire expressed for the possession of original
or first published editions of works, as they are in general
superintended and corrected by the author himself; and, like the first
impressions of prints, are considered more valuable. Whoever is
possessed with a passion for collecting books of this kind may
unquestionably be said to exhibit a strong symptom of the Bibliomania;
but such a case is not quite hopeless, nor is it deserving of severe
treatment or censure. All bibliographers have dwelt on the importance
of these editions, for the sake of collation with subsequent ones, and
detecting, as is frequently the case, the carelessness displayed by
future[63] editors. Of such importance is the _first edition of
Shakspeare_[64] considered, that a fac-simile reprint of it has been
published with success. In regard to the Greek and Latin Classics, the
possession of these original editions is of the first consequence to
editors who are anxious to republish the legitimate text of an author.
Wakefield, I believe always regretted that the first edition of
Lucretius had not been earlier inspected by him. When he began _his_
edition, the Editio Princeps was not (as I have understood) in the
library of Earl Spencer--the storehouse of almost every thing that is
exquisite and rare in ancient classical literature!

     [Footnote 62: There is a curious and amusing article in
     Bayle [English edition, vol. i., 672, &c.] about the elder
     ANCILLON, who frankly confessed that he "was troubled with
     the BIBLIOMANIA, or disease of buying books." Mr. D'Israeli
     says "that he always purchased _first editions_, and never
     waited for second ones,"--but I find it, in the English
     Bayle, note D, "he chose _the best_ editions." The manner in
     which Ancillon's library was pillaged by the Ecclesiastics
     of Metz (where it was considered as the most valuable
     curiosity in the town) is thus told by Bayle; "Ancillon was
     obliged to leave Metz: a company of Ecclesiastics, of all
     orders, came from every part, to lay hands on this fine and
     copious library, which had been collected with the utmost
     care during forty years. They took away a great number of
     the books together, and gave a little money, as they went
     out, to a young girl, of twelve or thirteen years of age,
     who looked after them, that they might have it to say they
     had _paid for them_. Thus Ancillon saw that valuable
     collection dispersed, in which, as he was wont to say, his
     chief pleasure and even his heart was placed!"--Edit. 1734.]

     [Footnote 63: An instance of this kind may be adduced from
     the _first edition_ of Fabian, printed in 1516; of which
     Messrs. Longman, and Co., have now engaged a very able
     editor to collate the text with that of the subsequent
     editions. "The antiquary," says the late Mr. BRAND, "is
     desired to consult the edition of Fabian, printed by Pynson,
     in 1516, because there are others, and I remember to have
     seen one in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, with a
     continuation to the end of Queen Mary, 1559, in which the
     _language is much modernised_." Shakespeare, edit. 1803,
     vol. xviii. p. 85-6.]

     [Footnote 64: A singular story is "extant" about the
     purchase of the late Duke of Roxburgh's fine copy of the
     first edition of Shakespeare. A friend was bidding for him
     in the sale-room: his Grace had retired to a distance, to
     view the issue of the contest. Twenty guineas and more were
     offered, from various quarters, for the book: a slip of
     paper was handed to the Duke, in which he was requested to
     inform his friend whether he was "to go on bidding"--His
     Grace took his pencil, and wrote underneath, by way of reply--

          ----lay on Macduff!
          And d----d be he who first cries, 'Hold, enough!'

     Such a spirit was irresistible, and bore down all
     opposition. His Grace retired triumphant, with the book
     under his arm.]

It must not, however, be forgotten that if first editions are, in some
instances, of great importance, they are in many respects superfluous,
and an incumbrance to the shelves of a collector; inasmuch as the
labours of subsequent editors have corrected their errors, and
superseded, by a great fund of additional matter, the necessity of
consulting them. Thus, not to mention other instances (which present
themselves while noticing the present one), all the fine things which
Colomiés and Remannus have said about the rarity of La Croix du
Maine's Bibliotheque, published in 1584, are now unnecessary to be
attended to, since the ample and excellent edition of this work by De
La Monnoye and Juvigny, in six quarto volumes, 1772, has appeared. Nor
will any one be tempted to hunt for Gesner's Bibliotheca of 1545-8,
whatever may be its rarity, who has attended to Morhof's and Vogt's
recommendation of the last and best edition of 1583.

VII. _True Editions._ Some copies of a work are struck off with
deviations from the usually received ones, and, though these
deviations have neither sense nor beauty to recommend them, [and
indeed are principally _defects_] yet copies of this description are
eagerly sought after by collectors of a certain class! This particular
pursuit may therefore be called another, or the seventh, symptom of
the Bibliomania. The note below [65] will furnish the reader with a
few anecdotes relating to it.

     [Footnote 65: _Cæsar. Lug. Bat._ 1635, 12mo. _Printed by
     Elzevir._

     In the Bibliotheca Revickzkiana we are informed that the
     _true_ Elzevir edition is known by having the plate of a
     Buffalo's head at the beginning of the preface, and body of
     the work: also by having the page numbered 153, which
     _ought_ to have been numbered 149. A further account is
     given in my Introduction to the Classics, vol. i., 228.

     _Horace_: Londini, 1733, 8vo., 2 vols. Published by Pine.

     The _true_ edition is distinguished by having at page 108,
     vol ii, the _incorrect_ reading 'Post Est.'--for 'Potest.'

     _Virgil._ Lug. Bat. 1636, 12mo. Printed by Elzevir.

     The _true_ edition is known by having at plate 1, before the
     Bucolics, the following Latin passage _printed in red ink_.
     "Ego vero frequentes a te litteras accipi"--Consult De Bure,
     No. 2684.

     _Idem._ Birmingh. 1763, 4to. Printed by Baskerville.

     A particular account of the _true_ edition will be found in
     the second volume of my 'Introduction to the Classics' p.
     337--too long to be here inserted.

     _Boccaccio._ Il Decamerone, Venet. 1527, 4to.

     Consult De Bure, No. 3667: Bandini, vol. ii., 24: (who
     however is extremely laconic upon this edition, but copious
     upon the anterior one of 1516) and Haym., vol. iii., p. 8,
     edit. 1803. Bibl. Paris. No. 408. Clement. (vol. iv., 352,)
     has abundance of references, as usual, to strengthen his
     assertion in calling the edition 'fort rare.' The reprint or
     spurious edition has always struck me as the prettier book
     of the two.]

VIII. Books printed in the _Black Letter_. Of all symptoms of the
Bibliomania, this eighth symptom (and the last which I shall notice)
is at present the most powerful and prevailing. Whether it was not
imported into this country from Holland, by the subtlety of
Schelhorn[66] (a knowing writer upon rare and curious books) may be
shrewdly suspected. Whatever be its origin, certain it is, my dear
Sir, that books printed in the black letter are now coveted with an
eagerness unknown to our collectors in the last century. If the
spirits of West, Ratcliffe, Farmer and Brand, have as yet held any
intercourse with each other, in that place 'from whose bourne no
traveller returns,' what must be the surprise of the three former, on
being told by the latter, of the prices given for some of the books in
his library, as mentioned below!?[67]

     [Footnote 66: His words are as follow: "Ipsa typorum
     ruditas, ipsa illa atra crassaque literarum facies _belle
     tangit sensus, &c._" Was ever the black letter more
     eloquently described? See his _Amoenitates Literariæ_,
     vol. i., p. 5.]

     [Footnote 67:

     282. A Boke of Fishing with Hooke and Line, A Boke of
     Engines and Traps to take Polcats, Buzzards, Rats, Mice, and
     all other Kinds of Vermine and Beasts whatsoever, with cuts,
     very rare, 1600 £3 3_s._ 0_d._

     454. A Quip for an upstart Courtier; or, a quaint Dispute
     between Velvet Breeches and Cloth Breeches, &c. 1620 2 16 0

     475. A Checke, or Reproof of Mr. Howlet's untimely
     screeching in her Majesty's Ear. _Black letter_ 1581 0 12 0

     As a _striking conclusion_, I subjoin the following.

     6479. Pappe with an Hatchett, _alias_, a Fig for my
     Godsonne, or crake me this Nutt, or, a Countrie Cuffe, that
     is a sound Box of the Eare for the Idiot Martin, to hold his
     Peace: seeing the Patch will take no warning; written by one
     that dares call a Dog a Dog. _Rare._ Printed by Anoke and
     Astile 1 8 0]

A perusal of these articles may probably not impress the reader with
any lofty notions of the superiority of the black letter; but this
symptom of the Bibliomania is, nevertheless, not to be considered as
incurable, or wholly unproductive of good. Under a proper spirit of
modification it has done, and will continue to do, essential service
to the cause of English literature. It guided the taste, and
strengthened the judgment, of Tyrwhitt in his researches after
Chaucerian lore. It stimulated the studies of Farmer and of Steevens,
and enabled them to twine many a beauteous flower round the brow of
their beloved Shakespeare. It has since operated, to the same effect,
in the labours of Mr. Douce,[68] the _Porson_ of old English and
French literature; and in the editions of Milton and Spenser, by my
amiable and excellent friend Mr. Todd the public have had a specimen
of what the _Black Letter_ may perform, when temperately and skilfully
exercised.

     [Footnote 68: In the criticisms on Mr. Douce's
     _Illustrations of Shakspeare and Ancient Manners_, it has
     not, I think, been generally noticed that this work is
     distinguished; 1. For the singular diffidence and urbanity
     of criticism, as well as depth of learning, which it
     evinces: 2. For the happy illustrations, by means of wood
     cuts: Let any one, for instance, read a laboured
     disquisition on the punishment of "the boots"--and only
     glance his eye on the plate representing it [vol. i. p.
     34.]: from which will he obtain the clearer notions? 3. For
     the taste, elegance, and general correctness with which it
     is printed. The only omission I regret is that Mr. Douce did
     not give us, at the end, a list of the works alphabetically
     arranged, with their dates which he consulted in the
     formation of his own. Such a BIBLIOTHECA SHAKSPEARIANA
     might, however, have been only a fresh stimulus to the
     increase of the black-letter symptom of the _Bibliomania_.
     How Bartholomæus and Batman have risen in price since the
     publication of Mr. Douce's work, let those who have lately
     smarted for the increase tell!]

I could bring to your recollection other instances; but your own
copious reading and exact memory will better furnish you with them.
Let me not however omit remarking that the beautiful pages of the
_Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, and Sir Trestrem_, exhibit, in the
notes [now and then thickly studded with black letter references], a
proof that the author of "The Lay" and "Marmion" has not disdained to
enrich his stores of information by such intelligence as black
lettered books impart. In short, though this be also a strong and
general symptom of the Bibliomania, it is certainly not attended with
injurious effects when regulated by prudence and discretion. An
undistinguishable voracious appetite, to swallow every thing printed
in the black letter can only bring on inconquerable disease, if not
death, to the patient!

Having in the two preceding divisions of this letter discoursed
somewhat largely upon the HISTORY and SYMPTOMS of the Bibliomania, it
now remains, according to the original plan, to say a few words upon
the PROBABLE MEANS OF ITS CURE. And, indeed, I am driven to this view
of the subject from every laudable motive; for it would be highly
censurable to leave any reflecting mind impressed with melancholy
emotions concerning the misery and mortality that have been occasioned
by the abuse of those pursuits, to which the most soothing and
important considerations ought to be attached. Far from me, and my
friends, be such a cruel, if not criminal, conduct; let us then, my
dear Sir, seriously discourse upon the

III. PROBABLE MEANS OF THE CURE of the Bibliomania. _He_ will surely
be numbered among the philanthropists of his day who has, more
successfully than myself, traced and described the ravages of this
disease, and fortified the sufferer with the means of its cure. But,
as this is a disorder of quite a recent date, and as its
characteristics, in consequence, cannot be yet fully known or
described, great candour must be allowed to that physician who offers
a prescription for so obscure and complicated a case. It is in vain
that you search the works [ay, even the best editions] of Hippocrates
and Galen for a description of this malady; nor will you find it
hinted at in the more philosophical treatises of Sydenham and
Heberden. It had, till the medical skill of Dr. Ferriar first noticed
it to the public, escaped the observations of all our pathologists.
With a trembling hand, and fearful apprehension, therefore, I throw
out the following suggestions for the cure, or mitigatiou
[Transcriber's Note: mitigation], of this disorder:

In _the first place_, the disease of the Bibliomania is materially
softened, or rendered mild, by directing our studies to _useful and
profitable_ works--whether these be printed upon small or large paper,
in the gothic, roman, or italic type; To consider purely the
_intrinsic_ excellence, and not the exterior splendour, or
adventitious value, of any production, will keep us perhaps wholly
free from this disease. Let the midnight lamp be burnt to illuminate
the stores of antiquity--whether they be romances, or chronicles, or
legends, and whether they be printed by Aldus or by Caxton--if a
brighter lustre can thence be thrown upon the pages of modern
learning! To trace genius to its source, or to see how she has been
influenced or modified, by "the lore of past times" is both a pleasing
and profitable pursuit. To see how Shakspeare has here and there
plucked a flower, from some old ballad or popular tale, to enrich his
own unperishable garland--to follow Spenser and Milton in their
delightful labyrinths 'midst the splendour of Italian literature--are
studies which stamp a dignity upon our intellectual characters! But,
in such a pursuit let us not overlook the wisdom of modern times, nor
fancy that what is only ancient can be excellent. We must remember
that Bacon, Boyle, Locke, Taylor, Chillingworth, Robertson, Hume,
Gibbon, and Paley, are names which always command attention from the
wise, and remind us of the improved state of reason and acquired
knowledge during the two last centuries.

In the _second place_, the re-printing of scarce and intrinsically
valuable works is another means of preventing the propagation of this
disorder. Amidst all our present sufferings under the BIBLIOMANIA, it
is some consolation to find discerning and spirited booksellers
re-publishing the valuable Chronicles of Froissart, Holinshed, and
Hall,[69] and the collections known by the names of "The Harleïan
Miscellany," and "Lord Somer's Tracts." These are noble efforts, and
richly deserve the public patronage.

     [Footnote 69: The re-publication of these chronicles is to
     be followed by those of Grafton and Fabian. Meanwhile,
     Hakluyt's Voyages, (projected by Mr. Evans), and Fuller's
     Worthies (by Messrs. Longman, and Co.) will form admirable
     acquisitions to these treasures of past times.]

In the _third place_, the editing of our best ancient authors, whether
in prose or poetry,[70] is another means of effectually counteracting
the progress of the Bibliomania, as it has been described under its
several symptoms.

     [Footnote 70: The recent _Variorum_ editions of Shakspeare,
     of which some yet prefer that of Steevens, 1793, 15 vols.
     8vo.--Mr. Todd's editions of Milton and Spenser; Mr. G.
     Chalmers' edition of Sir David Lyndsay's works; Mr.
     Gifford's edition of Massinger; and Mr. Octavius
     Gilchrist's, of Bishop Corbett's poems, exemplify the good
     effects of this _third means of cure_.]

In the _fourth place_, the erecting of Public Institutions[71] is a
very powerful antidote against the prevalence of several symptoms of
this disease.

     [Footnote 71: The Royal, London, Surrey, and Russel
     Institutions have been the means of concentrating, in divers
     parts of the metropolis, large libraries of _useful_ books;
     which, it is to be hoped, will eventually suppress the
     establishment of what are called _Circulating
     Libraries_--vehicles, too often, of insufferable nonsense,
     and irremediable mischief!]

In the _fifth place_, the encouragement of the study of
Bibliography,[72] in its legitimate sense, and towards its true
object, may be numbered among the most efficacious cures for this
destructive malady. To place competent Librarians over the several
departments of a large public Library, or to submit a library, on a
more confined scale, to one diligent, enthusiastic, well informed,
well bred, Bibliographer[73] or Librarian, [of which in this
metropolis we have so many examples] is doing a vast deal towards
directing the channels of literature to flow in their proper courses.

     [Footnote 72: "UNNE BONNE BIBLIOGRAPHIE," says Marchand,
     "soit générale soit particulière, soit profane, soit
     écclésiastique, soit nationale, provinciale, ou locale, soit
     simplement personnelle, en un mot de quelque autre genre que
     ce puisse être, n'est pas un ouvrage aussi facile que
     beaucoup de gens se le pourroient imaginer; mais, elles ne
     doivent néanmoins nulelment [Transcriber's Note: nullement]
     prévenir contre celle-ci. Telle qu'elle est, elle ne laisse
     pas d'être bonne, utile, et digne d'être recherchée par les
     amateurs, de l'Histoire Littéraire." _Diction. Historique_,
     vol. i. p. 109.

     "Our nation," says Mr. Bridgman, "has been too inattentive
     to bibliographical criticisms and enquiries; for generally
     the English reader is obliged to resort to foreign writers
     to satisfy his mind as to the value of authors. It behoves
     us to consider that there is not a more useful or a more
     desirable branch of education than a _knowledge of books_;
     which being correctly ascertained and judiciously exercised,
     will prove the touch-stone of intrinsic merit, and have the
     effect of saving many spotless pages from prostitution."
     _Legal Bibliography_, p. v. vi.]

     [Footnote 73: Peignot, in his _Dictionnaire de Bibliologie_,
     vol. i. 50, has given a very pompous account of what ought
     to be the talents and duties of a Bibliographer. It would be
     difficult indeed to find such things united in one person!
     De Bure, in the eighth volume of his _Bibliographie
     Instructive_, has prefixed a "Discourse upon the Science of
     Bibliography and the duties of a Bibliographer" which is
     worth consulting: but I know of nothing which better
     describes, in few words, such a character, than the
     following: "In eo sit multijuga materiarum librorumque
     notitia, ut saltem potiores eligat et inquirat: fida et
     sedula apud exteras gentes procuratio, ut eos arcessat;
     summa patientia ut rarè venalis expectet: peculium semper
     præsens et paratum, ne, si quando occurrunt, emendi occasio
     intercidat; prudens denique auri argentique contemptus, ut
     pecuniis sponte careat quæ in bibliothecam formandam et
     nutriendam sunt insumendæ. Si fortè vir literatus eo
     felicitatis pervenit ut talem thesaurum coaceraverit, nec
     solus illo invidios fruatur, sed usum cum eruditis qui
     vigilias suas utilitati publicæ devoverunt, liberaliter
     communicet; &c."--_Bibliotheca Hulsiana_, vol. i. Præfat. p.
     3, 4.]

Thus briefly and guardedly have I thrown out a few suggestions, which
may enable us to avoid, or mitigate the severity of, the disease
called THE BIBLIOMANIA. Happy indeed shall I deem myself, if, in the
description of its symptoms, and in the recommendation of the means of
cure, I may have snatched any one from a premature grave, or lightened
the load of years that are yet to cone [Transcriber's Note: come]!

You, my dear Sir, who, in your observations upon society, as well as
in your knowledge of ancient times, must have met with numerous
instances of the miseries which "flesh is heir to," may be disposed
perhaps to confess that, of all species of afflictions, _the present
one_ under consideration has the least moral turpitude attached to it.
True, it may be so: for, in the examples which have been adduced,
there will be found neither Suicides, nor Gamesters, nor Profligates.
No woman's heart has been broken from midnight debaucheries: no
marriage vow has been violated: no child has been compelled to pine in
poverty or neglect: no patrimony has been wasted, and no ancestor's
fame tarnished! If men have erred under the influence of this disease,
their aberrations have been marked with an excess arising from
intellectual fevour, and not from a desire of baser gratifications.

If, therefore, in the wide survey which a philosopher may take of the
"Miseries of Human life"[74] the prevalence of this disorder may
appear to be less mischievous than that of others, and, if some of the
most amiable and learned of mortals seemed to have been both
unwilling, as well as unable, to avoid its contagion, you will
probably feel the less alarmed if symptoms of it should appear within
the sequestered abode of Hodnet![75] Recollecting that even in remoter
situations its influence has been felt--and that neither the pure
atmosphere of Hafod nor of Sledmere[76] has completely subdued its
power--you will be disposed to exclaim with violence, at the intrusion
of Bibliomaniacs--

     What walls can guard me, or what shades can hide?
     They pierce my thickets, through my grot they glide!
     By land, by water, they renew the charge,
     They stop the chariot, and they board the barge.[77]

     [Footnote 74: In the ingenious and witty work so entitled, I
     do not recollect whether the disappointment arising from a
     _cropt_ or a _dirty_ copy has been classed among "_The
     Miseries of Human Life_."]

     [Footnote 75: _Hodnet Hall_, Shropshire. The country
     residence of Mr. Heber.]

     [Footnote 76: _Hafod_, South Wales, the seat of THOS.
     JOHNES, Esq., M.P., the translator of the Chronicles of
     Froissart and Monstrelet, and of the Travels of De Broquiere
     and Joinville. The conflagration of part of his mansion and
     library, two years ago, which excited such a general
     sympathy, would have damped any ardour of collection but
     that of Mr. Johnes--his Library has arisen, Phoenix-like,
     from the flames!

     _Sledmere_, in Yorkshire, the seat of SIR MARK MASTERMAN
     SYKES, Bart., M.P. The library of this amiable and tasteful
     Baronet reflects distinguished credit upon him. It is at
     once copious and choice.]

     [Footnote 77: Pope's "_Prologue to the Satires_," v. 7-10.]

Upon the whole, therefore, attending closely to the symptoms of this
disorder as they have been described, and practising such means of
cure as have been recommended, we may rationally hope that its
virulence may abate, and the number of its victims annually diminish.
But if the more discerning part of the community anticipate a
different result, and the preceding observations appear to have
presented but a narrow and partial view of the mischiefs of the
BIBLIOMANIA, my only consolation is that to advance _something_ upon
the subject is better than to preserve a sullen and invincible
silence. Let it be the task of more experienced bibliographers to
correct and amplify the foregoing outline!

Believe me, My dear Sir,

Very sincerely Yours, &c.

THOMAS FROGNALL DIBBIN [Transcriber's Note: DIBDIN].

_Kensington, May_ 16, 1809.



POSTSCRIPT.


On re-considering what has been written, it has struck me that a
SYNOPSIS of this disease, after the manner of BURTON, as prefixed to
his _Anatomy of Melancholy_, may be useful to some future pathologist.
The reader is, accordingly, presented with the following one:


SYNOPSIS.

                                                                 Page.
  { I. HISTORY of; or an account of eminent Book
  { Collectors who have fallen victims to it                        12
T {
H { II. SYMPTOMS OF;                { 1. Large Paper Copies         44
E { being a passion for             { 2. Uncut Copies               46
  {                                 { 3. Illustrated Copies         47
B {                                 { 4. Unique Copies              49
I {                                 { 5. Vellum Copies              51
B {                                 { 6. First Editions             52
L {                                 { 7. True Editions              54
I {                                 { 8. Black Letter Editions      56
O {
M { III. CURE OF                    { 1. Reading useful works       56
A {                                 { 2. Reprints of scarce and
N {                                 {     valuable works           _ib._
I {                                 { 3. Editing our best ancient
A {                                 {     Writers                   60
. {                                 { 4. Erecting of Public
  {                                 {     Institutions             _ib._
  {                                 { 5. Encouragement of
  {                                 {     Bibliography             _ib._



PART I.

=The Evening Walk.=

ON THE RIGHT USES OF LITERATURE.


     Rede well thyselfe that other folke can'st rede.

     CHAUCER'S _Good Counsail_.



[Illustration]



[Illustration]

=The Evening Walk.=

ON THE RIGHT USES OF LITERATURE.


It was on a fine autumnal evening, when the sun was setting serenely
behind a thick copse upon a distant hill, and his warm tints were
lighting up a magnificent and widely-extended landscape, that,
sauntering 'midst the fields, I was meditating upon the various
methods of honourably filling up the measure of our existence; when I
discovered, towards my left, a messenger running at full speed towards
me. The abruptness of his appearance, and the velocity of his step,
somewhat disconcerted me; but on his near approach my apprehensions
were dissipated.

I knew him to be the servant of my old college friend, whom I chuse
here to denominate LYSANDER. He came to inform me, in his blunt and
honest manner, that his master had just arrived with PHILEMON, our
common friend; and that, as they were too fatigued with their journey
to come out to me, they begged I would quickly enter the house, and,
as usual, make them welcome. This intelligence afforded me the
liveliest satisfaction. In fifteen minutes, after a hearty shaking of
hands, I was seated with them in the parlour; all of us admiring the
unusual splendour of the evening sky, and, in consequence, partaking
of the common topics of conversation with a greater flow of spirits.

"You are come, my friends," said I (in the course of conversation),
"to make some stay with me--indeed, I cannot suffer you to depart
without keeping you at least a week; in order, amongst other things,
to view the beauty of our neighbour Lorenzo's grounds, the general
splendour of his house, and the magnificence of his LIBRARY." "In
regard to grounds and furniture," replied Lysander, "there is very
little in the most beautiful and costly which can long excite my
attention--but the LIBRARY--" "Here," exclaimed Philemon, "here you
have him in the toils." "I will frankly confess," rejoined Lysander,
"that I am an arrant BIBLIOMANIAC--that I love books dearly--that the
very sight, touch, and, more, the perusal--" "Hold, my friend," again
exclaimed Philemon, "you have renounced your profession--you talk of
_reading_ books--do BIBLIOMANIACS ever _read_ books?" "Nay," quoth
Lysander, "you shall not banter thus with impunity. We will, if it
please you," said he, turning round to me, "make our abode with you
for a few days--and, after seeing the library of your neighbour, I
will throw down the gauntlet to Philemon, challenging him to answer
certain questions which you may put to us, respecting the number,
rarity, beauty, or utility of those works which relate to the
literature and antiquities of our own country. We shall then see who
is able to return the readiest answer." "Forgive," rejoined Philemon,
"my bantering strain. I revoke my speech. You know that, with
yourself, I heartily love books; more from their contents than their
appearance." Lysander returned a gracious smile; and the hectic of
irritability on his cheek was dissipated in an instant.

The approach of evening made us think of settling our plans. My
friends begged their horses might be turned into the field; and that,
while they stayed with me, the most simple fare and the plainest
accommodation might be their lot. They knew how little able I was to
treat them as they were wont to be treated; and, therefore, taking
"the will for the deed," they resolved to be as happy as an humble
roof could make them.

While the cloth was laying for supper (for I should add that we dine
at three and sup at nine), we took a stroll in my small garden, which
has a mound at the bottom, shaded with lilacs and laburnums, that
overlooks a pretty range of meadows, terminated by the village church.
The moon had now gained a considerable ascendancy in the sky; and the
silvery paleness and profound quiet of the surrounding landscape,
which, but an hour ago, had been enlivened by the sun's last rays,
seemed to affect the minds of us all very sensibly. Lysander, in
particular, began to express the sentiments which such a scene excited
in him.--"Yonder," says he, pointing to the church-yard, "is the
bourne which terminates our earthly labours; and I marvel much how
mortals can spend their time in cavilling at each other--in murdering,
with their pens as well as their swords, all that is excellent and
admirable in human nature--instead of curbing their passions,
elevating their hopes, and tranquillizing their fears. Every evening,
for at least one-third of the year, heaven has fixed in the sky yonder
visible monitor to man. Calmness and splendour are her attendants: no
dark passions, no carking cares, neither spleen nor jealousy, seem to
dwell in that bright orb, where, as has been fondly imagined, "the
wretched may have rest."--"And here," replied Philemon, "we do nothing
but fret and fume if our fancied merits are not instantly rewarded, or
if another wear a sprig of laurel more verdant than ourselves; I could
mention, within my own recollection, a hundred instances of this
degrading prostitution of talent--aye, a thousand."--"Gently reprimand
your fellow creatures," resumed Lysander, "lest you commit an error as
great as any of those which you condemn in others. The most difficult
of human tasks seems to be the exercise of forbearance and temperance.
By exasperating, you only rekindle, and not extinguish, the evil
sparks in our dispositions. A man will bear being told he is in the
wrong; but you must tell him so gently and mildly. Animosity,
petulance, and persecution, are the plagues which destroy our better
parts."--"And envy," replied Philemon, "has surely enough to
do."--"Yes," said Lysander, "we might enumerate, as you were about to
do, many instances--and (what you were not about to do) pity while we
enumerate! I think," continued he, addressing himself particularly to
me, "you informed me that the husband of poor Lavinia lies buried in
yonder church-yard; and perhaps the very tomb which now glistens by
the moonbeam is the one which consecrates his memory! That man was
passionately addicted to literature;--he had a strong mind; a
wonderful grasp of intellect; but his love of paradox and hypothesis
quite ruined his faculties. NICAS happened to discover some glaring
errors in his last treatise, and the poor man grew sick at heart in
consequence. Nothing short of _infallibility_ and _invincibility_
satisfied him; and, like the Spaniard in the 'Diable Boiteux,' who
went mad because five of his countrymen had been beaten by fifty
Portugese, this unhappy creature lost all patience and forbearance,
because, in an hundred systems which he had built with the cards of
fancy, ninety-nine happened to tumble to the ground.

"This is the dangerous consequence, not so much of vanity and
self-love as of downright literary Quixotism. A man may be cured of
vanity as the French nobleman was--'Ecoutez messieurs! Monseigneur le
Duc va dire la meillure chose du monde!'[78] but for this raving,
ungovernable passion of soaring beyond all human comprehension, I fear
there is no cure but in such a place as the one which is now before
us. Compared with this, how different was MENANDER'S case! Careless
himself about examining and quoting authorities with punctilious
accuracy, and trusting too frequently to the _ipse-dixits_ of good
friends:--with a quick discernment--a sparkling fancy--great store of
classical knowledge, and a never ceasing play of colloquial wit, he
moved right onwards in his manly course--the delight of the gay, and
the admiration of the learned! He wrote much and variously: but in an
evil hour the demon Malice caught him abroad--watched his
deviations--noted down his failings--and, discovering his vulnerable
part, he did not fail, like another Paris, to profit by the discovery.
Menander became the victim of over-refined sensibility: he need not
have feared the demon, as no good man need fear Satan. His pen ceased
to convey his sentiments; he sickened at heart; and after his body had
been covered by the green grass turf, the gentle elves of fairy-land
took care to weave a chaplet to hang upon his tomb, which was never to
know decay! SYCORAX was this demon; and a cunning and clever demon was
he!"

     [Footnote 78: This is the substance of the story related in
     Darwin's _Zoonomia_: vol. iv. p. 81.]

"I am at a loss," said Philemon, "to comprehend exactly what you
mean?"--"I will cease speaking metaphorically," replied Lysander; "but
Sycorax was a man of ability in his way. He taught literary men, in
some measure, the value of careful research and faithful quotation; in
other words, he taught them to speak the truth as they found her; and,
doubtless, for this he merits not the name of a demon, unless you
allow me the priviledge of a Grecian.[79] That Sycorax loved truth
must be admitted; but that he loved no one so much as himself to speak
the truth must also be admitted. Nor had he, after all, any grand
notions of the goddess. She was, in his sight, rather of diminutive
than gigantic growth; rather of a tame than a towering mien; dressed
out in little trinkets, and formally arrayed in the faded point-lace
and elevated toupee of the ancient English school, and not in the
flowing and graceful robes of Grecian simplicity. But his malice and
ill-nature were frightful; and withal his love of scurrility and abuse
quite intolerable. He mistook, in too many instances, the manner for
the matter; the shadow for the substance. He passed his criticisms,
and dealt out his invectives, with so little ceremony, and so much
venom, that he seemed born with a scalping knife in his hand to commit
murder as long as he lived! To him, censure was sweeter than praise;
and the more elevated the rank, and respectable the character of his
antagonist, the more dexterously he aimed his blows, and the more
frequently he renewed his attacks. In consequence, scarcely one
beautiful period, one passionate sentiment of the higher order, one
elevated thought, or philosophical deduction, marked his numerous
writings. 'No garden-flower grew wild' in the narrow field of his
imagination; and, although the words decency and chastity were
continually dropping from his lips, I suspect that the reverse of
these qualities was always settled round his heart.[80] Thus you see,
my dear Philemon," concluded Lysander, "that the love of paradox, of
carelessness, and of malice, are equally destructive of that true
substantial fame which, as connected with literature, a wise and an
honest man would wish to establish. But come; the dews of evening
begin to fall chilly; let us seek the house of our friend."

     [Footnote 79: Without turning over the ponderous tones of
     Stephen, Constantine, and Scaliger, consult the sensible
     remarks upon the word '[Greek: Daimôn]' in _Parkhurst's
     Greek and English Lexicon to the New Testament_, 8vo. edit.
     1798. In the Greek language, it is equally applied to an
     accomplished and unprincipled character. Homer alone will
     furnish a hundred instances of this.]

     [Footnote 80: Mark certain expressions, gentle reader, which
     occur in the notes to the life of _Robin Hood_, prefixed to
     the ballads which go under his name: 1795. 2 vols.
     8vo.--also a Dissertation on Romance and Minstrelsy in the
     first vol. of _Ancient Metrical Romances_, 1802, 3 vols.
     8vo. A very common degree of shrewdness and of acquaintance
     with English literature will shew that, in Menander and
     Sycorax, are described honest TOM WARTON and snarling
     'mister' JOSEPH RITSON.]

As Lysander concluded his discourse, we turned, abruptly, but
thoughtfully, towards my cottage; and, making the last circuit of the
gravel walk, Philemon stopped to listen to the song of a passing
rustic, who seemed to be uttering all the joy which sometimes strongly
seizes a simple heart. "I would rather," exclaimed he, "be this poor
fellow, chanting his 'native wood-notes wild,' if his heart know not
guilt--than the shrewdest critic in the universe, who could neither
feel, nor write, good-naturedly!" We smiled at this ejaculation; and
quickly reached the house.

The fatigue of travelling had sharpened the appetites of my friends;
and at a moment when, as the inimitable Cowper expresses it,

             our drawing-rooms begin to blaze
     With lights, by clear reflection multiplied
     From many a mirror, in which he of Gath,
     Goliath, might have seen his giant bulk
     Whole, without stooping, towering crest and all,
     _Our_ pleasures too _began_;

     _Task_, b. iv.

but they were something more rational than those of merely eating and
drinking. "I seldom partake of this meal," observed Philemon, "without
thinking of the _omnium-gatherum_ bowl, so exquisitely described by
old Isaac Walton. We want here, it is true, the 'sweet shady
arbour--the contexture of woodbines, sweet-briar, jessamine, and
myrtle,'[81] and the time of the evening prevents our enjoying it
without; but, in lieu of all this, we have the sight of books, of
busts, and of pictures. I see there the ponderous folio chronicles,
the genuine quarto romances, and, a little above, a glittering row of
thin, closely-squeezed, curiously-gilt, volumes of original plays. As
we have finished our supper, let us--" "My friends," observed I, "not
a finger upon a book to-night--to-morrow you may ransack at your
pleasure. I wish to pursue the conversation commenced by Lysander, as
we were strolling in the garden." "Agreed," replied Philemon,--"the
quietness of the hour--the prospect, however limited, before us--(for
I shall not fail to fix my eyes upon a Froissart printed by Verard, or
a portrait painted by Holbein, while you talk)--every thing conspires
to render this discourse congenial." "As you have reminded me of that
pretty description of a repast in Walton," resumed Lysander, "I will
preface the sequel to my conversation by drinking a glass to your
healths--and so, masters, 'here is a full glass to you' of the liquor
before us." Lysander then continued, "It were to be wished that the
republic or region of LITERATURE could be described in as favourable a
manner as Camden has described the air, earth, and sky, of our own
country;[82] but I fear Milton's terrific description of the infernal
frozen continent,

             beat with perpetual forms
     Of whirlwind and dire hail,

     _Par. Lost_, b. ii. v. 587.

is rather applicable to it. Having endeavoured to shew, my dear
friends, that the passionate love of hypothesis--(or a determination
to make every man think and believe as we do) incorrigible
carelessness--and equally incorrigible ill-nature--are each inimical
to the true interests of literature, let us see what other evil
qualities there are which principally frustrate the legitimate view of
learning.

     [Footnote 81: _Complete Angler_, p. 335. Bagster's edit.
     1808. In a similar style of description are "the faire grove
     and swete walkes, letticed and gardened on both sides," of
     Mr. Warde's letter--describing the nunnery of Little Gidding
     in Huntingdonshire. See Hearne's edit. of _Peter Langtoft's
     Chronicle_, vol. 1. p. cx.]

     [Footnote 82: "The ayre is most temperate and wholesome,
     sited in the middest of the temperate zone, subject to no
     stormes and tempests, as the more southerne and northerne
     are; but stored with infinite delicate fowle. For water, it
     is walled and guarded with ye ocean most commodious for
     trafficke to all parts of the world, and watered with
     pleasant fishful and navigable rivers, which yeeld safe
     havens and roads, and furnished with shipping and sailers,
     that it may rightly be termed THE LADY OF THE SEA. That I
     may say nothing of healthful bathes, and of meares stored
     both with fish and fowl. The earth fertile of all kinde of
     graine, manured with good husbandry, rich in minerall of
     coals, tinne, lead, copper, not without gold and silver,
     abundant in pasture, replenished with cattel, both tame and
     wilde (for it hath more parks than all Europe besides),
     plentifully wooded, provided with all complete provisions of
     war, beautified with many populous cities, faire boroughs,
     good towns, and well-built villages, strong munitions,
     magnificent palaces of the prince, stately houses of the
     nobilitie, frequent hospitals, beautiful churches, faire
     colledges, as well in the other places as in the two
     Vniversities." _Remains_, p. 12. edit. 1637.

     How far Camden was indebted to the following curious
     description of our country, written in the time of Edward
     vj, (of which I shall modernize the orthography,) the reader
     will judge for himself. The running title of the work is
     "_The Debate between the_ [French and English] _Heralds_,"
     8vo., printed in the bl. lett. (In the possession of Mr.
     Heber.)

     "We have all manner of grains, and fruits, and more plenty
     than you; for, thanked be God, England is a fruitful and
     plenteous region, so that we have some fruits whereof you
     have few; as _wardeines_, quinces, peaches, medlers,
     chesnuts, and other delicious fruits; serving for all
     seasons of the year; and so plenty of pears and apples that,
     in the west parts of England and Sussex, they make perry and
     cider, and in such abundance that they convey part over the
     sea, where, by the Monsieurs of France, it is coveted for
     their beverage and drinks."--_Sign. L._ iiij. rev.

     "We have in Cornwall and Devonshire (God be honoured) the
     richest mines of silver and tin that may be, also in Ireland
     mines of silver, in Derbyshire mines of lead, alabaster,
     marble, black and white. In Sussex, Yorkshire, and Durham,
     mines of iron, coal, slate, and freestone; and in every
     shire of England, generally quarries of hard stone, chalk,
     and flint: these be commodities honorable and not feigned,
     being of such estimation that France, nor other realms, may
     well forbear; and as for saltpetre, there is sufficient made
     in England to furnish our turn for the wars. Also we have
     hot fountains or bathes, which you nor no other realms
     christened have."--_Sign. L._ v. rev. If ancient GILDAS
     speak the truth, Great Britain was no contemptible place
     twelve hundred years ago--the period when he lived and wrote
     his lachrymable history.

     "The iland of Britaine placed in the ballance of the divine
     poising hand (as they call it) which weigheth the whole
     world, almost the uttermost bound of his earth towards the
     South and West; extending itself from the South-West, out
     towards the North pole, eight hundred miles in length; and
     containing two hundred in breadth, besides the fare
     outstretched forelands of sundry promonteries, embraced by
     the embowed bosomes of the ocean sea; with whose most
     spacious, and on every side (saving only the Southern
     Streights, by which we sale to Gallehelgicke) impassable
     enclosure (as I may call it) she is strongly defended;
     enriched with the mouths of two noble floods, Thames and
     Severne, as it were two armes (by which out-landish
     commodities have in times past been transported into the
     same) besides other rivers of lesser account, strengthened
     with eight and twenty cities, and some other castles, not
     meanly fenced with fortresses of walls, embattled towers,
     gates, and buildings (whose roofes being raised aloft with a
     threatening hugenesse, were mightily in their aspiring
     toppes compaced) adorned with her large spreading fields,
     pleasant seated hils, even framed for good husbandry, which
     over-mastereth the ground, and mountains most convenient for
     the changeable pastures of cattell; whose flowers of sundry
     collours, troden by the feete of men, imprint no unseemly
     picture on the same, as a spouse of choice, decked with
     divers jewels; watered with cleere fountains, and sundry
     brokes, beating on the snow-white sands, together with
     silver streames sliding forth with soft sounding noise, and
     leaving a pledge of sweet savours on their bordering bankes,
     and lakes gushing out abundantly in cold running
     rivers."--_Epistle of Gildas_, Transl. 1638, 12mo. p. 1,
     after the prologue.

     Whoever looks into that amusing and prettily-printed little
     book, "_Barclaii Satyricon_," 1629, 18mo., will find a
     description of Germany, similar, in part, to the
     preceding.--"Olim sylvis et incolis fera, nunc oppidis
     passim insignis; nemoribus quoque quibus immensis tegebatur,
     ad usum decusque castigatis." p. 316.]

"In the example of GONZALO, with whom Philemon is perfectly well
acquainted, a remarkable exemplification of the passion of _Vanity_
occurs. I recollect, one evening, he came rushing into a party where I
sat, screaming with the extatic joy of a maniac--'[Greek: Eurêka,
Eurêka]'; and, throwing down a scroll, rushed as precipitately out of
the room. The scroll was of vellum; the title to the contents of it
was penned in golden letters, and softly-painted bunches of roses
graced each corner. It contained a sonnet to love, and another to
friendship; but a principal mistake which struck us, on the very
threshold of our critical examination, was that he had incorrectly
entitled these sonnets. Friendship should have been called love, and
love, friendship. We had no sooner made the discovery than Gonzalo
returned, expecting to find us in like ecstacies with himself!--We
gravely told him that we stumbled at the very threshold. It was quite
sufficient--he seized his sonnets with avidity--and, crumpling the
roll (after essaying to tear it) thrust it into his pocket, and
retreated. One of the gentlemen in company made the following remarks,
on his leaving us: 'In the conduct of Gonzalo appears a strange
mixture of intellectual strength and intellectual debility; of wit and
dulness; of wisdom and folly; and all this arises chiefly from his
mistaking the means for the end--the instrument of achieving for the
object achieved. The fondest wish of his heart is literary fame: for
this he would sacrifice every thing. He is handsome, generous, an
affectionate son, a merry companion, and is, withal, a very excellent
belles-lettres scholar. Tell him that the ladies admire him, that his
mother doats on him, and that his friends esteem him--and--keeping
back the wished-for eulogy of literary excellence--you tell him of
nothing which he cares for. In truth he might attain some portion of
intellectual reputation, if he would throw aside his ridiculous
habits. He _must_, as soon as the evening shades prevail, burn wax
tapers--he must always have an Argand lamp lighted up before him, to
throw a picturesque effect upon a dark wood painted by Hobbima--his
pens must be made from the crow's wing--his wax must be green--his
paper must be thick and hot-pressed; and he must have a portfolio of
the choicest bits of ancient vellum that can be procured--his body
must recline upon a chintz sofa--his foot must be perched upon an
ottoman--in short he _must_ have every thing for which no man of
common sense would express the least concern. Can you be surprised,
therefore, that he should commence his sonnet to friendship thus:

     Oh, sweetest softest thing that's friendship hight!

or that he should conceive the following address to women, by one
William Goddard, worthy of being ranked among the most beautiful
poetical efforts of the 16th century:

     Stars of this earthly heaven, you whose essence
     Compos'd was of man's purest quintessence,
     To you, to virtuous you, I dedicate
     This snaggy sprig[83]----"

     [Footnote 83: From "_A Satyrical Dialogue, &c., betweene
     Alexander the Great and that truelye woman-hater Diogynes_.
     Imprinted in the low countryes for all such gentlewomen as
     are not altogether idle nor yet well occupyed," 4to. no
     date. A strange composition! full of nervous lines and
     pungent satire--but not free from the grossest
     licentiousness.]

"Enough," exclaimed Philemon--while Lysander paused a little, after
uttering the foregoing in a rapid and glowing manner--"enough for this
effeminate vanity in man! What other ills have you to enumerate, which
assail the region of literature?"--"I will tell you," replied
Lysander, "another, and a most lamentable evil, which perverts the
very end for which talents were given us--and it is in mistaking and
misapplying these talents. I speak with reference to the individual
himself, and not to the public. You may remember how grievously
ALFONSO bore the lot which public criticism, with one voice, adjudged
to him! This man had good natural parts, and would have abridged a
history, made an index, or analyzed a philosophical work, with great
credit to himself and advantage to the public. But he set his heart
upon eclipsing Doctors Johnson and Jamieson. He happened to know a few
etymons more correctly, and to have some little acquaintance with
black letter literature, and hence thought to give more weight to
lexicographical inquiries than had hitherto distinguished them. But
how miserably he was deceived in all his undertakings of this kind
past events have sufficiently shewn. No, my good Philemon, to be of
use to the republic of literature, let us know our situations; and let
us not fail to remember that, in the best appointed army, the serjeant
may be of equal utility with the captain.

"I will notice only one other, and a very great, failing observable in
literary men--and this is severity and self-consequence. You will find
that these severe characters generally set up the trade of _Critics_;
without attending to the just maxim of Pope, that

     Ten censure wrong, for one that writes amiss.

"With them, the least deviation from precise correctness, the most
venial trippings, the smallest inattention paid to doubtful rules and
equivocal positions of criticism, inflames their anger, and calls
forth their invectives. Regardless of the sage maxims of Cicero,
Quintilian, and Horace, they not only disdain the sober rules which
their ancient brethren have wisely laid down, and hold in contempt
the voice of the public,[84] but, forgetting the subject which they
have undertaken to criticise, they push the author out of his seat,
quietly sit in it themselves, and fancy they entertain you by the
gravity of their deportment, and their rash usurpation of the royal
monosyllable 'Nos.'[85] This solemn pronoun, or rather 'plural
style,'[86] my dear Philemon, is oftentimes usurped by a half-starved
little _I_, who sits immured in the dusty recess of a garret, and who
has never known the society nor the language of a gentleman; or it is
assumed by a young graduate, just settled in his chambers, and flushed
with the triumph of his degree of 'B.A.', whose 'fond conceyte' [to
borrow Master Francis Thynne's[87] terse style,] is, to wrangle for an
asses shadowe, or to seke a knott in a rushe!'

     [Footnote 84: "Interdum vulgus rectum videt:" says
     Horace.--_Epist. lib._ ii. _ad. Augustum_, v. 63.]

     [Footnote 85: Vide RYMERI _Foedera_--passim.]

     [Footnote 86: A very recent, and very respectable, authority
     has furnished me with this expression.]

     [Footnote 87: See Mr. Todd's _Illustrations of Gower and
     Chaucer_, p. 10.]

"For my part," continued Lysander, speaking with the most unaffected
seriousness--"for my part, nothing delights me more than modesty and
diffidence, united with 'strong good sense, lively imagination, and
exquisite sensibility,'[88] whether in an author or a critic. When I
call to mind that our greatest sages have concluded their labours
with doubt, and an avowal of their ignorance; when I see how carefully
and reverently they have pushed forward their most successful
inquiries; when I see the great Newton pausing and perplexed in the
vast world of planets, comets, and constellations, which were, in a
measure, of his own creation--I learn to soften the asperity of my
critical anathemas, and to allow to an author that portion of
fallibility of which I am conscious myself.

     [Footnote 88: It is said, very sensibly, by La Bruyere, I
     will allow that good writers are scarce enough; but then I
     ask where are the people that know how to read and judge? A
     union of these qualities, which are seldom found in the same
     person, seems to be indispensably necessary to form an able
     critic; he ought to possess strong good sense, lively
     imagination, and exquisite sensibility. And of these three
     qualities, the last is the most important; since, after all
     that can be said on the utility or necessity of rules and
     precepts, it must be confessed that the merit of all works
     of genius must be determined by taste and sentiment. "Why do
     you so much admire the Helen of Zeuxis?" said one to
     Nicostratus. "You would not wonder why I so much admired it
     (replied the painter) if you had my eyes."--WARTON: Note to
     Pope's Essay on Criticism. _Pope's Works_, vol. i. 196,
     edit. 1806.]

"I see then," rejoined Philemon, "that you are an enemy to
_Reviews_."[89] "Far from it," replied Lysander, "I think them of
essential service to literature. They hold a lash over ignorance and
vanity; and, at any rate, they take care to bestow a hearty
castigation upon vicious and sensual publications. Thus far they do
good: but, in many respects, they do ill--by substituting their own
opinions for those of an author; by judging exclusively according to
their own previously formed decisions in matters of religion and
politics; and by shutting out from your view the plan, and real
tendency, of the book which they have undertaken to review, and
therefore ought to analyze. It is, to be sure, amusing to read the
clamours which have been raised against some of the most valuable, and
now generally received, works! When an author recollects the pert
conclusion of Dr. Kenrick's review of Dr. Johnson's Tour to the
Hebrides,[90] he need not fear the flippancy of a reviewer's wit, as
decisive of the fate of his publication!

     [Footnote 89: The earliest publications, I believe, in this
     country, in the character of REVIEWS were there
     [Transcriber's Note: the] _Weekly Memorials for the
     Ingenious_, &c. Lond. 1683, 4to.--and _The Universal
     Historical Bibliotheque_: or an Account of most of the
     considerable Books printed in all Languages, in the Month of
     January 1686. London, 1687, 4to. Five years afterwards came
     forth _The Young Student's Library_, by the Athenian
     Society, 1692, folio, "a kind of common theatre where every
     person may act, or take such part as pleases him best, and
     what he does not like he may pass over, assuring himself
     that, every one's judgment not being like his, another may
     chuse what he mislikes, and so every one may be pleased in
     their turns." Pref. A six weeks' frost is said to have
     materially delayed the publication. After these, in the
     subsequent century, appeared the _Old and New Memoirs of
     Literature_; then, the _Works of the Learned_; upon which
     was built, eclipsing every one that had preceeded it, and
     not excelled by any subsequent similar critical journal,
     _The Monthly Review_.]

     [Footnote 90: After all, said the reviewing Doctor, we are
     of opinion, with the author himself, that this publication
     contains 'the sentiments of one who has seen but little:'
     meaning, thereby, that the book was hardly worth perusal!
     What has become of the said Dr. Kenrick now? We will not ask
     the same question about the said DR. JOHNSON; whose works
     are upon the shelf of every reading man of sense and
     virtue.]

"It is certainly," pursued Lysander, "a very prolific age of
knowledge. There never was, at any one period of the world, so much
general understanding abroad. The common receptacles of the lower
orders of people present, in some degree, intellectual scenes. I mean,
that collision of logic, and corruscation of wit, which arise from the
perusal of a newspaper; a production, by-the-bye, upon which Cowper
has conferred immortality.[91] You may remember, when we were driven
by a sharp tempest of hail into the small public-house which stands at
the corner of the heath--what a _logomachy_--what a _war of words_ did
we hear! and all about sending troops to the north or south of Spain,
and the justice or injustice of the newly-raised prices of admission
to Covent Garden theatre!![92] The stage-coach, if you recollect,
passed by quickly after our having drunk a tumbler of warm brandy and
water to preserve ourselves from catching cold; and into it glad
enough we were to tumble! We had no sooner begun to be tolerably
comfortable and composed than a grave old gentleman commenced a most
furious Philippic against the prevailing studies, politics, and
religion of the day--and, in truth, this man evinced a wonderfully
retentive memory, and a fair share of powers of argument; bringing
everything, however, to the standard of his _own times_. It was in
vain we strove to edge in the great _Whig and Tory Reviews_ of the
northern and southern hemispheres! The obdurate champion of other
times would not listen a moment, or stir one inch, in favour of these
latter publications. When he quitted us, we found that he was a ----
of considerable consequence in the neighbourhood, and had acquired his
fortune from the superior sagacity and integrity he had displayed in
consequence of having been educated at the free-school in the village
of ----, one of the few public schools in this kingdom which has not
frustrated the legitimate views of its pious founder, by converting
that into a foppish and expensive establishment which was at once
designed as an asylum for the poor and an academy to teach wisdom and
good morals."

     [Footnote 91: See the opening the fourth book of "_The
     Task_;" a picture perfectly original and unrivalled in its
     manner.]

     [Footnote 92: It is not less true, than surprising, that the
     ridiculous squabbles, which disgraced both this theatre and
     the metropolis, have been deemed deserving of a regular
     series of publications in the shape of numbers--1, 2, 3, &c.
     As if the subject had not been sufficiently well handled in
     the lively sallies and brilliant touches of satire which had
     before appeared upon it in the _Monthly Mirror_!]

Philemon was about to reply, with his usual warmth and quickness, to
the latter part of these remarks--as bearing too severely upon the
eminent public seminaries within seventy miles of the metropolis--but
Lysander, guessing his intentions from his manner and attitude, cut
the dialogue short by observing that we did not meet to discuss
subjects of a personal and irritable nature, and which had already
exercised the wits of two redoubted champions of the church--but that
our object, and the object of all rational and manly discussion, was
to state opinions with frankness, without intending to wound the
feelings, or call forth the animadversions, of well-meaning and
respectable characters. "I know," continued he, "that you, Philemon,
have been bred in one of these establishments, under a man as
venerable for his years as he is eminent for his talents and worth;
who employs the leisure of dignified retirement in giving to the world
the result of his careful and profound researches; who, drinking
largely at the fountain head of classical learning, and hence feeling
the renovated vigour of youth (without having recourse to the black
art of a Cornelius Agrippa[93]), circumnavigates 'the Erythrean
sea'--then, ascending the vessel of Nearchus, he coasts 'from Indus to
the Euphrates'--and explores with an ardent eye what is curious and
what is precious, and treasures in his sagacious mind what is most
likely to gratify and improve his fellow-countrymen. A rare and
eminent instance this of the judicious application of acquired
knowledge!--and how much more likely is it to produce good, and to
secure solid fame, than to fritter away one's strength, and undermine
one's health, in perpetual pugilistic contests with snarling critics,
dull commentators, and foul-mouthed philologists."

     [Footnote 93: Let him who wishes to be regaled in a dull
     dreary night--when the snow is heavily falling, and the wind
     whistles hollowly--open those leaves of Bayle's _Historical
     and Biographical Dictionary_ which relate to this
     extraordinary character; and see there how adroitly Agrippa
     is defended against the accusation of "having two devils
     attending him in the shape of two little dogs--one of them
     being called Monsieur, and the other Mademoiselle"--"whereas
     Paulus Jovius, Thevet, &c., speak only of _one_ dog, and
     never mention his name." Vol. i. 357, 361; edit. 1736, 10
     vols. folio.

     The bibliographer, who wishes to be master of the most
     curious and rare editions of his works, may go from Bayle to
     Clement, and from Clement to Vogt. He must beware of the
     castrated Lyons' editions "per Beringos fratres"--against
     one of which Bayle declaims, and produces a specimen (quite
     to his own liking) of the passage suppressed:--another, of a
     similar kind, is adduced by Vogt (edit. 1793, pp. 19, 20);
     who tells us, however, that an edition of 1544, 8vo.,
     without mention of place or printer--and especially a
     Cologne edition of 1598, by Hierat, in 12mo.--exhibits the
     like castrations; p. 20. This has escaped Clement, learned
     as he is upon the Lyons' editions, vol. i. 94, 95, 96. Bauer
     (_Bibl. Libr. Rarior._) is here hardly worth consulting; and
     the compilers of the celebrated _Nouveau Dict. Historique_
     (Caen edit. 1789, vol. i. p. 7. Art. Agrippa) deserve
     censure for the recommendation of these Lyons' editions
     only.

     Agrippa's "VANITY OF SCIENCES" was first published at
     Antwerp in 4to. 1530; a book, upon the rarity of which
     bibliographers delight to expatiate. His "OCCULT
     PHILOSOPHY"--according to Bayle, in 1531 (at least, the
     Elector of Cologne had seen several printed leaves of it in
     this year), but according to Vogt and Bauer, in 1533.--There
     is no question about the edition of 1533; of which Vogt
     tells us, "An Englishman, residing at Frankfort, anxiously
     sought for a copy of it, offering fifty crowns (imperiales)
     and more, without success." All the editions in Agrippa's
     life-time (before 1536) are considered uncastrated, and the
     best. It should not be forgotten that Brucker, in his _Hist.
     Crit. Phil._, has given a masterly account of Agrippa, and
     an analysis of his works.]

Philemon heartily assented to the truth of these remarks; and, more
than once, interrupted Lysander in his panegyrical peroration by his
cheerings:[94] for he had, in his youth (as was before observed), been
instructed by the distinguished character upon whom the eulogy had
been pronounced.

     [Footnote 94: This word is almost peculiar to our own
     country, and means a vehement degree of applause. It is
     generally used previous to, and during, a contest of any
     kind--whether by men in red coats, or blue coats, or black
     coats--upon land, upon water, or within doors. Even the
     walls of St. Stephen's chapel frequently echo to the "_loud
     cheerings_" of some kind or other. See every newspaper on
     every important debate.]

The effort occasioned by the warmth in discussing such interesting
subjects nearly exhausted Lysander--when it was judged prudent to
retire to rest. Each had his chamber assigned to him; and while the
chequered moon-beam played upon the curtains and the wall, through the
half-opened shutter, the minds of Lysander and Philemon felt a
correspondent tranquillity; and sweet were their slumbers till the
morning shone full upon them.

[Illustration]



PART II.

=The Cabinet.=

OUTLINE OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC BIBLIOGRAPHY.

     Condemn the daies of elders great or small,
     And then blurre out the course of present tyme:
     Cast one age down, and so doe orethrow all,
     And burne the bookes of printed prose or ryme:
     Who shall beleeve he rules, or she doth reign,
     In tyme to come, if writers loose their paine
     The pen records tyme past and present both:
     Skill brings foorth bookes, and bookes is nurse to troth.

     CHURCHYARD'S _Worthiness of Wales_
       p. 18, edit. 1776.


[Illustration]



[Illustration]

=The Cabinet.=

OUTLINE OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC BIBLIOGRAPHY.

     Tout autour oiseaulx voletoient
     Et si tres-doulcement chantoient,
       Qu'il n'est cueur qui n'ent fust ioyeulx.
     Et en chantant en l'air montoient
     Et puis l'un l'autre surmontoient
       A l'estriuee a qui mieulx mieulx.

     Le temps n'estoit mie mieulx.
     De bleu estoient vestuz les cieux,
       Et le beau Soleil cler luisoit.
     Violettes croissoient par lieux
     Et tout faisoit ses deuoirs tieux
       Comme nature le duisoit.

     OEUVRES DE CHARTIER, Paris, 1617, 4to. p. 594.


Such is the lively description of a spring morning, in the opening of
Alain Chartier's "_Livre des quatre dames_;" and, excepting the
violets, such description conveyed a pretty accurate idea of the
scenery which presented itself, from the cabinet window, to the eyes
of Lysander and Philemon.

PHIL. How delightful, my dear friend, are the objects which we have
before our eyes, within and without doors! The freshness of the
morning air, of which we have just been partaking in yonder field, was
hardly more reviving to my senses than is the sight of this exquisite
cabinet of bibliographical works, adorned with small busts and
whole-length figures from the antique! You see these precious books
are bound chiefly in Morocco, or Russia leather: and the greater part
of them appear to be printed upon _large paper_.

LYSAND. Our friend makes these books a sort of hobby-horse, and
perhaps indulges his vanity in them to excess. They are undoubtedly
useful in their way.

PHIL. You are averse then to the study of bibliography?

LYSAND. By no means. I have already told you of my passion for books,
and cannot, therefore, dislike bibliography. I think, with Lambinet,
that the greater part of bibliographical works are sufficiently dry
and soporific:[95] but I am not insensible to the utility, and even
entertainment, which may result from a proper cultivation of
it--although both De Bure and Peignot appear to me to have gone
greatly beyond the mark, in lauding this study as "one of the most
attractive and vast pursuits in which the human mind can be
engaged."[96]

     [Footnote 95: _Recherches, &c., sur l'Origine de
     l'Imprimerie_: Introd. p. x. Lambinet adds very justly,
     "L'art consiste à les rendre supportables par des objets
     variés de littérature, de critique, d'anecdotes," &c.]

     [Footnote 96: See the "Discours sur la Science
     Bibliographique," &c., in the eighth volume of De Bure's
     _Bibl. Instruct._ and Peignot's _Dictionnaire Raisonné de
     Biblilolgie_, [Transcriber's Note: Bibliologie] vol. i. p.
     50. The passage, in the former authority, beginning "Sans
     cesse"--p. xvj.--would almost warm the benumbed heart of a
     thorough-bred mathematician, and induce him to exchange his
     Euclid for De Bure!!]

PHIL. But to know what books are valuable and what are worthless;
their intrinsic and extrinsic merits; their rarity, beauty, and
particularities of various kinds; and the estimation in which they are
consequently held by knowing men--these things add a zest to the
gratification we feel in even looking upon and handling certain
volumes.

LYSAND. It is true, my good Philemon; because knowledge upon any
subject, however trivial, is more gratifying than total ignorance; and
even if we could cut and string cherry-stones, like Cowper's rustic
boy, it would be better than brushing them aside, without knowing that
they could be converted to such a purpose. Hence I am always pleased
with Le Long's reply to the caustic question of Father Malebranche,
when the latter asked him, "how he could be so foolish as to take such
pains about settling the date of a book, or making himself master of
trivial points of philosophy!"--"Truth is so delightful," replied Le
Long, "even in the most trivial matters, that we must neglect nothing
to discover her." This reply, to a man who was writing, or had
written, an essay upon truth was admirable. Mons. A.G. CAMUS, a good
scholar, and an elegant bibliographer, [of whom you will see some
account in "_Les Siecles Litteraires de la France_,"] has, I think,
placed the study of bibliography in a just point of view; and to his
observations, in the first volume of the "_Memoires de l'Institut
National_," I must refer you.[97]

     [Footnote 97: Lysander had probably the following passage
     more particularly in recollection; which, it must be
     confessed, bears sufficiently hard upon fanciful and
     ostentatious collectors of books. "[Il y a] deux sortes de
     connoissance des livres: l'une qui se renferme presque
     uniquement dans les dehors et la forme du livre, pour
     apprécier, d'après sa date, d'après la caractère de
     l'impression, d'après certaines notes, quelquefois seulement
     d'après une erreur typographique, les qualités qui le font
     ranger dans la classe des livres rares où curieux, et qui
     fixent sa valeur pecuniaire: l'autre genre de connoissance
     consiste à savoir quels sont les livres les plus propres à
     instruire, ceux où les sujets sont le plus clairement
     présentés et le plus profondement discutés; les ouvrages à
     l'aide desquels il est possible de saisir l'origine de la
     science, de la suivre dans ses développemens, d'atteindre le
     point actuel de la perfection. Sans doute il seroit
     avantageux que ces deux genres de connoisances fussent
     toujours réunis: l'expérience montre qu'ils le sont
     rairement; l'expérience montre encore que le premier des
     deux genres a été plus cultivé que le second. Nous
     possédons, sur l'indication des livres curieux et rares, sur
     les antiquités et les bijoux litteraires, si l'on me permet
     d'employer cette expression, des instructions meilleures que
     nous n'en avons sur les livres propres à instruire
     foncièrement des sciences. En recherchant la cause de cette
     difference, on la trouvera peut-être dans la passion que des
     hommes riches et vains ont montrée pour posséder des livres
     sans être en état de les lire. Il a fallu créer pour eux une
     sorte de bibliotheque composée d'objets qui, sous la forme
     exterieure de livres, ne fussent réellement que des raretés,
     des objets de curiosité, qu'on ne lit pas, mais que tantôt
     on regarde avec complaisance, tantôt en montre avec
     ostentation; et comme après cela c'est presque toujours le
     goût des personnes en état de récompenser qui dirige le but
     des travailleurs, on ne doit pas être surpris qu'on se soit
     plus occupé d'indiquer aux hommes riches dont je parle, des
     raretés à acquérir, ou de vanter celles qu'ils avoient
     rassemblées, que de faciliter, par des indications utiles,
     les travaux des hommes studieux dont on n'attendoit aucune
     récompense." _Memoires de l'Institut_, vol. i. 664. See also
     the similar remarks of Jardé, in the "Précis sur les
     Bibliotheques," prefixed to Fournier's _Dict. portatif de
     Bibliographie_, edit. 1809.

     Something like the same animadversions may be found in a
     useful book printed nearly two centuries before: "Non enim
     cogitant quales ipsi, sed qualibus induti vestibus sint, et
     quanta pompa rerum fortunæque præfulgeant--sunt enim omnino
     ridiculi, qui in nuda librorum quantumvis selectissimorum
     multitudine gloriantur, et inde doctos sese atque admirandos
     esse persuadent." Draudius: _Bibliotheca Classica_, ed.
     1611. Epist. ad. Lect. Spizelius has also a good passage
     upon the subject, in his description of Book-Gluttons
     ("Helluones Librorum"): "cum immensa pené librorum sit
     multitudo et varietas, fieri non potest, quin eorum opibus
     ditescere desiderans (hæres), non assiduam longamque
     lectionem adhibeat." _Infelix Literatus_, p. 296, edit.
     1680, 8vo.]

PHIL. I may want time, and probably inclination, to read these
observations: and, at any rate, I should be better pleased with your
analysis of them.

LYSAND. That would lead me into a wide field indeed; and, besides, our
friend--who I see walking hastily up the garden--is impatient for his
breakfast; 'tis better, therefore, that we satisfy just now an
appetite of a different kind.

PHIL. But you promise to renew the subject afterwards?

LYSAND. I will make no such promise. If our facetious friend LISARDO,
who is expected shortly to join us, should happen to direct our
attention and the discourse to the sale of MALVOLIO'S busts and
statues, what favourable opportunity do you suppose could present
itself for handling so unpromising a subject as bibliography?

PHIL. Well, well, let us hope he will not come: or, if he does, let us
take care to carry the point by a majority of votes. I hear the gate
bell ring: 'tis Lisardo, surely!

Three minutes afterwards, Lisardo and myself, who met in the passage
from opposite doors, entered the Cabinet. Mutual greetings succeeded:
and, after a hearty breakfast, the conversation was more
systematically renewed.

LIS. I am quite anxious to give you a description of the fine things
which were sold at Malvolio's mansion yesterday! Amongst colossal
Minervas, and pigmy fauns and satyrs, a magnificent set of books, in
ten or twelve folio volumes (I forget the precise number) in Morocco
binding, was to be disposed of.

LYSAND. The Clementine and Florentine museums?

LIS. No indeed--a much less interesting work. A catalogue of the
manuscripts and printed books in the library of the French king, Louis
the fifteenth. It was odd enough to see such a work in such a sale!

PHIL. You did not probably bid ten guineas for it, Lisardo?

LIS. Not ten shillings. What should I do with such books? You know I
have a mortal aversion to them, and to every thing connected with
bibliographical learning.

PHIL. That arises, I presume, from your profound knowledge of the
subject; and, hence, finding it, as Solomon found most pursuits,
"vanity of vanities, and vexation of spirit."

LIS. Not so, truly! I have taken an aversion to it from mere whim and
fancy: or rather from downright ignorance.

PHIL. But I suppose you would not object to be set right upon any
subject of which you are ignorant or misinformed? You don't mean to
sport _hereditary_ aversions, or hereditary attachments?

LIS. Why, perhaps, something of the kind. My father, who was the best
creature upon earth, happened to come into the possession of a huge
heap of catalogues of private collections, as well as of booksellers'
books--and I remember, on a certain fifth of November, when my little
hands could scarcely grasp the lamplighter's link that he bade me set
fire to them, and shout forth--"Long live the King!"--ever since I
have held them in sovereign contempt.

PHIL. I love the king too well to suppose that his life could have
been lengthened by any such barbarous act. You were absolutely a
little Chi Ho-am-ti, or Omar![98] Perhaps you were not aware that his
majesty is in possession of many valuable books, which are described
with great care and accuracy in some of these very catalogues.

     [Footnote 98: Pope, in his Dunciad, has treated the
     conflagration of the two great ancient libraries, with his
     usual poetical skill:

          "Far eastward cast thine eye, from whence the sun
          And orient Science their bright course begun:
          One god-like monarch all that pride confounds,
          He, whose long wall the wandering Tartar bounds;
          Heavens! what a pile! whole ages perish there,
          And one bright blaze turns Learning into air.
            Thence to the south extend thy gladden'd eyes;
          There rival flames with equal glory rise,
          From shelves to shelves see greedy Vulcan roll,
          And lick up all their PHYSIC OF THE SOUL."

     "Chi Ho-am-ti, Emperor of China, the same who built the
     great wall between China and Tartary, destroyed all the
     books and learned men of that empire."

     "The caliph, Omar I. having conquered Egypt, caused his
     general to burn the Ptolemean library, on the gates of which
     was this inscription: '[Greek: PSYCHÊS IATREION]:'
     'THE PHYSIC OF THE SOUL.'" Warburton's note. The last editor
     of Pope's works, (vol. v. 214.) might have referred us to
     the very ingenious observations of Gibbon, upon the
     probability of this latter event: see his "_Decline and Fall
     of the Roman Empire_," vol. ix. 440, &c.]

LIS. The act, upon reflection, was no doubt sufficiently foolish. But
why so warm upon the subject?

LYSAND. Let me defend Philemon; or at least account for his zeal. Just
before you came in, he was leading me to give him some account of the
RISE AND PROGRESS OF BIBLIOGRAPHY; and was fearful that, from your
noted aversion to the subject, you would soon cut asunder the thread
of our conversation.

LIS. If you can convert me to be an admirer of such a subject, or even
to endure it, you will work wonders; and, unless you promise to do so,
I know not whether I shall suffer you to begin.

PHIL. Begin, my dear Lysander. A mind disposed to listen attentively
is sometimes half converted. O, how I shall rejoice to see this
bibliographical incendiary going about to buy up copies of the very
works which he has destroyed! Listen, I entreat you, Lisardo.

LIS. I am all attention; for I see the clouds gathering in the south,
and a gloomy, if not a showery, mid-day, promises to darken this
beauteous morning. 'Twill not be possible to attend the antiques at
Malvolio's sale.

LYSAND. Whether the sun shine, or the showers fall, I will make an
attempt--not to convert, but to state simple truths: provided you
"lend me your ears."

PHIL. And our hearts too. Begin: for the birds drop their notes, and
the outlines of the distant landscape are already dimmed by the
drizzling rain.

LYSAND. You call upon me as formally as the shepherds call upon one
another to sing in Virgil's eclogues. But I will do my best.

It is gratifying to the English nation--whatever may have been
the strictures of foreigners[99] upon the paucity of their
bibliographico-literary works in the 16th century--that the earliest
printed volume upon the love and advantages of book-collecting was the
_Philobiblion_[100] of RICHARD DE BURY; who was bishop of Durham at
the close of the 14th century, and tutor to Edward III. I will at
present say nothing about the merits and demerits of this short
treatise; only I may be permitted to observe, with satisfaction, that
the head of the same see, at the present day, has given many proofs of
his attachment to those studies, and of his reward of such merit as
attracted the notice of his illustrious predecessor. It is with pain
that I am compelled to avow the paucity of publications, in our own
country, of a nature similar to the _Philobiblion_ of De Bury, even
for two centuries after it was composed; but while Leland was making
his library-tour, under the auspices of that capricious tyrant Henry
VIII., many works were planned _abroad_, which greatly facilitated the
researches of the learned.

     [Footnote 99: "Anglica gens longe fuit negligentior in
     consignandis ingeniorum monumentis; nihil enim ab illis
     prodiit, quod mereatur nominari, cum tamen sint extentque
     pene innumera ingeniossimæ gentis in omnibus doctrinis
     scripta, prodeantque quotidie, tam Latina, quam vernacula
     lingua, plura," Morhof: _Polyhist. Literar._ vol. i. 205,
     edit. 1747.

     Reimmannus carries his strictures, upon the jealousy of
     foreigners at the success of the Germans in bibliography,
     with a high hand: "Ringantur Itali, nasum incurvent Galli,
     supercilium adducant Hispani, scita cavilla serant Britanni,
     frendeant, spument, bacchentur ii omnes, qui præstantiam
     MUSARUM GERMANICARUM limis oculis aspiciunt," &c.--"hoc
     tamen certum, firmum, ratum, et inconcussum est, GERMANOS
     primos fuisse in Rep. Literaria, qui Indices Librorum
     Generales, Speciales et Specialissimos conficere, &c. annisi
     sunt."--A little further, however, he speaks respectfully of
     our James, Hyde, and Bernhard. See his ably-written _Bibl.
     Acroamatica_, pp. 1, 6.]

     [Footnote 100: "_Sive de Amore Librorum._" The first
     edition, hitherto so acknowledged, of this entertaining
     work, was printed at Spires, by John and Conrad Hist, in
     1483, 4to., a book of great rarity--according to Clement,
     vol. v. 435; Bauer (_Suppl. Bibl. Libr. Rarior_, pt. i.
     276); Maichelius, p. 127; and Morhof, vol. i. 187. Mons. De
     La Serna Santander has assigned the date of 1473 to this
     edition: see his _Dict. Bibliog. Chois._ vol. ii. 257,--but,
     above all, consult Clement--to whom Panzer, vol. iii. p. 22,
     very properly refers his readers. And yet some of Clement's
     authorities do not exactly bear him out in the
     identification of this impression. Mattaire, vol. i. 449,
     does not appear to have ever seen a copy of it: but, what is
     rather extraordinary, Count Macarty has a copy of a Cologne
     edition in 4to., of the date of 1473. No other edition of it
     is known to have been printed till the year 1500; when two
     impressions of this date were published at Paris, in 4to.:
     the one by Philip for Petit, of which both Clement and
     Fabricius (_Bibl. Med. et Inf. Ætat._ vol. i. 842, &c.) were
     ignorant; but of which, a copy, according to Panzer, vol.
     ii. 336, should seem to be in the public library at
     Gottingen; the other, by Badius Ascensius, is somewhat more
     commonly known. A century elapsed before this work was
     deemed deserving of republication; when the country that had
     given birth to, and the university that had directed the
     studies of, its illustrious author, put forth an inelegant
     reprint of it in 4to. 1599--from which some excerpts will be
     found in the ensuing pages--but in the meantime the reader
     may consult the title-page account of Herbert, vol. iii. p.
     1408. Of none of these latter editions were the sharp eyes
     of Clement ever blessed with a sight of a copy! See his
     _Bibl. Curcuse_, &c. vol. v. 438.

     The 17th century made some atonement for the negligence of
     the past, in regard to RICHARD DE BURY. At Frankfort his
     _Philobiblion_ was reprinted, with "a Century of
     Philological Letters," collected by Goldastus, in 1610,
     8vo--and this same work appeared again, at Leipsic, in 1674,
     8vo. At length the famous Schmidt put forth an edition, with
     some new pieces, "typis et sumtibus Georgii Wolffgangii
     Hammii, Acad. Typog. 1703," 4to. Of this latter edition,
     neither Maichelius nor the last editor of Morhof take
     notice. It may be worth while adding that the subscription
     in red ink, which Fabricius (_ibid._) notices as being
     subjoined to a vellum MS. of this work, in his own
     possession--and which states that it was finished at
     Auckland, in the year 1343, in the 58th of its author, and
     at the close of the 11th year of his episcopacy--may be
     found, in substance, in Hearne's edition of Leland's
     _Collectanea_, vol. ii. 385, edit. 1774.]

Among the men who first helped to clear away the rubbish that impeded
the progress of the student, was the learned and modest CONRAD GESNER;
at once a scholar, a philosopher, and a bibliographer: and upon whom
Julius Scaliger, Theodore Beza, and De Thou, have pronounced noble
eulogiums.[101] His _Bibliotheca Universalis_ was the first thing,
since the discovery of the art of printing, which enabled the curious
to become acquainted with the works of preceding authors: thus
kindling, by the light of such a lamp, the fire of emulation among his
contemporaries and successors. I do not pretend to say that the
_Bibliotheca_ of Gesner is any thing like perfect, even as far as it
goes: but, considering that the author had to work with his own
materials alone, and that the degree of fame and profit attached to
such a publication was purely speculative, he undoubtedly merits the
thanks of posterity for having completed it even in the manner in
which it has come down to us. Consider Gesner as the father of
bibliography; and if, at the sale of Malvolio's busts, there be one of
this great man, purchase it, good Lisardo, and place it over the
portico of your library.

     [Footnote 101: His _Bibliotheca_, or _Catalogus Universalis,
     &c._, was first printed in a handsome folio volume at
     Zurich, 1545. Lycosthyne put forth a wretched abridgement of
     this work, which was printed by the learned Oporinus, in
     4to., 1551. Robert Constantine, the lexicographer, also
     abridged and published it in 1555, Paris, 8vo.; and William
     Canter is said by Labbe to have written notes upon Simler's
     edition, which Baillet took for granted to be in existence,
     and laments not to have seen them; but he is properly
     corrected by De La Monnoye, who reminds us that it was a
     mere report, which Labbe gave as he found it. I never saw
     Simler's own editions of his excellent abridgement and
     enlargement of it in 1555 and 1574; but Frisius published
     it, with great improvements, in 1583, fol., adding many
     articles, and abridging and omitting many others. Although
     this latter edition be called the _edit. opt._ it will be
     evident that the _editio originalis_ is yet a desideratum in
     every bibliographical collection. Nor indeed does Frisius's
     edition take away the necessity of consulting a supplement
     to Gesner, which appeared at the end of the _Bibliothéque
     Françoise_ of Du Verdier, 1584. It may be worth stating that
     Hallevordius's _Bibliotheca Curiòsa_, 1656, 1687, 4to., is
     little better than a supplement to the preceding work.

     The _Pandects_ of Gesner, 1548, fol. are also well worth the
     bibliographer's notice. Each of the 20 books, of which the
     volume is composed, is preceded by an interesting dedicatory
     epistle to some eminent printer of day. Consult Baillet's
     _Jugemens des Savans_, vol. ii. p. 11. _Bibl. Creven._ vol.
     v. p. 278; upon this latter work more particularly; and
     Morhof's _Polyhistor. Literar._ vol. i. 197, and Vogt's
     _Catalog. Libr. Rarior._, p. 164: upon the former. Although
     the _Dictionnaire Historique_, published at Caen, in 1789,
     notices the botanical and lexicographical works of Gesner,
     it has omitted to mention these Pandects: which however, are
     uncommon.]

LIS. All this is very well. Proceed with the patriarchal age of your
beloved bibliography.

LYSAND. I was about resuming, with observing that our BALE speedily
imitated the example of Gesner, in putting forth his _Britanniæ
Scriptores_;[102] the materials of the greater part of which were
supplied by Leland. This work is undoubtedly necessary to every
Englishman, but its errors are manifold. Let me now introduce to your
notice the little work of FLORIAN TREFLER, published in 1560;[103]
also the first thing in its kind, and intimately connected with our
present subject. The learned, it is true, were not much pleased with
it; but it afforded a rough outline upon which Naudæus afterwards
worked, and produced, as you will find, a more pleasing and perfect
picture. A few years after this, appeared the _Erotemata_ of MICHAEL
NEANDER;[104] in the long and learned preface to which, and in the
catalogue of his and of Melancthon's works subjoined, some brilliant
hints of a bibliographical nature were thrown out, quite sufficient to
inflame the lover of book-anecdotes with a desire of seeing a work
perfected according to such a plan: but Neander was unwilling, or
unable, to put his design into execution. Bibliography, however, now
began to make rather a rapid progress; and, in France, the ancient
writers of history and poetry seemed to live again in the
_Bibliotheque Françoise_ of LA CROIX DU MAINE and DU VERDIER.[105] Nor
were the contemporaneous similar efforts of CARDONA to be despised: a
man, indeed, skilled in various erudition, and distinguished for his
unabating perseverance in examining all the MSS. and printed books
that came in his way. The manner, slight as it was, in which
Cardona[106] mentioned the Vatican library, aroused the patriotic
ardor of PANSA; who published his _Bibliotheca Vaticana_, in the
Italian language, in the year 1590; and in the subsequent year
appeared the rival production of ANGELUS ROCCHA, written in Latin,
under the same title.[107] The magnificent establishment of the
VATICAN PRESS, under the auspices of Pope Sixtus V. and Clement VIII.
and under the typographical direction of the grandson of Aldus,[108]
called forth these publications--which might, however, have been
executed with more splendour and credit.

     [Footnote 102: The first edition of this work, under the
     title of "_Illustrium maioris Britanniæ Scriptorum, hoc est,
     Anglæ, Cambriæ, ac Scotiæ summarium, in quasnam centurias
     divisum, &c._," was printed at Ipswich, in 1548, 4to.,
     containing three supposed portraits of Bale, and a spurious
     one of Wicliffe. Of the half length portrait of Bale, upon a
     single leaf, as noticed by Herbert, vol. iii. 1457, I have
     doubts about its appearance in all the copies. The above
     work was again published at Basil, by Opornius, in 1559,
     fol., greatly enlarged and corrected, with a magnificent
     half length portrait of Bale, from which the one in a
     subsequent part of this work was either copied on a reduced
     scale, or of which it was the prototype. His majesty has
     perhaps the finest copy of this last edition of Bale's
     _Scriptores Britanniæ_, in existence.]

     [Footnote 103: "Les Savans n'ont nullemont été satisfaits des
     règles prescrites par FLORIAN TREFFER (Trefler) le premièr
     dont on connoisse un écrit sur ce sujet [de la disposition
     des livres dans une bibliothèque]. Sa méthode de classer les
     livres fut imprimée à Augsbourg en 1560." Camus: _Memoires
     de l'Institut_. vol. i. 646. The title is "Methodus
     Ordinandi Bibliothecam," Augustæ, 1560. The extreme rarity
     of this book does not appear to have arisen from its
     utility--if the authority quoted by Vogt, p. 857, edit.
     1793, may be credited. Bauer repeats Vogt's account; and
     Teisser, Morhof, and Baillet, overlook the work.]

     [Footnote 104: It would appear, from Morhof, that NEANDER
     meditated the publication of a work similar to the
     _Pandects_ of Gesner; which would, in all probability, have
     greatly excelled it. The "_Erotemata Græcæ Linguæ_" was
     published at Basil in 1565, 8vo. Consult _Polyhist. Liter._
     vol. i. 199: _Jugemens des Savans_, vol. iii. art. 887, but
     more particularly Niceron's _Memoires des Hommes Illustres_,
     vol. xxx. In regard to Neander, Vogt has given the title at
     length (a sufficiently tempting one!) calling the work "very
     rare," and the preface of Neander (which is twice the length
     of the work) "curious and erudite." See his _Catalog.
     Libror. Rarior._, p. 614, edit. 1793.]

     [Footnote 105: LA CROIX DU MAINE'S book appeared toward the
     end of the year 1584; and that of his coadjutor, ANTHONY
     VERDIER, in the beginning of the subsequent year. They are
     both in folio, and are usually bound in one volume. Of these
     works, the first is the rarest and best executed; but the
     very excellent edition of both of them, by DE LA MONNOYE and
     JUVIGNY, in six volumes, 4to., 1772, which has realized the
     patriotic wishes of Baillet, leaves nothing to be desired in
     the old editions--and these are accordingly dropping fast
     into annihilation. It would appear from an advertisement of
     De Bure, subjoined to his catalogue of Count Macarty's
     books, 1779, 8vo., that there were then remaining only
     eleven copies of this new edition upon LARGE PAPER, which
     were sold for one hundred and twenty livres. Claude Verdier,
     son of Antony, who published a supplement to Gesner's
     Bibliotheca, and a "_Censio auctorum omnium veterum et
     recentiorum_," affected to censure his father's work, and
     declared that nothing but parental respect could have
     induced him to consent to its publication--but consult the
     _Jugemens des Savans_, vol. ii. 87-8, upon Claude's filial
     affection; and Morhof's _Polyhist. Literar._, vol. i., 176,
     concerning the "Censio," &c.--"misere," exclaims Morhof,
     "ille corvos deludit hiantes: nam ubi censuram suam exercet,
     manifestum hominis phrenesin facile deprehendas!" The
     ancient editions are well described in _Bibl. Creven._, vol.
     v., 277-8, edit. 1776--but more particularly by De Bure,
     nos. 6020-1. A copy of the ancient edition was sold at
     West's sale for 2_l._ 15_s._ See _Bibl. West._, No. 934.]

     [Footnote 106: JOHN BAPTIST CARDONA, a learned and
     industrious writer, and bishop of Tortosa, published a
     quarto volume at Tarracona, in 1537, 4to.--comprehending the
     following four pieces: 1. _De regia Sancti Lamentii
     Bibliotheca_: 2. _De Bibliothecis_ (_Ex Fulvio Ursino_,) et
     _De Bibliotheca Vaticana (ex Omphrii Schedis)_: 3. _De
     Expurgandis hæreticorum propriis nominibus_: 4. _De
     Dipthycis_. Of these, the first, in which he treats of
     collecting all manner of useful books, and having able
     librarians, and in which he strongly exhorts Philip II. to
     put the Escurial library into good order, is the most
     valuable to the bibliographer. Vogt, p. 224, gives us two
     authorities to shew the rarity of this book; and Baillet
     refers us to the _Bibliotheca Hispana_ of Antonio.]

     [Footnote 107: MUTIUS PANZA'S work, under the title of
     _Ragionamenti della Libraria Vaticana_, Rome, 1590, 4to.,
     and ANGELUS ROCCHA'S, that of _Bibliotheca Apostolica
     Vaticana, Rome_, 1591, 4to., relate rather to the ornaments
     of architecture and painting, than to a useful and critical
     analysis, or a numbered catalogue, of the books within the
     Vatican library. The authors of both are accused by Morhof
     of introducing quite extraneous and uninteresting matter.
     Roccha's book, however, is worth possessing, as it is
     frequently quoted by bibliographers. How far it may be
     "Liber valde quidem rarus," as Vogt intimates, I will not
     pretend to determine. It has a plate of the Vatican Library,
     and another of St. Peter's Cathedral. The reader may
     consult, also, the _Jugemens des Savans_, vol. ii., p. 141.
     My copy of this work, purchased at the sale of Dr. Heath's
     books, has a few pasted printed slips in the margins--some
     of them sufficiently curious.]

     [Footnote 108: Consult Renouard's _L'Imprimerie des Alde_,
     vol. ii., 122, &c. One of the grandest works which ever
     issued from the Vatican press, under the superintendence of
     Aldus, was the vulgate bible of Pope Sixtus V., 1590, fol.,
     the copies of which, upon LARGE PAPER, are sufficiently well
     known and coveted. A very pleasing and satisfactory account
     of this publication will be found in the _Horæ Biblicæ_ of
     Mr. Charles Butler, a gentleman who has long and justly
     maintained the rare character of a profound lawyer, an
     elegant scholar, and a well-versed antiquary and
     philologist.]

Let us here not forget that the celebrated LIPSIUS condescended to
direct his talents to the subject of libraries; and his very name, as
Baillet justly remarks, "is sufficient to secure respect for his
work," however slender it may be.[109] We now approach, with the
mention of Lipsius, the opening of the 17th century; a period
singularly fertile in bibliographical productions. I will not pretend
to describe, minutely, even the leading authors in this department.
The works of PUTEANUS can be only slightly alluded to, in order to
notice the more copious and valuable ones of POSSEVINUS and of
SCHOTTUS;[110] men who were ornaments to their country, and whose
literary and bibliographical publications have secured to them the
gratitude of posterity. While the labours of these authors were
enriching the republic of literature, and kindling all around a love
of valuable and curious books, the _Bibliotheca Historica_ of
BOLDUANUS, and the _Bibliotheca Classica_ of DRAUDIUS[111] highly
gratified the generality of readers, and enabled the student to
select, with greater care and safety, such editions of authors as were
deserving of a place in their libraries.

     [Footnote 109: LIPSIUS published his _Syntagma de
     Bibliothecis_, at Antwerp, in 1603, 4to., "in quo de ritibus
     variis et antiquitatibus circa rem bibliothecariam agitur."
     An improved edition of it, by Maderus, was printed at
     Helmstadt, in 1666, 4to., with other curious bibliographical
     opuscula. A third edition of it was put forth by Schmid, at
     the same place, in 1702, 4to. Consult Morhof. _Poly. Lit._,
     vol. i., 188.]

     [Footnote 110: "Scripsit et ERYCIUS PUTEANUS librum _De Usu
     Bibliothecæ et quidem speciatim Bibliothecæ Ambrosianæ
     Mediol._, in 8vo., 1606, editum, aliumque, cui titulus
     _Auspicia Bibliothecæ Lovaniensis_, an. 1639, in 4to."
     Morhof. "It is true," says Baillet, "that this Puteanus
     passed for a gossipping sort of writer, and for a great
     maker of little books, but he was, notwithstanding, a very
     clever fellow." _Jugemens des Savans_, vol. ii., 150. In the
     _Bibl. Crev._, vol. v., 311, will be found one of his
     letters, never before published. He died in 1646. POSSEVINUS
     published a _Bibliotheca selecta_ and _Apparatus sacer_--of
     the former of which, the Cologne edition of 1607, folio, and
     of the latter, that of 1608, are esteemed the most complete.
     The first work is considered by Morhof as less valuable than
     the second. The "_Apparatus_" he designates as a book of
     rather extraordinary merit and utility. Of the author of
     both these treatises, some have extolled his talents to the
     skies, others have depreciated them in proportion. His
     literary character, however, upon the whole, places him in
     the first class of bibliographers. Consult the _Polyhist.
     Literar._, vol. i., 175. He was one of the earliest
     bibliographers who attacked the depraved taste of the
     Italian printers in adopting licentious capital-initial
     letters. Catherinot, in his _Art d'imprimer_, p. 3, makes
     the same complaint: so Baillet informs us, vol. i., pt. i.,
     p. 13, edit. 1725: vol. iii., pt. 1, p. 78. SCHOTTUS'S work,
     _de Bibl. claris Hispaniæ viris, France_, 1608, 4to., is
     forgotten in the splendour of Antonio's similar production;
     but it had great merit in its day. _Jugemens des Savans_,
     vol. ii., pt. 1, 132, edit. 1725.]

     [Footnote 111: BOLDUANUS published a _Theological_ (Jenæ,
     1614) and _Philosophico Philological_ (Jenæ, 1616), as well
     as an _Historical_ (Lipsiæ, 1620), library; but the latter
     work has the pre-eminence. Yet the author lived at too great
     a distance, wanting the requisite materials, and took his
     account chiefly from the Frankfort catalogues--some of which
     were sufficiently erroneous. _Polyhist. Literar._ vol. i.,
     199. See also the very excellent historical catalogue,
     comprehending the 1st chap. of Meusel's new edition of
     Struvius's _Bibl. Histor._, vol. i., p. 26. DRAUDIUS'S work
     is more distinguished for its arrangement than for its
     execution in detail. It was very useful, however, at the
     period when it was published. My edition is of the date of
     1611, 4to.: but a second appeared at Frankfort, in 1625,
     4to.]

The name of DU CHESNE can never be pronounced by a sensible Frenchman
without emotions of gratitude. His _Bibliotheca Historiarum Galliæ_
first published in the year 1627, 8vo.--although more immediately
useful to foreigners than to ourselves, is nevertheless worth
mentioning. Morhof, if I recollect aright, supposes there was a still
later edition; but he probably confused with this work the _Series
Auctorum, &c. de Francorum Historia_;[112] of which two handsome folio
editions were published by Cramoisy. French writers of bibliographical
eminence now begin to crowd fast upon us.

     [Footnote 112: The reader will find a good account of some
     of the scarcer works of Du Chesne in Vogt's _Catalog.
     Libror. Rarior._, p. 248, &c., and of the life and literary
     labours of this illustrious man in the 7th volume of
     Niceron's _Memoires des Hommes Illustres_.]

LIS. But what becomes of the English, Spanish, and Italian
bibliographers all this while?

LYSAND. The reproach of Morhof is I fear too just; namely that,
although we had produced some of the most learned, ingenious, and able
men in Europe--lovers and patrons of literature--yet our librarians,
or university scholars, were too lazy to acquaint the world with the
treasures which were contained in the several libraries around
them.[113] You cannot expect a field-marshal, or a statesman in
office, or a nobleman, or a rich man of extensive connections,
immersed in occupations both pressing and unavoidable--doggedly to set
down to a _Catalogue Raisonné_ of his books, or to an analysis of the
different branches of literature--while his presence is demanded in
the field, in the cabinet, or in the senate--or while all his bells,
at home, from the massive outer gate to the retired boudoir, are torn
to pieces with ringing and jingling at the annunciation of
visitors--you cannot, I say, my good Lisardo, call upon a person, thus
occupied, to produce--or expect from him, in a situation thus
harassed, the production of--any solid bibliographical publication;
but you have surely a right to expect that librarians, or scholars,
who spend the greater part of their time in public libraries, will
vouchsafe to apply their talents in a way which may be an honour to
their patrons, and of service to their country.[114] Not to walk with
folded arms from one extremity of a long room (of 120 feet) to
another, and stop at every window to gaze on an industrious gardener,
or watch the slow progress of a melancholy crow "making wing to the
rooky wood," nor yet, in winter, to sit or stand inflexibly before the
fire, with a duodecimo jest book or novel in their hands--but to look
around and catch, from the sight of so much wisdom and so much worth,
a portion of that laudable emulation with which the Gesners, the
Baillets, and the Le Longs were inspired; to hold intimate
acquaintance with the illustrious dead; to speak to them without the
fear of contradiction; to exclaim over their beauties without the
dread of ridicule, or of censure; to thank them for what they have
done in transporting us to other times, and introducing us to other
worlds; and constantly to feel a deep and unchangeable conviction of
the necessity of doing all the good in our power, and in our way, for
the benefit of those who are to survive us!

     [Footnote 113: See the note at p. 29, ante. "It is a pity,"
     says Morhof, "that the _Dutch_ had such little curiosity
     about the literary history of their country--but the
     _English_ were yet more negligent and incurious."--And yet,
     Germany, France, and Italy, had already abounded with
     treasures of this kind!!]

     [Footnote 114: Senebier, who put forth a very useful and
     elegantly printed catalogue of the MSS. in the public
     library of Geneva, 1779, 8vo., has the following
     observations upon this subject--which I introduce with a
     necessary proviso, or caution, that _now-a-days_ his
     reproaches cannot affect us. We are making ample amends for
     past negligence; for, to notice no others, the labours of
     those gentlemen who preside over the BRITISH MUSEUM
     abundantly prove our present industry. Thus speaks Senebier:
     'Ill sembleroit d'abord étonnant qu'on ait tant tradé à
     composer le Catalogue des Manuscripts de la Bibliothéque de
     Genéve; mais on peut faire plus raisonnablement ce reproche
     aux Bibliothécaires bien payés et uniquement occupés de leur
     vocation, qui sont les dépositaires de tant de collections
     précieuses qu'on voit en Italie, en France, en Allemagne, et
     en Angleterre; ils le mériteront d'autant mieux, qu'ils
     privent le public des piéces plus précieuses, et qu'ils ont
     plusieurs aids intelligens qui peuvent les dispenser de la
     partie le plus méchanique et la plus ennuyeuse de ce
     travail,' &c.]

PHIL. Hear him, hear him![115]

     [Footnote 115: This mode of exclamation or expression, like
     that of _cheering_ (vide p. 20, ante) is also peculiar to
     our own country; and it is uttered by both friend and foe.
     Thus, in the senate, when a speaker upon one side of the
     question happens to put an argument in a strong point of
     view, those of the same party or mode of thinking
     exclaim--_hear him, hear him!_ And if he should happen to
     state any thing that may favour the views, or the mode of
     thinking, of his opponents, these latter also take advantage
     of his eloquence, and exclaim, _hear him, hear him!_ Happy
     the man whom friend and foe alike delight to hear!]

LIS. But what is become, in the while, of the English, Italian, and
Spanish bibliographers--in the seventeenth century?

LYSAND. I beg pardon for the digression; but the less we say of these,
during this period, the better; and yet you must permit me to
recommend to you the work of PITSEUS, our countryman, which grows
scarcer every day.[116] We left off, I think, with the mention of Du
Chesne's works. Just about this time came forth the elegant little
work of NAUDÆUS;[117] which I advise you both to purchase, as it will
cost you but a few shillings, and of the aspect of which you may
inform yourselves by taking it down from yonder shelf. Quickly
afterwards CLAUDE CLEMENT, "haud passibus æquis," put forth his
_Bibliothecæ tam privatæ quam publicæ[118] extructio_, &c.; a work,
condemned by the best bibliographical judges. But the splendour of
almost every preceding bibliographer's reputation was eclipsed by that
arising from the extensive and excellent publications of LOUIS
JACOB;[119] a name at which, if we except those of Fabricius and
Muratori, diligence itself stands amazed; and concerning whose life
and labours it is to be regretted that we have not more extended
details. The harsh and caustic manner in which Labbe and Morhof have
treated the works of GADDIUS,[120] induce me only to mention his name,
and to warn you against looking for much corn in a barn choked with
chaff. We now approach the close of the seventeenth century; when,
stopping for a few minutes only, to pay our respects to CINELLI,
CONRINGIUS, and LOMEIER,[121] we must advance to do homage to the more
illustrious names of Labbe, Lambecius, and Baillet; not forgetting,
however, the equally respectable ones of Antonio and Lipenius.

     [Footnote 116: Pitseus's work "_De Rebus Anglicis_," Paris,
     1619, 4to., vol. i., was written in opposition to Bale's
     (vid. p. 31, ante). The author was a learned Roman Catholic;
     but did not live to publish the second volume. I was glad to
     give Mr. Ford, of Manchester, 1_l._ 16_s._ for a stained and
     badly bound copy of it.]

     [Footnote 117: "GABRIELE NAUDÆO nemo vixit suo tempore
     [Greek: empeirias] Bibliothecariæ peritior:" _Polyhist.
     Liter._, vol. i., 187. "Naudæi scripta omnia et singula
     præstantissima sunt," Vogt, p. 611. "Les ouvrages de Naudé
     firent oublier ce qui les avoient précédé." Camus, _Mem. de
     l'Institut._, vol. i., 646. After these eulogies, who will
     refuse this author's "_Avis pour dresser une Bibliothéque_,
     Paris, 1627, 1644, 8vo." a place upon his shelf? Unluckily,
     it rarely comes across the search of the keenest collector.
     The other, yet scarcer, productions of Naudé will be found
     well described in Vogt's _Catalog. Libror. Rarior._, p. 610.
     The reader of ancient politics may rejoice in the possession
     of what is called, the "_Mascurat_"--and "_Considerations
     politiques_"--concerning which Vogt is gloriously diffuse;
     and Peignot (who has copied from him, without
     acknowledgement--_Bibliogr. Curieuse_, pp. 49, 50,) may as
     well be consulted. But the bibliographer will prefer the
     "_Additions à l'Histoire de Louis XI._," 1630, 8vo., and
     agree with Mailchelius that a work so uncommon and so
     curious "ought to be reprinted." See the latter's amusing
     little book "_De Præcipuis Bibliothecis Parisiensibus_," pp.
     66, 67, &c. Naudæus was librarian to the famous Cardinal
     Mazarin, the great Mæcenas of his day; whose library,
     consisting of upwards of forty thousand volumes, was the
     most beautiful and extensive one which France had then ever
     seen. Its enthusiastic librarian, whom I must be allowed to
     call a very wonderful bibliomaniac, made constant journeys,
     and entered into a perpetual correspondence, relating to
     books and literary curiosities. He died at Abbeville in
     1653, in his 53rd year, on returning from Sweden, where the
     famous Christian had invited him. Naudæus's "_Avis, &c._",
     [ut supr.] was translated by Chaline; but his "_Avis à
     Nosseigneurs du Parlement, &c._" 1652, 4to.--upon the sale
     of the Cardinal's library--and his "_Remise de la
     Bihliothéque_ [Transcriber's Note: Bibliothèque] [Du
     Cardinal] _entre le mains de M. Tubeuf_, 1651," are much
     scarcer productions. A few of these particulars are gathered
     from Peignot's _Dict. de la Bibliolologie_ [Transcriber's
     Note: Bibliologie], vol. ii., p. 1--consult also his _Dict.
     Portatif de Bibliographie_, p. v. In the former work I
     expected a copious piece of biography; yet, short as it is,
     Peignot has subjoined a curious note from Naudé's
     "_Considerations politiques_"--in which the author had the
     hardihood to defend the massacre upon St. Bartholomew's day,
     by one of the strangest modes of reasoning ever adopted by a
     rational being.]

     [Footnote 118: This work, in four books, was published at
     Lyons, 1635, 4to. If it be not quite "Much ado about
     nothing"--it exhibits, at least, a great waste of ink and
     paper. Morhof seems to seize with avidity Baillet's lively
     sentence of condemnation--"Il y a trop de babil et trop de
     ce que nous appellons _fatras_," &c.]

     [Footnote 119: Le Pere LOUYS JACOB published his "_Traicté
     des plus belles Bibliothéques publiques et particulières,
     qui ont esté, et qui sont à présents dans le monde_," at
     Paris, in 1644--again in 1655, 8vo.--in which he first
     brought together the scattered notices relating to
     libraries, especially to modern ones. His work is well worth
     consultation; although Baillet and Morhof do not speak in
     direct terms of praise concerning it--and the latter seems a
     little angry at his giving the preference to the Parisian
     libraries over those of other countries. It must be
     remembered that this was published as an unfinished
     production: as such, the author's curiosity and research are
     highly to be commended. I have read the greater part of it
     with considerable satisfaction. The same person meditated
     the execution of a vast work in four folio volumes--called
     "_La Bibliothéque universelle de tous les Autheurs de
     France, qui ont escrits en quelque sorte de sciences et de
     langues_"--which, in fact, was completed in 1638: but, on
     the death of the author it does not appear what became of
     it. Jacob also gave an account of books as they were
     published at Paris, and in other parts of France, from the
     year 1643 to 1650; which was printed under the title of
     _Bibliographia Parisina_, Paris, 1651, 4to. Consult
     _Polyhist. Liter._, vol. i., pp. 189, 202: _Bibl. Creven._,
     vol. v., pp. 281, 287. _Jugemens des Savans_, vol. ii., p.
     151.]

     [Footnote 120: He published a work entitled "_De
     scriptoribus non-ecclesiasticis_," 1648, vol. i., 1649, vol.
     ii., folio: in which his opinions upon authors are given in
     the most jejune and rash manner. His other works, which
     would form a little library, are reviewed by Leti with
     sufficient severity: but the poor man was crack brained! And
     yet some curious and uncommon things, gleaned from MSS.
     which had probably never been unrolled or opened since their
     execution, are to be found in this "Sciolum Florentinum," as
     Labbe calls him. Consult the _Polyhist. Literar._, vol. i.,
     p. 175.]

     [Footnote 121: Magliabechi put CINELLI upon publishing his
     BIBLIOTHECA VOLANTE, 1677, 8vo., a pretty work, with a happy
     title!--being an indiscriminate account of some rare books
     which the author picked up in his travels, or saw in
     libraries. It was republished, with valuable additions, by
     Sancassani, at Venice, in 1734, 4to. See _Cat. de Lomenie_,
     No. 2563. Works of this sort form the ANA of
     bibliography! CONRINGIUS compiled a charming bibliographical
     work, in an epistolary form, under the title of _Bibliotheca
     Augusta_; which was published at Helmstadt, in 1661,
     4to.--being an account of the library of the Duke of
     Brunswick, in the castle of Wolfenbuttle. Two thousand
     manuscripts, and one hundred and sixteen thousand printed
     volumes, were then contained in this celebrated collection.
     Happy the owner of such treasures--happy the man who
     describes them! LOMEIER'S, or Lomejer's "_De Bibliothecis
     Liber singularis_," Ultraj, 1669-1680, 8vo., is considered
     by Baillet among the best works upon the subject of ancient
     and modern libraries. From this book, Le Sieur LE GALLOIS
     stole the most valuable part of his materials for his
     "_Traité des plus belles Bibliothéques de l'Europe_," 1685,
     1697--12mo.: the title at full length (a sufficiently
     imposing one!) may be seen in _Bibé. Crevenn._, vol. v., p.
     281; upon this latter treatise, Morhof cuttingly
     remarks--"Magnos ille titulus strepitus facit: sed pro
     thesauris carbones." _Polyhist. Literar._, vol. i., p. 191.
     See also "_Jugemens des Savans_," vol. ii., p. 152. Gallois
     dispatches the English libraries in little more than a page.
     I possess the second edition of Lomeier's book (1680--with
     both its title pages), which is the last and best--and an
     interesting little volume it is! The celebrated Grævius used
     to speak very favourably of this work.]

LIS. Pray discuss their works, or merits, _seriatim_, as the judges
call it; for I feel overwhelmed at the stringing together of such
trisyllabic names. These gentlemen, as well as almost every one of
their predecessors, are strangers to me; and you know my bashfulness
and confusion in such sort of company.

LYSAND. I hope to make you better acquainted with them after a slight
introduction, and so rid you of such an uncomfortable diffidence. Let
us begin with LABBE,[122] who died in the year 1667, and in the
sixtieth of his own age; a man of wonderful memory and of as wonderful
application--whose whole life, according to his biographers, was
consumed in gathering flowers from his predecessors, and thence
weaving such a chaplet for his own brows as was never to know decay.
His _Nova Bibliotheca_, and _Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum
Manuscriptorum_, are the principal works which endear his memory to
bibliographers. More learned than Labbe was LAMBECIUS;[123] whose
_Commentarii de Bibliotheca Cæsareâ-Vindobonensis_, with Nesselius's
supplement to the same, [1696, 2 vols. fol.] and Kollarius's new
edition of both, form one of the most curious and important, as well
as elaborate, productions in the annals of literature and
bibliography. Less extensive, but more select, valuable, and accurate,
in its choice and execution of objects, is the _Bibliotheca Hispana
Vetus et Nova_ of Nicholas ANTONIO;[124] the first, and the best,
bibliographical work which Spain, notwithstanding her fine palaces and
libraries, has ever produced. If neither Philemon nor yourself,
Lisardo, possess this latter work [and I do not see it upon the
shelves of this cabinet], seek for it with avidity; and do not fear
the pistoles which the purchase of it may cost you. LIPENIUS[125] now
claims a moment's notice; of whose _Bibliotheca Realis_ Morhof is
inclined to speak more favourably than other critics. 'Tis in six
volumes; and it appeared from the years 1679 to 1685 inclusive. Not
inferior to either of the preceding authors in taste, erudition, and
the number and importance of his works, was ADRIEN BAILLET;[126] the
simple pastor of Lardiéres, and latterly the learned and
indefatigable librarian of Lamoignon. His _Jugemens des Savans_,
edited by De la Monnoye, is one of those works with which no man, fond
of typographical and bibliographical pursuits, can comfortably
dispense. I had nearly forgotten to warn you against the capricious
works of BEUGHEM; a man, nevertheless, of wonderful mental elasticity;
but for ever planning schemes too vast and too visionary for the
human powers to execute.[127]

     [Footnote 122: "Vir, qui in texendis catalogis totam pene
     vitam consumpsit." "Homo ad Lexica et Catalogos conficiendos
     a naturâ factus." Such is Morhof's account of LABBE; who, in
     the works above-mentioned, in the text, has obtained an
     unperishable reputation as a bibliographer. The _Bibliotheca
     Bibliothecarum_, thick duodecimo, or crown octavo, has run
     through several impressions; of which the Leipsic edit. of
     1682, is as good as any; but TEISSER, in his work under the
     same title, 1686, 4to., has greatly excelled Labbe's
     production, as well by his corrections of errata as by his
     additions of some hundreds of authors. The _Bibliotheca
     Nummaria_ is another of Labbe's well-known performances: in
     the first part of which he gives an account of those who
     have written concerning medals--in the second part, of those
     who have publishe [Transcriber's Note: published] separate
     accounts of coins, weights, and measures. This is usually
     appended to the preceding work, and is so published by
     Teisser. The _Mantissa Suppellectilis_ was an unfinished
     production; and the _Specimen novæ Bibliothecæ
     Manuscriptorum Librorum_, Paris, 1653, 4to., is too
     imperfectly executed for the exercise of rigid criticism;
     although Baillet calls it 'useful and curious.' Consult the
     _Polyhist. Literar._, vol. i., 197, 203: and _Jugemens des
     Savans_, vol. ii., pt. 1, p. 24, edit. 1725. A list of
     Labbe's works, finished, unfinished, and projected, was
     published at Paris, in 1656 and 1662. He was joint editor
     with Cossart of that tremendously voluminous work--the
     "Collectio Maxima Conciliorum"--1672, 18 volumes, folio.]

     [Footnote 123: LAMBECIUS died at, one may almost say, the
     premature age of 52: and the above work (in eight folio
     volumes), which was left unfinished in consequence, (being
     published between the years 1665-79 inclusive) gives us a
     magnificent idea of what its author would have accomplished
     [see particularly Reimanni _Bibl. Acroamatica_, p. 51] had
     it pleased Providence to prolong so valuable an existence.
     It was originally sold for 24 _imperiali_; but at the
     commencement of the 18th century for not less than 80
     _thaleri_, and a copy of it was scarcely ever to be met
     with. Two reasons have been assigned for its great rarity,
     and especially for that of the 8th volume; the one, that
     Lambecius's heir, impatient at the slow sale of the work,
     sold many copies of it to the keepers of herb-stalls: the
     other, that, when the author was lying on his death-bed, his
     servant maid, at the suggestion and from the stinginess of
     the same heir, burnt many copies of this eighth volume
     [which had recently left the press] to light the fire in the
     chamber. This intelligence I glean from Vogt, p. 495: it had
     escaped Baillet and Morhof. But consult De Bure, vol. vi.,
     Nos. 6004-5. Reimannus published a _Bibliotheca
     Acroamatica_, Hanov., 1712, 8vo., which is both an
     entertaining volume and a useful compendium of Lambecius's
     immense work. But in the years 1766-82, KOLLARIUS published
     a new and improved edition of the entire commentaries, in
     six folio volumes; embodying in this gigantic undertaking
     the remarks which were scattered in his "_Analecta
     Monumentorum omnis ævi Vindobonensia_," in two folio
     volumes, 1761. A posthumous work of Kollarius, as a
     supplement to his new edition of Lambecius's Commentaries,
     was published in one folio volume, 1790. A complete set of
     these volumes of Kollarius's bibliographical labours,
     relating to the Vienna library, was in Serna Santander's
     catalogue, vol. iv., no. 6291, as well as in Krohn's: in
     which latter [nos. 3554, 3562] there are some useful
     notices. See my account of M. Denis: post. Critics have
     accused these "Commentaries concerning the MSS. in the
     imperial library at Vienna," as containing a great deal of
     rambling and desultory matter; but the vast erudition,
     minute research, and unabateable diligence of its author,
     will for ever secure to him the voice of public praise, as
     loud and as hearty as he has received it from his abridger
     Reimannus. In these volumes appeared the first account of
     the Psalter, printed at Mentz in 1457, which was mistaken by
     Lambecius for a MS. The reader will forgive my referring him
     to a little essay upon this and the subsequent Psalters,
     printed at Mentz, in 1459, 1490, &c., which was published by
     me in the 2nd volume of the _Athenæum_, p. 360, 490.]

     [Footnote 124: Morhof considers the labours of ANTONIO as
     models of composition in their way. His grand work began to
     be published in 1672, 2 vols., folio--being the _Bibliotheca
     Hispana Nova_: this was succeeded, in 1696, by the
     _Bibliotheca Hispana Antiqua_--in two folio volumes: the
     prefaces and indexes contain every thing to satisfy the
     hearts of Spanish Literati. A new edition of the first work
     was published at Madrid, in 1783, 2 vols., folio; and of the
     latter work, in 1788, 2 vols., folio.--These recent editions
     are very rarely to be met with in our own country: abroad,
     they seem to have materially lowered the prices of the
     ancient ones, which had become excessively scarce. See
     _Polyhist Literar._, vol. i., 203-4: _Dictionn. Bibliogr._,
     vol. iv., p. 22: and _Mem. de l'Inst._, vol. i., 651. Let us
     here not forget the learned Michael CASIRI'S _Bibliotheca
     Arabico-Hispana Escorialensis_, published in two superb
     folio volumes at Madrid in 1760. All these useful and
     splendid works place the Spaniards upon a high footing with
     their fellow-labourers in the same respectable career. De La
     Serna Santander tells us that Casiri's work is dear, and
     highly respected by the Literati. See _Cap. de Santander_,
     vol iv., no. 6296.]

     [Footnote 125: The _Bibliotheca Realis_, &c., of LIPENIUS
     contains an account of works published in the departments of
     _Jurisprudence_, _Medicine_, _Philosophy_, and _Theology_:
     of these, the _Bibliotheca Theologica_, et _Philosophica_,
     are considered by Morhof as the best executed. The _Bibl.
     Juridica_ was, however, republished at Leipsic in two folio
     volumes, 1757, with considerable additions. This latter is
     the last Leipsic reprint of it. Saxius notices only the
     re-impressions of 1720, 1736, 1742. See his _Onomast. Lit._,
     vol. v., 588. I will just notice the _Bibliotheca Vetus et
     Recens_ of KOENIGIUS, 1678, folio--as chart-makers notice
     shoals--to be avoided. I had long thrown it out of my own
     collection before I read its condemnation by Morhof. Perhaps
     the following account of certain works, which appear to have
     escaped the recollection of Lysander, may not be
     unacceptable. In the year 1653, Father RAYNAUD, whose
     lucubrations fill 20 folio volumes, published a quarto
     volume at Lyons, under the title of "_Erotemata de malis ac
     bonis Libris, deque justa aut injusta eorum conditione_;"
     which he borowed [Transcriber's Note: borrowed] in part from
     the "_Theotimus, seu de tollendis et expurgandis malis
     libris_," (Paris, 1549, 8vo.) of Gabriel PUHTHERB. Of these
     two works, if [Transcriber's Note: it] were difficult to
     determine which is preferable. The bibliographer need not
     deeply lament the want of either: consult the _Polyhist.
     Literar._, vol. i., 177. In the year 1670, VOGLER published
     a very sensible "_Universalis in notitiam cujusque generis
     bonorum Scriptorum Introductio_"--of this work two
     subsequent editions, one in 1691, the other in 1700, 4to.,
     were published at Helmstadt. The last is the best; but the
     second, to him who has neither, is also worth purchasing.
     The seven dissertations "_De Libris legendis_" of BARTHOLIN,
     Hafniæ, 1676, 8vo., are deserving of a good coat and a front
     row in the bibliographer's cabinet. "Parvæ quidem molis
     liberest, sed in quo quasi constipata sunt utilissima de
     libris monita et notitiæ ad multas disciplinas utiles." So
     speaks Morhof.]

     [Footnote 126: ADRIEN BAILLET was the eldest of seven
     children born in a second marriage. His parents were in
     moderate circumstances: but Adrien very shortly displaying a
     love of study and of book-collecting, no means, compatible
     with their situation, were left untried by his parents to
     gratify the wishes of so promising a child. From his
     earliest youth, he had a strong predilection for the church;
     and as a classical and appropriate education was then easily
     to be procured in France, he went from school to college,
     and at seventeen years of age had amassed, in two fair sized
     volumes, a quantity of extracts from clever works; which,
     perhaps having Beza's example in his mind, he entitled
     _Juvenilia_. His masters saw and applauded his diligence;
     and a rest of only five hours each night, during two years
     and a half of this youthful period, afforded Baillet such
     opportunities of acquiring knowledge as rarely fall to the
     lot of a young man. This habit of short repose had not
     forsaken him in his riper years: "he considered and treated
     his body as an insolent enemy, which required constant
     subjection; he would not suffer it to rest more than five
     hours each night; he recruited it with only one meal a
     day--drank no wine--never came near the fire--and walked out
     but once a week." The consequence of this absurd regime was
     that Baillet had ulcers in his legs, an erysipelatous
     affection over his body, and was, in other respects,
     afflicted as sedentary men usually are, who are glued to
     their seats from morn till night, never mix in society, and
     rarely breathe the pure air of heaven. These maladies
     shortened the days of Baillet; after he had faithfully
     served the LAMOIGNONS as a librarian of unparalleled
     diligence and sagacity; leaving behind him a "_Catalogue des
     Matieres_," in 35 volumes folio. "All the curious used to
     come and see this catalogue: many bishops and magistrates
     requested to have either copies or abridgments of it." When
     Baillet was dragged, by his friend M. Hermant, from his
     obscure vicarage of Lardiéres, to be Lamoignon's librarian,
     he seems to have been beside himself for joy.--"I want a man
     of such and such qualities," said Lamoignon.--"I will bring
     one exactly to suit you," replied Hermant--"but you must put
     up with a diseased and repulsive exterior."--"Nous avons
     besoin de fond," said the sensible patron, "la forme ne
     m'embarasse point; l'air de ce pays, et un grain de sel
     discret, fera le reste: il en trouvera ici." Baillet came,
     and his biographer tells us that Lamoignon and Hermant
     "furent ravis de le voir." To the eternal honour of the
     family in which he resided, the crazy body and nervous mind
     of Baillet met with the tenderest treatment. Madame
     Lamoignon and her son (the latter, a thorough bred
     bibliomaniac; who, under the auspices of his master, soon
     eclipsed the book celebrity of his father) always took a
     pleasure in anticipating his wishes, soothing his
     irritabilities, promoting his views, and speaking loudly and
     constantly of the virtues of his head and heart. The last
     moments of Baillet were marked with true Christian piety and
     fortitude; and his last breath breathed a blessing upon his
     benefactors. He died A.D. 1706, ætatis 56. Rest his ashes in
     peace!--and come we now to his bibliographical publications.
     His "_Jugemens des Savans_," was first published in 1685,
     &c., in nine duodecimo volumes. Two other similar volumes of
     _Anti Baillet_ succeeded it. The success and profits of this
     work were very considerable. In the year 1722, a new edition
     of it in seven volumes, quarto, was undertaken and completed
     by De La Monnoye, with notes by the editor, and additions of
     the original author. The "Anti Baillet" formed the 8th
     volume. In the year 1725, De La Monnoye's edition, with his
     notes placed under the text--the corrections and additions
     incorporated--and two volumes of fresh matter, including the
     Anti Baillet--was republished at Amsterdam, in eight
     duodecimo volumes, forming 16 parts, and being, in every
     respect, the best edition of the _Jugemens des Savans_. The
     curious, however, should obtain the portrait of Baillet
     prefixed to the edition of 1722; as the copy of it in the
     latter edition is a most wretched performance. These
     particulars, perhaps a little too long and tedious, are
     gleaned from the "Abregé" de la Vie de Baillet, printed in
     the two last editions of the work just described.]

     [Footnote 127: It will not be necessary to notice _all_ the
     multifarious productions, in MS. and in print, of this
     indefatigable bibliographer; who had cut out work enough for
     the lives of ten men, each succeeding the other, and well
     employed from morn 'till even, to execute. This is
     Marchand's round criticism: _Dict. Hist._ vol. i., p. 100.
     Beughem's _Incunabula Typographica_, 1688, 12mo., is both
     jejune and grossly erroneous. The "_Bibliographia Eruditorum
     Critico-Curiosa_," 1689, 1701, 4 vols., 12mo., being an
     alphabetical account of writers--extracts from whom are in
     the public literary Journals of Europe from 1665 to
     1700--with the title of their works--is Beughem's best
     production, and if each volume had not had a separate
     alphabet, and contained additions upon additions, the work
     would have proved highly useful. His "_Gallia Euridita_,"
     Amst., 1683, 12mo., is miserably perplexing. In addition to
     Marchand, consult the _Polyhist. Literar._ of Morhof, vol.
     i., p. 179; and the note therein subjoined. See also "_Bibl.
     Creven._," vol. v., p. 298: _Cat. de Santander_, vol. iv.,
     nos. 6273-4: 6281-2.]

PHIL. You have at length reached the close of the 17th century; but my
limited knowledge of bibliographical literature supplies me with the
recollection of two names which you have passed over: I mean, THOMAS
BLOUNT and ANTONY-A-WOOD. There is surely something in these authors
relating to editions of the works of the learned.

LYSAND. You have anticipated me in the mention of these names. I had
not forgotten them. With the former,[128] I have no very intimate
acquaintance; but of the latter I could talk in commendation till
dinner time. Be sure, my good Lisardo, that you obtain _both_ editions
of the _Athenæ Oxoniensis_.[129]

     [Footnote 128: Sir Thomas Pope Blount's "_Censura
     Celebriorum Authorum_," Londini, 1690, folio, is
     unquestionably a learned work--the production of a rural and
     retired life--"Umbraticam enim vitam et ab omni strepitu
     remotam semper in delitiis habui,"--says its author, in the
     preface. It treats chiefly of the most learned men, and
     sparingly of the English. His "_Remarks upon Poetry_,"
     Lond., 1694, 4to. (in English) is more frequently read and
     referred to. It is a pity that he had not left out the whole
     of what relates to the Greek and Latin, and confined himself
     entirely to the English, poets. A life of Sir Thomas Pope
     Blount will be found in the new edition of the _Biographia
     Britannica_.]

     [Footnote 129: The first, and, what Hearne over and over
     again calls the genuine edition of the _Athenæ Oxoniensis_,
     was published in two folio volumes, 1691, 1692. That a
     _third_ volume was intended by the author himself may be
     seen from Hearne's remarks in his _Thom. Caii. Vind. Antiq.
     Oxon._, vol. i., p. xliii. For the character of the work
     consult his _Rob. de Avesb._, pp. xxvi, xxxiii. After the
     lapse of nearly half a century, it was judged expedient to
     give a new edition of these valuable biographical memoirs;
     and Dr. Tanner, afterwards bishop of St. Asaph, was selected
     to be the editor of it. It was well known that Wood had not
     only made large corrections to his own printed text, but had
     written nearly _500_ new lives--his MS. of both being
     preserved in the Ashmolean Museum. This new edition,
     therefore, had every claim to public notice. When it
     appeared, it was soon discovered to be a corrupt and garbled
     performance; and that the genuine text of Wood, as well in
     his correctness of the old, as in his compositions of the
     new, lives, had been most capriciously copied. Dr. Tanner,
     to defend himself, declared that Tonson "would never let him
     see one sheet as they printed it." This was sufficiently
     infamous for the bookseller; but the editor ought surely to
     have abandoned a publication thus faithlessly conducted, or
     to have entered his caveat in the preface, when it did
     appear, that he would not be answerable for the authenticity
     of the materials: neither of which were done. He wrote,
     however, an exculpatory letter to Archbishop Wake, which the
     reader may see at length in Mr. Beloe's _Anecdotes of
     Literature_, vol. ii., p. 304. Consult the life of the
     author in Mr. Gutch's valuable reprint of Wood's "_History
     and Antiquities of the University of Oxford_," 1792, 4to., 2
     vols.: also, Freytag's _Analect. Literar._, vol. ii., 1105.
     I have great pleasure in closing this note, by observing
     that Mr. Philip Bliss, of St. John's College, Oxford, is
     busily engaged in giving us, what we shall all be glad to
     hail, a new and faithful edition of Wood's text of the
     _Athenæ Oxoniensis_, in five or six quarto volumes.]

We have now reached the boundaries of the 17th century, and are just
entering upon the one which is past: and yet I have omitted to mention
the very admirable _Polyhistor. Literarius_ of MORHOF:[130] a work by
which I have been in a great measure guided in the opinions pronounced
upon the bibliographers already introduced to you. This work, under a
somewhat better form, and with a few necessary omissions and
additions, one could wish to see translated into our own language. The
name of MAITTAIRE strikes us with admiration and respect at the very
opening of the 18th century. His elaborate _Annales Typographici_ have
secured him the respect of posterity.[131] LE LONG, whose pursuits
were chiefly biblical and historical, was his contemporary; an able,
sedulous, and learned bibliographer. His whole soul was in his
library; and he never spared the most painful toil in order to
accomplish the various objects of his inquiry.[132] And here, my dear
friends, let me pay a proper tribute of respect to the memory of an
eminently learned and laborious scholar and bibliographer: I mean JOHN
ALBERT FABRICIUS. His labours[133] shed a lustre upon the scholastic
annals of the 18th century; for he opened, as it were, the gates of
literature to the inquiring student; inviting him to enter the field
and contemplate the diversity and beauty of the several flowers which
grew therein--telling him by whom they were planted, and explaining
how their growth and luxuriancy were to be regulated. There are few
instructors to whom we owe so much; none to whom we are more indebted.
Let his works, therefore, have a handsome binding, and a conspicuous
place in your libraries: for happy is that man who has them at hand to
facilitate his inquiries, or to solve his doubts. While Fabricius was
thus laudably exercising his great talents in the cause of ancient
literature, the illustrious name of LEIBNITZ[134] appeared as author
of a work of essential utility to the historian and bibliographer. I
allude to his _Scriptores Rerum Brunwicensium_, which has received a
well pointed compliment from the polished pen of Gibbon. After the
successful labours of Fabricius and Leibnitz, we may notice those of
STRUVIUS! whose _Historical Library_[135] should be in every
philological collection.

     [Footnote 130: DANIEL GEORGE MORHOF, professor of poetry,
     eloquence, and history, was librarian of the University of
     Khiel. He published various works, but the above--the best
     edition of which is of the date of 1747--is by far the most
     learned and useful--"liber non sua laude privandus; cum
     primus fere fuerit Morhofius qui hanc amoeniorum literarum
     partem in meliorum redigerit." _Vogt._, pref. ix., edit.
     1793. Its leading error is the want of method. His
     "_Princeps Medicus_," 1665, 4to., is a very singular
     dissertation upon the cure of the evil by the royal touch;
     in the efficacy of which the author appears to have
     believed. His "_Epistola de scypho vitreo per sonum humanæ
     vocis rupto_," Kiloni, 1703, 4to.--which was occasioned by a
     wine merchant of Amsterdam breaking a wine-glass by the
     strength of his voice--is said to be full of curious matter.
     Morhof died A.D. 1691, in his 53rd year: beloved by all who
     knew the excellent and amiable qualities of his head and
     heart. He was so laborious that he wrote during his meals.
     His motto, chosen by himself,--PIETATE, CANDORE, PRUDENTIA,
     should never be lost sight of by bibliomaniacs! His library
     was large and select. These particulars are gleaned from the
     _Dict. Historique_, Caen, 1789, vol. vi., p. 350.]

     [Footnote 131: A compendious account of MAITTAIRE will be
     found in the third edition of my _Introduction to the
     Knowledge of rare and valuable Editions of the Greek and
     Latin Classics_, vol. i., p. 148. See too Mr. Beloe's
     _Anecdotes of Literature, &c._, vol iii., p. ix. The various
     volumes of his _Annales Typographici_ are well described in
     the _Bibl. Crevenn._, vol. v. p. 287. To these may be added,
     in the bibliographical department, his _Historia
     Stephanorum, vitas ipsorum ac libros complectens_, 1709,
     8vo.--and the _Historia Typographorum aliquot Parisiensium
     vitas et libros complectens_, 1717, 8vo.--Of these two
     latter works, (which, from a contemporaneous catalogue, I
     find were originally published at 4_s._ the common paper,)
     Mr. T. Grenville has beautiful copies upon LARGE PAPER. The
     books are rare in any shape. The principal merit of
     Maittaire's _Annales Typographici_ consists in a great deal
     of curious matter detailed in the notes; but the absence of
     the "lucidus ordo" renders the perusal of these fatiguing
     and unsatisfactory. The author brought a full and
     well-informed mind to the task he undertook--but he wanted
     taste and precision in the arrangement of his materials. The
     eye wanders over a vast indigested mass; and information,
     when it is to be acquired with excessive toil, is,
     comparatively, seldom acquired. Panzer has adopted an
     infinitely better plan, on the model of Orlandi; and if his
     materials had been _printed_ with the same beauty with which
     they appear to have been composed, and his annals had
     descended to as late a period as those of Maittaire, his
     work must have made us eventually forget that of his
     predecessor. The bibliographer is, no doubt, aware that of
     Maittaire's first volume there are two editions: why the
     author did not reprint, in the second edition (1733), the
     fac-simile of the epigram and epistle of Lascar prefixed to
     the edition of the Anthology, 1496, and the Disquisition
     concerning the ancient editions of Quintilian (both of which
     were in the first edition of 1719), is absolutely
     inexplicable. Maittaire was sharply attacked for this
     absurdity, in the "Catalogus Auctorum," of the "_Annus
     Tertius Sæcularis Inv. Art. Typog._," Harlem, 1741, 8vo., p.
     11. "Rara certe Librum augendi methodus! (exclaims the
     author) Satis patet auctorem hoc eo fecisse concilio, ut et
     primæ et secundæ Libri sui editioni pretium suum constaret,
     et una æque ac altera Lectoribus necessaria esset." Copies
     of the Typographical Antiquities by Maittaire, upon LARGE
     PAPER, are now exceedingly scarce. The work, in this shape,
     has a noble appearance. While Maittaire was publishing his
     Typographical Annals, ORLANDI put forth a similar work under
     the title of "_Origine e Progressi della Stampa o sia dell'
     Arte Impressoria, e Notizie dell' Opere stampate dall' Anno
     1462, sino all' Anno 1500_." Bologna, 1722, 4to. Of this
     work, which is rather a compendious account of the several
     books published in the period above specified, there are
     copies upon strong WRITING PAPER--which the curious prefer.
     Although I have a long time considered it as superseded by
     the labours of Maittaire and Panzer, yet I will not withhold
     from the reader the following critique: "Cet ouvrage doit
     presque nécessairement être annexé à celui de Maittaire à
     cause de plusieurs notices et recherches, qui le rendent
     fort curieux et intéressant." _Bibl. Crevenn._, vol. v.,
     286-7. As we are upon publications treating of Typography,
     we may notice the "_Annalium Typographicorum selecta quædam
     capita_," Hamb., 1740, 4to., of LACKMAN; and HIRSCHIUS'S
     supplement to the typographical labours of his
     predecessors--in the "_Librorum ab Anno I. usque ad Annum L.
     Sec. xvi. Typis exscriptorum ex Libraria quadam
     supellectile, Norimbergæ collecta et observata, Millenarius
     I._" &c. Noriberg, 1746, 4to. About this period was
     published a very curious, and now uncommon, octavo volume,
     of about 250 pages, by SEIZ; called "_Annus Tertius
     Sæcularis Inventæ Artis Typographicæ_," Harlem, 1741--with
     several very interesting cuts relating to Coster, the
     supposed inventor of the art of printing. It is a little
     strange that Lysander, in the above account of eminent
     typographical writers, should omit to mention
     CHEVILLIER--whose _L'Origine de l'Imprimerie de Paris, &c._,
     1694, 4to., is a work of great merit, and is generally found
     upon every bibliographer's shelf. Baillet had supplied him
     with a pretty strong outline, in his short account of
     Parisian printers. All the copies of Chevillier's book,
     which I have seen, are printed upon what is called Foxey
     paper. I believe there are none upon LARGE PAPER. We may
     just notice LA CAILLE'S _Histoire de l'Imprimerie et de la
     Librarie_, 1689, 4to., as a work full of errors. In order
     that nothing may be wanting to complete the typographical
     collection of the curious, let the "portraits of booksellers
     and printers, from ancient times to our own," published at
     Nuremberg, in 1726, folio--and "the Devices and Emblems" of
     the same, published at the same place, in 1730, folio, be
     procured, if possible. The Latin titles of these two latter
     works, both by SCHOLTZIUS, will be found in the _Bibl.
     Crevenn._ vol. v. 281. Renouard mentions the last in his
     "_Annales de l'Imprimerie des Alde_," vol. ii. p. 63.
     Meanwhile the _Monumenta Typographica_ of WOLFIUS, Hamb.,
     1740, 2 vols., 8vo., embraces a number of curious and
     scattered dissertations upon this interesting and valuable
     art. It may be obtained for 8_s._ or 10_s._ at present! The
     _Amoenitatus [Transcriber's Note: Amoenitates]
     Literariæ, &c._, of SCHELHORN had like to have been passed
     over. It was published in 14 small octavo volumes, at
     Frankfort and Leipsic, from the year 1725 to 1731 inclusive.
     The _Amoenitates Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ et Literariæ_, of
     the same person, and published at the same place in two
     octavo volumes, 1738, should accompany the foregoing work.
     Both are scarce and sought after in this country. In the
     former there are some curious dissertations, with cuts, upon
     early printed books. Concerning the most ancient edition of
     the Latin Bibles, Schelhorn put forth an express treatise,
     which was published at Ulm in 1760, 4to. This latter work is
     very desirable to the curious in biblical researches, as one
     meets with constant mention of Schelhorn's bible. Let me not
     omit ZAPF'S _Annales Typographiæ Augustanæ_, Aug. Vindel.,
     1778; which was republished, with copious additions, at
     Augsbourg, in two parts, 1786, 4to.--but unluckily, this
     latter is printed in the German language. Upon Spanish
     Typography (a very interesting subject), there is a
     dissertation by Raymond Diosdado Caballero, entitled "_De
     Prima Typographiæ Hispanicæ Ætate Specimen_," Rome, 1793,
     4to.]

     [Footnote 132: From the Latin life of LE LONG, prefixed to
     his _Bibliotheca Sacra_, we learn that he was an adept in
     most languages, ancient and modern; and that "in that part
     of literature connected with BIBLIOGRAPHY (Typographorum et
     Librorum Historia), he retained every thing so correctly in
     his memory that he yielded to few literary men, certainly to
     no bookseller." Of the early years of such a man it is a
     pity that we have not a better account. His _Bibliotheca
     Sacra_, Paris, 1725, folio, has been republished by MASCH
     and BOERNER, in four volumes, 4to., 1778, and enriched with
     copious and valuable additions. This latter work is quite
     unrivalled: no young or old theologian, who takes any
     interest in the various editions of the Holy Scriptures, in
     almost all languages, can possibly dispense with such a fund
     of sacred literature. The _Bibliothéque Historique de la
     France_, 1719, folio, by the same learned and industrious
     bibliographer, has met with a fate equally fortunate.
     FONTETTE republished it in 1768, in five folio volumes, and
     has immortalized himself and his predecessor by one of the
     most useful and splendid productions that ever issued from
     the press. De Bure used to sell copies of it upon LARGE
     PAPER, in sheets, for 258 livres: according to the
     advertisement subjoined to his catalogue of Count Macarty's
     books in 1779, 8vo. The presses of England, which groan too
     much beneath the weight of ephemeral travels and trumpery
     novels, are doomed, I fear, long to continue strangers to
     such works of national utility.]

     [Footnote 133: The chief labours of Fabricius ("Vir [Greek:
     ellênichôtatos]"--as Reimannus truly calls him), connected
     with the present object of our pursuit, have the following
     titles: 1. "_Bibliotheca Græca, sive Notitia Scriptorum
     Græcorum, &c._," Hamb. 1705-8-14-18, &c., 4to., 14 vols.--of
     which a new edition is now published by HARLES, with great
     additions, and a fresh arrangement of the original matter:
     twelve volumes have already been delivered to the public. 2.
     _Bibliotheca Latina_; first published in one volume,
     1703--then in three volumes, 1721, and afterwards in two
     volumes, 1728, 4to.;--but the last and best edition is that
     of 1773, in three vols. 8vo., published by Ernesti at
     Leipsic--and yet not free from numerous errors. 3.
     _Bibliographia Antiquaria_, 1716, 4to.: a new edition of
     Schaffshausen, in 1760, 4to., has superseded the old one. A
     work of this kind in our own language would be very useful,
     and even entertaining. Fabricius has executed it in a
     masterly manner. 4. _Bibliotheca Ecclesiastica, in quâ
     continentur variorum authorum tractatus de scriptoribus
     ecclesiasticis_, Hamb., 1718, folio. An excellent work; in
     which the curious after theological tracts and their authors
     will always find valuable information. It is generally
     sharply contended for at book-auctions. 5. _Bibliotheca
     Latina Mediæ et Infimæ Ætatis, &c._, Leipsic, 1734, 6 vols.
     8vo.--again, with Schoettgenius's supplement, in 1754, 4to.,
     6 vols. in 3. This latter is in every respect the best
     edition of a work which is absolutely indispensable to the
     philologist. A very excellent synopsis or critical account
     of Fabricius's works was published at Ams., 1738, in 4to.,
     which the student should procure. Let me here recommend the
     _Historia Bibliothecæ Fabricianæ_, compiled by JOHN
     FABRICIUS, 1717-24, 6 vols. 4to., as a necessary and
     interesting supplement to the preceding works of John Albert
     Fabricius. I have often gleaned some curious bibliographical
     intelligence from its copious pages. The reader may consult
     _Bibl. Crevenn._, vol. v., 272-3.]

     [Footnote 134: He is noticed here only as the author of
     "_Idea Bibliothecæ Publicæ secundum classes scientiarum
     ordinandæ, fusior et contractior_," and of the "_Scriptores
     Rerum Brunswicarum_," Hanov., 1707, fol., 3 vols. "The
     antiquarian, who blushes at his alliance with Thomas Hearne,
     will feel his profession ennobled by the name of LEIBNITZ.
     That extraordinary genius embraced and improved the whole
     circle of human science; and, after wrestling with Newton
     and Clark in the sublime regions of geometry and
     metaphysics, he could descend upon earth to examine the
     uncouth characters and barbarous Latin of a chronicle or
     charter." Gibbon: _Post. Works_, vol. ii., 712. Consult also
     _Mem. de l'Inst._, vol. v., 648.]

     [Footnote 135: I will not pretend to enumerate all the
     learned works of BURCHARD GOTTHLIEB STRUVIUS. His
     "_Bibliotheca Librorum Rariorum_" was published in 1719,
     4to. The first edition of the _Bibliotheca Historica_
     appeared as early as 1705: a very valuable one was published
     by Buder, in 1740, 2 vols.: but the last, and by far the
     most copious and valuable, is that which exhibits the joint
     editorial labours of BUDER and MEUSEL, in eleven octavo
     volumes, 1782, 1802--though I believe it does not contain
     every thing which may be found in the edition of the _Bibl.
     Hist. Selecta_, by Jugler, 1754, three vols. 8vo.: vide pp.
     iv. and vii. of the preface of Meusel's edition. The _Bibl.
     Hist. Select._, by Jugler, was formerly published under the
     title of _Introd. in notitiam rei literariæ et usum
     Bibliothecæ_. Jugler's edition of it contains a stiff
     portrait of himself in a finely embroidered satin waistcoat.
     The first volume, relating to foreign libraries, is very
     interesting: but, unluckily, the work is rare. Of Struvius's
     _Bibl. Saxonica_, 1736, 8vo., I never saw a copy.]

PHIL. You are advancing towards the middle of the 18th century, in
enumerating foreign publications, without calling to mind that we
have, at home, many laudable publications relating to typography and
bibliography, which merit at least some notice, if not commendation.

LYSAND. I thank you for the reproof. It is true, I was running
precipitately to introduce a crowd of foreigners to your notice,
without paying my respects, by the way, to the _Historical Libraries_
of Bishop NICOLSON, the _Bibliotheca Literaria_ of WASSE, and the
_Librarian_ of WILLIAM OLDYS. Nor should I omit to mention the still
more creditable performance of Bishop TANNER: while the typographical
publications of WATSON, PALMER, and MIDDLETON,[136] may as well be
admitted into your libraries, if you are partial to such works;
although upon this latter subject, the elegant quarto volume of AMES
merits particular commendation.

     [Footnote 136: Let us go gently over this _British_ ground,
     which Lysander depictures in rather a flowery manner. The
     first edition of BISHOP NICOLSON'S _English Historical
     Library_ was published in the years 1696, 1697, and
     1699--comprehending the entire three parts. In 1702, came
     forth the _Scottish_ Historical library; and in 1724, the
     _Irish_ Historical Library. These three libraries, with the
     author's letter to Bishop Kennet in defence of the same, are
     usually published in one volume; and the last and best
     editions of the same are those of 1736, fol., and 1776, 4to.
     Mr. John Nichols has recently published an entertaining
     posthumous work of the bishop's _Epistolary Correspondence_,
     in two octavo volumes, 1809. Some of these letters throw
     light and interest upon the literature of the times. As to
     the authority of Bishop Nicolson, in his historical matters,
     I fear the sharp things which are said of his libraries by
     Tyrrell (Pref. to _Hist. Engl._, vol. ii., p. 5.), and Wood
     (_Athen. Brit._, vol. ii., col. 980, ed. 1721), all which
     authorities are referred to by Mr. Nichols, are sufficiently
     founded upon truth. He was a violent and wrong-headed writer
     in many respects; but he had acumen, strength, and fancy.
     The _Bibliotheca Literaria_ of WASSE (although his name does
     not appear as the professed editor) is a truly solid and
     valuable publication; worthy of the reputation of the
     learned editor of Sallust. The work was published in
     numbers, which were sold at one shilling each; but, I
     suppose from the paucity of classical readers, it could not
     be supported beyond the 10th number (1724); when it ceased
     to be published. Some of the dissertations are very
     interesting as well as erudite. OLDYS'S _British Librarian_
     was published in six numbers, during the first six months of
     the year 1737; forming, with the index, an octavo volume of
     402 pages. It is difficult to say, from the conclusion (p.
     373-4), whether the work was dropped for want of
     encouragement, or from the capriciousness or indolence of
     the author: but I suspect that the ground was suffered "to
     lie fallow" (to use his own words) till it was suffocated
     with weeds--owing to the _former_ cause: as Oldys never
     suffered his pen to lie idle while he could "put money in
     his purse" from his lucubrations. We shall speak of him more
     particularly in PART V. Meanwhile, the reader is informed
     that the _British Librarian_ is a work of no common
     occurrence, or mean value. It is rigidly correct, if not
     very learned, in bibliographical information. I once sent
     three guineas to procure a copy of it, according to its
     description, upon LARGE PAPER; but, on its arrival, I found
     it to be not quite so large as my own tolerably
     amply-margined copy. Bishop TANNER'S _Bibliotheca
     Britanico-Hibernica_, which cost the author forty years'
     labour, was published in 1748, folio; with a preface by Dr.
     Wilkins. We must receive it with many thanks, imperfect and
     erroneous as many parts of it are; but I hope the period is
     not very remote when a literary friend, living, as he
     constantly is, in an inexhaustible stock of British
     literature of all kinds, will give us a new edition, with
     copious additions and corrections, translated into our
     native tongue. _The History of the Art of Printing_ by
     WATSON, Edit., 1713, 8vo., is at best but a meagre
     performance. It happens to be rare, and, therefore,
     bibliomaniacs hunt after it. My copy of it, upon LARGE
     PAPER, cost me 1_l._ 8_s._ It was formerly Paton's, of
     Edinburgh, a knowing antiquary in Scottish printing. The
     _History of Printing_, by PALMER, 1733, 4to., and Dr.
     MIDDLETON'S _Dissertations upon the same_, 1735, 4to., have
     been particularly treated by me, as well as the similar
     works of AMES and HERBERT, in the first volume of my new
     edition of Herbert's _British Typographical Antiquities_;
     and the public is too well acquainted with the merits and
     demerits of each to require their being pointed out in the
     present place. I will close this note by observing that the
     _Censuria Literaria_, in ten volumes octavo; and the
     _British Bibliographer_ (now publishing) which grew out of
     it; Mr. BELOE'S _Anecdotes of Literature and Scarce Books_,
     six volumes, 8vo.; and Mr. Savage's continuation of _The
     British Librarian_; are works which render the list of
     English publications, relating to typography and curious
     books, almost complete. I believe I may safely affirm that
     the period is not very distant when some of these latter
     publications, from the comparatively few copies which were
     struck off, will become very rare.]

LIS. I am glad to hear such handsome things said of the performances
of our own countrymen. I was fearful, from your frequent sly
allusions, that we had nothing worth mentioning. But proceed with your
Germans, Italians, and Frenchmen.

LYSAND. You draw too severe a conclusion. I have made no sly
allusions. My invariable love of truth impels me to state facts as
they arise. That we have philosophers, poets, scholars, divines,
lovers and collectors of books, equal to those of any nation upon
earth is most readily admitted. But bibliography has never been, till
now, a popular (shall I say fashionable?) pursuit amongst the English.

LIS. Well, if what you call bibliography has produced such eminent
men, and so many useful works, as those which have been just
enumerated, I shall begin to have some little respect for this
department of literature; and, indeed, I already feel impatient to go
through the list of your bibliographical heroes.--Who is the next
champion deserving of notice?

LYSAND. This confession gives me sincere pleasure. Only indulge me in
my rambling manner of disquisition, and I will strive to satisfy you
in every reasonable particular.

If ever you should be disposed to form a bibliographical collection,
do not omit securing, when it comes across you, the best edition of Du
Fresnoy's[137] _Methode pour étudier l'Histoire_: it is rare, and
sought after in this country. And now--softly approach, and gently
strew the flowers upon, the tomb of worthy NICERON:[138] Low lies the
head, and quiescent has become the pen, of this most excellent and
learned man!--whose productions have furnished biographers with some
of their choicest materials, and whose devotion to literature and
history has been a general theme of admiration and praise. The mention
of this illustrious name, in such a manner, has excited in my mind a
particular train of ideas. Let me, therefore, in imagination, conduct
you both to yonder dark avenue of trees--and, descending a small
flight of steps, near the bottom of which gushes out a salient
stream--let us enter a spacious grotto, where every thing is cool and
silent; and where small alabaster busts, of the greater number of
those bibliographers I am about to mention, decorate the niches on
each side of it. How tranquil and how congenial is such a resting
place!--But let us pursue our inquires. Yonder sharp and well turned
countenances, at the entrance of the grotto, are fixed there as
representations of CARDINAL QUIRINI[139] and GOUJET; the _Bibliothéque
Françoise_ of the latter of whom--with which I could wish book
collectors, in general, to have a more intimate acquaintance--has
obtained universal reputation.[140] Next to him, you may mark the
amiable and expressive features of DAVID CLEMENT:[141] who, in his
_Bibliothéque Curieuse_, has shown us how he could rove, like a bee,
from flower to flower; sip what was sweet; and bring home his
gleanings to a well-furnished hive. The principal fault of this bee
(if I must keep up the simile) is that he was not sufficiently choice
in the flowers which he visited; and, of course, did not always
extract the purest honey. Nearly allied to Clement in sprightliness,
and an equally gossipping bibliographer, was PROSPER MARCHAND;[142]
whose works present us with some things no where else to be found,
and who had examined many curious and rare volumes; as well as made
himself thoroughly acquainted with the state of bibliography previous
to his own times.

     [Footnote 137: The last edition of this work is the one
     which was printed in fifteen volumes, crown 8vo., at Paris,
     1772: with a copious index--and proportionable improvements
     in corrections and additions. It is now rare. I threw out
     the old edition of 1729, four vols., 4to., upon LARGE PAPER;
     and paid three guineas to boot for the new one, neatly
     bound.]

     [Footnote 138: It is quite delightful to read the account,
     in the _Dict. Hist._, published at Caen, 1789, (vol. vi., p.
     475) of JEAN PIERRE NICERON; whose whole life seems to have
     been devoted to bibliography and literary history. Frank,
     amiable, industrious, communicative, shrewd, and
     learned--Niceron was the delight of his friends, and the
     admiration of the public. His "_Memoires pour servir à
     l'Histoire des Hommes Illustres, &c., avec un Catalogue
     raisonné de leur Ouvrages_," was published from the years
     1729 to 1740, in forty crown 8vo. volumes. A supplement of
     three volumes, the latter of which is divided into _two
     parts_, renders this very useful, and absolutely necessary,
     work complete in 44 volumes. The bibliomaniac can never
     enjoy perfect rest till he is in possession of it!]

     [Footnote 139: QUIRINI published his "_Specimen variæ
     Literaturæ quæ in urbe Brixiæ ejusque Ditione paulo post
     Typographiæ incunabula florebat_," _&c._, at Brescia, in
     1739; two vols., 8vo.: then followed "_Catalogo delle Opere
     del Cardinale Quirini uscite alla luce quasi tuttee da'
     Torchi di mi Gian Maria Rizzardi Stampatore in Brescia_,"
     8vo. In 1751, Valois addressed to him his "_Discours sur les
     Bibliothéques Publiques_," in 8vo.: his Eminence's reply to
     the same was also published in 8vo. But the Cardinal's chief
     reputation, as a bibliographer, arises from the work
     entitled "_De Optimorum Scriptorum Editionibus_." Lindaugiæ,
     1761, 4to. This is Schelhorn's edition of it, which is
     chiefly coveted, and which is now a rare book in this
     country. It is a little surprising that Lysander, in his
     love of grand national biographical works, mingled with
     bibliographical notices, should have omitted to mention the
     _Bibliotheca Lusitana_ of Joaov and Barbosa, published at
     Lisbon, 1741, in four magnificent folio volumes. A lover of
     Portuguese literature will always consider this as "opus
     splendidissimum et utilissimum."]

     [Footnote 140: _La Bibliothéque Françoise, ou Histoire de la
     Littérature Françoise_, of CLAUDE PIERRE GOUJET, in eighteen
     volumes, crown 8vo., 1741, like the similar work of Niceron,
     is perhaps a little too indiscriminate in the choice of its
     objects: good, bad, and indifferent authors being enlisted
     into the service. But it is the chéf-d'oeuvre of Goujet,
     who was a man of wonderful parts; and no bibliographer can
     be satisfied without it. Goujet was perhaps among the most
     learned, if not the "facile princeps," of those who
     cultivated ancient French literature. He liberally assisted
     Niceron in his Memoires, and furnished Moreri with 2000
     corrections for his Dictionary.]

     [Footnote 141: The "_Bibliothèque Curieuse, Historique et
     Critique, ou Catalogue raisonné de Livres difficiles à
     trouver_," of DAVID CLEMENT, published at Gottingen,
     Hanover, and Leipsic, in 9 quarto volumes, from the year
     1750 to 1760--is, unfortunately, an unfinished production;
     extending only to the letter H. The reader may find a
     critique upon it in my _Introduction to the Greek and Latin
     Classics_, vol. i., p. 370; which agrees, for the greater
     part, with the observations in the _Bibl. Crevenn._, vol.
     v., 290. The work is a _sine quâ non_ with collectors; but
     in this country it begins to be--to use the figurative
     language of some of the German bibliographers--"scarcer than
     a white crow,"--or "a black swan." The reader may admit
     which simile he pleases--or reject both! But, in sober
     sadness, it is very rare, and unconscionably dear. I know
     not whether it was the same CLEMENT who published "_Les cinq
     Années Littéraires, ou Lettres de M. Clément, sur les
     ouvrages de Littérature, qui ont parus dans les Années
     1748--á 1752_;" Berlin, 1756, 12mo., two volumes. Where is
     the proof of the assertion, so often repeated, that Clement
     borrowed his notion of the above work from WENDLER'S
     _Dissertatio de variis raritatis librorum impressorum
     causis_, Jen., 1711, 4to.?--Wendler's book is rare among us:
     as is also BERGER'S _Diatribe de libris rarioribus, &c._,
     Berol. 1729, 8vo.]

     [Footnote 142: The principal biographical labours of this
     clever man have the following titles: "_Histoire de
     l'Imprimerie_," La Haye, 1740, 4to.--an elegant and
     interesting volume, which is frequently consulted by
     typographical antiquaries. Of MERCIER'S supplement to it,
     see note in the ensuing pages under the word "Mercier." His
     "_Dictionnaire Historique, ou Memoires Critiques et
     Littéraires_," in two folio volumes, 1758, was a posthumous
     production; and a very extraordinary and amusing
     bibliographical common-place book it is! My friend Mr.
     Douce, than whom few are better able to appreciate such a
     work, will hardly allow any one to have a warmer attachment
     to it, or a more thorough acquaintance with its contents,
     than himself--and yet there is no bibliographical work to
     which I more cheerfully or frequently turn! In the editor's
     advertisement we have an interesting account of Marchand:
     who left behind, for publication, a number of scraps of
     paper, sometimes no bigger than one's nail; upon which he
     had written his remarks in so small a hand-writing that the
     editor and printer were obliged to make use of a strong
     magnifying glass to decypher it--"et c'est ici (continues
     the former) sans doute le premier livre qui n'ait pu être
     imprimé sans le secours continuel du Microscope." Marchand
     died in 1753, and left his MSS. and books, in the true
     spirit of a bibliomaniac, to the University of Leyden. I
     see, from the conclusion of this latter authority, that a
     new edition of Marchand's History of Printing was in
     meditation to be published, after the publication of the
     Dictionary. Whether Mercier availed himself of Marchand's
     corrected copy, when he put forth his supplement to the
     latter's typographical history, I have no means of
     ascertaining. Certainly there never was a second edition of
     the _Histoire de l'Imprimerie_, by Marchsnd [Transcriber's
     Note: Marchand].]

Perhaps I ought to have noticed the unoccupied niche under which the
name of VOGT[143] is inscribed; the title of whose work has been
erroneously considered more seductive than the contents of it. As we
go on, we approach FOURNIER; a man of lively parts, and considerable
taste. His works are small in size, but they are written and printed
with singular elegance.[144] See what a respectable and almost
dignified air the highly finished bust of the pensionary MEERMAN[145]
assumes! Few men attained to greater celebrity in his day; and few
men better deserved the handsome things which were said of him.
Polite, hospitable, of an inquisitive and active turn of
mind--passionately addicted to rare and curious books--his library was
a sort of bibliographical emporium, where the idle and the diligent
alike met with a gracious reception. Peace to the manes of such a man!
Turn we now round to view the features of that truly eminent and
amiable bibliographer, DE BURE!

     [Footnote 143: The earliest edition of VOGT'S _Catalogus
     Librorum Rariorum_ was published in 1732; afterwards in
     1737; again in 1748; again in 1752, much enlarged and
     improved; and, for the last time, greatly enlarged and
     corrected, forming by far the "editio optima," of the
     work--at Frankfort and Leipsic, 1793, 8vo.--We are told, in
     the new preface to this last edition, that the second and
     third impressions were quickly dispersed and anxiously
     sought after. Vogt is a greater favourite with me than with
     the generality of bibliographers. His plan, and the
     execution of it, are at once clear and concise; but he is
     too prodigal of the term "rare." Whilst these editions of
     Vogt's amusing work were coming forth, the following
     productions were, from time to time, making their
     appearance, and endeavouring perhaps to supplant its
     reputation. First of all BEYER put forth his _Memoriæ
     Historico-Criticæ Librorum Rariorum_. Dresd. and Lips.,
     1734, 8vo.; as well has [Transcriber's Note: as] his _Arcana
     Sacra Bibliothecarum Dresdensium_, 1738, 8vo.--with a
     continuation to the latter, preceded by an epistle
     concerning the electoral library, separately published in
     the same year. Then ENGEL (in Republicâ Helveto-Bernensi
     Bibliothecarius primus) published his _Bibliotheca
     selectissima, sive Catalogus librorum in omni genere
     scientiarum rarissimorum_, &c., Bernæ, 1743, 8vo.; in which
     work some axioms are laid down concerning the rarity of
     books not perhaps sufficiently correct; but in which a great
     deal of curious matter, very neatly executed, will repay the
     reader for any expense he may incur in the purchase of it.
     Afterwards FREYTAG'S _Analecta Literaria de libris
     rarioribus_, Lips., 1750, two vols. 8vo.;--and his
     _Adparatus Literarius ubi libri partim antiqui partim rari
     recensentur_, Lipsiæ, 1755, three volumes 8vo., highly
     gratified the curious in bibliography. In the former work
     the books are described alphabetically, which perhaps is the
     better plan: in the latter, they are differently arranged,
     with an alphabetical index. The latter is perhaps the more
     valuable of the two, although the former has long been a
     great favourite with many; yet, from Freytag's own
     confession, he was not then so knowing in books, and had not
     inspected the whole of what he described. They are both
     requisite to the collector; and their author, who was an
     enthusiast in bibliography, ranks high in the literature of
     his country. In the last place we may notice the
     _Florilegium Historico-Criticum Librorum Rariorum, cui multa
     simul scitu jucunda intersperguntur_, &c., of DANIEL GERDES;
     first published at Groningen, in 1740; but afterwards in
     1763, 8vo., at the same place, the third and best edition.
     It was meant, in part, to supply the omission of some rare
     books in Vogt: and under this title it was published in the
     _Miscellaneæ Groninganæ_, vol. ii., and vol. iii. This work
     of Gerdes should have a convenient place in every
     bibliographical cabinet. I will close this attempt to supply
     Lysander's omission of some very respectable names connected
     with bibliography by exhorting the reader to seize hold of a
     work (whenever it comes across him, which will be rarely)
     entitled _Bibliotheca Librorum Rariorum Universalis_, by
     JOHN JACOB BAUER, a bookseller at Nuremberg, and printed
     there in 1770, 8vo., two vols.; with three additional
     volumes by way of Supplement, 1774-1791, which latter are
     usually bound in one. It is an alphabetical Dictionary, like
     Vogt's and Fournier's, of what are called rare books. The
     descriptions are compendious, and the references
     respectable, and sometimes numerous. My copy of this scarce,
     dear, and wretchedly-printed, work, which is as large and
     clean as possible, and bound in pale Russia, with marbled
     edges to the leaves--cost me 5_l._ 5_s._]

     [Footnote 144: We are indebted to PIERRE SIMON FOURNIER le
     jeune, for some very beautiful interesting little volumes
     connected with engraving and printing. 1. _Dissertation sur
     l'Origine et les Progrés de l'art de Graver en Bois, &c._,
     Paris, 1758, 8vo. 2. _De l'Origine et des Productions de
     l'Imprimerie primitive en taille de bois_, Paris, 1759, 8vo.
     3. _Traité sur l'Origine et les Progrés de l'Imprimerie_,
     Paris, 1764. 4. _Observations sur un Ouvrage intitulé
     Vindiciæ Typographicæ_, Paris, 1760. These treatises are
     sometimes bound in one volume. They are all elegantly
     printed, and rare. We may also mention--5. _Epreuves de deux
     petits caractères nouvellement gravès, &c._, Paris, 1757;
     and especially his chef-d'oeuvre. 6. _Manuel
     Typographique_, Paris, 1764-6, 8vo., two vols.: of which
     some copies want a few of the cuts: those upon LARGE PAPER
     (there is one of this kind in the Cracherode collections)
     are of the first rarity. Fournier's typographical manual
     should be in every printing office: his types "are the
     models (says his namesake,) of those of the best printed
     books at Paris at this day." _Dict. Port. de Bibliogr._, p.
     218, edit. 1706.]

     [Footnote 145: The _Origines Typographicæ_ of MEERMAN, which
     was published at the Hague in two handsome quarto volumes,
     1765, (after the plan or prospectus had been published in
     1761, 8vo.), secured its author a very general and rather
     splendid reputation, till the hypothesis advanced therein,
     concerning Laurence Coster, was refuted by Heinecken. The
     reader is referred to a note in the first volume of my new
     edition of the _Typographical Antiquities of Great Britain_,
     p. xxxi. It is somewhat singular that, notwithstanding
     Meerman's hypothesis is now exploded by the most knowing
     bibliographers, his dissertation concerning the claims of
     Haerlem should have been reprinted in French, with useful
     notes, and an increased catalogue of all the books published
     in the Low Countries, during the 15th century. This latter
     work is entitled "_De l'Invention de l'Imprimerie, ou
     analyse des deux ouvrages publiés sur cette matière par M.
     Meerman, &c.; suivi d'une notice chronologique et raisonnée
     des livres avec et sans date_," Paris, 1809, 8vo. The author
     is Mons. Jansen. Prefixed there is an interesting account,
     of Meerman. Lysander might have noticed, with the encomium
     which it justly merits the _Vindiciæ Typographicæ_ of
     SCHOEPFLIN, printed at Strasburg, in 1760, 4to.; where the
     claimes of Gutenburg (a native of the same city) to the
     invention of the typographic art are very forcibly and
     successfully maintained.]

LIS. You absolutely transport me! I see all these interesting busts--I
feel the delicious coolness of the grotto--I hear the stream running
over a bed of pebbles--The zephyrs play upon my cheeks--O dolt that I
was to abuse----

PHIL. Hear him, hear him![146]

     [Footnote 146: Vide note at p. 37, ante.]

LYSAND. From my heart I pity and forgive you. But only look upon the
bust of DE BURE; and every time that you open his _Bibliographie
Instructive_,[147] confess, with a joyful heart, the obligations you
are under to the author of it. Learn, at the same time, to despise the
petty cavils of the whole Zoilean race; and blush for the Abbé
RIVE,[148] that he could lend his name, and give the weight of his
example, to the propagation of coarse and acrimonious censures.

     [Footnote 147: The works of GUILLAUME-FRANÇOIS DE BURE
     deserve a particular notice. He first published his _Musæum
     Typographicum_, Paris, 1755, 12mo.; of which he printed but
     TWELVE copies, and gave away every one of them (including
     even his own) to his book-loving friends. It was published
     under the name of G.F. Rebude. Peignot is very particular in
     his information concerning this rare morçeau of
     bibliography--see his _Bibliographie Curieuse_, p. 21.
     Afterwards appeared the _Bibliographie Instructive_, in
     seven volumes, 8vo., 1763-68--succeeded by a small volume of
     a catalogue of the anonymous publications, and an essay upon
     Bibliography: this 8th volume is absolutely necessary to
     render the work complete, although it is frequently missing.
     Fifty copies of this work were printed upon LARGE PAPER, of
     a quarto size. Its merits are acknowledged by every candid
     and experienced critic. In the third place, came forth his
     _Catalogue des Livres, &c., de L.J. Gaignat, Paris_, 1769,
     8vo., two vols.: not, however, before he had published two
     brochures--"_Appel aux Savans_," _&c._, 1763, 8vo.--and
     "_Reponse à une Critique de la Bibliographie Instructive_,"
     1763, 8vo.--as replies to the tart attacks of the Abbé RIVE.
     The Catalogue of Gaignat, and the fairness of his answers to
     his adversary's censures, served to place De Bure on the
     pinnacle of bibliographical reputation; while Rive was
     suffered to fret and fume in unregarded seclusion. He died
     in the year 1782, aged 50: and was succeeded in his
     bibliographical labours by his cousin WILLIAM; who, with
     Mons. Van-Praet, prepared the catalogue of the Duke de la
     Valliere's library, in 1783, and published other valuable
     catalogues as late as the year 1801. But both are eclipsed,
     in regard to the _number_ of such publications, by their
     predecessor GABRIEL MARTIN; who died in the year 1761, aged
     83--after having compiled 148 catalogues since the year
     1705. This latter was assisted in his labours by his son
     Claude Martin, who died in 1788. See Peignot's _Dict. de
     Bibliologie_, vol. i., 221, 422: vol iii., 277.]

     [Footnote 148: The mention of De Bure and the Abbé RIVE
     induces me to inform the reader that the _Chasse aux
     Bibliographes_, Paris, 1789, 8vo., of the latter, will be
     found a receptacle of almost every kind of gross abuse and
     awkward wit which could be poured forth against the
     respectable characters of the day. It has now become rare.
     The Abbé's "_Notices calligraphiques et typographiques_," a
     small tract of 16 pages--of which only 100 copies were
     printed--is sufficiently curious; it formed the first number
     of a series of intended volumes (12 or 15) "_des notices
     calligraphiques de manuscrits des differens siécles, et des
     notices typographiques de livres du quinziéme siécle_," but
     the design was never carried into execution beyond this
     first number. The other works of Rive are miscellaneous; but
     chiefly upon subjects connected with the belles lettres. He
     generally struck off but few copies of his publications; see
     the _Bibliographie Curieuse_, pp. 58-9; and more
     particularly the _Dictionnaire de Bibliologie_, vol. iii.,
     p. 277, by the same author, where a minute list of Rive's
     productions is given, and of which Fournier might have
     availed himself in his new edition of the _Dict. Portatif de
     Bibliographie_. From Peignot, the reader is presented with
     the following anecdotes of this redoubted champion of
     bibliography. When Rive was a young man, and curate of
     Mollèges in Provence, the scandalous chronicle reported that
     he was too intimate with a young and pretty Parisian, who
     was a married woman, and whose husband did not fail to
     reproach him accordingly. Rive made no other reply than that
     of taking the suspicious Benedick in his arms, and throwing
     him headlong out of the window. Luckily he fell upon a
     dunghill! In the year 1789, upon a clergyman's complaining
     to him of the inflexible determination of a great lord to
     hunt upon his grounds--"_Mettez-lui une messe dans le
     ventre_"--repiled [Transcriber's Note: replied] Rive. The
     clergyman expressing his ignorance of the nature of the
     advice given, the facetious Abbé replied, "Go and tear a
     leaf from your _mass book_, wrap a musket-ball in it, and
     discharge it at the tyrant." The Duke de la Valliere used to
     say--when the knowing ones at his house were wrangling about
     some literary or bibliographical point--"Gentlemen, I'll go
     and let loose my bull dog,"--and sent into them the Abbé,
     who speedily put them all to rights. Rive died in the year
     1791, aged seventy-one. He had great parts and great
     application; but in misapplying both he was his own
     tormentor. His library was sold in 1793.]

Next to the bust of De Bure, consider those of the five Italian
bibliographers and literati, HAYM, FONTANINI, ZENO, MAZZUCHELLI, and
TIRABOSCHI; which are placed in the five consecutive niches. Their
works are of various merit, but are all superior to that of their
predecessor DONI. Although those of the first three authors should
find a place in every bibliographical collection, the productions of
Mazzuchelli,[149] and especially of the immortal Tiraboschi, cannot
fail to be admitted into every judicious library, whether vast or
confined. Italy boasts of few literary characters of a higher class,
or of a more widely-diffused reputation than TIRABOSCHI.[150] His
diligence, his sagacity, his candour, his constant and patriotic
exertions to do justice to the reputation of his countrymen, and to
rescue departed worth from ill-merited oblivion, assign to him an
exalted situation: a situation with the Poggios and Politians of
former times, in the everlasting temple of Fame! Bind his _Storia
della Letteratura Italiana_ in the choicest vellum, or in the stoutest
Russia; for it merits no mean covering!

     [Footnote 149: We may first observe that "_La Libraria del_
     DONI _Fiorentino_;" Vinegia, 1558, 8vo., is yet coveted by
     collectors as the most complete and esteemed of all the
     editions of this work. It is ornamented with many portraits
     of authors, and is now rare. Consult _Bibl. Crevenn._, vol.
     v., p. 275. Numerous are the editions of HAYM'S _Biblioteca
     Italiana_; but those of Milan, of the date of 1771, 4to., 2
     vols., and 1803, 8vo. 4 vols., are generally purchased by
     the skilful in Italian bibliography. The best edition of
     FONTANINI'S _Biblioteca dell' Eloquenza Italiana_ is with
     the annotations of ZENO, which latter are distinguished for
     their judgment and accuracy. It was published at Venice in
     1753, 4to., 2 vols.; but it must be remembered that this
     edition contains only the _third_ book of Fontanini, which
     is a library of the principal Italian authors. All the three
     books (the first two being a disquisition upon the orgin
     [Transcriber's Note: origin] and progress of the Italian
     language) will be found in the preceeding [Transcriber's
     Note: preceding] Venice edition of 1737, in one volume 4to.
     In the year 1753-63, came forth the incomparable but
     unfinished work of COUNT MAZZUCHELLI, in two folio volumes,
     [the latter vol. being divided into four thick parts]
     entittled [Transcriber's Note: entitled]: _Gli Scrittori
     d'Italia, cioé Notizie Storiche e Critiche intorno alle Vite
     e agli Scritti dei Letterati Italiani_. The death of the
     learned author prevented the publication of it beyond the
     first two letters of the alphabet. The Count, however, left
     behind ample materials for its execution according to the
     original plan, which lay shamefully neglected as late as the
     year 1776. See _Bibl. Crevenn._, vol. v., p. 274. This work
     is rare in our own country. If the lover of Italian
     philology wishes to increase his critico-literary stores,
     let him purchase the _Biblioteca degli Autori Antichi Greci,
     e Latini volgarizzati_, &c., of PAITONI, in five quarto
     volumes, 1766: the _Notizie Istorico-Critiche &c., degli
     Scrittori Viniziani_, [Transcriber's Note: corrected printer
     error in original; 'degli' was misplaced on preceding line]
     of AGOSTINI, Venez., 1752, 4to., 2 vols.: and the
     _Letteratura Turchesca of_ GIAMBATISTA TODERINI, Venez.,
     1787, 8vo., 3 vols.--works nearly perfect of their kind, and
     (especially the latter one) full of curious matter.]

     [Footnote 150: The best edition of his _Letteratura
     Italiana_ is that of Modena, 1787-94, 4to., in fifteen
     volumes, as it contains his last corrections and additions,
     and has the advantage of a complete index. An excellent
     account of the life and labours of its wonderful author
     appeared in the fifth volume of the _Athenæum_, to the
     perusal of which I strongly recommend the reader.]

The range of busts which occupies the opposite niches represents
characters of a more recent date. Let us begin with MERCIER;[151] a
man of extraordinary, and almost unequalled, knowledge in every thing
connected with bibliography and typography; of a quick apprehension,
tenacious memory, and correct judgment; who was more anxious to
detect errors in his own publications than in those of his fellow
labourers in the same pursuit; an enthusiast in typographical
researches--the Ulysses of bibliographers! Next to him stand the
interesting busts of SAXIUS and LAIRE;[152] the latter of whom has
frequently erred, but who merited not such a castigation as subsequent
bibliographers have attempted to bestow upon him: in the number of
which, one is sorry to rank the very respectable name of
AUDIFFREDI[153]--whose bust, you observe, immediately follows that of
Laire. Audiffredi has left behind him a most enviable reputation: that
of having examined libraries with a curious eye, and described the
various books which he saw with scrupulous fidelity. There are no
lively or interesting sallies, no highly-wrought, or tempting
descriptions--throughout his two quarto volumes: but, in lieu of this,
there is sober truth, and sound judgment. I have mentioned Audiffredi
a little out of order, merely because his name is closely connected
with that of Laire: but I should have first directed your attention to
the sagacious countenance of HEINECKEN;[154] whose work upon ancient
printing, and whose _Dictionary of Engravers_ (although with the
latter we have nothing just now to do) will never fail to be justly
appreciated by the collector. I regret, Lisardo, for your own sake--as
you are about to collect a few choice books upon typography--that you
will have so much to pay for the former work, owing to its extreme
rarity in this country, and to the injudicious phrenzy of a certain
class of buyers, who are resolved to purchase it at almost any price.
Let me not forget to notice, with the encomiums which they deserve,
the useful and carefully compiled works of SEEMILLER, BRAUN,
WURDTWEIN, DE MURR, ROSSI, and PANZER, whose busts are arranged in
progressive order. All these authors[155] are greatly eminent in the
several departments which they occupy; especially Panzer--whose
_Annales Typographici_, in regard to arrangement and fulness of
information, leaves the similar work of his precedessor, Maittaire,
far behind. It is unluckily printed upon wretched paper--but who
rejects the pine-apple from the roughness of its coat? Get ready the
wherry; man it with a choice bibliomanical crew, good Lisardo!--and
smuggle over in it, if you can, the precious works of these latter
bibliographers--for you may saunter "from rise to set of sun," from
Whitechapel to Hyde-Park Corner--for them--in vain!

     [Footnote 151: Barthelemy, MERCIER DE ST. LEGER, died in the
     year 1800, and in the sixty-sixth of his age, full of
     reputation, and deeply regretted by those who knew the
     delightful qualities of his head and heart. It is not my
     intention to enumerate _all_ his publications, the titles of
     which may be found in the _Siécles Littéraires_, vol. iv.,
     p. 350: but, in the present place, I will only observe that
     his "_Supplement à l'Histoire de l'Imprimerie, par P.
     Marchand_," was first published in 1773, and afterwards in
     1775, 4to., a rare and curious work; but little known in
     this country. His _Bibliothéque des Romans, traduit de
     Grec_, was published in 1796, 12 vols. 12mo. His letter
     concerning De Bure's work, 1763, 8vo., betrayed some severe
     animadversions upon the _Bibliogr. Instruct._: but he got a
     similar flagellation in return, from the Abbé Rive, in his
     _Chasse aux Bibliographes_--who held him and De Bure, and
     all the bibliographical tribe, in sovereign contempt. His
     letter to Heinecken upon the rare editions of the 15th
     century, 1783, 8vo., and his other works, I never saw in any
     collection. The imperial library at Paris purchased his copy
     of Du Verdier's and La Croix du Maine's Bibliothéques,
     covered with his marginal annotations, as well as his copy
     of Clement's _Bibl. Curieuse_. Le Blond, member of the
     Institute, obtained his copy of De Bure's _Bibliographie
     Instructive_, also enriched with MS. notes. Mr. Ochéda, Lord
     Spencer's librarian, who knew well the Abbé de St. Leger,
     informed me that he left behind him ample materials for a
     History of Printing, in a new edition of his Supplement to
     Marchand's work, which he projected publishing, and which
     had received from him innumerable additions and corrections.
     "He was a man," says Mr. Ochéda, "the most conversant with
     editions of books of all kinds, and with every thing
     connected with typography and bibliography, that I ever
     conversed with." The reader may consult Peignot's _Dict. de
     Bibliologie_, vol. i., p. 452, vol. iii., p. 212.]

     [Footnote 152: The _Onomasticon Literarium_ of CHRISTOPHER
     SAXIUS, _Traject. ad Rhenum_, 1775-90, seven vols. 8vo.,
     with a supplement, or eighth volume, published in 1803, is
     considered as a work of the very first reputation in its
     way. The notices of eminent men are compendious, but
     accurate; and the arrangement is at once lucid and new. An
     elegantly bound copy of this scarce work cannot be obtained
     for less than six and seven guineas. The first
     bibliographical production of the Abbé LAIRE was, I believe,
     the _Specimen Historicum Typographiæ Romanæ, xv. seculi,
     Romæ_, 1778, large 8vo.; of which work, a copy printed UPON
     VELLUM (perhaps unique) was sold at the sale of M.
     d'Hangard, in 1789, for 300 livres. _Dictionn. Bibliogr._,
     vol. iv., p. 250. In my Introduction, &c., to the Greek and
     Latin Classics, some account of its intrinsic merit will be
     found: vol. i., p. xviii. In the year 1784 Laire published a
     "_Dissertation sur l'origine et Progrès de l'Imprimerie en
     Franche-Comté_," 8vo.; and, in the year 1791, came forth his
     Catalogue Raisonné of the early printed books in the library
     of Cardinal de Lomenie de Brienne; under the title of
     "_Index Librorum ab Inventa Typographia, ad annum 1500_," in
     two octavo volumes. See the article "LOMENIE," in the list
     of foreign catalogues, post. Laire was also the author of a
     few other minor bibliographical productions. All the books
     in his library, relating to this subject, were covered with
     marginal notes; some of them very curious. See Peignot's
     _Dict. de Bibliologie_, vol. i., p. 330: and _Les Siecles
     Littéraires_, (1801, 8vo.) vol. iv., p. 75.]

     [Footnote 153: The works and the merits of AUDIFFREDI have
     been before submitted by me to the public; and Mr. Beloe, in
     the third volume of his "_Anecdotes of Literature_," &c.,
     has justly observed upon the latter. In Lord Spencer's
     magnificent library at Althorpe, I saw a copy of the
     "_Editiones Italicæ_," sec. xv., 1793, 4to., upon LARGE
     PAPER. It is much to be wished that some knowing
     bibliographer upon the Continent would complete this
     unfinished work of Audiffredi. His _Editiones Romanæ_, sec.
     xv., 1783, 4to., is one of the most perfect works of
     bibliography extant: yet Laire's "_Index Librorum_," &c.
     (see preceeding note), is necessary to supply the omission
     of some early books printed at Rome, which had escaped even
     this keen bibliographer!]

     [Footnote 154: HEINECKEN'S name stands deservedly high
     (notwithstanding his tediousness and want of taste) among
     bibliographical and typographical antiquaries. Of his
     "_Nachrichten von Kunstlern und Kunst-Sachen_," Leipzig,
     1768, 8vo., two vols., (being "New Memoirs upon Artists and
     the objects of Art"--and which is frequently referred to by
     foreigners,) I never saw a copy. It was again published in
     1786. His "_Idée Générale d'une Collection complette
     d'Estampes_," &c., Leips., 1771, 8vo., is a most curious and
     entertaining book; but unconscionably dear in this country.
     His "_Dictionnaire des Artistes dont nous avons des
     Estampes_," &c., Leips. 1778, 8vo., four vols., is an
     unfinished performance, but remarkably minute as far as it
     goes. The remainder, written in the German language,
     continues in MS. in the Electorate library at Dresden,
     forming twelve volumes. Of the character of Heinecken's
     latter work, consult Huber's _Manuel, &c., des Amateurs de
     l'Art_, Zurich, 1797, 8vo.: and a recent work entitled
     "_Notices des Graveurs_," Paris, 1804, 8vo., two vols.
     Heinecken died at the advanced age of eighty.]

     [Footnote 155: We will discuss their works _seriatim_, as
     Lisardo has said above. SEEMILLER'S _Bibliothecæ
     Incolstadiensis Incunabula Typographica_, contains four
     parts, or fasciculi: they are bound in one volume, quarto,
     1787, &c.; but, unfortunately for those who love curious and
     carefully executed works, it is rather rare in this country.
     The _Notitia Historico-Critica de libris ab art typog.
     invent._, by PLACID BRAUN, in two parts, or volumes, 1788,
     4to., with curious plates, has long been a desideratum in my
     own collection; and my friend Mr. Beloe, who is luckily in
     possession of a copy, enjoys his triumph over me when he
     discovers it not in my bibliographical boudoir. The same
     author also published his "_Notitia Historico-Literaria de
     cod. MSS. in Bibl. Monast. ord. S. Bened. ad SS. Vidal. et
     Afram Augustæ ex tantibus_," Aug. Vindel., 1791, 4to., two
     vols. _Cat. de Santander_, vol. iv., p. 170. I know not how
     any well versed bibliographer can do without the
     "_Bibliotheca Moguntina libris sæculo primo Tpyographico
     [Transcriber's Note: Typographico] Moguntiæ impressis
     instructa_;" 1787, 4to., of WURDTWEIN. It has some curious
     plates of fac-similes, and is rarely seen in the Strand or
     King-street book-markets.----C.T. DE MURR published a work
     of some interest, entitled, "_Memorabilia Bibliothecarum
     Publicarum Norimbergensium_," Norimb., 1786-91, three parts
     or vols. 8vo.; which is also rare.----ROSSI'S valuable work
     concerning the annals of Hebrew typography: _Annales
     Hebræo-Typographici, à 1475, ad 1540_, Parmæ, 1795, 1799,
     4to., two separate publications, is prettily printed by
     Bodoni, and is an indispensable article in the collection of
     the typographical antiquary. See the _Dict. de Bibliologie_,
     vol. iii., p. 286.----PANZER'S _Annales Typographici_, in
     eleven quarto volumes (1793-1803) is a work of the very
     first importance to bibliographers. Its arrangement, after
     the manner of Orlandi's, is clear and most convenient; and
     the references to authorities, which are innumerable, are,
     upon the whole, very faithful. The indexes are copious and
     satisfactory. This work (of which I hear there are only
     three copies upon LARGE PAPER) contains an account of books
     which were printed in all parts of Europe from the year
     1457, to 1536, inclusive; but it should be remembered that
     the author published a distinct work in the year 1788, 4to.,
     relating to books which were printed, within the same
     period, in the _German Language_; and this should always
     accompany the eleven Latin volumes. I will just add from it,
     as a curiosity, the title and colophon (translated into
     English) of the first printed book in the German
     language:--"THE PUBLICATION OF DIETHERS, ELECTOR OF MAYENCE,
     AGAINST COUNT ADOLPHUS OF NASSAU; _given out under our
     impressed seal on Tuesday, after the fourth Sunday in
     Advent, anno Domini 1462_." Consult also Wurdtwein's _Bibl.
     Mogunt._, p. 80; and the authorities there referred to. It
     seems doubtful whether this curious little brochure, of
     which scarcely any thing more than a fragment now remains,
     was printed by Fust and Schoeffer, or by Gutenberg.]

What countenances are those which beam with so much quiet, but
interesting, expression? They are the resemblances of DENIS and
CAMUS:[156] the former of whom is better known from his _Annalium
Typographicorum Maittaire Supplementum_; and the latter very generally
respected abroad, although our acquaintance with him in this country
is exceedingly slight. If I mistake not, I observe the mild and modest
countenance of my old acquaintance, HERBERT, in this bibliographical
group of heads? Do not despise his toil[157] because it is not
sprinkled with gay conceits, or learned digressions: he wrote to be
useful, not to be entertaining; and so far as he went, his work was
such an improvement upon his predecessor's plan as to place it quite
at the head of NATIONAL TYPOGRAPHY. See yonder the sensible
countenance of HARWOOD![158] the first writer in this country who
taught us to consider the respective merits and demerits of the
various editions of Greek and Latin authors.

     [Footnote 156: MICHAEL DENIS, the translator of Ossian, and
     a bibliographer of justly established eminence, was
     principal librarian of the Imperial library at Vienna, and
     died in the year 1800, at the age of 71. His _Supplement to
     Maittaire's Typographical Annals_, in two parts or volumes,
     1789, 4to., is a work of solid merit, and indispensable to
     the possessor of its precursor. The bibliographical
     references are very few; but the descriptions of the volumes
     are minutely accurate. The indexes also are excellent. In
     the year 1793, Denis published the first volume (in three
     thick parts in folio) of his _Codices Manuscripti Theologici
     Bibl. Palat. Vindob._; a production which the reader will
     find somewhat fully described in the ensuing pages. The
     second volume appeared after his death in 1801. In 1795-6,
     came forth his second edition of an _Introduction to the
     Knowledge of Books_, in two quarto volumes; unfortunately
     written in the German language--but mentioned with
     approbation in the first volume of the _Mem. de l'Inst._, p.
     648. Consult also Peignot's _Dict. de Bibliologie_, vol. i.,
     p. 122; ii., 232.----ARMAND GASTON CAMUS is a bibliographer
     of very first rate reputation. The reader has only to peruse
     the following titles of some of his works, and he will
     certainly bewail his ill fortune if they are not to be found
     in his library. 1. _Observations sur la distribution et le
     classement des livres d'une Bibliothéque_: 2. _Additions aux
     mêmes_; 3. _Memoire sur un livre Allemand_ (which is the
     famous TEWRDANNCKHS; and about which is to be hoped that Mr.
     Douce will one day favour us with his curious remarks): 4.
     _Addition au même_: 5. _Memoire sur l'histoire et les
     procédés du Polytypage et de la Stéréotypie_: 6. _Rapport
     sur la continuation de la Collection des Historiens de
     France, et de celle des Chartres et Diplomes_: 7. _Notice
     d'un livre imprimé à Bamberg en 1462_. All these works are
     thus strung together, because they occur in the first three
     volumes of the _Memoires de l'Institut_. This curious book,
     printed at Bamberg, was discovered by a German clergyman of
     the name of Stenier, and was first described by him in the
     _Magasin Hist.-Litt., bibliogr._ Chemintz, 1792: but Camus's
     memoir is replete with curious matter, and is illustrated
     with fac-simile cuts. In the "_Notices et Extraits des MSS.
     de la Bibl. Nationale_," vol. vi., p. 106, will be found a
     most interesting memoir by him, relating to two ancient
     manuscript bibles, in two volumes folio, adorned with a
     profusion of pictures: of some of which very elegant
     fac-similes are given. These pictures are 5152 in number!
     each of them having a Latin and French verse beautifully
     written and illuminated beneath.--Camus supposes that such a
     work could not now be executed under 100,000 francs!--"Where
     (exclaims he) shall we find such modern specimens of
     book-luxury?" In the year 1802, he published an admirable
     "_Mémoire sur la collection des grands et petits voyages, et
     sur la Collection des Voyages des Melchesedech Thevenot_,"
     4to., with an excellent "Table des Matières." Of his own
     journey into the Low Countries, recently published, I never
     met with a copy. All the preceding works, with the exception
     of the last, are in my own humble collection.]

     [Footnote 157: A short bibliographical memoir of HERBERT
     will be found in the first volume of my edition of the
     _Typographical Antiquities of Great Britain_. Since that was
     published, I have gleaned a few further particulars relating
     to him, which may be acceptable to the reader. Shortly after
     the appearance of his third volume, he thus speaks in a
     letter to Mr. Price, librarian of the Bodleian library, "If
     at any time you meet with any book of which I have not taken
     notice, or made any mistake in the description of it, your
     kind information will be esteemed a favour; as I purpose to
     continue collecting materials for a future publication, when
     enough shall be collected to make another volume." This was
     in April, 1790. In the ensuing month he thus addresses his
     old friend Mr. White, of Crickhowell, who, with himself, was
     desperately addicted to the black-letter. "To morrow my wife
     and self set out for Norfolk to take a little relaxation for
     about a fortnight. I hope my labours will in some good
     measure answer the expectation of my friends and subscribers
     in general. Sure I am my best endeavours have been exerted
     for that purpose. I have been 24 years collecting materials;
     have spent many a fair pound, and many a weary hour; and it
     is now ten years since the first part was committed to the
     press. I purpose to continue collecting materials in order
     to a fourth volume, &c.;--yet by no means will I make myself
     debtor to the public when to publish: if it shall please God
     to take me to himself, Isaac will in due time set it forth.
     However I shall keep an interleaved copy for the purpose."
     In a letter to a Mr. John Banger Russell (in Dorsetshire),
     written in the ensuing month of June, the same sentiments
     and the same intention are avowed. Thus ardent was the
     bibliomaniacal spirit of Herbert in his 72d year! The
     _interleaved copy_ here alluded to (which was bound in six
     volumes 4to., in Russia binding, and for which Mr. Gough had
     given Herbert's widow 52_l._ 10_s._) is now in my
     possession; as well as the yet more valuable acquisition of
     some numerous MS. addenda to his History of Printing--both
     of these articles having been purchased by me at the sale of
     Mr. Gough's MSS. and printed books, A.D. 1810.]

     [Footnote 158: Dr. EDWARD HARWOOD published the fourth and
     last edition of his "_View of the various editions of the
     Greek and Roman Classics_," in the year 1790, 8vo. A work
     which, in the public estimation, has entitled its author's
     memory to very considerable respect in the classical world;
     although the late Professor Porson, in the fly leaf of a
     copy of my second edition of a similar publication, was
     pleased to call the Doctor by a name rather unusually harsh
     with _him_, who was "Criticus et lenis et acutus;" censuring
     also my dependance upon my predecessor. In the year 1808,
     was published my third edition of "_An introduction to the
     knowledge of rare and valuable editions of the Greek and
     Latin Classics_," two volumes 8vo.: in which, if I may
     presume to talk of anything so insignificant, I have
     endeavoured to exhibit the opinions--not of Dr. Harwood
     alone, but of the most eminent foreign critics and
     editors--upon the numerous editions which, in a
     chronological series, are brought before the reader's
     attention. The remarks of the first bibliographers in Europe
     are also, for the first time in a English publication,
     subjoined; so that the lover of curious, as well as of
     valuable, editions may be equally gratified. The
     authorities, exceedingly numerous as well as respectable,
     are referred to in a manner the most unostentatious; and a
     full measure of text, and to be really useful, was my design
     from the beginning to the end of it. To write a long and
     dull homily about its imperfections would be gross
     affectation. An extensive sale has satisfied my publishers
     that its merit a little counterbalances its defects.]

LIS. You are, no doubt, a fond and partial critic in regard to the
works of Herbert and Harwood: but I am glad to recognise my fellow
countrymen in such an illustrious assemblage. Go on.

LYSAND. We are just at the close. But a few more busts, and those very
recently executed, remain to be noticed. These are the resemblances of
LA SERNA SANTANDER, CAILLEAU, and OBERLIN;[159] while several vacant
niches remain to be filled up with the busts of more modern
bibliographers of eminence: namely, of VAN-PRAET, FISCHER, LAMBINET,
RENOUARD, PEIGNOT, FOURNIER, BARBIER, BOUCHER, and BRUNET.[160]

     [Footnote 159: DE LA SERNA SANTANDER will always hold a
     distinguished place amongst bibliographers, not only from
     the care and attention with which he put forth the catalogue
     of his own books--the parting from which must have gone near
     to break his heart--but from his elegant and useful work
     entitled, "_Dictionnaire Bibliographique choisi du quinzieme
     Siécle_," 1805, &c., 8vo., in three parts or volumes. His
     summary of researches, upon the invention of printing, Mr.
     Edwards told me, he read "with complete satisfaction"--this
     occupies the first part or volume. The remaining volumes
     form a necessary, as well as brilliant, supplement to De
     Bure. Just at this moment, I believe that Mr. Beloe's, and
     my own, copy of the work, are the only ones in this
     country.----CAILLEAU has the credit of being author of the
     _Dictionnaire Bibliographique_, &c., in three volumes,
     octavo, 1790--of which there are a sufficient number of
     counterfeited and faulty re-impressions; but which, after
     all, in its original shape, edit. 1790, is not free from
     gross errors; however useful it is in many respects. I
     suspect, however, that the Abbé DUCLOS had the greater share
     in this publication: but, be this as it may, the fourth
     supplemental volume (by the younger Brunet) is, in every
     respect, a more accurate and valuable performance. OBERLIN,
     librarian of the central school or college at Strasbourg, is
     author of a bibliographical treatise particularly deserving
     of the antiquary's attention: namely, _Essai d'annales de la
     vie de Jean Gutenburg [Transcriber's Note: Gutenberg], &c._,
     Stasb. [Transcriber's Note: Strasb.], an. ix., 8vo. His
     other numerous (belles-lettres) works are minutely specified
     by Peignot in his _Dict. de Bibliologie_, vol. iii., p. 230.
     His edition of Horace, Argent., 1788, 4to., is both elegant
     and correct.]

     [Footnote 160: Let us go quietly through the modern French
     school of bibliography.----Mons. JOSEPH VAN-PRAET is
     principal librarian of the Imperial collection at Paris, and
     is justly called, by some of his fellow-labourers in the
     same career, "one of the first bibliographers in Europe." He
     is known to me, as a bibliographical writer, only by the
     part which he took, and so ably executed, in the Valliere
     catalogue of 1783. Peignot informs us that M. Van-Praet is
     now busy in composing a little work--which I am sure will
     rejoice the hearts of all true bibliomaniacs to be apprised
     of--called a _Catalogue raisonné_ of books PRINTED UPON
     VELLUM; for which he has already prepared not fewer than
     2000 articles! See the _Curiosités Bibliogr._, p. iij. Among
     these VELLUM articles, gentle reader, I assure thee that
     thine eyes will be blest with the description of "THE SHYP
     OF FOOLES," printed by Pynson, 1509! The urbanity and
     politeness of this distinguished librarian are equal to his
     knowledge.----GOTTHELF FISCHER, a Saxon by birth, and
     librarian of the public collection at Mentz, has given us
     the following interesting treatises, of which, I believe,
     not five copies are to be found in this country:
     namely--_Essai sur les Monumens Typographiques de Jean
     Gutenberg, &c._, an. x. [1801], 4to.: and _Descriptions de
     raretés typographiques et de Manuscrits remarquables, &c._,
     Nuremb., 1801, 8vo.--the latter is in the German language,
     and has cuts--with a portrait of Fust. By this time, the
     work has most probably been translated into French, as it is
     frequently referred to and highly spoken of by foreigners.
     Peignot [_Dict. de Bibliologie_, vol. iii., p. 128] refers
     us to the fine eulogy pronounced upon Fisher [Transcriber's
     Note: Fischer] (not yet 40 years of age) by Camus, in his
     "Voyage dans les departemens réunis," p. 12.----LAMBINET
     will always be remembered and respected, as long as printing
     and bibliography shall be studied, by his "_Recherches
     Historiques Littéraires et Critiques, sur l'Originè de
     L'Imprimerie; particulièrement sur les premiers
     établissemens au_ XVme _siécle dans la Belgique_," &c.,
     Brux., an. vii. (1798), 8vo. It is, indeed, a very
     satisfactory performance: the result of judgment and
     taste--rare union!----In like manner, RENOUARD has procured
     for himself a bibliographical immortality by his _Annales de
     l'Imprimerie des Aide_, 1803, 8vo., two vols.: a work almost
     perfect of its kind, and by many degrees superior to
     Bandini's dry _Annales Typog. Juntarum._, Lucæ, 1761. In
     Renouard's taste, accuracy and interest are delightfully
     combined; and the work is printed with unrivalled beauty.
     There were only six copies of it printed upon LARGE PAPER;
     one of which I saw in the fine collection of the Rt. Hon. T.
     Grenville.----Few modern bibliographers have displayed so
     much diligence as GABRIEL PEIGNOT: from whom we have, 1.
     _Dictionnaire Raisonné de Bibliologie_, Paris, 1802, 8vo.,
     two vols., with a third, by way of supplement (1804). With
     necessary corrections and additions, this work would answer
     many useful purposes in an English translation. 2. _Essai de
     Curiosités Bibliographiques_, 1804, 8vo. This is a very
     amusing (but scarce and unconscionably dear) book. It
     contains elaborate descriptions of many curious and
     sumptuous works, which were sold for 1000 and more livres at
     public sales. 3. _Dictionnaire, &c., des principaux livres
     condamnés au feu, supprimés ou censurés_, Paris, 1806, 8vo.,
     2 vols. The very title of such a work must sharpen the edge
     of curiosity with those bibliomaniacs who have never seen
     it. 4. _Bibliographie Curieuse, ou Notice Raisonnée des
     livres imprimés a cent exemplaires au plus, suivie d'une
     notice de quelques ouvrages tirés sur papier de couleur_,
     Paris, 1808, 8vo. Only one hundred copies of this thin
     volume were struck off: of which I possess the 86th copy,
     according to Peignot's notification. Indeed I am fortunate
     in having all his preceding works. Let us wish long life and
     never-failing success to so brave a book-chevalier as
     Gabriel Peignot.----FRANÇOIS IGNACE FOURNIER, at 18 years of
     age, published an elegantly printed little volume, entitled
     _Essai Portatif de Bibliographie_, 1796, 8vo., of which only
     26 copies were struck off. In the year 1805, this essay
     assumed the form of a Dictionary, and appeared under the
     title of _Dictionnaire portatif de Bibliographie, &c._,
     8vo., comprising 17,000 articles, printed in a very small
     character. Last year, in the month of May, Fournier put
     forth a new edition of this _Dictionnaire_, considerably
     augmented; but in which (such is the fate of bibliographical
     studies) notwithstanding all the care of the author, Brunet
     tells us that he has discovered not fewer than five hundred
     errors! Let not Fournier, however be discouraged; in a few
     years he will achieve something yet more worthy of his
     laudable seal in bibliography.----ANTOINE-ALEXANDRE BARBIER,
     librarian of the Council of State, has favoured us with an
     admirably well executed work, entitled _Dictionnaire des
     Ouvrages Anonymes et Pseudonymes, composés, traduits ou
     publiés en Français, &c., accompagneé de notes historiques
     et critiques_, Paris, _Imprimis Bibliogr._, 1806, 8vo., two
     vols. See also art. "Conseil d'Etat," in the list of French
     Catalogues, post. From these the reader will judge of the
     warm thanks to which this eminent bibliographer is entitled
     for his very useful labours.----G. BOUCHER de la Richarderie
     has, in an especial manner, distinguished himself by his
     _Bibliothéque Universelle des Voyages_, Paris, 1808, 8vo.,
     six vols.: a work executed with care, minuteness, and
     considerable interest. Some of its extracts are, perhaps,
     unnecessarily long. The index to the sixth volume will lead
     the reader to consult an account of some of the most
     ancient, rare, and curious publications of voyages which
     have ever appeared: and Boucher "has deserved well" of the
     book world by this truly valuable and almost indispensable
     performance.----BRUNET Le Fils. This able writer, and
     enthusiastic devotee to bibliography, has recently published
     an excellent and copious work which would appear greatly to
     eclipse Fournier's; entitled "_Manuel du Libraire et de
     l'Amateur de Livres, contenant, 1. Un Nouveau Dictionnaire
     Bibliographigue, 2. Une Table en forme de Catalogue
     Raisonnée_," Paris, 1810, 8vo., 3 vols.: in which he tells us
     he has devoted at least thirty years to the examination of
     books. The first two volumes form a scientific arrangement:
     the latter is an alphabetical one, referring to one or the
     other of the preceding volumes for a more copious account of
     the work. It must be confessed that Brunet has, in this
     publication, executed a difficult task with great ability.]

LIS. I am quite anxious to possess the publications of these moderns:
but you say nothing of their comparative value with the ancients.

LYSAND. Generally speaking, in regard to discoveries of rare books and
typographical curiosities, the moderns have the advantage. They have
made more rational conclusions, from data which had escaped their
predecessors: and the sparkling and animated manner in which they
dress out the particular objects that they describe renders the
perusal of their works more pleasant and gratifying. I am not sure
that they have the learning of the old school: but their works are, in
general, less ponderous and repulsive. The ancient bibliographers were
probably too anxious to describe every thing, however minute and
unimportant: they thought it better to say too much than too little;
and, finding the great mass of readers in former times, uninstructed
in these particular pursuits, they thought they could never exhaust a
subject by bringing to bear upon it every point, however remotely
connected! They found the plain, it is true, parched and sandy; but
they were not satisfied with pouring water upon it, 'till they had
converted it into a deluge.[161]

     [Footnote 161: What Denis says, in the preface to his
     _Catalog. Cod. MSS. Bibl. Palat. Vindob._ (of which see p.
     65, ante) is very just; "media incedendum via; neque nudis
     codicum titulis, ut quibusdam bibliothecis placuit, in
     chartam conjectis provehi multum studia, neque _doctis, quæ
     superioris seculi fuit intemperantia, ambagibus et
     excursibus_."--This is certainly descriptive of the OLD
     SCHOOL of bibliography.]

LIS. Let me ask you, at this stage of our inquiries, what you mean by
bibliographical publications?--and whether the works of those authors
which you have enumerated are sufficient to enable a novice, like
myself, to have pretty accurate notions about the rarity and intrinsic
value of certain works?

LYSAND. By bibliographical publications, I mean such works as give us
some knowledge of the literary productions, as well as of the life,
of certain learned men; which state the various and the best editions
of their lucubrations; and which stimulate us to get possession of
these editions. Every biographical narrative which is enriched with
the mention of curious and rare editions of certain works is, to a
great extent, a bibliographical publication. Those works which treat
professedly upon books are, of course, immediately within the pale of
bibliography.

LIS. But am I to be satisfied with the possession of those works
already recommended?

PHIL. I suppose Lisardo has heard of certain valuable CATALOGUES, and
he wishes to know how far the possession of these may be requisite in
order to make him a bibliographer?

LYSAND. At present I will say nothing about the catalogues of the
collections of our own countrymen. As we have been travelling
principally abroad, we may direct our attention to those which relate
to foreign collections.

And first, let us pay a due tribute of praise to the published
Catalogues of Libraries collected by the JESUITS: men of shrewd
talents and unabating research, and in derogation of whose merits
Voltaire and D'Alembert disgraced themselves by scribbling the most
contemptible lampoons. The downfall of this society led, not very
indirectly, to the destruction of the ancient French monarchy. Men
seemed to forget that while the most shameless depredations were
committed within the libraries of the Jesuits, the cause of learning,
as well as of liberty, suffered,--and the spoils which have glittered
before our eyes, as the precious relics of these collections, serve to
afford a melancholy proof how little those men stick at any thing who,
in raising the war-whoop of liberty and equality, tear open the very
bowels of order, tranquillity, peace, and decorum! But, to the
subject. Let the catalogues of PUBLIC COLLECTIONS, when they are well
arranged, be received into your library. Of foreign PRIVATE
COLLECTIONS, the catalogues[162] of DU FRESNE, CORDES, HEINSIAS,
BALUZE, COLBERT, ROTHELIN, DE BOZE, PREFOND, POMPADOUR, GAIGNAT,
GOUTTARD, BUNAU, SOUBISE, LA VALLIERE, CREVENNA, LAMOIGNON, and of
several other collections, with which my memory does not just now
serve me, will enable you to form a pretty correct estimate of the
_marketable value_ of certain rare and sumptuous publications.
Catalogues are, to bibliographers, what _Reports_ are to lawyers: not
to be read through from beginning to end--but to be consulted on
doubtful points, and in litigated cases. Nor must you, after all,
place too strong a reliance upon the present prices of books, from
what they have produced at former sales; as nothing is more
capricious and unsettled than the value of books at a public auction.
But, in regard to these catalogues, if you should be fortunate enough
to possess any which are printed upon _Large Paper, with the Names of
the Purchasers, and the Prices_ for which each set of books was sold,
thrice and four times happy may you account yourself to be, my good
Lisardo!

     [Footnote 162: As it would have required more breath than
     usually falls to the lot of an individual, for Lysander to
     have given even a rough sketch of the merits, demerits, and
     rarity of certain foreign catalogues of public and private
     collections--in his discourse with his friends--I have
     ventured to supply the deficiency by subjoining, in the
     ensuing _tolerably copious_ note, a list of these
     catalogues, alphabetically arranged; as being, perhaps, the
     most convenient and acceptable plan. Such an attempt is
     quite novel; and must be received, therefore, with many
     grains of allowance. Although I am in possession of the
     greater number (at least of two thirds) of the catalogues
     described, I am aware that, in regard to the description of
     those not in my own library, I subject myself to the lash of
     P. Morhof. "Inepti sunt, qui librorum catalogos scribunt e
     catalogis. Oculata fides et judicium præsens requiritur."
     _Polyhist. Literar._, vol. i., 230. But the weight of my
     authorities will, I trust, secure me from any great violence
     of critical indignation. To render so dry a subject (the
     very "_Hortus Siccus_" of bibliography) somewhat palatable,
     I have here and there besprinkled it with biographical
     anecdotes of the collectors, and of the state of French
     literature in the last century and a half.----D'AGUESSEAU.
     _Catalogue des Livres Imprimés et Manuscrits de la
     Bibliothéque de feu Monsieur D'Aguesseau_, &c., Paris, 1785,
     8vo. "Anxious to enrich his collection, (says the compiler
     of this catalogue) the Bibliomaniac sees with delight the
     moment arrive when, by the sale of a library like this, he
     may add to his precious stores. It is, in truth, a grand
     collection; especially of history, arts, and sciences, and
     jurisprudence. The famous Chancellor D'Aguesseau laid the
     foundation of this library, which was as universal as his
     own genius." It would appear that the son, to whom the
     collection latterly belonged, was gracious in the extreme in
     the loan of books; and that, in consequence, a public
     advertisement was inserted at the foot of the "Avis
     preliminaire," to entreat those, who had profited by such
     kindness, to return their borrowed (shall I say stolen?)
     goods? For want of these volumes, many sets of books were
     miserably defective.----ANONYMIANA. _Catalogus Bibliothecæ
     Anonymianæ, in quo libri rariores recensentur, una cum notis
     litterariis_, Norimb., 1738, 8vo. This is a catalogue of
     value, and may be well ranged with its brethren upon the
     bibliographer's shelf. Another "_Bibliotheca Anonymiana_,"
     was published ten years preceding the present one; at the
     Hague, in three parts, one vol., 8vo.: which, in the _Bibl.
     Solger._, vol iii., no. 1388, is said to contain many
     rare books: see also no. 1370, _ibid._----D'ARTOIS.
     _Catalogue des Livres du Cabinet de Monseigneur Le Compte
     D'Artois_, Paris, 1783, 8vo. Very few copies of this
     catalogue, which is printed in a wide octavo page,
     resembling that of a quarto, were struck off: according to
     Fournier's _Dict. Portat. de Bibliogr._, p. 120, edit. 1809.
     See also _Cat. de Boutourlin_, no. 3876.----AUGUSTANA.
     _Catalogus Bibliothecæ inclytæ Reipubl. Augustanæ utriusque
     linguæ tum Græcæ tum Latinæ librorum et impressorum et manu
     exaratorum._ Aug. Vindel., 1600, fol. Morhof informs us that
     this catalogue, of which Hoeschelius was the compiler,
     contains an account of some manuscripts which have never
     been printed, as well as of some which Marcus Velserus
     published. It is, moreover, full of precious bibliographical
     matter; but unfortunately (the possessor of it may think
     otherwise) only ONE HUNDRED COPIES were struck off.
     _Polyhist. Literar._, vol. i., 211. I find, however, some
     little difficulty about distinguishing this catalogue of the
     Augsbourg library from the impression of 1633, fol., which
     Vogt mentions at p. 323, and of which he also talks of 100
     copies being printed. It should not be forgotten that
     Hoeschelius published an admirable catalogue of the Greek
     MSS. in the library of Augsbourg, 1595, and again 1605, in
     4to. Colomiés pronounces it a model in its way. _Bibl.
     Choisie_, p. 194-5. The catalogue of the Greek MSS. in the
     library of the Duke of Bavaria, at Munich, was published
     about the same period; namely, in 1602: the compiler was a
     skilful man, but he tells us, at the head of the catalogue,
     that the MSS. were open to the inspection of every one who
     had any work in hand, provided he were a _Roman Catholic_!
     This was being very kind to protestants! _Jugemens des
     Savans_, vol. ii., part i., p. 215, edit. 1725. See also
     Vogt's _Catalog. Libror. Rarior._, p. 232.----AUGUSTANA.
     _Notitia historica-literaria de libris ab artis typographicæ
     inventione usque ad annum, 1478, impressis, in Bibliotheca
     Monasterii ad SS. Udalricum et Afram Augustæ extantibus._
     August, Vindel, 1788, 4to. This volume, which I have no
     doubt would gratify the curious bibliographer, it has never
     been my good fortune to meet with. It is here introduced
     upon the authority of the _Cat. du Cardinal de Loménie_,
     no. 2647: ed. 1797. I ought not to close this account of
     the Augsbourg catalogues of books, without remarking, on the
     authority of Reimannus, that the _first_ published catalogue
     of books is that which Villerius, a bookseller at Augsburg,
     put forth in the year 1564. See the _Bibl. Acroam._, p.
     5.----AURIVILLIUS. _Catalogus Bibliothecæ quam collegerat
     Carolus Aurivillius_, sectio [Transcriber's Note: section]
     i. and ii., Upsal, 1787, 8vo. This catalogue contains a
     plentiful sprinkling of short literary and bibliographical
     notes; according to _Bibl. Krohn_, p. 256, no.
     3582.----BADENHAUPT. _Bibliotheca selectissima; sive
     Catalogus librorum magnam partem philologicorum, quos inter
     eminent. Auctores Græci et Romani classica quos collegit
     E.F. Badenhaupt_, Berol, 1773, 8vo. The pithy
     bibliographical notes which are here and there scattered
     throughout this catalogue, render it of estimation in the
     opinion of the curious.----BALUZE. _Bibliotheca Balusiana;
     seu catalogus librorum bibliothecæ D.S. Baluzii, A. Gab.
     Martin_, Paris, 1719, 8vo., two vols. Let any enlightened
     bibliographers read the eulogy upon the venerable Baluze
     (who died in his eighty-eighth year, and who was the great
     Colbert's librarian), in the preface of the _Bibl.
     Colbertina_ (vide post), and in the _Dict. Hist._ (Caen,
     1789, vol. i., p. 443-4), and he will not hesitate a moment
     about the propriety of giving this volume a conspicuous
     place upon his shelf. From the _Bibl. Mencken_, p. 10, it
     would appear that a third volume, containing translations of
     some MSS. in the royal library, is wanting to make this
     catalogue complete. This third volume is
     uncommon.----BARBERINI. _Index Bibliothecæ Francisci
     Barberini Cardinalis. Romæ, Typis Barberinis_, 1681, fol.,
     three vols. in two. The widely spread celebrity of Cardinal
     Barberini suffers no diminution from this publication of the
     riches contained within his library. The authors are
     arranged alphabetically, and not according to classes.
     Although it be not the most luminous in its arrangement, or
     the most accurate in its execution, this finely printed
     catalogue will never remain long upon a bookseller's shelf
     without a purchaser. It were much to be desired that our own
     noblemen, who have fine collections of books, would put
     forth (after the example of Cardinal Barberini) similar
     publications.----BARTHELEMY. _Catalogue des Livres de la
     Bibliothéque de M. l'Abbé Barthelemy, par M. Bernard_, 1800,
     8vo. The high reputation of the owner of this collection
     will always secure purchasers for this catalogue of useful
     and interesting books.----BIBLIOGRAPHIE _des Pays Bas, avec
     quelques notes. Nyon, en Suisse_, 1783, 4to. Only fifty
     copies of this work were printed. It is a pity that Peignot,
     who gives us this information, does not accompany it with
     some account of the nature and merits of the work--which
     probably grew out of the _Histoire Littéraire des Pays
     Blas_, 1725, in three folio volumes. _Bibl. Curieuse_, p.
     10.----BODLEIAN. _Catalog. Libr. Bibl. Publ., &c., in Acad.
     Oxon._, 1605, 4to. _Catal. Libr. Impr._, 1674, fol.
     _Catalogi Libror. MSS. Angl. et Hibern._, 1697, fol.
     _Catalogus Impress. Libror. Bibl. Bodl._, 1733, fol., two
     vols. Although none but catalogues of foreign public and
     private collections were intended to be noticed in this
     list, the reader will forgive a little violation of the rule
     laid down by myself, if I briefly observe upon the
     catalogues of the Bodleian library and the British Museum.
     [For the latter, vide 'MUSEUM.'] The first of these Bodleian
     catalogues contains an account of the MSS. It was prepared
     by Dr. James, the editor of the Philobiblion of De Bury
     (vide p. 30, ante), and, as it was the first attempt to
     reduce to "lucid order" the indigested pile of MSS.
     contained in the library, its imperfections must be
     forgiven. It was afterwards improved, as well as enlarged,
     in the folio edition of 1697, by Bernard; which contains the
     MSS. subsequently bequeathed to the library by Selden,
     Digby, and Laud, alone forming an extensive and valuable
     collection. The editor of Morhof (vol. i., 193, n.) has
     highly commended this latter catalogue. Let the purchaser of
     it look well to the frontispiece of the portraits of Sir
     Thomas Bodley and of the fore-mentioned worthies, which
     faces the title-page; as it is frequently made the prey of
     some prowling Grangerite. The first catalogue of the
     _Printed Books_ in the Bodleian library was compiled by the
     celebrated orientalist, Dr. Hyde: the second by Fisher: of
     these, the latter is the more valuable, as it is the more
     enlarged. The plan adopted in both is the same: namely, the
     books are arranged alphabetically, without any reference to
     their classes--a plan fundamentally erroneous: for the chief
     object in catalogues of public collections is to know what
     works are published upon particular subjects, for the
     facility of information thereupon--whether our inquiries
     lead to publication or otherwise: an alphabetical index
     should, of course, close the whole. It is with reluctance my
     zeal for literature compels me to add that a _Catalogue
     Raisonnée of the Manuscripts and Printed Books in the
     Bodleian Library_ is an urgent desideratum--acknowledged by
     every sensible and affectionate son of ALMA MATER. Talent
     there is, in abundance, towards the completion of such an
     honourable task; and the only way to bring it effectually
     into exercise is to employ heads and hands enough upon the
     undertaking. Let it be remembered what Wanley and Messrs.
     Planta and Nares have done for the Cottonian and Harleian
     MSS.--and what Mr. Douce is now doing for those of the
     Lansdowne collection! One gentleman alone, of a very
     distinguished college, in whom the acuteness and solidity of
     Porson seem almost revived, might do wonders for the Greek
     MSS., and lend an effectual aid towards the arrangement of
     the others. The printed books might be assigned, according
     to their several classes, to the gentlemen most conversant
     with the same; and the numerous bibliographical works,
     published since the catalogue of 1733, might be occasionally
     referred to, according to the plan observed in the _Notitia
     Editionum vel Primariæ, &c., in Bibl. Bodl. Oxon._, 1795,
     8vo.; which was judiciously drawn up by the Bishop of
     London, and the Rev. Dr. William Jackson. I am aware that
     the aged hands of the present venerable librarian of the
     Bodleian library can do little more than lay the
     foundation-stone of such a massive superstructure; but even
     this would be sufficient to enrol his name with the
     Magliabecchis and Baillets of former times--to entitle him
     to be classed among the best benefactors to the library--and
     to shake hands with its immortal founder, in that place
     where are

                          et amoena vireta
          Fortunatorum nemorum, sedesque beatæ.

     BONNIER. _Catalogue des livres de la Bibliothéque de
     Bonnier._ Paris, 1800, 8vo. This catalogue is here
     introduced to the bibliographer's notice in order to sharpen
     his bibliomaniacal appetite to obtain one of the four copies
     only which were printed upon LARGE PAPER of Dutch
     manufacture. See _Cat. de Caillard_ (1808), no.
     2596.----BOUTOURLIN. _Catalogue des livres de la
     Bibliothéque de S.E.M. Le Comte de Boutourlin._ Paris (an.
     xiii.), 1805, 8vo. Every one must conceive a high respect
     for the owner of this choice collection, from the amiable
     sentiments which pervade the preface to the catalogue. It
     has a good index; and is elegantly printed. My copy is upon
     LARGE PAPER.----DE BOZE. _Catalogue des Livres du Cabinet de
     M. Claude Gros de Boze._ Paris. _De l'Imp. Royale_, 1745,
     small folio. This is the first printed catalogue of the
     choice and magnificent library of De Boze, the friend and
     correspondent of Dr. Mead, between whom presents of books
     were continually passing--as they were the first collectors
     of the day in their respective countries. Some have said 50,
     some 35, others 25, and others ONLY 12 COPIES of this
     impression were struck off, as presents for the collector's
     friends. Consult _Bibl. Mead_, p. 81, no. 617. _Bibl.
     Creven._, vol. v., 291. _Bauer's Bibl. Rarior._, vol. i.,
     151. _Bibl. Curieuse_, p. 12. _Bibl. Askev._, no. 508.
     Barbier's _Dict. des Anonymes_, vol. ii., no. 8002.----DE
     BOZE, _de la même bibliothéque_, 1753, 8vo. This catalogue,
     which was executed by Martin, after the death of De Boze,
     does not contain all the notices of works mentioned in the
     preceding one. It is, however, well deserving of a place in
     the bibliographer's library. Peignot tells us that there was
     yet a _third_ catalogue printed, in 8vo., containing 192
     pages, and giving an account of some books taken out of De
     Boze's collection: a few of which are described in the
     preceding edition of 1753. See his _Bibl. Cur._, p.
     12.----BOZERIAN. _Notice des livres précieux ye
     [Transcriber's Note: de] M. Bozérian, par M. Bailly_, 1798,
     8vo. A cabinet of "precious books," indeed! The misfortune
     is, so small a number of modern foreign catalogues come over
     here that the best of them will be found in few of our
     libraries. Whenever the "Bibliotheca Bozeriana" shall be
     imported, it will not stop seven days upon a bookseller's
     shelf!----BULTEAU. _Bibliotheca Bultelliana; (Caroli
     Bulteau) a Gabr. Martin_, Paris, 1711, 12mo., 2 vols. in
     one. This catalogue, which is carefully compiled, contains
     curious and uncommon books; many of which were purchased for
     the collections of Préfond, De Boze, and others.----BUNAU.
     _Catalogus Bibliothecæ Bunavianæ._ Lipsiæ, 1750. Six parts,
     in three volumes, each volume having two parts--usually
     bound in six vols. Highly and generally esteemed as is this
     extensive collection, and methodically arranged catalogue,
     of Count Bunau's books, the latter has always appeared to me
     as being branched out into too numerous ramifications, so as
     to render the discovery of a work, under its particular
     class, somewhat difficult, without reference to the index. I
     am aware that what Camus says is very true--namely, that
     "nothing is more absurd than to quarrel about
     catalogue-making: and that every man ought to have certain
     fixed and decisive ideas upon the subject," [_Mem. de
     l'Inst._ vol. i., 650,] but simplicity and perspicuity,
     which are the grand objects in every undertaking, might have
     been, in my humble apprehension, more successfully exhibited
     than in this voluminous catalogue. It represents _over-done
     analysis_! yet those who are writing upon particular
     subjects will find great assistance in turning to the
     different works here specified upon the same. It is rare and
     high-priced. From the preface, which is well worth an
     attentive perusal, it appears that this grand collection,
     now deposited in the electoral library at Dresden (see _Cat.
     de Caillard_, no. 2545, 1808,) was at Count Bunau's
     country-house, situated in a pleasant village about half a
     mile from Dresden--

          Vicinam videt unde lector urbem.

     Saxius, in his _Onomast. Literar._, vol i., p. xxxiii.,
     edit. 1775, &c., has a smart notice of this splendid
     collection.----BUNNEMAN. _J.L. Bunnemanni Catalogus
     Manuscriptorum, item librorum impressorum rarissimorum pro
     assignato pretio venalium._ Minda, 1732, 8vo. For the sake
     of knowing, by way of curiosity, what books (accounted rare
     at this period) were sold for, the collector may put this
     volume into his pocket, when he finds it upon a book-stall
     marked at 1_s._ 6_d._ In the _Bibl. Solger._, vol iii.,
     no. 1396, there was a priced copy upon LARGE PAPER with
     bibliographical memoranda.----CAILLARD. _Catalogue des
     livres du Cabinet de M.A.B. Caillard_, Paris, 1805, 8vo. Of
     this private catalogue, compiled by Caillard himself, and
     printed upon fine Dutch paper, in super-royal 8vo., only
     twenty-five copies were struck off. So says Fournier, _Dict.
     Portatif de Bibliographie_: p. 120; edit. 1809, and the
     "avant-propos" prefixed to the subsequent catalogue here
     following:----_Livres rares et précieux de la Bibliothéque
     de feu M. Ant. Bern. Caillard_, Paris, 1808, 8vo. There were
     but twenty-five copies of this catalogue of truly valuable,
     and, in many respects, rare, and precious, books, printed
     upon LARGE PAPER, of the same size as the preceding. This
     was the sale catalogue of the library of Caillard, who died
     in 1807, in his sixty-ninth year, and of whose
     bibliomaniacal spirit we have a most unequivocal proof in
     his purchasing De Cotte's celebrated uncut copy of the first
     printed Homer, at an enormous sum! [vide COTTE, post.] "Sa
     riche bibliothéque est á-la-fois un monument de son amour
     pour l'art typographique, et de la vaste étendue de ses
     connoissances," p. xiv. Some excellent indexes close this
     volume; of which Mr. Payne furnished me with the loan of his
     copy upon LARGE PAPER.----CAMBIS. _Catalogue des principaux
     manuscrits du cabinet de M. Jos. L.D. de Cambis_, Avignon,
     1770, 4to. Although this is a catalogue of MSS., yet, the
     number of copies printed being very few, I have given it a
     place here. Some of these copies contain but 519, others
     766, pages; which shews that the owner of the MSS. continued
     publishing his account of them as they increased upon him.
     Rive, in his "_Chasse aux bibliographes_," has dealt very
     roughly with the worthy Cambis; but Peignot tells us that
     this latter was a respectable literary character, and a
     well-informed bibliographer--and that his catalogue, in
     spite of Rive's diatribe, is much sought after. See the
     _Bibliogr. Curieuse_, p. 14; also _Cat. de la Valliere_,
     vol. iii., no. 5543.----CAMUS DE LIMARE. _Catalogues des
     livres de M. le Camus de Limare_, Paris, 1779, 12mo.--_Des
     livres rares et précieux de M---- (Camus de Limare)_, Paris,
     1786, 8vo.--_Des livres rares et précieux, reliés en
     maroquin, de la bibliothéque du même, Paris, an trois_
     (1795), 8vo. Of the _first_ catalogue only a small number of
     copies was printed, and those for presents. _Bibliogr.
     Curieuse_, p. 15. It contains a description of De Boze's
     extraordinary copy of Du Fresnoy's "Methode pour étudier
     l'Histoire," 1729, 4to., four volumes, with the supplement,
     1740, two vols.; which was sold for 1500 livres; and which
     was, of course, upon LARGE PAPER, with a thousand inviting
     additions, being much more complete than the similar copies
     in _Cat. de Valliere_, no. 4467; and _Cat. de Crevenna_,
     no. 5694, edit. 1789; although this latter was preferable
     to the Valliere copy. Consult also the _Curiosités
     Bibliographiques_, p. 77-8. The _second_ catalogue was
     prepared by De Bure, and contains a very fine collection of
     natural history, which was sold at the Hôtel de Bullion. The
     printed prices are added. The _third_ catalogue, which was
     prepared by Santus, after the decease of Camus, contains
     some very choice articles [many printed UPON VELLUM] of
     ancient and modern books superbly bound.----CATALOGUE _des
     livres rares. Par Guillaume de Bure, fils âiné._ Paris,
     1786, 8vo. We are told, in the advertisement, that this
     collection was formed from a great number of sales of
     magnificent libraries, and that particular circumstances
     induced the owner to part with it. The books were in the
     finest order, and bound by the most skilful binders. The
     bibliographical notices are short, but judicious; and a good
     index closes the catalogue. The sale took place at the Hôtel
     de Bullion.----CATALOGUE _fait sur un plan nouveau,
     systématique et raisonné, d'une Bibliothéque de Littérature,
     particulièrement d'Histoire et de Poésie, &c._ Utrecht,
     1776, 8vo., two vols. A judicious and luminous arrangement
     of 19,000 articles, or sets of books; which, in the
     departments specified in the title-page, are singularly
     copious and rich.----CATALOGUS _Librorum rarissimorum, ab
     Artis Typographicæ inventoribus, aliisque ejus artis
     Principibus ante annum 1500 excusorum; omnium optime
     conservatorum_, 8vo., _Sine loco aut anno_. Peignot, who has
     abridged Vogt's excellent account of this very uncommon and
     precious catalogue, of which ONLY TWENTY-FIVE COPIES were
     printed, has forgotten to examine the last edition of the
     _Catalog. Libror. Rarior._, pp. 262-3; in which we find that
     the collection contained 248 (and not 217) volumes. At the
     end, it is said: "Pretiosissima hæc Librorum Collectio,
     cujusvis magni Principis Bibliotheca dignissima, constat
     voll. ccxlviii." Consult the respectable references in Vogt,
     _ibid._; also the _Bibliogr. Curieuse_ of Peignot, p.
     15.----CERAN. _Catalogue des livres de M. Mel de Saint
     Ceran._ Paris, 1780, 8vo., again in 1791, 8vo. These
     catalogues were compiled by De Bure, and are carefully
     executed. Some of the books noticed in them are sufficiently
     curious and rare.----CLEMENTINO-VATICANA. _Bibliotheca
     Orientalis Clementino Vaticana, in quâ manuscriptos codices
     Orientalium Linguarum recensuit Joseph Simonius Assemanus_,
     Romæ, 1719. Folio, four vols. Asseman's son compiled an
     excellent catalogue of the Oriental MSS. in the
     Medico-Laurentian library; but this work of the father is
     more curious and elaborate. Whenever a few half-guineas can
     procure it, let the country-settled philologist send his
     "henchman" to fly for it!--"Speed, Malise, speed." But alas!
     Santander tells us that copies of it are rare. _Cat. de
     Santander_, vol. iv., no. 6287.----COLBERT. _Bibliotheca
     Colbertina: seu Catalogus Librorum Bibliothecæ quæ fuit
     primum J.B. Colbert, deinde J.B. Colbert (fil) postea J.
     Nic. Colbert, ac demum C.L. Colbert._ Parisiis, 1728, 8vo.,
     three vols. The preface to this valuable catalogue (executed
     by Martin) gives us a compressed, but sufficiently
     perspicuous, account of the auspices under which such an
     extensive and magnificent collection was assembled and
     arranged. It contains not fewer than 18,219 articles; being
     perhaps 60,000 volumes. The celebrated Baluze was the
     librarian during the life of the former branches of the
     Colbert family; a family which, if nothing remained to
     perpetuate their fame but this costly monument of literary
     enterprise, will live in the grateful remembrance of
     posterity--but it wants not even such a splendid memorial!
     The lover of fine and curious books will always open the
     volumes of the COLBERT CATALOGUE with a zest which none but
     a thorough bred bibliomaniac can ever hope to
     enjoy.----CONSEIL D'ETAT. _Catalogue des livres de la
     Bibliothéque du Conseil d'Etat (par M. Barbier,
     Bibliothecaire du Conseil d'Etat)._ Paris, an. xi. (1802),
     folio. "This catalogue is most superbly executed. The
     richness of the materials of which it is composed, the fine
     order of its arrangement, and the skilful researches
     exhibited in it relating to anonymous authors, are worthy of
     the typographical luxury of the national press, from which
     this curious work was put forth. It will be perfect in three
     parts: the third part, containing the supplement and tables,
     is now at press." (A.D. 1804.) The preface and table of the
     divisions of this catalogue were published in a small 8vo.
     volume, 1801. This information I glean from Peignot's
     _Curiosités Bibliographiques_, p. lix.; and from the _Cat.
     de Boutourlin_, no. 3892, I learn that only 190 copies of
     so useful, as well as splendid, a work were printed, of
     which the French government took upon itself the
     distribution.----CORDES. _Bibliothecæ Cordesianæ Catalogus,
     cum indice titulorum_, Parisiis, 1643, 4to. The celebrated
     Naudé had the drawing up and publishing of this catalogue,
     which is highly coveted by collectors, and is now of rare
     occurrence. De Cordes was intimate with all the learned men
     of his country and age; and his eulogy, by Naudé, prefixed
     to the catalogue, gives us a delightful account of an
     amiable and learned man living in the bosom, as it were, of
     books and of book-society. This collection, which was
     purchased by Cardinal Mazarin, formed the foundation of the
     latter's magnificent library. Consult the _Jugemens des
     Savans_, vol. ii., p. 142; Colomié's _Biblioth. Choisie_, p.
     126; _Mem. de l'Inst._, vol. i., p. 647. Nor must we forget
     Morhof--_Polyhist. Literar._, vol. i., p. 211; who, after a
     general commendation of the collection, tells us it is
     remarkable for containing a fine body of foreign history. De
     Cordes died A.D. 1642, in the 72d year of his age--nearly 50
     years having been devoted by him to the formation of his
     library. "Fortunate senex!"----COTTE. _Catalogue des Livres
     rares et précieux et de MSS. composant la bibliothéque de
     M---- (le President de Cotte)_, Paris, 1804, 8vo. We are
     told by Peignot that the books at this sale were sold for
     most exorbitant sums: "the wealthy amateurs striving to make
     themselves masters of the LARGE PAPER Alduses, Elzevirs, and
     Stephenses, which had been Count d'Hoym's copies." An uncut
     first edition of Homer, in the highest state of
     preservation, was purchased by Mons. Caillaird
     [Transcriber's Note: Caillard] for 3,601 livres! See the
     _Curiosités Bibliographiques_, pp. lxv, lxvj. According to
     _Cat. de Caillard_, no. 2600 (1808, 8vo.), there were
     only ten copies of this catalogue printed upon LARGE
     PAPER.----COUVAY. _Catalogue de la bibliothéque de M.
     Couvay, chevalier de l'ordre de Christ, secrétaire du Roi_,
     Paris, 1728, fol. Very few copies of this catalogue were
     printed, and those only for presents. _Bibliogr. Curieuse_,
     p. 21.----CREVENNA. _Catalogue raisonnée de la collection
     des Livres de M. Pierre Antoine Crevenna, Négocient à
     Amsterdam_, 1776, 4to., six vols.--_De la même collection_,
     1789, 8vo., five vols.--_De la même collection_, 1793, 8vo.
     Of these catalogues of one of the most extensive and
     magnificent collections ever formed in Amsterdam, the first
     impression of 1776 (to which I have generally referred) is
     by far the most valuable in regard to bibliographical
     remarks and copious description. Peignot tells us that no
     bibliographer can do without it. It was commenced in the
     year 1774, and published during the life time of Peter
     Antony Crevenna, the father; from whom the collection passed
     into the hands of the son Bolongari Crevenna, and in whose
     lifetime it was sold by public auction. The second
     impression of 1789 is the sale-catalogue, and contains more
     books than the preceding one; but the bibliographical
     observations are comparatively trifling. There are copies of
     this latter impression upon LARGE PAPER in quarto. I possess
     an interesting copy of the small paper, which has numerous
     marginal remarks in pencil, by Mr. Edwards; who examined the
     library at Amsterdam, with a view to purchase it entire. The
     last catalogue of 1793, which was published after the death
     of the son, contains a few choice books which he had
     reserved for himself, and, among them, a curious set of
     fac-simile drawings of old prints and title-pages; some of
     which were obtained at the sale of the elder Mirabeau (vide
     post). It seems to have been the ruling passion of B.
     Crevenna's life to collect all the materials, from all
     quarters, which had any connection, more or less, with "THE
     ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF PRINTING," and it is for ever to be
     regretted that such extensive materials as those which he
     had amassed, and which were sold at the sale of 1793 should
     have been dissipated beyond the hope of restoration. See
     Peignot's _Dict. de Bibliologie_, vol. iii., p. 100; and his
     _Curiosités Bibliographiques_, p. 139.----CROZAT. _Catalogue
     des Livres de Monsieur Le President Crozat de Tugny_, Paris,
     1751, 8vo. This collection was particularly rich in the
     belles-lettres--and especially in Italian and French
     Romance-Literature.----VAN DAMME. _Catalogue d'une
     Bibliotheque, vendue publiquement à la Haye, le 8 Octobre,
     par Varon et Gaillard_, 1764, three vols. 8vo. "This
     precious and rare collection belonged to M. Pierre Van
     Damme, book-merchant at Amsterdam, equally well known for
     his knowledge of bibliography and of medals; of which latter
     he had a beautiful and uncommon collection." _Bibl.
     Crevenn._, vol. v., p. 306.----DUBOIS. _Bibliotheca
     Duboisiana, ou Catalogue de la Bibliothéque du Cardinal
     Dubois. A la Haye_, 1725, 8vo., four vols. A collection
     which evinces the fine taste and sound judgment of the
     Cardinal Du Bois. It is not rare abroad.----ELZEVIR.
     _Catalogus librorum qui in Bibliopolio Officinæ Danielis
     Elzevirii venales extant_, Ams. 1674, 12mo.: 1681,
     12mo.--_qui in Bibliopoli Elzeviriano venales extant_, Lug.
     Bat., 1634, 1684, 4to. These, and other catalogues of the
     books printed by the distinguished family of the Elzevirs,
     should find a place within the cabinet of bibliographers.
     The first book ever published by the Elzevirs was of the
     date of 1595; the last, of 1680 or 1681, by Daniel Elzevir,
     who was the only surviving branch. His widow carried on the
     business after his decease in 1680. In the _Dictionnaire de
     Bibliologie_ of Peignot, vol. i., p. 216, vol. iii., p. 116,
     will be found a pleasing account of this family of (almost)
     unrivalled printers.----DU FAY. _Bibliotheca Fayana seu
     Catalogus librorum Bibl. Cor. Hier. de Cisternay du Fay,
     digestus à Gabriel Martin_, Paris, 1725, 8vo. The catalogue
     of this collection, which is a judicious one, and frequently
     referred to, is very carefully put forth by Martin. I think
     that I have seen a copy of it upon LARGE PAPER.----FAGEL.
     _Bibliotheca Fageliana. A catalogue of the valuable and
     extensive Library of the Greffier Fagal, of the Hague: in
     two parts._ London, 1802, 8vo. It is highly creditable to
     that most respectable establishment, Trinity College,
     Dublin, that the present grand collection of books was
     purchased "en masse" (for 7000_l._) to be deposited within
     its library; thus rendering the interior of the latter
     "companion meet" for its magnificent exterior. The
     title-page of the first part announces the sale of the books
     by auction by Mr. Christie; but the above offer having been
     made for the whole collection, the same was forthwith
     transported to Ireland. Collectors should take care that the
     second part of this catalogue be not wanting, which is
     oftentimes the case. A good index only is requisite to make
     the BIBLIOTHECA FAGELIANA rank with the most valuable
     publications of its kind in existence. It was compiled by
     the well-known S. Paterson.----FAULTRIER. _Catalogus
     Librorum Bibliothecæ Domini Joachimi Faultrier, digestus à
     Prosper Marchand_, Paris, 1709, 8vo. The bibliographical
     introductory remarks, by Marchand, render this volume (which
     rarely occurs) very acceptable to collectors of catalogues.
     Maittaire has spoken well of the performance, _Annal.
     Typog._ iii., p. 482. Consult also the _Mem. de l'Inst._,
     vol. i., p. 675, and the _Dict. de Bibliologie_, vol. ii.,
     p. 235, upon Marchand's introductory remarks relating to the
     arrangement of a library.----FAVIER. _Catalogue des Livres
     de la Bibliothéque de feu Mons. L'Abbé Favier, Prêtre à
     Lille_, Lille, 1765, 8vo. A well arranged catalogue of a
     choice collection of books, which cost the Abbé fifty years
     of pretty constant labour in amassing. Prefixed, are some
     interesting notices of MSS.: and, among them, of a valuable
     one of Froissart. The prints of the Abbé were afterwards
     sold, from a catalogue of 143 pages, printed at Lisle in the
     same year.----DU FRESNE. _Raphaelis Tricheti du Fresne
     Bibliothecæ Catalogus._ Paris, 1662, 4to. "I have observed,"
     says Morhof, "a number of authors in this catalogue which I
     have in vain sought after elsewhere. The typographical
     errors (especially in regard to dates, adds Baillet) are
     innumerable: and the theological, legal, and medical works,
     comparatively few--but in the departments of history,
     antiquities, and general literature, this collection is
     wonderfully enriched--containing authors hardly ever heard
     of." _Polyhist. Literar._, vol. i., p. 212. Colomiés and
     Labbe unite in conferring the highest praises upon Du Fresne
     and his collection. See the _Jugemens des Savans_, vol. ii.,
     p. 143; where, however, the confused and inaccurate manner
     in which the catalogue is executed is sharply censured by
     Baillet. Morhof informs us that this collection was disposed
     of by Du Fresne's widow, to the Royal Library, for 24,000
     _livres_, after she had refused 33,000 for the
     same.----GAIGNAT. _Catalogue des Livres du Cabinet de feu M.
     Louis Jean Gaignat, disposé et mis en ordre par Guill.
     François de Bure le Jeune._ Paris, 1769, 8vo., two vols. One
     of the best executed, and most intrinsically valuable
     catalogues in existence. Almost all the books of Gaignat
     were in the choicest condition; being the cream of the
     collections of Colbert, Préfond, and De Boze. The possession
     of this rare catalogue, which is indispensable to the
     collector, forms what is called a Supplement to De Bure's
     "_Bibliographie Instructive_." There are 50 copies struck
     off upon SMALL QUARTO paper, to arrange with a like number
     of this latter work. Consult _Bibl. Crevenn._, vol. v., p.
     291.----GENÈVE. _Catalogue raisonné des Manuscrits conservés
     dans la bibliothéque, &c., de Genève; par Jean Senibier._
     Genève, 1779, 8vo. A neatly executed and useful catalogue of
     some manuscripts of no mean value. It has received a good
     character by Mons. Van-Praet, in the _Cat. de la Valliere_,
     vol. iii., no. 5542. See also p. 36, ante.----GOEZ.
     _Bibliothecæ Goësinæ Catalogus_, Leidæ, 1687, 8vo. A fine
     collection of books and of coins distinguished the Museum of
     Goez.----GOLOWKIN. _Catalogue des Livres de la Bibliothéque
     du Comte Alexis de Golowkin_, Leipsic, 1798, 4to. It is said
     that ONLY 25 COPIES of this catalogue were struck off, and
     that not more than two of these are known to be in France.
     Neither the type nor paper has the most inviting aspect; but
     it is a curious volume, and contains a description of books
     "infiniment précieux." Consult Peignot's _Bibliogr.
     Curieuse_, p. 31. Dr. Clarke, in his _Travels in Russia,
     &c._, p. 138, has noticed the extraordinary library of Count
     Botterline, but says nothing of Golowkin's.----GOUTTARD.
     _Catalogue des Livres rares et precieux de feu M. Gouttarde
     par Guillaume de Bure fils aîné._ Paris, 1780, 8vo. A short
     bibliographical notice of the amiable and tasteful owner of
     this select collection precedes the description of the
     books. The bibliographical observations are sometimes
     copious and valuable. This catalogue is indispensable to the
     collector.----GUYON. _Catalogue des livres de la
     Bibliothéque de feu M.J.B. Denis Guyon, Chev. Seigneur de
     Sardiere, Ancien Capitaine au Regiment du Roi, et l'un des
     Seigneurs du Canal de Briare._ Paris, 1759, 8vo. It is
     justly said, in the "advertisement" prefixed to this
     catalogue, that, in running over the different classes of
     which the collection is composed, there will be found
     articles "capable de piquer la curiosité des bibliophiles."
     In ancient and modern poetry, and in romances--especially
     relating to chivalry--this "ancient Captain" appears to have
     been deeply versed. The advertisement is followed by 28
     pages of "Eclaircissemens"--which give an interesting
     account of some precious manuscripts of old poetry and
     romances. A MS. note, in my copy of this catalogue, informs
     me that the books were sold "en masse."----HEINSIUS. (NIC.)
     _Nicolai Heinsii Bibliothecæ Catalogus_, (1682) 8vo. A
     portrait of the elegant and learned owner of this collection
     faces the title-page. The books contained in it are
     remarkable both for their rarity and intrinsic value; and a
     great number of them were enriched with the notes of
     Scaliger, Salmasius, and others. Few collections display
     more judgment and taste in the selection than the present
     one; and few critics have been of more essential service to
     the cause of ancient classical literature than Nicholas
     Heinsius. He excelled particularly in his editions of the
     poets. Mr. Dyer, of Exeter, the bookseller, has a copy of
     this catalogue, which was formerly Grævius's; in which that
     celebrated critic has made marginal remarks concerning the
     rarity and value of certain works described in
     it.----HOHENDORF. _Bibliotheca Hohendorfiana; ou Catalogue
     de la Bibliothéque de feu Mons. George Guillaume Baron de
     Hohendorf: à la Haye_, 1720, 8vo., three parts. A
     magnificent collection; which a MS. note, by Dr. Farmer (in
     my copy of the catalogue), informs me was "added to the
     Emperor's library at Vienna." In the _Bibl. Mencken_, p. 10,
     it is thus loftily described: "Catalogus per-rarus
     rarissimis libris superbiens."----HOYM. _Catalogus Librorum
     Bibliothecæ Caroli Henrici Comitis de Hoym_, 1738, 8vo. This
     catalogue, which is exceedingly well "digested by Martin,"
     is a great favourite with collectors. A copy out of Count
     Hoym's collection tells well--whether at a book-sale, or in
     a bookseller's catalogue. There are copies upon LARGE PAPER,
     which, when priced, sell high.----HULSIUS. _Bibliotheca
     Hulsiana, sive Catalogus Librorum quos magno labore, summa
     cura et maximis sumptibus collegit Vir Consularis Samuel
     Hulsius._ Hag. Com. 1730, four vols. 8vo. (the second and
     third being in two parts, and the fourth in three). This is,
     in sober truth, a wonderful collection of books; containing
     nearly 34,000 articles--which, allowing three volumes to an
     article, would make the owner to have been in possession of
     100,000 volumes of printed books and MSS. The English
     library, (vol. iv., pt. ii.) of nearly 3300 articles,
     comprehended nearly all the best books of the day. There
     were about 1200 articles of Spanish Literature. Nor was the
     worthy Consul deficient in the love of the fine arts ("hæc
     est, sitque diu, Senis optimi voluptas et oblectatio," says
     the compiler of the catalogue); having 11,000 most beautiful
     prints of subjects relating to the Bible, bound up in 92
     atlas folio volumes. Long live the memory of Hulsius; a
     consular hero of no ordinary renown!----JENA. _Memorabilia
     Bibliothecæ Academicæ Jenensis: sive designatio Codicum
     manuscriptorum illa Bibliothecâ et Librorum impressorum
     plerumque rariorum. Joh. Christophoro Mylio._ Jenæ, 1746,
     8vo. A work of some little importance; and frequently
     referred to by Vogt and Panzer. It is uncommon.----JESU SOC.
     _Bibliotheca Scriptorum Societatis Jesu._ Antv., 1643. Romæ,
     1676, fol. Although this work is not a professed catalogue
     of books, yet, as it contains an account of the writings of
     those learned men who were in the society of the
     Jesuits--and as Baillet, Antonio, and Morhof, have said
     every thing in commendation of it--I strongly recommend one
     or the other of these editions to the bibliographer's
     attention. I possess the edition of 1643; and have
     frequently found the most satisfactory intelligence on
     referring to it. How clever some of the Jesuits were in
     their ideas of the arrangement of a library may be seen from
     their "_Systema Bibliothecæ Jesuitarum Collegii
     Ludoviciani_"--which was written by Garnier for the private
     use of the Louvain college, and which is now extremely
     difficult to be found. See Maichelius, _de Præcip. Bibl.
     Parisiens_, p. 128. Their "_Systema bibliothecæ collegii
     Parisiensis societatis Jesu_," 1678, 4to. (or catalogue of
     books in the college of Clermont), is handsomely noticed by
     Camus in the _Mem. de l'Inst._, vol. i., 647.----JUST, ST.
     _Catalogue des livres en très-petit nombre qui composent la
     Bibliothéque de M. Merard de St. Just, ancien maitre-d'hotêl
     de Monsieur, frère du Roi (avec les prix d'achat)._ Paris,
     1783, 18mo. Of this book, printed upon superfine paper, of
     the manufactory of d'Annonay, only 25 copies were struck
     off. _Bibl. Curieuse_, p. 43. Another catalogue of the same
     collection (perhaps a more copious one) was put forth in
     1799, 8vo., prepared by M. Mauger, See _Diction.
     Bibliographique_, tom. iv., p. xiv.----KROHN. _Catalogus
     Bibliothecæ Præstantissimorum &c., Librorum selectum
     complectentis. Libros collegit et Literariis Catalogum
     Animadversionibus instruxit, B.N. Krohn. Editio altera._
     Hamb. 1796, 8vo. The preface to this very excellent
     collection of books is written in Latin by Rambach; and a
     most interesting one it is. After giving a slight sketch of
     the life and literary occupations of Krohn, he thus finishes
     the picture of his death--"Ego certe (exclaims the grateful
     biographer), mi KROHNI, te amabo, et quamdiu 'spiritus hos
     reget artus' gratam Tui memoriam ex animo nunquam elabi
     patiar. O! me felicem, si, qua olim me beasti, amicitiâ nunc
     quoque frui possem. Sed fruar aliquando, cum Deus me ad
     beatorum sedes evocaverit, ac Te mihi rediderit
     conjunctissimum. Vale, interim, pia anima; et quem jam
     tristem reliquisti, prope diem exspecta, in tenerrimos Tuos
     amplexus properantem, ac de summa, quam nunc habes,
     felicitate Tibi congratulantem," p. xix. This is the genuine
     language of heart-felt grief; language, which those who have
     lost an old and good friend will know well how to
     appreciate. This catalogue, which was given to me by my
     friend the Rev. Dr. Gosset, 'vir in re bibliographicâ
     [Greek: polymathestatos],' exhibits a fine collection of
     books (3821 in number) relating to history and philology.
     Some of Krohn's notes are sufficiently shrewd and
     intelligent.----LAMOIGNON. _Catalogue des Livres Imprimés et
     manuscrits de la Bibliothéque de M. le President de
     Lamoignon (redigé par L. Fr. Delatour) avec une table des
     auteurs, et des anonymes._ Paris, 1770, fol. The
     bibliographer has only to hear Peignot speak in his own
     language, and he will not long hesitate about the price to
     be given for so precious [Transcriber's Note: 'a' missing in
     original] volume: "Catalogue fort rare, tiré a QUINZE
     EXEMPLAIRES seulement, sur du papier de coton fabriqué, par
     singularité, à Angoulême." Mr. Harris, of the Royal
     Institution, possesses a copy of it, bound in
     orange-coloured Morocco, which was presented to him by Mr.
     Payne; and, as Alexander placed his beloved Homer--so does
     he this catalogue--uner [Transcriber's Note: under] his
     pillow "quand il vent se reposer--a cause des songes
     agréables qu'il doit inspirer." This beautiful volume, which
     was printed for Lamoignon's own convenience, in supplemental
     parts, does not, however, contain Baillet's interesting
     Latin prefece, which may be seen in the _Jugemens des
     Savans_, vol. [Transcriber's Note: volume number missing in
     original] pt. ii., p. 140, ed. 1725.----LAMOIGNON. _Des
     Livres de la Bibliothéque de feu M. de Lamoignon, Garde de
     Sçeaux de France._ Paris, 1791, 8vo., 3 vols. These volumes
     contain the sale catalogue of Lamoignon's books as they were
     purchased by Mr. T. Payne, the bookseller. Like the great
     libraries of Crevenna and Pinelli, this immense collection
     (with the exception of the works upon French jurisprudence)
     has been dissipated by public sale. It yet delights Mr.
     Payne to think and to talk of the many thousand volumes
     which were bound in Morocco, or Russia, or
     white-calf-leather, "with gilt on the edges"--which this
     extraordinary family of book-collectors had amassed with so
     much care and assiduity. The preface gives us a short, but
     pleasing, account of the bibliomanical spirit of Lamoignon's
     father-in-law, Monsieur Berryer; who spent between thirty
     and forty years in enriching this collection with all the
     choice, beautiful, and extraordinary copies of works which,
     from his ministerial situation, and the exertions of his
     book-friends, it was possible to obtain. M. Berryer died in
     1762, and his son-in-law in 1789.----LAMOIGNON. _Des Livres
     de la même Biblothéque, par Nyon l'âiné._ Paris, 1797, 8vo.
     This volume presents us with the relics of a collection
     which, in its day, might have vied with the most splendid in
     Europe. But every thing earthly must be
     dissipated.----LANCELOT. _Catalogue des Livres de feu M.
     Lancelot de l'Academie Royale des Belles Lettres._ Paris,
     1741, 8vo. Those who are fond of making their libraries rich
     in French History cannot dispense with this truly valuable
     catalogue. Lancelot, like the elder Lamoignon, appears to
     have been "buried in the benedictions of his
     countrymen"--according to the energetic language of
     Bourdaloue.----LEMARIÉ. _Catalogue des livres de feu M.
     Lemarié, disposé et mis en ordre, par Guil. De Bure, fils
     aîné_, Paris, 1776, 8vo. A well digested catalogue of a rich
     collection of Greek and Latin Literature, which evinces a
     man of taste and judgment. Nothing can be more handsomely
     said of a collection than what De Bure has prefixed to the
     present one. In the _Cat. de Gouttard_, no. 1545, I find
     a copy of it upon LARGE PAPER.----LOMÉNIE. _Index Librorum
     ab inventa Typographia da annum 1500, &c., cum notis, &c._
     Senonis, 1791, 8vo., two vols. The owner of this collection,
     whose name does not appear in the title-page, was the
     celebrated Cardinal DE LOMÉNIE DE BRIENNE: who is described,
     in the advertisement prefixed to the catalogue of his books
     in 1797, [vide infra] as having, from almost early youth,
     pushed his love of book-collecting to an excess hardly
     equalled by any of his predecessors. When he was but a young
     ecclesiastic, and had only the expectation of a fortune, his
     ruling passion for books, and his attachment to fellow
     bibliomaniacs, was ardent and general. But let his
     panegyrist speak in his own language--"Si le hazard
     procuroit à ses amis quelque objét précieux, il n'avoit de
     repos qu'aprés l'avoir obtenu; les sacrifices ne
     l'effrayoient pas; il étoit né généreaux; mais ce qu'on lui
     accordoit, il le devoit sur-tout à ses manières insinuantes.
     Ses sollicitations étoient toujours assaisonnées d'un ton
     d'amabilité auquel on résistoit difficilement. Lorsque le
     tems et les grâces de la cour eurent aggrandi ses moyens,
     ses veus s'etendirent à proportion. Insensiblement il
     embressa tous les genres, et sa bibliothéque devint un dépôt
     universel. Dans ses fréquens voyages, s'il s'arrêtoit
     quelques instans dans une ville, on le voyoit visiter
     lui-même les libraries, s'introduire dans les maisons
     religieuses, s'insinuer dans les cabinets d'amateurs,
     chercher par-tout à acquérir; c'etoit un besoin pour lui
     d'acheter sans cesse, d'entasser les volumes. Cette passion
     a peut-être ses excés; mais du moins, elle ne fut pas pour
     le cardinal de Loménie une manie stérile. Non seulement il
     aimoit, il connoissoit les livres, mais il savoit s'en
     servir; sans contredit il fut un des hommes les plus
     éclairés du Clergé de France."----To return from this
     pleasing rhapsody to the catalogue, the title of which is
     above given. It is composed by Laire, in the Latin language,
     with sufficient bibliographical skill: but the index is the
     most puzzling one imaginable. The uncommonly curious and
     magnificent collection, not being disposed of "en
     masse"--according to advertisement--was broken up; and the
     more ancient books were sold by auction at Paris, in 1792,
     from a French catalogue prepared by De Bure. Some of the
     books were purchased by Mr. Edwards, and sold at London in
     the Paris collection [vide p. 90, post]; as were also those
     relating to Natural History; which latter were sold by
     auction without his Eminence's name: but it is a gross error
     in the _Bibl. Krohn_, p. 259, no. 3466, to say that many
     of these books were impious and obscene. These are scarce
     and dear volumes; and as they supply some deficiencies
     [Transcriber's Note: missing 'in'] Audiffredi's account of
     books published at Rome in the xvth century [vid. p. 62,
     ante], the bibliographer should omit no opportunity of
     possessing them.----LOMÉNIE. _D'une partie des livres de la
     Bibliothéque du Cardinal de Loménie de Brienne_, Paris, an.
     v. [1797], 8vo. This collection, the fragments or ruins of
     the Lomenie library, contains 2754 articles, or numbers,
     with a rich sprinkling of Italian literature; leaving
     behind, however, a surplus of not fewer than twelve hundred
     pieces relating to the Italian Drama--many of them
     rare--which were to be sold at a future auction. From the
     biographical memoir prefixed to this catalogue, I have given
     the preceding extract concerning the character of the owner
     of the collection--who died in the same year as the
     sale.----MACARTHY. _Catalogue des livres rares et précieux
     du cabinet de M.L.C.D.M._ (_M. Le Comte de Macarthy_),
     Paris, 1779, 8vo. _Supplement au Catalogue des livres, &c._,
     de M.L.C.D.M., Paris, 1779, 8vo. _Chez de Bure, fils aîné._
     These books were sold in January, 1780; and great things are
     said, in the advertisement, of their rarity and beauty. The
     Count Macarthy has, at this moment, one of the most
     magnificent collections upon the continent. His books
     printed UPON VELLUM are unequalled by those of any private
     collection. Of the above catalogue, a copy upon strong
     writing paper occurs in the _Cat. de Gouttard_, no.
     1549.----MAGLIABECHI. _Catalogus Codicum Sæculo_ xv.
     _Impressorum qui in publica Bibliotheca Magliabechiana
     Florentiæ adservantur. Autore Ferdinando Fossio; ejusd.
     bibl. Præf._, Florent., 1793, folio, three vols. A
     magnificent and truly valuable publication (with excellent
     indexes) of the collection of the famous Magliabechi;
     concerning whom the bibliographical world is full of curious
     anecdotes. The reader may consult two volumes of letters
     from eminent men to Magliabechi, published in 1745, &c.,
     vide _Bibl. Pinell_, no. 8808, &c., edit. 1789: Wolfius's
     edition of the _Bibliotheca Aprosiana_, p. 102; and the
     Strawberry Hill[C] edition of the _Parallel between
     Magliabechi and Mr. Hill_, 1758, 8vo.--an elegant and
     interesting little volume. Before we come to speak of his
     birth and bibliographical powers, it may be as well to
     contemplate his expressive physiognomy.

     [Illustration]

     MAGLIABECHI was born at Florence October 29, 1633. His
     parents, of low and mean rank, were well satisfied when they
     got him into the service of a man who sold herbs and fruit.
     He had never learned to read; and yet he was perpetually
     poring over the leaves of old books that were used in his
     master's shop. A bookseller, who lived in the neighbourhood,
     and who had often observed this, and knew the boy could not
     read, asked him one day "what he meant by staring so much on
     printed paper?" Magliabechi said that "he did not know how
     it was, but that he loved it of all things." The consequence
     was that he was received, with tears of joy in his eyes,
     into the bookseller's shop; and hence rose, by a quick
     succession, into posts of literary honour, till he became
     librarian to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. In this situation
     Magliabechi had nothing further, or more congenial to his
     feelings, to sigh for: in the Florentine library he revelled
     without cessation in the luxury of book-learning. The
     strength of his memory was remarkable; one day, the Grand
     Duke sent for him to ask whether he could procure a book
     that was particularly scarce. "No, sir," answered
     Magliabechi, "it is impossible; for there is but one in the
     world, and that is in the Grand Signior's Library at
     Constantinople, and is the seventh book on the second shelf
     on the right hand as you go in." In spite of his cobwebs,
     dirt, and cradle lined with books, Magliabechi reached his
     81st year. Hearne has contrived to interweave the following
     (rather trifling) anecdote of him, in his _Johan. Confrat.,
     &c., de Reb. Glaston_, vol. ii., 486--which I give merely
     because it is the fashion to covet every thing which
     appertaineth to Tom Hearne. "I have mentioned the bank where
     the MSS. (concerning the Epistles of St. Ignatius; Bank
     LVII.) stands, and the title of the book, because Vossius
     tells us not in his preface which of the several MSS. in
     this library he made use of; and to finde it out gave me so
     much trouble that, if the Grand Duke's library-keeper had
     not known the book, and searched it for me, I think I should
     never have met with it, there being not one canon of St.
     Laurence, not their library-keeper himself, nor, I believe,
     any other in Florence, except this Sre. MAGLIABECHI, that
     could direct me to it. The learned Bishop will be pleased to
     take notice of Sre. Maliabechi's [Transcriber's Note:
     Magliabechi's] civility; who, besides procuring me the Grand
     Duke's leave to collate the epistles, attended himself in
     the library, all the time I was there (the licence being
     granted by the Grand Duke upon this condition): and since,
     as a mark of his respect to the reverend bishop, hath been
     pleased to present him with a book (about the Florentine
     history) which I have committed to Mr. Ferne, my Lord
     Lexinton's Gentleman, to be conveyed to his lordship." (Mr.
     Ledgerd's account of his collations of the Florentine MS.
     with the edition of Vossius.)----ST. MARK. _Græca D. Marci
     Bibliotheca Codicum Manuscriptorum Præside Laurentio
     Theopolo._ Venet. 1740, folio: _Ejusdem Latina et Italica
     Bibliotheca Codicum Manuscriptorum Præside eodem_, Venet.
     1741, folio. These useful and handsomely executed volumes
     should be found in every extensive philological
     collection.----MEDICI-LORENZO. _Bibliothecæ
     Mediceo-Laurentianæ et Palatinæ Codicum Manuscriptorum
     Orientalium Catalogus digessit S.E. Assemanus._ Florent.
     1742, folio. A very valuable and splendid publication;
     evincing the laudable ambition of the Medici in their
     encouragement of oriental literature. The editor is
     commended in the preface of the subsequent catalogue, p.
     xxxxv.----MEDICI-LORENZO. _Bibliothecæ Hebraico-Grecæ
     Florentinæ sive Bibliothecæ Mediceo-Laurentianæ Catalogus ab
     Antonio Maria Biscionio, &c., digestus atque editus_,
     Florent., 1752, folio, two vols. in one. A grand book; full
     of curious fac-similes of all sorts of things. It was begun
     to be printed in 1752, but Biscioni's death, in May, 1756,
     prevented the completion of the publication 'till May 1757.
     See præfat., p. xxxxvii--and particularly the
     colophon.----MEDICI-LORENZO. _Catalogus Codicum
     Manuscriptorum, Græcorum, Latinorum, et Italicoram,
     Bibliothecæ Medicæ Laurentianæ: Angelus Maria Bandinus
     recensuit, illustravit edidit._ Florent., 1764; 3 vols.,
     1774; 5 vols., folio. An equally splendid work with the
     preceding--and much more copious and erudite in regard to
     intrinsically valuable matter. The indexes are excellent. No
     extensive philological library should be without these
     volumes--especially since the name of MEDICI has recently
     become so popular, from the able biographical memoirs of the
     family by Mr. Roscoe.----MENARSIANA. _Bibliotheca
     Menarsiana; ou Catalogue de la Bibliothéque de feu Messire
     Jean Jaques Charron, Chevalier Marquis de Menars_, &c. A La
     Haye, 1720, 8vo. A very fine collection of books in all
     branches of literature. After the "Ordo Venditionis," there
     is an additional leaf pasted in, signifying that a
     magnificent copy of Fust's bible of 1462, upon paper, would
     be sold immediately after the theological MSS. in folio. It
     brought the sum of 1200 florins. The sale commenced at nine
     and at two; giving the buyers time to digest their
     purchases, as well as their dinners, at twelve! "Tempora
     mutantur!"----MENCKENIUS. _Catalogus Bibliothecæ Menckenianæ
     ab Ottone et Burchardo collectæ. Editior altera longe
     emendatior._ Lips., 1727, 8vo. There are some curious and
     uncommon books in this collection; which evince the taste
     and judgment of Menckenius, who was a scholar of no mean
     reputation. Perhaps the word "rare" is too lavishly bestowed
     upon some of the books described in it.----MEON. _Catalogue
     des livres précieux singuliéres et rares de la Bibliothèque
     de M. Meon._ Paris, an. xii. (1804), 8vo. A very choice
     collection of books; catalogued with considerable
     care.----MERCIER. _Catalogue de la Bibliothéque de M.
     Mercier, Abbé de Saint Leger_, par. M. De Bure, 1799, 8vo.
     If the reader has chanced to cast his eye over the account
     of the Abbé de St. Leger, at p. 61, ante, he will not
     hesitate long about procuring a copy of the catalogue of the
     library of so truly eminent a bibliographer.----MÉRIGOT.
     _Catalogue des livres de M.J.G. Mérigot, Libraire_, par M.
     De Bure, 1800, 8vo. It is very seldom that this catalogue
     appears in our own country: which is the more provoking as
     the references to it, in foreign bibliographical works,
     render its possession necessary to the collector. Mérigot
     was an eminent bookseller, and prepared a good catalogue of
     M. Lorry's library, which was sold in 1791, 8vo.----ST.
     MICHAEL. _Bibliotheca Codicum Manuscriptorum Monasterij
     Sancti Michaelis Venetiarum, una cum appendice librorum
     impressorum sæculi_ xv. _Opus posthumum Joannis Bened.
     Mittarelli._ Venet., 1779, folio. It were much to be wished
     that, after the example of this and other monasteries, all
     religious houses, which have large libraries attached to
     them, would publish accounts of their MSS. and printed
     books. There is no knowing what treasures are hid in them,
     and of which the literary world must remain ignorant, unless
     they are thus introduced to general notice. How many curious
     and amusing anecdotes may be told of precious works being
     discovered under barbarous titles! Among others, take,
     gentle reader, the two following ones--relating to books of
     a very different character. Within a volume, entitled
     _Secreta Alberti_, were found "_The Fruyte of Redempcyon_,"
     printed by W. De Worde, 1532, 4to.; and a hitherto
     imperfectly described impression of _The Boke of Fyshinge_,
     printed by W. De Worde, in 4to., without date; which usually
     accompanies that fascinating work, ycleped Dame Juliana
     Barnes's _Boke of Hawkyng, Huntyng, and Cote Armoor_. My
     friend Mr. J. Haslewood first made me acquainted with this
     rare treasure--telling me he had "a famous tawny little
     volume" to shew me: his pulse, at the same time, I ween,
     beating one hundred and five to the minute! The second
     anecdote more exactly accords with the nature of my
     preliminary observations. In one of the libraries abroad,
     belonging to the Jesuits, there was a volume entitled, on
     the back of it "_Concilium Tridenti_:" the searching eye and
     active hands of a well-educated Bibliomaniac discovered and
     opened this volume--when lo! instead of the _Council of
     Trent_, appeared the _First_, and almost unknown, _Edition_
     of the _Decameron of Boccaccio_! This precious volume is now
     reposing upon the deserted shelves of the late Duke of
     Roxburgh's library; and, at the forth-coming sale of the
     same, it will be most vigorously contended for by all the
     higher and more knowing powers of the bibliographical world;

          But when the gods descending swell'd the fight,
          Then tumult rose; fierce rage and pale affright
          Varied each face:

          [_Pope's_] _Homer's Iliad_, b. xx. v. 63.

     MIRABEAU. _Catalogue de la Bibliotheque de Mirabeau l'aîné,
     par Rozet_, 1792, 8vo. A fine collection of books; some of
     them very curious and uncommon. At the head of the choice
     things contained in it must be noticed the "Recueil de
     Calques, ou dessins des titres et figure d'un grand nombre
     des plus anciens ouvrages, gravés en bois, ou imprimés en
     caractères mobiles, depuis l'origine de l'imprimerie," &c.
     These designs were 226 in number; of which a description is
     given at the head of the catalogue. They were purchased for
     1105 livres, and again sold, with the same description
     prefixed, at the last Crevenna sale of 1793 (see p. 79,
     ante). Consult the _Curiosités Bibliographiques_ of Peignot,
     p. 139.----MIROMENIL. _Catalogue des Livres de la
     Bibliothéque de M. Hüe de Miromenil, garde des sceaux de
     France_, Paris, 1781, 4to. "It appears, from the catalogue
     of M. de Coste, that this is a rare book, of which only few
     copies were printed, and those never sold." _Bibliogr.
     Curieuse_, p. 33.----MONTFAUÇON. _Diarium Italicum; sive
     Monumentorum Veterum, Bibliothecarum, Musæorum Notitiæ
     Singulares a D. Bernardo de Montfauçon_, Paris, 1702, 4to.
     _Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum Manuscriptorum nova, autore De
     Bern. de Montfauçon_, Paris, 1739, folio, two vols. These
     are the bibliographical works (which I thought would be
     acceptable if placed in this list of Catalogues) of the
     illustrious Montfauçon; whose publications place him on the
     summit of antiquarian fame. So much solid sense, careful
     enquiry, curious research, and not despicable taste, mark
     his voluminous productions! The bibliographer may rest
     assured that he will not often be led into confusion or
     error in the perusal of the above curious and valuable
     volumes, which have always been considered precious by the
     philologist.----MORELLI. _Jacobi Morellii Bibliothecæ Regiæ
     divi Marci Venetiarum Custodis, Bibliotheca Manuscripta
     Græca et Latina._ Tom. prim. Bassani, 8vo. Morelli was the
     amiable and profoundly learned librarian of St. Mark's at
     Venice; and this catalogue of his Greek and Latin MSS. is
     given upon the authority of Peignot's _Curiosités
     Bibliographiques_, p. lix.----MUSEUM BRITISH. _Catalogus
     Librorum Manuscript. Bibl. Cotton._, Oxon., 1696, fol. _A
     Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Cottonian Library_,
     Lond. 1777, 8vo. _A Catalogue of the same_, 1802, fol. _A
     Catalogue of the Harleian Manuscripts, &c._, Lond., 1759,
     fol., 2 vols. _A Catalogue of the same_, Lond., 1808, fol.,
     3 vols. _A Catalogue of the MSS. of the Kings Library, &c._,
     1734, 4to. _A Catalogue of the MSS., &c., hitherto
     undescribed_, Lond., 1782, 4to., two vols. _Catalog. Libror.
     Impress., &c._, Lond., 1787, folio, 2 vols. These are the
     published catalogues of the literary treasures, in
     manuscript and in print, which are contained in the British
     Museum. The _first Cottonian_ catalogue has a life of Sir
     Robert Cotton, and an account of his library prefixed to it.
     The _second_, by Samuel Hooper, was intended "to remedy the
     many defects" in the preceding catalogue, and "the
     injudicious manner" in which it was compiled; but it is of
     itself sufficiently confused and imperfect. The _third_,
     which is the most copious and valuable, with an index (and
     which has an abridged account of Sir Robert Cotton, and of
     his Library), was drawn up by Mr. Planta, the principal
     librarian of the British Museum. A great part of the first
     catalogue of the _Harleian MSS._ was compiled by the
     celebrated Humphrey Wanley, and a most valuable and ably
     executed publication it is! The _Second_ is executed by the
     Rev. R. Nares: it contains the preface of the first, with an
     additional one by himself, and a copious index; rendering
     this the most complete catalogue of MSS. which has ever yet
     appeared in our own country; although one regrets that its
     typographical execution should not have kept pace with its
     intrinsic utility. The two latter catalogues of MSS. above
     described give an account of those which were presented by
     royal munificence, and collected chiefly by Sir Hans Sloane
     and Dr. Birch. The catalogue of 1734 (which is now rare) was
     compiled by David Casley: that of 1782, by Samuel Ascough.
     Of the catalogue of _Printed Books_, it would be unfair to
     dwell upon its imperfections, since a new, and greatly
     enlarged and improved, impression of it is about going to
     press, under the editorial care and inspection of Messrs. H.
     Ellis and Baber, the gentlemen to whom the printed books are
     at present intrusted. Mr. Douce, who has succeeded Mr. Nares
     as head librarian of the MSS., is busily employed in
     examining the multifarious collection of the _Lansdowne
     MSS._ (recently purchased by the Trustees of the Museum),
     and we may hope that the day is not very far distant when
     the public are to be congratulated on his minute and
     masterly analysis of these treasures.----PARIS. _Catalogue
     de la Bibliothéque de M. Paris de Meyzieux_, Paris, 1779,
     8vo. _Bibliotheca elegantissima Parisina, par M. Lourent_,
     1790, 8vo. _The same_: Lond., 1791, 8vo. Since the days of
     Gaignat and the Duke de la Valliere, the longing eyes of
     bibliographers were never blessed with a sight of more
     splendid and choice books than were those in the possession
     of M. PARIS DE MEYZIEUX. The Spira Virgil of 1470, UPON
     VELLUM, will alone confer celebrity upon the _first_
     catalogue--but what shall we say to the _second_? It
     consists of only 635 articles, and yet, as is well observed
     in the preface, it was never equalled for the like number.
     Happy is that noviciate in bibliography who can forget the
     tedium of a rainy day in sitting by the side of a log-wood
     fire, and in regaling his luxurious fancy, by perusing the
     account of "fine, magnificent, matchless, large paper," and
     "vellum" copies which are thickly studded from one end of
     this volume to the other. Happier far the veteran, who can
     remember how he braved the _perils of the sale_, in
     encountering the noble and heavy metalled competitors who
     flocked, from all parts of the realm, to partake of these
     _Parisian_ spoils! Such a one casts an eye upon his
     well-loaded shelves, and while he sees here and there a
     yellow morocco Aldus, or a Russian leather Froben, he
     remembers how bravely he fought for each, and with what
     success his exertions were crowned! For my own part, gentle
     reader, I frankly assure thee that--after having seen the
     "HEURES DE NOTRE DAME," written by the famous Jarry, and
     decorated with SEVEN small exquisite paintings of the Virgin
     and Christ--and the _Aldine Petrarch_ and _Virgil_ of 1501,
     all of them executed upon SNOW-WHITE VELLUM--after having
     seen only these books out of the Paris collection, I hope to
     descend to my obscure grave in perfect peace and
     satisfaction! The reader may smile; but let him turn to
     nos. 14, 201, 328, of the _Bibl. Paris_: no. 318 of
     the _Cat. de la Valliere_; and _Curiositès
     Bibliographiques_, p. 67. This strain of "ètourderie
     bibliographique," ought not to make me forget to observe
     that we are indebted to the enterprising spirit and correct
     taste of Mr. Edwards for these, as well as for many other,
     beautiful books imported from the Continent. Nor is it yet
     forgotten that some thorough-bred bibliomaniacs, in their
     way to the sale, used to call for a glass of ice, to allay
     the contagious inflammation which might rage in the
     auction-room. And now take we leave of Monsieur Paris de
     Meyzieux. Peace to the ashes of so renowned a
     book-chevalier.----PETAU ET MANSART. _Bibliotheca Potavina
     et Mansartiana; ou Catalogue des Bibliothéques de Messrs.
     Alexander Petau, et François Mansart; auxquells on a ajouté
     le Cabinet des MSS. de Justus Lipsius._ Haye, 1722, 8vo. A
     catalogue not very common, and well worth the
     bibliographer's consultation.----PINELLI. _Bibliotheca
     Maphæi Pinelli Veneti, &c. A Jacobo Morellio._ Venetiis,
     1787, 6 vols., 8vo. _Bibliotheca Pinelliana: a catalogue of
     the magnificent and celebrated library of Maffæi Pinelli,
     late of Venice_, &c., London, 1789, 8vo. There can be no
     question about the priority, in point both of typographical
     beauty and intrinsic excellence, of these catalogues; the
     latter being only a common sale one, with the abridgment of
     the learned preface of Morelli, and of his bibliographical
     notices. This immense collection (of the ancient owners of
     which we have a short sketch in Morhof, vol. i., pp. 28,
     202) was purchased by Messrs. Edwards and Robson: the Greek
     and Latin books were sold for 6786_l._, the Italian, for
     2570_l._--which barely repaid the expenses of purchase,
     including duties, carriage, and sale. Although, as Dr.
     Harwood has observed, "there being no dust in Venice, this
     most magnificent library has in general lain reposited for
     some centuries, in excellent preservation,"--yet the copies
     were not, upon the whole, in the choicest condition. There
     are copies of the catalogue of 1789 upon LARGE PAPER. The
     catalogue of 1787 (with an elegant portrait of Pinelli
     prefixed) has, at first sight, the aspect of a work printed
     in small quarto.----POMPADOUR. _Catalogue des Livres de la
     Bibliothéque de feue Madame La Marquise de Pompadour, Dame
     du Palais de la Reine_, Paris, 1765, 8vo. The name of Madame
     de Pompadour will be always respected by bibliographers, on
     account of the taste and judgment which are displayed in
     this elegant collection. The old popular romances form the
     leading feature; but there is an ample sprinkling of the
     belles-lettres and poetry. An animated eulogium is
     pronounced upon Mad. de Pompadour by Jardé, in his "Précis
     sur les Bibliothéques;" prefixed to the last edition of
     Fournier's _Dictionnaire Portatif de Bibliographie_, p.
     vij.----PRÉFOND. _Catalogue des Livres du Cabinet de M.D.P.
     (Girardot de Préfond) Par Guillaume F. De Bure_, Paris,
     1757, 8vo. An excellent collection; not wanting in rare and
     magnificent productions. The owner of it was distinguished
     for many solid, as well as splendid, qualifications. Only
     six copies of it were printed upon LARGE PAPER. See _Cat. de
     Gaignat_, vol. ii., no. 3467.----RANDON DE BOISSET.
     _Catalogue des livres du cabinet de feu M. Randon du
     Boisset. Par Guil. de Bure, fils aîné_, Paris, 1777, 12mo.
     Although the generality of catalogue collectors will be
     satisfied with the usual copy of this well-digested volume,
     yet I apprehend the curious will not put up with any thing
     short of a copy of it upon strong WRITING PAPER. Such a one
     was in the Gouttard collection. See _Cat. de Gouttard_,
     no. 1546.----_Reimannus._ _J.F. Reimanni Catalogus
     Bibliothecæ Theologicæ Systematico-Criticus._ Hildes. 1731,
     8vo., two vols. _Ejusdem accessiones uberiores ad Catalogum
     Systematico-Criticum, editæ a Jo. W. Reimannus_, Brunsv.,
     1747, 8vo. I have before given the character of this work in
     the introductory part of my "Knowledge of the Greek and
     Latin Classics." Every thing commendatory of it may be here
     repeated.----RENATI. _Bibliothecæ Josephi Renati Imperialis,
     &c., Cardinalis Catalogus, &c._ Romæ, 1711, fol. This
     excellent catalogue, which cost the compiler of it,
     Fontanini, nine years of hard labour, is a most useful and
     valuable one; serving as a model for catalogues of large
     libraries. See the more minute criticism upon it in _Cat. de
     Santander_, no. 6315. My copy, which wants the
     title-page, but luckily contains the Latin preface, was
     formerly Ruddiman's. The volume has 738 pages: this is
     noticed because all the appendixes and addenda are
     comprehended in the same.----REVICKZKY. _Bibliotheca Græca
     et Latina, complectens auctores fere omnes Græcia et Latii
     veteris, &c., cum delectu editionum tam primariarum, &c.,
     quam etiam optimarum, splendidissimarum, &c., quas usui meo
     paravi._ PERIERGUS DELTOPHILUS (the feigned name for
     REVICKZKY), Berolini, 1784: 1794, 8vo. It was the delight of
     Count Revickzky, the original owner of this collection, to
     devote his time and attention to the acquisition of scarce,
     beautiful, and valuable books; and he obtained such fame in
     this department of literature as to cause him to be ranked
     with the Vallieres, Pinellis, and Loménies of the day. He
     compiled, and privately disposed of, the catalogue of his
     collection, which bears the above title; and to some few of
     which are prefixed a letter to M. L' A.D. [enini] (Member of
     the French Academy) and a preface. _Three Supplements_ to
     this catalogue were also, from time to time, circulated by
     him; so that the purchaser must look sharply after these
     acquisitions to his copy--as some one or the other of them
     are generally missing. Peignot supposes there are only _two_
     supplements. _Bibl. Curieuse_, p. 58. When Count Revickzky
     came over to England, he made an offer to Earl Spencer to
     dispose of the whole collection to his lordship, for a
     certain "round sum" to be paid immediately into his hands,
     and to receive, in addition, a yearly sum by way of annuity.
     So speaks fame. Shortly after this contract was closed, the
     Count died; and Earl Spencer, in consequence, for a
     comparatively small sum (the result of an immediate and
     generous compliance with the Count's wishes!), came into the
     possession of a library which, united with his previous
     magnificent collection, and the successful ardour with which
     he has since continued the pursuit, places him quite at the
     head of all the collectors in Europe--for early, rare,
     precious, and beautiful, books. Long may he possess such
     treasures!--and fleeing from the turbulence of politics, and
     secluded as he is, both in the metropolis and at Althorp,
     from the stunning noise of a city, may he always exclaim,
     with Horace, as the Count did before him--

          Sit mihi, quod nunc est, etiam minus; ut mihi vivam
          Quod superest ævi, si quid superesse volunt Dí.
          Sit bona librorum et provisæ frugis in annum
          Copia, ne fluitem dubiæ spe pendulus horæ.

          _Epist. Lib._ i.: _Epist._ xviii. v., 107.

     Sir M.M. Sykes, Bart., has a copy of the edition of 1784
     [which is in every respect the better one], printed upon
     FINE VELLUM PAPER. A similar copy of the edition of 1794 is
     noticed in the _Cat. de Caillard_,(1808) no. 2572. At the
     sale of M. Meon's books, in 1804, a copy of the first
     edition, charged with MS. notes of the celebrated Mercier
     St. Leger, was sold for 30 livres.----RIVE. _Catalogue de la
     Bibliothéque de l'Abbé Rive, par Archard_, Marseille, 1793,
     8vo. A catalogue of the books of so sharp-sighted a
     bibliographer as was the Abbé Rive cannot fail to be
     interesting to the collector.----DU ROI [Louis XV.]
     _Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecæ Regiæ (studio
     et labore Anicetti Mellot). Paris, e Typog. Reg._, 1739,
     folio, four vols.----DU ROI. _Des Livres imprimés de la même
     Bibliothéque Royale. (Disposè par Messrs. les Abbés Sallier
     et Boudot, &c.) Paris, De L'Imprim. Royale_, 1739-53, folio,
     six vols. The most beautiful and carefully executed
     catalogue in the world: reflecting a truly solid lustre upon
     the literary reputation of France! The first four volumes,
     written in Latin, comprehend an account of MSS.: the six
     last, written in French, of printed works in THEOLOGY,
     JURISPRUDENCE, and BELLES-LETTRES; the departments of
     HISTORY and the ARTS AND SCIENCES still remaining to be
     executed. De Bure told us, half a century ago, that the
     "Gens de Lettres" were working hard at the completion of it;
     but the then complaints of bibliographers at its imperfect
     state are even yet continued in Fournier's last edition of
     his _Dictionnaire Portatif de Bibliographie_, p. 468. So
     easy it is to talk; so difficult to execute! I believe,
     however, that M. Van-Praet, one of the principal librarians,
     is now putting all engines to work to do away the further
     disgrace of such unaccountably protracted negligence. My
     copy of this magnificent set of books is bound in red
     Morocco, gilt leaves, and was a presentation one from the
     King "au Comte de Neny, comme une marque de son estime,
     1770." I should add that the first volume of "Theology"
     contains a history of the rise and progress of the royal
     library, which was reprinted in 8vo., 1782.----DU ROI.
     _Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Bibliothéque du
     Roi, Paris. De l'Imprim. Roy._ 1787, 4to., seven vols. It
     will be obvious to the candid reader that this work could
     not be better introduced than in the present place; and a
     most interesting and valuable one it is! My copy of it,
     which is only in six volumes [but a seventh is mentioned in
     _Cat. de Boutourlin_, no. 3845, and in Caillot's _Roman
     Bibliographique_, p. 195], was purchased by me of Mr. Evans
     of Pall-Mall, who had shewn it to several lovers of
     bibliography, but none of whom had courage or curiosity
     enough to become master of the volumes. How I have profited
     by them, the Supplement to my first volume of the
     "Typographical Antiquities of Great Britain," may in part
     shew. The public shall be made acquainted with still more
     curious excerpts. In my humble judgment the present work is
     a model of extraction of the marrow of old MSS. It may be
     worth adding, the plates in the sixth volume are singular,
     curious and beautiful.----DU ROI. _Accounts and Extracts of
     the Manuscripts in the Library of the King of France.
     Translated from the French_, London, 1789, 8vo., two vols.
     "The French Monarch [Louis XVI.], in the publication now
     before us, has set an example to all Europe, well worthy to
     be followed"--says the opening of the translator's preface.
     The present volumes contain a translation of only twenty-two
     articles from the preceding work; and very strongly may they
     be recommended to the curious philologist, as well as to the
     thorough-bred bibliomaniac.----RÖVER. _Bibliotheca
     Röveriana, sive Catalogus Librorum qui studiis inservierunt
     Matthiæ Röveri._ Lug. Bat. 1806, 8vo., _two parts_. From the
     elegant and pleasing Latin preface to this most carefully
     compiled catalogue, we learn that the owner of the books
     lived to his 82d year--and [what must be a peculiar
     gratification to Bibliomaniacs] that he beat Pomponius
     Atticus in the length of time during which he never had
     occasion to take physic; namely, 50 years! Röver's life
     seemed to glide away in rational tranquillity, and in total
     seclusion from the world; except that he professed and
     always shewed the greatest kindness to his numerous, and
     many of them helpless, relatives--"vix in publicum prodiit,
     nisi cultus Divini externi aut propinquorum caussâ," p. xv.
     His piety was unshaken. Like the venerable Jacob Bryant, his
     death was hastened in consequence of a contusion in his leg
     from a fall in endeavouring to reach a book.----ROTHELIN.
     _Catalogue des livres de feu M'L. Abbé D'Orleans de
     Rothelin. Par G. Martin_, Paris, 1746, 8vo. This catalogue
     of the library of the amiable and learned Abbé Rothelin,
     "known (says Camus) for his fine taste for beautiful books,"
     is judiciously drawn up by Martin, who was the De Bure of
     his day. A portrait of its owner faces the title-page. It
     was the Abbé Rothelin who presented De Boze with the
     celebrated '_Guirlande de Julie_'--a work which afterwards
     came into the Valliere collection, and was sold for 14,510
     livres,--"the highest price (says Peignot) ever given for a
     modern book." Consult his _Curiosités Bibliographiques_, pp.
     62, 67; and _Bibl. Curieuse_, p. 61.----SARRAZ. _Bibliotheca
     Sarraziana._ Hag. Com., 1715, 8vo. This catalogue, which is
     frequently referred to by bibliographers, should not escape
     the collector when he can obtain it for a few shillings. A
     tolerably good preface or diatribe is prefixed, upon the
     causes of the rarity of Books, but the volume itself is not
     deserving of all the fine things in commendation of it which
     are said in the _Bibl. Reiman_, pt. ii., p. 671,
     &c.----SARTORI. _Catalogus Bibliographicus Librorum
     Latinorum et Germanicorum in Bibliotheca Cæsar. reg. et
     equestris Academiæ Theresianæ extantium, cum accessionibus
     originum typographicarum. Vindobonensium, et duobus
     supplementis necnon, indice triplici, systematico,
     bibliographico, et typographico; auctore Josepho de
     Sartori._ Vindobonæ, 1801-3, 4to. Vol. i., ii., iii. Of this
     very curious and greatly-to-be-desired catalogue, which is
     to be completed in eight volumes, it is said that only ONE
     HUNDRED copies are struck off. Peignot has a long and
     interesting notice of it in his _Bibliographie Curieuse_, p.
     64.----SCHALBRUCK. _Bibliotheca Schalbruchiana; sive
     Catalogus exquisitissimorum rarissimorumque librorum, quos
     collegit Joh. Theod. Schalbruch._ Amst. 1723, 8vo. A very
     fine collection of rare and curious books. From a priced
     copy of the catalogue, accidentally seen, I find that some
     of them produced rather large sums.----SCHWARTZ. _Catalogus
     Librorum continens codd. MSS. et libros sæculo_ xv.
     _impressos, quos possedit et notis recensuit A.G.
     Schwarzius_, Altorf. 1769, 8vo. The name of Schwartz is so
     respectable in the annals of bibliography that one cannot
     help giving the present catalogue a place in one's
     collection. According to _Bibl. Solger._, vol. iii., no.
     1459, a first part (there said to be printed upon LARGE
     PAPER) was published in 1753. Schwartz's treatise, "_De
     Orig. Typog. Document. Primar._" Altorf, 1740, 4to., should
     have been noticed at p. 41, ante.----SCRIVERIUS.
     _Bibliothecæ Scriverianæ Catalogus_, Amst., 1663,
     4to.--"exquisitissimus est: constat enim selectissimus
     omnium facultatum et artium autoribus." This is the strong
     recommendatory language of Morhof: _Polyhist. Literar._,
     vol. i., 212.----SERNA SANTANDER. _Catalogue des livres de
     la Bibliothéque de M.C. De La Serna Santander; redigé et mis
     en ordre par lui même; avec des notes bibliographiques et
     littèraires_, &c. Bruxelles, 1803, 8vo., five volumes. An
     extensive collection of interesting works; with a
     sufficiently copious index at the end of the fourth volume.
     The fifth volume contains a curious disquisition upon the
     antiquity of signatures, catchwords, and numerals; and is
     enriched with a number of plates of watermarks of the paper
     in ancient books. This catalogue, which is rarely seen in
     our own country, is well worth a place in any library. It is
     a pity the typographical execution of it is so very
     indifferent. For the credit of a bibliographical taste, I
     hope there were a few copies struck off upon LARGE
     PAPER.----SION COLLEGE. _Catalogus universalis librorum
     omnium in Bibliotheca Collegii Sionii apud Londinenses_;
     Londini, 1650, 4to. _Ejusdem Collegii librorum Catalogus,
     &c., Cura Reading_, Lond., 1724, fol. As the first of these
     catalogues (of a collection which contains some very curious
     and generally unknown volumes) was published before the
     great fire of London happened, there will be found some
     books in it which were afterwards consumed, and therefore
     not described in the subsequent impression of 1724. This
     latter, which Tom Osborne, the bookseller, would have called
     a "pompous volume," is absolutely requisite to the
     bibliographer: but both impressions should be procured, if
     possible. The folio edition is common and cheap.----SMITH
     [CONSUL]. _Bibliotheca Smithiana, seu Catalogus Librorum
     D.J. Smithii Angli, per cognomina Authorum dispositus._
     Venetiis, 1755, 4to. _A Catalogue of the curious, elegant,
     and very valuable library of Joseph Smith, Esq., His
     Britannic Majesty's Consul at Venice, lately deceased_,
     1773, 8vo. These are the catalogues of the collections of
     books occasionally formed at Venice, by Mr. Joseph Smith,
     during his consulship there. The quarto impression contains
     a description of the books which were purchased "en masse"
     by his present majesty. It is singularly well executed by
     Paschali, comprehending, by way of an appendix, the prefaces
     to those volumes in the collection which were printed in the
     fifteenth century. I possess a brochûre of 71 pages,
     containing a catalogue of books printed in the fifteenth
     century, which has Consul Smith's arms at the beginning,
     and, at the end, this subscription, "Pretiosissima hæc
     librorum collectio, cujusvis magni principis Bibliotheca
     dignissima, constat voluminibus ccxlviii." The title-page
     has no date. I suspect it to be the same catalogue of books
     which is noticed at p. 77, ante, and which probably the
     Consul bought: forming the greater part of his own library
     of early printed books. See too the _Bibliogr. Miscellany_,
     vol. ii., 72. The collection of 1773 was sold by auction,
     for Mr. Robson, by Messrs. Baker and Leigh--and a fine one
     it was. Among these books, the Spira Virgil of 1470, printed
     UPON VELLUM, was purchased for _only twenty-five guineas_!

            Excidat ille dies ævo--ne postera credant
          Sæcula--!

     ----SOLGER. _Bibliotheca sive Supellex Librorum Impressorum,
     &c., et Codicum Manuscriptorum, quos per plurimos annos
     collegit, &c., Adamus Rudolphus Solger._ Norimb., 1760,
     8vo., three parts or vols. I should almost call this
     publication "facile princeps Catalogorum"--in its way. The
     bibliographical notices are frequent and full; and saving
     that the words "rarus, rarior, et rarissimus," are sometimes
     too profusely bestowed, nothing seems to be wanting to
     render this a very first rate acquisition to the collector's
     library. I am indebted to the bibliomanical spirit of honest
     Mr. Manson, of Gerard-street, the bookseller, for this
     really useful publication.----SOUBISE. _Catalogue des livres
     imprimés et manuscrits, &c., de feu Monseigneur Le Prince de
     Soubise (par feu Le Clerc)_, Paris, 1788, 8vo. A short
     history of this collection will be the best inducement to
     purchase the present catalogue, whenever it comes in the way
     of the collector. The foundation of this splendid library
     was that of the famous De Thou's [vide Art. THUANUS, post],
     which was purchased by the Cardinal de Rohan, who added it
     to his own grand collection--"the fruit of a fine taste and
     a fine fortune." It continued to be augmented and enriched
     'till, and after, it came into the possession of the PRINCE
     DE SOUBISE--the last nobleman of his name--who dying in
     January, 1789, the entire collection was dispersed by public
     auction: after it had been offered for the purchase of one
     or two eminent London booksellers, who have repented, and
     will repent to their dying day, their declining the offer.
     This catalogue is most unostentatiously executed upon very
     indifferent paper; and, while an excellent index enables us
     to discover any work of which we may be in want, the
     beautiful copies from this collection which are in the
     Cracherode library in the British Museum, give
     unquestionable proof of the splendour of the books. For the
     credit of French bibliography, I hope there are some few
     copies upon LARGE PAPER.----TELLIER. _Bibliotheca
     Tellereana, sive Catalogus Librorum Bibliotheca Caroli
     Mauritii Le Tellier, Archiepiscopi Ducis Remensis. Parisiis,
     e Typographia Regia_, 1693, fol. A finely engraved portrait
     of Tellier faces the title-page. This is a handsome volume,
     containing a numerous and well-chosen collection of
     books.----THUANUS. [DE THOU] _Bibliothecæ Thuanæ Catalogus_,
     Parisiis, 1679, 8vo. "Three particular reasons," says
     Baillet, "should induce us to get possession of this
     catalogue; first, the immortal glory acquired by De Thou in
     writing his history, and in forming the most perfect and
     select library of his age: and secondly, the abundance and
     excellence of the books herein specified; and, thirdly, the
     great credit of the bibliographers Du Puys and Quesnel, by
     whom the catalogue was compiled." _Jugemens des Savans_,
     vol. ii., p. 144, &c. Morhof is equally lavish in
     commendation of this collection. See his _Polyhist.
     Literar._, vol. i., 36, 211. The Books of De Thou, whose
     fame will live as long as a book shall be read, were
     generally in beautiful condition, with his arms stamped upon
     the exterior of the binding, which was usually of Morocco;
     and, from some bibliographical work (I think it is
     Santander's catalogue), I learn that this binding cost the
     worthy president not less than 20,000 crowns. De Thou's copy
     of the editio princeps of Homer is now in the British
     Museum; having been presented to this national institution
     by the Rev. Dr. Cyril Jackson, who has lately resigned the
     deanery of Christ Church College, Oxford,--"and who is now
     wisely gone to enjoy the evening of life in repose,
     sweetened by the remembrance of having spent the day in
     useful and strenuous exertion." For an account of the
     posterior fate of De Thou's library, consult the article
     "SOUBISE," ante. I should add that, according to the _Bibl.
     Solgeriana_, vol. iii., p. 243, no. 1431, there are
     copies of this catalogue upon LARGE PAPER.----UFFENBACH.
     _Catalogus universalis Bibliothecæ Uffenbachinæ librorum tam
     typis quam manu exaratorum._ Francof. ad Moen, 1729, 8vo.,
     4 vols. This catalogue is no mean acquisition to the
     bibliographer's library. It rarely occurs in a perfect and
     clean condition.----VALLIERE (DUC DE LA). _Catalogue des
     Livres provenans de la Bibliothéque de M.L.D.D.L.V._, (M. le
     Duc de la Valliere) _disposé et mis en ordre par Guill.
     Franc. De Bure le Jeune._ Paris, 1767, 8vo., 2 vols.--_Des
     Livres de la même Bibliothéque._ Paris, 1772, 8vo.--_Des
     Livres et Manuscrits de la même Bibliothéque_, Paris, 1783,
     8vo., 3 vols.--_Des Livres de la même Bibliothéque_, Paris,
     1783, 6 vols. 8vo. These twelve volumes of catalogues of
     this nobleman's library impress us with a grand notion of
     its extent and value--perhaps never exceeded by that of any
     private collection! It would seem that the Duke de la
     Valliere had two sales of part of his books (of which the
     two first catalogues are notifications) during his
     life-time: the two latter catalogues of sales having been
     put forth after his decease. Of these latter (for the former
     contain nothing remarkable in them, except that there are
     copies of the first on LARGE PAPER, in 4to.), the impression
     of 1783, which was compiled by Van Praet and De Bure, is the
     most distinguished for its notices of MSS. and early printed
     books: and in these departments it is truly precious, being
     enriched with some of the choicest books in the Gaignat
     Collection. Those printed UPON VELLUM alone would form a
     little library! Of the impression of 1783, which has a
     portrait of the owner prefixed, there were fifty copies
     printed upon LARGE PAPER, in 4to., to harmonize with the
     _Bibliographie Instructive_, and _Gaignat's Catalogue_. See
     _Bibliographical Miscell._, vol. ii., 66. Twelve copies were
     also printed in royal 8vo., upon fine stout VELLUM PAPER; of
     which the Rt. Hon. T. Grenville has a beautiful uncut copy
     in six volumes. See also _Cat. de Loménie_ [1797], no.
     2666. The last publication of 1788 was put forth by Nyon
     l'aîné; and although the bibliographical observations are
     but few in comparison with those in the preceding catalogue,
     and no index is subjoined, yet it is most carefully
     executed; and presents us with such a copious collection of
     French topography, and old French and Italian poetry and
     romances, as never has been, and perhaps never will be,
     equalled. It contains 26,537 articles. The Count D'Artois
     purchased this collection "en masse;" and it is now
     deposited in the "bibliothéque de l'Arsenal." See _Dictionn.
     Bibliographique_, vol. iv., p. 133. It was once offered for
     purchase to a gentleman of this country--highly
     distinguished for his love of Virtû. Mr. Grenville has also
     a similar large paper copy of this latter edition, of the
     date of 1784.----VIENNA. _Codices Manuscripti Theologici.
     Bibl. Palat. Vindob. Latini aliarumque Occidentis
     Linguarum_, vol. i. (in tribus partibus.) _Recens._, &c.,
     _Michael Denis._ Vindob. 1793, folio. Some mention of this
     work has been made at page 65, ante. It may be here
     necessary to remark that, from the preface, it would appear
     to contain a ninth additional book to Lambecius's well-known
     Commentaries (vide, p. 41, ante) which Kollarius had left
     unpublished at his death. The preface is well worth perusal,
     as it evinces the great pains which Denis has taken; and the
     noble, if not matchless, munificence of his patron--"qui
     præter augustam Bibliothecæ fabricam in ipsos libros
     centenis plura Rhenensium expendit millia."--This catalogue
     is confined to a description of Latin, with some few notices
     of Oriental Manuscripts; as the preceding work of Lambecius
     and Kollarius contained an account of the Greek MSS. These
     three parts, forming one volume, are closed by an excellent
     index. The second volume was published in 1801. Upon the
     whole, it is a noble and highly useful publication; and
     places its author in the foremost rank of
     bibliographers.----VOLPI. _Catalogo della Libreria de
     Volpi_, &c. _Opera di Don Gaetano Volpi._ Padova, 1756, 8vo.
     The Crevenna library was enriched with a great number of
     valuable books which came from the library of the celebrated
     Vulpii; of which the present is a well-arranged and uncommon
     catalogue. Annexed to it there is an account of the press of
     the Comini, which belonged to the owners of this collection.
     The reader may consult _Bibl. Crevenn._, vol. v., pp. 302-3;
     and Dr. Clarke's _Bibliogr. Miscell._, vol. ii.,
     72.----VOYAGE _de deux Français dans le nord de l'Europe, en
     1790-92, (par M. de Fortia)_ Paris, 1796, 8vo., 5 vols. That
     the collector of catalogues may not scold me for this
     apparent deviation from the subject discussed in this note,
     I must inform him, upon the authority of Peignot, that these
     interesting volumes contain "some account of the most
     beautiful and curious books contained in the Libraries of
     the North, and in those of Italy, Spain, Holland, &c."
     _Curiosités Bibliographiques_, p. lviii.----DE WITT.
     _Catalogus Bibliothecæ Joannis De Witt_, Dordraci, 1701,
     12mo. The preface to this catalogue, (from which an extract
     was given in the _first_ edition of my "_Introduction to the
     Editions of the Greek and Latin Classics_," 1802, 8vo.,)
     gives us a pleasing account of an ardent and elegant young
     man in the pursuit of every thing connected with Virtû. De
     Witt seems to have been, in books and statues, &c., what his
     great ancestor was in politics--"paucis comparandus." A
     catalogue of the library of a collector of the same name was
     published at Brussels, in 1752, by De Vos. See _Cat. de
     Santander_, vol. iv., no. 6334.----ZURICH. _Catalogus
     librorum Bibliothecæ Tigurinæ._ Tiguri, 1744, 8vo., 4 vols.
     Although the last, this is not the most despicable,
     catalogue of collections here enumerated. A reading man, who
     happens to winter in Switzerland, may know, upon throwing
     his eyes over this catalogue, that he can have access to
     good books at Zurich--the native place of many an
     illustrious author! The following, which had escaped me, may
     probably be thought worthy of forming an

     APPENDIX TO THE PRECEDING NOTE.

     BERN. _Cat. Codd. MSS. Bibl. Bernensis. Cum annotationibus,
     &c. Curante Sinner._ Bernæ, 1760, 8vo. A very curious and
     elegantly printed Catalogue with three plates of
     fac-similes.----PARKER [ABP.] _Catalog. Libror. MSS. in
     Bibl. Coll. Corporis Christi in Cantab., quos legavit M.
     Parkerus Archiepiscop. Cant._ Lond., 1722, fol.; _Eorundem
     Libror. MSS. Catalogus. Edidit J. Nasmith._ Cantab., 1777,
     4to. Of these catalogues of the curious and valuable MSS.
     which were bequeathed to Corpus College (or Bennet College,
     as it is sometimes called) by the immortal Archbishop
     Parker, the first is the more elegantly printed, but the
     latter is the more copious and correct impression. My copy
     of it has a fac-simile etching prefixed, by Tyson, of the
     rare print of the Archbishop, which will be noticed in PART
     V., post.----ROYAL INSTITUTION. _A Catalogue of the Library
     of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, &c. By William
     Harris, Keeper of the Library._ Lond., 1809, 8vo. If a lucid
     order, minute and correct description of the volumes of an
     admirably chosen library, accompanied with a copious and
     faithful alphabetical index, be recommendations with the
     bibliographer, the present volume will not be found wanting
     upon his shelf. It is the most useful book of its kind ever
     published in this country. Let the bibliomaniac hasten to
     seize one of the five remaining copies only (out of the
     _fifty_ which were printed) upon LARGE PAPER!----WOOD
     (ANTHONY). _A Catalogue of Antony-a-Wood's Manuscripts in
     the Ashmolean Museum; by W. Huddesford_, Oxon, 1761, 8vo.
     The very name of _old Anthony_ (as it delights some
     facetious book-collectors yet to call him!) will secure
     respect for this volume. It is not of common occurrence.]

     [Footnote C: In Part VI. of this work will be found a List
     of Books printed here. The armorial bearings of Lord Orford
     are placed at p. 100.]

LIS. You have so thoroughly animated my feelings, and excited my
curiosity, in regard to BIBLIOGRAPHY, that I can no longer dissemble
the eagerness which I feel to make myself master of the several books
which you have recommended.

LYSAND. Alas, your zeal will most egregiously deceive you! _Where_
will you look for such books? At what bookseller's shop, or at what
auction, are they to be procured? In this country, my friend, few are
the private collections, however choice, which contain two third
parts of the excellent works before mentioned. Patience, vigilance,
and personal activity, are your best friends in such a dilemma.

LIS. But I will no longer attend the sale of Malvolio's busts and
statues, and gaudy books. I will fly to the Strand, or King-street:
peradventure--

PHIL. Gently, my good Lisardo. A breast thus suddenly changed from the
cold of Nova Zembla to the warmth of the torrid zone requires to be
ruled with discretion. And yet, luckily for you--

LIS. Speak--are you about to announce the sale of some bibliographical
works?

PHIL. Even so. To morrow, if I mistake not, GONZALVO'S choice gems, in
this way, are to be disposed of.

LIS. Consider them as my own. Nothing shall stay me from the
possession of them.

LYSAND. You speak precipitately. Are you accustomed to attend
book-auctions?

LIS. No; but I will line my pockets with pistoles, and who dare oppose
me?

PHIL. And do you imagine that no one, but yourself, has his pockets
"lined with pistoles," on these occasions?

LIS. It may be so--that other linings are much warmer than my
own:--but, at any rate, I will make a glorious struggle, and die with
my sword in my hand.

PHIL. This is _Book-Madness_ with a vengeance! However, we shall see
the issue. When and how do you propose going?

LIS. A chaise shall be at this door by nine in the morning. Who will
accompany me?

LYSAND. Our friend and Philemon will prevent your becoming absolutely
raving, by joining you. I shall be curious to know the result.

LIS. Never fear. _Bibliomania_ is, of all species of insanity, the
most rational and praise-worthy. I here solemnly renounce my former
opinions, and wish my errors to be forgotten. I here crave pardon of
the disturbed manes of the Martins, De Bures, and Patersons, for that
flagitious act of _Catalogue-Burning_; and fondly hope that the
unsuspecting age of boyhood will atone for so rash a deed. Do you
frankly forgive--and will you henceforth consider me as a worth
[Transcriber's Note: worthy] "_Aspirant_" in the noble cause of
bibliography?

LYSAND. Most cordially do I forgive you; and freely admit you into the
fraternity of Bibliomaniacs. Philemon, I trust, will be equally
merciful.

PHIL. Assuredly, Lisardo, you have my entire forgiveness: and I exult
a little in the hope that you will prove yourself to be a sincere
convert to the cause, by losing no opportunity of enriching your
bibliographical stores. Already I see you mounted, as a book
chevalier, and hurrying from the country to London--from London again
to the country--seeking adventures in which your prowess may be
displayed--and yielding to no competitor who brandishes a lance of
equal weight with your own!

LIS. 'Tis well. At to-morrow's dawn my esquire shall begin to burnish
up my armour--and caparison my courser. Till then adieu!

       *       *       *       *       *

Here the conversation, in a connected form, ceased; and it was
resolved that Philemon and myself should accompany Lisardo on the
morrow.

[Illustration]


[Illustration: FARI QUÆ SENTIAT]



PART III.

=The Auction Room.=


CHARACTER OF ORLANDO.

OF ANCIENT PRICES OF BOOKS, AND BOOK-BINDING.

BOOK-AUCTION BIBLIOMANIACS.

     "As to the late method used in selling books by AUCTION in
     London, I suppose that many have paid dear for their
     experience in this way--it being apparent that most books
     bought in an auction may be had cheaper in booksellers'
     shops."

     CLAVEL: _Cat. of Books for 1680, Pref._


[Illustration]



[Illustration]

=The Auction Room.=

CHARACTER OF ORLANDO.
OF ANCIENT PRICES OF BOOKS, AND BOOK-BINDING.
BOOK AUCTION BIBLIOMANIACS.


Never, surely, did two mortals set off upon any expedition with
greater glee and alacrity than did Lisardo and Philemon for the sale,
by auction, of GONZALVO'S bibliographical library. The great pains
which Lysander had taken in enumerating the various foreign and
domestic writers upon Bibliography, with his occasionally animated
eulogies upon some favourite author had quite inflamed the sanguine
mind of Lisardo; who had already, in anticipation, fancied himself in
possession of every book which he had heard described. Like Homer's
high-bred courser, who

     --ere he starts, a thousand steps are lost--

our young bibliomaniac began to count up his volumes, arrange his
shelves, bespeak his binder, and revel in the luxury of a splendid
and nearly matchless collection. The distance from my house to the
scene of action being thirteen miles, Lisardo, during the first six,
had pretty nearly exhausted himself in describing the delightful
pictures which his ardent fancy had formed; and finding the
conversation beginning to flag, Philemon, with his usual good-nature
and judgment, promised to make a pleasing digression from the dry
subject of book-catalogues, by an episode with which the reader shall
be presently gratified. Having promised to assist them both, when we
arrived at Messrs. L. and S., in the Strand, with some information
relating to the prices of such books as they stood in need of, and to
the various book-collectors who attended public sales, Lisardo
expressed himself highly obliged by the promise; and, sinking quietly
into a corner of the chaise, he declared that he was now in a most apt
mood to listen attentively to Philemon's digressive chat: who
accordingly thus began.

"Lord Coke,"--exclaimed PHILEMON, in a mirthful strain--"before he
ventured upon '_The Jurisdiction of the Courts of the Forest_,' wished
to 'recreate himself' with Virgil's description of 'Dido's Doe of the
Forest;'[163] in order that he might 'proceed the more cheerfully'
with the task he had undertaken; and thus exchange somewhat of the
precise and technical language of the lawyer for that glowing tone of
description which woodland scenes and hunting gaieties seldom fail to
produce. Even so, my good friends (pursued Philemon), I shall make a
little digression from the confined subject to which our attentions
have been so long directed by taking you with me, in imagination, to
the delightful abode of ORLANDO."

     [Footnote 163: The quaint language of Lord Coke is well
     worth quotation: "And seeing we are to treat of matters of
     game, and hunting, let us (to the end we may proceed the
     more chearfully) recreate ourselves with the excellent
     description of Dido's Doe of the Forest wounded with a
     deadly arrow sticken in her, and not impertinent to our
     purpose:

          Uritur infælix Dido, totaque vagatur
          Urbe furens, &c.

     And in another place, using again the word (Sylva) and
     describing a forest saith:

          Ibat in antiquam sylvam stabula alta ferarum."

          _Institutes_, pt. iv., p. 289, ed. 1669.

     Thus pleasantly could our sage expounder of the laws of the
     realm illustrate the dry subject of which he treated!]

LIS. I have heard of him: a very "_Helluo Librorum_!" Thus we only
change sides--from things to men; from books to book-collectors. Is
this digressive? Is this an episode?

PHIL. Why this abrupt interruption? If I did not know you and myself,
too, Lisardo, I should observe an obstinate silence during the
remainder of the journey. An episode, though it suspend the main
action for a while, partakes of the nature of the subject of the work.
It is an _appropriate_ digression. Do pray read Dr. Blair[164] upon
the subject--and now only listen.

     [Footnote 164: _Lecture_ XLII., vol. iii.]

Orlando (continued Philemon) had from his boyhood loved books and
book-reading. His fortune was rather limited; but he made shift--after
bringing up three children, whom he lost from the ages of nineteen to
twenty-four, and which have been recently followed to their graves by
the mother that gave them birth--he made shift, notwithstanding the
expenses of their college education, and keeping up the reputation of
a truly hospitable table, to collect, from year to year, a certain
number of volumes, according to a certain sum of money appropriated
for the purchase of them; generally making himself master of the
principal contents of the first year's purchase, before the ensuing
one was placed upon his shelves. He lives in a large ancestral house;
and his library is most advantageously situated and delightfully
fitted up. Disliking such a wintry residence as Thomson has
described[165]--although fond of solemn retirement, and of Cowper's
"boundless contiguity of shade,"--he has suffered the rules of common
sense always to mingle themselves in his plans of domestic comfort;
and, from the bow-windowed extremity of his library, he sees realized,
at the distance of four hundred yards, Cæsar's gently-flowing river
_Arar_,[166] in a stream which loses itself behind some low shrubs;
above which is a softly-undulating hill, covered with hazel, and
birch, and oak. To the left is an open country, intersected with
meadows and corn fields, and terminated by the blue mountains of
Malvern at the distance of thirteen miles. Yet more to the left, but
within one hundred and fifty yards of the house, and forming something
of a foreground to the landscape, are a few large and lofty elm trees,
under which many a swain has rested from his toil; many a tender vow
has been breathed; many a sabbath-afternoon[167] innocently kept; and
many a village-wake cordially celebrated! Some of these things yet
bless the aged eyes of ORLANDO!

     [Footnote 165:

          "In the wild depth of Winter, while without
          The ceaseless winds blow ice, be my retreat
          Between the groaning forest and the shore,
          Beat by the boundless multitude of waves,
          A rural, sheltered, solitary scene!"----

          _Winter._

     One would like a situation somewhat more _sheltered_, when
     "The ceaseless winds blow ice!"]

     [Footnote 166: "Flumen est _Arar_, quod per fines Æduorum et
     Sequanorum in Rhodanum fluit, incredibili lenitate, ita ut
     oculis, in utram partem fluat, judicari nos possit." _De
     Bell. Gall._, lib. i., § x. Philemon might as happily have
     compared Orlando's quiet stream to "the silent river"

          ----quæ Liris quietâ
          Mordet aquâ----

     which Horace has so exquisitely described, in contrast with

          ----obliquis laborat
          Lympha fugax trepidare rivo.

          _Carm._, _lib._ i., _Od._ xxxi., _lib._ ii., _Od._ ii.

     Yet let us not forget Collin's lovely little bit of landscape--

          "Where slowly winds the stealing wave."]

     [Footnote 167: There is a curious proclamation by Q.
     Elizabeth, relating to some Sabbath recreations or games,
     inserted in Hearne's preface to his edition of _Camden's
     Annals_, p. xxviii. It is a little too long to be given
     entire; but the reader may here be informed that "shooting
     with the standard, shooting with the broad arrow, shooting
     at the twelve score prick, shooting at the Turk, leaping for
     men, running for men, wrestling, throwing the sledge, and
     pitching the bar," were suffered to be exhibited, on several
     Sundays, for the benefit of one "John Seconton Powlter,
     dwelling within the parish of St. Clements Danes, being a
     poor man, having four small children, and fallen to decay."]

I have slightly noticed the comfortable interior of his library.--

LIS. You spoke of a bow-windowed extremity--

PHIL. Yes, in this bow-window--the glass of which was furnished full
two hundred and fifty years ago, and which has recently been put into
a sensible modern frame-work--thereby affording two hours longer light
to the inhabitant--in this bow-window, you will see a great quantity
of stained glass of the different arms of his own, and of his wife's,
family; with other appropriate embellishments.[168] And when the
evening sun-beams throw a chequered light throughout the room, 'tis
pleasant to observe how Orlando enjoys the opening of an Aldine Greek
Classic--the ample-margined leaves of which receive a mellower tint
from the soft lustre that pervades the library. Every book, whether
opened or closed, is benefited by this due portion of light; so that
the eye, in wandering over the numerous shelves, is neither hurt by
morning glare nor evening gloom. Of colours, in his furniture, he is
very sparing: he considers white shelves, picked out with gold, as
heretical--mahogany, wainscot, black, and red, are, what he calls,
orthodox colours. He has a few busts and vases; and as his room is
very lofty, he admits above, in black and gold frames, a few portraits
of eminent literary characters; and whenever he gets a genuine
Vandyke, or Velasquez, he congratulates himself exceedingly upon his
good fortune.

     [Footnote 168: The reader, who is partial to the
     lucubrations of Thomas Hearne, may peruse a long gossipping
     note of his upon the importance of _stained glass
     windows_--in his account of Godstow nunnery. See his _Guil.
     Neubrig._, vol. ii., 768.]

LIS. All this bespeaks a pretty correct taste. But I wish to know
something of the man.

PHIL. You shall, presently; and, in hearing what I am about to relate,
only let us both strive, good Lisardo, so to regulate our studies and
feelings that our old age may be like unto Orlando's.

Last year I went with my uncle to pay him our annual visit. He
appeared quite altered and shaken from the recent misfortune of losing
his wife; who had survived the death of her children fifteen years;
herself dying in the sixtieth of her own age. The eyes of Orlando were
sunk deeply into his forehead, yet they retained their native
brilliancy and quickness. His cheeks were wan, and a good deal
withered. His step was cautious and infirm. When we were seated in his
comfortable library chairs, he extended his right arm towards me, and
squeezing my hand cordially within his own--"Philemon," said he, "you
are not yet thirty, and have therefore sufficient ardour to enable you
to gratify your favourite passion for books. Did you ever read the
inscription over the outside of my library door--which I borrowed from
Lomeir's account of one over a library at Parma?[169]" On my telling
him that it had escaped me--"Go," said he, "and not only read, but
remember it."--The inscription was as follows:

     INGREDERE MUSIS SACER, NAM
     ET HIC DII HABITANT.
     ITEM
     NULLUS AMICUS MAGIS LIBET,
     QUAM LIBER.

     [Footnote 169: _De Bibliothecis_: p. 269, edit. 1680.]

"Have a care," said he, on my resuming my seat--"have a care that you
do not treat such a friend ill, or convert him into a foe. For myself,
my course is well nigh run. My children have long taken their leave of
me, to go to the common parent who created, and to the Saviour who has
vouchsafed to redeem, us all; and, though the usual order of nature
has been here inverted, I bow to the fate which Heaven has allotted me
with the unqualified resignation of a Christian. My wife has also
recently left me, for a better place; and I confess that I begin to
grow desolate, and anxious to take my departure to join my family. In
my solitude, dear Philemon, I have found these (pointing to his books)
to be what Cicero, and Seneca, and our own countryman De Bury,[170]
have so eloquently and truly described them to be--our friends, our
instructors, and our comforts. Without any affectation of hard
reading, great learning, or wonderful diligence, I think I may venture
to say that I have read more valuable books than it falls to the lot
of the generality of book-collectors to read; and I would fain believe
that I have profited by my studies. Although not of the profession of
the church, you know that I have always cherished a fondness for
sacred literature; and there is hardly a good edition of the Greek
Testament, or a commentator of repute upon the Bible, foreign or
domestic, but what you will find some reference to the same in my
interleaved copy of Bishop Wilson's edition of the Holy Scriptures. A
great number of these commentators themselves are in my library, as
well as every authoritative edition of the Greek Testament, from the
Complutensian to Griesbach's. Yet do not suppose that my theological
books are equal in measure to one fourth part of those in the Imperial
library at Paris.[171] My object has always been instruction and
improvement; and when these could be obtained from any writer, whether
Roman Catholic or Protestant, Arminian or Calvinistic, I have not
failed to thank him, and to respect him, too, if he has declared his
opinions with becoming diffidence and moderation. You know that
nothing so sorely grieves me as dogmatical arrogance, in a being who
will always be frail and capricious, let him think and act as he
please. On a Sunday evening I usually devote a few hours to my
theological studies--(if you will allow my sabbath-meditations to be
so called) and, almost every summer evening in the week, saunter
'midst yon thickets and meadows by the river side, with Collins, or
Thompson, or Cowper, in my hand. The beautiful sentiments and grand
imagery of Walter Scott are left to my in-door avocations; because I
love to read the curious books to which he refers in his notes, and
have always admired, what I find few critics have noticed, how
adroitly he has ingrafted fiction upon truth. As I thus perambulate,
with my book generally open, the villagers treat me as Sir Roger De
Coverley made his tenants treat the Spectator--by keeping at a
respectful distance--but when I shut up my volume, and direct my steps
homewards, I am always sure to find myself, before I reach my
threshold, in company with at least half a dozen gossipping and
well-meaning rustics. In other departments of reading, history and
poetry are my delight. On a rainy or snowy day, when all looks sad and
dismal without, my worthy friend and neighbour, PHORMIO, sometimes
gives me a call--and we have a rare set-to at my old favourite
volumes--the '_Lectiones Memorabiles et Reconditæ_' of WOLFIUS[172]--a
commonplace book of as many curious, extraordinary, true and false
occurrences, as ever were introduced into two ponderous folios. The
number of strange cuts in it used to amuse my dear children--whose
parent, from the remembrance of the past, still finds a pleasing
recreation in looking at them. So much, dear Philemon, for my
desultory mode of studying: improve upon it--but at all events, love
your books for the good which they may produce; provided you open them
with 'singleness of heart--' that is, a sincerity of feeling.

     [Footnote 170: Every school-lad who has written a copy under
     a writing-master, or who has looked into the second book of
     the _"Selectæ è Profanis Scriptoribus," &c._, has probably
     been made acquainted with the sentiments of the above
     ancient heathen philosophers relating to Learning and Books;
     but may not have been informed of the conciliatory manner in
     which our countryman De Bury has invited us to approach the
     latter. "Hi sunt magistri (says he) qui nos instruunt sine
     vergis et ferula, sine verbis et colera, sine pane et
     pecunia. Si accedis, non dormiunt; si inquiris, non se
     abscondunt; non remurmurant, si oberres; cachinnos nesciunt,
     si ignores." These original and apt words are placed in the
     title-page to the first volume of _Dr. Clarke's
     Bibliographical Dictionary_.]

     [Footnote 171: "Il y a 300 pieds cubes de livres de
     théologie,"--"qui tapissent les murs des deux premières
     salles de la Bibliothéque Impériale." Caillot: _Roman
     Bibliographique_, tom. i., 72, edit. 1809.]

     [Footnote 172: There are few men, of any literary curiosity,
     who would not wish to know something of the work here
     noticed; and much more than appears to be known of its
     illustrious author; concerning whom we will first discourse
     a little: "JOHANNES WOLFIUS (says Melchoir [Transcriber's
     Note: Melchior] Adam), the laborious compiler of the
     _Lectionum Memorabilium et Reconditarum Centenarii_ xvi.
     (being a collection of curious pieces from more than 3000
     authors--chiefly Protestant) was a civilian, a soldier, and
     a statesman. He was born A.D. 1537, at Vernac, in the duchy
     of Deux Ponts; of which town his father was chief
     magistrate. He was bred under Sturmius at Strasbourg, under
     Melancthon at Wittemberg, and under Cujas at Bruges. He
     travelled much and often; particularly into France and
     Burgundy, with the Dukes of Stettin, in 1467. He attended
     the Elector Palatine, who came with an army to the
     assistance of the French Hugonots in 1569; and, in 1571, he
     conducted the corpse of his master back to Germany by sea.
     After this, he was frequently employed in embassies from the
     electors Palatine to England and Poland. His last patrons
     were the Marquisses of Baden, who made him governor of
     Mündelsheim, and gave him several beneficial grants. In
     1594, Wolfius bade adieu to business and courts, and retired
     to Hailbrun; where he completed his "_Lectiones_," which had
     been the great employment of his life. He died May 23, A.D.
     1600--the same year in which the above volumes were
     published." Thus far, in part, our biographer, in his _Vitæ
     Eruditorum cum Germanorum tum Exterorum_: pt. iii., p. 156,
     edit. 1706. These particulars may be gleaned from Wolfius's
     preface; where he speaks of his literary and diplomatic
     labours with great interest and propriety. In this preface
     also is related a curious story of a young man of the name
     of Martin, whom Wolfius employed as an amanuensis to
     transcribe from his "three thousand authors"--and who was at
     first so zealously attached to the principles of the Romish
     Church that he declared "he wished for no heaven where
     Luther might be." The young man died a Protestant; quite
     reconciled to a premature end, and in perfect good will with
     Luther and his doctrine. As to Wolfius, it is impossible to
     read his preface, or to cast a glance upon his works--"magno
     et pene incredibili labore multisque vigiliis
     elaboratum"--(as Linsius has well said, in the opening of
     the admonition to the reader, prefixed to his index) without
     being delighted with his liberality of disposition, and
     astonished at the immensity of his labour. Each volume has
     upwards of 1000 pages closely printed upon an indifferent
     brown-tinted paper; which serves nevertheless to set off the
     several hundreds of well executed wood cuts which the work
     contains. Linsius's index, a thin folio, was published in
     the year 1608: this is absolutely necessary for the
     completion of a copy. As bibliographers have given but a
     scanty account of this uncommon work (mentioned, however,
     very properly by Mr. Nicol in his interesting preface to the
     catalogue of the Duke of Roxburgh's books; and of which I
     observe in the _Bibl. Solgeriana_, vol. i., no. 1759,
     that a second edition, printed in 1672, is held in
     comparatively little estimation), so biographers (if we
     except Melchior Adam, the great favourite of Bayle) have
     been equally silent respecting its author. Fabricius, and
     the Historical Dictionary published at Caen, do not mention
     him; and Moreri has but a meagre and superficial notice of
     him. Wolfius's _Penus Artis Historicæ_, of which the best
     edition is that of 1579, is well described in the tenth
     volume of Fournier's _Methode pour étudier l'histoire_, p.
     12, edit. 1772. My respect for so extraordinary a
     bibliomaniac as WOLFIUS, who was groping amongst the books
     of the public libraries belonging to the several great
     cities which he visited, (in his diplomatic character--vide
     præf.) whilst his masters and private secretary were
     probably paying their devotions to Bacchus--induces me to
     treat the reader with the following impression of his
     portrait.

     [Illustration]

     This cut is taken from a fac-simile drawing, made by me of
     the head of Wolfius as it appears at the back of the
     title-page to the preceding work. The original impression is
     but an indifferent one; but it presents in addition, the
     body of Wolfius as far as the waist; with his right hand
     clasping a book, and his left the handle of a sword. His
     ponderous chain has a medallion suspended at the end. This
     print, which evidently belongs to the English series, has
     escaped Granger. And yet I know not whether such
     intelligence should be imparted!--as the scissars may hence
     go to work to deprive many a copy of these "_Lectiones_," of
     their elaborately-ornamented title-pages. Forbid it, good
     sense!]

"In a short time," continued the venerable Orlando, after a pause of
fifteen seconds, "in a short time I must bid adieu to this scene; to
my choice copies; beautiful bindings: and all the classical furniture
which you behold around you. Yes!--as Reimannus[173] has well
observed,--'there is no end to accumulating books, whilst the
boundaries of human existence are limited, indeed!' But I have made
every necessary, and, I hope, appropriate, regulation; the greater
part of my library is bequeathed to one of the colleges in the
University of Oxford; with an injunction to put an inscription over
the collection very different from what the famous Ranzau[174]
directed to be inscribed over his own.--About three hundred volumes
you will find bequeathed to you, dear Philemon--accompanied with a few
remarks not very different from what Lotichius[175] indited, with his
dying breath, in his book-legacy to the learned Sambucus. I will, at
present, say no more. Come and see me whenever you have an
opportunity. I exact nothing extraordinary of you; and shall therefore
expect nothing beyond what one man of sense and of virtue, in our
relative situations, would pay to the other."

     [Footnote 173: "Vita brevis est, et series librorum longa."
     He adds: "Æs magnum tempus, quo id dispungere conatus est,
     parvum." _Bibl. Acroamat._, p. 51, sign. d [dagger symbol]
     2.]

     [Footnote 174: "Henry de Ranzau--avoit dressé une excellente
     bibliothéque au chateau de Bredemberg, dans laquelle
     estoient conservez plusieurs manuscrits Grecs et Latins, et
     autres raretez, &c.--Ce sçavant personnage a fait un decret
     pour sa bibliothéque, qui merite d'estre icy inseré, pour
     faire voir a la posterité l'affection qu'il auoit pour sa
     conservation."

          ... Libros partem ne aliquam abstulerit,
          Extraxerit, clepserit, rapserit,
          Concerpserit, coruperit,
                        Dolo malo:
          Illico maledictus,
          Perpetuo execrabilis,
          Semper detestabilis
                        Esto maneto.

          JACOB: _Traicté des Bibliothéques_, pp. 237, 240.

     I have inserted only the fulminatory clause of this
     inscription, as being that part of it against which
     Orlando's indignation seems to be directed.]

     [Footnote 175: "Petrus Lotichius Johanni Sambuco Pannonio
     gravissimo morbo laborans Bononiæ, bibliothecam suam
     legaverit, _lib._ 3, _eleg._ 9, verba ejus lectu non
     injucunda:

          Pro quibus officiis, hæres abeuntis amici,
            Accipe fortunæ munera parva meæ.
          Non mihi sunt Baccho colles, oleisque virentes,
            Prædiave Æmiliis conspicienda jugis.
          Tu veterum dulces scriptorum sume libellos,
            Attritos manibus quos juvat esse meis.
          Invenies etiam viridi quæ lusimus ævo,
            Dum studiis ætas mollibus apta fuit.
          Illa velim rapidis sic uras carmina flammis
            Ut vatem ipse suis ignibus jussit Amor."

          LOMEIER: _de Bibliothecis_, p. 288.]

"So spake Orlando," said Philemon, with tears in his eyes, who, upon
looking at Lisardo and myself, found our faces covered with our
handkerchiefs, and unable to utter a word.

The deliberate manner in which this recital was made--the broken
periods, and frequent pauses--filled up a great measure of our
journey; and we found that St. Paul's dome was increasing upon us in
size and distinctness, and that we had not more than three miles to
travel, when Lisardo, wishing to give a different turn to the
discourse, asked Philemon what was the cause of such extravagant sums
being now given at book-sales for certain curious and uncommon--but
certainly not highly intrinsically-valuable--publications; and whether
our ancestors, in the time of Hen. VIII. and Elizabeth, paid in
proportion for the volumes of _their_ Libraries?

Upon Philemon's declaring himself unable to gratify his friend's
curiosity, but intimating that some assistance might probably be
derived from myself, I took up the discourse by observing that--

"In the infancy of printing in this country (owing to the competition
of foreigners) it would seem that our own printers (who were both
booksellers and book-binders) had suffered considerably in their
trade, by being obliged to carry their goods to a market where the
generality of purchasers were pleased with more elegantly executed
works at an inferior price. The legislature felt, as every patriotic
legislature would feel, for their injured countrymen; and,
accordingly, the statute of Richard III. was enacted,[176] whereby
English printers and book-binders were protected from the mischiefs,
which would otherwise have overtaken them. Thus our old friend Caxton
went to work with greater glee, and mustered up all his energies to
bring a good stock of British manufacture to the market. What he
usually sold his books for, in his life time, I have not been able to
ascertain; but, on his decease, one of his _Golden Legends_ was
valued, in the churchwardens' books, at six shillings and eight
pence.[177] Whether this was a great or small sum I know not; but,
from the same authority we find that twenty-two pounds were given,
twelve years before, for eleven huge folios, called '_Antiphoners_.'[178]
In the reign of Henry VIII. it would seem, from a memorandum in the
catalogue of the Fletewode library (if I can trust my memory with such
minutiæ) that Law-Books were sold for about ten sheets to the
groat.[179] Now, in the present day, Law-Books--considering the
wretched style in which they are published, with broken types upon
milk-and-water-tinted paper--are the dearest of all modern
publications. Whether they were anciently sold for so comparatively
extravagant a sum may remain to be proved. Certain it is that, before
the middle of the sixteenth century, you might have purchased
Grafton's abridgment of Polydore Virgil's superficial work about _The
Invention of Things_ for fourteen pence;[180] and the same printer's
book of _Common Prayer_ for four shillings. Yet if you wanted a
superbly bound _Prymer_, it would have cost you (even five and twenty
years before) nearly half a guinea.[181] Nor could you have purchased
a decent _Ballad_ much under sixpence; and _Hall's Chronicle_ would
have drawn from your purse twelve shillings;[182] so that,
considering the then value of specie, there is not much ground of
complaint against the present prices of books."

     [Footnote 176: By the 1st of Richard III. (1433, ch. ix.
     sec. xii.) it appeared that, Whereas, a great number of the
     king's subjeets [Transcriber's Note: subjects] within this
     realm having "given themselves diligently to learn and
     exercise THE CRAFT OF PRINTING, and that at this day there
     being within this realm a great number cunning and expert in
     the said science or craft of printing, as able to exercise
     the said craft in all points as any stranger, in any other
     realm or country, and a great number of the king's subjects
     living by the craft and mystery of BINDING OF BOOKS, and
     well expert in the same;"--yet "all this notwithstanding,
     there are divers persons that bring from beyond the sea
     great plenty of printed books--not only in the Latin tongue,
     but also in our maternal English tongue--some bound in
     boards, some in leather, and some in parchment, and them
     sell by retail, whereby many of the king's subjects, being
     binders of books, and having no other faculty therewith to
     get their living, be destitute of work, and like to be
     undone, except some reformation herein be had,--Be it
     therefore enacted, &c." By the 4th clause or provision, if
     any of these printers or sellers of printed books vend them
     "at too high and unreasonable prices," then the Lord
     Chancellor, Lord Treasurer, or any of the Chief Justices of
     the one bench or the other--"by the oaths of twelve honest
     and discreet persons," were to regulate their prices. This
     remarkable act was confirmed by the 25th Hen. VIII., ch. 15,
     which was not repealed till the 12th Geo. II., ch. 36, § 3.
     A judge would have enough to do to regulate the prices of
     books, by the oaths of twelve men, in the present times!]

     [Footnote 177: The reader will be pleased to refer to p. cx.
     of the first volume of my recent edition of the
     _Typographical Antiquities of Great Britain_.]

     [Footnote 178: The following is from 'the churchwardens'
     accompts of St. Margaret's, Westminster. "A.D. 1475. Item,
     for 11 great books, called Antiphoners, 22_l._ 0_s._ 0_d._"
     _Manners and Expenses of Ancient Times in England_, &c.,
     collected by John Nichols, 1797, 4to., p. 2. _Antiphonere_
     is a book of anthems to be sung with responses: and, from
     the following passage in Chaucer, it would appear to have
     been a common school-book used in the times of papacy:

          This litel childe his litel book lerning,
          As he sate in the scole at his primere
          He _Alma Redemptoris_ herde sing,
          As children lered hir _Antiphonere_:

          _Cant. Tales_, v. 13,446, &c.

     "A legend, an _Antiphonarye_, a grayle, a psalter," &c.,
     were the books appointed to be kept in every parish church
     "of the province of Canterbury" by Robert Winchelsen.
     _Const. Provin. and of Otho and Octhobone_, fol. 67, rect.,
     edit. 1534.]

     [Footnote 179: "The year books, 9 v. parcels, as published,
     impr. in different years by Pynson, Berthelet, Redman,
     Myddylton, Powell, Smythe, Rastell, and Tottyl, 1517 to
     1531." Some of them have the prices printed at the end; as
     "The Prisce of thys Boke ys xiid. unbounde--The Price of
     thys Boke is xvid. un bownde;" and upon counting the sheets,
     it appears that the stated price of Law-Books, in the reign
     of Hen. 8, was ten sheets for one groat. _Bibl.
     Monast-Fletewodiana_, no. 3156.]

     [Footnote 180: In a copy of this book, printed by Grafton in
     1546, which was in the library of that celebrated
     bibliomaniac, Tom Rawlinson, was the following singular MS.
     note: "At Oxforde the yeare 1546, browt down to Seynbury by
     John Darbye _pryce_ 14_d._ When I kepe Mr. Letymers shype I
     bout thys boke when the testament was obberagatyd that shepe
     herdys myght not red hit I pray god amende that blyndnes
     wryt by Robert Wyllyams keppynge shepe uppon Seynbury hill.
     1546." _Camdeni Annales: Edit. Hearne_, vol. i., p. xxx.]

     [Footnote 181: From Mr. Nichol's curious work, I make the
     following further extracts:

                                                          £ _s._ _d._
     A.D.
     1539. Item, paid for the half part of the Bybell, }
           accordingly after the King's injunction     }  0   9   9
     1544. Item, also paid for six books of the Litany }
           in English                                  }  0   1   6
     1549. Paid for iv books of the service of the church 0  16   0
           [This was probably Grafton's Prayer book of 1549, fol.]
     1559. Paid for a Bybyl and Parafrawse                0  16   0

     [From the Ch. Wardens Accts. of St. Margaret's Westminster]

     The Inventory of John Port, 1524.
     In the shop.

     Item, a premmer lymmed with gold, and with imagery }
       written honds                                    }  0   8   4
       (From the do. of St. Mary Hill, London.)

     To William Pekerynge, a ballet, called a Ryse and  }
       Wake                                             }  0   0   4
       (From the books of the Stationers' Company).

     See pp. 13, 15, 126, and 133, of Mr. Nichols's work.]

     [Footnote 182: By the kindness of Mr. William Hamper, of
     Birmingham (a gentleman with whom my intercourse has as yet
     been only epistolary, but whom I must be allowed to rank
     among our present worthy bibliomaniacs), I am in possession
     of some original entries, which seem to have served as part
     of a day-book of a printer of the same name: "it having been
     pasted at the end of '_The Poor Man's Librarie_' printed by
     John Day in 1565." From this sable-looking document the
     reader has the following miscellaneous extracts:

     A.D. 1553.                                        £  _s._    _d._
       (Two) Meserse of bloyene in bordis  }
       One Prymare latane & englis         }           0   ii      0
       Balethis (ballads) nova of sortis               0    0     ii
       Boke of paper 1 quire in forrell                0    0     vi
       Morse workes in forrell                         0    9   viij
       Castell of Love in forrelle wi: a sarmo nova    0    0      x

     A.D. 1554.
       Balethis nova arbull in 8vo. 1 catechis         0    0  viiij
       Prymare for a chyllde in 8vo. englis                 0     iv
       Halles Croneckelle nova englis                  0  xii      0

     From a Household Book kept in London, A.D. 1561
     (in the possession of the same Gent.)

     Item, p-d for a Lyttellton in English                     xij_d._
     ---- for the booke of ij englishe lovers                   vj_d._
     ---- for the booke of Songes and Sonnettes      }
          and the booke of dyse, and a frenche booke } ij_s._ viij_d._
     (viz. the frenche booke xvj_d._ the ij other bookes at
       viij_d._ the pece.)
     ---- ---- for printing the xxv orders of honest men        xx_d._]

LIS. All this is very just. You are now creeping towards the
seventeenth century. Go on with your prices of books 'till nearly the
present day; when the BIBLIOMANIA has been supposed to have attained
its highest pitch.

"Don't expect," resumed I, "any antiquarian exactness in my
chronological detail of what our ancestors used to give for their
curiously-covered volumes. I presume that the ancient method of
_Book-Binding_[183] added much to the expense of the purchase. But be
this as it may, we know that Sir Ralph Sadler, at the close of the
sixteenth century, had a pretty fair library, with a _Bible_ in the
chapel to boot, for £10.[184] Towards the close of the seventeenth
century, we find the Earl of Peterborough enlisting among the book
champions; and giving, at the sale of Richard Smith's books in 1682,
not less than eighteen shillings and two pence for the first English
edition of his beloved _Godfrey of Boulogne_.[185] In Queen Ann's
time, Earl Pembroke and Lord Oxford spared no expense for books; and
Dr. Mead, who trod closely upon their heels, cared not at what price
he purchased his _Editiones Principes_, and all the grand books which
stamped such a value upon his collection. And yet, let us look at the
priced catalogue of his library, or at that of his successor Dr.
Askew, and compare the sums _then_ given for those _now_ offered for
similar works!"

     [Footnote 183: As a little essay, and a very curious one
     too, might be written upon the history of BOOK-BINDING, I
     shall not attempt in the present note satisfactorily to
     supply such a desideratum; but merely communicate to the
     reader a few particulars which have come across me in my
     desultory researches upon the subject. Mr. Astle tells us
     that the famous _Textus Sancti Cuthberti_, which was written
     in the 7th century, and was formerly kept at Durham, and is
     now preserved in the Cottonian library, (Nero, D. IV.) was
     adorned in the Saxon times by Bilfrith, a monk of Durham,
     with a silver cover gilt, and precious stones. Simeon
     Dunelmensis, or Turgot, as he is frequently called, tells us
     that the cover of this fine MS. was ornamented "forensecis
     Gemmis et Auro." "A booke of Gospelles garnished and wrought
     with antique worke of silver and gilte with an image of the
     crucifix with Mary and John, poiz together cccxxij oz." In
     the secret Jewel House in the Tower. "A booke of gold
     enameled, clasped with a rubie, having on th' one side, a
     crosse of dyamounts, and vj other dyamounts, and th' other
     syde a flower de luce of dyamounts, and iiij rubies with a
     pendaunte of white saphires and the arms of Englande. Which
     booke is garnished with small emerades and rubies hanging to
     a cheyne pillar fashion set with xv knottes, everie one
     conteyning iij rubies (one lacking)." _Archæologia_, vol.
     xiii., 220. Although Mr. Astle has not specified the time in
     which these two latter books were bound, it is probable that
     they were thus gorgeously attired before the discovery of
     the art of printing. What the ancient Vicars of Chalk (in
     Kent) used to pay for binding their missals, according to
     the original endowment settled by Haymo de Hethe in 1327
     (which compelled the vicars to be at the expense of the
     same--_Reg. Roff._, p. 205), Mr. Denne has not informed us.
     _Archæologia_, vol. xi., 362. But it would seem, from
     Warton, that "students and monks were anciently the binders
     of books;" and from their Latin entries respecting the same,
     the word "conjunctio" appears to have been used for
     "ligatura." _Hist. of Engl. Poetry_, vol. ii., p. 244.
     Hearne, in No. III. of the appendix to _Adam de Domerham
     de reb. gest. Glast._, has "published a grant from Rich. de
     Paston to Bromholm abbey, of twelve pence a year rent charge
     on his estates to _keep their books in repair_." This I
     gather from Gough's _Brit. Topog._, vol. ii., p. 20: while
     from the _Liber Stat. Eccl. Paulinæ_, Lond. MSS., f. 6, 396
     (furnished me by my friend Mr. H. Ellis,[D] of the British
     Museum), it appears to have been anciently considered as a
     part of the Sacrist's duty to bind and clasp the books:
     "Sacrista curet quod _Libri bene ligentur et haspentur_," &c.
     In Chaucer's time, one would think that the fashionable
     binding for the books of young scholars was
     _various-coloured velvet_: for thus our poet describes the
     library of the Oxford Scholar:

          A twenty bokes, clothed in black and red
          Of Aristotle----

          (_Prolog. to Cant. Tales._)

     We have some account of the style in which Chaucer's royal
     patron, Edward III., used to have his books bound; as the
     following extract (also furnished me by Mr. H. Ellis) will
     testify:----"To Alice Claver, for the making of XVI laces
     and XVI tasshels for the garnyshing of diuers of the Kings
     books, ij_s._ viij_d._----And to Robert Boillet for blac
     paper and nailles for closing and fastenyng of diuers cofyns
     of ffyrre wherein the Kings boks were conveyed and caried
     from the Kings grete warderobe in London vnto Eltham
     aforesaid, v_d._----Piers Bauduyn Stacioner for bynding
     gilding and dressing of a booke called Titus Liuius, xx_s_:
     for binding gilding and dressing of a booke called
     Ffrossard, xvj_s_: or binding gilding and dressing of a
     booke called the Bible, xvj_s_: for binding gilding and
     dressing of a booke called le Gouuernement of Kings and
     Princes, xvj_s._" "For the dressing of ij books whereof oon
     is called la forteresse de Foy and the other called the
     booke of Josephus, iij_s._ iiij_d._ And for binding gilding
     and dressing of a booke called the bible historial, xx_s._"
     Among the expenses entered in the Wardrobe Accompts 20th
     Edw. III. I suspect that it was not 'till towards the close
     of the 15th century, when the sister art of painting
     directed that of engraving, that books were bound in thick
     boards, with leather covering upon the same; curiously
     stamped with arabesque, and other bizarre, ornaments. In the
     interior of this binding, next to the leaves, there was
     sometimes an excavation, in which a silver crucifix was
     safely guarded by a metal door, with clasps. The exterior of
     the binding had oftentimes large embossed ornaments of
     silver, and sometimes of precious stones [as a note in the
     Appendix to the _History of Leicester_, by Mr. Nichols, p.
     102, indicates--and as Geyler himself, in his _Ship of
     Fools_, entitled "_Navicula, sive Speculum Fatuorum_," edit.
     1511, 4to., thus expressly declares:--"sunt qui libros
     inaurunt et serica tegimenta apponunt preciosa et superba,"
     sign. B. v. rev.], as well as the usual ornaments upon the
     leather; and two massive clasps, with thick metalled corners
     on each of the outward sides of the binding, seemed to
     render a book impervious to such depredations of time as
     could arise from external injury. Meantime, however the worm
     was secretly engendered within the wood: and his perforating
     ravages in the precious leaves of the volume gave dreadful
     proof of the defectiveness of ancient binding, beautiful and
     bold as it undoubtedly was! The reader is referred to an
     account of a preciously bound diminutive godly book (once
     belonging to Q. Elizabeth), in the first volume of my
     edition of the British _Typographical Antiquities_, p. 83;
     for which I understand the present owner asks the sum of
     160_l._ We find that in the sixteenth year of Elizabeth's
     reign, she was in possession of "Oone Gospell booke covered
     with tissue and garnished on th' onside with the crucifix
     and the Queene's badges of silver guilt, poiz with wodde,
     leaves, and all, czij. oz." _Archæologia_, vol. xiii., 221.
     I am in possession of the covers of a book, bound (A.D.
     1569) in thick parchment or vellum, which has the whole
     length portrait of Luther on one side, and of Calvin on the
     other. These portraits, which are executed with uncommon
     spirit and accuracy, are encircled with a profusion of
     ornamental borders of the most exquisite taste and richness.
     We shall speak occasionally of more modern book-binding as
     we proceed. Meanwhile, let the curious bibliomaniac glance
     his eye upon the copper-plate print which faces this
     concluding sentence--where he will see fac-similes of the
     portraits just mentioned.]

     [Footnote 184: See the recent very beautiful edition of Sir
     Ralph Sadler's _State Papers_, vol. ii., p. 590.]

     [Footnote 185: See the _Catalogue of R. Smith's Books_,
     1682, 4to., p. 199 (falsely numbered 275), no. 94.]

     [Footnote D: Since created a Knight.]

LIS. You allude to a late sale in Pall Mall, of one of the choicest
and most elegant libraries ever collected by a man of letters and
taste?

"I do, Lisardo--but see we are just entering the smoke and bustle of
London; and in ten minutes shall have reached the scene of action."

PHIL. How do you feel?

LIS. Why, tolerably calm. My pulse beats as leisurely as did my Lord
Strafford's at his trial--or (to borrow Hamlet's phrase)

       --as yours, it doth temperately keep time,
     And makes as healthful music.

PHIL. Ninety-five to the minute! You are just now in a fit frame of
mind to write a political pamphlet. Pray consider what will be the
issue of this madness?

LIS. No more! Now for my catalogue; and let me attend to my marks. But
our friend is not forgetful of his promise?

PHIL. I dare say he will assist us in regulating the prices we ought
to give--and more particularly in making us acquainted with the most
notable book-collectors.

Upon my readily acquiescing in their demand, we leapt from the chaise
(giving orders for it to attend by three o'clock) and hurried
immediately up stairs into THE AUCTION ROOM.

The clock had struck twelve, and in half an hour the sale was to
begin. Not more than nine or ten gentlemen were strolling about the
room: some examining the volumes which were to be sold, and making
hieroglyphical marks thereupon, in their catalogues: some giving
commissions to the clerk who entered their names, with the sums they
intended staking, in a manner equally hieroglyphical. Others, again,
seemed to be casting an eye of vacancy over the whole collection; or
waiting till a book friend arrived with whom they might enter into a
little chat. You observe, my friends, said I, softly, yonder active
and keen-visaged gentleman? 'Tis LEPIDUS. Like Magliabechi, content
with frugal fare and frugal clothing[186] and preferring the riches of
a library to those of house-furniture, he is insatiable in his
bibliomaniacal appetites. "Long experience has made him sage:" and it
is not therefore without just reason that his opinions are courted,
and considered as almost oracular. You will find that he will take his
old station, commanding the right or left wing of the auctioneer; and
that he will enliven, by the gaiety and shrewdness of his remarks, the
circle that more immediately surrounds him. Some there are who will
not bid 'till Lepidus bids; and who surrender all discretion and
opinion of their own to his universal book-knowledge. The consequence
is that Lepidus can, with difficulty, make purchases for his own
library; and a thousand dexterous and happy manoeuvres are of
necessity obliged to be practised by him, whenever a rare or curious
book turns up. How many fine collections has this sagacious
bibliomaniac seen disposed of! Like Nestor, who preaches about the
fine fellows he remembered in his youth, Lepidus (although barely yet
in his grand climacteric!) will depicture, with moving eloquence, the
numerous precious volumes of far-famed collectors, which he has seen,
like Macbeth's witches,

     "Come like shadows, so depart!"

     [Footnote 186: Tenni cultu, victuque contentus, quidquid ei
     pecuniæ superaret in omnigenæ eruditionis libros comparandos
     erogabat, selectissimamque voluminum multitudinem ea mente
     adquisivit, ut aliquando posset publicæ utilitati--dicari,
     _Præf. Bibl. Magliab. a Fossio_, p. x.]

And when any particular class of books, now highly coveted, but
formerly little esteemed, comes under the hammer, and produces a large
sum,--ah then! 'tis pleasant to hear Lepidus exclaim--

     O mihi præteritos referat si Jupiter annos!

Justly respectable as are his scholarship and good sense, he is not
what you may call a _fashionable_ collector; for old chronicles and
romances are most rigidly discarded from his library. Talk to him of
Hoffmen, Schoettgenius, Rosenmuller, and Michaelis, and he will listen
courteously to your conversation; but when you expatiate, however
learnedly and rapturously, upon Froissart and Prince Arthur, he will
tell you that he has a heart of stone upon the subject; and that even
a clean uncut copy of an original impression of each, by Verard or by
Caxton, would not bring a single tear of sympathetic transport in his
eyes.

LIS. I will not fail to pay due attention to so extraordinary and
interesting a character--for see, he is going to take his
distinguished station in the approaching contest. The hammer of the
worthy auctioneer, which I suppose is of as much importance as was Sir
Fopling's periwig of old,[187] upon the stage--the hammer is upon the
desk!--The company begin to increase and close their ranks; and the
din of battle will shortly be heard. Let us keep these seats. Now,
tell me who is yonder strange looking gentleman?

     [Footnote 187: See Warburton's piquant note, in Mr. Bowles's
     edition of _Pope's Works_, vol. v., p. 116. "This remarkable
     _periwiy_ [Transcriber's Note: periwig] (says he) usually
     made its entrance upon the stage in a sedan chair, brought
     in by two chairmen with infinite approbation of the
     audience." The _snuff-box_ of Mr. L. has not a less imposing
     air; and when a high-priced book is balancing between 15_l._
     and 20_l._ it is a fearful signal of its reaching an
     additional sum, if Mr. L. should lay down his hammer, and
     delve into this said crumple-horned snuff-box!]

"'Tis MUSTAPHA, a vender of books. Consuetudine invalescens, ac veluti
callum diuturna cogitatione obducens,[188] he comes forth, like an
alchemist from his laboratory, with hat and wig 'sprinkled with
learned dust,' and deals out his censures with as little ceremony as
correctness. It is of no consequence to him by whom positions are
advanced, or truth is established; and he hesitates very little about
calling Baron Heinecken a Tom fool, or ---- a shameless impostor. If
your library were as choice and elegant as Dr. H----'s he would tell
you that his own disordered shelves and badly coated books presented
an infinitely more precious collection; nor must you be at all
surprised at this--for, like Braithwait's Upotomis,

     'Though weak in judgment, in opinion strong;'

or, like the same author's Meilixos,

     'Who deems all wisdom treasur'd in his pate,'

our book-vender, in the catalogues which he puts forth, shews himself
to be 'a great and bold carpenter of words;'[189] overcharging the
description of his own volumes with tropes, metaphors, flourishes, and
common-place authorities; the latter of which one would think had but
recently come under his notice, as they had been already before the
public in various less ostentatious forms."

     [Footnote 188: The curious reader may see the entire caustic
     passage in Spizelius's _Infelix Literatus_, p. 435.]

     [Footnote 189: _Coryat's Crudities_, vol. i., sign. (b. 5.)
     edit. 1776.]

PHIL. Are you then an enemy to booksellers, or to their catalogues
when interlaced with bibliographical notices?

"By no means, Philemon. I think as highly of our own as did the author
of the Aprosian library[190] of the Dutch booksellers; and I love to
hear that the bibliographical labour bestowed upon a catalogue has
answered the end proposed, by sharpening the appetites of purchasers.
But the present is a different case. Mustapha might have learnt good
sense and good manners, from his right hand, or left hand, or
opposite, neighbour; but he is either too conceited, or too obstinate,
to have recourse to such aid. What is very remarkable, although he is
constantly declaiming against the enormous sums of money given for
books at public auctions, Mustapha doth not scruple to push the
purchaser to the last farthing of his commission; from a ready knack
which he hath acquired, by means of some magical art in his foresaid
laboratory, of deciphering the same; thus adopting in a most
extraordinary manner, the very line of conduct himself which he so
tartly censures in others."

     [Footnote 190: See pages 103-4, of Wolfius's edition of the
     _Bibliotheca Aprosiana_, 1734, 8vo. It is not because Mr.
     Ford, of Manchester, has been kind enough to present me with
     one of the _six_ copies of his last catalogue of books,
     printed upon STRONG WRITING PAPER--that I take this
     opportunity of praising the contents of it,--but that his
     catalogues are to be praised for the pains which he exhibits
     in describing his books, and in referring to numerous
     bibliographical authorities in the description. While upon
     this subject, let me recommend the youthful bibliomaniac to
     get possession of Mr. Edwards's catalogues, and especially
     of that of 1794. If such a catalogue were but recently
     published, it would be one of the pleasantest breakfast
     lounges imaginable to _tick off_ a few of the volumes with
     the hope of possessing them at the prices therein afixed.]

PHIL. Was this the gentleman whose catalogue (as you shewed me)
contained the fascinating colophon of Juliana Berner's book of
hawking, hunting, and heraldry, printed in the year 1486, subjoined to
a copy of the common reprint of it by Gervase Markham--thereby
provoking a thousand inquiries after the book, as if it had been the
first edition?

"The same," resumed I. "But let us leave such ridiculous vanity."

LIS. Who is that gentleman, standing towards the right of the
auctioneer, and looking so intently upon his catalogue?

"You point to my friend BERNARDO. He is thus anxious, because an
original fragment of the fair lady's work, which you have just
mentioned, is coming under the hammer; and powerful indeed must be the
object to draw his attention another way. The demure prioress of
Sopewell abbey is his ancient sweetheart; and he is about introducing
her to his friends, by a union with her as close and as honourable as
that of wedlock. Engaged in a laborious profession (the duties of
which are faithfully performed by him) Bernardo devotes his few
leisure hours to the investigation of old works; thinking with the
ancient poet, quoted by Ashmole, that

     '----out of old fields as men saythe
     Cometh all this new corne fro yeare to yeare;
     And out of olde Bokes in good faythe
     Cometh all this scyence that men leare:'

or, with Ashmole himself; that 'old words have strong emphasis: others
may look upon them as rubbish or trifles, but they are grossly
mistaken: for what some light brains may esteem as foolish toys,
deeper judgments can and will value as sound and serious matter.[191]'

     [Footnote 191: _Theatrum Chemicum_: proleg. sign. A. 3.
     rev.: B. 4. rect. The charms of ancient phraseology had been
     before not less eloquently described by Wolfius: "Habet hoc
     jucundi priscorum quorundam obsoleta dictio, ac suo quodam
     modo rudius comta oratio, ut ex ea plus intelligamus quam
     dicitur; plus significetur quam effertur." _Lect. Memorab.
     Epist. Ded._ fol. xiv. rev. Of Wolfius, and of this his
     work, the reader will find some mention at page 110, ante.]

"If you ask me whether Bernardo be always successful in his labours, I
should answer you, as I have told him, No: for the profit and applause
attendant upon them are not commensurate with his exertions. Moreover,
I do verily think that, in some few instances, he sacrifices his
judgment to another's whim; by a reluctance to put out the strength of
his own powers. He is also, I had almost said, the admiring slave of
Ritsonian fastidiousness; and will cry 'pish' if a _u_ be put for a
_v_, or a _single e_ for a _double one_: but take him fairly as he is,
and place him firmly in the bibliographical scale, and you will
acknowledge that his weight is far from being inconsiderable. He is a
respectable, and every way a praise-worthy man: and although he is
continually walking in a thick forest of black letter, and would
prefer a book printed before the year 1550, to a turtle dressed
according to the rules of Mr. Farley, yet he can ever and anon sally
forth to enjoy a stroll along the river side, with Isaac Walton[192]
in his hand; when 'he hath his wholesome walk and merry, at his ease:
a sweet air of the sweet savour of the mead flowers, that maketh him
hungry.'[193]

     [Footnote 192: "Let me take this opportunity of recommending
     the amiable and venerable ISAAC WALTON'S _Complete Angler_:
     a work the most singular of its kind, breathing the very
     spirit of contentment, of quiet, and unaffected
     philanthrophy, and interspersed with some beautiful relics
     of poetry, old songs, and ballads." So speaks the Rev. W.
     Lisle Bowles, in his edition of _Pope's Works_, vol i., p.
     135. To which I add--Let me take this opportunity of
     recommending Mr. Bagster's very beautiful and creditable
     reprint of Sir John Hawkin's edition of Walton's amusing
     little book. The plates in it are as true as they are
     brilliant: and the bibliomaniac may gratify his appetite,
     however voracious, by having copies of it upon paper of all
     sizes. Mr. Bagster has also very recently published an
     exquisite facsimile of the original edition of old Isaac.
     Perhaps I ought not to call it a fac-simile, for it is, in
     many respects, more beautifully executed.]

     [Footnote 193: The reader may see all this, and much more,
     dressed in its ancient orthographic garb, in a proheme to
     the first edition of the merry art of fishing, extracted by
     Herbert in his first volume, p. 131. I have said the
     "_merry_," and not the "_contemplative_," art of
     fishing--because we are informed that "Yf the angler take
     fyshe, surely thenne is there noo man _merier_ than he is in
     his spyryte!!" Yet Isaac Walton called this art, "The
     _Contemplative_ Man's Recreation." But a _book-fisherman_,
     like myself, must not presume to reconcile such great and
     contradictory authorities.]

"But see--the hammer is vibrating, at an angle of twenty-two and a
half, over a large paper priced catalogue of Major Pearson's
books!--Who is the lucky purchaser?

"QUISQUILIUS:--a victim to the Bibliomania. If one single copy of a
work happen to be printed in a more particular manner than another;
and if the compositor (clever rogue) happen to have transposed or
inverted a whole sentence or page; if a plate or two, no matter of
what kind or how executed; go along with it, which is not to be found
in the remaining copies; if the paper happen to be _unique_ in point
of size--whether MAXIMA or MINIMA--oh, then, thrice happy is
Quisquilius! With a well-furnished purse, the strings of which are
liberally loosened, he devotes no small portion of wealth to the
accumulation of _Prints_; and can justly boast of a collection of
which few of his contemporaries are possessed. But his walk in
book-collecting is rather limited. He seldom rambles into the
luxuriancy of old English black-letter literature; and cares still
less for a _variorum_ Latin classic, stamped in the neat mintage of
the Elzevir press. Of a Greek _Aldus_, or an Italian _Giunta_, he has
never yet had the luxury to dream:--'trahit sua quemque voluptas;' and
let Quisquilius enjoy his hobby-horse, even to the riding of it to
death! But let him not harbour malevolence against supposed injuries
inflicted: let not foolish prejudices, or unmanly suspicions, rankle
in his breast: authors and book-collectors are sometimes as
enlightened as himself, and have cultivated pursuits equally
honourable. Their profession, too, may sometimes be equally beneficial
to their fellow creatures. A few short years shall pass away, and it
will be seen who has contributed the more effectively to the public
stock of amusement and instruction. We wrap ourselves up in our own
little vanities and weaknesses, and, fancying wealth and wisdom to be
synonymous, vent our spleen against those who are resolutely striving,
under the pressure of mediocrity and domestic misfortune, to obtain an
honourable subsistence by their intellectual exertions."

LIS. A truce to this moralizing strain. Pass we on to a short
gentleman, busily engaged yonder in looking at a number of volumes,
and occasionally conversing with two or three gentlemen from five to
ten inches taller than himself. What is his name?

"ROSICRUSIUS is his name; and an ardent and indefatigable book-forager
he is. Although just now busily engaged in antiquarian researches
relating to British typography, he fancies himself nevertheless deeply
interested in the discovery of every ancient book printed abroad.
Examine his little collection of books, and you will find that

     'There Caxton sleeps, with Wynkyn at his side,
     One clasp'd in wood, and one in strong cow-hide!'[194]

--and yet, a beautiful volume printed at 'Basil or Heidelberg makes
him spinne: and at seeing the word Frankford or Venice, though but on
the title of a booke, he is readie to break doublet, cracke elbows,
and over-flowe the room with his murmure.'[195] Bibliography is his
darling delight--'una voluptas et meditatio assidua;'[196] and in
defence of the same he would quote you a score of old-fashioned
authors, from Gesner to Harles, whose very names would excite
scepticism about their existence. He is the author of various works,
chiefly bibliographical; upon which the voice of the public (if we
except a little wicked quizzing at his _black-letter_ propensities in
a celebrated North Briton Review) has been generally favourable.
Although the old maidenish particularity of Tom Hearne's genius be not
much calculated to please a bibliomaniac of lively parts, yet
Rosicrusius seems absolutely enamoured of that ancient wight; and to
be in possession of the cream of all his pieces, if we may judge from
what he has already published, and promises to publish, concerning the
same. He once had the temerity to dabble in poetry;[197] but he never
could raise his head above the mists which infest the swampy ground at
the foot of Parnassus. Still he loves 'the divine art' enthusiastically;
and affects, forsooth, to have a taste in matters of engraving and
painting! Converse with him about Guercino and Albert Durer, Berghem
and Woollett, and tell him that you wish to have his opinion about the
erection of a large library, and he will 'give tongue' to you from
rise to set of sun. Wishing him prosperity in his projected works, and
all good fellows to be his friends, proceed we in our descriptive
survey."

     [Footnote 194: Pope's _Dunciad_, b. i. v. 149.]

     [Footnote 195: _Coryat's Crudities_, vol. i., sign. (b. 5.)
     edit. 1776.]

     [Footnote 196: Vita Jacobi Le Long., p. xx., _Biblioth.
     Sacra_, edit. 1778.]

     [Footnote 197: See the note p. 11, in the first edition of
     the _Bibliomania_.]

LIS. I am quite impatient to see ATTICUS in this glorious group; of
whom fame makes such loud report--

"Yonder see he comes, Lisardo! 'Like arrow from the hunter's bow,' he
darts into the hottest of the fight, and beats down all opposition. In
vain BOSCARDO advances with his heavy artillery, sending forth
occasionally a forty-eight pounder; in vain he shifts his mode of
attack--now with dagger, and now with broadsword, now in plated, and
now in quilted armour: nought avails him. In every shape and at every
onset he is discomfited. Such a champion as Atticus has perhaps never
before appeared within the arena of book-gladiators:

     'Blest with talents, wealth, and taste;'[198]

and gifted with no common powers of general scholarship, he can easily
master a knotty passage in Eschylus or Aristotle; and quote Juvenal
and Horace as readily as the junior lads at Eton quote their '_As in
præsenti_:' moreover, he can enter, with equal ardour, into a minute
discussion about the romance literature of the middle ages, and the
dry though useful philology of the German school during the 16th and
17th centuries. In the pursuit after rare, curious, and valuable
books, nothing daunts or depresses him. With a mental and bodily
constitution such as few possess, and with a perpetual succession of
new objects rising up before him, he seems hardly ever conscious of
the vicissitudes of the seasons, and equally indifferent to petty
changes in politics. The cutting blasts of Siberia, or the fainting
heat of a Maltese sirocco, would not make him halt, or divert his
course, in the pursuit of a favourite volume, whether in the Greek,
Latin, Spanish, or Italian language. But as all human efforts, however
powerful, if carried on without intermission, must have a period of
cessation; and as the most active body cannot be at 'Thebes and at
Athens' at the same moment; so it follows that Atticus cannot be at
every auction and carry away every prize. His rivals narrowly watch,
and his enemies closely way-lay, him; and his victories are rarely
bloodless in consequence. If, like Darwin's whale, which swallows
'millions at a gulp,' Atticus should, at one auction, purchase from
two to seven hundred volumes, he must retire, like the '_Boa
Constrictor_,' for digestion: and accordingly he does, for a short
season, withdraw himself from 'the busy hum' of sale rooms, to
collate, methodize, and class his newly acquired treasures--to repair
what is defective, and to beautify what is deformed. Thus rendering
them 'companions meet' for their brethren in the rural shades of H----
Hall; where, in gay succession, stands many a row, heavily laden with
'rich and rare' productions. In this rural retreat, or academic bower,
Atticus spends a due portion of the autumnal season of the year; now
that the busy scenes of book-auctions in the metropolis have changed
their character--and dreary silence, and stagnant dirt, have succeeded
to noise and flying particles of learned dust.

     [Footnote 198: Dr. Ferriar's _Bibliomania_, v. 12.]

"Here, in his ancestral abode, Atticus can happily exchange the
microscopic investigation of books for the charms and manly exercises
of a rural life; eclipsing, in this particular, the celebrity of Cæsar
Antoninus; who had not universality of talent sufficient to unite the
love of hawking and hunting with the passion for book-collecting.[199]
The sky is no sooner dappled o'er with the first morning sun-beams,
than up starts our distinguished bibliomaniac, either to shoot or to
hunt; either to realize all the fine things which Pope has written
about 'lifting the tube, and levelling the eye;'[200] or to join the
jolly troop while they chant the hunting song of his poetical
friend.[201] Meanwhile, his house is not wanting in needful garniture
to render a country residence most congenial. His cellars below vie
with his library above. Besides 'the brown October'--'drawn from his
dark retreat of thirty years'--and the potent comforts of every
species of 'barley broth'--there are the ruddier and more sparkling
juices of the grape--'fresh of colour, and of look lovely, smiling to
the eyz of many'--as Master Laneham hath it in his celebrated
letter.[202] I shall leave you to finish the picture, which such a
sketch may suggest, by referring you to your favourite, Thomson."[203]

     [Footnote 199: This anecdote is given on the authority of
     Kesner's [Transcriber's Note: Gesner's] _Pandects_, fol. 29:
     rect. '[Greek: Alloi men hippôn] (says the grave Antoninus)
     [Greek: alloi de orneôn, alloi thêriôn ebôsin: emoi de
     bibliôn ktêseôs ek paidoiriou deinos entetêke pothos].']

     [Footnote 200: See Pope's _Windsor Forest_, ver. 110 to
     134.]

     [Footnote 201:

          Waken lords and ladies gay;
          On the mountain dawns the day.
          All the jolly chase is here,
          With hawk and horse and hunting spear:
          Hounds are in their couples yelling,
          Hawks are whistling, horns are knelling;
          Merrily, merrily, mingle they.
          "Waken lords and ladies gay."

          Waken lords and ladies gay,
          The mist has left the mountain grey.
          Springlets in the dawn are steaming,
          Diamonds on the lake are gleaming;
          And foresters have busy been,
          To track the buck in thicket green:
          Now we come to chaunt our lay,
          "Waken lords and ladies gay."

     HUNTING SONG, by Walter Scott: the remaining stanzas will be
     found in the _Edinb. Annual Register_, vol. i., pt. ii.,
     xxviii.]

     [Footnote 202: "_Whearin part of the Entertainment untoo the
     Queenz Majesty of Killingworth Castl in Warwick Sheer, &c.,
     1576, is signified._" edit. 1784, p. 14.]

     [Footnote 203: _Autumn_, v. 519, 701, &c.]

LIS. Your account of so extraordinary a bibliomaniac is quite amusing:
but I suspect you exaggerate a little.

"Nay, Lisardo, I speak nothing but the truth. In book-reputation,
Atticus unites all the activity of De Witt and Lomanie, with the
retentiveness of Magliabechi and the learning of Le Long.[204] And
yet--he has his peccant part."

     [Footnote 204: The reader will be pleased to turn for one
     minute to pages 49, 85, 86, ante.]

LIS. Speak, I am anxious to know.

"Yes, Lisardo; although what Leichius hath said of the library
attached to the senate-house of Leipsic be justly applicable to his
own extraordinary collection[205]--yet ATTICUS doth sometimes sadly
err. He has now and then an ungovernable passion to possess more
copies of a book than there were ever parties to a deed, or stamina to
a plant: and therefore I cannot call him a duplicate or triplicate
collector. His best friends scold--his most respectable rivals
censure--and a whole 'mob of gentlemen' who think to collect 'with
ease,' threaten vengeance against--him, for this despotic spirit which
he evinces; and which I fear nothing can stay or modify but an act of
parliament that no gentleman shall purchase more than two copies of a
work; one for his town, the other for his country, residence."

     [Footnote 205: Singularis eius ac propensi, in iuvandam
     eruditionem studii insigne imprimis monumentum exstat,
     Bibliotheca instructissima, sacrarium bonæ menti dicatum, in
     quo omne, quod transmitti ad posteritatem meretur, copiose
     reconditum est. _e [Transcriber's Note: De] Orig. et
     Increment. Typog. Lipsiens. Lips. An. Typog._ sec. iii.,
     sign. 3.]

PHIL. But does he atone for his sad error by being liberal in the loan
of his volumes?

"Most completely so, Philemon. This is the 'pars melior' of every book
collector, and it is indeed the better part with Atticus. The learned
and curious, whether rich or poor, have always free access to his
library--

     His volumes, open as his heart,
     Delight, amusement, science, art,
     To every ear and eye impart.

His books, therefore, are not a stagnant reservoir of unprofitable
water, as are those of PONTEVALLO'S; but like a thousand rills, which
run down from the lake on Snowdon's summit, after a plentiful fall of
rain, they serve to fertilize and adorn every thing to which they
extend. In consequence, he sees himself reflected in a thousand
mirrors: and has a right to be vain of the numerous dedications to
him, and of the richly ornamented robes in which he is attired by his
grateful friends."

LIS. Long life to Atticus, and to all such book heroes! Now pray
inform me who is yonder gentleman, of majestic mien and shape?--and
who strikes a stranger with as much interest as Agamemnon did
Priam--when the Grecian troops passed at a distance in order of
review, while the Trojan monarch and Helen were gossipping with each
other on the battlements of Troy!

"That gentleman, Lisardo, is HORTENSIUS; who, you see is in close
conversation with an intimate friend and fellow-bibliomaniac--that
ycleped is ULPIAN. They are both honourable members of an honourable
profession; and although they have formerly sworn to purchase no old
book but Machlinia's first edition of Littleton's Tenures, yet they
cannot resist, now and then, the delicious impulse of becoming masters
of a black-letter chronicle or romance. Taste and talent of various
kind they both possess; and 'tis truly pleasant to see gentlemen and
scholars, engaged in a laborious profession, in which, comparatively,
'little vegetation quickens, and few salutary plants take root,'
finding 'a pleasant grove for their wits to walk in' amidst rows of
beautifully bound, and intrinsically precious, volumes. They feel it
delectable, 'from the loop-holes of such a retreat,' to peep at the
multifarious pursuits of their brethren; and while they discover some
busied in a perversion of book-taste, and others preferring the
short-lived pleasures of sensual gratifications--which must 'not be
named' among good bibliomaniacs--they can sit comfortably by their
fire-sides; and, pointing to a well-furnished library, say to their
wives--who heartily sympathize in the sentiment--

     This gives us health, or adds to life a day!"[206]

     [Footnote 206: Braithwaite's _Arcadian Princesse_: lib. 4,
     p. 15, edit. 1635. The two immediately following verses,
     which are worthy of Dryden, may quietly creep in here:

          Or helps decayed beauty, or repairs
          Our chop-fall'n cheeks, or winter-molted hairs.]

LIS. When I come to town to settle, pray introduce me to these amiable
and sensible bibliomaniacs. Now gratify a curiosity that I feel to
know the name and character of yonder respectably-looking gentleman,
in the dress of the old school, who is speaking in so gracious a
manner to Bernardo?

"'Tis LEONTES: a man of taste, and an accomplished antiquary. Even yet
he continues to gratify his favourite passion for book and
print-collecting; although his library is at once choice and copious,
and his collection of prints exquisitely fine. He yet enjoys, in the
evening of life, all that unruffled temper and gentlemanly address
which delighted so much in his younger days, and which will always
render him, in his latter years, equally interesting and admired. Like
Atticus, he is liberal in the loan of his treasures; and, as with him,
so 'tis with Leontes--the spirit of book-collecting 'assumes the
dignity of a virtue.'[207] Peace and comfort be the attendant spirits
of Leontes, through life, and in death: the happiness of a better
world await him beyond the grave! His memory will always be held in
reverence by honest bibliomaniacs; and a due sense of his kindness
towards myself shall constantly be impressed upon me--

     Dum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus hos regret artus."

     [Footnote 207: _Edinburgh Review_, vol. xiii., p. 118.]

PHIL. Amen. With Leontes I suppose you close your account of the most
notorious bibliomaniacs who generally attend book sales in person; for
I observe no other person who mingles with those already
described--unless indeed, three very active young ones, who
occasionally converse with each other, and now and then have their
names affixed to some very expensive purchases--

"They are the three MERCURII, oftentimes deputed by distinguished
bibliomaniacs: who, fearful of the sharp-shooting powers of their
adversaries, if they _themselves_ should appear in the ranks, like
prudent generals, keep aloof. But their aides-de-camp are not always
successful in their missions; for such is the obstinacy with which
book-battles are now contested, that it requires three times the
number of guns and weight of metal to accomplish a particular object
to what it did when John Duke of Marlborough wore his full-bottomed
periwig at the battle of Blenheim.

"Others there are, again, who employ these Mercurii from their own
inability to attend in person, owing to distance, want of time, and
other similar causes. Hence, many a desperate bibliomaniac keeps in
the back-ground; while the public are wholly unacquainted with his
curious and rapidly-increasing treasures. Hence SIR TRISTRAM,
embosomed in his forest-retreat,

           --down the steepy linn
     That hems his little garden in,

is constantly increasing his stores of tales of genii, fairies, fays,
ghosts, hobgoblins, magicians, highwaymen, and desperadoes--and
equally acceptable to him is a copy of Castalio's elegant version of
Homer, and of St. Dunstan's book '_De Occulta Philosophia_;'
concerning which lattter [Transcriber's Note: latter], Elias Ashmole
is vehement in commendation.[208] From all these (after melting them
down in his own unparalleled poetical crucible--which hath charms as
potent as the witches' cauldron in Macbeth) he gives the world many a
wondrous-sweet song. Who that has read the exquisite poems, of the
fame of which all Britain 'rings from side to side,' shall deny to
such ancient legends a power to charm and instruct? Or who, that
possesses a copy of PROSPERO'S excellent volumes, although composed in
a different strain (yet still more fruitful in ancient matters), shall
not love the memory and exalt the renown of such transcendent
bibliomaniacs? The library of Prospero is indeed acknowledged to be
without a rival in its way. How pleasant it is, dear Philemon, only to
contemplate such a goodly prospect of elegantly bound volumes of old
English and French literature!--and to think of the matchless stores
which they contain, relating to our ancient popular tales and romantic
legends!

     [Footnote 208: He who shall have the happiness to meet with
     St. Dunstan's Worke "_De Occulta Philosophia_," may therein
     reade such stories as will make him amaz'd, &c. Prolegom. to
     his _Theatrum Chemicum_, sign A., 4. rev.]

"Allied to this library, in the general complexion of its literary
treasures, is that of MARCELLUS: while in the possession of numberless
rare and precious volumes relating to the drama, and especially to his
beloved Shakespeare, it must be acknowledged that Marcellus hath
somewhat the superiority. Meritorious as have been his labours in the
illustration of our immortal bard, he is yet as zealous, vigilant, and
anxious, as ever, to accumulate every thing which may tend to the
further illustration of him. Enter his book-cabinet; and with the
sight of how many _unique_ pieces and tracts are your ardent eyes
blessed! Just so it is with AURELIUS! He also, with the three last
mentioned bibliomaniacs, keeps up a constant fire at book auctions;
although he is not personally seen in securing the spoils which he
makes. Unparalleled as an antiquary in Caledonian history and poetry,
and passionately attached to every thing connected with the fate of
the lamented Mary, as well as with that of the great poetical
contemporaries, Spenser and Shakespeare, Aurelius is indefatigable in
the pursuit of such ancient lore as may add value to the stores,
however precious, which he possesses. His _Noctes Atticæ_, devoted to
the elucidation of the history of his native country, will erect to
his memory a splendid and imperishable monument. These, my dear
friends, these are the virtuous and useful, and therefore salutary
ends of book-collecting and book-reading. Such characters are among
the proudest pillars that adorn the greatest nations upon earth.

"Let me, however, not forget to mention that there are bashful or busy
bibliomaniacs, who keep aloof from book-sales, intent only upon
securing, by means of these Mercurii, _stainless_ or _large paper_
copies of ancient literature. While MENALCAS sees his oblong cabinet
decorated with such a tall, well-dressed, and perhaps matchless,
regiment of _Variorum Classics_, he has little or no occasion to
regret his unavoidable absence from the field of battle, in the Strand
or Pall Mall. And yet--although he is environed with a body guard, of
which the great Frederick's father might have envied him the
possession, he cannot help casting a wishful eye, now and then, upon
still choicer and taller troops which he sees in the territories of
his rivals. I do not know whether he would not sacrifice the whole
right wing of his army, for the securing of some magnificent treasures
in the empire of his neighbour RINALDO: for there he sees, and adores,
with the rapture-speaking eye of a classical bibliomaniac, the tall,
wide, thick, clean, brilliant, and illuminated copy of the _first
Livy_ UPON VELLUM--enshrined in an impenetrable oaken case, covered
with choice morocco!

"There he often witnesses the adoration paid to this glorious object,
by some bookish pilgrim, who, as the evening sun reposes softly upon
the hill, pushes onward, through copse, wood, moor, heath, bramble,
and thicket, to feast his eyes upon the mellow lustre of its leaves,
and upon the nice execution of its typography. Menalcas sees all
this; and yet has too noble a heart to envy Rinaldo his treasures!
These bibliomaniacs often meet and view their respective forces; but
never with hostile eyes. They know their relative strength; and wisely
console themselves by being each 'eminent in his degree.' Like
Corregio, they are 'also painters' in their way."

PHIL. A well-a-day, Lisardo! Does not this recital chill your blood
with despair? Instead of making your purchases, you are only listening
supinely to our friend!

LIS. Not exactly so. One of these obliging Mercurii has already
executed a few commissions for me. You forget that our friend entered
into a little chat with him, just before we took possession of our
seats. As to despair of obtaining book-gems similar to those of the
four last mentioned bibliomaniacs, I know not what to say--yet this I
think must be granted: no one could make a better use of them than
their present owners. See, the elder Mercurius comes to tell me of a
pleasant acquisition to my library! What a murmur and confusion
prevail about the auctioneer! Good news, I trust?

At this moment Lisardo received intelligence that he had obtained
possession of the catalogues of the books of Bunau, Crevenna, and
Pinelli; and that, after a desperate struggle with QUISQUILIUS, he
came off victorious in a contest for De Bure's _Bibliographie
Instructive_, _Gaignat's Catalogue_, and the two copious ones of the
_Duke de la Valliere_: these four latter being half-bound and uncut,
in nineteen volumes. Transport lit up the countenance of Lisardo, upon
his receiving this intelligence; but as pleasure and pain go hand in
hand in this world, so did this young and unsuspecting bibliomaniac
evince heavy affliction, on being told that he had failed in his
attack upon the best editions of Le Long's _Bibliotheca Sacra_,
Fresnoy's _Méthode pour etudier l'Histoire_, and Baillet's _Jugemens
des Savans_--these having been carried off, at the point of the
bayonet, by an irresistible onset from ATTICUS. "Remember, my
friend," said I, in a soothing strain, "remember that you are but a
Polydore; and must expect to fall when you encounter Achilles.[209]
Think of the honour you have acquired in this day's glorious contest;
and, when you are drenching your cups of claret, at your hospitable
board, contemplate your De Bure as a trophy which will always make you
respected by your visitors! I am glad to see you revive. Yet further
intelligence?"

     [Footnote 209: The reader may peruse the affecting death of
     this beautiful youth, by the merciless Achilles, from the
     407 to 418th verso of the xxth book of _Homer's Iliad_.
     Fortunately for Lisardo, he survives the contest, and even
     threatens revenge.]

LIS. My good Mercurius, for whom a knife and fork shall always be laid
at my table, has just informed me that Clement's _Bibliotheque
Curieuse_, and Panzer's _Typographical Annals_, are knocked down to
me, after Mustapha had picked me out for single combat, and battered
my breast-plate with a thousand furious strokes!

"You must always," said I, "expect tough work from such an enemy, who
is frequently both wanton and wild. But I congratulate you heartily on
the event of this day's contest. Let us now pack up and pay for our
treasures. Your servant has just entered the room, and the chaise is
most probably at the door."

LIS. I am perfectly ready. Mercurius tells me that the whole amounts
to----

PHIL. Upwards of thirty guineas?

LIS. Hard upon forty pounds. Here is the draft upon my banker: and
then for my precious tomes of bibliography! A thousand thanks, my
friend. I love this place of all things; and, after your minute
account of the characters of those who frequent it, I feel a strong
propensity to become a deserving member of so respectable a
fraternity. Leaving them all to return to their homes as satisfied as
myself, I wish them a hearty good day.

Upon saying this, we followed Lisardo and his bibliographical
treasures into the chaise; and instantly set off, at a sharp trot, for
the quiet and comfort of green fields and running streams. As we
rolled over Westminster-bridge, we bade farewell, like the historian
of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, to the

     "Fumum et opes strepitumque Romæ."

[Illustration]


[Illustration: CHISWICK HOUSE as in 1740.]



PART IV.

=The Library.=

DR. HENRY'S HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN.
A GAME AT CHESS.--OF MONACHISM AND CHIVALRY.
DINNER AT LORENZO'S.
SOME ACCOUNT OF BOOK-COLLECTORS IN ENGLAND.


                     ----Wisdom loves
     This seat serene, and Virtue's self approves:--
     Here come the griev'd, a change of thought to find;
     The curious here, to feed a craving mind:
     Here the devout, their peaceful temple chuse;
     And here, the poet meets his favouring Muse.

CRABBE'S POEMS. (_The Library._)


[Illustration:

=Ingredere
ut
Proficias.=]



[Illustration]

=The Library.=

DR. HENRY'S HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN.
A GAME OF CHESS.--OF MONACHISM AND CHIVALRY.
DINNER AT LORENZO'S.
SOME ACCOUNT OF BOOK-COLLECTORS IN ENGLAND.


During the first seven miles of our return from the busy scene which
has just been described, it was sufficiently obvious that Lisardo was
suffering a little under the pangs of mortification. True it was, he
had filled his pocket with an ampler supply of pistoles than it ever
fell to the lot of Gil Blas, at the same time of life, to be master
of; but he had not calculated upon the similar condition of his
competitors; some of whom had yet greater powers of purchase, and a
more resolute determination, as well as nicer skill, in exercising
these powers, than himself. Thus rushing into the combat with the heat
and vehemence of youth, he was of necessity compelled to experience
the disappointment attendant upon such precipitancy. It was in vain
that Philemon and myself endeavoured to make him completely satisfied
with his purchase: nothing produced a look of complacency from him. At
length, upon seeing the rising ground which was within two or three
miles of our respective homes, he cheered up by degrees; and a sudden
thought of the treasures contained in his Clement, De Bure and Panzer,
darted a gleam of satisfaction across his countenance. His eyes
resumed their wonted brilliancy, and all the natural gaiety of his
disposition returned with full effect to banish every vapour of
melancholy. "Indeed, my good friend," said he to me--"I shall always
have reason to think and speak well of your kindness shewn towards me
this day; and although some years may elapse before a similar
collection may be disposed of--and I must necessarily wait a tedious
period 'ere I get possession of Maittaire, Audiffredi, and others of
the old school--yet I hope to convince Lysander, on the exhibition of
my purchase, that my conversion to bibliography has been sincere. Yes:
I perceive that I have food enough to digest, in the volumes which are
now my travelling companions, for two or three years to come--and if,
by keeping a sharp look-out upon booksellers' catalogues when they are
first published, I can catch hold of Vogt, Schelhorn and Heinecken, my
progress in bibliography, within the same period, must be downright
marvellous!" "I congratulate you," exclaimed PHILEMON, "upon the
return of your reason and good sense. I began to think that the story
of Orlando had been thrown away upon you; and that his regular yearly
purchases of a certain set of books, and making himself master of
their principal contents before he ventured upon another similar
purchase, had already been banished from your recollection."

We were now fast approaching the end of our journey; when the groom of
Lorenzo, mounted upon a well-bred courser, darted quickly by the
chaise, apparently making towards my house--but on turning his head,
and perceiving me within it, he drew up and bade the postilion stop. A
note from his master soon disclosed the reason of this interruption.
LORENZO, upon hearing of the arrival of Lysander and Philemon, and of
their wish to visit his library, had sent us all three a kind
invitation to dine with him on the morrow. His close intimacy with
Lisardo (who was his neighbour) had left no doubt in the mind of the
latter but that a similar note had been sent to his own house. After
telling the messenger that we would not fail to pay our respects to
his master, we drove briskly homewards; and found Lysander sitting on
a stile under some wide-spreading beech trees, at the entrance of the
paddock, expecting our arrival. In less than half an hour we sat down
to dinner (at a time greatly beyond what I was accustomed to);
regaling Lysander, during the repast, with an account of the contest
we had witnessed; and every now and then preventing Lisardo from
rushing towards his packet (even in the midst of his _fricandeau_),
and displaying his book-treasures. After dinner, our discussion
assumed a more methodical shape. Lysander bestowed his hearty
commendations upon the purchase; and, in order to whet the
bibliomaniacal appetite of his young convert, he slyly observed that
his set of De Bure's pieces were _half bound_ and _uncut_; and that by
having them bound in morocco, with gilt leaves, he would excel my own
set; which latter was coated in a prettily-sprinkled calf leather,
with speckled edges. Lisardo could not repress the joyful sensations
which this remark excited; and I observed that, whenever his eyes
glanced upon my shelves, he afterwards returned them upon his own
little collection, with a look of complacency mingled with exultation.
It was evident, therefore, that he was now thoroughly reconciled to
his fortune.

LYSAND. During your absence, I have been reading a very favourite work
of mine--DR. HENRY'S _History of Great Britain_; especially that part
of it which I prefer so much to the history of human cunning and
human slaughter; I mean, the account of learning and of learned men.

PHIL. It is also a great favourite with me. But while I regret the
inexcuseable omission of an index to such a voluminous work, and the
inequality of Mr. Andrews's partial continuation of it, I must be
permitted to observe that the history of our literature and learned
men is not the most brilliant, or best executed, part of Dr. Henry's
valuable labours. There are many omissions to supply, and much
interesting additional matter to bring forward, even in some of the
most elaborate parts of it. His account of the arts might also be
improved; although in commerce, manners and customs, I think he has
done as much, and as well, as could reasonably be expected. I
question, however, whether his work, from the plan upon which it is
executed, will ever become so popular as its fondest admirers seem to
hope.

LYSAND. You are to consider, Philemon, that in the execution of such
an important whole, in the erection of so immense a fabric, some parts
must necessarily be finished in a less workman-like style than others.
And, after all, there is a good deal of caprice in our criticisms. You
fancy, in this fabric (if I may be allowed to go on with my simile), a
boudoir, a hall, or a staircase; and fix a critical eye upon a recess
badly contrived, an oval badly turned, or pillars weakly put
together:--the builder says, Don't look at these parts of the fabric
with such fastidious nicety; they are subordinate. If my boudoir will
hold a moderate collection of old-fashioned Dresden China, if my
staircase be stout enough to conduct you and your company to the upper
rooms; and, if my hall be spacious enough to hold the hats, umbrellas
and walking-sticks of your largest dinner-party, they answer the ends
proposed:--unless you would _live_ in your boudoir, upon your
staircase, or within your hall! The fact then is, you, Philemon,
prefer the boudoir, and might, perhaps, improve upon its structure;
but, recollect, there are places in a house of equal, or perhaps more,
consequence than this beloved boudoir. Now, to make the obvious
application to the work which has given rise to this wonderful stretch
of imagination on my part:--Dr. Henry is the builder, and his history
is the building, in question: in the latter he had to put together,
with skill and credit, a number of weighty parts, of which the "_Civil
and Ecclesiastical_" is undoubtedly the most important to the
generality of readers. But one of these component parts was the _The
History of Learning and of Learned Men_; which its author probably
thought of subordinate consequence, or in the management of which, to
allow you the full force of your objection, he was not so well
skilled. Yet, still, never before having been thus connected with such
a building, it was undoubtedly a delightful acquisition; and I
question whether, if it had been more elaborately executed--if it had
exhibited all the fret-work and sparkling points which you seem to
conceive necessary to its completion; I question, whether the
popularity of the work would have been even so great as it is, and as
it unquestionably merits to be! A few passionately-smitten literary
antiquaries are not, perhaps, the fittest judges of such a production.
To be generally useful and profitable should be the object of every
author of a similar publication; and as far as candour and liberality
of sentiment, an unaffected and manly style, accompanied with weighty
matter, extensive research, and faithful quotation, render a work
nationally valuable--the work of Dr. Henry, on these grounds, is an
ornament and honour to his country.

PHIL. Yet I wish he had rambled (if you will permit me so to speak) a
little more into book-men and book-anecdotes.

LYSAND. You may indulge this wish very innocently; but, certainly, you
ought not to censure Dr. Henry for the omission of such minutiæ.

LIS. Does he ever quote Clement, De Bure, or Panzer?

LYSAND. Away with such bibliomaniacal frenzy! He quotes solid, useful
and respectable authorities; chiefly our old and most valuable
historians. No writer before him ever did them so much justice, or
displayed a more familiar acquaintance with them.

LIS. Do pray give us, Lysander, some little sketches of
book-characters--which, I admit, did not enter into the plan of Dr.
Henry's excellent work. As I possess the original quarto edition of
this latter, bound in Russia, you will not censure me for a want of
respect towards the author.

PHIL. I second Lisardo's motion; although I fear the evening presses
too hard upon us to admit of much present discussion.

LYSAND. Nothing--(speaking most unaffectedly from my heart) nothing
affords me sincerer pleasure than to do any thing in my power which
may please such cordial friends as yourselves. My pretensions to that
sort of antiquarian _knowledge_, which belongs to the history of
book-collectors, are very poor, as you well know,--they being greatly
eclipsed by my _zeal_ in the same cause. But, as I love my country and
my country's literature, so no conversation or research affords me a
livelier pleasure than that which leads me to become better acquainted
with the ages which have gone by; with the great and good men of old;
who have found the most imperishable monuments of their fame in the
sympathizing hearts of their successors. But I am wandering--

LIS. Go on as you please, dear Lysander; for I have been too much
indebted to your conversation ever to suppose it could diverge into
any thing censoriously irrelevant. Begin where and when you please.

LYSAND. I assure you it is far from my intention to make any formal
exordium, even if I knew the exact object of your request.

PHIL. Tell us all about book-collecting and BIBLIOMANIACS in this
country--

LIS. "Commençez au commençement"--as the French adage is.

LYSAND. In sober truth, you impose upon me a pretty tough task! "One
Thousand and One Nights" would hardly suffice for the execution of it;
and now, already, I see the owl flying across the lawn to take her
station in the neighbouring oak; while even the middle ground of
yonder landscape is veiled in the blue haziness of evening. Come a
short half hour, and who, unless the moon befriend him, can see the
outline of the village church? Thus gradually and imperceptibly, but
thus surely, succeeds age to youth--death to life--eternity to
time!--You see in what sort of mood I am for the performance of my
promise?

LIS. Reserve these meditations for your pillow, dear Lysander: and
now, again I entreat you--"commençez au commençement."

PHIL. Pray make a beginning only: the conclusion shall be reserved, as
a desert, for Lorenzo's dinner to-morrow.

LYSAND. Lest I should be thought coquettish, I will act with you as I
have already done; and endeavour to say something which may gratify
you as before.

It has often struck me my dear friends, continued Lysander--(in a
balanced attitude, and seeming to bring quietly together all his
scattered thoughts upon the subject) it has often struck me that few
things have operated more unfavourably towards the encouragement of
learning, and of book-collecting, than the universal passion for
_chivalry_--which obtained towards the middle ages; while, on the
other hand, a _monastic life_ seems to have excited a love of
retirement, meditation, and reading.[210] I admit readily, that,
considering the long continuance of the monastic orders, and that
almost all intellectual improvement was confined within the cloister,
a very slow and partial progress was made in literature. The system of
education was a poor, stinted, and unproductive one. Nor was it till
after the enterprising activity of Poggio had succeeded in securing a
few precious remains of classical antiquity,[211] that the wretched
indolence of the monastic life began to be diverted from a constant
meditation upon "antiphoners, grailes, and psalters,"[212] towards
subjects of a more generally interesting nature. I am willing to admit
every degree of merit to the manual dexterity of the cloistered
student. I admire his snow-white vellum missals, emblazoned with gold,
and sparkling with carmine and ultramarine blue. By the help of the
microscopic glass, I peruse his diminutive penmanship, executed with
the most astonishing neatness and regularity; and often wish in my
heart that our typographers printed with ink as glossy black as that
which they sometimes used in their writing. I admire all this; and now
and then, for a guinea or two, I purchase a specimen of such
marvellous leger-de-main: but the book, when purchased, is to me a
sealed book. And yet, Philemon, I blame not the individual, but the
age; not the task, but the task-master; for surely the same exquisite
and unrivalled beauty would have been exhibited in copying an ode of
Horace, or a dictum of Quintilian. Still, however, you may say that
the intention, in all this, was pure and meritorious; for that such a
system excited insensibly a love of quiet, domestic order, and
seriousness: while those counsels and regulations which punished a
"Clerk for being a hunter," and restricted "the intercourse of
Concubines,"[213] evinced a spirit of jurisprudence which would have
done justice to any age. Let us allow, then, if you please, that a
love of book-reading, and of book-collecting, was a meritorious trait
in the monastic life; and that we are to look upon old abbies and
convents as the sacred depositories of the literature of past ages.
What can you say in defence of your times of beloved chivalry?

     [Footnote 210: As early as the sixth century commenced the
     custom, in some monasteries, of copying ancient books and
     composing new ones. It was the usual, and even only,
     employment of the first monks of Marmoutier. A monastery
     without a library was considered as a fort or a camp
     deprived of the necessary articles for its defence:
     "claustrum sine armario, quasi castrum sine armentario."
     Peignot, _Dict. de Bibliolog._, vol. i., 77. I am fearful
     that this good old bibliomanical custom of keeping up the
     credit of their libraries among the monks had ceased--at
     least in the convent of Romsey, in Hampshire--towards the
     commencement of the sixteenth century. One would think that
     the books had been there disposed of in bartering for
     _strong liquors_; for at a visitation by Bishop Fox, held
     there in 1506, Joyce Rows, the abbess, is accused of
     _immoderate drinking_, especially in the night time; and of
     inviting the nuns to her chamber every evening, for the
     purpose of these excesses, "post completorium." What is
     frightful to add,--"this was a rich convent, and filled with
     ladies of the best families." See Warton's cruel note in his
     _Life of Sir Thomas Pope_, p. 25, edit. 1772. A
     tender-hearted bibliomaniac cannot but feel acutely on
     reflecting upon the many beautifully-illuminated vellum
     books which were, in all probability, exchanged for these
     inebriating gratifications! To balance this unfavourable
     account read Hearne's remark about the libraries in ancient
     monasteries, in the sixth volume of _Leland's Collectanea_,
     p. 86-7, edit. 1774: and especially the anecdotes and
     authorities stated by Dr. Henry in book iii., chap, iv.,
     sec. 1.]

     [Footnote 211: See the first volume of Mr. Roscoe's _Lorenzo
     de Medici_; and the Rev. Mr. Shepherd's _Life of Poggio
     Bracciolini_.]

     [Footnote 212: When Queen Elizabeth deputed a set of
     commissioners to examine into the superstitious books
     belonging to All-Souls library, there was returned, in the
     list of these superstitious works, "eight grailes, seven
     antiphoners of parchment and bound." Gutch's _Collectanea
     Curiosa_, vol. ii., 276. At page 115, ante, the reader will
     find a definition of the word "Antiphoner." He is here
     informed that a "gradale" or "grail," is a book which ought
     to have in it "the office of sprinkling holy water: the
     beginnings of the masses, or the offices of _Kyrie_, with
     the verses of _gloria in excelsis_; the _gradales_, or what
     is gradually sung after the epistles; the hallelujah and
     tracts, the sequences, the creed to be sung at mass, the
     offertories, the hymns holy, and Lamb of God, the communion,
     &c., which relate to the choir at the singing of a solemn
     mass." This is the Rev. J. Lewis's account; _idem opus_,
     vol. ii., 168.]

     [Footnote 213: "_Of a Clerk that is an Hunter._"

     "We ordain that if any clerk be defamed of trespass
     committed in forest or park of any man's, and thereof be
     lawfully convicted before his ordinary, or do confess it to
     him, the diocesan shall make redemption thereof in his
     goods, if he have goods after the quality of his fault; and
     such redemption shall be assigned to him to whom the loss,
     hurt, or injury, is done; but if he have no goods, let his
     bishop grievously punish his person according as the fault
     requireth, lest through trust to escape punishment they
     boldly presume to offend." _Fol._ 86, _rev._: vide _infra_.
     (The same prohibition against clergymen being Hunters
     appears in a circular letter, or injunctions, by Lee,
     Archbishop of York, A.D. 1536. "Item; they shall not be
     common _Hunters ne Hawkers_, ne playe at gammes prohibytede,
     as dycese and cartes, and such oder." Burnet's _Hist. of the
     Reformation_; vol. iii. p. 136, "Collections.")

     "_Of the removing of Clerks' Concubines._"

     "Although the governors of the church have always laboured
     and enforced to drive and chase away from the houses of the
     church that rotten contagiousness of pleasant filthiness
     with the which the sight and beauty of the church is
     grievously spotted and defiled, and yet could never hitherto
     bring it to pass, seeing it is of so great a lewd boldness
     that it thursteth in unshamefastly without ceasing; we,
     therefore," &c. _Fol._ 114, _rect._

     "_Of Concubines, that is to say of them that keep
     Concubines._"

     "How unbecoming it is, and how contrary to the pureness of
     Christians, to touch sacred things with lips and hands
     polluted, or any to give the laws and praisings of
     cleanness, or to present himself in the Lord's temple, when
     he is defiled with the spots of lechery, not only the divine
     and canonical laws, but also the monitions of secular
     princes, hath evidently seen by the judgment of holy
     consideration, commanding and enjoining both discreetly and
     also wholesomely, shamefacedness unto all Christ's faithful,
     and ministers of the holy church." _Fol._ 131, _rect._
     _Constitutions Provincialles, and of Otho aud [Transcriber's
     Note: and] Octhobone._ Redman's edit. 1534, 12mo. On looking
     into Du Pin's _Ecclesiastical History_, vol. ix., p. 58,
     edit. 1699, I find that Hugh of Dia, by the ninth canon in
     the council of Poictiers, (centy. xi.) ordained "That the
     sub-deacons, deacons, and priests, shall have no concubine,
     or any other suspicious women in their houses; and that all
     those who shall wittingly hear the mass of a priest that
     keeps a concubine, or is guilty of simony, shall be
     excommunicated."]

PHIL. Shew me in what respect the gallant spirit of an ancient knight
was hostile to the cultivation of the belles-lettres?

LYSAND. Most readily. Look at your old romances, and what is the
system of education--of youthful pursuits--which they in general
inculcate? Intrigue and bloodshed.[214] Examine your favourite new
edition of the _Fabliaux et Contes_ of the middle ages, collected by
Barbazan! However the editor may say that "though some of these pieces
are a little too free, others breathe a spirit of morality and
religion--"[215] the main scope of the poems, taken collectively, is
that which has just been mentioned. But let us come to particulars.
What is there in the _Ordene de Chevalerie_, or _Le Castoiement d'un
Pere à son fils_ (pieces in which one would expect a little
seriousness of youthful instruction), that can possibly excite a love
of reading, book-collecting, or domestic quiet? Again; let us see what
these chivalrous lads do, as soon as they become able-bodied! Nothing
but assault and wound one another. Read concerning your favourite
_Oliver of Castile_,[216] and his half-brother _Arthur_! Or, open
the beautiful volumes of the late interesting translation of
Monstrelet, and what is almost the very first thing which meets your
eye? Why, "an Esquire of Arragon (one of your chivalrous heroes) named
Michel D'Orris, sends a challenge to an English esquire of the same
complexion with himself--and this is the nature of the challenge:
[which I will read from the volume, as it is close at my right hand,
and I have been dipping into it this morning in your absence--]

     [Footnote 214: The celebrated LUDOVICUS VIVES has strung
     together a whole list of ancient popular romances, calling
     them "ungracious books." The following is his saucy
     philippic: "Which books but idle men wrote unlearned, and
     set all upon filth and viciousness; in whom I wonder what
     should delight men, but that vice pleaseth them so much. As
     for learning, none is to be looked for in those men, which
     saw never so much as a shadow of learning themselves. And
     when they tell ought, what delight can be in those things
     that be so plain and foolish lies? One killeth twenty by
     himself alone, another killeth thirty; another, wounded with
     a hundred wounds, and left for dead, riseth up again; and on
     the next day, made whole and strong, overcometh two giants,
     and then goeth away loaden with gold and silver and precious
     stones, mo than a galley would carry away. What madness is
     it of folks to have pleasure in these books! Also there is
     no wit in them, but a few words of wanton lust; which be
     spoken to move her mind with whom they love, if it chance
     she be steadfast. And if they be read but for this, the best
     were to make books of bawd's crafts, for in other things
     what craft can be had of such a maker that is ignorant of
     all good craft? Nor I never heard man say that he liked
     these books, but those that never touched good
     books."--_Instruction of a Christian Woman_, sign. D. 1.
     rev., edit. 1593. From the fifth chapter (sufficiently
     curious) of "What books be to be read, and what not."]

     [Footnote 215: Vol. ii., p. 39, edit. 1808.]

     [Footnote 216: "When the king saw that they were puissant
     enough for to wield armour at their ease, he gave them
     license for to do cry a Justing and Tournament. The which
     OLIVER and ARTHUR made for to be cried, that three
     aventurous knights should just against all comers, the which
     should find them there the first day of the lusty month of
     May, in complete harness, for to just against their
     adversaries with sharp spears. And the said three champions
     should just three days in three colours: that is to wit, in
     black, grey and violet--and their shields of the same hue;
     and them to find on the third day at the lists. There justed
     divers young knights of the king's court: and the justing
     was more _asperer_ of those young knights than ever they had
     seen any in that country. And, by the report of the ladies,
     they did so knightly, every one, that it was not possible
     for to do better, as them thought, by their strokes. But,
     above all other, OLIVER and ARTHUR (his loyal fellow) had
     the _bruit_ and _loos_. The justing endured long: it was
     marvel to see the hideous strokes that they dealt; for the
     justing had not finished so soon but that the night
     _separed_ them. Nevertheless, the adversary party abode
     'till the torches were light. But the ladies and
     _damoyselles_, that of all the justing time had been there,
     were weary, and would depart. Wherefore the justers departed
     in likewise, and went and disarmed them for to come to the
     banquet or feast. And when that the banquet was finished and
     done, the dances began. And there came the king and the
     valiant knights of arms, for to enquire of the ladies and
     _damoyselles_, who that had best borne him as for that day.
     The ladies, which were all of one accord and agreement, said
     that Oliver and Arthur had surmounted all the best doers of
     that _journey_. And by cause that Oliver and Arthur were
     both of one party, and that they could find but little
     difference between them of knighthood, they knew not the
     which they might sustain. But, in the end, they said that
     Arthur had done right valiantly: nevertheless, they said
     that Oliver had done best unto their seeming. And therefore
     it was concluded that the _pryce_ should be given unto
     Oliver, as for the best of them of within. And another noble
     knight, of the realm of Algarbe, that came with the queen,
     had the pryce of without. When the pryce of the juste that
     had been made was brought before Oliver, by two fair
     _damoyselles_, he waxed all red, and was ashamed at that
     present time; and said that it was of their bounty for to
     give him the pryce, and not of his desert: nevertheless, he
     received it; and, as it was of custom in guerdoning them, he
     kissed them. And soon after they brought the wine and
     spices; and then the dances and the feast took an end as for
     that night." _Hystorye of Olyuer of Castylle, and of the
     fayre Helayne, &c._, 1518, 4to., sign. A. v. vj. This I
     suppose to be the passage alluded to by Lysander. The
     edition from which it is taken, and of which the title was
     barely known to Ames and Herbert, is printed by Wynkyn De
     Worde. Mr. Heber's copy of it is at present considered to be
     unique. The reader will see some copious extracts from it in
     the second volume of the _British Typographical
     Antiquities_.]

"First, to enter the lists on foot, each armed in the manner he shall
please, having a dagger and sword attached to any part of his body,
and a battle-axe, with the handle of such length as the challenger
shall fix on. The combat to be as follows: ten strokes of the
battle-axe, without intermission; and when these strokes shall have
been given, and the judge shall cry out 'Ho!' ten cuts with the sword
to be given without intermission or change of armour. When the judge
shall cry out 'Ho!' we will resort to our daggers, and give ten stabs
with them. Should either party lose or drop his weapon, the other may
continue the use of the one in his hand until the judge shall cry out
'Ho!'" &c.[217] A very pretty specimen of honourable combat,
truly!--and a mighty merciful judge who required even more cuts and
thrusts than these (for the combat is to go on) before he cried out
"Ho!" Defend us from such ejaculatory umpires!--

     [Footnote 217: See _Monstrelet's Chronicles_, translated by
     Thomas Johnes, Esq., vol. i., p. 8, edit. 1809, 4to. Another
     elegant and elaborate specimen of the Hafod press; whose
     owner will be remembered as long as literature and taste
     shall be cultivated in this country.]

LIS. Pray dwell no longer upon such barbarous heroism! We admit that
_Monachism_ may have contributed towards the making of bibliomaniacs
more effectually than _Chivalry_. Now proceed--

These words had hardly escaped Lisardo, when the arrival of my worthy
neighbour NARCOTTUS (who lived by the parsonage house), put a stop to
the discourse. Agreeably to a promise which I had made him three days
before, he came to play a GAME OF CHESS with Philemon; who, on his
part, although a distinguished champion at this head-distracting game,
gave way rather reluctantly to the performance of the promise: for
LYSANDER was now about to enter upon the history of the Bibliomania in
this country. The Chess-board, however was brought out; and down to
the contest the combatants sat--while Lisardo retired to one corner of
the room to examine thoroughly his newly-purchased volumes, and
Lysander took down a prettily executed 8vo. volume upon the Game of
Chess, printed at Cheltenham, about six years ago, and composed "by an
amateur." While we were examining, in this neat work, an account of
the numerous publications upon the Game of Chess, in various countries
and languages, and were expressing our delight in reading anecdotes
about eminent chess players, Lisardo was carefully packing up his
books, as he expected his servant every minute to take them away. The
servant shortly arrived, and upon his expressing his inability to
carry the entire packet--"Here," exclaimed Lisardo, "do you take the
quartos, and follow me; who will march onward with the octavos." This
was no sooner said than our young bibliomaniacal convert gave De Bure,
Gaignat, and La Valliere, a vigorous swing across his shoulders; while
the twenty quarto volumes of Clement and Panzer were piled, like "Ossa
upon Pelion," upon those of his servant--and

     "Light of foot, and light of heart"

Lisardo took leave of us 'till the morrow.

Meanwhile, the chess combat continued with unabated spirit. Here
Philemon's king stood pretty firmly guarded by both his knights, one
castle, one bishop, and a body of common soldiers[218]--impenetrable
as the Grecian phalanx, or Roman legion; while his queen had made a
sly sortie to surprise the only surviving knight of Narcottus.
Narcottus, on the other hand, was cautiously collecting his scattered
foot soldiers, and, with two bishops, and two castle-armed elephants,
were meditating a desperate onset to retrieve the disgrace of his lost
queen. An inadvertent remark from Lysander, concerning the antiquity
of the game, attracted the attention of Philemon so much as to throw
him off his guard; while his queen, forgetful of her sex, and
venturing unprotected, like Penthesilea of old, into the thickest of
the fight, was trampled under foot, without mercy,[219] by a huge
elephant, carrying a castle of armed men upon his back. Shouts of
applause, from Narcottus's men, rent the vaulted air; while grief and
consternation possessed the astonished army of Philemon. "Away with
your antiquarian questions," exclaimed the latter, looking sharply at
Lysander: "away with your old editions of the Game of Chess! The
moment is critical; and I fear the day may be lost. Now for desperate
action!" So saying, he bade the King exhort his dismayed subjects. His
Majesty made a spirited oration; and called upon _Sir Launcelot_, the
most distinguished of the two Knights,[220] to be mindful of his own
and of his country's honour: to spare the effusion of blood among his
subjects as much as possible; but rather to place victory or defeat in
the comparative skill of the officers: and, at all events, to rally
round that throne which had conferred such high marks of distinction
upon his ancestors. "I needed not, gracious sire," replied Sir
Launcelot--curbing in his mouth-foaming steed, and fixing his spear in
the rest--"I needed not to be here reminded of your kindness to my
forefathers, or of the necessity of doing every thing, at such a
crisis, beseeming the honour of a true round-table knight.--Yes,
gracious sovereign, I swear to you by the love I bear to THE LADY OF
THE LAKE[221]--by the remembrance of the soft moments we have passed
together in the honey-suckle bowers of her father--by all that an
knight of chivalry is taught to believe the most sacred and binding--I
swear that I will not return this day alive without the laurel of
victory entwined round my brow. Right well do I perceive that deeds
and not words must save us now--let the issue of the combat prove my
valour and allegiance." Upon this, Sir Launcelot clapped spurs to his
horse, and after driving an unprotected Bishop into the midst of the
foot-soldiers, who quickly took him prisoner, he sprang forward, with
a lion-like nimbleness and ferocity, to pick out _Sir Galaad_, the
only remaining knight in the adverse army, to single combat. Sir
Galaad, strong and wary, like the Greenland bear when assailed by the
darts and bullets of our whale-fishing men, marked the fury of Sir
Launcelot's course, and sought rather to present a formidable defence
by calling to aid his elephants, than to meet such a champion
single-handed. A shrill blast from his horn told the danger of his
situation, and the necessity of help. What should now be done? The
unbroken ranks of Philemon's men presented a fearful front to the
advance of the elephants, and the recent capture of a venerable bishop
had made the monarch, on Narcottus's side, justly fearful of risking
the safety of his empire by leaving himself wholly without episcopal
aid. Meanwhile the progress of Sir Launcelot was marked with blood;
and he was of necessity compelled to slaughter a host of common men,
who stood thickly around Sir Galaad, resolved to conquer or die by his
side. At length, as Master Laneham aptly expresses it, "get they
grysly together."[222] The hostile leaders met; there was neither time
nor disposition for parley. Sir Galaad threw his javelin with
well-directed fury; which, flying within an hair's breadth of Sir
Launcelot's shoulder, passed onward, and, grazing the cheek of a foot
soldier, stood quivering in the sand. He then was about to draw his
ponderous sword--but the tremendous spear of Sir Launcelot, whizzing
strongly in the air, passed through his thickly quilted belt, and,
burying itself in his bowels, made Sir Galaad to fall breathless from
his horse. Now might you hear the shouts of victory on one side, and
the groans of the vanquished on the other; or, as old Homer expresses
it,

     Victors and vanquished shouts promiscuous rise.
     With streams of blood the slippery fields are dyed,
     And slaughtered heroes swell the dreadful tide.

     _Iliad_ [passim].

     [Footnote 218: "Whilst there are strong, able, and active
     men of the king's side, to defend his cause, there is no
     danger of [this] misfortune." _Letter to the Craftsman on
     the Game of Chess_, p. 13.]

     [Footnote 219: "When therefore the men of one party attack
     those of the other, though their spleen at first may only
     seem bent against a _Bishop_, a _Knight_, or an inferior
     officer; yet, if successful in their attacks on that servant
     of the king, they never stop there: they come afterwards to
     think themselves strong enough even to attack _the Queen_,"
     &c. _The same_, p. 12.]

     [Footnote 220: "_The Knight_ (whose steps, as your
     correspondent justly observes, are not of an ordinary kind,
     and often surprise men who oppose him) is of great use in
     extricating _the King_ out of those difficulties in which
     his foes endeavour to entangle him.--He is a man whom a wise
     player makes great use of in these exigences, and who
     oftenest defeats the shallow schemes and thin artifices of
     unskilful antagonists. They must be very bad players who do
     not guard against the steps of _the Knight_." _The same_, p.
     14.]

     [Footnote 221: "The Lady of the Lake; famous in King Arthurz
     Book"--says Master Laneham, in his Letter to Master Humfrey
     Martin; concerning the entertainment given by Lord Leicester
     to Q. Elizabeth at Kenilworth Castle: A.D. 1575, edit. 1784,
     p. 12. Yet more famous, I add, in a poem under this express
     title, by WALTER SCOTT, 1810.]

     [Footnote 222: See the authority (p. 40) quoted in the note
     at page 157, ante.]

And, truly, the army of Narcottus seemed wasted with a great
slaughter: yet on neither side, had the monarch been _checked_, so as
to be put in personal danger! "While there is life there is hope,"
said the surviving Bishop[223] on the side of Narcottus: who now
taking upon him the command of the army, and perceiving Sir Launcelot
to be pretty nearly exhausted with fatigue, and wantonly exposing
his person, ordered the men at arms to charge him briskly on all
sides; while his own two castles kept a check upon the remaining
castle, knight, and bishop of the opposite army: also, he exhorted the
king to make a feint, as if about to march onwards. Sir Launcelot, on
perceiving the movement of the monarch, sprang forward to make him a
prisoner; but he was surprised by an elephant in ambuscade, from whose
castle-bearing back a well-shot arrow pierced his corslet, and
inflicted a mortal wound. He fell; but, in falling, he seemed to smile
even sweetly, as he thought upon the noble speech of Sir Bohort[224]
over the dead body of his illustrious ancestor, of the same name; and,
exhorting his gallant men to revenge his fall, he held the handle of
his sword firmly, till his whole frame was stiffened in death. And now
the battle was renewed with equal courage and equal hopes of victory
on both sides: but the loss of the flower of their armies, and
especially of their beloved spouses, had heavily oppressed the adverse
monarchs: who, retiring to a secured spot, bemoaned in secret the
hapless deaths of their queens, and bitterly bewailed that injudicious
law which, of necessity, so much exposed their fair persons, by giving
them such an unlimited power. The fortune of the day, therefore,
remained in the hands of the respective commanders; and if the knight
and bishop, on Philemon's side, had not contested about superiority of
rule, the victory had surely been with Philemon. But the strife of
these commanders threw every thing into confusion. The men, after
being trampled upon by the elephants of Narcottus, left their king
exposed, without the power of being aided by his castle. An error so
fatal was instantly perceived by the bishop of Narcottus's shattered
army; who, like another Ximenes,[225] putting himself at the head of
his forces, and calling upon his men resolutely to march onwards, gave
orders for the elephants to be moved cautiously at a distance, and to
lose no opportunity of making the opposite monarch prisoner. Thus,
while he charged in front, and captured, with his own hands, the
remaining adverse knight, his men kept the adverse bishop from sending
reinforcements; and Philemon's elephant not having an opportunity of
sweeping across the plain to come to the timely aid of the
king,[226] the victory was speedily obtained, for the men upon the
backs of Narcottus's elephants kept up so tremendous a discharge of
arrows that the monarch was left without a single attendant: and, of
necessity, was obliged to submit to the generosity of his captors.

     [Footnote 223: "I think _the Bishops_ extremely considerable
     throughout the whole game. One quality too they have, which
     is peculiar to themselves; this is that, throughout the
     whole game, they have a _steadiness_ in their conduct,
     superior to men of any other denomination on the board; as
     they never change their colour, but always pursue the path
     in which they set out." _The same_ (vid. 206-7) p. 20.]

     [Footnote 224: This truly chivalrous speech may be seen
     extracted in Mr. Burnet's _Specimens of English Prose
     Writers_, vol. i., 269. One of Virgil's heroes, to the best
     of my recollection, dies serenely upon thinking of his
     beloved countrymen:

          ----dulces moriens reminiscitur Argos!]

     [Footnote 225: It is always pleasant to me to make
     comparisons with eminent book-patrons, or, if the reader
     pleases, bibliomaniacs. CARDINAL XIMENES was the promoter
     and patron of the celebrated Complutensian Polyglott Bible;
     concerning which I have already submitted some account to
     the public in my _Introduction to the Classics_, vol. i.,
     pp. 7, 8. His political abilities and personal courage have
     been described by Dr. Robertson (in his history of Charles
     V.), with his usual ability. We have here only to talk of
     him as connected with books. Mallinkrot and Le Long have
     both preserved the interesting anecdote which is related by
     his first biographer, Alvaro Gomez, concerning the
     completion of the forementioned Polyglott. "I have often
     heard John Brocarius (says Gomez) son of Arnoldus Brocarius,
     who printed the Polyglott, tell his friends that, when his
     father had put the finishing stroke to the last volume, he
     deputed _him_ to carry it to the Cardinal. John Brocarius
     was then a lad; and, having dressed himself in an elegant
     suit of clothes, he gravely approached Ximenes, and
     delivered the volume into his hands. 'I render thanks to
     thee, oh God!' exclaimed the Cardinal, 'that thou hast
     protracted my life to the completion of these biblical
     labours.' Afterwards, when conversing with his friends,
     Ximenes would often observe that the surmounting of the
     various difficulties of his political situation did not
     afford him half the satisfaction which he experienced from
     the finishing of his Polyglott. He died in the year 1517,
     not many weeks after the last volume was published." Gomez,
     or Gomecius's work "_de rebus gestis, à Francisco Ximenio
     Cisnerio Archiepiscopo Complut_," 1569, fol., is a book of
     very uncommon occurrence. It is much to be wished that Lord
     Holland, or Mr. Southey, would give us a life of this
     celebrated political character: as the biographies of
     Flechier and Marsolier seem miserably defective, and the
     sources of Gomez to have been but partially consulted. But I
     must not let slip this opportunity of commemorating the
     book-reputation of XIMENES, without making the reader
     acquainted with two other singularly scarce and curious
     productions of the press, which owe their birth to the
     bibliomanical spirit of our Cardinal. I mean the "_Missale
     mixtum secundun [Transcriber's Note: secundum] regulum B.
     Isidori, dictum Mozarabes, cum præfat._" _A. Ortiz._ Toleti,
     1500, fol. and the "_Breviarium, mixtum," &c._ _Mozarabes._
     Toleti, 1502, fol.: of the former of which there was a copy
     in the Harleian collection; as the ensuing interesting note,
     in the catalogue of Lord Harley's books, specifies. I shall
     give it without abridgment: "This is the scarcest book in
     the whole Harleian collection. At the end of it are the
     following words, which deserve to be inserted
     here:--Adlaudem Omnipotentis Dei, nec non Virginis Mariæ
     Matris ejus, omnium sanctorum sanctarumq; expletum est
     Missale mixtum secundum regulam beati Isidori dictum
     Mozarabes: maxima cum diligentia perlectum et emendatum, per
     Reverendum in utroq; Jure Doctorem Dominum Alfonsum Ortiz,
     Canonicum Toletanum. Impressum in regal. civitate Toleti,
     Jussu Reverendissimi in Christo Patris Domini D. Francisci
     Ximenii, ejusdem civitatis Archiepiscopi. Impensis Nobilis
     Melchioris Gorricii Novariensis, per Magistrum Petrum
     Hagembach, Almanum, anno salutis nostræ 1500, Die 29o
     mensis Januarii." "This is supposed to be the ancient Missal
     amended and purged by St. Isidore, archbishop of Sevil, and
     ordered by the Council of Toledo to be used in all churches;
     every one of which before that time had a missal peculiar to
     itself. The Moors afterwards committing great ravages in
     Spain, destroying the churches, and throwing every thing
     there, both civil and sacred, into confusion, all St.
     Isidore's missals, excepting those in the city of Toledo,
     were lost. But those were preserved even after the Moors had
     made themselves masters of that city; since they left six of
     the churches there to the Christians, and granted them the
     free exercise of their religion. Alphonsus the Sixth, many
     ages afterwards, expelled the Moors from Toledo, and ordered
     the Roman missal to be used in those churches where St.
     Isidore's missal had been in vogue, ever since the council
     above-mentioned. But the people of Toledo insisting that
     their missal was drawn up by the most ancient bishops,
     revised and corrected by St. Isidore, proved to be the best
     by the great number of saints who had followed it, and been
     preserved during the whole time of the Moorish government in
     Spain, he could not bring his project to bear without great
     difficulty. In short, the contest between the Roman and
     Toletan missals came to that height that, according to the
     genius of the age, it was decided by a single combat,
     wherein the champion of the Toletan missal proved
     victorious. But King Alphonsus, say some of the Spanish
     writers, not being satisfied with this, which he considered
     as the effect of chance only, ordered a fast to be
     proclaimed, and a great fire to be then made; into which,
     after the king and people had prayed fervently to God for
     his assistance in this affair, both the missals were thrown;
     but the Toletan only escaped the violence of the flames.
     This, continue the same authors, made such an impression
     upon the king that he permitted the citizens of Toledo to
     use their own missal in those churches that had been granted
     the Christians by the Moors. However, the copies of this
     missal grew afterwards so scarce, that Cardinal Ximenes
     found it extremely difficult to meet with one of them: which
     induced him to order this impression, and to build a chapel,
     in which this service was chanted every day, as it had at
     first been by the ancient Christians. But, notwithstanding
     this, the copies of the Toletan missal are become now so
     exceeding rare that it is at present almost in as much
     danger of being buried in oblivion as it was when committed
     to the press by Cardinal Ximenes." _Bibl. Harl._, vol. iii.,
     p. 117. But let the reader consult the more extended details
     of De Bure (_Bibl. Instruct._, vol. i., no. 210, 211),
     and De La Serna Santander (_Dict. Chois. Bibliogr. du_ xv.
     _Siecle_, part iii., p. 178); also the very valuable notice
     of Vogt; _Cat. Libror. Rarior._, p. 591; who mention a fine
     copy of the missal and breviary, each struck off UPON
     VELLUM, in the collegiate church of St. Ildefonso. If I
     recollect rightly, Mr. Edwards informed me that an Italian
     Cardinal was in possession of a similar copy of each. This
     missal was republished at Rome, with a capital preface and
     learned notes, by Lesleus, a Jesuit, in 1755, 4to.: and
     Lorenzana, archbishop of Toledo, republished the breviary in
     a most splendid manner at Madrid, in 1788. Both these
     re-impressions are also scarce. I know not whether the late
     king of Spain ever put his design into execution of giving a
     new edition of these curious religious volumes; some ancient
     MSS. of which had been carefully collated by Burriel.
     Consult Osmont's _Dict. Typog._, vol. i., p. 477; _Cat. de
     Gaignat_, nos. 179, 180; _Cat. de la Valliere_, nos.
     271, 272; _Bibl. Solger._, vol. ii. no. 1280; and _Bibl.
     Colbert_, nos. 342, 366. Having expatiated thus much, and
     perhaps tediously, about these renowned volumes, let me
     introduce to the notice of the heraldic reader the _Coat of
     Arms_ of the equally renowned Cardinal--of whose genuine
     editions of the Mozarabic Missal and Breviary my eyes were
     highly gratified with a sight, in the exquisite library of
     Earl Spencer, at Althorp.

     [Illustration]]

     [Footnote 226: Of the _Tower_ or _Rook_ (or _Elephant_) one
     may indeed--to speak in the scripture style--(and properly
     speaking, considering its situation) call this piece "the
     head stone of the corner." There are two of them; and,
     whilst they remain firm, his majesty is ever in safety. The
     common enemies, therefore, of them and their king watch
     their least motion very narrowly, and try a hundred tricks
     to decoy them from the king's side, by feints, false alarms,
     stumbling blocks, or any other method that can be contrived
     to divert them from their duty. The _same_, p. 15. (vide.
     159, ante.)]

Thus ended one of the most memorable chess contests upon record. Not
more stubbornly did the Grecians and Romans upon Troy's plain, or the
English and French upon Egypt's shores, contend for the palm of
victory, than did Philemon and Narcottus compel their respective
forces to signalize themselves in this hard-fought game. To change the
simile for a more homely one; no Northamptonshire hunt was ever more
vigorously kept up; and had it not been (at least so Philemon
thought!) for the inadvertent questions of Lysander, respecting the
antiquity of the amusement, an easy victory would have been obtained
by my guest over my neighbour. Lysander, with his usual politeness,
took all the blame upon himself. Philemon felt, as all chess-combatants
feel upon defeat, peevish and vexed. But the admirably well adapted
conversation of Lysander, and the natural diffidence of Narcottus,
served to smooth Philemon's ruffled plumage; and at length diffused
o'er his countenance his natural glow of good humour.

It was now fast advancing towards midnight; when Narcottus withdrew to
his house, and my guests to their chambers.

To-morrow came; and with the morrow came composure and hilarity in the
countenances of my guests. The defeat of the preceding evening was no
longer thought of; except that Philemon betrayed some little marks of
irritability on Lysander's shewing him the fac-simile wood-cuts of the
pieces and men in Caxton's edition of the game of chess, which are
published in the recent edition of the Typographical Antiquities of
our country.

Lisardo visited us betimes. His countenance, on his entrance gave
indication of vexation and disappointment--as well it might; for, on
his return home the preceding evening, he found the following note
from Lorenzo:--

"My dear Lisardo;

Our friend's visitors, Lysander and Philemon, are coming with their
host to eat old mutton, and drink old sherry, with me to-morrow; and
afterwards to discuss subjects of bibliography. I do not ask you to
join them, because I know your thorough aversion to every thing
connected with such topics. Adieu!

Truly yours,

LORENZO."

"Little," exclaimed Lisardo, "does he know of my conversion. I'll join
you uninvited; and abide by the consequences."

At four o'clock we set off, in company with Lisardo, for Lorenzo's
dinner. I need hardly add that the company of the latter was cordially
welcomed by our host; who, before the course of pastry was cleared
away, proposed a sparkling bumper of Malmsey madeira, to commemorate
his conversion to Bibliomaniacism. By half-past-five we were ushered
into THE LIBRARY, to partake of a costly dessert of rock melons and
Hamburgh grapes, with all their appropriate embellishments of
nectarines and nuts. Massive and curiously cut decanters, filled with
the genuine juice of the grape, strayed backwards and forwards upon
the table: and well-furnished minds, which could not refuse the luxury
of such a feast, made every thing as pleasant as rational pleasure
could be.

LIS. If Lorenzo have not any thing which he may conceive more
interesting to propose, I move that you, good Lysander, now resume the
discussion of a subject which you so pleasantly commenced last night.

PHIL. I rise to second the motion.

LOREN. And I, to give it every support in my power.

LYSAND. There is no resisting such adroitly levelled attacks. Do pray
tell me what it is you wish me to go on with?

PHIL. The history of book-collecting and of book-collectors in this
country.

LIS. The history of BIBLIOMANIA, if you please.

LYSAND. You are madder than the maddest of book-collectors, Lisardo.
But I will gossip away upon the subjects as well as I am able.

I think we left off with an abuse of the anti-bibliomaniacal powers of
chivalry. Let us pursue a more systematic method; and begin, as
Lisardo says, "at the beginning."

In the plan which I may pursue, you must forgive me, my friends, if
you find it desultory and irregular: and, as a proof of the sincerity
of your criticism, I earnestly beg that, like the chivalrous judge, of
whom mention was made last night, you will cry out "_Ho!_" when you
wish me to cease. But where shall we begin? From what period shall we
take up the history of BOOKISM (or, if you please, BIBLIOMANIA) in
this country? Let us pass over those long-bearded gentlemen called the
Druids; for in the various hypotheses which sagacious antiquaries have
advanced upon their beloved _Stone-henge_, none, I believe, are to be
found wherein the traces of a _Library_, in that vast ruin, are
pretended to be discovered. As the Druids were sparing of their
writing,[227] they probably read the more; but whether they carried
their books with them into trees, or made their pillows of them upon
Salisbury-plain, tradition is equally silent. Let us therefore
preserve the same prudent silence, and march on at once into the
seventh, eighth, and ninth centuries; in which the learning of Bede,
Alcuin, Erigena, and Alfred, strikes us with no small degree of
amazement. Yet we must not forget that their predecessor THEODORE,
archbishop of Canterbury, was among the earliest book-collectors in
this country; for he brought over from Rome, not only a number of able
professors, but a valuable collection of books.[228] Such, however,
was the scarcity of the book article, that Benedict Biscop (a founder
of the monastery of Weremouth in Northumberland), a short time
after, made not fewer than five journeys to Rome to purchase books,
and other necessary things for his monastery--for one of which books
our immortal Alfred (a very _Helluo Librorum_! as you will presently
learn) gave afterwards as much land as eight ploughs could
labour.[229] We now proceed to BEDE; whose library I conjecture to
have been both copious and curious. What matin and midnight vigils
must this literary phenomenon have patiently sustained! What a full
and variously furnished mind was his! Read the table of contents of
the eight folio volumes of the Cologne edition[230] of his works, as
given by Dr. Henry in the appendix to the fourth volume of his history
of our own country; and judge, however you may wish that the author
had gone less into abstruse and ponderous subjects, whether it was
barely possible to avoid falling upon such themes, considering the
gross ignorance and strong bias of the age? Before this, perhaps, I
ought slightly to have noticed INA, king of the West Saxons, whose
ideas of the comforts of a monastery, and whose partiality to
_handsome book-binding_, we may gather from a curious passage in
Stow's Chronicle or Annals.[231]

     [Footnote 227: Julius Cæsar tells us that they dared not to
     commit their laws to writing. _De Bell. Gall._, lib. vi., §
     xiii.-xviii.]

     [Footnote 228: Dr. Henry's _Hist. of Great Britain_, vol.
     iv., p. 12, edit. 1800, 8vo. We shall readily forgive
     Theodore's singularity of opinions in respect to some cases
     of pharmacy, in which he held it to be "dangerous to perform
     bleeding on the fourth day of the moon; because both the
     light of the moon and the tides of the sea were then upon
     the increase."--We shall readily forgive this, when we think
     of his laudable spirit of BIBLIOMANIA.]

     [Footnote 229: Dr. Henry says that "This bargain was
     concluded by Benedict with the king a little before his
     death, A.D. 690; and the book was delivered, and the estate
     received by his successor abbot Ceolfred." _Hist. of Great
     Britain_, vol. iv., p. 21. There must be some mistake here:
     as Alfred was not born till the middle of the ninth century.
     _Bed. Hist. Abbat Wermuthien, edit. Smith_, pp. 297-8, is
     quoted by Dr. Henry.]

     [Footnote 230: 1612, folio. De Bure (_Bibliogr. Instruct._
     no. 353) might have just informed us that the Paris and
     Basil editions of Bede's works are incomplete: and, at
     no. 4444, where he notices the Cambridge edition of
     Bede's _Ecclesiastical History_, (1644, fol.) we may add
     that a previous English translation of it, by the celebrated
     Stapleton, had been printed at Antwerp in 1565, 4to.,
     containing some few admirably-well executed wood cuts.
     Stapleton's translation has become a scarce book; and, as
     almost every copy of it now to be found is in a smeared and
     crazy condition, we may judge that it was once popular and
     much read.]

     [Footnote 231: The passage is partly as follows--"the sayde
     king did also erect a chapell of gold and silver (to wit,
     garnished) with ornaments and vesselles likewise of golde
     and siluer, to the building of the which chappell hee gaue
     2640 pounds of siluer, and to the altar 264 pounde of golde,
     a chaleis with the patten, tenne pounde of golde, a censar 8
     pound, and twenty mancas of golde, two candlesticks, twelue
     pound and a halfe of siluer, A KIVER FOR THE GOSPEL BOOKE
     TWENTY POUNDS"! &c. This was attached to the monastery of
     Glastonbury; which Ina built "in a fenni place out of the
     way, to the end the monkes mought so much the more giue
     their minds to heauenly things," &c. _Chronicle_, edit.
     1615, p. 76.]

We have mentioned ALCUIN: whom Ashmole calls one of the
school-mistresses to France.[232] How incomparably brilliant and
beautifully polished was this great man's mind!--and, withal, what an
enthusiastic bibliomaniac! Read, in particular, his celebrated letter
to Charlemagne, which Dr. Henry has very ably translated; and see, how
zealous he there shews himself to enrich the library of his
archiepiscopal patron with good books and industrious students.[233]
Well might Egbert be proud of his librarian: the first, I believe upon
record, who has composed a catalogue[234] of books in Latin hexameter
verse: and full reluctantly, I ween, did this librarian take leave of
his _Cell_ stored with the choicest volumes--as we may judge from his
pathetic address to it, on quitting England for France! If I recollect
rightly, Mr. Turner's elegant translation[235] of it begins thus:

     "O my lov'd cell, sweet dwelling of my soul,
     Must I for ever say, dear spot, farewell?"

     [Footnote 232: _Theatrum Chemicum_, proleg. sign. A. 3.
     rect.]

     [Footnote 233: _History of Great Britain_, vol. iv., pp. 32,
     86. "Literatorum virorum fautor et Mæcenas habebatur ætate
     sua maximus ac doctissimus," says Bale: _Scrip. Brytan.
     Illustr._, p. 109, edit. 1559. "Præ cæteris (says Lomeier)
     insignem in colligendis illustrium virorum scriptis operam
     dedit Egbertus Eboracensis archiepiscopus, &c.: qui
     nobilissimam Eboraci bibliothecam instituit, cujus meminit
     Alcuinis," &c. _De Bibliothecis_, p. 151. We are here
     informed that the archbishop's library, together with the
     cathedral of York, were accidentally burnt by fire in the
     reign of Stephen.]

     [Footnote 234: This curious catalogue is printed by Dr.
     Henry, from Gale's _Rer. Anglicar. Scriptor. Vet._, tom. i.,
     730. The entire works of Alcuin were printed at Paris, in
     1617, folio: and again, at Ratisbon, in 1777, fol., 2 vols.
     See Fournier's _Dict. Portat. de Bibliographie_, p. 12. Some
     scarce separately-printed treatises of the same great man
     are noticed in the first volume of the appendix to Bauer's
     _Bibl. Libror. Rarior._, p. 44.]

     [Footnote 235: _Anglo-Saxon History_, vol. ii., p. 355,
     edit. 1808, 4to.]

Now, don't imagine, my dear Lisardo, that this anguish of heart
proceeded from his leaving behind all the woodbines, and apple-trees,
and singing birds, which were wont to gratify his senses near the
said cell, and which he could readily meet with in another clime!--No,
no: this monody is the genuine language of a bibliomaniac, upon being
compelled to take a long adieu of his choicest _book-treasures_,
stored in some secretly-cut recess of his hermitage; and of which
neither his patron, nor his illustrious predecessor, Bede, had ever
dreamt of the existence of copies! But it is time to think of Johannes
SCOTUS ERIGENA; the most facetious wag of his times, notwithstanding
his sirname of the _Wise_. "While Great Britain (says Bale) was a prey
to intestine wars, our philosopher was travelling quietly abroad
amidst the academic bowers of Greece;"[236] and there I suppose he
acquired, with his knowledge of the Greek language, a taste for
book-collecting and punning.[237] He was in truth a marvellous man; as
we may gather from the eulogy of him by Brucker.[238]

     [Footnote 236: Freely translated from his _Script. Brytan.
     Illustr._, p. 124.]

     [Footnote 237: Scot's celebrated reply to his patron and
     admirer, Charles the Bald, was first made a popular story, I
     believe, among the "wise speeches" in _Camden's Remaines_,
     where it is thus told: "Johannes Erigena, surnamed Scotus, a
     man renowned for learning, sitting at the table, in respect
     of his learning, with Charles the Bauld, Emperor and King of
     France, behaved himselfe as a slovenly scholler, nothing
     courtly; whereupon the Emperor asked him merrily, _Quid
     interest inter Scotum et Sotum_? (what is there between a
     Scot and a Sot?) He merrily, but yet malapertly answered,
     '_Mensa_'--(the table): as though the emperor were the Sot
     and he the Scot." p. 236. _Roger Hoveden_ is quoted as the
     authority; but one would like to know where Hoveden got his
     information, if Scotus has not mentioned the anecdote in his
     own works? Since Camden's time, this facetious story has
     been told by almost every historian and annalist.]

     [Footnote 238: _Hist. Philosoph._, tom. 3, 616: as referred
     to and quoted by Dr. Henry; whose account of our
     book-champion, although less valuable than Mackenzie's, is
     exceedingly interesting.]

In his celebrated work upon predestination, he maintained that
"material fire is no part of the torments of the damned;"[239] a very
singular notion in those times of frightful superstition, when the
minds of men were harrowed into despair by descriptions of hell's
torments--and I notice it here merely because I should like to be
informed in what curious book the said John Scotus Erigena acquired
the said notion? Let us now proceed to ALFRED; whose bust, I see,
adorns that department of Lorenzo's library which is devoted to
English History.

     [Footnote 239: "He endeavours to prove, in his logical way,
     that the torments of the damned are mere privations of the
     happiness, or the trouble of being deprived of it; so that,
     according to him, material fire is no part of the torments
     of the damned; that there is no other fire prepared for them
     but the fourth element, through which the bodies of all men
     must pass; but that the bodies of the elect are changed into
     an ætherial nature, and are not subject to the power of
     fire: whereas, on the contrary, the bodies of the wicked are
     changed into air, and suffer torments by the fire, because
     of their contrary qualities. And for this reason 'tis that
     the demons, who had a body of an ætherial nature, were
     massed with a body of air, that they might feel the fire."
     _Mackenzie's Scottish Writers_: vol. i., 49. All this may be
     ingenious enough; of its truth, a future state only will be
     the evidence. Very different from that of Scotus is the
     language of Gregory Narienzen: "Exit in inferno frigus
     insuperabile: ignis inextinguibilis: vermis immortalis:
     fetor intollerabilis: tenebræ palpabiles: flagella
     cedencium: horrenda visio demonum: desperatio omnium
     bonorum." This I gather from the _Speculum Christiani_, fol.
     37, printed by Machlinia, in the fifteenth century. The idea
     is enlarged, and the picture aggravated, in a great number
     of nearly contemporaneous publications, which will be
     noticed, in part, hereafter. It is reported that some
     sermons are about to be published, in which the personality
     of Satan is questioned and denied. Thus having, by the
     ingenuity of Scotus, got rid of the fire "which is never
     quenched"--and, by means of modern scepticism, of the devil,
     who is constantly "seeking whom he may devour," we may go on
     comfortably enough, without such awkward checks, in the
     commission of every species of folly and crime!]

This great and good man, the boast and the bulwark of his country, was
instructed by his mother, from infancy, in such golden rules of virtue
and good sense that one feels a regret at not knowing more of the
family, early years, and character, of such a parent. As she told him
that "a wise and a good man suffered no part of his time, but what is
necessarily devoted to bodily exercise, to pass in unprofitable
inactivity"--you may be sure that, with such book-propensities as he
felt, Alfred did not fail to make the most of the fleeting hour.
Accordingly we find, from his ancient biographer, that he resolutely
set to work by the aid of his wax tapers,[240] and produced some
very respectable compositions; for which I refer you to Mr. Turner's
excellent account of their author:[241] adding only that Alfred's
translation of Boethius is esteemed his most popular performance.

     [Footnote 240: The story of the _wax tapers_ is related both
     by Asser and William of Malmesbury, differing a little in
     the unessential parts of it. It is this: Alfred commanded
     six wax tapers to be made, each 12 inches in length, and of
     as many ounces in weight. On these tapers he caused the
     inches to be regularly marked; and having found that one
     taper burnt just four hours, he committed them to the care
     of the keepers of his chapel; who, from time to time gave
     him notice how the hours went. But as in windy weather the
     tapers were more wasted--to remedy this inconvenience, he
     placed them in a kind of lanthorn, there being no glass to
     be met with in his dominions. This event is supposed to have
     occurred after Alfred had ascended the throne. In his
     younger days, Asser tells us that he used to carry about, in
     his bosom, day and night, a curiously-written volume of
     hours, and psalms, and prayers, which by some are supposed
     to have been the composition of Aldhelm. That Alfred had the
     highest opinion of Aldhelm, and of his predecessors and
     contemporaries, is indisputable; for in his famous letter to
     Wulfseg, Bishop of London, he takes a retrospective view of
     the times in which they lived, as affording "churches and
     monasteries filled with libraries of excellent books in
     several languages." It is quite clear, therefore, that our
     great Alfred was not a little infected with the
     bibliomaniacal disease.]

     [Footnote 241: _The History of the Anglo-Saxons_; by Sharon
     Turner, F.S.A., 1808, 4to., 2 vols. This is the last and
     best edition of a work which places Mr. Turner quite at the
     head of those historians who have treated of the age of
     Alfred.]

After Alfred, we may just notice his son EDWARD, and his grandson
ATHELSTAN; the former of whom is supposed by Rous[242] (one of the
most credulous of our early historians) to have founded the University
of Cambridge. The latter had probably greater abilities than his
predecessor; and a thousand pities it is that William of Malmesbury
should have been so stern and squeamish as not to give us the
substance of that old book, containing a life of Athelstan--which he
discovered, and supposed to be coeval with the monarch--because,
forsooth, the account was too uniformly flattering! Let me here,
however, refer you to that beautiful translation of a Saxon ode,
written in commemoration of Athelstan's decisive victory over the
Danes of Brunamburg, which Mr. George Ellis has inserted in his
interesting volumes of _Specimens of the Early English Poets_:[243]
and always bear in recollection that this monarch shewed the best
proof of his attachment to books by employing as many learned men as
he could collect together for the purpose of translating the
Scriptures into his native Saxon tongue.

     [Footnote 242: Consult _Johannis Rossi Historia Regum
     Angliæ; edit. Hearne_, 1745, 8vo., p. 96. This passage has
     been faithfully translated by Dr. Henry. But let the lover
     of knotty points in ancient matters look into Master Henry
     Bynneman's prettily printed impression (A.D. 1568) of _De
     Antiquitate Cantabrigiensis Academiæ_, p. 14--where the
     antiquity of the University of Cambridge is gravely assigned
     to the æra of Gurguntius's reign, A.M. 3588!--Nor must we
     rest satisfied with the ingenious temerity of this author's
     claims in favour of his beloved Cambridge, until we have
     patiently examined Thomas Hearne's edition (A.D. 1720) of
     _Thomæ Caii Vindic. Antiquitat. Acad. Oxon._: a work well
     deserving of a snug place in the antiquary's cabinet.]

     [Footnote 243: Edit. 1803, vol. i., p. 14.]

Let us pass by that extraordinary scholar, courtier, statesman, and
monk--ST. DUNSTAN; by observing only that, as he was even more to
Edgar than Wolsey was to Henry VIII.--so, if there had then been the
same love of literature and progress in civilization which marked the
opening of the sixteenth century, Dunstan would have equalled, if not
eclipsed, Wolsey in the magnificence and utility of his institutions.
How many volumes of legends he gave to the library of Glastonbury, of
which he was once the abbot, or to Canterbury, of which he was
afterwards the Archbishop, I cannot take upon me to guess: as I have
neither of Hearne's three publications[244] relating to Glastonbury in
my humble library.

     [Footnote 244: There is an ample Catalogue Raisonné of these
     three scarce publications in the first volume of the
     _British Bibliographer_. And to supply the deficiency of any
     extract from them, in this place, take, kind-hearted reader,
     the following--which I have gleaned from Eadmer's account of
     St. Dunstan, as incorporated in Wharton's
     _Anglia-Sacra_--and which would not have been inserted could
     I have discovered any thing in the same relating to
     book-presents to Canterbury cathedral.--"Once on a time, the
     king went a hunting early on Sunday morning; and requested
     the Archbishop to postpone the celebration of the mass till
     he returned. About three hours afterwards, Dunstan went into
     the cathedral, put on his robes, and waited at the altar in
     expectation of the king--where, reclining with his arms in a
     devotional posture, he was absorbed in tears and prayers. A
     gentle sleep suddenly possessed him; he was snatched up into
     heaven; and in a vision associated with a company of angels,
     whose harmonious voices, chaunting _Kyrie eleyson, Kyrie
     eleyson, Kyrie eleyson_, burst upon his ravished ears! He
     afterwards came to himself, and demanded whether or not the
     king had arrived? Upon being answered in the negative, he
     betook himself again to his prayers, and, after a short
     interval, was once more absorbed in celestial extasies, and
     heard a loud voice from heaven saying--_Ite, missa est_. He
     had no sooner returned thanks to God for the same, when the
     king's clerical attendants cried out that his majesty had
     arrived, and entreated Dunstan to dispatch the mass. But he,
     turning from the altar, declared that the mass had been
     already celebrated; and that no other mass should be
     performed during that day. Having put off his robes, he
     enquired of his attendants into the truth of the
     transaction; who told him what had happened. Then, assuming
     a magisterial power, he prohibited the king, in future, from
     hunting on a Sunday; and taught his disciples the _Kyrie
     eleyson_, which he had heard in heaven: hence this
     ejaculation, in many places, now obtains as a part of the
     mass service." Tom. ii., p. 217. What shall we say to "the
     amiable and elegant Eadmer" for this valuable piece of
     biographical information?--"The face of things was so
     changed by the endeavours of Dunstan, and his master,
     Ethelwald, that in a short time learning was generally
     restored, and began to flourish. From this period, the
     monasteries were the schools and seminaries of almost the
     whole clergy, both secular and regular." Collier's _Eccles.
     History_, vol. ii., p. 19, col. 2. That Glastonbury had many
     and excellent books, vide Hearne's _Antiquities of
     Glastonbury_; pp. LXXIV-VII. At Cambridge there is a
     catalogue of the MSS. which were in Glastonbury library,
     A.D. 1248.]

We may open the eleventh century with CANUTE; upon whose political
talents this is not the place to expatiate: but of whose
bibliomaniacal character the illuminated MS. of _The Four Gospels_ in
the Danish tongue--now in the British Museum, and once this monarch's
own book--leaves not the shadow of a doubt! From Canute we may proceed
to notice that extraordinary literary triumvirate--Ingulph, Lanfranc,
and Anselm. No rational man can hesitate about numbering them among
the very first rate book-collectors of that age. As to INGULPH, let us
only follow him, in his boyhood, in his removal from school to
college: let us fancy we see him, with his _Quatuor Sermones_ on a
Sunday--and his _Cunabula Artis Grammaticæ_[245] on a week day--under
his arm: making his obeisance to Edgitha, the queen of Edward the
Confessor, and introduced by her to William Duke of Normandy! Again,
when he was placed, by this latter at the head of the rich abbey of
Croyland, let us fancy we see him both adding to, and arranging, its
curious library[246]--before he ventured upon writing the history of
the said abbey. From Ingulph we go to LANFRANC; who, in his earlier
years, gratified his book appetites in the quiet and congenial
seclusion of his little favourite abbey in Normandy: where he
afterwards opened a school, the celebrity of which was acknowledged
throughout Europe. From being a pedagogue, let us trace him in his
virtuous career to the primacy of England; and when we read of his
studious and unimpeachable behaviour, as head of the see of
Canterbury,[247] let us acknowledge that a love of books and of mental
cultivation is among the few comforts in this world of which neither
craft nor misfortune can deprive us. To Lanfranc succeeded, in
book-fame and in professional elevation, his disciple ANSELM; who was
"lettered and chaste of his childhood," says Trevisa:[248] but who was
better suited to the cloister than to the primacy. For, although, like
Wulston, Bishop of Worcester, he might have "sung a long mass, and
held him _apayred_ with only the offering of Christian men, and was
holden a clean _mayde_, and did no outrage in drink,"[249] yet in his
intercourse with William II. and Henry I., he involved himself in
ceaseless quarrels; and quitted both his archiepiscopal chair and the
country. His memory, however, is consecrated among the fathers of
scholastic divinity.

     [Footnote 245: These were the common school books of the
     period.]

     [Footnote 246: Though the abbey of Croyland was burnt only
     twenty-five years after the conquest, its library then
     consisted of 900 volumes, of which 300 were very large. The
     lovers of English history and antiquities are much indebted
     to Ingulph for his excellent history of the abbey of
     Croyland, from its foundation, A.D. 664, to A.D. 1091: into
     which he hath introduced much of the general history of the
     kingdom, with a variety of curious anecdotes that are no
     where else to be found. DR. HENRY: book iii., chap. iv., § 1
     and 2. But Ingulph merits a more particular eulogium. The
     editors of that stupendous, and in truth, matchless
     collection of national history, entitled _Recueil des
     Historiens des Gaules_, thus say of him: "Il avoit tout vu
     en bon connoisseur, et ce qu'il rapporte, il l'écrit en
     homme lettré, judicieux et vrai:" tom. xi., p. xlij. In case
     any reader of this note and lover of romance literature
     should happen to be unacquainted with the French language, I
     will add, from the same respectable authority, that "The
     readers of the _Round Table History_ should be informed that
     there are many minute and curious descriptions in INGULPH
     which throw considerable light upon the history of _Ancient
     Chivalry_." Ibid. See too the animated eulogy upon him, at
     p. 153, note _a_, of the same volume. These learned editors
     have, however, forgotten to notice that the best, and only
     perfect, edition of Ingulph's History of Croyland Abbey,
     with the continuation of the same, by Peter de Blois and
     Edward Abbas, is that which is inserted in the first volume
     of Gale's _Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores Veteres_: Oxon, 1684.
     (3 vols.)]

     [Footnote 247: LANFRANC was obliged, against his will, by
     the express command of Abbot Harlein, to take upon him the
     archbishopric in the year 1070. He governed that church for
     nineteen years together, with a great deal of wisdom and
     authority. His largest work is a commentary upon the
     Epistles of St. Paul; which is sometimes not very faithfully
     quoted by Peter Lombard. His treatise in favour of the real
     presence, in opposition to Birenger, is one of his most
     remarkable performances. His letters "are short and few, but
     contain in them things very remarkable." Du Pin's
     _Ecclesiastical History_, vol. xi., p. 12, &c., edit. 1699.]

     [Footnote 248: _Polychronicon_, Caxton's edit., sign. 46,
     rev.]

     [Footnote 249: _Polychronicon._ Caxton's edit., fol. cccvj.
     rev. Poor Caxton (towards whom the reader will naturally
     conceive I bear some little affection) is thus dragooned
     into the list of naughty writers who have ventured to speak
     mildly (and justly) of Anselm's memory. "They feign in
     another fable that he (Anselm) tare with his teeth Christ's
     flesh from his bones, as he hung on the rood, for
     withholding the lands of certain bishoprics and abbies:
     Polydorus not being ashamed to rehearse it. Somewhere they
     call him a red dragon: somewhere a fiery serpent, and a
     bloody tyrant; for occupying the fruits of their vacant
     benefices about his princely buildings. Thus rail they of
     their kings, without either reason or shame, in their
     legends of abominable lies: Look Eadmerus, Helinandus,
     Vincentius, Matthew of Westminster, Rudborne, Capgrave,
     WILLIAM CAXTON, Polydore, and others." This is the language
     of master Bale, in his _Actes of Englyshe Votaryes_, pt.
     ii., sign. I. vij. rev. Tisdale's edit. No wonder Hearne
     says of the author, "erat immoderata
     intemperantia."--_Bened. Abbas._, vol. i., præf. p. xx.]

And here you may expect me to notice that curious book-reader and
Collector, GIRALD, _Archbishop of York_, who died just at the close of
the 11th century. Let us fancy we see him, according to Trevisa,[250]
creeping quietly to his garden arbour, and devoting his midnight
vigils to the investigation of that old-fashioned author, Julius
Firmicus; whom Fabricius calls by a name little short of that of an
old woman. It is a pity we know not more of the private studies of
such a bibliomaniac. And equally to be lamented it is that we have not
some more substantial biographical memoirs of that distinguished
bibliomaniac, HERMAN, bishop of Salisbury; a Norman by birth; and who
learnt the art of book-binding and book-illumination, before he had
been brought over into this country by William the Conqueror.[251] (A
character, by the bye, who, however completely hollow were his claims
to the crown of England, can never be reproached with a backwardness
in promoting learned men to the several great offices of church and
state.)

     [Footnote 250: "This yere deyd thomas archbisohop of york
     and gyralde was archebishop after him; a lecherous man, a
     wytch and euyl doer, as the fame tellyth, for under his pyle
     whan he deyde in an erber was founde a book of curyous
     craftes, the book hight Julius frumeus. In that booke he
     radde pryuely in the under tydes, therefor unnethe the
     clerkes of his chirche would suffre him be buryed under
     heuene without hooly chirche," _Polychronicon: Caxton's
     edit._, sign. 43., 4 rect. (fol. cccxlij.) Godwyn says that
     "he was laide at the entrance of the church porch." "Bayle
     chargeth him (continues he) with sorcery and coniuration,
     because, forsooth, that, after his death, there was found in
     his chamber a volume of Firmicus: who writ of astrology
     indeed, but of coniuration nothing that ever I heard."
     _Catalogue of the Bishops of England_, p. 453--edit. 1601.
     Concerning Girard's favourite author, consult Fabricius's
     _Bibl. Lat.: cura Ernesti_, vol. iii., p. 114, &c., edit.
     1773.]

     [Footnote 251: Leland tells us that Herman erected "a noble
     library at Sailsbury, having got together some of the best
     and most ancient works of illustrious authors:" _de
     Scriptor. Britan._, vol. i., 174: and Dugdale, according to
     Warton (_Monasticon Anglican._; vol. iii., p. 375), says
     that "he was so fond of letters that he did not disdain to
     bind and illuminate books."]

LOREN. If you proceed thus systematically, my good Lysander, the
morning cock will crow 'ere we arrive at the book-annals even of the
Reformation.

LYSAND. It is true; I am proceeding rather too methodically. And yet I
suppose I should not obtain Lisardo's forgiveness if, in arriving at
the period of HENRY THE SECOND,[252] I did not notice that
extraordinary student and politician, BECKET!

     [Footnote 252: I make no apology to the reader for
     presenting him with the following original character of our
     once highly and justly celebrated monarch, Henry II.--by the
     able pen of Trevisa. "This HENRY II. was somewhat reddish,
     with large face and breast; and yellow eyen and a dim voice;
     and fleshy of body; and took but scarcely of meat and drink:
     and for to _alledge_ the fatness, he travailed his body with
     business; with hunting, with standing, with wandering: he
     was of mean stature, renable of speech, and well y lettered;
     noble and _orped_ in knighthood; and wise in counsel and in
     battle; and dread and doubtfull destiny; more manly and
     courteous to a Knight when he was dead than when he was
     alive!" _Polychronicon_, Caxton's edit., fol. cccliij.,
     rev.]

LIS. At your peril omit him! I think (although my black-letter reading
be very limited) that Bale, in his _English Votaries_, has a curious
description of this renowned archbishop; whose attachment to books, in
his boyish years, must on all sides be admitted.

LYSAND. You are right. Bale has some extraordinary strokes of
description in his account of this canonized character: but if I can
trust to my memory (which the juice of Lorenzo's nectar, here before
us, may have somewhat impaired), Tyndale[253] has also an equally
animated account of the same--who deserves, notwithstanding his pomp
and haughtiness, to be numbered among the most notorious bibliomaniacs
of his age.

     [Footnote 253: We will first amuse ourselves with Bale's
     curious account of

     "_The fresh and lusty beginnings of_ THOMAS BECKET."

     As those authors report, which chiefly wrote Thomas Becket's
     life--whose names are Herbert Boseham, John Salisbury,
     William of Canterbury, Alen of Tewkesbury, Benet of
     Peterborough, Stephen Langton, and Richard Croyland--he
     bestoyed his youth in all kinds of lascivious lightness, and
     lecherous wantonness. After certain robberies, rapes, and
     murders, committed in the king's wars at the siege of
     Toulouse in Languedoc, and in other places else, as he was
     come home again into England, he gave himself to great
     study, not of the holy scriptures, but of the bishop of
     Rome's lousy laws, whereby he first of all obtained to be
     archdeacon of Canterbury, under Theobald the archbishop;
     then high chancellor of England; metropolitan, archbishop,
     primate; pope of England, and great legate from antichrist's
     own right side. In the time of his high-chancellorship,
     being but an ale-brewer's son of London, John Capgrave saith
     that he took upon him as he had been a prince. He played the
     courtier altogether, and fashioned himself wholly to the
     king's delights. He ruffled it out in the whole cloth with a
     mighty rabble of disguised ruffians at his tail. He sought
     the worldly honour with him that sought it most. He thought
     it a pleasant thing to have the flattering praises of the
     multitude. His bridle was of silver, his saddle of velvet,
     his stirrups, spurs, and bosses double gilt; his expenses
     far passing the expenses of an earl. That delight was not on
     the earth that he had not plenty of. He fed with the
     fattest, was clad with the softest, and kept company with
     the plesantest. Was not this (think you) a good mean to live
     chaste? I trow it was. _Englyshe Votaryes_, pt. ii., sign.
     P. vi. rect. Printed by Tisdale, 8vo. The orthography is
     modernized, but the words are faithfully _Balëan_! Thus
     writes Tyndale: and the king made him (Becket) his
     chancellor, in which office he passed the pomp and pride of
     Thomas (Wolsey) cardinal, as far as the ones shrine passeth
     the others tomb in glory and riches. And after that, he was
     a man of war, and captain of five or six thousand men in
     full harness, as bright as St. George, and his spear in his
     hand; and encountered whatsoever came against him, and
     overthrew the jollyest rutter that was in the host of
     France. And out of the field, hot from bloodshedding, was he
     made bishop of Canterbury; and did put off his helm, and put
     on his mitre; put off his harness, and on with his robes;
     and laid down his spear, and took his cross ere his hands
     were cold; and so came, with a lusty courage of a man of
     war, to fight an other while against his prince for the
     pope; when his prince's cause were with the law of God, and
     the pope's clean contrary. _Practise of Popish Prelates._
     _Tyndale's Works_, edit. 1572, p. 361. The curious
     bibliographer, or collector of ancient books of biography,
     will find a very different character of Becket in a scarce
     Latin life of him, printed at Paris in the black letter, in
     the fifteenth century. His archiepiscopal table is described
     as being distinguished for great temperance and propriety:
     "In ejus mensa non audiebantur tibicines non cornicines, non
     lira, non fiala, non karola: nulla quidem præterquam mundam
     splendidam et inundantem epularum opulentiam. Nulla gule,
     nulla lascivie, nulla penitus luxurie, videbantur
     incitamenta. Revera inter tot et tantas delicias quæ ei
     apponebantur, in nullo penitus sardanapalum sed solum
     episcopum sapiebat," &c. _Vita et processus sancti Thome
     Cantuariensis martyris super libertate ecclesiastica_;
     Paris, 1495, sign. b. ij. rect. From a yet earlier, and
     perhaps the first printed, mention of Becket--and from a
     volume of which no perfect copy has yet been found--the
     reader is presented with a very curious account of the
     murder of the Archbishop, in its original dress. "Than were
     there iiij. cursed knyghtes of leuyng yt thoughte to haue
     had a grete thanke of the kyng and mad her a vowe to gedir
     to sle thomas. And so on childremasse day all moste at
     nyghte they come to caunterbury into thomas hall Sire
     Reynolde beriston, Sire william tracy, Sire Richard breton,
     and sire hewe morley. Thanne Sire Reynolde beriston for he
     was bitter of kynde a none he seyde to thomas the king that
     is be yonde the see sente us to the and bad that thou
     shuldst asoyle the bishoppe that thou cursiddiste than seyde
     thomas seris they be not acursed by me but by the Pope and I
     may not asoyle that he hathe cursid well seyde Reynolde than
     we see thou wolte not do the kynges byddynge and swore a
     grete othe by the eyon of God thou shalt be dede. than cryde
     the othir knyghtes sle sle and they wente downe to the
     courte and armyd hem. Than prestis and clerkis drowe hem to
     the church to thomas and spered the dores to hem. But whan
     thomas herde the knyghtes armed and wold come into the
     churche and myghte not he wente to the dore and un barred it
     and toke one of the knyghtes by the honde and seyde hit be
     semyth not to make a castell of holy churche, and toke hem
     by the honde and seyde come ynne my children in goddis name
     Thanne for it was myrke that they myghte not see nor knowe
     thomas they seyde where is the traytour nay seyde thomas no
     traytour but Archebishoppe. Than one seyde to hym fle fore
     thou arte but dede. Nay seyde thomas y come not to fle but
     to a byde Ego pro deo mori paratus sum et pro defensione
     iusticie et ecclesie libertate I am redy to dye for the loue
     of God and for the fredomme and righte of holy churche Than
     reynold with his swerdes poynte put off thomas cappe and
     smote at his hede and cutte of his crowne that it honge by
     like a dysche Than smote anothir at him and smote hit all of
     than fill he downe to the grounde on his knees and elbowes
     and seyde god into thy hondes I putte my cause and the
     righte of holy churche and so deyde Than the iij knyghte
     smote and his halfe stroke fell upon his clerkis arme that
     helde thomas cross be fore him and so his swerde fill down
     to the grounde and brake of the poynte and he seyde go we
     hens he is dede. And when they were all at the dore goyng
     robert broke wente a geyne and sette his fote to thomas
     necke and thruste out the brayne upon the pauement Thus for
     righte of holoye churche and the lawe of the londe thomas
     toke his dethe." _The boke that is callid Festiuall_; 1486,
     fol. sign. m. iij. These anecdotes, which are not to be
     found in Lyttleton or Berrington, may probably be gratifying
     to the curious.]

Although I wish to be as laconic as possible in my _Catalogue
Raisonné_ of libraries and of book-collectors, during the earlier
periods of our history, yet I must beg to remind you that some of the
nunneries and monasteries, about these times, contained rather
valuable collections of books: and indeed those of Glasgow,
Peterborough, and Glastonbury,[254] deserve to be particularly noticed
and commended. But I will push on with the personal history of
literature, or rather of the BIBLIOMANIA.

     [Footnote 254: "I shall retire back to _Godstowe_, and, for
     the farther reputation of the nunns there, shall observe
     that they spent a great part of their time in reading good
     books. There was a common library for their use well
     furnished with books, many of which were English, and divers
     of them historical. The lives of the holy men and women,
     especially of the latter, were curiously written ON VELLUM,
     and many ILLUMINATIONS appeared throughout, so as to draw
     the nunns the more easily to follow their examples."
     Hearne's edit. _Guil. Neubrig._, vol. ii., p. 768. Again he
     says, "It is probable they (certain sentences) were written
     in large letters, equal to the writing that we have in the
     finest books of offices, the best of which were for the use
     of the nunns, and for persons of distinction, and such as
     had weak eyes; and many of them were finely covered, not
     unlike the Kiver for the Gospell book, given to the chapell
     of Glastonbury by king Ina." p. 773. Can the enlightened
     reader want further proof of the existence of the
     BIBLIOMANIA in the nunnery of Godstow? As to _Peterborough_
     abbey, Gunston, in his history of the same place, has copied
     the catalogue of the different libraries belonging to the
     abbots. Benedict, who became abbot in 1177, had a collection
     of no less than _fifty-seven_ volumes. But alas! the book
     reputation of this monastery soon fell away: for master
     Robert, who died abbot in 1222, left but _seven_ books
     behind him; and Geoffrey de Croyland, who was abbot in 1290,
     had only that dreary old gentleman, _Avicenna_, to keep him
     company! At its dissolution, however, it contained 1700
     volumes in MSS. _Gunton's Peterborough_, p. 173.
     _Glastonbury_ seems to have long maintained its reputation
     for a fine library; and even as late as the year 1248 it
     could boast of several classical authors, although the
     English books were only four in number; the rest being
     considered as "vetustas et inutilia." The classical authors
     were Livy, Sallust, Tully, Seneca, Virgil, and Persius. See
     _Joh. Confrat. Glaston._, vol. ii., p. 423, 435: Hearne's
     edit. "Leland," says Warton, "who visited all the
     monasteries just before their dissolution, seems to have
     been struck with the venerable air and amplitude of this
     library." _Hist. Engl. Poetry_, Diss. ii.]

I should be wanting in proper respect to the gentlemanly and
scholar-like editor of his works, if I omitted the mention of that
celebrated tourist and topographer, GIRALD BARRI, or Giraldus
Cambrensis; whose Irish and Welch itinerary has been recently so
beautifully and successfully put forth in our own language.[255]
Giraldus, long before and after he was bishop of St. David's, seems
to have had the most enthusiastic admiration of British antiquities;
and I confess it would have been among the keenest delights of my
existence (had I lived at the period) to have been among his auditors
when he read aloud (perhaps from a stone pulpit) his three books of
the Topography of Ireland.[256] How many choice volumes, written and
emblazoned upon snow-white vellum, and containing many a curious and
precious genealogy, must this observing traveller and curious
investigator have examined, when he was making the tour of Ireland in
the suite of Prince, afterwards King, John! Judge of the anxiety of
certain antiquated families, especially of the Welch nation, which
stimulated them to open their choicest treasures, in the book way, to
gratify the genealogical ardour of our tourist!

     [Footnote 255: There is a supplemental volume to the two
     English ones, containing the only complete Latin edition
     extant of the Welsh Itinerary. Of this impression there are
     but 200 copies printed on small, and 50 on large, paper. The
     whole work is most creditably executed, and does great
     honour to the taste and erudition of its editor, Sir Richard
     Colt Hoare, bart.]

     [Footnote 256: "Having finished his topography of Ireland,
     which consisted of three books, he published it at Oxford,
     A.D. 1187, in the following manner, in three days. On the
     first day he read the first book to a great concourse of
     people, and afterwards entertained all the poor of the town.
     On the second day he read the second book, and entertained
     all the Doctors and chief scholars: and on the third day he
     read the third book, and entertained the younger scholars,
     soldiers, and burgesses."--"A most glorious spectacle (says
     he), which revived the ancient times of the poets, and of
     which no example had been seen in England." This is given by
     Dr. Henry (b. iii., ch. 4, § 2), on the authority of
     Giraldus's own book, _De rebus a se gestis_, lib. i. c. 16.
     Twyne, in his arid little quarto Latin volume of the
     _Antiquities of Oxford_, says not a word about it; and, what
     is more extraordinary, it is barely alluded to by Antony
     Wood! See Mr. Gutch's genuine edition of Wood's _Annals of
     the University of Oxford_, vol. i., pp. 60, 166. Warton, in
     his _History of English Poetry_, vol. i., Diss. ii., notices
     Giraldus's work with his usual taste and interest.]

LIS. I wish from my heart that Girald Barri had been somewhat more
communicative on this head!

LOREN. Of what do you suppose he would have informed us, had he
indulged this bibliographical gossipping?

LIS. Of many a grand and many a curious volume.

LYSAND. Not exactly so, Lisardo. The art of book-illumination in this
country was then sufficiently barbarous, if at all known.

LIS. And yet I'll lay a vellum Aldus that Henry the second presented
his fair Rosamond with some choice _Heures de Notre Dame_! But
proceed. I beg pardon for this interruption.

LYSAND. Nay, there is nothing to solicit pardon for! We have each a
right, around this hospitable table, to indulge our book whims: and
mine may be as fantastical as any.

LOREN. Pray proceed, Lysander, in your book-collecting history! unless
you will permit me to make a pause or interruption of two minutes--by
proposing as a sentiment--"SUCCESS TO THE BIBLIOMANIA!"

PHIL. 'Tis well observed: and as every loyal subject at our great
taverns drinks the health of his Sovereign "with three times three
up-standing," even so let us hail this sentiment of Lorenzo!

LIS. Philemon has cheated me of an eloquent speech. But let us receive
the sentiment as he proposes it.

LOREN. Now the uproar of Bacchus has subsided, the instructive
conversation of Minerva may follow. Go on, Lysander.

LYSAND. Having endeavoured to do justice to Girald Barri, I know of no
other particularly distinguished bibliomaniac till we approach the æra
of the incomparable ROGER, or FRIAR, BACON. I say incomparable,
Lorenzo; because he was, in truth, a constellation of the very first
splendour and magnitude in the dark times in which he lived; and
notwithstanding a sagacious writer (if my memory be not treacherous)
of the name of Coxe, chooses to tell us that he was "miserably starved
to death, because he could not introduce a piece of roast beef into
his stomach, on account of having made a league with Satan to eat only
cheese;"[257]--yet I suspect that the end of Bacon was hastened by
other means more disgraceful to the age and equally painful to
himself.

     [Footnote 257: "_A short treatise declaringe the detestable
     wickednesse of magicall sciences, as necromancie,
     coniuration of spirites, curiouse astrologie, and suche
     lyke, made by_ FRANCIS COXE." Printed by Allde, 12mo.,
     without date (14 leaves). From this curious little volume,
     which is superficially noticed by Herbert (vol. ii., p.
     889), the reader is presented with the following extract,
     appertaining to the above subject: "I myself (says the
     author) knew a priest not far from a town called
     Bridgewater, which, as it is well known in the country, was
     a great magician in all his life time. After he once began
     these practices, he would never eat bread, but, instead
     thereof, did always eat _cheese_: which thing, as he
     confessed divers times, he did because it was so concluded
     betwixt him and the spirit which served him," &c. sign. A
     viii. rect. "(R.) Bacon's end was much after _the like
     sort_; for having a greedy desire unto meat, he could cause
     nothing to enter the stomach--wherefore thus miserably he
     starved to death." Sign. B. iij. rev. Not having at hand
     John Dee's book of the defence of Roger Bacon, from the
     charge of astrology and magic (the want of which one laments
     as pathetically as did Naudé, in his "_Apologie pour tous
     les grands personnages, &c., faussement soupçonnez de
     Magic_," Haye, 1653, 8vo., p. 488), I am at a loss to say
     the fine things, which Dee must have said, in commendation
     of the extraordinary talents of ROGER BACON; who was
     miserably matched in the age in which he lived; but who,
     together with his great patron GROSTESTE, will shine forth
     as beacons to futurity. Dr. Friend in his _History of
     Physic_ has enumerated what he conceived to be Bacon's
     leading works; while Gower in his _Confessio Amantis_
     (Caxton's edit., fol. 70), has mentioned the brazen head--

                     =for to telle
          Of such thyngs as befelle:=

     which was the joint manufactory of the patron and his èleve.
     As lately as the year 1666, Bacon's life formed the subject
     of a "famous history," from which Walter Scott has given us
     a facetious anecdote in the seventh volume (p. 10) of
     _Dryden's Works_. But the curious investigator of ancient
     times, and the genuine lover of British biography, will
     seize upon the more prominent features in the life of this
     renowned philosopher; will reckon up his great discoveries
     in optics and physics; and will fancy, upon looking at the
     above picture of his study, that an explosion from
     gun-powder (of which our philosopher has been thought the
     inventor) has protruded the palings which are leaning
     against its sides. Bacon's "_Opus Majus_," which happened to
     meet the eyes of Pope Clement IV., and which _now_ would
     have encircled the neck of its author with an hundred golden
     chains, and procured for him a diploma from every learned
     society in Europe--just served to liberate him from his
     first long imprisonment. This was succeeded by a subsequent
     confinement of twelve years; from which he was released only
     time enough to breathe his last in the pure air of heaven.
     Whether he expended 3000, or 30,000 pounds of our present
     money, upon his experiments, can now be only matter of
     conjecture. Those who are dissatisfied with the meagre
     manner in which our early biographers have noticed the
     labours of Roger Bacon, and with the _tetragonistical_
     story, said by Twyne to be propagated by our philosopher, of
     Julius Cæsar's seeing the whole of the British coast and
     encampment upon the Gallic shore, "maximorum ope speculorum"
     (_Antiquit. Acad. Oxon. Apolog._ 1608, 4to., p. 353), may be
     pleased with the facetious story told of him by Wood
     (_Annals of Oxford_, vol. i., 216, Gutch's edit.) and yet
     more by the minute catalogue of his works noticed by Bishop
     Tanner (_Bibl. Brit. Hibern._ p. 62): while the following
     eulogy of old Tom Fuller cannot fail to find a passage to
     every heart: "For mine own part (says this delightful and
     original writer) I behold the name of Bacon in Oxford, not
     as of an individual man, but corporation of men; no single
     cord, but a twisted cable of many together. And as all the
     acts of strong men of that nature are attributed to an
     Hercules; all the predictions of prophecying women to a
     Sibyll; so I conceive all the achievements of the Oxonian
     Bacons, in their liberal studies, are ascribed to ONE, as
     chief of the name." _Church History_, book iii., p. 96.]

[Illustration]

Only let us imagine we see this sharp-eyed philosopher at work in his
study, of which yonder print is generally received as a
representation! How heedlessly did he hear the murmuring of the stream
beneath, and of the winds without--immersed in the vellum and
parchment rolls of theological, astrological, and mathematical lore,
which, upon the dispersion of the libraries of the Jews,[258] he was
constantly perusing, and of which so large a share had fallen to his
own lot!

     [Footnote 258: Warton, in his second Dissertation, says that
     "great multitudes of their (the Jews) books fell into the
     hands of Roger Bacon;" and refers to Wood's _Hist. et
     Antiquit. Univ. Oxon._, vol. i., 77, 132--where I find
     rather a slight notification of it--but, in the genuine
     edition of this latter work, published by Mr. Gutch, vol.
     i., p. 329, it is said: "At their (the Jews) expulsion,
     divers of their tenements that were forfeited to the king,
     came into the hands of William Burnell, Provost of Wells;
     and _their books_ (for many of them were learned) to divers
     of our scholars; among whom, as is verily supposed, ROGER
     BACON was one: and that he furnished himself with such
     Hebrew rarities, that he could not elsewhere find. Also
     that, when he died, he left them to the Franciscan library
     at Oxon, which, being not well understood in after-times,
     were condemned to moths and dust!" Weep, weep, kind-hearted
     bibliomaniac, when thou thinkest upon the fate of these poor
     Hebrew MSS.!]

Unfortunately, my friends, little is known with certainty, though much
is vaguely conjectured, of the labours of this great man. Some of the
first scholars and authors of our own and of other countries have been
proud to celebrate his praises; nor would it be considered a disgrace
by the most eminent of modern experimental philosophers--of him, who
has been described as "unlocking the hidden treasures of nature, and
explaining the various systems by which air, and earth, and fire, and
water, counteract and sustain each other"[259]--to fix the laureate
crown round the brows of our venerable Bacon!

     [Footnote 259: See a periodical paper, entitled _The
     Director_! vol. ii., p. 294.]

We have now reached the close of the thirteenth century and the reign
of EDWARD THE FIRST;[260] when the principal thing that strikes us,
connected with the history of libraries, is this monarch's insatiable
lust of strengthening his title to the kingdom of Scotland by
purchasing "the libraries of all the monasteries" for the securing of
any record which might corroborate the same. What he gave for this
tremendous book-purchase, or of what nature were the volumes
purchased, or what was their subsequent destination, is a knot yet
remaining to be untied.

     [Footnote 260: "King Edward the first caused and committed
     divers copies of the records, and much concerning the realm
     of Scotland, unto divers abbies for the preservance thereof;
     which for the most part are now perished, or rare to be had;
     and which privilie by the dissolution of monasteries is
     detained. The same king caused the libraries of all
     monasteries, and other places of the realm, to be purchased,
     for the further and manifest declaration of his title, as
     chief Lord of Scotland: and the record thereof now extant,
     doth alledge divers leger books of abbeys for the
     confirmation thereof": Petition (to Q. Elizabeth) for an
     academy of Antiquities and History. _Hearne's Curious
     Discourses written by eminent Antiquaries_; vol. ii., 326,
     edit. 1775.]

Of the bibliomaniacal propensity of Edward's grandson, the great
EDWARD THE THIRD, there can be no question. Indeed, I could gossip
away upon the same 'till midnight. His severe disappointment upon
having Froissart's presentation copy of his Chronicles[261]
(gergeously [Transcriber's Note: gorgeously] attired as it must have
been) taken from him by the Duke of Anjou, is alone a sufficient
demonstration of his love of books; while his patronage of Chaucer
shews that he had accurate notions of intellectual excellence.
Printing had not yet begun to give any hint, however faint, of its
wonderful powers; and scriveners or book-copiers were sufficiently
ignorant and careless.[262]

     [Footnote 261: Whether this presentation copy ever came,
     eventually, into the kingdom, is unknown. Mr. Johnes, who is
     as intimate with Froissart as Gough was with Camden, is
     unable to make up his mind upon the subject; but we may
     suppose it was properly emblazoned, &c. The duke detained it
     as being the property of an enemy to France!--Now, when we
     read of this wonderfully chivalrous age, so glowingly
     described by the great Gaston, Count de Foix, to Master
     Froissart, upon their introduction to each other (vide St.
     Palaye's memoir in the 10th vol. of _L'Acadamie des
     Inscriptions_, &c.), it does seem a gross violation (at
     least on the part of the Monsieur of France!) of all
     gentlemanly and knight-like feeling, to seize upon a volume
     of this nature, as legitimate plunder! The robber should
     have had his skin tanned, after death, for a case to keep
     the book in! Of Edward the Third's love of curiously bound
     books, see p. 118, ante.]

     [Footnote 262: "How ordinary a fault this was (of
     'negligently or willfully altering copies') amongst the
     transcribers of former times, may appear by Chaucer; who (I
     am confident) tooke as greate care as any man to be served
     with the best and heedfullest scribes, and yet we finde him
     complayning against Adam, his scrivener, for the very same:

            So ofte a daye I mote thy worke renew,
          If to correct and eke to rubbe and scrape,
          And all is thorow thy neglegence and rape."

          Ashmole _Theatrum Chemicum_; p. 439.]

The mention of Edward the Third, as a patron of learned men, must
necessarily lead a book-antiquary to the notice of his eminent
chancellor, RICHARD DE BURY; of whom, as you may recollect, some
slight mention was made the day before yesterday.[263] It is hardly
possible to conceive a more active and enthusiastic lover of books
than was this extraordinary character; the passion never deserting him
even while he sat upon the bench.[264] It was probably De Bury's
intention to make his royal master eclipse his contemporary CHARLES
THE VTH, of France--the most renowned foreign bibliomaniac of his
age![265] In truth, my dear friends, what can be more delightful to a
lover of his country's intellectual reputation than to find such a
character as De Bury, in such an age of war and bloodshed, uniting the
calm and mild character of a legislator, with the sagacity of a
philosopher, and the elegant-mindedness of a scholar! Foreigners have
been profuse in their commendations of him, and with the greatest
justice; while our Thomas Warton, of ever-to-be-respected memory, has
shewn us how pleasingly he could descend from the graver tone of a
historical antiquary, by indulging himself in a chit-chat style of
book-anecdote respecting this illustrious character.[266]

     [Footnote 263: See p. 29, ante.]

     [Footnote 264: "--patescebat nobis aditus facilis, regalis
     favoris intuitu, ad librorum latebras libere perscrutandas.
     Amoris quippe nostri fama volatilis jam ubique percrebuit,
     tamtumque librorum, et maxime veterum, ferebamur cupiditate
     languescere; posse vero quemlibet, nostrum _per quaternos_
     facilius, quam _per pecuniam_, adipisci favorem."
     _Philobiblion; sive de Amore Librorum_ (vide p. 29, ante),
     p. 29: edit. 1599, 4to. But let the reader indulge me with
     another extract or two, containing evidence [Transcriber's
     Note: 'of' missing in original] the most unquestionable of
     the severest symptoms of the BIBLIOMANIA that ever assailed
     a Lord Chancellor or a Bishop!--Magliabechi must have read
     the ensuing passage with rapture: "Quamobrem cum prædicti
     principis recolendæ memoriæ bonitate suffulti, possemus
     obesse et prodesse, officere et proficere vehementer tam
     maioribus quam pusillis; affluxerunt, loco xeniorum et
     munerum, locoque, donorum et iocalium, temulenti quaterni,
     ac decripiti codices; nostris tamen tam affectibus, quam
     aspectibus, pretiosi. Tunc nobilissimorum monasteriorum
     aperiebantur armaria, referebantur scrinia, et cistulæ
     solvebantur, et per longa secula in sepulchris soporata
     volumina, expergiscunt attonita, quæque in locis tenebrosis
     latuerant, novæ lucis radiis perfunduntur." "Delicatissimi
     quondam libri, corrupti et abhominabiles iam effecti, murium
     fætibus cooperti, et vermium morsibus terebrati, iacebant
     exanimes--et qui olim purpura vestiebantur et bysso, nunc in
     cinere et cilicio recubantes, oblivioni traditi videbantur,
     domicilia tinearum. Inter hæc nihilominus, captatis
     temporibus, magis voluptuose consedimus, quam fecisset
     Medicus delicatus inter aromatum apothecas, ubi amoris
     nostri objectum reperimus et fomentum; sic sacra vasa
     scientiæ, ad nostræ dispensationis provenerunt arbitrium:
     quædam data, quædam vendita, ac nonnulla protempore
     commodata. Nimirum cum nos plerique de hujusmodi donariis
     cernerent contentatos, ea sponte nostris usibus studuerent
     tribuere, quibus ipsi libentius caruerunt: quorum tamen
     negotia sic expedire curavimus gratiosi, ut et eisdem
     emolumentum accresceret, nullum tamen iustitia detrimentum
     sentiret." "Porro si scyphos aureos et argenteos, si equos
     egregios, si nummorum summas non modicas amassemus tunc
     temporis, dives nobis ærarium instaurasse possemus: sed
     revera LIBROS NON LIBRAS maluimus, codicesque plusquam
     florenos, ac panfletos exiguos incrassatis prætulimus
     palfridis," _Philobiblion_; p. 29, 30, &c. Dr. James's
     preface to this book, which will be noticed in its proper
     place, in another work, is the veriest piece of old
     maidenish particularity that ever was exhibited! However,
     the editor's enthusiastic admiration of De Bury obtains his
     forgiveness in the bosom of every honest bibliomaniac!]

     [Footnote 265: CHARLES THE FIFTH, of France, may be called
     the founder of the Royal Library there. The history of his
     first efforts to erect a national library is thus, in part,
     related by the compilers of _Cat. de la Bibliothéque
     Royale_, pt. i., p. ij.-iij.: "This wise king took advantage
     of the peace which then obtained, in order to cultivate
     letters more successfully than had hitherto been done. He
     was learned for his age; and never did a prince love reading
     and book-collecting better than did he! He was not only
     constantly making transcripts himself, but the noblemen,
     courtiers, and officers that surrounded him voluntarily
     tendered their services in the like cause; while, on the
     other hand, a number of learned men, seduced by his liberal
     rewards, spared nothing to add to his literary treasures.
     Charles now determined to give his subjects every possible
     advantage from this accumulation of books; and, with this
     view, he lodged them in one of the _Towers of the Louvre_;
     which tower was hence called _La Tour de la Librarie_. The
     books occupied three stories: in the first, were desposited
     269 volumes; in the second 260; and in the third, 381
     volumes. In order to preserve them with the utmost care (say
     Sauval and Felibien), the king caused all the windows of the
     library to be fortified with iron bars; between which was
     painted glass, secured by brass-wires. And that the books
     might be accessible at all hours, there were suspended, from
     the ceiling, thirty chandeliers and a silver lamp, which
     burnt all night long. The walls were wainscotted with Irish
     wood; and the ceiling was covered with cypress wood: the
     whole being curiously sculptured in bas-relief." Whoever has
     not this catalogue at hand (vide p. 93, ante) to make
     himself master of still further curious particulars relating
     to this library, may examine the first and second volume of
     _L'Academie des Inscriptions_, &c.--from which the preceding
     account is taken. The reader may also look into Warton
     (Diss. 11, vol. i., sign. f. 2); who adds, on the authority
     of Boivin's _Mem. Lit._, tom. ii., p. 747, that the Duke of
     Bedford, regent of France, "in the year 1425 (when the
     English became masters of Paris) sent his whole library,
     then consisting of only 853 volumes, and valued at 2223
     livres, into England," &c. I have little doubt but that
     Richard De Bury had a glimpse of this infantine royal
     collection, from the following passage--which occurs
     immediately after an account of his ambassadorial
     excursion--"O beate Deus Deorum in Syon, quantus impetus
     fluminis voluptatis lætificavit cor nostrum, quoties
     Paradisum mundi _Parisios_ visitare vacavimus ibi moraturi?
     Ubi nobis semper dies pauci, præ amoris magnitudine,
     videbantur. Ibi Bibliothecæ jucundæ super sellas aromatum
     redolentes; ibi virens viridarium universorum voluminum,"
     &c. _Philobiblion_; p. 31, edit. 1559.]

     [Footnote 266: After having intruded, I fear, by the
     preceding note respecting _French Bibliomania_, there is
     only room left to say of our DE BURY--that he was the friend
     and correspondent of Petrarch--and that Mons. Sade, in his
     _Memoirs of Petrarch_, tells us that "the former did in
     England, what the latter all his life was doing in France,
     Italy, and Germany, towards the discovery of the best
     ancient writers, and making copies of them under his own
     superintendence." De Bury bequeathed a valuable library of
     MSS. to Durham, now Trinity College, Oxford. The books of
     this library were first packed up in chests; but upon the
     completion of the room to receive them, "they were put into
     pews or studies, and chained to them." Wood's _History of
     the University of Oxford_, vol. ii., p. 911. Gutch's edit.
     De Bury's _Philobiblion_, from which so much has been
     extracted, is said by Morhof to "savor somewhat of the
     rudeness of the age, but is rather elegantly written; and
     many things are well expressed in it relating to
     bibliothecism." _Polyhist. Literar._, vol. i., 187. The real
     author is supposed to have been Robert Holcott, a Dominican
     friar. I am, however, loth to suppress a part of what Warton
     has so pleasantly written (as above alluded to by Lysander)
     respecting such a favourite as DE BURY. "Richard de Bury,
     otherwise called Richard Aungervylle, is said to have alone
     possessed more books than all the bishops of England
     together. Beside the fixed libraries which he had formed in
     his several palaces, the floor of his common apartment was
     so covered with books that those who entered could not with
     due reverence approach his presence. He kept binders,
     illuminators, and writers, in his palaces. Petrarch says
     that he had once a conversation with him, concerning the
     island called by the ancients Thule; calling him 'virum
     ardentis ingenii.' While chancellor and treasurer, instead
     of the usual presents and new-year's gifts appendant to his
     office, he chose to receive those perquisites in books. By
     the favour of Edward III. he gained access to the libraries
     of most of the capital monasteries; where he shook off the
     dust from volumes, preserved in chests and presses, which
     had not been opened for many ages." _Philobiblion_, cap. 29,
     30.--Warton also quotes, in English, a part of what had been
     already presented to the reader in its original Latin form.
     _Hist. Engl. Poetry_, vol. i., Diss. II., note g., sign. h.
     4. Prettily painted as is this picture, by Warton, the
     colouring might have been somewhat heightened, and the
     effect rendered still more striking, in consequence, if the
     authority and the words of Godwyn had been a little attended
     to. In this latter's _Catalogue of the Bishops of England_,
     p. 524-5, edit. 1601, we find that De Bury was the son of
     one SIR RICHARD ANGARUILL, knight: "that he saith of
     himselfe 'exstatico quodam librorum amore potenter se
     abreptum'--that he was mightily carried away, and even
     beside himself, with immoderate love of bookes and desire of
     reading. He had alwaies in his house many chaplaines, all
     great schollers. His manner was, at dinner and supper-time,
     to haue some good booke read unto him, whereof he would
     discourse with his chaplaines a great part of the day
     following, if busines interrupted not his course. He was
     very bountiful unto the poore. Weekely he bestowed for their
     reliefe, 8 quarters of wheat made into bread, beside the
     offall and fragments of his tables. Riding betweene
     Newcastle and Durham he would give 8_l._ in almes; from
     Durham to Stocton, 5_l._: from Durham to Aukland, 5 marks;
     from Durham to Middleham, 5_l._" &c. This latter is the
     "pars melior" of every human being; and bibliomaniacs seem
     to have possessed it as largely as any other tribe of
     mortals. I have examined Richardson's magnificent reprint of
     Godwyn's book, in the Latin tongue, London, 1743, folio; p.
     747; and find nothing worth adding to the original text.]

LOREN. The task we have imposed upon you, my good Lysander, would be
severe indeed if you were to notice, with minute exactness, all the
book-anecdotes of the middle ages. You have properly introduced the
name and authority of Warton; but if you suffered yourself to be
beguiled by his enchanting style, into all the bibliographical
gossiping of this period, you would have no mercy upon your lungs, and
there would be no end to the disquisition.

LYSAND. Forgive me, if I have transgressed the boundaries of good
sense or good breeding: it was not my intention to make a "_Concio ad
Aulam_"--as worthy old Bishop Saunderson was fond of making--but
simply to state facts, or indulge in book chit-chat, as my memory
served me.

LIS. Nay, Lorenzo, do not disturb the stream of Lysander's eloquence.
I could listen 'till "Jocund day stood tip-toe on the mountain."

PHIL. You are a little unconscionable, Lisardo: but I apprehend
Lorenzo meant only to guard Lysander against that minuteness of
narration which takes us into every library and every study of the
period at which we are arrived. If I recollect aright, Warton was
obliged to restrain himself in the same cause.[267]

     [Footnote 267: The part alluded to, in Warton, is at the
     commencement of his second Dissertation "On the Introduction
     of Learning into Great Britain." After rambling with the
     utmost felicity, among the libraries, and especially the
     monastic ones, of the earlier and middle ages--he thus
     checks himself by saying, that "in pursuit of these
     anecdotes, he is imperceptibly seduced into later periods,
     or rather is deviating from his subject."]

LOREN. It belongs to me, Lysander, to solicit your forgiveness. If you
are not tired with the discussion of such a various and extensive
subject (and more particularly from the energetic manner in which it
is conducted on your part), rely upon it that your auditors cannot
possibly feel _ennui_. Every thing before us partakes of your
enthusiasm: the wine becomes mellower, and sparkles with a ruddier
glow; the flavour of the fruit is improved; and the scintillations of
your conversational eloquence are scattered amidst my books, my busts,
and my pictures. Proceed, I entreat you; but first, accept my libation
offered up at the shrine of an offended deity.

LYSAND. You do me, and the _Bibliomania_, too much honour. If my
blushes do not overpower me, I will proceed: but first, receive the
attestation of the deity that he is no longer affronted with you. I
drink to your health and long life!--and proceed:

If, among the numerous and gorgeous books which now surround us, it
should be my good fortune to put my hand upon one, however small or
imperfect, which could give us some account of the _History of British
Libraries_, it would save me a great deal of trouble, by causing me to
maintain at least a chronological consistency in my discourse. But,
since this cannot be--since, with all our love of books and of
learning, we have this pleasing desideratum yet to be supplied--I must
go on, in my usual desultory manner, in rambling among libraries, and
discoursing about books and book-collectors. As we enter upon the
reign of HENRY IV., we cannot avoid the mention of that distinguished
library hunter, and book describer, JOHN BOSTON of Bury;[268] who may
justly be considered the Leland of his day. Gale, if I recollect
rightly, unaccountably describes his bibliomaniacal career as having
taken place in the reign of Henry VII.; but Bale and Pits, from whom
Tanner has borrowed his account, unequivocally affix the date of 1410
to Boston's death; which is three years before the death of Henry. It
is allowed, by the warmest partizans of the reformation, that the
dissolution of the monastic libraries has unfortunately rendered the
labours of Boston of scarcely any present utility.

     [Footnote 268: It is said of BOSTON that he visited almost
     every public library, and described the titles of every book
     therein, with punctilious accuracy. Pits (593) calls him
     "vir pius, litteratus, et bonarum litterarum fautor ac
     promotor singularis." Bale (p. 549, edit. 1559) has even the
     candour to say, "mirâ sedulitate et diligentia omnes omnium
     regni monasteriorum bibliothecas invisit: librorum collegit
     titulos, et authorum eorum nomina: quæ omnia alphabetico
     disposuit ordine, et quasi unam omnium bibliothecam fecit."
     What Lysander observes above is very true: "non enim
     dissimulanda (says Gale) monasteriorum subversio, quæ brevi
     spatio subsecuta est--libros omnes dispersit et BOSTONI
     providam diligentiam, maxima ex parte, inutilem reddidit."
     _Rer. Anglicar. Scrip. Vet._, vol. iii., præf. p. 1. That
     indefatigable antiquary, Thomas Hearne, acknowledges that,
     in spite of all his researches in the Bodleian library, he
     was scarcely able to discover any thing of Boston's which
     related to Benedictus Abbas--and still less of his own
     compositions. _Bened. Abbat._ vol. i., præf. p. xvii. It is
     a little surprising that Leland should have omitted to
     notice him. But the reader should consult Tanner's _Bibl.
     Britan._, p. xvii., 114.]

There is a curious anecdote of this period in Rymer's Foedera,[269]
about taking off the duty upon _six barrels of books_, sent by a Roman
Cardinal to the prior of the Conventual church of St. Trinity,
Norwich. These barrels, which lay at the custom-house, were imported
duty free; and I suspect that Henry's third son, the celebrated John
Duke of Bedford, who was then a lad, and just beginning to feed his
bibliomaniacal appetite, had some hand in interceding with his father
for the redemption of the duty.

     [Footnote 269: Vol. viii., p. 501. It is a Clause Roll of
     the 9th of Henry IV. A.D. 1407: "De certis Libris, absque
     Custumenda solvenda, liberandis;" and affords too amusing a
     specimen of custom-house latinity to be withheld from the
     reader. "Mandamus vobis, quod certos libros _in sex Barellis
     contentos_, Priori qt Conventui Ecclesiæ Sanctæ Trinitatis
     Norwici, per quendam Adam nuper Cardinalem legatos, et in
     portum civitatis nostræ predictæ (Londinensis) ab urbe
     Romanâ jam adductos, præfato, Priori, absque Custuma seu
     subsidio inde ad opus nostrum capiendis, liberetis
     indilate," &c.]

LIS. This DUKE OF BEDFORD was the most notorious bibliomaniac as well
as warrior of his age; and, when abroad, was indefatigable in stirring
up the emulation of Flemish and French artists, to execute for him the
most splendid books of devotion. I have heard great things of what
goes by the name of _The Bedford Missal_![270]

     [Footnote 270: This missal, executed under the eye and for
     the immediate use of the famous John, Duke of Bedford
     (regent of France), and Jane (the daughter of the Duke of
     Burgundy) his wife, was, at the beginning of the 18th
     century, in the magnificent library of Harley, Earl of
     Oxford. It afterwards came into the collection of his
     daughter, the well-known Duchess of Portland; at whose sale,
     in 1786, it was purchased by Mr. Edwards for 215 guineas;
     and 500 guineas have been, a few years ago, offered for this
     identical volume. It is yet the property of this last
     mentioned gentleman. Among the pictures in it, there is an
     interesting one of the whole length portraits of the Duke
     and Duchess;--the head of the former of which has been
     enlarged and engraved by Vertue for his portraits to
     illustrate the History of England. The missal frequently
     displays the arms of these noble personages; and also
     affords a pleasing testimony of the affectionate gallantry
     of the pair; the motto of the former being "A VOUS ENTIER:"
     that of the latter, "J'EN SUIS CONTENTE." There is a former
     attestation in the volume, of its having been given by the
     Duke to his nephew, Henry VI. as "a most suitable present."
     But the reader shall consult (if he can procure it) Mr.
     Gough's curious little octavo volume written expressly upon
     the subject.]

LYSAND. And not greater than what merits to be said of it. I have seen
this splendid bijou in the charming collection of our friend ----. It
is a small thick folio, highly illuminated; and displaying, as well in
the paintings as in the calligraphy, the graphic powers of that age,
which had not yet witnessed even the dry pencil of Perugino. More
gorgeous, more beautifully elaborate, and more correctly graceful,
missals may be in existence; but a more curious, interesting, and
perfect specimen, of its kind, is no where to be seen: the portraits
of the Duke and of his royal brother Henry V. being the best paintings
known of the age. 'Tis, in truth, a lovely treasure in the book way;
and it should sleep every night upon an eider-down pillow encircled
with emeralds!

LIS. Hear him--hear him! Lysander must be a collateral descendant of
this noble bibliomaniac, whose blood, now circulating in his veins,
thus moves him to "discourse most eloquently."

LYSAND. Banter as you please; only "don't disturb the stream of my
eloquence."

The period of this distinguished nobleman was that in which
book-collecting began to assume a fixed and important character in
this country. Oxford saw a glimmering of civilization dawning in her
obscured atmosphere. A short but dark night had succeeded the
patriotic efforts of De Bury; whose curious volumes, bequeathed to
Trinity College, had laid in a melancholy and deserted condition 'till
they were kept company by those of COBHAM, Bishop of Worcester, REDE,
Bishop of Chichester, and HUMPHREY the good Duke of Gloucester.[271]
Now began the fashion (and may it never fall to decay!) of making
presents to public libraries:--but, during the short and splendid
career of HENRY V., learning yielded to arms: the reputation of a
scholar to that of a soldier. I am not aware of any thing at this
period, connected with the subject of our discourse, that deserves
particular mention; although we ought never to name this illustrious
monarch, or to think of his matchless prowess in arms, without
calling to mind how he adorned the rough character of a soldier by
the manners of a prince, the feelings of a Christian, and, I had
almost said, the devotion of a saint.

     [Footnote 271: We will first notice COBHAM, Bishop of
     Worcester: who "having had a great desire to show some love
     to his mother the university of Oxford, began, about the
     year 1320, to build, or at least to make some reparations
     for _a Library_, over the old congregation house in the
     north church-yard of St. Mary's; but he dying soon after,
     before any considerable matter was done therein, left
     certain moneys for the carrying on of the work, and all his
     books, with others that had been lately procured, to be,
     with those belonging to the university (as yet kept in
     chests) reposed therein." Some controversy afterwards
     arising between the University and Oriel College, to which
     latter Cobham belonged, the books lay in dreary and
     neglected state till 1367; when a room having been built for
     their reception, it was settled that they "should be reposed
     and chained in the said room or solar; that the scholars of
     the University should have free ingress and regress, at
     certain times, to make proficiency in them; that certain of
     the said books, of greater price, should be sold, till the
     sum of _l._ 40 was obtained for them (unless other remedy
     could be found) with which should be bought an yearly rent
     of _l._ 3, for the maintenance of a chaplain, that should
     pray for the soul of the said bishop, and other benefactors
     of the University both living and dead, and have the custody
     or oversight of the said books, and of those in the ancient
     chest of books, and chest of rolls." Wood's _Hist. of the
     University of Oxford_, vol. ii., pt. ii., 911. Gutch's edit.
     WILLIAM REDE, or READ, bishop of Chichester, "sometimes
     Fellow (of Merton College) gave a chest with _l._ 100 in
     gold in it, to be borrowed by the Fellows for their relief;
     bond being first given in by them to repay it at their
     departure from the college; or, in case they should die, to
     be paid by their executors: A.D. 1376. He also built, about
     the same time, _a Library_ in the college; being the first
     that the society enjoyed, and gave books thereunto." Wood's
     _History of the Colleges and Halls_, p. 15, Gutch's edit. In
     Mr. Nicholl's _Appendix to the History of Leicester_, p.
     105, note 20, I find some account of this distinguished
     literary character, taken from Tanner's _Bibl. Britan._, p.
     618. He is described, in both authorities, as being a very
     learned Fellow of Merton College, where he built and
     furnished _a noble library_; on the wall of which was
     painted his portrait, with this inscription: "GULIELMUS
     REDÆUS, EPISCOPUS CICESTRENSIS, MAGISTER IN THEOLOGIA,
     PROFUNDUS ASTRONOMUS, QUONDAM SOCIUS ISTIUS COLLEGII, QUI
     HANC LIBRARIAM FIERI FECIT." Many of Read's mathematical
     instruments, as well as his portrait, were preserved in the
     library when Harrison wrote his description of England,
     prefix'd to Holinshed's Chronicles; some of the former of
     which came into the possession of the historian. For thus
     writes Harrison: "William Read, sometime fellow of Merteine
     college in Oxford, doctor of divinitie, and the most
     profound astronomer that liued in his time, as appeareth by
     his collection, which some time I did possesse; his image is
     yet in the librarie there; and manie instruments of
     astronomie reserued in that house," &c. _Chronicles_ (1587),
     edit. 1807, vol. i., p. 237. In the year 1808, when I
     visited the ancient and interesting brick-floored library of
     Merton College, for the purpose of examining early printed
     books, I looked around in vain for the traces, however
     faded, of Read's portrait: nor could I discover a single
     vestige of the BIBLIOTHECA READIANA! The memory of this once
     celebrated bishop lives therefore only in what books have
     recorded of him; and this brief and _verbal picture_ of Read
     is here drawn--as was the more finished resemblance of
     Chaucer by the pencil, which Occleve has left behind--

          =That thei that have of him lost thoute and mynde
          By this peinture may ageine him fynde.=

     HUMPHREY, Duke of GLOUCESTER, "commonly called _the good_,
     was youngest brother to Henry V. and the first founder of
     the university library in Oxford, which was pillaged of the
     greater part of its books in the reign of Edward the Sixth."
     Park's edit. of the _Royal and Noble Authors_; vol. i., 198.
     "As for the books which he gave (says Wood) they were very
     many, more by far than authors report; for whereas 'tis said
     he gave 129, you shall find anon that they were more than
     treble the number." The Duke's first gift, in 1439, of one
     hundred and twenty-nine treatises, was worth, according to
     Wood, a thousand pounds. All his book presents, "amounting
     to above 600 (mostly treating of divinity, physic, history,
     and humanity) which were from several parts of the world
     obtained, were transmitted to the university, and for the
     present laid up in chests in Cobham's library. The catalogue
     also of them which were then sent, and the indentures for
     the receipt of the said books, were laid up in the chest
     called _Cista Librorum et Rotulorum_." _History_ (or Annals)
     _of the University of Oxford_; vol. ii., pt. ii., 914.
     Gutch's edit. Consult also the recent and very amusing
     _History of the same University_, by Mr. A. Chalmers, vol.
     ii., p. 459. Leland has not forgotten this distinguished
     bibliomaniac; for he thus lauds him in roman verse:

          Tam clari meminit viri togata
          Rectè Gallia; tum chorus suavis
          Cygnorum Isidis ad vadum incolentûm
          Cui magnum numerum dedit BONORUM
          LIBRORUM, statuitque sanctiori
          Divinus studio scholæ theatrum;
          Nostro quale quidem videtur esse
          Magnum tempore, forsan et futuro

          _Cygn. Cant._ Vide Lelandi Itinerarium
          Curâ Hearne; edit. 1770, vol. ix., p. 17.]

The reign of his successor, HENRY VI., was the reign of trouble and
desolation. It is not to be wondered that learning drooped, and
religion "waxed faint," 'midst the din of arms and the effusion of
human blood. Yet towards the close of this reign some attempt was made
to befriend the book cause; for the provost and fellows of Eton and
Cambridge petitioned the king to assist them in increasing the number
of books in their libraries;[272] but the result of this petition has
never, I believe, been known.

     [Footnote 272: In the manuscript history of Eton College, in
     the British Museum (_MSS. Donat._ 4840, p. 154.), the
     Provost and Fellows of Eton and Cambridge are stated, in the
     25th of Henry the Sixth, to have petitioned the king that,
     as these new colleges were not sufficiently seised of books
     for divine service, and for their libraries, he would be
     pleased to order one of his chaplains, Richard Chestre, "to
     take to him such men as shall be seen to him expedient in
     order to get knowledge where such bookes may be found,
     paying a reasonable price for the same, and that the sayd
     men might have the first choice of such bookes, ornaments,
     &c., before any man, and in especiall of all manner of
     bookes, ornaments, and other necessaries as now _late were
     perteynyng to the Duke of Gloucester_, and that the king
     would particular(ly) cause to be employed herein John Pye
     his stacioner of London." For this anecdote I am indebted to
     Sir H. Ellis. See also the interesting note in Warton's
     _Hist. Engl. Poet._, diss. ii., sign. f. 2.]

I had nearly passed through the reign of Henry the Sixth without
noticing the very meritorious labours of a sort of precursor of Dean
Colet; I mean, SIR WALTER SHERINGTON. He was a most assiduous
bibliomaniac;[273] and, in the true spirit of ancient monachism,
conceived that no cathedral could be perfect without a library.
Accordingly, he not only brought together an extraordinary number of
curious books, but framed laws or regulations concerning the treatment
of the books, and the hours of perusing them; which, if I can trust to
my memory, are rather curious, and worth your examination. They are in
Hearne's edition of the Antiquities of Glastonbury, composed in our
own language.

     [Footnote 273: "Over the east quadrant of this (great)
     cloyster (on the north side of this church) was a fayre
     librarie, builded at the costes and charges of (Sir) WALTAR
     SHERINGTON, chancellor of the duchie of Lancaster, in the
     raigne of Henrie the 6. which hath beene well furnished with
     faire written books IN VELLEM: but few of them now do
     remaine there." _Antiquities of Glastonbury_; Hearne's edit.
     1722; p. 308.

     _Regulations concerning Sherington's Library._

     "Quodque dicta libraria, hostiis ipsius per præfatos
     capellanos custodes ejusdem, et eorum successores, aut
     alterum ipsorum, apertis singulis diebus profestis annuatim
     á festo Nativ. beat. Mar. Virg. usque festum Annunciacionis
     ejusdem, ob ortu solis, donec hora nona post altam missam de
     servicio diei in dicta ecclesiâ cathedrali finiatur: et
     iterum ab hora prima post meridiem usque ad finem
     completorii in eadem ecclesia cathedrali, vel saltem usque
     ad occasum solis per eosdem, seu eorum alterum, sic continue
     diligenter custodiatur. Et eciam singulis diebus profestis
     annuatim, ab eodem festo Annunciacionis beatæ Mariæ Virginis
     usque ad prædictum festum nativitatis ejusdem, ab hora diei
     sexta, donec hora nona post altam missam in dicta ecclesia
     cathedrali, et iterum ab hora prima post meridiem quosque
     completorium in eadem ecclesia cathedrali finiatur, per
     præfatos capellanos, seu eorum alterum et successores suos
     custodes dictæ librariæ debitè et diligenter aperta,
     custodiatur, nisi causa racionabilis hoc fieri impediat. Ita
     quod nullum dampnum eidem librariæ aut in libris, aut in
     hostiis, seruris vel fenestris vitreis ejusdem, ex
     negligencia dictorum capellanorum aut successorum suorum
     custodum dictæ librariæ evenire contingat. Et si quid
     dampnum hujusmodi in præmissis, seu aliquo præmissorum, per
     negligenciam ipsorum capellanorum, seu eorum alterius, aut
     successorum suorum quoque modo imposterum evenerit, id vel
     ipsa dampnum aut dampna recompensare, emendare et
     satisfacere, tociens quociens contigerit, de salariis seu
     stipendiis suis propriis, auctoritate et judicio dictorum
     Decani et Capituli, debeant et teneantur, ut est justum.
     Ceteris vero diebus, noctibus et temporibus hostia prædicta,
     cum eorum seruris et clavibus, omnino sint clausa et secure
     serata." _Id._: p. 193.]

We now enter upon the reign of an active and enterprising monarch;
who, though he may be supposed to have cut his way to the throne by
his sword, does not appear to have persecuted the cause of learning;
but rather to have looked with a gracious eye upon its operations by
means of the press. In the reign of EDWARD IV., our venerable and
worthy Caxton fixed the first press that ever was set to work in this
country, in the abbey of Westminster. Yes, Lorenzo; now commenced more
decidedly, the æra of BIBLIOMANIA! Now the rich, and comparatively
poor, began to build them small _Book Rooms_ or _Libraries_. At first,
both the architecture and furniture were sufficiently rude, if I
remember well the generality of wood cuts of ancient book-boudoirs:--a
few simple implements only being deemed necessary; and a three-legged
stool, "in fashion square or round," as Cowper[274] says, was thought
luxury sufficient for the hard student to sit upon. Now commenced a
general love and patronage of books: now (to borrow John Fox's
language) "tongues became known, knowledge grew, judgment increased,
BOOKS WERE DISPERSED, the scripture was read, stories were opened,
times compared, truth discerned, falsehood detected, and with finger
pointed (at)--and all, THROUGH THE BENEFIT OF PRINTING."[275]

     [Footnote 274: The entire passage is worth extraction: as it
     well describes many an old stool which has served for many a
     studious philosopher:

          "Joint stools were then created: on three legs
          Upborne they stood. Three legs upholding firm
          A massy slab, in fashion square or round.
          On such a stool immortal Alfred sat,
          And sway'd the sceptre of his infant realms.
          And such in ancient halls and mansions drear
          May still be seen; but perforated sore,
          And drilled in holes, the solid oak is found,
          By worms voracious eating through and through."

          _Task_: b. i., v. 19, &c.

     It had escaped the amiable and sagacious author of these
     verses that such tripodical seats were frequently introduced
     into OLD BOOK-ROOMS; as the subjoined print--which gives us
     also a curious picture of one of the libraries alluded to by
     Lysander--may serve to shew:

     [Illustration: _Revelaciones Sancte Birgitte; ed. 1521,
     sign. z. 3 rev._]]

     [Footnote 275: _Book of Martyrs_, vol. i., p. 927; edit.
     1641.]

LIS. Now you have arrived at this period, pray concentrate your
anecdotes into a reasonable compass. As you have inveigled us into the
printing-office of Caxton, I am fearful, from your strong attachment
to him, that we shall not get over the threshhold of it, into the open
air again, until midnight.

PHIL. Order, order, Lisardo! This is downright rudeness. I appeal to
the chair!--

LORENZ. Lisardo is unquestionably reprehensible. His eagerness makes
him sometimes lose sight of good breeding.

LYSAND. I was going to mention some _Vellum_ and _Presentation_
copies--but I shall hurry forward.

LIS. Nay, if you love me, omit nothing about "vellum and presentation
copies." Speak at large upon these glorious subjects.

LYSAND. Poor Lisardo!--we must build an iron cage to contain such a
book-madman as he promises to become!

PHIL. Proceed, dear Lysander, and no longer heed these interruptions.

LYSAND. Nay, I was only about to observe that, as Caxton is known to
have printed _upon vellum_,[276] it is most probable that one of his
presentation copies of the romances of _Jason and Godfrey of Boulogne_
(executed under the patronage of Edward IV.), might have been printed
in the same manner. Be this as it may, it seems reasonable to conclude
that Edward the Fourth was not only fond of books, as objects of
beauty or curiosity, but that he had some affection for literature and
literary characters; for how could the firm friend and generous
patron of TIPTOFT, EARL of WORCESTER--with whom this monarch had spent
many a studious, as well as jovial, hour--be insensible to the charms
of intellectual refinement! Pause we here for one moment--and let us
pour the juice of the blackest grape upon the votive tablet,
consecrated to the memory of this illustrious nobleman! and, as Caxton
has become so fashionable[277] among us, I will read to you, from
yonder beautiful copy of his English edition of "_Tully upon
Friendship_," a part of our printer's affecting eulogy upon the
translator:--"O good blessed Lord God, what great loss was it of that
noble, virtuous, and well-disposed lord! When I remember and advertise
his life, his science, and his virtue, me thinketh God not displeased
over a great loss of such a man, considering his estate and cunning,"
&c. "At his death every man that was there, might learn to die and
take his (own) death patiently; wherein I hope and doubt not, but that
God received his soul into his everlasting bliss. For as I am informed
he right advisedly ordained all his things, as well for his last will
of worldly goods, as for his soul's health; and patiently, and holily,
without grudging, in charity, to fore that he departed out of this
world: which is gladsome and joyous to hear."--What say you to this
specimen of Caxtonian eloquence?

     [Footnote 276: Consult the recent edition of the
     _Typographical Antiquities_ of our own country: vol. i., p.
     56, 137, 268.]

     [Footnote 277: As a proof of the ardour with which the books
     printed by him are now sought after, the reader shall judge
     for himself--when he is informed that an imperfect copy of
     the _Golden Legend_, one of Caxton's commonest productions,
     produced at a book sale, a few months ago, the sum of
     _twenty-seven_ guineas!]

LIS. It has a considerable merit; but my attention has been a good
deal diverted, during your appropriate recital of it, to the beautiful
condition of the copy. Thrice happy Lorenzo! what sum will convey this
volume to my own library!

LOREN. No offer, in the shape of money, shall take it hence. I am an
enthusiast in the cause of Tiptoft; and am always upon the watch to
discover any volume, printed by Caxton, which contains the composition
of the hapless Earl of Worcester! Dr. Henry has spoken so handsomely
of him, and Mr. Park, in his excellent edition of Walpole's Royal and
Noble Authors,[278] has made his literary character so interesting
that, considering the dearth of early good English authors,[279] I
know of no other name that merits greater respect and admiration.

     [Footnote 278: Vol i., p. 200, &c. _History of Great
     Britain_, by Dr. Henry, vol. x., p. 143, &c.]

     [Footnote 279: "In the library of Glastonbury abbey, in
     1248, there were but four books in Engleish, &c. We have not
     a single historian, in Engleish prose, before the reign of
     Richard the Second; when John Treviza translateëd the
     Polychronicon of Randal Higden. Boston of Bury, who seems to
     have consulted all the monasterys in Engleland, does not
     mention one author who had written in Engleish; and Bale, at
     a lateër period, has, comparatively, but an insignificant
     number: nor was Leland so fortunate as to find above two or
     three Engleish books, in the monastick and other librarys,
     which he rummage'd, and explore'd, under the king's
     commission." Ritson's Dissertation on Romance and
     Minstrelsy: prefixed to his _Ancient Engleish Metrical
     Romanceës_, vol. i., p. lxxxi.]

LYSAND. True; and this nobleman's attention to the acquisition of fine
and useful books, when he was abroad, for the benefit of his own
country,[280] gives him a distinguished place in the list of
BIBLIOMANIACS. I dare say Lisardo would give some few hundred guineas
for his bust, executed by Flaxman, standing upon a pedestal composed
of the original editions of his works, bound in grave-coloured morocco
by his favourite Faulkener?[281]

     [Footnote 280: Dr. Henry's _History of Great Britain_;
     _ibid._: from which a copious note has been given in the new
     edition of our _Typographical Antiquities_; vol. i., p. 127,
     &c.]

     [Footnote 281: Henry Faulkener, no. 4, George Court, near
     the Adelphi, in the Strand. An honest, industrious, and
     excellent book-binder: who, in his mode of re-binding
     ancient books is not only scrupulously particular in the
     preservation of that important part of a volume, the margin;
     but, in his ornaments of tooling, is at once tasteful and
     exact. Notwithstanding these hard times, and rather a
     slender bodily frame, and yet more slender purse--with five
     children, and the prospect of five more--honest Mr.
     Faulkener is in his three-pair-of-stairs confined workshop
     by five in the morning winter and summer, and oftentimes
     labours 'till twelve at night. Severer toil, with more
     uniform good humour and civility in the midst of all his
     embarrassments, were never perhaps witnessed in a brother of
     the ancient and respectable craft of _Book-binding_!]

LIS. I entreat you not to inflame my imagination by such tantalizing
pictures! You know this must ever be a fiction: the most successful
bibliomaniac never attained to such human happiness.

PHIL. Leave Lisardo to his miseries, and proceed.

LYSAND. I have supposed Edward to have spent some jovial hours with
this unfortunate nobleman. It is thought that our monarch and he
partook of the superb feast which was given by the famous NEVELL,
archbishop of York, at the inthronization of the latter; and I am
curious to know of what the library of such a munificent
ecclesiastical character was composed! But perhaps this feast
itself[282] is one of Lisardo's fictions.

     [Footnote 282: Lysander is perfectly correct about the feast
     which was given at the archbishop's inthronization; as the
     particulars of it--"out of an old paper roll in the archives
     of the Bodleian library," are given by Hearne in the sixth
     volume of _Leland's Collectanea_, p. 1-14: and a most
     extraordinary and amusing bill of fare it is. The last
     twenty dinners given by the Lord Mayors at Guildhall, upon
     the first day of their mayoralties, were only
     _sandwiches_--compared with such a repast! What does the
     reader think of 2000 chickens, 4000 pigeons, 4000 coneys,
     500 "and mo," stags, bucks, and roes, with 4000 "pasties of
     venison colde?"--and these barely an 18th part of the kind
     of meats served up! At the high table our amiable EARL of
     WORCESTER was seated, with the Archbishop, three Bishops,
     the Duke of Suffolk, and the Earl of Oxford. The fictitious
     archiepiscopal feast was the one intended to be given by
     NEVELL to Edward IV.; when the latter "appointed a day to
     come to hunt in More in Hertfordshire, and make merry with
     him." Nevell made magnificent preparations for the royal
     visit; but instead of receiving the monarch as a guest, he
     was saluted by some of his officers, who "arrested him for
     treason," and imprisoned him at Calais and Guisnes. The
     cause of this sudden, and apparently monstrous, conduct, on
     the part of Edward, has not been told by Stow (_Chronicles_,
     p. 426; edit. 1615), nor by Godwyn, (_Catalogue of the
     Bishops of England_, p. 481, edit. 1601): both of whom
     relate the fact with singular naiveté. I have a strong
     suspicion that Nevell was so far a bibliomaniac as to have
     had a curious collection of _astrological books_; for "there
     was greate correspondency betweene this Archbishop and the
     Hermetique philosophers of his time; and this is partly
     confirmed to me from Ripley's dedication of his '_Medulla_'
     to him, ann. 1746; as also the presentation of Norton's
     '_Ordinall_,'" &c. Thus writes Ashmole, in his _Theatrum
     Chemicum_, p. 455.]

Enough has probably been said of Edward. We will stop, therefore, but
a minute, to notice the completion of the HUMPHREY LIBRARY, and the
bibliomaniacal spirit of master RICHARD COURTNEY,[283] during the same
reign; and give but another minute to the mention of the statute of
RICHARD III. in protection of English printers,[284] when we reach the
AUGUSTAN BOOK-AGE, in the reign of HENRY VII.

     [Footnote 283: Speaking of the public library of Oxford, at
     this period, Hearne tells us, from a letter sent by him to
     Thomas Baker, that there was "a chaplein of the Universitie
     chosen, after the maner of a Bedell, and to him was the
     custodie of the librarye committed, his stipend--cvi_s_. and
     viii_d_. his apparell found him _de secta generosorum_. No
     man might come in to studdie but graduats and thoes of 8
     years contynuance in the Universitie, except noblemen. All
     that come in must firste sweare to use the bookes well, and
     not to deface theim, and everye one after at his proceedings
     must take the licke othe. Howers apoynted when they shuld
     come in to studdie, viz. betwene ix and xi aforenoone, and
     one and four afternoone, the keper geving attendaunce: yet a
     prerogative was graunted the chancelour MR. RICHARD COURTNEY
     to come in when he pleased, during his own lieffe, so it was
     in the day-tyme: and the cause seemeth, that he was CHEIFFE
     CAWSER AND SETTER ON OF THE LIBRARYE." _Curious Discourses
     by Eminent Antiquaries_; vol. ii., p. 410., edit. 1775.]

     [Footnote 284: See page 114, ante. When Lysander talks,
     above, of the reign of Henry the Seventh being the "AUGUSTAN
     AGE for BOOKS," he must be supposed to allude to the
     facility and beauty of publishing them by means of THE
     PRESS: for at this period, abroad, the typographical
     productions of Verard, Eustace, Vostre, Bonfons, Pigouchet,
     Regnier, and many others ("quæ nunc perscribere longum est")
     were imitated, and sometimes equalled by W. de Worde,
     Pynson, and Notary, at home. In regard to _intellectual_
     fame, if my authority be good, "in the reign of Henry VII.
     Greek was a stranger in both universities; and so little
     even of Latin had Cambridge, of its own growth, that it had
     not types sufficient to furnish out the common letters and
     epistles of the University. They usually employed an
     Italian, one Caius Auberinus, to compose them, whose
     ordinarry [Transcriber's Note: ordinary] fee was twentypence
     a letter." (MSS. in Benet College Library, lib. P. p. 194,)
     _Ridley's Life of Ridley_, p. 22. "Greek began to be taught
     in both universities: quietly at Cambridge, but ('Horresco
     referens!') with some tumult at Oxford!" _ibid._]

PHIL. Before we proceed to discuss the bibliomaniacal ravages of this
age, we had better retire, with Lorenzo's leave, to the DRAWING-ROOM;
to partake of a beverage less potent than that which is now before us.

LORENZ. Just as you please. But I should apprehend that Lysander could
hold out 'till he reached the Reformation;--and, besides, I am not
sure whether our retreat be quite ready for us.

LIS. Pray let us not take leave of all these beauteous books, and
busts, and pictures, just at present. If Lysander's lungs will bear
him out another twenty minutes, we shall, by that time, have reached
the Reformation; and then "our retreat," as Lorenzo calls it, may be
quite ready for our reception.

LYSAND. Settle it between yourselves. But I think I could hold out for
another twenty minutes--since you will make me your only book-orator.

LORENZ. Let it be so, then. I will order the lamps to be lit; so that
Lisardo may see his favourite Wouvermans and Berghems, in company with
my romances, (which latter are confined in my satin-wood book-case) to
every possible degree of perfection!

LYSAND. Provided you indulge me also with a sight of these delightful
objects, you shall have what you desire:--and thus I proceed:

Of the great passion of HENRY THE VIITH for fine books, even before he
ascended the throne of England,[285] there is certainly no doubt. And
while he was king, we may judge, even from the splendid fragments of
his library, which are collected in the British Museum, of the nicety
of his taste, and of the soundness of his judgment. That he should
love extravagant books of devotion,[286] as well as histories and
chronicles, must be considered the fault of the age, rather than of
the individual. I will not, however, take upon me to say that the
slumbers of this monarch were disturbed in consequence of the
extraordinary and frightful passages, which, accompanied with bizarre
cuts,[287] were now introduced into almost every work, both of
ascetic divinity and also of plain practical morality. His
predecessor, Richard, had in all probability been alarmed by the
images which the reading of these books had created; and I guess that
it was from such frightful objects, rather than from the ghosts of his
murdered brethren, that he was compelled to pass a sleepless night
before the memorable battle of Bosworth Field. If one of those
artists who used to design the horrible pictures which are engraved in
many old didactic volumes of this period had ventured to take a peep
into Richard's tent, I question whether he would not have seen, lying
upon an oaken table, an early edition of some of those fearful works
of which he had himself aided in the embellishment, and of which
Heinecken has given us such curious fac-similes:[288]--and this, in my
humble apprehension, is quite sufficient to account for all the
terrible workings in Richard, which Shakespeare has so vividly
described.

     [Footnote 285: Mr. Heber has a fine copy of one of the
     volumes of a black-letter edition of Froissart, printed by
     Eustace, upon the exterior of the binding of which are
     HENRY'S arms, with his name--HENRICVS DVX RICHMVNDIÆ. The
     very view of such a book, while it gives comfort to a
     low-spirited bibliomaniac, adds energy to the perseverance
     of a young collector! the latter of whom fondly, but vainly,
     thinks he may one day be blessed with a similar treasure!]

     [Footnote 286: The possession of such a volume as "_The
     Revelations of the monk of Euesham_" (vide vol. ii., of the
     new edition of _Brit. Typog. Antiquities_), is evidence
     sufficient of Henry's attachment to extravagant books of
     devotion.]

     [Footnote 287: It is certainly one of the comforts of modern
     education, that girls and boys have nothing to do, even in
     the remotest villages, with the perusal of such books as
     were put into the juvenile hands of those who lived towards
     the conclusion of the 15th century. One is at a loss to
     conceive how the youth of that period could have ventured at
     night out of doors, or slept alone in a darkened room,
     without being frightened out of their wits! Nor could
     maturer life be uninfluenced by reading such volumes as are
     alluded to in the text: and as to the bed of death--_that_
     must have sometimes shaken the stoutest faith, and disturbed
     the calmest piety. For what can be more terrible, and at the
     same time more audacious, than human beings arrogating to
     themselves the powers of the deity, and denouncing, in
     equivocal cases, a certainty and severity of future
     punishment, equally revolting to scripture and common sense?
     To drive the timid into desperation, and to cut away the
     anchor of hope from the rational believer, seem, among other
     things, to have been the objects of these "ascetic" authors;
     while the pictures, which were suffered to adorn their
     printed works, confirmed the wish that, where the reader
     might not comprehend the text, he could understand its
     illustration by means of a print. I will give two extracts,
     and one of these "bizarre cuts," in support of the preceding
     remarks. At page 168, ante, the reader will find a slight
     mention of the subject: he is here presented with a more
     copious illustration of it. "In likewise there is none that
     may declare the piteous and horrible cries and howlings the
     which that is made in hell, as well of devils as of other
     damned. And if that a man demand what they say in crying;
     the answer: All the damned curseth the Creator. Also they
     curse together as their father and their mother, and the
     hour that they were begotten, and that they were born, and
     that they were put unto nourishing, and those that them
     should correct and teach, and also those the which have been
     the occasion of their sins, as the bawd, cursed be the bawd,
     and also of other occasions in diverse sins. The second
     cause of the cry of them damned is for the consideration
     that they have of the time of mercy, the which is past, in
     the which they may do penance and purchase paradise. The
     third cause is of their cry for by cause of the horrible
     pains of that they endure. As we may consider that if an
     hundred persons had every of them one foot and one hand in
     the fire, or in the water seething without power to die,
     what _bruit_ and what cry they should make; but that should
     be less than nothing in comparison of devils and of other
     damned, for they ben more than an hundred thousand
     thousands, the which all together unto them doeth
     _noysaunce_, and all in one thunder crying and braying
     horribly."--_Thordynary of Crysten Men_, 1506, 4to., k k.
     ii., rect. Again: from a French work written "for the
     amusement of all worthy ladies and gentlemen:"

          De la flamme tousiours esprise
          De feu denfer qui point ne brise
          De busches nest point actise
          Ne de soufflemens embrase
          Le feu denfer, mais est de Dieu
          Cree pour estre en celuy lieu
          Des le premier commencement
          Sans jamais pendre finement
          Illec nya point de clarte
          Mais de tenebres obscurte
          De peine infinie durte
          De miseres eternite
          Pleur et estraignement de dens
          Chascun membre aura la dedans
          Tourmmens selon ce qua forfait
          La peine respondra au fait,
                &c. &c. &c.

          _Le passe tempe de tout home, et de toute femme_;
          sign. q. ii., rev.

     Printed by Verard in 8vo., without date: (from a copy,
     printed upon vellum, in the possession of John Lewis
     Goldsmyd, Esq.)--The next extract is from a book which was
     written to amuse and instruct the common people: being
     called by Warton a "universal magazine of every article of
     salutary and useful knowledge." _Hist. Engl. Poetry_: vol.
     ii., 195.

          In hell is great mourning
          Great trouble of crying
          Of thunder noises roaring
          with plenty of wild fire
          Beating with great strokes like guns
          with a great frost in water runs
          And after a bitter wind comes
          which goeth through the souls with ire
          There is both thirst and hunger
          fiends with hooks putteth their flesh asunder
          They fight and curse and each on other wonder
          with the fight of the devils dreadable
          There is shame and confusion
          Rumour of conscience for evil living
          They curse themself with great crying
          In smoak and stink they be evermore lying
          with other pains innumerable.

          _Kalendar of Shepherds. Sign G. vij. rev.
          Pynson's edit., fol._

     [Illustration]

     Specimens of some of the tremendous cuts which are crowded
     into this thin folio will be seen in the second volume of
     the new edition of the _Typographical Antiquities_. However,
     that the reader's curiosity may not here be disappointed, he
     is presented with a similar specimen, on a smaller scale, of
     one of the infernal tortures above described. It is taken
     from a book whose title conveys something less terrific; and
     describes a punishment which is said to be revealed by the
     Almighty to St. Bridget against those who have "ornamenta
     indecentia in capitibus et pedibus, et reliquis membris, ad
     provocandum luxuriam et irritandum deum, in strictis
     vestibus, ostensione mamillarum, unctionibus," &c.
     _Revelaciones sancte Birgitte; edit. Koeberger, 1521, fol.,
     sign. q., 7, rev._]

     [Footnote 288: See many of the cuts in that scarce and
     highly coveted volume, entitled, "_Idée Generale d'une
     Collection complètte d'Estampes_." Leips. 1771, 8vo.]

LIS. This is, at least, an original idea; and has escaped the sagacity
of every commentator in the last twenty-one volume edition of the
works of our bard.

LYSAND. But to return to Henry. I should imagine that his mind was not
much affected by the perusal of this description of books: but rather
that he was constantly meditating upon some old arithmetical work--the
prototype of Cocker--which, in the desolation of the ensuing half
century, has unfortunately perished. Yet, if this monarch be accused
of avaricious propensities--if, in consequence of speculating deeply
in _large paper_ and _vellum_ copies, he made his coffers to run over
with gold--it must be remembered that he was, at the same time, a
patron as well as judge of architectural artists; and while the
completion of the structure of King's college Chapel, Cambridge, and
the building of his own magnificent chapel[289] at Westminster (in
which latter, I suspect, he had a curiously-carved gothic closet for
the preservation of choice copies from Caxton's neighbouring press),
afford decisive proofs of Henry's skill in matters of taste, the
rivalship of printers and of book-buyers shews that the example of the
monarch was greatly favourable to the propagation of the Bibliomania.
Indeed, such was the progress of the book-disease that, in the very
year of Henry's death, appeared, for the first time in this country,
an edition of _The Ship of Fools_--in which work, ostentatious and
ignorant book-collectors[290] are, amongst other characters, severely
satirized.

     [Footnote 289: Harpsfield speaks with becoming truth and
     spirit of Henry's great attention to ecclesiastical
     establishments: "Splendidum etiam illud sacellum
     westmonasterij, magno sumptu atque magnificentia ab eodem
     est conditum. In quod coenobium valde fuit liberalis et
     munificus. Nullumque fere fuit in tota Anglia monachorum,
     aut fratrum coenobium, nullum collegium, cujus preces, ad
     animam ipsius Deo post obitum commendandam, sedulo non
     expetierat. Legavit autem singulorum præfectis sex solidos
     et octo denarios, singulis autem eorundem presbyteris, tres
     solidos et quatuor denarios: ceteris non presbyteris viginti
     denarios." _Hist. Eccles. Anglic._, p. 606, edit. 1622,
     fol.]

     [Footnote 290: The reader is here introduced to his old
     acquaintance, who appeared in the title-page to my first
     "_Bibliomania_:"--

     [Illustration]

          I am the firste fole of all the hole navy
          To kepe the pompe, the helme, and eke the sayle:
          For this is my mynde, this one pleasoure have I--
          Of bokes to haue great plenty and aparayle.
          I take no wysdome by them: nor yet avayle
          Nor them perceyve nat: And then I them despyse.
          Thus am I a foole, and all that serue that guyse.

          _Shyp of Folys_, &c., _Pynson's edit._, 1509, fol.]

We have now reached the threshhold of the reign of HENRY VIII.--and of
the era of THE REFORMATION. An era in every respect most important,
but, in proportion to its importance, equally difficult to
describe--as it operates upon the history of the Bibliomania. Now
blazed forth, but blazed for a short period, the exquisite talents of
Wyatt, Surrey, Vaux, Fischer, More, and, when he made his abode with
us, the incomparable Erasmus. But these in their turn.

PHIL. You omit Wolsey. Surely he knew something about books?

LYSAND. I am at present only making the sketch of my grand picture.
Wolsey, I assure you, shall stand in the foreground. Nor shall the
immortal Leland be treated in a less distinguished manner. Give me
only "ample room and verge enough," and a little time to collect my
powers, and then--

LIS. "Yes, and then"--you will infect us from top to toe with the
BOOK-DISEASE!

PHIL. In truth I already begin to feel the consequence of the
innumerable miasma of it, which are floating in the atmosphere of this
library. I move that we adjourn to a purer air.

LYSAND. I second the motion: for, having reached the commencement of
Henry's reign, it will be difficult to stop at any period in it
previous to that of the Reformation.

LIS. Agreed. Thanks to the bacchanalian bounty of Lorenzo, we are
sufficiently enlivened to enter yet further, and more enthusiastically,
into this congenial discourse. Dame nature and good sense equally
admonish us now to depart. Let us, therefore, close the apertures of
these gorgeous decanters:--

     "Claudite jam rivos, pueri: sat prata bibêrunt!"

[Illustration]


[Illustration: The striking device of M. MORIN, Printer, Rouen.]



PART V.

=The Drawing Room.=


HISTORY OF THE BIBLIOMANIA, OR ACCOUNT
OF BOOK COLLECTORS, CONCLUDED.


                       Some in Learning's garb
     With formal hand, and sable-cinctur'd gown,
     And rags of mouldy volumes.

     AKENSIDE; _Pleasures of Imagination_, b. iii., v. 96.



[Illustration]

=The Drawing Room.=

HISTORY OF THE BIBLIOMANIA, OR ACCOUNT OF
BOOK-COLLECTORS, CONTINUED.


Volatile as the reader may comceive [Transcriber's Note: conceive] the
character of Lisardo to be, there were traits in it of marked goodness
and merit. His enthusiasm so frequently made him violate the rules of
severe politeness; and the quickness with which he flew from one
subject to another, might have offended a narrator of the gravity,
without the urbanity, of Lysander; had not the frankness with which he
confessed his faults, and the warmth with which he always advocated
the cause of literature, rendered him amiable in the eyes of those who
thoroughly knew him. The friends, whose company he was now enjoying,
were fully competent to appreciate his worth. They perceived that
Lisardo's mind had been rather brilliantly cultivated; and that, as
his heart had always beaten at the call of virtue, so, in a due
course of years, his judgment would become matured, and his opinions
more decidedly fixed. He had been left, very early in life, without a
father, and bred up in the expectation of a large fortune; while the
excessive fondness of his mother had endeavoured to supply the want of
paternal direction, and had encouraged her child to sigh for every
thing short of impossibility for his gratification.

In consequence, Lisardo was placed at College upon the most
respectable footing. He wore the velvet cap, and enjoyed the rustling
of the tassels upon his silk gown, as he paraded the High street of
Oxford. But although he could translate Tacitus and Theocritus with
creditable facility, he thought it more advantageous to gratify the
cravings of his body than of his mind. He rode high-mettled horses; he
shot with a gun which would have delighted an Indian prince; he drank
freely out of cut-glasses, which were manufactured according to his
own particular taste; and wines of all colours and qualities sparkled
upon his table; he would occasionally stroll into the Bodleian Library
and Picture Gallery, in order to know whether any acquisitions had
been recently made to them; and attended the Concerts when any
performer came down from London. Yet, in the midst of all his gaiety,
Lisardo passed more sombrous than joyous hours: for when he looked
into a book, he would sometimes meet with an electrical sentence from
Cicero, Seneca, or Johnson, from which he properly inferred that life
was uncertain, and that time was given us to prepare for eternity.

He grew dissatisfied and melancholy. He scrambled through his terms;
took his degree; celebrated his anniversary of twenty-one, by
drenching his native village in ale which had been brewed at his
birth; added two wings to his father's house; launched out into coin
and picture collecting; bought fine books with fine bindings; then
sold all his coins and pictures; and, at the age of twenty-five, began
to read, and think, and act for himself.

At this crisis, he became acquainted with the circle which has already
been introduced to the reader's attention; and to which circle the
same reader may think it high time now to return.

Upon breaking up for THE DRAWING ROOM, it was amusing to behold the
vivacity of Lisardo; who, leaping about Lysander, and expressing his
high gratification at the discourse he had already heard, and his
pleasure at what he hoped yet to hear, reminded us of what Boswell has
said of Garrick, who used to flutter about Dr. Johnson, and try to
soften his severity by a thousand winning gestures.

The doors were opened; and we walked into Lorenzo's Drawing Room. The
reader is not to figure to himself a hundred fantastical and fugitive
pieces of furniture, purchased at Mr. Oakley's, and set off with
curtains, carpet, and looking-glasses--at a price which would have
maintained a country town of seven hundred poor with bread and soup
during the hardest winter--the reader will not suppose that a man of
Lorenzo's taste, who called books his best wealth, would devote two
thousand pounds to such idle trappings; which in the course of three
years, at farthest, would lose their comfort by losing their fashion.
But he will suppose that elegance and propriety were equally consulted
by our host.

Accordingly, a satin-wood book-case of 14 feet in width and 11 in
height, ornamented at the top with a few chaste Etruscan vases--a
light blue carpet, upon which were depicted bunches of grey roses,
shadowed in brown--fawn-coloured curtains, relieved with yellow silk
and black velvet borders--alabaster lamps shedding their soft light
upon small marble busts--and sofas and chairs corresponding with the
curtains--(and upon which a visitor might sit without torturing the
nerves of the owner of them) these, along with some genuine pictures
of Wouvermans, Berghem, and Rysdael, and a few other (subordinate)
ornaments, formed the furniture of Lorenzo's Drawing Room. As it was
_en suite_ with the library, which was fitted up in a grave style or
character, the contrast was sufficiently pleasing.

Lisardo ran immediately to the book-case. He first eyed, with a greedy
velocity, the backs of the folios and quartos; then the octavos; and,
mounting an ingeniously-contrived mahogany rostrum, which moved with
the utmost facility, he did not fail to pay due attention to the
duodecimos; some of which were carefully preserved in Russia or
morocco backs, with water-tabby silk linings, and other appropriate
embellishments. In the midst of his book-reverie, he heard, on a
sudden, the thrilling notes of a harp--which proceeded from the
further end of the library!--it being Lorenzo's custom, upon these
occasions, to request an old Welch servant to bring his instrument
into the library, and renew, if he could, the strains of "other
times." Meanwhile the curtains were "let fall;" the sofa wheeled
round;

               --and the cups
     That cheer, but not inebriate,

with "the bubbling and loud hissing urn," "welcomed the evening in."
Lorenzo brought from his library a volume of Piranesi, and another of
engravings from the heads of Vandyke. Lisardo, in looking at them,
beat time with his head and foot; and Philemon and Lysander
acknowledged that Dr. Johnson himself could never have so much enjoyed
the beverage which was now before them.

If it should here be asked, by the critical reader, why our society is
not described as being more congenial, by the presence of those "whom
man was born to please," the answer is at once simple and
true--Lorenzo was a bachelor; and his sisters, knowing how long and
desperate would be our discussion upon the black letter and white
letter, had retreated, in the morning, to spend the day with Lisardo's
mother--whither ---- ---- had been invited to join them.

The harper had now ceased. The tea-things were moved away; when we
narrowed our circle, and, two of us upon the sofa, and three upon
chairs, entreated Lysander to resume his narrative; who, after
"clearing his pipes (like Sir Roger de Coverley) with a loud hem or
two," thus proceeded.

"I think we left off," said Lysander, "with seating HENRY THE EIGHTH
upon the throne of England. It will be as well, therefore, to say
something of this monarch's pretensions to scholarship and love of
books. Although I will not rake together every species of abuse which
has been vented against him by one Anthony Gilbie,[291] yet Henry must
be severely censured, in the estimation of the most candid inquirer,
for that gross indifference which he evinced to the real interests of
literature, in calmly suffering the libraries of convents and
monasteries to be pillaged by the crafty and rapacious. He was
bibliomaniac enough to have a few copies of his own work, in defence
of the Roman Catholic exposition of the Sacrament, struck off UPON
VELLUM:[292] but when he quarrelled with the Roman pontiff about his
divorce from Queen Catharine, in order to marry Anne Boleyn,[293] he
sounded the tocsin for the eventful destruction of all monastic
libraries: and although he had sent Leland, under an express
commission, to make a due examination of them, as well as a
statistical survey of the realm, yet, being frustrated in the
forementioned darling object, he cared for nothing about books,
whether _upon vellum_ or _large paper_. But had we not better speak of
the book ravages, during the reformation, in their proper place?"

     [Footnote 291: "In the time (saith he) of King HENRIE THE
     EIGHT, when by Tindall, Frith, Bilney, and other his
     faithful seruantes, God called England to dresse his
     vineyarde, many promise ful faire, whome I coulde name, but
     what fruite followed? Nothing but bitter grapes, yea, bryers
     and brambles, the wormewood of auarice, the gall of
     crueltie, the poison of filthie fornication, flowing from
     head to fote, the contempt of God, and open defence of the
     cake idole, by open proclamation to be read in the churches
     in steede of God's Scriptures. Thus was there no
     reformation, but a deformation, in the time of the tyrant
     and lecherouse monster. The bore I graunt was busie,
     wrooting and digging in the earth, and all his pigges that
     followed him, but they sought onely for the pleasant
     fruites, that they winded with their long snoutes; and for
     their own bellies sake, they wrooted up many weeds; but they
     turned the grounde so, mingling goode and badde togeather,
     sweet and sower, medecine and poyson, they made, I saye,
     suche confusion of religion and lawes, that no good thinge
     could growe, but by great miracle, under suche gardeners.
     And no maruaile, if it be rightlye considered. For this bore
     raged against God, against the Divell, against Christe, and
     against Antichrist, as the fome that he cast oute against
     Luther, the racing out of the name of the pope, and yet
     allowing his lawes, and his murder of many Christian
     souldiars, and of many Papists, doe declare and evidentlie
     testifie unto us; especially the burning of Barnes, Jerome,
     and Garrette, their faithfull preachers of the truthe, and
     hanging the same daye for the maintenaunce of the pope,
     Poel, Abel, and Fetherstone, dothe clearlie painte his
     beastlines, that he cared for no religion. This monsterous
     bore for all this must needes be called the head of the
     church in paine of treason, displacing Christ, our onely
     head, who ought alone to haue this title." _Admonition to
     England and Scotland, &c._, Geneva, 1558, p. 69. Quoted by
     Stapleton in his _Counter Blaste to Horne's Vayne Blaste_,
     Lovan., 1567, 4to., fol. 23. Gilbie was a Protestant; upon
     which Stapleton who was a rigid Roman Catholic, shrewdly
     remarks in the margin: "See how religiously the Protestantes
     speak of their princes!"]

     [Footnote 292: Mr. Edwards informs me that he has had a copy
     of the "_Assertio Septem Sacramentorum aduersus Martin
     Lutherum_," &c. (printed by Pynson in 4to., both with and
     without date--1521), UPON VELLUM. The presentation copy to
     Henry, and perhaps another to Wolsey, might have been of
     this nature. I should have preferred a similar copy of the
     small book, printed a few years afterwards, in 12mo., of
     Henry's Letters in answer to Luther's reply to the foregoing
     work. This is not the place to talk further of these curious
     pieces. I have seen some of Pynson's books printed upon
     vellum; which are not remarkable for their beauty.]

     [Footnote 293: Those readers who are not in possession of
     Hearne's rare edition of _Robert de Avesbury_, 1720, 8vo.,
     and who cannot, in consequence, read the passionate letters
     of Henry VIII. to his beloved Boleyn, which form a leading
     feature in the Appendix to the same, will find a few
     extracts from them in the _British Bibliographer_; vol. ii.,
     p. 78. Some of the monarch's signatures, of which Hearne has
     given fac-similes, are as follow:

     [Illustration]

     When one thinks of the then imagined happiness of the fair
     object of these epistles--and reads the splendid account of
     her coronation dinner, by Stow--contrasting it with the
     melancholy circumstances which attended her death--one is at
     loss to think, or to speak, with sufficient force, of the
     fickleness of all sublunary grandeur! The reader may,
     perhaps, wish for this, "coronation dinner?" It is, in part,
     strictly as follows: "While the queen was in her chamber,
     every lord and other that ought to do service at the
     coronation, did prepare them, according to their duty: as
     the Duke of Suffolk, High-Steward of England, which was
     richly apparelled--his doublet and jacket set with orient
     pearl, his gown crimson velvet embroidered, his courser
     trapped with a close trapper, head and all, to the ground,
     of crimson velvet, set full of letters of gold, of
     goldsmith's work; having a long white rod in his hand. On
     his left-hand rode the Lord William, deputy for his brother,
     as Earl Marshall, with ye marshal's rod, whose gown was
     crimson velvet, and his horse's trapper purple velvet cut on
     white satin, embroidered with white lions. The Earl of
     Oxford was High Chamberlain; the Earl of Essex, carver; the
     Earl of Sussex, sewer; the Earl of Arundel, chief butler; on
     whom 12 citizens of London did give their attendance at the
     cupboard; the Earl of Derby, cup-bearer; the Viscount Lisle,
     panter; the Lord Burgeiny, chief larder; the Lord Broy,
     almoner for him and his copartners; and the Mayor of Oxford
     kept the buttery-bar: and Thomas Wyatt was chosen ewerer for
     Sir Henry Wyatt, his father." "When all things were ready
     and ordered, THE QUEEN, under her canopy, came into the
     hall, and washed; and sat down in the middest of the table,
     under her cloth of estate. On the right side of her chair
     stood the Countess of Oxford, widow: and on her left hand
     stood the Countess of Worcester, all the dinner season;
     which, divers times in the dinner time, did hold a fine
     cloth before the Queen's face, when she list to spit, or do
     otherwise at her pleasure. And at the table's end sate the
     Archbishop of Canterbury, on the right hand of the Queen;
     and in the midst, between the Archbishop and the Countess of
     Oxford, stood the Earl of Oxford, with a white staff, all
     dinner time; and at the Queen's feet, under the table, sate
     two gentlewomen all dinner time. When all these things were
     thus ordered, came in the Duke of Suffolk and the Lord
     William Howard on horseback, and the Serjeants of arms
     before them, and after them the sewer; and then the knights
     of the Bath, bringing in the _first course_, which was eight
     and twenty dishes, besides subtleties, and ships made of
     wax, marvellous gorgeous to behold: all which time of
     service, the trumpets standing in the window, at the nether
     end of the hall, played," &c. _Chronicles_; p. 566: edit.
     1615, fol.]

LORENZ. As you please. Perhaps you will go on with the mention of some
distinguished patrons 'till you arrive at that period?

LYSAND. Yes; we may now as well notice the efforts of that
extraordinary _bibliomaniacal triumvirate_, Colet, More, and Erasmus.

PHIL. Pray treat copiously of them. They are my great favourites. But
can you properly place Erasmus in the list?

LYSAND. You forget that he made a long abode here, and was Greek
professor at Cambridge. To begin, then, with the former. COLET, as you
well know, was Dean of St. Paul's; and founder of the public school
which goes by the latter name. He had an ardent and general love of
literature;[294] but his attention to the improvement of youth, in
superintending appropriate publications, for their use, was
unremitting. Few men did so much and so well, at this period: for
while he was framing the statutes by which his little community was to
be governed, he did not fail to keep the presses of Wynkyn De Worde
and Pynson pretty constantly at work, by publishing the grammatical
treatises of Grocyn, Linacre, Stanbridge, Lilye, Holte, Whittington,
and others--for the benefit, as well of the public, as of his own
particular circle. I take it, his library must have been both choice
and copious; for books now began to be multiplied in an immense ratio,
and scholars and men of rank thought _a Study_, or _Library_, of some
importance to their mansions. What would we not give for an
authenticated representation of Dean Colet in his library,[295]
surrounded with books? You, Lisardo, would be in ecstacies with such a
thing!

     [Footnote 294: How anxiously does COLET seem to have watched
     the progress, and pushed the sale, of his friend Erasmus's
     first edition of the Greek Testament! "Quod scribis de Novo
     Testamento intelligo. Et libri novæ editionis tuæ _hic avide
     emuntur et passim leguntur_!" The entire epistle (which may
     be seen in Dr. Knight's dry Life of Colet, p. 315) is
     devoted to an account of Erasmus's publications. "I am
     really astonished, my dear Erasmus (does he exclaim), at the
     fruitfulness of your talents; that, without any fixed
     residence, and with a precarious and limited income, you
     contrive to publish so many and such excellent works."
     Adverting to the distracted state of Germany at this period,
     and to the wish of his friend to live secluded and
     unmolested, he observes--"As to the tranquil retirement
     which you sigh for, be assured that you have my sincere
     wishes for its rendering you as happy and composed as you
     can wish it. Your age and erudition entitle you to such a
     retreat. I fondly hope, indeed, that you will choose this
     country for it, and come and live amongst us, whose
     disposition you know, and whose friendship you have proved."
     There is hardly a more curious picture of the custom of the
     times relating to the education of boys, than the Dean's own
     Statutes for the regulation of St. Paul's School, which he
     had founded. These shew, too, the _popular books_ then read
     by the learned. "The children shall come unto the school in
     the morning at seven of the clock, both winter and summer,
     and tarry there until eleven; and return again at one of the
     clock, and depart at five, &c. In the school, no time in the
     year, they shall use tallow candle, in no wise, but _only
     wax candle_, at the costs of their friends. Also I will they
     bring no meat nor drink, nor bottle, nor use in the school
     no breakfasts, nor drinkings, in the time of learning, in no
     wise, &c. I will they use no cockfighting, nor riding about
     of victory, nor disputing at Saint Bartholomew, which is but
     foolish babbling and loss of time." The master is then
     restricted, under the penalty of 40 shillings, from granting
     the boys a holiday, or "remedy" (play-day), as it is here
     called, "except the king, an archbishop, or a bishop,
     present in his own person in the school, desire it." The
     studies for the lads were "Erasmus's _Copia_ et _Institutum
     Christiani Hominii_ (composed at the Dean's request),
     _Lactantius_, _Prudentius_, _Juvencus_, _Proba_ and
     _Sedulius_, and _Baptista Mantuanus_, and such other as
     shall be thought convenient and most to purpose unto the
     true Latin speech; all barbary, all corruption, all Latin
     adulterate, which ignorant blind fools brought into this
     world, and with the same hath distained and poisoned the old
     Latin speech, and the _veray_ Roman tongue, which in the
     time of Tully, and Sallust, and Virgil, and Terence, was
     used--I say, that filthiness, and all such abusion, which
     the later blind world brought in, which more rather may be
     called BLOTERATURE than LITERATURE, I utterly banish and
     exclude out of THIS SCHOOL." Knight's _Life of Colet_, 362,
     4. The sagacious reader will naturally enough conclude that
     boys, thus educated, would, afterwards, of necessity, fall
     victims to the ravages of the BIBLIOMANIA!]

     [Footnote 295: I wish it were in my power to come forward
     with any stronger degree of probability than the exhibition
     of the subjoined cut, of what might have been the interior
     of _Dean Colet's Study_. This print is taken from an old
     work, printed in the early part of the sixteenth century,
     and republished in a book of Alciatus's emblems, translated
     from the Latin into Italian, A.D. 1549, 8vo. There is an air
     of truth about it; but the frame work is entirely modern,
     and perhaps not in the purest taste. It may turn out that
     this interior view of a private library is somewhat too
     perfect and finished for the times of Colet, in this
     country; especially if we may judge from the rules to be
     observed in completing a public one, just about the period
     of Colet's death: "Md. couenawntyd and agreid wyth Comell
     Clerke, for the making off the dextis in the library, (of
     Christ Church College, Oxford) to the summe off xvi, after
     the maner and forme as they be in Magdalyn college, except
     the popie heedes off the seites, this to be workmanly
     wrought and clenly, and he to have all manner off stooff
     foond hym, and to have for the makyng off one dexte xs.
     the sum off the hole viii. li. Item: borowd att Magdaleyn
     college one c. off v. d nayle, a c. off vi. d nayle, dim. c.
     x. d. nayle."--_Antiquities of Glastonbury_; edit. Hearne,
     p. 307.

     [Illustration]]

LIS. Pray don't make such tantalizing appeals to me! Proceed, proceed.

LYSAND. Of this amiable and illustrious character I will only further
observe that he possessed solid, good sense--unaffected and unshaken
piety--a love towards the whole human race--and that he dignified his
attachment to learning by the conscientious discharge of his duty
towards God and man. He sleeps in peace beneath a monument, which has
been consecrated by the tears of all who were related to him, and by
the prayers of those who have been benefitted by his philanthropy.

Of SIR THOMAS MORE,[296] where is the schoolboy that is ignorant? He
was unquestionably, next to Erasmus, the most brilliant scholar of his
age: while the precious biographical memoirs of him, which have
luckily descended to us, place his character, in a domestic point of
view, beyond that of all his contemporaries. Dr. Wordsworth[297] has
well spoken of "the heavenly mindedness" of More: but how are
bibliomaniacs justly to appreciate the classical lore, and
incessantly-active book-pursuits,[298] of this scholar and martyr! How
he soared "above his compeers!" How richly, singularly, and
curiously, was his mind furnished! Wit, playfulness, elevation, and
force--all these are distinguishable in his writings, if we except his
polemical compositions; which latter, to speak in the gentlest terms,
are wholly unworthy of his name. When More's head was severed from his
body, virtue and piety exclaimed, in the language of Erasmus,--"He is
dead: More, whose breast was purer than snow, whose genius was
excellent above all his nation."[299]

[Illustration: Behold him going to execution--his beloved daughter
(Mrs. Roper) rushing through the guards, to take her last embrace.]

     [Footnote 296: In the first volume of my edition of SIR
     THOMAS MORE'S _Utopia_, the reader will find an elaborate
     and faithful account of the biographical publications
     relating to this distinguished character, together with a
     copious _Catalogue Raisonnè_ of the engraved portraits of
     him, and an analysis of his English works. It would be
     tedious to both the reader and author, here to repeat what
     has been before written of Sir Thomas More--whose memory
     lives in every cultivated bosom. Of this edition of the
     Utopia there appeared a flimsy and tart censure in the
     _Edinburgh Review_, by a critic, who, it was manifest, had
     never examined the volumes, and who, when he observes upon
     the fidelity of Bishop Burnet's translation of the original
     Latin of More, was resolved, from pure love of Whiggism, to
     defend an author at the expense of truth.]

     [Footnote 297: I have read this newly published biographical
     memoir of Sir Thomas More: which contains nothing very new,
     or deserving of particular notice in this place.]

     [Footnote 298: A bibliomanical anecdote here deserves to be
     recorded; as it shews how More's love of books had infected
     even those who came to seize upon him to carry him to the
     Tower, and to endeavour to inveigle him into treasonable
     expressions:--"While Sir Richard Southwell and Mr. Palmer
     were bussie in _trussinge upp his bookes_, Mr. Riche,
     pretending," &c.--"Whereupon Mr. Palmer, on his desposition,
     said, that he was soe bussie about the _trussinge upp Sir
     Tho. Moore's bookes_ in a sacke, that he tooke no heed to
     there talke. Sir Richard Southwell likewise upon his
     disposition said, that because he was appoynted only to
     looke to the conveyance _of his bookes_, he gave noe ear
     unto them."--_Gulielmi Roperi Vita D.T. Mori_; edit Herne,
     p. 47, 51.]

     [Footnote 299: Epistle Dedicatory to Ecclesiastes: quoted in
     that elegant and interesting quarto volume of the "_Lives of
     British Statesmen_," by the late Mr. Macdiarmid; p. 117.]

How can I speak, with adequate justice, of the author of these
words!--Yes, ERASMUS!--in spite of thy timidity, and sometimes, almost
servile compliances with the capricious whims of the great; in spite
of thy delicate foibles, thou shalt always live in my memory; and dear
to me shall be the possession of thy intellectual labours! No pen has
yet done justice to thy life.[300] How I love to trace thee, in all
thy bookish pursuits, from correcting the press of thy beloved Froben,
to thy social meetings with Colet and More! You remember well,
Lisardo,--we saw, in yonder room, a _large paper_ copy of the fine
Leyden edition of this great man's works! You opened it; and were
struck with the variety--the solidity, as well as gaiety, of his
productions.

     [Footnote 300: It were much to be wished that Mr. Roscoe,
     who has so successfully turned his attention to the history
     of _Italian Literature_, of the period of Erasmus, would
     devote himself to the investigation of the philological
     history of the German schools, and more especially to the
     literary life of the great man of whom Lysander is above
     speaking. The biographical memoirs of Erasmus by Le Clerc,
     anglicised and enlarged by the learned Jortin, and Dr.
     Knight's life of the same, can never become popular. They
     want method, style and interest. Le Clerc, however, has made
     ample amends for the defectiveness of his biographical
     composition, by the noble edition of Erasmus's works which
     he put forth at Leyden, in the year 1703-6, in eleven
     volumes folio: of which volumes the reader will find an
     excellent analysis or review in the _Act. Erudit._, A.D.
     1704, &c. Le Clerc, _Bibl. Choisie_, vol. i., 380; Du Pin's
     _Bibl. Eccles._, vol. xiv., and _Biblioth. Fabric_, pt. i.,
     359; from which latter we learn that, in the public library,
     at Deventer, there is a copy of Erasmus's works, in which
     those passages, where the author speaks freely of the laxity
     of the monkish character, have been defaced, "chartâ
     fenestrata." A somewhat more compressed analysis of the
     contents of these volumes appeared in the _Sylloge
     Opusculorum Hist.-Crit., Literariorum, J.A. Fabricii, Hamb._
     1738, 4to., p. 363, 378--preceded, however, by a pleasing,
     yet brief account of the leading features of Erasmus's
     literary life. Tn one of his letters to Colet, Erasmus
     describes himself as "a very poor fellow in point of
     fortune, and wholly exempt from ambition." A little before
     his death he sold his library to one John a Lasco, a
     Polonese, for only 200 florins. (Of this amiable foreigner,
     see Stypye's [Transcriber's Note: Strype's] _Life of
     Crammer_ [Transcriber's Note: Cranmer]; b. ii., ch. xxii.)
     Nor did he--notwithstanding his services to booksellers--and
     although every press was teeming with his lucubrations--and
     especially that of Colinæeus--(which alone put forth 24,000
     copies of his _Colloquies_) ever become much the wealthier
     for his talents as an author. His bibliomaniacal spirit was
     such, that he paid most liberally those who collated or
     described works of which he was in want. In another of his
     letters, he declares that "he shall not recieve
     [Transcriber's Note: receive] an _obolus_ that year; as he
     had spent more than what he had gained in rewarding those
     who had made book-researches for him;" and he complains,
     after being five months at Cambridge, that he had,
     fruitlessly, spent upwards of fifty crowns. "Noblemen," says
     he, "love and praise literature, and my lucubrations; but
     they praise and do not reward." To his friend Eobanus Hessus
     (vol. vi., 25), he makes a bitter complaint "de Comite
     quodam." For the particulars, see the last mentioned
     authority, p. 363, 4. In the year 1519, Godenus, to whom
     Erasmus had bequeathed a silver bowl, put forth a facetious
     catalogue of his works, in hexameter and pentameter verses;
     which was printed at Louvain by Martin, without date, in
     4to.; and was soon succeeded by two more ample and
     methodical ones by the same person in 1537, 4to.; printed by
     Froben and Episcopius. See Marchand's _Dict. Bibliogr. et
     Histor._, vol. i., p. 98, 99. The bibliomaniac may not
     object to be informed that Froben, shortly after the death
     of his revered Erasmus, put forth this first edition of the
     entire works of the latter, in nine folio volumes; and that
     accurate and magnificent as is Le Clerc's edition of the
     same (may I venture to hint at the rarity of LARGE PAPER
     copies of it?), "it takes no notice of the _Index
     Expurgatorius_ of the early edition of Froben, which has
     shown a noble art of curtailing this, as well as other
     authors." See _Knight's Life of Erasmus_, p. 353. The
     mention of Froben and Erasmus, thus going down to
     immortality together, induces me to inform the curious
     reader that my friend Mr. Edwards is possessed of a chaste
     and elegant painting, by Fuseli, of this distinguished
     author and printer--the portraits being executed after the
     most authentic representations. Erasmus is in the act of
     calmly correcting the press, while Froben is urging with
     vehemence some emendations which he conceives to be of
     consequence, but to which his master seems to pay no
     attention! And now having presented the reader (p. 221,
     ante) with the _supposed_ study of Colet, nothing remains
     but to urge him to enter in imagination, with myself, into
     the _real_ study of Erasmus; of which we are presented with
     the exterior in the following view--taken from Dr. Knight's
     _Life of Erasmus_; p. 124.

     [Illustration]

     I shall conclude this ERASMIANA (if the reader will premit
     [Transcriber's Note: permit] me so to entitle it) with a
     wood-cut exhibition of a different kind: it being perhaps
     the earliest portrait of Erasmus published in this country.
     It is taken from a work entitled, "_The Maner and Forme of
     Confesion_," printed by Byddell [Transcriber's Note:
     Byddel], in 8vo., without date; and is placed immediately
     under an address from Erasmus, to Moline, Bishop of Condome;
     dated 1524; in which the former complains bitterly of "the
     pain and grief of the reins of his back." The print is taken
     from a tracing of the original, made by me, from a neat copy
     of Byddel's edition, in the collection of Roger Wilbraham,
     Esq. I am free to confess that it falls a hundred degrees
     short of Albert Durer's fine print of him, executed A.D.
     1526.

     [Illustration: 1524]]

LIS. Let me go and bring it here! While you talk thus, I long to feast
my eyes upon these grand books.

LYSAND. You need not. Nor must I give to Erasmus a greater share of
attention than is due to him. We have a large and varied field--or
rather domain--yet to pass over. Wishing, therefore, Lorenzo speedily
to purchase a small bronze figure of him, from the celebrated large
one at Rotterdam, and to place the same upon a copy of his first
edition of the _Greek Testament_ printed _upon vellum_,[301] by way of
a pedestal--I pass on to the notice of other bibliomaniacs of this
period.

     [Footnote 301: In the library of York cathedral there is a
     copy of the first edition of Erasmus's Greek and Latin
     Testament, 1516, fol., struck off UPON VELLUM. This, I
     believe, was never before generally known.]

Subdued be every harsher feeling towards WOLSEY, when we contemplate
even the imperfect remains of his literary institutions which yet
survive! That this chancellor and cardinal had grand views, and a
magnificent taste, is unquestionable: and I suppose few libraries
contained more beautiful or more numerous copies of precious volumes
than his own. For, when in favour with his royal master, Henry VIII.,
Wolsey had, in all probability, such an ascendency over him as to coax
from him almost every choice book which he had inherited from his
father, Henry VII.; and thus I should apprehend, although no
particular mention is made of his library in the inventories of his
goods[302] which have been published, there can be no question about
such a character as that of Wolsey having numerous copies of the
choicest books, bound in velvet of all colours, embossed with gold or
silver, and studded even with precious stones! I conceive that his
own _Prayer Book_ must have been gorgeous in the extreme! Unhappy
man--a pregnant and ever-striking example of the fickleness of human
affairs, and of the instability of human grandeur! When we think of
thy baubles and trappings--of thy goblets of gold, and companies of
retainers--and turn our thoughts to Shakspeare's shepherd, as
described in the soliloquy of one of our monarchs, we are fully
disposed to admit the force of such truths as have been familiar to us
from boyhood, and which tell us that those shoulders feel the most
burdened upon which the greatest load of responsibility rests. Peace
to the once proud, and latterly repentant, spirit of Wolsey!

     [Footnote 302: In the last _Variorum edition of Shakspeare_,
     1803, vol. xv., p. 144, we are referred by Mr. Douce to "the
     particulars of this inventory at large, in Stowe's
     _Chronicle_, p. 546, edit. 1631:" my copy of Stowe is of the
     date of 1615; but, not a syllable is said of it in the place
     here referred to, or at any other page; although the account
     of Wolsey is ample and interesting. Mr. Douce (_ibid._) says
     that, among the _Harl. MSS._ (no. 599) there is one
     entitled "An Inventorie of Cardinal Wolsey's rich householde
     stuffe; temp. Hen. VIII.; the original book, as it seems,
     kept by his own officers." In Mr. Gutch's _Collectanea
     Curiosa_, vol. ii., 283-349, will be found a copious account
     of Wolsey's plate:--too splendid, almost, for belief. To a
     life and character so well known as are those of Wolsey, and
     upon which Dr. Fiddes has published a huge folio of many
     hundred pages, the reader will not here expect any
     additional matter which may convey much novelty or interest.
     The following, however, may be worth submitting to his
     consideration. The Cardinal had poetical, as well as
     political, enemies. Skelton and Roy, who did not fail to
     gall him with their sharp lampoons, have shewn us, by their
     compositions which have survived, that they were no
     despicable assailants. In the former's "_Why come ye not to
     Court?_" we have this caustic passage:

          He is set so high
          In his hierarchy
          Of frantic _frenesy_
          And foolish fantasy,
          That in chamber of stars
          All matters there he mars,
          Clapping his rod on the _borde_
          No man dare speake a word;
          For he hath all the saying
          Without any _renaying_:
          He rolleth in his records
          He saith: "How say ye my lords?
          Is not my reason good?"
          Good!--even good--Robin-hood?
          Borne upon every side
          _With pomp and with pride, &c._
          To drink and for to eat
          Sweet _ypocras_, and sweet meat,
          To keep his flesh chaste
          In Lent, for his repast
          He eateth capons stew'd
          Pheasant and partidge mewed.

          WARTON'S _Hist. Engl. Poetry_, vol. ii., 345.

     Steevens has also quoted freely from this poem of Skelton;
     see the editions of _Shakspeare_, 1793, and 1803, in the
     play of "King Henry VIII." Skelton's satire against Wolsey
     is noticed by our chronicler Hall: "In this season, the
     cardinal, by his power legantine, dissolved the convocation
     at Paul's, called by the Archbishop of Canterbury; and
     called him and all the clergy to his convocation to
     Westminster, which was never seen before in England; whereof
     Master Skelton, a merry poet, wrote:

          Gentle Paul lay down thy _sweard_
          For Peter of Westminster hath shaven thy beard."

          _Chronicle_, p. 637, edit. 1809.

     In Mr. G. Ellis's _Specimens of the Early English Poets_,
     vol. ii., pp. 7, 8, there is a curious extract from the same
     poet's "_Image of Ypocrycye_"--relating to Sir Thomas
     More--which is printed for the first time from "an
     apparently accurate transcript" of the original, in the
     possession of Mr. Heber. From the last mentioned work (vol.
     ii., p. 11, &c.), there is rather a copious account of a yet
     more formidable poetical attack against Wolsey, in the
     "_Rede me and be not wroth_," of William Roy: a very rare
     and precious little black-letter volume, which, although it
     has been twice printed, is scarcely ever to be met with, and
     was unknown to Warton. It will, however, make its appearance
     in one of the supplemental volumes of Mr. Park's valuable
     reprint of the _Harleian Miscellany_. While the cardinal was
     thus attacked, in the biting strains of poetry, he was
     doomed to experience a full share of reprobation in the
     writings of the most popular theologians. William Tyndale
     stepped forth to shew his zeal against papacy in his
     "_Practise of Popishe Prelates_," and from this work, as it
     is incorporated in those of Tyndale, Barnes, and Frith,
     printed by Day in 1572, fol., the reader is presented with
     the following amusing specimen of the author's vein of
     humour and indignation: "And as I heard it spoken of divers,
     he made, by craft of necromancy, graven imagery to bear upon
     him; wherewith he bewitched the king's mind--and made the
     king to doat upon him, more than he ever did on any lady or
     gentlewoman: so that now the king's grace followed him, as
     he before followed the king. And then what he said, that was
     wisdom; what he praised, that was honourable only." Practise
     of Popishe Prelates, p. 368. At p. 369, he calls him "Porter
     of Heaven." "There he made a journey of gentlemen, arrayed
     altogether in silks, so much as their very shoes and lining
     of their boots; more like their mothers than men of war:
     yea, I am sure that many of their mothers would have been
     ashamed of so nice and wanton array. Howbeit, they went not
     to make war, but peace, for ever and a day longer. But to
     speak of the pompous apparel of my lord himself, and of his
     chaplains, it passeth the xij Apostles. I dare swear that if
     Peter and Paul had seen them suddenly, and at a blush, they
     would have been harder in belief that they, or any such,
     should be their successors than Thomas Didimus was to
     believe that Christ was risen again from death." _Idem_, p.
     370,--"for the worship of his hat and glory of his precious
     shoes--when he was pained with the cholic of an evil
     conscience, having no other shift, because his soul could
     find no other issue,--he took himself a medicine, _ut
     emitteret spiritum per posteriora_." Exposition upon the
     first Ep. of St. John, p. 404. Thomas Lupset, who was a
     scholar of Dean Colet, and a sort of _elève_ of the
     cardinal, (being appointed tutor to a bastard son of the
     latter) could not suppress his sarcastical feelings in
     respect of Wolsey's pomp and severity of discipline. From
     Lupset's works, printed by Berthelet in 1546, 12mo., I
     gather, in his address to his "hearty beloved Edmond"--that
     "though he had there with him plenty of books, yet the place
     suffered him not to spend in them any study: for you shall
     understand (says he) that I lie waiting on my LORD CARDINAL,
     whose hours I must observe to be always at hand, lest I
     should be called when I am not by: the which should be taken
     for a fault of great negligence. Wherefore, that I am now
     well satiated with the beholding of these gay hangings, that
     garnish here every wall, I will turn me and talk with you."
     (_Exhortacion to yonge men_, fol. 39, rev.) Dr. Wordsworth,
     in the first volume of his _Ecclesiastical Biography_, has
     printed, for the first time, the genuine text of Cavendish's
     interesting life of his reverend master, Wolsey. It is well
     worth perusal. But the reader, I fear, is beginning to be
     outrageous (having kept his patience, during this
     long-winded note, to the present moment) for some
     _bibliomaniacal_ evidence of Wolsey's attachment to gorgeous
     books. He is presented, therefore, with the following case
     in point. My friend Mr. Ellis, of the British Museum,
     informs me that, in the splendid library of that
     establishment, there are two copies of Galen's "_Methodus
     Medendi_," edited by Linacre, and printed at Paris, in
     folio, 1519. One copy, which belonged to Henry the Eighth,
     has an illuminated title, with the royal arms at the bottom
     of the title-page. The other, which is also illuminated, has
     the cardinal's cap in the same place, above an empty shield.
     Before the dedication to the king, in the latter copy,
     Linacre has inserted an elegant Latin epistle to WOLSEY, in
     manuscript. The king's copy is rather the more beautiful of
     the two: but the _unique_ appendage of the Latin epistle
     shews that the editor considered the cardinal a more
     distinguished bibliomaniac than the monarch.]

We have now reached the REFORMATION; upon which, as Burnet, Collier,
and Strype, have written huge folio volumes, it shall be my object to
speak sparingly: and chiefly as it concerns the history of the
Bibliomania. A word or two, however, about its origin, spirit, and
tendency.

It seems to have been at first very equivocal, with Henry the Eighth,
whether he would take any decisive measures in the affair, or not. He
hesitated, resolved, and hesitated again.[303] The creature of caprice
and tyranny, he had neither fixed principles, nor settled data, upon
which to act. If he had listened to the temperate advice of CROMWELL
or CRANMER,[304] he would have attained his darling object by less
decisive, but certainly by more justifiable, means. Those able and
respectable counsellors saw clearly that violent measures would
produce violent results; and that a question of law, of no mean
magnitude, was involved in the very outset of the transaction--for
there seemed, on the one side, no right to possess; and, on the other,
no right to render possession.[305]

     [Footnote 303: "The king seemed to think that his subjects
     owed an entire resignation of their reasons and consciences
     to him; and, as he was highly offended with those who still
     adhered to the papal authority, so he could not bear the
     haste that some were making to a further reformation, before
     or beyond his allowance. So, in the end of the year 1538, he
     set out a proclamation, in which he prohibits the importing
     of all foreign books, or the printing of any at home without
     license; and the printing of any parts of the scripture,
     'till they were examined by the king and his council," &c.
     "He requires that none may argue against the presence of
     Christ in the Sacrament, under the pain of death, and of the
     loss of their goods; and orders all to be punished who did
     disuse any rites or ceremonies not then abolished; yet he
     orders them only to be observed without superstition, only
     as remembrances, and not to repose in them a trust of
     salvation."--Burnet's _Hist. of the Reformation_. But long
     before this obscure and arbitrary act was passed, Henry's
     mind had been a little shaken against papacy from a singular
     work, published by one Fish, called "_The Supplication of
     Beggers_." Upon this book being read through in the presence
     of Henry, the latter observed, shrewdly enough, "If a man
     should pull down an old stone wall, and begin at the lower
     part, the upper part thereof might chance to fall upon his
     head." "And then he took the book, and put it into his desk,
     and commanded them, upon their allegiance, that they should
     not tell to any man that he had seen this book." Fox's _Book
     of Martyrs_; vol. ii., p. 280: edit. 1641. Sir Thomas More
     answered this work (which depicted, in frightful colours,
     the rapacity of the Roman Catholic clergy), in 1529; see my
     edition of the latter's _Utopia_; vol. i., xciii.]

     [Footnote 304: "These were some of the resolute steps King
     Henry made towards the obtaining again this long struggled
     for, and almost lost, right and prerogative of kings, in
     their own dominions, of being supreme, against the
     encroachments of the bishops of Rome. Secretary CROMWEL had
     the great stroke in all this. All these counsels and methods
     were struck out of his head." Strype's _Ecclesiastical
     Memorials_; vol. i., p. 205. When great murmurs ensued, on
     the suppression of the monasteries, because of the cessation
     of hospitality exercised in them, "CROMWELL advised the king
     to sell their lands, at very easie rates, to the gentry in
     the several counties, obliging them, since they had them
     upon such terms, to keep up the wonted hospitality. This
     drew in the gentry apace," &c. Burnet's _Hist. of the
     Reformation_; vol. i., p. 223. "ARCHBISHOP CRANMER is said
     to have counselled and pressed the king to dissolve the
     monasteries; but for other ends (than those of personal
     enmity against 'the monks or friars'--or of enriching
     himself 'with the spoils' of the same); viz. that, out of
     the revenues of these monasteries, the king might found more
     bishoprics; and that dioceses, being reduced into less
     compass, the diocesans might the better discharge their
     office, according to the scripture and primitive
     rules.----And the archbishop hoped that, from these ruins,
     there would be new foundations in every cathedral erected,
     to be nurseries of learning for the use of the whole
     diocese." Strype's _Life of Archbishop Cranmer_, p. 35.]

     [Footnote 305: "A very rational doubt yet remained, how
     religious persons could alienate and transfer to the king a
     property, of which they themselves were only tenants for
     life: and an act of parliament was framed in order to remove
     all future scruples on this head, and 'settle rapine and
     sacrilege,' as Lord Herbert terms them, 'on the king and his
     heirs for ever.'----It does not appear to have been debated,
     in either house, whether they had a power to dispossess some
     hundred thousand persons of their dwellings and fortunes,
     whom, a few years before, they had declared to be good
     subjects: if such as live well come under that
     denomination."--"Now," says Sir Edward Coke, "observe the
     conclusion of this tragedy. In that very parliament, when
     the great and opulent priory of St. John of Jerusalem was
     given to the king, and which was the last monastery seized
     on, he demanded a fresh subsidy of the clergy and laity: he
     did the same again within two years; and again three years
     after; and since the dissolution exacted great loans, and
     against law obtained them."--_Life of Reginald Pole_; vol.
     i., p. 247-9: edit. 1767, 8vo. Coke's 4th _Institute_, fol.
     44.]

LATIMER, more hasty and enthusiastic than his episcopal brethren, set
all the engines of his active mind to work, as if to carry the point
by a _coup de main_; and although his resolution was, perhaps, upon
more than one occasion, shaken by the sufferings of the innocent,
yet, by his example, and particularly by his sermons,[306] he tried
to exasperate every Protestant bosom against the occupiers of
monasteries and convents.

     [Footnote 306: "It was once moved by LATYMER, the good
     bishop of Worcester, that two or three of these foundations
     might be spared in each diocese, for the sake of
     hospitality. Which gave the foresaid bishop occasion to move
     the Lord Crumwell once in the behalf of the _Priory of
     Malvern_." Strype's _Ecclesiastical Memorials_, vol. i.,
     259. Latimer's letter is here printed; and an interesting
     one it is. Speaking of the prior, he tells Cromwell that
     "The man is old, a good housekeeper, feedeth many; and that,
     daily. For the country is poor, and full of penury." But the
     hospitality and infirmities of this poor prior were less
     likely to operate graciously upon the rapacious mind of
     Henry than "the 500 marks to the king, and 200 marks more to
     the said Lord Crumwell," which he tendered at the same time.
     See Strype, _ibid._ For the credit of Latimer, I hope this
     worthy prior was not at the head of the priory when the
     former preached before the king, and thus observed: "To let
     pass the _solempne_ and nocturnal bacchanals, the prescript
     miracles, that are done upon certain days in the West part
     of England, who hath not heard? I think ye have heard of
     Saint _Blesis's_ heart, which is _at Malvern_, and of Saint
     Algar's bones, how long they deluded the people!" See
     Latimer's _Sermons_: edit. 1562, 4to.: fol. 12, rect. In
     these Sermons, as is justly said above, there are many
     cutting philippics--especially against "in-preaching
     prelates;" some of whom Latimer doth not scruple to call
     "minters--dancers--crouchers--pamperers of their paunches,
     like a monk that maketh his jubilee--mounchers in their
     mangers, and moilers in their gay manors and mansions:" see
     fol. 17, rect. Nevertheless, there are few productions which
     give us so lively and interesting a picture of the manners
     of the age as the SERMONS OF LATIMER; which were spoilt in
     an "_editio castrata_" that appeared in the year 1788, 8vo.
     But Latimer was not the only popular preacher who directed
     his anathemas against the Roman Catholic clergy. The well
     known JOHN FOX entered into the cause of the reformation
     with a zeal and success of which those who have slightly
     perused his compositions can have but a very inadequate
     idea. The following curious (and I may add very interesting)
     specimen of Fox's pulpit eloquence is taken from "_A Sermon
     of Christ crucified, preached at Paule's Crosse, the Friday
     before Easter, commonly called Good Fridaie_:"--"Let me tell
     you a story, which I remember was done about the beginning
     of Queen Mary's reign, anno 1554. There was a certain
     message sent, not from heaven, but from Rome: not from God,
     but from the pope: not by any apostle, but by a certain
     cardinal, who was called Cardinal Poole, Legatus a latere,
     Legatus natus, a legate from the pope's own white side, sent
     hither into England. This cardinal legate, first coming to
     Dover, was honourably received and brought to Greenwich:
     where he again, being more honourably received by lords of
     high estate, and of the Privy Council (of whom some are yet
     alive) was conducted thence to the privy stairs of the
     queen's court at Westminster, no less person than King
     Philip himself waiting upon him, and receiving him; and so
     was brought to the queen's great chamber, she then being, or
     else pretending, not to be well at ease. Stephen Gardiner,
     the bishop of Winchester, and Lord Chancellor of England,
     receiving this noble legate in the king and the queen's
     behalf, to commend and set forth the authority of this
     legate, the greatness of his message, and the supreme
     majesty of the sender, before the public audience of the
     whole parliament at that time assembled, there openly
     protested, with great solemnity of words, what a mighty
     message, and of what great importance was then brought into
     the realm, even the greatest message (said he) that ever
     came into England, and therefore desired them to give
     attentive and inclinable ears to such a famous legation,
     sent from so high authority." "Well, and what message was
     this? forsooth, that the realm of England should be
     reconciled again unto their father the pope; that is to say,
     that the queen, with all her nobility and sage council, with
     so many learned prelates, discreet lawyers, worthy commons,
     and the whole body of the realm of England, should captive
     themselves, and become underlings to an Italian stranger,
     and friarly priest, sitting in Rome, which never knew
     England, never was here, never did, or shall do, England
     good. And this forsooth (said Gardiner) was the greatest
     ambassage, the weightiest legacy that ever came to England:
     forgetting belike either this message of God, sent here by
     his apostles unto vs, or else because he saw it made not so
     much for his purpose as did the other, he made the less
     account thereof." "Well, then, and will we see what a
     weighty message this was that Gardiner so exquisitely
     commended? first, the sender is gone, the messenger is gone,
     the queen is gone, and the message gone, and yet England
     standeth not a rush the better. Of which message I thus say,
     answering again to Gardiner, _per inversionem Rhetoricam_,
     that, as he sayeth, it was the greatest--so I say again, it
     was the lightest--legacy; the most ridiculous trifle, and
     most miserablest message, of all other that ever came, or
     ever shall come, to England, none excepted, for us to be
     reconciled to an outlandish priest, and to submit our necks
     under a foreign yoke. What have we to do more with him than
     with the great Calypha of Damascus? If reconciliation ought
     to follow, where offences have risen, the pope hath offended
     us more than his coffers are able to make us amends. We
     never offended him. But let the pope, with his
     reconciliation and legates, go, as they are already gone
     (God be thanked): and I beseech God so they may be gone,
     that they never come here again. England never fared better
     than when the pope did most curse it. And yet I hear
     whispering of certain privy reconcilers, sent of late by the
     pope, which secretly creep in corners. But this I leave to
     them that have to do with all. Let us again return to our
     matter."--_Imprinted by Jhon Daie_, &c., 1575, 8vo., sign.
     A. vij.-B. i.]

With Henry, himself, the question of spiritual supremacy was soon
changed, or merged (as the lawyers call it) into the exclusive
consideration of adding to his wealth. The Visitors who had been
deputed to inspect the abbies, and to draw up reports of the same
(some of whom, by the bye, conducted themselves with sufficient
baseness[307]), did not fail to inflame his feelings by the tempting
pictures which they drew of the riches appertaining to these
establishments.[308] Another topic was also strongly urged upon
Henry's susceptible mind: the alleged abandoned lives of the owners of
them. These were painted with a no less overcharged pencil:[309] so
that nothing now seemed wanting but to set fire to the train of
combustion which had been thus systematically laid.

     [Footnote 307: Among the visitors appointed to carry into
     execution the examination of the monasteries, was a Dr.
     London; who "was afterwards not only a persecutor of
     Protestants, but a suborner of false witnesses against them,
     and was now zealous even to officiousness in suppressing the
     monasteries. He also studied to frighten the abbess of
     Godstow into a resignation. She was particularly in
     Cromwell's favour:" &c. Burnet: _Hist. of the Reformation_,
     vol. iii., p. 132. Among Burnet's "Collection of Records,"
     is the letter of this said abbess, in which she tells
     Cromwell that "Doctor London was suddenly _cummyd_ unto her,
     with a great rout with him; and there did threaten her and
     her sisters, saying that he had the king's commission to
     suppress the house, spite of her teeth. And when he saw that
     she was content that he should do all things according to
     his commission, and shewed him plain that she would never
     surrender to his band, being her ancient enemy--then he
     began to entreat her and to inveigle her sisters, one by
     one, otherwise than ever she heard tell that any of the
     king's subjects had been handel'd;" vol. iii., p. 130.
     "Collection." It is not very improbable that this treatment
     of Godstow nunnery formed a specimen of many similar
     visitations. As to London himself, he ended his days in the
     Fleet, after he had been adjudged to ride with his face to
     the horse's tail, at Windsor and Oakingham. Fox in his _Book
     of Martyrs_, has given us a print of this transaction;
     sufficiently amusing. Dod, in his _Church History_, vol. i.,
     p. 220, has of course not spared Dr. London. But see, in
     particular, Fuller's shrewd remarks upon the character of
     these visitors, or "emissaries;" _Church History_, b. vi.,
     pp. 313, 314.]

     [Footnote 308: "The yearly revenue of all the abbies
     suppressed is computed at £135,522_l._ 18_s._ 10_d._ Besides
     this, the money raised out of the stock of cattle and corn,
     out of the timber, lead, and bells; out of the furniture,
     plate, and church ornaments, amounted to a vast sum, as may
     be collected from what was brought off from the monastery of
     St. Edmonsbury. Hence, as appears from records, 5000 marks
     of gold and silver, besides several jewels of great value,
     were seized by the visitors." Collier's _Ecclesiastical
     History_, vol. ii., 165. See also Burnet's similar work,
     vol. i., p. 223. Collier specifies the valuation of certain
     monasteries, which were sufficiently wealthy; but he has not
     noticed that of St. Swithin's in Winchester--of which Strype
     has given so minute and interesting an inventory. A lover of
     old coins and relics may feed his imagination with a
     gorgeous picture of what might have been the "massive silver
     and golden crosses and shrines garnished with stones"--but a
     tender-hearted bibliomaniac will shed tears of agony on
     thinking of the fate of "A BOOK OF THE FOUR EVANGELISTS,
     WRITTEN AL WITH GOLD; AND THE UTTER SIDE OF PLATE OF GOLD!"
     _Life of Cranmer_, _Appendix_, pp. 24-28.]

     [Footnote 309: The amiable and candid Strype has polluted
     the pages of his valuable _Ecclesiastical Memorials_ with an
     account of such horrid practices, supposed to have been
     carried on in monasteries, as must startle the most
     credulous Anti-Papist; and which almost leads us to conclude
     that _a legion of fiends_ must have been let loose upon
     these "Friar Rushes!" The author tells us that he takes his
     account from authentic documents--but these documents turn
     out to be the letters of the visitors; and of the character
     of one of these the reader has just had a sufficient proof.
     Those who have the work here referred to, vol. i., p. 256-7,
     may think, with the author of it, that "this specimen is
     enough and too much." What is a little to be marvelled at,
     Strype suffers his prejudices against the conduct of the
     monks to be heightened by a letter from one of the name of
     Beerly, at Pershore; who, in order that he might escape the
     general wreck, turned tail upon his brethren, and vilified
     them as liberally as their professed enemies had done. Now,
     to say the least, this was not obtaining what Chief Baron
     Gilbert, in his famous Law of Evidence, has laid it down as
     necessary to be obtained--"the best possible evidence that
     the nature of the case will admit of." It is worth remarking
     that Fuller has incorporated a particular account of the
     names of the abbots and of the carnal enormities of which
     they are supposed to have been guilty; but he adds that he
     took it from the 3d edition of Speed's _Hist. of Great
     Britain_, and (what is worth special notice) that it was not
     to be found in the prior ones: "being a posthume addition
     after the author's death, attested in the margine with the
     authority of Henry Steven his _Apologie for Herodotus_, who
     took the same out of an English book, containing the
     _Vileness discovered at the Visitation of Monasteries_."
     _Church History_, b. vi., pp. 316, 317.]

A pause perhaps of one moment might have ensued. A consideration of
what had been done, in these monasteries, for the preservation of the
literature of past ages, and for the cultivation of elegant and
peaceful pursuits, might, like "the still small voice" of conscience,
have suspended, for a second, the final sentence of confiscation. The
hospitality for which the owners of these places had been, and were
then, eminently distinguished; but more especially the yet higher
consideration of their property having been left with them only as a
sacred pledge to be handed down, unimpaired, to their successors--these
things,[310] one would think, might have infused some little mercy
and moderation into Henry's decrees!

     [Footnote 310: There are two points, concerning the
     subversion of monasteries, upon which all sensible Roman
     Catholics make a rest, and upon which they naturally indulge
     a too well-founded grief. The dispersion of books or
     interruption of study; and the breaking up of ancient
     hospitality. Let us hear Collier upon the subject: "The
     advantages accruing to the public from these religious
     houses were considerable, upon several accounts. To mention
     some of them: The temporal nobility and gentry had a
     creditable way of providing for their younger children.
     Those who were disposed to withdraw from the world, or not
     likely to make their fortunes in it, had a handsome retreat
     to the cloister. Here they were furnished with conveniences
     for life and study, with opportunities for thought and
     recollection; and, over and above, passed their time in a
     condition not unbecoming their quality."--"The abbies were
     very serviceable places for the education of young people:
     every convent had one person or more assigned for this
     business. Thus the children of the neighbourhood were taught
     grammar and music without any charge to their parents. And,
     in the nunneries, those of the other sex learned to work and
     read English, with some advances into Latin," &c.--"Farther,
     it is to the abbies we are obliged for most of our
     historians, both of church and state: these places of
     retirement had both most learning and leisure for such
     undertakings: neither did they want information for such
     employment," _Ecclesiastical History_, vol. ii., 165. A host
     of Protestant authors, with Lord Herbert at the head of
     them, might be brought forward to corroborate these sensible
     remarks of Collier. The hospitality of the monastic life has
     been on all sides admitted; and, according to Lord Coke, one
     of the articles of impeachment against Cardinal Wolsey was
     that he had caused "this hospitality and relief to grow into
     decay and disuse;" which was "a great cause that there were
     so many vagabonds, beggars, and thieves;"--_Fourth
     Institute_; p. 91, edit. 1669. So that the author of an
     ancient, and now rarely perused work had just reason, in
     describing the friars of his time as "living in common upon
     the goods of a monastery, either gotten by common labour, or
     else upon lands and possessions where with the monastery was
     endowed." _Pype or Tonne of the Lyfe of Perfection_; fol.
     clxxii., rev. 1532, 4to. And yet, should the active
     bibliomaniac be disposed to peruse this work, after
     purchasing Mr. Triphook's elegant copy of the same, he might
     probably not think very highly of the author's good sense,
     when he found him gravely telling us that "the appetite of
     clean, sweet, and fair, or fine cloaths, and oft-washing and
     curious _pykyng_ of the body, is an enemy of chastity," fol.
     ccxxix. rect. The DEVASTATION OF BOOKS was, I fear,
     sufficiently frightful to warrant the following writers in
     their respective conclusions. "A judicious author (says
     Ashmole) speaking of the dissolution of our monasteries,
     saith thus: Many manuscripts, guilty of no other
     superstition then (having) _red letters_ in the front, were
     condemned to the fire: and here a principal key of antiquity
     was lost, to the great prejudice of posterity. Indeed (such
     was learning's misfortune, at that great devastation of our
     English libraries, that) where a _red letter_ or a
     mathematical diagram appeared, they were sufficient to
     entitle the book to be popish or diabolical." _Theatrum
     Chemicum_; prolegom. A. 2. rev. "The avarice of the late
     intruders was so mean, and their ignorance so
     undistinguishing, that, when the books happened to have
     COSTLY COVERS, they tore them off, and threw away the works,
     or turned them to the vilest purposes." _Life of Reginald
     Pole_; vol. i., p. 253-4, edit. 1767, 8vo. The author of
     this last quotation then slightly notices what Bale has said
     upon these book-devastations; and which I here subjoin at
     full length; from my first edition of this work:--"Never
     (says Bale) had we been offended for the loss of our
     LIBRARIES, being so many in number, and in so desolate
     places for the more part, if the chief monuments and most
     notable works of our excellent writers had been preserved.
     If there had been, in every shire of England, but one
     SOLEMPNE LIBRARY, to the preservation of those noble works,
     and preferment of good learning in our posterity, it had
     been yet somewhat. But to destroy all, without
     consideration, is, and will be, unto England, for ever, a
     most horrible infamy among the grave seniors of other
     nations. A great number of them, which purchased those
     superstitious mansions, reserved of those library-books some
     to serve the _jakes_, some to scour their candlesticks, and
     some to rub their boots: some they sold to the grocers and
     soap sellers; some they sent over sea to the book-binders,
     not in small number, but at times whole ships full, to the
     wondering of the foreign nations. Yea, the Universities of
     the realm are not all clear of this detestable fact. But
     cursed is that belly which seeketh to be fed with such
     ungodly gains, and shameth his natural country. I know a
     merchant man, which shall at this time be nameless, that
     _bought the contents of two noble libraries for forty
     shillings price_; a shame it is to be spoken! This stuff
     hath he occupied in the stead of grey paper, by the space of
     more than ten years, and yet he hath store enough for as
     many years to come!" Preface to _Leland's Laboryouse
     Journey_, &c., 1549, 8vo. Reprint of 1772; sign. C.]

PHIL. But what can be said in defence of the dissolute lives of the
monks?

LYSAND. Dissoluteness shall never be defended by me, let it be shewn
by whom it may; and therefore I will not take the part, on this head,
of the tenants of old monasteries. But, Philemon, consider with what
grace could this charge come from HIM who had "shed innocent blood,"
to gratify his horrid lusts?

LIS. Yet, tell me, did not the dissolution of these libraries in some
respects equally answer the ends of literature, by causing the books
to come into other hands?

LYSAND. No doubt, a few studious men reaped the benefit of this
dispersion, by getting possession of many curious volumes with which,
otherwise, they might never have been acquainted. If my memory be not
treacherous, the celebrated grammarian ROBERT WAKEFIELD[311] was
singularly lucky in this way. It is time, however, to check my
rambling ideas. A few more words only, and we cease to sermonize upon
the Reformation.

     [Footnote 311: "This ROBERT WAKEFIELD was the prime linguist
     of his time, having obtained beyond the seas the Greek,
     Hebrew, Chaldaic, and Syriac tongues. In one thing he is to
     be commended, and that is this, that he carefully preserved
     divers books of Greek and Hebrew at the dissolution of
     religious houses, and especially some of those in the
     library of Ramsey abbey, composed by Laurence Holbecke, monk
     of that place, in the reign of Henry IV. He died at London
     8th October, 1537, leaving behind him the name of _Polypus_,
     as Leland is pleased to style him, noting that he was of a
     witty and crafty behaviour." Wood's _Hist. of Colleges and
     Halls_, p. 429, Gutch's edit.]

PHIL. There is no occasion to be extremely laconic. The evening has
hardly yet given way to night. The horizon, I dare say, yet faintly
glows with the setting-sun-beams. But proceed as you will.

LYSAND. The commotions which ensued from the arbitrary measures of
Henry were great;[312] but such as were naturally to be expected. At
length Henry died, and a young and amiable prince reigned for a few
months. Mary next ascended the throne; and the storm took an opposite
direction. Then an attempt was made to restore chalices, crucifixes,
and missals. But the short period of her sovereignty making way for
the long and illustrious one of her sister Elizabeth, the Cecils and
Walsinghams[313] united their great talents with the equally vigorous
ones of the Queen and her favourite archbishop Parker, in establishing
that form of religion which, by partaking in a reasonable degree of
the solemnity of the Romish church, and by being tempered with great
simplicity and piety in its prayers, won its way to the hearts of the
generality of the people. Our _Great English Bibles_[314] were now
restored to their conspicuous situations; and the Bibliomania, in
consequence, began to spread more widely and effectively.

     [Footnote 312: Fuller has devoted one sentence only, and
     that not written with his usual force, to the havoc and
     consternation which ensued on the devastation of the
     monasteries. _Ch. Hist._, b. vi., p. 314. Burnet is a little
     more moving: _Hist. of the Reformation_; vol. i., p. 223.
     But, from the foregoing premises, the reader may probably be
     disposed to admit the conclusion of a virulent Roman
     Catholic writer, even in its fullest extent: namely, that
     there were "subverted monasteries, overthrown abbies, broken
     churches, torn castles, rent towers, overturned walls of
     towns and fortresses, with the confused heaps of all ruined
     monuments." _Treatise of Treasons_, 1572, 8vo., fol. 148,
     rev.]

     [Footnote 313: There are few bibliographers at all versed in
     English literature and history, who have not heard, by some
     side wind or other, of the last mentioned work; concerning
     which Herbert is somewhat interesting in his notes:
     _Typographical Antiquities_, vol. iii., p. 1630. The reader
     is here presented with a copious extract from this curious
     and scarce book--not for the sake of adding to these
     ponderous notes relating to the REFORMATION--(a subject,
     upon which, from a professional feeling, I thought it my
     duty to say something!)--but for the sake of showing how
     dexterously the most important events and palpable truths
     may be described and perverted by an artful and headstrong
     disputant. The work was written expressly to defame
     ELIZABETH, CECIL, and BACON, and to introduce the Romish
     religion upon the ruins of the Protestant. The author thus
     gravely talks

     "_Of Queen Mary and her Predecessors._

     "She (Mary) found also the whole face of the commonwealth
     settled and acquieted in the ancient religion; in which, and
     by which, all kings and queens of that realm (from as long
     almost before the conquest as that conquest was before that
     time) had lived, reigned, and maintained their states; and
     the terrible correction of those few that swerved from it
     notorious, as no man could be ignorant of it. As King John,
     without error in religion, for contempt only of the See
     Apostolic, plagued with the loss of his state, till he
     reconciled himself, and acknowledged to hold his crown of
     the Pope. King Henry VIII., likewise, with finding no end of
     heading and hanging, till (with the note of tyranny for
     wasting his nobility) he had headed him also that procured
     him to it. Fol. 85, 86.

     "_Libellous Character of Cecil._

     "In which stem and trunk (being rotten at heart, hollow
     within, and without sound substance) hath our spiteful
     pullet (CECIL) laid her ungracious eggs, mo than a few: and
     there hath hatched sundry of them, and brought forth
     chickens of her own feather, I warrant you. A hen I call
     him, as well for his cackling, ready and smooth tongue,
     wherein he giveth place to none, as for his deep and subtle
     art in hiding his serpentine eggs from common men's sight:
     chiefly for his hennish heart and courage, which twice
     already hath been well proved to be as base and deject at
     the sight of any storm of adverse fortune, as ever was hen's
     heart at the sight of a fox. And, had he not been by his
     confederate, as with a dunghill cock, trodden as it were and
     gotten with egg, I doubt whether ever his hennish heart,
     joined to his shrewd wit, would have served him, so soon to
     put the Q.'s green and tender state in so manifest peril and
     adventure. Fol. 88, rect.

     "_Libellous Characters of Cecil and N. Bacon._

     "Let the houses and possessions of these two Catalines be
     considered, let their furniture, and building, let their
     daily purchases, and ready hability to purchase still, let
     their offices and functions wherein they sit, let their
     titles, and styles claimed and used, let their places in
     council, let their authority over the nobility, let their
     linking in alliance with the same, let their access to the
     prince, let their power and credit with her: let this their
     present state, I say, in all points (being open and unknown
     to no men) be compared with their base parentage and
     progeny, (the one raised out of the robes, and the other
     from a _Sheeprive's_ son) and let that give sentence as well
     of the great difference of the tastes, that the several
     fruits gathered of this tree by your Q., and by them do
     yield, as whether any man at this day approach near unto
     them in any condition wherein advancement consisteth. Yea,
     mark you the jollity and pride that in this prosperity they
     shew; the port and countenance that every way they carry; in
     comparison of them that be noble by birth. Behold at whose
     doors your nobility attendeth. Consider in whose chambers
     your council must sit, and to whom for resolutions they must
     resort; and let these things determine both what was the
     purpose indeed, and hidden intention of that change of
     religion, and who hath gathered the benefits of that
     mutation: that is to say, whether for your Q., for your
     realms, or for their own sakes, the same at first was taken
     in hand, and since pursued as you have seen. For according
     to the principal effects of every action must the intent of
     the act be deemed and presumed. For the objected excuses
     (that they did it for conscience, or for fear of the French)
     be too frivolous and vain to abuse any wise man. For they
     that under King Henry were as catholic, as the six articles
     required: that under King Edward were such Protestants as
     the Protector would have them; that under Q. Mary were
     Catholics again, even to creeping to the Cross: and that
     under Q. Elizabeth were first Lutheran, setting up Parker,
     Cheiny, Gest, Bill, &c., then Calvinists, advancing
     Grindall, Juell, Horne, &c.: then Puritans, maintaining
     Sampson, Deering, Humfrey, &c.; and now (if not Anabaptists
     and Arians) plain Machiavellians, yea, that they persuade in
     public speeches that man hath free liberty to dissemble his
     religion, and for authority do allege their own examples and
     practice of feigning one religion for another in Q. Mary's
     time (which containeth a manifest evacuation of Christ's own
     coming and doctrine, of the Apostles, preaching and
     practice, of the blood of the martyrs, of the constancy of
     all confessors; yea, and of the glorious vain deaths of all
     the stinking martyrs of their innumerable sects of
     hereticks, one and other having always taught the confession
     of mouth to be as necessary to salvation as the belief of
     heart): shall these men now be admitted to plead conscience
     in religion; and can any man now be couzined so much, as to
     think that these men by conscience were then moved to make
     that mutation?" Fol. 96, 97. "At home, likewise, apparent it
     is how they provided, every way to make themselves strong
     there also. For being by their own marriages allied already
     to the house of Suffolk of the blood royal, and by
     consequence thereof to the house of Hertford also, and their
     children thereby incorporated to both: mark you how now by
     marriage of their children with wily wit and wealth
     together, they wind in your other noblest houses unto them
     that are left, I mean in credit and countenance. Consider
     likewise how, at their own commendation and preferment, they
     have erected, as it were, almost a new half of your nobility
     (of whom also they have reason to think themselves assured)
     and the rest then (that were out of hope to be won to their
     faction) behold how, by sundry fine devices, they are either
     cut off, worn out, fled, banished or defaced at home," &c.,
     fol. 105, rect. The good LORD BURGHLEY, says Strype, was so
     moved at this slander that he uttered these words: "God
     amend his spirit, and confound his malice." And by way of
     protestation of the integrity and faithfulness of both their
     services, "God send this estate no worse meaning servants,
     in all respects, than we two have been." _Annals of the
     Reformation_, vol. ii., 178. Camden's _Hist. of Q.
     Elizabeth_, p. 192,--as quoted by Herbert.]

     [Footnote 314: "All curates must continually call upon their
     parochians to provide a book of the _Holy Bible in English_,
     of THE LARGEST FORM, within 40 days next after the
     publication hereof, that may be chained in some open place
     in the church," &c. Injunctions by Lee, Archbishop of York:
     Burnet's _Hist. of the Reformation_, vol. iii., p. 136,
     Collections. This custom of fixing a great bible in the
     centre of a place of worship yet obtains in some of the
     chapels attached to the colleges at Oxford. That of Queen's,
     in particular, has a noble brazen eagle, with outstretched
     wings, upon which the foundation members read the lessons of
     the day in turn.]

LOREN. Had you not better confine yourself to personal anecdote,
rather than enter into the boundless field of historical survey?

LYSAND. I thank you for the hint. Having sermonized upon the general
features of the Reformation, we will resume the kind of discourse with
which we at first set out.

PHIL. But you make no mention of the number of curious and fugitive
pamphlets of the day, which were written in order to depreciate and
exterminate the Roman Catholic religion? Some of these had at least
the merit of tartness and humour.

LYSAND. Consult Fox's _Martyrology_,[315] if you wish to have some
general knowledge of these publications; although I apprehend you will
not find in that work any mention of the poetical pieces of Skelton
and Roy; nor yet of Ramsay.

     [Footnote 315: The curious reader who wishes to become
     master of all the valuable, though sometimes loose,
     information contained in this renowned work--upon which Dr.
     Wordsworth has pronounced rather a warm eulogium
     (_Ecclesiastical Biography_, vol. i., p. xix.)--should
     secure the _first_ edition, as well as the latter one of
     1641, or 1684; inasmuch as this first impression, of the
     date of 1563, is said by Hearne to be "omnium optima:" see
     his Adami de Domerham, _Hist. de reb. gest. Glaston._, vol.
     i., p. xxii. I also learn, from an original letter of
     Anstis, in the possession of Mr. John Nichols, that "the
     late editions are not quite so full in some particulars, and
     that many things are left out about the Protector Seymour."]

LOREN. Skelton and Roy are in my library;[316] but who is RAMSAY?

     [Footnote 316: Vide p. 226, ante.]

LYSAND. He wrote a comical poetical satire against the Romish priests,
under the title of "_A Plaister for a galled Horse_,"[317] which
Raynald printed in a little thin quarto volume of six or seven pages.

     [Footnote 317: In Herbert's _Typographical Antiquities_,
     vol. i., p. 581, will be found rather a slight notice of
     this raw and vulgar satire. It has, however, stamina of its
     kind; as the reader may hence judge:

          Mark the gesture, who that lyst;
          First a shorne shauelynge, clad in a clowt,
          Bearinge the name of an honest priest,
          And yet in no place a starker lowte.
          A whore monger, a dronkard, ye makyn him be snowte--
          At the alehouses he studieth, till hys witte he doth lacke.
          Such are your minysters, to bringe thys matter about:
          But guppe ye god-makers, beware your galled backe.

          Then wraped in a knaues skynne, as ioly as my horse,
          Before the aulter, in great contemplacion
          Confessinge the synnes of his lubbrysh corse
          To god and all saynctes, he counteth hys abhomination
          Then home to the aulter, with great saintification
          With crosses, and blesses, with his boy lytle Jacke:
          Thus forth goeth syr Jhon with all his preparation.
          But guppe ye god-makers, beware your galled backe.

          Then gloria in excelsis for ioye dothe he synge
          More for his fat liuinge, than for devocion:
          And many there be that remember another thinge
          Which syng not wyth mery hart for lacke of promocion
          Thus some be mery, some be sory according to their porcion
          Then forth cometh collects, bounde up in a packe,
          For this sainct and that sainct, for sickenes, and extorcion
          But guppe ye god-makers, beware your galled backe.

          Stanzas, 17, 18, 19.

     At the sale of Mr. Brand's books, in 1807, a copy of this
     rare tract, of six or seven pages, was sold for 3_l._ 17_s._
     6_d._ Vide _Bibl. Brand_, part i., no. 1300. This was
     surely more than both plaister and horse were worth! A
     poetical satire of a similar kind, entitled "_John Bon and
     Mast Person_," was printed by Daye and Seres; who struck off
     but a few copies, but who were brought into considerable
     trouble for the same. The virulence with which the author
     and printer of this lampoon were persecuted in Mary's reign
     is sufficiently attested by the care which was taken to
     suppress every copy that could be secured. The only perfect
     known copy of this rare tract was purchased at the sale of
     Mr. R. Forster's books, for the Marquis of Bute; and Mr.
     Stace, the bookseller, had privilege to make a fac-simile
     reprint of it; of which there were six copies struck off
     UPON VELLUM. It being now rather common with
     book-collectors, there is no necessity to make a quotation
     from it here. Indeed there is very little in it deserving of
     republication.]

LOREN. I will make a memorandum to try to secure this "comical" piece,
as you call it; but has it never been reprinted in our "_Corpora
Poetarum Anglicorum_?"

LYSAND. Never to the best of my recollection. Mr. Alexander Chalmers
probably shewed his judgment in the omission of it, in his lately
published collection of our poets. A work, which I can safely
recommend to you as being, upon the whole, one of the most faithful
and useful, as well as elegant, compilations of its kind, that any
country has to boast of. But I think I saw it in your library,
Lorenzo?--

LOREN. It was certainly there, and bound in stout Russia, when we
quitted it for this place.

LIS. Dispatch your "gall'd horse," and now--having placed a justly
merited wreath round the brow of your poetical editor, proceed--as
Lorenzo has well said--with personal anecdotes. What has become of
Wyatt and Surrey--and when shall we reach Leland and Bale?

LYSAND. I crave your mercy, Master Lisardo! One at a time. Gently ride
your bibliomaniacal hobby-horse!

WYATT and SURREY had, beyond all question, the most exquisitely
polished minds of their day. They were far above the generality of
their compeers. But although Hall chooses to notice _the whistle_[318]
of the latter, it does not follow that I should notice his _library_,
if I am not able to discover any thing particularly interesting
relating to the same. And so, wishing every lover of his country's
literature to purchase a copy of the poems of both these heroes,[319]
I march onward to introduce a new friend to you, who preceded Leland
in his career, and for an account of whom we are chiefly indebted to
the excellent and best editor of the works of Spencer and Milton.
Did'st ever hear, Lisardo, of one WILLIAM THYNNE?

     [Footnote 318: About the year 1519, Hall mentions the Earl
     of Surrey "on a great coursir richely trapped, and a greate
     whistle of gold set with stones and perle, hanging at a
     great and massy chayne baudrick-wise." Chronicles: p. 65, a.
     See Warton's _Life of Sir Thomas Pope_: p. 166, note o., ed.
     1780. This is a very amusing page about the custom of
     wearing whistles, among noblemen, at the commencement of the
     16th century. If Franklin had been then alive, he would have
     had abundant reason for exclaiming that these men "paid too
     much for their _whistles_!"]

     [Footnote 319: Till the long promised, elaborate, and
     beautiful edition of the works of SIR THOMAS WYATT and LORD
     SURREY, by the Rev. Dr. Nott,[E] shall make its appearance,
     the bibliomaniac must satisfy his book-appetite, about the
     editions of the same which have already appeared, by
     perusing the elegant volumes of Mr. George Ellis, and Mr.
     Park; _Specimens of the Early English Poets_; vol. ii., pp.
     43-67: _Royal and Noble Authors_, vol. i., pp. 255-276. As
     to early black letter editions, let him look at _Bibl.
     Pearson_, no. 2544; where, however, he will find only the
     7th edition of 1587: the first being of the date of 1557.
     The eighth and last edition was published by Tonson, in
     1717, 8vo. It will be unpardonable not to add that the Rev.
     Mr. Conybeare is in possession of a perfect copy of Lord
     Surrey's Translation of a part of the Æneid, which is the
     third only known copy in existence. Turn to the animating
     pages of Warton, _Hist. Engl. Poetry_; vol. iii., pp. 2-21,
     about this translation and its author.]

     [Footnote E: Conducting this celebrated book through the
     press occupied Dr. Nott several years; it was printed by the
     father of the printer of this work, in two large 4to.
     volumes--and was just finished when, in the year 1819, the
     Bolt Court printing-office, and all it contained, was
     destroyed by fire. Only _two_ copies of the works of Wyatt
     and Surrey escaped, having been sent to Dr. Nott by the
     printer, as _clean sheets_.]

LIS. Pray make me acquainted with him.

LYSAND. You will love him exceedingly when you thoroughly know him;
because he was the first man in this country who took pains to do
justice to Chaucer, by collecting and collating the mutilated editions
of his works. Moreover, he rummaged a great number of libraries, under
the express order of Henry VIII.; and seems in every respect (if we
may credit the apparently frank testimony of his son[320]), to have
been a thoroughbred bibliomaniac. Secure Mr. Todd's _Illustrations of
Gower and Chaucer_, and set your heart at ease upon the subject.

     [Footnote 320: "--but (my father, WILLIAM THYNNE) further
     had commissione to serche all the libraries of England for
     Chaucer's works, so that oute of all the abbies of this
     realme (which reserved any monuments thereof), he was fully
     furnished with multitude of bookes," &c. On Thynne's
     discovering Chaucer's Pilgrim's Tale, when Henry VIII. had
     read it--"he called (continues the son) my father unto hym,
     sayinge, 'William Thynne, I doubt this will not be allowed,
     for I suspecte the byshoppes will call thee in question for
     yt.' To whome my father beinge in great fauore with his
     prince, sayed, 'yf your Grace be not offended, I hope to be
     protected by you.' Whereupon the kinge bydd hym goo his waye
     and feare not," &c. "But to leave this, I must saye that, in
     those many written bookes of Chaucer, which came to my
     father's hands, there were many false copyes, which Chaucer
     shewethe in writinge of Adam Scriuener, of which written
     copies there came to me, after my father's death, some fyve
     and twentye," &c. _Illustrations of Gower and Chaucer_; pp.
     11, 13, 15. Let us not hesitate one moment about the
     appellation of _Helluo Librorum_,--justly due to MASTER
     WILLIAM THYNNE!]

But it is time to introduce your favourite LELAND: a bibliomaniac of
unparalleled powers and unperishable fame. To entwine the wreath of
praise round the brow of this great man seems to have been considered
by Bale among the most exquisite gratifications of his existence. It
is with no small delight, therefore, Lorenzo, that I view, at this
distance, the marble bust of Leland in yonder niche of your library,
with a laureate crown upon its pedestal. And with almost equal
satisfaction did I observe, yesterday, during the absence of Philemon
and Lisardo at the book-sale, the handsome manner in which
Harrison,[321] in his _Description of England_, prefixed to
Holinshed's Chronicles, has spoken of this illustrious antiquary. No
delays, no difficulties, no perils, ever daunted his personal
courage, or depressed his mental energies. Enamoured of study, to the
last rational moment of his existence, Leland seems to have been born
for the "Laborious Journey" which he undertook in search of truth, as
she was to be discovered among mouldering records, and worm-eaten
volumes. Uniting the active talents of a statist with the painful
research of an antiquary, he thought nothing too insignificant for
observation. The confined streamlet or the capacious river--the
obscure village or the populous town--were, with parchment rolls and
oaken-covered books, alike objects of curiosity in his philosophic
eye! Peace to his once vexed spirit!--and never-fading honours attend
the academical society in which his youthful mind was disciplined to
such laudable pursuits!

     [Footnote 321: "One helpe, and none of the smallest, that I
     obtained herein, was by such commentaries as LELAND had
     sometime collected of the state of Britaine; books vtterlie
     mangled, defaced with wet and weather, and finallie
     vnperfect through want of sundrie volumes." _Epistle
     Dedicatorie_; vol. i., p. vi., edit. 1807. The history of
     this great man, and of his literary labours, is most
     interesting. He was a pupil of William Lilly, the first
     head-master of St. Paul's school; and, by the kindness and
     liberality of a Mr. Myles, he afterwards received the
     advantage of a college education, and was supplied with
     money in order to travel abroad, and make such collections
     as he should deem necessary for the great work which even
     then seemed to dawn upon his young and ardent mind. Leland
     endeavoured to requite the kindness of his benefactor by an
     elegant copy of Latin verses, in which he warmly expatiates
     on the generosity of his patron, and acknowledges that his
     acquaintance with the _Almæ Matres_ (for he was of both
     Universities) was entirely the result of such beneficence.
     While he resided on the continent, he was admitted into the
     society of the most eminent Greek and Latin scholars, and
     could probably number among his correspondents the
     illustrious names of Budæus, Erasmus, the Stephenses, Faber
     and Turnebus. Here, too, he cultivated his natural taste for
     poetry; and, from inspecting the FINE BOOKS which the
     Italian and French presses had produced, as well as fired by
     the love of Grecian learning, which had fled, on the sacking
     of Constantinople, to take shelter in the academic bowers of
     the Medici--he seems to have matured his plans for carrying
     into effect the great work which had now taken full
     possession of his mind. He returned to England, resolved to
     institute an inquiry into the state of the LIBRARIES,
     ANTIQUITIES, RECORDS, and WRITINGS then in existence. Having
     entered into holy orders, and obtained preferment at the
     express interposition of the king (Henry VIII.), he was
     appointed his antiquary and library-keeper; and a royal
     commission was issued, in which Leland was directed to
     search after "ENGLAND'S ANTIQUITIES, and peruse the
     libraries of all cathedrals, abbies, priories, colleges,
     &c., as also all the places wherein records, writings, and
     secrets of antiquity were reposited." "Before Leland's
     time," says Hearne--in a strain which makes one
     shudder--"all the literary monuments of antiquity were
     totally disregarded; and students of Germany, apprized of
     this culpable indifference, were suffered to enter our
     libraries unmolested, and to cut out of the books, deposited
     there, whatever passages they thought proper--which they
     afterwards published as relics of the ancient literature of
     their own country." _Pref. to the Itinerary._ Leland was
     occupied, without intermission, in his laborious
     undertaking, for the space of six years; and, on its
     completion, he hastened to the metropolis to lay at the feet
     of his sovereign the result of his researches. As John Kay
     had presented his translation of the _Siege of Rhodes_ to
     Edward IV., as "A GIFT of his labour," so Leland presented
     his Itinerary to Henry VIII., under the title of _A New
     Year's Gift_; and it was first published as such by Bale in
     1549, 8vo. "Being inflamed," says the author, "with a love
     to see thoroughly all those parts of your opulent and ample
     realm, in so much that all my other occupations intermitted,
     I have so travelled in your dominions both by the sea coasts
     and the middle parts, sparing neither labour nor costs, by
     the space of six years past, that there is neither cape nor
     bay, haven, creek, or pier, river, or confluence of rivers,
     breaches, wastes, lakes, moors, fenny waters, mountains,
     valleys, heaths, forests, chases, woods, cities, burghes,
     castles, principal manor places, monasteries, and colleges,
     but I have seen them; and noted, in so doing, a whole world
     of things very memorable." Leland moreover tells his
     majesty--that "By his laborious journey and costly
     enterprise, he had conserved many good authors, the which
     otherwise had been like to have perished; of the which part
     remained in the royal palaces, part also in his own
     custody," &c. As Leland was engaged six years in this
     literary tour, so he was occupied for a no less period of
     time in digesting and arranging the prodigious number of
     MSS. which he had collected. But he sunk beneath the
     immensity of the task. The want of amanuenses, and of other
     attentions and comforts, seems to have deeply affected him.
     In this melancholy state, he wrote to Archbishop Cranmer a
     Latin epistle, in verse, of which the following is the
     commencement--very forcibly describing his situation and
     anguish of mind:

          Est congesta mihi domi supellex
          Ingens, aurea, nobilis, venusta,
          Qua totus studeo Britanniarum
          Vero reddere gloriam nitori;
          Sed fortuna meis noverca coeptis
          Jam felicibus invidet maligna.

          Quare, ne pereant brevi vel hora
          Multarum mihi noctium labores
          Omnes----
          CRANMERE, eximium decus priorum!
          Implorare tuam benignitatem
          Cogor.

     The result was that Leland lost his senses; and, after
     lingering two years in a state of total derangement, he died
     on the 18th of April, 1552. "Prôh tristes rerum humanarum
     vices! prôh viri optimi deplorandam infelicissimamque
     sortem!" exclaims Dr. Smith, in his preface to Camden's
     Life, 1691, 4to. The precious and voluminous MSS. of Leland
     were doomed to suffer a fate scarcely less pitiable that
     [Transcriber's Note: than] that of their owner. After being
     pilfered by some, and garbled by others, they served to
     replenish the pages of Stow, Lambard, Camden, Burton,
     Dugdale, and many other antiquaries and historians.
     "Leland's Remains," says Bagford, "have been ever since a
     standard to all that have any way treated of the Antiquities
     of England. Reginald Wolfe intended to have made use of
     them, although this was not done 'till after his death by
     Harrison, Holinshed, and others concerned in that work.
     Harrison transcribed his Itinerary, giving a Description of
     England by the rivers, but he did not understand it. They
     have likewise been made use of by several in part, but how
     much more complete had this been, had it been finished by
     himself?" _Collectanea_: Hearne's edit., 1774; vol. i., p.
     LXXVII. Polydore Virgil, who had stolen from these Remains
     pretty freely, had the insolence to abuse Leland's
     memory--calling him "a vain-glorious man;" but what shall we
     say to this flippant egotist? who according to Caius's
     testimony (_De Antiq. Cantab. Acad._, lib. 1.) "to prevent a
     discovery of the many errors of his own History of England,
     collected and burnt a greater number of ancient histories
     and manuscripts than would have loaded a waggon." There are
     some (among whom I could number a most respectable friend
     and well qualified judge) who have doubted of the propriety
     of thus severely censuring Polydore Virgil; and who are even
     sceptical about his malpractices. But Sir Henry Savile, who
     was sufficiently contemporaneous to collect the best
     evidence upon the subject, thus boldly observes: "Nam
     Polydorus, ut homo Italus, et in rebus nostris hospes, et
     (quod caput est) neque in republica versatus, nec magni
     alioqui vel judicii vel ingenii, pauca ex multis delibans,
     et falsa plerumque pro veris amplexus, historiam nobis
     reliquit cum cætera mendosam tum exiliter sanè et jejunè
     conscriptam." _Script. post. Bedam._, edit. 1596; pref. "As
     for Polydore Virgil, he hath written either nothing or very
     little concerning them; and that so little, so false and
     misbeseeming the ingenuitie of an historian, that he seemeth
     to have aimed at no other end than, by bitter invectives
     against Henry VIII., and Cardinal Wolsey, to demerit the
     favour of Queen Mary," &c., Godwyn's translation of the
     _Annales of England_; edit. 1630, author's Preface. "It is
     also remarkable that Polydore Virgil's and Bishop Joscelin's
     edition of Gildas's epistle differ so materially that the
     author of it hardly seems to be one and the same person."
     This is Gale's opinion: _Rer. Anglican. Script. Vet._; vol.
     i., pref., p. 4. Upon the whole--to return to Leland--it
     must be acknowledged that he is a melancholy, as well as
     illustrious, example of the influence of the BIBLIOMANIA!
     But do not let us take leave of him without a due
     contemplation of his expressive features, as they are given
     in the frontispiece of the first volume of the Lives of
     Leland, Hearne, and Wood. 1772, 8vo.

     [Illustration: IN REFECTORIO COLL. OMN. ANIM. OXON.]]

BALE follows closely after Leland. This once celebrated, and yet
respectable, writer had probably more zeal than discretion; but his
exertions in the cause of our own church can never be mentioned
without admiration. I would not, assuredly, quote Bale as a decisive
authority in doubtful or difficult cases;[322] but, as he lived in
the times of which he in a great measure wrote, and as his society was
courted by the wealthy and powerful, I am not sure whether he merits
to be treated with the roughness with which some authors mention his
labours. He had, certainly, a tolerable degree of strength in his
English style; but he painted with a pencil which reminded us more
frequently of the horrific pictures of Spagnoletti than of the tender
compositions of Albano. That he idolized his master, Leland, so
enthusiastically, will always cover, in my estimation, a multitude of
his errors: and that he should leave a scholar's inventory (as Fuller
saps [Transcriber's Note: says]), "more books than money behind him,"
will at least cause him to be numbered among the most renowned
bibliomaniacs.

     [Footnote 322: Like all men, who desert a religion which
     they once enthusiastically profess, Bale, after being
     zealous for the papal superstitions, holding up his hands to
     rotten posts, and calling them his "fathers in heaven,"
     (according to his own confession) became a zealous
     Protestant, and abused the church of Rome with a virulence
     almost unknown in the writings of his predecessors. But in
     spite of his coarseness, positiveness, and severity, he
     merits the great praise of having done much in behalf of the
     cause of literature. His attachment to Leland is,
     unquestionably, highly to his honour; but his biographies,
     especially of the Romish prelates, are as monstrously
     extravagant as his plays are incorrigibly dull. He had a
     certain rough honesty and prompt benevolence of character,
     which may be thought to compensate for his grosser failings.
     His reputation as a _bibliomaniac_ is fully recorded in the
     anecdote mentioned at p. 234, ante. His "magnum opus," the
     _Scriptores Britanniæ_, has already been noticed with
     sufficient minuteness; vide p. 31, ante. It has not escaped
     severe animadversion. Francis Thynne tells us that Bale has
     "mistaken infynyte thinges in that booke de Scriptoribus
     Anglie, being for the most part the collections of Lelande."
     _Illustrations of Gower and Chaucer_; p. 23. Picard, in his
     wretched edition of _Gulielmus Neubrigensis_ (edit. 1610, p.
     672), has brought a severe accusation against the author of
     having "burnt or torn all the copies of the works which he
     described, after he had taken the titles of them;" but see
     this charge successfully rebutted in Dr. Pegge's
     _Anonymiana_; p. 311. That Bale's library, especially in the
     department of manuscripts, was both rich and curious, is
     indisputable, from the following passage in _Strype's Life
     of Archbishop Parker_. "The archbishop laid out for BALE'S
     rare collection of MSS. immediately upon his death, fearing
     that they might be gotten by somebody else. Therefore he
     took care to bespeak them before others, and was promised to
     have them for his money, as he told Cecil. And perhaps
     divers of those books that do now make proud the University
     Library, and that of Benet and some other colleges, in
     Cambridge, were Bale's," p. 539. It would seem, from the
     same authority, that our bibliomaniac "set himself to search
     the libraries in Oxford, Cambridge, London (wherein there
     was but one, and that a slender one), Norwich, and several
     others in Norfolk and Suffolk: whence he had collected
     enough for another volume De Scriptoribus Britannicis."
     _Ibid._ The following very beautiful wood-cut of Bale's
     portrait is taken from the original, of the same size, in
     the _Acta Romanorum Pontificum_; Basil, 1527, 8vo. A similar
     one, on a larger scale, will be found in the "_Scriptores_,"
     &c., published at Basil, 1557, or 1559--folio. Mr. Price,
     the principal librarian of the Bodleian Library, shewed me a
     rare head of Bale, of a very different cast of features--in
     a small black-letter book, of which I have forgotten the
     name.

     [Illustration]]

Before I enter upon the reign of Elizabeth, let me pay a passing, but
sincere, tribute of respect to the memory of CRANMER; whose _Great
Bible_[323] is at once a monument of his attachment to the Protestant
religion, and to splendid books. His end was sufficiently lamentable;
but while the flames were consuming his parched body, and while his
right hand, extended in the midst of them, was reproached by him for
its former act of wavering and "offence," he had the comfort of
soothing his troubled spirit by reflecting upon what his past life had
exhibited in the cause of learning, morality, and religion.[324] Let
his memory be respected among virtuous bibliomaniacs!

     [Footnote 323: I have perused what Strype (_Life of
     Cranmer_, pp. 59, 63, 444), Lewis (_History of English
     Bibles_, pp. 122-137), Johnson (_Idem opus_, pp. 33-42), and
     Herbert (_Typog. Antiquities_, vol. i., p. 513,) have
     written concerning the biblical labours of Archbishop
     Cranmer; but the accurate conclusion to be drawn about the
     publication which goes under the name of CRANMER'S, or THE
     GREAT BIBLE, [Transcriber's Note: 'is' missing in original]
     not quite so clear as bibliographers may imagine. However,
     this is not the place to canvass so intricate a subject. It
     is sufficient that a magnificent impression of the Bible in
     the English language, with a superb frontispiece (which has
     been most feebly and inadequately copied for Lewis's work),
     under the archiepiscopal patronage of CRANMER, did make its
     appearance in 1539: and it has been my good fortune to turn
     over the leaves of the identical copy of it, printed UPON
     VELLUM, concerning which Thomas Baker expatiates so
     eloquently to his bibliomaniacal friend, Hearne. _Rob. of
     Gloucester's Chronicle_; vol. i., p. xix. This copy is in
     the library of St. John's College, Cambridge; and is now
     placed upon a table, to the right hand, upon entering of the
     same: although formerly, according to Bagford's account, it
     was "among some old books in a private place nigh the
     library." _Idem_; p. xxii. There is a similar copy in the
     British Museum.]

     [Footnote 324: "And thus"--says Strype--(in a strain of
     pathos and eloquence not usually to be found in his
     writings) "we have brought this excellent prelate unto his
     end, after two years and a half hard imprisonment. His body
     was not carried to the grave in state, nor buried, as many
     of his predecessors were, in his own cathedral church, nor
     inclosed in a monument of marble or touchstone. Nor had he
     any inscription to set forth his praises to posterity. No
     shrine to be visited by devout pilgrims, as his
     predecessors, S. Dunstan and S. Thomas had. Shall we
     therefore say, as the poet doth:

          Marmoreo Licinus tumulo jacet, at Cato parvo,
            Pompeius nullo. Quis putet esse Deos?

     No; we are better Christians, I trust, than so: who are
     taught, that the rewards of God's elect are not temporal but
     eternal. And Cranmer's martyrdom is his monument, and his
     name will outlast an epitaph or a shrine." _Life of
     Cranmer_; p. 391. It would seem, from the same authority,
     that RIDLEY, LATIMER, and CRANMER, were permitted to dine
     together in prison, some little time before they suffered;
     although they were "placed in separate lodgings that they
     might not confer together." Strype saw "a book of their
     diet, every dinner and supper, and the charge thereof,"--as
     it was brought in by the bailiffs attending them.

     _Dinner Expenses of Ridley, Latimer, and Cranmer._

     Bread and Ale                                         ii_d._
     Item, Oisters                                          i_d._
     Item, Butter                                          ii_d._
     Item, Eggs                                            ii_d._
     Item, Lyng                                          viii_d._
     Item, A piece of fresh Salmon                          x_d._
     Wine                                                 iii_d._
     Cheese and pears                                      ii_d._

     _Charges for burning Ridley and Latimer._

                                                        _s._ _d._
     For three loads of wood fagots                      12   0
     Item, One load of furs fagots                        3   4
     For the carriage of the same                         2   0
     Item, A Post                                         1   4
     Item, Two chains                                     3   4
     Item, Two staples                                    0   6
     Item, Four Labourers                                 2   8

     _Charges for burning Cranmer._

                                                        _s._ _d._
     For an 100 of wood fagots,                          06   0
     For an 100 and half of furs fagots                  03   4
     For the carriage of them                             0   8
     To two labourers                                     1   4

     I will draw the curtain upon this dismal picture, by a short
     extract from one of Cranmer's letters, in which this great
     and good man thus ingeniously urges the necessity of the
     Scriptures being translated into the English language; a
     point, by the bye, upon which neither he, nor Cromwell, nor
     Latimer, I believe, were at first decided; "God's will and
     commandment is, (says Cranmer) that when the people be
     gathered together, the minister should use such language as
     the people may understand, and take profit thereby; or else
     hold their peace. For as an harp or lute, if it give no
     certain sound that men may know what is stricken, who can
     dance after it--for all the sound is vain; so is it vain and
     profiteth nothing, sayeth Almighty God, by the mouth of St.
     Paul, if the priest speak to the people in a language which
     they know not." _Certain most godly, fruitful, and
     comfortable letters of Saintes and holy Martyrs, &c._, 1564;
     4to., fol. 8.]

All hail to the sovereign who, bred up in severe habits of reading and
meditation, loved books and scholars to the very bottom of her heart!
I consider ELIZABETH as a royal bibliomaniac of transcendent fame!--I
see her, in imagination, wearing her favourite little _Volume of
Prayers_,[325] the composition of Queen Catherine Parr, and Lady
Tirwit, "bound in solid gold, and hanging by a gold chain at her
side," at her morning and evening devotions--afterwards, as she became
firmly seated upon her throne, taking an interest in the
embellishments of the _Prayer Book_,[326] which goes under her own
name; and then indulging her strong bibliomaniacal appetites in
fostering the institution "for the erecting of _a Library and an
Academy for the study of Antiquities and History_."[327]
Notwithstanding her earnestness to root out all relics of the Roman
Catholic religion (to which, as the best excuse, we must, perhaps,
attribute the sad cruelty of the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots), I
cannot in my heart forbear to think but that she secured, for her own
book-boudoir, one or two of the curious articles which the
commissioners often-times found in the libraries that they inspected:
and, amongst other volumes, how she could forbear pouncing upon "_A
great Pricksong Book of parchment_"--discovered in the library of All
Soul's College[328]--is absolutely beyond my wit to divine!

[Illustration]

     [Footnote 325: Of this curious little devotional volume the
     reader has already had some account (p. 119, ante); but if
     he wishes to enlarge his knowledge of the same, let him
     refer to vol. lx. pt. ii. and vol. lxi. pt. i. of the
     _Gentleman's Magazine_. By the kindness of Mr. John Nichols,
     I am enabled to present the bibliomaniacal virtuoso with a
     fac-simile of the copper-plate inserted in the latter volume
     (p. 321) of the authority last mentioned. It represents the
     GOLDEN COVER, or binding, of this precious manuscript. Of
     the Queen's attachment to works of this kind, the following
     is a pretty strong proof: "In the Bodl. library, among the
     MSS. in mus. num. 235, are the _Epistles of St. Paul, &c._,
     printed in an old black letter in 12o. which was _Queen
     Elizabeth's own book_, and her own hand writing appears at
     the beginning, viz.: "August. I walke many times into the
     pleasant fieldes of the Holy Scriptures, where I plucke up
     the goodliesome herbes of sentences by pruning: eate them by
     reading: chawe them by musing: and laie them up at length in
     the hie seate of memorie by gathering them together: that so
     having tasted their sweetenes I may the lesse perceave the
     bitterness of this miserable life." The covering is done in
     needle work by the Queen [then princess] herself, and
     thereon are these sentences, viz. on one side, on the
     borders; CELVM PATRIA: SCOPVS VITÆ XPVS. CHRISTVS VIA.
     CHRISTO VIVE. In the middle a heart, and round about it,
     ELEVA COR SVRSVM IBI VBI E.C. [est Christus]. On the other
     side, about the borders, BEATVS QVI DIVITIAS SCRIPTVRÆ
     LEGENS VERBA VERTIT IN OPERA. In the middle a star, and
     round it, VICIT OMNIA PERTINAX VIRTVS with E.C., _i.e._ as I
     take it, ELISABETHA CAPTIVA, or [provided it refer to
     Virtus] ELISABETHÆ CAPTIVÆ, she being, then, when she worked
     this covering, a prisoner, if I mistake not, at Woodstock."
     _Tit. Liv. For. Jul. vit. Henrici_ v., p. 228-229.

     [Illustration]]

     [Footnote 326: In the PRAYER-BOOK which goes by the name of
     QUEEN ELIZABETH'S, there is a portrait of her Majesty
     kneeling upon a superb cushion, with elevated hands, in
     prayer. This book was first printed in 1575; and is
     decorated with wood-cut borders of considerable spirit and
     beauty; representing, among other things, some of the
     subjects of Holbein's dance of death. The last impression is
     of the date of 1608. Vide _Bibl. Pearson_; no. 635. The
     presentation copy of it was probably printed UPON
     VELLUM.[F]]

     [Footnote 327: The famous John Dee entreated QUEEN MARY to
     erect an institution similar [Transcriber's Note: 'to'
     missing in original] the one above alluded to. If she
     adopted the measure, Dee says that "her highnesse would have
     a most NOTABLE LIBRARY, learning wonderfully be advanced,
     the passing excellent works of our forefathers from rot and
     worms preserved, and also hereafter continually the whole
     realm may (through her grace's goodness) use and enjoy the
     incomparable treasure so preserved: where now, no one
     student, no, nor any one college, hath half a dozen of those
     excellent jewels, but the whole stock and store thereof
     drawing nigh to utter destruction, and extinguishing, while
     here and there by private men's negligence (and sometimes
     malice) many a famous and excellent author's book is rent,
     burnt, or suffered to rot and decay. By your said
     suppliant's device your Grace's said library might, in very
     few years, most plentifully be furnisht, and that without
     any one penny charge unto your Majesty, or doing injury to
     any creature." In another supplicatory article, dated xv.
     Jan. 1556, Dee advises copies of the monuments to be taken,
     and the original, after the copy is taken, to be restored to
     the owner. That there should be "allowance of all necessary
     charges, as well toward the riding and journeying for the
     recovery of the said worthy monuments, as also for the
     copying out of the same, and framing of necessary stalls,
     desks, and presses."--He concludes with proposing to make
     copies of all the principal works in MS. "in the NOTABLEST
     libraries beyond the sea"--"and as concerning all other
     excellent authors printed, that they likewise shall be
     gotten in wonderful abundance, their carriage only to be
     chargeable." He supposes that three months' trial would shew
     the excellence of his plan; which he advises to be instantly
     put into practice "for fear of the spreading of it abroad
     might cause many to hide and convey away their good and
     ancient writers--which, nevertheless, were ungodly done, and
     a certain token that such are not sincere lovers of good
     learning." [In other words, not sound bibliomaniacs.] See
     the Appendix to Hearne's edition of _Joh. Confrat. Monach.
     de Reb. Glaston._ Dee's "supplication" met with no attention
     from the bigotted sovereign to whom it was addressed. A
     project for a similar establishment in Queen Elizabeth's
     reign, when a Society of Antiquaries was first established
     in this kingdom, may be seen in Hearne's _Collection of
     Curious Discourses of Antiquaries_; vol. ii., p. 324,--when
     this library was "to be entitled THE LIBRARY OF QUEEN
     ELIZABETH, and the same to be well furnished with divers
     ancient books, and rare monuments of antiquity," &c., edit.
     1775.]

     [Footnote 328: In Mr. Gutch's _Collectanea Curiosa_, vol.
     ii., p. 275, we have a "Letter from Queen Elizabeth's high
     commissioners, concerning the superstitious books belonging
     to All Soul's College:" the "schedule" or list returned was
     as follows:

     Three mass books, old and new, and 2 portmisses
     Item, 8 grailes, 7 antiphoners of parchment and bound
     ---- 10 Processionals old and new
     ---- 2 Symnalls
     ---- an old manual of paper
     ---- an Invitatorie book
     ---- 2 psalters--and one covered with a skin
     ---- _A great pricksong book of parchment_
     ---- One other pricksong book of vellum covered with a hart's
            skyn
     ---- 5 other of paper bound in parchment
     ---- The Founder's mass-book in parchment bound in board
     ---- In Mr. Mill his hand an antiphoner and a legend
     ---- A portmisse in his hand two volumes, a manual, a
            mass-book, and a processional.]

     [Footnote F: The two following pages are appropriated to
     copies of the frontispiece (of the edit. of 1608), and a
     page of the work, from a copy in the possession of the
     printer of this edition of the _Bibliomania_.

     [Illustration: =Elizabeth Regina.=

     2 PARALIPOM 6.

     =Domine Deus Israel, non est similis tui Deus in coelo & in
     terra, qui pacta custodis & misericordiam cum seruis tuis,
     qui ambulant coram te in toto corde suo.=]

     [Illustration: A prayer for charitie, or loue towards our
     neighbours.

     =Lord, inlighten and instruct our mindes, that we may esteeme
     euerie thing as it is worth, & yet not make the lesse
     reckoning of thee, sith nothing can be made better then
     thou. And secondly let us make account of man, then whome,
     there is nothing more excellent among the things of this
     world. Make vs to loue him next thee, either as likest our
     selues, or as thy childe, and therefore our brother, or as
     one ordayned to bee a member of one selfe same countrie with
     vs.=

     =And cause vs also euen heere, to resemble the heauenly
     kingdome through mutual loue, where all hatred is quite
     banished, and all is full of loue, and consequently full of
     joy and gladnes.= Amen.

     =Giue a sweete smell as incense, &c.=

     =Eccles. 39.=

     =Matthew xxvi. 26-29.=]]

LOREN. You are full of book anecdote of Elizabeth: but do you forget
her schoolmaster, ROGER ASCHAM?

LYSAND. The master ought certainly to have been mentioned before his
pupil. Old Roger is one of my most favourite authors; and I wish
English scholars in general not only to read his works frequently,
but to imitate the terseness and perspicuity of his style. There is a
great deal of information in his treatises, respecting the manners and
customs of his times; and as Dr. Johnson has well remarked, "his
philological learning would have gained him honour in any
country."[329] That he was an ardent bibliomaniac, his letters when
upon the continent, are a sufficient demonstration.

     [Footnote 329: ROGER ASCHAM is now, I should hope, pretty
     firmly established among us as one of the very best
     classical writers in our language. Nearly three centuries
     are surely sufficient to consecrate his literary celebrity.
     He is an author of a peculiar and truly original cast. There
     is hardly a dull page or a dull passage in his lucubrations.
     He may be thought, however, to have dealt rather harshly
     with our old romance writers; nor do I imagine that the
     original edition of his _Schoolmaster_ (1571), would be
     placed by a _Morte d'Arthur_ collector alongside of his thin
     black-letter quarto romances. Ascham's invectives against
     the Italian school, and his hard-hearted strictures upon the
     innocent ebullitions of Petrarch and Boccaccio, have been
     noticed, with due judgment and spirit, by Mr. Burnet, in his
     pleasing analysis of our philosopher's works. See _Specimens
     of English Prose Writers_; vol. ii., p. 84. Our tutor's
     notions of academical education, and his courteous treatment
     of his royal and noble scholars, will be discoursed of anon;
     meantime, while we cursorily, but strongly, applaud Dr.
     Johnson's almost unqualified commendation of this able
     writer; and while the reader may be slightly informed of the
     elegance and interest of his epistles; let the bibliomaniac
     hasten to secure Bennet's edition of Ascham's works (which
     incorparates [Transcriber's Note: incorporates] the notes of
     Upton upon the Schoolmaster, with the Life of, and remarks
     upon Ascham, by Dr. Johnson), published in a handsome quarto
     volume [1761]. This edition, though rather common and cheap,
     should be carefully reprinted in an octavo volume; to
     harmonize with the greater number of our best writers
     published in the same form. But it is time to mention
     something of the author connected with the subject of this
     work. What relates to the BIBLIOMANIA, I here select from
     similar specimens in his English letters, written when he
     was abroad: "Oct. 4. at afternoon I went about the town [of
     Bruxelles]. I went to the frier Carmelites house, and heard
     their even song: after, I desired to see the LIBRARY. A
     frier was sent to me, and led me into it. There was not one
     good book but _Lyra_. The friar was learned, spoke Latin
     readily, entered into Greek, having a very good wit, and a
     greater desire to learning. He was gentle and honest," &c.
     pp. 370-1. "Oct. 20. to Spira: a good city. Here I first saw
     _Sturmius de Periodis_. I also found here _Ajax_, _Electra_,
     and _Antigone_ of _Sophocles_, excellently, by my good
     judgment, translated into verse, and fair printed this
     summer by Gryphius. Your stationers do ill, that at least do
     not provide you the register of all books, especially of old
     authors," &c., p. 372. Again: "Hieronimus Wolfius, that
     translated Demosthenes and Isocrates, is in this town. I am
     well acquainted with him, and have brought him twice to my
     lord's to dinner. He looks very simple. He telleth me that
     one Borrheus, that hath written well upon Aristot. priorum,
     &c., even now is printing goodly commentaries upon
     Aristotle's Rhetoric. But Sturmius will obscure them all."
     p. 381. These extracts are taken from Bennet's edition. Who
     shall hence doubt of the propriety of classing Ascham among
     the most renowned bibliomaniacs of the age?]

From the tutor of Elizabeth let us go to her prime minister,
CECIL.[330] We have already seen how successfully this great man
interposed in matters of religion; it remains to notice his zealous
activity in the cause of learning. And of this latter who can possibly
entertain a doubt? Who that has seen how frequently his name is
affixed to Dedications, can disbelieve that Cecil was a LOVER OF
BOOKS? Indeed I question whether it is inserted more frequently in a
diplomatic document or printed volume. To possess all the presentation
copies of this illustrious minister would be to possess an ample and
beautiful library of the literature of the sixteenth century.

     [Footnote 330: The reader, it is presumed, will not form his
     opinion of the bibliomaniacal taste of this great man, from
     the distorted and shameful delineation of his character,
     which, as a matter of curiosity only, is inserted at p. 237,
     ante. He will, on the contrary, look upon Cecil as a lover
     of books, not for the sake of the numerous panegyrical
     dedications to himself, which he must have so satisfactorily
     perused, but for the sake of the good to be derived from
     useful and ingenious works. With one hand, this great man
     may be said to have wielded the courageous spirit, and
     political virtue, of his country--and with the other, to
     have directed the operations of science and literature.
     Without reading the interesting and well-written life of
     Cecil, in Mr. Macdiarmid's _Lives of British Statesmen_ (a
     work which cannot be too often recommended, or too highly
     praised), there is evidence sufficient of this statesman's
     bibliomaniacal passion and taste, in the FINE OLD LIBRARY
     which is yet preserved at Burleigh in its legitimate
     form--and which, to the collector of such precious volumes,
     must have presented a treat as exquisite as are the fresh
     blown roses of June to him who regales himself in the
     flowery fragrance of his garden--the production of his own
     manual labour! Indeed Strypes tells us that Cecil's "library
     was a very choice one:" his care being "in the preservation,
     rather than in the private possession of (literary)
     antiquities." Among other curiosities in it, there was a
     grand, and a sort of presentation, copy of Archbishop
     Parker's Latin work of the _Antiquity of the British
     Church_; "bound costly, and laid in colours the arms of the
     Church of Canterbury, empaled with the Archbishop's own
     paternal coat." Read Strype's tempting description; _Life of
     Parker_; pp. 415, 537. Well might Grafton thus address Cecil
     at the close of his epistolary dedication of his
     _Chronicles_: "and now having ended this work, and seeking
     to whom I might, for testification of my special good-will,
     present it, or for patronage and defence dedicate it, and
     principally, for all judgment and correction to submit
     it--among many, I have chosen your MASTERSHIP, moved thereto
     by experience of your courteous judgment towards those that
     travail to any honest purpose, rather helping and comforting
     their weakness, than condemning their simple, but yet well
     meaning, endeavours. By which, your accustomed good
     acceptation of others, I am the rather boldened to beseech
     your Mastership to receive this my work and me, in such
     manner as you do those in whom (howsoever there be want of
     power) there wanteth no point of goodwill and serviceable
     affection." Edit. 1809, 4to. If a chronicler could talk
     thus, a poet (who, notwithstanding the title of his poem,
     does not, I fear, rank among Pope's bards, that "sail aloft
     among _the Swans of Thames_,") may be permitted thus to
     introduce Cecil's name and mansion:

          Now see these Swannes the new and worthie seate
          Of famous CICILL, treasorer of the land,
          Whose wisedome, counsell skill of Princes state
          The world admires, then Swannes may do the same:
          The house itselfe doth shewe the owner's wit,
          And may for bewtie, state, and every thing,
          Compared be with most within the land,

          Vallan's _Tale of Two Swannes_, 1590, 4to., reprinted in
            _Leland's Itinerary_; vol. v. p. xiii, edit. 1770.]

But the book-loving propensities of Elizabeth's minister were greatly
eclipsed by those of her favourite archbishop, PARKER:

                   clarum et venerabile nomen
     Gentibus, et multum nostræ quod proderat urbi.

For my part, Lorenzo, I know of no character, either of this or of any
subsequent period, which is more entitled to the esteem and veneration
of Englishmen. Pious, diffident, frank, charitable, learned, and
munificent, Parker was the great episcopal star of his age, which
shone with undiminished lustre to the last moment of its appearance.
In that warm and irritable period, when the Protestant religion was
assailed in proportion to its excellence, and when writers mistook
abuse for argument, it is delightful to think upon the mild and
temperate course which this discreet metropolitan pursued! Even with
such arrant bibliomaniacs as yourselves, Parker's reputation must
stand as high as that attached to any name, when I inform you that of
his celebrated work upon the "_Antiquity of the British Church_"[331]
are only twenty copies supposed to have been printed. He had a
private press, which was worked with types cast at his own expense;
and a more determined book-fancier, and treasurer of ancient lore, did
not at that time exist in Great Britain.

     [Footnote 331: This is not the place to enter minutely into
     a bibliographical account of the above celebrated work; such
     account being with more propriety reserved for the history
     of our _Typographical Antiquities_. Yet a word or two may be
     here said upon it, in order that the bibliomaniac may not be
     wholly disappointed; and especially as Ames and Herbert have
     been squeamishly reserved in their comunications
     [Transcriber's Note: communications] respecting the same.
     The above volume is, without doubt, one of the scarcest
     books in existence. It has been intimated by Dr. Drake, in
     the preface of his magnificent reprint of it, 1729, fol.,
     that only 20 copies were struck off: but, according to Stype
     [Transcriber's Note: Strype], Parker tells Cecil, in an
     emblazoned copy presented to him by the latter, that he had
     not given the book to _four_ men in the whole realm: and
     peradventure, added he, "it shall never come to sight
     abroad, though some men, smelling of the printing of it,
     were very desirous cravers of the same." _Life of Parker_,
     p. 415. This certainly does not prove any thing respecting
     the number of copies printed; but it is probable that Dr.
     Drake's supposition is not far short of the truth. One thing
     is remarkable: of all the copies known, no two are found to
     accord with each other. The archbishop seems to have altered
     and corrected the sheets as they each came from the press.
     The omission of the Archbishop's own life in this volume, as
     it contained the biography of 69 archbishops, exclusively of
     himself, was endeavoured to be supplied by the publication
     of a sharp satirical tract, entitled, "_The life off the 70
     Archbishop of Canterbury, presenttye sittinge Englished, and
     to be added to the 69 lately sett forth in Latin_," &c.,
     12mo., 1574. After this title page there is another.
     "_Histriola, a little storye of the acts and life of Mathew,
     now Archbishoppe of Canterb._" This latter comprehends 17
     leaves, and was written either by the archbishop himself, or
     by his Chaplain Joscelyne; but whether it be at all like a
     distinct printed folio tract, of twelve leaves and a half,
     which was kept carefully undispersed in the archbishop's own
     possession, 'till his death--being also a biography of
     Parker--I am not able to ascertain. The following extracts
     from it (as it is a scarce little volume) may be acceptable,

     _Archbishop Parker's early Studies and popular Preaching._

     "But now, he being very well and perfectly instructed in the
     liberal sciences, he applied all his mind to the study of
     divinity, and to the reading of the volumes of the
     ecclesiastical fathers; and that so earnestly that, in short
     space of time, he bestowed his labour not unprofitably in
     this behalf; for, after the space of four or five years, he,
     issuing from his secret and solitary study into open
     practice in the commonwealth, preached every where unto the
     people with great commendation; and that in the most famous
     cities and places of this realm, by the authority of King
     Henry VIII., by whose letters patent this was granted unto
     him, together with the license of the Archbishop of
     Canterbury. In execution of this function of preaching, he
     gained this commodity; that the fame of him came unto the
     ears of King Henry," &c. Sign. A. iij. recto.

     _His attention to Literature and Printing, &c._

     "----he was very careful, and not without some charges, to
     seek the monuments of former times; to know the religion of
     the ancient fathers, and those especially which were of the
     English church. Therefore in seeking up the Chronicles of
     the Britons and English Saxons, which lay hidden every where
     contemned and buried in forgetfulness, and through the
     ignorance of the languages not well understanded, his own
     especially, and his mens, diligence wanted not. And to the
     end that these antiquities might last long, and be carefully
     kept, he caused them, being brought into one place, _to be
     well bound and trimly covered_. And yet, not so contented,
     he endeavoured to set out in print certain of those ancient
     monuments, whereof he knew very few examples to be extant;
     and which he thought would be most profitable for the
     posterity, to instruct them in the faith and religion of the
     elders. [Orig. 'to instructe them in the faythe and religion
     off the elders.] Hereupon, he caused the perpetual histories
     of the English affairs, by _Mathæus Parisiensis_, once a
     monk of Saint Alban's, and _Mathæus Florilegus_, a monk of
     Saint Peter in Westminster, written in Latin, to be printed;
     after he had diligently conferred them with the examples
     which he could get in any place; to the end that, as
     sincerely as might be, as the authors first left them, he
     might deliver them into other men's hands. Lastly, that he
     might not be unmindful of those monuments which, both in
     antiquity, worthiness, and authority, excelled all other, or
     rather wherewith none are to be compared (I mean the Holy
     Scriptures) here he thought to do great good if, by his
     number, he increased the _Holy Bibles_, which shortly would
     be wanting to many churches, if this discommodity were not
     provided for in time. Therefore it seemed good unto him,
     first, with his learned servants, to examine thoroughly the
     English translation; wherein he partly used the help of his
     brethren bishops, and other doctors; with whom he dealt so
     diligently in this matter that they disdained not to be
     partners and fellows with him of his labor. And now all
     their work is set out in very fair forms and letters of
     print," &c. Sign. C. rect. & rev.

     _His work De Antiquitate Ecclesiæ Britannicæ._

     "----Much more praiseworthy is she (the 'Assyrian Queen of
     Babylon,') than he, whosoever it was, that of late hath set
     forth, to the hurt of christian men, certain rhapsodies and
     shreds of the old forworn stories, almost forgotten--had he
     not (Parker) now lately awakened them out of a dead sleep,
     and newly sewed them together in one book printed; whose
     glorious life promiseth not mountains of gold, as that silly
     heathen woman's (the aforesaid Queen) tomb, but beareth
     Christ in the brow, and is honested with this title in the
     front, 'De Antiquitate,' &c." Sign. C. iiij. rev. The
     satirical part, beginning with "To the Christian Reader,"
     follows the biography from which these extracts have been
     taken. It remains to observe, that our ARCHBISHOP was a
     bibliomaniac of the very first order; and smitten with every
     thing attached to a BOOK, to a degree beyond any thing
     exhibited by his contemporaries. Parker did not scruple to
     tell Cecil that he kept in his house "drawers of pictures,
     wood-cutters, painters, limners, writers, and
     book-binders,"--"one of these was LYLYE, an excellent
     writer, that could counterfeit any antique writing. Him the
     archbishop customarily used to make old books
     compleat,"--&c. _Strype's Life of Parker_; pp. 415, 529.
     Such was his ardour for book-collecting that he had agents
     in almost all places, abroad and at home, for the purpose of
     securing everything that was curious, precious, and rare:
     and one of these, of the name of Batman (I suppose the
     commentator upon Bartholomæus) "in the space of no more than
     four years, procured for our archbishop to the number of
     6700 books." _Id._ p. 528. The riches of his book bequests
     to Cambridge are sufficiently described by Strype; pp. 501,
     518, 519, 529, &c. The domestic habits and personal
     appearance of PARKER are described by his biographer (p.
     504) as being simple and grave. Notwithstanding his aversion
     to wearing silk, to plays and jests, and hawks and hounds
     (even when he was a young man), I take it for granted he
     could have no inward dislike to the beautiful and
     appropriate ceremony which marked his consecration, and
     which is thus narrated by the lively pen of Fuller: "The
     east part of the chapel of Lambeth was hung with tapestry,
     the floor spread with red cloth, chairs and cushions are
     conveniently placed for the purpose: morning prayers being
     solemnly read by Andrew Peerson, the archbishop's chaplain,
     Bishop Scory went up into the pulpit, and took for his text,
     _The Elders which are among you I exhort, who also am an
     elder; and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, &c._
     Sermon ended, and the sacrament administered, they proceed
     to the consecration. The ARCHBISHOP had his rochet on, with
     HEREFORD; and the suffragan of Bedford, CHICHESTER, wore a
     silk cope; and COVERDALE a plain cloth gown down to his
     ancles. All things are done conformable to the book of
     ordination: Litany sung; the Queen's patent for Parker's
     consecration audibly read by Dr. Vale: He is presented: the
     oath of supremacy tendered to him; taken by him; hands
     reverently imposed on him; and all with prayers begun,
     continued, concluded. In a word, though here was no
     theatrical pomp to made it a popish pageant; though no
     sandals, gloves, ring, staff, oil, pall, &c., were used upon
     him--yet there was ceremony enough to clothe his
     consecration with decency, though not to clog it with
     superstition." _Church History_, b. ix., p. 60. But the
     virtues of the primate, however mild and unostentatious,
     were looked upon with an envious eye by the maligant
     observer of human nature; and the spontaneous homage which
     he received from some of the first noblemen in the realm was
     thus lampooned in the satirical composition just before
     noticed:

     _Homage and Tribute paid to Archbishop Parker._

     "The next is, what great tributes every made bishop paid
     him. How they entertained his whole household or court, for
     the time, with sumptuous feasting. How dearly they redeemed
     their own cloaths, and carpets, at his chaplain's hands.
     What fees were bestowed on his crucifer, marshall, and other
     servants. All which plentiful bounty, or rather, he might
     have said, largess, is shrunk up, he saith, to a small sum
     of ten pounds, somewhat beside, but very small, bestowed, he
     might have said cast away, upon the archbishop's family,
     &c.--The same earl (of Gloucester) must be his steward and
     chief cupbearer, the day of his inthronization: This is not
     to be called gracious Lords, as the Lords of the earth, but
     this is to be beyond all grace; and to be served of these
     gracious Lords, and to be their Lord paramount. In this roll
     of his noble tenants, the next are the Lord Strangways, the
     Earl of Oxford, the Lord Dacy, all which (saith he) owe
     service to that Archbishop. Then descendeth he to the gifts
     that every his suffragan provincial bishop bestoweth on him,
     in their life, and at their death: some their palfrey with
     saddle and furniture; some their rings, and some their
     seals. Among the rest, the Bishop of Rochester, who is there
     called specially his chaplain, giveth him a brace of dogs.
     These be trim things for prelates to give or receive;
     especially of them to make such account as to print them
     among such special prerogatives." Sign. D. iiij. v. Yet even
     to this libel was affixed the following epitaph upon Parker;
     which shews that truth "is great, and will prevail."

          Matthew Parker liued sober and wise
          Learned by studie, and continuall practise,
          Louinge, true, off life uncontrold
          The courte did foster him, both young and old.
          Orderly he delt, the ryght he did defend,
          He lyved unto God, to God he mad his ende.

     Let us take leave of this amiable, erudite, and truly
     exemplary, character, by contemplating his
     features--according to the ensuing cut of Tyson's fac-simile
     of the rare ancient print, prefixed to some of the copies of
     the _Antiquity of the British Church_; premising that the
     supposed original painting of Parker, at Benet College,
     Cambridge, is nothing more than one of the aforesaid ancient
     prints, delicately coloured: as a tasteful antiquary, of the
     first authority, discovered, and mentioned to me.

     [Illustration]]

PHIL. You have called the reign of Henry the Seventh the
AUGUSTAN-BOOK-AGE; but, surely, this distinction is rather due to the
æra of Queen Elizabeth?

LYSAND. Both periods merit the appellation. In Henry's time, the
invention of printing was of early growth; but the avidity of readers
considerable. The presses of Rome, Venice, and Paris, sent forth their
costly productions; and a new light, by such means, was poured upon
the darkened mind. Our own presses began to contribute to the
diffusion of this light; and, compared with the preceding part of the
fifteenth century, the reign of Henry VII. was highly distinguished
for its bibliomaniacal celebrity. Undoubtedly, the æra of Queen
Elizabeth was the GOLDEN AGE of Bibliomaniacism.

Do not let me forget, in my rambling method of treating of books and
book-men, the name and celebrity of the renowned DR. JOHN DEE. Let us
fancy we see him in his conjuring cap and robes--surrounded with
astrological, mathematical, and geographical instruments--with a
profusion of Chaldee characters inscribed upon vellum rolls--and with
his celebrated _Glass_ suspended by magical wires. Let us then follow
him into his study at midnight, and view him rummaging his books;
contemplating the heavens; making calculations; holding converse with
invisible spirits; writing down their responses: anon, looking into
his correspondence with _Count a Lasco_ and the emperors Adolphus and
Maximilian; and pronouncing himself, with the most heartfelt
complacency, the greatest genius of his age![332] In the midst of
these self-complacent reveries, let us imagine we see his wife and
little ones intruding; beseeching him to burn his books and
instruments; and reminding him that there was neither a silver spoon,
nor a loaf of bread, in the cupboard. Alas, poor DEE!--thou wert the
dupe of the people and of the Court: and, although Meric Casaubon has
enshrined thy conjurations in a pompous folio volume, thy name, I
fear, will only live in the memory of bibliomaniacs!

     [Footnote 332: Those who are fond of copious biographical
     details of astrologers and conjurers will read, with no
     small pleasure and avidity, the long gossipping account of
     DEE, which Hearne has subjoined to his edition of _John
     Confrat. Monach. de rebus gestis Glaston._, vol. ii.; where
     twelve chapters are devoted to the subject of our
     philosopher's travels and hardships. Meric Casaubon--who put
     forth a pompous folio volume of "_A true and faithful
     relation of what passed for many yeers between Dr. John Dee
     and some spirits_:" 1659--gravely assures us, in an
     elaborate, learned, and rather amusing preface, that the
     volume contains what "he thinks is not to be paralleled in
     that kind by any book that hath been set out in any age to
     read:" sign A. This is true enough; for such a farago of
     incongruous, risible, and horrible events, are no where else
     recorded. "None but itself can be its parallel." Casaubon
     wrote a professed dissertation (1652, 8vo.) upon witches,
     and nothing seemed to be too unpalatable for his credulity
     to swallow. A compressed and rather interesting account of
     Dee, who was really the weakest as well as the ablest
     scholar and philosopher of his day, will be found in
     Ashmole's _Theatrum Chemicum_, p. 480. From the substance of
     these authorities, the reader is presented with the
     following sketch. The first chapter in Hearne's publication,
     which treats of the "entrance and ground plot of his first
     studies," informs us that he had received his Latin
     education in London and Chelmsford: that he was born in
     July, 1527, and at 15 years of age was entered at the
     University of Cambridge, 1542. In the three following years,
     "so vehemently was he bent to study that, for those years,
     he did inviolably keep this order; only to sleep 4 hours
     every night; to allow to meat and drink (and some refreshing
     after) 2 hours every day; and of the other 18 hours, all
     (excepting the time of going to, and being at, divine
     service) was spent in his studies and learning." In May,
     1547, after having taken his Bachelor's decree, he went
     abroad. "And after some months spent about the Low
     Countries, he returned home, and brought with him the first
     astronomer's staff in brass, that was made of Gemma Frisius
     devising; the two great globes of Gerardus Mercator's
     making, and the astronomer's ring of brass, as Gemma Frisius
     had newly framed it." Dee's head now began to run wild upon
     astronomy, or rather astrology; and the tremendous
     assistance of the "occult art" was called in to give effect
     to the lectures which he read upon it at home and abroad.
     "He did set forth (and it was seen of the University) a
     Greek comedy of Aristophanes, named, in Greek, [Greek:
     eirênê], in Latin, _Pax_; with the performance of the
     _Scarabæus_ his flying up to Jupiter's palace, with a man
     and his basket of victuals on his back: whereat was great
     wondering and many vain reports spread abroad of the means
     how that was effected. In that college (Trinity, for he had
     now left St. John's), by his advice and endeavours, was
     their Christmas magistrate first named and confirmed an
     EMPEROR." The first emperor of this sort, (whose _name_, it
     must be confessed, is rather unpopular in a University) he
     takes care to inform us, "was one Mr. Thomas _Dun_, a very
     goodly man of person, stature, and complexion, and well
     learned also." Dee afterwards ranks these things among "his
     boyish attempts and exploits scholastical." In 1548 he was
     made Master of Arts, and in the same year "went over beyond
     the seas again, and never after that was any more student in
     Cambridge." Abroad, almost every emperor and nobleman of
     distinction, according to his own account, came to see and
     hear him. "For recreation, he looked into the method of the
     civil law, and profitted therein so much that, in
     _Antinomiis_, imagined to be in the law, he had good hap to
     find out (well allowed of) their agreements; and also to
     enter into a plain and due understanding of diverse civil
     laws, accounted very intricate and dark." At Paris, when he
     gave lectures upon Euclid's elements, "a thing never done
     publicly in any university in Christendom, his auditory in
     Rhemes college was so great, and the most part elder than
     himself, that the mathematical schools could not hold them;
     for many were fain, without the schools, at the windows, to
     be _Auditores et Spectatores_, as they could best help
     themselves thereto. And by the first four principal
     definitions representing to their eyes (which by imagination
     only are exactly to be conceived) a greater wonder arose
     among the beholders than of his _Aristophanes Scarabæus_
     mounting up to the top of Trinity Hall, _ut supra_."
     Notwithstanding the tempting offers to cause him to be
     domiciled in France and Germany, our astrologer, like a true
     patriot, declined them all. The French king offered an
     annual stipend of 200 French crowns; a Monsieur Babeu,
     Monsieur de Rohan, and Monsieur de Monluc, offered still
     greater sums, but were all refused. In Germany he was
     tempted with the yearly salary of 3000 dollars; "and lastly,
     by a messenger from the Russie or Muscovite Emperor,
     purposely sent with a very rich present unto him at Trebona
     castle, and with provision for the whole journey (being
     above 1200 miles from the castle where he lay) of his coming
     to his court at Moscow, with his wife, children, and whole
     family, there to enjoy at his imperial hands 2000 lib.
     sterling yearly stipend; and of his Protector yearly a
     thousand rubles; with his diet also to be allowed him free
     out of the emperor's own kitchen: and to be in dignity with
     authority amongst the highest sort of the nobility there,
     and of his Privy Counsellors."--But all this was heroically
     declined by our patriotic philosopher. Lord Pembroke and
     Lord Leicester introduced Dee to the notice of Q. Elizabeth,
     before her coronation. At which time her Majesty used these
     words--"_Where my brother hath given him a crown, I will
     give him a noble!_" Before the accession of Elizabeth, he
     was imprisoned on being accused of destroying Queen Mary by
     enchantment. "The Queen Elizabeth herself became a prisoner
     in the same place (Hampton Court) shortly afterwards; and
     Dee had for bedfellow one Barthelet Green, who was
     afterwards burnt." Dee himself was examined by Bishop
     Bonner. On the deanery of Gloucester becoming void in 1564,
     Dee was nominated to fill it: but the same deanery was
     afterwards bestowed on Mr. Man, who was sent into Spain in
     her Majesty's service. "And now this Lent, 1594, when it
     became void again (says Dee), I made a motion for it, but I
     came too late; for one that might spend 400 or 500 lib. a
     year already, had more need of it than I belike; or else
     this former gift was but words only to me, and the fruit
     ever due to others, that can espy and catch better than I
     for these 35 years could do." Mistris Blanche à Parry came
     to his house with an offer from the Queen of "any
     ecclesiastical dignity within her kingdom, being then, or
     shortly becoming, void and vacant"--but "Dee's most humble
     and thankful answer to her Majesty, by the same messenger,
     was that _cura animarum annexa_ did terrifie him to deal
     with." He was next promised to "have of her Majesty's gift
     other ecclesiastical livings and revenues (without care of
     souls annexed) as in her Majesty's books were rated at two
     hundred pounds yearly revenue; of which her Majesty's gift
     he never as yet had any one penny." In Oct. 1578, he had a
     consultation with Mr. Doctor Bayly, her Majesty's physician,
     "about her Majestie's grievous pangs and pains by reason of
     the toothake and rheum," &c. "He set down in writing, with
     hydrographical and geographical description, what he then
     had to say or shew, as concerning her Majesty's title royal
     to any foreign countries. Whereof two parchment great rolls
     full written, of about XII WHITE VELLUM SKINS, were good
     witnesses upon the table before the commissioners." Dee had
     refused an hundred pounds for these calligraphical labours.
     A list of his printed and unprinted works: the former 8
     (ending with the year 1573), the latter 36 (ending with the
     year 1592), in number. Anno 1563, Julii ultimo, the Earl of
     Leicester and Lord Laskey invited themselves to dine with
     Dee in a day or two; but our astrologer "confessed sincerely
     that he was not able to prepare them a convenient dinner,
     unless he should presently sell some of his plate or some of
     his pewter for it. Whereupon," continues Dee, "her Majesty
     sent unto me very royally within one hour after forty angels
     of gold, from Sion; whither her Majesty was now come by
     water from Greenwich." A little before Christmas, 1599, Dee
     mentions a promise of another royal donation of
     100_l._--"which intent and promise, some once or twice
     after, as he came in her Majesty's sight, she repeated unto
     him; and thereupon sent unto him _fifty pounds_ to keep his
     Christmas with that year--but what, says he, is become of
     the other fifty, truly I cannot tell! If her Majesty can, it
     is sufficient; '_Satis, citò, modò, satis bene_, must I
     say.'" In 1591, his patroness, the Countess of Warwick, made
     a powerful diversion at Court to secure for him the
     mastership of St. Cross, then filled by Dr. Bennet, who was
     to be made a bishop.--The queen qualified her promise of
     Dee's having it with a nota bene, _if he should be fit for
     it_. In 1592, the Archbishop of Canterbury openly "affirmed
     that the mastership of St. Crosse was a living most fit for
     him; and the Lord Treasurer, at Hampton Court, lately to
     himself declared, and with his hand very earnestly smitten
     on his breast used these very words to him--'_By my faith_,
     if her Majestie be moved in it by any other for you, I will
     do what I can with her Majestie to pleasure you therein, Mr.
     Dee.'" But it is time to gratify the BIBLIOMANIAC with
     something more to his palate. Here followeth, therefore, as
     drawn up by our philosopher himself, an account of

     DEE'S LIBRARY:

     "4000 _Volumes_--printed and unprinted--bound and
     unbound--valued at 2000 _lib._

     1 Greek, 2 French, and 1 High Dutch, volumes of MSS., alone
     worth 533 _lib._ 40 years in getting these books together."

     Appertaining thereto,

     _Sundry rare and exquisitely made Mathematical Instruments._

     _A radius Astronomicus_, ten feet long.

     _A Magnet Stone, or Loadstone_; of great virtue--"which was
     sold out of the library for _v shill._ and for it afterwards
     (yea piece-meal divided) was more than xx _lib._ given in
     money and value."

     "_A great case or frame of boxes_, wherein some hundreds of
     very rare evidences of divers Irelandish territories,
     provinces, and lands, were laid up. Which territories,
     provinces, and lands were therein notified to have been in
     the hands of some of the ancient Irish princes. Then, their
     submissions and tributes agreed upon, with seals appendant
     to the little writings thereof in parchment: and after by
     some of those evidences did it appear how some of those
     lands came to the Lascies, the Mortuomars, the Burghs, the
     Clares," &c.

     "_A box of Evidences_ antient of some Welch princes and
     noblemen--the like of Norman donation--their peculiar titles
     noted on the forepart with chalk only, which on the poor
     boxes remaineth." This box, with another, containing similar
     deeds, were embezzled.

     "One great bladder with about 4 pound weight, of a very
     sweetish thing, like a brownish gum in it, artificially
     prepared by thirty times purifying of it, hath more than I
     could well afford him for 100 crownes; as may be proved by
     witnesses yet living."

     To these he adds his _three Laboratories_, "serving for
     Pyrotechnia"--which he got together after 20 years' labour.
     "All which furniture and provision, and many things already
     prepared, is unduly made away from me by sundry meanes, and
     a few spoiled or broken vessels remain, hardly worth 40
     shillings." But one more feature in poor Dee's
     character--and that is his unparalleled serenity and good
     nature under the most griping misfortunes--remains to be
     described: and then we may take farewell of him, with aching
     hearts. In the 10th chapter, speaking of the wretched
     poverty of himself and family--("having not one penny of
     certain fee, revenue, stipend, or pension, either left him
     or restored unto him,")--Dee says that "he has been
     constrained now and then to send parcels of his little
     furniture of plate to pawn upon usury; and that he did so
     oft, till no more could be sent. After the same manner went
     his wives' jewels of gold, rings, bracelets, chains, and
     other their rarities, under the thraldom of the usurer's
     gripes: 'till _non plus_ was written upon the boxes at
     home." In the 11th chapter, he anticipates the dreadful lot
     of being brought "to the stepping out of doors (his house
     being sold). He, and his, with bottles and wallets
     furnished, to become wanderers as homish vagabonds; or, as
     banished men, to forsake the kingdom!" Again: "with bloody
     tears of heart, he, and his wife, their seven children, and
     their servant (seventeen of them in all), did that day make
     their petition unto their honours," &c. Can human misery be
     sharper than this--and to be the lot of a philosopher and
     bibliomaniac?! But "VENIET FELICIUS ÆVUM."]

Of a wholly different cast of character and of reading was the
renowned CAPTAIN COX of Coventry. How many of Dee's magical books he
had exchanged for the pleasanter magic of _Old Ballads_ and
_Romances_, I will not take upon me to say; but that this said
bibliomaniacal Captain had a library, which, even from Master
Laneham's imperfect description of it,[333] I should have preferred
to the four thousand volumes of Dr. John Dee, is most nuquestionable
[Transcriber's Note: unquestionable].

     [Footnote 333: Let us be introduced to the sprightly figure
     and expression of character of this renowned Coventry
     captain, before we speak particularly of his library.
     "CAPTAIN COX (says the above-mentioned Master Laneham) came
     marching on valiantly before, clean trust and gartered above
     the knee, all fresh in a velvet cap (Master Golding a lent
     it him), flourishing with his _ton_ sword; and another fence
     master with him:" p. 39. A little before, he is thus
     described as connected with his library: "And first, Captain
     Cox; an odd man, I promise you: by profession a mason, and
     that right skilful: very cunning in fens (fencing); and
     hardy as Gawin; for his _ton_ sword hangs at his table's
     end. Great oversight hath he in matters of story: for as for
     _King Arthur's_ Book, _Huon of Bourdeaux_, the _Four Sons of
     Aymon_, _Bevys of Hampton_, _The Squyre of Low Degree_, _The
     Knight of Curtsy_, and the _Lady Fagnel_, _Frederick of
     Gene_, _Syr Eglamour_, _Syr Tryamour_, _Syr Lamurell_, _Syr
     Isenbras_, _Syr Gawyn_, _Olyver of the Castl_, _Lucres and
     Eurialus_, _Virgil's Life_, _the Castl of Ladies_, _the
     Widow Edyth_, _the King and the Tanner_, _Frier Rous_,
     _Howleglas_, _Gargantua_, _Robin Hood_, _Adam Bel_, _Clim on
     the Clough_, and _William of Cloudsley_, _the Churl and the
     Burd_, _the Seaven Wise Masters_, _the Wife lapt in a
     Morel's skin_, _the Sakful of Nuez_, _the Sergeaunt that
     became a Fryar_, _Skogan_, _Collyn Cloout_, _the Fryar and
     the Boy_, _Elynor Rumming_, and _the Nutbrooun Maid_, with
     many more than I rehearse here. I believe he has them all at
     his finger's ends," p. 36. The preceding is a list of the
     worthy Captain's ROMANCES; some of which, at least in their
     original shape, were unknown to Ritson: what would be the
     amount of their present produce under the hammer of those
     renowned black-letter-book auctioneers in King-street,
     Covent Garden--? Speak we, in the next place, of the said
     military bibliomaniac's collection of books in "PHILOSOPHY
     MORAL and NATURAL." "Beside _Poetry_ and _Astronomy_, and
     other hid sciences, as I may guess by the omberty of his
     books: whereof part are, as I remember, _The Shepherd's
     Kalendar_, _the Ship of Fools_, _Daniel's Dreams_, _the Book
     of Fortune_, _Stans_, _puer ad mensam_, _the bye way to the
     Spitl-house_, _Julian of Brainford's Testament_, _the Castle
     of Love_, _the Booget of Demaunds_, _the Hundred Mery
     Talez_, _the Book of Riddels_, _the Seaven Sorows of Wemen_,
     _the Proud Wives' Pater-Noster_, _the Chapman of a
     Penniworth of Wit_: Beside his AUNCIENT PLAYS; _Youth and
     Charitee_, _Hikskorner_, _Nugize_, _Impacient Poverty_, and
     herewith Doctor _Boord's Breviary of Health_. What should I
     rehearse here, what a bunch of BALLADS AND SONGS, all
     ancient?!--Here they come, gentle reader; lift up thine eyen
     and marvel while thou dost peruse the same: _Broom Broom on
     Hill_, _So wo iz me begon_, _trolly lo Over a Whinny Meg_,
     _Hey ding a ding_, _Bony lass upon a green_, _My bony on
     gave me a bek_, _By a bank az I lay_; and _two more_ he hath
     fair wrapt up in parchment, and bound with a whipcord!" It
     is no wonder that Ritson, in the historical essay prefixed
     to his collection of _Scottish Songs_, should speak of some
     of these ballads with a zest as if he would have sacrificed
     half his library to untie the said "whipcord" packet. And
     equally joyous, I ween, would my friend Mr. R.H. Evans, of
     Pall-Mall, have been--during his editorial labours in
     publishing a new edition of his father's collection of
     Ballads--(an edition, by the bye, which gives us more of the
     genuine spirit of the COXEAN COLLECTION than any with which
     I am acquainted)--equally joyous would Mr. Evans have been
     to have had the inspection of some of these 'bonny' songs.
     The late Duke of Roxburgh, of never-dying bibliomaniacal
     celebrity, would have parted with half the insignia of his
     order of the Garter to have obtained _clean original copies_
     of these fascinating effusions! But let us return, and take
     farewell of Captain Cox, by noticing only the remaining
     department of his library, as described by Laneham. "As for
     ALMANACS of antiquity (a point for Ephemerides) I ween he
     can shew from _Jasper Laet of Antwerp_, unto _Nostradam of
     Frauns_, and thence unto our _John Securiz of Salisbury_. To
     stay ye no longer herein (concludes Laneham) I dare say he
     hath as fair a library of these sciences, and as many goodly
     monuments both in prose and poetry, and at afternoon can
     talk as much without book, as any innholder betwixt
     Brentford and Bagshot, what degree soever he be." _A Letter
     wherein part of the Entertainment untoo the Queenz Majesty
     at Killingwoorth Castl in Warwick-Sheer, in this Soomerz
     Progrest, 1575, is signefied_: Warwick, 1784, 8vo. O RARE
     CAPTAIN COX!]

We now approach two characters of a more dignified cast; and who, in
every respect, must be denominated the greatest bibliomaniacs of the
age: I mean SIR ROBERT COTTON and SIR THOMAS BODLEY. We will touch
upon them separately.

The numerous relics which are yet preserved of the _Cottonian
Collection_, may serve to convey a pretty strong idea of its splendour
and perfection in its original shape. Cotton had all the sagacity and
judgment of Lord Coke, with a more beautifully polished mind, and a
more benevolent heart. As to books, and book men, he was the
Mecænas[334] of his day. His thirst for knowledge could never be
satiated; and the cultivation of the mind upon the foundation of a
good heart, he considered to be the highest distinction, and the most
permanent delight, of human beings. Wealth, pomp, parade, and titles,
were dissipated, in the pure atmosphere of his mind before the
invigorating sun of science and learning. He knew that the tomb which
recorded the _worth_ of the deceased had more honest tears shed upon
it than the pompous mausoleum which spoke only of his pedigree and
possessions. Accordingly, although he had excellent blood flowing in
his veins, Cotton sought connection with the good rather than with the
great; and where he found a cultivated understanding, and an honest
heart, there he carried with him his _Lares_, and made another's
abode his own.

     [Footnote 334: There are few eminent characters of whom so
     many, and such ably-executed, memoirs are extant as of SIR
     ROBERT COTTON, KNT. In the present place we have nothing to
     do with his academical studies, his philosophical, or
     legislative, or diplomatic, labours: literature and _Book
     Madness_ are our only subjects of discussion. Yet those who
     may wish for more general, and possibly more interesting,
     details, may examine the authorities referred to by Mr.
     Planta in his very excellent _Catalogue of the MSS. in the
     Cottonian Library_, 1802, folio. Sir Robert Cotton was
     educated at Trinity-College, Cambridge. The number of
     curious volumes, whether in the roman, gothic, or italic
     type, which he in all probability collected during his
     residence at the university, has not yet been ascertained;
     but we know that, when he made his antiquarian tour with the
     famous Camden, ("par nobile fratrum!") in his 29th year,
     Cotton must have greatly augmented his literary treasures,
     and returned to the metropolis with a sharpened appetite, to
     devour every thing in the shape of a book. Respected by
     three sovereigns, Elizabeth, James, and Charles, and admired
     by all the literati in Europe, Sir Robert saw himself in as
     eminent a situation as wealth, talents, taste, and integrity
     can place an individual. His collection of books increased
     rapidly; but MS. records, deeds, and charters, were the
     chief objects of his pursuit. His mansion was noble, his
     library extensive, and his own manners such as conciliated
     the esteem of almost every one who approached him. Dr. Smith
     has well described our illustrious bibliomaniac, at this
     golden period of his life: "Ad Cottoni ædes, tanquam ad
     communem reconditioris doctrinæ apothecam, sive ad novam
     Academiam, quotquot animo paulo erectiori musis et gratiis
     litaverint, sese recepere, nullam a viro humanissimo
     repulsam passuri: quippe idem literas bonas promovendi
     studium erat omni auctoramento longe potentius. Nec ista
     obvia morum facilitas, qua omnes bonos eruditionisque
     candidatos complexus est, quicquam reverentiæ qua vicissim
     ille colebatur, detraxerat: potius, omnium, quos familiari
     sermone, repititisque colloquiis dignari placuit, in se
     amores et admirationem hac insigni naturæ benignitate
     excitavit." Vit. Rob. Cottoni, p. xxiv., prefixed to the
     _Catalogus Librorum Manuscriptorum Bibl. Cott._, 1696,
     folio. Sir Robert was, however, doomed to have the evening
     of his life clouded by one of those crooked and disastrous
     events, of which it is now impossible to trace the correct
     cause, or affix the degree of ignominy attached to it, on
     the head of its proper author. Human nature has few blacker
     instances of turpitude on record than that to which our
     knight fell a victim. In the year 1615, some wretch
     communicated to the Spanish ambassador "the valuable state
     papers in his library, who caused them to be copied and
     translated into the Spanish:" these papers were of too much
     importance to be made public; and James the 1st had the
     meanness to issue a commission "which excluded Sir Robert
     from his own library." The storm quickly blew over, and the
     sunshine of Cotton's integrity diffused around its wonted
     brilliancy. But in the year 1629, another mischievous wretch
     propagated a report that Sir Robert had been privy to a
     treasonable publication: because, forsooth, the original
     tract, from which this treasonable one had been taken, was,
     in the year 1613, without the knowledge of the owner of the
     library, introduced into the Cottonian collection. This
     wretch, under the abused title of librarian, had, "for
     pecuniary considerations," the baseness to suffer one or
     more copies of the pamphlet of 1613 (writtten [Transcriber's
     Note: written] at Florence by Dudley, Duke of
     Northumberland, under a less offensive title) to be taken,
     and in consequence printed. Sir Robert was therefore again
     singled out for royal vengeance: his library was put under
     sequestration; and the owner forbidden to enter it. It was
     in vain that his complete innocence was vindicated. To
     deprive such a man as COTTON of the ocular and manual
     comforts of his library--to suppose that he could be happy
     in the most splendid drawing room in Europe, without his
     books--is to suppose what our experience of virtuous
     bibliomaniacs will not permit us to accede to. In
     consequence, Sir Robert declared to his friends, "that they
     had broken his heart who had locked up his library from
     him:" which declaration he solemnly repeated to the Privy
     Council. In the year 1631, this great and good man closed
     his eyes for ever upon mortal scenes; upon those whom he
     gladdened by his benevolence, and improved by his wisdom.
     Such was the man, of whom Gale has thus eloquently
     spoken:--"quisquis bona fide Historiam nostram per omne ævum
     explicare sataget, nullum laudatum Scriptorem à se
     desiderari exoptarique posse, quem COTTONIANUS ille
     incomparabilis thesaurus promptissime non exhibebit: Ea est,
     et semper fuit, nobilis Domus ergo literatos
     indulgentia--Hujus fores (ut illæ Musaram, apud Pindarum)
     omnibus patent. Testes apello Theologos, Antiquarios,
     Jurisconsultos, Bibliopolas; qui quidem omnes, ex Cottoniana
     Bibliotheca, tanquam ex perenni, sed et communi fonte, sine
     impensis et molestiâ, abundè hauserunt." _Rer. Anglic.
     Script. Vet._, vol. i., præf., p. 3. The loss of such a
     character--the deprivation of such a patron--made the whole
     society of book-collectors tremble and turn pale. Men began
     to look sharply into their libraries, and to cast a
     distrustful eye upon those who came to consult and to copy:
     for the spirit of COTTON, like the ghost of Hamlet's father,
     was seen to walk, before cock-crow, along the galleries and
     balconies of great collections, and to bid the owners of
     them "remember and beware"!--But to return. The library of
     this distinguished bibliomaniac continued under
     sequestration some time after his death, and was preserved
     entire, with difficulty, during the shock of the civil wars.
     In the year 1712, it was removed to Essex House, in
     Essex-street, Strand, where it continued till the year 1730,
     when it was conveyed back to Westminster, and deposited in
     Little Dean's Yard. In October, 1731, broke out that
     dreadful fire, which Hearne (_Benedict. Abbat._, vol. i.,
     præf. p. xvi.) so pathetically deplores; and in which the
     nation so generally sympathized--as it destroyed and
     mutilated many precious volumes of this collection. Out of
     958 volumes, 97 were destroyed, and 105 damaged. In the year
     1753 the library, to the honour of the age, and as the only
     atonement which could be made to the injured name of Cotton,
     as well as to the effectual _laying_ of his perturbed
     spirit--was purchased by parliament, and transported within
     the quiet and congenial abode of the BRITISH MUSEUM: and
     here may it rest, unabused, for revolving ages! The
     collection now contains 26,000 articles. Consult Mr.
     Planta's neatly written preface to the catalogue of the
     same; vide p. 39, 267, ante. And thus take we leave of the
     ever-memorable bibliomaniac, Sir ROBERT COTTON, KNT.]

Equally celebrated for literary zeal, and yet more for bibliomaniacal
enthusiasm, was the famous SIR THOMAS BODLEY; whose account of
himself, in _Prince's Worthies of Devon_, and particularly in one of
_Hearne's publications_,[335] can never be read without transport by
an affectionate son of our Oxford _Alma Mater_. View this illustrious
bibliomaniac, with his gentleman-like air, and expressive countenance,
superintending, with the zeal of a Custom-house officer, the shipping,
or rather _barging_, of his books for the grand library which is now
called by his OWN NAME! Think upon his activity in writing to almost
every distinguished character of the realm: soliciting, urging,
arguing, entreating for their support towards his magnificent
establishment; and, moreover, superintending the erection of the
building, as well as examining the timbers, with the nicety of a
master-carpenter!--Think of this; and when you walk under the grave
and appropriately-ornamented roof, which tells you that you are within
the precincts of the BODLEIAN LIBRARY, pay obeisance to the portrait
of the founder, and hold converse with his gentle spirit that dwells
therein!

     [Footnote 335: There are few subjects--to the bibliomaniac
     in general--and particularly to one, who, like the author of
     this work, numbers himself among the dutiful sons of the
     FAIR OXONIAN MOTHER--that can afford a higher gratification
     than the history of the BODLEIAN LIBRARY, which, like
     Virgil's description of fame,

          "Soon grew from pigmy to gigantic size."

     The reader is therefore here informed, as a necessary
     preliminary piece of intelligence, that the present note
     will be more monstrous than any preceding one of a similar
     nature. Let him, however, take courage, and only venture to
     dip his feet in the margin of the lake, and I make little
     doubt but that he will joyfully plunge in, and swim across
     it. Of the parentage, birth, and education of Bodley there
     seems to be no necessity for entering into the detail. The
     monument which he has erected to his memory is lofty enough
     for every eye to behold; and thereupon may be read the
     things most deserving of being known. How long the subject
     of his beloved library had occupied his attention it is
     perhaps of equal difficulty and unimportance to know; but
     his determination to carry this noble plan into effect is
     thus pleasingly communicated to us by his own pen: "when I
     had, I say, in this manner, represented to my thoughts, my
     peculiar estate, I resolved thereupon to possess my soul in
     peace all the residue of my days; to take my full farewell
     of state employments; to satisfy my mind with that
     mediocrity of worldly living that I have of my own, and so
     to retire me from the Court; which was the epilogue and end
     of all my actions and endeavours, of any important note,
     till I came to the age of fifty-three years."--"Examining
     exactly, for the rest of my life, what course I might take;
     and, having, as I thought, sought all the ways to the wood,
     I concluded, at the last, to set up my staff AT THE LIBRARY
     DOOR IN OXON, being thoroughly persuaded, in my solitude and
     surcease from the commonwealth affairs, I could not busy
     myself to better purpose than by reducing that place (which
     then in every part lay ruinated and waste) to the public use
     of Students." Prince's _Worthies of Devon_, p. 95, edit.
     1810. Such being the reflections and determination of Sir
     Thomas Bodley, he thus ventured to lay open his mind to the
     heads of the University of Oxford:

     "_To the Vice-Chancellor (Dr. Ravis) of Oxon; about
     restoring the public library._

     (This letter was published in a convocation holden March 2,
     1597)

     SIR,

     Although you know me not, as I suppose, yet for the
     farthering an offer, of evident utility, to your whole
     university, I will not be too scrupulous in craving your
     assistance. I have been always of a mind that, if God, of
     his goodness, should make me able to do any thing, for the
     benefit of posterity, I would shew some token of affection,
     that I have ever more borne, to the studies of good
     learning. I know my portion is too slender to perform, for
     the present, any answerable act to my willing disposition:
     but yet, to notify some part of my desire in that behalf, I
     have resolved thus to deal. Where there hath been heretofore
     a public library in Oxford, which, you know, is apparent by
     the room itself remaining, and by your statute records, I
     will take the charge and cost upon me to reduce it again to
     his former use: and to make it fit and handsome, with seats,
     and shelves, and desks, and all that may be needfull, to
     stir up other men's benevolence, to help to furnish it with
     books. And this I purpose to begin, as soon as timber can be
     gotten, to the intent that you may reap some speedy profit
     of my project. And where before, as I conceive, it was to be
     reputed but a store of books of divers benefactors, because
     it never had any lasting allowance, for augmentation of the
     number, or supply of books decayed: whereby it came to pass
     that, when those that were in being were either wasted or
     embezelled, the whole foundation came to ruin:--to meet with
     that inconvenience, I will so provide hereafter (if God do
     not hinder my present design) as you shall be still assured
     of a standing annual rent, to be disbursed every year in
     buying of books, in officers' stipends, and other pertinent
     occasions, with which provision, and some order for the
     preservation of the place, and of the furniture of it, from
     accustomed abuses, it may, perhaps, in time to come, prove a
     notable treasure for the multitude of volumes; an excellent
     benefit for the use and ease of students; and a singular
     ornament in the University. I am, therefore, to intreat you,
     because I will do nothing without their public approbation,
     to deliver this, that I have signified, in that good sort,
     that you think meet: and when you please to let me know
     their acceptation of my offer, I will be ready to effect it
     with all convenient expedition. But, for the better
     effecting of it, I do desire to be informed whether the
     University be sufficiently qualified, by licence of
     Mortmain, or other assurance, to receive a farther grant of
     any rent or annuity than they do presently enjoy. And, if
     any instruments be extant of the ancient donations to their
     former library, I would, with their good liking, see a
     transcript of them: and likewise of such statutes as were
     devised by the founders, or afterwards by others for the
     usage of the books. Which is now as much as I can think on,
     whereunto, at your good leisure, I would request your
     friendly answer. And, if it lie in my ability to deserve
     your pains in that behalf, although we be not yet
     acquainted, you shall find me very forward. From London,
     Feb. 23, 1597.

     Your affectionate friend,

     THO. BODLEY."

     In the Easter following, "Mr. Bodley came to Oxford to view
     the place on which he intended his bounty, and making them a
     model of the design with the help of Mr. Saville, Warden of
     Merton College, ordered that the room, or place of stowage,
     for books, should be new planked, and that benches and
     repositories fo [Transcriber's Note: for] books should be
     set up." Wood's _Annals of the University_, vol. ii., pt.
     ii., p. 920. The worthy founder then pursued his epistolary
     intercourse with the Vice-Chancellor:

     "_To Mr. Vice Chancellor._

     SIR,

     I find myself greatly beholden unto you for the speed that
     you have used in proposing my offer to the whole University,
     which I also hear by divers friends was greatly graced in
     their meeting with your courteous kind speeches. And though
     their answer of acceptance were over thankful and
     respective; yet I take it unto me for a singular comfort,
     that it came for that affection, whose thanks in that behalf
     I do esteem a great deal more than they have reason to
     esteem a far better offer. In which respect I have returned
     my dutiful acknowledgement, which I beseech you to present,
     when you shall call a convocation, about some matter of
     greater moment. Because their letter was in _Latin_,
     methought it did enforce me not to show myself a truant, by
     attempting the like, with a pen out of practice: which yet I
     hope they will excuse with a kind construction of my
     meaning. And to the intent they may perceive that my good
     will is as forward to perform as to promise, and that I
     purpose to shew it to their best contentation, I do hold it
     very requisite that some few should be deputed by the rest
     of the House to consider, for the whole, of the fittest kind
     of facture of desks, and other furniture; and when I shall
     come to Oxford, which I determine, God willing, some time
     before Easter, I will then acquaint the self same parties
     with some notes of a platform, which I and Mr. Savile have
     conceived here between us: so that, meeting altogether, we
     shall soon resolve upon the best, as well for shew, and
     stately form, as for capacity and strength, and commodity of
     students. Of this my motion I would pray you to take some
     notice in particular, for that my letter herewith to your
     public assembly doth refer itself in part to your delivery
     of my mind. My chiefest care is now, the while, how to
     season my timber as soon as possible. For that which I am
     offered by the special favour of Merton College, although it
     were felled a great while since, yet of force it will
     require, after time it is sawed, a convenient seasoning;
     least by making too much haste, if the shelves and seats
     should chance to warp, it might prove to be an eye sore, and
     cost in a manner cast away. To gain some time in that
     regard, I have already taken order for setting sawyers
     a-work, and for procuring besides all other materials;
     wherein my diligence and speed shall bear me witness of my
     willingness to accomplish all that I pretend, to every man's
     good liking. And thus I leave and commend you to God's good
     tuition. From London, March 19, --97

     Your assured to use in all your occasions,

     THO. BODLEY."

     Neither this nor the preceding letter are published in Mr.
     Gutch's valuable edition of Wood's original text: but are to
     be found, as well as every other information here subjoined,
     in Hearne's edition of _Joh. Confrat. &c., de Reb.
     Glaston._, vol. ii., pp. 612 to 645. We will next peruse the
     curious list of the first benefactors to the Bodleian
     Library.

     _My Lord of Essex_: about 300 volumes: greater part in
     folio.

     _My Lord Chamberlain_: 100 volumes, all in a manner new
     bound, with his arms, and a great part in folio.

     _The Lord Montacute_: 66 costly great volumes, in folio; all
     bought of set purpose, and fairly bound with his arms.

     _The Lord Lumley_: 40 volumes in folio.

     _Sir Robert Sidney_: 102 new volumes in folio, to the value
     of one hundred pounds, being all very fair, and especially
     well bound with his arms.

     _Merton College_: 38 volumes of singular good books in
     folio, &c.

     _Mr. Philip Scudamor_: 50 volumes: greatest part in folio.

     _Mr. William Gent_: 100 volumes at the least.

     _Mr. Lawrence Bodley_: 37 very fair and new bought books in
     folio. (There were seven other donations--in money, from 4
     to 10_l._)

     Another list of benefactors; read in Convocation, July 17,
     1601.

     _Sir John Fortescue, Knt._: 47 volumes: of which there are 5
     Greek MSS. of singular worth.

     _Mr. Jo. Crooke_: Recorder of the City of London: 27 good
     volumes; of which 25 are in folio.

     _Mr. Henry Savile_: all the Greek interpreters upon
     Aust(in).

     _Mr. William Gent, of Glocester Hall_: 160 volumes; of which
     there are 50 in folio.

     _Mr. Thomas Allen, of do._, hath given 12 rare MSS., with a
     purpose to do more, and hath been ever a most careful
     provoker and solicitor of sundry great persons to become
     benefactors.

     _Mr. William Camden_, by his office _Clarentius_: 7 volumes;
     of which 4 are manuscripts.

     _Mr. Thomas James, of New College_: 100 volumes: almost all
     in folio, and sundry good manuscripts. With about 50 other
     donations, chiefly in money.

     To Dr. Raves, Vice-Chanc. (Read in Convoc. May 10, 1602.)

     A yet larger, and more complete, list will be found in Mr.
     Gutch's publication of Wood's text. Let us next observe how
     this distinguished bibliomaniac seized every
     opportunity--laying embargoes upon barges and carriages--for
     the conveyance of his book-treasures. The ensuing is also in
     Mr. Gutch's work:

     "_To the Right W. Mr. D. King, Dean of Christ-Church, and
     Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxon, or, in his
     absence, to his Deputies there._

     (Read in Convocation, July 8, 1608.)

     SIR,

     I have sent down, by a western barge, all the books that I
     have of this year's collection, which I have requested Mr.
     James, and other of my friends, to see safely brought from
     Burcote, and placed in the library. Sir Francis Vere hath
     sent me this year his accustomed annual gift of ten pounds.
     The Lady Mary Vere, wife to Sir Horace Vere, in the time of
     her widowhood (for so she is desired it should be recorded),
     being called Mrs. Hoby, of Hales, in Gloucestershire, hath
     given twenty pound. (He then enumerates about 15 other
     donations, and thus goes on:) Thus I thought meet to observe
     my yearly custom, in acquainting the University with the
     increase of their store: as my care shall be next, and that
     very shortly, to endow them with that portion of revenue and
     land that I have provided, whensoever God shall call me, for
     the full defraying of any charge that, by present
     likelihood, the conservation of the books, and all needful
     allowances to the keeper and others, may from time to time
     require. I will send you, moreover, a draught of certain
     statutes, which I have rudely conceived about the employment
     of that revenue, and for the government of the library: not
     with any meaning that they should be received, as orders
     made by me (for it shall appear unto you otherwise) but as
     notes and remembrances to abler persons, whom hereafter you
     may nominate (as I will also then request you) to consider
     of those affairs, and so frame a substantial form of
     government, sith that which is a foot is in many thinges
     defective for preservation of the library: for I hold it
     altogether fitting that the University Convocation should be
     always possessed of an absolute power to devise any
     statutes, and of those to alter as they list, when they find
     an occasion of evident utility. But of these and other
     points, when I send you my project, I will both write more
     of purpose, and impart unto you freely my best cogitations,
     being evermore desirous, whatsoever may concern your public
     good, to procure and advance it so, to the uttermost of my
     power: as now in the meanwhile, reminding unto you my
     fervent affection, I rest for any service,

     Your most assured, at commandment,

     THO. BODLEIE.

     London, June 30, 1608."

     In a letter to his "dearest friends, Doctor Kinge,
     Vice-Chancellor, the Doctors, Proctors, and the rest of the
     Convocation House in Oxon," (16th June, 1609) after telling
     them how he had secured certain landed property for the
     payment of the salaries and other expenses attendant upon
     the library, Sir Thomas thus draws to a conclusion: "Now
     because I presuppose that you take little pleasure in a
     tedious letter, having somewhat besides to impart unto you,
     I have made it known by word to Mr. Vicechancellor, who, I
     know, will not fail to acquaint you with it: as withall I
     have intreated him to supply, in my behalf, all my negligent
     omissions, and defective form of thanks, for all your public
     honours, entertainments, letters, gifts, and other graces
     conferred upon me, which have so far exceeded the compass of
     my merits that, where before I did imagine that nothing
     could augment my zealous inclination to your general good,
     now methinks I do feel it (as I did a great while since) was
     very highly augmented: insomuch as I cannot but shrive
     myself thus freely and soothly unto you. That, albeit, among
     a number of natural imperfections, I have least of all
     offended in the humour of ambition, yet now so it is, that I
     do somewhat repent me of my too much niceness that way: not
     as carried with an appetite to rake more riches to myself
     (wherein, God is my witness, my content is complete) but
     only in respect of my greedy desire to make a livelier
     demonstration of the same that I bear to my COMMON MOTHER,
     than I have hitherto attained sufficient ability to put in
     execution. With which unfeigned testification of my devotion
     unto you, and with my daily fervent prayers for the endless
     prosperity of your joint endeavours, in that whole
     institution of your public library, I will close up this
     letter, and rest, as I shall ever,

     Yours, in all loving and dutiful affection,

     THOMAS BODLEY.

     London, May 31, 1609."

     The following, which is also in Mr. Gutch's publication,
     shews the laudable restlessness, and insatiable ambition, of
     our venerable bibliomaniac, in ransacking foreign libraries
     for the completion of his own.

     "_To the Right Worshipfull Mr. D. Singleton, Vicechancellor
     of the University of Oxon._

     (Read in Convocation, Nov. 9, 1611.)

     SIR,

     About some three years past, I made a motion, here in
     London, to Mr. Pindar, Consul of the Company of English
     Merchants at Aleppo (a famous port in the Turk's dominions)
     that he would use his best means to procure me some books in
     the Syriac, Arabic, Turkish, and Persian tongues, or in any
     other language of those Eastern nations: because I make no
     doubt but, in process of time, by the extraordinary
     diligence of some one or other student, they may be readily
     understood, and some special use made of their kind of
     learning in those parts of the world: and where I had a
     purpose to reimburse all the charge that might grow
     thereupon, he sent of late unto me 20 several volumes in the
     foresaid tongues, and of his liberal disposition hath
     bestowed them freely on the library. They are manuscripts
     all (for in those countries they have no kind of printing)
     and were valued in that place at a very high rate. I will
     send them, ere be long, praying you the while to notify so
     much unto the University, and to move them to write a letter
     of thanks, which I will find means to convey to his hands,
     being lately departed from London to Constantinople. Whether
     the letter be indited in Latin or English, it is not much
     material, but yet, in my conceit, it will do best to him in
     English."

     (The remainder of this letter is devoted to a scheme of
     building the public schools at Oxford; in which Sir Thomas
     found a most able and cheerful coadjutor, in one, _Sir Jo.
     Benet_; who seems to have had an extensive and powerful
     connection, and who set the scheme on foot, "like a true
     affected son to his ANCIENT MOTHER, with a cheerful
     propension to take the charge upon him without groaning.")

     In April 1585, Queen Elizabeth granted Sir Thomas "a
     passport of safe conveyance to Denmark"; and wrote a letter
     to the King of Denmark of the same date, within two days.
     She wrote, also, a letter to Julius, Duke of Brunswick of
     the same date: in which the evils that were then besetting
     the Christian world abroad were said to be rushing suddenly,
     as "from the Trojan Horse." "These three letters (observes
     Mr. Baker to his friend Hearne) are only copies, but very
     fairly wrote, and seem to have been duplicates kept by him
     that drew the original letters."

     We will peruse but two more of these Bodleian epistles,
     which Hearne very properly adds as an amusing appendix, as
     well to the foregoing, as to his _Reliquiæ Bodleianæ_ (1703,
     8vo). They are written to men whose names must ever be held
     in high veneration by all worthy bibliomanacs.

     "_Sir Tho. Bodley to Sir Robert Cotton._ (_Ex. Bibl.
     Cotton._)

     SIR,

     I was thrice to have seen you at your house, but had not the
     hap to find you at home. It was only to know how you hold
     your old intention for helping to furnish the University
     Library: where I purpose, God willing, to place all the
     books that I have hitherto gathered, within these three
     weeks. And whatsoever any man shall confer for the storing
     of it, such order is taken for a due memorial of his gift as
     I am persuaded he cannot any way receive a greater
     contentment of any thing to the value otherwise bestowed.
     Thus much I thought to signify unto you: and to request you
     to hear how you rest affected.

     Yours, to use in any occasion,

     THO. BODLEY.

     From my house, June 6."

     "_Sir Henry Savile to Sir R(obert) C(otton)._

     SIR,

     I have made Mr. Bodley acquainted with your kind and
     friendly offer, who accepteth of it in most thankful manner:
     and if it pleaseth you to appoint to-morrow at afternoon, or
     upon Monday or Tuesday next, at some hour likewise after
     dinner, we will not fail to be with you at your house for
     that purpose. And remember I give you fair warning that if
     you hold any book so dear as that you would be loth to have
     him out of your sight, set him aside before hand. For my own
     part, I will not do that wrong to my judgment as to chuse of
     the worst, if better be in place: and, beside, you would
     account me a simple man.

     But to leave jesting, we will any of the days come to you,
     leaving, as great reason is, your own in your own power
     freely to retain or dispose. True it is that I have raised
     some expectation of the quality of your gift in Mr. Bodley,
     whom you shall find a gentleman in all respects worthy of
     your acquaintance. And so, with my best commendations, I
     commit you to God. This St. Peter's day.

     Your very assured friend,

     HENRY SAVILE."

     It only remains now to indulge the dutiful sons of ALMA
     MATER with a fac-simile wood-cut impression of the profile
     of the venerable founder of the Bodleian Library, taken from
     a print of a medal in the _Catalogi Librorum Manuscriptorum
     Angliæ, &c._, 1697, fol.; but whether it have any
     resemblance to the bust of him, "carved to the life by an
     excellent hand at London, and shortly after placed in a
     niche in the south wall of the same library," with the
     subjoined inscription, I cannot at this moment recollect.

     [Illustration:

     THOMAS SACKVILLUS DORSET, COMES,
     SUMMUS ANGLIÆ THESAURAR. ET
     HUJUS ACAD. CANCELLAR.
     THOMÆ BODLEIO EQUITI AURATO
     QUI BIBLIOTHECAM HANC INSTITUIT
     HONORIS CAUSA P.P.]

     The library of Sir Thomas Bodley, when completed, formed the
     figure of a T: it was afterwards resolved, on the books
     accumulating, and the benefactions increasing, to finish it
     in the form of an H; in which state it now remains. Sir
     Kenelm Digby, like a thorough bred bibliomaniac, "gave fifty
     very good oaks, to purchase a piece of ground of Exeter
     College, laying on the north west side of the library; on
     which, and their own ground adjoining, they might erect the
     future fabric." The laying of the foundation of this
     erection is thus described by Wood; concluding with a
     catastrophe, at which I sadly fear the wicked reader will
     smile. "On the thirteenth of May, being Tuesday, 1634, the
     Vice-chancellor, Doctors, Heads of Houses, and Proctors, met
     at St. Mary's church about 8 of the clock in the morning;
     thence each, having his respective formalities on came to
     this place, and took their seats that were then erected on
     the brim of the foundation. Over against them was built a
     scaffold, where the two proctors, with divers masters,
     stood. After they were all settled, the University
     Musicians, who stood upon the leads at the west end of the
     library, sounded a lesson on their wind music. Which being
     done, the singing men of Christ-Church, with others, sang a
     lesson, after which the senior Proctor, Mr. Herbert Pelham,
     of Magdalen College, made an eloquent oration: that being
     ended also, the music sounded again, and continued playing
     till the Vice-Chancellor went to the bottom of the
     foundation to lay the first stone in one of the south
     angles. But no sooner had he deposited a piece of gold on
     the said stone, according to the usual manner in such
     ceremonies, but the earth fell in from one side of the
     foundation, and the scaffold that was thereon broke and fell
     with it; so that all those that were thereon, to the number
     of a hundred at least, namely, the Proctors, Principals of
     Halls, Masters, and some Bachelaurs, fell down all together,
     one upon another, into the foundation; among whom, the under
     butler of Exeter College had his shoulder broken or put out
     of joint, and a scholar's arm bruised." "The solemnity being
     thus concluded with such a sad catastrophe, the breach was
     soon after made up and the work going chearfully forward,
     was in four years space finished." _Annals of the University
     of Oxford_; vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 939. Gutch's edition. We
     will take leave of SIR THOMAS BODLEY, and of his noble
     institution, with the subjoined representation of the
     University's Arms--as painted upon the ceiling of the
     library, in innumerable compartments; hoping that the period
     is not very remote when a _History of the Bodleian Library_,
     more ample and complete than any thing which has preceded
     it, will appear prefixed to a _Catalogue of the Books_, like
     unto that which is hinted at p. 74, ante, as "an urgent
     desideratum."

     [Illustration: DOMINVS ILLVMINATIO MEA]]

LIS. Alas, you bring to my mind those precious hours that are gone by,
never to be recalled, which I wasted within this glorious palace of
Bodley's erection! How I sauntered, and gazed, and sauntered again.--

PHIL. Your case is by no means singular. But you promise, when you
revisit the library, not to behave so naughtily again?

LIS. I was not then a convert to the BIBLIOMANIA! Now, I will
certainly devote the leisure of six autumnal weeks to examine
minutely some of the precious tomes which are contained in it.

LYSAND. Very good. And pray favour us with the result of your profound
researches: as one would like to have the most minute account of the
treasures contained within those hitherto unnumbered volumes.

PHIL. As every sweet in this world is balanced by its bitter, I wonder
that these worthy characters were not lampooned by some sharp-set
scribbler--whose only chance of getting perusers for his work, and
thereby bread for his larder, was by the novelty and impudence of his
attacks. Any thing new and preposterous is sure of drawing attention.
Affirm that you see a man standing upon one leg, on the pinnacle of
Saint Paul's[336]--or that the ghost of Inigo Jones had appeared to
you, to give you the extraordinary information that Sir Christopher
Wren had stolen the whole of the plan of that cathedral from a design
of his own--and do you not think that you would have spectators and
auditors enough around you?

     [Footnote 336: This is now oftentimes practised by some wag,
     in his "_Walke in Powles_." Whether the same anecdote is
     recorded in the little slim pamphlet published in 1604,
     4to., under the same title--not having the work--(and indeed
     how should I? vide _Bibl. Reed_, no. 2225, _cum
     pretiis_!) I cannot take upon me to determine.]

LIS. Yes, verily: and I warrant some half-starved scrivener of the
Elizabethan period drew his envenomed dart to endeavour to perforate
the cuticle of some worthy bibliomaniacal wight.

LYSAND. You may indulge what conjectures you please; but I know of no
anti-bibliomaniacal satirist of this period. STUBBES did what he
could, in his "_Anatomy of Abuses_,"[337] to disturb every social and
harmless amusement of the age. He was the forerunner of that snarling
satirist, Prynne; but I ought not thus to cuff him, for fear of
bringing upon me the united indignation of a host of black-letter
critics and philologists. A _large and clean_ copy of his sorrily
printed work is among the choicest treasures of a Shakspearian
virtuoso.

     [Footnote 337: "THE ANATOMIE OF ABUSES: _contayning a
     discoverie, or briefe summarie of such notable vices and
     imperfections as now raigne in many Christian Countreyes of
     the Worlde: but (especiallie) in a very famous Ilande called
     Ailgna_:" &c. Printed by Richard Jones, 1583, small 8vo.
     Vide Herbert's _Typographical Antiquities_, vol. iii., p.
     1044, for the whole title. Sir John Hawkins, in his _History
     of Music_, vol iii., 419, calls this "a curious and very
     scarce book;" and so does my friend, Mr. Utterson; who
     revels in his morocco-coated copy of it--"_Exemplar olim
     Farmerianum!_" But let us be candid; and not sacrifice our
     better judgments to our book-passions. After all, Stubbes's
     work is a caricatured drawing. It has strong passages, and a
     few original thoughts; and, is moreover, one of the very few
     works printed in days of yore which have running titles to
     the subjects discussed in them. These may be recommendations
     with the bibliomaniac; but he should be informed that this
     volume contains a great deal of puritanical cant, and
     licentious language; that vices are magnified in it in order
     to be lashed, and virtues diminished that they might not be
     noticed. Stubbes equals Prynne in his anathemas against
     "Plays and Interludes:" and in his chapters upon "Dress" and
     "Dancing" he rakes together every coarse and pungent phrase
     in order to describe "these horrible sins" with due
     severity. He is sometimes so indecent that, for the credit
     of the age, and of a virgin reign, we must hope that every
     virtuous dame threw the copy of his book, which came into
     her possession, behind the fire. This may reasonably account
     for its present rarity. I do not discover it in the
     catalogues of the libraries of _Pearson_, _Steevens_, or
     _Brand_; but see _Bibl. Wright_, no. 1390.]

But admitting even that Stubbes had drawn his arrow to the head, and
grazed the skin of such men as Bodley and Cotton, the wound inflicted
by this weapon must have been speedily closed and healed by the
balsamic medicine administered by ANDREW MAUNSELL, in his _Catalogue
of English Printed Books_.[338] This little thin folio volume afforded
a delicious treat to all honest bibliomaniacs. It revived the drooping
spirits of the despondent; and, like the syrup of the renowned Dr.
Brodum, circulated within the system, and put all the generous juices
in action. The niggardly collector felt the influence of rivalship; he
played a deeper stake at book-gambling; and hastened, by his painfully
acquired knowledge of what was curious and rare in books, to
anticipate the rustic collector--which latter, putting the best wheels
and horses to his carriage, rushed from the country to the metropolis,
to seize, at Maunsell's shop, a choice copy of _Cranmer's Bible, or
Morley's Canzonets_.[339]

     [Footnote 338: This Catalogue, the first publication of the
     kind ever put forth in this country, is complete in two
     parts; 1595, folio: first part containing 123 pages,
     exclusive of three preliminary epistles: the second, 27
     pages; exclusive of three similar introductory pieces. The
     _first part_ is devoted entirely to Divinity: and in the
     dedicatory epistle to Queen Elizabeth, Maunsell tells her
     majesty that he thought it "worth his poor labour to collect
     a catalogue of the divine books, so mightily increased in
     her reign; whereby her majesty's most faithful and loving
     subjects may be put in remembrance of the works of so
     excellent authors," &c. The second part is devoted to a
     brief account of books in the remaining branches of
     literature, arts, sciences, &c. Maunsell promised to follow
     it up by a _third_ part; but a want of due encouragement
     seems to have damped the bibliographical ardour of the
     compiler; for this third part never appeared: a circumstance
     which, in common with the late Mr. Steevens, all
     bibliomaniacs may "much lament." See the _Athenæum_, vol i.,
     155; also Herbert's _Typographical Antiquities_, vol ii., p.
     1137. A copy of this volume has found its way into the
     Advocates' Library at Edinburgh; _Cat. Adv. Libr._, vol ii.,
     p. 99. Ruddiman, who was formerly the librarian of this
     latter valuable collection, had probably read Hearne's
     commendation of it:--namely, that it was "a very scarce, and
     yet a very useful, book." _Bened. Abbat._, vol. i., p. LIV.
     Mr. Heber possesses a curious copy of it, which was formerly
     Herbert's, with the margins filled with his MS. addenda.]

     [Footnote 339: "Of the translation appointed to bee read in
     churches, in Kinge Henry the 8, his daies," printed in the
     largest volume, 1539. "THO. MORLEY, Bachiler of Musique, and
     one of her Maiestie's Royal Chappell, _his Conzonets_, or
     little short songes to three voyces. Prin. by Tho. Est.
     1593. 4to." See p. 10., pt. i., p. 17, pt. ii., of
     _Maunsell's Catalogue_; but let the reader consult p. 248,
     ante, concerning this "largest volume" of the Holy
     Scriptures.]

Let us, however, not forget that we have reached the reign of JAMES
I.; a monarch who, like Justinian, affected to be "greatly given to
study of books;"[340] and who, according to Burton's testimony, wished
he had been chained to one of the shelves of the Bodleian
library.[341] Of all literary tastes, James had the most strange and
sterile. Let us leave him to his _Demonology_; but notice, with the
respect that it merits, the more rational and even elegantly
cultivated mind of his son PRINCE HENRY;[342] of whose passion for
books there are some good evidences upon record. We will next proceed
to the mention of a shrewd scholar and bibliomaniac, and ever active
voyager, ycleped THOMAS CORYATE, the _Peregrine of Odcombe_. This
facetious traveller, who was as quaint and original a writer as old
Tom Fuller, appears (when he had time and opportunity) to have taken
special notice of libraries; and when he describes to us his "worm
eaten" copy of _Josephus's Antiquities_,[343] "written in ancient
Longobard characters in parchment," one cannot but indulge a natural
wish to know something of the present existence of a MS. which had
probably escaped Oberthür, the last laborious editor of Josephus.

     [Footnote 340: "Greatly gyuen to study of bokys:" _Rastell's
     Chronicle, or Pastyme of People_, p. 28, edit. 1811, 4to.]

     [Footnote 341: The passage is somewhere in Burton's _Anatomy
     of Mechanoly_. But I cannot just now, put my finger upon
     it.]

     [Footnote 342: The works of KING JAMES I. (of England) were
     published in rather a splendid folio volume in the year
     1616. Amongst these, his _Demonology_ is the "opus maximum."
     Of his son PRINCE HENRY, there is, in this volume, at the
     top of one of the preliminary pieces, a very pretty half
     length portrait; when he was quite a boy. A charming whole
     length portrait of the same accomplished character, when he
     was a young man, engraved by Paas, may be seen in the first
     folio edition of Drayton's _Polyolbion_: but this, the
     reader will tell me, is mere Grangerite information. Proceed
     we, therefore, to a pithy, but powerful, demonstration of
     the bibliomaniacal character of the said Prince Henry. "In
     the paper office, there is a book, No. 24, containing
     Prince Henry's privy-purse expences, for one year," &c. The
     whole expense of one year was 1400_l._ Among other charges,
     the following are remarkable:

                                                     £  _s._ _d._

     17th October, paid to a Frenchman, that
     presented _a book_                              4   10   0

     20th October, paid Mr. Holyoak for writing a
     _Catalogue of the Library_ which the Prince
     had of Lord Lumley                              8   13   4
       &c. &c. &c.

     _Apology for the Believers in the Shakspeare-Papers_, 1797,
     8vo., p. 233.]

     [Footnote 343: Look, gentle reader, at the entire ungarbled
     passage--amongst many similar ones which may be adduced--in
     vol. i., p. 116, of his "_Crudities_"--or Travels: edit.
     1776, 8vo. Coryat's [Transcriber's Note: alternative
     spelling] talents, as a traveller, are briefly, but
     brilliantly, described in the _Quarterly Review_, vol. ii.,
     p. 92.]

Let me here beseech you to pay due attention to the works of HENRY
PEACHAM, when they come across you. The first edition of that
elegantly written volume, "_The Compleat Gentleman_," was published I
believe in the reign of James I., in the year 1622.

LOREN. I possess not only this, but every subsequent copy of it, and a
fair number of copies of his other works. He and BRAITHWAIT were the
"par nobile fratrum" of their day.

PHIL. I have often been struck with some curious passages in Peacham,
relating to the Education of Youth[344] in our own country; as I
find, from them, that the complaint of _severity of discipline_ still
continued, notwithstanding the able work of Roger Ascham, which had
recommended a mild and conciliatory mode of treatment.

     [Footnote 344: The HISTORY of the EDUCATION OF YOUTH in this
     country might form an amusing little octavo volume. We have
     _Treatises_ and _Essays_ enough upon the subject; but a
     narrative of its first rude efforts, to its present, yet not
     perfected, form, would be interesting to every parent, and
     observer of human nature. My present researches only enable
     me to go back as far as Trevisa's time, towards the close of
     the 14th century; when I find, from the works of this Vicar
     of Berkeley, that "every friar that had _state in school_,
     such as they were then, had an HUGE LIBRARY." _Harl. MSS._,
     no. 1900. But what the particular system was, among
     youth, which thus so highly favoured the BIBLIOMANIA, I have
     not been able to ascertain. I suspect, however, that
     knowledge made but slow advances; or rather that its
     progress was almost inverted; for, at the end of the
     subsequent century, our worthy printer, Caxton, tells us
     that he found "but few who could write in their registers
     the occurrences of the day." _Polychronicon; prol. Typog.
     Antiquit._, vol. i., 148. In the same printer's prologue to
     _Catho Magnus_ (_Id._, vol. i., 197) there is a melancholy
     complaint about the youth of London; who, although, when
     children, they were "fair, wise, and prettily bespoken--at
     the full ripening, they had neither kernel nor good corn
     found in them." This is not saying much for the academic or
     domestic treatment of young gentlemen, towards the close of
     the 15th century. At the opening of the ensuing century, a
     variety of elementary treatises, relating to the education
     of youth, were published chiefly under the auspices of Dean
     Colet, and composed by a host of learned grammarians, of
     whom honourable mention has been made at page 218, ante.
     These publications are generally adorned with a rude
     wood-cut; which, if it be copied from truth, affords a
     sufficiently striking proof of the severity of the ancient
     discipline: for the master is usually seated in a large
     arm-chair, with a tremendous rod across his knees; and the
     scholars are prostrate before him, either on the ground upon
     bended knees, or sitting upon low benches. Nor was this
     rigid system relaxed in the middle of the same (xvith)
     century; when Roger Ascham composed his incomparable
     treatise, intitled the "_Schoolmaster_;" the object of which
     was to decry the same severity of discipline. This able
     writer taught his countrymen the value of making the road to
     knowledge smooth and inviting, by smiles and remunerations,
     rather than by stripes and other punishments. Indeed, such
     was the stern and Draco-like character which schoolmasters
     of this period conceived themselves authorized to assume
     that neither rank, nor situation, nor sex, were exempt from
     the exercise of their tyranny. Lady Jane Grey tells Ascham
     that her former teacher used to give her "pinches, and
     cuffs, and bobs," &c. The preface to the Schoolmaster
     informs us that two gentlemen, who dined with Ascham at
     Cecil's table, were of opinion that NICOLAS UDAL, then head
     master of Eaton School, "was the best schoolmaster of their
     time, and the _greatest beater_!" Bishop Latimer, in his
     fourth sermon (edit. 1562, fol. 15 to 18), has drawn such a
     picture of the Londoners of this period that the philosopher
     may imagine that youths, who sprung from such parents,
     required to be ruled with a rod of iron. But it has been the
     fashion of all writers, from the age of St. Austin
     downwards, to depreciate the excellences, and magnify the
     vices, of the times in which they lived. Ludovicus Vives,
     who was Latimer's contemporary, has attacked both
     schoolmasters and youths, in an ungracious style; saying of
     the former that "some taught Ovid's books of love to their
     scholars, and some make expositions and expounded the
     vices." He also calls upon the young women, in the language
     of St. Jerome, "to avoid, as a mischief or poison of
     chastity, young men with heads bushed and trimmed; and sweet
     smelling skins of outlandish mice." _Instruction of a
     Christian Woman_; edit. 1592, sign. D 3, rect. &c. I am not
     aware of any work of importance, relating to the education
     of youth, which appeared till the publication of the
     _Compleat Gentleman_ by HENRY PEACHAM: an author, who richly
     deserves all the handsome things above said of him in the
     text. His chapters "_Of the Duty of Masters_," and "_Of the
     Duty of Parents_," are valuable upon many accounts: inasmuch
     as they afford curious anecdotes of the system of academic
     and domestic education then pursued, and are accompanied
     with his own sagacious and candid reflections. Peacham was
     an _Aschamite_ in respect to lenity of discipline; as the
     following extracts, from the foregoing work, (edit. 1661)
     will unequivocally prove. Peacham first observes upon the
     different modes of education: "But we see on the contrary,
     out of the master's carterly judgment, like horses in a
     team, the boys are set to draw all alike, when some one or
     two prime and able wits in the school, [Greek: auto
     didaktoi] (which he culs out to admiration if strangers
     come, as a costardmonger his fairest pippins) like fleet
     hovnds go away with the game, when the rest need helping
     over a stile a mile behind: hence, being either quite
     discouraged in themselves, or taken away by their friends
     (who for the most part measure their learning by the form
     they set in), they take leave of their books while they
     live," &c. p. 23. "Some affect, and severer schools enforce,
     a precise and tedious strictness, in long keeping the
     schollers by the walls: as from before six in the morning,
     till twelve or past: so likewise in the afternoon. Which,
     beside the dulling of the wit and dejecting the spirit (for,
     "otii non minus quam negotii ratio extare debet") breeds in
     him, afterwards, a kind of hate and carelessness of study
     when he comes to be "sui juris," at his own liberty (as
     experience proves by many, who are sent from severe schools
     unto the universities): withall over-loading his memory, and
     taking off the edge of his invention, with over heavy tasks,
     in themes, verses," &c., p. 25. "Nor is it my meaning that I
     would all masters to be tyed to one method, no more than all
     the shires of England to come up to London by one highway:
     there may be many equally alike good. And since method, as
     one saith, is but [Greek: odopoiêtikê], let every master, if
     he can, by pulling up stiles and hedges, make a more near
     and private way to himself; and in God's name say, with the
     divinest of poets,

                            _deserta per avia dulcis
          Raptat amor. Juvat ire iugis, quâ nulla priorum_
          CASTALIAM _molli divertitur orbita clivo._

          (Georg. libi. iij.)

          With sweet love rapt, I now by deserts pass,
            And over hills where never track of yore:
          Descending easily, yet remembered was,
            That led the way to CASTALIE before.

          (Peacham.)

     But instead of many good, they have infinite bad; and go
     stumbling from the right, as if they went blindfold for a
     wager. Hence cometh the shifting of the scholler from master
     to master; who, poor boy (like a hound among a company of
     ignorant hunters hollowing every deer they see), misseth the
     right, begetteth himself new labour, and at last, by one of
     skill and well read, beaten for his paines," pp. 29, 30.
     Peacham next notices the extreme severity of discipline
     exercised in some schools. "I knew one, who in winter would
     ordinarily, in a cold morning, whip his boys over for no
     other purpose than to get himself a heat: another beats them
     for swearing, and all the while sweares himself with
     horrible oaths. He would forgive any fault saving that! I
     had, I remember, myself (neer St. Alban's in Hertfordshire,
     where I was born) a master, who, by no entreaty, would teach
     any scholler he had farther than his father had learned
     before him; as if he had only learned but to read English,
     the son, though he went with him seven years, should go no
     further: his reason was, they would then prove saucy rogues,
     and controle their fathers! Yet these are they that
     oftentimes have our hopefull gentry under their charge and
     tuition, to bring them up in science and civility!" p. 27.
     This absurd system is well contrasted with the following
     account of the lenity observed in some of the schools on the
     continent: "In Germany the school is, and as the name
     imports, it ought to be, merely, LUDUS LITERARIUS, a very
     pastime of learning, where it is a rare thing to see a rod
     stirring: yet I heartily wish that our children of England
     were but half so ready in writing and speaking Latin, which
     boys of ten and twelve years old will do so roundly, and
     with so neat a phrase and style, that many of our masters
     would hardly mend them; having only for their punishment,
     shame; and for their reward, praise," p. 24. "Wherefore I
     cannot but commend the custome of their schools in the
     Low-countries, where for the avoyding of this tedious
     sitting still, and with irksome poring on the book all day
     long, after the scholler hath received his lecture, he
     leaveth the school for an houre, and walkes abroad with one
     or two of his fellows, either into the field or up among the
     trees upon the rampire, as in ANTWERP, BREDA, VTRECHT, &c.,
     when they confer and recreate themselves till time calls
     them in to repeat, where perhaps they stay an hour; so
     abroad again, and thus at their pleasure the whole day," p.
     26. Thus have we pursued the _History of the Education of
     Boys_ to a period quite modern enough for the most
     superficial antiquary to supply the connecting links down to
     the present times. Nor can we conclude this prolix note
     without observing upon two things which are remarkable
     enough: first, that in a country like our own--the
     distinguishing characteristics of whose inhabitants are
     gravity, reserve, and good sense--lads should conduct
     themselves with so much rudeness, flippancy, and tyranny
     towards each other--and secondly, that masters should, in
     too many instances, exercise a discipline suited rather to a
     government of despotism and terror than to a land of liberty
     and social comfort! But all human improvement, and human
     happiness, is progressive. Speramus meliora!]

LYSAND. But you must not believe every thing that is said in favour of
_Continental_ lenity of discipline, shewn to youth, if the testimony
of a modern newspaper may be credited!----

LIS. What your newspaper may hold forth I will not pretend to enter
into.

LYSAND. Nay, here is the paragraph; which I cut out from "_The
Observer_," and will now read it to you. "A German Magazine recently
announced the death of a schoolmaster in Suabia, who, for 51 years,
had superintended a large institution with old fashioned severity.
From an average, inferred by means of recorded observations, one of
the ushers had calculated that, in the course of his exertions, he had
given _911,500 canings, 121,000 floggings, 209,000 custodes, 136,000
tips with the ruler, 10,200 boxes on the ear, and 22,700 tasks by
heart_. It was further calculated that he had made _700 boys stand on
peas, 6000 kneel on a sharp edge of wood, 5000 wear the fool's cap,
and 1,700 hold the rod_. How vast (exclaims the journalist) the
quantity of human misery inflicted by a single perverse educator!"
Now, my friends, what have you to say against the _English_ system of
education?

PHIL. This is only defending bad by worse.

LIS. Where are we digressing? What are become of our bibliomaniacal
heroes?

LYSAND. You do right to call me to order. Let us turn from the birch,
to the book, history.

Contemporaneous with Peacham, lived that very curious collector of
ancient popular little pieces, as well as lover of "sacred secret soul
soliloquies," the renowned _melancholy_ composer, ycleped ROBERT
BURTON;[345] who, I do not scruple to number among the most marked
bibliomaniacs of the age; notwithstanding his saucy railing against
Frankfort book-fairs. We have abundance of testimony (exclusive of the
fruits of his researches, which appear by his innumerable marginal
references to authors of all ages and characters) that this original,
amusing, and now popular, author was an arrant book-hunter; or, as old
Anthony hath it, "a devourer of authors." Rouse, the Librarian of
Bodleian, is said to have liberally assisted Burton in furnishing him
with choice books for the prosecution of his extraordinary work.

     [Footnote 345: I suppose Lysander to allude to a memorandum
     of Hearne, in his _Benedictus Abbas_, p. iv., respecting
     ROBERT BURTON being a collector of "ancient popular little
     pieces." From this authority we find that he gave "a great
     variety" of these pieces, with a multitude of books, of the
     best kind, to the "Bodleian Library."--One of these was that
     "opus incomparabile," the "_History of Tom Thumb_," and the
     other, the "_Pleasant and Merry History of the Mylner of
     Abingdon_." The expression "sacred secret soul soliloquies"
     belongs to Braithwait: and is thus beautifully interwoven in
     the following harmonious couplets:

          ----No minute but affords some tears.
          No walks but private solitary groves
          Shut from frequent, his contemplation loves;
          No treatise, nor discourse, so sweetly please
          As sacred-secret soule soliloquies.

          _Arcadian Princesse_, lib. 4, p. 162.

     And see, gentle reader, how the charms of solitude--of
     "walking alone in some solitary grove, betwixt wood and
     water, by a brook-side, to meditate upon some delightsome
     and pleasant subject" are depicted by the truly original
     pencil of this said Robert Burton, in his _Anatomy of
     Melancholy_, vol. i., p. 126, edit. 1804. But our theme is
     Bibliomania. Take, therefore, concerning the same author,
     the following: and then hesitate, if thou canst, about his
     being infected with the BOOK-DISEASE. "What a catalogue of
     new books all this year, all this age (I say) have our
     Frank-furt marts, our domestic marts, brought out! Twice a
     year, 'Proferunt se nova ingenia et ostentant;' we stretch
     our wits out! and set them to sale: 'Magno conatu nihil
     agimus,' &c. 'Quis tam avidus librorum helluo,' who can read
     them? As already, we shall have a vast chaos and confusion
     of books; we are oppressed with them; our eyes ake with
     reading, our fingers with turning," &c. This is painting _ad
     vivum_--after the life. We see and feel every thing
     described. Truly, none but a thorough master in
     bibliomaniacal mysteries could have thus thought and
     written! See "_Democritus to the Reader_," p. 10; perhaps
     the most highly finished piece of dissection in the whole
     _anatomical work_.]

About this period lived LORD LUMLEY; a nobleman of no mean reputation
as a bibliomaniac. But what shall we say to Lord Shaftesbury's
eccentric neighbour, HENRY HASTINGS? who, in spite of his hawks,
hounds, kittens, and oysters,[346] could not for [Transcriber's Note:
extraneous 'for'] forbear to indulge his book propensities though in a
moderate degree! Let us fancy we see him, in his eightieth year, just
alighted from the toils of the chase, and listening, after dinner,
with his "single glass" of ale by his side, to some old woman with
"spectacle on nose" who reads to him a choice passage out of John
Fox's _Book of Martyrs_! A rare old boy was this Hastings. But I
wander--and may forget another worthy, and yet more ardent,
bibliomaniac, called JOHN CLUNGEON, who left a press, and some books
carefully deposited in a stout chest, to the parish church at
Southampton. We have also evidence of this man's having _erected a
press_ within the same; but human villany has robbed us of every relic
of his books and printing furniture.[347] From Southampton, you must
excuse me if I take a leap to London; in order to introduce you into
the wine cellars of one JOHN WARD; where, I suppose, a few choice
copies of favourite authors were sometimes kept in a secret recess by
the side of the oldest bottle of hock. We are indebted to Hearne for a
brief, but not uninteresting, notice of this _vinous_ book
collector.[348]

     [Footnote 346: Of the bibliomaniacal spirit of LORD LUMLEY
     the reader has already had some slight mention made at pages
     273, 281, ante. Of HENRY HASTINGS, Gilpin has furnished us
     with some anecdotes which deserve to be here recorded. They
     are taken from Hutchin's _Hist. of Dorsetshire_, vol. ii.,
     p. 63. "Mr. HASTINGS was low of stature, but strong and
     active, of a ruddy complexion, with flaxen hair. His cloaths
     were always of green cloth. His house was of the old
     fashion; in the midst of a large park, well stocked with
     deer, rabbits, and fish-ponds. He had a long narrow bowling
     green in it, and used to play with round sand bowls. Here
     too he had a banquetting room built, like a stand in a large
     tree. He kept all sorts of hounds, that ran buck, fox, hare,
     otter, and badger; and had hawks of all kinds, both long and
     short winged. His great hall was commonly strewed with
     marrow-bones, and full of hawk-perches, hounds, spaniels,
     and terriers. The upper end of it was hung with fox-skins of
     this and the last year's killing. Here and there a pole-cat
     was intermixed, and hunter's poles in great abundance. The
     parlour was a large room, completely furnished in the same
     style. On a broad hearth, paved with brick, lay some of the
     choicest terriers, hounds, and spaniels. One or two of the
     great chairs had litters of cats in them, which were not to
     be disturbed. Of these, three or four always attended him at
     dinner, and a little white wand lay by his trencher, to
     defend it, if they were too troublesome. In the windows,
     which were very large, lay his arrows, cross-bows, and other
     accoutrements. The corners of the room were filled with his
     best hunting and hawking poles. His oyster table stood at
     the lower end of the room, which was in constant use twice a
     day, all the year round; for he never failed to eat oysters
     both at dinner and supper, with which the neighbouring town
     of Pool supplied him. At the upper end of the room stood a
     small table with a double desk; one side of which held a
     CHURCH BIBLE: the other the BOOK OF MARTYRS. On different
     tables in the room lay hawks'-hoods, bells, old hats, with
     their crowns thrust in, full of pheasant eggs, tables, dice,
     cards, and store of tobacco pipes. At one end of this room
     was a door, which opened into a closet, where stood bottles
     of strong beer and wine; which never came out but in single
     glasses, which was the rule of the house, for he never
     exceeded himself, nor permitted others to exceed. Answering
     to this closet was a door into an old chapel; which had been
     long disused for devotion; but in the pulpit, as the safest
     place, was always to be found a cold chine of beef, a
     venison pasty, a gammon of bacon, or a great apple-pye, with
     thick crust, well baked. His table cost him not much, though
     it was good to eat at. His sports supplied all but beef and
     mutton, except on Fridays, when he had the best of fish. He
     never wanted a London pudding, and he always sang it in with
     "_My part lies therein-a_." He drank a glass or two of wine
     at meals; put syrup of gilly-flowers into his sack, and had
     always a tun glass of small beer standing by him, which he
     often stirred about with rosemary. He lived to be an
     hundred, and never lost his eyesight, nor used spectacles.
     He got on horseback without help, and rode to the death of
     the stag till he was past fourscore." Gilpin's _Forest
     Scenery_, vol. ii., pp. 23, 26. I should add, from the same
     authority, that Hastings was a neighbour of Anthony Ashley
     Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury, with whom (as was likely
     enough) he had no cordial agreement.]

     [Footnote 347: "In the northern chapel which is parted from
     the side aile by a beautiful open Gothic screen, is a
     handsome monument to the memory of the lord Chancellor
     Wriothesly, and a _large and costly standing chest_, carved
     and inlaid, and stated, by an inscription on its front, to
     have been given, _with the books in it_, by JOHN CLUNGEON.
     The inscription is as follows:

     "John, the sonne of John Clungeon of this towne, Alderman,
     _erected this presse_ and gave certain books, who died, anno
     1646.

     "The books are, however, now gone, and the surplices, &c.
     are kept in the chest." See a tasteful and elegantly printed
     little volume, entitled "_A Walk through Southampton_;" by
     Sir H.C. Englefield, Bart. 1801, 8vo., p. 64.]

     [Footnote 348: Ward is described by Hearne as being "a
     citizen and vintner of London," and "a lover of
     antiquity's." He had a copy of the _Chartulary of
     Dunstaple_, in MS., which was put by Wanley into the
     Harleian collection. The following entry is too much of a
     characteristic trait, not to be gratifying to the palate of
     a thorough bred bibliomaniac; it relates to the said
     Chartulary:--"also this vellum, at both ends of the booke,
     was then added, put in, and inserted, at the costs of the
     said Mr. (JOHN) WARD, in the said yeare of our Lord, 1655,

                                _s._ _d._
     binding and claspes         4    00
     vellum                      4    00"

     _Annals of Dunstaple Priory_, vol. i., p. xxx., note.]

LIS. If Master Cox, "by profession a mason," and living in the
country, could have collected such a cabinet of romances and
ballads--why should not a wine merchant, living in the metropolis,
have turned his attention to a similar pursuit, and have been even
more successful in the objects of it?

PHIL. I know not; particularly as we have, at the present day, some
commercial characters--whose dealings in trade are as opposite to
books as frogs are to roast beef--absolute madmen in search after
black-letter, large paper, and uncut copies! But proceed, Lysander.

LYSAND. Such was the influence of the _Book Mania_ about, or rather a
little before, this period that even the sacred retirement of a
monastery, established upon Protestant principles, and conducted by
rules so rigid as almost to frighten the hardiest ascetic, even such a
spot was unable to resist the charms of book-collecting and
book-embellishment. How St. Jerome or St. Austin would have lashed the
FERRAR FAMILY[349] for the gorgeous decorations of their volumes, and
for devoting so much precious time and painful attention to the art
and mystery of Book-binding! Yes, Lisardo; it is truly curious to
think upon the _Little Gidding Monastery_--near which, perhaps, were

     ----"rugged rocks, that holy knees had worn--"

and to imagine that the occupiers of such a place were infected--nay,
inflamed--with a most powerful ardour for curious, neat, splendid,
and, I dare venture to affirm, matchless copies of the several volumes
which they composed! But I will now hasten to give very different
evidence of the progress of this disease, by noticing the labours of a
bibliomaniac of first rate celebrity; I mean ELIAS ASHMOLE:[350] whose
museum at Oxford abundantly proves his curious and pertinacious
spirit in book-collecting. His works, put forth under his own
superintendence, with his name subjoined, shew a delicate taste, an
active research, and, if we except his _Hermetical_ propensities, a
fortunate termination. His "opus maximum" is the _Order of the
Garter_; a volume of great elegance both in the composition and
decorations. Your copy of it, I perceived, was upon _large paper_; and
cost you--

     [Footnote 349: It remains here to make good the above
     serious charges brought against the ancient and worthy
     family of the FERRARS; and this it is fully in my power to
     do, from the effectual aid afforded me by Dr. Wordsworth, in
     the fifth volume of his _Ecclesiastical Biography_; where
     the better part of Dr. Peckard's Life of Nicholas Ferrar is
     published, together with some valuable and original addenda
     from the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth. Be it, however,
     known to Dr. Wordsworth, and the reviewer of the
     Ecclesiastical Biography in the _Quarterly Review_, vol.
     iv., pp. 93, 103, that Hearne had previously published a
     copious and curious account of the monastery at Little
     Gidding in the supplement to his _Thom. Caii. Vind.
     Antiquit. Oxon._, 1730, 8vo., vol. ii.: which, as far as I
     have had an opportunity of examining Dr. Wordsworth's
     account, does not appear to have been known to this latter
     editor. We will now proceed to the bibliomaniacal anecdotes
     of NICHOLAS FERRAR, SENIOR AND JUNIOR. "Amongst other
     articles of instruction and amusement, Mr. FERRAR (senior)
     entertained an ingenious _Book-binder_ who taught the
     family, females as well as males, the whole art and skill of
     _book-binding_, gilding, lettering, and what they called
     pasting-printing, by the use of the rolling press. By this
     assistance he composed a full harmony, or concordance, of
     the four evangelists, _adorned with many beautiful
     pictures_, which required more than a year for the
     composition, and was divided into 150 heads or chapters."
     There is then a minute account of the mechanical process (in
     which the nieces assisted) how, by means of "great store of
     the best and strongest white paper, nice knives and
     scissars, pasting and rolling-press" work--the arduous task
     was at length accomplished: and Mary Collet, one of Mr.
     Ferrar's nieces, put the grand finishing stroke to the
     whole, by "doing a deed"--which has snapt asunder the
     threads of Penelope's web for envy:--"She bound the book
     entirely, ALL WROUGHT IN GOLD, in a new and most elegant
     fashion." The fame of this book, or concordance, as it was
     called, reached the ears of Charles I., who "intreated"
     (such was his Majesty's expression) to be favoured with a
     sight of it. Laud and Cousins, who were then chaplains in
     waiting, presented it to the King; who "after long and
     serious looking it over, said, 'This is indeed a most
     valuable work, and in many respects to be presented to the
     greatest prince upon earth: for the matter it contains is
     the richest of all treasures. The laborious composure of it
     into this excellent form of _an Harmony_, the judicious
     contrivance of the method, the curious workmanship in so
     neatly cutting out and disposing the text, _the nice laying
     of these costly pictures, and the exquisite art expressed in
     the binding_, are, I really think, not to be equalled. I
     must acknowledge myself to be, indeed, greatly indebted to
     the family for THIS JEWEL: and whatever is in my power I
     shall, at any time, be ready to do for any of them.'"
     _Eccles. Biogr._, vol. v., 172-8. This was spoken, by
     Charles, in the true spirit of a Book-Knight! Cromwell, I
     suppose, would have shewn the same mercy to this treasure as
     he did to the madonnas of Raffaelle--thrown it behind the
     fire, as idolatrous! The nephew emulated and eclipsed the
     bibliomaniacal celebrity of his uncle. At the age of
     twenty-one, he executed three books (or "works" as they are
     called) of uncommon curiosity and splendour. Archbishop
     Laud, who had a keen eye and solid judgment for things of
     this sort (as the reader will find in the following pages)
     undertook to introduce young Ferrars to the King. The
     introduction is told in such a pleasing style of _naiveté_,
     and the manual dexterity of the young bibliomaniac is so
     smartly commended by Charles, that I cannot find it in my
     heart to abridge much of the narrative. "When the king saw
     the Archbishop enter the room, he said, 'What have you
     brought with you those _rarities_ and _jewels_ you told me
     of?' 'Yea, sire,' replied the bishop; 'here is the YOUNG
     GENTLEMAN and his works.' So the bishop, taking him by the
     hand, led him up to the king. He, falling down on his knees,
     the king gave him his hand to kiss, bidding him rise up. The
     box was opened, and NICHOLAS FERRAR, first presented to the
     king that book made for the prince; who taking it from him,
     looking well on the outside, which was _all green velvet,
     stately and richly gilt all over, with great broad strings,
     edged with gold lace, and curiously bound_, said, 'Here is a
     fine book for Charles, indeed! I hope it will soon make him
     in love with what is within it, for I know it is good,' &c.
     And lo! here are also store of _rare pictures_ to delight
     his eye with! &c., &c. Then, turning him to the Lord of
     Canterbury, he said, 'Let this young gentleman have your
     letters to the princes to-morrow, to Richmond, and let him
     carry this present. It is a good day, you know, and a good
     work would be done upon it.' So he gave Nicholas Ferrar the
     book; who, carrying it to the box, took out of it a very
     large paper book, which was the FOURTH WORK, and laid it on
     the table before the king. 'For whom,' said the king, 'is
     this model?' 'For your majesty's eyes, if you please to
     honour it so much.' 'And that I will gladly do,' said the
     king, 'and never be weary of such sights as I know you will
     offer unto me.' The king having well perused the title page,
     beginning, 'The Gospel of our Lord and blessed Saviour,
     Jesus Christ, in eight several languages,' &c., said unto
     the lords, 'You all see that one good thing produceth
     another. Here we have more and more rarities; from print now
     to pen. These are fair hands, well written, and as well
     composed.' Then replied the Lord of Canterbury, 'When your
     majesty hath seen all, you will have more and more cause to
     admire.' 'What!' said the king, 'is it possible we shall
     behold yet more rarities?' then said the bishop to Nicholas
     Ferrar, 'Reach the other piece that is in the box:' and this
     we call the FIFTH WORK; the title being _Novum Testamentum,
     &c., in viginti quatuor linguis, &c._ The king, opening the
     book, said, 'Better and better. This is the largest and
     fairest paper that ever I saw.' Then, reading the
     title-page, he said, 'What is this? What have we here? The
     incomparablest book this will be, as ever eye beheld. My
     lords, come, look well upon it. This finished, must be the
     EMPEROR OF ALL BOOKS. It is the crown of all works. It is an
     admirable masterpiece. The world cannot match it. I believe
     you are all of my opinion.' The lords all seconded the king,
     and each spake his mind of it. 'I observe two things amongst
     others,' said the king, 'very remarkable, if not admirable.
     The first is, how is it possible that a young man of
     twenty-one years of age (for he had asked the Lord of
     Canterbury before, how old Nicholas Ferrar was) should ever
     attain to the understanding and knowledge of more languages
     than he is of years; and to have the courage to venture upon
     such an Atlas work, or Hercules labour. The other is also of
     high commendation, to see him write so many several
     languages, so well as these are, each in its proper
     character. Sure so few years had been well spent, some men
     might think, to have attained only to the _writing_ thus
     fairly, of these twenty-four languages!' All the lords
     replied his majesty had judged right; and said, except they
     had seen, as they did, the young gentleman there, and the
     book itself, all the world should not have persuaded them to
     the belief of it." _Ecclesiastical Biography_, vol. v., pp.
     216, 220. But whatever degree of credit or fame of young
     FERRARS might suppose to have been attached to the execution
     of these "pieces," his emulation was not damped, nor did his
     industry slacken, 'till he had produced a specimen of much
     greater powers of book-decoration. His appetite was that of
     a giant; for he was not satisfied with any thing short of
     bringing forth a volume of such dimensions as to make the
     bearer of it groan beneath its weight--and the beholders of
     it dazzled with its lustre, and astonished at its amplitude.
     Perhaps there is not a more curious book-anecdote upon
     record than the following. "Charles the 1st, his son
     Charles, the Palsgrave, and the Duke of Lennox, paid a visit
     to the monastery of Little Gidding, in Huntingdonshire--the
     abode of the Ferrars."--"Then, the king was pleased to go
     into the house, and demanded where the GREAT BOOK was, that
     he had heard was made for Charles's use. It was soon brought
     unto him; and the _largeness_ and _weight_ of it was such
     that he that carried it seemed to be _well laden_. Which the
     duke, observing, said, 'Sir, one of your strongest guard
     will but be able to carry this book.' It being laid on the
     table before the king, it was told him that, though it were
     then fairly bound up in _purple velvet_, that the outside
     was not fully finished, as it should be, for the prince's
     use and better liking. 'Well,' said the king, 'it is very
     well done.' So he opened the book, the prince standing at
     the table's end, and the Palsgrave and Duke on each side of
     the king. The king read the title page and frontispice all
     over very deliberately; and well viewing the form of it, how
     adorned with _a stately garnish of pictures, &c._, and the
     curiousness of the writing of it, said, 'Charles, here is a
     book that contains excellent things. This will make you both
     wise and good.' Then he proceeded to turn it over, leaf by
     leaf, and took exact notice of all in it: and it being _full
     of pictures of sundry mens cuts_, he could tell the
     palsgrave, who seemed also to be knowing in that kind, that
     this and this, and that and that, were of such a man's
     graving and invention. The prince all the while greatly eyed
     all things; and seemed much to be pleased with the book. The
     king having spent some hours in the perusal of it, and
     demanding many questions was occasion as, concerning the
     contrivement, and having received answers to all he
     demanded, at length said, 'It was only _a jewel for a
     Prince_, and hoped CHARLES would make good use of it: and I
     see and find, by what I have myself received formerly from
     this good house, that they go on daily in the prosecution of
     these excellent pieces. They are brave employments of their
     time.' The Palsgrave said to the prince, 'Sir, your father
     the king is master of the goodliest ship in the world, and I
     may now say you will be master of the GALLANTEST GREATEST
     BOOK in the world: for I never saw _such paper_ before; and
     believe there is no book of this largeness to be seen in
     Christendom.' 'The paper and the book in all conditions,'
     said the king, 'I believe it not to be matched. Here hath
     also in this book not wanted, you see, skill, care, nor
     cost.' 'It is a most admirable piece,' replied the Duke of
     Richmond. So the king, closing the book, said, 'Charles,
     this is yours.' He replied, 'But, Sir, shall I not now have
     it with me?' Reply was made by one of the family, 'If it
     please your highness, the book is not _on the outside so
     finished_ as it is intended for you, but shall be, with all
     expedition, done, and you shall have it.' 'Well,' said the
     king, 'you must content yourself for a
     while.'"--_Ecclesiastical Biography_, vol. v., p. 237.]

     [Footnote 350: In the year 1774, was published an octavo
     volume, containing the lives of WILLIAM LILLY the
     astrologer, and ELIAS ASHMOLE the antiquary: two of the
     greatest _cronies_ of their day. The particulars of
     Ashmole's life are drawn from his own _Diary_, in which is
     detailed every thing the most minute and ridiculous; while
     many of the leading features in his character, and many
     interesting occurrences in his life, are wholly suppressed.
     The editor has not evinced much judgment in causing
     posterity to be informed when Ashmole's "_great and little
     teeth ached, or were loose_:" when his "_neck break forth,
     occasioned by shaving his beard with a bad razor_" (p. 312);
     when "_his maid's bed was on fire, but he rose quickly
     (thanking God) and quenched it_" (p. 313); and when he
     "_scratched the right-side of his buttocks, &c., and applied
     pultices thereunto, made of white bread crums, oil of roses,
     and rose leaves_;" (p. 363--and see particularly the long
     and dismal entries at p. 368.) All this might surely have
     been spared, without much injury to the reputation of the
     sufferer. Yet, in some other minute entries, we glean
     intelligence a little more interesting. At p. 324, we find
     that Ashmole had quarrelled with his wife; and that "Mr.
     Serjeant Maynard observed to the Court that there were 800
     sheets of depositions on his wife's part, and not one word
     proved against him of using her ill, or ever giving her a
     bad or provoking word:" at page 330, we find Ashmole
     accompanying his heraldic friend Dugdale, in his
     "visitations" of counties; also that "his picture was drawn
     by Le Neve in his herald's coat:" Loggan afterwards drew it
     in black lead: p. 352. But here again (p. 353) we are
     gravely informed that "_his tooth, next his fore tooth in
     his upper jaw, was very loose, and he easily pulled it out,
     and that one of his middle teeth in his lower jaw, broke out
     while he was at dinner_." He sat (for the last time) for "a
     second picture to Mr. Ryley," p. 379. Ashmole's intimacy
     with Lilly was the foundation of the former's (supposed)
     profundity in alchemical and astrological studies. In this
     Diary we are carefully told that "Mr. Jonas Moore brought
     and acquainted him with Mr. William Lilly, on a Friday
     night, on the 20th of November," p. 302. Ashmole was then
     only 26 years of age; and it will be readily conceived how,
     at this susceptible period, he listened with rapture to his
     master's exposition of the black art, and implicitly adopted
     the recipes and maxims he heard delivered. Hence the pupil
     generally styled himself _Mercuriophilus Anglicus_, at the
     foot of most of his title-pages: and hence we find such
     extraordinary entries, in the foresaid diary, as the
     following: "This night (August 14, 1651) about one of the
     clock, I fell ill of a surfeit, occasioned by drinking
     _water after Venison_. I was greatly oppressed in my
     stomach; and next day Mr. Saunders, _the astrologian_, sent
     me a piece of briony-root to hold in my hand; and within a
     quarter of an hour my stomach was freed from that great
     oppression," p. 314. "Sep. 27, 1652, I came to Mr. John
     Tompson's, who dwelt near Dove Bridge; he used a call, and
     had responses in a soft voice," p. 317. At p. 318 is
     narrated the commencement of his acquaintance with the
     famous Arise Evans, a Welsh prophet: whose "_Echo from
     Heaven_," &c., 2 parts, 1652, 12mo., is a work noticed by
     Warburton, and coveted by bibliomaniacs. Yet one more
     quack-medicine entry: "March 11, 1681. I took early in the
     morning a good dose of Elixir, and hung three spiders about
     my neck, and they drove my ague away--Deo gratias!" p. 359.
     It seems that Ashmole always punctually kept "_The
     Astrologer's Feast_;" and that he had such celebrity as a
     curer of certain diseases, that Lord Finch the Chancellor
     "sent for him to cure him of his rheumatism. He dined there,
     but would not undertake the cure," p. 364. This was behaving
     with a tolerable degree of prudence and good sense. But let
     not the bibliomaniac imagine that it is my wish to degrade
     honest old Elias Ashmole, by the foregoing delineation of
     his weaknesses and follies. The ensuing entries, in the said
     Diary, will more than counterbalance any unfavourable effect
     produced by its precursors; and I give them with a full
     conviction that they will be greedily devoured by those who
     have been lucky enough to make good purchases of the entire
     libraries of deceased characters of eminence. In his 37th
     year, Ashmole "bought of Mr. Milbourn all his books and
     mathematical instruments;" and the day after (N.B. "8
     o'clock, 39 min. post merid.") "he bought Mr. Hawkins's
     books," p. 312. In the ensuing year he "agreed with Mrs.
     Backhouse, of London, for her deceased husband's books," p.
     313. He now became so distinguished as a successful
     bibliomaniac that Seldon and Twysden sought his
     acquaintance; and "Mr. Tredescant and his wife told him that
     they had been long considering upon whom to bestow their
     _closet of curiosities_, and at last had resolved to give it
     unto him," p. 326. Having by this time (A.D. 1658) commenced
     his famous work upon _The Order of the Garter_, he was
     introduced to Charles II.: kissed hands, and was appointed
     by the king "to make a description of his medals, and had
     them delivered into his hands, and _Henry the VIIIth's
     closet_ assigned for his use," p. 327. In this same year
     came forth his "_Way to Bliss_;" 4to.: a work so invincibly
     dull that I despair of presenting the reader with any thing
     like entertainment even in the following heterogeneous
     extract: "When our natural heat, the life of this little
     world, is faint and gone, the body shrinks up and is
     defaced: but bring again heat into the parts, and likewise
     money into the bankrupt's coffers, and they shall be both
     lusty, and flourish again as much as ever they did. But how
     may this heat be brought again? To make few words, even as
     she is kept and held by due _meat_ and _motion_; for if she
     faint, and falleth for want of them only, then give her
     them, and she shall recover herself again. Meat is the bait
     that draws her down: motion comes after, like a _Gad-Bee_,
     to prick her forward; but the work is performed in this
     order. First this meat, which is that fine and æthereal oyl
     often above-described, by the exceeding piercing swifteness,
     divides, scatters, and scowres away the gross and foul dregs
     and leavings which, for want of the tillage of heat, had
     overgrown in our bodies, and which was cast, like a blockish
     stay-fish in the way, to stay the free course of the ship of
     life: these flying out of all sides, abundantly pluck up all
     the old leavings of hair, nails, and teeth, by the roots,
     and drive them out before them: in the mean while, our
     medicine makes not onely clear way and passage for life, if
     she list to stir and run her wonted race (which some think
     enough of this matter), but also scattereth all about her
     due and desired meat, and first moisture to draw her
     forward. By which means our life, having gotten both her
     full strength and liveliness, and returned like the sun in
     summer into all our quarters, begins to work afresh as she
     did at first; (for being the same upon the same, she must
     needs do the same) knitting and binding the weak and loose
     joynts and sinews, watering and concocting all by good
     digestion; and then the idle parts like leaves shall, in
     this hot summer, spring and grow forth afresh, out of this
     new and young temper of the body: and all the whole face and
     shew shall be young again and flourishing," pp. 119, 120.
     With such a farrago of sublime nonsense were our worthy
     forefathers called upon to be enlightened and amused! But I
     lose sight of Ashmole's _book-purchases_. That he gave away,
     as well as received, curious volumes, is authenticated by
     his gift of "five volumes of Mr. Dugdale's works to the
     Temple Library:" p. 331. "Again: I presented the public
     library at Oxford with three folio volumes, containing a
     description of the Consular and Imperial coins there, which
     I had formerly made and digested, being all fairly
     transcribed with my own hand," p. 332. But mark well: "My
     first boatful of books, which were carried to Mrs.
     Tredescant's, were brought back to the Temple:" also, (May
     1667) "I bought Mr. John Booker's study of books, and gave
     140_l._ for them," p. 333. In the same year that his _Order
     of the Garter_ was published, his "good friend Mr. Wale sent
     him Dr. DEE'S original books and papers," p. 339. But he yet
     went on buying: "Nil actum reputans, dum quid superesset
     agendum:" for thus journalises our super-eminent
     bibliomaniac:--(June 12, 1681) "I bought Mr. Lilly's library
     of books of his widow, for fifty pounds," p. 360. In August,
     1682, Ashmole went towards Oxford, "to see the building
     prepared to receive his rarities;" and in March, 1683, "the
     last load of his rarities was sent to the barge." In July,
     1687, he received a parcel of books from J.W. Irnhoff, of
     Nurembergh, among which was his _Excellentium Familiarum in
     Gallia Genealogia_: p. 379. But it is time to put an end to
     this unwieldly note: reserving the account of Ashmole's
     _Order of the Garter_, and _Theatrum Chemicum_, for the
     ensuing one--and slightly informing the reader, of what he
     may probably be apprized, that our illustrious bibliomaniac
     bequeathed his museum of curiosities and library of books to
     his beloved ALMA MATER OXONIENSIS--having first erected a
     large building for their reception. It is justly said of
     him, in the inscription upon his tombstone,

          DURANTE MUSÆO ASHMOLEANO OXON.
          NUNQUAM MORITURUS.

     A summer month might be profitably passed in the Ashmolean
     collection of Books! Let us not despair that a complete
     _Catalogue Raisonné_ of them may yet be given.]

LOREN. Not eight guineas--although you were about to say _fourteen_!

LYSAND. Even so. But it must have been obtained in the golden age of
book-collecting?

LOREN. It was obtained, together with an uncut copy of his _Theatrum
Chemicum_,[351] by my father, at the shop of a most respectable
bookseller, lately living, at Mews-Gate, and now in Pall-Mall--where
the choicest copies of rare and beautiful books are oftentimes to be
procured, at a price much less than the extravagant ones given at
book-sales. You observed it was bound in blue morocco--and by that
Coryphæus of book-binders, the late ROGER PAYNE!

     [Footnote 351: First let us say a few words of the THEATRUM
     CHEMICUM BRITANNICUM, as it was the anterior publication. It
     contains a collection of ancient English poetical pieces
     relating to Alchemy, or the "Hermetique Mysteries;" and was
     published in a neat quarto volume, in 1652; accompanied with
     a rich sprinkling of plates "cut in brass," and copious
     annotations, at the end, by Ashmole himself. Of these
     plates, some are precious to the antiquary; for reasons
     which will be given by me in another work. At present, all
     that need be said is that a fine tall copy of it brings a
     fair sum of money. I never heard of the existence of a
     _large paper_ impression. It went to press in July 1651; and
     on the 26th of January following, "the first copy of it was
     sold to the Earl of Pembroke:" see the Diary, pp. 313-315.
     In May, 1658, Ashmole made his first visit to the Record
     Office in the Tower, to collect materials for his work of
     "THE ORDER OF THE GARTER." In May following, Hollar
     accompanied the author to Windsor, to take views of the
     castle. In the winter of 1665, Ashmole composed a "good part
     of the work at Roe-Barnes (the plague increasing)." In May,
     1672, a copy of it was presented to King Charles II.: and in
     June, the following year, Ashmole received "his privy-seal
     for 400_l._ out of the custom of paper, which the king was
     pleased to bestow upon him for the same." This, it must be
     confessed, was a liberal remuneration. But the author's
     honours increased and multiplied beyond his most sanguine
     expectations. Princes and noblemen, abroad and at home, read
     and admired his work; and Ashmole had golden chains placed
     round his neck, and other superb presents from the greater
     part of them; one of which (from the Elector of
     Brandenburgh) is described as being "composed of ninety
     links, of philagreen links in great knobs, most curious
     work," &c. In short, such was the golden harvest which
     showered down upon him on all sides, on account of this
     splendid publication, that "he made a feast at his house in
     South Lambeth, in honour to his benefactors of the work of
     THE GARTER." I hope he had the conscience to make HOLLAR his
     Vice-President, or to seat him at his right hand; for this
     artist's _Engravings_, much more than the author's
     composition, will immortalize the volume. Yet the
     artist--died in penury! These particulars relating to this
     popular work, which it was thought might be amusing to the
     lover of fine books, have been faithfully extracted from the
     'forementioned original and amusing Diary. _The Order of the
     Garter_ was originally sold for 1_l._ 10_s._ See _Clavel's
     Catalogue_, 1675, p. 31.]

LYSAND. I observed it had a "glorious aspect," as bibliographers term
it.

LIS. But what has become of Ashmole all this while?

LYSAND. I will only further remark of him that, if he had not suffered
his mind to wander in quest of the puzzling speculations of alchemy
and astrology--which he conceived himself bound to do in consequence,
probably, of wearing John Dee's red velvet night cap--he might have
mingled a larger portion of common sense and sound practical
observations in his writings.

But a truce to worthy old Elias. For see yonder the bibliomaniacal
spirit of ARCHBISHOP LAUD pacing your library! With one hand resting
upon a folio,[352] it points, with the other, to your favourite print
of the public buildings of the University of Oxford--thereby reminding
us of his attachment, while living, to literature and fine books, and
of his benefactions to the Bodleian Library. Now it "looks frowningly"
upon us; and, turning round, and shewing the yet reeking gash from
which the life-blood flowed, it flits away--

     Par levibus ventis, volucrique simillima somno!

     [Footnote 352: ARCHBISHOP LAUD, who has [Transcriber's Note:
     was] beheaded in the year 1644, had a great fondness for
     sumptuous decoration in dress, books, and ecclesiastical
     establishments; which made him suspected of a leaning
     towards the Roman Catholic religion. His life has been
     written by Dr. Heylin, in a heavy folio volume of 547 pages;
     and in which we have a sufficiently prolix account of the
     political occurrences during Laud's primacy, but rather a
     sparing, or indeed no, account of his private life and
     traits of domestic character. In Lloyd's _Memoirs of the
     Sufferers_ from the year 1637 to 1660 inclusive (1668, fol.)
     are exhibited the articles of impeachment against the
     Archbishop; and, amongst them, are the following
     bibliomaniacal accusations. "Art. 5. Receiving a _Bible_,
     with a crucifix embroidered on the cover of it by a lady.
     Art. 6. A book of popish pictures, _two Missals_,
     Pontificals, and Breviaries, which he made use of as a
     scholar. Art. 7. His (own) admirable _Book of Devotion_,
     digested according to the ancient way of canonical hours,
     &c. Art. 19. _The book of Sports_, which was published first
     in King James his reign, before he had any power in the
     church; and afterward in King Charles his reign, before he
     had the chief power in the church," &c., pp. 235-237. But if
     Laud's head was doomed to be severed from his body in
     consequence of these his bibliomaniacal frailties, what
     would have been said to the fine copy of one of the
     _Salisbury Primers or Missals_, printed by Pynson UPON
     VELLUM, which once belonged to this archbishop, and is now
     in the library of St. John's College, Oxford?! Has the
     reader ever seen the same primate's copy of the _Aldine
     Aristophanes_, 1498, in the same place? 'Tis a glorious
     volume; and I think nearly equals my friend Mr. Heber's
     copy, once Lord Halifax's, of the same edition. Of Laud's
     benefactions to the Bodleian Library, the bibliographer will
     see ample mention made in the _Catalogus Librorum
     Manuscriptorum Angliæ, Hiberniæ_, &c., 1697, folio. The
     following, from Heylin, is worth extracting: "Being come
     near the block, he (Laud) put off his doublet, &c., and
     seeing through the chink of the boards that some people were
     got under the scaffold, about the very place where the block
     was seated, he called to the officer for some dust to stop
     them, or to remove the people thence; saying, it was no part
     of his desire 'that his blood should fall upon the heads of
     the people.' Never did man put off mortality with a better
     courage, nor look upon his bloody and malicious enemies with
     more christian charity." _Cyprianus Anglicus_; or the _Life
     and Death of Laud_; 1668, fol.; p. 536. In the Master's
     library at St. John's, Oxford, they shew the velvet cap
     which it is said Laud wore at his execution; and in which
     the mark of the axe is sufficiently visible. The archbishop
     was a great benefactor to this college. Mr. H. Ellis, of the
     Museum, who with myself were "quondam socii" of the same
     establishment, writes me, that "Among what are called the
     king's pamphlets in the British Museum, is a fragment of a
     tract, without title, of fifty-six pages only, imperfect;
     beginning, 'A briefe examination of a certaine pamphlet
     lately printed in Scotland, and intituled _Ladensium
     Autocatacrisis_,' &c., 'The Cantabarians Self-Conviction.'
     On the blank leaf prefixed, is the following remark in a
     hand of the time. 'This Briefe Examen following, was found
     in the Archbishop's (Laud?) Library, wher the whole
     impression of these seauen sheets was found, but nether
     beginning nor ending more then is hearein contained. May
     11th, 1644.' This work, (continues Mr. Ellis,) which is a
     singular and valuable curiosity, is in fact a personal
     vindication of Archbishop Laud, not only from the slanders
     of the pamphlet, but from those of the times in general: and
     from internal evidence could have been written by no one but
     himself. It is in a style of writing beyond that of the
     ordinary productions of the day."]

Peace, peace, thou once "lofty spirit"--peace to thy sepulchre--always
consecrated by the grateful student who has been benefited by thy
bounty!

Perhaps Laud should have been noticed a little earlier in this list of
bibliomanical heroes; but, having here noticed him, I cannot refrain
from observing to you that the notorious HUGH PETERS revelled in some
of the spoils of the archbishop's library; and that there are, to the
best of my recollection, some curious entries on the journals of the
House of Commons relating to the same.[353]

     [Footnote 353: I am indebted to the same literary friend who
     gave me the intelligence which closes the last note, for the
     ensuing particulars relating to HUGH PETERS; which are taken
     from the journals of the lower house: "Ao. 1643-4. March 8.
     Ordered, that a study of books, to the value of 100_l._ out
     of such books as are sequestered, be forthwith bestowed upon
     Mr. PETERS." _Journals of the House of Commons_, vol. ii.,
     p. 421. "Ao. 1644. 25 April. Whereas this House was formerly
     pleased to bestow upon Mr. Peters books to the value of
     100_l._, it is this day ordered that Mr. Recorder, Mr.
     Whitlock, Mr. Hill, or two of them, do cause to be delivered
     to Mr. Peters, to the value of 100_l._, books out of the
     private and particular study of the ARCHBISHOP OF
     CANTERBURY." _Id._, vol. iii., p. 469. "Ao. 1644. 26 Junij.
     Dies publicæ Humiliationis. Mr. Peters made a large and full
     relation of the state of the western counties, and of the
     proceedings of my Lord General's army, since its coming
     thither," &c. "Whereas, formerly, books to the amount of
     100_l._ were bestowed upon Mr. Peters out of the
     archbishop's private library, and whereas the said study is
     appraised at above 40_l._ more than the 100_l._, it is
     ordered this day that Mr. Peters shall have the whole study
     of books freely bestowed upon him." _Id._ p. 544. "Ao. 1660.
     May 16. Ordered, That all books and papers, heretofore
     belonging to the library of the archbishop of Canterbury,
     and now, or lately, in the hands of Mr. HUGH PETERS, be
     forthwith secured." In Ashmole's life, before the first
     volume of his Antiq. of Berkshire, it is said in Aug. 1660,
     "Mr. Ashmole had a commission to examine that infamous
     buffoon and trumpeter of rebellion, Hugh Peters, concerning
     the disposal of the pictures, jewels, &c., belonging to the
     royal family, which were committed chiefly to his care, and
     sold and dispersed over Europe: which was soon brought to a
     conclusion by the obstinacy or ignorance of their criminal,
     who either would not, or was not able to, give the desired
     satisfaction."]

LIS. This is extraordinary enough. But, if I well remember, you
mentioned, a short time ago, the name of BRAITHWAIT as connected with
that of Peacham. Now, as I persume [Transcriber's Note: presume]
Lorenzo has not tied down his guests to any rigid chronological rules,
in their literary chit-chat, so I presume you might revert to
Braithwait, without being taxed with any great violation of colloquial
order.

LYSAND. Nay, I am not aware of any _bookish_ anecdote concerning
Braithwait. He was mentioned with Peacham as being a like accomplished
character.[354] Some of his pieces are written upon the same subjects
as were Peacham's, and with great point and elegance. He seems,
indeed, to have had the literary credit and moral welfare of his
countrymen so much at stake that, I confess, I have a vast fondness
for his lucubrations. His "_English Gentlewoman_" might be reprinted
with advantage.

     [Footnote 354: The talents of RICHARD BRAITHWAIT do not
     appear to me to be so generally known and highly commended
     as they merit to be. His _Nursery for Gentry_, 1651, 4to.
     (with his portrait in an engraved frontispiece by Marshall),
     is written with the author's usual point and spirit; but, as
     I humbly conceive, is a less interesting performance than
     his _English Gentleman_, 1633, 4to. (with a frontispiece by
     Marshall), or _English Gentlewoman_, 1631, 4to. (also with a
     frontispiece by the same artist). There is a terseness and
     vigour in Braithwait's style which is superior to that of
     his contemporary, Peacham; who seems to excel in a calm,
     easy, and graceful manner of composition. Both these eminent
     writers are distinguished for their scholastic and
     gentlemanly attainments; but in the "divine art of poesy"
     (in which light I mean here more particularly to display the
     powers of Braithwait) Peacham has no chance of being
     considered even as a respectable competitor with his
     contemporary. Mr. George Ellis, in his pleasing _Specimens
     of the early English Poets_, vol. iii., p. 103, has selected
     two songs of Braithwait "from a work not enumerated by
     Wood;" calling the author, "a noted wit and poet." His fame,
     however, is not likely to "gather strength" from these
     effusions. It is from some passages in _The Arcadian
     Princesse_--a work which has been already, and more than
     once, referred to, but which is too dislocated and
     heterogeneous to recommend to a complete perusal--it is from
     some passages in _this_ work that I think Braithwait shines
     with more lustre as a poet than in any to which his name is
     affixed. Take the following miscellaneous ones, by way of
     specimens. They are sometimes a little faulty in rhyme and
     melody: but they are never lame from imbecility.

                  ----he has the happiest wit,
          Who has discretion to attemper it.
          And of all others, those the least doe erre,
          Who in opinion are least singular.
          Let Stoicks be to opposition given,
          Who to extreames in arguments are driven;
          Submit thy judgment to another's will
          If it be good; oppose it mildly, ill.

          _Lib._ iv., p. 7.

     Strong good sense has been rarely exhibited in fewer lines
     than in the preceding ones. We have next a vigorously drawn
     character which has the frightful appellation of

                    _Uperephanos_, who still thought
          That th' world without him would be brought to nought:
          For when the dogge-starre raged, he used to cry,
          "No other Atlas has the world but I.
          I am that only _Hee_, supports the state;
          Cements divisions, shuts up Janus' gate;
          Improves the publike fame, chalks out the way
          How princes should command, subjects obey.
          Nought passeth my discovery, for my sense
          Extends itself to all intelligence."
                                  &c. &c. &c.
          So well this story and this embleme wrought,
          _Uperephanos_ was so humble brought,
          As he on earth disvalu'd nothing more,
          Than what his vainest humour priz'd before.
          More wise, but lesse conceited of his wit;
          More pregnant, but lesse apt to humour it;
          More worthy, 'cause he could agnize his want;
          More eminent, because less arragant.
          In briefe, so humbly-morally divine,
          He was esteem'd the _Non-such_ of his time.

          _Id._, pp. 8, 11.

     Another character, with an equally bizarre name, is drawn
     with the same vigour:

                    _Melixos_; such a starved one,
          As he had nothing left but skin and bone.
          The shady substance of a living man,
          Or object of contempt wheree'er he came.
          Yet had hee able parts, and could discourse,
          Presse moving reasons, arguments enforce,
          Expresse his readings with a comely grace,
          And prove himselfe a _Consul_ in his place!

          _Id._, p. 12.

     We have a still more highly-coloured, and indeed a terrific,
     as well as original, picture, in the following animated
     verses:

            Next him, _Uptoomos_; one more severe,
          Ne'er purple wore in this inferiour sphere:
          Rough and distastefull was his nature still,
          His life unsociable, as was his will.
          _Eris_ and _Enio_ his two pages were,
          His traine stern _Apuneia_ us'd to beare.
          Terrour and thunder echo'd from his tongue,
          Though weake in judgment, in opinion strong.
          A fiery inflammation seiz'd his eyes,
          Which could not well be temper'd any wise:
          For they were bloud-shot, and so prone to ill,
          As basiliske-like, where'ere they look, they kill.
          No laws but Draco's with his humour stood,
          For they were writ in characters of bloud.
          His stomacke was distemper'd in such sort
          Nought wo