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Title: Bible Myths and their Parallels in other Religions - Being a Comparison of the Old and New Testament Myths and - Miracles with those of the Heathen Nations of Antiquity - Considering also their Origin and Meaning
Author: Doane, T. W.
Language: English
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Transcriber's Notes: Greek words and some characters may not display
properly--in that case, try another version. Transliterations of Greek
words can be found in the ascii and html files. Words surrounded by
_underscores_ are in italics in the original. Characters superscripted
in the original are enclosed in {braces}. Ellipses match the original. A
row of asterisks represents a thought break.

Variations in spelling and hyphenation have been left as in the
original. A complete list of corrections follows the text.

The original sometimes uses two numbered columns for comparisons. This
text has the contents of the right column indented like a block quote
below the contents of the left column.

Other notes follow the text.



                             BIBLE MYTHS

                              AND THEIR

                     PARALLELS IN OTHER RELIGIONS

                      BEING A COMPARISON OF THE

               Old and New Testament Myths and Miracles

                                 WITH

                THOSE OF HEATHEN NATIONS OF ANTIQUITY

                           CONSIDERING ALSO

                       THEIR ORIGIN AND MEANING


                            BY T. W. DOANE


                    _WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS_


                           SEVENTH EDITION


     "_He who knows only one religion knows none._"--PROF. MAX
     MULLER.

     "The same thing which is now called CHRISTIAN RELIGION existed
     among the Ancients. They have begun to call Christian the true
     religion which existed before."--ST. AUGUSTINE.

     "Our love for what is old, our reverence for what our fathers
     used, makes us keep still in the church, and on the very altar
     cloths, symbols which would excite the smile of an _Oriental_,
     and lead him to wonder why we send missionaries to his land,
     while cherishing his faith in ours."--JAMES BONWICK.


                              COPYRIGHT,
                                1882.

                          COPYRIGHT RENEWED,
                                 1910


                          Printed in U.S.A.



INTRODUCTION.


The idea of publishing the work here presented did not suggest itself
until a large portion of the material it contains had been accumulated
for the private use and personal gratification of the author. In
pursuing the study of the Bible Myths, facts pertaining thereto, in a
condensed form, seemed to be greatly needed, and nowhere to be found.
Widely scattered through hundreds of ancient and modern volumes, most of
the contents of this book may indeed be found; but any previous attempt
to trace exclusively the myths and legends of the Old and New Testament
to their origin, published as a separate work, is not known to the
writer of this. Many able writers have shown our so-called Sacred
Scriptures to be unhistorical, and have pronounced them largely
legendary, but have there left the matter, evidently aware of the great
extent of the subject lying beyond. As Thomas Scott remarks, in his
_English Life of Jesus_: "_How_ these narratives (_i. e._, the New
Testament narratives), unhistorical as they have been shown to be, came
into existence, _it is not our business to explain_; and once again, at
the end of the task, as at the beginning and throughout, we must
emphatically disclaim the obligation." To pursue the subject from the
point at which it is abandoned by this and many other distinguished
writers, has been the labor of the author of this volume for a number of
years. The result of this labor is herewith submitted to the reader,
but not without a painful consciousness of its many imperfections.

The work naturally begins with the Eden myth, and is followed by a
consideration of the principal Old Testament legends, showing their
universality, origin and meaning. Next will be found the account of the
birth of Christ Jesus, with his history until the close of his life upon
earth, showing, in connection therewith, the universality of the myth of
the Virgin-born, Crucified and Resurrected Saviour.

Before showing the _origin_ and _meaning_ of the myth (which is done in
Chapter XXXIX.), we have considered the _Miracles of Christ Jesus_, the
_Eucharist_, _Baptism_, the _Worship of the Virgin_, _Christian
Symbols_, the _Birthday of Christ Jesus_, the _Doctrine of the Trinity_,
_Why Christianity Prospered_, and the _Antiquity of Pagan Religions_,
besides making a comparison of the legendary histories of _Crishna and
Jesus_, and _Buddha and Jesus_. The concluding chapter relates to the
question, What do we really know about Jesus?

In the words of Prof. Max Müller (_The Science of Religion_, p. 11): "A
comparison of all the religions of the world, in which none can claim a
privileged position, will no doubt seem to many dangerous and
reprehensible, because ignoring that peculiar reverence which everybody,
down to the mere fetish worshiper, feels for his own religion, and for
his own god. Let me say, then, at once, that I myself have shared these
misgivings, but that I have tried to overcome them, because I would not
and could not allow myself to surrender either what I hold to be the
truth, or what I hold still dearer than truth, the right of testing
truth. Nor do I regret it. I do not say that the _Science of Religion_
is all gain. No, it entails losses, and losses of many things which we
hold dear. But this I will say, that, as far as my humble judgment goes,
it does not entail the loss of anything that is essential to _true
religion_, and that, if we strike the balance honestly, _the gain is
immeasurably greater than the loss_."

"All truth is safe, and nothing else is safe; and he who keeps back the
truth, or withholds it from men, from motives of expediency, is either a
coward or a criminal, or both."

But little beyond the arrangement of this work is claimed as original.
Ideas, phrases, and even whole paragraphs have been taken from the
writings of others, and in most, if not in all cases, acknowledged; but
with the thought in mind of the many hours of research this book may
save the student in this particular line of study; with the
consciousness of having done for others that which I would have been
thankful to have found done for myself; and more than all, with the hope
that it may in some way help to hasten the day when the mist of
superstition shall be dispelled by the light of reason; with all its
defects, it is most cheerfully committed to its fate by the author.

BOSTON, MASS., _November, 1882_.



CONTENTS.


     PART I.
                                                                  PAGE
     INTRODUCTION                                                  iii

     LIST OF AUTHORITIES, AND BOOKS QUOTED FROM                     xi

     CHAPTER I.
         THE CREATION AND FALL OF MAN                                1

     CHAPTER II.
         THE DELUGE                                                 19

     CHAPTER III.
         THE TOWER OF BABEL                                         33

     CHAPTER IV.
         THE TRIAL OF ABRAHAM'S FAITH                               36

     CHAPTER V.
         JACOB'S VISION OF THE LADDER                               42

     CHAPTER VI.
         THE EXODUS FROM EGYPT                                      48

     CHAPTER VII.
         RECEIVING THE TEN COMMANDMENTS                             58

     CHAPTER VIII.
         SAMSON AND HIS EXPLOITS                                    62

     CHAPTER IX.
         JONAH SWALLOWED BY A BIG FISH                              77

     CHAPTER X.
         CIRCUMCISION                                               85

     CHAPTER XI.
         CONCLUSION OF PART FIRST                                   88


     PART II.

     CHAPTER XII.
         THE MIRACULOUS BIRTH OF CHRIST JESUS                      111

     CHAPTER XIII.
         THE STAR OF BETHLEHEM                                     140

     CHAPTER XIV.
         THE SONG OF THE HEAVENLY HOST                             147

     CHAPTER XV.
         THE DIVINE CHILD RECOGNIZED, AND PRESENTED WITH GIFTS     150


     CHAPTER XVI.
         THE BIRTH-PLACE OF CHRIST JESUS                           154

     CHAPTER XVII.
         THE GENEALOGY OF CHRIST JESUS                             160

     CHAPTER XVIII.
         THE SLAUGHTER OF THE INNOCENTS                            165

     CHAPTER XIX.
         THE TEMPTATION, AND FAST OF FORTY DAYS                    175

     CHAPTER XX.
         THE CRUCIFIXION OF CHRIST JESUS                           181

     CHAPTER XXI.
         THE DARKNESS AT THE CRUCIFIXION                           206

     CHAPTER XXII.
         "HE DESCENDED INTO HELL."                                 211

     CHAPTER XXIII.
         THE RESURRECTION AND ASCENSION OF CHRIST JESUS            215

     CHAPTER XXIV.
         THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST JESUS, AND THE MILLENNIUM     233

     CHAPTER XXV.
         CHRIST JESUS AS JUDGE OF THE DEAD                         244

     CHAPTER XXVI.
         CHRIST JESUS AS CREATOR, AND ALPHA AND OMEGA              247

     CHAPTER XXVII.
         THE MIRACLES OF CHRIST JESUS, AND THE PRIMITIVE
             CHRISTIANS                                            278

     CHAPTER XXVIII.
         CHRIST CRISHNA AND CHRIST JESUS                           252

     CHAPTER XXIX.
         CHRIST BUDDHA AND CHRIST JESUS                            289

     CHAPTER XXX.
         THE EUCHARIST OR LORD'S SUPPER                            305

     CHAPTER XXXI.
         BAPTISM                                                   316

     CHAPTER XXXII.
         THE WORSHIP OF THE VIRGIN MOTHER                          326

     CHAPTER XXXIII.
         CHRISTIAN SYMBOLS                                         339

     CHAPTER XXXIV.
         THE BIRTH-DAY OF CHRIST JESUS                             359

     CHAPTER XXXV.
         THE TRINITY                                               368

     CHAPTER XXXVI.
         PAGANISM IN CHRISTIANITY                                  384

     CHAPTER XXXVII.
         WHY CHRISTIANITY PROSPERED                                419

     CHAPTER XXXVIII.
         THE ANTIQUITY OF PAGAN RELIGIONS                          450

     CHAPTER XXXIX.
         EXPLANATION                                               466

     CHAPTER XL.
         CONCLUSION                                                508

     APPENDIX                                                      531



LIST

OF

AUTHORS AND BOOKS QUOTED

IN THIS WORK.


ABBOT (LYMAN). A Dictionary of Religious Knowledge, for Popular and
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ÆSCHYLUS. The Poems of Æschylus. Translated by the Rev. R. Potter, M. A.
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ALLEN (REV. D. O.). India, Ancient and Modern, by David O. Allen, D. D.,
Missionary of the American Board for twenty-five years in India. London:
Trübner & Co., 1856.

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Amberly, from the late London Edition. New York: D. M. Bennett, 1879.

ASIATIC RESEARCHES. Asiatic Researches, or Transactions of the Society
instituted in Bengal, for inquiring in the History and Antiquities, the
Arts, Sciences, and Literature of Asia. London: J. Swain, 1801.

BARING-GOULD (REV. S.). Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, by Rev. S.
Baring-Gould, M. A. Boston: Roberts Bros., 1880.

     ----. Legends of the Patriarchs and Prophets, and other Old
     Testament Characters, from various sources, by Rev. S.
     Baring-Gould, M. A. New York: Holt & Williams, 1872.

     ----. The Origin and Development of Religious Belief, by S.
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     1870.

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Temples, Priests, Altars, Oracles, Fasts, Festivals, &c., in 2 vols.
London: J. Bell, 1790.

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BONWICK (JAMES). Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought, by James Bonwick,
F. R. G. S. London: C. Kegan Paul & Co., 1878.

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DUPUIS. The Origin of all Religious Worship, translated from the French
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EUSEBIUS. The Life of Constantine, in Four Books, by Eusebius
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FARRAR (F. W.). The Life of Christ, by Frederick W. Farrar, D. D., F. R.
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FERGUSSON (JAMES). Tree and Serpent Worship, or Illustrations of
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FROTHINGHAM (O. B.). The Cradle of the Christ: A Study in Primitive
Christianity, by Octavius Brooks Frothingham. New York: G. P. Putnam &
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& Hoffelfinger, 1876.

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GOLDZHIER (I.). Mythology among the Hebrews, and its Historical
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GUTZLAFF. The Journal of Two Voyages along the Coast of China (in
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     ----. A Manual of Buddhism in its Modern Development.
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HERMAS. The First Book of Hermas, Brother of Pius, Bishop of Rome, which
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     ----. Anacalypsis: An Enquiry into the Origin of Languages,
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     ----. Ancient Faiths and Modern: A Dissertation upon Worship,
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KUNEN (A.). See Oort (H.).

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MAHAFFY (J. P.). Prolegomena to Ancient History, by John P. Mahaffy, A.
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MALLET. Northern Antiquities; or an Historical Account of the Manners,
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MARY (APOC.). The Gospel of the Birth of Mary, attributed to St.
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MAURICE (THOMAS). Indian Antiquities: or Dissertations on the
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     ----. Chips from a German Workshop; by Max Müller, M. A., in 3
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     ----. Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as
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MURRAY (A. S.). Manual of Mythology, by Alexander S. Murray, Department
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NICODEMUS (APOC.). The Gospel of Nicodemus the Disciple, concerning the
Sufferings and Resurrection of Our Master and Saviour Jesus Christ.

OORT (H.). The Bible for Learners, by Dr. H. Oort, Prof. of Oriental
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1876.

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POLYCARP. The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians, translated by
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SMITH. Smith's Comprehensive Dictionary of the Bible, with many
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vols. New York; D. Appleton & Co., 1877.

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1863.

     ----. In a Sermon preached in Westminster Abbey on February
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SYNCHRONOLOGY. Synchronology of the Principal Events in Sacred and
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TACITUS (C.). The Annals of Cornelius Tacitus, the Roman Historian.
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TAYLOR (CHARLES). Taylor's Fragments: Being Illustrations of the
Manners, Incidents, and Phraseology of the Holy Scriptures. Intended as
an Appendix to Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible. London: W. Stratford,
1801.

TAYLOR (ROBERT). The Diegesis: Being a Discovery of the Origin,
Evidences, and Early History of Christianity, by Rev. Robert Taylor, A.
B. (From the London Edit.) Boston: J. P. Mendum, 1873.

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     (From the London Edit.) Boston: J. P. Mendum, 1876.

TAYLOR (THOMAS). Taylor's Mysteries; A Dissertation on the Eleusinian
and Bacchic Mysteries, by Thomas Taylor. Amsterdam.

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Treaty with Great Britain in 1842, by Thomas Thornton, Esq., Member of
the R. A. S. London: William H. Allen & Co., 1844.

TYLOR (E. B.). Researches Into the Early History of Mankind, and the
Development of Civilization, by Edward B. Tylor. 2d Edit. London: John
Murray, 1870.

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     Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, &c., by Edward B. Tylor, in 2
     vols. London: John Murray, 1871.

VISHNU PURANA. The Vishnu Purana, A System of Hindoo Mythology and
Tradition, Translated from the Original Sanscrit, by H. H. Wilson, M.
A., F. R. S. London: 1840.

VOLNEY (C. F.). New Researches in Ancient History, Translated from the
French of C. F. Volney, Count and Peer of France. (From the London
Edit.) Boston: J. P. Mendum, 1874.

     ----. The Ruins; or, Meditations on the Revolutions of
     Empires, by Count de Volney, Translated under the immediate
     inspection of the Author. (From the latest Paris Edit.)
     Boston: J. P. Mendum, 1872.

WAKE (C. S.). See Westropp.

WESTROPP (H. M.). Ancient Symbol Worship. Influence of the Phallic Ideas
in the Religions of Antiquity, by Hodder M. Westropp and C. S. Wake,
with Appendix by Alexander Wilder, M. D. London: Trübner & Co., 1874.

WILLIAMS (MONIER). Indian Wisdom; or Examples of the Religious,
Philosophical, and Ethnical Doctrines of the Hindoos, by Monier
Williams, M. A., Prof. of Sanscrit in the University of Oxford. London:
W. H. Allen, 1875.

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WISDOM (APOC.). The Book of Wisdom, Attributed to Solomon, King of
Israel.

WISE (ISAAC M.). The Martyrdom of Jesus of Nazareth. A Historic Treatise
on the Last Chapters of the Gospel, by Dr Isaac M. Wise. Cincinnati.


ADDITIONS TO THIRD EDITION.

Beausobre's _Histoire Critique de Manichée et du Manicheisme_, Amsterdam
1734; Baronius' _Annales Ecclesiastici_; Hydes' _Historia Religionis
Veterum Persarum_; Rawlinson's _Herodotus_; Lenormant's _The Beginnings
of History_; Hardwick's _Christ and other Masters_; Daillé's _Treatise
on the Right Use of the Fathers_, London, 1841; _Apollonius de Tyana, sa
vie, ses voyages, et ses prodiges_, par Philostrate, Paris, 1862; Sir
John Malcolm's _History of Persia_, in 2 vols., London, 1815; Michaelis'
_Introduction to the New Testament_, in 4 vols. edited by Dr. Herbert
Marsh, London, 1828; Archbishop Wake's _Genuine Epistles of the
Apostolical Fathers_, London, 1719; Jeremiah Jones' _Canon of the New
Testament_, in 3 vols., Oxford, 1793; Milman's _History of
Christianity_; Barrow's _Travels in China_, London, 1840; Deane's
_Worship of the Serpent_, London, 1883; Baring-Gould's _Lost and Hostile
Gospels_, London, 1874; B. F. Westcott's _Survey of the History of the
Canon of the New Testament_, 4th Edit., London, 1875; Mosheim's
_Ecclesiastical History_, in 6 vols., Amer. ed. 1810; J. W. Rosses'
_Tacitus and Bracciolini_, London, 1878; and the writings of the
Christian Fathers, Justin Martyr, St. Clement of Alexandria, Irenæus,
Origen, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.



BIBLE MYTHS.



PART I.

THE OLD TESTAMENT.



CHAPTER I.

THE CREATION AND FALL OF MAN.


The Old Testament commences with one of its most interesting myths, that
of the Creation and Fall of Man. The story is to be found in the first
_three_ chapters of Genesis, the substance of which is as follows:

After God created the "Heavens" and the "Earth," he said: "Let there be
light, and there was light," and after calling the light Day, and the
darkness Night, the _first_ day's work was ended.

God then made the "Firmament," which completed the _second_ day's work.

Then God caused the dry land to appear, which he called "Earth," and the
waters he called "Seas." After this the earth was made to bring forth
grass, trees, &c., which completed the _third_ day's work.

The next things God created were the "Sun,"[1:1] "Moon" and "Stars,"
and after he had _set them in the Firmament_, the _fourth_ day's work
was ended.[2:1]

After these, God created great "whales," and other creatures which
inhabit the water, also "winged fowls." This brought the _fifth_ day to
a close.

The work of creation was finally completed on the _sixth_ day,[2:2] when
God made "beasts" of every kind, "cattle," "creeping things," and lastly
"man," whom he created "male and female," in his own image.[2:3]

     "Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the
     host of them. And on the _seventh_[2:4] day God ended his work
     which he had made: and he _rested_ on the seventh day, from
     all his work which he had made. And God blessed the seventh
     day, and sanctified it, because that in it he had _rested_
     from all his work which God created and made."

After this information, which concludes at the _third_ verse of Genesis
ii., strange though it may appear, _another_ account of the Creation
commences, which is altogether different from the one we have just
related. This account commences thus:

     "These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when
     they were created, in the day (not days) that the Lord God
     made the earth and the heavens."

It then goes on to say that "the Lord God formed man of the dust of the
ground,"[2:5] which appears to be the _first_ thing he made. After
planting a garden eastward in Eden,[2:6] the Lord God put the man
therein, "and out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree
that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the _Tree of
Life_,[2:7] also in the midst of the garden, and the _Tree of
Knowledge_ of good and evil. And a _river_ went out of Eden to water
the garden, and from thence it was parted, and became into _four_
heads." These _four rivers_ were called, first Pison, second Gihon,
third Hiddekel, and the fourth Euphrates.[3:1]

After the "Lord God" had made the "Tree of Life," and the "Tree of
Knowledge," he said unto the man:

     "Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat, but of
     the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat
     of it, _for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt
     surely die_." Then the Lord God, thinking that it would not be
     well for man to live alone, formed--out of the ground--"every
     beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought
     them unto Adam to see what he would call them, and whatever
     Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof."

After Adam had given names to "all cattle, and to the fowls of the air,
and to every beast of the field," "the Lord God caused a deep sleep to
fall upon Adam, and he slept, and he (the Lord God) took one of his
(Adam's) ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof."

     "And of the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made
     he a _woman_, and brought her unto Adam." "And they were both
     naked, the man and his wife, and they were not ashamed."

After this everything is supposed to have gone harmoniously, until a
_serpent_ appeared before the _woman_[3:2]--who was afterwards called
Eve--and said to her:

     "Hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?"

The woman, answering the serpent, said:

     "We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: but of
     the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God
     hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, _lest ye die_."

Whereupon the serpent said to her:

     "Ye shall _not_ surely die" (which, according to the
     narrative, was the truth).

He then told her that, upon eating the fruit, their eyes would be
opened, and that they would be as _gods_, knowing good from evil.

The woman then looked upon the tree, and as the fruit was tempting, "she
took of the fruit, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband, and he
did eat." The result was _not_ death (as the Lord God had told them),
but, as the serpent had said, "the eyes of both were opened, and they
knew they were naked, and they _sewed_ fig leaves together, and made
themselves aprons."

Towards evening (_i. e._, "in the cool of the day"), Adam and his wife
"_heard_ the voice of the Lord God _walking_ in the garden," and being
afraid, they hid themselves among the trees of the garden. The Lord God
not finding Adam and his wife, said: "Where art thou?" Adam answering,
said: "I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was
naked, and I hid myself."

The "Lord God" then told Adam that he had eaten of the tree which he had
commanded him not to eat, whereupon Adam said: "The _woman_ whom thou
gavest to be with me, _she_ gave me of the tree and I did eat."

When the "Lord God" spoke to the woman concerning her transgression, she
blamed the _serpent_, which she said "beguiled" her. This sealed the
serpent's fate, for the "Lord God" cursed him and said:

     "Upon thy belly shalt thou go, and _dust_ shalt thou eat all
     the days of thy life."[4:1]

Unto the woman the "Lord God" said:

     "I will greatly multiply thy sorrow, and thy conception; in
     sorrow thou shalt bring forth children, and thy desire shall
     be to thy husband, _and he shall rule over thee_."

Unto Adam he said:

     "Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and
     hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying,
     Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake;
     in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life.
     Thorns also, and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and
     thou shalt eat the herb of the field. In the sweat of thy face
     shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground, _for
     out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust
     shalt thou return_."

The "Lord God" then made coats of skin for Adam and his wife, with
which he clothed them, after which he said:

     "Behold, the man is become _as one of us_,[5:1] to know good
     and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also
     of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever" (he must be
     sent forth from Eden).

     "So he (the Lord God) drove out the man (and the woman); and
     he placed at the east of the garden of Eden, Cherubims, and a
     flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the
     Tree of Life."

Thus ends the narrative.

Before proceeding to show from whence this legend, or legends, had their
origin, we will notice a feature which is very prominent in the
narrative, and which cannot escape the eye of an observing reader, _i.
e._, _the two different and contradictory accounts of the creation_.

The first of these commences at the first verse of chapter first, and
ends at the third verse of chapter second. The second account commences
at the fourth verse of chapter second, and continues to the end of the
chapter.

In speaking of these contradictory accounts of the Creation, Dean
Stanley says:

     "It is now clear to diligent students of the Bible, that the
     first and second chapters of Genesis contain two narratives of
     the Creation, side by side, differing from each other in most
     every particular of time and place and order."[5:2]

Bishop Colenso, in his very learned work on the Pentateuch, speaking on
this subject, says:

     "The following are the most noticeable points of difference
     between the two cosmogonies:

     "1. In the first, the earth emerges from the waters and is,
     therefore, _saturated with moisture_.[5:3] In the second, the
     'whole face of the ground' _requires to be moistened_.[5:4]

     "2. In the first, the birds and the beasts are created
     _before man_.[6:1] In the second, man is created _before the
     birds and the beasts_.[6:2]

     "3. In the first, 'all fowls that fly' are made out of the
     _waters_.[6:3] In the second 'the fowls of the air' are made
     out of the _ground_.[6:4]

     "4. In the first, man is created in the image of God.[6:5] In
     the second, man is made of the dust of the ground, and merely
     animated with the breath of life; and it is only after his
     eating the forbidden fruit that 'the Lord God said, Behold,
     the man has become _as one of us_, to know good and
     evil.'[6:6]

     "5. In the first, man is made lord of the _whole earth_.[6:7]
     In the second, he is merely placed in the garden of Eden, 'to
     dress it and to keep it.'[6:8]

     "6. In the first, the man and the woman are _created
     together_, as the closing and completing work of the whole
     creation,--created also, as is evidently implied, in the same
     kind of way, to be the complement of one another, and, thus
     created, they are blessed _together_.[6:9]

     "In the second, the beasts and birds are created _between_ the
     man and the woman. First, the man is made of the dust of the
     ground; he is placed by _himself_ in the garden, charged with
     a solemn command, and threatened with a curse if he breaks it;
     _then the beasts and birds are made_, and the man gives names
     to them, and, lastly, after all this, _the woman is made out
     of one of his ribs_, but merely as a helpmate for the
     man.[6:10]

     "The fact is, that the _second_ account of the Creation,[6:11]
     together with the story of the Fall,[6:12] is manifestly
     composed by a _different writer_ altogether from him who wrote
     _the first_.[6:13]

     "This is suggested at once by the circumstance that,
     throughout the _first_ narrative, the Creator is always spoken
     of by the name Elohim (God), whereas, throughout the _second_
     account, as well as the story of the Fall, he is always called
     Jehovah Elohim (Lord God), except when the writer seems to
     abstain, for some reason, from placing the name Jehovah in the
     mouth of the serpent.[6:14] This accounts naturally for the
     above contradictions. It would appear that, for some reason,
     the productions of two pens have been here united, without any
     reference to their inconsistencies."[6:15]

Dr. Kalisch, who does his utmost to maintain--as far as his knowledge of
the truth will allow--the general historical veracity of this narrative,
after speaking of the _first_ account of the Creation, says:

     "But now the narrative seems not only to pause, but to go
     backward. The grand and powerful climax seems at once broken
     off, and a languid repetition appears to follow. _Another
     cosmogony is introduced, which, to complete the perplexity,
     is, in many important features, in direct contradiction to the
     former._

     "_It would be dishonesty to conceal these difficulties. It
     would be weakmindedness and cowardice. It would be flight
     instead of combat. It would be an ignoble retreat, instead of
     victory. We confess there is an apparent dissonance._"[6:16]

Dr. Knappert says:[7:1]

     "The account of the Creation from the hand of the _Priestly
     author_ is utterly different from the _other narrative_,
     beginning at the fourth verse of Genesis ii. Here we are told
     that God created Heaven and Earth in six days, and rested on
     the _seventh_ day, obviously with a view to bring out the
     holiness of the Sabbath in a strong light."

Now that we have seen there are two different and contradictory accounts
of the Creation, to be found in the first two chapters of Genesis, we
will endeavor to learn if there is sufficient reason to believe they are
copies of _more ancient legends_.

We have seen that, according to the first account, God divided the work
of creation into _six_ days. This idea agrees with that of the ancient
_Persians_.

The Zend-Avesta--the sacred writings of the Parsees--states that the
Supreme being Ahuramazdâ (Ormuzd), created the universe and man in _six_
successive periods of time, in the following order: First, the Heavens;
second, the Waters; third, the Earth; fourth, the Trees and Plants;
fifth, Animals; and sixth, Man. After the Creator had finished his work,
he rested.[7:2]

The Avesta account of the Creation is limited to this announcement, but
we find a more detailed history of the origin of the human species in
the book entitled _Bundehesh_, dedicated to the exposition of a complete
cosmogony. This book states that Ahuramazdâ created the first man and
women joined together at the back. After dividing them, he endowed them
with motion and activity, placed within them an intelligent soul, and
bade them "to be humble of heart; to observe the law; to be pure in
their thoughts, pure in their speech, pure in their actions." Thus were
born Mashya and Mashyâna, the pair from which all human beings are
descended.[7:3]

The idea brought out in this story of the first human pair having
originally formed a single androgynous being with two faces, separated
later into two personalities by the Creator, is to be found in the
Genesis account (v. 2). "Male and female created he them, and blessed
them, and named their name Adam." Jewish tradition in the Targum and
Talmud, as well as among learned rabbis, allege that Adam was created
man and woman at the same time, having two faces turned in two opposite
directions, and that the Creator separated the feminine half from him,
in order to make of her a distinct person.[7:4]

The ancient _Etruscan_ legend, according to Delitzsch, is almost the
same as the Persian. They relate that God created the world in _six_
thousand years. In the first thousand he created the Heaven and Earth;
in the second, the Firmament; in the third, the Waters of the Earth; in
the fourth, the Sun, Moon and Stars; in the fifth, the Animals belonging
to air, water and land; and in the sixth, Man alone.[8:1]

Dr. Delitzsch, who maintains to the utmost the historical truth of the
Scripture story in Genesis, yet says:

     "Whence comes the surprising agreement of the _Etruscan_ and
     _Persian_ legends with this section? How comes it that the
     _Babylonian_ cosmogony in Berosus, and the _Phœnician_ in
     Sanchoniathon, in spite of their fantastical oddity, come in
     contact with it in remarkable details?"

After showing some of the similarities in the legends of these different
nations, he continues:

     "These are only instances of that which they have in common.
     _For such an account outside of Israel, we must, however,
     conclude, that the author of Genesis i. has no vision before
     him, but a tradition._"[8:2]

Von Bohlen tells us that the old _Chaldæan_ cosmogony is also _the
same_.[8:3]

To continue the _Persian_ legend; we will now show that according to it,
after the Creation man was tempted, and _fell_. Kalisch[8:4] and Bishop
Colenso[8:5] tell us of the Persian legend that the first couple lived
originally in purity and innocence. Perpetual happiness was promised
them by the Creator if they persevered in their virtue. But an evil
demon came to them in the form of a _serpent_, sent by Ahriman, the
prince of devils, and gave them fruit of a wonderful _tree_, which
imparted immortality. Evil inclinations then entered their hearts, and
all their moral excellence was destroyed. Consequently they fell, and
forfeited the eternal happiness for which they were destined. They
killed beasts, and clothed themselves in their skins. The evil demon
obtained still more perfect power over their minds, and called forth
envy, hatred, discord, and rebellion, which raged in the bosom of the
families.

Since the above was written, Mr. George Smith, of the British Museum,
has discovered cuneiform inscriptions, which show conclusively that the
Babylonians had this legend of the Creation and Fall of Man, some 1,500
years or more before the Hebrews heard of it.[9:1] The cuneiform
inscriptions relating to the Babylonian legend of the Creation and Fall
of Man, which have been discovered by English archæologists, are not,
however, complete. The portions which relate to the _Tree_ and _Serpent_
have not been found, but Babylonian gem engravings show that these
incidents were evidently a part of the original legend.[9:2] The _Tree
of Life_ in the Genesis account appears to correspond with the sacred
grove of Anu, which was guarded by a sword turning to all the four
points of the compass.[9:3] A representation of this Sacred Tree, with
"_attendant cherubim_," copied from an Assyrian cylinder, may be seen in
Mr. George Smith's "Chaldean Account of Genesis."[9:4] Figure No. 1,
which we have taken from the same work,[9:5] shows the tree of
knowledge, fruit, and the serpent. Mr. Smith says of it:

     "One striking and important specimen of early type in the
     British Museum collection, has two figures sitting one on each
     side of a _tree_, holding out their hands to the fruit, while
     at the back of one (the _woman_) is scratched a _serpent_. We
     know well that in these early sculptures none of these figures
     were chance devices, but all represented events, or supposed
     events, and figures in their legends; thus it is evident that
     a form of the story of the Fall, similar to that of Genesis,
     was known in early times in Babylonia."[9:5]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 1]

This illustration might be used to illustrate the narrative of
_Genesis_, and as Friedrich Delitzsch has remarked (G. Smith's
_Chaldäische Genesis_) is capable of no other explanation.

M. Renan does not hesitate to join forces with the ancient commentators,
in seeking to recover a trace of the same tradition among the Phenicians
in the fragments of Sanchoniathon, translated into Greek by Philo of
Byblos. In fact, it is there said, in speaking of the first human pair,
and of Æon, which seems to be the translation of _Havvâh_ (in Phenician
_Havâth_) and stands in her relation to the other members of the pair,
that this personage "has found out how to obtain nourishment from the
fruits of the tree."

The idea of the Edenic happiness of the first human beings constitutes
one of the universal traditions. Among the Egyptians, the terrestrial
reign of the god Râ, who inaugurated the existence of the world and of
human life, was a golden age to which they continually looked back with
regret and envy. Its "like has never been seen since."

The ancient Greeks boasted of their "Golden Age," when sorrow and
trouble were not known. Hesiod, an ancient Grecian poet, describes it
thus:

     "Men lived like Gods, without vices or passions, vexation or
     toil. In happy companionship with divine beings, they passed
     their days in tranquillity and joy, living together in perfect
     equality, united by mutual confidence and love. The earth was
     more beautiful than now, and spontaneously yielded an abundant
     variety of fruits. Human beings and animals spoke the same
     language and conversed with each other. Men were considered
     mere boys at a hundred years old. They had none of the
     infirmities of age to trouble them, and when they passed to
     regions of superior life, it was in a gentle slumber."

In the course of time, however, all the sorrows and troubles came to
man. They were caused by inquisitiveness. The story is as follows:
Epimetheus received a gift from Zeus (God), in the form of a beautiful
woman (Pandora).

     "She brought with her a vase, the lid of which was (by the
     command of God), to remain closed. The curiosity of her
     husband, however, tempted him to open it, and suddenly there
     escaped from it troubles, weariness and illness from which
     mankind was never afterwards free. All that remained was
     _hope_."[10:1]

Among the _Thibetans_, the paradisiacal condition was more complete and
spiritual. The desire to eat of a certain sweet herb deprived men of
their spiritual life. There arose a sense of shame, and the need to
clothe themselves. Necessity compelled them to agriculture; the virtues
disappeared, and murder, adultery and other vices, stepped into their
place.[10:2]

The idea that the Fall of the human race is connected with _agriculture_
is found to be also often represented in the legends of the East African
negroes, especially in the Calabar legend of the Creation, which
presents many interesting points of comparison with the biblical story
of the Fall. The first human pair are called by a bell at meal-times to
Abasi (the Calabar God), in heaven; and in place of the forbidden tree
of Genesis are put _agriculture_ and _propagation_, which Abasi
strictly denies to the first pair. The Fall is denoted by the
transgression of both these commands, especially through the use of
implements of tillage, to which the _woman_ is tempted by a female
friend who is given to her. From that moment man fell _and became
mortal_, so that, as the Bible story has it, he can eat bread only in
the sweat of his face. There agriculture is a curse, a fall from a more
perfect stage to a lower and imperfect one.[11:1]

Dr. Kalisch, writing of the Garden of Eden, says:

     "The _Paradise_ is no exclusive feature of the early history
     of the Hebrews. _Most of the ancient nations have similar
     narratives about a happy abode, which care does not approach,
     and which re-echoes with the sounds of the purest
     bliss._"[11:2]

The _Persians_ supposed that a region of bliss and delight called
_Heden_, more beautiful than all the rest of the world, _traversed by a
mighty river_, was the original abode of the first men, before they were
tempted by the evil spirit in the form of a _serpent_, to partake of the
fruit of the forbidden tree _Hôm_.[11:3]

Dr. Delitzsch, writing of the _Persian_ legend, observes:

     "Innumerable attendants of the Holy One keep watch against the
     attempts of Ahriman, over the tree _Hôm_, which contains in
     itself the power of the resurrection."[11:4]

The ancient Greeks had a tradition concerning the "Islands of the
Blessed," the "Elysium," on the borders of the earth, abounding in every
charm of life, and the "Garden of the Hesperides," the Paradise, in
which grew a _tree_ bearing the golden apples of Immortality. It was
guarded by three nymphs, and a Serpent, or Dragon, the ever-watchful
Ladon. It was one of the labors of Hercules to gather some of these
apples of life. When he arrived there he found the garden protected by a
_Dragon_. Ancient medallions represent a tree with a serpent twined
around it. Hercules has gathered an apple, and near him stand the three
nymphs, called Hesperides.[11:5] This is simply a parallel of the Eden
myth.

The Rev. Mr. Faber, speaking of _Hercules_, says:

     "On the _Sphere_ he is represented in the act of contending
     with the Serpent, the head of which is placed under his foot;
     and this Serpent, we are told, is that which guarded the tree
     with golden fruit in the midst of the garden of the
     Hesperides. But the garden of the Hesperides _was none other
     than the garden of Paradise_; consequently the serpent of that
     garden, the head of which is crushed beneath the heel of
     Hercules, and which itself is described as encircling with its
     folds the trunk of the mysterious tree, must necessarily be a
     transcript of that Serpent whose form was assumed by the
     tempter of our first parents. We may observe the same ancient
     tradition in the Phœnician fable representing Ophion or
     Ophioneus."[12:1]

And Professor Fergusson says:

     "_Hercules'_ adventures in the garden of the Hesperides, is
     the Pagan form of the myth that most resembles the precious
     Serpent-guarded fruit of the Garden of Eden, though the moral
     of the fable is so widely different."[12:2]

The ancient _Egyptians_ also had the legend of the "Tree of Life." It is
mentioned in their sacred books that Osiris ordered the names of some
souls to be written on this "Tree of Life," the fruit of which made
those who ate it to become as gods.[12:3]

Among the most ancient traditions of the _Hindoos_, is that of the "Tree
of Life"--called _Sôma_ in Sanskrit--the juice of which imparted
immortality. This most wonderful tree was guarded by spirits.[12:4]

Still more striking is the Hindoo legend of the "Elysium" or "Paradise,"
which is as follows:

     "In the sacred mountain _Meru_, which is perpetually clothed
     in the golden rays of the Sun, and whose lofty summit reaches
     into heaven, no sinful man can exist. _It is guarded by a
     dreadful dragon._ It is adorned with many celestial plants and
     trees, and is watered by _four rivers_, which thence separate
     and flow to the four chief directions."[12:5]

The Hindoos, like the philosophers of the Ionic school (Thales, for
instance), held _water_ to be the first existing and all-pervading
principle, at the same time allowing the co-operation and influence of
an _immaterial_ intelligence in the work of creation.[12:6] A Vedic
poet, meditating on the Creation, uses the following expressions:

     "Nothing that is was then, even what is not, did not exist
     then." "There was no space, no life, and lastly there was no
     time, no difference between day and night, no solar torch by
     which morning might have been told from evening." "Darkness
     there was, and all at first was veiled in gloom profound, as
     ocean without light."[12:7]

The Hindoo legend approaches very nearly to that preserved in the Hebrew
Scriptures. Thus, it is said that Siva, as the Supreme Being, desired to
tempt Brahmá (who had taken human form, and was called Swayambhura--son
of the self-existent), and for this object he dropped from heaven a
blossom of the sacred _fig_ tree.

Swayambhura, instigated by his wife, Satarupa, endeavors to obtain this
blossom, thinking its possession will render him immortal and divine;
but when he has succeeded in doing so, he is cursed by Siva, and doomed
to misery and degradation.[13:1] The sacred Indian _fig_ is endowed by
the Brahmins and the Buddhists with mysterious significance, as the
"Tree of Knowledge" or "Intelligence."[13:2]

There is no Hindoo legend of the _Creation_ similar to the Persian and
Hebrew accounts, and Ceylon was never believed to have been the Paradise
or home of our first parents, although such stories are in
circulation.[13:3] The Hindoo religion states--as we have already
seen--Mount Meru to be the Paradise, out of which went _four rivers_.

We have noticed that the "Gardens of Paradise" are said to have been
guarded by _Dragons_, and that, according to the Genesis account, it was
Cherubim that protected Eden. This apparent difference in the legends is
owing to the fact that we have come in our modern times to speak of
Cherub as though it were an other name for an Angel. But the Cherub of
the writer of Genesis, the Cherub of Assyria, the Cherub of Babylon, the
Cherub of the entire Orient, at the time the Eden story was written, was
not at all an Angel, but an animal, and a mythological one at that. The
Cherub had, in some cases, the body of a lion, with the head of an other
animal, or a man, and the wings of a bird. In Ezekiel they have the body
of a man, whose head, besides a human countenance, has also that of a
_Lion_, an _Ox_ and an _Eagle_. They are provided with four wings, and
the whole body is spangled with innumerable eyes. In Assyria and Babylon
they appear as winged bulls with human faces, and are placed at the
gateways of palaces and temples as guardian genii who watch over the
dwelling, as the Cherubim in Genesis watch the "Tree of Life."

Most Jewish writers and Christian Fathers conceived the Cherubim as
Angels. Most theologians also considered them as Angels, until Michaelis
showed them to be a mythological animal, a poetical creation.[13:4]

We see then, that our _Cherub_ is simply a _Dragon_.

To continue our inquiry regarding the prevalence of the Eden-myth among
nations of antiquity.

The _Chinese_ have their Age of Virtue, when nature furnished abundant
food, and man lived peacefully, surrounded by all the beasts. In their
sacred books there is a story concerning a mysterious _garden_, where
grew a _tree_ bearing "apples of immortality," guarded by a winged
serpent, called a Dragon. They describe a primitive age of the world,
when the earth yielded abundance of delicious fruits without
cultivation, and the seasons were untroubled by wind and storms. There
was no calamity, sickness, or death. Men were then good without effort;
for the human heart was in harmony with the peacefulness and beauty of
nature.

The "Golden Age" of the past is much dwelt upon by their ancient
commentators. One of them says:

     "All places were then equally the native county of every man.
     Flocks wandered in the fields without any guide; birds filled
     the air with their melodious voices; and the fruits grew of
     their own accord. Men lived pleasantly with the animals, and
     all creatures were members of the same family. Ignorant of
     evil, man lived in simplicity and perfect innocence."

Another commentator says:

     "In the first age of perfect purity, all was in harmony, and
     the passions did not occasion the slightest murmur. Man,
     united to sovereign reason within, conformed his outward
     actions to sovereign justice. Far from all duplicity and
     falsehood, his soul received marvelous felicity from heaven,
     and the purest delights from earth."

Another says:

     "A delicious _garden_ refreshed with zephyrs, and planted with
     odoriferous trees, was situated in the middle of a mountain,
     which was the avenue of heaven. The _waters_ that moistened it
     flowed from a source called the '_Fountain of Immortality_'.
     He who drinks of it never dies. Thence flowed _four rivers_. A
     Golden River, betwixt the South and East, a Red River, between
     the North and East, the River of the Lamb between the North
     and West."

The animal Kaiming guards the entrance.

Partly by an undue thirst for knowledge, and partly by increasing
sensuality, and the seduction of _woman_, man fell. Then passion and
lust ruled in the human mind, and war with the animals began. In one of
the Chinese sacred volumes, called the Chi-King, it is said that:

     "All was subject to man at first, _but a woman threw us into
     slavery_. The wise husband raised up a bulwark of walls, _but
     the woman, by an ambitious desire of knowledge, demolished
     them_. Our misery did not come from heaven, _but from a
     woman_. _She lost the human race._ Ah, unhappy _Poo See!_ thou
     kindled the fire that consumes us, and which is every day
     augmenting. Our misery has lasted many ages. _The world is
     lost._ Vice overflows all things like a mortal poison."[15:1]

Thus we see that the Chinese are no strangers to the doctrine of
original sin. It is their invariable belief that man is a fallen being;
admitted by them from time immemorial.

The inhabitants of _Madagascar_ had a legend similar to the Eden story,
which is related as follows:

     "The first man was created of the _dust of the earth_, and was
     placed in a _garden_, where he was subject to none of the ills
     which now affect mortality; he was also free from all bodily
     appetites, and though surrounded by delicious _fruit_ and
     limpid _streams_ yet felt no desire to taste of the fruit or
     to quaff the water. The Creator had, moreover, _strictly
     forbid him either to eat or to drink_. The great enemy,
     however, came to him, and painted to him, in glowing colors,
     the sweetness of the apple, and the lusciousness of the date,
     and the succulence of the orange."

After resisting the temptations for a while, he at last ate of the
fruit, and consequently _fell_.[15:2]

A legend of the Creation, similar to the Hebrew, was found by Mr. Ellis
among the _Tahitians_, and appeared in his "Polynesian Researches." It
is as follows:

After Taarao had formed the world, he created man out of aræa, red
earth, which was also the food of man until bread was made. Taarao one
day called for the man by name. When he came, he caused him to fall
asleep, and while he slept, he took out one of his _ivi_, or bones, and
with it made a woman, whom he gave to the man as his wife, and they
became the progenitors of mankind. The woman's name was _Ivi_, which
signifies a bone.[15:3]

The prose Edda, of the ancient _Scandinavians_, speaks of the "Golden
Age" when all was pure and harmonious. This age lasted until the arrival
of _woman_ out of Jotunheim--the region of the giants, a sort of "land
of Nod"--who corrupted it.[15:4]

In the annals of the _Mexicans_, the first woman, whose name was
translated by the old Spanish writers, "the woman of our flesh," is
always represented as accompanied by a great male serpent, who seems to
be talking to her. Some writers believe this to be the _tempter_
speaking to the primeval mother, and others that it is intended to
represent the _father_ of the human race. This Mexican Eve is
represented on their monuments as the mother of twins.[15:5]

Mr. Franklin, in his "Buddhists and Jeynes," says:

     "A striking instance is recorded by the very intelligent
     traveler (Wilson), regarding a representation of the Fall of
     our first parents, sculptured in the magnificent temple of
     Ipsambul, in Nubia. He says that a very exact representation
     of Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden is to be seen in that
     cave, and that the _serpent_ climbing round the tree is
     especially delineated, and the whole subject of the tempting
     of our first parents most accurately exhibited."[16:1]

Nearly the same thing was found by Colonel Coombs in the _South of
India_. Colonel Tod, in his "Hist. Rajapoutana," says:

     "A drawing, brought by Colonel Coombs from a sculptured column
     in a cave-temple in the South of India, represents the first
     pair at the foot of the ambrosial tree, and a _serpent_
     entwined among the heavily-laden boughs, presenting to them
     some of the fruit from his mouth. The tempter appears to be at
     that part of his discourse, when

      '----his words, replete with guile,
     Into her heart too easy entrance won:
     Fixed on the fruit she gazed.'

     "_This is a curious subject to be engraved on an ancient Pagan
     temple._"[16:2]

So the Colonel thought, no doubt, but it is not so very curious after
all. It is the same myth which we have found--with but such small
variations only as time and circumstances may be expected to
produce--among different nations, in both the Old and New Worlds.

[Illustration: Fig. No. 2]

Fig. No. 2, taken from the work of Montfaucon,[16:3] represents one of
these ancient Pagan sculptures. Can any one doubt that it is allusive to
the myth of which we have been treating in this chapter?

That man was originally created a perfect being, and is now only a
fallen and broken remnant of what he once was, we have seen to be a
piece of _mythology_, not only unfounded in fact, but, beyond
intelligent question, proved untrue. What, then, is the significance of
the exposure of this myth? What does its loss as a scientific fact, and
as a portion of Christian dogma, imply? It implies that with
it--although many Christian divines who admit this to be a legend, do
not, or do not _profess_, to see it--_must fall the whole Orthodox
scheme, for upon this_ MYTH _the theology of Christendom is built_. The
doctrine of the _inspiration of the Scriptures_, the _Fall_ of _man_,
his _total depravity_, the _Incarnation_, the _Atonement_, the _devil_,
_hell_, in fact, the entire theology of the Christian church, falls to
pieces with the historical inaccuracy of this story, _for upon it is it
built; 'tis the foundation of the whole structure_.[17:1]

According to Christian dogma, the Incarnation of Christ Jesus had become
necessary, merely _because he had to redeem the evil introduced into the
world by the Fall of man_. These two dogmas cannot be separated from
each other. _If there was no Fall, there is no need of an atonement, and
no Redeemer is required._ Those, then, who consent in recognizing in
Christ Jesus a _God_ and _Redeemer_, and who, notwithstanding, cannot
resolve upon admitting the story of the Fall of man to be _historical_,
should exculpate themselves from the reproach of _inconsistency_. There
are a great number, however, in this position at the present day.

Although, as we have said, many Christian divines do not, or do not
profess to, see the force of the above argument, there are many who do;
and they, regardless of their scientific learning, cling to these old
myths, professing to believe them, _well knowing what must follow with
their fall_. The following, though written some years ago, will serve to
illustrate this style of reasoning.

The Bishop of Manchester (England) writing in the "Manchester Examiner
and Times," said:

     "The very _foundation of our faith_, the very _basis of our
     hopes_, the very nearest and dearest of our consolations are
     taken from us, _when one line of that sacred volume, on which
     we base everything, is declared to be untruthful and
     untrustworthy_."

The "English Churchman," speaking of clergymen who have "_doubts_,"
said, that any who are not throughly persuaded "_that the Scriptures
cannot in any particular be untrue_," should leave the Church.

The Rev. E. Garbett, M. A., in a sermon preached before the University
of Oxford, speaking of the "_historical truth_" of the Bible, said:

     "It is the clear teaching of those doctrinal formularies, to
     which we of the Church of England have expressed our solemn
     assent, _and no honest interpretation of her language can get
     rid of it_."

And that:

     "In all consistent reason, _we must accept the whole of the
     inspired autographs, or reject the whole_."

Dr. Baylee, Principal of a theological university--_St. Aiden's
College_--at Birkenhead, England, and author of a "Manual," called
Baylee's "_Verbal Inspiration_," written "_chiefly for the youths of St.
Aiden's College_," makes use of the following words, in that work:

     "_The whole Bible_, as a revelation, is a declaration of the
     mind of God towards his creatures on all the subjects of which
     the Bible treats."

     "_The Bible is God's word_, in the same sense as if he had
     made use of no human agent, but had _Himself spoken it_."

     "The Bible cannot be less than verbally inspired. _Every word,
     every syllable, every letter_, is just what it would be, had
     God spoken from heaven without any human intervention."

     "Every scientific statement is infallibly correct, all its
     history and narrations of every kind, _are without any
     inaccuracy_."[18:1]

A whole volume might be filled with such quotations, not only from
religious works and journals published in England, but from those
published in the United States of America.[18:2]


FOOTNOTES:

[1:1] The idea that the sun, moon and stars were _set_ in the firmament
was entertained by most nations of antiquity, but, as strange as it may
appear, Pythagoras, the Grecian philosopher, who flourished from 540 to
510 B. C.--as well as other Grecian philosophers--taught that the sun
was placed in the centre of the universe, _with the planets roving round
it in a circle_, thus making day and night. (See Knight's Ancient Art
and Mythology, p. 59, and note.) The Buddhists anciently taught that the
universe is composed of limitless systems or worlds, called _sakwalas_.

They are scattered throughout space, and each sakwala has a sun and
moon. (See Hardy: Buddhist Legends, pp. 80 and 87.)

[2:1] Origen, a Christian Father who flourished about A. D. 230, says:
"What man of sense will agree with the statement that the first, second,
and third days, in which the _evening_ is named and the _morning_, were
without sun, moon and stars?" (Quoted in Mysteries of Adoni, p. 176.)

[2:2] "The geologist reckons not by _days_ or by _years_; the whole six
thousand years, which were until lately looked on as the sum of the
world's age, are to him but as a unit of measurement in the long
succession of past ages." (Sir John Lubbock.)

"It is now certain that the vast epochs of time demanded by scientific
observation are incompatible both with the six thousand years of the
Mosaic chronology, and the six days of the Mosaic creation." (Dean
Stanley.)

[2:3] "Let us make man in our own likeness," was said by Ormuzd, the
Persian God of Gods, to his WORD. (See Bunsen's Angel Messiah, p. 104.)

[2:4] The number SEVEN was sacred among almost every nation of
antiquity. (See ch. ii.)

[2:5] According to Grecian Mythology, the God Prometheus created men, in
the image of the gods, _out of clay_ (see Bulfinch: The Age of Fable, p.
26; and Goldzhier: Hebrew Myths, p. 373), and the God Hephaistos was
commanded by Zeus to mold of _clay_ the figure of a maiden, into which
Athênê, the dawn-goddess, _breathed the breath of life_. This is
Pandora--the gift of all the gods--who is presented to Epimetheus. (See
Cox: Aryan Myths, vol. ii., p. 208.)

[2:6] "What man is found such an idiot as to suppose that God planted
trees in Paradise, in Eden, like a husbandman." (Origen: quoted in
Mysteries of Adoni, p. 176.) "There is no way of preserving the literal
sense of the first chapter of Genesis, without impiety, and attributing
things to God unworthy of him." (St. Augustine.)

[2:7] "The records about the '_Tree of Life_' are the sublimest proofs
of the unity and continuity of tradition, and of its Eastern origin.
_The earliest records of the most ancient Oriental tradition refer to a
'Tree of Life,' which was guarded by spirits._ The juice of the fruit of
this sacred tree, like the tree itself, was called _Sôma_ in Sanscrit,
and _Haôma_ in Zend; it was revered as the life preserving essence."
(Bunsen: Keys of St. Peter, p. 414)

[3:1] "According to the Persian account of Paradise, _four_ great rivers
came from Mount Alborj; two are in the North, and two go towards the
South. The river Arduisir nourishes the _Tree of Immortality_, the Holy
Hom." (Stiefelhagen: quoted in Mysteries of Adoni p. 149.)

"According to the _Chinese_ myth, the waters of the Garden of Paradise
issue from the fountain of immortality, which divides itself into _four
rivers_." (Ibid., p. 150, and Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i., p. 210.) The
Hindoos call their Mount Meru the Paradise, out of which went _four_
rivers. (Anacalypsis, vol. i., p. 357.)

[3:2] According to Persian legend, Arimanes, the Evil Spirit, _by eating
a certain kind of fruit_, transformed himself into a _serpent_, and went
gliding about on the earth to tempt human beings. His Devs entered the
bodies of men and produced all manner of diseases. They entered into
their minds, and incited them to sensuality, falsehood, slander and
revenge. Into every department of the world they introduced discord and
death.

[4:1] Inasmuch as the physical construction of the serpent never could
admit of its moving in any other way, and inasmuch as it _does not eat
dust_, does not the narrator of this myth reflect unpleasantly upon the
wisdom of such a God as Jehovah is claimed to be, as well as upon the
ineffectualness of his first curse?

[5:1] "Our writer unmistakably recognizes the existence of _many gods_;
for he makes Yahweh say: 'See, the man has become as ONE OF US, knowing
good and evil;' and so he evidently implies the existence of other
similar beings, to whom he attributes immortality and insight into the
difference between good and evil. Yahweh, then, was, in his eyes, the
god of gods, indeed, but not the _only_ god." (Bible for Learners, vol.
i. p. 51.)

[5:2] In his memorial sermon, preached in Westminster Abbey, after the
funeral of Sir Charles Lyell. He further said in this address:--

"It is well known that when the science of geology first arose, it was
involved in endless schemes of _attempted_ reconciliation with the
letter of Scripture. There was, there are perhaps still, two modes of
reconciliation of Scripture and science, which have been each in their
day attempted, _and each have totally and deservedly failed_. One is the
endeavor to wrest the words of the Bible from their natural meaning,
_and force it to speak the language of science_." After speaking of the
earliest known example, which was the interpolation of the word "_not_"
in Leviticus xi. 6, he continues: "This is the earliest instance of _the
falsification of Scripture to meet the demands of science_; and it has
been followed in later times by the various efforts which have been made
to twist the earlier chapters of the book of Genesis into _apparent_
agreement with the last results of geology--representing days not to be
days, morning and evening not to be morning and evening, the deluge not
to be the deluge, and the ark not to be the ark."

[5:3] Gen. i. 9, 10.

[5:4] Gen. ii. 6.

[6:1] Gen. i. 20, 24, 26.

[6:2] Gen. ii. 7, 9.

[6:3] Gen. i. 20.

[6:4] Gen. ii. 19.

[6:5] Gen. i. 27.

[6:6] Gen. ii. 7: iii. 22.

[6:7] Gen. i. 28.

[6:8] Gen. ii. 8, 15.

[6:9] Gen. i. 28.

[6:10] Gen. ii. 7, 8, 15, 22.

[6:11] Gen. ii. 4-25.

[6:12] Gen. iii.

[6:13] Gen. i. 1-ii. 8.

[6:14] Gen. iii. 1, 3, 5.

[6:15] The Pentateuch Examined, vol. ii. pp. 171-173.

[6:16] Com. on Old Test. vol. i. p. 59.

[7:1] The Relig. of Israel, p. 186.

[7:2] Von Bohlen: Intro. to Gen. vol. ii. p. 4.

[7:3] Lenormant: Beginning of Hist. vol. i. p. 6.

[7:4] See Ibid. p. 64; and Legends of the Patriarchs, p. 31.

[8:1] "The Etruscans believed in a creation of six thousand years, and
in the successive production of different beings, the last of which was
man." (Dunlap: Spirit Hist. p. 357.)

[8:2] Quoted by Bishop Colenso: The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p.
115.

[8:3] Intro. to Genesis, vol. ii. p. 4.

[8:4] Com. on Old Test. vol. i. p. 63.

[8:5] The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 158.

[9:1] See Chapter xi.

[9:2] Mr. Smith says, "Whatever the primitive account may have been from
which the earlier part of the Book of Genesis was copied, it is evident
that the brief narration given in the Pentateuch omits a number of
incidents and explanations--for instance, as to the origin of evil, the
fall of the angels, the wickedness of the serpent, &c. Such points as
these are included in the cuneiform narrative." (Smith: Chaldean Account
of Genesis, pp. 13, 14.)

[9:3] Smith: Chaldean Account of Genesis, p. 88.

[9:4] Ibid. p. 89.

[9:5] Ibid. p. 91.

[10:1] Murray's Mythology, p. 208.

[10:2] Kalisch's Com. vol. i. p. 64.

[11:1] Goldziher: Hebrew Mythology, p. 87.

[11:2] Com. on the Old Test. vol. i. p. 70.

[11:3] Ibid.

[11:4] Ibid. "The fruit, and sap of this '_Tree of Life_' begat
immortality." (Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 240.)

[11:5] See Montfaucon: L'Antiquité Expliquée, vol. i. p. 211, and Pl.
cxxxiii.

[12:1] Faber: Origin Pagan Idolatry, vol. i. p. 443; in Anacalypsis,
vol. i. p. 237.

[12:2] Tree and Serpent Worship, p. 13.

[12:3] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 159.

[12:4] See Bunsen's Keys of St. Peter, p. 414.

[12:5] Colenso: The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 153.

[12:6] Buckley: Cities of the Ancient World, p. 148.

[12:7] Müller: Hist. Sanskrit Literature, p. 559.

[13:1] See Wake: Phallism in Ancient Religions, pp. 46, 47; and Maurice:
Hist. Hindostan, vol. i. p. 408.

[13:2] Hardwick: Christ and Other Masters, p. 215.

[13:3] See Jacolliot's "Bible in India," which John Fisk calls a "very
discreditable performance," and "a disgraceful piece of charlatanry"
(Myths, &c. p. 205). This writer also states that according to Hindoo
legend, the first man and woman were called "Adima and Heva," which is
certainly not the case. The "bridge of Adima" which he speaks of as
connecting the island of Ceylon with the mainland, is called "Rama's
bridge;" and the "Adam's footprints" are called "Buddha's footprints."
The Portuguese, who called the mountain _Pico d' Adama_ (Adam's Peak),
evidently invented these other names. (See Maurice's Hist. Hindostan,
vol. i. pp. 301, 362, and vol. ii. p. 242).

[13:4] See Smith's Bible Dic. Art. "Cherubim," and Lenormant's Beginning
of History, ch. iii.

[15:1] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 206-210, The Pentateuch
Examined, vol. iv. pp. 152, 153, and Legends of the Patriarchs, p. 38.

[15:2] Legends of the Patriarchs, p. 31.

[15:3] Quoted by Müller: The Science of Relig., p. 302.

[15:4] See Mallet's Northern Antiquities, p. 409.

[15:5] See Baring Gould's Legends of the Patriarchs; Squire's Serpent
Symbol, p. 161, and Wake's Phallism in Ancient Religions, p. 41.

[16:1] Quoted by Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 403.

[16:2] Tod's Hist. Raj., p. 581, quoted by Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i.
p. 404.

[16:3] L'Antiquité Expliquée, vol. i.

[17:1] Sir William Jones, the first president of the Royal Asiatic
Society, saw this when he said: "Either the first eleven chapters of
Genesis, all due allowance being made for a figurative Eastern style,
are _true_, or the whole fabric of our religion is false." (In Asiatic
Researches, vol. i. p. 225.) And so also did the learned Thomas Maurice,
for he says: "If the Mosaic History be indeed a fable, the whole fabric
of the national religion is false, since the main pillar of Christianity
rests upon that important original promise, that the seed of the woman
should bruise the head of the serpent." (Hist. Hindostan, vol. i. p.
20.)

[18:1] The above extracts are quoted by Bishop Colenso, in The
Pentateuch Examined, vol. ii. pp. 10-12, from which we take them.

[18:2] "_Cosmogony_" is the title of a volume lately written by Prof.
Thomas Mitchell, and published by the American News Co., in which the
author attacks all the modern scientists in regard to the geological
antiquity of the world, evolution, atheism, pantheism, &c. He
believes--and rightly too--that, "_if the account of Creation in Genesis
falls, Christ and the apostles follow: if the book of Genesis is
erroneous, so also are the Gospels_."



CHAPTER II.

THE DELUGE.[19:1]


After "man's shameful fall," the earth began to be populated at a very
rapid rate. "The sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were
fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. . . . . There
were _giants_ in the earth in those days,[19:2] and also . . . mighty
men . . . men of renown."

But these "giants" and "mighty men" were very wicked, "and God saw the
wickedness of man . . . _and it repented the Lord that he had made man
upon the earth_,[19:3] and it grieved him at his heart. And the Lord
said; I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth,
both man and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air,
for it repenteth me that I have made them. But Noah found grace in the
eyes of the Lord (for) Noah was a just man . . . and walked with God.
. . . And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me,
for the earth is filled with violence through them, and, behold, I will
destroy them with the earth. Make thee an ark of gopher wood, rooms
shalt thou make in the ark, (and) a window shalt thou make to the ark;
. . . . And behold I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth,
to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven,
and every thing that is in the earth shall die. But with thee shall I
establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy
sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives, with thee. And of every living
thing of all flesh, _two_ of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark,
to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. Of fowls
after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping
thing of the earth after his kind, _two_ of every sort shall come in to
thee, to keep them alive. And take thou unto thee of all food that is
eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for
thee and for them. _Thus did Noah, according to all that God commanded
him._"[20:1]

When the ark was finished, the Lord said unto Noah:

     "Come thou and all thy house into the ark. . . . Of every clean
     beast thou shalt take to thee by _sevens_, the male and his
     female; and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and
     his female. Of fowls also of the air by _sevens_, the male and
     the female."[20:2]

Here, again, as in the Eden myth, there is a _contradiction_. We have
seen that the Lord told Noah to bring into the ark "of every living
thing, of all flesh, _two_ of _every sort_," and now that the ark is
finished, we are told that he said to him: "Of every clean beast thou
shalt take to thee by _sevens_," and, "of fowls also of the air by
_sevens_." This is owing to the story having been written by _two
different writers_--the Jehovistic, and the Elohistic--one of which took
from, and added to the narrative of the other.[20:3] The account goes on
to say, that:

     "Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives
     with him, into the ark. . . . Of _clean_ beasts, and of beasts
     _that are not clean_, and of _fowls_, and of _every thing_
     that creepeth upon the earth, there went in _two and two_,
     unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, _as God had
     commanded Noah_."[20:4]

We see, then, that Noah took into the ark _of all kinds_ of beasts, of
_fowls_, and of every thing that creepeth, _two of every sort_, and that
this was "_as God had commanded Noah_." This clearly shows that the
writer of these words knew nothing of the command to take in _clean
beasts_, and _fowls_ of the air, by _sevens_. We are further assured,
that, "_Noah did according to all that the Lord commanded him_."

After Noah and his family, and every beast after his kind, and all the
cattle after their kind, the fowls of the air, and every creeping thing,
had entered the ark, the Lord shut them in. Then "were all the fountains
of the great deep broken up, _and the windows of heaven were opened_.
And the rain was upon the earth _forty days and forty nights_. . . . .
And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the hills,
that were under the whole heaven, were covered. Fifteen cubits upwards
did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered. And all flesh
died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl and of cattle, and of
beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and
every man. And Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in
the ark."[21:1] The object of the flood was now accomplished, "_all
flesh died that moved upon the earth_." The Lord, therefore, "made a
wind to pass over the earth, and the waters assuaged. The fountains of
the deep, and the windows of heaven, were stopped, and the rain from
heaven was restrained. And the waters decreased continually. . . . . And
it came to pass at the end of _forty days_, that Noah opened the window
of the ark, which he had made. And he sent forth a raven, which went
forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth. He
also sent forth a dove, . . . but the dove found no rest for the sole of
her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark." . . .

At the end of _seven_ days he again "sent forth the dove out of the ark,
and the dove came in to him in the evening, and lo, in her mouth was an
olive leaf, plucked off."

At the end of another _seven_ days, he again "sent forth the dove, which
returned not again to him any more."

And the ark rested in the _seventh_ month, on the seventeenth day of the
month, upon the mountains of Ararat. Then Noah and his wife, and his
sons, and his sons' wives, and every living thing that was in the ark,
went forth out of the ark. "And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord,
. . . and offered burnt offerings on the altar. And the Lord smelled a
sweet savour, and the Lord said in his heart, I will not again curse the
ground any more for man's sake."[21:2]

We shall now see that there is scarcely any considerable race of men
among whom there does not exist, in some form, the tradition of a great
deluge, which destroyed all the human race, except _their own_
progenitors.

The first of these which we shall notice, and the one with which the
Hebrew agrees most closely, having been copied from it,[22:1] is the
_Chaldean_, as given by Berosus, the Chaldean historian.[22:2] It is as
follows:

     "After the death of Ardates (the ninth king of the Chaldeans),
     his son _Xisuthrus_ reigned eighteen sari. In his time
     happened a great _deluge_, the history of which is thus
     described: The deity Cronos appeared to him (Xisuthrus) in a
     vision, and warned him that upon the fifteenth day of the
     month Desius there would be a flood, by which mankind would be
     destroyed. He therefore enjoined him to write a history of the
     beginning, procedure, and conclusion of all things, and to
     bury it in the City of the Sun at Sippara; and to build a
     vessel, and take with him into it his friends and relations,
     and to convey on board everything necessary to sustain life,
     together with all the different animals, both birds and
     quadrupeds, and trust himself fearlessly to the deep. Having
     asked the deity whither he was to sail, he was answered: 'To
     the Gods;' upon which he offered up a prayer for the good of
     mankind. He then obeyed the divine admonition, and built a
     vessel five stadia in length, and two in breadth. Into this he
     put everything which he had prepared, and last of all conveyed
     into it his wife, his children, and his friends. After the
     flood had been upon the earth, and was in time abated,
     Xisuthrus sent out birds from the vessel; which not finding
     any food, nor any place whereupon they might rest their feet,
     returned to him again. After an interval of some days, he sent
     them forth a second time; and they now returned with their
     feet tinged with mud. He made a trial a third time with these
     birds; but they returned to him no more: from whence he judged
     that the surface of the earth had appeared above the waters.
     He therefore made an opening in the vessel, and upon looking
     out found that it was stranded upon the side of some mountain;
     upon which he immediately quitted it with his wife, his
     daughter, and the pilot. Xisuthrus then paid his adoration to
     the earth, and, having constructed an altar, offered
     sacrifices to the gods."[22:3]

This account, given by Berosus, which agrees in almost every particular
with that found in Genesis, and with that found by George Smith of the
British Museum on terra cotta tablets in Assyria, is nevertheless
different in some respects. But, says Mr. Smith:

     "When we consider the difference between the two countries of
     Palestine and Babylonia, these variations do not appear
     greater than we should expect. . . . It was only natural that, in
     relating the same stories, each nation should color them in
     accordance with its own ideas, and stress would naturally in
     each case be laid upon points with which they were familiar.
     Thus we should expect beforehand that there would be
     differences in the narrative such as we actually find, and we
     may also notice that the cuneiform account does not always
     coincide even with the account of the same events given by
     Berosus from Chaldean sources."[23:1]

The most important points are the same however, _i. e._, _in both cases_
the virtuous man is informed by the Lord that a flood is about to take
place, which would destroy mankind. _In both cases_ they are commanded
to build a vessel or ark, to enter it with their families, and to take
in beasts, birds, and everything that creepeth, also to provide
themselves with food. _In both cases_ they send out a bird from the ark
_three times_--the third time it failed to return. _In both cases_ they
land on a mountain, and upon leaving the ark they offer up a sacrifice
to the gods. Xisuthrus was the tenth king,[23:2] and Noah the tenth
patriarch.[23:3] Xisuthrus had three sons (Zerovanos, Titan and
Japetosthes),[23:4] and Noah had three sons (Shem, Ham and
Japhet).[23:5]

As Cory remarks in his "Ancient Fragments," the history of the flood, as
given by Berosus, so remarkably corresponds with the Biblical account of
the Noachian Deluge, that no one can doubt that both proceeded from one
source--they are evidently transcriptions, except the names, from some
ancient document.[23:6]

This legend became known to the Jews from Chaldean sources,[23:7] it was
not known in the country (Egypt) out of which they evidently came.[23:8]
Egyptian history, it is said, had gone on uninterrupted for ten
thousand years before the time assigned for the birth of Jesus.[24:1]
And it is known as absolute fact that the land of Egypt was never
visited by other than its annual beneficent overflow of the river
Nile.[24:2] The Egyptian Bible, _which is by far the most ancient of all
holy books[24:3], knew nothing of the Deluge_.[24:4] The Phra (or
Pharaoh) Khoufou-Cheops was building his pyramid, according to Egyptian
chronicle, when the whole world was under the waters of a universal
deluge, according to the Hebrew chronicle.[24:5] A number of other
nations of antiquity are found destitute of any story of a flood,[24:6]
which they certainly would have had if a universal deluge had ever
happened. Whether this legend is of high antiquity in India has even
been doubted by distinguished scholars.[24:7]

The _Hindoo_ legend of the Deluge is as follows:

     "Many ages after the creation of the world, Brahma resolved to
     destroy it with a deluge, on account of the wickedness of the
     people. There lived at that time a pious man named
     _Satyavrata_, and as the lord of the universe loved this pious
     man, and wished to preserve him from the sea of destruction
     which was to appear on account of the depravity of the age, he
     appeared before him in the form of _Vishnu_ (the Preserver)
     and said: In _seven_ days from the present time . . . the
     worlds will be plunged in an ocean of death, but in the midst
     of the destroying waves, a large vessel, sent by me for thy
     use, shall stand before thee. Then shalt thou take all
     medicinal herbs, all the variety of feeds, and, accompanied by
     _seven_ saints, encircled by _pairs_ of all brute animals,
     thou shalt enter the spacious ark, and continue in it, secure
     from the flood, on one immense ocean without light, except the
     radiance of thy holy companions. When the ship shall be
     agitated by an impetuous wind, thou shalt fasten it with a
     large sea-serpent on my horn; for I will be near thee (in
     the form of a fish), drawing the vessel, with thee and thy
     attendants. I will remain on the ocean, O chief of men, until
     a night of _Brahma_ shall be completely ended. Thou shalt then
     know my true greatness, rightly named the Supreme Godhead; by
     my favor, all thy questions shall be answered, and thy mind
     abundantly instructed."

Being thus directed, Satyavrata humbly waited for the time which the
ruler of our senses had appointed. It was not long, however, before the
sea, overwhelming its shores, began to deluge the whole earth, and it
was soon perceived to be augmented by showers from immense clouds. He,
still meditating on the commands of the Lord, saw a vessel advancing,
and entered it with the saints, after having carried into effect the
instructions which had been given him.

_Vishnu_ then appeared before them, in the form of a fish, as he had
said, and Satyavrata fastened a cable to his horn.

The deluge in time abated, and Satyavrata, instructed in all divine and
human knowledge, was appointed, by the favor of _Vishnu_, the Seventh
Menu. After coming forth from the ark he offers up a sacrifice to
Brahma.[25:1]

The ancient temples of Hindostan contain representations of Vishnu
sustaining the earth while overwhelmed by the waters of the deluge. _A
rainbow is seen on the surface of the subsiding waters._[25:2]

The _Chinese_ believe the earth to have been at one time covered with
water, which they described as flowing abundantly and then subsiding.
This great flood divided the higher from the lower age of man. It
happened during the reign of Yaou. This inundation, which is termed
_hung-shwuy_ (great water), almost ruined the country, and is spoken of
by Chinese writers with sentiments of horror. The _Shoo-King_, one of
their sacred books, describes the waters as reaching to the tops of some
of the mountains, covering the hills, and expanding as wide as the vault
of heaven.[25:3]

The _Parsees_ say that by the temptation of the evil spirit men became
wicked, and God destroyed them with a deluge, except a few, from whom
the world was peopled anew.[25:4]

In the _Zend-Avesta_, the oldest sacred book of the Persians, of whom
the Parsees are direct descendants, there are sixteen countries spoken
of as having been given by Ormuzd, the Good Deity, for the Aryans to
live in; and these countries are described as a land of delight, which
was turned by Ahriman, the Evil Deity, into a land of death and cold,
partly, it is said, by a great flood, which is described as being like
Noah's flood recorded in the Book of Genesis.[26:1]

The ancient _Greeks_ had records of a flood which destroyed nearly the
whole human race.[26:2] The story is as follows:

     "From his throne in the high Olympos, Zeus looked down on the
     children of men, and saw that everywhere they followed only
     their lusts, and cared nothing for right or for law. And ever,
     as their hearts waxed grosser in their wickedness, they
     devised for themselves new rites to appease the anger of the
     gods, till the whole earth was filled with blood. Far away in
     the hidden glens of the Arcadian hills the sons of Lykaon
     feasted and spake proud words against the majesty of Zeus, and
     Zeus himself came down from his throne to see their way and
     their doings. . . . Then Zeus returned to his home on Olympos,
     and he gave the word that a flood of waters should be let
     loose upon the earth, that the sons of men might die for their
     great wickedness. So the west wind rose in its might, and the
     dark rain-clouds veiled the whole heaven, for the winds of the
     north which drive away the mists and vapors were shut up in
     their prison house. On hill and valley burst the merciless
     rain, and the rivers, loosened from their courses, rushed over
     the whole plains and up the mountain-side. From his home on
     the highlands of Phthia, Deukalion looked forth on the angry
     sky, and, when he saw the waters swelling in the valleys
     beneath, he called Pyrrha, his wife, and said to her: 'The
     time has come of which my father, the wise Prometheus,
     forewarned me. Make ready, therefore, the ark which I have
     built, and place in it all that we may need for food while the
     flood of waters is out upon the earth.' . . . Then Pyrrha
     hastened to make all things ready, and they waited till the
     waters rose up to the highlands of Phthia and floated away the
     ark of Deukalion. The fishes swam amidst the old elm-groves,
     and twined amongst the gnarled boughs on the oaks, while on
     the face of the waters were tossed the bodies of men; and
     Deukalion looked on the dead faces of stalwart warriors, of
     maidens, and of babes, as they rose and fell upon the heavy
     waves."

When the flood began to abate, the ark rested on Mount Parnassus, and
Deucalion, with his wife Pyrrha, stepped forth upon the desolate earth.
They then immediately constructed an altar, and offered up thanks to
Zeus, the mighty being who sent the flood and saved them from its
waters.[26:3]

According to Ovid (a Grecian writer born 43 B. C.), Deucalion does not
venture out of the ark until a dove which he sent out returns to him
with an olive branch.[26:4]

It was at one time extensively believed, even by intelligent scholars,
that the myth of Deucalion was a corrupted tradition of the Noachian
deluge, _but this untenable opinion is now all but universally
abandoned_.[27:1]

The legend was found in the West among the Kelts. They believed that a
great deluge overwhelmed the world and drowned all men except Drayan and
Droyvach, who escaped in a boat, and colonized Britain. This boat was
supposed to have been built by the "Heavenly Lord," and it received into
it a pair of every kind of beasts.[27:2]

The ancient _Scandinavians_ had their legend of a deluge. The _Edda_
describes this deluge, from which only one man escapes, with his family,
by means of a bark.[27:3] It was also found among the ancient Mexicans.
They believed that a man named Coxcox, and his wife, survived the
deluge. Lord Kingsborough, speaking of this legend,[27:4] informs us
that the person who answered to Noah entered the ark with six others;
and that the story of sending birds out of the ark, &c., is the same in
general character with that of the Bible.

       *       *       *       *       *

Dr. Brinton also speaks of the _Mexican_ tradition.[27:5] They had not
only the story of sending out the _bird_, but related that the ark
landed _on a mountain_. The tradition of a deluge was also found among
the Brazilians, and among many Indian tribes.[27:6] The mountain upon
which the ark is supposed to have rested, was pointed to by the
residents in nearly every quarter of the globe. The mountain-chain of
Ararat was considered to be--by the _Chaldeans_ and _Hebrews_--the place
where the ark landed. The _Greeks_ pointed to Mount Parnassus; the
_Hindoos_ to the Himalayas; and in Armenia numberless heights were
pointed out with becoming reverence, as those on which the few survivors
of the dreadful scenes of the deluge were preserved. On the Red River
(in America), near the village of the Caddoes, there was an eminence to
which the Indian tribes for a great distance around paid devout homage.
The Cerro Naztarny on the Rio Grande, the peak of Old Zuni in New
Mexico, that of Colhuacan on the Pacific coast, Mount Apoala in Upper
Mixteca, and Mount Neba in the province of Guaymi, are some of many
elevations asserted by the neighboring nations to have been places of
refuge for their ancestors when the fountains of the great deep broke
forth.

The question now may naturally be asked, How could such a story have
originated unless there was some foundation for it?

In answer to this question we will say that we do not think such a story
could have originated without some foundation for it, and that most, if
not all, legends, have a basis of truth underlying the fabulous,
although not always discernible. This story may have an _astronomical_
basis, as some suppose,[28:1] or it may not. At any rate, it would be
very easy to transmit by memory the fact of the _sinking_ of _an
island_, or that of _an earthquake_, or a _great flood_, caused by
overflows of rivers, &c., which, in the course of time, would be added
to, and enlarged upon, and, in this way, made into quite a lengthy tale.
According to one of the most ancient accounts of the deluge, we are told
that at that time "the forest trees were dashed against each other;"
"the mountains were involved with smoke and flame;" that there was
"fire, and smoke, and wind, which ascended in thick clouds replete with
lightning." "The roaring of the ocean, whilst violently agitated with
the whirling of the mountains, was like the bellowing of a mighty cloud,
&c."[28:2]

A violent earthquake, with eruptions from volcanic mountains, and the
sinking of land into the sea, would evidently produce such a scene as
this. We know that at one period in the earth's history, such scenes
must have been of frequent occurrence. The science of geology
demonstrates this fact to us. _Local deluges_ were of frequent
occurrence, and that some persons may have been saved on one, or perhaps
many, such occasions, by means of a raft or boat, and that they may have
sought refuge on an eminence, or mountain, does not seem at all
improbable.

During the _Champlain_ period in the history of the world--which came
after the _Glacial_ period--the climate became warmer, _the continents
sank_, and there were, consequently, continued _local floods_ which must
have destroyed considerable animal life, including man. The foundation
of the deluge myth may have been laid at this time.

Some may suppose that this is dating the history of man too far back,
making his history too remote; but such is not the case. There is every
reason to believe that man existed for ages _before the Glacial epoch_.
It must not be supposed that we have yet found remains of the earliest
human beings; there is evidence, however, that man existed during the
_Pliocene_, if not during the _Miocene_ periods, when hoofed quadrupeds,
and Proboscidians abounded, human remains and implements having been
found mingled with remains of these animals.[29:1]

Charles Darwin believed that the animal called man, might have been
properly called by that name at an epoch as remote as the _Eocene_
period.[29:2] Man had probably lost his hairy covering by that time, and
had begun to look human.

Prof. Draper, speaking of the antiquity of man, says:

     "So far as investigations have gone, they _indisputably_ refer
     the existence of man to a date remote from us by many
     _hundreds of thousands of years_," and that, "it is difficult
     to assign a shorter date from the last glaciation of Europe
     than a quarter of a million of years, _and human existence
     antedates that_."[29:3]

Again he says:

     "Recent researches give reason to believe that, under low and
     base grades, the existence of man can be traced back into the
     _Tertiary_ times. He was contemporary with the Southern
     Elephant, the Rhinoceros-leptorhinus, the great Hippopotamus,
     perhaps even in the _Miocene_, contemporary with the
     Mastodon."[29:4]

Prof. Huxley closes his "Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature," by
saying:

     "Where must we look for primeval man? Was the oldest _Homo
     Sapiens_ Pliocene or Miocene, _or yet more ancient_? . . .
     If any form of the doctrine of progressive development is
     correct, _we must extend by long epochs the most liberal
     estimate that has yet been made of the antiquity of
     man_."[30:1]

Prof. Oscar Paschel, in his work on "Mankind," speaking of the deposits
of human remains which have been discovered in caves, mingled with the
bones of wild animals, says:

     "The examination of one of these caves at Brixham, by a
     geologist as trustworthy as Dr. Falconer, convinced the
     specialists of Great Britain, as early as 1858, that man was a
     contemporary of the Mammoth, the Woolly Rhinoceros, the
     Cave-lion, the Cave-hyena, the Cave-bear, _and therefore of
     the Mammalia of the Geological period antecedent to our
     own_."[30:2]

The positive evidence of man's existence during the _Tertiary_ period,
are facts which must firmly convince every one--who is willing to be
convinced--of _the great antiquity of man_. We might multiply our
authorities, but deem it unnecessary.

The observation of shells, corals, and other remains of _aquatic
animals_, in places above the level of the sea, and even on high
mountains, may have given rise to legends of a great flood.

Fossils found imbedded in high ground have been appealed to, both in
ancient and modern times, both by savage and civilized man, as evidence
in support of their traditions of a flood; and, moreover, the argument,
apparently unconnected with any tradition, is to be found, that because
there are marine fossils in places away from the sea, _therefore the sea
must once have been there_.

It is only quite recently that the presence of fossil shells, &c., on
high mountains, has been abandoned as evidence of the Noachic flood.

Mr. Tylor tells us that in the ninth edition of "Horne's Introduction to
the Scriptures," published in 1846, the evidence of fossils _is
confidently held to prove_ the universality of the Deluge; _but the
argument disappears from the next edition, published ten years
later_.[30:3]

Besides fossil remains of aquatic animals, _boats_ have been found on
tops of mountains.[30:4] A discovery of this kind may have given rise to
the story of an _ark_ having been made in which to preserve the favored
ones from the waters, and of its landing on a mountain.[30:5]

Before closing this chapter, it may be well to notice a striking
incident in the legend we have been treating, _i. e._, the frequent
occurrence of the number _seven_ in the narrative. For instance: the
Lord commands Noah to take into the ark clean beasts by _sevens_, and
fowls also by _sevens_, and tells him that in _seven_ days he will cause
it to rain upon the earth. We are also told that the ark rested in the
_seventh_ month, and the _seven_teenth day of the month, upon the
mountains of Ararat. After sending the dove out of the ark the first
time, Noah waited _seven_ days before sending it out again. After
sending the dove out the second time, "he stayed yet another _seven_
days" ere he again sent forth the dove.

_This coincidence arises from the mystic power attached to the number
seven, derived from its frequent occurrence in astrology._

We find that in _all religions_ of antiquity the number _seven_--which
applied to the _sun_, _moon_ and the _five planets_ known to the
ancients--is a _sacred number_, represented in all kinds and sorts of
forms;[31:1] for instance: The candlestick with _seven_ branches in the
temple of Jerusalem. The _seven_ inclosures of the temple. The _seven_
doors of the cave of Mithras. The _seven_ stories of the tower of
Babylon.[31:2] The _seven_ gates of Thebes.[31:3] The flute of _seven_
pipes generally put into the hand of the god Pan. The lyre of _seven_
strings touched by Apollo. The book of "Fate," composed of _seven_
books. The _seven_ prophetic rings of the Brahmans.[31:4] The _seven_
stones--consecrated to the _seven_ planets--in Laconia.[31:5] The
division into _seven_ castes adopted by the Egyptians and Indians. The
_seven_ idols of the Bonzes. The _seven_ altars of the monument of
Mithras. The _seven_ great spirits invoked by the Persians. The _seven_
archangels of the Chaldeans. The _seven_ archangels of the Jews.[31:6]

The _seven_ days in the week.[32:1] The _seven_ sacraments of the
Christians. The _seven_ wicked spirits of the Babylonians. The
sprinkling of blood _seven_ times upon the altars of the Egyptians. The
_seven_ mortal sins of the Egyptians. The hymn of _seven_ vowels chanted
by the Egyptian priests.[32:2] The _seven_ branches of the Assyrian
"Tree of Life." Agni, the Hindoo god, is represented with _seven_ arms.
Sura's[32:3] horse was represented with _seven_ heads. _Seven_ churches
are spoken of in the Apocalypse. Balaam builded _seven_ altars, and
offered _seven_ bullocks and _seven_ rams on each altar. Pharaoh saw
_seven_ kine, &c., in his dream. The "Priest of Midian" had _seven_
daughters. Jacob served _seven_ years. Before Jericho _seven_ priests
bare _seven_ horns. Samson was bound with _seven_ green withes, and his
marriage feast lasted _seven_ days, &c., &c. We might continue with as
much more, but enough has been shown to verify the statement that, "in
all religions of antiquity, the number SEVEN is a _sacred_ number."


FOOTNOTES:

[19:1] See "The Deluge in the Light of Modern Science," by Prof. Wm.
Denton: J. P. Mendum, Boston.

[19:2] "There were _giants_ in the earth in those days." It is a
scientific fact that most races of men, in former ages, instead of being
_larger_, were _smaller_ than at the present time. There is hardly a
suit of armor in the Tower of London, or in the old castles, that is
large enough for the average Englishman of to-day to put on. Man has
grown in stature as well as intellect, and there is no proof
whatever--in fact, the opposite is certain--that there ever was a race
of what might properly be called _giants_, inhabiting the earth. Fossil
remains of large animals having been found by primitive man, _and a
legend invented to account for them_, it would naturally be that: "There
were giants in the earth in those days." As an illustration we may
mention the story, recorded by the traveller James Orton, we believe (in
"The Andes and the Amazon"), that, near Punin, in South America, was
found the remains of an extinct species of the horse, the mastodon, and
other large animals. This discovery was made, owing to the assurance of
the natives that _giants_ at one time had lived in that country, _and
that they had seen their remains at this certain place_. Many legends
have had a similar origin. But the originals of all the _Ogres_ and
_Giants_ to be found in the mythology of almost all nations of
antiquity, are the famous Hindoo demons, the _Rakshasas_ of our Aryan
ancestors. The Rakshasas were very terrible creatures indeed, and in the
minds of many people, in India, are so still. Their natural form, so the
stories say, is that of huge, unshapely _giants_, like _clouds_, with
hair and beard of the color of the _red lightning_. This description
explains their origin. _They are the dark, wicked and cruel clouds_,
personified.

[19:3] "And it _repented_ the Lord that he had made man." (Gen. iv.)
"God is not a man that he should lie, neither the son of man that _he
should repent_." (Numb. xxiii. 19.)

[20:1] Gen. iv.

[20:2] Gen. vi. 1-3.

[20:3] See chapter xi.

[20:4] The image of Osiris of Egypt was by the priests shut up in a
sacred ark on the 17th of Athyr (Nov. 13th), the very day and month on
which Noah is said to have entered his ark, (See Bonwick's Egyptian
Belief, p. 165, and Bunsen's Angel Messiah, p. 22.)

[21:1] Gen. vi.

[21:2] Gen. viii.

[22:1] See chapter xi.

[22:2] Josephus, the Jewish historian, speaking of the flood of Noah
(Antiq. bk. 1, ch. iii.), says: "All the writers of the Babylonian
histories make mention of _this_ flood and this ark."

[22:3] Quoted by George Smith: Chaldean Account of Genesis, pp. 43-44;
see also, The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 211; Dunlap's Spirit
Hist. p. 138; Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. 61, et seq. for similar
accounts.

[23:1] Chaldean Account of Genesis, pp. 285, 286.

[23:2] Volney: New Researches, p. 119; Chaldean Acct. of Genesis, p.
290; Hist. Hindostan, vol. i. p. 417, and Dunlap's Spirit Hist. p. 277.

[23:3] Ibid.

[23:4] Legends of the Patriarchs, pp. 109, 110.

[23:5] Gen. vi. 8.

[23:6] The Hindoo ark-preserved Menu had _three_ sons; Sama, Cama, and
Pra-Japati. (Faber: Orig. Pagan Idol.) The Bhattias, who live between
Delli and the Panjab, insist that they are descended from a certain king
called Salivahana, who had three sons, Bhat, Maha and Thamaz. (Col.
Wilford, in vol. ix. Asiatic Researches.) The Iranian hero Thraetona had
_three_ sons. The Iranian Sethite Lamech had _three_ sons, and Hellen,
the son of Deucalion, during whose time the flood is said to have
happened, had _three_ sons. (Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, pp. 70, 71.) All
the ancient nations of Europe also describe their origin from the
_three_ sons of some king or patriarch. The Germans said that Mannus
(son of the god Tuisco) had _three_ sons, who were the original
ancestors of the three principal nations of Germany. The Scythians said
that Targytagus, the founder of their nation, had _three_ sons, from
whom they were descended. A tradition among the Romans was that the
Cyclop Polyphemus had by Galatea _three_ sons. Saturn had _three_ sons,
Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto; and Hesiod speaks of the _three_ sons which
sprung from the marriage of heaven and earth. (See Mallet's Northern
Antiquities, p. 509.)

[23:7] See chap. xi.

[23:8] "It is of no slight moment that the Egyptians, with whom the
Hebrews are represented as in earliest and closest intercourse, had no
traditions of a flood, while the Babylonian and Hellenic tales bear a
strong resemblance in many points to the narrative in Genesis." (Rev.
George W. Cox: Tales of Ancient Greece, p. 340. See also Owen: Man's
Earliest History, p. 28, and ch. xi. this work.)

[24:1] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 198, and Knight's Ancient Art and
Mythology, p. 107. "Plato was told that Egypt had hymns dating back ten
thousand years before his time." (Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 185.)
Plato lived 429 B. C. Herodotus relates that the priests of Egypt
informed him that from the first king to the present priest of Vulcan
who last reigned, were three hundred forty and one generations of men,
and during these generations there were the same number of chief priests
and kings. "Now (says he) three hundred generations are equal to ten
thousand years, for three generations of men are one hundred years; and
the forty-one remaining generations that were over the three hundred,
make one thousand three hundred and forty years," making _eleven
thousand three hundred and forty years_. "Conducting me into the
interior of an edifice that was spacious, and showing me wooden
colossuses to the number I have mentioned, they reckoned them up; for
every high priest places an image of himself there during his life-time;
the priests, therefore, reckoning them and showing them to me, pointed
out that each was the son of his own father; going through them all,
from the image of him who died last until they had pointed them all
out." (Herodotus, book ii. chs. 142, 143.) The discovery of mummies of
royal and priestly personages, made at Deir-el-Bahari (Aug., 1881), near
Thebes, in Egypt, would seem to confirm this statement made by
Herodotus. Of the thirty-nine mummies discovered, one--that of King
Raskenen--is about three thousand seven hundred years old. (See a Cairo
[Aug. 8th,] Letter to the London Times.)

[24:2] Owen: Man's Earliest History, p. 28.

[24:3] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 185.

[24:4] Ibid. p. 411.

[24:5] Owen: Man's Earliest History, pp. 27, 28.

[24:6] Goldzhier: Hebrew Mytho. p. 319.

[24:7] Ibid. p. 320.

[25:1] Translated from the _Bhagavat_ by Sir Wm. Jones, and published in
the first volume of the "Asiatic Researches," p. 230, _et seq._ See also
Maurice: Ind. Ant. ii. 277, _et seq._, and Prof. Max Müller's Hist.
Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 425, _et seq._

[25:2] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 55.

[25:3] See Thornton's Hist. China, vol. i. p. 30, Prog. Relig. Ideas,
vol. i. p. 205, and Priestley, p. 41.

[25:4] Priestley, p. 42.

[26:1] Bunce: Fairy Tales, Origin and Meaning, p. 18.

[26:2] The _oldest_ Greek mythology, however, has no such idea; it
cannot be proved to have been known to the Greeks earlier than the 6th
century B. C. (See Goldzhier: Hebrew Mytho., p. 319.) This could not
have been the case had there ever been a _universal_ deluge.

[26:3] Tales of Ancient Greece, pp. 72-74. "Apollodorus--a Grecian
mythologist, born 140 B. C.,--having mentioned Deucalion consigned to
the ark, takes notice, upon his quitting it, of his offering up an
immediate sacrifice to God." (Chambers' Encyclo., art, _Deluge_.)

[26:4] In Lundy's Monumental Christianity (p. 209, Fig. 137) may be seen
a representation of Deucalion and Pyrrha landing from the ark. _A dove
and olive branch_ are depicted in the scene.

[27:1] Chambers' Encyclo., art. Deucalion.

[27:2] Baring-Gould: Legends of the Patriarchs, p. 114. See also Myths
of the British Druids, p. 95.

[27:3] See Mallet's Northern Antiquities, p. 99.

[27:4] Mex. Antiq. vol. viii.

[27:5] Myths of the New World, pp. 203, 204.

[27:6] See Squire: Serpent Symbol, pp. 189, 190.

[28:1] Count de Volney says: "The Deluge mentioned by Jews, Chaldeans,
Greeks and Indians, as having destroyed the world, are one and the same
_physico-astronomical event_ which is still repeated every year," and
that "all those personages that figure in the Deluge of Noah and
Xisuthrus, are still in the celestial sphere. It was a real picture of
the calendar." (Researches in Ancient Hist., p. 124.) It was on the same
day that Noah is said to have shut himself up in the ark, that the
priests of Egypt shut up in their sacred coffer or ark the image of
Osiris, a personification of the Sun. This was on the 17th of the month
Athor, in which the Sun enters the Scorpion. (See Kenrick's Egypt, vol.
i. p. 410.) The history of Noah also corresponds, in some respects, with
that of Bacchus, another personification of the Sun.

[28:2] See Maurice's Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 268.

[29:1] "In America, along with the bones of the _Mastodon_ imbedded in
the alluvium of the Bourbense, were found arrow heads and other traces
of the savages who had killed this member of an order no longer
represented in that part of the world." (Herbert Spencer: Principles of
Sociology, vol. i. p. 17.)

[29:2] Darwin: Descent of Man, p. 156. We think it may not be out of
place to insert here what might properly be called: "_The Drama of
Life_," which is as follows:

     Act i.                   Azoic: Conflict of Inorganic Forces.
     Act ii.                  Paleozoic: Age of Invertebrates.
                   { Scene i. Eozoic: Enter Protozoans and Protophytes.
                   {   "  ii. Silurian: Enter the Army of Invertebrates.
     Primary       {   " iii. Devonian: Enter Fishes.
                   {   "  iv. Carboniferous: (Age of Coal Plants) Enter
                                  First _Air_ breathers.
     Act iii.                 Mesozoic: Enter Reptiles.
                   { Scene i. Triassic: Enter Batrachians.
     Secondary     {   "  ii. Jurassic: Enter huge Reptiles of Sea, Land
                   {              and Air.
                   {   " iii. Cretaceous: (Age of Chalk) Enter Ammonites.
     Act iv.                  Cenozoic: (Age of Mammals.)
                   { Scene i. Eocene: Enter Marine Mammals, and probably
                   {              _Man_.
     Tertiary      {   "  ii. Miocene: Enter Hoofed Quadrupeds.
                   {   " iii. Pliocene: Enter Proboscidians and Edentates.
     Act v.                   Post Tertiary: _Positive_ Age of Man.
                   { Scene i. Glacial: Ice and Drift Periods.
                   {   "  ii. Champlain: _Sinking Continents_; Warmer;
                   {              Tropical Animals go _North_.
     Post Tertiary {   " iii. Terrace: Rising Continents; Colder.
                   {   "  iv. Present: Enter Science, Iconoclasts, &c., &c.

[29:3] Draper: Religion and Science, p. 199.

[29:4] Ibid. pp. 195, 196.

[30:1] Huxley: Man's Place in Nature, p. 184.

[30:2] Paschel: Races of Man, p. 36.

[30:3] Tylor: Early History of Mankind, p. 328.

[30:4] Ibid. pp. 329, 330

[30:5] We know that many legends have originated in this way. For
example, Dr. Robinson, in his "Travels in Palestine" (ii. 586), mentions
a tradition that a city had once stood in a desert between Petra and
Hebron, the people of which had perished for their vices, and been
converted into stone. Mr. Seetzen, who went to the spot, found no traces
of ruins, but a number of stony concretions, resembling in form and size
the human head. _They had been ignorantly supposed to be petrified
heads, and a legend framed to account for their owners suffering so
terrible a fate._ Another illustration is as follows:--The Kamchadals
believe that volcanic mountains are the abode of devils, who, after they
have cooked their meals, fling the fire-brands out of the chimney. Being
asked what these devils eat, they said "_whales_." Here we see, _first_,
a story invented to account for the volcanic eruptions from the
mountains; and, _second_, a story invented to account for the _remains
of whales found on the mountains_. The savages _knew_ that this was
true, "because their old people had said so, and believed it
themselves." (Related by Mr. Tylor, in his "_Early History of Mankind_,"
p. 326.)

[31:1] "Everything of importance was calculated by, and fitted into,
this number (SEVEN) by the Aryan philosophers,--ideas as well as
localities." (Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. p. 407).

[31:2] Each one being consecrated to a _planet_. First, to Saturn;
second, to Jupiter; third, to Mars; fourth, to the Sun; fifth, to Venus;
sixth, to Mercury; seventh, to the Moon. (The Pentateuch Examined, vol.
iv. p. 269. See also The Angel Messiah, p. 106.)

[31:3] Each of which had the name of a _planet_.

[31:4] On each of which the name of a _planet_ was engraved.

[31:5] "There was to be seen in Laconia, _seven_ columns erected in
honor of the _seven planets_." (Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p.
34.)

[31:6] "The Jews believed that the Throne of Jehovah was surrounded by
his _seven_ high chiefs: Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Uriel, &c." (Bible
for Learners, vol. iii. p. 46.)

[32:1] Each one being consecrated to a planet, and the Sun and Moon.
Sunday, "_Dies Solis_," sacred to the SUN. Monday, "Dies Lunae," sacred
to the MOON. Tuesday, sacred to Tuiso or MARS. Wednesday, sacred to Odin
or Woden, and to MERCURY. Thursday, sacred to Thor and others. Friday,
sacred to Freia and VENUS. Saturday, sacred to SATURN. "The (ancient)
Egyptians assigned a day of the week to the SUN, MOON, and five planets,
and the number SEVEN was held there in great reverence." (Kenrick:
Egypt, i. 238.)

[32:2] "The Egyptian priests chanted the _seven_ vowels as a hymn
addressed to _Serapis_." (The Rosicrucians, p. 143.)

[32:3] _Sura_: the Sun-god of the Hindoos.



CHAPTER III.

THE TOWER OF BABEL.


We are informed that, at one time, "the whole earth was of one language,
and of one speech. And it came to pass, as they (the inhabitants of the
earth) journeyed from the East, that they found a plain in the land of
Shinar, and they dwelt there.

"And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them
thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar.

"And they said, Go to, let us build us a city, and a tower, _whose top
may reach unto heaven_, and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered
abroad upon the face of the whole earth. _And the Lord came down to see
the city and the tower_, which the children of men builded. And the Lord
said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and
this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them,
which they have imagined to do. Go to, _let us go down_, and there
confound their language, that they may not understand one another's
speech. So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of
all the earth: and they left off to build the city. Therefore is the
name of it called _Babel_, because the Lord did there confound the
language of all the earth; and from thence did the Lord scatter them
abroad upon the face of all the earth."[33:1]

Such is the "Scripture" account of the origin of languages, which
differs somewhat from the ideas of Prof. Max Müller and other
philologists.

Bishop Colenso tells us that:

     "The story of the dispensation of tongues is connected by the
     Jehovistic writer with the famous unfinished temple of
     _Belus_, of which probably some wonderful reports had reached
     him. . . . The derivation of the name _Babel_ from the Hebrew
     word _babal_ (confound) which seems to be the connecting point
     between the story and the tower of Babel, _is altogether
     incorrect_."[33:2]

The literal meaning of the word being _house_, or _court_, or _gate_ of
Bel, or gate of God.[34:1]

John Fiske confirms this statement by saying:

     "The name '_Babel_' is really '_Bab-il_', or '_The Gate of
     God_'; but the Hebrew writer _erroneously_ derives the word
     from the root '_babal_'--to confuse--and hence arises the
     _mystical explanation_, that Babel was a place where human
     speech became confused."[34:2]

The "wonderful reports" that reached the Jehovistic writer who inserted
this tale into the Hebrew Scriptures, were from the Chaldean account of
the confusion of tongues. It is related by _Berosus_ as follows:

The first inhabitants of the earth, glorying in their strength and
size,[34:3] and despising the gods, undertook to raise a tower whose top
should reach the sky, in the place where Babylon now stands. But when it
approached the heavens, the winds assisted the gods, and overthrew the
work of the contrivers, and also introduced a diversity of tongues among
men, who till that time had all spoken the same language. The ruins of
this tower are said to be still in Babylon.[34:4]

Josephus, the Jewish historian, says that it was _Nimrod_ who built the
tower, that he was a very wicked man, and that the tower was built in
case the Lord should have a mind to drown the world again. He continues
his account by saying that when Nimrod proposed the building of this
tower, the multitude were very ready to follow the proposition, as they
could then avenge themselves on God for destroying their forefathers.

     "And they built a tower, neither sparing any pains nor being
     in any degree negligent about the work. And by reason of the
     multitude of hands employed on it, it grew very high, sooner
     than any one could expect. . . . . It was built of burnt
     brick, cemented together, with mortar made of bitumen, that it
     might not be liable to admit water. When God saw that they had
     acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly,
     _since they were not grown wiser by the destruction of the
     former sinners_, but he caused a tumult among them, by
     producing in them divers languages, and causing, that through
     the multitude of those languages they should not be able to
     understand one another. The place where they built the tower
     is now called Babylon."[34:5]

The tower in Babylonia, which seems to have been a foundation for the
legend of the confusion of tongues to be built upon, was evidently
originally built for _astronomical purposes_.[35:1] This is clearly seen
from the fact that it was called the "Stages of the Seven
Spheres,"[35:2] and that each one of these stages was consecrated to the
Sun, Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Mercury.[35:3]
Nebuchadnezzar says of it in his _cylinders_:

     "The building named the 'Stages of the Seven Spheres,' which
     was the tower of Borsippa (Babel), had been built by a former
     king. He had completed forty-two cubits, but he did not finish
     its head. From the lapse of time, it had become ruined; they
     had not taken care of the exits of the waters, so the rain and
     wet had penetrated into the brick-work; the casing of burnt
     brick had bulged out, and the terraces of crude brick lay
     scattered in heaps. Merobach, my great Lord, inclined my heart
     to repair the building. I did not change its site, nor did I
     destroy its foundation, but, in a fortunate month, and upon an
     auspicious day, I undertook the rebuilding of the crude brick
     terraces and burnt brick casing, &c., &c."[35:4]

There is not a word said here in these cylinders about the confusion of
tongues, nor anything pertaining to it. The ruins of this ancient tower
being there in Babylonia, and a legend of how the gods confused the
speech of mankind also being among them, it was very convenient to point
to these ruins as evidence that the story was true, just as the ancient
Mexicans pointed to the ruins of the tower of Cholula, as evidence of
the truth of the similar story which they had among them, and just as
many nations pointed to the remains of aquatic animals on the tops of
mountains, as evidence of the truth of the deluge story.

The _Armenian_ tradition of the "Confusion of Tongues" was to this
effect:

The world was formerly inhabited by men "with strong bodies and huge
size" (giants). These men being full of pride and envy, "they formed a
godless resolve to build a high tower; but whilst they were engaged on
the undertaking, a fearful wind overthrew it, which the wrath of God had
sent against it. _Unknown words were at the same time blown about among
men_, wherefore arose strife and confusion."[35:5]

The _Hindoo_ legend of the "Confusion of Tongues," is as follows:

There grew in the centre of the earth, the wonderful "_World Tree_," or
the "_Knowledge Tree_." It was so tall that it reached almost to heaven.
"It said in its heart: 'I shall hold my head in heaven, and spread my
branches over all the earth, and gather all men together under my
shadow, and protect them, and prevent them from separating.' But Brahma,
to punish the pride of the tree, cut off its branches and cast them down
on the earth, when they sprang up as _Wata trees, and made differences
of belief, and speech, and customs_, to prevail on the earth, to
disperse men over its surface."[36:1]

Traces of a somewhat similar story have also been met with among the
_Mongolian Tharus_ in the north of India, and, according to Dr.
Livingston, among the Africans of Lake _Nganu_.[36:2] The ancient
_Esthonians_[36:3] had a similar myth which they called "The Cooking of
Languages;" so also had the ancient inhabitants of the continent of
_Australia_.[36:4] The story was found among the ancient Mexicans, and
was related as follows:

Those, with their descendants, who were saved from the deluge which
destroyed all mankind, excepting the few saved in the ark, resolved to
build a tower which would reach to the skies. The object of this was to
see what was going on in Heaven, and also to have a place of refuge in
case of another deluge.[36:5]

The job was superintended by one of the _seven_ who were saved from the
flood.[36:6] He was a _giant_ called Xelhua, surnamed "the
Architect."[36:7]

Xelhua ordered bricks to be made in the province of Tlamanalco, at the
foot of the Sierra of Cocotl, and to be conveyed to _Cholula_, where the
tower was to be built. For this purpose, he placed a file of men
reaching from the Sierra to Cholula, who passed the bricks from hand to
hand.[36:8] The gods beheld with wrath this edifice,--the top of which
was nearing the clouds,--and were much irritated at the daring attempt
of Xelhua. They therefore hurled fire from Heaven upon the pyramid,
which threw it down, and killed many of the workmen. The work was then
discontinued,[36:9] as each family interested in the building of the
tower, _received a language of their own_,[36:10] and the builders could
not understand each other.

Dr. Delitzsch must have been astonished upon coming across this legend;
for he says:

     "_Actually_ the Mexicans had a legend of a _tower-building_ as
     well as of a _flood_. Xelhua, one of the _seven giants_
     rescued from the flood, built the great pyramid of Cholula, in
     order to reach heaven, until the gods, angry at his audacity,
     threw fire upon the building and broke it down, whereupon
     every separate family received a language of its own."[37:1]

The ancient Mexicans pointed to the ruins of a tower at Cholula as
evidence of the truth of their story. This tower was seen by Humboldt
and Lord Kingsborough, and described by them.[37:2]

We may say then, with Dr. Kalisch, that:

     "Most of the ancient nations possessed myths concerning
     impious giants who attempted to storm heaven, either to share
     it with the immortal gods, or to expel them from it. In some
     of these fables _the confusion of tongues_ is represented as
     the punishment inflicted by the deities for such
     wickedness."[37:3]


FOOTNOTES:

[33:1] Genesis xi. 1-9.

[33:2] The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 268.

[34:1] Ibid. p. 268. See also Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 90.

[34:2] Myths and Myth-makers, p. 72. See also Encyclopædia Britannica,
art. "Babel."

[34:3] "There were _giants_ in the earth in those days." (Genesis vi.
4.)

[34:4] Quoted by Rev. S. Baring-Gould: Legends of the Patriarchs, p.
147. See also Smith: Chaldean Account of Genesis, p. 48, and Volney's
Researches in Ancient History, pp. 130, 131.

[34:5] Jewish Antiquities, book 1, ch. iv. p. 30.

[35:1] "Diodorus states that the great tower of the temple of Belus was
used by the Chaldeans as an _observatory_." (Smith's Bible Dictionary,
art. "Babel.")

[35:2] The Hindoos had a sacred _Mount Meru_, the abode of the gods.
This mountain was supposed to consist of _seven stages_, increasing in
sanctity as they ascended. Many of the Hindoo temples, or rather altars,
were "studied transcripts of the sacred Mount Meru;" that is, they were
built, like the tower of Babel, in _seven stages_. Within the upper
dwelt Brahm. (See Squire's Serpent Symbol, p. 107.) Herodotus tells us
that the upper stage of the tower of Babel was the abode of the god
Belus.

[35:3] The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 269. See also Bunsen: The
Angel Messiah, p. 106.

[35:4] Rawlinson's Herodotus, vol. ii. p. 484.

[35:5] Legends of the Patriarchs, pp. 148, 149.

[36:1] Ibid. p. 148. The ancient _Scandinavians_ had a legend of a
somewhat similar tree. "The Mundane Tree," called _Yggdrasill_, was in
the centre of the earth; its branches covered over the surface of the
earth, and its top reached to the highest heaven. (See Mallet's Northern
Antiquities.)

[36:2] Encyclopædia Britannica, art. "Babel."

[36:3] _Esthonia_ is one of the three Baltic, or so-called, provinces of
Russia.

[36:4] Encyclopædia Britannica, art. "Babel."

[36:5] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 27.

[36:6] Brinton: Myths of the New World, p. 204.

[36:7] Humboldt: American Researches, vol. i. p. 96.

[36:8] Ibid.

[36:9] Ibid., and Brinton: Myths of the New World, p. 204.

[36:10] The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 272.

[37:1] Quoted by Bishop Colenso: The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p.
272.

[37:2] Humboldt: American Researches, vol. i. p. 97. Lord Kingsborough:
Mexican Antiquities.

[37:3] Com. on Old Test. vol. i. p. 196.



CHAPTER IV.

THE TRIAL OF ABRAHAM'S FAITH.


The story of the trial of Abraham's faith--when he is ordered by the
Lord to sacrifice his only son Isaac--is to be found in Genesis xxii.
1-19, and is as follows:

     "And it came to pass . . . that God did tempt Abraham, and
     said unto him: 'Abraham,' and he said: 'Behold, here I am.'
     And he (God) said: 'Take now thy son, thine only son, Isaac,
     whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah, and
     offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains
     which I will tell thee of.'

     "And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his
     ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his
     son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up
     and went into the place which God had told him. . . . (When
     Abraham was near the appointed place) he said unto his young
     men: 'Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the lad will go
     yonder and worship, and come again to thee. And Abraham took
     the wood for the burnt offering, and laid it upon (the
     shoulders of) Isaac his son, and he took the fire in his hand,
     and a knife, and they went both of them together. And Isaac
     spake unto Abraham his father, and said: 'Behold the fire and
     the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?' And
     Abraham said: 'My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a
     burnt offering.' So they went both of them together, and they
     came to the place which God had told him of. And Abraham built
     an altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac
     his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood. And Abraham
     stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son.
     And the angel of the Lord called unto him out of heaven, and
     said: 'Abraham! Abraham! lay not thine hand upon the lad,
     neither do thou anything unto him, for now I know that thou
     fearest God, seeing that thou hast not withheld thy son, thine
     only son from me.'

     "And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind
     him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns, and Abraham went
     and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in
     the stead of his son. . . . And the angel of the Lord called unto
     Abraham, out of heaven, the second time, and said: 'By myself
     have I _sworn_ saith the Lord, for because thou hast done this
     thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, . . . I
     will bless thee, and . . . I will multiply thy seed as the
     stars in the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea
     shore, and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies. And
     in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blest,
     because thou hast obeyed my voice.' So Abraham returned unto
     his young men, and they rose up and went together to
     Beer-sheba, and Abraham dwelt at Beer-sheba."

There is a Hindoo story related to the Sânkhâyana-sûtras, which, in
substance, is as follows: King Hariscandra had no son; he then prayed to
Varuna, promising, that if a son were born to him, he would sacrifice
the child to the god. Then a son was born to him, called Rohita. When
Rohita was grown up his father one day told him of the vow he had made
to Varuna, and bade him prepare to be sacrificed. The son objected to
being killed and ran away from his father's house. For six years he
wandered in the forest, and at last met a starving Brahman. Him he
persuaded to sell one of his sons named Sunahsepha, for a hundred cows.
This boy was bought by Rohita and taken to Hariscandra and about to be
sacrificed to Varuna as a substitute for Rohita, when, on praying to the
gods with verses from the Veda, he was released by them.[39:1]

There was an ancient _Phenician_ story, written by Sanchoniathon, who
wrote about 1300 years before our era, which is as follows:

     "Saturn, whom the Phœnicians call _Israel_, had by a nymph of
     the country a _male_ child whom he named Jeoud, that is, _one
     and only_. On the breaking out of a war, which brought the
     country into imminent danger, Saturn erected an altar, brought
     to it his son, clothed in royal garments, and sacrificed
     him."[39:2]

There is also a _Grecian_ fable to the effect that one Agamemnon had a
daughter whom he dearly loved, and she was deserving of his affection.
He was commanded by God, through the Delphic Oracle, _to offer her up as
a sacrifice_. Her father long resisted the demand, but finally
succumbed. Before the fatal blow had been struck, however, the goddess
Artemis or Ashtoreth interfered, and carried the maiden away, whilst in
her place was substituted a stag.[39:3]

Another similar _Grecian_ fable relates that:

     "When the Greek army was detained at Aulis, by contrary winds,
     the augurs being consulted, declared that one of the kings had
     offended Diana, and she demanded the sacrifice of his daughter
     Iphigenia. It was like taking the father's life-blood, but he
     was persuaded that it was his duty to submit for the good of
     his country. The maiden was brought forth for sacrifice, in
     spite of her tears and supplications; but just as the priest
     was about to strike the fatal blow, Iphigenia suddenly
     disappeared, and a goat of uncommon beauty stood in her
     place."[39:4]

There is yet still another, which belongs to the same country, and is
related thus:

     "In _Sparta_, it being declared upon one occasion that the
     gods demanded a human victim, the choice was made by lot, and
     fell on a damsel named Helena. But when all was in readiness,
     an eagle descended, carried away the priest's knife, and laid
     it on the head of a heifer, which was sacrificed in her
     stead."[40:1]

The story of Abraham and Isaac was written at a time when the Mosaic
party in Israel was endeavoring to abolish idolatry among their people.
They were offering up _human sacrifices_ to their gods Moloch, Baal, and
Chemosh, and the priestly author of this story was trying to make the
people think that the Lord had abolished such offerings, as far back as
the time of Abraham. The Grecian legends, which he had evidently heard,
may have given him the idea.[40:2]

Human offerings to the gods were at one time almost universal. In the
earliest ages the offerings were simple, and such as shepherds and
rustics could present. They loaded the altars of the gods with the first
fruits of their crops, and the choicest products of the earth.
Afterwards they sacrificed animals. When they had once laid it down as a
principle that the effusion of the blood of these animals appeased the
anger of the gods, and that their justice turned aside upon the victims
those strokes which were destined for men, their great care was for
nothing more than to conciliate their favor by so easy a method. It is
the nature of violent desires and excessive fear to know no bounds, and
therefore, when they would ask for any favor which they ardently wished
for, or would deprecate some public calamity which they feared, the
blood of animals was not deemed a price sufficient, but they began to
shed that of men. It is probable, as we have said, that this barbarous
practice was formerly almost universal, and that it is of very remote
antiquity. In time of war the captives were chosen for this purpose, but
in time of peace they took the slaves. The choice was partly regulated
by the opinion of the bystanders, and partly by lot. But they did not
always sacrifice such mean persons. In great calamities, in a pressing
famine, for example, if the people thought they had some pretext to
impute the cause of it to their _king_, they even sacrificed him without
hesitation, as the _highest price_ with which they could purchase the
Divine favor. In this manner, the first King of Vermaland (a province of
Sweden) was burnt in honor of Odin, the Supreme God, to put an end to a
great dearth; as we read in the history of Norway. The kings, in their
turn, did not spare the blood of their subjects; and many of them even
shed that of their children. Earl Hakon, of Norway, offered his son in
sacrifice, to obtain of Odin the victory over the Jomsburg pirates. Aun,
King of Sweden, devoted to Odin the blood of his nine sons, to prevail
on that god to prolong his life. Some of the kings of Israel offered up
their first-born sons as a sacrifice to the god Baal or Moloch.

The altar of Moloch reeked with blood. Children were sacrificed and
burned in the fire to him, while trumpets and flutes drowned their
screams, and the mothers looked on, and were bound to restrain their
tears.

The Phenicians offered to the gods, in times of war and drought, the
fairest of their children. The books of Sanchoniathon and Byblian Philo
are full of accounts of such sacrifices. In Byblos boys were immolated
to Adonis; and, on the founding of a city or colony, a sacrifice of a
vast number of children was solemnized, in the hopes of thereby averting
misfortune from the new settlement. The Phenicians, according to
Eusebius, yearly sacrificed their dearest, and even their only children,
to Saturn. The bones of the victims were preserved in the temple of
Moloch, in a golden ark, which was carried by the Phenicians with them
to war.[41:1] Like the Fijians of the present day, those people
considered their gods as beings like themselves. They loved and they
hated; they were proud and revengeful; they were, in fact, savages like
themselves.

If the eldest born of the family of Athamas entered the temple of the
Laphystian Jupiter, at Alos, in Achaia, he was sacrificed, crowned with
garlands, like an animal victim.[41:2]

The offering of human sacrifices to the Sun was extensively practiced in
Mexico and Peru, before the establishment of Christianity.[41:3]


FOOTNOTES:

[39:1] See Müller's Hist. Sanscrit Literature; and Williams' Indian
Wisdom, p. 29.

[39:2] Quoted by Count de Volney; New Researches in Anc't Hist., p. 144.

[39:3] See Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 104.

[39:4] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 302.

[40:1] Ibid.

[40:2] See chapter xi.

[41:1] Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 368.

[41:2] Kenrick's Egypt, vol. i. p. 448.

[41:3] See Acosta: Hist. Indies, vol. ii.



CHAPTER V.

JACOB'S VISION OF THE LADDER.


In the 28th chapter of Genesis, we are told that Isaac, after blessing
his son Jacob, sent him to Padan-aram, to take a daughter of Laban's
(his mother's brother) to wife. Jacob, obeying his father, "went out
from Beer-sheba (where he dwelt), and went towards Haran. And he lighted
upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was
set. And he took of the stones of the place, and put them for his
pillow, and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and behold,
a _ladder_ set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven. _And
he beheld the angels of God ascending and descending on it._ And,
behold, the Lord stood above it, and said: 'I am the Lord God of Abraham
thy father, and the God of Isaac, the land whereon thou liest, to thee
will I give it, and to thy seed.' . . . And Jacob awoke out of his
sleep, and he said: 'Surely the Lord is in this place, and I know it
not.' And he was afraid, and said: 'How _dreadful_ is this place, _this
is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of Heaven_.'
And Jacob rose up early in the morning, _and took the stone that he had
put for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the
top of it_. And he called the name of that place _Beth-el_."

The doctrine of Metempsychosis has evidently something to do with this
legend. It means, in the theological acceptation of the term, the
supposed transition of the soul after death, into another substance or
body than that which it occupied before. The belief in such a transition
was common to the most civilized, and the most uncivilized, nations of
the earth.[42:1]

It was believed in, and taught by, the _Brahminical Hindoos_,[42:2] the
_Buddhists_,[42:3] the natives of _Egypt_,[42:4] several philosophers of
ancient _Greece_,[43:1] the ancient _Druids_,[43:2] the natives of
_Madagascar_,[43:3] several tribes of _Africa_,[43:4] and _North
America_,[43:5] the ancient _Mexicans_,[43:4] and by some _Jewish_ and
_Christian_ sects.[43:5]

     "It deserves notice, that in both of these religions (_i. e._,
     _Jewish_ and _Christian_), it found adherents as well in
     ancient as in modern times. Among the _Jews_, the doctrine of
     transmigration--the Gilgul Neshamoth--was taught in the
     mystical system of the _Kabbala_."[43:6]

     "All the souls," the spiritual code of this system says, "are
     subject to the trials of transmigration; and men do not know
     which are the ways of the Most High in their regard." "The
     principle, in short, of the _Kabbala_, is the same as that of
     _Brahmanism_."

     "On the ground of this doctrine, which was shared in by Rabbis
     of the highest renown, it was held, for instance, that the
     soul of _Adam_ migrated into _David_, and will come in the
     _Messiah_; that the soul of _Japhet_ is the same as that of
     _Simeon_, and the soul of _Terah_, migrated into _Job_."

     "Of all these transmigrations, biblical instances are adduced
     according to their mode of interpretation--in the writings of
     Rabbi Manasse ben Israel, Rabbi Naphtali, Rabbi Meyer ben
     Gabbai, Rabbi Ruben, in the Jalkut Khadash, and other works of
     a similar character."[43:4]

The doctrine is thus described by Ovid, in the language of Dryden:

     "What feels the body when the soul expires,
     By time corrupted, or consumed by fires?
     Nor dies the spirit, but new life repeats
     Into other forms, and only changes seats.
     Ev'n I, who these mysterious truths declare,
     Was once Euphorbus in the Trojan war;
     My name and lineage I remember well,
     And how in fight by Spartan's King I fell.
     In Argive Juno's fame I late beheld
     My buckler hung on high, and own'd my former shield
     Then death, so called, is but old matter dressed
     In some new figure, and a varied vest.
     Thus all things are but alter'd, nothing dies,
     And here and there the unbodied spirit flies."

The Jews undoubtedly learned this doctrine after they had been subdued
by, and become acquainted with other nations; and the writer of this
story, whoever he may have been, was evidently endeavoring to strengthen
the belief in this doctrine--he being an advocate of it--by inventing
this story, _and making Jacob a witness to the truth of it_. Jacob would
have been looked upon at the time the story was written (_i. e._, after
the Babylonian captivity), as of great authority. We know that several
writers of portions of the Old Testament have written for similar
purposes. As an illustration, we may mention the book of _Esther_. This
book was written for the purpose of explaining the origin of the
festival of _Purim_, and _to encourage the Israelites to adopt it_. The
writer, _who was an advocate of the feast_, lived long after the
Babylonish captivity, and is quite unknown.[44:1]

The writer of the seventeenth chapter of Matthew has made Jesus a
teacher of the doctrine of Transmigration.

The Lord had promised that he would send Elijah (Elias) the prophet,
"before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord,"[44:2] and
Jesus is made to say that he had already come, or, _that his soul had
transmigrated unto the body of John the Baptist_, and they knew it
not.[44:3]

And in Mark (viii. 27) we are told that Jesus asked his disciples,
saying unto them; "Whom do men say that _I_ am?" whereupon they answer:
"Some say Elias; and others, one of the prophets;" or, in other words,
that the soul of Elias, or one of the prophets, had transmigrated into
the body of Jesus. In John (ix. 1, 2), we are told that Jesus and his
disciples seeing a man "_which was blind from his birth_," the disciples
asked him, saying; "Master, who did sin, _this man_ (in some former
state) or his parents." Being _born_ blind, how else could he sin,
_unless in some former state_? These passages result from the fact,
which we have already noticed, that some of the Jewish and Christian
sects believed in the doctrine of Metempsychosis.

According to some Jewish authors, _Adam_ was re-produced in _Noah_,
_Elijah_, and other Bible celebrities.[44:4]

The Rev. Mr. Faber says:

     "Adam, and Enoch, and Noah, might in outward appearance be
     _different_ men, but they were really the _self-same_ divine
     persons who had been promised as the seed of the woman,
     successively animating various human bodies."[44:5]

We have stated as our belief that the vision which the writer of the
twenty-eighth chapter of Genesis has made Jacob to witness, was intended
to strengthen the belief in the doctrine of the Metempsychosis, that he
was simply seeing the souls of men ascending and descending from heaven
_on a ladder_, during their transmigrations.

We will now give our reasons for thinking so.

The learned Thomas Maurice tells us that:

The _Indians_ had, in remote ages, in their system of theology, _the
sidereal ladder of seven gates_, which described, in a symbolical
manner, the _ascending and descending of the souls of men_.[45:1]

We are also informed by Origen that:

     This descent (_i. e._, the descent of souls from heaven to
     enter into some body), was described in a symbolical manner,
     _by a ladder which was represented as reaching from heaven to
     earth_, and divided into _seven_ stages, at each of which was
     figured a gate; the eighth gate was at the top of the ladder,
     which belonged to the sphere of the celestial firmament.[45:2]

That souls dwell in the _Galaxy_ was a thought familiar to the
_Pythagoreans_, who gave it on their master's word, that the souls that
crowd there, _descend and appear to men as dreams_.[45:3]

The fancy of the _Manicheans_ also transferred pure souls to this column
of light, _whence they could come down to earth and again return_.[45:4]

Paintings representing a scene of this kind may be seen in works of art
illustrative of _Indian Mythology_.

Maurice speaks of one, in which he says:

     "The souls of men are represented as ascending and descending
     (on a ladder), according to the received opinion of the
     sidereal Metempsychosis in Asia."[45:5]

Mons. Dupuis tells us that:

     "Among the mysterious pictures of the _Initiation_, in the
     cave of the Persian God Mithras, there was exposed to the view
     _the descent of the souls to the earth, and their return to
     heaven_, through the seven planetary spheres."[45:6]

And Count de Volney says:

     "In the cave of Mithra _was a ladder with seven steps_,
     representing the seven spheres of the planets by means of
     which _souls ascended and descended_. This is precisely the
     ladder of Jacob's vision. There is in the Royal Library (of
     France) a superb volume of pictures of the Indian gods, in
     which the ladder is represented with the souls of men
     ascending it."[45:7]

In several of the Egyptian sculptures also, the Transmigration of Souls
is represented by the ascending and descending of souls from heaven to
earth, _on a flight of steps_, and, as the souls of wicked men were
supposed to enter pigs and other animals, therefore pigs, monkeys, &c.,
are to be seen on the steps, descending from heaven.[45:8]

     "And he dreamed, _and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and
     the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God
     ascending and descending on it_."

These are the words of the sacred text. Can anything be more
convincing? It continues thus:

     "And Jacob awoke out of his sleep . . . and he was afraid, and
     said . . . this is none other but the house of God, _and this
     is the gate of heaven_."

Here we have "the gate of heaven," mentioned by Origen in describing the
_Metempsychosis_.

According to the ancients, the _top_ of this ladder was supposed to
reach _the throne_ of _the most high God_. This corresponds exactly with
the vision of Jacob. The ladder which he is made to see reached unto
heaven, _and the Lord stood above it._[46:1]

     "And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the _stone_
     that he had put for his pillow, _and set it up for a pillar,
     and poured oil upon the top of it_."[46:2]

This concluding portion to the story has evidently an allusion to
_Phallic_[46:3] worship. There is scarcely a nation of antiquity which
did not set up these stones (as emblems of the reproductive power of
nature) and worship them. Dr. Oort, speaking of this, says:

Few forms of worship were so universal in ancient times as the homage
paid to sacred stones. In the history of the religion of even the most
civilized peoples, such as the Greeks, Romans, Hindoos, Arabs and
Germans, we find traces of this form of worship.[46:4] The ancient
_Druids_ of Britain also worshiped sacred stones, which were _set up on
end_.[46:5]

Pausanias, an eminent Greek historian, says:

     "The _Hermiac_ statue, which they venerate in Cyllenê above
     other _symbols_, is an erect _Phallus_ on a pedestal."[46:6]

This was nothing more than a smooth, oblong _stone_, set erect on a flat
one.[46:7]

The learned Dr. Ginsburg, in his "Life of Levita," alludes to the
ancient mode of worship offered to the heathen deity Hermes, or Mercury.
A "Hermes" (_i. e._, a _stone_) was frequently set up on the road-side,
and each traveller, as he passed by, paid his homage to the deity by
either throwing a stone on the heap (which was thus collected), or by
_anointing_ it. This "Hermes" was the symbol of Phallus.[46:8]

Now, when we find that _this form of worship was very prevalent among
the Israelites_,[47:1] that these sacred stones which were "set up,"
were called (by the heathen), BÆTY-LI,[47:2] (which is not unlike
BETH-EL), and that _they were anointed with oil_,[47:3] I think we have
reasons for believing that the story of Jacob's _setting up_ a stone,
_pouring oil upon it_, and calling the place _Beth-el_, "has evidently
an allusion to Phallic worship."[47:4]

The male and female powers of nature were denoted respectively by an
upright and an oval emblem, and the conjunction of the two furnished at
once the altar and the _Ashera_, or grove, against which the Hebrew
prophets lifted up their voices in earnest protest. In the kingdoms,
both of Judah and Israel, the rites connected with these emblems assumed
their most corrupting form. Even in the temple itself, stood the
_Ashera_, or the upright emblem, on the circular altar of Baal-Peor, the
Priapos of the Jews, thus reproducing the _Linga_, and _Yoni_ of the
Hindu.[47:5] For this symbol, the women wove hangings, as the Athenian
maidens embroidered the sacred peplos for the ship presented to Athênê,
at the great Dionysiac festival. This _Ashera_, which, in the authorized
English version of the Old Testament is translated "_grove_," was, in
fact, a pole, or stem of a tree. It is reproduced in our modern
"Maypole," around which maidens dance, as maidens did of yore.[47:6]


FOOTNOTES:

[42:1] See Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Transmigration."

[42:2] Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Transmigration." Prichard's Mythology,
p. 213, and Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 59.

[42:3] Ibid. Ernest de Bunsen says: "The first traces of the doctrine of
Transmigration of souls is to be found among the Brahmins and
Buddhists." (The Angel Messiah, pp. 63, 64.)

[42:4] Prichard's Mythology, pp. 213, 214.

[43:1] Gross: The Heathen Religion. Also Chambers's Encyclo., art.
"Transmigration."

[43:2] Ibid. Mallet's Northern Antiquities, p. 13; and Myths of the
British Druids, p. 15.

[43:3] Chambers's Encyclo.

[43:4] Ibid.

[43:5] Ibid. See also Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, pp. 63, 64. Dupuis, p.
357. Josephus: Jewish Antiquities, book xviii. ch. 13. Dunlap: Son of
the Man, p. 94; and Beal: Hist. Buddha.

[43:6] Chambers, art. "Transmigration."

[44:1] See The Religion of Israel, p. 18.

[44:2] Malachi iv. 5.

[44:3] Matthew xvii. 12, 13.

[44:4] See Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 78.

[44:5] Faber: Orig. Pagan Idol, vol. iii. p. 612; in Anacalypsis, vol.
i. p. 210.

[45:1] Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 202.

[45:2] Contra Celsus, lib. vi. c. xxii.

[45:3] Tylor: Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 324.

[45:4] Ibid.

[45:5] Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 262.

[45:6] Dupuis: Origin of Religious Beliefs, p. 344.

[45:7] Volney's Ruins, p. 147, _note_.

[45:8] See Child's Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 160, 162.

[46:1] Genesis xxviii. 12, 13.

[46:2] Genesis xxviii. 18, 19.

[46:3] "Phallic," from "Phallus," a representation of the male
generative organs. For further information on this subject, see the
works of R. Payne Knight, and Dr. Thomas Inman.

[46:4] Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 175, 276. See, also, Knight:
Ancient Art and Mythology; and Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. i. and ii.

[46:5] See Myths of the British Druids, p. 300; and Higgins: Celtic
Druids.

[46:6] Quoted by R. Payne Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, p. 114,
_note_.

[46:7] See Illustrations in Dr. Inman's Pagan and Christian Symbolism.

[46:8] See Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. i. pp. 543, 544.

[47:1] Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 177, 178, 317, 321, 322.

[47:2] Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 356.

[47:3] Ibid.

[47:4] We read in Bell's "Pantheon of the Gods and Demi-Gods of
Antiquity," under the head of BAELYLION, BAELYLIA or BAETYLOS, that they
are "_Anointed Stones_, worshiped among the Greeks, Phrygians, and other
nations of the East;" that "these Baetylia were greatly venerated by the
ancient Heathen, many of their idols being no other;" and that, "in
reality no sort of idol was more common in the East, than that of oblong
stones _erected_, and hence termed by the Greeks _pillars_." The Rev.
Geo. W. Cox, in his Aryan Mythology (vol. ii. p. 113), says: "The
erection of these stone columns or pillars, the forms of which in most
cases tell their own story, are common throughout the East, some of the
most elaborate being found near Ghizni." And Mr. Wake (Phallism in
Ancient Religions, p. 60), says: "Kiyun, or Kivan, the name of the deity
said by Amos (v. 26), to have been worshiped in the wilderness by the
Hebrews, signifies GOD OF THE PILLAR."

[47:5] We find that there was nothing gross or immoral in the worship of
the male and female generative organs among the ancients, when the
subject is properly understood. Being the most intimately connected with
the reproduction of life on earth, the _Linga_ became the symbol under
which the _Sun_, invoked with a thousand names, has been worshiped
throughout the world _as the restorer of the powers of nature_ after the
long sleep or death of winter. But if the _Linga_ is the Sun-god in his
majesty, the _Yoni_ is the earth who yields her fruit under his
fertilizing warmth.

The _Phallic tree_ is introduced into the narrative of the book of
Genesis: but it is here called a tree, not of life, but of the knowledge
of good and evil, that knowledge which dawns in the mind with the first
consciousness of difference between man and woman. In contrast with this
tree of carnal indulgence, tending to death, is the tree of life,
denoting the higher existence for which man was designed, and which
would bring with it the happiness and the freedom of the children of
God. In the brazen serpent of the Pentateuch, the two emblems of the
_cross_ and _serpent_, the quiescent and energising Phallos, are united.
(See Cox: Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. pp. 113, 116, 118.)

[47:6] See Cox: Aryan Mytho., ii. 112, 113.



CHAPTER VI.

THE EXODUS FROM EGYPT, AND PASSAGE THROUGH THE RED SEA.


The children of Israel, who were in bondage in Egypt, making bricks, and
working in the field,[48:1] were looked upon with compassion by the
Lord.[48:2] He heard their groaning, and remembered his covenant with
Abraham,[48:3] with Isaac, and with Jacob. He, therefore, chose Moses
(an Israelite, who had murdered an Egyptian,[48:4] and who, therefore,
was obliged to flee from Egypt, as Pharaoh sought to punish him), as his
servant, to carry out his plans.

Moses was at this time keeping the flock of Jeruth, his father-in-law,
in the land of Midian. The angel of the Lord, or the Lord himself,
appeared to him there, and said unto him:

     "I am the God of thy Father, the God of Abraham, the God of
     Isaac, and the God of Jacob. . . . I have seen the affliction of
     _my people_ which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by
     reason of their tormentors; for I know their sorrows. And I am
     _come down_ to deliver them out of the hands of the Egyptians,
     and to bring them up out of that land into a good land and a
     large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey. I will send
     thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth my people, the
     children of Israel, out of Egypt."

Then Moses said unto the Lord:

     "Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall
     say unto them, the God of your fathers hath sent me unto you,
     and they shall say unto me: What is his name? What shall I say
     unto them?"

Then God said unto Moses:

     "I AM THAT I AM."[48:5] "Thus shalt thou say unto the children
     of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you."[48:6]

And God said, moreover, unto Moses:

     "Go and gather the Elders of Israel together, and say unto
     them: the Lord God of your fathers . . . appeared unto me,
     saying: 'I have surely visited you, and seen that which is
     done to you in Egypt. And I have said, I will bring you up out
     of the affliction of Egypt . . . unto a land flowing with milk
     and honey.' And they shall hearken to thy voice, and thou
     shall come, thou and the Elders of Israel, unto the king of
     Egypt, and ye shall say unto him: 'the Lord God of the Hebrews
     hath met with us, and now let us go, we beseech thee, _three
     days journey in the wilderness_, that we may sacrifice to the
     Lord our God.'[49:1]

     "_I am sure_ that the king of Egypt will _not_ let you go, no,
     not by a mighty hand. And I will stretch out my hand, and
     smite Egypt with all my wonders, which I will do in the midst
     thereof: _and after that he will let you go_. And I will give
     this people (the Hebrews) favor in the sight of the Egyptians,
     and it shall come to pass, that when ye go, _ye shall not go
     empty_. But every woman shall _borrow_ of her neighbor, and of
     her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver and jewels
     of gold, and raiment. And ye shall put them upon your sons and
     upon your daughters, _and ye shall spoil the
     Egyptians_."[49:2]

The Lord again appeared unto Moses, in Midian, and said:

     "Go, return into Egypt, for all the men are dead which sought
     thy life. And Moses took his wife, and his son, and set them
     upon an ass, and he returned to the land of Egypt. And Moses
     took the _rod of God_ (which the Lord had given him) in his
     hand."[49:3]

Upon arriving in Egypt, Moses tells his brother Aaron, "all the words of
the Lord," and Aaron tells all the children of Israel. Moses, who was
not eloquent, but had a slow speech,[49:4] uses Aaron as his
spokesman.[49:5] They then appear unto Pharaoh, and falsify, "_according
to the commands of the Lord_," saying: "Let us go, we pray thee, _three
days' journey in the desert_, and sacrifice unto the Lord our
God."[49:6]

The Lord hardens Pharaoh's heart, so that he does not let the children
of Israel go to sacrifice unto their God, in the desert.

Moses and Aaron continue interceding with him, however, and, for the
purpose of showing their miraculous powers, they change their rods into
serpents, the river into blood, cause a plague of frogs and lice, and a
swarm of flies, &c., &c., to appear. Most of these feats were imitated
by the magicians of Egypt. Finally, the first-born of Egypt are slain,
when Pharaoh, after having had his heart hardened, by the Lord, over and
over again, consents to let Moses and the children of Israel go to serve
their God, _as they had said_, that is, for _three_ days.

The Lord having given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians,
they borrowed of them jewels of silver, jewels of gold, and raiment,
"_according to the commands of the Lord_." And they journeyed toward
Succoth, there being _six hundred thousand, besides children_.[50:1]

     "And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in
     Etham, in the edge of the wilderness. And the Lord went before
     them by day, _in a pillar of a cloud_, to lead them the way;
     and by night _in a pillar of fire_, to give them light to go
     by day and night."[50:2]

     "And it was told the king of Egypt, that the people fled. . . .
     And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him.
     And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots
     of Egypt, . . . and he pursued after the children of Israel,
     and overtook them encamping beside the sea. . . . And when
     Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel . . . were sore
     afraid, and . . . (they) cried out unto the Lord. . . . And
     the Lord said unto Moses, . . . speak unto the children of
     Israel, that they go forward. But lift thou up thy rod, and
     stretch out thine hand over the Red Sea, and divide it, and
     the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the
     midst of the sea. . . . And Moses stretched out his hand over
     the sea,[50:3] and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a
     strong east wind that night, and made the sea dry land, and
     the waters were divided. And the children of Israel went into
     the midst of the sea upon the dry ground; _and the waters were
     a wall unto them upon the right hand, and on their left_. And
     the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of
     the sea, _even all Pharaoh's horses, and his chariots, and his
     horse-men_."

After the children of Israel had landed on the other side of the sea,
the Lord said unto Moses:

     "Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come
     again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their
     horse-men. And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea,
     and the sea returned to his strength. . . . And the Lord
     overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea. And the
     waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horse-men,
     and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after
     them; there remained not so much as one of them. But the
     children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the
     sea, and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand,
     and on their left. . . . And Israel saw the great work which
     the Lord did upon the Egyptians, and the people feared the
     Lord, and believed the Lord and his servant Moses."[51:1]

The writer of this story, whoever he may have been, was evidently
familiar with the legends related of the Sun-god, _Bacchus_, as he has
given Moses the credit of performing some of the miracles which were
attributed to that god.

It is related in the hymns of Orpheus,[51:2] that Bacchus had a _rod_
with which he performed miracles, and which he could change into a
_serpent_ at pleasure. _He passed the Red Sea, dry shod, at the head of
his army._ He divided the waters of the rivers Orontes and Hydaspus, by
the touch of his rod, and passed through them dry-shod.[51:3] _By the
same mighty wand, he drew water from the rock_,[51:4] and wherever they
marched, the land flowed with wine, milk and honey.[51:5]

Professor Steinthal, speaking of Dionysus (Bacchus), says:

Like Moses, he strikes fountains of wine and water out of the rock.
Almost all the acts of Moses correspond to those of the Sun-gods.[51:6]

Mons. Dupuis says:

     "Among the different miracles of Bacchus and his Bacchantes,
     there are prodigies very similar to those which are attributed
     to Moses; for instance, such as the sources of water which the
     _former_ caused to sprout from the innermost of the
     rocks."[51:7]

In Bell's Pantheon of the Gods and Heroes of Antiquity,[51:8] an account
of the prodigies attributed to Bacchus is given; among these, are
mentioned his striking water from the rock, with his magic wand, his
turning a twig of ivy into a snake, his passing through the Red Sea and
the rivers Orontes and Hydaspus, and of his enjoying the light of the
Sun (while marching with his army in India), when the day was spent, and
it was dark to others. All these are parallels too striking to be
accidental.

We might also mention the fact, that Bacchus, as well as Moses was
called the "_Law-giver_," and that it was said of Bacchus, as well as of
Moses, that his laws were written on _two tables of stone_.[52:1]
Bacchus was represented _horned_, and so was Moses.[52:2] Bacchus "was
picked up in a box, that floated on the water,"[52:3] and so was
Moses.[52:4] Bacchus had two mothers, one by nature, and one by
adoption,[52:5] and so had Moses.[52:6] And, as we have already seen,
Bacchus and his army enjoyed the light of the Sun, during the night
time, and Moses and his army enjoyed the light of "a pillar of fire, by
night."[52:7]

In regard to the children of Israel going out from the land of Egypt, we
have no doubt that such an occurrence took place, although not in the
manner, and not for such reasons, as is recorded by the _sacred
historian_. We find, from other sources, what is evidently nearer the
truth.

It is related by the historian Choeremon, that, at one time, the land of
Egypt was infested with disease, and through the advice of the sacred
scribe Phritiphantes, the king caused the infected people (who were none
other than the brick-making slaves, known as the children of Israel), to
be collected, _and driven out of the country_.[52:8]

_Lysimachus_ relates that:

     "A filthy disease broke out in Egypt, and the Oracle of Ammon,
     being consulted on the occasion, commanded the king to purify
     the land _by driving out the Jews_ (who were infected with
     leprosy, &c.), a race of men who were hateful to the
     Gods."[52:9] "_The whole multitude of the people were
     accordingly collected and driven out into the
     wilderness._"[52:10]

_Diodorus Siculus_, referring to this event, says:

     "In ancient times Egypt was afflicted with a great plague,
     which was attributed to the anger of God, on account of the
     multitude of foreigners in Egypt: by whom the rites of the
     native religion were neglected. _The Egyptians accordingly
     drove them out._ The most noble of them went under Cadmus and
     Danaus to Greece, but the greater number followed _Moses_, a
     wise and valiant leader, to Palestine."[52:11]

After giving the different opinions concerning the origin of the Jewish
nation, Tacitus, the Roman historian, says:

     "In this clash of opinions, _one point seems to be universally
     admitted_. A pestilential disease, disfiguring the race of
     man, and making the body an object of loathsome deformity,
     spread all over Egypt. Bocchoris, at that time the reigning
     monarch, consulted the oracle of Jupiter Hammon, and received
     for answer, that the kingdom must be purified, by
     exterminating the infected multitude, as a race of men
     detested by the gods. After diligent search, the wretched
     sufferers were collected together, and in a wild and barren
     desert abandoned to their misery. In that distress, while the
     vulgar herd was sunk in deep despair, Moses, one of their
     number, reminded them, that, by the wisdom of his councils,
     they had been already rescued out of impending danger.
     Deserted as they were by men and gods, he told them, that if
     they did not repose their confidence in him, as their chief by
     divine commission, they had no resource left. His offer was
     accepted. Their march began, they knew not whither. Want of
     water was their chief distress. Worn out with fatigue, they
     lay stretched on the bare earth, heart broken, ready to
     expire, when a troop of wild asses, returning from pasture,
     went up the steep ascent of a rock covered with a grove of
     trees. The verdure of the herbage round the place suggested
     the idea of springs near at hand. Moses traced the steps of
     the animals, and discovered a plentiful vein of water. By this
     relief the fainting multitude was raised from despair. They
     pursued their journey for six days without intermission. On
     the seventh day they made halt, and, having expelled the
     natives, took possession of the country, where they built
     their city, and dedicated their temple."[53:1]

Other accounts, similar to these, might be added, among which may be
mentioned that given by Manetho, an Egyptian priest, which is referred
to by Josephus, the Jewish historian.

Although the accounts quoted above are not exactly alike, _yet the main
points are the same_, which are to the effect that Egypt was infected
with disease owing to the foreigners (among whom were those who were
afterwards styled "the children of Israel") that were in the country,
and who were an unclean people, and that they were accordingly driven
out into the wilderness.

When we compare this statement with that recorded in Genesis, it does
not take long to decide which of the two is nearest the truth.

Everything putrid, or that had a tendency to putridity, was carefully
avoided by the ancient Egyptians, and so strict were the Egyptian
priests on this point, that they wore no garments made of any animal
substance, circumcised themselves, and shaved their whole bodies, even
to their eyebrows, lest they should unknowingly harbor any filth,
excrement or vermin, supposed to be bred from putrefaction.[53:2] We
know from the laws set down in _Leviticus_, that the Hebrews were not a
remarkably clean race.

Jewish priests, _in making a history for their race_, have given us but
a shadow of truth here and there; it is almost wholly mythical. The
author of "The Religion of Israel," speaking on this subject, says:

     "The history of the religion of Israel _must start from the
     sojourn_ of _the Israelites in Egypt_. Formerly it was usual
     to take a much earlier starting-point, and to begin with a
     religious discussion of the religious ideas of the
     _Patriarchs_. And this was perfectly right, so long as the
     accounts of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were considered
     _historical_. _But now that a strict investigation has shown
     us that all these stories are entirely unhistorical_, of
     course we have to begin the history later on."[54:1]

The author of "The Spirit History of Man," says:

     "The Hebrews came out of Egypt and settled among the
     Canaanites. _They need not be traced beyond the Exodus. That
     is their historical beginning._ It was very easy to cover up
     this remote event by the recital of mythical traditions, and
     to prefix to it an account of their origin in which the gods
     (Patriarchs), should figure as their ancestors."[54:2]

Professor Goldzhier says:

     "The residence of the Hebrews in Egypt, and their exodus
     thence under the guidance and training of an enthusiast for
     the freedom of his tribe, form a series of strictly historical
     facts, which find confirmation even in the documents of
     ancient Egypt (which we have just shown). But the traditional
     narratives of these events (were) _elaborated by the Hebrew
     people_."[54:3]

Count de Volney also observes that:

     "What Exodus says of their (the Israelites) servitude under
     the king of Heliopolis, and of the oppression of their hosts,
     the Egyptians, is extremely probable. _It is here their
     history begins. All that precedes . . . is nothing but
     mythology and cosmogony._"[54:4]

In speaking of the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt, Dr. Knappert
says:

     "According to the tradition preserved in Genesis, it was the
     promotion of Jacob's son, Joseph, to be viceroy of Egypt, that
     brought about the migration of the sons of Israel from Canaan
     to Goshen. The story goes that this Joseph was sold as a slave
     by his brothers, and after many changes of fortune received
     the vice-regal office at Pharaoh's hands through his skill in
     interpreting dreams. Famine drives his brothers--and
     afterwards his father--to him, and the Egyptian prince gives
     them the land of Goshen to live in. _It is by imagining all
     this that the legend tries to account for the fact that
     Israel passed some time in Egypt._ But we must look for the
     real explanation in a migration of certain tribes which could
     not establish or maintain themselves in Canaan, and were
     forced to move further on.

     "We find a passage in Flavius Josephus, from which it appears
     that in Egypt, too, a recollection survived of the sojourn of
     some foreign tribes in the north-eastern district of the
     country. For this writer gives us two fragments out of a lost
     work by Manetho, a priest, who lived about 250 B. C. In one of
     these we have a statement that pretty nearly agrees with the
     Israelitish tradition about a sojourn in Goshen. _But the
     Israelites were looked down on by the Egyptians as foreigners,
     and they are represented as lepers and unclean._ Moses himself
     is mentioned by name, and we are told that he was a priest and
     joined himself to these _lepers_ and gave them laws."[55:1]

To return now to the story of the Red Sea being divided to let Moses and
his followers pass through--of which we have already seen one
counterpart in the legend related of Bacchus and his army passing
through the same sea dry-shod--there is another similar story concerning
Alexander the Great.

The histories of Alexander relate that the Pamphylian Sea was divided to
let him and his army pass through. Josephus, after speaking of the Red
Sea being divided for the passage of the Israelites, says:

     "For the sake of those who accompanied Alexander, king of
     Macedonia, who yet lived comparatively but a little while ago,
     the Pamphylian Sea retired and offered them a passage through
     itself, when they had no other way to go . . . _and this is
     confessed to be true by all who have written about the actions
     of Alexander_."[55:2]

He seems to consider both legends of the same authority, quoting the
latter to substantiate the former.

"Callisthenes, who himself accompanied Alexander in the expedition,"
"wrote, how the Pamphylian Sea did not only open a passage for
Alexander, but, rising and elevating its waters, did pay him homage as
its king."[55:3]

It is related in Egyptian mythology that Isis was at one time on a
journey with the eldest child of the king of Byblos, when coming to the
river Phœdrus, which was in a "rough air," and wishing to cross, she
commanded the stream to be _dried up_. This being done she crossed
without trouble.[56:1]

There is a _Hindoo_ fable to the effect that when the infant Crishna was
being sought by the reigning tyrant of Madura (King Kansa)[56:2] his
foster-father took him and departed out of the country. Coming to the
river Yumna, and wishing to cross, it was divided for them by the Lord,
and they passed through.

The story is related by Thomas Maurice, in his "History of Hindostan,"
who has taken it from the _Bhagavat Pooraun_. It is as follows:

     "Yasodha took the child Crishna, and carried him off (from
     where he was born), but, coming to the river Yumna, directly
     opposite to Gokul, Crishna's father perceiving the current to
     be very strong, it being in the midst of the rainy season, and
     not knowing which way to pass it, Crishna commanded the water
     to give way on both sides to his father, _who accordingly
     passed dry-footed, across the river_."[56:3]

This incident is illustrated in Plate 58 of Moore's "Hindu Pantheon."

There is another Hindoo legend, recorded in the _Rig Veda_, and quoted
by Viscount Amberly, from whose work we take it,[56:4] to the effect
that an Indian sage called Visvimati, having arrived at a river which he
wished to cross, that holy man said to it: "Listen to the Bard who has
come to you from afar with wagon and chariot. Sink down, become
fordable, and reach not up to our chariot axles." The river answers: "I
will bow down to thee like a woman with full breast (suckling her
child), as a maid to a man, will I throw myself open to thee."

This is accordingly done, and the sage passes through.

We have also an Indian legend which relates that a courtesan named
Bindumati, _turned back the streams of the river Ganges_.[56:5]

We see then, that the idea of seas and rivers being divided for the
purpose of letting some chosen one of God pass through is an old one
peculiar to other peoples beside the Hebrews, and the probability is
that many nations had legends of this kind.

That Pharaoh and his host should have been drowned in the Red Sea, and
the fact not mentioned by any historian, is simply impossible,
especially when they have, as we have seen, noticed the fact of the
Israelites being driven out of Egypt.[56:6] Dr. Inman, speaking of this,
says:

     "We seek in vain amongst the Egyptian hieroglyphs for scenes
     which recall such cruelties as those we read of in the Hebrew
     records; and in the writings which have hitherto been
     translated, we find nothing resembling the wholesale
     destructions described and applauded by the Jewish historians,
     as perpetrated by their own people."[57:1]

That Pharaoh should have pursued a tribe of diseased slaves, _whom he
had driven out of his country_, is altogether improbable. In the words
of Dr. Knappert, we may conclude, by saying that:

     "_This story, which was not written until more than five
     hundred years after the exodus itself, can lay no claim to be
     considered historical_."[57:2]


FOOTNOTES:

[48:1] Exodus i. 14.

[48:2] Exodus ii. 24, 25.

[48:3] See chapter x.

[48:4] Exodus ii. 12.

[48:5] The Egyptian name for God was "_Nuk-Pa-Nuk_," or "I AM THAT I
AM." (Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 395.) This name was found on a temple
in Egypt. (Higgins' Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 17.) "'I AM' was a Divine
name understood by all the initiated among the Egyptians." "The 'I AM'
of the Hebrews, and the 'I AM' of the Egyptians are identical." (Bunsen:
Keys of St. Peter, p. 38.) The name "_Jehovah_," which was adopted by
the Hebrews, was a name esteemed sacred among the Egyptians. They called
it Y-HA-HO, or Y-AH-WEH. (See the Religion of Israel, pp. 42, 43; and
Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 329, and vol. ii. p. 17.) "None dare to enter
the temple of Serapis, who did not bear on his breast or forehead the
name of JAO, or J-HA-HO, a name almost equivalent in sound to that of
the Hebrew _Jehovah_, and probably of identical import; and no name was
uttered in Egypt with more reverence than this IAO." (Trans. from the
Ger. of Schiller, in Monthly Repos., vol. xx.; and Voltaire: _Commentary
on Exodus_; Higgins' Anac., vol. i. p. 329; vol. ii. p. 17.) "That this
divine name was well-known to the _Heathen_ there can be no doubt."
(Parkhurst: Hebrew Lex. in Anac., i. 327.) So also with the name _El
Shaddai_. "The extremely common Egyptian expression _Nutar Nutra_
exactly corresponds in sense to the Hebrew _El Shaddai_, the very title
by which God tells Moses he was known to Abraham and Isaac and Jacob."
(Prof. Renouf: Relig. of Anc't Egypt, p. 99.)

[48:6] Exodus iii. 1, 14.

[49:1] Exodus iii. 15-18.

[49:2] Exodus iii. 19-22. Here is a command from the Lord to _deceive_,
and _lie_, and _steal_, which, according to the narrative, was carried
out to the letter (Ex. xii. 35, 36); and yet we are told that this _same
Lord_ said: "_Thou shalt not steal._" (Ex. xx. 15.) Again he says:
"_That shalt not defraud thy neighbor, neither rob him._" (Leviticus
xix. 18.) Surely this is inconsistency.

[49:3] Exodus iv. 19, 20.

[49:4] Exodus iv. 10.

[49:5] Exodus iv. 16.

[49:6] Exodus v. 3.

[50:1] Exodus vii. 35-37. Bishop Colenso shows, in his Pentateuch
Examined, how ridiculous this statement is.

[50:2] Exodus xiii. 20, 21.

[50:3] "The sea over which Moses stretches out his hand with the staff,
and which he divides, so that the waters stand up on either side like
walls while he passes through, must surely have been originally the Sea
of Clouds. . . . A German story presents a perfectly similar feature.
The conception of the cloud as sea, rock and wall, recurs very
frequently in mythology." (Prof. Steinthal: The Legend of Samson, p.
429.)

[51:1] Exodus xiv. 5-13.

[51:2] Orpheus is said to have been the earliest poet of Greece, where
he first introduced the rites of Bacchus, which he brought from Egypt.
(See Roman Antiquities, p. 134.)

[51:3] The Hebrew fable writers not wishing to be outdone, have made the
waters of the river Jordan to be divided to let Elijah and Elisha pass
through (2 Kings ii. 8), and also the children of Israel. (Joshua iii.
15-17.)

[51:4] Moses, with his rod, drew water from the rock. (Exodus xvii. 6.)

[51:5] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 191, and Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii.
p. 19.

[51:6] The Legend of Samson, p. 429.

[51:7] Dupuis: Origin of Religious Beliefs, p. 135.

[51:8] Vol. i. p. 122.

[52:1] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 122; and Higgins: Anacalypsis vol.
ii. p. 19.

[52:2] Ibid. and Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 174.

[52:3] Taylor's Diegesis, p. 190; Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. under
"Bacchus;" and Higgins: Anacalypsis ii. 19.

[52:4] Exodus ii. 1-11.

[52:5] Taylor's Diegesis, p. 191; Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. under
"Bacchus;" and Higgins: p. 19, vol. ii.

[52:6] Exodus ii. 1-11.

[52:7] Exodus xiii. 20, 21.

[52:8] See Prichard's Historical Records, p. 74; also Dunlap's Spirit
Hist., p. 40; and Cory's Ancient Fragments, pp. 80, 81, for similar
accounts.

[52:9] "All persons afflicted with leprosy were considered displeasing
in the sight of the Sun-god, by the Egyptians." (Dunlap: Spirit. Hist.
p. 40.)

[52:10] Prichard's Historical Records, p. 75.

[52:11] Ibid. p. 78.

[53:1] Tacitus: Hist. book v. ch. iii.

[53:2] Knight: Anc't Art and Mythology, p. 89, and Kenrick's Egypt, vol.
i. p. 447. "The cleanliness of the Egyptian priests was extreme. They
shaved their heads, and every three days shaved their whole bodies. They
bathed two or three times a day, often in the night also. They wore
garments of white linen, deeming it more cleanly than cloth made from
the hair of animals. If they had occasion to wear a woolen cloth or
mantle, they put it off before entering a temple; so scrupulous were
they that nothing impure should come into the presence of the gods."
(Prog. Relig. Ideas, i. 168.)

"Thinking it better to be clean than handsome, the (Egyptian) priests
shave their whole body every third day, that neither lice nor any other
impurity may be found upon them when engaged in the service of the
gods." (Herodotus: book ii. ch. 37.)

[54:1] The Religion of Israel, p. 27.

[54:2] Dunlap: Spirit Hist. of Man, p. 266.

[54:3] Hebrew Mythology, p. 23.

[54:4] Researches in Ancient History, p. 146.

[55:1] The Religion of Israel, pp. 31, 32.

[55:2] Jewish Antiq. bk. ii. ch. xvi.

[55:3] Ibid. _note_.

"It was said that the waters of the Pamphylian Sea miraculously opened a
passage for the army of Alexander the Great. Admiral Beaufort, however,
tells us that, 'though there are no tides in this part of the
Mediterranean, considerable depression of the sea is caused by
long-continued north winds; and Alexander, taking advantage of such a
moment, may have dashed on without impediment;' and we accept the
explanation as a matter of course. But the waters of the Red Sea are
said to have miraculously opened a passage for the children of Israel;
and we insist on the literal truth of _this_ story, and reject natural
explanations as monstrous." (Matthew Arnold.)

[56:1] See Prichard's Egyptian Mytho. p. 60.

[56:2] See ch. xviii.

[56:3] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 312.

[56:4] Analysis Relig. Belief, p. 552.

[56:5] See Hardy: Buddhist Legends, p. 140.

[56:6] In a cave discovered at Deir-el-Bahari (Aug., 1881), near Thebes,
in Egypt, was found _thirty-nine_ mummies of royal and priestly
personages. Among these was King Ramses II., the third king of the
Nineteenth Dynasty, and the veritable Pharaoh of the Jewish captivity.
It is very strange that he should be _here_, among a number of other
kings, if he had been lost in the Red Sea. The mummy is wrapped in
rose-colored and yellow linen of a texture finer than the finest Indian
muslin, upon which lotus flowers are strewn. It is in a perfect state of
preservation. (See a Cairo [Aug. 8th] letter to the _London Times_.)

[57:1] Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 58.

[57:2] The Religion of Israel, p. 41.



CHAPTER VII.

RECEIVING THE TEN COMMANDMENTS.


The receiving of the _Ten Commandments_ by Moses, from the Lord, is
recorded in the following manner:

     "In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone
     forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into
     the wilderness of Sinai, . . . and there Israel camped before
     the Mount. . . .

     "And it came to pass on the third day that there were thunders
     and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the Mount, and the
     voice of the tempest exceedingly loud, so that all the people
     that was in the camp trembled. . . .

     "And Mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because the Lord
     descended upon it in fire, and the smoke thereof ascended as
     the smoke of a furnace, and the whole Mount quaked greatly.
     And when the voice of the tempest sounded long, and waxed
     louder and louder, Moses spake, and God answered him by a
     voice.

     "_And the Lord came down upon the Mount_, and called Moses up
     to the top of the Mount, and Moses went up."[58:1]

The Lord there communed with him, and "he gave unto Moses . . . . two
tables of testimony, tables of stone, _written with the finger of
God_."[58:2]

When Moses came down from off the Mount, he found the children of Israel
dancing around a golden calf, which his brother Aaron had made, and, as
his "anger waxed hot," he cast the tables of stone on the ground, and
broke them.[58:3] Moses again saw the Lord on the Mount, however, and
received two more tables of stone.[58:4] When he came down this time
from off Mount Sinai, "the skin of his face did shine."[58:5]

These two tables of stone contained the _Ten Commandments_,[59:1] so it
is said, which the Jews and Christians of the present day are supposed
to take for their standard.

They are, in substance, as follows:

      1--To have no other God but Jehovah.
      2--To make no image for purpose of worship.
      3--Not to take Jehovah's name in vain.
      4--Not to work on the Sabbath-day.
      5--To honor their parents.
      6--Not to kill.
      7--Not to commit adultery.
      8--Not to steal.
      9--Not to bear false witness against a neighbor.
     10--Not to covet.[59:2]

We have already seen, in the last chapter, that Bacchus was called the
"_Law-giver_," and that his laws were written on _two tables of
stone_.[59:3] This feature in the Hebrew legend was evidently copied
from that related of Bacchus, but, the idea of his (Moses) receiving the
commandments from the Lord on a _mountain_ was obviously taken from the
_Persian_ legend related of Zoroaster.

Prof. Max Müller says:

     "What applies to the religion of Moses applies to that of
     Zoroaster. It is placed before us as a complete system from
     the first, _revealed by Ahuramazda_ (Ormuzd), _proclaimed by
     Zoroaster_."[59:4]

The disciples of Zoroaster, in their profusion of legends of the master,
relate that one day, as he prayed _on a high mountain_, in the midst of
thunders and lightnings ("fire from heaven"), the Lord himself appeared
before him, and delivered unto him the "Book of the Law." While the King
of Persia and the people were assembled together, Zoroaster came down
from the mountain unharmed, bringing with him the "Book of the Law,"
which had been revealed to him by Ormuzd. They call this book the
_Zend-Avesta_, which signifies the _Living Word_.[59:5]

According to the religion of the Cretans, Minos, their law-giver,
ascended a _mountain_ (Mount Dicta) and there received from the Supreme
Lord (Zeus) the sacred laws which he brought down with him.[60:1]

Almost all nations of antiquity have legends of their holy men ascending
a _mountain_ to ask counsel of the gods, such places being invested with
peculiar sanctity, and deemed nearer to the deities than other portions
of the earth.[60:2]

According to Egyptian belief, it is Thoth, the Deity itself, that speaks
and reveals to his elect among men the will of God and the arcana of
divine things. Portions of them are expressly stated to have been
written by the very finger of Thoth himself; to have been the work and
composition of the great god.[60:3]

Diodorus, the Grecian historian, says:

The idea promulgated by the ancient Egyptians that their _laws_ were
received direct from the Most High God, _has been adopted with success
by many other law-givers, who have thus insured respect for their
institutions_.[60:4]

The Supreme God of the ancient Mexicans was _Tezcatlipoca_. He occupied
a position corresponding to the Jehovah of the Jews, the Brahma of
India, the Zeus of the Greeks, and the Odin of the Scandinavians. His
name is compounded of Tezcatepec, the name of a _mountain_ (_upon which
he is said to have manifested himself to man_) _tlil_, dark, and _poca_,
smoke. The explanation of this designation is given in the _Codex
Vaticanus_, as follows:

Tezcatlipoca was one of their most potent deities; they say he once
appeared on the top of a mountain. They paid him great reverence and
adoration, and addressed him, in their prayers, as "Lord, whose servant
we are." No man ever saw his face, for he appeared only "as a shade."
Indeed, the Mexican idea of the godhead was similar to that of the Jews.
Like Jehovah, Tezcatlipoca dwelt in the "midst of thick darkness." _When
he descended upon the mount of Tezcatepec, darkness overshadowed the
earth, while fire and water, in mingled streams, flowed from beneath his
feet, from its summit._[61:1]

Thus, we see that other nations, beside the Hebrews, believed that their
laws were actually received from God, that they had legends to that
effect, and that a _mountain_ figures conspicuously in the stories.

Professor Oort, speaking on this subject, says:

     "No one who has any knowledge of antiquity will be surprised
     at this, for similar beliefs were very common. All peoples who
     had issued from a life of barbarism and acquired regular
     political institutions, more or less elaborate laws, and
     established worship, and maxims of morality, attributed all
     this--their birth as a nation, so to speak--to one or more
     great men, all of whom, without exception, _were supposed to
     have received their knowledge from some deity_.

     "Whence did Zoroaster, the prophet of the Persians, derive his
     religion? According to the beliefs of his followers, and the
     doctrines of their sacred writings, it was from Ahuramazda,
     the God of light. Why did the Egyptians represent the god
     Thoth with a writing tablet and a pencil in his hand, and
     honor him especially as the god of the priests? Because he was
     'the Lord of the divine Word,' the foundation of all wisdom,
     from whose inspiration the priests, who were the scholars, the
     lawyers, and the religious teachers of the people, derived all
     their wisdom. Was not Minos, the law-giver of the Cretans, the
     friend of Zeus, the highest of the gods? Nay, was he not even
     his son, and did he not ascend to the sacred cave on Mount
     Dicte to bring down the laws which his god had placed there
     for him? From whom did the Spartan law-giver, Lycurgus,
     himself say that he had obtained his laws? From no other than
     the god Apollo. The Roman legend, too, in honoring Numa
     Pompilius as the people's instructor, at the same time
     ascribed all his wisdom to his intercourse with the nymph
     Egeria. It was the same elsewhere; and to make one more
     example,--this from later times--Mohammed not only believed
     himself to have been called immediately by God to be the
     prophet of the Arabs, but declared that he had received every
     page of the Koran from the hand of the angel Gabriel."[61:2]


FOOTNOTES:

[58:1] Exodus xix.

[58:2] Exodus xxxi. 18.

[58:3] Exodus xxii. 19.

[58:4] Exodus xxxiv.

[58:5] Ibid.

It was a common belief among ancient Pagan nations that the gods
appeared and conversed with men. As an illustration we may cite the
following, related by _Herodotus_, the Grecian historian, who, in
speaking of Egypt and the Egyptians, says: "There is a large city called
Chemmis, situated in the Thebaic district, near Neapolis, in which is a
quadrangular temple dedicated to (the god) Perseus, son of (the Virgin)
Danae; palm-trees grow round it, and the portico is of stone, very
spacious, and over it are placed two large stone statues. In this
inclosure is a temple, and in it is placed a statue of Perseus. The
Chemmitæ (or inhabitants of Chemmis), _affirm that Perseus has
frequently appeared to them on earth, and frequently within the
temple_." (Herodotus, bk. ii. ch. 91.)

[59:1] _Buddha_, the founder of Buddhism, had TEN commandments. 1. Not
to kill. 2. Not to steal. 3. To be chaste. 4 Not to bear false witness.
5. Not to lie. 6. Not to swear. 7. To avoid impure words. 8. To be
disinterested. 9. Not to avenge one's-self. 10. Not to be superstitious.
(See Huc's Travels, p. 328, vol. i.)

[59:2] Exodus xx. Dr. Oort says: "The original ten commandments probably
ran as follows: I Yahwah am your God. Worship no other gods beside me.
Make no image of a god. Commit no perjury. Remember to keep holy the
Sabbath day. Honor your father and your mother. Commit no murder. Break
not the marriage vow. Steal not. Bear no false witness. Covet not."
(Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 18.)

[59:3] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 122. Higgins, vol. ii. p. 19. Cox:
Aryan Mytho. vol. ii. p. 295.

[59:4] Müller: Origin of Religion, p. 130.

[59:5] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 257, 258. This book, the
_Zend-Avesta_, is similar, in many respects, to the _Vedas_ of the
_Hindoos_. This has led many to believe that Zoroaster was a Brahman;
among these are Rawlinson (See Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 831)
and Thomas Maurice. (See Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 219.)

The Persians themselves had a tradition that he came from some country
to the East of them. That he was a foreigner is indicated by a passage
in the _Zend-Avesta_ which represents Ormuzd as saying to him: "Thou, O
Zoroaster, by the promulgation of my law, shalt restore to me my former
glory, which was pure light. Up! haste thee to the land of _Iran_, which
thirsteth after the law, and say, thus said Ormuzd, &c." (See Prog.
Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 263.)

[60:1] The Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 301.

[60:2] "The deities of the Hindoo Pantheon dwell on the sacred Mount
Meru; the gods of Persia ruled from Albordj; the Greek Jove thundered
from Olympus, and the Scandinavian gods made Asgard awful with their
presence. . . . Profane history is full of examples attesting the
attachment to high places for purpose of sacrifice." (Squire: Serpent
Symbols, p. 78.)

"The offerings of the Chinese to the deities were generally on the
summits of high mountains, as they seemed to them to be nearer heaven,
to the majesty of which they were to be offered." (Christmas's Mytho. p.
250, in Ibid.) "In the infancy of civilization, high places were chosen
by the people to offer sacrifices to the gods. The first altars, the
first temples, were erected on mountains." (Humboldt: American
Researches.) The Himalayas are the "_Heavenly mountains_." In Sanscrit
_Himala_, corresponding to the M. Gothic, _Himins_; Alem., _Himil_;
Ger., Swed., and Dan., _Himmel_; Old Norse, _Himin_; Dutch, _Hemel_;
Ang.-Sax., _Heofon_; Eng., _Heaven_. (See Mallet's Northern Antiquities,
p. 42.)

[60:3] Bunsen's Egypt, quoted in Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. p. 367. Mrs.
Child says: "The _laws_ of Egypt were handed down from the earliest
times, and regarded with the utmost veneration as a portion of religion.
Their first legislator represented them as dictated by the gods
themselves and framed expressly for the benefit of mankind by their
secretary _Thoth_." (Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 173.)

[60:4] Quoted in Ibid.

[61:1] See Squire's Serpent Symbol, p. 175.

[61:2] Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 301.



CHAPTER VIII.

SAMSON AND HIS EXPLOITS.


This Israelite hero is said to have been born at a time when the
children of Israel were in the hands of the Philistines. His mother, who
had been barren for a number of years, is entertained by an angel, who
informs her that she shall conceive, and bear a son,[62:1] and that the
child shall be a _Nazarite_ unto God, from the womb, and he shall begin
to deliver Israel out of the hands of the Philistines.

According to the prediction of the angel, "the woman bore a son, and
called his name _Samson_; and the child grew, and the Lord blessed him."

     "And Samson (after he had grown to man's estate), went down to
     Timnath, and saw a woman in Timnath of the daughters of the
     Philistines. And he came up and told his father and his
     mother, and said, I have seen a woman in Timnath of the
     daughters of the Philistines; now therefore get her for me to
     wife."

Samson's father and mother preferred that he should take a woman among
the daughters of their own tribe, but Samson wished for the maid of the
Philistines, "for," said he, "she pleaseth me well."

The parents, after coming to the conclusion that it was the will of the
Lord, that he should marry the maid of the Philistines, consented.

     "Then went Samson down, and his father and his mother, to
     Timnath, and came to the vineyards of Timnath, and, behold, a
     young lion roared against him (Samson). And the spirit of the
     Lord came mightily upon him, and he rent him (the lion) as he
     would have rent a kid, and he had nothing in his hand."

This was Samson's _first_ exploit, which he told not to any one, not
even his father, or his mother.

He then continued on his way, and went down and talked with the woman,
and she pleased him well.

And, after a time, he returned to take her, and he turned aside to see
the carcass of the lion, and behold, "there was a swarm of bees, and
honey, in the carcass of the lion."

Samson made a feast at his wedding, which lasted for _seven_ days. At
this feast, there were brought thirty companions to be with him, unto
whom he said: "I will now put forth a riddle unto you, if ye can
certainly declare it me, within the _seven_ days of the feast, and find
it out, then I will give you thirty sheets, and thirty changes of
garments. But, if ye cannot declare it me, then shall ye give me thirty
sheets, and thirty changes of garments." And they said unto him, "Put
forth thy riddle, that we may hear it." And he answered them: "Out of
the eater came forth meat, and out of the strong came forth sweetness."

This riddle the thirty companions could not solve.

"And it came to pass, on the _seventh_ day, that they said unto Samson's
wife: 'Entice thy husband, that he may declare unto us the riddle.'"

She accordingly went to Samson, and told him that he could not love her;
if it were so, he would tell her the answer to the riddle. After she had
wept and entreated of him, he finally told her, and she gave the answer
to the children of her people. "And the men of the city said unto him,
on the _seventh_ day, before the sun went down, 'What is sweeter than
honey, and what is stronger than a lion?'"

Samson, upon hearing this, suspected how they managed to find out the
answer, whereupon he said unto them: "If ye had not ploughed with my
heifer, ye had not found out my riddle."

Samson was then at a loss to know where to get the thirty sheets, and
the thirty changes of garments; but, "the spirit of the Lord came upon
him, and he went down to Ashkelon, _and slew thirty men of them_, and
took their spoil, and gave change of garments unto them which expounded
the riddle."

This was the hero's _second_ exploit.

His anger being kindled, he went up to his father's house, instead of
returning to his wife.[64:1] But it came to pass, that, after a while,
Samson repented of his actions, and returned to his wife's house, and
wished to go in to his wife in the chamber; but her father would not
suffer him to go. And her father said: "I verily thought that thou hadst
utterly hated her, therefore, I gave her to thy companion. Is not her
younger sister fairer than she? Take her, I pray thee, instead of her."

This did not seem to please Samson, even though the younger was fairer
than the older, for he "went and caught three hundred foxes, and took
firebrands, and turned (the foxes) tail to tail, and put a firebrand in
the midst between two tails. And when he had set the brands on fire, he
let them go into the standing corn of the Philistines, and burned up
both the shocks and also the standing corn, with the vineyards and
olives."

This was Samson's _third_ exploit.

When the Philistines found their corn, their vineyards, and their olives
burned, they said: "Who hath done this?"

     "And they answered, 'Samson, the son-in-law of the Timnite,
     because he had taken his wife, and given her to his
     companion.' And the Philistines came up, and burned her and
     her father with fire. And Samson said unto them: 'Though ye
     have done this, yet will I be avenged of you, and after that I
     will cease.' _And he smote them hip and thigh with a great
     slaughter_, and he went and dwelt in the top of the rock
     Etam."

This "great slaughter" was Samson's _fourth_ exploit.

     "Then the Philistines went up, and pitched in Judah, and
     spread themselves in Lehi. And the men of Judah said: 'Why are
     ye come up against us?' And they answered: 'To bind Samson are
     we come up, and to do to him as he hath done to us.' Then
     three thousand men of Judah went up to the top of the rock
     Etam, and said to Samson: 'Knowest thou not that the
     Philistines are rulers over us? What is this that thou hast
     done unto us?' And he said unto them: 'As they did unto me, so
     have I done unto them.' And they said unto him: 'We are come
     down to bind thee, that we may deliver thee into the hands of
     the Philistines.' And Samson said unto them: 'Swear unto me
     that ye will not fall upon me yourselves.' And they spake unto
     him, saying, 'No; but we will bind thee fast, and deliver thee
     into their hands: but surely we will not kill thee.' And they
     bound him with two new cords, and brought him up from the
     rock. And when he came unto Lehi, the Philistines shouted
     against him; and the spirit of the Lord came mightily upon
     him, _and the cords that were upon his arms became as flax
     that was burned with fire, and his bands loosed from off his
     hands_. And he found a new jaw-bone of an ass, and put forth
     his hand and took it, _and slew a thousand men with it_."

This was Samson's _fifth_ exploit.

After slaying a thousand men he was "sore athirst," and called unto the
Lord. And "God clave a hollow place that was in the jaw, and there came
water thereout, and when he had drunk, his spirit came again, and he
revived."[65:1]

     "Then went Samson to Gaza and saw there a harlot, and went in
     unto her. And it was told the Gazites, saying, 'Samson is come
     hither.' And they compassed him in, and laid wait for him all
     night in the gate of the city, and were quiet all the night,
     saying: 'In the morning, when it is day, we shall kill him.'
     And Samson lay (with the harlot) till midnight, and arose at
     midnight, and took the doors of the gate of the city, and the
     two posts, and went away with them, bar and all, and put them
     upon his shoulders, and carried them up to the top of a hill
     that is in Hebron."

This was Samson's _sixth_ exploit.

     "And it came to pass afterward, that he loved a woman in the
     valley of Soreck, whose name was Delilah. And the lords of the
     Philistines came up unto her, and said unto her: 'Entice him,
     and see wherein his great strength lieth, and by what means we
     may prevail against him.'"

Delilah then began to entice Samson to tell her wherein his strength
lay.

     "She pressed him daily with her words, and urged him, so that
     his soul was vexed unto death. Then he told her all his heart,
     and said unto her: 'There hath not come a razor upon mine
     head, for I have been a Nazarite unto God from my mother's
     womb. If I be shaven, then my strength will go from me, and I
     shall become weak, and be like any other man.' And when
     Delilah saw that he had told her all his heart, she went and
     called for the lords of the Philistines, saying: 'Come up this
     once, for he hath showed me all his heart.' Then the lords of
     the Philistines came up unto her, and brought money in their
     hands (for her).

     "And she made him (Samson) sleep upon her knees; and she
     called for a man, and she caused him to shave off the _seven_
     locks of his head; and she began to afflict him, and his
     strength went from him."

The Philistines then took him, put out his eyes, and put him in prison.
And being gathered together at a great sacrifice in honor of their God,
Dagon, they said: "Call for Samson, that he may make us sport." And they
called for Samson, and he made them sport.

     "And Samson said unto the lad that held him by the hand.
     Suffer me that I may feel the pillars whereupon the house
     standeth, that I may lean upon them.

     "Now the house was full of men and women; and all the lords
     of the Philistines were there; and there were upon the roof
     about three thousand men and women, that beheld while Samson
     made sport.

     "And Samson called unto the Lord, and said: 'O Lord God,
     remember me, I pray thee, and strengthen me, I pray thee, only
     this once, O God, that I may be at once avenged of the
     Philistines for my two eyes.'

     "And Samson took hold of the two middle pillars upon which the
     house stood and on which it was borne up, of the one with his
     right hand, and of the other with his left. And Samson said:
     'Let me die with the Philistines.' And he bowed himself with
     all his might; and (having regained his strength) the house
     fell upon the lords, and upon the people that were therein. So
     the dead which he slew at his death, were more than they which
     he slew in his life."[66:1]

Thus ended the career of the "strong man" of the Hebrews.

That this story is a copy of the legends related of Hercules, or that
they have both been copied from similar legends existing among some
other nations,[66:2] is too evident to be disputed. Many churchmen have
noticed the similarity between the history of Samson and that of
Hercules. In Chambers's Encyclopædia, under "Samson," we read as
follows:

     "It has been matter of most contradictory speculations, how
     far his existence is to be taken as a reality, or, in other
     words, what substratum of historical truth there may be in
     this supposed circle of popular legends, artistically rounded
     off, in the four chapters of Judges which treat of him. . . .

     "The miraculous deeds he performed have taxed the ingenuity of
     many commentators, and the text has been _twisted and turned
     in all directions_, to explain, _rationally_, his slaying
     those prodigious numbers single-handed; his carrying the gates
     of Gaza, in one night, a distance of about fifty miles, &c.,
     &c."

That this is simply a _Solar_ myth, no one will doubt, we believe, who
will take the trouble to investigate it.

Prof. Goldziher, who has made "Comparative Mythology" a special study,
says of this story:

     "The most complete and rounded-off _Solar myth_ extant in
     Hebrew, is that of Shimshôn (Samson), a cycle of mythical
     conceptions fully comparable with the Greek myth of
     Hercules."[66:3]

We shall now endeavor to ascertain if such is the case, by comparing the
exploits of Samson with those of Hercules.

The first wonderful act performed by Samson was, as we have seen, _that
of slaying a lion_. This is said to have happened when he was but a
youth. So likewise was it with Hercules. At the age of eighteen, he slew
an enormous lion.[66:4]

The valley of Nemea was infested by a terrible lion; Eurystheus ordered
Hercules to bring him the skin of this monster. After using in vain his
club and arrows against the lion, Hercules strangled the animal with his
hands. He returned, carrying the dead lion on his shoulders; but
Eurystheus was so frightened at the sight of it, and at this proof of
the prodigious strength of the hero, that he ordered him to deliver the
accounts of his exploits in the future outside the town.[67:1]

To show the courage of Hercules, it is said that he entered the cave
where the lion's lair was, closed the entrance behind him, and at once
grappled with the monster.[67:2]

Samson is said to have torn asunder the _jaws_ of the lion, and we find
him generally represented slaying the beast in that manner. So likewise,
was this the manner in which Hercules disposed of the Nemean lion.[67:3]

The skin of the lion, Hercules tore off with his fingers, and knowing it
to be impenetrable, resolved to wear it henceforth.[67:4] The statues
and paintings of Hercules either represent him carrying the lion's skin
over his arm, or wearing it hanging down his back, the skin of its head
fitting to his crown like a cap, and the fore-legs knotted under his
chin.[67:5]

Samson's second exploit was when he went down to Ashkelon and slew
thirty men.

Hercules, when returning to Thebes from the lion-hunt, and wearing its
skin hanging from his shoulders, as a sign of his success, met the
heralds of the King of the Minyæ, coming from Orchomenos to claim the
annual tribute of a hundred cattle, levied on Thebes. Hercules cut off
the ears and noses of the heralds, bound their hands, and sent them
home.[67:6]

Samson's third exploit was when he caught three hundred foxes, and took
fire-brands, and turned them tail to tail, and put a fire-brand in the
midst between two tails, and let them go into the standing corn of the
Philistines.

There is no such feature as this in the legends of Hercules, the nearest
to it in resemblance is when he encounters and kills the Learnean
Hydra.[67:7] During this encounter a _fire-brand_ figures conspicuously,
and _the neighboring wood is set on fire_.[67:8]

We have, however, an explanation of this portion of the legend, in the
following from Prof. Steinthal:

At the festival of Ceres, held at Rome, in the month of April, a
fox-hunt through the circus was indulged in, _in which burning torches
were bound to the foxes' tails_.

This was intended to be a symbolical reminder of the damage done to the
fields by mildew, called the "_red fox_," which was exorcised in various
ways at this momentous season (the last third of April). It is the time
of the _Dog-Star_, at which the mildew was most to be feared; if at that
time great solar heat follows too close upon the hoar-frost or dew of
the cold nights, this mischief rages like a burning fox through the
corn-fields.[68:1]

He also says that:

     "This is the sense of the story of the foxes, which Samson
     caught and sent into the Philistines' fields, with fire-brands
     fastened to their tails, to burn the crops. Like the lion, the
     fox is an animal that indicated the solar heat, being well
     suited for this both by its color and by its long-haired
     tail."[68:2]

Bouchart, in his "Hierozoicon," observes that:

     "At this period (_i. e._, the last third of April) they cut
     the corn in Palestine and Lower Egypt, and a few days after
     the setting of the Hyads arose the _Fox_, in whose train or
     tail comes the fires or torches of the dog-days, represented
     among the Egyptians by red marks painted on the backs of their
     animals."[68:3]

Count de Volney also tells us that:

     "The inhabitants of Carseoles, an ancient city of Latium,
     every year, in a religious festival, burned a number of foxes
     _with torches tied to their tails_. They gave, as the reason
     for this whimsical ceremony, that their corn had been formerly
     burnt by a fox to whose tail a young man had fastened a bundle
     of lighted straw."[68:4]

He concludes his account of this peculiar "religious festival," by
saying:

     "This is exactly the story of Samson with the Philistines, but
     it is a Phenician tale. _Car-Seol_ is a compound word in that
     tongue, signifying _town of foxes_. The Philistines,
     originally from Egypt, do not appear to have had any colonies.
     The Phenicians had a great many; and it can scarcely be
     admitted that they borrowed this story from the Hebrews, as
     obscure as the Druses are in our own times, or that a simple
     adventure gave rise to a religious ceremony; _it evidently can
     only be a mythological and allegorical narration_."[68:4]

So much, then, for the foxes and fire-brands.

Samson's fourth exploit was when he smote the Philistines "hip and
thigh," "with great slaughter."

It is related of Hercules that he had a combat with an _army_ of
Centaurs, who were armed with pine sticks, rocks, axes, &c. They flocked
in wild confusion, and surrounded the _cave_ of Pholos, where Hercules
was, when a violent fight ensued. Hercules was obliged to contend
against this large armed force single-handed, but he came off
victorious, and slew a great number of them.[69:1] Hercules also
encountered and fought against _an army of giants_, at the Phlegraean
fields, near Cumae.[69:2]

Samson's next wonderful exploit was when "three thousand men of Judah"
bound him with _cords_ and brought him up into Lehi, when the
Philistines were about to take his life. The cords with which he was
bound immediately became as flax, and loosened from off his hands. He
then, with the jaw-bone of an ass, slew one thousand Philistines.[69:3]

A very similar feature to this is found in the history of Hercules. He
is made prisoner by the Egyptians, who wish to take his life, but while
they are preparing to slay him, he breaks loose his bonds--having been
tied with _cords_--and kills Buseris, the leader of the band, _and the
whole retinue_.[69:4]

On another occasion, being refused shelter from a storm at Kos, he was
enraged at the inhabitants, and accordingly _destroyed the whole
town_.[69:5]

Samson, after he had slain a thousand Philistines, was "sore athirst,"
and called upon _Jehovah_, his father in heaven, to succor him,
whereupon, water immediately gushed forth from "a hollow place that was
in the jaw-bone."

Hercules, departing from the Indies (or rather Ethiopia), and conducting
his army through the desert of Lybia, feels a burning thirst, and
conjures _Ihou_, his father, to succor him in his danger.

Instantly the (celestial) Ram appears. Hercules follows him and arrives
at a place where the Ram scrapes with his foot, _and there instantly
comes forth a spring of water_.[70:1]

Samson's sixth exploit happened when he went to Gaza to visit a harlot.
The Gazites, who wished to take his life, laid wait for him all night,
but Samson left the town at midnight, and took with him the gates of the
city, and the _two posts_, on his shoulders. He carried them to the top
of a hill, some fifty miles away, and left them there.

This story very much resembles that of the "Pillars of Hercules," called
the "_Gates of Cadiz_."[70:2]

Count de Volney tells us that:

     "Hercules was represented naked, carrying on his shoulders
     _two columns_ called the Gates of Cadiz."[70:3]

"The _Pillars_ of Hercules" was the name given by the ancients to the
two rocks forming the entrance or _gate_ to the Mediterranean at the
Strait of Gibraltar.[70:4] Their erection was ascribed by the Greeks to
Hercules, on the occasion of his journey to the kingdom of Geryon.
According to one version of the story, they had been united, but
Hercules tore them asunder.[70:5]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 3.]

Fig. No. 3 is a representation of Hercules with the two posts or pillars
on his shoulders, as alluded to by Count de Volney. We have taken it
from Montfaucon's "L'Antiquité Expliquée."[70:6]

J. P. Lundy says of this:

     "Hercules carrying his two columns to erect at the Straits of
     Gibraltar, may have some reference to the Hebrew story."[71:1]

We think there is no doubt of it. By changing the name Hercules into
Samson, the legend is complete.

Sir William Drummond tells us, in his "Œdipus Judaicus," that:

     "_Gaza_ signifies a Goat, and was the type of the Sun in
     Capricorn. The _Gates of the Sun_ were feigned by the ancient
     Astronomers to be in Capricorn and Cancer (that is, in
     _Gaza_), from which signs the tropics are named. Samson
     carried away the gates from Gaza to Hebron, the city of
     conjunction. Now, Count Gebelin tells us that at Cadiz, where
     Hercules was anciently worshiped, there was a representation
     of him, _with a gate on his shoulders_."[71:2]

The stories of the amours of Samson with Delilah and other females, are
simply counterparts of those of Hercules with Omphale and Iole.
Montfaucon, speaking of this, says:

     "Nothing is better known in the fables (related of Hercules)
     than his amours with Omphale and Iole."[71:3]

Prof. Steinthal says:

     "The circumstance that Samson is so addicted to sexual
     pleasure, has its origin in the remembrance that the _Solar
     god_ is the god of fruitfulness and procreation. We have as
     examples, the amours of Hercules and Omphale; Ninyas, in
     Assyria, with Semiramis; Samson, in Philistia, with Delila,
     whilst among the Phenicians, Melkart pursues Dido-Anna."[71:4]

Samson is said to have had long hair. "There hath not come a razor upon
my head," says he, "for I have been a Nazarite unto God from my mother's
womb."

Now, strange as it may appear, Hercules is said to have had long hair
also, and he was often represented that way. In Montfaucon's
"L'Antiquité Expliquée"[71:5] may be seen a representation of Hercules
_with hair reaching almost to his waist_. Almost all _Sun_-gods are
represented thus.[71:6]

Prof. Goldzhier says:

     "Long locks of hair and a long beard are mythological
     attributes of the Sun. The Sun's rays are compared with locks
     of hair on the face or head of the Sun.

     "When the sun sets and leaves his place to the darkness, or
     when the powerful Summer Sun is succeeded by the weak rays of
     the Winter Sun, then Samson's long locks, in which alone his
     strength lies, are cut off through the treachery of his
     deceitful concubine, Delilah, the 'languishing, languid,'
     according to the meaning of the name (Delilah). The Beaming
     Apollo, moreover, is called the _Unshaven_; and Minos cannot
     conquer the solar hero Nisos, _till the latter loses his
     golden hair_."[72:1]

Through the influence of Delilah, Samson is at last made a prisoner. He
tells her the secret of his strength, the _seven_ locks of hair are
shaven off, and his strength leaves him. The shearing of the locks of
the Sun must be followed by darkness and ruin.

From the shoulders of Phoibos Lykêgênes flow the sacred locks, over
which no razor might pass, and on the head of Nisos they become a
palladium, invested with a mysterious power.[72:2] The long locks of
hair which flow over his shoulders are taken from his head by Skylla,
while he is asleep, and, like another Delilah, she thus delivers him and
his people into the power of Minos.[72:3]

Prof. Steinthal says of Samson:

     "His hair is a figure of increase and luxuriant fullness. In
     Winter, when nature appears to have lost all strength, the god
     of growing young life has lost his hair. In the Spring the
     hair grows again, and nature returns to life again. Of this
     original conception the Bible story still preserves a trace.
     Samson's hair, after being cut off, grows again, and his
     strength comes back with it."[72:4]

Towards the end of his career, Samson's eyes are put out. Even here, the
Hebrew writes with a singular fidelity to the old mythical speech. The
tender light of evening is blotted out by the dark vapors; the light of
the _Sun_ is quenched in gloom. _Samson's eyes are put out._

Œdipus, whose history resembles that of Samson and Hercules in many
respects, tears out his eyes, towards the end of his career. In other
words, the _Sun_ has blinded himself. Clouds and darkness have closed in
about him, and the clear light is blotted out of the heaven.[72:5]

The final act, Samson's death, reminds us clearly and decisively of the
Phenician Hercules, as Sun-god, who died at the Winter Solstice in the
furthest West, where his _two pillars_ are set up to mark the end of his
wanderings.

Samson also died at the _two pillars_, but in his case they are not the
Pillars of the World, but are only set up in the middle of a great
banqueting-hall. A feast was being held in honor of Dagon, the
Fish-god; the Sun was in the sign of the Waterman, _Samson, the Sun-god,
died_.[73:1]

The ethnology of the _name_ of Samson, as well as his adventures, are
very closely connected with the _Solar_ Hercules. _"Samson" was the name
of the Sun._[73:2] In Arabic, "_Shams-on_" means the _Sun_.[73:3] Samson
had _seven_ locks of hair, the number of the planetary bodies.[73:4]

The author of "The Religion of Israel," speaking of Samson, says:

     "The story of Samson and his deeds originated in a _Solar
     myth_, which was afterwards transformed by the narrator into a
     _saga_ about a mighty hero and deliverer of Israel. The very
     _name_ 'Samson,' is derived from the Hebrew word, and means
     'Sun.' The hero's flowing locks were originally the _rays of
     the sun_, and other traces of the old myth have been
     preserved."[73:5]

Prof. Oort says:

     "The story of Samson is simply a solar myth. In some of the
     features of the story the original meaning may be traced quite
     clearly, but in others the myth can no longer be recognized.
     The exploits of some Danite hero, such as Shamgar, who 'slew
     six hundred Philistines with an ox-goad' (Judges iii. 31),
     have been woven into it; the whole has been remodeled after
     the ideas of the prophets of later ages, and finally, it has
     been fitted into the framework of the period of the Judges, as
     conceived by the writer of the book called after them."[73:6]

Again he says:

     "The myth that lies at the foundation of this story is a
     description of the sun's course during the six winter months.
     The god is gradually encompassed by his enemies, mist and
     darkness. At first he easily maintains his freedom, and gives
     glorious proofs of his strength; but the fetters grow stronger
     and stronger, until at last he is robbed of his crown of rays,
     and loses all his power and glory. _Such is the Sun in
     Winter._ But he has not lost his splendor forever. Gradually
     his strength returns, at last he reappears; and though he
     still seems to allow himself to be mocked, yet the power of
     avenging himself has returned, and in the end he triumphs over
     his enemies once more."[73:7]

Other nations beside the Hebrews and Greeks had their "mighty men" and
lion-killers. The Hindoos had their Samson. His name was Bala-Rama, the
"_Strong Rama_." He was considered by some an incarnation of
Vishnu.[73:8]

Captain Wilford says, in "Asiatic Researches:"

     "The _Indian_ Hercules, according to Cicero, was called
     _Belus_. He is the same as _Bala_, the brother of Crishna, and
     both are conjointly worshiped at Mutra; indeed, they are
     considered as one Avatar or Incarnation of Vishnou. _Bala_ is
     represented as a stout man, _with a club in his hand_. He is
     also called _Bala-rama._"[74:1]

There is a Hindoo legend which relates that Sevah had an encounter with
a tiger, "whose mouth expanded like a cave, and whose voice resembled
thunder." He slew the monster, and, like Hercules, covered himself with
the skin.[74:2]

The Assyrians and Lydians, both Semitic nations, worshiped a Sun-god
named Sandan or Sandon. He also was believed to be a _lion-killer_, and
frequently figured struggling with the lion, or standing upon the slain
lion.[74:3]

Ninevah, too, had her mighty hero and king, who slew a lion and other
monsters. Layard, in his excavations, discovered a _bas-relief_
representation of this hero triumphing over the lion and wild
bull.[74:4]

The Ancient Babylonians had a hero lion-slayer, Izdubar by name. The
destruction of the lion, and other monsters, by Izdubar, is often
depicted on the cylinders and engraved gems belonging to the early
Babylonian monarchy.[74:5]

Izdubar is represented as a great or mighty man, who, in the early days
after the flood, destroyed wild animals, and conquered a number of petty
kings.[74:6]

Izdubar resembles the Grecian hero, Hercules, in other respects than as
a destroyer of wild animals, &c. We are told that he "wandered to the
regions where gigantic composite monsters held and controlled the rising
and setting sun, from these learned the road to _the region of the
blessed_, and passing across _a great waste of land_, he arrived at a
region where _splendid trees were laden with jewels_."[74:7]

He also resembles Hercules, Samson, and other solar-gods, in the
particular of _long flowing locks of hair_. In the Babylonian and
Assyrian sculptures he is always represented with a marked physiognomy,
and always indicated as a man with _masses of curls over his head_ and a
large curly beard.[74:8]

Here, evidently, is the Babylonian legend of Hercules. He too was a
_wanderer_, going from the furthest East to the furthest West. He
crossed "a great waste of land" (the desert of Lybia), visited "the
region of the blessed," where there were "splendid trees laden with
jewels" (golden apples).

The ancient Egyptians had their Hercules. According to Herodotus, he was
known several thousand years before the Grecian hero of that name. This
the Egyptians affirmed, and that he was _born_ in their country.[75:1]

The story of Hercules was known in the Island of Thasos, by the
Phenician colony settled there, five centuries before he was known in
Greece.[75:2] Fig. No. 4 is from an ancient representation of Hercules
in conflict with the lion, taken from Gorio.

[Illustration: Fig. No. 4]

Another mighty hero was the Grecian Bellerophon. The minstrels sang of
the beauty and the great deeds of Bellerophon throughout all the land of
Argos. His arm was strong in battle; his feet were swift in the chase.
None that were poor and weak and wretched feared the might of
Bellerophon. To them the sight of his beautiful form brought only joy
and gladness; but the proud and boastful, the slanderer and the robber,
dreaded the glance of his keen eye. For a long time he fought the Solymi
and the Amazons, until all his enemies shrank from the stroke of his
mighty arm, and sought for mercy.[75:3]

The second of the principal gods of the Ancient _Scandinavians_ was
named Thor, and was no less known than Odin among the Teutonic nations.
The Edda calls him expressly the most valiant of the sons of Odin. He
was considered the "_defender_" and "_avenger_." He always carried a
mallet, which, as often as he discharged it, returned to his hand of
itself; he grasped it with gauntlets of iron, and was further possessed
of a girdle which had the virtue of renewing his strength as often as
was needful. It was with these formidable arms that he overthrew to the
ground the monsters and giants, when he was sent by the gods to oppose
their enemies. He was represented of gigantic size, and as the stoutest
and strongest of the gods.[76:1] Thor was simply the Hercules of the
Northern nations. He was the Sun personified.[76:2]

Without enumerating them, we can safely say, that there was not a nation
of antiquity, from the remotest East to the furthest West, that did not
have its mighty hero, and counterpart of Hercules and Samson.[76:3]


FOOTNOTES:

[62:1] The idea of a woman conceiving, and bearing a son in her old age,
seems to have been a Hebrew peculiarity, as a number of their remarkable
personages were born, so it is said, of parents well advanced in years,
or of a woman who was supposed to have been _barren_. As illustrations,
we may mention this case of _Samson_, and that of _Joseph_ being born of
Rachel. The beautiful Rachel, who was so much beloved by Jacob, her
husband, was barren, and she bore him no sons. This caused grief and
discontent on her part, and anger on the part of her husband. In her old
age, however, she bore the wonderful child Joseph. (See Genesis, xxx.
1-29.)

_Isaac_ was born of a woman (Sarah) who had been barren many years. _An
angel appeared to her_ when her lord (Abraham) "was ninety years old and
nine," and informed her that she would conceive and bear a son. (See
Gen. xvi.)

_Samuel_, the "holy man," was also born of a woman (Hannah) who had been
barren many years. In grief, she prayed to the Lord for a child, and was
finally comforted by receiving her wish. (See 1 Samuel, i. 1-20.)

_John the Baptist_ was also a miraculously conceived infant. His mother,
Elizabeth, bore him _in her old age_. _An angel also informed her_ and
her husband Zachariah, that this event would take place. (See Luke, i.
1-25.)

_Mary_, the mother of _Jesus_, was born of a woman (Anna) who was "old
and stricken in years," and who had been barren all her life. _An angel
appeared to Anna and her husband_ (Joachim), and told them what was
about to take place. (See "The Gospel of Mary," Apoc.)

Thus we see, that the idea of a wonderful child being born of a woman
who had passed the age which nature had destined for her to bear
children, and who had been barren all her life, was a favorite one among
the Hebrews. The idea that the ancestors of a race lived to a fabulous
old age, is also a familiar one among the ancients.

Most ancient nations relate in their fables that their ancestors lived
to be very old men. For instance; the _Persian_ patriarch Kaiomaras
reigned 560 years; Jemshid reigned 300 years; Jahmurash reigned 700
years; Dahâk reigned 1000 years; Feridun reigned 120 years; Manugeher
reigned 500 years; Kaikans reigned 150 years; and Bahaman reigned 112
years. (See Dunlap: Son of the Man, p. 155, _note_.)

[64:1] Judges, xiv.

[65:1] Judges, xv.

[66:1] Judges, xvi.

[66:2] Perhaps that of Izdubar. See chapter xi.

[66:3] Hebrew Mythology, p. 248.

[66:4] Manual of Mythology, p. 248. The Age of Fable, p. 200.

[67:1] Bulfinch: The Age of Fable, p. 200.

[67:2] Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 249.

[67:3] Roman Antiquities, p. 124; and Montfaucon, vol. i. plate cxxvi.

[67:4] Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 249.

[67:5] See Ibid. Greek and Italian Mythology, p. 129, and Montfaucon,
vol. i. plate cxxv. and cxxvi.

[67:6] Manual of Mythology, p. 247.

[67:7] "It has many heads, one being immortal, as the storm must
constantly supply new clouds while the vapors are driven off by the
_Sun_ into space. Hence the story went that although Herakles could burn
away its mortal heads, as the _Sun_ burns up the clouds, still he can
but hide away the mist or vapor itself, which at its appointed time must
again darken the sky." (Cox: Aryan Mytho., vol. ii. p. 48.)

[67:8] See Manual of Mytho., p. 250.

[68:1] Steinthal: The Legend of Samson, p. 398. See, also, Higgins:
Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 240, and Volney: Researches in Anc't History, p.
42.

[68:2] Ibid.

[68:3] Quoted by Count de Volney: Researches in Ancient History, p. 42,
_note_.

[68:4] Volney: Researches in Ancient History, p. 42.

[69:1] See Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 251.

"The slaughter of the Centaurs by Hercules is the conquest and
dispersion of the vapors by the _Sun_ as he rises in the heaven." (Cox:
Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 47.)

[69:2] Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 257.

[69:3] Shamgar also slew six hundred Philistines with an ox goad. (See
Judges, iii. 31.)

"It is scarcely necessary to say that these weapons are the heritage of
all the _Solar_ heroes, that they are found in the hands of Phebus and
Herakles, of Œdipus, Achilleus, Philoktetes, of Siguard, Rustem, Indra,
Isfendujar, of Telephos, Meleagros, Theseus, Kadmos, Bellerophon, and
all other slayers of noxious and fearful things." (Rev. Geo. Cox: Tales
of Ancient Greece, p. xxvii.)

[69:4] See Volney: Researches in Ancient History, p. 41. Higgins:
Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 239; Montfaucon: L'Antiquité Expliquée, vol. i.
p. 213, and Murray: Manual of Mythology, pp. 259-262.

It is evident that _Herodotus_, the Grecian historian, was somewhat of a
skeptic, for he says: "The Grecians say that 'When Hercules arrived in
Egypt, the Egyptians, having crowned him with a garland, led him in
procession, as designing to sacrifice him to Jupiter, and that for some
time he remained quiet, but when they began the preparatory ceremonies
upon him at the altar, he set about defending himself and slew every one
of them.' Now, since Hercules was but one, and, besides, a mere man, as
they confess, how is it possible that he should slay many thousands?"
(Herodotus, book ii. ch. 45).

[69:5] Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 263.

[70:1] Volney: Researches in Anc't History, pp. 41, 42.

In Bell's "Pantheon of the Gods and Demi-Gods of Antiquity," we read,
under the head of _Ammon_ or _Hammon_ (the name of the Egyptian Jupiter,
worshiped under the figure of a _Ram_), that: "_Bacchus_ having subdued
Asia, and passing with his army through the deserts of Africa, was in
great want of water; but Jupiter, his father, assuming the shape of a
_Ram_, led him to a fountain, where he refreshed himself and his army;
in requital of which favor, Bacchus built there a temple to Jupiter,
under the title of _Ammon_."

[70:2] Cadiz (ancient Gades), being situated near the _mouth_ of the
Mediterranean. The first author who mentions the Pillars of Hercules is
Pindar, and he places them there. (Chambers's Encyclo. "Hercules.")

[70:3] Volney's Researches, p. 41. See also Tylor: Primitive Culture,
vol. i. p. 357.

[70:4] See Chambers's Encyclopædia, Art. "Hercules." Cory's Ancient
Fragments, p. 36, _note_; and Bulfinch: The Age of Fable, p. 201.

[70:5] Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Hercules."

[70:6] Vol. i. plate cxxvii.

[71:1] Monumental Christianity, p. 399.

[71:2] Œd. Jud. p. 360, in Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 239.

[71:3] "Rien de plus connu dans la fable que ses amours avec Omphale et
Iole."--L'Antiquité Expliquée, vol. i. p. 224.

[71:4] The Legend of Samson, p. 404.

[71:5] Vol. i. plate cxxvii.

[71:6] "Samson was remarkable for his long hair. The meaning of this
trait in the original myth is easy to guess, and appears also from
representations of the Sun-god amongst other peoples. _These long hairs
are the rays of the Sun._" (Bible for Learners, i. 416.)

"The beauty of the sun's rays is signified by the golden locks of
Phoibos, _over which no razor has ever passed_; by the flowing hair
which streams from the head of Kephalos, and falls over the shoulders of
Perseus and Bellerophon." (Cox: Aryan Mytho., vol. i. p. 107.)

[72:1] Hebrew Mytho., pp. 137, 138.

[72:2] Cox: Aryan Myths, vol. i. p. 84.

[72:3] Tales of Ancient Greece, p. xxix.

[72:4] The Legend of Samson, p. 408.

[72:5] Cox: Aryan Mytho., vol. ii. p. 72.

[73:1] The Legend of Samson, p. 406.

[73:2] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 237. Goldzhier: Hebrew
Mythology, p. 22. The Religion of Israel, p. 61. The Bible for Learners,
vol. i. p. 418. Volney's Ruins, p. 41, and Stanley: History of the
Jewish Church, where he says: "His _name_, which Josephus interprets in
the sense of 'strong,' was still more characteristic. He was 'the
Sunny'--the bright and beaming, though wayward, likeness of the great
luminary."

[73:3] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 237, and Volney's Researches, p.
43, _note_.

[73:4] See chapter ii.

[73:5] The Religion of Israel, p. 61. "The yellow hair of Apollo was a
symbol of the solar rays." (Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 679.)

[73:6] Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 414.

[73:7] Ibid. p. 422.

[73:8] Williams' Hinduism, pp. 108 and 167.

[74:1] Vol. v. p. 270.

[74:2] Maurice: Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 155.

[74:3] Steinthal: The Legend of Samson, p. 386.

[74:4] Buckley: Cities of the World, 41, 42.

[74:5] Smith: Assyrian Discoveries, p. 167, and Chaldean Account of
Genesis, p. 174.

[74:6] Assyrian Discoveries, p. 205, and Chaldean Account of Genesis, p.
174.

[74:7] Chaldean Account of Genesis, p. 310.

[74:8] Ibid. pp. 193, 194, 174.

[75:1] See Tacitus: Annals, book ii. ch. lix.

[75:2] Knight: Anct. Art and Mytho., p. 92.

[75:3] See Tales of Ancient Greece, p. 153.

[76:1] See Mallet's Northern Antiquities, pp. 94, 417, and 514.

[76:2] See Cox: Aryan Mythology.

[76:3] See vol. i. of Aryan Mythology, by Rev. G. W. Cox.

"Besides the fabulous Hercules, the son of Jupiter and Alcmena, there
was, in ancient times, no warlike nation who did not boast of its own
particular Hercules." (Arthur Murphy, Translator of Tacitus.)



CHAPTER IX.

JONAH SWALLOWED BY A BIG FISH.


In the book of Jonah, containing four chapters, we are told the word of
the Lord came unto Jonah, saying: "Arise, go to Ninevah, that great
city, and cry against it, for their wickedness is come up against me."

Instead of obeying this command Jonah sought to flee "from the presence
of the Lord," by going to Tarshish. For this purpose he went to _Joppa_,
and there took ship for Tarshish. But the Lord sent a great wind, and
there was a mighty tempest, so that the ship was likely to be broken.

The mariners being afraid, they cried every one unto _his_ God; and
casting lots--that they might know which of them was the cause of the
storm--the lot fell upon Jonah, showing him to be the guilty man.

The mariners then said unto him; "What shall we do unto thee?" Jonah in
reply said, "Take me up and cast me forth into the sea, for I know that
for my sake this great tempest is upon you." So they took up Jonah, and
cast him into the sea, and the sea ceased raging.

And the Lord prepared a great fish to swallow up Jonah, _and Jonah was
in the belly of the fish three days and three nights_. Then Jonah prayed
unto the Lord out of the fish's belly. And the Lord spake unto the fish,
and it vomited out Jonah upon the dry land.

The Lord again spake unto Jonah and said:

"Go unto Ninevah and preach unto it." So Jonah arose and went unto
Ninevah, according to the command of the Lord, and preached unto it.

There is a _Hindoo_ fable, very much resembling this, to be found in the
_Somadeva Bhatta_, of a person by the name of _Saktideva_ who was
swallowed by a huge fish, and finally came out unhurt. The story is as
follows:

"There was once a king's daughter who would marry no one but the man
who had seen the Golden City--of legendary fame--and Saktideva was in
love with her; so he went travelling about the world seeking some one
who could tell him where this Golden City was. In the course of his
journeys _he embarked on board a ship_ bound for the Island of Utsthala,
where lived the King of the Fishermen, who, Saktideva hoped, would set
him on his way. On the voyage _there arose a great storm_ and the ship
went to pieces, _and a great fish swallowed Saktideva whole_. Then,
driven by the force of fate, the fish went to the Island of Utsthala,
and there the servants of the King of the Fishermen caught it, and the
king, wondering at its size, had it cut open, _and Saktideva came out
unhurt_."[78:1]

In Grecian fable, Hercules is said to have been swallowed by a whale, at
a place called Joppa, _and to have lain three days in his entrails_.

Bernard de Montfaucon, speaking of Jonah being swallowed by a whale, and
describing a piece of Grecian sculpture representing Hercules standing
by a huge sea monster, says:

     "Some ancients relate to the effect that Hercules was also
     swallowed by the whale that was watching Hesione, _that he
     remained three days in his belly_, and that he came out
     bald-pated after his sojourn there."[78:2]

Bouchet, in his "Hist. d'Animal," tells us that:

     "The great fish which swallowed up _Jonah_, although it be
     called a whale (Matt. xii. 40), yet it was not a whale,
     properly so called, but a _Dog-fish_, called _Carcharias_.
     Therefore in the Grecian fable _Hercules_ is said to have been
     swallowed up of a _Dag_, and to have lain three days in his
     entrails."[78:3]

Godfrey Higgins says, on this subject:

     "The story of _Jonas_ swallowed up by a whale, is nothing but
     part of the fiction of _Hercules_, described in the Heracleid
     or Labors of Hercules, of whom the same story was told, and
     who was swallowed up at the very same place, _Joppa_, and for
     the same period of time, _three days_. Lycophron says that
     Hercules was three nights in the belly of a fish."[78:4]

We have still another similar story in that of "_Arion the Musician_,"
who, being thrown overboard, was caught on the back of a _Dolphin_ and
landed safe on shore. The story is related in "Tales of Ancient Greece,"
as follows:

Arion was a Corinthian harper who had travelled in Sicily and

Italy, and had accumulated great wealth. Being desirous of again seeing
his native city, he set sail from Taras for Corinth. The sailors in the
ship, having seen the large boxes full of money which Arion had brought
with him into the ship, made up their minds to kill him and take his
gold and silver. So one day when he was sitting on the bow of the ship,
and looking down on the dark blue sea, three or four of the sailors came
to him and said they were going to kill him. Now Arion knew they said
this because they wanted his money; so he promised to give them all he
had if they would spare his life. But they would not. Then he asked them
to let him jump into the sea. When they had given him leave to do this,
Arion took one last look at the bright and sunny sky, and then leaped
into the sea, and the sailors saw him no more. But Arion was not drowned
in the sea, for a great fish called a dolphin was swimming by the ship
when Arion leaped over; and it caught him on its back and swam away with
him towards Corinth. So presently the fish came close to the shore and
left Arion on the beach, and swam away again into the deep sea.[79:1]

There is also a Persian legend to the effect that Jemshid was devoured
by a great monster waiting for him at the bottom of the sea, but
afterwards rises again out of the sea, like Jonah in the Hebrew, and
Hercules in the Phenician myth.[79:2] This legend was also found in the
myths of the _New World_.[79:3]

It was urged, many years ago, by Rosenmüller--an eminent German divine
and professor of theology--and other critics, that the miracle recorded
in the book of Jonah is not to be regarded as an historical fact, "_but
only as an allegory, founded on the Phenician myth of Hercules rescuing
Hesione from the sea monster by leaping himself into its jaws, and for
three days and three nights continuing to tear its entrails_."[79:4]

That the story is an allegory, and that it, as well as that of
Saktideva, Hercules and the rest, are simply different versions of the
same myth, the significance of which is the alternate swallowing up and
casting forth of _Day_, or the _Sun_, by _Night_, is now all but
universally admitted by scholars. The _Day_, or the _Sun_, is swallowed
up by _Night_, to be set free again at dawn, and from time to time
suffers a like but shorter durance in the maw of the eclipse and the
storm-cloud.[79:5]

Professor Goldzhier says:

     "The most prominent mythical characteristic of the story of
     Jonah is his celebrated abode in the sea in the belly of a
     whale. This trait is eminently _Solar_. . . . As on occasion
     of the storm the storm-dragon or the storm-serpent _swallows
     the Sun_, so when he sets, he (Jonah, as a personification of
     the Sun) is swallowed by a mighty fish, waiting for him at the
     bottom of the sea. Then, when he appears again on the horizon,
     he is _spit out on the shore_ by the sea-monster."[80:1]

The _Sun_ was called Jona, as appears from Gruter's inscriptions, and
other sources.[80:2]

In the _Vedas_--the four sacred books of the Hindoos--when _Day_ and
_Night_, _Sun_ and _Darkness_, are opposed to each other, the one is
designated _Red_, the other _Black_.[80:3]

The _Red Sun_ being swallowed up by the _Dark Earth_ at _Night_--as it
apparently is when it sets in the west--to be cast forth again at _Day_,
is also illustrated in like manner. Jonah, Hercules and others personify
the _Sun_, and a huge _Fish_ represents the _Earth_.[80:4] _The Earth
represented as a huge Fish is one of the most prominent ideas of the
Polynesian mythology._[80:5]

At other times, instead of a _Fish_, we have a great raving _Wolf_, who
comes to devour its victim and extinguish the _Sun_-light.[80:6] The
Wolf is particularly distinguished in ancient _Scandinavian_ mythology,
being employed as an emblem of the _Destroying Power_, which attempts to
destroy the _Sun_.[80:7] This is illustrated in the story of Little
_Red_ Riding-Hood (the Sun)[80:8] who is devoured by the great _Black
Wolf_ (Night) and afterwards _comes out unhurt_.[80:9]

The story of Little Red Riding-Hood _is mutilated in the English
version_. The original story was that the little maid, in her _shining
Red Cloak_, was swallowed by the great _Black Wolf_, and that _she came
out safe and sound_ when the hunters cut open the sleeping beast.[80:10]

In regard to these heroes remaining _three days and three nights_ in
the bowels of the Fish, _they represent the Sun at the Winter Solstice_.
From December 22d to the 25th--that is, _for three days and three
nights_--the _Sun_ remains in the _Lowest Regions_, in the bowels of the
Earth, in the belly of the Fish; it is then cast forth and renews its
career.

Thus, we see that the story of Jonah being swallowed by a big fish,
meant originally the Sun swallowed up by Night, and that it is identical
with the well-known nursery-tale. How such legends are transformed from
intelligible into unintelligible myths, is very clearly illustrated by
Prof. Max Müller, who, in speaking of "the comparison of the different
forms of Aryan Religion and Mythology," in India, Persia, Greece, Italy
and Germany, says:

     "In each of these nations there was a tendency to change the
     original conception of divine powers; to misunderstand the
     many names given to these powers, and to misinterpret the
     praises addressed to them. In this manner some of the divine
     names were changed into half-divine, half-human heroes, _and
     at last the myths which were true and intelligible as told
     originally of the Sun, or the Dawn, or the Storms, were turned
     into legends or fables too marvellous to be believed of common
     mortals_. This process can be watched in _India_, in _Greece_,
     and in _Germany_. The same story, or nearly the same, is told
     of gods, of heroes, and of men. The _divine myth_ became an
     _heroic legend_, and the _heroic legend_ fades away into a
     _nursery tale_. Our nursery tales have well been called the
     modern _patois_ of the ancient sacred mythology of the Aryan
     race."[81:1]

How striking are these words; how plainly they illustrate the process by
which the story, that was true and intelligible as told originally of
the _Day_ being swallowed up by _Night_, or the _Sun_ being swallowed up
by the _Earth_, was transformed into a legend or fable, too marvellous
to be believed by common mortals. How the "_divine myth_" became an
"_heroic legend_," and how the heroic legend faded away into a "_nursery
tale_."

In regard to Jonah's going to the city of Ninevah, and preaching unto
the inhabitants, we believe that the old "Myth of Civilization," so
called,[82:1] is partly interwoven here, and that, in this respect, he
is nothing more than the Indian _Fish Avatar of Vishnou_, or the
Chaldean _Oannes_. At his first Avatar, _Vishnou_ is alleged to have
appeared to humanity in form like a fish,[82:2] or half-man and
half-fish, just as Oannes and Dagon were represented among the Chaldeans
and other nations. In the temple of _Rama_, in India, there is a
representation of _Vishnou_ which answers perfectly to that of
_Dagon_.[82:3] Mr. Maurice, in his "Hist. Hindostan," has proved the
identity of the Syrian _Dagon_ and the Indian Fish Avatar, and concludes
by saying:

     "From the foregoing and a variety of parallel circumstances, I
     am inclined to think that the Chaldean _Oannes_, the Phenician
     and Philistian _Dagon_, and the _Pisces_ of the Syrian and
     Egyptian Zodiac, were the same deity with the Indian
     _Vishnu_."[82:4]

In the old mythological remains of the Chaldeans, compiled by Berosus,
Abydenus, and Polyhistor, there is an account of one _Oannes_, a
fish-god, who rendered great service to mankind.[82:5] This being is
said to have _come out of_ the Erythraean Sea.[82:6] This is evidently
_the Sun rising out of the sea_, as it apparently does, in the
East.[82:7]

Prof. Goldzhier, speaking of Oannes, says:

     "That this founder of civilization has a _Solar character_,
     like similar heroes in all other nations, is shown . . . in
     the words of Berosus, who says: '_During the day-time_ Oannes
     held intercourse with man, _but when the Sun set_, Oannes
     fell into the sea, where he used to pass the night.' Here,
     evidently, only the _Sun_ can be meant, who, in the evening,
     dips into the sea, and comes forth again in the morning, and
     passes the day on the dry land in the company of men."[82:8]

_Dagon_ was sometimes represented as _a man emerging from a fish's
mouth_, and sometimes as half-man and half-fish.[82:9] It was believed
that he came _in a ship_, and taught the people. Ancient history abounds
with such mythological personages.[82:10] There was also a _Durga_, a
fish deity, among the _Hindoos_, represented as _a full grown man
emerging from a fish's mouth_[82:9] The Philistines worshiped Dagon,
and in Babylonian Mythology _Odakon_ is applied to a fish-like being,
who _rose from the waters of the Red Sea_ as one of the benefactors of
men.[83:1]

On the coins of Ascalon, where she was held in great honor, the goddess
Derceto or Atergatis is represented as a woman with her lower
extremities like a fish. This is Semiramis, who appeared at _Joppa_ as a
mermaid. She is simply a personification of the _Moon_, who follows the
course of the _Sun_. At times she manifests herself to the eyes of men,
at others she seeks concealment in the Western flood.[83:2]

The Sun-god Phoibos traverses the sea in the form of a fish, and imparts
lessons of wisdom and goodness when he has come forth from the green
depths. All these powers or qualities are shared by Proteus in Hellenic
story, as well as by the fish-god, Dagon or Oannes.[83:3]

In the Iliad and Odyssey, Atlas is brought into close connection with
Helios, the bright god, the Latin Sol, and our Sun. In these poems he
rises every morning from a beautiful lake by the deep-flowing stream of
Ocean, and having accomplished his journey across the heavens, plunges
again into the Western waters.[83:4]

The ancient Mexicans and Peruvians had likewise semi-fish gods.[83:5]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 5]

Jonah then, is like these other personages, in so far as they are all
_personifications of the Sun_; they all _come out of the sea_; they are
all represented as _a man emerging from a fish's mouth_; and they are
all _benefactors of mankind_. We believe, therefore, that it is one and
the same myth, whether Oannes, Joannes, or Jonas,[83:6] differing to a
certain extent among different nations, just as we find to be the case
with other legends. This we have just seen illustrated in the story of
"Little Red Riding-Hood," which is considerably mutilated in the English
version.

[Illustration: Fig. No. 6]

Fig. No. 5 is a representation of _Dagon_, intended to illustrate a
creature half-man and half-fish; or, perhaps, a man emerging from a
fish's mouth. It is taken from Layard. Fig. No. 6[84:1] is a
representation of the Indian Avatar of Vishnou, _coming forth from the
fish_.[84:2] It would answer just as well for a representation of Jonah,
as it does for the Hindoo divinity. It should be noticed that in both of
these, the god has a crown on his head, surmounted with a _triple_
ornament, both of which had evidently the same meaning, _i. e._, _an
emblem of the trinity_.[84:3] The Indian Avatar being represented with
four arms, evidently means that he is god of the whole world, his _four_
arms extending to the _four corners of the world_. The _circle_, which
is seen in one hand, is an emblem of eternal reward. The _shell_, with
its eight convolutions, is intended to show the place in the number of
the cycles which he occupied. The _book_ and _sword_ are to show that he
ruled both in the right of the book and of the sword.[84:4]


FOOTNOTES:

[78:1] Tylor: Early Hist. Mankind, pp. 344, 345.

[78:2] "En effet, quelques anciens disent qu' Hercule fut aussi devorà
par la beleine qui gurdoit Hesione, qu'il demeura trois jours dans son
ventre, et qu'il sortit chauve de ce sejour." (L'Antiquité Expliqueé,
vol. i. p. 204.)

[78:3] Bouchet: Hist. d'Animal, in Anac., vol. i. p. 240.

[78:4] Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 638. See also Tylor: Primitive Culture,
vol. i. p. 306, and Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Jonah."

[79:1] Tales of Ancient Greece, p. 296.

[79:2] See Hebrew Mythology, p. 203.

[79:3] See Tylor's Early Hist. Mankind, and Primitive Culture, vol. i.

[79:4] Chambers's Encyclo., art. Jonah.

[79:5] See Fiske: Myths and Myth Makers, p. 77, and _note_; and Tylor:
Primitive Culture, i. 302.

[80:1] Goldzhier: Hebrew Mythology, pp. 102, 103.

[80:2] This is seen from the following, taken from Pictet: "_Du Culte
des Carabi_," p. 104, and quoted by Higgins: _Anac._, vol. i. p. 650:
"Vallancy dit que _Ionn_ étoit le même que Baal. En Gallois _Jon_, le
Seigneur, Dieu, la cause prémière. En Basque _Jawna_, _Jon_, _Jona_,
&c., Dieu, et Seigneur, Maître. Les Scandinaves appeloient le _Soleil_
John. . . . Une des inscriptions de Gruter montre ques les Troyens
adoroient _le même_ astre sous le nom de _Jona_. En Persan le _Soleil_
est appelè _Jawnah_." Thus we see that the _Sun_ was called _Jonah_, by
different nations of antiquity.

[80:3] See Goldzhier: Hebrew Mythology, p. 148.

[80:4] See Tylor: Early History of Mankind, p. 845, and Goldzhier:
Hebrew Mythology, pp. 102, 103.

[80:5] See Tylor: Early History of Mankind, p. 345.

[80:6] Fiske: Myths and Myth Makers, p. 77.

[80:7] See Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, pp. 88, 89, and Mallet's
Northern Antiquities.

[80:8] In ancient _Scandinavian_ mythology, the _Sun_ is personified in
the form of a beautiful _maiden_. (See Mallet's Northern Antiquities, p.
458.)

[80:9] See Fiske: Myths and Myth Makers, p. 77. Bunce: Fairy Tales, 161.

[80:10] Tylor: Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 307.

"The story of Little Red Riding-Hood, as we call her, or Little Red-Cap,
came from the same (_i. e._, the ancient Aryan) source, and refers to
the _Sun_ and the _Night_."

"One of the fancies of the most ancient Aryan or Hindoo stories was that
there was a great dragon that was trying to devour the Sun, and to
prevent him from shining upon the earth and filling it with brightness
and life and beauty, and that Indra, the Sun-god, killed the dragon.
Now, this is the meaning of Little Red Riding-Hood, as it is told in our
nursery tales. Little Red Riding-Hood is the evening Sun, which is
always described as red or golden; the old grandmother is the earth, to
whom the rays of the Sun bring warmth and comfort. The wolf--which is a
well-known figure for the clouds and darkness of night--is the dragon in
another form. First he devours the grandmother; that is, he wraps the
earth in thick clouds, which the evening Sun is not strong enough to
pierce through. Then, with the darkness of night, he swallows up the
evening Sun itself, and all is dark and desolate. Then, as in the German
tale, the night-thunder and the storm-winds are represented by the loud
snoring of the wolf; and then the huntsman, the morning Sun, comes in
all his strength and majesty, and chases away the night-clouds and kills
the wolf, and revives old Grandmother Earth, and brings Little Red
Riding-Hood to life again." (Bunce, Fairy Tales, their Origin and
Meaning, p. 161.)

[81:1] Müller's Chips, vol. ii. p. 260.

[82:1] See Goldzhier's Hebrew Mythology, p. 198, et seq.

[82:2] See Maurice: Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 277.

[82:3] See Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. p. 259. Also, Fig. No. 5, next page.

[82:4] Hist. Hindostan, vol. i. pp. 418-419.

[82:5] See Pilchard's Egyptian Mythology, p. 190. Bible for Learners,
vol. i. p. 87. Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 646. Cory's Ancient
Fragments, p. 57.

[82:6] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 646. Smith: Chaldean Account
of Genesis, p. 39, and Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. 57.

[82:7] Civilizing gods, who diffuse intelligence and instruct
barbarians, are also _Solar Deities_. Among these _Oannes_ takes his
place, as the _Sun-god_, giving knowledge and civilization. (Rev. S.
Baring-Gould: Curious Myths, p. 367.)

[82:8] Goldzhier: Hebrew Mythology, pp. 214, 215.

[82:9] See Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 111.

[82:10] See Chamber's Encyclo., art "Dagon."

[83:1] See Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, and Chambers's Encyclo.,
art. "Dagon" in both.

[83:2] See Baring-Gould's Curious Myths.

[83:3] See Cox: Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 26.

[83:4] Ibid. p. 38.

[83:5] Curious Myths, p. 372.

[83:6] Since writing the above we find that Mr. Bryant, in his
"_Analysis of Ancient Mythology_" (vol. ii. p. 291), speaking of the
mystical nature of the name _John_, which is the same as _Jonah_, says:
"The prophet who was sent upon an embassy to the Ninevites, is styled
_Ionas_: a title probably bestowed upon him as a messenger of the Deity.
The great Patriarch who preached righteousness to the Antediluvians, is
styled _Oan_ and _Oannes_, which is _the same as Jonah_."

[84:1] From Maurice: Hist. Hindostan, vol. i. p. 495.

[84:2] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 634. See also, Calmet's
Fragments, 2d Hundred, p. 78.

[84:3] See the chapter on "The Trinity," in part second.

[84:4] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 640.



CHAPTER X.

CIRCUMCISION.


In the words of the Rev. Dr. Giles:

     "The rite of circumcision must not be passed over in any work
     that concerns the religion and literature of that (the Jewish)
     people."[85:1]

The first mention of Circumcision, in the Bible, occurs in
Genesis,[85:2] where God is said to have commanded the Israelites to
perform this rite, and thereby establish a covenant between him and his
chosen people:

     "This is my _covenant_ (said the Lord), which ye shall keep,
     between me and you and thy seed after thee; every male child
     among you shall be circumcised."

"We _need not doubt_," says the Rev. Dr. Giles, "that a _Divine command_
was given to Abraham that all his posterity should practice the rite of
circumcision."[85:3]

Such may be the case. If we believe that the Lord of the Universe
communes with man, we _need not doubt_ this; yet, we are compelled to
admit that nations other than the Hebrews practiced this rite. The
origin of it, however, as practiced among other nations, has never been
clearly ascertained. It has been maintained by some scholars that this
rite drew its origin from considerations of health and cleanliness,
which seems very probable, although doubted by many.[85:4] Whatever may
have been its origin, it is certain that it was practiced by many of the
ancient Eastern nations, who never came in contact with the Hebrews, in
early times, and, therefore, could not have learned it from them.

The _Egyptians_ practiced circumcision at a very early period,[85:5] at
least as early as the _fourth_ dynasty--pyramid one--and therefore, long
before the time assigned for Joseph's entry into Egypt, from whom some
writers have claimed the Egyptians learned it.[86:1]

In the decorative pictures of Egyptian tombs, one frequently meets with
persons on whom the denudation of the prepuce is manifested.[86:2]

On a stone found at Thebes, there is a representation of the
circumcision of Ramses II. A mother is seen holding her boy's arms back,
while the operator kneels in front.[86:3] All Egyptian priests were
obliged to be circumcised,[86:4] and Pythagoras had to submit to it
before being admitted to the Egyptian sacerdotal mysteries.[86:5]

Herodotus, the Greek historian, says:

     "As this practice can be traced both in Egypt and Ethiopia, to
     the remotest antiquity, it is not possible to say which first
     introduced it. The Phenicians and Syrians of Palestine
     acknowledge that they borrowed it from Egypt."[86:6]

It has been recognized among the _Kaffirs_ and other tribes of
_Africa_.[86:7] It was practiced among the _Fijians_ and _Samoans of
Polynesia_, and some races of _Australia_.[86:8] The _Suzees_ and the
_Mandingoes_ circumcise their women.[86:9] The _Assyrians_, _Colchins_,
_Phenicians_, and others, practiced it.[86:10] It has been from time
immemorial a custom among the _Abyssinians_, though, at the present
time, Christians.[86:11]

The antiquity of the custom may be assured from the fact of the _New
Hollanders_, (never known to civilized nations until a few years ago)
having practiced it.[86:12]

The _Troglodytes_ on the shore of the Red Sea, the _Idumeans_,
_Ammonites_, _Moabites_ and _Ishmaelites_, had the practice of
circumcision.[86:11]

The _ancient Mexicans_ also practiced this rite.[86:13] It was also
found among the _Amazon_ tribes of _South America_.[87:1] These
Indians, as well as some African tribes, were in the habit of
circumcising their women. Among the _Campas_, the women circumcised
themselves, and a man would not marry a woman who was not
circumcised.[87:2] They performed this singular rite upon arriving at
the age of puberty.[87:3]

Jesus of Nazareth was circumcised,[87:4] and had he been really the
founder of the Christian religion, so-called, it would certainly be
incumbent on all Christians to be circumcised as he was, and to observe
that Jewish law which he observed, and which he was so far from
abrogating, that he declared: "heaven and earth shall pass away" ere
"one jot or one tittle" of that law should be dispensed with.[87:5] But
the Christians are not followers of the religion of Jesus.[87:6] They
are followers of the religion of the _Pagans_. This, we believe, we
shall be able to show in Part Second of this work.


FOOTNOTES:

[85:1] Giles: Hebrew and Christian Records, vol. i. p. 249.

[85:2] Genesis, xvii. 10.

[85:3] Giles: Hebrew and Christian Records, vol. i. p. 251.

[85:4] Mr. Herbert Spencer shows (Principles of Sociology, pp. 290, 295)
that the sacrificing of a part of the body as a religious offering to
their deity, was, and is a common practice among savage tribes.
Circumcision may have originated in this way. And Mr. Wake, speaking of
it, says: "The _origin_ of this custom has not yet, so far as I am
aware, been satisfactorily explained. The idea that, under certain
climatic conditions, circumcision is necessary for cleanliness and
comfort, does not appear to be well founded, as the custom is not
universal even within the tropics." (Phallism in Ancient Religs., p.
36.)

[85:5] "Other men leave their private parts as they are formed by
nature, except those who have learned otherwise from them; but the
Egyptians are _circumcised_. . . . They are circumcised for the sake of
cleanliness, thinking it better to be clean than handsome." (Herodotus,
Book ii. ch. 36.)

[86:1] We have it also on the authority of Sir J. G. Wilkinson, that:
"this custom was established long before the arrival of Joseph in
Egypt," and that "this is proved by the ancient monuments."

[86:2] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, pp. 414, 415.

[86:3] Ibid. p. 415.

[86:4] Ibid. and Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, p. 89.

[86:5] Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 415.

[86:6] Herodotus: Book ii. ch. 36.

[86:7] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 114. Amberly: Analysis
Religious Belief, p. 67, and Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 309.

[86:8] Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 414, and Amberly's Analysis, pp.
63, 73.

[86:9] Amberly: Analysis of Relig. Belief, p. 73.

[86:10] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 414: Amberly's Analysis, p. 63;
Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 163, and Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii.
pp. 18, 19.

[86:11] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 414.

[86:12] Kendrick's Egypt, quoted by Dunlap; Mysteries of Adoni, p. 146.

[86:13] Amberly's Analysis, p. 63, Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p.
309, and Acosta, ii. 369.

[87:1] Orton: The Andes and the Amazon, p. 322.

[87:2] This was done by cutting off the _clytoris_.

[87:3] Orton: The Andes and the Amazon, p. 322. Gibbon's Rome, vol. iv.
p. 563, and Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 319.

"At the time of the conquest, the Spaniards found circumcised nations in
Central America, and on the Amazon, the Tecuna and Manaos tribes still
observe this practice. In the South Seas it has been met with among
three different races, but it is performed in a somewhat different
manner. On the Australian continent, not all, but the majority of
tribes, practiced circumcision. Among the Papuans, the inhabitants of
New Caledonia and the New Hebrides adhere to this custom. In his third
voyage, Captain Cook found it among the inhabitants of the Friendly
Islands, in particular at Tongataboo, and the younger Pritchard bears
witness to its practice in the Samoa or Fiji groups." (Oscar Peschel:
The Races of Man, p. 22.)

[87:4] Luke, ii. 21.

[87:5] Matthew, v. 18.

[87:6] In using the words "the religion of Jesus," we mean simply _the
religion of Israel_. We believe that Jesus of Nazareth was a _Jew_, in
every sense of the word, and that he did not establish a new religion,
or preach a new doctrine, in any way, shape, or form. "The preacher from
the Mount, the prophet of the Beatitudes, does but repeat with
persuasive lips what the law-givers of his race proclaimed in mighty
tones of command." (See chap. xi.)



CHAPTER XI.

CONCLUSION OF PART FIRST.


There are many other legends recorded in the Old Testament which might
be treated at length, but, as we have considered the principal and most
important, and as we have so much to examine in Part Second, which
treats of the New Testament, we shall take but a passing glance at a few
others.

In Genesis xli. is to be found the story of

     PHARAOH'S TWO DREAMS,

which is to the effect that Pharaoh dreamed that he stood by a river,
and saw come up out of it _seven_ fat kine, and _seven_ lean kine, which
devoured the fat ones. He then dreamed that he saw _seven_ good ears of
corn, on one stalk, spring up out of the ground. This was followed by
_seven_ poor ears, which sprang up after them, and devoured the good
ears.

Pharaoh, upon awaking from his sleep, and recalling the dreams which he
dreamed, was greatly troubled, "and he sent and called for all the
magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof, and Pharaoh told them
his dreams, but there was none that could interpret them unto Pharaoh."
Finally, his chief butler tells him of one Joseph, who was skilled in
interpreting dreams, and Pharaoh orders him to be brought before his
presence. He then repeats his dreams to Joseph, who immediately
interprets them to the great satisfaction of the king.

A very similar story is related in the Buddhist _Fo-pen-hing_--one of
their sacred books, which has been translated by Prof. Samuel
Beal--which, in substance, is as follows:

Suddhôdana Raja dreamed _seven_ different dreams in one night, when,
"awaking from his sleep, and recalling the visions he had seen, was
greatly troubled, so that the very hair on his body stood erect, and his
limbs trembled." He forthwith summoned to his side, within his palace,
all the great ministers of his council, and exhorted them in these
words: "Most honorable Sirs! be it known to you that during the present
night I have seen in my dreams strange and potent visions--there were
_seven_ distinct dreams, which I will now recite (he recites the
dreams). I pray you, honorable Sirs! let not these dreams escape your
memories, but in the morning, when I am seated in my palace, and
surrounded by my attendants, let them be brought to my mind (that they
may be interpreted.)"

At morning light, the king, seated in the midst of his attendants,
issued his commands to all the Brahmans, interpreters of dreams, within
his kingdom, in these terms, "All ye men of wisdom, explain for me by
interpretation the meaning of the dreams I have dreamed in my sleep."

Then all the wise Brahmans, interpreters of dreams, began to consider,
each one in his own heart, what the meaning of these visions could be;
till at last they addressed the king, and said: "Mahâ-raja! be it known
to you that we never before have heard such dreams as these, _and we
cannot interpret their meaning_."

On hearing this, Suddhôdana was very troubled in his heart, and
exceeding distressed. He thought within himself: "Who is there that can
satisfy these doubts of mine?"

Finally a "holy one," called _T'so-Ping_, being present in the inner
palace, and perceiving the sorrow and distress of the king, assumed the
appearance of a Brahman, and under this form he stood at the gate of the
king's palace, and cried out, saying: "I am able fully to interpret the
dreams of Suddhôdana Râja, and with certainty to satisfy all the
doubts."

The king ordered him to be brought before his presence, and then related
to him his dreams. Upon hearing them, _T'so-Ping_ immediately
interpreted them, to the great satisfaction of the king.[89:1]

In the second chapter of Exodus we read of

     MOSES THROWN INTO THE NILE,

which is done _by command of the king_.

There are many counterparts to this in ancient mythology; among them may
be mentioned that of the infant Perseus, who was, _by command of the
king_ (Acrisius of Argos), shut up in a chest, and cast into the sea. He
was found by one Dictys, who took great care of the child, and--as
Pharaoh's daughter did with the child Moses--educated him.[89:2]

The infant Bacchus was confined in a chest, _by order of Cadmus, King
of Thebes_, and thrown into the Nile.[90:1] He, like Moses, had two
mothers, one by nature, the other by adoption.[90:2] He was also, like
Moses, represented _horned_.[90:3]

Osiris was also confined in a chest, and thrown into the river
Nile.[90:4]

When Osiris was shut into the coffer, and cast into the river, he
floated to Phenicia, and was there received under the name of Adonis.
Isis (his mother, or wife) wandered in quest of him, came to Byblos, and
seated herself by a fountain in silence and tears. She was then taken by
the servants of the royal palace, and made to attend on the young prince
of the land. In like manner, Demeter, after Aidoneus had ravished her
daughter, went in pursuit, reached Eleusis, seated herself by a well,
conversed with the daughters of the queen, and became _nurse to her
son_.[90:5] So likewise, when Moses was put into the ark made of
bulrushes, and cast into the Nile, he was found by the daughters of
Pharaoh, and his own mother became his nurse.[90:6] This is simply
another version of the same myth.

In the second chapter of the second book of Kings, we read of

     ELIJAH ASCENDING TO HEAVEN.

There are many counterparts to this, in heathen mythology.

Hindoo sacred writings relate many such stories--how some of their Holy
Ones were taken up alive into heaven--and impressions on rocks are
shown, said to be foot-prints, made when they ascended.[90:7]

According to Babylonian mythology, _Xisuthrus_ was translated to
heaven.[90:8]

The story of Elijah ascending to heaven in a chariot of fire may also be
compared to the fiery, flame-red chariot of _Ushas_.[90:9] This idea of
some Holy One ascending to heaven without dying was found in the ancient
mythology of the _Chinese_.[90:10]

The story of

     DAVID KILLING GOLIATH,

by throwing a stone and hitting him in the forehead,[90:11] may be
compared to the story of _Thor_, the Scandinavian hero, throwing a
hammer at Hrungnir, and striking him in the forehead.[91:1]

We read in Numbers[91:2] that

     BALAAM'S ASS SPOKE

to his master, and reproved him.

In ancient fables or stories in which animals play prominent parts, each
creature is endowed with the power of speech. This idea was common in
the whole of Western Asia and Egypt. It is found in various Egyptian and
Chaldean stories.[91:3] Homer has recorded that the _horse_ of Achilles
spoke to him.[91:4]

We have also a very wonderful story in that of

     JOSHUA'S COMMAND TO THE SUN.

This story is related in the tenth chapter of the book of Joshua, and is
to the effect that the Israelites, who were at battle with the Amorites,
wished the day to be lengthened that they might continue their
slaughter, whereupon Joshua said: "Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon,
and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. _And the sun stood still_, and
the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their
enemies. . . . And there was no day like that before it or after it."

There are many stories similar to this, to be found among other nations
of antiquity. We have, as an example, that which is related of Bacchus
in the Orphic hymns, wherein it says that this god-man arrested the
course of the sun and the moon.[91:5]

An Indian legend relates that the sun stood still to hear the pious
ejaculations of Arjouan after the death of Crishna.[91:6]

A holy Buddhist by the name of Mâtanga prevented the sun, at his
command, from rising, and bisected the moon.[91:7] Arresting the course
of the sun was a common thing among the disciples of Buddha.[91:8]

The _Chinese_ also, had a legend of the sun standing still,[91:9] and a
legend was found among the _Ancient Mexicans_ to the effect that one of
their holy persons commanded the sun to stand still, which command was
obeyed.[91:10]

We shall now endeavor to answer the question which must naturally arise
in the minds of all who see, for the first time, the similarity in the
legends of the Hebrews and those of other nations, namely: have the
Hebrews copied from other nations, or, have other nations copied from
the Hebrews? To answer this question we shall; _first_, give a brief
account or history of the Pentateuch and other books of the Old
Testament from which we have taken legends, and show about what time
they were written; and, _second_, show that other nations were possessed
of these legends long before that time, _and that the Jews copied from
them_.

The Pentateuch is ascribed, in our _modern_ translations, to _Moses_,
and he is generally supposed to be the author. This is altogether
erroneous, as Moses had _nothing whatever_ to do with these five books.
Bishop Colenso, speaking of this, says:

     "The books of the Pentateuch _are never ascribed to Moses in
     the inscriptions of Hebrew manuscripts, or in printed copies
     of the Hebrew Bible_. Nor are they styled the '_Books of
     Moses_' in the Septuagint[92:1] or Vulgate,[92:2] _but only in
     our modern translations_, after the example of many eminent
     Fathers of the Church, who, with the exception of Jerome, and,
     perhaps, Origen, were, one and all of them, very little
     acquainted with the Hebrew language, and still less with its
     criticism."[92:3]

The author of "The Religion of Israel," referring to this subject, says:

     "The Jews who lived _after_ the Babylonish Captivity, and the
     Christians following their examples, ascribed these books (the
     Pentateuch) to Moses; and for many centuries the _notion_ was
     cherished that he had really written them. _But strict and
     impartial investigation has shown that this opinion must be
     given up_; and that _nothing_ in the whole Law really comes
     from Moses himself except the Ten Commandments. _And even
     these were not delivered by him in the same form as we find
     them now._ If we still call these books by his name, it is
     only because the Israelites always thought of him as their
     first and greatest law-giver, _and the actual authors grouped
     all their narratives and laws around his figure, and
     associated them with his name_."[92:4]

As we cannot go into an extended account, and show _how this is known_,
we will simply say that it is principally by _internal_ evidence that
these facts are ascertained.[92:5]

Now that we have seen that Moses did not write the books of the
Pentateuch, our next endeavor will be to ascertain _when_ they were
written, and _by whom_.

We can say that they were not written by any _one_ person, nor were they
written _at the same time_.

We can trace _three_ principal redactions of the Pentateuch, that is to
say, the material was _worked over_, and _re-edited_, with
_modifications_ and _additions_, by _different people_, at _three
distinct epochs_.[93:1]

The two principal writers are generally known as the _Jehovistic_ and
the _Elohistic_. We have--in speaking of the "Eden Myth" and the legend
of the "Deluge"--already alluded to this fact, and have illustrated how
these writers' narratives conflict with each other.

The _Jehovistic_ writer is supposed to have been a prophet, who, it
would seem, was anxious to give Israel a history. He begins at Genesis,
ii. 4, with a _short_ account, of the "_Creation_," and then he carries
the story on regularly until the Israelites enter Canaan. It is to him
that we are indebted for the _charming_ pictures of the patriarchs. _He
took these from other writings, or from the popular legends._[93:2]

About 725 B. C. the Israelites were conquered by Salmanassar, King of
Assyria, and many of them were carried away captives. _Their place was
supplied by Assyrian colonists from Babylon, Persia, and other
places._[93:3] This fact is of the greatest importance, and should not
be forgotten, as we find that the _first_ of the three writers of the
Pentateuch, spoken of above, _wrote about this time_, and the Israelites
heard, _from the colonists from Babylon, Persia, and other places--for
the first time--many of the legends which this writer wove into the
fabulous history which he wrote, especially the accounts of the Creation
and the Deluge_.

The Pentateuch remained in this, its _first_ form, until the year 620 B.
C. Then a certain _priest_ of marked prophetic sympathies wrote a book
of law which has come down to us in Deuteronomy, iv. 44, to xxvi., and
xxviii. Here we find the demands which the _Mosaic_ party at _that day_
were making thrown into the form of laws. It was by King Josiah that
this book was first introduced and proclaimed as authoritative.[93:4] It
was soon afterwards _wove into_ the work of the _first_ Pentateuchian
writer, and at the same time "_a few new passages_" were added, some of
which related to Joshua, the successor of Moses.[94:1]

At this period in Israel's history, Jehovah had become almost forgotten,
and "other gods" had taken his place.[94:2] The Mosaic party, so
called--who worshiped Jehovah exclusively--were in the minority, but
when King Amon--who was a worshiper of Moloch--died, and was succeeded
by his son Josiah, a change immediately took place. This young prince,
who was only eight years old at the death of his father, the Mosaic
party succeeded in winning over to their interests. In the year 621 B.
C., Josiah, now in the eighteenth year of his reign, began a thorough
reformation which completely answered to the ideas of the Mosaic
party.[94:3]

It was during this time that the _second_ Pentateuchian writer wrote,
and _he_ makes _Moses_ speak as the law-giver. This writer was probably
Hilkiah, _who claimed to have found a book, written by Moses, in the
temple,[94:4] although it had only just been drawn up_.[94:5]

The principal objections which _were_ brought against the claims of
Hilkiah, _but which are not needed in the present age of inquiry_, was
that Shaphan and Josiah read it off, not as if it were an _old_ book,
_but as though it had been recently written_, when any person who is
acquainted, in the slightest degree, with language, must know that a man
could not read off, at once, _a book written eight hundred years
before_. The phraseology would necessarily be so altered by time as to
render it comparatively unintelligible.

We must now turn to the _third_ Pentateuchian writer, _whose writings
were published 444 B. C._

At that time Ezra (or Ezdras) _added_ to the work of his two
_predecessors_ a series of _laws_ and _narratives_ which had been drawn
up _by some of the priests in Babylon_.[94:6] This "series of laws and
narratives," which was written by "some of the (Israelitish) priests in
Babylon," was called "_The Book of Origins_" (probably containing the
Babylonian account of the "_Origin of Things_," or the "_Creation_").
Ezra brought the book from _Babylon_ to Jerusalem. He made some
modifications in it and constituted it a code of law for Israel,
_dove-tailing it into those parts of the Pentateuch which existed
before_. A few _alterations_ and _additions_ were subsequently made,
but these are of minor importance, and we may fairly say _that Ezra put
the Pentateuch into the form in which we have it_ (about 444 B. C.).

These priestly passages are partly occupied with historical matter,
comprising a very free account of things from the creation of the world
to the arrival of Israel in Canaan. Everything is here presented from
the _priestly_ point of view; some events, elsewhere recorded, are
_touched up in the priestly spirit, and others are entirely
invented_.[95:1]

It was the belief of the Jews, asserted by the _Pirke Aboth_ (Sayings of
the Fathers), one of the oldest books of the _Talmud_,[95:2] as well as
other Jewish records, that Ezra, acting in accordance with a divine
commission, re-wrote the Old Testament, the manuscripts of which were
said to have been lost in the destruction of the first temple, when
Nebuchadnezzar took Jerusalem.[95:3] This we _know_ could not have been
the case. The fact that Ezra wrote--adding to, and taking from the
already existing books of the Pentateuch--was probably the foundation
for this tradition. The account of it is to be found in the Apocryphal
book of Esdras, a book deemed authentic by the Greek Church.

Dr. Knappert, speaking of this, says:

     "For many centuries, both the Christians and the Jews supposed
     that Ezra had brought together the sacred writings of his
     people, united them in one whole, and introduced them as a
     book given by the Spirit of God--a Holy Scripture.

     "The only authority for this supposition was a very modern and
     altogether untrustworthy _tradition_. The historical and
     critical studies of our times have been emancipated from the
     influence of this tradition, and the most ancient statements
     with regard to the subject have been hunted up and compared
     together. These statements are, indeed, scanty and incomplete,
     and many a detail is still obscure; but the main facts have
     been completely ascertained.

     "_Before the Babylonish captivity, Israel had no sacred
     writings._ There were certain laws, prophetic writings, and a
     few historical books, but no one had ever thought of ascribing
     binding and divine authority to these documents.

     "_Ezra brought the priestly law with him from Babylon,
     altering it and amalgamating it with the narratives and laws
     already in existence, and thus produced the Pentateuch in
     pretty much the same form_ (though not quite, as we shall
     show) _as we still have it. These books got the name of the
     'Law of Moses,' or simply the 'Law.'_ Ezra introduced them
     into Israel (B. C. 444), and gave them binding authority, _and
     from that time forward they were considered divine_."[95:4]

From the time of Ezra until the year 287 B. C., when the Pentateuch was
translated into Greek by order of Ptolemy Philadelphus, King of Egypt,
these books evidently underwent some changes. This the writer quoted
above admits, in saying:

     "Later still (viz., after the time of Ezra), _a few more
     changes and additions were made_, and so the Pentateuch grew
     into its present form."[96:1]

In answer to those who claim that the Pentateuch was written by _one_
person, Bishop Colenso says:

     "It is certainly inconceivable that if the _Pentateuch_ be the
     production of _one and the same hand throughout_, it should
     contain _such a number of glaring inconsistencies_. . . . No
     single author could have been guilty of such absurdities; but
     it is quite possible, and what was almost sure to happen in
     such a case, that, if the Pentateuch be the work of _different
     authors_ in _different ages_, this fact should betray itself
     _by the existence of contradictions in the narrative_."[96:2]

Having ascertained the origin of the Pentateuch, or first five books of
the Old Testament, it will be unnecessary to refer to the others _here_,
as we have nothing to do with _them_ in our investigations. Suffice it
to say then, that: "In the earlier period after Ezra, _none of the other
books_ which already existed, enjoyed the same authority as the
Pentateuch."[96:3]

It is probable[96:4] that Nehemiah made a collection of historical and
prophetic books, songs, _and letters from Persian kings_, not to form a
second collection, but for the purpose of saving them from being lost.
The scribes of Jerusalem, followers of Ezra, who were known as "the men
of the Great Synagogue," _were the collectors of the second and third
divisions of the Old Testament_. They collected together the historical
and prophetic books, songs, &c., which were then in existence, _and
after altering many of them_, they were added to the collection of
_sacred_ books. It must not be supposed that any fixed plan was pursued
in this work, _or that the idea was entertained from the first, that
these books would one day stand on the same level with the
Pentateuch_.[96:5]

In the course of time, however, many of the Jews began to consider
_some_ of these books as _sacred_. The Alexandrian Jews adopted books
into the canon which those of Jerusalem did not, _and this difference of
opinion lasted for a long time, even till the second century after
Christ. It was not until this time that all the books of the Old
Testament acquired divine authority._[96:6] It is not known, however,
_just when_ the canon of the Old Testament was closed. _The time and
manner in which it was done is altogether obscure._[97:1] Jewish
tradition indicates that the full canonicity of several books was not
free from doubt till the time of the famous Rabbi Akiba,[97:2] who
flourished about the beginning of the second century after Christ.[97:3]

After giving a history of the books of the Old Testament, the author of
"The Religion of Israel," whom we have followed in this investigation,
says:

     "The great majority of the writers of the Old Testament had no
     other source of information about the past history of Israel
     than simple _tradition_. Indeed, it could not have been
     otherwise, for in primitive times no one used to record
     anything in writing, and the only way of preserving a
     knowledge of the past was to hand it down by word of mouth.
     The father told the son what his elders had told him, and the
     son handed it on to the next generation.

     "Not only did the historian of Israel draw from tradition with
     perfect freedom, and write down without hesitation anything
     they heard and what was current in the mouths of the people,
     _but they did not shrink from modifying their representation
     of the past in any way that they thought would be good and
     useful_. It is difficult for us to look at things from this
     point of view, because our ideas of historical good faith are
     so utterly different. When we write history, we know that we
     ought to be guided solely by a desire to represent facts
     exactly as they really happened. All that we are concerned
     with is _reality_; we want to make the old times live again,
     and we take all possible pains not to remodel the past from
     the point of view of to-day. All we want to know is what
     happened, and how men lived, thought, and worked in those
     days. The Israelites had a very different notion of the nature
     of historical composition. When a prophet or a priest related
     something about bygone times, his object was not to convey
     knowledge about those times; on the contrary, he used history
     merely as a vehicle for the conveyance of instruction and
     exhortation. Not only did he confine his narrative to such
     matters as he thought would serve his purpose but he never
     hesitated to modify what he knew of the past, _and he did not
     think twice about touching it up from his own imagination,
     simply that it might be more conducive to the end he had in
     view and chime in better with his opinions. All the past
     became colored through and through with the tinge of his own
     mind._ Our own notions of honor and good faith would never
     permit all this; but we must not measure ancient writers by
     our own standard; they considered that they were acting quite
     within their rights and in strict accordance with duty and
     conscience."[97:4]

It will be noticed that, in our investigations on the authority of the
Pentateuch, we have followed, principally, Dr. Knappert's ideas as set
forth in "The Religion of Israel."

This we have done because we could not go into an extended
investigation, and because his words are very expressive, and just to
the point. To those who may think that his ideas are not the same as
those entertained by other Biblical scholars of the present day, we
subjoin, in a note below, a list of works to which they are
referred.[98:1]

We shall now, after giving a brief history of the Pentateuch, refer to
the legends of which we have been treating, and endeavor to show from
whence the Hebrews borrowed them. The first of these is "_The Creation
and Fall of Man_."

Egypt, the country out of which the Israelites came, had no story of the
Creation and Fall of Man, _such as we have found among the Hebrews_;
they therefore could not have learned it from _them_. The _Chaldeans_,
however, as we saw in our first chapter, had this legend, and it is from
them that the Hebrews borrowed it.

The account which we have given of the Chaldean story of the Creation
and Fall of Man, was taken, as we stated, from the writings of Berosus,
the Chaldean historian, who lived in the time of Alexander the Great
(356-325 B. C.), and as the Jews were acquainted with the story some
centuries earlier than this, his works did not prove that these
traditions were in Babylonia before the Jewish captivity, and could not
afford testimony in favor of the statement that the Jews borrowed this
legend from the Babylonians _at that time_. It was left for Mr. George
Smith, of the British Museum, to establish, without a doubt, the fact
that this legend was known to the Babylonians at least _two thousand
years before the time assigned for the birth of Jesus_. The cuneiform
inscriptions discovered by him, while on an expedition to Assyria,
organized by the London "Daily Telegraph," was the means of doing this,
and although by far the greatest number of these tablets belong to the
age of Assurbanipal, who reigned over Assyria B. C. 670, it is
"acknowledged on all hands that these tablets are not the originals,
_but are only copies from earlier texts_." "The Assyrians acknowledge
themselves that this literature was borrowed from Babylonian sources,
and of course it is to Babylonia we have to look to ascertain the
approximate dates of the original documents."[98:2] Mr. Smith then
shows, from "fragments of the Cuneiform account of the Creation and
Fall" which have been discovered, that, "_in the period from B. C. 2000
to 1500, the Babylonians believed in a story similar to that in
Genesis_." It is probable, however, says Mr. Smith, that this legend
existed as _traditions_ in the country _long before it was committed to
writing_, and some of these traditions exhibited great difference in
details, _showing that they had passed through many changes_.[99:1]

Professor James Fergusson, in his celebrated work on "Tree and Serpent
Worship," says:

     "The two chapters which refer to this (_i. e._, the Garden,
     the Tree, and the Serpent), as indeed the whole of the first
     eight of Genesis, are now generally admitted by scholars to be
     made up of fragments of earlier books or earlier traditions,
     belonging, properly speaking, to Mesopotamia rather than to
     Jewish history, the exact meaning of which the writers of the
     Pentateuch seem hardly to have appreciated when they
     transcribed them in the form in which they are now
     found."[99:2]

John Fiske says:

     "The story of the Serpent in Eden is an Aryan story in every
     particular. The notion of Satan as the author of evil appears
     only in the later books, _composed after the Jews had come
     into close contact with Persian ideas_."[99:3]

Prof. John W. Draper says:

     "In the old legends of dualism, the evil spirit was said to
     have _sent a serpent to ruin Paradise_. These legends became
     known to the Jews _during their Babylonian captivity_."[99:4]

Professor Goldziher also shows, in his "Mythology Among the
Hebrews,"[99:5] that the story of the creation was borrowed by the
Hebrews from the Babylonians. He also informs us that the notion of the
_bôrê_ and _yôsêr_, "Creator" (the term used in the cosmogony in
Genesis) as an integral part of the idea of God, _are first brought into
use by the prophets of the captivity_. "Thus also the story of the
_Garden of Eden_, as a supplement to the history of the Creation, _was
written down at Babylon_."

Strange as it may appear, after the _Genesis_ account, we may pass
through the whole Pentateuch, and other books of the Old Testament,
clear to the end, and will find that the story of the "_Garden of Eden_"
and "_Fall of Man_," is hardly alluded to, if at all. Lengkerke says:
"One single _certain_ trace of the employment of the story of Adam's
fall is entirely wanting in the Hebrew Canon (after the Genesis
account). Adam, Eve, the Serpent, the woman's seduction of her husband,
&c., are all images, _to which the remaining words of the Israelites
never again recur_."[100:1]

This circumstance can only be explained by the fact that the first
chapters of Genesis were not written until _after_ the other portions
had been written.

It is worthy of notice, that this story of the Fall of Man, upon which
the whole orthodox scheme of a divine Saviour or Redeemer is based, was
_not_ considered by the learned Israelites as _fact_. They simply looked
upon it as a story which satisfied the ignorant, but which should be
considered as _allegory_ by the learned.[100:2]

Rabbi Maimonides (Moses Ben Maimon), one of the most celebrated of the
Rabbis, says on this subject:--

     "We must not understand, or take in a literal sense, what is
     written in _the book_ on the _Creation_, nor form of it the
     same ideas which are participated by the generality of
     mankind; _otherwise our ancient sages would not have so much
     recommended to us, to hide the real meaning of it, and not to
     lift the allegorical veil, which covers the truth contained
     therein_. When taken in its _literal sense_, the work gives
     the most absurd and most extravagant ideas of the Deity.
     'Whosoever should divine its true meaning ought to take great
     care in not divulging it.' This is a maxim repeated to us by
     all our sages, principally concerning the understanding of the
     work of the six days."[100:3]

Philo, a Jewish writer contemporary with Jesus, held the same opinion of
the character of the sacred books of the Hebrews. He has made two
particular treatises, bearing the title of "_The Allegories_," and he
traces back to the _allegorical_ sense the "Tree of Life," the "Rivers
of Paradise," and the other fictions of the Genesis.[100:4]

Many of the early Christian Fathers declared that, in the story of the
Creation and Fall of Man, there was but an _allegorical fiction_. Among
these may be mentioned St. Augustine, who speaks of it in his "City of
God," and also Origen, who says:

     "What man of sense will agree with the statement that the
     first, second, and third days, in which the _evening_ is named
     and the _morning_, were without sun, moon and stars? What man
     is found such an idiot as to suppose that God planted trees in
     Paradise like an husbandman? _I believe that every man must
     hold these things for images under which a hidden sense is
     concealed._"[100:5]

Origen believed aright, as it is now almost universally admitted, that
the stories of the "Garden of Eden," the "Elysian Fields," the "Garden
of the Blessed," &c., which were the abode of the blessed, where grief
and sorrow could not approach them, where plague and sickness could not
touch them, were founded on _allegory_. These abodes of delight were far
away in the _West_, where the sun goes down beyond the bounds of the
earth. They were the "Golden Islands" sailing in a sea of blue--_the
burnished clouds floating in the pure ether_. In a word, _the "Elysian
Fields" are the clouds at eventide_. The picture was suggested by the
images drawn from the phenomena of sunset and twilight.[101:1]

Eating of the forbidden fruit was simply a figurative mode of expressing
the performance of the act necessary to the perpetuation of the human
race. The "Tree of Knowledge" was a Phallic tree, and the fruit which
grew upon it was Phallic fruit.[101:2]

In regard to the story of "_The Deluge_," we have already seen[101:3]
that "Egyptian records tell nothing of a cataclysmal deluge," and that,
"the land was _never_ visited by other than its annual beneficent
overflow of the river Nile." Also, that "the Pharaoh Khoufou-cheops was
building his pyramid, according to Egyptian chronicle, when the whole
world was under the waters of a universal deluge, according to the
Hebrew chronicle." This is sufficient evidence that the Hebrews did not
borrow the legend from the Egyptians.

We have also seen, in the chapter that treated of this legend, that it
corresponded in all the principal features with the _Chaldean_ account.
We shall now show that it was taken from this.

Mr. Smith discovered, on the site of Ninevah, during the years 1873-4,
cylinders belonging to the early Babylonian monarchy, (from 2500 to 1500
B. C.) which contained the legend of the flood,[101:4] and which we gave
in Chapter II. _This was the foundation for the Hebrew legend, and they
learned it at the time of the Captivity._[101:5] The myth of Deucalion,
the Grecian hero, was also taken from the same source. The Greeks
learned it from the Chaldeans.

We read in Chambers's Encyclopædia, that:

     "It was at one time extensively believed, even by intelligent
     scholars, that the myth of Deucalion was a corrupted
     tradition of the _Noachian_ deluge, but this _untenable_
     opinion is now all but universally abandoned."[102:1]

This idea was abandoned after it was found that the Deucalion myth was
older than the Hebrew.

What was said in regard to the Eden story not being mentioned in other
portions of the Old Testament save in Genesis, also applies to this
story of the Deluge. _Nowhere_ in the other books of the Old Testament
is found any reference to this story, except in Isaiah, where "the
waters of Noah" are mentioned, and in Ezekiel, where simply the _name_
of Noah is mentioned.

We stated in Chapter II. that some persons saw in this story an
_astronomical_ myth. Although not generally admitted, yet there are very
strong reasons for believing this to be the case.

According to the _Chaldean_ account--which is the oldest one
known--there were _seven_ persons saved in the ark.[102:2] There were
also _seven_ persons saved, according to some of the _Hindoo_
accounts.[102:3] That this referred to the sun, moon, and five planets
looks very probable. We have also seen that Noah was the _tenth_
patriarch, and Xisuthrus (who is the Chaldean hero) was the _tenth_
king.[102:4] Now, according to the Babylonian table, their _Zodiac_
contained _ten_ gods called the "_Ten Zodiac_ gods."[102:5] They also
believed that whenever all the _planets_ met in the sign of Capricorn,
_the whole earth was overwhelmed with a deluge of water_.[102:6] The
_Hindoos_ and other nations had a similar belief.[102:7]

It is well known that the Chaldeans were great astronomers. When
Alexander the Great conquered the city of Babylon, the Chaldean priests
boasted to the Greek philosophers, who followed his army, that they had
continued their astronomical calculations through a period of more than
forty thousand years.[102:8] Although this statement cannot be credited,
yet the great antiquity of Chaldea cannot be doubted, and its immediate
connection with Hindostan, or Egypt, is abundantly proved by the little
that is known concerning its religion, and by the few fragments that
remain of its former grandeur.

In regard to the story of "_The Tower of Babel_" little need be said.
This, as well as the story of the Creation and Fall of Man, and the
Deluge, was borrowed from the Babylonians.[102:9]

"It seems," says George Smith, "from the indications in the (cuneiform)
inscriptions, that there happened in the interval between 2000 and 1850
B. C. a general _collection_ of the development of the various
traditions of the Creation, Flood, Tower of Babel, and other similar
legends." "These legends were, however, traditions before they were
committed to writing, _and were common in some form to all the
country_."[103:1]

The Tower of Babel, or the confusion of tongues, is nowhere alluded to
in the Old Testament outside of Genesis, where the story is related.

The next story in order is "_The Trial of Abraham's Faith_."

In this connection we have shown similar legends taken from _Grecian_
mythology, which legends may have given _the idea_ to the writer of the
Hebrew story.

It may appear strange that the _Hebrews_ should have been acquainted
with _Grecian_ mythology, yet we know this was the case. The fact is
accounted for in the following manner:

Many of the Jews taken captive at the Edomite sack of Jerusalem were
sold to the _Grecians_,[103:2] who took them to their country. While
there, they became acquainted with Grecian legends, and when they
returned from "the Islands of the Sea"--as they called the Western
countries--_they brought them to Jerusalem_.[103:3]

This legend, as we stated in the chapter which treated of it, was
written at the time when the Mosaic party in Israel were endeavoring to
abolish human sacrifices and other "abominations," and the author of the
story invented it to make it appear that the Lord had abolished them in
the time of Abraham. The earliest _Targum_[103:4] knows nothing about
the legend, showing that the story was not in the Pentateuch at the time
this Targum was written.

We have also seen that a story written by Sanchoniathon (about B. C.
1300) of one Saturn, whom the Phenicians called _Israel_, bore a
resemblance to the Hebrew legend of Abraham. Now, Count de Volney
tells us that "a similar tradition prevailed among the _Chaldeans_,"
and that they had the history of one _Zerban_--which means
"rich-in-gold"[103:5]--that corresponded in many respects with the
history of Abraham.[103:6] It may, then, have been from the Chaldean
story that the Hebrew fable writer got his idea.

The next legend which we examined was that of "_Jacob's Vision of the
Ladder_." We claimed that it probably referred to the doctrine of the
transmigration of souls from one body into another, and also gave the
apparent reason for the invention of the story.

The next story was "_The Exodus from Egypt, and Passage through the Red
Sea_," in which we showed, from Egyptian history, that the Israelites
were _turned out_ of the country on account of their uncleanness, and
that the wonderful exploits recorded of Moses were simply copies of
legends related of the sun-god Bacchus. These legends came from "the
Islands of the Sea," and came in very handy for the Hebrew fable
writers; they saved them the trouble of _inventing_.

We now come to the story relating to "_The Receiving of the Ten
Commandments_" by Moses from the Lord, on the top of a mountain, 'mid
thunders and lightnings.

All that is likely to be historical in this account, is that Moses
assembled, not, indeed, the whole of the people, but the heads of the
tribes, and gave them the code which he had prepared.[104:1] The
_marvellous_ portion of the story was evidently copied from that related
of the law-giver Zoroaster, by the _Persians_, and the idea that there
were _two_ tables of stone with the Law written thereon was evidently
taken from the story of Bacchus, the Law-giver, who had _his_ laws
written on _two tables of stone_.[104:2]

The next legend treated was that of "_Samson and his Exploits_."

Those who, _like the learned of the last century_, maintain that the
Pagans copied from the Hebrews, may say that Samson was the model of all
their similar stories, but now that our ideas concerning antiquity are
enlarged, and when we know that Hercules is well known to have been the
God _Sol_, whose _allegorical history_ was spread among many nations
long before the Hebrews were ever heard of, we are authorized to believe
and to say that some Jewish _mythologist_--for what else are their
so-called historians--composed the anecdote of Samson, by partly
disfiguring the popular traditions of the Greeks, Phenicians and
Chaldeans, and claiming that hero for his own nation.[104:3]

The Babylonian story of Izdubar, the lion-killer, who wandered to _the
regions of the blessed_ (the Grecian Elysium), who crossed _a great
waste of land_ (the desert of _Lybia_, according to the Grecian mythos),
and arrived at a region _where splendid trees were laden with jewels_
(the Grecian Garden of the Hesperides), is probably the foundation for
the Hercules and other corresponding myths. This conclusion is drawn
from the fact that, although the story of Hercules was known in the
island of Thasus, by the _Phenician_ colony settled there, _five
centuries before he was known in Greece_,[105:1] yet _its antiquity
among the Babylonians antedates that_.

The age of the legends of Izdubar among the Babylonians cannot be placed
with certainty, yet, the cuneiform inscriptions relating to this hero,
which have been found, may be placed at about 2000 years B. C.[105:2]
"As these stories were _traditions_," says Mr. Smith, the discoverer of
the cylinders, "before they were committed to writing, their antiquity
as tradition is probably much greater than that."[105:3]

With these legends before them, the Jewish priests in Babylon had no
difficulty in arranging the story of Samson, and adding it to their
already fabulous history.

As the Rev. Dr. Isaac M. Wise remarks, in speaking of the ancient
Hebrews: "They adopted forms, terms, ideas and myths of all nations with
whom they came in contact, and, like the Greeks, in their way, _cast
them all in a peculiar Jewish religious mold_."

We have seen, in the chapter which treats of this legend, that it is
recorded in the book of Judges. _This book was not written till after
the first set of Israelites had been carried into captivity, and perhaps
still later._[105:4]

After this we have "_Jonah swallowed by a Big Fish_," which is the last
legend treated.

We saw that it was a _solar myth_, known to many nations of antiquity.
The writer of the book--whoever he may have been--_lived in the fifth
century before Christ_--after the Jews had become acquainted and had
mixed with other nations. The writer of this wholly fictitious story,
taking the prophet Jonah--who was evidently an historical personage--for
his hero, was perhaps intending to show the loving-kindness of
Jehovah.[105:5]

We have now examined all the _principal_ Old Testament legends, and,
after what has been seen, we think that no _impartial_ person can still
consider them _historical facts_. That so great a number of educated
persons still do so seems astonishing, in our way of thinking. They have
repudiated Greek and Roman mythology with disdain; why then admit with
respect the mythology of the Jews? Ought the miracles of Jehovah to
impress us more than those of Jupiter? We think not; they should all be
looked upon as _relics of the past_.

That Christian writers are beginning to be aroused to the idea that
another tack should be taken, differing from the old, is very evident.
This is clearly seen by the words of Prof. Richard A. Armstrong, the
translator of Dr. Knappert's "Religion of Israel" into English. In the
_Preface_ of this work, he says:

     "It appears to me to be profoundly important that the youthful
     English mind should be faithfully and accurately informed of
     the results of modern research into the early development of
     the Israelitish religion. Deplorable and irreparable mischief
     will be done to the generation, now passing into manhood and
     womanhood, if their educators leave them ignorant or loosely
     informed on these topics; for they will then be rudely
     awakened by the enemies of Christianity from a blind and
     unreasoning faith in the supernatural inspiration of the
     Scriptures; and being suddenly and bluntly made aware that
     Abraham, Moses, David, and the rest did not say, do, or write
     what has been ascribed to them, they will fling away all care
     for the venerable religion of Israel and all hope that it can
     nourish their own religious life. How much happier will those
     of our children and young people be who learn what is now
     known of the actual origin of the Pentateuch and the Writings,
     from the same lips which have taught them that the Prophets
     indeed prepared the way for Jesus, and that God is indeed our
     Heavenly Father. For these will, without difficulty, perceive
     that God's love is none the feebler and that the Bible is no
     less precious, because Moses knew nothing of the Levitical
     legislation, or because it was not the warrior monarch on his
     semi-barbaric throne, but some far later son of Israel, who
     breathed forth the immortal hymn of faith, 'The Lord is my
     Shepherd; I shall not want.'"

For the benefit of those who may think that the evidence of plagiarism
on the part of the Hebrew writers has not been sufficiently
substantiated, we will quote a few words from Prof. Max Müller, who is
one of the best English authorities on this subject that can be
produced. In speaking of this he says:

     "The opinion that the _Pagan_ religions were mere corruptions
     of the religion of the Old Testament, once supported by men of
     high authority and great learning, _is now as completely
     surrendered as the attempts of explaining Greek and Latin as
     the corruptions of Hebrew_."[106:1]

Again he says:

     "As soon as the ancient language and religion of India became
     known in Europe it was asserted that Sanskrit, _like all other
     languages_, was to be derived from Hebrew, and the ancient
     religion of the Brahmans from the Old Testament. There was at
     that time an enthusiasm among Oriental scholars, particularly
     at Calcutta, and an interest for Oriental antiquities in the
     public at large, of which we, in these days of apathy for
     Eastern literature, can hardly form an adequate idea.
     Everybody wished to be first in the field, and to bring to
     light some of the treasures which were supposed to be hidden
     in the sacred literature of the Brahmans. . . . No doubt the
     temptation was great. No one could look down for a moment into
     the rich mine of religious and mythological lore that was
     suddenly opened before the eyes of scholars and theologians,
     _without being struck by a host of similarities, not only in
     the languages, but also in the ancient traditions of the
     Hindoos_, the Greeks, and the Romans; and if at that time the
     Greeks and Romans were still _supposed_ to have borrowed their
     language and their religion from Jewish quarters, _the same
     conclusion could hardly be avoided with regard to the language
     and the religion of the Brahmans of India_. . . .

     "The student of Pagan religion as well as Christian
     missionaries were bent on discovering more striking and more
     startling coincidences, _in order to use them in confirmation
     of their favorite theory that some rays of a primeval
     revelation, or some reflection of the Jewish religion, had
     reached the uttermost ends of the world_."[107:1]

The result of all this is summed up by Prof. Müller as follows:

     "_It was the fate of all (these) pioneers, not only to be left
     behind in the assault which they had planned, but to find that
     many of their approaches were made in a false direction, and
     had to be abandoned._"[107:2]

Before closing this chapter, we shall say a few words on the religion of
Israel. It is supposed by many--in fact, we have heard it asserted by
those who should know better--that the Israelites were always
_monotheists_, that they worshiped One God only--_Jehovah_.[107:3] This
is altogether erroneous; they were not different from their
neighbors--the Heathen, so-called--in regard to their religion.

In the first place, we know that they revered and worshiped a _Bull_,
called _Apis_,[107:4] just as the ancient Egyptians did. They worshiped
the _sun_,[108:1] the _moon_,[108:2] the _stars_ and all the host of
heaven.[108:3]

They worshiped _fire_, and kept it burning on an altar, just as the
Persians and other nations.[108:4] They worshiped _stones_,[108:5]
revered an _oak tree_,[108:6] and "bowed down" to _images_.[108:7] They
worshiped a "Queen of Heaven" called the goddess _Astarte_ or _Mylitta_,
and "burned incense" to her.[108:8] They worshiped _Baal_,[108:9]
Moloch,[108:10] and _Chemosh_,[108:11] _and offered up human sacrifices
to them_,[108:12] after which in some instances, _they ate the
victim_.[108:13]

It was during the Captivity that idolatry ceased among the
Israelites.[108:14] The Babylonian Captivity is clearly referred to in
the book of Deuteronomy, as the close of Israel's idolatry.[108:15]

There is reason to believe that the real genius of the people was first
called into full exercise, and put on its career of development at this
time; that Babylon was a _forcing nursery_, not a prison cell; _creating
instead of stifling a nation_. The astonishing outburst of intellectual
and moral energy that accompanied the return from the Babylonish
Captivity, attests the spiritual activity of that "mysterious and
momentous" time. As Prof. Goldziher says: "The intellect of _Babylon_
and _Assyria_ exerted a more than passing influence on that of the
_Hebrews_, not merely touching it, but _entering deep into it_, and
_leaving its own impression upon it_."[108:16]

This impression we have already partly seen in the legends which they
borrowed, and it may also be seen in the religious ideas which they
imbibed.

The Assyrian colonies which came and occupied the land of the tribes of
Israel filled the kingdom of Samaria with the dogma of the _Magi_, which
very soon penetrated into the kingdom of Judah. Afterward, Jerusalem
being subjugated, the defenseless country was entered by persons of
different nationalities, who introduced their opinions, and in this way,
the religion of Israel was doubly mutilated. Besides, the priests and
great men, who were transported to Babylon, were educated in the
sciences of the Chaldeans, and imbibed, during a residence of fifty
years, nearly the whole of their theology. It was not until this time
that the dogmas of the hostile genius (Satan), the angels Michael,
Uriel, Yar, Nisan, &c., the rebel angels, the battle in heaven, the
immortality of the soul, and the resurrection, were introduced and
naturalized among the Jews.[109:1]

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTE.--It is not generally known that the Jews were removed from their
own land until the time of the Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar, but there is
evidence that Jerusalem was plundered by the _Edomites_ about 800 B. C.,
who sold some of the captive Jews to the Greeks (Joel, iii. 6). When the
captives returned to their country from "the Islands which are beyond
the sea" (Jer. xxv. 18, 22), they would naturally bring back with them
much of the Hellenic lore of their conquerors. In Isaiah (xi. 11), we
find a reference to this first captivity in the following words: "In
that day the Lord shall set his hand again the _second time_ to recover
the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from
Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar,
and from Hamath, and from the _Islands of the sea_;" i. e., GREECE.


FOOTNOTES:

[89:1] See Beal: Hist. Buddha, p. 111, _et seq._

[89:2] Bell's Pantheon, under "Perseus;" Knight: Ancient Art and Mytho.,
p. 178, and Bulfinch: Age of Fables, p. 161.

[90:1] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 118. Taylor's Diegesis, p. 190.
Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 19.

[90:2] Ibid.

[90:3] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 122. Dupuis: Origin of Religious
Belief, p. 174. Goldziher: Hebrew Mythology, p. 179. Higgins:
Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 19.

[90:4] Bell's Pantheon, art. "Osiris;" and Bulfinch: Age of Fable, p.
391

[90:5] Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, i. 159.

[90:6] Exodus, ii.

[90:7] See Child: Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 6, and most any work on
Buddhism.

[90:8] See Smith: Chaldean Account of Genesis.

[90:9] See Goldziher: Hebrew Mythology, p. 128, _note_.

[90:10] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 213, 214.

[90:11] I. Samuel, xvii.

[91:1] See Goldzhier: Hebrew Mythology, p. 430, and Bulfinch: Age of
Fable, 440.

[91:2] Chapter xxii.

[91:3] See Smith's Chaldean Account of Genesis, p. 188, _et seq._

[91:4] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 323.

[91:5] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 19.

[91:6] Ibid. i. 191, and ii. 241; Franklin: Bud. & Jeynes, 174.

[91:7] Hardy: Buddhist Legends, pp. 50, 53, and 140.

[91:8] See Ibid.

[91:9] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 191.

[91:10] Ibid. p. 39.

[92:1] "Septuagint."--The Old _Greek_ version of the Old Testament.

[92:2] "Vulgate."--The _Latin_ version of the Old Testament.

[92:3] The Pentateuch Examined, vol. ii. pp. 186, 187.

[92:4] The Religion of Israel, p. 9.

[92:5] Besides the many other facts which show that the Pentateuch was
not composed until long after the time of Moses and Joshua, the
following may be mentioned as examples: _Gilgal_, mentioned in Deut. xi.
30, was not given as the name of that place till _after_ the entrance
into Canaan. _Dan_, mentioned in Genesis xiv. 14, was not so called till
long _after_ the time of Moses. In Gen. xxxvi. 31, the beginning of the
reign of the kings over Israel is spoken of _historically_, an event
which did not occur before the time of Samuel. (See, for further
information, Bishop Colenso's Pentateuch Examined, vol. ii. ch. v. and
vi.)

[93:1] The Religion of Israel, p. 9.

[93:2] Ibid. p. 10.

[93:3] Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Jews."

[93:4] The Religion of Israel, pp. 10, 11.

[94:1] The Religion of Israel, p. 11.

[94:2] See Ibid. pp. 120, 122.

[94:3] See Ibid. p. 122.

[94:4] The account of the _finding_ of this book by Hilkiah is to be
found in II. Chronicles, ch. xxxiv.

[94:5] See Religion of Israel, pp. 124, 125.

[94:6] Ibid. p. 11.

[95:1] The Religion of Israel, pp. 186, 187.

[95:2] "_Talmud._"--The books containing the Jewish traditions.

[95:3] See Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Bible."

[95:4] The Religion of Israel, pp. 240, 241.

[96:1] The Religion of Israel, p. 11.

[96:2] The Pentateuch Examined, vol. ii. p. 178.

[96:3] The Religion of Israel, p. 241.

[96:4] On the strength of II. Maccabees, ii. 12.

[96:5] The Religion of Israel, p. 242.

[96:6] Ibid. p. 243.

[97:1] Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Bible."

[97:2] Ibid.

[97:3] Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Akiba."

[97:4] The Religion of Israel, pp. 19, 23.

[98:1] "What is the Bible," by J. T. Sunderland. "The Bible of To-day,"
by J. W. Chadwick. "Hebrew and Christian Records," by the Rev. Dr.
Giles, 2 vols. Prof. W. R. Smith's article on "The Bible," in the last
edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. "Introduction to the Old
Testament," by Davidson. "The Pentateuch and the Book of Joshua
Examined," by Bishop Colenso. Prof. F. W. Newman's "Hebrew Monarchy."
"The Bible for Learners" (vols. i. and ii.), by Prof. Oort and others.
"The Old Testament in the Jewish Church," by Prof. Robertson Smith, and
Kuenen's "Religion of Israel."

[98:2] Smith: Chaldean Account of Genesis, pp. 22, 29.

[99:1] Ibid. pp. 29, 100. Also, Assyrian Discoveries, p. 397.

[99:2] Tree and Serpent Worship, pp. 6, 7.

[99:3] Myths and Myth-Makers, p. 112.

[99:4] Draper: Religion and Science, p. 62.

[99:5] Goldziher: Hebrew Mythology, p. 328, _et seq._

[100:1] Quoted by Bishop Colenso: The Pentateuch Examined, iv. 283.

[100:2] "Much of the Old Testament which Christian divines, in their
ignorance of Jewish lore, have insisted on receiving and interpreting
_literally_, the informed Rabbis never dreamed of regarding as anything
but _allegorical_. The '_literalists_' they called fools. The account of
the _Creation_ was one of the portions which the unlearned were
specially forbidden to meddle with." (Greg: The Creed of Christendom, p.
80.)

[100:3] Quoted by Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 226.

[100:4] See Ibid. p. 227.

[100:5] Quoted by Dunlap: Mysteries of Adoni, p. 176. See also, Bunsen:
Keys of St. Peter, p. 406.

[101:1] See Appendix, c.

[101:2] See Westropp & Wakes, "Phallic Worship."

[101:3] In chap. ii.

[101:4] See Assyrian Discoveries, pp. 167, 168, and Chaldean Account of
Genesis.

[101:5] "Upon the carrying away of the Jews to Babylon, they were
brought into contact with a flood of Iranian as well as Chaldean myths,
_and adopted them without hesitation_." (S. Baring-Gould; Curious Myths,
p. 316.)

[102:1] Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Deucalion."

[102:2] See chapter ii.

[102:3] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 185, and Maurice: Indian
Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 277.

[102:4] Chapter ii.

[102:5] See Dunlap's Son of the Man, p. 153, _note_.

[102:6] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 254.

[102:7] See Ibid. p. 367.

[102:8] See Ibid. p. 252.

[102:9] Goldzhier: Hebrew Mythology, pp. 130-135, and Smith's Chaldean
Account of Genesis.

[103:1] Chaldean Account of Genesis, pp. 27, 28.

[103:2] See Note, p. 109.

[103:3] See Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 685.

[103:4] "_Targum._"--The general term for the Aramaic versions of the
Old Testament.

[103:5] In Genesis xxiii. 2, Abraham is called rich in gold and in
silver.

[103:6] See Volney's Researches in Ancient History, pp. 144-147.

[104:1] The Religion of Israel, p. 49.

[104:2] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 122. Higgins: vol. ii. p. 19.

[104:3] In claiming the "mighty man" and "lion-killer" as one of their
own race, the Jews were simply doing what other nations had done before
them. The Greeks claimed Hercules as _their_ countryman; stated where he
was born, and showed his tomb. The Egyptians affirmed that he was born
in _their_ country (see Tacitus, Annals, b. ii. ch. lix.), and so did
many other nations.

[105:1] See Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, pp. 92, 93.

[105:2] Chaldean Account of Genesis, pp. 168 and 174; and Assyrian
Discoveries, p. 167.

[105:3] Chaldean Account of Genesis, p. 168.

[105:4] See The Religion of Israel, p. 12; and Chadwick's Bible of
To-Day, p. 55.

[105:5] See The Religion of Israel, p. 41, and Chadwick's Bible of
To-Day, p. 24.

[106:1] The Science of Religion, p. 48.

[107:1] They even claimed that one of the "lost tribes of Israel" had
found their way to America, and had taught the natives _Hebrew_.

[107:2] The Science of Religion, pp. 285, 292.

[107:3] "It is an _assumption_ of the popular theology, and an almost
universal belief in the popular mind, that the Jewish nation was
selected by the Almighty to preserve and carry down to later ages a
knowledge of the _One_ and true God--that the Patriarchs possessed this
knowledge--that Moses delivered and enforced this doctrine as the
fundamental tenet of the national creed; and that it was, in fact, the
received and distinctive dogma of the Hebrew people. This _alleged
possession of the true faith_ by one only people, while all surrounding
tribes were lost in Polytheism, or something worse, has been adduced by
divines in general as a proof of the truth of the sacred history, and of
the divine origin of the Mosaic dispensation." (Greg: The Creed of
Christendom, p. 145.)

Even such authorities as Paley and Milman have written in this strain.
(See quotations from Paley's "_Evidences of Christianity_," and Dean
Milman's "_History of the Jews_," made by Mr. Greg in his "_Creed of
Christendom_," p. 145.)

[107:4] See the Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 321, vol. ii. p. 102; and
Dunlap: Mysteries of Adoni, p. 108.

[108:1] See the Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 317, 418; vol. ii. p.
301. Dunlap's Son of the Man, p. 3, and his Spirit Hist., pp. 68 and
182. Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. pp. 782, 783; and Goldziher: Hebrew
Mythol., pp. 227, 240, 242.

[108:2] The Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 317. Dunlap's Son of the Man,
p. 3; and Spirit Hist., p. 68. Also, Goldziher: Hebrew Mythol., p. 159.

[108:3] The Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 26, and 317; vol. ii. p. 301
and 328. Dunlap's Son of the Man, p. 3. Dunlap's Spirit Hist., 68;
Mysteries of Adoni, pp. xvii. and 108; and The Religion of Israel, p.
38.

[108:4] Bunsen: Keys of St. Peter, pp. 101, 102.

[108:5] The Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 175-178, 317, 322, 448.

[108:6] Ibid. 115.

[108:7] Ibid. i. 23, 321; ii. 102, 103, 109, 264, 274. Dunlap's Spirit
Hist., p. 108. Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 438; vol. ii. p. 30.

[108:8] The Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 88, 318; vol. ii. pp. 102,
113, 300. Dunlap: Son of the Man, p. 3; and Mysteries of Adoni, p. xvii.
Müller: The Science of Religion, p. 261.

[108:9] The Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 21-25, 105, 391; vol. ii.
pp. 102, 136-138. Dunlap: Son of the Man, p. 3. Mysteries of Adoni, pp.
106, 177. Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. pp. 782, 783. Bunsen: The Keys
of St. Peter, p. 91. Müller: The Science of Religion, p. 181. _Bal_,
_Bel_ or _Belus_ was an idol of the Chaldeans and Phenicians or
Canaanites. The word _Bal_, in the Punic language, signifies Lord or
Master. The name _Bal_ is often joined with some other, as _Bal_-berith,
_Bal_-peor, _Bal_-zephon, &c. "The Israelites made him their god, and
erected altars to him on which they offered human sacrifices," and "what
is still more unnatural, they _ate_ of the victims they offered."
(Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. pp. 113, 114.)

[108:10] The Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 17, 26; vol. ii. pp. 102,
299, 300. Bunsen: Keys of St. Peter, p. 110. Müller: The Science of
Religion, p. 285. _Moloch_ was a god of the Ammonites, also worshiped
among the Israelites. Solomon built a temple to him, on the Mount of
Olives, _and human sacrifices were offered to him_. (Bell's Pantheon,
vol. ii. pp. 84, 85.)

[108:11] The Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 153; vol. ii. pp. 71, 83,
125. Smith's Bible Dictionary art. "Chemosh."

[108:12] The Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 26, 117, 148, 319, 320;
vol. ii. pp. 16, 17, 299, 300. Dunlap's Spirit Hist., pp. 108, 222.
Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. pp. 100, 101. Müller: Science of
Religion, p. 261. Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. 113, 114; vol. ii. 84, 85.

[108:13] See note 9 above.

[108:14] See Bunsen: Keys of St. Peter, 291.

[108:15] Ibid. p. 27.

[108:16] Goldziher: Hebrew Mythology, p. 319

[109:1] The _Talmud_ of Jerusalem expressly states that the names of the
angels and the months, such as Gabriel, Michael, Yar, Nisan, &c., came
from Babylon with the Jews. (Goldziher, p. 319.) "There is no trace of
the doctrine of Angels in the Hebrew Scriptures composed or written
before the exile." (Bunsen: The Angel Messiah, p. 285) "The Jews
adopted, during the Captivity, the idea of angels, Michael, Raphael,
Uriel, Gabriel," &c. (Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, p. 54.) See,
for further information on this subject, Dr. Knappert's "Religion of
Israel," or Prof. Kuenen's "Religion of Israel."



PART II.

THE NEW TESTAMENT.



CHAPTER XII.

THE MIRACULOUS BIRTH OF CHRIST JESUS.


According to the dogma of the deity of Jesus, he who is said to have
lived on earth some eighteen centuries ago, as _Jesus of Nazareth_, is
second of the three persons in the Trinity, the SON, God as absolutely
as the Father and the Holy Spirit, except as eternally deriving his
existence from the Father. What, however, especially characterizes the
Son, and distinguishes him from the two other persons united with him in
the unity of the Deity, is this, that the Son, at a given moment of
time, became incarnate, and that, without losing anything of his divine
nature, he thus became possessed of a complete human nature; so that he
is at the same time, without injury to the unity of his person, "_truly
man and truly God_."

The story of the miraculous birth of Jesus is told by the _Matthew_
narrator as follows:[111:1]

     "Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his
     mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together,
     she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. Then Joseph, her
     husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a
     public example, was minded to put her away privily. But while
     he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord
     appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of
     David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that
     which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. And she shall
     bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus, for he
     shall save his people from their sins. Now all this was done,
     that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the
     prophet, saying: Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and
     shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name
     Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us."[111:2]

A Deliverer was hoped for, expected, prophesied, in the time of Jewish
misery[112:1] (and _Cyrus_ was perhaps the first referred to); but as no
one appeared who did what the Messiah, according to prophecy, should do,
they went on degrading each successive conqueror and hero from the
Messianic dignity, and are still expecting the true Deliverer. Hebrew
and Christian divines both start from the same assumed unproven
premises, viz.: that a Messiah, having been foretold, must appear; but
there they diverge, and the Jews show themselves to be the sounder
logicians of the two: the Christians assuming that Jesus was the Messiah
_intended_ (though not the one _expected_), wrest the obvious meaning of
the prophecies to show that they were fulfilled in him; while the Jews,
assuming the obvious meaning of the prophecies to be their real meaning,
argue that they were not fulfilled in Christ Jesus, and therefore that
the Messiah is yet to come.

We shall now see, in the words of Bishop Hawes: "that God should, in
some extraordinary manner, visit and dwell with man, is an idea which,
as we read the writings of the _ancient Heathens_, meets us in a
thousand different forms."

Immaculate conceptions and celestial descents were so currently received
among the ancients, that whoever had greatly distinguished himself in
the affairs of men was thought to be of supernatural lineage. Gods
descended from heaven and were made incarnate in men, and men ascended
from earth, and took their seat among the gods, so that these
incarnations and apotheosises were fast filling Olympus with divinities.

In our inquiries on this subject we shall turn first to _Asia_, where,
as the learned Thomas Maurice remarks in his _Indian Antiquities_, "in
every age, and in almost every region of the Asiatic world, there seems
uniformly to have flourished an immemorial tradition that one god had,
from all eternity, _begotten another god_."[112:2]

In India, there have been several _Avatars_, or incarnations of
Vishnu,[112:3] the most important of which is _Heri Crishna_,[112:4] or
_Crishna the Saviour_.

In the _Maha-bharata_, an Indian epic poem, written about the sixth
century B. C., Crishna is associated or identified with Vishnu the
Preserving god or Saviour.[113:1]

Sir William Jones, first President of the Royal Asiatic Society,
instituted in Bengal, says of him:

     "Crishna continues to this hour the darling god of the Indian
     woman. The sect of Hindoos who adore him with enthusiastic,
     and almost exclusive devotion, have broached a doctrine, which
     they maintain with eagerness, and which seems general in these
     provinces, that he was distinct from all the _Avatars_
     (incarnations) who had only an _ansa_, or a portion, of his
     (_Vishnu's_) divinity, _while Crishna was the person of Vishnu
     himself in human form_."[113:2]

The Rev. D. O. Allen, Missionary of the American Board, for twenty-five
years in India, speaking of Crishna, says:

     "He was greater than, and distinct from, all the _Avatars_
     which had only a portion of the divinity in them, while he was
     the very person of Vishnu himself in human form."[113:3]

Thomas Maurice, in speaking of _Mathura_, says:

     "It is particularly celebrated for having been the birth-place
     of _Crishna_, who is esteemed in India, not so much an
     incarnation of the divine Vishnu, _as the deity himself in
     human form_."[113:4]

Again, in his "_History of Hindostan_," he says:

     "It appears to me that the Hindoos, idolizing some eminent
     character of antiquity, distinguished, in the early annals of
     their nation, by heroic fortitude and exalted piety, have
     applied to that character those ancient traditional accounts
     of an _incarnate God_, or, as they not improperly term it, an
     _Avatar_, which had been delivered down to them from their
     ancestors, the virtuous Noachidæ, to descend amidst the
     darkness and ignorance of succeeding ages, at once to reform
     and instruct mankind. We have the more solid reason to affirm
     this of the Avatar of Crishna, because it is allowed to be the
     most illustrious of them all; since we have learned, that, in
     the _seven_ preceding Avatars, the deity brought only an
     _ansa_, or portion of his divinity; but, in the _eighth_, he
     descended in all the plentitude of the Godhead, _and was
     Vishnu himself in a human form_."[113:5]

Crishna was born of a chaste virgin,[113:6] called _Devaki_, who, on
account of her purity, was selected to become the "_mother of God_."

According to the "BHAGAVAT POORAUN," _Vishnu_ said:

     "I will become incarnate at Mathura in the house of _Yadu_,
     and will issue forth to mortal birth from the womb of
     Devaki. . . . It is time I should display my power, and
     relieve the oppressed earth from its load."[114:1]

Then a chorus of angels exclaimed:

     "In the delivery of this favored woman, all nature shall have
     cause to exult."[114:2]

In the sacred book of the Hindoos, called "_Vishnu Purana_," we read as
follows:

     "Eulogized by the gods, Devaki bore in her womb the lotus-eyed
     deity, the protector of the world. . . .

     "No person could bear to gaze upon Devaki, from the light that
     invested her, and those who contemplated her radiance felt
     their minds disturbed. The gods, invisible to mortals,
     celebrated her praises continually from the time that _Vishnu_
     was contained in her person."[114:3]

Again we read:

     "The divine _Vishnu himself_, the root of the vast universal
     tree, inscrutable by the understandings of all gods, demons,
     sages, and men, past, present, or to come, adored by Brahma
     and all the deities, he who is without beginning, middle, or
     end, being moved to relieve the earth of her load, descended
     into the womb of Devaki, and was born as her son, Vasudeva,"
     _i. e._, _Crishna_.[114:4]

Again:

     "Crishna is the very _Supreme Brahma_, though it be a
     _mystery_[114:5] how the Supreme _should assume the form of a
     man_."[114:6]

The Hindoo belief in a divine incarnation has at least, above many
others, its logical side of conceiving that God manifests himself on
earth whenever the weakness or the errors of humanity render his
presence necessary. We find this idea expressed in one of their sacred
books called the "_Bhágavat Geeta_," wherein it says:

     "I (the Supreme One said), I am made evident by my own power,
     and as often as there is a decline of virtue, and an
     insurrection of vice and injustice in the world, I make myself
     evident, _and thus I appear from age to age_, for the
     preservation of the just, the destruction of the wicked, and
     the establishment of virtue."[114:7]

Crishna is recorded in the "_Bhágavat Geeta_" as saying to his beloved
disciple Arjouna:

     "He, O Arjoun, who, from conviction, acknowledgeth my _divine
     birth_ (upon quitting his mortal form), entereth into
     me."[115:1]

Again, he says:

     "The foolish, being _unacquainted with my supreme and divine
     nature, as Lord of all things_, despise me in this _human
     form_, trusting to the evil, diabolic, and deceitful principle
     within them. They are of vain hope, of vain endeavors, of vain
     wisdom, and void of reason; whilst men of great minds,
     trusting to their divine natures, _discover that I am before
     all things and incorruptible_, and serve me with their hearts
     undiverted by other gods."[115:2]

The next in importance among the _God-begotten_ and _Virgin-born_
Saviours of India, is _Buddha_[115:3] who was born of the Virgin Maya or
Mary. He in mercy left Paradise, and came down to earth because he was
filled with compassion for the sins and miseries of mankind. He sought
to lead them into better paths, and took their sufferings upon himself,
that he might expiate their crimes, and mitigate the punishment they
must otherwise inevitably undergo.[115:4]

According to the _Fo-pen-hing_,[115:5] when Buddha was about to descend
from heaven, to be born into the world, the angels in heaven, calling to
the inhabitants of the earth, said:

     "Ye mortals! adorn your earth! for Bôdhisatwa, the great
     Mahâsatwa, not long hence shall descend from Tusita to be born
     amongst you! make ready and prepare! Buddha is about to
     descend and be born!"[115:6]

The womb that bears a Buddha is like a casket in which a relic is
placed; no other being can be conceived in the same receptacle; the
usual secretions are not formed; and from the time of conception,
Maha-maya was free from passion, and lived in the strictest
continence.[115:7]

The resemblance between this legend and the doctrine of the _perpetual
virginity_ of Mary the mother of Jesus, cannot but be remarked. The
opinion that she had ever borne other children was called heresy by
Epiphanius and Jerome, long before she had been exalted to the station
of supremacy she now occupies.[115:8]

M. l'Abbé Huc, a French Missionary, in speaking of Buddha, says:

     "In the eyes of the Buddhists, this personage is sometimes a
     man and sometimes a god, or rather both one and the other, _a
     divine incarnation_, _a man-god_; who came into the world to
     enlighten men, to redeem them, and to indicate to them the way
     of safety.

     "This idea of redemption by a _divine incarnation_ is so
     general and popular among the Buddhists, that during our
     travels in Upper Asia, we everywhere found it expressed in a
     neat formula. If we addressed to a Mongol or a Thibetan the
     question, 'Who is Buddha?' he would immediately reply: '_The
     Saviour of Men._'"[116:1]

He further says:

     "The miraculous birth of Buddha, his life and instructions,
     contain a great number of the moral and dogmatic truths
     professed in Christianity."[116:2]

This Angel-Messiah was regarded as the divinely chosen and incarnate
messenger, the vicar of God. He is addressed as "God of Gods," "Father
of the World," "Almighty and All-knowing Ruler," and "Redeemer of
All."[116:3] He is called also "The Holy One," "The Author of
Happiness," "The Lord," "The Possessor of All," "He who is Omnipotent
and Everlastingly to be Contemplated," "The Supreme Being, the Eternal
One," "The Divinity worthy to be Adored by the most praiseworthy of
Mankind."[116:4] He is addressed by Amora--one of his followers--thus:

     "Reverence be unto thee in the form of Buddha! Reverence be
     unto thee, the Lord of the Earth! Reverence be unto thee, an
     incarnation of the Deity! Of the Eternal One! Reverence be
     unto thee, O God, in the form of the God of Mercy; the
     dispeller of pain and trouble, the Lord of all things, the
     deity, the guardian of the universe, the emblem of
     mercy."[116:5]

The incarnation of Gautama Buddha is recorded to have been brought about
by the descent of the divine power called The "_Holy Ghost_" upon the
Virgin _Maya_.[116:6] This Holy Ghost, or Spirit, descended in the form
of a _white elephant_. The _Tikas_ explain this as indicating power and
wisdom.[117:1]

The incarnation of the angel destined to become Buddha took place in a
spiritual manner. The Elephant is the symbol of power and wisdom; and
Buddha was considered the organ of divine power and wisdom, as he is
called in the Tikas. For these reasons Buddha is described by Buddhistic
legends as having descended from heaven in the form of an Elephant to
the place where the Virgin Maya was. But according to Chinese Buddhistic
writings, it was the Holy Ghost, or _Shing-Shin_, who descended on the
Virgin Maya.[117:2]

The _Fo-pen-hing_ says:

     "If a mother, in her dream, behold
     A white elephant enter her right side,
     That mother, when she bears a son,
     Shall bear one chief of all the world (Buddha);
     Able to profit all flesh;
     Equally poised between preference and dislike;
     Able to save and deliver the world and men
     From the deep sea of misery and grief."[117:3]

In Prof. Fergusson's "_Tree and Serpent Worship_" may be seen (Plate
xxxiii.) a representation of Maya, the mother of Buddha, asleep, and
dreaming that a white elephant appeared to her, and entered her womb.

This dream being interpreted by the Brahmans learned in the _Rig Veda_,
was considered as announcing the incarnation of him who was to be in
future the deliverer of mankind from pain and sorrow. It is, in fact,
the form which the Annunciation took in Buddhist legends.[117:4]

                                   "----Awaked,
     Bliss beyond mortal mother's filled her breast,
     And over half the earth a lovely light
     Forewent the morn. The strong hills shook; the waves
     Sank lulled; all flowers that blow by day came forth
     As 'twere high noon; down to the farthest hells
     Passed the Queen's joy, as when warm sunshine thrills
     Wood-glooms to gold, and into all the deeps
     A tender whisper pierced. 'Oh ye,' it said,
     'The dead that are to live, the live who die,
     Uprise, and hear, and hope! Buddha is come!'
     Whereat in Limbos numberless much peace
     Spread, and the world's heart throbbed, and a wind blew
     With unknown freshness over land and seas.
     And when the morning dawned, and this was told,
     The grey dream-readers said, 'The dream is good!
     The Crab is in conjunction with the Sun;
     The Queen shall bear a boy, a holy child
     Of wondrous wisdom, profiting all flesh,
     Who shall deliver men from ignorance,
     Or rule the world, if he will deign to rule.'
     In this wise was the holy Buddha born."

In Fig. 4, Plate xci., the same subject is also illustrated. Prof.
Fergusson, referring to it, says:

     "Fig. 4 is another edition of a legend more frequently
     repeated than almost any other in Buddhist Scriptures. It was,
     with their artists, as great a favorite as the Annunciation
     and Nativity were with Christian painters."[118:1]

When Buddha _avatar_ descended from the regions of the souls, and
entered the body of the Virgin Maya, her womb suddenly assumed the
appearance of clear, transparent crystal, in which Buddha appeared,
beautiful as a flower, kneeling and reclining on his hands.[118:2]

Buddha's representative on earth is the _Dalai Lama_, or _Grand Lama_,
the High Priest of the Tartars. He is regarded as the vicegerent of God,
with power to dispense divine blessings on whomsoever he will, and is
considered among the Buddhists to be a sort of divine being. He is the
Pope of Buddhism.[118:3]

The _Siamese_ had a Virgin-born God and Saviour whom they called
_Codom_. His mother, a beautiful young virgin, being inspired from
heaven, quitted the society of men and wandered into the most
unfrequented parts of a great forest, there to await the coming of a god
which had long been announced to mankind. While she was one day
prostrate in prayer, she was _impregnated by the sunbeams_. She
thereupon retired to the borders of a lake, between Siam and Cambodia,
where she was delivered of a "_heavenly boy_," which she placed within
the folds of a _lotus_, that opened to receive him. When the boy grew
up, he became a prodigy of wisdom, performed miracles, &c.[118:4]

The first Europeans who visited Cape Comorin, the most southerly
extremity of the peninsula of Hindostan, were surprised to find the
inhabitants worshiping a Lord and Saviour whom they called _Salivahana_.
They related that his father's name was Taishaca, but that he was _a
divine child horn of a Virgin_, in fact, an incarnation of the Supreme
_Vishnu_.[119:1]

The belief in a virgin-born god-man is found in the religions of China.
As Sir John Francis Davis remarks,[119:2] "China has her mythology in
common with all other nations, and under this head we must range the
persons styled _Fo-hi_ (or Fuh-he), _Shin-noong_, _Hoang-ty_ and their
immediate successors, who, like the demi gods and heroes of Grecian
fable, rescued mankind by their ability or enterprise from the most
primitive barbarism, and have since been invested with _superhuman_
attributes. The most extravagant prodigies are related of these persons,
and the most incongruous qualities attributed to them."

Dean Milman, in his "History of Christianity" (Vol. i. p. 97), refers to
the tradition, found among the Chinese, that _Fo-hi_ was born of a
virgin; and remarks that, the first Jesuit missionaries who went to
China were appalled at finding, in the mythology of that country, a
counterpart of the story of the virgin of Judea.

Fo-hi is said to have been born 3463 years B. C., and, according to some
Chinese writers, with him begins the historical era and the foundation
of the empire. When his mother conceived him in her womb, a rainbow was
seen to surround her.[119:3]

The Chinese traditions concerning the birth of Fo-hi are, some of them,
highly poetical. That which has received the widest acceptance is as
follows:

     "Three nymphs came down from heaven to wash themselves in a
     river; but scarce had they got there before the herb _lotus_
     appeared on one of their garments, with its coral fruit upon
     it. They could not imagine whence it proceeded, and one was
     tempted to taste it, whereby she became pregnant and was
     delivered of a boy, who afterwards became a great man, a
     founder of religion, a conqueror, and legislator."[119:4]

The sect of _Xaca_, which is evidently a corruption of Buddhism, claim
that their master was also of supernatural origin. Alvarez Semedo,
speaking of them, says:

     "The third religious sect among the Chinese is from India,
     from the parts of Hindostan, which sect they call _Xaca_, from
     the founder of it, concerning whom they fable--that he was
     conceived by his mother Maya, from a white elephant, which
     she saw in her sleep, and for more purity she brought him from
     one of her sides."[120:1]

_Lao-kiun_, sometimes celled _Lao-tsze_, who is said to have been born
in the third year of the emperor _Ting-wang_, of the Chow dynasty (604
B. C.), was another miraculously-born man. He acquired great reputation
for sanctity, and marvelous stories were told of his birth. It was said
that he had existed from all eternity; that he had descended on earth
_and was born of a virgin_, black in complexion, described "marvelous
and beautiful as jasper." Splendid temples were erected to him, and he
was worshiped as a _god_. His disciples were called "Heavenly Teachers."
They inculcated great tenderness toward animals, and considered strict
celibacy necessary for the attainment of perfect holiness. Lao-kiun
believed in _One God_ whom he called _Tao_, and the sect which he formed
is called _Tao-tse_, or "Sect of Reason." Sir Thomas Thornton, speaking
of him, says:

     "The mythological history of this 'prince of the doctrine of
     the _Taou_,' which is current amongst his followers,
     _represents him as a divine emanation incarnate in a human
     form_. They term him the 'most high and venerable prince of
     the portals of gold of the palace of the _genii_,' and say
     that he condescended to a contact with humanity when he became
     incorporated with the 'miraculous and excellent Virgin of
     jasper.' Like Buddha, he came out of his mother's side, and
     was born under a tree.

     "The legends of the _Taou-tse_ declare their founder to have
     existed antecedent to the birth of the elements, in the Great
     Absolute; that he is the 'pure essence of the tëen;' that he
     is the 'original ancestor of the prime breath of life;' and
     that he gave form to the heavens and the earth."[120:2]

M. Le Compte says:

     "Those who have made this (the religion of Taou-tsze) their
     professed business, are called _Tien-se_, that is, 'Heavenly
     Doctors;' they have houses (Monasteries) given them to live
     together in society; they erect, in divers parts, temples to
     their master, and king and people honor him with _divine_
     worship."

_Yu_ was another _virgin-born_ Chinese sage, who is said to have lived
upon earth many ages ago. Confucius--as though he had been questioned
about him--says: "I see no defect in the character of Yu. He was sober
in eating and drinking, and eminently pious toward spirits and
ancestors."[120:3]

_Hâu-ki_, the Chinese hero, was of supernatural origin.

The following is the history of his birth, according to the "Shih-King:"

     "His mother, who was childless, had presented a pure offering
     and sacrificed, that her childlessness might be taken away.
     She then trod on a toe-print made by God, and was
     moved,[121:1] in the large place where she rested. She became
     pregnant; she dwelt retired; she gave birth to and nourished a
     son, who was _Hâu-ki_. When she had fulfilled her months, her
     first-born son came forth like a lamb. There was no bursting,
     no rending, no injury, no hurt; showing how wonderful he would
     be. Did not God give her comfort? Had he not accepted her pure
     offering and sacrifice, so that thus easily she brought forth
     her son?"[121:2]

Even the sober Confucius (born B. C. 501) was of supernatural origin.
The most important event in Chinese literary and ethical history is the
birth of _Kung-foo-tsze_ (Confucius), both in its effects on the moral
organization of this great empire, and the study of Chinese philosophy
in Europe.

Kung-foo-tsze (meaning "the sage Kung" or "the wise excellence") was of
_royal descent_; and his family the most ancient in the empire, as his
genealogy was traceable directly up to Hwang-te, the reputed organizer
of the state, the first emperor of the semi-historical period (beginning
2696 B. C.).

At his birth a prodigious quadruped, called the Ke-lin, appeared and
prophesied that the new-born infant "would be a king without throne or
territory." Two dragons hovered about the couch of _Yen-she_ (his
mother), and five celestial sages, or angels, entered at the moment of
the birth of the wondrous child; heavenly strains were heard in the air,
and harmonious chords followed each other, fast and full. Thus was
Confucius ushered into the world.

His disciples, who were to expound his precepts, were seventy-two in
number, _twelve_ of whom were his ordinary companions, the depositories
of his thoughts, and the witnesses of all his actions. To them he
minutely explained his doctrines, and charged them with their
propagation after his death. YAN-HWUY was his favorite disciple, who, in
his opinion, had attained the highest degree of moral perfection.
Confucius addressed him in terms of great affection, which denoted that
he relied mainly upon him for the accomplishment of his work.[121:3]

Even as late as the seventeenth century of our era, do we find the myth
of the virgin-born God in China.[121:4]

All these god-begotten and virgin-born men were called _Tien-tse_, _i.
e._, "Sons of Heaven."

If from China we should turn to Egypt we would find that, for ages
before the time of Jesus of Nazareth, the mediating deity, born of a
virgin, and without a worldly father, was a portion of the Egyptian
belief.[122:1]

_Horus_, who had the epithet of "_Saviour_," was born of the virgin
Isis. "His birth was one of the greatest Mysteries of the Egyptian
religion. Pictures representing it appear on the walls of
temples."[122:2] He is "the second emanation of _Amon_, the son whom he
begot."[122:3] Egyptian monuments represent the infant Saviour in the
arms of his virgin mother, or sitting on her knee.[122:4] An inscription
on a monument, translated by Champollion, reads thus:

     "O thou avenger, God, son of a God; O thou avenger, Horus,
     manifested by Osiris, engendered of the goddess Isis."[122:5]

The Egyptian god _Ra_ was born from the side of his mother, _but was not
engendered_.[122:6]

The ancient Egyptians also deified kings and heroes, in the same manner
as the ancient Greeks and Romans. An Egyptian king became, in a sense,
"the vicar of God on earth, the infallible, and the personated
deity."[122:7]

P. Le Page Renouf, in his Hibbert Lectures on the Religion of Ancient
Egypt, says:

     "I must not quit this part of my subject without a reference
     to the belief that the ruling sovereign of Egypt was the
     living image and vicegerent of the Sun-god (_Ra_). _He was
     invested with the attributes of divinity_, and that in the
     earliest times of which we possess monumental
     evidence."[122:8]

_Menes_, who is said to have been the first king of Egypt, was believed
to be a god.[122:9]

Almost all the temples of the left bank of the Nile, at Thebes, had been
constructed in view of the worship rendered to the Pharaohs, their
founders, after their death.[122:10]

On the wall of one of these Theban temples is to be seen a picture
representing the god Thoth--the messenger of God--telling the _maiden_,
Queen Mautmes, that she is to give birth to a _divine son_, who is to be
King _Amunothph_ III.[123:1]

An inscription found in Egypt makes the god _Ra_ say to his son Ramses
III.:

     "I am thy father; by me are begotten all thy members as
     divine; I have formed thy shape like the Mendesian god; I have
     begotten thee, impregnating thy venerable mother."[123:2]

_Raam-ses_, or _Ra-mé-ses_, means "Son of the Sun," and _Ramses Hek An_,
a name of Ramses III., means "engendered by Ra (the Sun), Prince of An
(Heliopolis)."[123:3]

"_Thotmes_ III., on the tablet of Karnak, presents offerings to his
predecessors; so does _Ramses_ on the tablet of Abydos. Even during his
life-time the Egyptian king was denominated '_Beneficent God_.'"[123:4]

The ancient Babylonians also believed that their kings were gods upon
earth. A passage from Ménaut's translation of the great inscription of
Nebuchadnezzar, reads thus:

     "I am Nabu-kuder-usur . . . the first-born son of Nebu-pal-usur,
     King of Babylon. The god _Bel_ himself created me, the god
     _Marduk_ engendered me, and deposited himself the germ of my
     life in the womb of my mother."[123:5]

In the life of _Zoroaster_, the law-giver of the _Persians_, the common
mythos is apparent. He was born in innocence, of an immaculate
conception, of a ray of the Divine Reason. As soon as he was born the
glory from his body enlightened the whole room.[123:6] Plato informs us
that Zoroaster was said to be "the son of Oromasdes, which was the name
the Persians gave to the Supreme God"[123:7]--therefore he was the _Son
of God_.

From the East we will turn to the West, and shall find that many of the
ancient heroes of Grecian and Roman mythology were regarded as of divine
origin, were represented as men, possessed of god-like form, strength
and courage; were believed to have lived on earth in the remote, dim
ages of the nation's history; to have been occupied in their life-time
with thrilling adventures and extraordinary services in the cause of
human civilization, and to have been after death in some cases
translated to a life among the gods, and entitled to sacrifice and
worship. In the hospitable Pantheon of the Greeks and Romans, a niche
was always in readiness for every new divinity who could produce
respectable credentials.

The Christian Father Justin Martyr, says:

     "It having reached the Devil's ears that the prophets had
     foretold the coming of Christ (_the Son of God_), he set the
     _Heathen Poets_ to bring forward a great many who should be
     called _the sons of Jove_. The Devil laying his scheme in
     this, to get men to imagine that the _true_ history of Christ
     was of the same character as the _prodigious fables_ related
     of the sons of Jove."

Among these "sons of Jove" may be mentioned the following: _Hercules_
was the son of Jupiter by a mortal mother, Alcmene, Queen of
Thebes.[124:1] Zeus, the god of gods, spake of Hercules, his son, and
said: "This day shall a child be born of the race of Perseus, who shall
be the mightiest of the sons of men."[124:2]

_Bacchus_ was the son of Jupiter and a mortal mother, Semele, daughter
of Kadmus, King of Thebes.[124:3] As Montfaucon says, "It is the son of
Jupiter and Semele which the poets celebrate, and which the monuments
represent."[124:4]

Bacchus is made to say:

     "I, son of Deus, am come to this land of the Thebans, Bacchus,
     whom formerly Semele the daughter of Kadmus brings forth,
     being delivered by the lightning-bearing flame: _and having
     taken a mortal form_ instead of a god's, I have arrived at the
     fountains of Dirce and the water of Ismenus."[124:5]

_Amphion_ was the son of Jupiter and a mortal mother, Antiope, daughter
of Nicetus, King of Bœotia.[124:6]

_Prometheus_, whose name is derived from a Greek word signifying
foresight and providence, was a deity who united the divine and human
nature in one person, and was confessedly both man and god.[124:7]

_Perseus_ was the son of Jupiter by the virgin Danae, daughter of
Acrisius, King of Argos.[124:8] Divine honors were paid him, and a
temple was erected to him in Athens.[124:9]

Justin Martyr (A. D. 140), in his Apology to the Emperor Adrian, says:

     "By declaring the Logos, the first-begotten of God, our
     Master, Jesus Christ, to be born of a virgin, without any
     human mixture, we (Christians) _say no more in this than what
     you_ (Pagans) _say of those whom you style the Sons of Jove_.
     For you need not be told what a parcel of sons the writers
     most in vogue among you assign to Jove. . . .

     "As to the Son of God, called Jesus, should we allow him to be
     nothing more than man, yet the title of 'the Son of God' is
     very justifiable, upon the account of his wisdom, considering
     that you (Pagans) have your Mercury in worship under the title
     of the Word, a messenger of God. . . .

     "As to his (Jesus Christ's) being born of a virgin, _you have
     your Perseus to balance that_."[125:1]

_Mercury_ was the son of Jupiter and a mortal mother, Maia, daughter of
Atlas. Cyllene, in Arcadia, is said to have been the scene of his birth
and education, and a magnificent temple was erected to him there.[125:2]

_Æolus_, king of the Lipari Islands, near Sicily, was the son of Jupiter
and a mortal mother, Acasta.[125:3]

_Apollo_ was the son of Jupiter and a mortal mother, Latona.[125:4] Like
Buddha and Lao-Kiun, Apollo, so the Ephesians said, was born under a
tree; Latona, taking shelter under an olive-tree, was delivered
there.[125:5] Then there was joy among the undying gods in Olympus, and
the Earth laughed beneath the smile of Heaven.[125:6]

_Aethlius_, who is said to have been one of the institutors of the
Orphic games, was the son of Jupiter by a mortal mother,
Protogenia.[125:7]

_Arcas_ was the son of Jupiter and a mortal mother.[125:8]

_Aroclus_ was the son of Jupiter and a mortal mother.[125:9]

We might continue and give the names of many more sons of Jove, but
sufficient has been seen, we believe, to show, in the words of Justin,
that Jove had a great "parcel of sons." "The images of self-restraint,
of power used for the good of others, are prominent in the lives of all
or almost all the Zeus-born heroes."[125:10]

This Jupiter, who begat so many sons, was the supreme god of the Pagans.
In the words of _Orpheus_:

     "Jupiter is omnipotent; the first and the last, the head and
     the midst; Jupiter, the giver of all things, the foundation of
     the earth, and the starry heavens."[125:11]

The ancient Romans were in the habit of deifying their living and
departed emperors, and gave to them the title of DIVUS, or the Divine
One. It was required throughout the whole empire that divine honors
should be paid to the emperors.[125:12] They had a ceremony called
_Apotheosis_, or deification. After this ceremony, temples, altars, and
images, with attributes of divinity, were erected to the new deity. It
is related by Eusebius, Tertullian, and Chrysostom, that Tiberius
proposed to the Roman Senate the Apotheosis or deification of Jesus
Christ.[126:1] Ælius Lampridius, in his Life of Alexander Severus (who
reigned A. D. 222-235), says:

     "This emperor had two private chapels, one more honorable than
     the other; and in the former were placed the deified emperors,
     and also some _eminent good men_, among them Abraham, Christ,
     and Orpheus."[126:2]

_Romulus_, who is said to have been the founder of Rome, was believed to
have been the son of God by a pure virgin, Rhea-Sylvia.[126:3] One
Julius Proculus took a solemn oath, that Romulus himself appeared to him
and ordered him to inform the Senate of his being called up to the
assembly of the gods, under the name of Quirinus.[126:4]

_Julius Cæsar_ was supposed to have had a god for a father.[126:5]

_Augustus Cæsar_ was also believed to have been of celestial origin, and
had all the honors paid to him as to a divine person.[126:6] His
divinity is expressed by Virgil, in the following lines:

           "----Turn, turn thine eyes, see here thy race divine,
     Behold thy own imperial Roman Sine:
     Cæsar, with all the Julian name survey;
     See where the glorious ranks ascend to-day!--
     This--this is he--_the chief so long foretold_,
     To bless the land where Saturn ruled of old,
     And give the Learnean realms a second eye of gold!
     The promised prince, _Augustus the divine_,
     Of Cæsar's race, and Jove's immortal line."[126:7]

"The honors due to the gods," says Tacitus, "were no longer sacred:
_Augustus_ claimed equal worship. Temples were built, and statues were
erected, to him; a mortal man was adored, and priests and pontiffs were
appointed to pay him impious homage."[126:8]

Divine honors were declared to the memory of Claudius, after his death,
and he was added to the number of the gods. The titles "Our Lord," "Our
Master," and "Our God," were given to the Emperors of Rome, even while
living.[126:9]

In the deification of the Cæsars, a testimony upon oath, of an eagle's
flying out of the funeral pile, toward heaven, which was supposed to
convey the soul of the deceased, was the established proof of their
divinity.[127:1]

_Alexander the Great_, King of Macedonia (born 356 B. C.), whom genius
and uncommon success had raised above ordinary men, was believed to have
been a god upon earth.[127:2] He was believed to have been the son of
Jupiter by a mortal mother, Olympias.

Alexander at one time visited the temple of Jupiter Ammon, which was
situated in an oasis in the Libyan desert, and the _Oracle_ there
declared him to be a son of the god. He afterwards issued his orders,
letters, decrees, &c., styling himself "_Alexander, son of Jupiter
Ammon_."[127:3]

The words of the oracle which declared him to be divine were as follows,
says Socrates:

     "Let altars burn and incense pour, please Jove Minerva eke;
     The potent Prince though nature frail, his favor you must seek,
     For Jove from heaven to earth him sent, lo! Alexander king,
     As God he comes the earth to rule, and just laws for to bring."[127:4]

_Ptolemy_, who was one of Alexander's generals in his Eastern campaigns,
and into whose hands Egypt fell at the death of Alexander, was also
believed to have been of divine origin. At the siege of Rhodes, Ptolemy
had been of such signal service to its citizens that in gratitude they
paid _divine honors_ to him, and saluted him with the title of _Soter_,
_i. e._, Saviour. By that designation, "_Ptolemy Soter_," he is
distinguished from the succeeding kings of the Macedonian dynasty in
Egypt.[127:5]

_Cyrus_, King of Persia, was believed to have been of _divine origin_;
he was called the "_Christ_," or the "_Anointed_ of God," and God's
messenger.[127:6]

_Plato_, born at Athens 429 B. C., was believed to have been the son of
God by a _pure virgin_, called Perictione.[127:7]

The reputed father of Plato (Aris) was admonished in a dream to respect
the person of his wife until after the birth of the child of which she
was then pregnant by a god.[127:8]

Prof. Draper, speaking of Plato, says:

     "The Egyptian disciples of Plato would have looked with anger
     on those who rejected the legend that Perictione, the mother
     of that great philosopher, a pure virgin, had suffered an
     immaculate conception through the influences of (the god)
     Apollo, _and that the god had declared to Aris, to whom she
     was betrothed, the parentage of the child_."[128:1]

Here we have the legend of the angel appearing to Joseph--to whom Mary
was betrothed--believed in by the disciples of Plato for centuries
before the time of Christ Jesus, the only difference being that the
virgin's name was Perictione instead of Mary, and the confiding
husband's name Aris instead of Joseph. We have another similar case.

The mother of _Apollonius_ (B. C. 41) was informed by a god, who
appeared to her, _that he himself should be born of her_.[128:2] In the
course of time she gave birth to Apollonius, who became a great
religious teacher, and performer of miracles.[128:3]

_Pythagoras_, born about 570 B. C., had divine honors paid him. His
mother is said to have become impregnated through a _spectre_, or Holy
Ghost. His father--or foster-father--was also informed that his wife
should bring forth a son, who should be a benefactor to mankind.[128:4]

_Æsculapius_, the great performer of miracles,[128:5] was supposed to be
the son of a god and a worldly mother, Coronis. The Messenians, who
consulted the oracle at Delphi to know where Æsculapius was born, and of
what parents, were informed that a god was his father, Coronis his
mother, and that their son was born at Epidaurus.

Coronis, to conceal her pregnancy from her father, went to Epidaurus,
where she was delivered of a son, whom she exposed on a mountain.
Aristhenes, a goat-herd, going in search of a goat and a dog missing
from his fold, discovered the child, whom he would have carried to his
home, had he not, upon approaching to lift him from the earth,
_perceived his head encircled with fiery rays, which made him believe
the child was divine_. The voice of fame soon published the birth of a
miraculous infant, upon which the people flocked from all quarters _to
behold this heaven-born child_.[128:6]

Being honored as a god in Phenicia and Egypt, his worship passed into
Greece and Rome.[128:7]

_Simon the Samaritan_, surnamed "_Magus_" or the "Magician," who was
contemporary with Jesus, was believed to be a _god_. In Rome, where he
performed wonderful miracles, he was honored as a god, and his picture
placed among the gods.[129:1]

Justin Martyr, quoted by Eusebius, tells us that Simon Magus attained
great honor among the Romans. That he was believed to be a _god_, and
that he was worshiped as such. Between two bridges upon the River
Tibris, was to be seen this inscription: "Simoni Deo Sancto," _i. e._
"To Simon the Holy God."[129:2]

It was customary with all the heroes of the northern nations (Danes,
Swedes, Norwegians and Icelanders), to speak of themselves as sprung
from their supreme deity, _Odin_. The historians of those times, that is
to say, the poets, never failed to bestow the same honor on all those
whose praises they sang; and thus they multiplied the descendants of
Odin as much as they found convenient. The first-begotten son of Odin
was Thor, whom the Eddas call the most valiant of his sons. "Baldur the
Good," the "Beneficent Saviour," was the son of the Supreme Odin and the
goddess Frigga, whose worship was transferred to that of the Virgin
Mary.[129:3]

In the mythological systems of _America_, a virgin-born god was not less
clearly recognized than in those of the Old World. Among the savage
tribes his origin and character were, for obvious reasons, much
confused; but among the more advanced nations he occupied a well-defined
position. Among the nations of Anahuac, he bore the name of
_Quetzalcoatle_, and was regarded with the highest veneration.

For ages before the landing of Columbus on its shores, the inhabitants
of ancient Mexico worshiped a "Saviour"--as they called
him--(_Quetzalcoatle_) who was _born of a pure virgin_.[129:4] _A
messenger from heaven announced to his mother that she should bear a son
without connection with man._[129:5] Lord Kingsborough tells us that the
annunciation of the _virgin Sochiquetzal_, mother of Quetzalcoatle,--who
was styled the "_Queen of Heaven_"[129:6]--was the subject of a Mexican
hieroglyph.[129:7]

The embassador was sent from heaven to this virgin, who had two sisters,
Tzochitlique and Conatlique. "These three being alone in the house, two
of them, on perceiving the embassador from heaven, died of fright,
Sochiquetzal remaining alive, to whom the ambassador announced that it
was the will of God that she should conceive a son."[130:1] She
therefore, according to the prediction, "conceived a son, _without
connection with man_, who was called Quetzalcoatle."[130:2]

Dr. Daniel Brinton, in his "Myths of the New World," says:

     "The Central figure of Toltec mythology is _Quetzalcoatle_.
     Not an author on ancient Mexico, but has something to say
     about the glorious days when he ruled over the land. No one
     denies him to have been a god. _He was born of a virgin_ in
     the land of _Tula_ or _Tlopallan_."[130:3]

The Mayas of _Yucatan_ had a virgin-born god, corresponding entirely
with Quetzalcoatle, if he was not the same under a different name, a
conjecture very well sustained by the evident relationship between the
Mexican and Mayan mythologies. He was named _Zama_, and was the
only-begotten son of their supreme god, Kinchahan.[130:4]

The _Muyscas_ of Columbia had a similar hero-god. According to their
traditionary history, he bore the name of _Bochica_. He was the
incarnation of the Great Father, whose sovereignty and paternal care he
emblematized.[130:5]

The inhabitants of _Nicaragua_ called their principal god Thomathoyo;
and said that he had a _son_, who came down to earth, whose name was
Theotbilahe, and that he was their general instructor.[130:6]

We find a corresponding character in the traditionary history of _Peru_.
The Sun--the god of the Peruvians--deploring their miserable condition,
sent down his son, _Manco Capac_, to instruct them in religion,
&c.[130:7]

We have also traces of a similar personage in the traditionary _Votan_
of _Guatemala_; but our accounts concerning him are more vague than in
the cases above mentioned.

We find this traditional character in countries and among tribes where
we would be least apt to suspect its existence. In _Brazil_, besides the
common belief in an age of violence, during which the world was
destroyed by water, there is a tradition of a supernatural personage
called _Zome_, whose history is similar, in some respects, to that of
Quetzalcoatle.[130:8]

The semi-civilized agricultural tribes of _Florida_ had like traditions.
The _Cherokees_, in particular, had a priest and law-giver _essentially
corresponding to Quetzalcoatle and Bochica_. He was their great prophet,
and bore the name of _Wasi_. "He told them what had been from the
beginning of the world, and what would be, and gave the people in all
things directions what to do. He appointed their feasts and fasts, and
all the ceremonies of their religion, and enjoined upon them to obey his
directions from generation to generation."[131:1]

Among the savage tribes the same notions prevailed. The _Edues_ of the
Californians taught that there was a supreme Creator, _Niparaga_, and
that his son, _Quaagagp_, came down upon the earth and instructed the
Indians in religion, &c. Finally, through hatred, the Indians killed
him; but although dead, he is incorruptible and beautiful. To him they
pay adoration, as the _mediatory power_ between earth and the Supreme
Niparaga.[131:2]

The _Iroquois_ also had a beneficent being, uniting in himself the
character of _a god and man_, who was called _Tarengawagan_. He imparted
to them the knowledge of the laws of the Great Spirit, established their
form of government, &c.[131:3]

Among the _Algonquins_, and particularly among the _Ojibways_ and other
remnants of that stock of the North-west, this intermediate great
teacher (denominated, by Mr. Schoolcraft, in his "_Notes of the
Iroquois_," "the great incarnation of the North-west") is fully
recognized. He bears the name of _Michabou_, and is represented as _the
first-born son of a great celestial Manitou_, or _Spirit, by an earthly
mother_, and is esteemed the friend and protector of the human
race.[131:4]

I think we can now say with M. Dupuis, that "the idea of a God, who came
down on earth to save mankind, is neither new nor peculiar to the
Christians," and with Cicero, the great Roman orator and philosopher,
that "brave, famous or powerful men, after death, came to be _gods_, and
they are the very ones whom we are accustomed to worship, pray to and
venerate."

Taking for granted that the synoptic Gospels are historical, there is no
proof that Jesus ever claimed to be either God, or a god; on the other
hand, it is quite the contrary.[131:5] As Viscount Amberly says: "The
best proof of this is that Jesus never, at any period of his life,
desired his followers to worship him, either as God, or as the Son of
God," in the sense in which it is now understood. Had he believed of
himself what his followers subsequently believed of him, that he was one
of the constituent persons in a divine Trinity, he must have enjoined
his Apostles both to address him in prayer themselves, and to desire
their converts to do likewise. It is quite plain that he did nothing of
the kind, and that they never supposed him to have done so.

Belief in Jesus _as the Messiah_ was taught as the first dogma of
Christianity, but adoration of Jesus _as God_ was not taught at all.

But we are not left in this matter to depend on conjectural inferences.
The words put into the mouth of Jesus are plain. Whenever occasion
arose, _he asserted his inferiority to the Father_, though, as no one
had then dreamt of his equality, it is natural that the occasions should
not have been frequent.

He made himself _inferior in knowledge_ when he said that of the day and
hour of the day of judgment no one knew, neither the angels in heaven
nor the Son; no one except the Father.[132:1]

He made himself _inferior in power_ when he said that seats on his right
hand and on his left in the kingdom of heaven were not his to
give.[132:2]

He made himself _inferior in virtue_ when he desired a certain man not
to address him as "Good Master," for there was none good but God.[132:3]

The words of his prayer at Gethsemane, "all things are possible unto
_thee_," imply that all things were _not_ possible to _him_, while its
conclusion "not what _I will_, but what _thou wilt_," indicates
submission to a superior, not the mere execution of a purpose of his
own.[132:4] Indeed, the whole prayer would have been a mockery, useless
for any purpose but the deception of his disciples, if he had himself
been identical with the Being to whom he prayed, and had merely been
giving effect by his death to their common counsels. While the cry of
agony from the cross, "_My God, my God! why hast thou forsaken
me?_"[132:5] would have been quite unmeaning if _the person forsaken_,
and _the person forsaking_, had been _one and the same_.

_Either, then, we must assume that the language of Jesus has been
misreported, or we must admit that he never for a moment pretended to be
co-equal, co-eternal or consubstantial with God._

It also follows of necessity from _both the genealogies_,[133:1] that
their compilers entertained no doubt that _Joseph_ was the father of
Jesus. Otherwise the descent of Joseph would not have been in the least
to the point. All attempts to reconcile this inconsistency with the
doctrine of the Angel-Messiah has been without avail, although the most
learned Christian divines, for many generations past, have endeavored to
do so.

So, too, of the stories of the Presentation in the Temple,[133:2] and of
the child Jesus at Jerusalem,[133:3] _Joseph is called his father_.
Jesus is repeatedly described as _the son of the carpenter_,[133:4] or
the _son of Joseph_, without the least indication that the expression is
not strictly in accordance with the fact.[133:5]

If his parents fail to understand him when he says, at twelve years old,
that he must be about his Father's business;[133:6] if he afterwards
declares that he finds no faith among his nearest relations;[133:7] if
he exalts his faithful disciples above his _unbelieving mother_ and
brothers;[133:8] above all, if Mary and her other sons put down his
prophetic enthusiasm to _insanity_;[133:9]--then the untrustworthy
nature of these stories of his birth is absolutely certain. If even a
_little_ of what they tell us had been true, then _Mary at least_ would
have believed in Jesus, and would not have failed so utterly to
understand him.[133:10]

The Gospel of Mark--which, in this respect, at least, abides most
faithfully by the old apostolic tradition--says not a word about
Bethlehem or _the miraculous birth_. The congregation of Jerusalem to
which Mary and the brothers of Jesus belonged,[133:11] and over which
the eldest of them, James, presided,[133:12] can have known nothing of
it; for the later Jewish-Christian communities, the so-called Ebionites,
who were descended from the congregation at Jerusalem, called Jesus _the
son of Joseph_. Nay, the story that the _Holy Spirit_ was the father of
Jesus, must have risen among the _Greeks_, or elsewhere, and not among
the first believers, who were Jews, for the Hebrew word for _spirit_ is
of _the feminine gender_.[134:1]

The immediate successors of the "congregation at Jerusalem"--to which
Mary, the mother of Jesus, and his brothers belonged--were, as we have
seen, the Ebionites. Eusebius, the first ecclesiastical historian (born
A. D. 264), speaking of the _Ebionites_ (_i. e._ "poor men"), tell us
that they believed Jesus to be "_a simple and common man_," born as
other men, "_of Mary and her husband_."[134:2]

The views held by the Ebionites of Jesus were, it is said, derived from
the Gospel of Matthew, _and what they learned direct from the Apostles_.
Matthew had been a hearer of Jesus, a companion of the Apostles, and had
seen and no doubt conversed with Mary. When he wrote his Gospel
everything was fresh in his mind, and there could be no object, on his
part, in writing the life of Jesus, to state falsehoods or omit
important truths in order to deceive his countrymen. If what is stated
in the _interpolated_ first two chapters, concerning the miraculous
birth of Jesus, were true, Matthew would have known of it; and, knowing
it, why should he omit it in giving an account of the life of
Jesus?[134:3]

The Ebionites, or Nazarenes, as they were previously called were
rejected by the Jews _as apostates_, and by the Egyptian and Roman
Christians _as heretics_, therefore, until they completely disappear,
their history is one of tyrannical persecution. Although some traces of
that obsolete sect may be discovered as late as the fourth century, they
insensibly melted away, either into the Roman Christian Church, or into
the Jewish Synagogue,[134:4] and with them perished the _original_
Gospel of Matthew, _the only Gospel written by an apostle_.

"Who, where masses of men are burning to burst the bonds of time and
sense, to deify and to adore, wants what seems earth-born, prosaic fact?
Woe to the man that dares to interpose it! Woe to the sect of faithful
Ebionites even, and on the very soil of Palestine, that dare to maintain
the earlier, humbler tradition! Swiftly do they become heretics,
revilers, blasphemers, though sanctioned by a James, brother of the
Lord."

Edward Gibbon, speaking of this most unfortunate sect, says:

     "A laudable regard for the honor of the first proselytes has
     countenanced the belief, the hope, the wish, that the
     Ebionites, or at least the Nazarenes, were distinguished only
     by their obstinate perseverance in the practice of the Mosaic
     rites. Their churches have disappeared, _their books are
     obliterated_, their obscure freedom might allow a latitude of
     faith, and the softness of their infant creed would be
     variously moulded by the zeal of prejudice of three hundred
     years. Yet the most charitable criticism must refuse these
     sectaries any knowledge of the pure and proper _divinity of
     Christ_. Educated in the school of Jewish prophecy and
     prejudice, they had never been taught to elevate their hope
     above _a human_ and temporal Messiah. If they had courage to
     hail their king when he appeared in a plebeian garb, their
     grosser apprehensions were incapable of discerning their God,
     _who had studiously disguised his celestial character under
     the name and person of a mortal_.

     "The familiar companions of Jesus of Nazareth conversed with
     their friend and countryman, who, in all the actions of
     rational and human life, appeared of the same species with
     themselves. His progress from infancy to youth and manhood was
     marked by a regular increase in stature and wisdom; and after
     a painful agony of mind and body, he expired on the
     cross."[135:1]

The Jewish Christians then--the congregation of Jerusalem, and their
immediate successors, the Ebionites or Nazarenes--saw in their master
nothing more than _a man_. From this, and the other facts which we have
seen in this chapter, it is evident that the man Jesus of Nazareth was
deified long after his death, just as many other men had been deified
centuries before his time, and even _after_. Until it had been settled
by a council of bishops that Jesus was not only _a God_, but "_God
himself in human form_," who appeared on earth, as did Crishna of old,
to redeem and save mankind, there were many theories concerning his
nature.

Among the early Christians there were a certain class called by the
later Christians _Heretics_. Among these may be mentioned the
"_Carpocratians_," named after one Carpocrates. They maintained that
Jesus was a _mere man_, born of Joseph and Mary, _like other men_, but
that he was good and virtuous. "Some of them have the vanity," says
_Irenæus_, "to think that they may equal, or in some respects exceed,
Jesus himself."[135:2]

These are called by the general name of _Gnostics, and comprehend almost
all the sects of the first two ages_.[135:3] They said that "all the
ancients, and even the Apostles themselves, received and taught the same
things which they held; and that the truth of the Gospel had been
preserved till the time of _Victor_, the thirteenth Bishop of Rome, but
by his successor, _Zephyrinus_, the truth had been corrupted."[135:4]

Eusebius, speaking of _Artemon_ and his followers, who denied the
divinity of Christ, says:

     "They affirm that all our ancestors, yea, and the Apostles
     themselves, were of the same opinion, and taught the same with
     them, and that this their true doctrine (for so they call it)
     was preached and embraced unto the time of Victor, the
     thirteenth Bishop of Rome after Peter, and corrupted by his
     successor Zephyrinus."[136:1]

There were also the "_Cerinthians_," named after one Cerinthus, who
maintained that Jesus was _not_ born of a virgin, which to them
appeared impossible, but that he was the son of Joseph and Mary, _born
altogether as other men are_; but he excelled all men in virtue,
knowledge and wisdom. At the time of his baptism, "_the Christ_" came
down upon him in the shape of a dove, and _left him_ at the time of his
crucifixion.[136:2]

Irenæus, speaking of Cerinthus and his doctrines, says:

     "He represents Jesus as the son of Joseph and Mary, according
     to the ordinary course of human generation, and _not_ as
     having been born of a virgin. He believed nevertheless that he
     was more righteous, prudent and wise than most men, and that
     _the Christ_ descended upon, and entered into him, at the time
     of his baptism."[136:3]

The _Docetes_ were a numerous and learned sect of Asiatic Christians who
invented the _Phantastic_ system, which was afterwards promulgated by
the Marcionites, the Manicheans, and various other sects.

They denied the truth and authenticity of the Gospels, as far as they
related to the conception of Mary, the birth of Jesus, and the thirty
years that preceded the exercise of his ministry.

Bordering upon the Jewish and Gentile world, the _Cerinthians_ labored
to reconcile the _Gnostic_ and the _Ebionite_, by confessing in the
_same Messiah_ the supernatural union of a man and a god; and this
_mystic_ doctrine was adopted, with many fanciful improvements, by many
sects. The hypothesis was this: that Jesus of Nazareth was a mere
mortal, the legitimate son of Joseph and Mary, but he was _the best_ and
wisest of the human race, selected as the worthy instrument to restore
upon earth the worship of the true and supreme Deity. When he was
baptized in the Jordan, _and not till then_, he became _more than man_.
At that time, _the Christ_, the first of the _Æons_, the Son of God
himself, descended on Jesus in the form of a dove, _to inhabit his
mind_, and direct his actions during the allotted period of _his
ministry_. When he was delivered into the hands of the Jews, _the
Christ_ forsook him, flew back to the world of spirits, and left the
_solitary Jesus_ to suffer, to complain, and to die. This is why he
said, while hanging on the cross: "My God! My God! why hast thou
forsaken me?"[137:1]

Here, then, we see the _first_ budding out of--what was termed by the
_true_ followers of Jesus--_heretical doctrines_. The time had not yet
come to make Jesus _a god_, to claim that he had been born of a virgin.
As he _must_, however, have been different from other mortals--throughout
the period of his ministry, at least--the Christ _must_ have entered
into him at the time of his baptism, and _as mysteriously_ disappeared
when he was delivered into the hands of the Jews.

In the course of time, the seeds of the faith, which had slowly arisen
in the rocky and ungrateful soil of Judea, were transplanted, in full
maturity, to the happier climes of the _Gentiles_; and the strangers of
_Rome_ and _Alexandria, who had never beheld the manhood_, were more
ready to embrace the _divinity_ of Jesus.

The polytheist and the philosopher, the Greek and the barbarian, were
alike accustomed to receive--as we have seen in this chapter--a long
succession and infinite chain of angels, or deities, or _æons_, or
emanations, issuing from the throne of light. Nor could it seem strange
and incredible _to them_, that the first of the _æons_, the Logos, or
Word of God, of the same substance with the Father, should descend upon
earth, to deliver the human race from vice and error. The histories of
their countries, their odes, and their religions were teeming with such
ideas, as happening in the past, and they were also _looking for and
expecting an Angel-Messiah_.[137:2]

Centuries rolled by, however, before the doctrine of Christ Jesus, the
Angel-Messiah, became a settled question, an established tenet in the
Christian faith. The dignity of Christ Jesus was measured by _private
judgment_, according to the indefinite _rule of Scripture_, or
_tradition_ or _reason_. But when his pure and proper divinity had been
established _on the ruins of Arianism_, the faith of the Catholics
trembled _on the edge of a precipice_ where it was impossible to recede,
dangerous to stand, dreadful to fall; and the _manifold inconveniences
of their creed_ were aggravated by the sublime character of their
theology. They hesitated to pronounce that _God himself_, the second
person of an equal and consubstantial Trinity, was _manifested in the
flesh_,[137:3] that the Being who pervades the universe _had been
confined in the womb of Mary_; that his eternal duration had been
marked by the days, and months, and years of human existence; _that the
Almighty God had been scourged and crucified_; that his impassible
essence _had felt pain and anguish_; that his omniscience was _not
exempt from ignorance_; and that _the source of life and immortality
expired on Mount Calvary_.

These alarming consequences were affirmed with unblushing simplicity by
Apollinaris, Bishop of Laodicea, and one of the luminaries of the
Church. The son of a learned grammarian, he was skilled in all the
sciences of Greece; eloquence, erudition, and philosophy, conspicuous in
the volumes of Apollinaris, were humbly devoted to the service of
religion.

The worthy friend of Athanasius, the worthy antagonist of Julian, he
bravely wrestled with the Arians and polytheists, _and though he
affected the rigor of geometrical demonstration_, his commentaries
revealed the literal and allegorical sense of the Scriptures.

_A mystery_, which had long floated in the looseness of popular belief,
was defined by his perverse diligence in a technical form, _and he first
proclaimed the memorable words, "One incarnate nature of
Christ._"[138:1]

This was about A. D. 362, he being Bishop of Laodicea, in Syria, at that
time.[138:2]

The recent zeal against the errors of Apollinaris reduced the Catholics
to a seeming agreement with the _double-nature_ of Cerinthus. But
instead of a temporary and occasional alliance, they established, and
Christians _still embrace_, the substantial, indissoluble, and
everlasting _union of a perfect God with a perfect man_, of the second
person of the Trinity with a reasonable soul and human flesh. In the
beginning of the _fifth century_, the unity of the two natures was the
prevailing doctrine of the church.[138:3] From that time, until a
comparatively recent period, the cry was: "_May those who divide
Christ[138:4] be divided with the sword; may they be hewn in pieces,
may they be burned alive!_" These were actually the words of a
_Christian_ synod.[139:1] Is it any wonder that after this came the
_dark ages_? How appropriate is the name which has been applied to the
centuries which followed! _Dark_ indeed they were. Now and then,
however, a ray of light was seen, which gave evidence of the coming
_morn_, whose glorious light we now enjoy. But what a grand light is yet
to come from the noon-day sun, which must shed its glorious rays over
the whole earth, ere it sets.


FOOTNOTES:

[111:1] Matthew, i. 18-25.

[111:2] The Luke narrator tells the story in a different manner. His
account is more like that recorded in the KORAN, which says that Gabriel
appeared unto Mary in the shape of a perfect man, that Mary, upon seeing
him, and seeming to understand his intentions, said: "If thou fearest
God, thou wilt not approach me." Gabriel answering said: "Verily, I am
the messenger of the Lord, and am sent to give thee a holy son." (Koran,
ch. xix.)

[112:1] Instead, however, of the benevolent Jesus, the "Prince of
Peace"--as Christian writers make him out to be--the Jews were expecting
a daring and irresistible warrior and conqueror, who, armed with greater
power than Cæsar, was to come upon earth to rend the fetters in which
their hapless nation had so long groaned, to avenge them upon their
haughty oppressors, and to re-establish the kingdom of Judah.

[112:2] Vol. v. p. 294.

[112:3] Moor, in his "_Pantheon_," tells us that a learned Pandit once
observed to him that the English were a new people, and had only the
record of one Avatara, but the Hindoos were an ancient people, and had
accounts of a great many.

[112:4] This name has been spelled in many different ways, such as
Krishna, Khrishna, Krishnu, Chrisna, Cristna, Christna, &c. We have
followed Sir Wm. Jones's way of spelling it, and shall do so throughout.

[113:1] See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. pp. 259-275.

[113:2] Ibid. p. 260. We may say that, "In him dwelt the fulness of the
Godhead bodily." (Colossians, ii. 9.)

[113:3] Allen's India, p. 397.

[113:4] Indian Antiquities, vol. iii. p. 45.

[113:5] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 270.

[113:6] Like Mary, the mother of Jesus, Devaki is called the "_Virgin
Mother_," although she, as well as Mary, is said to have had other
children.

[114:1] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 327.

[114:2] Ibid. p. 329.

[114:3] Vishnu Purana, p. 502.

[114:4] Ibid. p. 440.

[114:5] "Now to him that is of power to establish you according to my
gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation
of the _mystery_, which was kept secret since the world began." (Romans,
xvi. 15.) "And without controversy, great is the _mystery_ of godliness:
God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the spirit, seen of angels,
preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into
glory." (1 Timothy, iii. 16.)

[114:6] Vishnu Purana, p. 492, _note_ 3.

[114:7] Geeta, ch. iv.

[115:1] Bhagavat Geeta, Lecture iv. p. 52.

[115:2] Ibid., Lecture iv. p. 79.

[115:3] It is said that there have been several Buddhas (see ch. xxix).
We speak of _Gautama_. Buddha is variously pronounced and expressed
Boudh, Bod, Bot, But, Bud, Budd, Buddou, Bouttu, Bota, Budso, Pot, Pout,
Pota, Poti, and Pouti. The Siamese make the final _t_ or _d_ quiescent,
and sound the word Po; whence the Chinese still further vary it to Pho
or Fo. BUDDHA--which means _awakened_ or _enlightened_ (see Müller: Sci.
of Relig., p. 308)--is the proper way in which to spell the name. We
have adopted this throughout this work, regardless of the manner in
which the writer from which we quote spells it.

[115:4] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 86.

[115:5] FO-PEN-HING is the life of Gautama Buddha, translated from the
Chinese Sanskrit by Prof. Samuel Beal.

[115:6] Beal: Hist. Buddha, p. 25.

[115:7] Hardy: Manual of Buddhism, p. 141.

[115:8] A Christian sect called Collyridians believed that Mary was born
of a virgin, as Christ is related to have been born of her (See _note_
to the "Gospel of the Birth of Mary" [Apocryphal]; also King: The
Gnostics and their Remains, p. 91, and Gibbon's Hist. of Rome, vol. v.
p. 108, _note_). This idea has been recently adopted by the Roman
Catholic Church. They now claim that Mary was born as immaculate as her
son. (See Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 75, and The Lily of Israel,
pp. 6-15; also fig. 17, ch. xxxii.)

"The gradual _deification_ of Mary, though slower in its progress,
follows, in the Romish Church, a course analogous to that which the
Church of the first centuries followed, in elaborating the deity of
Jesus. With almost all the Catholic writers of our day, Mary is the
universal mediatrix; _all power has been given to her in heaven and upon
earth_. Indeed, more than one serious attempt has been already made in
the Ultramontane camp to unite Mary in some way to the _Trinity_; and if
Mariolatry lasts much longer, this will probably be accomplished in the
end." (Albert Réville.)

[116:1] Huc's Travels, vol. i. pp. 326, 327.

[116:2] Ibid. p. 327.

[116:3] Oriental Religions, p. 604.

[116:4] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah.

[116:5] Asiatic Researches, vol. ii. p. 309, and King's Gnostics, p.
167.

[116:6] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, pp. 10, 25 and 44.

[117:1] See Beal: Hist. Buddha, p. 36, _note_. Ganesa, the Indian God of
Wisdom, is either represented as an elephant or a man with an elephant's
head. (See Moore's Hindu Pantheon, and vol. i. of Asiatic Researches.)

[117:2] Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, p. 83.

[117:3] Beal: Hist. Buddha, pp. 38, 39.

[117:4] Tree and Serpent Worship, p. 131.

[118:1] Tree and Serpent Worship, p. 212.

[118:2] King: The Gnostics and their Remains, p. 168, and Hist.
Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 485. R. Spence Hardy says: "The body of the Queen
was transparent, and the child could be distinctly seen, like a priest
seated upon a throne in the act of saying bana, or like a golden image
enclosed in a vase of crystal; so that it could be known how much he
grew every succeeding day." (Hardy: Manual of Buddhism, p. 144.) The
same thing was said of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Early art represented
the infant distinctly visible in her womb. (See Inman's Ancient Pagan
and Modern Christian Symbolism, and chap. xxix. this work.)

[118:3] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 34.

[118:4] Squire: Serpent Symbol, p. 185. See also Anacalypsis, vol. i.
pp. 162 and 308.

[119:1] See Asiatic Res., vol. x., and Anac., vol. i. p. 662.

[119:2] Davis: Hist. China, vol. i. p. 161.

[119:3] Thornton: Hist. China, vol. i. pp. 21, 22.

[119:4] Squire: Serpent Symbol, p. 184.

[120:1] Semedo: Hist. China, p. 89, in Anac., vol. ii. p. 227.

[120:2] Thornton: Hist. China, vol. i. pp. 134-137. See also Chambers's
Encyclo., art. Lao-tsze.

[120:3] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 204, 205.

[121:1] "The '_toe-print made by God_' has occasioned much speculation
of the critics. We may simply draw the conclusion that the poet meant to
have his readers believe with him that the conception of his hero was
SUPERNATURAL." (James Legge.)

[121:2] The Shih-King, Decade ii. Ode 1.

[121:3] See Thornton's Hist. China, vol. i. pp. 199, 200, and Buckley's
Cities of the Ancient World, pp. 168-170.

[121:4] "Le Dieu LA des LAMAS est né d'une _Vierge_: plusieurs princes
de l'Asie, entr'autres _l'Empereur Kienlong_, aujourd'hui regnant à la
Chine, et qui est de la race de ces Tartares Mandhuis, qui conquirent
cet empire en 1644, croit, et assure lui-même, être descendu d'une
_Vierge_." (D'Hancarville: Res. Sur l'Orig., p. 186, in Anac., vol. ii.
p. 97.)

[122:1] See Mahaffy: Proleg. to Anct. Hist., p. 416, and Bonwick's
Egyptian Belief, p. 406.

[122:2] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 157.

[122:3] Renouf: Relig. Anct. Egypt, p. 162.

[122:4] See the chapter on "The Worship of the Virgin Mother."

[122:5] "O toi vengeur, Dieu fils d'un Dieu; O toi vengeur, Horus,
manifesté par Osiris, engendré d'Isis déesee." (Champollion, p. 190.)

[122:6] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 406.

[122:7] Ibid. p. 247.

[122:8] Renouf: Religion of Ancient Egypt, p. 161.

[122:9] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. pp. 67 and 147.

[122:10] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 248.

[123:1] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 407.

[123:2] Renouf: Relig. of Anct. Egypt, p. 163.

[123:3] See Herbert Spencer's Principles of Sociology, vol. i. p. 420.

[123:4] Kenrick's Egypt, vol. i. p. 431.

[123:5] Spencer's Principles of Sociology, vol. i. p. 421.

[123:6] Malcolm: Hist. Persia, vol. i. p. 494.

[123:7] Anac. vol. i. p. 117.

[124:1] Roman Antiq., p. 124. Bell's Panth., i. 128. Dupuis, p. 258.

[124:2] Tales of Anct. Greece, p. 55.

[124:3] Greek and Italian Mytho., p. 81. Bell's Panth., i. 117. Roman
Antiq., p. 71, and Murray's Manual Mytho., p. 118.

[124:4] L'Antiquité Expliquée, vol. i. p. 229.

[124:5] Euripides: Bacchae. Quoted by Dunlap: Spirit Hist. of Man, p.
200.

[124:6] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 58. Roman Antiquities, p. 133.

[124:7] See the chapter on "The Crucifixion of Jesus," and Bell's
Pantheon, ii. 195.

[124:8] Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 170. Bulfinch: The Age of Fable, p.
161.

[124:9] Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 171.

[125:1] Apol. 1, ch. xxii.

[125:2] Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 67. Bulfinch: The Age of Fable, p.
19.

[125:3] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 25.

[125:4] Ibid. p. 74, and Bulfinch: p. 248.

[125:5] Tacitus: Annals, iii. lxi.

[125:6] Tales of Anct. Greece, p. 4.

[125:7] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 31.

[125:8] Ibid. p. 81.

[125:9] Ibid. p. 16.

[125:10] Bell's Pantheon, ii. p. 30.

[125:11] Cox: Aryan Mythology, ii. 45.

[125:12] The Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 3.

[126:1] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 78.

[126:2] Quoted by Lardner, vol. iii. p. 157.

[126:3] Draper: Religion and Science, p. 8.

[126:4] Middleton's Letters from Rome, p. 37. In the case of _Jesus_,
one _Saul_ of Tarsus, said to be of a worthy and upright character,
declared most solemnly, that Jesus himself appeared to him while on his
way to Damascus, and again while praying in the temple at Jerusalem.
(Acts xxii.)

[126:5] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 345. Gibbon's Rome, vol.
i. pp. 84, 85.

[126:6] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 611.

[126:7] Æneid, lib. iv.

[126:8] Tacitus: Annals, bk. i. ch. x.

[126:9] Ibid. bk. ii, ch. lxxxii. and bk. xiii. ch. ii.

[127:1] See Middleton's Letters from Rome, pp. 37, 38.

[127:2] See Religion of the Ancient Greeks, p. 81, and Gibbon's Rome,
vol. i. pp. 84, 85.

[127:3] Draper: Religion and Science, p. 8.

[127:4] Socrates: Eccl. Hist. Lib. 3, ch. xix.

[127:5] Draper: Religion and Science, p. 17.

[127:6] See Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 418. Bunsen: Bible
Chronology, p. 5, and The Angel-Messiah, pp. 80 and 298.

[127:7] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 113, and Draper: Religion
and Science, p. 8.

[127:8] Hardy: Manual Budd., p. 141. Higgins: Anac., i. 618.

[128:1] Draper: Religion and Science, p. 8. Compare Luke i. 26-35.

[128:2] Philostratus, p. 5.

[128:3] See the chapter on Miracles.

[128:4] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 151.

[128:5] See the chapter on Miracles.

[128:6] Bell's Pantheon, i. 27. Roman Ant., 136. Taylor's Diegesis, p.
150.

[128:7] Ibid.

[129:1] Eusebius: Eccl. Hist., lib. 2, ch. xiii.

[129:2] Ibid. ch. xiii.

[129:3] See Mallet's Northern Antiquities.

[129:4] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 32, Kingsborough: Mexican
Antiquities, vol. vi. 166 and 175-6.

[129:5] Ibid.

[129:6] See Kingsborough: Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 176.

[129:7] Ibid. p. 175.

[130:1] See Kingsborough: Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 176.

[130:2] Ibid. p. 166.

[130:3] Brinton: Myths of the New World, pp. 180, 181.

[130:4] Squire: Serpent Symbol, p. 187.

[130:5] Ibid. p. 188.

[130:6] Ibid.

[130:7] Ibid.

[130:8] Ibid. p. 190.

[131:1] Squire: Serpent Symbol, p. 191.

[131:2] Ibid.

[131:3] Ibid.

[131:4] Ibid. p. 192.

[131:5] "If we seek, in the first three Gospels, to know what his
biographers thought of Jesus, we find his _true humanity_ plainly
stated, and if we possessed only the Gospel of _Mark_ and the discourses
of the Apostles in the _Acts_, the whole Christology of the New
Testament would be reduced to this: that Jesus of Nazareth was '_a
prophet mighty in deeds and in words_, made by God Christ and Lord.'"
(Albert Réville.)

[132:1] Mark, xiii. 32.

[132:2] Mark, x. 40.

[132:3] Mark, x. 18.

[132:4] Mark, xiv. 36.

[132:5] Mark, xv. 34.

[133:1] Matt. and Luke.

"The passages which appear most confirmatory of Christ's Deity, or
Divine nature, are, in the first place, the narratives of the
Incarnation and of the Miraculous Conception, as given by Matthew and
Luke. Now, the two narratives do not harmonize with each other; they
neutralize and negative the _genealogies_ on which depend so large a
portion of the proof of Jesus being the Messiah--the marvellous
statement they contain is not referred to in any subsequent portion of
the two Gospels, and is tacitly but positively negatived by several
passages--it is never mentioned in the Acts or in the Epistles, and was
evidently unknown to all the Apostles--and, finally, the tone of the
narrative, especially in Luke, is poetical and legendary, and bears a
marked similarity to the stories contained in the Apocryphal Gospels."
(W. R. Greg: The Creed of Christendom, p. 229.)

[133:2] Luke, ii. 27.

[133:3] Luke, ii. 41-48.

[133:4] Matt. xiii. 55.

[133:5] Luke, iv. 22. John, i. 46; vi. 42. Luke, iii. 23.

[133:6] Luke, ii. 50.

[133:7] Matt. xiii. 57. Mark, vi. 4.

[133:8] Matt. xii. 48-50. Mark, iii. 33-35.

[133:9] Mark, iii. 21.

[133:10] Dr. Hooykaas.

[133:11] Acts, i. 14.

[133:12] Acts, xxi. 18. Gal. ii. 19-21.

[134:1] See The Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 57.

[134:2] Eusebius: Eccl. Hist., lib. 3, ch. xxiv.

[134:3] Mr. George Reber has thoroughly investigated this subject in his
"Christ of Paul," to which the reader is referred.

[134:4] See Gibbon's Rome, vol. i. pp. 515-517.

[135:1] Gibbon's Rome, vol. iv. pp. 488, 489.

[135:2] See Lardner's Works, vol. viii. pp. 395, 396.

[135:3] Ibid. p. 306.

[135:4] Ibid. p. 571.

[136:1] Eusebius: Eccl. Hist., lib. 5, ch. xxv.

[136:2] Lardner: vol. viii. p. 404.

[136:3] Irenæus: Against Heresies, bk. i. c. xxiv.

[137:1] See Gibbon's Rome, vol. iv. pp. 492-495.

[137:2] Not a _worldly Messiah_, as the Jews looked for, but an
_Angel-Messiah_, such an one as always came at the end of a _cycle_. We
shall treat of this subject anon, when we answer the question _why_
Jesus was believed to be an _Avatar_, by the Gentiles, and not by the
Jews; why, in fact, the doctrine of _Christ incarnate_ in Jesus
succeeded and prospered.

[137:3] "This strong expression might be justified by the language of
St. Paul (_God_ was manifest in the flesh, justified in the spirit, seen
of angels, &c. I. Timothy, iii. 16), but we are deceived by our modern
Bibles. The word _which_ was altered to _God_ at Constantinople in the
beginning of the sixth century: the true meaning, which is visible in
the Latin and Syriac versions, still exists in the reasoning of the
Greek, as well as of the Latin fathers; and this fraud, with that of the
_three witnesses of St. John_ (I. John, v. 7), is admirably detected by
Sir Isaac Newton." (Gibbon's Rome, iv. 496, _note_.) _Dean Milman_ says:
"The weight of authority is so much against the common reading of both
these points (_i. e._, I. Tim. iii. 16, and I. John, v. 7), that they
are no longer urged by prudent controversialists." (Note in Ibid.)

[138:1] Gibbon's Rome, vol. iv. pp. 492-497.

[138:2] See Chambers's Encyclopædia, art. "Apollinaris."

[138:3] Gibbon's Rome, vol. iv. p. 498.

[138:4] That is, separate _him_ from God the Father, by saying that
_he_, Jesus of Nazareth, was _not_ really and truly God Almighty himself
in human form.

[139:1] See Gibbon's Rome, vol. iv. p. 516.



CHAPTER XIII.

THE STAR OF BETHLEHEM.


Being born in a miraculous manner, as other great personages had been,
it was necessary that the miracles attending the births of these
virgin-born gods should be added to the history of Christ Jesus,
otherwise the legend would not be complete.

The first which we shall notice is the story of the _star_ which is said
to have heralded his birth, and which was designated "_his_ star." It is
related by the _Matthew_ narrator as follows:[140:1]

     "When Jesus was born in Bethlehem, of Judea, in the days of
     Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to
     Jerusalem, saying: 'Where is he that is born King of the Jews?
     for we have seen _his star_ in the east, and are come to
     worship him.'"

Herod the king, having heard these things, he privately called the wise
men, and inquired of them what time the star appeared, at the same time
sending them to Bethlehem to search diligently for the young child. The
wise men, accordingly, departed and went on their way towards Bethlehem.
"The star which they saw in the east went before them, till it came _and
stood over_ where the young child was."

The general legendary character of this narrative--its similarity in
style with those contained in the apocryphal gospels--and more
especially its conformity with those _astrological notions_ which,
though prevalent in the time of the Matthew narrator, have been exploded
by the sounder scientific knowledge of our days--all unite to stamp upon
the story the impress of poetic or mythic fiction.

The fact that the writer of this story speaks not of _a star_ but of
_his star_, shows that it was the popular belief of the people among
whom he lived, that each and every person was born under a star, and
that this one which had been seen was _his star_.

All ancient nations were very superstitious in regard to the influence
of the stars upon human affairs, and this ridiculous idea has been
handed down, in some places, even to the present day. Dr. Hooykaas,
speaking on this subject, says:

     "In ancient times the Jews, like other peoples, might very
     well believe that there was some immediate connection between
     the stars and the life of man--an idea which we still preserve
     in the forms of speech that so-and-so was born under a lucky
     or under an evil star. They might therefore suppose that the
     birth of great men, such as Abraham, for instance, was
     announced in the heavens. In our century, however, if not
     before, all serious belief in astrology has ceased, and it
     would be regarded as an act of the grossest superstition for
     any one to have his horoscope drawn; for the course, the
     appearance and the disappearance of the heavenly bodies have
     been long determined with mathematical precision by
     science."[141:1]

The Rev. Dr. Geikie says, in his _Life of Christ_:[141:2]

     "The Jews had already, long before Christ's day, dabbled
     in astrology, and the various forms of magic which became
     connected with it. . . . They were much given to cast horoscopes
     from the numerical value of a name. Everywhere throughout the
     whole Roman Empire, Jewish magicians, dream expounders, and
     sorcerers, were found.

     "'The life and portion of children,' says the _Talmud_, 'hang
     not on righteousness, but on _their_ star.' 'The planet of the
     day has no virtue, but the planet of the hour (of nativity)
     has much.' 'When the Messiah is to be revealed,' says the book
     _Sohar_, 'a star will rise in the east, shining in great
     brightness, and _seven_ other stars round it will fight
     against it on every side.' 'A star will rise in the east,
     which is the star of the Messiah, and will remain in the east
     fifteen days.'"

The moment of every man's birth being supposed to determine every
circumstance in his life, it was only necessary to find out in what mode
the _celestial bodies_--supposed to be the primary wheels to the
universal machine--operated at that moment, in order to discover all
that would happen to him afterward.

The regularity of the risings and settings of the fixed stars, though it
announced the changes of the seasons and the orderly variations of
nature, could not be adapted to the capricious mutability of human
actions, fortunes, and adventures: wherefore the astrologers had
recourse to the planets, whose more complicated revolutions offered more
varied and more extended combinations. Their different returns to
certain points of the Zodiac, their relative positions and conjunctions
with each other, were supposed to influence the affairs of men; whence
daring impostors presumed to foretell, not only the destinies of
individuals, but also the rise and fall of empires, and the fate of the
world itself.[141:3]

The inhabitants of _India_ are, and have always been, very superstitious
concerning the stars. The Rev. D. O. Allen, who resided in India for
twenty-five years, and who undoubtedly became thoroughly acquainted with
the superstitions of the inhabitants, says on this subject:

     "So strong are the superstitious feelings of many, concerning
     the supposed influence of the stars on human affairs, that
     some days are _lucky_, and others again are _unlucky_, that no
     arguments or promises would induce them to deviate from the
     course which these _stars_, signs, &c., indicate, as the way
     of safety, prosperity, and happiness. The evils and
     inconveniences of these superstitions and prejudices are among
     the things that press heavily upon the people of
     India."[142:1]

The _Nakshatias_--twenty-seven constellations which in Indian astronomy
separate the moon's path into twenty-seven divisions, as the signs of
the Zodiac do that of the sun into twelve--are regarded as deities who
exert a vast influence on the destiny of men, not only at the moment of
their entrance into the world, but during their whole passage through
it. These formidable constellations are consulted at births, marriages,
and on all occasions of family rejoicing, distress or calamity. No one
undertakes a journey or any important matter except on days which the
aspect of the Nakshatias renders lucky and auspicious. If any
constellation is unfavorable, it must by all means be propitiated by a
ceremony called S'anti.

The _Chinese_ were very superstitious concerning the stars. They
annually published astronomical calculations of the motions of the
planets, for every hour and minute of the year. They considered it
important to be very exact, because the hours, and even the minutes, are
lucky or unlucky, according to the aspect of the stars. Some days were
considered peculiarly fortunate for marrying, or beginning to build a
house; and the gods are better pleased with sacrifice offered at certain
hours than they are with the same ceremony performed at other
times.[142:2]

The ancient _Persians_ were also great astrologers, and held the stars
in great reverence. They believed and taught that the destinies of men
were intimately connected with their motions, and therefore it was
important to know under the influence of what star a human soul made its
advent into this world. Astrologers swarmed throughout the country, and
were consulted upon all important occasions.[142:3]

The ancient _Egyptians_ were exactly the same in this respect. According
to Champollion, the tomb of Ramses V., at Thebes, contains tables of the
constellations, and of their influence on human beings, for every hour
of every month of the year.[142:4]

The Buddhists' sacred books relate that the birth of _Buddha_ was
announced in the heavens by an _asterim_ which was seen rising on the
horizon. It is called the "_Messianic star_."[143:1]

The Fo-pen-hing says:

     "The time of Bôdhisatwa's incarnation is, when the
     constellation _Kwei_ is in conjunction with the Sun."[143:2]

"Wise men," known as "Holy Rishis," were informed by these celestial
signs that the Messiah was born.[143:3]

In the _Rāmāyana_ (one of the sacred books of the Hindoos) the horoscope
of Rama's birth is given. He is said to have been born on the 9th Tithi
of the month Caitra. _The planet Jupiter_ figured at his birth; it being
in Cancer at that time.[143:4] Rama was an incarnation of Vishnu. When
_Crishna_ was born "_his stars_" were to be seen in the heavens. They
were pointed out by one Nared, a great prophet and astrologer.[143:5]

Without going through the list, we can say that the birth of every
Indian _Avatar_ was foretold by _celestial signs_.[143:6]

The same myth is to be found in the legends of China. Among others they
relate that a star figured at the birth of _Yu_, the founder of the
first dynasty which reigned in China,[143:7] who--as we saw in the last
chapter--was of heavenly origin, having been born of a virgin. It is
also said that a star figured at the birth of _Laou-tsze_, the Chinese
sage.[143:8]

In the legends of the Jewish patriarchs and prophets, it is stated that
a _brilliant star_ shone at the time of the birth of _Moses_. It was
seen by the _Magi_ of Egypt, who immediately informed the king.[143:9]

When _Abraham_ was born "_his star_" shone in the heavens, if we may
believe the popular legends, and its brilliancy outshone all the other
stars.[143:10] Rabbinic traditions relate the following:

     "Abraham was the son of Terah, general of Nimrod's army. He
     was born at Ur of the Chaldees 1948 years after the Creation.
     On the night of his birth, Terah's friends--among whom were
     many of Nimrod's councillors and soothsayers--were feasting in
     his house. On leaving, late at night, _they observed an
     unusual star in the east_, it seemed to run from one quarter
     of the heavens to the other, and to devour four stars which
     were there. All amazed in astonishment at this wondrous
     sight, 'Truly,' said they, '_this can signify nothing else but
     that Terah's new-born son will become great and
     powerful_.'"[144:1]

It is also related that Nimrod, in a dream, saw a star rising above the
horizon, which was very brilliant. The soothsayers being consulted in
regard to it, foretold that a child was born who would become a great
prince.[144:2]

A brilliant star, which eclipsed all the other stars, was also to be
seen at the birth of the Cæsars; in fact, as Canon Farrar remarks, "The
Greeks and Romans had _always_ considered that the births and deaths of
great men were symbolized by the appearance and disappearance of
heavenly bodies, and the same belief has continued down to comparatively
modern times."[144:3]

Tacitus, the Roman historian, speaking of the reign of the Emperor Nero,
says:

     "A comet having appeared, in this juncture, the phenomenon,
     according to the _popular opinion_, announced that governments
     were to be changed, and kings dethroned. In the imaginations
     of men, Nero was already dethroned, and who should be his
     successor was the question."[144:4]

According to Moslem authorities, the birth of _Ali_--Mohammed's great
disciple, and the chief of one of the two principal sects into which
Islam is divided--was foretold by celestial signs. "A light was
distinctly visible, resembling a bright column, extending from
the earth to the firmament."[144:5] Even during the reign of the
Emperor Hadrian, a hundred years after the time assigned for the
death of Jesus, a certain Jew who gave himself out as the "_Messiah_,"
and headed the last great insurrection of his country, assumed the name
of _Bar-Cochba_--that is, "_Son of a Star_."[144:6]

This myth evidently extended to the New World, as we find that the
symbol of _Quetzalcoatle_, the virgin-born Saviour, was the "_Morning
Star_."[144:7]

We see, then, that among the ancients there seems to have been a very
general idea that the birth of a great person would be announced by a
star. The Rev. Dr. Geikie, who maintains to his utmost the truth of the
Gospel narrative, is yet constrained to admit that:

     "It was, indeed, universally believed, that extraordinary
     events, especially the birth and death of great men, were
     heralded by appearances of stars, and still more of comets, or
     by conjunctions of the heavenly bodies."[145:1]

The whole tenor of the narrative recorded by the _Matthew_ narrator is
the most complete justification of the science of _astrology_; that the
first intimation of the birth of the Son of God was given to the
worshipers of Ormuzd, who have the power of distinguishing with
certainty _his_ peculiar star; that from these _heathen_ the tidings of
his birth are received by the Jews at Jerusalem, _and therefore that the
theory must be right which connects great events in the life of men with
phenomena in the starry heavens_.

If this _divine sanction of astrology_ is contested on the ground that
this was an _exceptional_ event, in which, simply to bring the Magi to
Jerusalem, God caused the star to appear in accordance with their
superstitious science, the difficulty is only pushed one degree
backwards, for in this case God, it is asserted, wrought an event which
was perfectly certain to strengthen the belief of the Magi, of Herod, of
the Jewish priests, and of the Jews generally, in the truth of
astrology.

If, to avoid the alternative, recourse be had to the notion that the
star appeared _by chance_, or that this _chance_ or _accident_ directed
the Magi aright, is the position really improved? Is _chance_ consistent
with any notion of supernatural interposition?

We may also ask the question, why were the Magi brought to Jerusalem at
all? If they knew that the star which they saw was the star of Christ
Jesus--as the narrative states[145:2]--and were by this knowledge
conducted to Jerusalem, why did it not suffice to guide them _straight
to Bethlehem_, and thus prevent the Slaughter of the Innocents? Why did
the star desert them after its first appearance, not to be seen again
till they issued from Jerusalem? or, if it did not desert them, why did
they ask of Herod and the priests the road which they should take, when,
by the hypothesis, the star was ready to guide them?[145:3]

It is said that in the oracles of Zoroaster there is to be found a
prophecy to the effect that, _in the latter days_, a virgin would
conceive and bear a son, and that, at the time of his birth, a star
would shine at noonday. Christian divines have seen in this a prophecy
of the birth of _Christ_ Jesus, but when critically examined, it does
not stand the test. The drift of the story is this:

Ormuzd, the Lord of Light, who created the universe in _six_ periods of
time, accomplished his work by making the first man and woman, and
infusing into them the breath of life. It was not long before Ahriman,
the evil one, contrived to seduce the first parents of mankind by
persuading them to eat of the forbidden fruit. Sin and death are now in
the world; the principles of _good_ and _evil_ are now in deadly strife.
Ormuzd then reveals to mankind his _law_ through his prophet Zoroaster;
the strife between the two principles continues, however, and will
continue until the end of a destined term. During the last three
thousand years of the period Ahriman is predominant. The world now
hastens to its doom; religion and virtue are nowhere to be found;
mankind are plunged in sin and misery. _Sosiosh_ is born of a virgin,
and redeems them, subdues the Devs, awakens the dead, _and holds the
last judgment_. A comet sets the world in flames; the Genii of Light
combat against the Genii of Darkness, and cast them into Duzakh, where
Ahriman and the Devs and the souls of the wicked are thoroughly cleansed
and purified by fire. Ahriman then submits to Ormuzd; evil is absorbed
into goodness; the unrighteous, thoroughly purified, are united with the
righteous, and _a new earth and a new heaven_ arise, free from all evil,
where peace and innocence will forever dwell.

Who can fail to see that this virgin-born _Sosiosh_ was to come, _not
eighteen hundred years ago_, but, in the "_latter days_," when the world
is to be set on fire by a _comet_, the _judgment_ to take place, and the
"new heaven and new earth" is to be established? Who can fail to see
also, by a perusal of the New Testament, that the idea of a _temporal
Messiah_ (a mighty king and warrior, who should liberate and rule over
his people Israel), and the idea of an _Angel-Messiah_ (who had come to
announce that the "kingdom of heaven was at hand," that the "stars
should fall from heaven," and that all men would shortly be judged
according to their deeds), are both jumbled together in a heap?


FOOTNOTES:

[140:1] Matthew, ch. ii.

[141:1] Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 72.

[141:2] Vol. i. p. 145.

[141:3] See Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, p. 52.

[142:1] Allen's India, p. 456.

[142:2] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 221.

[142:3] Ibid. p. 261.

[142:4] See Kenrick's Egypt, vol. i. p. 456.

[143:1] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, pp. 22, 23, 38.

[143:2] See Beal: Hist. Buddha, pp. 23, 33, 35.

[143:3] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 36.

[143:4] Williams's Indian Wisdom, p. 347.

[143:5] See Hist. Hindostan, ii. 336.

[143:6] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 561. For that of Crishna,
see Vishnu Purana, book v. ch. iii.

[143:7] See Ibid. p. 618.

[143:8] Thornton: Hist. China, vol. i. p. 137.

[143:9] See Anac., i. p. 560, and Geikie's Life of Christ, i. 559.

[143:10] See Ibid., and The Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 72, and
Calmet's Fragments, art. "Abraham."

[144:1] Baring-Gould: Legends of the Patriarchs, p. 149.

[144:2] Calmet's Fragments, art. "Abraham."

[144:3] Farrar's Life of Christ, p. 52.

[144:4] Tacitus: Annals, bk. xiv. ch. xxii.

[144:5] Amberly's Analysis of Religious Belief, p. 227.

[144:6] Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 73.

[144:7] Brinton: Myths of the New World, pp. 180, 181, and Squire:
Serpent Symbol.

[145:1] Life of Christ, vol. i. p. 144.

[145:2] Matthew ii. 2.

[145:3] See Thomas Scott's English Life of Jesus for a full
investigation of this subject.



CHAPTER XIV.

THE SONG OF THE HEAVENLY HOST.


The story of the Song of the Heavenly Host belongs exclusively to the
_Luke_ narrator, and, in substance, is as follows:

At the time of the birth of Christ Jesus, there were shepherds abiding
in the fields, keeping watch over their flock by night. And the angel of
the Lord appeared among them, and the glory of the Lord shone round
about them, and the angel said: "I bring you good tidings of great joy,
which shall be to all people; for unto you is born this day in the city
of David, a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord."

And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the Heavenly Host,
praising God in song, saying: "Glory to God in the highest; and on earth
peace, good will towards men." After this the angels went _into
heaven_.[147:1]

It is recorded in the _Vishnu Purana_[147:2] that while the virgin
Devaki bore _Crishna_, "the protector of the world," in her womb, she
was eulogized by the gods, and on the day of Crishna's birth, "the
quarters of the horizon were irradiate with joy, as if moonlight was
diffused over the whole earth." "_The spirits and the nymphs of heaven
danced and sang_," and, "at _midnight_,[147:3] when the support of all
was born, _the clouds emitted low pleasing sounds, and poured down rain
of flowers_."[147:4]

Similar demonstrations of celestial delight were not wanting at the
birth of _Buddha_. All beings everywhere were full of joy. Music was to
be heard all over the land, and, as in the case of Crishna, there fell
from the skies a gentle shower of flowers and perfumes. Caressing
breezes blew, and a marvellous light was produced.[147:5]

The Fo-pen-hing relates that:

     "The attending spirits, who surrounded the Virgin Maya and the
     infant Saviour, singing praises of 'the Blessed One,' said:
     'All joy be to you, Queen Maya, rejoice and be glad, for the
     child you have borne is holy.' Then the Rishis and Devas who
     dwelt on earth exclaimed with great joy: 'This day Buddha is
     born for the good of men, to dispel the darkness of their
     ignorance.' Then the four heavenly kings took up the strain
     and said: 'Now because Bôdhisatwa is born, to give joy and
     bring peace to the world, therefore is there this brightness.'
     Then the gods of the thirty-three heavens took up the burden
     of the strain, and the Yama Devas and the Tûsita Devas, and so
     forth, through all the heavens of the Kama, Rupa, and Arupa
     worlds, even up to the Akanishta heavens, all the Devas joined
     in this song, and said: '_To-day Bôdhisatwa is born on earth,
     to give joy and peace to men and Devas, to shed light in the
     dark places, and to give sight to the blind._"[148:1]

Even the sober philosopher _Confucius_ did not enter the world, if we
may believe Chinese tradition, without premonitory symptoms of his
greatness.[148:2]

Sir John Francis Davis, speaking of Confucius, says:

     "Various prodigies, _as in other instances_, were the
     forerunners of the birth of this extraordinary person. On the
     eve of his appearance upon earth, _celestial music_ sounded in
     the ears of his mother; and when he was born, this inscription
     appeared on his breast: 'The maker of a rule for setting the
     World.'"[148:3]

In the case of _Osiris_, the Egyptian Saviour, at his birth, a voice was
heard proclaiming that: "The Ruler of all the Earth is born."[148:4]

In Plutarch's "_Isis_" occurs the following:

     "At the birth of Osiris, there was heard a voice that the Lord
     of all the Earth was coming in being; and some say that a
     woman named Pamgle, as she was going to carry water to the
     temple of Ammon, in the city of Thebes, heard that voice,
     which commanded her to proclaim it with a loud voice, that the
     great beneficent god Osiris was born."[148:5]

Wonderful demonstrations of delight also attended the birth of the
heavenly-born _Apollonius_. According to Flavius Philostratus, who wrote
the life of this remarkable man, a flock of swans surrounded his mother,
and clapping their wings, as is their custom, they sang in unison, while
the air was fanned by gentle breezes.

When the god _Apollo_ was born of the virgin Latona in the Island of
Delos, there was joy among the undying gods in Olympus, and the Earth
laughed beneath the smile of Heaven.[148:6]

At the time of the birth of "_Hercules the Saviour_," his father Zeus,
the god of gods, spake from heaven and said:

     "This day shall a child be born of the race of Perseus, who
     shall be the mightiest of the sons of men."[149:1]

When _Æsculapius_ was a helpless infant, and when he was about to be put
to death, a voice from the god Apollo was heard, saying:

     "Slay not the child with the mother; _he is born to do great
     things_; but bear him to the wise centaur Cheiron, and bid him
     train the boy in all his wisdom and teach him to do brave
     deeds, that men may praise his name in the generations that
     shall be hereafter."[149:2]

As we stated above, the story of the Song of the Heavenly Host belongs
exclusively to the _Luke_ narrator; none of the other writers of the
synoptic Gospels know anything about it, which, if it really happened,
seems very strange.

If the reader will turn to the apocryphal Gospel called
"_Protevangelion_" (chapter xiii.), he will there see one of the reasons
why it was thought best to leave this Gospel out of the canon of the New
Testament. It relates the "Miracles at Mary's labor," similar to the
_Luke_ narrator, but in a still more wonderful form. It is probably from
this apocryphal Gospel that the Luke narrator copied.


FOOTNOTES:

[147:1] Luke, ii. 8-15.

[147:2] Translated from the original Sanscrit by H. H. Wilson, M. D., F.
R. S.

[147:3] All the virgin-born Saviours are born at _midnight or early
dawn_.

[147:4] Vishnu Purana, book v. ch. iii. p. 502.

[147:5] See Amberly's Analysis, p. 226. Beal: Hist. Buddha, pp. 45, 46,
47, and Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 35.

[148:1] See Beal: Hist. Buddha, pp. 43, 55, 56, and Bunsen's
Angel-Messiah, p. 35.

[148:2] See Amberly: Analysis of Religious Belief, p. 84.

[148:3] Davis: History of China, vol. ii. p. 48. See also Thornton:
Hist. China, i. 152.

[148:4] See Prichard's Egyptian Mythology, p. 56, and Kenrick's Egypt,
vol. i. p. 408.

[148:5] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 424, and Kenrick's Egypt, vol. i.
p. 408.

[148:6] See Tales of Ancient Greece, p. 4.

[149:1] See Tales of Ancient Greece, p. 55.

[149:2] Ibid. p. 45.



CHAPTER XV.

THE DIVINE CHILD RECOGNIZED AND PRESENTED WITH GIFTS.


The next in order of the wonderful events which are related to have
happened at the birth of Christ Jesus, is the recognition of the divine
child, and the presentation of gifts.

We are informed by the _Matthew_ narrator, that being guided by a star,
the _Magi_[150:1] from the east came to where the young child was.

     "And when they were come into the _house_ (not _stable_) they
     saw the young child, with Mary his mother, and fell down and
     worshiped him. And when they had opened their treasures, they
     presented unto him gifts, gold, frankincense, and
     myrrh."[150:2]

The _Luke_ narrator--who seems to know nothing about the Magi from the
east--informs us that _shepherds_ came and worshiped the young child.
They were keeping their flocks by night when the angel of the Lord
appeared before them, saying:

     "Behold, I bring you good tidings--for unto you is born this
     day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord."

After the angel had left them, they said one to another:

     "Let us go unto Bethlehem and see this thing which is come to
     pass, which the Lord hath made known to us. And they came with
     haste, and found Mary and Joseph, and the babe lying in a
     _manger_."[150:3]

The Luke narrator evidently borrowed this story of the _shepherds_ from
the "_Gospel of the Egyptians_" (of which we shall speak in another
chapter), or from other sacred records of the biographies of Crishna or
Buddha.

It is related in the legends of _Crishna_ that the divine child was
cradled among shepherds, to whom were first made known the stupendous
feats which stamped his character with marks of the divinity. He was
recognized as the promised _Saviour_ by Nanda, a shepherd, or cowherd,
and his companions, who prostrated themselves before the heaven-born
child. After the birth of Crishna, the Indian prophet Nared, having
heard of his fame, visited his father and mother at Gokool, examined the
stars, &c., and declared him to be of celestial descent.[151:1]

Not only was Crishna adored by the shepherds and Magi, and received with
_divine honors_, but he was _also presented with gifts_. These gifts
were "sandal wood and perfumes."[151:2] (Why not "frankincense and
myrrh?")

Similar stories are related of the infant _Buddha_. He was visited, at
the time of his birth, by _wise men_, who at once recognized in the
marvellous infant all the characters of the divinity, and he had
scarcely seen the day before he was hailed god of gods.[151:3]

                    "'Mongst the strangers came
     A grey-haired saint, Asita, one whose ears,
     Long closed to earthly things, caught heavenly sounds,
     And heard at prayer beneath his peepul-tree,
     The Devas singing songs at Buddha's birth."

Viscount Amberly, speaking of him, says:[151:4]

     "He was visited and adored by a very eminent _Rishi_, or
     hermit, known as _Asita_, who predicted his future greatness,
     but wept at the thought that he himself was too old to see the
     day when the law of salvation would be taught by the infant
     whom he had come to contemplate."

     "I weep (said Asita), because I am old and stricken in years,
     and shall not see all that is about to come to pass. The
     Buddha Bhagavat (God Almighty Buddha) comes to the world only
     after many kalpas. This bright boy will be Buddha. _For the
     salvation of the world_ he will teach the law. He will succor
     the old, the sick, the afflicted, the dying. He will release
     those who are bound in the meshes of _natural corruption_. He
     will quicken the spiritual vision of those whose eyes are
     darkened by the thick darkness of ignorance. Hundreds of
     thousands of millions of beings will be carried by him to the
     'other shore'--will put on immortality. And I shall not see
     this perfect Buddha--this is why I weep."[151:5]

He returns rejoicing, however, to his mountain-home, for his eyes had
seen the promised and expected Saviour.[151:6]

Paintings in the _cave_ of Ajunta represent Asita with the infant
Buddha in his arms.[152:1] The marvelous gifts of this child had become
known to this eminent ascetic by _supernatural signs_.[152:2]

Buddha, as well as Crishna and Jesus, was presented with "costly jewels
and precious substances."[152:3] (Why not gold and perfumes?)

_Rama_--the seventh incarnation of Vishnu for human deliverance from
evil--is also hailed by "_aged saints_"--(why not "wise _men_"?)--who
die gladly when their eyes see the long-expected one.[152:4]

_How-tseich_, who was one of those personages styled, in China,
"Tien-Tse," or "Sons of Heaven,"[152:5] and who came into the world in a
miraculous manner, was laid in a narrow lane. When his mother had
fulfilled her time:

     "Her first-born son (came forth) like a lamb.
      There was no bursting, no rending,
      No injury, no hurt--
      Showing how wonderful he would be."

When born, the sheep and oxen protected him with loving care.[152:6]

The birth of _Confucius_ (B. C. 551), like that of all the demi-gods and
saints of antiquity, is fabled to have been attended with allegorical
prodigies, amongst which was the appearance of the _Ke-lin_, a
miraculous quadruped, prophetic of happiness and virtue, which announced
that the child would be "a king without a throne or territory." _Five
celestial sages, or "wise men" entered the house at the time of the
child's birth, whilst vocal and instrumental music filed the
air._[152:7]

_Mithras_, the Persian Saviour, and mediator between God and man, was
also visited by "wise men" called Magi, at the time of his birth.[152:8]
He was presented with gifts consisting of gold, frankincense and
myrrh.'[152:9]

According to Plato, at the birth of _Socrates_ (469 B. C.) there came
three Magi from the east to worship him, bringing gifts of gold,
frankincense and myrrh.[152:10]

_Æsculapius_, the virgin-born Saviour, was protected by goatherds (why
not shepherds?), who, upon seeing the child, knew at once that he was
divine. The voice of fame soon published the birth of this miraculous
infant, upon which people flocked from all quarters to behold and
worship this heaven-born child.[153:1]

Many of the Grecian and Roman demi-gods and heroes were either fostered
by or worshiped by shepherds. Amongst these may be mentioned _Bacchus_,
who was educated among shepherds,[153:2] and _Romulus_, who was found on
the banks of the Tiber, and educated by shepherds.[153:3] _Paris_, son
of Priam, was educated among shepherds,[153:4] and _Ægisthus_ was
exposed, like Æsculapius, by his mother, found by shepherds and educated
among them.[153:5]

Viscount Amberly has well said that: "Prognostications of greatness in
infancy are, indeed, among the stock incidents in the mythical or
semi-mythical lives of eminent persons."

We have seen that the _Matthew_ narrator speaks of the infant Jesus, and
Mary, his mother, being in a "_house_"--implying that he had been born
there; and that the _Luke_ narrator speaks of the infant "lying in a
manger"--implying that he was born in a stable. We will now show that
there is still _another_ story related of the _place_ in which he was
born.


FOOTNOTES:

[150:1] "The original word here is '_Magoi_,' from which comes our word
'_Magician_.' . . . The persons _here_ denoted were philosophers,
priests, or _astronomers_. They dwelt chiefly in Persia and Arabia. They
were the learned men of the Eastern nations, devoted to _astronomy_, to
religion, and to medicine. They were held in high esteem by the Persian
court; were admitted as councilors, and followed the camps in war to
give advice." (Barnes's Notes, vol. i. p. 25.)

[150:2] Matthew, ii. 2.

[150:3] Luke, ii. 8-16.

[151:1] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. pp. 129, 130, and Maurice: Hist.
Hindostan, vol. ii. pp. 256, 257 and 317. Also, The Vishnu Purana.

[151:2] Oriental Religions, pp. 500, 501. See also, Ancient Faiths, vol.
ii. p. 353.

[151:3] Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 157.

[151:4] Amberly's Analysis, p. 177. See also, Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p.
36.

[151:5] Lillie: Buddha and Early Buddhism, p. 76.

[151:6] Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 6, and Beal: Hist. Buddha, pp. 58,
60.

[152:1] Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 36.

[152:2] See Amberly's Analysis p. 231, and Bunsen's Angel Messiah, p.
36.

[152:3] Beal: Hist. Buddha, p. 58.

[152:4] Oriental Religions, p. 491.

[152:5] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 200.

[152:6] See Amberly's Analysis of Religious Belief, p. 226.

[152:7] See Thornton's Hist. China, vol. i. p. 152.

[152:8] King: The Gnostics and their Remains, pp. 134 and 149.

[152:9] Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 353.

[152:10] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 96.

[153:1] Taylor's Diegesis, p. 150. Roman Antiquities, p. 136, and Bell's
Pantheon, vol. i. p. 27.

[153:2] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 322.

[153:3] Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 213.

[153:4] Ibid. vol. i. p. 47.

[153:5] Ibid. p. 20.



CHAPTER XVI.

THE BIRTH-PLACE OF CHRIST JESUS.


The writer of that portion of the Gospel according to _Matthew_ which
treats of the _place_ in which Jesus was born, implies, as we stated in
our last chapter, that he was born in a _house_. His words are these:

     "Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea _in the days of
     Herod the king_, behold, there came wise men from the east" to
     worship him. "And when they were come _into the house_, they
     saw the young child with Mary his mother."[154:1]

The writer of the _Luke_ version implies that he was born in _a stable_,
as the following statement will show:

     "The days being accomplished that she (Mary) should be
     delivered . . . she brought forth her first-born son, and
     wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and _laid him in a manger_,
     there being no room for him in the _inn_."[154:2]

If these accounts were contained in these Gospels in the time of
Eusebius, the first ecclesiastical historian, who flourished during the
Council of Nice (A. D. 327), it is very strange that, in speaking of the
birth of Jesus, he should have omitted even mentioning them, and should
have given an altogether different version. He tells us that Jesus was
neither born in a _house_, nor in a _stable_, but in a _cave_, and that
at the time of Constantine a magnificent temple was erected on the spot,
so that the Christians might worship in the place where their Saviour's
feet had stood.[154:3]

In the apocryphal Gospel called "_Protevangelion_," attributed to James,
the brother of Jesus, we are informed that Mary and her husband, being
away from their home in Nazareth, and when within three miles of
Bethlehem, to which city they were going, Mary said to Joseph:

     "Take me down from the ass, for that which is in me presses to
     come forth."

Joseph, replying, said:

     "Whither shall I take thee, _for the place is desert_?"

Then said Mary again to Joseph:

     "Take me down, for that which is within me mightily presses
     me."

Joseph then took her down from off the ass, and he found there a _cave_
and put her into it.

Joseph then left Mary in the cave, and started toward Bethlehem for a
midwife, whom he found and brought back with him. When they neared the
spot a bright cloud overshadowed the cave.

     "But on a sudden the cloud became _a great light in the cave_,
     so their eyes could not bear it. But the light gradually
     decreased, until the infant appeared and sucked the breast of
     his mother."[155:1]

Tertullian (A. D. 200), Jerome (A. D. 375) and other Fathers of the
Church, also state that Jesus was born in a _cave_, and that the
_heathen_ celebrated, in their day, the birth and _Mysteries_ of their
Lord and Saviour Adonis in this very cave near Bethlehem.[155:2]

Canon Farrar says:

     "That the actual place of Christ's birth was a _cave_, is a
     very ancient tradition, and this cave used to be shown as the
     scene of the event even so early as the time of Justin Martyr
     (A. D. 150)."[155:3]

Mr. King says:

     "The place _yet_ shown as the scene of their (the Magi's)
     adoration at Bethlehem is a _cave_."[155:4]

The Christian ceremonies in the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem are
celebrated to this day in a _cave_,[155:5] and are undoubtedly nearly
the same as were celebrated, _in the same place_, in honor of _Adonis_,
in the time of Tertullian and Jerome; and as are yet celebrated in Rome
every Christmas-day, _very early in the morning_.

We see, then, that there are _three_ different accounts concerning the
_place_ in which Jesus was born. The first, and evidently true one, was
that which is recorded by the _Matthew_ narrator, namely, that he was
born in a _house_. The stories about his being born in a _stable_ or in
a _cave_[155:6] were later inventions, caused from the desire to place
him in as _humble_ a position as possible in his infancy, and from the
fact that the virgin-born Saviours who had _preceded_ him had almost
all been born in a position the most humiliating--such as a cave, a
cow-shed, a sheep-fold, &c.--or had been placed there after birth. This
was a part of the _universal mythos_. As illustrations we may mention
the following:

_Crishna_, the Hindoo virgin-born Saviour, was born in a _cave_,[156:1]
fostered by an honest _herdsman_,[156:2] and, it is said, placed in a
_sheep-fold_ shortly after his birth.

_How-Tseih_, the Chinese "Son of Heaven," when an infant, was left
unprotected by his mother, but the _sheep_ and _oxen_ protected him with
loving care.[156:3]

_Abraham_, the Father of Patriarchs, is said to have been _born in a
cave_.[156:4]

_Bacchus_, who was the son of God by the virgin Semele, is said to have
been _born in a cave_, or placed in one shortly after his birth.[156:5]
Philostratus, the Greek sophist and rhetorician, says, "the inhabitants
of India had a tradition that Bacchus was born at _Nisa_, and was
brought up in a _cave_ on Mount Meros."

_Æsculapius_, who was the son of God by the virgin Coronis, was left
exposed, when an infant, on a mountain, where he was found and cared for
by a _goatherd_.[156:6]

_Romulus_, who was the son of God by the virgin Rhea-Sylvia, was left
exposed, when an infant, on the banks of the river Tiber, where he was
found and cared for by a _shepherd_.[156:7]

_Adonis_, the "Lord" and "Saviour," was placed in a _cave_ shortly after
his birth.[156:8]

_Apollo_ (Phoibos), son of the Almighty Zeus, was born in a cave at
early dawn.[156:9]

_Mithras_, the Persian Saviour, was born in a _cave or grotto_,[156:10]
at early dawn.

_Hermes_, the son of God by the mortal _Maia_, was born early in the
morning, in _a cave or grotto_ of the Kyllemian hill.[156:11]

_Attys_, the god of the Phrygians,[156:12] was born in a _cave_ or
grotto.[156:13]

The _object_ is the same in all of these stories, however they may
differ in detail, which is to place the heaven-born infant in the most
humiliating position in infancy.

We have seen it is recorded that, at the time of the birth of Jesus
"there was a _great light_ in the cave, so that the eyes of Joseph and
the midwife could not bear it." This feature is also represented in
early Christian art. "Early Christian painters have represented the
infant Jesus as welcoming three Kings of the East, _and shining as
brilliantly as if covered with phosphuretted oil_."[157:1] In all
pictures of the Nativity, the light is made to arise from the body of
the infant, and the father and mother are often depicted with glories
round their heads. This too was a part of the old mythos, as we shall
now see.

The moment _Crishna_ was born, his mother became beautiful, and her form
brilliant. The whole cave was splendidly illuminated, being filled with
a _heavenly light_, and the countenances of his father and his mother
emitted rays of glory.[157:2]

So likewise, it is recorded that, at the time of the birth of Buddha,
"the Saviour of the World," which, according to one account, took place
in an _inn_, "_a divine light diffused around his person_," so that "the
Blessed One" was "heralded into the world by a supernatural
light."[157:3]

When _Bacchus_ was born, a _bright light_ shone round him,[157:4] so
that, "_there was a brilliant light in the cave_."

When _Apollo_ was born, _a halo of serene light encircled his cradle_,
the nymphs of heaven attended, and bathed him in pure water, and girded
a broad golden band around his form.[157:5]

When the Saviour _Æsculapius_ was born, his countenance shone like the
sun, and he was surrounded by a fiery ray.[157:6]

In the life of _Zoroaster_ the common mythos is apparent. He was born in
innocence of an immaculate conception of a Ray of the Divine Reason. As
soon as he was born, _the glory arising from his body enlightened the
whole room_, and he laughed at his mother.[157:7]

It is stated in the legends of the Hebrew Patriarchs that, at the birth
of _Moses_, a bright light appeared and shone around.[157:8]

There is still another feature which we must notice in these narratives,
that is, the contradictory statements concerning the _time_ when Jesus
was born. As we shall treat of this subject more fully in the chapter on
"The Birthday of Christ Jesus," we shall allude to it here simply as far
as necessary.

The _Matthew_ narrator informs us that Jesus was born _in the days of
Herod the King_, and the _Luke_ narrator says he was born _when
Cyrenius_ was _Governor of Syria_, or later. This is a very awkward and
unfortunate statement, as Cyrenius was not Governor of Syria until some
_ten years after the time of Herod_.[158:1]

The cause of this dilemma is owing to the fact that the Luke narrator,
after having interwoven into _his_ story, of the birth of Jesus, the
_old myth_ of the tax or tribute, which is said to have taken place at
the time of the birth of some _previous_ virgin-born Saviours, looked
among the records to see if a taxing had ever taken place in Judea, so
that he might refer to it in support of his statement. He found the
account of the taxing, referred to above, and without stopping to
consider _when_ this taxing took place, or whether or not it would
conflict with the statement that Jesus was born _in the days of Herod_,
he added to his narrative the words: "And this taxing was _first made_
when Cyrenius was governor of Syria."[158:2]

We will now show the ancient myth of the taxing. According to the
_Vishnu Purana_, when the infant Saviour _Crishna_ was born, his foster
father, _Nanda_, had come to the city _to pay his tax or yearly tribute
to the king_. It distinctly speaks of Nanda, and other cowherds,
"_bringing tribute or tax to Kansa_" the reigning monarch.[158:3]

It also describes a scene which took place after the taxes had been
paid.

Vasudeva, an acquaintance of Nanda's, "went to the wagon of Nanda, and
found Nanda there, rejoicing that a son (Crishna) had been born to him.

"Vasudeva spoke to him kindly, and congratulated him _on having a son in
his old age_.[158:4]

"'Thy yearly tribute,' he added, 'has been paid to the king . . . why do
you delay, now that your affairs are settled? Up, Nanda, quickly, and
set off to your own pastures.' . . . Accordingly Nanda and the other
cowherds returned to their village."[158:5]

Now, in regard to _Buddha_, the same myth is found.

Among the thirty-two signs which were to be fulfilled by the mother of
the expected Messiah (Buddha), the fifth sign was recorded to be, "_that
she would be on a journey at the time of her child's birth_."
Therefore, "that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the
prophets," the virgin Maya, in the tenth month after her heavenly
conception, was on a journey to her father, when lo, the birth of the
Messiah took place under a tree. One account says that "she had alighted
at an _inn_ when Buddha was born."[159:1]

The mother of _Lao-tsze_, the Virgin-born Chinese sage, was away from
home when her child was born. She stopped to rest _under a tree_, and
there, like the virgin Maya, gave birth to her son.[159:2]

_Pythagoras_ (B. C. 570), whose real father was the Holy Ghost,[159:3]
was also born at a time when his mother was away from home on a journey.
She was travelling with her husband, who was _about his mercantile
concerns_, from Samos to Sidon.[159:4]

_Apollo_ was born when his mother was away from home. The Ionian legend
tells the simple tale that Leto, the mother of the unborn Apollo, could
find no place to receive her in her hour of travail until she came to
Delos. The child was born like Buddha and Lao-tsze--_under a
tree_.[159:5] The mother knew that he was destined to be a being of
mighty power, ruling among the undying gods and mortal men.[159:6]

Thus we see that the stories, one after another, relating to the birth
and infancy of Jesus, are simply old myths, and are therefore not
historical.


FOOTNOTES:

[154:1] Matthew, ii.

[154:2] Luke, ii.

[154:3] Eusebius's Life of Constantine, lib. 3, chs. xl., xli. and xlii.

[155:1] Protevangelion. Apoc. chs. xii., xiii., and xiv., and Lily of
Israel, p. 95.

[155:2] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. pp. 98, 99.

[155:3] Farrar's Life of Christ, p. 38, and _note_. See also, Hist.
Hindostan, ii. 311.

[155:4] King: The Gnostics and their Remains, p. 134.

[155:5] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 95.

[155:6] Some writers have tried to connect these by saying that it was a
_cave-stable_, but why should a stable be in a _desert place_, as the
narrative states?

[156:1] Aryan Myths, vol. ii. p. 107.

[156:2] See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 259.

[156:3] See Amberly's Analysis, p. 226.

[156:4] See Calmet's Fragments, art. "Abraham."

[156:5] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 321. Bell's Pantheon, vol.
i. p. 118, and Dupuis, p. 284.

[156:6] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 150, and Bell's Pantheon under
"Æsculapius."

[156:7] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 218.

[156:8] See Ibid. vol. i. p. 12.

[156:9] Aryan Mythology, vol. i. pp. 72, 158.

[156:10] See Dunlap's Mysteries of Adoni, p. 124, and Aryan Mythology,
vol. ii. p. 134.

[156:11] Ibid.

[156:12] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Beliefs, p. 255.

[156:13] See Dunlap's Mysteries of Adoni, p. 124.

[157:1] Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 460.

[157:2] Cox: Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 133. Higgins: Anacalypsis,
vol. i. p. 130. See also, Vishnu Purana, p. 502, where it says:

"No person could bear to gaze upon Devaki from the light that invested
her."

[157:3] See Beal: Hist. Buddha, pp. 43, 46, or Bunsen's Angel-Messiah,
pp. 34, 35.

[157:4] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 322, and Dupuis: Origin of
Relig. Belief, p. 119.

[157:5] Tales of Anct. Greece, p. xviii.

[157:6] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 27. Roman Antiquities, p. 136.

[157:7] Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 460. Anacalypsis, vol. i. p.
649.

[157:8] See Hardy: Manual of Buddhism, p. 145.

[158:1] See the chapter on "Christmas."

[158:2] It may be that this verse was added by another hand some time
after the narrative was written. We have seen it stated somewhere that,
in the manuscript, this verse is in brackets.

[158:3] See Vishnu Purana, book v. chap. iii.

[158:4] Here is an exact counterpart to the story of Joseph--the
foster-father, so-called--of Jesus. He too, had a son in his old age.

[158:5] Vishnu Purana, book v. chap. v.

[159:1] Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, p. 34. See also, Beal: Hist. Buddha,
p. 32, and Lillie: Buddha and Early Buddhism, p. 73.

[159:2] Thornton: Hist. China, i. 138.

[159:3] As we saw in Chapter XII.

[159:4] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 150.

[159:5] See Rhys David's Buddhism, p. 25.

[159:6] See Cox: Aryan Myths, vol. ii. p. 31.



CHAPTER XVII.

THE GENEALOGY OF CHRIST JESUS.


The biographers of Jesus, although they have placed him in a position
the most humiliating in his infancy, and although they have given him
poor and humble parents, have notwithstanding made him to be of _royal
descent_. The reasons for doing this were twofold. First, because,
according to the Old Testament, the expected Messiah was to be of the
seed of Abraham,[160:1] and second, because the Angel-Messiahs who had
previously been on earth to redeem and save mankind had been of _royal
descent_, therefore Christ Jesus must be so.

The following story, taken from Colebrooke's "_Miscellaneous
Essays_,"[160:2] clearly shows that this idea was general:

     "The last of the Jinas, Vardhamâna, was _at first_ conceived
     by Devanandā, a Brahmānā. The conception was announced to
     her by a dream. Sekra, being apprised of his incarnation,
     prostrated himself and worshiped the future saint (who was in
     the womb of Devanandā); but reflecting that _no great saint
     was ever born in an indigent or mendicant family_, as that of
     a Brahmānā, Sekra commanded his chief attendant to remove the
     child from the womb of Devanandā to that of Trisala, wife of
     Siddhartha, _a prince of the race of Jeswaca_, of the Kasyapa
     family."

In their attempts to accomplish their object, the biographers of Jesus
have made such poor work of it, that all the ingenuity Christianity has
yet produced, has not been able to repair their blunders.

The genealogies are contained in the first and third Gospels, and
although they do not agree, yet, if either is right, then Jesus was
_not_ the son of God, engendered by the "Holy Ghost," but the legitimate
son of Joseph and Mary. In any other sense they amount to nothing. That
Jesus can be of royal descent, and yet be the Son of God, in the sense
in which these words are used, is a conclusion which can be acceptable
to those only who believe in _alleged_ historical narratives on no other
ground than that they wish them to be true, and dare not call them into
question.

The _Matthew_ narrator states that _all_ the generations from Abraham to
David are _fourteen_, from David until the carrying away into Babylon
are _fourteen_, and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Jesus are
_fourteen_ generations.[161:1] Surely nothing can have a more
_mythological_ appearance than this. But, when we confine our attention
to the genealogy itself, we find that the generations in the third
stage, including Jesus himself, amount to only _thirteen_. All attempts
to get over this difficulty have been without success; the genealogies
are, and have always been, hard nuts for theologians to crack. Some of
the early Christian fathers saw this, and they very wisely put an
_allegorical_ interpretation to them.

Dr. South says, in Kitto's Biblical Encyclopædia:

     "Christ's being the true Messiah depends upon his being the
     son of David and king of the Jews. _So that unless this be
     evinced the whole foundation of Christianity must totter and
     fall._"

Another writer in the same work says:

     "In these two documents (Matthew and Luke), which profess to
     give us the genealogy of Christ, there is no notice whatever
     of the connection of his only earthly parent with the stock of
     David. On the contrary, both the genealogies profess to give
     us the descent of Joseph, to connect our Lord with whom by
     natural generation, would be to falsify the whole story of his
     miraculous birth, and overthrow the Christian faith."

Again, when the idea that one of the genealogies is Mary's is spoken of:

     "One thing is certain, that our belief in Mary's descent from
     David is grounded on inference and tradition and not on any
     direct statement of the sacred writings. And there has been a
     ceaseless endeavor, both among ancients and moderns, to
     gratify the natural cravings for knowledge on this subject."

Thomas Scott, speaking of the genealogies, says:

     "It is a favorite saying with those who seek to defend the
     history of the Pentateuch against the scrutiny of modern
     criticism, that the objections urged against it were known
     long ago. The objections to the _genealogy_ were known long
     ago, indeed; and perhaps nothing shows more conclusively than
     this knowledge, the disgraceful dishonesty and willful
     deception of the most illustrious of Christian
     doctors."[161:2]

Referring to the two genealogies, Albert Barnes says:

     "No two passages of Scripture have caused more difficulty than
     these, and various attempts have been made to explain them.
     . . . Most interpreters have supposed that Matthew gives the
     genealogy of Joseph, and Luke that of Mary. _But though this
     solution is plausible and may be true, yet it wants
     evidence._"

Barnes furthermore admits the fallibility of the Bible in his remarks
upon the genealogies; 1st, by comparing them to _our_ fallible family
records; and 2d, by the remark that "the only inquiry which can now be
fairly made _is whether they copied these tables correctly_."

Alford, Ellicott, Hervey, Meyer, Mill, Patritius and Wordsworth hold
that both genealogies are Joseph's; and Aubertin, Ebrard, Greswell,
Kurtz, Lange, Lightfoot and others, hold that one is Joseph's, and the
other Mary's.

When the genealogy contained in _Matthew_ is compared with the Old
Testament _they are found to disagree_; there are omissions which any
writer with the least claim to historical sense would never have made.

When the genealogy of the _third_ Gospel is turned to, the difficulties
greatly increase, instead of diminish. It not only contradicts the
statements made by the _Matthew_ narrator, but it does not agree with
the Old Testament.

What, _according to the three first evangelists_, did Jesus think of
himself? In the first place he made no allusion to any miraculous
circumstances connected with his birth. He looked upon himself as
belonging to _Nazareth_, not as the child of Bethlehem;[162:1] _he
reproved the scribes for teaching that the Messiah must necessarily be a
descendant of David,[162:2] and did not himself make any express claim
to such descent_.[162:3]

As we cannot go into an extended inquiry concerning the genealogies, and
as there is no real necessity for so doing, as many others have already
done so in a masterly manner,[162:4] we will continue our investigations
in another direction, and show that Jesus was not the only Messiah who
was claimed to be of royal descent.

To commence with _Crishna_, the Hindoo Saviour, he was of _royal
descent_, although born in a state the most abject and humiliating.[163:1]
Thomas Maurice says of him:

     "Crishna, in the _male_ line, was of royal descent, being of
     the Yadava line, the oldest and noblest of India; and nephew,
     by his _mother's_ side, to the reigning sovereign; but, though
     royally descended, he was actually born in a state the most
     abject and humiliating; and, though not in a stable, yet in a
     dungeon."[163:2]

_Buddha_ was of _royal descent_, having descended from the house of
Sakya, the most illustrious of the caste of Brahmans, which reigned in
India over the powerful empire of Mogadha, in the Southern Bahr.[163:3]

R. Spence Hardy says, in his "Manual of Buddhism:"

     "The ancestry of Gotama Buddha is traced from his father,
     Sodhódana, through various individuals and races, all of royal
     dignity, to Maha Sammata, the first monarch of the world.
     Several of the names, and some of the events, are met with in
     the Puranas of the Brahmins, but it is not possible to
     reconcile one order of statement with the other; and it would
     appear that the Buddhist historians have introduced races, and
     invented names, that they may invest their venerated sage with
     all the honors of heraldry, in addition to the attributes of
     divinity."

How remarkably these words compare with what we have just seen
concerning the genealogies of Jesus!

_Rama_, another Indian _avatar_--the seventh incarnation of Vishnu--was
also of _royal descent_.[163:4]

_Fo-hi_; or _Fuh-he_, the virgin-born "Son of Heaven," was of _royal
descent_. He belonged to the oldest family of monarchs who ruled in
China.[163:5]

_Confucius_ was of _royal descent_. His pedigree is traced back in a
summary manner to the monarch _Hoang-ty_, who is said to have lived and
ruled more than two thousand years before the time of Christ
Jesus.[163:6]

_Horus_, the Egyptian virgin-born Saviour, was of _royal descent_,
having descended from a line of kings.[163:7] He had the title of "Royal
Good Shepherd."[163:8]

_Hercules_, the Saviour, was of _royal descent_.[163:9]

_Bacchus_, although the Son of God, was of _royal descent_.[164:1]

_Perseus_, son of the virgin Danae, was of _royal descent_.[164:2]

_Æsculapius_, the great performer of miracles, although a son of God,
was notwithstanding of _royal descent_.[164:3]

Many more such cases might be mentioned, as may be seen by referring to
the histories of the virgin-born gods and demi-gods spoken of in Chapter
XII.


FOOTNOTES:

[160:1] That is, a passage in the Old Testament was construed to mean
this, although another and more plausible meaning might be inferred. It
is when Abraham is blessed by the Lord, who is made to say: "_In thy
seed_ shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thou hast
obeyed my voice." (Genesis, xxii. 18.)

[160:2] Vol. ii. p. 214.

[161:1] Matthew, i. 17.

[161:2] Scott's English Life of Jesus.

[162:1] Matthew, xiii. 54; Luke, iv. 24.

[162:2] Mark, ii. 35.

[162:3] "There is no doubt that the authors of the genealogies regarded
him (Jesus), as did his countrymen and contemporaries generally, as the
eldest son of Joseph, Mary's husband, and that they had no idea of
anything miraculous connected with his birth. All the attempts of the
old commentators to reconcile the inconsistencies of the evangelical
narratives are of no avail." (Albert Réville: Hist. Dogma, Deity, Jesus,
p. 15.)

[162:4] The reader is referred to Thomas Scott's English Life of Jesus,
Strauss's Life of Jesus, The Genealogies of Our Lord, by Lord Arthur
Hervey, Kitto's Biblical Encyclopædia, and Barnes' Notes.

[163:1] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 130. Asiatic Researches,
vol. i. p. 259, and Allen's India, p. 379.

[163:2] Hist. Hindostan, ii. p. 310.

[163:3] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 157. Bunsen: The
Angel-Messiah. Davis: Hist. of China, vol. ii. p. 80, and Huc's Travels,
vol. i. p. 327.

[163:4] Allen's India, p. 379.

[163:5] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 200, and Chambers's Encyclo.,
art. "Fuh-he."

[163:6] Davis: History of China, vol. ii. p. 48, and Thornton: Hist.
China, vol. i. p. 151.

[163:7] See almost any work on Egyptian history or the religions of
Egypt.

[163:8] See Lundy: Monumental Christianity, p. 403.

[163:9] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 152. Roman Antiquities, p. 124, and
Bell's Pantheon, i. 382.

[164:1] See Greek and Italian Mythology, p. 81. Bell's Pantheon, vol. i.
p. 117. Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 118, and Roman Antiquities, p.
71.

[164:2] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 170, and Bulfinch: The Age of
Fable, p. 161.

[164:3] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 27. Roman Antiquities, p. 136,
and Taylor's Diegesis, p. 150.



CHAPTER XVIII.

THE SLAUGHTER OF THE INNOCENTS.


Interwoven with the miraculous conception and birth of Jesus, the star,
the visit of the Magi, &c., we have a myth which belongs to a common
form, and which, in this instance, is merely adapted to the special
circumstances of the age and place. This has been termed "the myth of
the dangerous child." Its general outline is this: A child is born
concerning whose future greatness some prophetic indications have been
given. But the life of the child is fraught with danger to some powerful
individual, generally a monarch. In alarm at his threatened fate, this
person endeavors to take the child's life, but it is preserved by divine
care.

Escaping the measures directed against it, and generally remaining long
unknown, it at length fulfills the prophecies concerning its career,
while the fate which he has vainly sought to shun falls upon him who had
desired to slay it. There is a departure from the ordinary type, in the
case of Jesus, inasmuch as Herod does not actually die or suffer any
calamity through his agency. But this failure is due to the fact that
Jesus did not fulfill the conditions of the Messiahship, according to
the Jewish conception which Matthew has here in mind. Had he--as was
expected of the Messiah--become the actual sovereign of the Jews, he
must have dethroned the reigning dynasty, whether represented by Herod
or his successors. But as his subsequent career belied the expectations,
the evangelist was obliged to postpone to a future time his accession to
that throne of temporal dominion which the incredulity of his countrymen
had withheld from him during his earthly life.

The story of the slaughter of the infants which is said to have taken
place in Judea about the time of the birth of Jesus, is to be found in
the second chapter of _Matthew_, and is as follows:

     "When Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, in the days of
     Herod the king, there came wise men from the East to
     Jerusalem, saying: 'Where is he that is born _king of the
     Jews_? for we have seen _his star_ in the East and have come
     to worship him.' When Herod the king had heard these things,
     he was troubled and all Jerusalem with him. Then Herod, when
     he had privately called the wise men, enquired of them
     diligently what time the star appeared. And he sent them to
     Bethlehem, and said: 'Go and search diligently for the young
     child; and when ye have found him, bring me word.'"

The wise men went to Bethlehem and found the young child, but instead of
returning to Herod as he had told them, they departed into their own
country another way, having been warned of God _in a dream_, that they
should not return to Herod.

     "Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men,
     was exceeding wroth, _and sent forth, and slew all the
     children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts
     thereof, from two years old and under_."

We have in this story, told by the _Matthew_ narrator--which the writers
of the other gospels seem to know nothing about,--almost a counterpart,
if not an exact one, to that related of _Crishna_ of India, which shows
how closely the mythological history of Jesus has been copied from that
of the Hindoo Saviour.

Joguth Chunder Gangooly, a "Hindoo convert to Christ," tells us, in his
"Life and Religion of the Hindoos," that:

     "A _heavenly voice_ whispered to the foster father of Crishna
     and told him to fly with the child across the river Jumna,
     which was immediately done.[166:1] This was owing to the fact
     that the reigning monarch, King Kansa, sought the life of the
     infant Saviour, and to accomplish his purpose, he sent
     messengers '_to kill all the infants in the neighboring
     places_.'"[166:2]

Mr. Higgins says:

     "Soon after Crishna's birth he was carried away by night and
     concealed in a region remote from his natal place, for fear of
     a tyrant whose destroyer it was foretold he would become; and
     who had, for that reason, ordered all the male children born
     at that period to be slain."[166:3]

Sir William Jones says of Crishna:

     "He passed a life, according to the Indians, of a most
     extraordinary and incomprehensible nature. His birth was
     concealed through fear of the reigning tyrant Kansa, who, at
     the time of his birth, _ordered all new-born males to be
     slain, yet this wonderful babe was preserved_."[166:4]

In the Epic poem Mahabarata, composed more than two thousand years ago,
we have the whole story of this incarnate deity, born of a virgin, and
miraculously escaping in his infancy from the reigning tyrant of his
country, related in its original form.

Representations of this flight with the babe at midnight are sculptured
on the walls of ancient Hindoo temples.[167:1]

This story is also the subject of an immense sculpture in the
cave-temple at Elephanta, where the children are represented as being
slain. The date of this sculpture is lost in the most remote antiquity.
It represents a person holding a drawn sword, surrounded by slaughtered
_infant boys_. Figures of men and women are also represented who are
supposed to be supplicating for their children.[167:2]

Thomas Maurice, speaking of this sculpture, says:

     "The event of Crishna's birth, and the attempt to destroy him,
     took place by night, and therefore the shadowy mantle of
     darkness, _upon which mutilated figures of infants are
     engraved_, darkness (at once congenial with his crime and the
     season of its perpetration), involves the tyrant's bust; the
     string of _death heads_ marks the multitude of infants slain
     by his savage mandate; and every object in the sculpture
     illustrates the events of that Avatar."[167:3]

Another feature which connects these stories is the following:

Sir Wm. Jones tells us that when Crishna was taken out of reach of the
tyrant Kansa who sought to slay him, he was fostered at _Mathura_ by
Nanda, the herdsman;[167:4] and Canon Farrar, speaking of the sojourn of
the Holy Family in Egypt, says:

     "St. Matthew neither tells us where the Holy Family abode in
     Egypt, nor how long their exile continued; but ancient legends
     say that they remained two years absent from Palestine, and
     lived at Mataréëh, a few miles north-east of Cairo."[167:5]

Chemnitius, out of Stipulensis, who had it from Peter Martyr, Bishop of
Alexandria, in the third century, says, that the place in Egypt where
Jesus was banished, is now called Matarea, about ten miles beyond Cairo,
that the inhabitants constantly burn a lamp in remembrance of it, and
that there is a garden of trees yielding a balsam, which was planted by
Jesus when a boy.[167:6]

Here is evidently one and the same legend.

_Salivahana_, the virgin-born Saviour, anciently worshiped near Cape
Comorin, the southerly part of the Peninsula of India, had the same
history. It was attempted to destroy him in infancy by a tyrant who was
afterward killed by him. Most of the other circumstances, with slight
variations, are the same as those told of Crishna and Jesus.[167:7]

_Buddha's_ life was also in danger when an infant. In the southern
country of Magadha, there lived a king by the name of Bimbasara, who,
being fearful of some enemy arising that might overturn his kingdom,
frequently assembled his principal ministers together to hold discussion
with them on the subject. On one of these occasions they told him that
away to the north there was a respectable tribe of people called the
Sâkyas, and that belonging to this race there was a youth newly-born,
the first-begotten of his mother, &c. This youth, who was Buddha, they
said was liable to overturn him, they therefore advised him to "at once
raise an army and destroy the child."[168:1]

In the chronicles of the East Mongols, the same tale is to be found
repeated in the following story:

     "A certain king of a people called Patsala, had a son whose
     peculiar appearance led the Brahmins at court to prophesy that
     he would bring evil upon his father, and to advise his
     destruction. Various modes of execution having failed, _the
     boy was laid in a copper chest and thrown into the Ganges_.
     Rescued by an old peasant who brought him up as his son, he,
     in due time, learned the story of his escape, and returned to
     seize upon the kingdom destined for him from his
     birth."[168:2]

_Hau-ki_, the Chinese hero of supernatural origin, was exposed in
infancy, as the "Shih-king" says:

     "He was placed in a narrow lane, but the sheep and oxen
     protected him with loving care. He was placed in a wide
     forest, where he was met with by the wood-cutters. He was
     placed on the cold ice, and a bird screened and supported him
     with its wings," &c.[168:3]

Mr. Legge draws a comparison with this to the Roman legend of Romulus.

_Horus_, according to the Egyptian story, was born in the winter, and
brought up secretly in the Isle of Buto, for fear of Typhon, who sought
his life. Typhon at first schemed to prevent his birth and then sought
to destroy him when born.[168:4]

Within historical times, _Cyrus_, king of Persia (6th cent. B. C.), is
the hero of a similar tale. His grandfather, Astyages, had dreamed
certain dreams which were interpreted by the Magi to mean that the
offspring of his daughter Mandane would expel him from his kingdom.

Alarmed at the prophecy, he handed the child to his kinsman Harpagos to
be slain; but this man having entrusted it to a shepherd to be exposed,
the latter contrived to save it by exhibiting to the emissaries of
Harpagos the body of a still-born child of which his own wife had just
been delivered. Grown to man's estate Cyrus of course justified the
prediction of the Magi by his successful revolt against Astyages and
assumption of the monarchy.

Herodotus, the Grecian Historian (B. C. 484), relates that Astyages, in
a vision, appeared to see a vine grow up from Mandane's womb, which
covered all Asia. Having seen this and communicated it to the
interpreters of dreams, he put her under guard, resolving to destroy
whatever should be born of her; for the Magian interpreters had
signified to him from his vision that the child born of Mandane would
reign in his stead. Astyages therefore, guarding against this, as soon
as Cyrus was born sought to have him destroyed. The story of his
exposure on the mountain, and his subsequent good fortune, is then
related.[169:1]

_Abraham_ was also a "dangerous child." At the time of his birth,
Nimrod, king of Babylon, was informed by his soothsayers that "a child
should be born in Babylonia, who would shortly become a great prince,
and that he had reason to fear him." The result of this was that Nimrod
then issued orders that "all women with child should be guarded with
great care, _and all children born of them should be put to
death_."[169:2]

The mother of Abraham was at that time with child, but, of course, _he_
escaped from being put to death, although many children were
slaughtered.

_Zoroaster_, the chief of the religion of the Magi, was a "dangerous
child." Prodigies had announced his birth; he was exposed to dangers
from the time of his infancy, and was obliged to fly into Persia, like
Jesus into Egypt. Like him, he was pursued by a king, his enemy, who
wanted to get rid of him.[169:3]

His mother had alarming dreams of evil spirits seeking to destroy the
child to whom she was about to give birth. But a good spirit came to
comfort her and said: "Fear nothing! Ormuzd will protect this infant. He
has sent him as a prophet to the people. The world is waiting for
him."[169:4]

_Perseus_, son of the Virgin Danae, was also a "dangerous child."
Acrisius, king of Argos, being told by the oracle that a son born of his
virgin daughter would destroy him, immured his daughter Danae in a
tower, _where no man could approach her_, and by this means hoped to
keep his daughter from becoming _enceinte_. The god Jupiter, however,
visited her there, as it is related of the Angel Gabriel visiting the
Virgin Mary,[170:1] the result of which was that she bore a
son--_Perseus_. Acrisius, on hearing of his daughter's disgrace, caused
both her and the infant to be shut up in a chest and cast into the sea.
They were discovered by one Dictys, and liberated from what must have
been anything but a pleasant position.[170:2]

_Æsculapius_, when an infant, was exposed on the Mount of Myrtles, and
left there to die, but escaped the death which was intended for him,
having been found and cared for by _shepherds_.[170:3]

_Hercules_, son of the virgin Leto, was left to die on a plain, but was
found and rescued by a maiden.[170:4]

_Œdipous_ was a "dangerous child." Laios, King of Thebes, having been
told by the Delphic Oracle that Œdipous would be his destroyer, no
sooner is Œdipous born than the decree goes forth that the child must
be slain: but the servant to whom he is intrusted contents himself with
exposing the babe on the slopes of Mount Kithairon, where a _shepherd_
finds him, and carries him, like Cyrus or Romulus, to his wife, who
cherishes the child with a mother's care.[170:5]

The Theban myth of Œdipous is repeated substantially in the Arcadian
tradition of _Telephos_. He is exposed, when a babe, on Mount Parthenon,
and is suckled by a doe, which represents the wolf in the myth of
Romulus, and the dog of the Persian story of Cyrus. Like Moses, he is
brought up in the palace of a king.[170:6]

As we read the story of Telephos, we can scarcely fail to think of the
story of the Trojan _Paris_, for, like Telephos, Paris is exposed as a
babe on the mountain-side.[170:7] Before he is born, there are portents
of the ruin which he is to bring upon his house and people. Priam, the
ruling monarch, therefore decrees that the child shall be left to die on
the hill-side. But the babe lies on the slopes of _Ida_ and is nourished
by a she-bear. He is fostered, like Crishna and others, by _shepherds_,
among whom he grows up.[170:8]

_Iamos_ was left to die among the bushes and violets. Aipytos, the
chieftain of Phaisana, had learned at Delphi that a child had been born
who should become the greatest of all the seers and prophets of the
earth, and he asked all his people where the babe was: but none had
heard or seen him, for he lay away amid the thick bushes, with his soft
body bathed in the golden and pure rays of the violets. So when he was
found, they called him Iamos, the "violet child;" and as he grew in
years and strength, he went down into the Alpheian stream, and prayed to
his father that he would glorify his son. Then the voice of Zeus was
heard, bidding him come to the heights of Olympus, where he should
receive the gift of prophecy.[171:1]

_Chandragupta_ was also a "dangerous child." He is exposed to great
dangers in his infancy at the hands of a tributary chief who has
defeated and slain his suzerain. His mother, "relinquishing him to the
protection of the Devas, places him in a vase, and deposits him at the
door of a _cattle pen_." A _herdsman_ takes the child and rears it as
his own.[171:2]

_Jason_ is another hero of the same kind. Pelias, the chief of Iolkos,
had been told that one of the children of Aiolos would be his destroyer,
and decreed, therefore, that all should be slain. Jason only is
preserved, and brought up by Cheiron.[171:3]

_Bacchus_, son of the virgin Semele, was destined to bring ruin upon
Cadmus, King of Thebes, who therefore orders the infant to be put into a
chest and thrown into a river. He is found, and taken from the water by
loving hands, and lives to fulfill his mission.[171:4]

Herodotus relates a similar story, which is as follows:

     "The constitution of the _Corinthians_ was formerly of this
     kind; it was an _oligarchy_, (a government in the hands of a
     selected few), and those who were called _Bacchiadæ_ governed
     the city. About this time one Eetion, who had been married to
     a maiden called Labda, and having no children by her, went to
     Delphi to inquire of the oracle about having offspring. Upon
     entering the temple he was immediately saluted as follows;
     'Eetion, no one honors thee, though worthy of much honor.
     Labda is pregnant and will bring forth a round stone; it will
     fall on monarchs, and vindicate Corinth.' This oracle,
     pronounced to Eetion, was by chance reported to the
     _Bacchiadæ_, who well knew that it prophesied the birth of a
     son to Eetion who would overthrow them, and reign in their
     stead; and though they comprehended, they kept it secret,
     purposing to destroy the offspring that should be born to
     Eetion. As soon as the woman brought forth, they sent ten
     persons to the district where Eetion lived, to put the child
     to death; but, the child, _by a divine providence_, was saved.
     His mother hid him in a chest, and as they could not find the
     child they resolved to depart, and tell those who sent them
     that they had done all that they had commanded. After this,
     Eetion's son grew up, and having escaped this danger, the name
     of Cypselus was given him, from the chest. When Cypselus
     reached man's estate, and consulted the oracle, an ambiguous
     answer was given him at Delphi; relying on which he attacked
     and got possession of Corinth."[171:5]

_Romulus_ and _Remus_, the founders of Rome, were exposed on the banks
of the Tiber, when infants, and left there to die, but escaped the death
intended for them.

The story of the "dangerous child" was well known in ancient Rome, and
several of their emperors, so it is said, were threatened with death at
their birth, or when mere infants. Julius Marathus, in his life of the
Emperor Augustus Cæsar, says that before his birth there was a prophecy
in Rome that a king over the Roman people would soon be born. To obviate
this danger to the republic, the Senate ordered that all the male
children born in that year should be abandoned or exposed.[172:1]

The flight of the virgin-mother with her babe is also illustrated in the
story of Astrea when beset by Orion, and of Latona, the mother of
Apollo, when pursued by the monster.[172:2] It is simply the same old
story, over and over again. Someone has predicted that a child born at a
certain time shall be great, he is therefore a "dangerous child," and
the reigning monarch, or some other interested party, attempts to have
the child destroyed, but he invariably escapes and grows to manhood, and
generally accomplishes the purpose for which he was intended. This
almost universal mythos was added to the fictitious history of Jesus by
its fictitious authors, who have made him escape in his infancy from the
reigning tyrant with the usual good fortune.

When a marvellous occurrence is said to have happened _everywhere_, we
may feel sure that it never happened anywhere. Popular fancies propagate
themselves indefinitely, but historical events, especially the striking
and dramatic ones, are rarely repeated. That this is a fictitious story
is seen from the narratives of the birth of Jesus, which are recorded by
the first and third Gospel writers, without any other evidence. In the
one--that related by the _Matthew_ narrator--we have a birth at
Bethlehem--implying the ordinary residence of the parents there--and a
_hurried flight_--almost immediately after the birth--from that place
into Egypt,[172:3] the slaughter of the infants, and a journey, after
many months, from Egypt to Nazareth in Galilee. In the other story--that
told by the _Luke_ narrator--the parents, who have lived in Nazareth,
came to Bethlehem only for business of the State, and the casual birth
in the cave or stable is followed by a quiet sojourn, during which the
child is circumcised, and by a leisurely journey to Jerusalem; whence,
everything having gone off peaceably and happily, they return naturally
to their own former place of abode, full, _it is said over and over
again_, of wonder at the things that had happened, and deeply impressed
with the conviction that their child had a special work to do, and was
specially gifted for it. _There is no fear of Herod, who seems never to
trouble himself about the child, or even to have any knowledge of him.
There is no trouble or misery at Bethlehem, and certainly no mourning
for children slain._ Far from flying hurriedly away by night, his
parents _celebrate openly_, and at the usual time, the circumcision of
the child; and when he is presented in the temple, there is not only no
sign that enemies seek his life, _but the devout saints give public
thanks for the manifestation of the Saviour_.

Dr. Hooykaas, speaking of the slaughter of the innocents, says:

     "Antiquity in general delighted in representing great men,
     such as Romulus, Cyrus, and many more, as having been
     threatened in their childhood by fearful dangers. This served
     to bring into clear relief both the lofty significance of
     their future lives, and the special protection of the deity
     who watched over them.

     "The brow of many a theologian has been bent over this
     (Matthew) narrative! For, as long as people believed in the
     miraculous inspiration of the Holy Scriptures, of course they
     accepted every page as literally true, and thought that there
     _could_ not be any contradiction between the different
     accounts or representations of Scripture. The worst of all
     such pre-conceived ideas is, that they compel those who hold
     them to do violence to their own sense of truth. For when
     these so-called religious prejudices come into play, people
     are afraid to call things by their right names, and, without
     knowing it themselves, become guilty of all kinds of evasive
     and arbitrary practices; for what would be thought quite
     unjustifiable in any other case is here considered a duty,
     inasmuch as it is supposed to tend toward the maintenance of
     faith and the glory of God!"[173:1]

As we stated above, this story is to be found in the fictitious gospel
according to Matthew only; contemporary history has nowhere recorded
this audacious crime. It is mentioned neither by Jewish nor Roman
historians. Tacitus, who has stamped forever the crimes of despots with
the brand of reprobation, it would seem then, did not think such
infamies worthy of his condemnation. Josephus also, who gives us a
minute account of the atrocities perpetrated by Herod up to even the
very last moment of his life, does not say a single word about this
unheard-of crime, which must have been so notorious. Surely he must have
known of it, and must have mentioned it, had it ever been committed. "We
can readily imagine the Pagans," says Mr. Reber, "who composed the
learned and intelligent men of their day, at work in exposing the story
of Herod's cruelty, by showing that, considering the extent of
territory embraced in the order, and the population within it, the
assumed destruction of life stamped the story false and ridiculous. A
governor of a Roman province who dared make such an order would be so
speedily overtaken by the vengeance of the Roman people, that his head
would fall from his body before the blood of his victims had time to
dry. Archelaus, his son, was deposed for offenses not to be spoken of
when compared with this massacre of the infants."

No wonder that there is no trace at all in the Roman catacombs, nor in
Christian art, of this fictitious story, until about the beginning of
the fifth century.[174:1] Never would Herod dared to have taken upon
himself the odium and responsibility of such a sacrifice. _Such a crime
could never have happened at the epoch of its professed perpetration._
To such lengths were the early Fathers led, by the servile adaptation of
the ancient traditions of the East, they required a _second edition_ of
the tyrant Kansa, and their holy wrath fell upon Herod. The Apostles of
Jesus counted too much upon human credulity, they trusted too much that
the future might not unravel their maneuvers, the sanctity of their
object made them too reckless. They destroyed all the evidence against
themselves which they could lay their hands upon, but they did not
destroy it all.


FOOTNOTES:

[166:1] _A heavenly voice_ whispered to the foster-father of Jesus, and
told him to fly with the child into Egypt, which was immediately done.
(See Matthew, ii. 13.)

[166:2] Life and Relig. of the Hindoos, p. 134.

[166:3] Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 129. See also, Cox: Aryan Mythology,
vol. ii. p. 134, and Maurice: Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 331.

[166:4] Asiatic Researches, vol. i. pp. 273 and 259.

[167:1] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 61.

[167:2] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. 130, 13-, and Maurice: Indian
Antiquities, vol. i. pp. 112, 113, and vol. iii. pp. 45, 95.

[167:3] Indian Antiquities, vol. i. pp. 112, 113.

[167:4] Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 259.

[167:5] Farrar's Life of Christ, p. 58.

[167:6] See Introduction to Gospel of Infancy, Apoc.

[167:7] See vol. x. Asiatic Researches.

[168:1] Beal: Hist. Buddha, pp. 103, 104.

[168:2] Amberly's Analysis, p. 229.

[168:3] The Shih-king. Decade ii, ode 1.

[168:4] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, pp. 158 and 186.

[169:1] Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 110.

[169:2] Calmet's Fragments, art. "Abraham."

[169:3] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 240.

[169:4] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. "Religions of Persia."

[170:1] In the Apocryphal Gospel of the Birth of Mary and
"Protevangelion."

[170:2] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 9. Cox: Aryan Mythology, vol.
ii. p. 58, and Bulfinch: The Age of Fable, p. 161.

[170:3] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 27. Cox: Aryan Mytho. vol. ii. p.
34.

[170:4] Cox: Aryan Mytho. vol. ii. p. 44.

[170:5] Ibid. p. 69, and Tales of Ancient Greece, p. xlii.

[170:6] Cox: Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 14.

[170:7] Ibid. p. 75.

[170:8] Ibid. p. 78.

[171:1] Cox: Aryan Mytho. ii. p. 81.

[171:2] Ibid. p. 84.

[171:3] Ibid. p. 150.

[171:4] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 188. Cox: Aryan Mytho. vol. ii. p.
296.

[171:5] Herodotus: bk. v. ch. 92.

[172:1] See Farrar's Life of Christ, p. 60.

[172:2] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 168.

[172:3] There are no very early examples in Christian art of the flight
of the Holy Family into Egypt. (See Monumental Christianity, p. 289.)

[173:1] Bible for Learners, vol. iii. pp. 71-74.

[174:1] See Monumental Christianity, p. 238.



CHAPTER XIX.

THE TEMPTATION, AND FAST OF FORTY DAYS.


We are informed by the _Matthew_ narrator that, after being baptized by
John in the river Jordan, Jesus was led by the spirit into the
wilderness "_to be tempted of the devil_."

     "And when he had fasted _forty days and forty nights_, he was
     afterward an hungered. And when the _tempter_ came to him he
     said: 'If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be
     made bread.' . . . Then the devil taketh him up into the holy
     city, _and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple_, and saith
     unto him: 'If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down.'
     . . . Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high
     mountain, _and showeth him all the kingdoms of the world_, and
     the glory of them, and saith unto him:' _All these things will
     I give thee_ if thou wilt fall down and worship me.' Then
     saith Jesus unto him, 'Get thee hence, Satan: for it is
     written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only
     shalt thou serve.' Then the devil leaveth him, and, behold,
     angels came and ministered unto him."[175:1]

This is really a very peculiar story; it is therefore not to be wondered
at that many of the early Christian Fathers rejected it as being
fabulous,[175:2] but this, according to orthodox teaching, cannot be
done; because, in all consistent reason, "_we must accept the whole of
the inspired autographs or reject the whole_,"[175:3] and, because, "the
very foundations of our faith, the very basis of our hopes, the very
nearest and dearest of our consolations, are taken from us, when _one
line_ of that sacred volume, on which we base everything, is declared to
be untruthful and untrustworthy."[175:4]

The reason why we have this story in the New Testament is because the
writer wished to show that Christ Jesus was proof against all
temptations, that _he_ too, as well as _Buddha_ and others, could resist
the powers of the prince of evil. This Angel-Messiah was tempted by the
devil, and he fasted for forty-seven days and nights, without taking an
atom of food.[175:5]

The story of Buddha's temptation, presented below, is taken from the
"_Siamese Life of Buddha_," by Moncure D. Conway, and published in his
"_Sacred Anthology_," from which we take it.[176:1] It is also to be
found in the _Fo-pen-hing_,[176:2] and other works on Buddha and
Buddhism. Buddha went through a more lengthy and severe trial than did
Jesus, having been tempted in many different ways. The portion which
most resembles that recorded by the Matthew narrator is the following:

     "The Grand Being (Buddha) applied himself to practice
     asceticism of the extremest nature. _He ceased to eat_ (that
     is, _he fasted_) and held his breath. . . . _Then it was that
     the royal Mara_ (the Prince of Evil) _sought occasion to tempt
     him._ Pretending compassion, he said: 'Beware, O Grand Being,
     your state is pitiable to look on; you are attenuated beyond
     measure, . . . you are practicing this mortification in vain;
     I can see that you will not live through it. . . . Lord, that
     art capable of such vast endurance, go not forth to adopt a
     religious life, but return to thy kingdom, and in _seven_ days
     thou shalt become _the Emperor of the World_, riding over the
     four great continents.'"

To this the Grand Being, Buddha, replied:

     "'Take heed, O Mara; I also know that in seven days I might
     gain universal empire, but I desire not such possessions. I
     know that the pursuit of religion is better than the empire of
     the world. You, thinking only of evil lusts, would force me to
     leave all beings without guidance into your power. _Avaunt!
     Get thou away from me!_'

     "The Lord (then) rode onwards, intent on his purpose. The
     skies rained flowers, and delicious odors pervaded the
     air."[176:3]

Now, mark the similarity between these two legends.

Was Jesus about "beginning to preach" when he was tempted by the evil
spirit? So was Buddha about to go forth "to adopt a religious life,"
when he was tempted by the evil spirit.

Did Jesus fast, and was he "afterwards an hungered"? So did Buddha
"cease to eat," and was "attenuated beyond measure."

Did the evil spirit take Jesus and show him "all the kingdoms of the
world," which he promised to give him, provided he did not lead the life
he contemplated, but follow him?

So did the evil spirit say to Buddha: "Go not forth to adopt a religious
life, and in seven days thou shalt become an emperor of the world."

Did not Jesus resist these temptations, and say unto the evil one, "Get
thee behind me, Satan"?

So did Buddha resist the temptations, and said unto the evil one, "Get
thee away from me."

After the evil spirit left Jesus did not "angels come and minister unto
him"?

So with Buddha. After the evil one had left him "the skies rained
flowers, and delicious odors pervaded the air."

These parallels are too striking to be accidental.

_Zoroaster_, the founder of the religion of the Persians, was tempted by
the devil, who made him magnificent promises, in order to induce him to
become his servant and to be dependent on him, but the temptations were
in vain.[177:1] "His temptation by the devil, forms the subject of many
traditional reports and legends."[177:2]

_Quetzalcoatle_, the virgin-born Mexican Saviour, was also tempted by
the devil, and the forty days' fast was found among them.[177:3]

Fasting and self-denial were observances practiced by all nations of
antiquity. The _Hindoos_ have days set apart for fasting on many
different occasions throughout the year, one of which is when the
birth-day of their Lord and Saviour Crishna is celebrated. On this
occasion, the day is spent in fasting and worship. They abstain entirely
from food and drink for more than thirty hours, at the end of which
Crishna's image is worshiped, and the story of his miraculous birth is
read to his hungry worshipers.[177:4]

Among the ancient _Egyptians_, there were times when the priests
submitted to abstinence of the most severe description, being forbidden
to eat even bread, and at other times they only ate it mingled with
hyssop. "The priests in Heliopolis," says Plutarch, "have many fasts,
during which they meditate on divine things."[177:5]

Among the _Sabians_, fasting was insisted on as an essential act of
religion. During the month _Tammuz_, they were in the habit of fasting
from sunrise to sunset, without allowing a morsel of food or drop of
liquid to pass their lips.[177:6]

The Jews also had their fasts, and on special occasions they gave
themselves up to prolonged fasts and mortifications.

Fasting and self-denial were observances required of the Greeks who
desired initiation into the _Mysteries_. Abstinence from food, chastity
and hard couches prepared the neophyte, who broke his fast on the third
and fourth day only, on consecrated food.[177:7]

The same practice was found among the ancient _Mexicans_ and
_Peruvians_. Acosta, speaking of them, says:

     "These priests and religious men used great fastings, of five
     and ten days together, before any of their great feasts, and
     they were unto them as our four ember weeks. . . .

     "They drank no wine, and slept little, for the greatest part
     of their exercises (of penance) were at night, committing
     great cruelties and martyring themselves for the devil, and
     all to be reputed great fasters and penitents."[178:1]

In regard to the number of days which Jesus is said to have fasted being
specified as _forty_, this is simply owing to the fact that the number
_forty_ as well as _seven_ was a sacred one among most nations of
antiquity, particularly among the Jews, and because _others_ had fasted
that number of days. For instance; it is related[178:2] that _Moses_
went up into a mountain, "and he was there with the Lord _forty days and
forty nights, and he did neither eat bread, nor drink water_," which is
to say that he _fasted_.

In Deuteronomy[178:3] Moses _is made to say_--for he did not write it,
"When I was gone up into the mount to receive the tables of stone, . . .
then I abode in the mount _forty days and forty nights_, I neither did
eat bread nor drink water."

_Elijah_ also had a long fast, which, _of course_, was continued for a
period of _forty days and forty nights_.[178:4]

_St. Joachim_, father of the "ever-blessed Virgin Mary," had a long
fast, which was also continued for a period of _forty days and forty
nights_. The story is to be found in the apocryphal gospel
_Protevangelion_.[178:5]

The ancient _Persians_ had a religious festival which they annually
celebrated, and which they called the "Salutation of Mithras." During
this festival, _forty days_ were set apart for thanksgiving and
sacrifice.[178:6]

The _forty days' fast_ was found in the New World.

Godfrey Higgins tells us that:

     "The ancient _Mexicans_ had a _forty days' fast_, in memory of
     one of their sacred persons (Quetzalcoatle) who was tempted
     (and fasted) _forty days_ on a mountain."[178:7]

Lord Kingsborough says:

     "The temptation of Quetzalcoatle, and _the fast of forty days,
     . . . are very curious and mysterious_."[178:8]

The ancient Mexicans were also in the habit of making their prisoners
of war fast for a term of _forty days_ before they were put to
death.[179:1]

Mr. Bonwick says:

     "The Spaniards were surprised to see the _Mexicans_ keep the
     vernal _forty days' fast_. The Tammuz month of Syria was in
     the spring. The _forty days_ were kept for Proserpine. Thus
     does history repeat itself."[179:2]

The Spanish monks accounted for what Lord Kingsborough calls "very
curious and mysterious" circumstances, by the agency of the devil, and
burned all the books containing them, whenever it was in their power.

The forty days' fast was also found among some of the Indian tribes in
the New World. Dr. Daniel Brinton tells us that "the females of the
_Orinoco_ tribes _fasted forty days_ before marriage,"[179:3] and Prof.
Max Müller informs us that it was customary for some of the females of
the South American tribes of Indians "to fast before and after the birth
of a child," and that, among the _Carib-Coudave_ tribe, in the West
Indies, "when a child is born the mother goes presently to work, but the
father begins to complain, and takes to his hammock, and there he is
visited as though he were sick. _He then fasts for forty days._"[179:4]

The females belonging to the tribes of the Upper Mississippi, were held
unclean for _forty days_ after childbirth.[179:5] The prince of the
Tezcuca tribes _fasted forty days_ when he wished an heir to his throne,
and the Mandanas supposed it required _forty days and forty nights_ to
wash clean the earth at the deluge.[179:6]

The number _forty_ is to be found in a great many instances in the Old
Testament; for instance, at the end of _forty days_ Noah sent out a
raven from the ark.[179:7] Isaac and Esau were each _forty years_ old
when they married.[179:8] _Forty days_ were fulfilled for the embalming
of Jacob.[179:9] The spies were _forty days_ in search of the land of
Canaan.[179:10] The Israelites wandered _forty years_ in the
wilderness.[179:11] The land "had rest" _forty years_ on three
occasions.[179:12] The land was delivered into the hand of the
Philistines _forty years_.[179:13] Eli judged Israel _forty
years_.[179:14] King David reigned _forty years_.[179:15]

King Solomon reigned _forty years_.[180:1] Goliath presented himself
_forty days_.[180:2] The rain was upon the earth _forty days_ at the
time of the deluge.[180:3] And, as we saw above, Moses was on the mount
_forty days_ and _forty nights_ on each occasion.[180:4] Can anything be
more mythological than this?

The number forty was used by the ancients in constructing temples. There
were _forty_ pillars around the temple of Chilminar, in Persia; the
temple at Baalbec had _forty_ pillars; on the frontiers of China, in
Tartary, there is to be seen the "Temple of the _forty_ pillars."
_Forty_ is one of the most common numbers in the Druidical temples, and
in the plan of the temple of Ezekiel, the four oblong buildings in the
middle of the courts have each _forty_ pillars.[180:5] Most temples of
antiquity were imitative--were microcosms of the Celestial Templum--and
on this account they were surrounded with pillars recording
_astronomical_ subjects, and intended both to do honor to these
subjects, and to keep them in perpetual remembrance. In the Abury
temples were to be seen the cycles of 650-608-600-60-40-30-19-12,
etc.[180:6]


FOOTNOTES:

[175:1] Matthew, iv. 1-11.

[175:2] See Lardner's Works, vol. viii. p. 491.

[175:3] Words of the Rev. E. Garbett, M. A., in a sermon preached before
the University of Oxford, England.

[175:4] The Bishop of Manchester (England), in the "Manchester Examiner
and Times."

[175:5] See Lillie's Buddhism, p. 100.

[176:1] Pp. 44 and 172, 173.

[176:2] Translated by Prof. Samuel Beal.

[176:3] See also Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, pp. 38, 39. Beal: Hist. Buddha,
pp. xxviii., xxix., and 190, and Hardy: Buddhist Legends, p. xvii.

[177:1] Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 240.

[177:2] Chambers's Encyclo. art. "Zoroaster."

[177:3] See Kingsborough: Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 200.

[177:4] Life and Relig. of the Hindoos, p. 134.

[177:5] Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 341.

[177:6] Ibid.

[177:7] Ibid. p. 340.

[178:1] Acosta: Hist. Indies, vol. ii. p. 339.

[178:2] Exodus, xxiv. 28.

[178:3] Deut. ix. 18.

[178:4] 1 Kings, xix. 8.

[178:5] Chapter i.

[178:6] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 272.

[178:7] Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 19.

[178:8] Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. pp. 197-200.

[179:1] See Kingsborough's Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 223.

[179:2] Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 370.

[179:3] Brinton: Myths of the New World, p. 94.

[179:4] Max Müller's Chips, vol. ii. p. 279.

[179:5] Brinton: Myths of the New World, p. 94.

[179:6] Ibid. According to Genesis, vii. 12, "the rain was upon the
earth forty days and forty nights" at the time of the flood.

[179:7] Genesis, viii. 6.

[179:8] Gen. xxv. 20-xxvi. 34.

[179:9] Gen. i. 3.

[179:10] Numbers, xiii. 25.

[179:11] Numbers, xiii. 13.

[179:12] Jud. iii. 11; v. 31; viii. 28.

[179:13] Jud. xiii. 1.

[179:14] I. Samuel, iv. 18.

[179:15] I. Kings, ii. 11.

[180:1] I. Kings, xi. 42.

[180:2] I. Samuel, xvii. 16.

[180:3] Gen. vii. 12.

[180:4] Exodus, xxiv. 18-xxxiv. 28.

[180:5] See Higgins' Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 798; vol. ii. p. 402.

[180:6] See Ibid. vol. ii. p. 708.



CHAPTER XX.

THE CRUCIFIXION OF CHRIST JESUS.


The punishment of an individual by crucifixion, for claiming to be "King
of the Jews," "Son of God," or "The Christ;" which are the causes
assigned by the Evangelists for the Crucifixion of Jesus, would need but
a passing glance in our inquiry, were it not for the fact that there is
much attached to it of a _dogmatic_ and _heathenish_ nature, which
demands considerably more than a "passing glance." The doctrine of
atonement for sin had been preached long before the doctrine was deduced
from the Christian Scriptures, long before these Scriptures are
pretended to have been written. Before the period assigned for the birth
of Christ Jesus, the poet _Ovid_ had assailed the demoralizing delusion
with the most powerful shafts of philosophic scorn: "_When thou thyself
art guilty,_" says he, "_why should a victim die for thee? What folly it
is to expect salvation from the death of another._"

The idea of expiation by the sacrifice of a _god_ was to be found among
the Hindoos even in _Vedic_ times. _The sacrificer was mystically
identified with the victim_, which was regarded as the ransom for sin,
and the instrument of its annulment. The _Rig-Veda_ represents the gods
as sacrificing _Purusha_, the primeval male, supposed to be coeval with
the Creator. This idea is even more remarkably developed in the
_Tāndya-brāhmanas_, thus:

     "The lord of creatures (_prajā-pati_) _offered himself a
     sacrifice for the gods_."

And again, in the _Satapatha-brāhmana_:

     "He who, knowing this, sacrifices the _Purusha-medha_, or
     sacrifice of the primeval male, becomes everything."[181:1]

Prof. Monier Williams, from whose work on _Hindooism_ we quote the
above, says:

     "Surely, in these mystical allusions to the sacrifice of a
     representative man, we may perceive traces of the original
     institution of sacrifice as a _divinely-appointed ordinance
     typical of the one great sacrifice of the Son of God for the
     sins of the world_."[182:1]

This idea of redemption from sin through the sufferings and death of a
Divine Incarnate Saviour, is simply the crowning-point of the idea
entertained by primitive man that the gods _demanded_ a sacrifice of
some kind, to atone for some sin, or avert some calamity.

In primitive ages, when men lived mostly on vegetables, they offered
only grain, water, salt, fruit, and flowers to the gods, to propitiate
them and thereby obtain temporal blessings. But when they began to eat
meat and spices, and drink wine, they offered the same; naturally
supposing the deities would be pleased with whatever was useful or
agreeable to themselves. They imagined that some gods were partial to
animals, others to fruits, flowers, etc. To the celestial gods they
offered _white_ victims at sunrise, or at open day. To the infernal
deities they sacrificed _black_ animals in the night. Each god had some
creature peculiarly devoted to his worship. They sacrificed a _bull_ to
Mars, a _dove_ to Venus, and to Minerva, a _heifer_ without blemish,
which had never been put to the yoke. If a man was too poor to sacrifice
a living animal, he offered an image of one made of bread.

In the course of time, it began to be imagined that the gods demanded
something more sacred as offerings or atonements for sin. This led to
the sacrifice of _human beings_, principally slaves and those taken in
war, then, their own children, even their most beloved "first-born." It
came to be an idea that every sin must have its prescribed amount of
punishment, _and that the gods would accept the life of one person as
atonement for the sins of others_. This idea prevailed even in Greece
and Rome: but there it mainly took the form of heroic self-sacrifice for
the public good. Cicero says: "The force of religion was so great among
our ancestors, that some of their commanders have, with their faces
veiled, and with the strongest expressions of sincerity, _sacrificed
themselves to the immortal gods to save their country_."[182:2]

In Egypt, offerings of human sacrifices, for the atonement of sin,
became so general that "if the eldest born of the family of Athamas
entered the temple of the Laphystan Jupiter at Alos in Achaia, he was
sacrificed, crowned with garlands like an animal victim."[182:3]

When the Egyptian priests offered up a sacrifice to the gods, they
pronounced the following imprecations on the head of the victim:

     "If any evil is about to befall either those who now
     sacrifice, or Egypt in general, _may it be averted on this
     head_."[183:1]

This idea of atonement finally resulted in the belief that the incarnate
_Christ_, the _Anointed_, the _God among us_, was to _save_ mankind from
a curse by God imposed. Man had sinned, and God could not and did not
forgive without a propitiatory _sacrifice_. The curse of God must be
removed from the _sinful_, and the _sinless_ must bear the load of that
curse. It was asserted that _divine justice_ required BLOOD.[183:2]

The belief of redemption from sin by the sufferings of a _Divine
Incarnation_, whether by death on the cross or otherwise, was general
and popular among the heathen, centuries before the time of Jesus of
Nazareth, and this dogma, no matter how sacred it may have become, or
how _consoling_ it may be, must fall along with the rest of the material
of which the Christian church is built.

Julius Firmicius, referring to this popular belief among the _Pagans_,
says: "The _devil_ has _his Christs_."[183:3] This was the general
off-hand manner in which the Christian Fathers disposed of such matters.
Everything in the religion of the Pagans which corresponded to their
religion was of the devil. Most Protestant divines have resorted to the
_type_ theory, of which we shall speak anon.

As we have done heretofore in our inquiries, we will first turn to
_India_, where we shall find, in the words of M. l'Abbé Huc, that "_the
idea of redemption by a divine incarnation_," who came into the world
for the express purpose of redeeming mankind, was "general and
popular."[183:4]

"A sense of _original corruption_," says Prof. Monier Williams, seems
to be felt by all classes of Hindoos, as indicated by the following
prayer used after the _Gāyatrī_ by some Vaishnavas:

     "'I am sinful, I commit sin, my nature is sinful, _I am
     conceived in sin_. Save me, O thou lotus-eyed Heri (Saviour),
     the remover of sin.'"[184:1]

Moreover, the doctrine of _bhakti_ (_salvation by faith_) existed among
the Hindoos from the earliest times.[184:2]

Crishna, the virgin-born, "the Divine Vishnu himself,"[184:3] "he who is
without beginning, middle or end,"[184:4] being moved "to relieve the
earth of her load,"[184:5] came upon earth and redeemed man by his
_sufferings_--to _save_ him.

The accounts of the deaths of most all the virgin-born Saviours of whom
we shall speak, are conflicting. It is stated in one place that such an
one died in such a manner, and in another place we may find it stated
altogether differently. Even the accounts of the death of Jesus, as we
shall hereafter see, are conflicting; therefore, until the chapter on
"_Explanation_" is read, these myths cannot really be thoroughly
understood.

As the Rev. Geo. W. Cox remarks, in his _Aryan Mythology_, Crishna is
described, in one of his aspects, as a self-sacrificing and unselfish
hero, a being who is filled with divine wisdom and love, who offers up a
sacrifice which he alone can make.[184:6]

The _Vishnu Purana_[184:7] speaks of _Crishna_ being shot in the _foot_
with an arrow, and states that _this_ was the cause of his death. Other
accounts, however, state that he was suspended on a tree, or in other
words, _crucified_.

Mons. Guigniaut, in his "_Religion de l'Antiquité_" says:

     "The death of Crishna is very differently related. One
     remarkable and convincing tradition makes him perish on a
     _tree_, to which he was _nailed_ by the stroke of an
     arrow."[184:8]

Rev. J. P. Lundy alludes to this passage of Guigniaut's in his
"Monumental Christianity," and translates the passage "un bois fatal"
(see note below) "_a cross_." Although we do not think he is justified
in doing this, as M. Guigniaut has distinctly stated that this "bois
fatal" (which is applied to a gibbet, a cross, a scaffold, etc.) was "un
arbre" (a _tree_), yet, he is justified in doing so on other accounts,
for we find that _Crishna_ is represented _hanging on a cross_, and we
know that a _cross_ was frequently called the "accursed _tree_." It was
an ancient custom to use trees as gibbets for crucifixion, or, if
artificial, to call the cross a tree.[185:1]

A writer in _Deuteronomy_[185:2] speaks of hanging criminals upon a
_tree_, as though it was a general custom, and says:

     "He that is hanged (on a tree) is accursed of God."

And _Paul_ undoubtedly refers to this text when he says:

     "Christ hath redeemed us from the _curse_ of the law, being
     made a curse for us; for it is written, 'Cursed is every one
     that hangeth on a tree.'"[185:3]

It is evident, then, that to be hung on a cross was anciently called
hanging on a _tree_, and to be hung on a tree was called crucifixion. We
may therefore conclude from this, and from what we shall now see, that
Crishna was said to have been _crucified_.

In the earlier copies of Moor's "_Hindu Pantheon_," is to be seen
representations of Crishna (as _Wittoba_),[185:4] with marks of holes in
both feet, and in others, of holes in the hands. In Figures 4 and 5 of
Plate 11 (Moor's work), the figures have _nail-holes in both feet_.
Figure 6 has a _round hole in the side_; to his collar or shirt hangs
the emblem of a _heart_ (which we often see in pictures of Christ Jesus)
and on his head he has a _Yoni-Linga_ (which we _do not_ see in pictures
of Christ Jesus.)

Our Figure No. 7 (next page), is a pre-Christian crucifix of _Asiatic_
origin,[185:5] evidently intended to represent Crishna crucified. Figure
No. 8 we can speak more positively of, it is surely Crishna crucified.
It is unlike any Christian crucifix ever made, and, with that described
above with the _Yoni-Linga_ attached to the head, would probably not be
claimed as such. Instead of the _crown of thorns_ usually put on the
head of the Christian Saviour, it has the turreted coronet of the
Ephesian Diana, the ankles are tied together by a cord, _and the dress
about the loins is exactly the style with which Crishna is almost always
represented_.[185:6]

Rev. J. P. Lundy, speaking of the Christian crucifix, says:

     "I object to the crucifix because it is an _image_, and
     liable to gross abuse, _just as the old Hindoo crucifix was an
     idol_."[186:1]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 7]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 8]

And Dr. Inman says:

     "Crishna, whose history so closely resembles our Lord's, was
     also like him in his being crucified."[186:2]

The Evangelist[186:3] relates that when Jesus was crucified two others
(malefactors) were crucified with him, one of whom, through his favor,
went to heaven. One of the malefactors reviled him, but the other said
to Jesus: "Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom." And
Jesus said unto him: "Verily I say unto thee, to-day shalt thou be with
me in paradise." According to the _Vishnu Purana_, the hunter who shot
the arrow at Crishna afterwards said unto him: "Have pity upon me, who
am consumed by my crime, for thou art able to consume me!" Crishna
replied: "Fear not thou in the least. _Go, hunter, through my favor, to
heaven, the abode of the gods._" As soon as he had thus spoken, a
celestial car appeared, and the hunter, ascending it, forthwith
proceeded to heaven. Then the illustrious Crishna, having united himself
with his own pure, spiritual, inexhaustible, inconceivable, unborn,
undecaying, imperishable and universal spirit, which is one with
_Vasudeva_ (God),[186:4] abandoned his mortal body, and the condition of
the threefold equalities.[186:5] One of the titles of Crishna is
"_Pardoner of sins_," another is "_Liberator from the Serpent of
death_."[187:1]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 9]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 10]

The monk Georgius, in his _Tibetinum Alphabetum_ (p. 203), has given
plates of _a crucified god_ who was worshiped in _Nepal_. These
crucifixes were to be seen at the corners of roads and on eminences. He
calls it the god _Indra_. Figures No. 9 and No. 10 are taken from this
work. They are also different from any Christian crucifix yet produced.
Georgius says:

     "If the matter stands as Beausobre thinks, then the
     inhabitants of India, and the Buddhists, whose religion is the
     same as that of the inhabitants of Thibet, have received these
     new portents of fanatics nowhere else than from the
     Manicheans. For those nations, especially in the city of
     Nepal, in the month of August, being about to celebrate the
     festival days of the god _Indra_, erect crosses, wreathed with
     _Abrotono_, to his memory, everywhere. You have the
     description of these in letter B, the picture following after;
     for A is the representation of _Indra_ himself _crucified_,
     bearing on his forehead, hands and feet the signs
     _Telech_."[187:2]

P. Andrada la Crozius, one of the first Europeans who went to Nepal and
Thibet, in speaking of the god whom they worshiped there--_Indra_--tells
us that they said _he spilt his blood for the salvation of the human
race_, and that he was pierced through the body with nails. He further
says that, although they do not say he suffered the penalty of the
cross, yet they find, nevertheless, figures of it in their books.[188:1]

In regard to Beausobre's ideas that the religion of India is corrupted
Christianity, obtained from the Manicheans, little need be said, as all
scholars of the present day know that the religion of India is many
centuries older than Mani or the Manicheans.[188:2]

In the promontory of India, in the South, at Tanjore, and in the North,
at Oude or Ayoudia, was found the worship of the _crucified god Bal-li_.
This god, who was believed to have been an incarnation of Vishnu, was
represented with holes in his hands and side.[188:3]

The incarnate god Buddha, although said to have expired peacefully at
the foot of a tree, is nevertheless described as a suffering Saviour,
who, "when his mind was moved by pity (for the human race) _gave his
life like grass for the sake of others_."[188:4]

A hymn, addressed to Buddha, says:

     "Persecutions without end,
      Revilings and many prisons,
      _Death and murder_,
      These hast thou suffered with love and patience
      (To secure the happiness of mankind),
      Forgiving thine executioners."[188:5]

He was called the "Great Physician,"[188:6] the "Saviour of the
World,"[188:7] the "Blessed One,"[188:8] the "God among Gods,"[188:9]
the "Anointed," or the "Christ,"[188:10] the "Messiah,"[188:11] the
"Only Begotten,"[188:12] etc. He is described by the author of the
"Cambridge Key"[188:13] as sacrificing his life to wash away the
offenses of mankind, and thereby to make them partakers of the kingdom
of heaven. This induces him to say "Can a Christian doubt that this
Buddha was the TYPE of the Saviour of the World."[189:1]

As a spirit in the fourth heaven, he resolves to give up "all that
glory, in order to be born into the world," "to rescue all men from
their misery and every future consequence of it." He vows "to deliver
all men, who are left as it were without a _Saviour_."[189:2]

While in the realms of the blest, and when about to descend upon earth
to be born as man, he said:

     "I am now about to assume a body; not for the sake of gaining
     wealth, or enjoying the pleasures of sense, but I am about to
     descend and be born, among men, _simply to give peace and rest
     to all flesh; to remove all sorrow and grief from the
     world_."[189:3]

M. l'Abbé Huc says:

     "In the eyes of the Buddhists, this personage (Buddha) is
     sometimes a man and sometimes a god, or rather both one and
     the other--a divine incarnation, a man-god--who came into the
     world to enlighten men, to _redeem them_, and to indicate to
     them the way of safety. This idea of _redemption by a divine
     incarnation_ is so general and popular among the Buddhists,
     that during our travels in Upper Asia we everywhere found it
     expressed in a neat formula. If we addressed to a Mongol or a
     Thibetan the question 'Who is Buddha?' he would immediately
     reply: '_The Saviour of Men!_'"[189:4]

According to Prof. Max Müller, Buddha is reported as saying:

     "_Let all the sins that were committed in this world fall on
     me, that the world may be delivered._"[189:5]

The _Indians_ are no strangers to the doctrine of _original sin_. It is
their invariable belief that _man is a fallen being_; admitted by them
from time immemorial.[189:6] And what we have seen concerning their
beliefs in _Crishna_ and _Buddha_ unmistakably shows a belief in a
_divine Saviour_, who _redeems man_, and takes upon himself the sins of
the world; so that "_Baddha_ paid it all, all to him is due."[189:7]

The idea of redemption through the sufferings and death of a _Divine
Saviour_, is to be found even in the ancient religions of China. One of
their five sacred volumes, called the _Y-King_, says, in speaking of
_Tien, the "Holy One"_:

     "The _Holy One_ will unite in himself all the virtues of
     heaven and earth. By his justice the world will be
     re-established in the ways of righteousness. He will labor and
     suffer much. He must pass the great torrent, whose waves shall
     enter into his soul; _but he alone can offer up to the Lord a
     sacrifice worthy of him_."[190:1]

An ancient commentator says:

     "The common people sacrifice their lives to gain bread; the
     philosophers to gain reputation; the nobility to perpetuate
     their families. The _Holy One_ (_Tien_) does not seek himself,
     but the good of others. _He dies to save the world._"[190:2]

_Tien_, the Holy One, is always spoken of as one with God, existing with
him from all eternity, "before anything was made."

_Osiris_ and _Horus_, the Egyptian virgin-born gods, suffered
death.[190:3] Mr. Bonwick, speaking of _Osiris_, says:

     "He is one of the _Saviours_ or deliverers of humanity, to be
     found in almost all lands." "In his efforts to do good, he
     encounters evil; in struggling with that he is overcome; he is
     killed."[190:4]

Alexander Murray says:

     "_The Egyptian Saviour Osiris_ was gratefully regarded as the
     great exemplar of self-sacrifice, in _giving his life for
     others_."[190:5]

Sir J. G. Wilkinson says of him:

     "The sufferings and death of _Osiris_ were the great Mystery
     of the Egyptian religion, and some traces of it are
     perceptible among other peoples of antiquity. His being the
     _Divine Goodness_, and the abstract idea of 'good,' his
     manifestation upon earth (like a Hindoo god), his death and
     resurrection, and his office as judge of the dead in a future
     state, _look like the early revelation of a future
     manifestation of the deity converted into a mythological
     fable_."[190:6]

_Horus_ was also called "The Saviour." "As Horus Sneb, he is the
_Redeemer_. He is the Lord of Life and the Eternal One."[190:7] He is
also called "The Only-Begotten."[190:8]

_Attys_, who was called the "_Only Begotten Son_"[190:9] and
"_Saviour_," was worshiped by the Phrygians (who were regarded as one of
the oldest races of Asia Minor). He was represented by them as _a man
tied to a tree_, at the foot of which was a _lamb_,[191:1] and, without
doubt, also _as a man nailed to the tree, or stake_, for we find
Lactantius making this Apollo of Miletus (anciently, the greatest and
most flourishing city of Ionia, in Asia Minor) say that:

     "He was a mortal according to the flesh; wise in miraculous
     works; but, being arrested by an armed force by command of the
     Chaldean judges, _he suffered a death made bitter with nails
     and stakes_."[191:2]

In this god of the Phrygians, we again have the myth of the _crucified
Saviour of Paganism_.

By referring to Mrs. Jameson's "History of Our Lord in Art,"[191:3] or
to illustrations in chapter xl. this work, it will be seen that a common
mode of representing a crucifixion was that of a man, tied with cords by
the hands and feet, to an upright beam or stake. The _lamb_, spoken of
above, which signifies considerable, we shall speak of in its proper
place.

_Tammuz_, or _Adonis_, the Syrian and Jewish _Adonai_ (in Hebrew "Our
Lord"), was another _virgin-born_ god, who suffered for mankind, and who
had the title of _Saviour_. The accounts of his death are conflicting,
just as it is with almost all of the so-called Saviours of mankind
(_including the Christian Saviour_, as we shall hereafter see) one
account, however, makes him a _crucified Saviour_.[191:4]

It is certain, however, that the ancients who honored him as their Lord
and Saviour, celebrated, annually, a feast in commemoration of his
death. An image, intended as a representation of their Lord, was laid on
a bed or bier, and bewailed in mournful ditties--just as the Roman
Catholics do at the present day in their "Good Friday" mass.

During this ceremony the priest murmured:

     "_Trust ye in your Lord, for the pains which he endured, our
     salvation have procured._"[191:5]

The Rev. Dr. Parkhurst, in his "Hebrew Lexicon," after referring to what
we have just stated above, says:

     "I find myself _obliged_ to refer _Tammuz_ to that class of
     idols which were originally designed to represent the promised
     Saviour, the Desire of all Nations. His other name, _Adonis_,
     is almost the very Hebrew _Adoni_ or _Lord_, a well-known
     title of Christ."[191:6]

_Prometheus_ was a crucified Saviour. He was "an immortal god, a friend
of the human race, _who does not shrink even from sacrificing himself
for their salvation_."[192:1]

The tragedy of the crucifixion of Prometheus, written by Æschylus, was
acted in Athens five hundred years before the Christian Era, and is by
many considered to be the most ancient dramatic poem now in existence.
The plot was derived from materials even at that time of an infinitely
remote antiquity. Nothing was ever so exquisitely calculated to work
upon the feelings of the spectators. No author ever displayed greater
powers of poetry, with equal strength of judgment, in supporting through
the piece the august character of the _Divine Sufferer_. The spectators
themselves were unconsciously made a party to the interest of the scene:
its hero was their friend, their benefactor, their creator, and their
_Saviour_; his wrongs were incurred in their quarrel--_his sorrows were
endured for their salvation_; "he was wounded for their transgressions,
and bruised for their iniquities; the chastisement of their peace was
upon him, and by his stripes they were healed;" "he was oppressed and
afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth." The majesty of his silence,
whilst the ministers of an offended god were _nailing him by the hands
and feet to Mount Caucasus_,[192:2] could be only equaled by the modesty
with which he relates, _while hanging with arms extended in the form of
a cross_, his services to the human race, which had brought on him that
horrible crucifixion.[192:3] "None, save myself," says he, "opposed his
(Jove's) will,"

                                "I dared;
     And boldly pleading saved them from destruction,
     Saved them from sinking to the realms of night.
     For this offense I bend beneath these pains,
     Dreadful to suffer, piteous to behold:
     For mercy to mankind I am not deem'd
     Worthy of mercy; but with ruthless hate
     In this uncouth appointment am fix'd here
     A spectacle dishonorable to Jove."[192:4]

In the catastrophe of the plot, his especially professed friend,
Oceanus, _the Fisherman_--as his name _Petræus_ indicates,[193:1]--being
unable to prevail on him to make his peace with Jupiter, by throwing the
cause of human redemption out of his hands,[193:2] forsook him and fled.
None remained to be witness of his dying agonies but the chorus of
ever-amiable and ever-faithful which also bewailed and lamented
him,[193:3] but were unable to subdue his inflexible philanthropy.[193:4]

In the words of Justin Martyr: "Suffering was common to all the sons of
Jove." They were called the "Slain Ones," "Saviours," "Redeemers," &c.

_Bacchus_, the offspring of Jupiter and Semele,[193:5] was called the
"_Saviour_."[193:6] He was called the "_Only Begotten Son_,"[193:7] the
"Slain One,"[193:8] the "Sin Bearer,"[193:9] the "Redeemer,"[193:10] &c.
Evil having spread itself over the earth, through the inquisitiveness of
Pandora, the Lord of the gods is begged to come to the relief of
mankind. Jupiter lends a willing ear to the entreaties, "and wishes that
his _son_ should be the _redeemer_ of the misfortunes of the world; _The
Bacchus Saviour_. He promises to the earth a _Liberator_ . . The
universe shall worship him, and shall praise in songs his blessings." In
order to execute his purpose, Jupiter overshadows the beautiful young
maiden--the virgin Semele--who becomes the mother of the
_Redeemer_.[193:11]

     "It is I (says the lord Bacchus to mankind), who guides you;
     it is I who protects you, and who saves you; I who am Alpha
     and Omega."[193:12]

_Hercules_, the son of Zeus, was called "The Saviour."[193:13] The words
"Hercules the Saviour" were engraven on ancient coins and
monuments.[193:14] He was also called "The Only Begotten," and the
"Universal Word." He was re-absorbed into God. He was said by Ovid to be
the "Self-produced," the Generator and Ruler of all things, and the
Father of time.[193:15]

_Æsculapius_ was distinguished by the epithet "The Saviour."[194:1] The
temple erected to his memory in the city of Athens was called: "_The
Temple of the Saviour_."[194:2]

_Apollo_ was distinguished by the epithet "_The Saviour_."[194:3] In a
hymn to _Apollo_ he is called: "The willing _Saviour_ of distressed
mankind."[194:4]

_Serapis_ was called "The Saviour."[194:5] He was considered by Hadrian,
the Roman emperor (117-138 A. D.), and the Gentiles, to be the peculiar
god of the Christians.[194:6] A _cross_ was found under the ruins of his
temple in Alexandria in Egypt.[194:7] Fig. No. 11 is a representation of
this Egyptian Saviour, taken from Murray's "Manual of Mythology." It
certainly resembles the pictures of "the peculiar God of the
Christians." It is very evident that the pictures of Christ Jesus, as we
know them to-day, are simply the pictures of some of the Pagan gods, who
were, for certain reasons which we shall speak of in a subsequent
chapter, always represented with _long yellow or red hair, and a florid
complexion_. If such a person as Jesus of Nazareth ever lived in the
flesh, he was undoubtedly a _Jew_, and would therefore have _Jewish
features_; this his pictures do not betray.[194:8]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 11]

_Mithras_, who was "Mediator between God and man,"[194:9] was called
"The Saviour." He was the peculiar god of the Persians, who believed
that he had, by his sufferings, worked their salvation, and on this
account he was called their _Saviour_.[194:10] He was also called "_The
Logos_."[194:11]

The Persians believed that they were tainted with _original sin_, owing
to the fall of their first parents who were tempted by the evil one in
the form of a serpent.[194:12]

They considered their law-giver _Zoroaster_ to be also a _Divine
Messenger_, sent to redeem men from their evil ways, and they always
worshiped his memory. To this day his followers mention him with the
greatest reverence, calling him "_The Immortal Zoroaster_," "_The
Blessed Zoroaster_," "The First-Born of the Eternal One," &c.[195:1]

"In the life of Zoroaster the common mythos is apparent. He was born in
innocence, of an immaculate conception, of a ray of the Divine Reason.
As soon as he was born, the glory arising from his body enlightened the
room, and he laughed at his mother. He was called a _Splendid Light from
the Tree of Knowledge_, and, in fine, he or his soul was _suspensus a
lingo_, hung upon a tree, and this was the Tree of Knowledge."[195:2]

How much this resembles "the mystery which hath been hid from ages and
from generations, but now is made manifest to his saints."[195:3]

_Hermes_ was called "_The Saviour_." On the altar of Pepi (B. C. 3500)
are to be found prayers to Hermes--"_He who is the good
Saviour._"[195:4] He was also called "_The Logos._" The church fathers,
Hippolytus, Justin Martyr, and Plutarch (_de Iside et Osir_) assert that
the _Logos_ is _Hermes_.[195:5] The term "_Logos_" is Greek, and
signifies literally "_Word_."[195:6] He was also "_The Messenger of
God_."[195:7]

Dr. Inman says:

     "There are few words which strike more strongly upon the
     senses of an inquirer into the nature of ancient faiths, than
     _Salvation_ and _Saviour_. Both were used long before the
     birth of Christ, and they are still common among those who
     never heard of Jesus, or of that which is known among us as
     the Gospels."[195:8]

He also tells us that there is a very remarkable figure copied in Payne
Knight's work, in which we see on a man's shoulders a _cock's_ head,
whilst on the pediment are placed the words: "_The Saviour of the
World._"[195:9]

Besides the titles of "God's First-Born," "Only Begotten," the
"Mediator," the "Shepherd," the "Advocate," the "Paraclete or
Comforter," the "Son of God," the "Logos," &c.,[195:10] being applied to
heathen virgin-born gods, before the time assigned for the birth of
Jesus of Nazareth, we have also that of _Christ_ and _Jesus_.

_Cyrus_, King of Persia, was called the "Christ," or the "Anointed of
God."[196:1] As Dr. Giles says, "_Christ_" is "a name having no
spiritual signification, and importing nothing more than an _ordinary
surname_."[196:2] The worshipers of _Serapis_ were called
"_Christians_," and those devoted to Serapis were called "Bishops of
Christ."[196:3] _Eusebius_, the ecclesiastical historian, says, that the
names of "Jesus" and "Christ," were both known and honored among the
ancients.[196:4]

_Mithras_ was called the "Anointed" or the "Christ;"[196:5] and _Horus_,
_Mano_, _Mithras_, _Bel-Minor_, _Iao_, _Adoni_, &c., were each of them
"God of Light," "Light of the World," the "Anointed," or the
"Christ."[196:6]

It is said that Peter called his Master _the Christ_, whereupon "he
straightway charged them (the disciples), and commanded them to tell no
man _that thing_."[196:7]

The title of "_Christ_" or "The Anointed," was held by the kings of
Israel. "Touch not my Christ and do my prophets no harm," says the
Psalmist.[196:8]

The term "Christ" was applied to religious teachers, leaders of
factions, necromancers or wonder-workers, &c. This is seen by the
passage in _Matthew_, where the writer says:

     "There shall arise false Christs and false prophets, and shall
     show great signs and wonders, insomuch that, if it were
     possible, they shall deceive the very elect."[196:9]

The virgin-born Crishna and Buddha were incarnations of Vishnu, called
Avatars. An Avatar is an _Angel-Messiah_, a _God-man_, a CHRIST; for the
word _Christ_ is from the Greek _Christos_, an _Anointed One_, a
_Messiah_.

The name _Jesus_, which is pronounced in Hebrew _Yezua_, and is
sometimes Grecized into _Jason_, was very common. After the Captivity it
occurs quite frequently, and is interchanged with the name _Joshua_.
Indeed Joshua, the successor of Moses, is called Jesus in the New
Testament more than once,[196:10] though the meaning of the two names is
not really quite the same. We know of a Jesus, son of Sirach, a writer
of proverbs, whose collection is preserved among the apocryphal books
of the Old Testament. The notorious _Barabbas_[197:1] or _son of Abbas_,
was himself called Jesus. Among Paul's opponents we find a magician
called Elymas, _the Son of Jesus_. Among the early Christians a certain
Jesus, also called Justus, appears. Flavius Josephus mentions more than
_ten_ distinct persons--priests, robbers, peasants, and others--who bore
the name of Jesus, all of whom lived during the last century of the
Jewish state.[197:2]

To return now to our theme--_crucified gods before the time of Jesus of
Nazareth_.

The holy Father _Minucius Felix_, in his _Octavius_, written as late as
A. D. 211, indignantly _resents the supposition that the sign of the
cross should be considered exclusively as a Christian symbol_, and
represents his advocate of the Christian argument as retorting on an
infidel opponent. His words are:

     "As for the adoration of _crosses_ which you (_Pagans_) object
     against us (_Christians_), I must tell you, _that we neither
     adore crosses nor desire them; you it is, ye Pagans_ . . . who
     are the most likely people to adore wooden crosses . . . for
     what else are your ensigns, flags, and standards, _but crosses
     gilt and beautiful_. Your victorious trophies not only
     represent a simple cross, _but a cross with a man upon
     it_."[197:3]

The existence, in the writings of Minucius Felix, of this passage, is
probably owing to an oversight of the destroyers of all evidences
against the Christian religion that could be had. The practice of the
Romans, here alluded to, of carrying _a cross with a man on it_, or, in
other words, a _crucifix_, has evidently been concealed from us by the
careful destruction of such of their works as alluded to it. The priests
had everything their own way for centuries, and to destroy what was
evidence against their claims was a very simple matter.

It is very evident that this celebrated Christian Father alludes to some
Gentile mystery, of which the prudence of his successors has deprived
us. When we compare this with the fact that for centuries after the time
assigned for the birth of Christ Jesus, he was not represented as a man
on a cross, and that the Christians did not have such a thing as a
_crucifix_, we are inclined to think that the effigies of a black or
_dark-skinned crucified man_, which were to be seen in many places in
Italy even during the last century, may have had something to do with
it.[197:4]

While speaking of "_a cross with a man on it_" as being carried by the
Pagan Romans as a _standard_, we might mention the fact, related by
Arrian the historian,[198:1] that the troops of Porus, in their war with
Alexander the Great, carried on their standards _the figure of a
man_.[198:2] Here is evidently the _crucifix standard_ again.

     "This must have been (says Mr. Higgins) a Staurobates or
     Salivahana, and looks very like the figure of a man carried on
     their standards by the Romans. This was similar to the dove
     carried on the standards of the Assyrians. This must have been
     the crucifix of Nepaul."[198:3]

Tertullian, a Christian Father of the second and third centuries,
writing to the Pagans, says:

     "The origin of _your_ gods is derived from _figures moulded on
     a cross_. All those rows of _images on your standards_ are the
     appendages of crosses; those hangings on your standards and
     banners are the robes of crosses."[198:4]

We have it then, on the authority of a Christian Father, as late as A.
D. 211, that the Christians "_neither adored crosses nor desired them_,"
but that the _Pagans_ "adored crosses," and not that alone, but "_a
cross with a man upon it_." This we shall presently find to be the case.
Jesus, in those days, nor for centuries after, was _not_ represented as
a _man on a cross_. He was represented as a _lamb_, and the adoration of
the crucifix, by the Christians, was a later addition to their religion.
But this we shall treat of in its place.

We may now ask the question, who was this _crucified man_ whom the
Pagans "_adored_" before and after the time of Jesus of Nazareth? Who
did the crucifix represent? It was, undoubtedly, "the Saviour crucified
for the salvation of mankind," long before the Christian Era, _whose
effigies were to be seen in many places all over Italy_. These Pagan
crucifixes were either destroyed, corrupted, or adopted; the latter was
the case with many ancient paintings of the _Bambino_,[198:5] on which
may be seen the words _Deo Soli_. Now, these two words can never apply
to Christ Jesus. He was _not Deus Solus_, in any sense, according to the
idiom of the Latin language, and the Romish faith. Whether we construe
the words to "the only God," or "God alone," they are equally heretical.
No priest, in any age of the Church, would have thought of putting them
there, _but finding them there_, they tolerated them.

In the "_Celtic Druids_," Mr. Higgins describes a _crucifix_, a _lamb_,
and an _elephant_, which was cut upon the "fire tower"--so-called--at
Brechin, a town of Forfarshire, in Scotland. Although they appeared to
be of very ancient date, he supposed, at that time, that they were
modern, and belonged to Christianity, but some years afterwards, he
wrote as follows:

     "I now doubt (the modern date of the tower), for we have, over
     and over again, seen the crucified man before Christ. We have
     also found 'The Lamb that taketh away the sins of the world,'
     among the Carnutes of Gaul, before the time of Christ; and
     when I contemplate these, and the _Elephant_ or
     _Ganesa_,[199:1] and the _Ring_[199:2] and its Cobra,[199:3]
     _Linga_,[199:4] _Iona_,[199:5] and Nandies, found not far from
     the tower, on the estate of Lord Castles, with the Colidei,
     the island of Iona, and Ii, . . . I am induced to doubt my
     former conclusions. The Elephant, the Ganesa of India, is a
     very stubborn fellow to be found here. The Ring, too, when
     joined with other matters, I cannot get over. _All these
     superstitions must have come from India._"[199:6]

On one of the Irish "round towers" is to be seen _a crucifix of
unmistakable Asiatic origin_.[199:7]

If we turn to the New World, we shall find strange though it may appear,
that the ancient _Mexicans_ and _Peruvians_ worshiped a _crucified
Saviour_. This was the virgin-born _Quetzalcoatle_ whose crucifixion is
represented in the paintings of the "_Codex Borgianus_," and the "_Codex
Vaticanus_."

These paintings illustrate the religious opinions of the ancient
Mexicans, and were copied from the hieroglyphics found in Mexico. The
Spaniards destroyed nearly all the books, ancient monuments and
paintings which they could find; had it not been for this, much more
regarding the religion of the ancient Mexicans would have been handed
down to us. Many chapters were also taken--by the Spanish
authorities--from the writings of the first historians who wrote on
ancient Mexico. _All manuscripts had to be inspected previous to being
published._ Anything found among these heathens resembling the religion
of the Christians, was destroyed when possible.[199:8]

The first Spanish monks who went to Mexico were surprised to find the
_crucifix_ among the heathen inhabitants, and upon inquiring what it
meant, were told that it was a representation of _Bacob_
(Quetzalcoatle), the Son of God, who was put to death by _Eopuco_. They
said that he was placed on a beam of wood, _with his arms stretched
out_, and that he died there.[200:1]

Lord Kingsborough, from whose very learned and elaborate work we have
taken the above, says:

     "Being questioned as to the manner in which they became
     acquainted with these things, they replied that the lords
     instructed their sons in them, and that thus this doctrine
     descended from one to another."[200:2]

Sometimes Quetzalcoatle or Bacob is represented as _tied_ to the
cross--just as we have seen that _Attys_ was represented by the
Phrygians--and at other times he is represented "in the attitude of a
person crucified, with impressions of nail-holes in his hands and feet,
but not actually upon a cross"--just as we have found the Hindoo
_Crishna_, and as he is represented in Fig. No. 8. Beneath _this_
representation of Quetzalcoatle crucified, is an image of Death, which
an angry serpent seems threatening to devour.[200:3]

On the 73d page of the Borgian MS., he is represented _crucified on a
cross of the Greek form_. In this print there are also _impressions of
nails_ to be seen on the _feet and hands_, and his body is strangely
covered with _suns_.[200:4]

In vol. ii. plate 75, the god is crucified in a circle of nineteen
figures, and a _serpent_ is depriving him of the organs of generation.

Lord Kingsborough, commenting on these paintings, says:

     "It is remarkable that in these Mexican paintings the faces of
     many of the figures are _black_, and that the visage of
     Quetzalcoatle is frequently painted in a very deformed
     manner."[200:5]

His lordship further tells us that (according to the belief of the
ancient Mexicans), "the death of Quetzalcoatle upon the cross" was "_an
atonement for the sins of mankind_."[200:6]

Dr. Daniel Brinton, in his "_Myths of the New World_," tells us that the
_Aztecs_ had a feast which they celebrated "_in the early spring_," when
"_victims were nailed to a cross and shot with an arrow_."[200:7]

Alexander Von Humboldt, in his "_American Researches_," also speaks of
this feast, when the Mexicans crucified a man, and pierced him with an
arrow.[200:8]

The author of _Monumental Christianity_, speaking of this, says:

     "Here is the old story of the _Prometheus crucified_ on the
     Caucasus, _and of all other Pagan crucifixions of the young
     incarnate divinities of India, Persia, Asia Minor and
     Egypt_."[201:1]

This we believe; _but how did this myth get there_? He does not say, but
we shall attempt to show, in a future chapter, how _this_ and _other_
myths of Eastern origin became known in the New World.[201:2]

It must not be forgotten, in connection with what we have seen
concerning the Mexican crucified god being sometimes represented as
_black_, and the feast when the _crucified man_ was shot with an arrow,
that effigies of a _black crucified man were found in Italy_; that
Crishna, the crucified, is very often represented _black_; and that
_Crishna_ was shot with an arrow.

Crosses were also found in _Yucatan_, as well as Mexico, _with a man
upon them_.[201:3] Cogolludo, in his "History of Yucatan," speaking of a
crucifix found there, says:

     "Don Eugenio de Alcantara (one of the true teachers of the
     Gospel), told me, not only once, that I might safely write
     that the Indians of Cozumel possessed this holy cross in the
     time of their paganism; and that some years had elapsed since
     it was brought to Medira; for having heard from many persons
     what was reported of it, he had made particular inquiries of
     some very old Indians who resided there, who assured him that
     it was the fact."

He then speaks of the difficulty in accounting for this crucifix being
found among the Indians of Cozumel, and ends by saying:

     "But if it be considered that these Indians believed that the
     Son of God, whom they called Bacob, _had died upon a cross,
     with his arms stretched out upon it_, it cannot appear so
     difficult a matter to comprehend that they should have formed
     his image according to the religious creed which they
     possessed."[201:4]

We shall find, in another chapter, that these virgin-born "_Saviours_"
and "Slain Ones;" Crishna, Osiris, Horus, Attys, Adonis, Bacchus,
&c.--whether torn in pieces, killed by a boar, or crucified--_will all
melt into_ ONE.

We now come to a very important fact not generally known, namely: _There
are no early representations of Christ Jesus suffering on the cross._

Rev. J. P. Lundy, speaking of this, says:

     "Why should a fact so well known to the heathen as the
     crucifixion be concealed? _And yet its actual realistic
     representation never once occurs in the monuments of
     Christianity, for more than six or seven centuries._"[202:1]

Mrs. Jameson, in her "History of Our Lord in Art," says:

     "The crucifixion is _not_ one of the subjects of early
     Christianity. The death of our Lord was represented by various
     _types_, but _never in its actual form_.

     "The _earliest_ instances of the _crucifixion_ are found in
     illustrated manuscripts of various countries, and in those
     _ivory and enameled forms_ which are described in the
     Introduction. Some of these are ascertained, by historical or
     by internal evidence, to have been executed in the _ninth
     century_, there is one also, of an extraordinary rude and
     fantastic character, in a MS. in the ancient library of St.
     Galle, which is ascertained to be of the _eighth century_. _At
     all events, there seems no just grounds at present for
     assigning an earlier date._"[202:2]

     "Early Christian art, such as it appears in the bas-reliefs on
     sarcophagi, gave but one solitary incident from the story of
     Our Lord's Passion, _and that utterly divested of all
     circumstances of suffering_. Our Lord is represented as young
     and beautiful, free from bonds, with no '_accursed tree_' on
     his shoulders."[202:3]

The oldest representation of Christ Jesus was a figure of a
_lamb_,[202:4] to which sometimes a vase was added, into which his blood
flowed, and at other times couched at the foot of a cross. _This custom
subsisted up to the year 680, and until the pontificate of Agathon,
during the reign of Constantine Pogonat._ By the sixth synod of
Constantinople (canon 82) it was ordained that instead of the ancient
symbol, which had been the LAMB, _the figure of a man fastened to a
cross_ (such as the _Pagans_ had adored), should be represented. All
this was confirmed by Pope Adrian I.[202:5]

A simple cross, which was the symbol of eternal life, or of salvation,
among the ancients, was sometimes, as we have seen, placed alongside of
the _Lamb_. In the course of time, the _Lamb_ was put on the cross, as
the ancient _Israelites_ had put the paschal lamb centuries
before,[202:6] and then, as we have seen, they put a _man_ upon it.

Christ Jesus is also represented in early art as the "Good Shepherd,"
that is, as a young man with a lamb on his shoulders.[202:7]

This is just the manner in which the Pagan Apollo, Mercury and others
were represented centuries before.[203:1]

Mrs. Jameson says:

     "_Mercury_ attired as a _shepherd_, with a _ram_ on his
     shoulders, borne in the same manner as in many of the
     Christian representations, was no unfrequent object (in
     ancient art) and in some instances led to a difficulty in
     distinguishing between the two,"[203:2] that is, between
     _Mercury_ and _Christ Jesus_.

M. Renan says:

     "The Good Shepherd of the catacombs in Rome is a copy from the
     _Aristeus_, or from the _Apollo Nomius_, which figured in the
     same posture on the _Pagan_ sarcophagi; and still carries the
     flute of _Pan_, in the midst of the four half-naked
     seasons."[203:3]

The Egyptian Saviour _Horus_ was called the "Shepherd of the
People."[203:4]

The Hindoo Saviour _Crishna_ was called the "Royal Good
Shepherd."[203:5]

We have seen, then, on the authority of a Christian writer who has made
the subject a special study, that, "there seems no just grounds at
present for assigning an earlier date," for the "earliest instances of
the crucifixion" of Christ Jesus, represented in art, than the _eighth_
or _ninth_ century. Now, a few words in regard to _what these crucifixes
looked like_. If the reader imagines that the crucifixes which are
familiar to us at the present day are similar to those early ones, we
would inform him that such is not the case. The earliest artists of the
crucifixion represent the Christian Saviour as _young and beardless_,
always without the crown of thorns, alive, and erect, apparently elate;
no signs of bodily suffering are there.[203:6]

On page 151, plate 181, of Jameson's "History of Our Lord in Art" (vol.
ii.), he is represented standing on a foot-rest on the cross, alive, and
eyes open. Again, on page 330, plate 253, he is represented standing
"with body upright and arms extended straight, with _no nails_, _no
wounds_, _no crown of thorns_--frequently clothed, and with a regal
crown--a God, young and beautiful, hanging, as it were, without
compulsion or pain."

On page 167, plate 188, are to be seen "the thieves _bound_ to their
_cross (which is simply an upright beam, without cross-bars)_, with the
figure of the Lord _standing_ between them." He is not bound nor nailed
to a cross; no cross is there. He is simply standing erect in the form
of a cross. This is a representation of what is styled, "_Early
crucifixion with thieves_." On page 173, plate 190, we have a
representation of the crucifixion, in which Jesus and the thieves are
represented crucified on the Egyptian _tau_ (see Fig. No. 12). The
thieves are _tied_, but the man-god is _nailed_ to the cross. A similar
representation may be seen on page 189, plate 198.

On page 155, plate 183, there is a representation of what is called
"Virgin and St. John at foot of _cross_," but this _cross_ is simply _an
upright beam_ (as Fig. No. 13). There are no cross-bars attached. On
page 167, plate 188, the thieves are _tied_ to an upright beam (as Fig.
13), and Jesus stands between them, _with arms extended in the form of a
cross_, as the Hindoo Crishna is to be seen in Fig. No. 8. On page 157,
plate 185, Jesus is represented crucified on the Egyptian cross (as No.
12).

Some ancient crucifixes represent the Christian Saviour crucified on a
cross similar in form to the Roman figure which stands for the number
_ten_ (see Fig. No. 14). Thus we see that there was no uniformity in
representing the "cross of Christ," among the early Christians; even the
cross which Constantine put on his "Labarum," or sacred banner, was
nothing more than the monogram of the Pagan god Osiris (Fig. No.
15),[204:1] as we shall see in a subsequent chapter.

[Illustration: No. 12, No. 13, No. 14, No. 15]

The dogma of the _vicarious atonement_ has met with no success whatever
among the Jews. The reason for this is very evident. The idea of
vicarious atonement, in any form, is contrary to Jewish ethics, but it
is in full accord with the _Gentile_. The _law_ ordains that[205:1]
"every man shall be put to death for _his own_ sin," and not for the sin
or crime committed by any other person. No ransom should protect the
murderer against the arm of justice.[205:2] The principle of equal
rights and equal responsibilities is fundamental in the law. If the law
of _God_--for as such it is received--denounces the vicarious atonement,
viz., _to slaughter an innocent person to atone for the crimes of
others_, then God must abhor it. What is more, Jesus is said to have
sanctioned this law, for is he not made to say: "Think not that I am
come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but
to fulfill. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one
jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law."[205:3]

"Salvation is and can be nothing else than learning the laws of life and
keeping them. There is, in the modern world, neither place nor need for
any of the theological 'schemes of salvation' or theological 'Saviours.'
No wrath of either God or devil stands in man's way; and therefore no
'sacrifice' is needed to get them out of the way. Jesus saves only as he
helps men know and keep God's laws. Thousands of other men, in their
degree, are Saviours in precisely the same way. As there has been no
'fall of man,' all the hundreds of theological devices for obviating its
supposed effects are only imaginary cures for imaginary ills. What man
does need is to be taught the necessary laws of life, and have brought
to bear upon him adequate motives for obeying them. To know and keep
God's laws is being reconciled to him. This is health; and out of
health--that is, the perfect condition of the whole man, called holiness
or wholeness--comes happiness, in this world and in all worlds."


FOOTNOTES:

[181:1] Monier Williams: Hinduism, pp. 36-40.

[182:1] Monier Williams: Hinduism, p. 36.

[182:2] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 303.

[182:3] Kenrick's Egypt, vol. i. p. 443.

[183:1] Herodotus: bk. ii. ch. 39.

[183:2] In the trial of Dr. Thomas (at Chicago) for "_doctrinal
heresy_," one of the charges made against him (Sept. 8, 1881) was that
he had said "the BLOOD of the Lamb had nothing to do with salvation."
And in a sermon preached in Boston, Sept. 2, 1881, at the Columbus
Avenue Presbyterian Church, by the Rev. Andrew A. Bonar. D. D., the
preacher said: "No sinner dares to meet the holy God until his sin has
been forgiven, or until he has received _remission_. The penalty of sin
is death, _and this penalty is not remitted by anything the sinner can
do for himself_, but only through the BLOOD of Jesus. If you have
accepted Jesus as your Saviour, you can take the blood of Jesus, and
with boldness present it to the Father _as payment in full of the
penalties of all your sins_. Sinful man has no right to the benefits and
the beauties and glories of nature. _These were all lost to him through
Adam's sin_, but to the blood of Christ's sacrifice he has a right; it
was shed for him. It is Christ's death that does the blessed work of
salvation for us. It was _not_ his life nor his Incarnation. His
Incarnation could not pay a farthing of our debt, but his _blood_ shed
in redeeming love, _pays it all_." (See Boston Advertiser, Sept. 3,
1881.)

[183:3] _Habet ergo Diabolus Christos suos._

[183:4] Huc's Travels, vol. i. pp. 326 and 327.

[184:1] Hinduism, p. 214.

[184:2] Ibid. p. 115.

[184:3] Vishnu Purana, p. 440.

[184:4] Ibid.

[184:5] Ibid.

[184:6] Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 132.

[184:7] Pages 274 and 612.

[184:8] "On reconte fort diversement la mort de Crishna. Une tradition
remarquable et avérée le fait périr sur un bois fatal (un arbre), ou il
fut cloué d'un coup de flèche." (Quoted by Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i.
p. 144.)

[185:1] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 499, and Mrs. Jameson's
"History of Our Lord in Art," ii. 317, where the cross is called the
"accursed tree."

[185:2] Chap. xxi. 22, 23: "If a man have committed a sin worthy of
death, and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree: his
body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any
wise bury him that day; (for he that is hanged is accursed of God;) that
thy land be not defiled, which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an
inheritance."

[185:3] Galatians, iii. 13.

[185:4] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 146, and Inman's Ancient
Faiths, vol. i. p. 402.

"The crucified god Wittoba is also called Balü. He is worshiped in a
marked manner at Pander-poor or Bunder-poor, near Poonah." (Higgins:
Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 750, _note_ 1.)

"A form of Vishnu (Crishna), called _Viththal_ or _Vithobā_, is the
popular god at Pandharpur in Mahā-ráshtrá, the favorite of the
celebrated Marāthi poet Tukārāma." (Prof. Monier Williams: Indian
Wisdom, p. xlviii.)

[185:5] See Lundy: Monumental Christianity, p. 160.

[185:6] This can be seen by referring to Calmet, Sonnerat, or Higgins,
vol. ii., which contain plates representing Crishna.

[186:1] Monumental Christianity, p. 128.

[186:2] Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 411.

[186:3] Luke, xxiii. 39-43.

[186:4] Vasudeva means God. See Vishnu Purana, p. 274.

[186:5] Vishnu Purana, p. 612.

[187:1] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 72.

[187:2] "Si ita se res habet, ut existimat Beausobrius, _Indi_, et
_Budistæ_ quorum religio, eadem est ac Tibetana, nonnisi a Manichæis
nova hæc deliriorum portenta acceperunt. Hænamque gentes præsertim in
urbe Nepal, Luna XII. _Badr_ seu _Bhadon Augusti_ mensis, dies festos
auspicaturæ Dei _Indræ_, erigunt ad illius memoriam ubique locorum
_cruces_ amictas _Abrotono_. Earum figuram descriptam habes ad lit. B,
Tabula pone sequenti. Nam A effigies est ipsius _Indræ crucifixi_ signa
Telech in fronte manibus pedibusque gerentis." (Alph Tibet, p. 203.
Quoted in Higgins' Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 130.)

[188:1] "Ils conviennent qu'il a répandu son sang pour le salut du genre
humain, ayant été percé de clous par tout son corps. Quoiqu'ils ne
disent pas qu'il a souffert le supplice de la croix, ou en trouve
pourtant la figure dans leurs livres." (Quoted in Higgins' Anacalypsis,
vol. ii. p. 118.)

[188:2] "Although the nations of Europe have changed their religions
during the past eighteen centuries, the Hindoo has not done so, except
very partially. . . . The religious creeds, rites, customs, and habits
of thought of the Hindoos generally, have altered little since the days
of Manu, 500 years B. C." (Prof. Monier Williams: Indian Wisdom, p. iv.)

[188:3] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. pp. 147, 572, 667 and 750;
vol. ii. p. 122, and note 4, p. 185, this chapter.

[188:4] See Max Müller's Science of Religion, p. 224.

[188:5] Quoted in Lillie's Buddhism, p. 93.

[188:6] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 20.

[188:7] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, pp. 20, 25, 85. Prog. Relig. Ideas,
vol. i. p. 247. Huc's Travels, vol. i. pp. 326, 327, and almost any work
on Buddhism.

[188:8] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 20.

[188:9] Ibid. Johnson's Oriental Religions, p. 604. See also Asiatic
Researches, vol. iii., or chapter xii. of this work.

[188:10] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 18.

[188:11] Ibid.

[188:12] Ibid.

[188:13] Vol. i. p. 118.

[189:1] Quoted in Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 118.

[189:2] Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 20.

[189:3] Beal: Hist. Buddha, p. 33.

[189:4] Huc's Travels, vol. i. pp. 326, 337.

[189:5] Müller: Hist. Sanscrit Literature, p. 80.

[189:6] See Maurice: Indian Antiquities, vol. v. p. 95, and Williams:
Hinduism, p. 214.

[189:7] "He in mercy left paradise, and came down to earth, because he
was filled with compassion for the sins and miseries of mankind. He
sought to lead them into better paths, _and took their sufferings upon
himself, that he might expiate their crimes_, and mitigate the
punishment they must otherwise inevitably undergo." (Prog. Relig. Ideas,
vol. ii. p. 86.)

"The object of his mission on earth was to instruct those who were
straying from the right path, _expiate the sins of mortals by his own
sufferings_, and produce for them a happy entrance into another
existence by obedience to his precepts and prayers in his name. They
always speak of him as one with God from all eternity. His most common
title is '_The Saviour of the World_.'" (Ibid. vol. i. p. 247.)

[190:1] Quoted in Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 211.

[190:2] Ibid.

[190:3] See Renouf: Religions of Ancient Egypt, p. 178.

[190:4] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 155.

[190:5] Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 848.

[190:6] In Rawlinson's Herodotus, vol. ii. p. 171. Quoted in Knight's
Art and Mythology, p. 71.

[190:7] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 185.

[190:8] See Mysteries of Adoni, p. 88.

[190:9] See Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, p. xxii. note.

[191:1] Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 255.

[191:2] Vol. ii.

[191:3] Lactant. Inst., div. iv. chap. xiii. In Anacalypsis, vol. i. p.
544.

[191:4] See chapter xxxix. this work.

[191:5] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 114, and Taylor's
Diegesis, p. 163.

[191:6] See the chapter on "The Resurrection of Jesus."

[192:1] Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Prometheus."

[192:2] "_Prometheus_ has been a favorite subject with the poets. He is
represented as the friend of mankind, who interposed in their behalf
when Jove was incensed against them." (Bulfinch: The Age of Fable, p.
32.)

"In the mythos relating to Prometheus, he always appears as the friend
of the human race, suffering in its behalf the most fearful tortures."
(John Fiske: Myths and Myth-makers, pp. 64, 65.) "Prometheus was
_nailed_ to the rocks on Mount Caucasus, _with arms extended_."
(Alexander Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 82.) "Prometheus is said to
have been _nailed up with arms extended_, near the Caspian Straits, on
Mount Caucasus. The history of Prometheus on the Cathedral at Bordeaux
(France) here receives its explanation." (Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii.
p. 113.)

[192:3] See Æschylus' "Prometheus Chained." Translated by the Rev. R.
Potter: Harper & Bros., N. Y.

[192:4] Ibid. p. 82.

[193:1] Petræus was an interchangeable synonym of the name Oceanus.

[193:2] "Then Peter took him, and began to rebuke him, saying: Be it far
from thee, Lord; this shall not be unto thee." (Matt. xvi. 22.)

[193:3] "And there followed him a great company of people, and of women,
which also bewailed and lamented him." (Luke, xxiii. 27.)

[193:4] See Taylor's Diegesis, pp. 193, 194, or Potter's Æschylus.

[193:5] "They say that the god (Bacchus), the offspring of Zeus and
Demeter, was torn to pieces." (Diodorus Siculus, in Knight, p. 156,
_note_.)

[193:6] See Knight: Anct. Art and Mythology, p. 98, _note_. Dupuis:
Origin of Religious Belief, 258. Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 102.

[193:7] Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, p. xxii. _note_.

[193:8] Ibid.

[193:9] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 169.

[193:10] Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 135.

[193:11] Ibid.

[193:12] Beausobre quotes the inscription on a monument of Bacchus,
thus: "C'est moi, dit il, qui vous conduis, C'est moi, qui vous
conserve, ou qui vous sauve; Je sui Alpha et Omega, &c." (See chap.
xxxix this work.)

[193:13] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 322. Dupuis: Origin of
Religious Belief, p. 195. Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 152. Dunlap:
Mysteries of Adoni, p. 94.

[193:14] See Celtic Druids, Taylor's Diegesis, p. 153, and Montfaucon,
vol. i.

[193:15] See Mysteries of Adoni, p. 91, and Higgins: Anac., vol. i. p.
322.

[194:1] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 153.

[194:2] See the chapter on "Miracles of Jesus."

[194:3] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 254.

[194:4] See Monumental Christianity, p. 186.

[194:5] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 15.

[194:6] See Giles: Hebrew and Christian Records, vol. ii. p. 86.

[194:7] See Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 15, and _our_ chapter on Christian
Symbols.

[194:8] This subject will be referred to again in chapter xxxix.

[194:9] See Dunlap's Spirit Hist., pp. 237, 241, 242, and Mysteries of
Adoni, p. 123, _note_.

[194:10] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 99.

[194:11] See Dunlap's Son of the Man, p. 20.

"According to the most ancient tradition of the East-Iranians recorded
in the _Zend-Avesta_, the God of Light (Ormuzd) communicated his
mysteries to some men through his _Word_." (Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p.
75.)

[194:12] Wake: Phallism, &c., p. 47.

[195:1] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 258, 259.

[195:2] Malcolm: Hist. Persia, vol. i. Ap. p. 494; Nimrod, vol. ii. p.
31. Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 649.

[195:3] Col. i. 26.

[195:4] See Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 102.

[195:5] See Dunlap's Son of the Man, p. 89, _marginal note_.

[195:6] "In the beginning was the _Word_, and the _Word_ was with God,
and the _Word_ was God." (John, i. 1.)

[195:7] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. 69 and 71.

[195:8] Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 652.

[195:9] Ibid. vol. i. p. 537.

[195:10] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 119. Knight's Ancient Art and
Mythology, pp. xxii. and 98. Dunlap's Son of the Man, p. 71, and Spirit
History, pp. 183, 205, 206, 249. Bible for Learners, vol. ii. p. 25.
Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. pp. 195, 237, 516, besides the authorities
already cited.

[196:1] See Bunsen's Bible Chronology, p. 5. Keys of St. Peter, 135.
Volney's Ruins, p. 168.

[196:2] Giles: Hebrew and Christian Records, p. 64, vol. ii.

[196:3] Ibid. p. 86, and Taylor's Diegesis, pp. 202, 206, 407. Dupuis:
p. 267.

[196:4] Eusebius: Eccl. Hist., lib. 1, ch. iv.

[196:5] See Dunlap's Son of the Man, p. 78.

[196:6] See Ibid. p. 39.

[196:7] Luke, iv. 21.

[196:8] Psalm, cv. 15. The term "an _Anointed One_," which we use in
English, is _Christos_ in Greek, and _Messiah_ in Hebrew. (See Bible for
Learners, and Religion of Israel, p. 147.)

[196:9] Matthew, xxiv. 24.

[196:10] Acts, vii. 45; Hebrews, iv. 8; compare Nehemiah, viii. 17.

[197:1] He who, it is said, was liberated at the time of the crucifixion
of Jesus of Nazareth.

[197:2] See Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 60.

[197:3] Octavius, c. xxix.

[197:4] See Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 116.

[198:1] In his _History of the Campaigns of Alexander_.

[198:2] See Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 118.

[198:3] Ibid.

[198:4] Apol. c. 16; Ad Nationes, c. xii.

[198:5] See the chapter on "The Worship of the Virgin."

[199:1] _Ganesa_ is the _Indian_ God of Wisdom. (See Asiatic Researches,
vol. i.)

[199:2] The _Ring_ and circle was an emblem of god, or eternity, among
the _Hindoos_. (See Lundy: Monumental Christianity, p. 87.)

[199:3] The Cobra, or hooded snake, is a native of the _East Indies_,
where it is held as sacred. (See Knight: Anct. Art and Mytho., p. 16,
and Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship.)

[199:4] _Linga_ denotes, in the sectarian worship of the _Hindoos_, the
_Phallus_, an emblem of the male or generative power of nature.

[199:5] _Iona_, or _Yoni_, is the counterpart of Linga, _i. e._, an
emblem of the female generative power. We have seen that these were
attached to the effigies of the _Hindoo_ crucified Saviour, Crishna.

[199:6] Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 130.

[199:7] See Lundy: Monumental Christianity, pp. 253, 254, 255.

[199:8] See Kingsborough: Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. pp. 165 and 179.

[200:1] See Kingsborough: Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 166.

[200:2] Ibid. p. 162.

[200:3] Ibid. p. 161.

[200:4] Ibid. p. 167.

[200:5] Ibid. p. 167.

[200:6] Ibid. p. 166.

[200:7] Brinton: Myths of the New World, p. 95.

[200:8] See, also, Monumental Christianity, p. 393.

"Once a year the ancient Mexicans made an image of one of their gods,
which was pierced by an arrow, shot by a priest of Quetzalcoatle."
(Dunlap's Spirit Hist., 207.)

[201:1] Monumental Christianity, p. 393.

[201:2] See Appendix A.

[201:3] See Monumental Christianity, p. 390, and Mexican Antiquities,
vol. vi. p. 169.

[201:4] Quoted by Lord Kingsborough: Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p.
172.

[202:1] Monumental Christianity, p. 246.

[202:2] History of Our Lord in Art, vol. ii. p. 137.

[202:3] Ibid. p. 317.

[202:4] See Illustrations in Ibid. vol. i.

[202:5] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 252. Higgins:
Anacalypsis, vol. ii. 111, and Monumental Christianity, p. 246, _et
seq._

[202:6] The paschal lamb was roasted on a _cross_, by ancient Israel,
and is still so done by the Samaritans at Nablous. (See Lundy's
Monumental Christianity, pp. 19 and 247.)

"The _lamb_ slain (at the feast of the passover) was roasted whole, with
two spits thrust through it--one lengthwise, and one
transversely--crossing each other near the fore legs; so that the animal
was, in a manner, _crucified_. Not a bone of it might be broken--a
circumstance strongly representing the sufferings of our Lord Jesus,
_the passover slain for us_." (Barnes's Notes, vol. i. p. 292.)

[202:7] See King: The Gnostics and their Remains, p. 138. Also,
Monumental Christianity, and Jameson's History of Our Lord in Art, for
illustrations.

[203:1] See King's Gnostics, p. 178. Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology,
p. xxii., and Jameson's History of Our Lord in Art, ii. 340.

[203:2] Jameson: Hist. of Our Lord in Art, p. 340, vol. ii.

[203:3] Quoted in Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, p. xxii. _note_.

[203:4] Dunlap: Spirit Hist., p. 185.

[203:5] See chapter xvii. and vol. ii. Hist. Hindostan.

[203:6] See Jameson's Hist. of Our Lord in Art, vol. ii. p. 142.

[204:1] "It would be difficult to prove that the cross of Constantine
was of the simple construction as now understood. . . . As regards the
_Labarum_, the coins of the time, in which it is especially set forth,
prove that the so-called cross upon it was nothing else than the same
ever-recurring monogram of Christ" (that is, the XP). (History of Our
Lord in Art, vol. ii. p. 310. See also, Smith's Bible Dictionary, art.
"Labarum.")

[205:1] Deut. xxiv. 16.

[205:2] Num. xxv. 31-34.

[205:3] Matt. v. 17, 18.



CHAPTER XXI.

THE DARKNESS AT THE CRUCIFIXION.


The _Luke_ narrator informs us that at the time of the death of Christ
Jesus, the sun was darkened, and there was darkness over the earth from
the sixth until the ninth hour; also the veil of the temple was rent in
the midst.[206:1]

The _Matthew_ narrator, in addition to this, tells us that:

     "The earth did quake, and the rocks were rent, and the graves
     were opened, _and many bodies of the saints which slept arose,
     and came out of their graves_ . . . and went into the holy
     city and appeared unto many."[206:2]

"_His star_" having shone at the time of his birth, and his having been
born in a miraculous manner, it was necessary that at the death of
Christ Jesus, something miraculous should happen. Something of an
unusual nature had happened at the time of the death of other
supernatural beings, therefore something must happen at _his_ death;
_the myth would not have been complete without it_. In the words of
Viscount Amberly: "The darkness from the sixth to the ninth hour, the
rending of the temple veil, the earthquake, the rending of the rocks,
_are altogether like the prodigies attending the decease of other great
men_."[206:3]

The Rev. Dr. Geikie, one of the most orthodox writers, says:[206:4]

     "It is impossible to explain the _origin_ of this darkness.
     The passover moon was then at the full, so that it could not
     have been an _eclipse_. The early Fathers, relying on a notice
     of _an_ eclipse that _seemed_ to coincide in time, though it
     really _did not_, fancied that the darkness was caused by it,
     but incorrectly."

Perhaps "the _origin_ of this darkness" may be explained from what we
shall now see.

At the time of the death of the Hindoo Saviour _Crishna_, there came
calamities and bad omens of every kind. A black circle surrounded the
moon, _and the sun was darkened at noon-day_; the sky rained fire and
ashes; flames burned dusky and livid; demons committed depredations on
earth; at sunrise and sunset, thousands of figures were seen skirmishing
in the air; spirits were to be seen on all sides.[207:1]

When the conflict began between _Buddha_, the Saviour of the World, and
the Prince of Evil, _a thousand appalling meteors fell; clouds and
darkness prevailed_. Even this earth, with the oceans and mountains it
contains, though it is unconscious, _quaked like a conscious
being_--like a fond bride when forcibly torn from her bridegroom--like
the festoons of a vine shaken under the blast of a whirlwind. The ocean
rose under the vibration of this earthquake; rivers flowed back toward
their sources; peaks of lofty mountains, where countless trees had grown
for ages, rolled crumbling to the earth; a fierce storm howled all
around; the roar of the concussion became terrific; _the very sun
enveloped itself in awful darkness, and a host of headless spirits
filled the air_.[207:2]

When _Prometheus_ was crucified on Mount Caucasus, _the whole frame of
nature became convulsed_. The earth did quake, thunder roared, lightning
flashed, the wild winds rent the vexed air, the boisterous billows rose,
and the dissolution of the universe seemed to be threatened.[207:3]

The ancient Greeks and Romans, says Canon Farrar,[207:4] had always
considered that the _births_ and _deaths_ of great men were announced by
_celestial signs_. We therefore find that at the death of _Romulus_, the
founder of Rome, the sun was darkened, _and there was darkness over the
face of the earth for the space of six hours_.[207:5]

When _Julius Cæsar_, who was the son of a god, was murdered, there was a
darkness over the earth, _the sun being eclipsed for the space of six
hours_.[207:6]

This is spoken of by _Virgil_, where he says:

     "He (the Sun) covered his luminous head with a sooty darkness,
      And the impious ages feared eternal night."[207:7]

It is also referred to by Tibullus, Ovid, and Lucian (poets), Pliny,
Appian, Dion Cassius, and Julius Obsequenes (historians.)[207:8]

When _Æsculapius_ the Saviour was put to death, _the sun shone dimly
from the heavens_; the birds were silent in the darkened groves; the
trees bowed down their heads in sorrow; and the hearts of all the sons
of men fainted within them, because the healer of their pains and
sickness lived no more upon the earth.[208:1]

When _Hercules_ was dying, he said to the faithful female (Iole) who
followed him to the last spot on earth on which he trod, "Weep not, my
toil is done, and now is the time for rest. I shall see thee again in
the bright land which is never trodden by the feet of night." Then, as
the dying god expired, _darkness was on the face of the earth_; from the
high heaven came down the thick cloud, _and the din of its thunder
crashed through the air_. In this manner, Zeus, the god of gods, carried
his son home, and the halls of Olympus were opened to welcome the bright
hero who rested from his mighty toil. There he now sits, clothed in a
white robe, with a crown upon his head.[208:2]

When _Œdipus_ was about to leave this world of pain and sorrow, he
bade Antigone farewell, and said, "Weep not, my child, I am going to my
home, and I rejoice to lay down the burden of my woe." Then there were
_signs_ in the heaven above and on the earth beneath, that the end was
nigh at hand, _for the earth did quake, and the thunder roared_ and
echoed again and again through the sky.[208:3]

"The Romans had a god called _Quirinius_. His soul emanated from the
sun, and was restored to it. He was begotten by the god of armies upon a
_virgin_ of the royal blood, and exposed by order of the jealous tyrant
Amulius, and was preserved and educated among _shepherds_. He was torn
to pieces at his death, when he ascended into heaven; _upon which the
sun was eclipsed or darkened_."[208:4]

When _Alexander the Great_ died, similar prodigies are said to have
happened; again, when foul murders were committed, it is said that the
sun seemed to hide its face. This is illustrated in the story of
_Atreus_, King of Mycenae, who foully murdered the children of his
brother Thyestes. At that time, the sun, unable to endure a sight so
horrible, "_turned his course backward and withdrew his light._"[208:5]

At the time of the death of the virgin-born _Quetzalcoatle_, the
Mexican crucified Saviour, _the sun was darkened_, and withheld its
light.[209:1]

Lord Kingsborough, speaking of this event, considers it very strange
that the Mexicans should have preserved an account of it among their
records, when "the great eclipse which sacred history records" is _not_
recorded in profane history.

Gibbon, the historian, speaking of this phenomenon, says:

     "Under the reign of Tiberius, the whole earth,[209:2] or at
     least a celebrated province of the Roman empire,[209:3] was
     involved in a perpetual darkness of three hours. Even this
     miraculous event, which ought to have excited the wonder, the
     curiosity, and the devotion of mankind, passed without notice
     in an age of science and history. It happened during the
     life-time of Seneca[209:4] and the elder Pliny,[209:5] who
     must have experienced the immediate effects, or received the
     earliest intelligence, of the prodigy. Each of these
     philosophers, in a laborious work, has recorded all the great
     phenomena of nature, earthquakes, meteors, comets and
     eclipses, which his indefatigable curiosity could
     collect.[209:6] But the one and the other have omitted to
     mention the greatest phenomenon to which the mortal eye has
     been witness since the creation of the globe."[209:7]

This account of the darkness at the time of the death of Jesus of
Nazareth, is one of the prodigies related in the New Testament which no
Christian commentator has been able to make appear reasonable. The
favorite theory is that it was a _natural_ eclipse of the sun, which
_happened_ to take place at that particular time, but, if this was the
case, there was nothing _supernatural_ in the event, and it had nothing
whatever to do with the death of Jesus. Again, it would be necessary to
prove from other sources that such an event happened at that time, but
this cannot be done. The argument from the duration of the
darkness--_three hours_--is also of great force against such an
occurrence having happened, _for an eclipse seldom lasts in great
intensity more than six minutes_.

Even if it could be proved that an eclipse really happened at the time
assigned for the crucifixion of Jesus, how about the earthquake, when
the rocks were rent and the graves opened? and how about the "saints
which slept" rising _bodily_ and walking in the streets of the Holy City
and _appearing to many_? Surely, the faith that would remove
mountains,[209:8] is required here.

Shakespeare has embalmed some traditions of the kind exactly analogous
to the present case:

     "In the most high and palmy state of Rome,
      A little ere the mightiest Julius fell,
      The graves stood tenantless, and the sheeted dead
      Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets."[210:1]

Belief in the influence of the _stars_ over life and death, _and in
special portents at the death of great men_, survived, indeed, to recent
times. Chaucer abounds in allusions to it, and still later Shakespeare
tells us:

     "When beggars die there are no comets seen;
      The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes."

It would seem that this superstition survives even to the present day,
for it is well known that the dark and yellow atmosphere which settled
over so much of the country, on the day of the removal of President
Garfield from Washington to Long Branch, was sincerely held by hundreds
of persons to be a death-warning sent from heaven, and there were
numerous predictions that dissolution would take place before the train
arrived at its destination.

As Mr. Greg remarks, there can, we think, remain little doubt in
unprepossessed minds, that the whole legend in question was one of those
intended to magnify Christ Jesus, which were current in great numbers at
the time the Matthew narrator wrote, and which he, with the usual want
of discrimination and somewhat omnivorous tendency, which distinguished
him as a compiler, admitted into his Gospel.


FOOTNOTES:

[206:1] Luke, xxiii. 44, 45.

[206:2] Matthew, xxvii. 51-53.

[206:3] Amberly: Analysis of Religious Belief, p. 268.

[206:4] Life of Christ, vol. ii. p. 643.

[207:1] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 71.

[207:2] Rhys David's Buddhism, pp. 36, 37.

[207:3] See Potter's Æschylus, "Prometheus Chained," last stanza.

[207:4] Farrar's Life of Christ, p. 52.

[207:5] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. pp. 616, 617.

[207:6] See Ibid. and Gibbon's Rome, vol. i. pp. 159 and 590, also
Josephus: Jewish Antiquities, book xiv. ch. xii. and _note_.

[207:7]

     "Cum caput obscura nitidum ferrugine texit
      Impiaquæ æternam timuerunt sæcula noctem."

[207:8] See Gibbon's Rome, vol. i. pp. 159 and 590.

[208:1] Tales of Ancient Greece, p. 46.

[208:2] Ibid. pp. 61, 62.

[208:3] Ibid. p. 270.

[208:4] Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 822.

[208:5] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 106.

[209:1] See Kingsborough's Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 5.

[209:2] The Fathers of the Church seem to cover the whole earth with
darkness, in which they are followed by most of the moderns. (Gibbon.
Luke, xxiii. 44, says "_over all the earth_.")

[209:3] Origen (a Father of the third century) and a few modern critics,
are desirous of confining it to the land of Judea. (Gibbon.)

[209:4] Seneca, a celebrated philosopher and historian, born in Spain a
few years B. C., but educated in Rome, and became a "Roman."

[209:5] Pliny the elder, a celebrated Roman philosopher and historian,
born about 23 A. D.

[209:6] Seneca: Quaest. Natur. l. i. 15, vi. l. vii. 17. Pliny: Hist.
Natur. l. ii.

[209:7] Gibbon's Rome, i. 589, 590.

[209:8] Matt. xvi. 20.

[210:1] Hamlet, act 1, s. 1.



CHAPTER XXII.

"HE DESCENDED INTO HELL."


The doctrine of Christ Jesus' descent into hell is emphatically part of
the Christian belief, although not alluded to by Christian divines
excepting when unavoidable.

In the first place, it is taught in the _Creed_ of the Christians,
wherein it says:

     "_He descended into hell, and on the third day he rose again
     from the dead._"

The doctrine was also taught by the Fathers of the Church. St.
Chrysostom (born 347 A. D.) asks:

     "Who but an infidel would deny that Christ was in
     hell?"[211:1]

And St. Clement of Alexandria, who flourished at the beginning of the
third century, is equally clear and emphatic as to Jesus' descent into
hell. He says:

     "The Lord preached the gospel to those in Hades, as well as to
     all in earth, in order that all might believe and be saved,
     wherever they were. If, then, the Lord descended to Hades for
     no other end but to preach the gospel, _as He did descend_, it
     was either to preach the gospel to all, or to the Hebrews
     only. If accordingly to all, then all who believe shall be
     saved, although they may be of the Gentiles, on making their
     profession there."[211:2]

Origen, who flourished during the latter part of the second, and
beginning of the third centuries, also emphatically declares that Christ
Jesus descended into hell.[211:3]

Ancient Christian works of art represent his descent into hell.[211:4]

The apocryphal gospels teach the doctrine of Christ Jesus' descent into
hell, the object of which was to preach to those in bondage there, and
to liberate the _saints_ who had died before his advent on earth.

On account of the sin committed by Adam in the Garden of Eden, all
mankind were doomed, all had gone to hell--excepting those who had been
translated to heaven--even those persons who were "after God's own
heart," and who had belonged to his "chosen people." The coming of
Christ Jesus into the world, however, made a change in the affairs of
man. The _saints_ were then liberated from their prison, and all those
who believe in the efficacy of his name, shall escape hereafter the
tortures of hell. This is the doctrine to be found in the apocryphal
gospels, and was taught by the Fathers of the Church.[212:1]

In the "_Gospel of Nicodemus_" (apoc.) is to be found the whole story of
Christ Jesus' descent into hell, and of his liberating the saints.

Satan, and the Prince of Hell, having heard that Jesus of Nazareth was
about to descend to their domain, began to talk the matter over, as to
what they should do, &c. While thus engaged, on a sudden, there was a
voice as of thunder and the rushing of winds, saying: "Lift up your
gates, O ye Princes, and be ye lifted up, O ye everlasting gates, and
the King of Glory shall come in."

When the Prince of Hell heard this, he said to his impious officers:
"Shut the brass gates . . . and make them fast with iron bars, and fight
courageously."

The _saints_ having heard what had been said on both sides, immediately
spoke with a loud voice, saying: "Open thy gates, that the King of Glory
may come in." The divine prophets, _David_ and _Isaiah_, were
particularly conspicuous in this protest against the intentions of the
Prince of Hell.

Again the voice of Jesus was heard saying: "Lift up your gates, O
Prince; and be ye lifted up, ye gates of hell, and the King of Glory
will enter in." The Prince of Hell then cried out: "Who is the King of
Glory?" upon which the prophet _David_ commenced to reply to him, but
while he was speaking, the mighty Lord Jesus appeared in the form of a
man, and broke asunder the fetters which before could not be broken, and
crying aloud, said: "Come to me, all ye saints, who were created in my
image, who were condemned by the tree of the forbidden fruit . . . live
now by the word of my cross."

Then presently all the saints were joined together, hand in hand, and
the Lord Jesus laid hold on Adam's hand, and ascended from hell, and all
the saints of God followed him.[212:2]

When the saints arrived in paradise, two "very ancient men" met them,
and were asked by the saints: "Who are ye, who have not been with us in
hell, and have had your bodies placed in paradise?" One of these "very
ancient men" answered and said: "I am _Enoch_, who was translated by the
word of God, and this man who is with me is Elijah the Tishbite, who was
translated in a fiery chariot."[213:1]

The doctrine of the descent into hell may be found alluded to in the
_canonical_ books; thus, for instance, in I. Peter:

     "It is better, if the will of God be so, that ye suffer for
     well doing, than for evil doing. For Christ also hath suffered
     for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to
     God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the
     spirit: _by which also he went and preached unto the spirits
     in prison_."[213:2]

Again, in "Acts," where the writer is speaking of David as a _prophet_,
he says:

     "He, seeing this before, spake of the resurrection of Christ,
     _that his soul was not left in hell_, neither his flesh did
     see corruption."[213:3]

The reason why Christ Jesus has been made to descend into hell, is
because _it is a part of the universal mythos_, even the _three days'_
duration. The _Saviours_ of mankind had all done so, _he_ must therefore
do likewise.

_Crishna_, the Hindoo Saviour, _descended into hell_, for the purpose of
raising the dead (the doomed),[213:4] before he returned to his heavenly
seat.

_Zoroaster_, of the Persians, _descended into hell_.[213:5]

_Osiris_, the Egyptian Saviour, _descended into hell_.[213:6]

_Horus_, the virgin-born Saviour, _descended into hell_.[213:7]

_Adonis_, the virgin-born Saviour, _descended into hell_.[213:8]

_Bacchus_, the virgin-born Saviour, _descended into hell_.[213:9]

_Hercules_, the virgin-born Saviour, _descended into hell_.[213:10]

_Mercury_, the _Word_ and Messenger of God, _descended into
hell_.[213:11]

_Baldur_, the Scandinavian god, after being killed, _descended into
hell_.[214:1]

_Quetzalcoatle_, the Mexican crucified Saviour, _descended into
hell_.[214:2]

All these gods, and many others that might be mentioned, _remained in
hell for the space of three days and three nights_. "They descended into
hell, and on the third day rose again."[214:3]


FOOTNOTES:

[211:1] Quoted by Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 46.

[211:2] Strom, vi. c. 6.

[211:3] Contra Celsus, bk. ii. c. 43.

[211:4] See Jameson's Hist. of Our Lord in Art, vol. ii. pp. 354, 355.

[212:1] See Jameson's Hist. of Our Lord in Art, vol. ii. pp. 250, 251.

[212:2] Nicodemus: Apoc. ch. xvi. and xix.

[213:1] Nicodemus: Apoc. ch. xx.

[213:2] I. Peter, iii. 17-19.

[213:3] Acts, ii. 31.

[213:4] See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 237. Bonwick's Egyptian
Belief, p. 168, and Maurice: Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 85.

[213:5] See Monumental Christianity, p. 286.

[213:6] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 256, Bonwick's
Egyptian Belief, and Dunlap's Mysteries of Adoni, pp. 125, 152.

[213:7] See Chap. XXXIX.

[213:8] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 12.

[213:9] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 322. Dupuis: Origin of
Religious Belief, p. 257, and Dunlap's Mysteries of Adoni, p. 33.

[213:10] See Taylor's Mysteries, p. 40, and Mysteries of Adoni, pp.
94-96.

[213:11] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 72. Our Christian writers
discover considerable apprehension, and a jealous caution in their
language, when the resemblance between _Paganism_ and _Christianity_
might be apt to strike the mind too cogently. In quoting Horace's
account of Mercury's descent into hell, and his causing a cessation of
the sufferings there, Mr. Spence, in "Bell's Pantheon," says: "As this,
perhaps, may be a mythical part of his character, _we had better let it
alone_."

[214:1] See Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 169, and Mallet, p. 448.

[214:2] See Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 166.

[214:3] See the chapter on _Explanation_.



CHAPTER XXIII.

THE RESURRECTION AND ASCENSION OF CHRIST JESUS.


The story of the resurrection of Christ Jesus is related by the four
Gospel narrators, and is to the effect that, after being crucified, his
body was wrapped in a linen cloth, laid in a tomb, and a "great stone"
rolled to the door. The sepulchre was then made sure by "sealing the
stone" and "setting a watch."

On the first day of the week some of Jesus' followers came to see the
sepulchre, when they found that, in spite of the "sealing" and the
"watch," the angel of the Lord had descended from heaven, had rolled
back the stone from the door, and that "_Jesus had risen from the
dead_."[215:1]

The story of his _ascension_ is told by the _Mark_[215:2] narrator, who
says "he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God;"
by _Luke_,[215:3] who says "he was carried up into heaven;" and by the
writer of the _Acts_,[215:4] who says "he was taken up (to heaven) and a
cloud received him out of sight."

We will find, in stripping Christianity of its robes of Paganism, that
these miraculous events must be put on the same level with those we have
already examined.

_Crishna_, the crucified Hindoo Saviour, _rose from the dead_,[215:5]
and _ascended bodily into heaven_.[215:6] At that time a great light
enveloped the earth and illuminated the whole expanse of heaven.
Attended by celestial spirits, and luminous as on that night when he was
born in the house of Vasudeva, _Crishna_ pursued, by his own light, the
journey between earth and heaven, to the bright paradise from whence he
had descended. All men saw him, and exclaimed, "_Lo, Crishna's soul
ascends its native skies!_"[215:7]

Samuel Johnson, in his "Oriental Religions," tells us that _Râma_--an
incarnation of Vishnu--after his manifestations on earth, "_at last
ascended to heaven_," "resuming his divine essence."

"By the blessings of Râma's name, and through previous faith in him, all
sins are remitted, and every one who shall at death pronounce his name
with sincere worship shall be forgiven."[216:1]

The mythological account of _Buddha_, the son of the Virgin Maya, who,
as the God of Love, is named _Cam-deo_, _Cam_, and _Cama_, is of the
same character as that of other virgin-born gods. When he died there
were tears and lamentations. Heaven and earth are said equally to have
lamented the loss of "_Divine Love_," insomuch that _Maha-deo_ (the
supreme god) was moved to pity, and exclaimed, "_Rise, holy love!_" on
which _Cama_ was restored and the lamentations changed into the most
enthusiastic joy. The heavens are said to have echoed back the exulting
sound; then the deity, supposed to be lost (_dead_), was restored,
"_hell's great dread and heaven's eternal admiration_."[216:2]

The coverings of the body unrolled themselves, and the lid of his coffin
was opened by supernatural powers.[216:3]

_Buddha_ also ascended bodily to the celestial regions when his mission
on earth was fulfilled, and marks on the rocks of a high mountain are
shown, and believed to be the last impression of his footsteps on this
earth. By prayers in his name his followers expect to receive the
rewards of paradise, and finally to become one with him, as he became
one with the Source of Life.[216:4]

_Lao-Kiun_, the virgin-born, he who had existed from all eternity, when
his mission of benevolence was completed on earth, _ascended bodily into
the paradise above_. Since this time he has been worshiped as a _god_,
and splendid temples erected to his memory.[216:5]

_Zoroaster_, the founder of the religion of the ancient Persians, who
was considered "a divine messenger sent to redeem men from their evil
ways," _ascended to heaven_ at the end of his earthly career. To this
day his followers mention him with the greatest reverence, calling him
"The Immortal Zoroaster," "The Blessed Zoroaster," "The Living Star,"
&c.[216:6]

_Æsculapius_, the Son of God, the Saviour, after being put to death,
_rose from the dead_. His history is portrayed in the following lines of
_Ovid's_, which are prophecies foretelling his life and actions:

     "Once, as the sacred infant she surveyed,
      The god was kindled in the raving maid;
      And thus she uttered her prophetic tale:
      Hail, great Physician of the world! all hail!
      Hail, mighty infant, who in years to come
      Shalt heal the nations, and defraud the tomb!
      Swift be thy growth, thy triumphs unconfined,
      Make kingdoms thicker, and increase mankind.
      Thy daring art shall animate the dead,
      And draw the thunder on thy guilty head;
      _Then shalt thou die, but from the dark abode
      Shalt rise victorious, and be twice a god_."[217:1]

The Saviour _Adonis_ or _Tammuz_, after being put to death, _rose from
the dead_. The following is an account given of the rites of Tammuz or
of Adonis by Julius Firmicius (who lived during the reign of
Constantine):

     "On a certain night (while the ceremony of the Adonia, or
     religious rites in honor of Adonis, lasted), an image was laid
     upon a bed (or bier) and bewailed in doleful ditties. After
     they had satiated themselves with fictitious lamentations,
     light was brought in: then the mouths of all the mourners were
     anointed by the priests (_with oil_), upon which he, with a
     gentle murmur, whispered:

          'Trust, ye Saints, your God restored.
           Trust ye, _in your risen Lord_;
           For the pains which he endured
           Our salvation have procured.'

     "Literally, 'Trust, ye _communicants_: the God having been
     saved, there shall be to us out of pain, _Salvation_.'"[217:2]

Upon which their sorrow was turned into joy.

Godwyn renders it:

     "_Trust ye in God, for out of pains,
      Salvation is come unto us._"[217:3]

Dr. Prichard, in his "_Egyptian Mythology_," tells us that the Syrians
celebrated, _in the early spring_, this ceremony in honor of _the
resurrection of Adonis_. After lamentations, his restoration was
commemorated with joy and festivity.[217:4]

Mons. Dupuis says:

     "The obsequies of _Adonis_ were celebrated at _Alexandria_ (in
     Egypt) with the utmost display. His image was carried with
     great solemnity to a tomb, which served the purpose of
     rendering him the last honors. Before singing his return to
     life, there were mournful rites celebrated in honor of his
     suffering and his death. The large wound he had received was
     shown, just as the wound was shown which was made to Christ by
     the thrust of the spear. _The feast of his resurrection was
     fixed at the 25th of March._"[218:1]

In Calmet's "Fragments," the resurrection of _Adonis_ is referred to as
follows:

     "In these _mysteries_, after the attendants had for a long
     time bewailed the death of this _just person_, he was at
     length understood to be _restored to life_, to have
     experienced a _resurrection_; signified by the re-admission of
     light. On this the priest addressed the company, saying,
     'Comfort yourselves, all ye who have been partakers of the
     mysteries of the deity, thus preserved: for we shall now enjoy
     some respite from our labors:' to which were added these
     words: 'I have scaped a sad calamity, and my lot is greatly
     mended.' The people answered by the invocation: 'Hail to the
     Dove! the Restorer of Light!'"[218:2]

Alexander Murray tells us that the ancient Greeks also celebrated this
festival in honor of the resurrection of Adonis, in the course of which
a figure of him was produced, and the ceremony of burial, with weeping
and songs of wailing, gone through. After these a joyful shout was
raised: "_Adonis lives and is risen again._"[218:3]

Plutarch, in his life of Alcibiades and of Nicias, tells us that it was
at the time of the celebration of the death of _Adonis_ that the
Athenian fleet set sail for its unlucky expedition to Sicily; that
nothing but images of dead Adonises were to be met with in the streets,
and that they were carried to the sepulchre in the midst of an immense
train of women, crying and beating their breasts, and imitating in every
particular the lugubrious pomp of interments. Sinister omens were drawn
from it, which were only too much realized by subsequent events.[218:4]

It was in an oration or address delivered to the Emperors Constans and
Constantius that Julius Firmicius wrote concerning the rites celebrated
by the heathens in commemoration of the resurrection of Adonis. In his
tide of eloquence he breaks away into indignant objurgation of the
priest who officiated in those _heathen mysteries_, which, he admitted,
resembled the _Christian sacrament_ in honor of the death and
resurrection of Christ Jesus, so closely that there was really no
difference between them, except that no sufficient proof had been given
to the world of the resurrection of Adonis, _and no divine oracle had
borne witness to his resurrection_, nor had he shown himself alive
after his death to those who were concerned to have assurance of the
fact that they might believe.

The _divine oracle_, be it observed, which Julius Firmicius says had
borne testimony to Christ Jesus' resurrection, _was none other than the
answer of the god Apollo, whom the Pagans worshiped at Delphos_, which
this writer derived from Porphyry's books "_On the Philosophy of
Oracles_."[219:1]

Eusebius, the celebrated ecclesiastical historian, has also condescended
to quote this claimed testimony from _a Pagan oracle_, as furnishing one
of the most convincing proofs that could be adduced in favor of the
resurrection of Christ Jesus.

     "But thou at least (says he to the Pagans), _listen to thine
     own gods, to thy oracular deities themselves_, who have borne
     witness, and ascribed to our Saviour (Jesus Christ) not
     imposture, but piety and wisdom, and ascent into heaven."

This was vastly obliging and liberal of the god Apollo, but, it happens
awkwardly enough, that the whole work (consisting of several books)
ascribed to Porphyry, in which this and other admissions equally
honorable to the evidences of the Christian religion are made, was _not_
written by Porphyry, but is altogether the pious fraud of Christian
hands, who have kindly fathered the great philosopher with admissions,
which, as he would certainly never have made himself, they have very
charitably made for him.[219:2]

The festival in honor of the resurrection of Adonis was observed in
Alexandria in Egypt--_the cradle of Christianity_--in the time of St.
Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria (A. D. 412), and at Antioch--the ancient
capital of the Greek Kings of Syria--even as late as the time of the
Emperor Julian (A. D. 361-363), whose arrival there, during the
solemnity of the festival, was taken as an ill omen.[219:3]

It is most curious that the arrival of the Emperor Julian at
Antioch--where the followers of Christ Jesus, it is said, were first
called Christians--at that time, should be considered an _ill omen_. Why
should it have been so? He was not a Christian, but a known apostate
from the Christian religion, and a zealous patron of _Paganism_. The
evidence is very conclusive; _the celebration in honor of the
resurrection of Adonis had become to be known as a Christian festival,
which has not been abolished even unto this day_. The ceremonies held in
Roman Catholic countries on Good Friday and on Easter Sunday, are
nothing more than the festival of the death and resurrection of Adonis,
as we shall presently see.

Even as late as the year A. D. 386, the resurrection of Adonis was
celebrated in _Judea_. St. Jerome says:

     "Over Bethlehem (in the year 386 after Christ) the grove of
     Tammuz, that is, of Adonis, was casting its shadow! And in the
     _grotto_ where formerly the infant Anointed (_i. e._, _Christ
     Jesus_) cried, the lover of Venus was being mourned."[220:1]

In the idolatrous worship practiced by the _children of Israel_ was that
of the worship of _Adonis_.

Under the designation of _Tammuz_, this god was worshiped, and had his
altar even in the Temple of the Lord which was at Jerusalem. Several of
the Psalms of David were parts of the liturgical service employed in his
worship; the 110th, in particular, is an account of a friendly alliance
between the two gods, Jehovah and Adonis, in which Jehovah adorns Adonis
for his priest, as sitting at his right hand, and promises to fight for
him against his enemies. This god was worshiped at Byblis in Phœnicia
with precisely the same ceremonies: the same articles of faith as to his
mystical incarnation, his precious death and burial, and his glorious
resurrection and ascension, and even in the very same words of religious
adoration and homage which are now, with the slightest degree of
variation that could well be conceived, addressed to the Christ of the
Gospel.

The prophet Ezekiel, when an exile, painted once more the scene he had
so often witnessed of the Israelitish women in the Temple court
bewailing the death of Tammuz.[220:2]

Dr. Parkhurst says, in his "Hebrew Lexicon":

     "I find myself _obliged_ to refer Tammuz, as well as the Greek
     and Roman Hercules, to that class of idols _which were
     originally designed to represent the promised Saviour_ (Christ
     Jesus), the desire of all nations. His other name, Adonis, is
     almost the very Hebrew word 'Our Lord,' a well-known title of
     Christ."[220:3]

So it seems that the ingenious and most learned orthodox Dr. Parkhurst
was _obliged_ to consider Adonis a type of "the promised Saviour (Christ
Jesus), the desire of all nations." This is a very favorite way for
Christian divines to express themselves, when pushed thereto, by the
striking resemblance between the Pagan, virgin-born, crucified, and
resurrected gods and Christ Jesus.

If the reader is satisfied that all these things are types or symbols of
what the "_real Saviour_" was to do and suffer, he is welcome to such
food. The doctrine of Dr. Parkhurst and others comes with but an ill
grace, however, from Roman Catholic priests, _who have never ceased to
suppress information when possible_, and when it was impossible for them
to do so, they claimed these things to be the work of the devil, in
imitation of their predecessors, the Christian Fathers.

Julius Firmicius has said: "The devil has his Christs," and does not
deny that _Adonis_ was one. Tertullian and St. Justin explain all the
conformity which exists between _Christianity_ and _Paganism_, by
asserting "that a long time before there were Christians in existence,
the devil had taken pleasure to have their future mysteries and
ceremonies copied by his worshipers."[221:1]

_Osiris_, the Egyptian Saviour, after being put to death, _rose from the
dead_,[221:2] and bore the title of "_The Resurrected One_."[221:3]

Prof. Mahaffy, lecturer on ancient history in the University of Dublin,
observes that:

     "The _Resurrection_ and reign over an eternal kingdom, by an
     _incarnate mediating deity_ born of a virgin, was a
     theological conception which pervaded the oldest religion of
     Egypt."[221:4]

The ancient Egyptians celebrated annually, in early spring, about the
time known in Christian countries as Easter, the resurrection and
ascension of Osiris. During these mysteries the misfortunes and tragical
death of the "_Saviour_" were celebrated in a species of drama, in which
all the particulars were exhibited, accompanied with loud lamentations
and every mark of sorrow. At this time his image was carried in a
procession, covered--as were those in the temples--_with black veils_.
On the 25th of March his _resurrection from the dead_ was celebrated
with great festivity and rejoicings.[221:5]

Alexander Murray says:

     "The worship of _Osiris_ was universal throughout Egypt, where
     he was gratefully regarded as the great exemplar of
     _self-sacrifice_--in giving his life for others--as the
     manifestor of good, as the opener of truth, and as being full
     of goodness and truth. _After being dead, he was restored to
     life._"[221:6]

Mons. Dupuis says on this subject:

     "The Fathers of the Church, and the writers of the Christian
     sect, speak frequently of these feasts, celebrated in honor of
     Osiris, _who died and arose from the dead_, and they draw a
     parallel with the adventurers of _their_ Christ. Athanasius,
     Augustin, Theophilus, Athenagoras, Minucius Felix, Lactantius,
     Firmicius, as also the ancient authors who have spoken of
     _Osiris_ . . . all agree in the description of the universal
     mourning of the Egyptians at the festival, when the
     commemoration of that death took place. They describe the
     ceremonies which were practiced at his sepulchre, the tears,
     which were there shed during several days, and the festivities
     and rejoicings, which followed after that mourning, at the
     moment when his resurrection was announced."[222:1]

Mr. Bonwick remarks, in his "Egyptian Belief," that:

     "It is astonishing to find that, at least, five thousand years
     ago, men trusted an _Osiris_ as the '_Risen Saviour_,' and
     confidently hoped to rise, as he arose, from the
     grave."[222:2]

Again he says:

     "Osiris was, unquestionably, the popular god of Egypt. . . .
     Osiris was dear to the hearts of the people. He was
     pre-eminently '_good_.' He was in life and death their friend.
     His birth, death, burial, resurrection and ascension, embraced
     the leading points of Egyptian theology." "In his efforts to
     do good, he encounters evil. In struggling with that, he is
     overcome. He is killed. The story, entered into in the account
     of the Osiris myth, is a circumstantial one. Osiris is buried.
     His tomb was the object of pilgrimage for thousands of years.
     _But he did not rest in his grave. At the end of three days,
     or forty, he arose again_, and ascended to heaven. This is the
     story of his humanity." "As the _invictus Osiris_, his tomb
     was illuminated, as is the holy sepulchre of Jerusalem now.
     The mourning song, whose plaintive tones were noted by
     Herodotus, and has been compared to the '_miserere_' of Rome,
     was followed, _in three days_, by the language of
     triumph."[222:3]

Herodotus, who had been initiated into the Egyptian and Grecian
"_Mysteries_," speaks thus of them:

     "At Sais (in Egypt), in the sacred precinct of Minerva; behind
     the chapel and joining the wall, is the tomb of one whose name
     I consider it impious to divulge on such an occasion; and in
     the inclosure stand large stone obelisks, and there is a lake
     near, ornamented with a stone margin, formed in a circle, and
     in size, as appeared to me, much the same as that in Delos,
     which is called the circular. In this lake they perform by
     night the representation of that person's adventures, which
     they call _mysteries_. On these matters, however, though
     accurately acquainted with the particulars of them, _I must
     observe a discreet silence_; and respecting the sacred rites
     of Ceres, which the Greeks call Thesmyphoria, although I am
     acquainted with them, I must observe silence except so far as
     is lawful for me to speak of them."[222:4]

_Horus_, son of the virgin _Isis_, experienced similar misfortunes. The
principal features of this sacred romance are to be found in the
writings of the Christian Fathers. They give us a description of the
grief which was manifested at his death, and of the rejoicings at his
_resurrection_, which are similar to those spoken of above.[222:5]

_Atys_, the Phrygian Saviour, was put to death, _and rose again from
the dead_. Various histories were given of him in various places, but
all accounts terminated in the usual manner. He was one of the "Slain
Ones" who rose to life again on the 25th of March, or the "_Hilaria_" or
primitive Easter.[223:1]

_Mithras_, the Persian Saviour, and mediator between God and man, was
believed by the inhabitants of Persia, Asia Minor and Armenia, to have
been put to death, _and to have risen again from the dead_. In their
mysteries, the body of a young man, apparently dead, was exhibited,
which was feigned to be restored to life. By his sufferings he was
believed to have worked their salvation, and on this account he was
called their "_Saviour_." His priests watched his tomb to the midnight
of the veil of the 25th of March, _with loud cries, and in darkness_;
when all at once the lights burst forth from all parts, and the priest
cried:

     "_Rejoice, Oh sacred Initiated, your god is risen. His death,
     his pains, his sufferings, have worked our salvation._"[223:2]

Mons. Dupuis, speaking of the resurrection of this god, says:

     "It is chiefly in the religion of _Mithras_. . . . that we
     find mostly these features of analogy with the death and
     resurrection of Christ, and with the mysteries of the
     Christians. _Mithras_, who was also born on the 25th of
     December, like Christ, died as he did; and he had his
     sepulchre, over which his disciples came to shed tears. During
     the night, the priests carried his image to a tomb, expressly
     prepared for him; he was laid out on a litter, like the
     Phœnician _Adonis_.

     "These funeral ceremonies, like those on Good Friday (in Roman
     Catholic churches), were accompanied with funeral dirges and
     groans of the priests; after having spent some time with these
     expressions of feigned grief; after having lighted the sacred
     _flambeau_, or their paschal candle, and anointed the image
     with _chrism_ or perfumes, one of them came forward and
     pronounced with the gravest mien these words: '_Be of good
     cheer, sacred band of Initiates, your god has risen from the
     dead. His pains and his sufferings shall be your
     salvation._'"[223:3]

In King's "_Gnostics and their Remains_" (Plate XI.), may be seen the
representation of a bronze medal, or rather disk, engraved in the
coarsest manner, on which is to be seen a female figure, standing in the
attitude of adoration, the object of which is expressed by the
inscription--ORTVS SALVAT, "_The Rising of the Saviour_"--_i. e._, of
_Mithras_.[224:1]

     "This medal" (says Mr. King), "doubtless had accompanied the
     interment of some individual initiated into the Mithraic
     mysteries; and is certainly the most curious relic of that
     faith that has come under my notice."[224:2]

_Bacchus_, the Saviour, son of the virgin Semele, after being put to
death, also _arose from the dead_. During the commemoration of the
ceremonies of this event the dead body of a young man was exhibited with
great lamentations, in the same manner as the cases cited above, and at
dawn on the 25th of March his resurrection from the dead was celebrated
with great rejoicings.[224:3] After having brought solace to the
misfortunes of mankind, he, after his resurrection, _ascended into
heaven_.[224:4]

_Hercules_, the Saviour, the son of Zeus by a mortal mother, was put to
death, but arose from the funeral pile, _and ascended into heaven_ in a
_cloud_, 'mid peals of thunder. His followers manifested gratitude to
his memory by erecting an altar on the spot from whence be
ascended.[224:5]

_Memnon_ is put to death, but rises again to life and immortality. His
mother Eos weeps tears at the death of her son--as Mary does for Christ
Jesus--but her prayers avail to bring him back, like Adonis or Tammuz,
and Jesus, from the shadowy region, to dwell always in Olympus.[224:6]

The ancient Greeks also believed that _Amphiaraus_--one of their most
celebrated prophets and demi-gods--_rose from the dead_. They even
pointed to the place of his resurrection.[224:7]

_Baldur_, the Scandinavian Lord and Saviour, is put to death, but does
not rest in his grave. He too rises again to life and immortality.[224:8]

When "Baldur the Good," the beneficent god, descended into hell, Hela
(Death) said to Hermod (who mourned for Baldur): "If all things in the
world, both living and lifeless, weep for him, then shall he return to
the Æsir (the gods)." Upon hearing this, messengers were dispatched
throughout the world to beg everything to weep in order that Baldur
might be delivered from hell. All things everywhere willingly complied
with this request, both men and every other living being, so that
_wailing_ was heard in all quarters.[225:1]

Thus we see the same myth among the northern nations. As Bunsen says:

     "The tragedy of the _murdered and risen god_ is familiar to us
     from the days of ancient Egypt: must it not be of equally
     primeval origin here?" [In Teutonic tradition.]

The ancient Scandinavians also worshiped a god called _Frey_, who was
put to death, _and rose again from the dead_.[225:2]

The ancient _Druids_ celebrated, in the British Isles, in heathen times,
the rites of the resurrected Bacchus, and other ceremonies, similar to
the Greeks and Romans.[225:3]

_Quetzalcoatle_, the Mexican crucified Saviour, after being put to
death, _rose from the dead_. His resurrection was represented in Mexican
_hieroglyphics_, and may be seen in the _Codex Borgianus_.[225:4]

The Jews in Palestine celebrated their _Passover_ on the same day that
the Pagans celebrated the resurrection of their gods.

Besides the resurrected gods mentioned in this chapter, who were
believed in for centuries before the time assigned for the birth of
Christ Jesus, many others might be named, as we shall see in our chapter
on "Explanation." In the words of Dunbar T. Heath:

     "We find men taught everywhere, from Southern Arabia to
     Greece, by hundreds of symbolisms, the birth, death, and
     resurrection of deities, and a resurrection too, apparently
     after the second day, _i. e._, _on the third_."[225:5]

And now, to conclude all, _another god_ is said to have been born on the
_same day_[225:6] as these Pagan deities; he is crucified and buried,
and on the _same day_[225:7] rises again from the dead. Christians of
Europe and America celebrate annually the resurrection of _their_
Saviour in almost the identical manner in which the Pagans celebrated
the resurrection of _their_ Saviours, centuries before the God of the
Christians is said to have been born. In Roman Catholic churches, in
Catholic countries, the body of a young man is laid on a bier, and
placed before the altar; the wound in his side is to be seen, and his
death is bewailed in mournful dirges, and the verse, _Gloria Patri_, is
discontinued in the mass. All the images in the churches and the altar
_are covered with black_, and the priest and attendants are robed in
black; nearly all lights are put out, and the windows are darkened. This
is the "Agonie," the "Miserere," the "Good Friday" mass. On Easter
Sunday[226:1] all the drapery has disappeared; the church is
_illuminated_, and rejoicing, in place of sorrow, is manifest. The
Easter hymns partake of the following expression:

     "_Rejoice, Oh sacred Initiated, your God is risen. His death,
     his pains, his sufferings, have worked our salvation._"

Cedrenus (a celebrated Byzantine writer), speaking of the 25th of March,
says:

     "The first day of the first month, is the first of the month
     _Nisan_; it corresponds to the 25th of March of the _Romans_,
     and the _Phamenot_ of the _Egyptians_. On that day Gabriel
     saluted Mary, in order to make her conceive the Saviour. I
     observe that it is the same month, _Phamenot_, that _Osiris_
     gave fecundity to _Isis_, according to the Egyptian theology.
     _On the very same day, our God Saviour _(Christ Jesus)_, after
     the termination of his career, arose from the dead_; that is,
     what our forefathers called the _Pass-over_, or the passage of
     the Lord. It is also on the _same day_, that our ancient
     theologians have fixed his return, or his second
     advent."[226:2]

We have seen, then, that a festival celebrating the resurrection of
their several gods was annually held among the Pagans, before the time
of Christ Jesus, and that it was almost universal. That it dates to a
period of great antiquity is very certain. The adventures of these
incarnate gods, exposed in their infancy, put to death, and rising again
from the grave to life and immortality, were acted on the _Deisuls_ and
in the sacred theatres of the ancient Pagans,[226:3] just as the
"Passion Play" is acted to-day.

Eusebius relates a _tale_ to the effect that, at one time, the
Christians were about to celebrate "the solemn vigils of Easter," when,
to their dismay, they found that _oil_ was wanted. Narcissus, Bishop of
Jerusalem, who was among the number, "commanded that such as had charge
of the _lights_, speedily to bring unto him water, drawn up out of the
next well." This water Narcissus, "by the wonderful power of God,"
changed into _oil_, and the celebration was continued.[227:1]

This tells the whole story. Here we see the _oil_--which the Pagans had
in their ceremonies, and with which the priests anointed the lips of the
Initiates--and the _lights_, which were suddenly lighted when the god
was feigned to have risen from the dead.

With her usual policy, the Christian Church endeavored to give a
_Christian_ significance to the rites borrowed from Paganism, and in
this case, as in many others, the conversion was particularly easy.

In the earliest times, the Christians did not celebrate the resurrection
of their Lord from the grave. They made the _Jewish Passover_ their
chief festival, celebrating it on the same day as the Jews, the 14th of
Nisan, no matter in what part of the week that day might fall.
Believing, according to the tradition, that Jesus on the eve of his
death had eaten the Passover with his disciples, they regarded such a
solemnity as a commemoration of the Supper and not as a memorial of the
Resurrection. But in proportion as Christianity more and more separated
itself from Judaism and imbibed paganism, this way of looking at the
matter became less easy. A new tradition gained currency among the Roman
Christians to the effect that Jesus before his death had not eaten the
Passover, but had died on the very day of the Passover, thus
substituting himself for the Paschal Lamb. The great Christian festival
was then made the Resurrection of Jesus, and was celebrated on the first
pagan holiday--_Sun-day_--after the Passover.

This _Easter_ celebration was observed in _China_, and called a
"Festival of Gratitude to Tien." From there it extended over the then
known world to the extreme West.

The ancient Pagan inhabitants of Europe celebrated annually this same
feast, which is yet continued over all the Christian world. This
festival began with a week's indulgence in all kinds of sports, called
the _carne-vale_, or the taking _a farewell to animal_ food, because it
was followed by a fast of forty days. This was in honor of the Saxon
goddess _Ostrt_ or _Eostre_ of the Germans, whence our _Easter_.[227:2]

The most characteristic Easter rite, and the one most widely diffused,
is the use of _Easter eggs_. They are usually stained of various colors
with dye-woods or herbs, and people mutually make presents of them;
sometimes they are kept as _amulets_, sometimes eaten. Now, "dyed eggs
were sacred Easter offerings in _Egypt_;"[228:1] the ancient _Persians_,
"when they kept the festival of the solar new year (in March), mutually
presented each other with colored eggs;"[228:2] "the _Jews_ used eggs in
the feast of the Passover;" and the custom prevailed in Western
countries.[228:3]

The stories of the resurrection written by the Gospel narrators are
altogether different. This is owing to the fact that the story, as
related by one, was written to correct the mistakes and to endeavor to
reconcile with common sense the absurdities of the other. For instance,
the "_Matthew_" narrator says: "And when they saw him (after he had
risen from the dead) they worshiped him; _but some doubted_."[228:4]

To leave the question where this writer leaves it would be fatal. In
such a case there must be no doubt. Therefore, the "_Mark_" narrator
makes Jesus appear _three times_, under such circumstances as to render
a mistake next to impossible, and to silence the most obstinate
skepticism. He is first made to appear to Mary Magdalene, who was
convinced that it was Jesus, because she went and told the disciples
that he had risen, and that she had seen him. They--_notwithstanding
that Jesus had foretold them of his resurrection_[228:5]--disbelieved,
nor could they be convinced until he appeared to _them_. They in turn
told it to the other disciples, who were also skeptical; and, that they
might be convinced, Jesus also appeared to _them_ as they sat at meat,
when he upbraided them for their unbelief.

This story is much improved in the hands of the "_Mark_" narrator, but,
in the anxiety to make a clear case, it is overdone, as often happens
when the object is to remedy or correct an oversight or mistake
previously made. In relating that the disciples _doubted_ the words of
Mary Magdalene, he had probably forgotten Jesus had promised them that
he should rise, for, if he had told them this, _why did they doubt_?

Neither the "_Matthew_" nor the "_Mark_" narrator says in what _way_
Jesus made his appearance--whether it was in the _body_ or only in the
_spirit_. If in the latter, it would be fatal to the whole theory of
the resurrection, as it is a _material_ resurrection that Christianity
taught--just like their neighbors the Persians--and not a
spiritual.[229:1]

To put this disputed question in its true light, and to silence the
objections which must naturally have arisen against it, was the object
which the "_Luke_" narrator had in view. He says that when Jesus
appeared and spoke to the disciples they were afraid: "But they were
terrified and affrighted, and _supposed_ they had seen a
_spirit_."[229:2] Jesus then--to show that he was _not_ a spirit--showed
the wounds in his hands and feet. "And they gave him a piece of a
broiled fish, and of a honeycomb. And he took it, _and did eat before
them_."[229:3] After this, who is there that can doubt? but, if the
_fish_ and _honeycomb_ story was true, why did the "_Matthew_" and
"_Mark_" narrators fail to mention it?

The "_Luke_" narrator, like his predecessors, had also overdone the
matter, and instead of convincing the skeptical, he only excited their
ridicule.

The "_John_" narrator now comes, and endeavors to set matters right. He
does not omit entirely the story of Jesus eating fish, _for that would
not do, after there had been so much said about it_. He might leave it
to be inferred that the "_Luke_" narrator made a mistake, so he modifies
the story and omits the ridiculous part. The scene is laid on the shores
of the Sea of Tiberias. Under the direction of Jesus, Peter drew his net
to land, full of fish. "Jesus said unto them: Come and dine. And none of
the disciples durst ask him, Who art thou? knowing that it was the Lord.
Jesus then cometh, and taketh _bread_, and _giveth them_, and _fish_
likewise."[229:4]

It does not appear from _this_ account that Jesus ate the fish at all.
He took the fish and _gave to the disciples_; the inference is that
_they_ were the ones that ate. In the "_Luke_" narrator's account _the
statement is reversed_; the disciples gave the fish to Jesus, _and he
ate_. The "_John_" narrator has taken out of the story that which was
absurd, but he leaves us to infer that the "_Luke_" narrator was
_careless_ in stating the account of what took place. If we leave out of
the "_Luke_" narrator's account the part that relates to the fish and
honeycomb, he fails to prove what it really was which appeared to the
disciples, as it seems from this that the disciples could not be
convinced that Jesus was not a spirit until he had actually eaten
something.

Now, if the _eating_ part is struck out--which the "_John_" narrator
does, and which, no doubt, the ridicule cast upon it drove him to
do--the "_Luke_" narrator leaves the question _just where he found it_.
It was the business of the "_John_" narrator to attempt to leave it
clean, and put an end to all cavil.

Jesus appeared to the disciples when they assembled at Jerusalem. "And
when he had so said, he shewed unto them his hands and his side."[230:1]
They were satisfied, and no doubts were expressed. But Thomas was not
present, and when he was told by the brethren that Jesus had appeared to
them, he refused to believe; nor would he, "Except I shall see in his
hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the
nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe."[230:2]
Now, if Thomas could be convinced, with all _his_ doubts, it would be
foolish after _that_ to deny that Jesus was not in the _body_ when he
appeared to his disciples.

After eight days Jesus again appears, for no other purpose--as it would
seem--but to convince the doubting disciple Thomas. Then said he to
Thomas: "Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither
thy hand, and thrust it into my side; and be not faithless, but
believing."[230:3] This convinced Thomas, and he exclaimed: "My Lord and
my God." After _this evidence_, if there were still unbelievers, they
were even more skeptical than Thomas himself. We should be at a loss to
understand _why the writers of the first three Gospels entirely omitted
the story of Thomas_, if we were not aware that when the "_John_"
narrator wrote the state of the public mind was such that proof of the
most unquestionable character was demanded that Christ Jesus had risen
in the body. The "_John_" narrator selected a person who claimed he was
hard to convince, and if the evidence was such as to satisfy _him_, it
ought to satisfy the balance of the world.[230:4]

The first that we knew of the fourth Gospel--attributed to _John_--is
from the writings of _Irenæus_ (A. D. 177-202), and the evidence is that
_he is the author of it_.[230:5] That controversies were rife in his day
concerning the resurrection of Jesus, is very evident from other
sources. We find that at this time the resurrection of the dead
(according to the accounts of the Christian forgers) was very far from
being esteemed an uncommon event; that the miracle was frequently
performed on necessary occasions by great fasting and the joint
supplication of the church of the place, and that the persons thus
restored by their prayers had lived afterwards among them many years. At
such a period, when faith could boast of so many wonderful victories
over death, it seems difficult to account for the skepticism of those
philosophers, who still rejected and derided the doctrine of the
resurrection. A noble Grecian had rested on this important ground the
whole controversy, and promised Theophilus, bishop of Antioch, _that if
he could be gratified by the sight of a single person who had been
actually raised from the dead, he would immediately embrace the
Christian religion_.

"It is somewhat remarkable," says Gibbon, the historian, from whom we
take the above, "that the prelate of the first Eastern Church, however
anxious for the conversion of his friend, thought proper to _decline_
this fair and reasonable challenge."[231:1]

This Christian _saint_, Irenæus, had invented many stories of others
being raised from the dead, for the purpose of attempting to strengthen
the belief in the resurrection of Jesus. In the words of the Rev.
Jeremiah Jones:

     "Such _pious frauds_ were very common among Christians even in
     the first three centuries; and a forgery of this nature, with
     the view above-mentioned, _seems natural and probable_."

One of these "_pious frauds_" is the "_Gospel of Nicodemus the Disciple,
concerning the Sufferings and Resurrection of our Master and Saviour
Jesus Christ_." Although attributed to Nicodemus, a disciple of Jesus,
it has been shown to be a forgery, written towards the close of the
second century--during the time of _Irenæus_, the well-known pious
forger. In this book we find the following:

     "And now hear me a little. We all know the blessed Simeon, the
     high-priest, who took Jesus when an infant into his arms in
     the temple. This same Simeon had two sons of his own, _and we
     were all present at their death and funeral_. Go therefore and
     see their _tombs_, for these are open, _and they are risen_;
     and behold, they are in the city of Arimathæa, spending their
     time together in offices of devotion."[231:2]

The purpose of this story is very evident. Some "zealous believer,"
observing the appeals for proof of the resurrection, wishing to make it
appear that resurrections from the dead were common occurrences,
invented this story _towards the close of the second century_, and
fathered it upon Nicodemus.

We shall speak, anon, more fully on the subject of the frauds of the
early Christians, the "lying and deceiving _for the cause of Christ_,"
which is carried on even to the present day.

As President Cheney of Bates College has lately remarked, "_The
resurrection is the doctrine of Christianity and the foundation of the
entire system_,"[232:1] but outside of the four spurious gospels this
greatest of all recorded miracles is hardly mentioned. "We have epistles
from Peter, James, John, and Jude--all of whom are said by the
evangelists to have _seen_ Jesus after he rose from the dead, in none of
which epistles is the fact of the resurrection even stated, much less
that Jesus was seen by the writer after his resurrection."[232:2]

Many of the early Christian sects denied the resurrection of Christ
Jesus, but taught that he will rise, when there shall be a general
resurrection.

No actual representation of the resurrection of the Christian's Saviour
has yet been found among the monuments of _early_ Christianity. The
earliest representation of this event that has been found is an ivory
carving, and belongs to the _fifth or sixth_ century.[232:3]


FOOTNOTES:

[215:1] See Matthew, xxviii. Mark, xvi. Luke, xxiv. and John, xx.

[215:2] Mark, xvi. 19.

[215:3] Luke, xxiv. 51.

[215:4] Acts, i. 9.

[215:5] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 240. Higgins:
Anacalypsis, vol. ii. pp. 142 and 145.

[215:6] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 131. Bonwick's Egyptian
Belief, p. 168. Asiatic Researches, vol. i. pp. 259 and 261.

[215:7] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 72. Hist. Hindostan, ii. pp.
466 and 473.

"In Hindu pictures, Vishnu, who is identified with Crishna, is often
seen mounted on the Eagle Garuda." (Moore: Hindu Panth. p. 214.) And M.
Sonnerat noticed "two basso-relievos placed at the entrance of the choir
of Bordeaux Cathedral, one of which represents the ascension of our
Saviour to heaven on an Eagle." (Higgins: Anac., vol. i. p. 273.)

[216:1] Oriental Religions, pp. 494, 495.

[216:2] Asiatic Res., vol. x. p. 129. Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 103.

[216:3] Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, p. 49.

[216:4] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 86. See also, Higgins:
Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 159.

[216:5] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 214.

[216:6] Ibid. p. 258.

[217:1] Ovid's Metamorphoses, as rendered by Addison. Quoted in Taylor's
Diegesis, p. 148.

[217:2] Quoted by Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 114. See also,
Taylor's Diegesis, pp. 163, 164.

[217:3] Taylor's Diegesis, p. 164.

[217:4] Prichard's Egyptian Mythology, pp. 66, 67.

[218:1] Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 161. See also, Dunlap's
Mysteries of Adoni, p. 23, and Spirit Hist. of Man, p. 216.

[218:2] Calmet's Fragments, vol. ii. p. 21.

[218:3] Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 86.

[218:4] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Beliefs, p. 261.

[219:1] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Beliefs, p. 247, and Taylor's
Diegesis, p. 164.

[219:2] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 164. We shall speak of _Christian_
forgeries anon.

[219:3] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 2.

[220:1] Quoted in Dunlap's Son of the Man, p. vii. See also, Knight:
Ancient Art and Mythology, p. xxvii.

"From the days of the prophet Daniel, down to the time when the red
cross knights gave no quarter (fighting for _the Christ_) in the streets
of Jerusalem, the Anointed was worshiped in Babylon, Basan, Galilee and
Palestine." (Son of the Man, p. 38.)

[220:2] Ezekiel, viii. 14.

[220:3] Quoted in Taylor's Diegesis, p. 162, and Higgins: Anacalypsis,
vol. ii. p. 114.

[221:1] See Justin: Cum. Typho, and Tertullian: De Bap.

[221:2] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 16, and vol. i. p. 519.
Also, Prichard's Egyptian Mythology, p. 66, and Bonwick's Egyptian
Belief, p. 163.

[221:3] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 166, and Dunlap's Mysteries of
Adoni, pp. 124, 125.

[221:4] Prolegomena to Ancient History.

[221:5] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 102.

[221:6] Murray: Manual of Mythology, pp. 347, 348.

[222:1] Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 256.

[222:2] Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. vi.

[222:3] Ibid. pp. 150-155, 178.

[222:4] Herodotus, bk. ii. chs. 170, 171.

[222:5] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 263, and Higgins:
Anacalypsis, vol. ii. 108.

[223:1] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 169. Higgins: Anacalypsis,
vol. ii. p. 104. Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 255. Dunlap's
Mysteries of Adoni, p. 110, and Knight: Anct. Art and Mythology, p. 86.

[223:2] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 99. _Mithras_ remained in the
grave a period of _three days_, as did Christ _Jesus_, and the other
Christs. "The Persians believed that the soul of man remained yet _three
days_ in the world after its separation from the body." (Dunlap:
Mysteries of Adoni, p. 63.)

"In the Zoroastrian religion, after soul and body have separated, the
souls, _in the third night_ after death--as soon as the shining sun
ascends--come over the Mount Berezaiti upon the bridge Tshinavat which
leads to Garonmana, the dwelling of the good gods." (Dunlap's Spirit
Hist., p. 216, and Mysteries of Adoni, 60.)

The Ghost of Polydore says:

"Being raised up this _third day_--light, Having deserted my body!"

(Euripides, Hecuba, 31, 32.)

[223:3] Dupuis: Origin of Religious Beliefs, pp. 246, 247.

[224:1] King's Gnostics and their Remains, p. 225.

[224:2] Ibid. p. 226.

[224:3] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 102. Dupuis: Origin of
Religious Belief, pp. 256, 257, and Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 169.

[224:4] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 135, and Higgins:
Anacalypsis, vol. i. 322.

[224:5] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 294. See also, Goldzhier's Hebrew
Mythology, p. 127. Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 322, and Chambers's
Encyclo., art. "Hercules."

[224:6] Aryan Mytho., vol. ii. p. 90.

[224:7] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 56.

[224:8] Aryan Mytho., vol. ii p. 94.

[225:1] Mallet's Northern Antiquities, p. 449.

[225:2] See Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, p. 85.

[225:3] See Davies: Myths and Rites of the British Druids, pp. 89 and
208.

[225:4] See Kingsborough's Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 166.

[225:5] Quoted in Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 174.

[225:6] As we shall see in the chapter on "The Birth-day of Christ
Jesus."

[225:7] _Easter_, the triumph of Christ, was originally solemnized on
the 25th of March, the very day upon which the Pagan gods were believed
to have risen from the dead. (See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief,
pp. 244, 255.)

A very long and terrible schism took place in the Christian Church upon
the question whether _Easter_, the day of the resurrection, was to be
celebrated on the 14th day of the first month, after the Jewish custom,
or on the Lord's day afterward; and it was at last decided in favor of
the Lord's day. (See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 90, and
Chambers's Encyclopædia, art. "Easter.")

The day upon which Easter should be celebrated was not settled until the
Council of Nice. (See Euseb. Life of Constantine, lib. 3, ch. xvii.
Also, Socrates' Eccl. Hist. lib. 1, ch. vi.)

[226:1] Even the name of "EASTER" is derived from the heathen goddess,
_Ostrt_, of the Saxons, and the _Eostre_ of the Germans.

"Many of the popular observances connected with Easter are clearly of
_Pagan origin_. The goddess Ostara or Eastre seems to have been the
personification of the morning or East, and also of the opening year or
Spring. . . . With her usual policy, the church endeavored to give a
Christian significance to such of the rites as could not be rooted out;
and in this case the conversion was practically easy." (Chambers's
Encyclo., art. "Easter.")

[226:2] Quoted in Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 244.

[226:3] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 340.

[227:1] Eccl. Hist., lib. 6, c. viii.

[227:2] Anacalypsis, ii. 59.

[228:1] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 24.

[228:2] See Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Easter."

[228:3] Ibid.

[228:4] Matthew, xxviii. 17.

[228:5] See xii. 40; xvi. 21; Mark, ix. 31; xiv. 23; John, ii. 10.

[229:1] "And let not any one among you say, that _this very flesh_ is
not judged, neither raised up. Consider, in what were ye saved? in what
did ye look up, if not whilst ye were in this flesh? We must, therefore,
keep our flesh as the temple of God. For in like manner as ye were
called in the flesh, _ye shall also come to judgment_ in the flesh. Our
one Lord Jesus Christ, who has saved us, being first a spirit, was made
flesh, and so called us: _even so we also in this flesh, shall receive
the reward_ (_of heaven_)." (II. Corinthians, ch. iv. _Apoc._ See also
the Christian Creed: "I believe in the resurrection of the _body_.")

[229:2] Luke, xxiv. 37.

[229:3] Luke, xxiv. 42, 43.

[229:4] John, xxi. 12, 13.

[230:1] John, xx. 20.

[230:2] John, xx. 25.

[230:3] John, xx. 27.

[230:4] See, for a further account of the resurrection, Reber's Christ
of Paul; Scott's English Life of Jesus; and Greg's Creed of Christendom.

[230:5] See the Chapter xxxviii.

[231:1] Gibbon's Rome, vol. i. p. 541.

[231:2] Nicodemus, Apoc. ch. xii.

[232:1] Baccalaureate Sermon, June 26th, 1881.

[232:2] Greg: The Creed of Christendom, p. 284.

[232:3] See Jameson's Hist. of Our Lord in Art, vol. ii., and Lundy's
Monumental Christianity.



CHAPTER XXIV.

THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST JESUS, AND THE MILLENNIUM.


The second coming of Christ Jesus is clearly taught in the canonical, as
well as in the apocryphal, books of the New Testament. Paul teaches, or
_is made to teach it_,[233:1] in the following words:

     "If we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them
     also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him. For this we
     say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive
     _and remain unto the coming of the Lord_, shall not prevent
     them which are asleep. _For the Lord himself shall descend
     from heaven_ with a shout, with the voice of the archangel,
     and with the trump of God, and the dead in Christ shall rise
     first: Then we which are alive and remain shall be _caught up_
     together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord _in the
     air_: and so shall we ever be with the Lord."[233:2]

He further tells the Thessalonians to "abstain from all appearance of
evil," and to "be preserved blameless _unto the coming of our Lord Jesus
Christ_."[233:3]

James,[233:4] in his epistle to the brethren, tells them not to be in
too great a hurry for the coming of their Lord, but to "be patient" and
wait for the "coming of the Lord," as the "husbandman waiteth for the
precious fruit of the earth." But still he assures them that "the coming
of the Lord draweth nigh."[233:5]

Peter, in his first epistle, tells his brethren that "the end of all
things is at hand,"[233:6] and that when the "chief shepherd" does
appear, they "shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not
away."[233:7]

John, in his first epistle, tells the Christian community to "abide in
him" (Christ), so that, "when he shall appear, we may have confidence,
and not be ashamed before him."[234:1]

He further says:

     "Behold, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet
     appear what we shall be, but we know that, _when he shall
     appear_, we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he
     is."[234:2]

According to the writer of the book of "The Acts," when Jesus ascended
into heaven, the Apostles stood looking _up_ towards heaven, where he
had gone, and while thus engaged: "behold, two men stood by them
(dressed) in white apparel," who said unto them:

     "Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? This
     same Jesus which is _taken up_ from you into heaven, _shall so
     come in like manner as ye have seen him go_ (up) _into
     heaven_."[234:3]

The one great object which the writer of the book of Revelations wished
to present to view, was "_the second coming of Christ_." This writer,
who seems to have been anxious for that time, which was "surely" to come
"quickly;" ends his book by saying: "Even so, come Lord Jesus."[234:4]

The two men, dressed in white apparel, who had told the Apostles that
Jesus should "come again," were not the only persons whom they looked to
for authority. He himself (according to the Gospel) had told them so:

     "The Son of man shall come (again) in the glory of his Father
     with his angels."

And, as if to impress upon their minds that his second coming should not
be at a distant day, he further said:

     "Verily I say unto you, there be some standing here, which
     shall not taste of death, _till they see the Son of man coming
     in his kingdom_."[234:5]

This, surely, is very explicit, but it is not the only time he speaks of
his second advent. When foretelling the destruction of the temple, his
disciples came unto him, saying:

     "Tell us when shall these things be, _and what shall be the
     sign of thy coming_?"[234:6]

His answer to this is very plain:

     "Verily I say unto you, _this generation shall not pass till
     all these things be fulfilled_ (_i. e_, the destruction of the
     temple and his second coming), but of that day and hour
     knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father
     only."[234:7]

In the second Epistle _attributed_ to Peter, which was written after
that generation had passed away,[235:1] there had begun to be some
impatience manifest among the _believers_, on account of the long delay
of Christ Jesus' second coming. "Where is the promise of his coming?"
say they, "for since the fathers fell asleep all things continue as they
were from the beginning of the creation."[235:2] In attempting to
smoothe over matters, this writer says: "There shall come in the last
days scoffers, saying: 'Where is the promise of his coming?'" to which
he replies by telling them that they were ignorant of all the ways of
the Lord, and that: "One day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a
thousand years as one day." He further says: "The Lord is not slack
concerning his promise;" and that "the day of the Lord _will come_."
This coming is to be "as a thief in the night," that is, when they least
expect it.[235:3]

No wonder there should have been scoffers--as this writer calls
them--the generation which was not to have passed away before his
coming, had passed away; all those who stood there had been dead many
years; the sun had not yet been darkened; the stars were still in the
heavens, and the moon still continued to reflect light. None of the
predictions had yet been fulfilled.

Some of the early Christian Fathers have tried to account for the words
of Jesus, where he says: "Verily I say unto you, there be some standing
here which shall not taste of death, till they see the Son of man coming
in his kingdom," by saying that he referred to _John_ only, and that
that Apostle was not dead, but sleeping. This fictitious story is
related by Saint Augustin, "from the report," as he says, "of credible
persons," and is to the effect that:

     "At Ephesus, where St. John the Apostle lay buried, he was not
     believed to be dead, _but to be sleeping only in the grave_,
     which he had provided for himself till our Saviour's second
     coming: in proof of which, they affirm, that the earth, under
     which he lay, was seen to heave up and down perpetually, in
     conformity to the motion of his body, in the act of
     breathing."[235:4]

This story clearly illustrates the stupid credulity and superstition of
the primitive age of the church, and the faculty of imposing any
fictions upon the people, which their leaders saw fit to inculcate.

The doctrine of the _millennium_ designates a certain period in the
history of the world, lasting for a long, indefinite space (vaguely a
_thousand years_, as the word "_millennium_" implies) during which the
kingdom of _Christ Jesus_ will be visibly established on the earth. The
idea undoubtedly originated proximately in the Messianic expectation of
the Jews (as Jesus _did not_ sit on the throne of David and become an
earthly ruler, it _must be_ that he is _coming again_ for this purpose),
but more remotely in the Pagan doctrine of the final triumph of the
several "Christs" over their adversaries.

In the first century of the Church, _millenarianism_ was a _whispered_
belief, to which the book of Daniel, and more particularly the
predictions of the _Apocalypse_[236:1] gave an apostolical authority,
but, when the church imbibed _Paganism_, their belief on this subject
lent it a more vivid coloring and imagery.

The unanimity which the early Christian teachers exhibit in regard to
_millenarianism_, proves how strongly it had laid hold of the
imagination of the Church, to which, in this early stage, immortality
and future rewards were to a great extent things of this world as yet.
Not only did Cerinthus, but even the orthodox doctors--such as Papias
(Bishop of Hierapolis), Irenæus, Justin Martyr and others--delighted
themselves with dreams of the glory and magnificence of the millennial
kingdom. Papias, in his collection of traditional sayings of Christ
Jesus, indulges in the most monstrous representations of the re-building
of Jerusalem, and the colossal vines and grapes of the millennial reign.

According to the general opinion, the millennium was to be preceded by
great calamities, after which the Messiah, _Christ Jesus_, would appear,
and would bind Satan for a thousand years, annihilate the godless
heathen, or make them slaves of the believers, overturn the Roman
empire, from the ruins of which a new order of things would spring
forth, in which "the dead in Christ" would rise, and along with the
surviving saints enjoy an incomparable felicity in the city of the "New
Jerusalem." Finally, all nations would bend their knee to _him_, and
acknowledge _him only_ to be _the Christ_--his religion would reign
supreme. This is the "Golden Age" of the future, which all nations of
antiquity believed in and looked forward to.

We will first turn to _India_, and shall there find that the _Hindoos_
believed their "_Saviour_," or "Preserver" _Vishnu_, who appeared in
mortal form as _Crishna_, is _to come again in the latter days_. Their
sacred books declare that in the last days, when the fixed stars have
all apparently returned to the point whence they started, at the
beginning of all things, in the month _Scorpio_, Vishnu will appear
among mortals, in the form of an armed warrior, riding a winged _white
horse_.[236:2] In one hand he will carry a scimitar, "blazing like a
comet," to destroy all the impure who shall then dwell on the face of
the earth. In the other hand he will carry a large shining ring, to
signify that the great circle of _Yugas_ (ages) is completed, and that
the end has come. At his approach _the sun and moon will be darkened,
the earth will tremble, and the stars fall from the firmament_.[237:1]

The Buddhists believe that _Buddha_ has repeatedly assumed a human form
to facilitate the reunion of men with his own universal soul, so they
believe that _"in the latter days" he will come again_. Their sacred
books predict this coming, and relate that his mission will be to
restore the world to order and happiness.[237:2] This is exactly the
Christian idea of the millennium.

The _Chinese_ also believe that "_in the latter days_" there is to be a
_millennium_ upon earth. Their five sacred volumes are full of
prophesies concerning this "Golden Age of the Future." It is the
universal belief among them that a "_Divine Man_" will establish himself
on earth, and everywhere restore peace and happiness.[237:3]

The ancient _Persians_ believed that in the last days, there would be a
millennium on earth, when the religion of Zoroaster would be accepted by
all mankind. The Parsees of to-day, who are the remnants of the once
mighty Persians, have a tradition that a holy personage is waiting in a
region called Kanguedez, for a summons from the Ized Serosch, who in the
last days will bring him to Persia, to restore the ancient dominion of
that country, and spread the religion of Zoroaster over the whole
earth.[237:4]

The Rev. Joseph B. Gross, in his "Heathen Religion,"[237:5] speaking of
the belief of the ancient Persians in the millennium, says:

     "The dead would be raised,[237:6] and he who has made all
     things, cause the earth and the sea to return again the
     remains of the departed.[237:7] Then Ormuzd shall clothe them
     with flesh and blood, while they that live at the time of the
     resurrection, must die in order to likewise participate in its
     advantage.

     "Before this momentous event takes place, three illustrious
     prophets shall appear, who will announce their presence by the
     performance of miracles.

     "During this period of its existence, and till its final
     removal, the earth will be afflicted with pestilence,
     tempests, war, famine, and various other baneful
     calamities."[237:8]

     "After the resurrection, every one will be apprised of the
     good or evil which he may have done, and the righteous and the
     wicked will be separated from each other.[238:1] Those of the
     latter whose offenses have not yet been expiated, will be cast
     into hell during the term of three days and three
     nights,[238:2] in the presence of an assembled world, in order
     to be purified in the burning stream of liquid ore.[238:3]
     After this, they enjoy endless felicity in the society of the
     blessed, and the pernicious empire of Ahriman (the devil), is
     fairly exterminated.[238:4] Even this lying spirit will be
     under the necessity to avail himself of this fiery ordeal, and
     made to rejoice in its expurgating and cleansing efficacy.
     Nay, hell itself is purged of its mephitic impurities, and
     washed clean in the flames of a universal regeneration.[238:5]

     "The earth is now the habitation of bliss, all nature glows in
     light; and the equitable and benignant laws of Ormuzd reign
     supremely through the illimitable universe.[238:6] Finally,
     after the resurrection, mankind will recognize each other
     again; wants, cares, and passions will cease;[238:7] and
     everything in the paradisian and all-embracing empire of
     light, shall rebound to the praise of the benificent
     God."[238:8]

The disciples of _Bacchus_ expected his _second advent_. They hoped he
would assume at some future day the government of the universe, and that
he would restore to man his primary felicity.[238:9]

The _Esthonian_ from the time of the German invasion lived a life of
bondage under a foreign yoke, and the iron of his slavery entered into
his soul. He told how the ancient hero Kalewipoeg sits in the realms of
shadows, waiting until his country is in its extremity of distress, when
he will _return to earth_ to avenge the injuries of the Esths, and
elevate the poor crushed people into a mighty power.[238:10]

The suffering _Celt_ has his Brian Boroihme, or Arthur, _who will come
again_, the first to inaugurate a Fenian millennium, the second to
regenerate Wales. Olger Dansk waits till the time arrives when he is to
start from sleep to the assistance of the _Dane_ against the hated
Prussian. The Messiah is to come and restore the kingdom of the _Jews_.
Charlemagne was the Messiah of mediæval Teutondom. He it was who founded
the great German empire, and shed over it the blaze of Christian truth,
and now he sleeps in the Kyffhauserberg, waiting till German heresy has
reached its climax and Germany is wasted through internal conflicts, to
rush to earth once more, and revive the great empire and restore the
Catholic faith.[239:1]

The ancient _Scandinavians_ believed that in the "latter days" great
calamities would befall mankind. The earth would tremble, and the stars
fall from heaven. After which, the great _serpent_ would be chained, and
the religion of Odin would reign supreme.[239:2]

The disciples of _Quetzalcoatle_, the Mexican Saviour, expected his
second advent. Before he departed this life, he told the inhabitants of
Cholula that he would return again to govern them.[239:3] This
remarkable tradition was so deeply cherished in their hearts, says Mr.
Prescott in his "Conquest of Mexico," that "the Mexicans looked
confidently to the return of their benevolent deity."[239:4]

So implicitly was this believed by the subjects, that when the Spaniards
appeared on the coast, they were joyfully hailed as the returning god
and his companions. Montezuma's messengers reported to the Inca that "it
was Quetzalcoatle who was coming, bringing his temples (ships) with
him." All throughout New Spain they expected the reappearance of this
"Son of the Great God" into the world, who would renew all
things.[239:5]

Acosta alludes to this, in his "History of the Indies," as follows:

     "In the beginning of the year 1518, they (the Mexicans),
     discovered a fleet at sea, in the which was the Marques del
     Valle, Don Fernando Cortez, with his companions, a news which
     much troubled Montezuma, and conferring with his council, they
     all said, that without doubt, their great and ancient lord
     Quetzalcoatle was come, who had said that he would return from
     the East, whither he had gone."[239:6]

The doctrine of the millennium and the second advent of Christ Jesus,
has been a very important one in the Christian church. The ancient
Christians were animated by a contempt for their present existence, and
by a just confidence of immortality, of which the doubtful and imperfect
faith of modern ages cannot give us any adequate notion. In the
primitive church, the influence of truth was powerfully strengthened by
an opinion, which, however much it may deserve respect for its
usefulness and antiquity, has not been found agreeable to experience.
_It was universally believed, that the end of the world and the kingdom
of heaven were at hand._[240:1] The near approach of this wonderful
event had been predicted, as we have seen, by the Apostles; the
tradition of it was preserved by their earliest disciples, and those who
believed that the discourses _attributed_ to Jesus were really uttered
by him, were _obliged_ to expect the second and glorious coming of the
"Son of Man" in the clouds, _before that generation was totally
extinguished_ which had beheld his humble condition upon earth, and
which might still witness the calamities of the Jews under Vespasian or
Hadrian. The revolution of seventeen centuries has instructed us not to
press too closely the _mysterious_ language of prophecy and revelation;
but as long as this error was permitted to subsist in the church, it was
productive of the most salutary effects on the faith and practice of
Christians, who lived in the awful expectation of that moment when the
globe itself and all the various races of mankind, _should tremble at
the appearance of their divine judge_. This expectation was
countenanced--as we have seen--by the twenty-fourth chapter of St.
Matthew, and by the first epistle of Paul to the Thessalonians. Erasmus
(one of the most vigorous promoters of the Reformation) removes the
difficulty by the help of _allegory_ and _metaphor_; and the learned
Grotius (a learned theologian of the 16th century) ventures to
insinuate, that, for wise purposes, _the pious deception was permitted
to take place_.

_The ancient and popular doctrine of the millennium_ was intimately
connected with the second coming of Christ Jesus. As the works of the
creation had been fixed in _six days_, their duration in the present
state, according to a tradition which was attributed to the prophet
Elijah, was fixed to _six thousand years_.[240:2] By the same analogy it
was inferred, that this long period of labor and contention, which had
now almost elapsed, would be succeeded by a joyful Sabbath of a
_thousand years_, and that Christ Jesus, with the triumphant band of the
saints and the elect who had escaped death, or who had been miraculously
revived, would reign upon earth until the time appointed for the last
and general resurrection. So pleasing was this hope to the mind of the
believers, that the "New Jerusalem," the seat of this blissful kingdom,
was quickly adorned with all the gayest colors of the imagination. A
felicity consisting only of pure and spiritual pleasure would have been
too refined for its inhabitants, who were still supposed to possess
their human nature and senses. A "Garden of Eden," with the amusements
of the pastoral life, was no longer suited to the advanced state of
society which prevailed under the Roman empire. A city was therefore
erected of gold and precious stones, and a supernatural plenty of corn
and wine was bestowed on the adjacent territory; in the free enjoyment
of whose spontaneous productions, the happy and benevolent people were
never to be restrained by any jealous laws of exclusive property. Most
of these pictures were borrowed from a misrepresentation of Isaiah,
Daniel, and the Apocalypse. One of the grossest images may be found in
Irenæus (l. v.) the disciple of Papias, who had seen the Apostle St.
John. Though it might not be universally received, it appears to have
been the reigning sentiment of the orthodox believers; and it seems so
well adapted to the desires and apprehensions of mankind, that it must
have contributed in a very considerable degree to the progress of the
Christian faith. But when the edifice of the church was almost
completed, the temporary support was laid aside. The doctrine of Christ
Jesus' reign upon earth was at first treated as a profound _allegory_,
was considered by degrees as a _doubtful_ and _useless_ opinion, and was
at length rejected as the absurd invention of heresy and fanaticism. But
although this doctrine had been "laid aside," and "rejected," it was
again resurrected, and is alive and rife at the present day, even among
those who stand as the leaders of the orthodox faith.

The expectation of the "last day" in the year 1000 A. D., reinvested the
doctrine with a transitory importance; but it lost all credit again when
the hopes so keenly excited by the _crusades_ faded away before the
stern reality of Saracenic success, and the predictions of the
"Everlasting Gospel," a work of Joachim de Floris, a Franciscan abbot,
remained unfulfilled.[241:1]

At the period of the _Reformation_, millenarianism once more experienced
a partial revival, because it was not a difficult matter to apply some
of its symbolism to the papacy. The Pope, for example, was
_Antichrist_--a belief still adhered to by some extreme Protestants. Yet
the doctrine was not adopted by the great body of the reformers, but by
some fanatical sects, such as the Anabaptists, and by the Theosophists
of the seventeenth century.

During the civil and religious wars in France and England, when great
excitement prevailed, it was also prominent. The "Fifth Monarchy Men" of
Cromwell's time were millenarians of the most exaggerated and dangerous
sort. Their peculiar tenet was that the millennium _had_ come, and that
_they_ were the saints who were to inherit the earth. The excesses of
the French Roman Catholic Mystics and Quietists terminated in
_chiliastic_[242:1] views. Among the Protestants it was during the
"Thirty Years' War" that the most enthusiastic and learned chiliasts
flourished. The awful suffering and wide-spread desolation of that time
led pious hearts to solace themselves with the hope of a peaceful and
glorious future. Since then the _penchant_ which has sprung up for
expounding the prophetical books of the Bible, and particularly the
_Apocalypse_, with a view to present events, has given the doctrine a
faint semi-theological life, very different, however, from the earnest
faith of the first Christians.

Among the foremost chiliastic teachers of modern centuries are to be
mentioned Ezechiel Meth, Paul Felgenhauer, Bishop Comenius, Professor
Jurien, Seraris, Poiret, J. Mede; while Thomas Burnet and William
Whiston endeavored to give chiliasm a geological foundation, but without
finding much favor. Latterly, especially since the rise and extension of
missionary enterprise, the opinion has obtained a wide currency, that
after the conversion of the whole world to Christianity, a blissful and
glorious era will ensue; but not much stress--except by extreme
literalists--is now laid on the nature or duration of this far-off
felicity.

Great eagerness, and not a little ingenuity have been exhibited by many
persons in fixing a _date_ for the commencement of the millennium. The
celebrated theologian, Johann Albrecht Bengel, who, in the eighteenth
century, revived an earnest interest in the subject amongst orthodox
Protestants, asserted from a study of the prophecies that the millennium
would begin in 1836. This date was long popular. Swedenborg held that
the last judgment _took place_ in 1757, and that the new church, or
"_Church of the New Jerusalem_," as his followers designate
themselves--in other words, the millennial era--_then began_.

In America, considerable agitation was excited by the preaching of one
William Miller, who fixed the second advent of Christ Jesus about 1843.
Of late years, the most noted English millenarian was Dr. John Cumming,
who placed the end of the _present dispensation_ in 1866 or 1867; but as
that time passed without any millennial symptoms, he modified his
original views considerably, before he died, and conjectured that the
beginning of the millennium would not differ so much after all from the
years immediately preceding it, as people commonly suppose.


FOOTNOTES:

[233:1] We say "is made to teach it," for the probability is that Paul
never wrote this passage. The authority of _both_ the Letters to the
_Thessalonians_, attributed to Paul, is undoubtedly spurious. (See The
Bible of To-Day, pp. 211, 212.)

[233:2] I. Thessalonians, iv. 14-17.

[233:3] Ibid. v. 22, 23.

[233:4] We say "James," but, it is probable that we have, in this
epistle of James, another pseudonymous writing which appeared after the
time that James must have lived. (See The Bible of To-Day, p. 225.)

[233:5] James, v. 7, 8.

[233:6] I. Peter, iv. 7.

[233:7] I. Peter, v. 7. This Epistle is not authentic. (See The Bible of
To-Day, pp. 226, 227, 228.)

[234:1] I. John, ii. 26. This epistle is not authentic. (See Ibid. p.
231.)

[234:2] I. John, v. 2.

[234:3] Acts, i. 10, 11.

[234:4] Rev. xxii. 20.

[234:5] Matt. xvi. 27, 28.

[234:6] Ibid. xxiv. 3.

[234:7] Ibid. xxiv. 34-36.

[235:1] Towards the close of the second century. (See Bible of To-Day.)

[235:2] II. Peter, iii. 4.

[235:3] II. Peter, iii. 8-10.

[235:4] See Middleton's Works, vol. i. p. 188.

[236:1] Chapters xx. and xxi. in particular.

[236:2] The _Christian Saviour_, as well as the _Hindoo Saviour_, will
appear "in the latter days" among mortals "in the form of an armed
warrior, riding a _white horse_." St. John sees this in his _vision_,
and prophecies it in his "Revelation" thus: "And I saw, and behold a
_white horse_: and he that sat on him had a _bow_; and a _crown_ was
given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer." (Rev. vi.
2.)

[237:1] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 75. Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. pp.
497-503. See also, Williams: Hinduism, p. 108.

[237:2] Prog. Relig. Ideas, i. 247, and Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 48.

[237:3] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 209.

[237:4] See Ibid. p. 279. The Angel-Messiah, p. 287, and chap. xiii.
this work.

[237:5] Pp. 122, 123.

[237:6] "And I saw the _dead_, small and great, stand before God." (Rev.
xx. 12.)

[237:7] "And the _sea_ gave up the dead which were in it." (Rev. xx.
13.)

[237:8] "And ye shall hear of wars, and rumors of wars." "Nation shall
rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and there shall be
famines, pestilences, and earthquakes in divers places." (Matt. xxiv. 6,
7.)

[238:1] "And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall
separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from
the goats." (Matt. xxv. 32, 33.)

[238:2] "He descended into hell, the third day he rose (again) from the
dead." (Apostles' Creed.)

[238:3] Purgatory--a place in which souls are supposed by the papists to
be purged by fire from carnal impurities, before they are received into
heaven.

[238:4] "And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the
Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years." (Rev. xx. 2.)

[238:5] "And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire." (Rev. xx.
14.)

[238:6] "And I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first earth,
and the first heaven were passed away." (Rev. xxi. 1.)

[238:7] "And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there
shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there
be any more pain: for the former things are passed away." (Rev. xxi. 1.)

[238:8] "And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in
heaven, saying, 'Alleluia; salvation, and glory, and honor, and power,
unto the Lord, our God.'" (Rev. xix. 1.) "For the Lord God omnipotent
reigneth." (Rev. xix. 6.)

[238:9] Dupuis: Orig. Relig. Belief.

[238:10] Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 407.

[239:1] Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 407.

[239:2] See Mallet's Northern Antiquities.

[239:3] Humboldt: Amer. Res., vol. i. p. 91.

[239:4] Prescott: Con. of Mexico, vol. i. p. 60.

[239:5] Fergusson: Tree and Serpent Worship, p. 87. Squire: Serpent
Symbol, p. 187.

[239:6] Acosta: Hist. Indies, vol. ii. p. 513.

[240:1] Over all the Higher Asia there seems to have been diffused an
immemorial tradition relative to a second grand convulsion of nature,
and the final dissolution of the earth by the terrible agency of FIRE,
as the first is said to have been by that of WATER. It was taught by the
Hindoos, the Egyptians, Plato, Pythagoras, Zoroaster, the Stoics, and
others, and was afterwards adopted by the Christians. (II. Peter, iii.
9. Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. pp. 498-500.)

[240:2] "And God made, in six days, the works of his hands, . . . the
meaning of it is this; that in _six thousand years_ the Lord will bring
all things to an end." (Barnabas. _Apoc._ c. xiii.)

[241:1] After the devotees and followers of the new gospel had in vain
expected the _Holy One_ who was to come, they at last pitched upon St.
Francis as having been the expected one, and, of course, the most
surprising and absurd miracles were said to have been performed by him.
Some of the fanatics who believed in this man, maintained that St.
Francis was "wholly and entirely transformed into the person of
Christ"--_Totum Christo configuratum_. Some of them maintained that the
gospel of Joachim was expressly preferred to the gospel of Christ.
(Mosheim: Hist. Cent., xiii. pt. ii. sects. xxxiv. and xxxvi.
Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 695.)

[242:1] _Chiliasm_--the thousand years when Satan is bound.



CHAPTER XXV.

CHRIST JESUS AS JUDGE OF THE DEAD.


According to Christian dogma, "God the Father" is not to be the judge at
the last day, but this very important office is to be held by "God the
Son." This is taught by the writer of "The Gospel according to St.
John"--whoever he may have been--when he says:

     "For the Father judgeth no man, _but hath committed all
     judgment unto the Son_."[244:1]

Paul also, in his "Epistle to the Romans" (or some other person who has
interpolated the passage), tells us that:

     "In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men," this
     judgment shall be done "by _Jesus Christ_," his son.[244:2]

Again, in his "Epistle to Timothy,"[244:3] he says:

     "_The Lord Jesus Christ_ shall judge the quick and the dead,
     at his appearing and his kingdom."[244:4]

The writer of the "Gospel according to St. Matthew," also describes
Christ Jesus as judge at the last day.[244:5]

Now, the question arises, _is this doctrine original with Christianity_?
To this we must answer _no_. It was taught, for ages before the time of
Christ Jesus or Christianity, that the Supreme Being--whether "Brahmá,"
"Zeruâné Akeréné," "Jupiter," or "Yahweh,"[244:6]--was not to be the
judge at the last day, but that their _sons_ were to hold this position.

The sectarians of _Buddha_ taught that he (who was the _Son of God_
(Brahmá) and the Holy Virgin Maya), is to be the judge of the
dead.[244:7]

According to the religion of the Hindoos, _Crishna_ (who was the _Son
of God_, and the Holy Virgin Devaki), is to be the judge at the last
day.[245:1] And _Yama_ is the god of the departed spirits, and the judge
of the dead, according to the _Vedas_.[245:2]

_Osiris_, the Egyptian "Saviour" and son of the "Immaculate Virgin"
Neith or Nout, was believed by the ancient Egyptians to be the judge of
the dead.[245:3] He is represented on Egyptian monuments, seated on his
throne of judgment, bearing a staff, and carrying the _crux ansata_, or
cross with a handle.[245:4] _St. Andrew's cross_ is upon his breast. His
_throne_ is in checkers, to denote the good and evil over which he
presides, or to indicate the good and evil who appear before him as the
judge.[245:5]

Among the many hieroglyphic titles which accompany his figure in these
sculptures, and in many other places on the walls of temples and tombs,
are "Lord of Life," "The Eternal Ruler," "Manifester of Good," "Revealer
of Truth," "Full of Goodness and Truth," &c.[245:6]

Mr. Bonwick, speaking of the Egyptian belief in the last judgment, says:

     "A perusal of the twenty-fifth chapter of Matthew will prepare
     the reader for the investigation of the Egyptian notion of the
     last judgment."[245:7]

Prof. Carpenter, referring to the Egyptian Bible--which is by far the
most ancient of all holy books[245:8]--says:

     "In the 'Book of the Dead,' there are used the very phrases we
     find in the New Testament, _in connection with the day of
     judgment_."[245:9]

According to the religion of the _Persians_, it is _Ormuzd_, "_The First
Born of the Eternal One_," who is judge of the dead. He had the title of
"The All-Seeing," and "The Just Judge."[245:10]

Zeruâné Akeréné is the name of him who corresponds to "God the Father"
among other nations. He was the "One Supreme essence," the "Invisible
and Incomprehensible."[245:11]

Among the ancient _Greeks_, it was _Aeacus_--Son of the Most High
God--who was to be judge of the dead.[245:12]

The Christian Emperor Constantine, in his oration to the clergy,
speaking of the ancient poets of Greece, says:

     "They affirm that men who are the _sons of the gods_, do
     judge departed souls."[246:1]

Strange as it may seem, "there are no examples of Christ Jesus
conceived as judge, or the last judgment, in the _early_ art of
Christianity."[246:2]

The author from whom we quote the above, says, "It would be difficult to
define the _cause_ of this, though many may be conjectured."[246:3]

Would it be unreasonable to "conjecture" that the _early_ Christians did
not teach this doctrine, but that it was imbibed, in after years, with
many other heathen ideas?


FOOTNOTES:

[244:1] John, v. 22.

[244:2] Romans, ii. 16.

[244:3] Not authentic. (See The Bible of To-Day, p. 212.)

[244:4] II. Timothy, iv. 1.

[244:5] Matt. xxv. 31-46.

[244:6] Through an error we pronounce this name _Jehovah_.

[244:7] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 366.

[245:1] See Samuel Johnson's Oriental Religions, p. 504.

[245:2] See Williams' Hinduism, p. 25.

[245:3] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 120. Renouf: Religions of the
Ancient Egyptians, p. 110, and Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 152.

[245:4] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 151, and Prog. Relig. Ideas,
vol. i. p. 152.

[245:5] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 151.

[245:6] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 154.

[245:7] Egyptian Belief, p. 419.

[245:8] See Ibid. p. 185.

[245:9] Quoted in Ibid. p. 419.

[245:10] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 259.

[245:11] Ibid. p. 258.

[245:12] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 16.

[246:1] Constantine's Oration to the Clergy, ch. x.

[246:2] Jameson: History of Our Lord in Art, vol. ii. p. 392.

[246:3] Ibid.



CHAPTER XXVI.

CHRIST JESUS AS CREATOR, AND ALPHA AND OMEGA.


Christian dogma also teaches that it was not "God the Father," but "God
the Son" who created the heavens, the earth, and all that therein is.

The writer of the fourth Gospel says:

     "_All things were made by him_, and without him was not
     anything made that was made."[247:1]

Again:

     "He was in the world _and the world was made by him_, and the
     world knew him not."[247:2]

In the "Epistle to the Colossians," we read that:

     "By _him_ were all things created that are in heaven and that
     are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones,
     or dominions, or principalities, or powers; _all things were
     created by him_."[247:3]

Again, in the "Epistle to the Hebrews," we are told that:

     "God hath spoken unto us by _his son_, whom he hath appointed
     heir of all things, _by whom also he made the world_."[247:4]

Samuel Johnson, D. O. Allen,[247:5] and Thomas Maurice,[247:6] tell us
that, according to the religion of the _Hindoos_, it is _Crishna_, the
Son, and the second person in the ever blessed Trinity,[247:7] "who is
the origin and end of all the worlds; _all this universe, came into
being through him, the eternal maker_."[247:8]

In the holy book of the Hindoos, called the "_Bhagvat Geeta_," may be
found the following words of _Crishna_, addressed to his "beloved
disciple" Ar-jouan:

     "I am _the Lord of all created beings_."[247:9] "_Mankind was
     created by me_ of four kinds, distinct in their principles and
     in their duties; _know me then to be the Creator of mankind_,
     uncreated, and without decay."[247:10]

In Lecture VII., entitled: "Of the Principles of Nature, and the Vital
Spirit," he also says:

     "I am the creation and the dissolution of the whole universe.
     There is not anything greater than I, and all things hang on
     me."

Again, in Lecture IX., entitled, "Of the Chief of Secrets and Prince of
Science," Crishna says:

     "The whole world was spread abroad by me in my invisible form.
     All things are dependent on me." "I am the Father and the
     Mother of this world, the Grandsire and the Preserver. I am
     the Holy One worthy to be known; the mystic figure OM.[248:1]
     . . . I am the journey of the good; the _Comforter_; the
     _Creator_; the _Witness_; the _Resting-place_; the _Asylum_
     and the _Friend_."[248:2]

In Lecture X., entitled, "Of the diversity of the Divine Nature," he
says:

     "_I am the Creator of all things_, and all things proceed from
     me. Those who are endued with spiritual wisdom, believe this
     and worship me; their very hearts and minds are in me; they
     rejoice amongst themselves, and delight in speaking of my
     name, and teaching one another my doctrine."[248:3]

Innumerable texts, similar to these, might be produced from the Hindoo
Scriptures, but these we deem sufficient to show, in the words of Samuel
Johnson quoted above, that, "According to the religion of the Hindoos,
it is Crishna who is the origin and the end of all the worlds;" and that
"all this universe came into being through him, the Eternal Maker." The
_Chinese_ believed in One Supreme God, to whose honor they burnt
incense, but of whom they had no image. This "God the Father" was _not_
the Creator, according to their theology or mythology; but they had
another god, of whom they had statues or idols, called _Natigai_, who
was the god of all terrestrial things; in fact, God, _the Creator of
this world_--inferior or subordinate to the Supreme Being--from whom
they petition for fine weather, or whatever else they want--a sort of
_mediator_.[248:4]

_Lanthu_, who was born of a "pure, spotless virgin," is believed by his
followers or disciples to be the Creator of all things;[248:5] and
_Taou_, a deified hero, who is mentioned about 560 B. C., is believed by
some sects and affirmed by their books, to be "the original source and
first productive cause of all things."[248:6]

In the _Chaldean_ oracles, the doctrine of the "Only Begotten Son," I A
O, as _Creator_, is plainly taught.

According to ancient _Persian_ mythology, there is one supreme essence,
invisible and incomprehensible, named "_Zeruâné Akeréné_" which
signifies "unlimited time," or "the eternal." From him emanated
_Ormuzd_, the "King of Light," the "First-born of the Eternal One," &c.
Now, this "First-born of the Eternal One" is he by whom all things were
made, all things came into being through him; _he is the
Creator_.[249:1]

A large portion of the _Zend-Avesta_--the Persian Sacred Book or
Bible--is filled with prayers to Ormuzd, God's First-Born. The following
are samples:

     "I address my prayer to Ormuzd, _Creator of all_ things; who
     always has been, who is, and who will be forever; who is wise
     and powerful; who made the great arch of heaven, the sun, the
     moon, stars, winds, clouds, waters, earth, fire, trees,
     animals and men, whom Zoroaster adored. Zoroaster, who brought
     to the world knowledge of the law, who knew by natural
     intelligence, and by the ear, what ought to be done, all that
     has been, all that is, and all that will be; the science of
     sciences, _the excellent word_, by which souls pass the
     luminous and radiant bridge, separate themselves from the evil
     regions, and go to light and holy dwellings, full of
     fragrance. _O Creator_, I obey thy laws, I think, act, speak,
     according to thy orders. I separate myself from all sin. I do
     good works according to my power. I adore thee with purity of
     thought, word, and action. I pray to Ormuzd, who recompenses
     good works, who delivers unto the end all those who obey his
     laws. Grant that I may arrive at paradise, where all is
     fragrance, light, and happiness."[249:2]

According to the religion of the ancient _Assyrians_, it was _Narduk_,
the Logos, the WORD, "the eldest son of Hea," "the Merciful One," "the
Life-giver," &c., who created the heavens, the earth, and all that
therein is.[249:3]

_Adonis_, the Lord and Saviour, was believed to be the Creator of men,
and god of the resurrection of the dead.[249:4]

_Prometheus_, the Crucified Saviour, is the divine forethought, existing
before the souls of men, and the creator Hominium.[249:5]

The writer of "The Gospel according to St. John," has made Christ Jesus
_co-eternal_ with God, as well as Creator, in these words:

     "In the beginning was the _Word_, and the Word was with God."
     "The same was in the beginning with God."[249:6]

Again, in praying to his Father, he makes Jesus say:

     "And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with
     the glory _which I had with thee before the world
     was_."[249:7]

Paul is made to say:

     "And he (Christ) is before all things."[250:1]

Again:

     "Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, to-day, and
     forever."[250:2]

St. John the Divine, in his "Revelation," has made Christ Jesus say:

     "I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end"--"which is,
     and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty,"[250:3]
     "the first and the last."[250:4]

Hindoo scripture also makes _Crishna_ "the first and the last," "the
beginning and the end." We read in the "Geeta," where Crishna is
reported to have said:

     "I myself never was not."[250:5] "Learn that he by whom all
     things were formed" (meaning himself) "is
     incorruptible."[250:6] "I am eternity and
     non-eternity."[250:7] "I am before all things, and the mighty
     ruler of the universe."[250:8] "I am the beginning, the middle
     and the end of all things."[250:9]

Arjouan, his disciple, addresses him thus:

     "Thou art the Supreme Being, incorruptible, worthy to be
     known; thou art prime supporter of the universal orb; thou art
     the never-failing and eternal guardian of religion; _thou art
     from all beginning_, and I esteem thee."[250:10] Thou art "the
     Divine Being, before all other gods."[250:11]

Again he says:

     "Reverence! Reverence be unto thee, before and behind!
     Reverence be unto thee on all sides, O thou who art all in
     all! Infinite in thy power and thy glory! Thou includest all
     things, wherefore thou art all things."[250:12]

In another Holy Book of the Hindoos, called the "Vishnu Purana," we also
read that Vishnu--in the form of Crishna--"who descended into the womb
of the (virgin) Devaki, and was born as her son" was "_without
beginning, middle or end_."[250:13]

_Buddha_ is also Alpha and Omega, without beginning or end, "The Lord,"
"the Possessor of All," "He who is Omnipotent and Everlastingly to be
Contemplated," "the Supreme Being, the Eternal One."[250:14]

_Lao-kiun_, the Chinese virgin-born God, who came upon earth about six
hundred years before Jesus, was without beginning. It was said that he
had existed from all eternity.[250:15]

The legends of the Taou-tsze sect in China declare their founder to
have existed antecedent to the birth of the elements, in the Great
Absolute; that he is the "pure essence of the _tëen_;" that he is the
original ancestor of the prime breath of life; that he gave form to the
heavens and the earth, and caused creations and annihilations to succeed
each other, in an endless series, during innumerable periods of the
world. He himself is made to say:

     "I was in existence prior to the manifestation of any
     corporeal shape; I appeared anterior to the supreme being, or
     first motion of creation."[251:1]

According to the _Zend Avesta_, Ormuzd, the first-born of the Eternal
One, is he "who is, always has been, and who will be forever."[251:2]

_Zeus_ was Alpha and Omega. An Orphic line runs thus:

     "Zeus is the beginning, Zeus is the middle, out of Zeus all
     things have been made."[251:3]

_Bacchus_ was without beginning or end. An inscription on an ancient
medal, referring to him, reads thus:

     "It is I who leads you; it is I who protects you, and who
     saves you, I am Alpha and Omega."

Beneath this inscription is a serpent, with his tail in his mouth, thus
forming a _circle_, which was an emblem of _eternity_ among the
ancients.[251:4]

Without enumerating them, we may say that the majority of the
virgin-born gods spoken of in Chapter XII. were like Christ
Jesus--without beginning or end--and that many of them were considered
Creators of all things. This has led M. Dridon to remark (in his Hist.
de Dieu), that in _early works of art_, Christ Jesus is made to take the
place of his Father in _creation_ and in similar labors, just as in
heathen religions an inferior deity does the work under a superior one.


FOOTNOTES:

[247:1] John, i. 3.

[247:2] John, i. 10.

[247:3] Colossians, i.

[247:4] Hebrews, i. 2.

[247:5] Allen's India, pp. 137 and 380.

[247:6] Indian Antiq., vol. ii. p. 288.

[247:7] See the chapter on the Trinity.

[247:8] Oriental Religions, p. 502.

[247:9] Lecture iv. p. 51.

[247:10] Geeta, p. 52.

[248:1] O. M. or A. U. M. is the Hindoo ineffable name; the mystic
emblem of the deity. It is never uttered aloud, but only mentally by the
devout. It signifies Brahma, Vishnou, and Siva, the _Hindoo Trinity_.
(See Charles Wilkes in Geeta, p. 142, and King's Gnostics and their
Remains, p. 163.)

[248:2] Geeta, p. 80.

[248:3] Geeta, p. 84.

[248:4] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 48.

[248:5] See Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 35.

[248:6] See Davis: Hist. China, vol. ii. pp. 109 and 113, and Thornton,
vol. i. p. 137.

[249:1] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 259. In the most ancient
parts of the Zend-Avesta, Ormuzd is said to have created the world by
his WORD. (See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 104, and Gibbon's Rome, vol.
ii. p. 302, Note by Guizot.) "In the beginning was the WORD, and the
WORD was with God, and the WORD was God." (John, i. 1.)

[249:2] Quoted in Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 267.

[249:3] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 404.

[249:4] See Dunlap's Mysteries of Adoni, p. 156.

[249:5] See Ibid. p. 156, and Bulfinch, Age of Fable.

[249:6] John, i. 1, 2.

[249:7] John, xvii. 5.

[250:1] Col. i. 17.

[250:2] Hebrews, xiii. 8.

[250:3] Rev. i. 8, 23, 13.

[250:4] Rev. i. 17; xii. 13.

[250:5] Geeta, p. 35.

[250:6] Geeta, p. 36.

[250:7] Lecture ix. p. 80.

[250:8] Lecture x. p. 83.

[250:9] Lecture x. p. 85.

[250:10] Lecture ix. p. 91.

[250:11] Lecture x. p. 84.

[250:12] Lecture xi. p. 95.

[250:13] See Vishnu Purana, p. 440.

[250:14] See chapter xii.

[250:15] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 200.

[251:1] Thornton: Hist. China, vol. i. p. 137.

[251:2] Prog. Relig. Ideas, ii. p. 267.

[251:3] Müller's Chips, vol. ii. p. 15.

[251:4] "C'est moi qui vous conduis, vous et tout ce qui vous regarde.
C'est moi, qui vous conserve, on qui vous sauve. Je suis Alpha et Omega.
Il y a au dessous de l'inscription un serpent qui tient sa queue dans sa
gueule et dans la cercle qu'il décrit, cest trois lettre Greques ΤΞΕ,
qui sont le nombre 365. Le serpent, qui est'ordinaire un emblème de
l'éternité est ici celui de soleil et de ses revolutions." Beausobre:
Hist. de Manichee, Tom. ii. p. 56.

"I say that I am immortal, Dionysus (Bacchus), son of Deus."
_Aristophanes_, in Myst. Of Adoni, pp. 80, and 105.



CHAPTER XXVII.

THE MIRACLES OF CHRIST JESUS AND THE PRIMITIVE CHRISTIANS.


The legendary history of Jesus of Nazareth, contained in the books of
the New Testament, is full of prodigies and wonders. These alleged
prodigies, and the faith which the people seem to have put in such a
tissue of falsehoods, indicate the prevalent disposition of the people
to believe in everything, and it was among such a class that
Christianity was propagated. All leaders of religion had the reputation
of having performed miracles; the biographers of Jesus, therefore, not
wishing _their_ Master to be outdone, have made him also a
wonder-worker, and a performer of miracles; without them Christianity
could not prosper. Miracles were needed in those days, on all special
occasions. "There is not a single historian of antiquity, whether Greek
or Latin, who has not recorded oracles, prodigies, prophecies, and
_miracles_, on the occasion of some memorable events, or revolutions of
states and kingdoms. Many of these are attested in the gravest manner by
the gravest writers, _and were firmly believed at the time by the
people_."[252:1]

Hindoo sacred books represent _Crishna_, their Saviour and Redeemer, as
in constant strife against the evil spirit. He surmounts extraordinary
dangers; strews his way with miracles; raising the dead, healing the
sick, restoring the maimed, the deaf and the blind; everywhere
supporting the weak against the strong, the oppressed against the
powerful. The people crowded his way and adored him as a GOD, and these
miracles were the evidences of his divinity for centuries before the
time of Jesus.

The learned Thomas Maurice, speaking of Crishna, tells us that he passed
his innocent hours at the home of his foster-father, in rural
diversions, his divine origin not being suspected, _until repeated
miracles soon discovered his celestial origin_;[252:2] and Sir William
Jones speaks of his _raising the dead_, and saving multitudes _by his
miraculous powers_.[253:1] To enumerate the miracles of Crishna would
be useless and tedious; we shall therefore mention but a few, of which
the Hindoo sacred books are teeming.

When Crishna was born, his life was sought by the reigning monarch,
Kansa, who had the infant Saviour and his father and mother locked in a
dungeon, guarded, and barred by seven iron doors. While in this dungeon
the father heard a secret voice distinctly utter these words: "Son of
Yadu, take up this child and carry it to Gokool, to the house of Nanda."
Vasudeva, struck with astonishment, answered: "How shall I obey this
injunction, thus vigilantly guarded and barred by seven iron doors that
prohibit all egress?" The unknown voice replied: "The doors shall open
of themselves to let thee pass, and behold, I have caused a deep slumber
to fall upon thy guards, which shall continue till thy journey be
accomplished." Vasudeva immediately felt his chains miraculously
loosened, and, taking up the child in his arms, hurried with it through
all the doors, the guards being buried in profound sleep. When he came
to the river Yumna, which he was obliged to cross to get to Gokool, the
waters immediately rose up to kiss the child's feet, and then
respectfully retired on each side to make way for its transportation, so
that Vasudeva passed dry-shod to the opposite shore.[253:2]

When Crishna came to man's estate, one of his first miracles was the
cure of a leper.

A passionate Brahman, having received a slight insult from a certain
Rajah, on going out of his doors, uttered this curse: "That he should,
from head to foot, be covered with boils and leprosy;" which being
fulfilled in an instant upon the unfortunate king, he prayed to Crishna
to deliver him from his evil. At first, Crishna did not heed his
request, but finally he appeared to him, asking what his request was? He
replied, "To be freed from my distemper." The Saviour then cured him of
his distemper.[253:3]

Crishna was one day walking with his disciples, when "they met a poor
cripple or lame woman, having a vessel filled with spices, sweet-scented
oils, sandal-wood, saffron, civet and other perfumes. Crishna making a
halt, she made a certain sign with her finger on his forehead, _casting
the rest upon his head_. Crishna asking her what it was she would
request of him, the woman replied, nothing but the use of my limbs.
Crishna, then, setting his foot upon hers, and taking her by the hand,
raised her from the ground, and not only restored her limbs, but
renewed her age, so that, instead of a wrinkled, tawny skin, she
received a fresh and fair one in an instant. At her request, Crishna and
his company lodged in her house."[254:1]

On another occasion, Crishna having requested a learned Brahman to ask
of him whatever boon he most desired, the Brahman said, "Above all
things, I desire to have my two dead sons restored to life." Crishna
assured him that this should be done, and immediately the two young men
were restored to life and brought to their father.[254:2]

The learned Orientalist, Thomas Maurice, after speaking of the miracles
performed by Crishna, says:

     "In regard to the numerous miracles wrought by Crishna, it
     should be remembered that miracles are never wanting to the
     decoration of an Indian romance; they are, in fact, the life
     and soul of the vast machine; nor is it at all a subject of
     wonder that the dead should be raised to life in a history
     expressly intended, like all other sacred fables of Indian
     fabrication, for the propagation and support of the whimsical
     doctrine of the Metempsychosis."[254:3]

To speak thus of the miracles of Christ Jesus, would, of course, be
heresy--although what applies to the miracles of Crishna apply to those
of Jesus--we, therefore, find this gentleman branding as "_infidel_" a
learned French orientalist who was guilty of doing this thing.

_Buddha_ performed great miracles for the good of mankind, and the
legends concerning him are full of the most extravagant prodigies and
wonders.[254:4] "By miracles and preaching," says Burnouf, "was the
religion of Buddha established."

R. Spence Hardy says of Buddha:

     "All the principal events of his life are represented as being
     attended by incredible prodigies. He could pass through the
     air at will, and know the thoughts of all beings."[254:5]

Prof. Max Müller says:

     "The Buddhist legends teem with miracles attributed to Buddha
     and his disciples--miracles which in wonderfulness certainly
     surpass the miracles of any other religion."[254:6]

Buddha was at one time going from the city of Rohita-vastu to the city
of Benares, when, coming to the banks of the river Ganges, and wishing
to go across, he addressed himself to the owner of a ferry-boat, thus;
"Hail! respectable sir! I pray you take me across the river in your
boat!" To this the boatman replied, "If you can pay me the fare, I will
willingly take you across the river." Buddha said, "Whence shall I
procure money to pay you your fare, I, who have given up all worldly
wealth and riches, &c." The boatman still refusing to take him across,
Buddha, pointing to a flock of geese flying from the south to the north
banks of the Ganges, said:

     "See yonder geese in fellowship passing o'er the Ganges,
      They ask not as to fare of any boatman,
      But each by his inherent strength of body
      Flies through the air as pleases him.
      So, by my power of spiritual energy,
      Will I transport myself across the river,
      Even though the waters on this southern bank
      Stood up as high and firm as (Mount) Semeru."[255:1]

He then floats through the air across the stream.

In the _Lalita Vistara_ Buddha is called the "Great Physician" who is to
"dull all human pain." At his appearance the "sick are healed, the deaf
are cured, the blind see, the poor are relieved." He visits the sick
man, Su-ta, and heals soul as well as body.

At Vaisali, a pest like modern cholera was depopulating the kingdom, due
to an accumulation of festering corpses. Buddha, summoned, caused a
strong rain which carried away the dead bodies and cured every one. At
Gaudhârâ was an old mendicant afflicted with a disease so loathsome that
none of his brother monks could go near him on account of his fetid
humors and stinking condition. The "Great Physician" was, however, not
to be deterred; he washed the poor old man and attended to his maladies.
A disciple had his feet hacked off by an unjust king, and Buddha cured
even him. To convert certain skeptical villagers near Srâvastî, Buddha
showed them a man walking across the deep and rapid river without
immersing his feet. Pûrna, one of Buddha's disciples, had a brother in
imminent danger of shipwreck in a "black storm." The "spirits that are
favorable to Pûrna and Arya" apprised him of this and he at once
performed the miracle of transporting himself to the deck of the ship.
"Immediately the black tempest ceased, as if Sumera arrested it."[255:2]

When Buddha was told that a woman was suffering in severe labor, unable
to bring forth, he said, Go and say: "I have never knowingly put any
creature to death since I was born; by the virtue of this obedience may
you be free from pain!" When these words were repeated in the presence
of the mother, the child was instantly born with ease.[256:1]

Innumerable are the miracles ascribed to Buddhist saints, and to others
who followed their example. Their garments, and the staffs with which
they walked, are supposed to imbibe some mysterious power, and blessed
are they who are allowed to touch them.[256:2] A Buddhist saint who
attains the power called "_perfection_," is able to rise and float along
through the air.[256:3] Having this power, the saint exercises it by
mere determination of his will, his body becoming imponderous, as when a
man in the common human state determines to leap, and leaps. Buddhist
annals relate the performance of the miraculous suspension by Gautama
Buddha, himself, as well as by other _saints_.[256:4]

In the year 217 B. C., a Buddhist missionary priest, called by the
Chinese historians Shih-le-fang, came from "the west" into Shan-se,
accompanied by eighteen other priests, with their sacred books, in order
to propagate the faith of Buddha. The emperor, disliking foreigners and
exotic customs, imprisoned the missionaries; but an angel, genii, or
spirit, came and opened the prison door, and liberated them.[256:5]

Here is a third edition of "Peter in prison," for we have already seen
that the Hindoo sage Vasudeva was liberated from prison in like manner.

_Zoroaster_, the founder of the religion of the Persians, opposed his
persecutors by performing miracles, in order to confirm his divine
mission.[256:6]

_Bochia_ of the Persians also performed miracles; the places where he
performed them were consecrated, and people flocked in crowds to visit
them.[256:7]

_Horus_, the Egyptian Saviour, performed great miracles, among which was
that of raising the dead to life.[256:8]

_Osiris_ of Egypt also performed great miracles;[256:9] and so did the
virgin goddess _Isis_.

Pilgrimages were made to the temples of Isis, in Egypt, by the sick.
Diodorus, the Grecian historian, says that:

     "Those who go to consult in dreams the goddess Isis recover
     perfect health. Many whose cure has been despaired of by
     physicians have by this means been saved, and others who have
     long been deprived of sight, or of some other part of the
     body, by taking refuge, so to speak, in the arms of the
     goddess, have been restored to the enjoyment of their
     faculties."[257:1]

_Serapis_, the Egyptian Saviour, performed great miracles, principally
those of healing the sick. He was called "The Healer of the
World."[257:2]

_Marduk_, the Assyrian God, the "Logos," the "Eldest Son of Hea;" "He
who made Heaven and Earth;" the "Merciful One;" the "Life-Giver," &c.,
performed great miracles, among which was that of raising the dead to
life.[257:3]

_Bacchus_, son of Zeus by the virgin Semele, was a great performer of
miracles, among which may be mentioned his changing water into
wine,[257:4] as it is recorded of Jesus in the Gospels.

"In his gentler aspects he is the giver of joy, the healer of
sicknesses, the guardian against plagues. As such he is even a law-giver
and a promoter of peace and concord. As kindling new or strange thoughts
in the mind, he is a giver of wisdom and the revealer of hidden secrets
of the future."[257:5]

The legends related of this god state that on one occasion Pantheus,
King of Thebes, sent his attendants to seize Bacchus, the "vagabond
leader of a faction"--as he called him. This they were unable to do, as
the multitude who followed him were too numerous. They succeeded,
however, in capturing one of his disciples, Acetes, who was led away and
shut up fast in prison; but while they were getting ready the
instruments of execution, _the prison doors came open of their own
accord, and the chains fell from his limbs_, and when they looked for
him he was nowhere to be found.[257:6] Here is still another edition of
"Peter in prison."

_Æsculapius_ was another great performer of miracles. The ancient Greeks
said of him that he not only cured the sick of the most malignant
diseases, _but even raised the dead_.

A writer in Bell's Pantheon says:

     "As the Greeks always carried the encomiums of their great men
     beyond the truth, so they feigned that Æsculapius was so
     expert in medicine as not only to cure the sick, but even to
     raise the dead."[258:1]

Eusebius, the ecclesiastical historian, speaking of Æsculapius, says:

     "He sometimes appeared unto them (the Cilicians) in dreams and
     visions, and sometimes restored the sick to health."

He claims, however, that this was the work of the DEVIL, "who by this
means did withdraw the minds of men from the knowledge of the _true_
SAVIOUR."[258:2]

For many years after the death of Æsculapius, miracles continued to be
performed by the efficacy of faith in his name. Patients were conveyed
to the temple of Æsculapius, and there cured of their disease. A short
statement of the symptoms of each case, and the remedy employed, were
inscribed on tablets and hung up in the temples.[258:3] There were also
a multitude of eyes, ears, hands, feet, and other members of the human
body, made of wax, silver, or gold, and presented by those whom the god
had cured of blindness, deafness, and other diseases.[258:4]

Marinus, a scholar of the philosopher Proclus, relates one of these
remarkable cures, in the life of his master. He says:

     "Asclipigenia, a young maiden who had lived with her parents,
     was seized with a grievous distemper, incurable by the
     physicians. All help from the physicians failing, the father
     applied to the philosopher, earnestly entreating him to pray
     for his daughter. Proclus, full of faith, went to the temple
     of Æsculapius, intending to pray for the sick young woman to
     the god--for the city (Athens) was at that time blessed in
     him, and still enjoyed the undemolished temple of THE
     SAVIOUR--but while he was praying, a sudden change appeared in
     the damsel, and she immediately became convalescent, for the
     _Saviour_, Æsculapius, as being God, easily healed
     her."[258:5]

Dr. Conyers Middleton says:

     "Whatever proof the primitive (Christian) Church might have
     among themselves, of the miraculous gift, yet it could have
     but little effect towards making proselytes among those who
     pretended to the same gift--possessed more largely and exerted
     more openly, than in the private assemblies of the Christians.
     For in the temples of _Æsculapius_, all kinds of diseases were
     believed to be publicly cured, by the pretended help of that
     deity, in proof of which there were erected in each temple,
     columns or tables of brass or marble, on which a distinct
     narrative of each particular cure was inscribed.
     Pausanias[258:6] writes that in the temple at Epidaurus there
     were many columns anciently of this kind, and six of them
     remaining to his time, _inscribed with the names of men and
     women who had been cured by the god_, with an account of their
     several cases, and the method of their cure; and that there
     was an old pillar besides, which stood apart, dedicated to the
     memory of Hippolytus, _who had been raised from the dead_.
     Strabo, also, another grave writer, informs us that these
     temples were constantly filled with the sick, imploring the
     help of the god, and that they had tables hanging around them,
     in which all the miraculous cures were described. There is a
     remarkable fragment of one of these tables still extant, and
     exhibited by Gruter in his collection, as it was found in the
     ruins of Æsculapius's temple in the Island of the Tiber, in
     Rome, which gives an account of two blind men restored to
     sight by Æsculapius, in the open view,[259:1] and with the
     loud acclamation of the people, acknowledging the manifest
     power of the god."[259:2]

Livy, the most illustrious of Roman historians (born B. C. 61), tells us
that temples of _heathen gods_ were rich in the number of offerings
_which the people used to make in return for the cures and benefits
which they received from them_.[259:3]

A writer in _Bell's Pantheon_ says:

     "Making presents to the gods was a custom even from the
     earliest times, either to deprecate their wrath, obtain some
     benefit, or acknowledge some favor. These donations consisted
     of garlands, garments, cups of gold, or whatever conduced to
     the decoration or splendor of their temples. They were
     sometimes laid on the floor, sometimes hung upon the walls,
     doors, pillars, roof, or any other conspicuous place.
     Sometimes the occasion of the dedication was inscribed, either
     upon the thing itself, or upon a tablet hung up with
     it."[259:4]

No one custom of antiquity is so frequently mentioned by ancient
historians, as the practice which was so common among the _heathens_, of
making votive offerings to their deities, and hanging them up in their
temples, many of which are preserved to this day, viz., images of metal,
stone, or clay, as well as legs, arms, and other parts of the body, _in
testimony of some divine cure effected in that particular
member_.[259:5]

Horace says:

        "----Me tabula sacer
     Votivâ paries indicat humida
     Suspendisse potenti
     Vestimenta maris Deo." (Lib. 1, Ode V.)

It was the custom of offering _ex-votos_ of _Priapic_ forms, at the
church of Isernia, in the _Christian_ kingdom of Naples, during the last
century, which induced Mr. R. Payne Knight to compile his remarkable
work on Phallic Worship.

Juvenal, who wrote A. D. 81-96, says of the goddess _Isis_, whose
religion was at that time in the greatest vogue at Rome, that the
painters get their livelihood out of her. This was because "the most
common of all offerings (made by the heathen to their deities) were
_pictures_ presenting the history of the miraculous cure or deliverance,
vouchsafed upon the vow of the donor."[260:1] One of their prayers ran
thus:

     "Now, Goddess, help, for thou canst help bestow,
      _As all these pictures round thy altars show_."[260:2]

In _Chambers's Encyclopædia_ may be found the following:

     "Patients that were cured of their ailments (by _Æsculapius_,
     or through faith in him) hung up a tablet in his temple,
     recording the name, the disease, and the manner of cure. _Many
     of these votive tablets are still extant._"[260:3]

Alexander S. Murray, of the department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in
the British Museum, speaking of the miracles performed by _Æsculapius_,
says:

     "A person who had recovered from a local illness would dictate
     a sculptured representation of the part that had been
     affected. _Of such sculptures there are a number of examples
     in the British Museum._"[260:4]

Justin Martyr, in his _Apology_ for the Christian religion, addressed to
the Emperor Hadrian, says:

     "As to _our_ Jesus curing the lame, and the paralytic, and
     such as were crippled from birth, this is little more than
     what you say of your _Æsculapius_."[260:5]

At a time when the Romans were infested with the plague, having
consulted their sacred books, they learned that in order to be delivered
from it, they were to go in quest of _Æsculapius_ at Epidaurus;
accordingly, an embassy was appointed of ten senators, at the head of
whom was Quintus Ogulnius, and the worship of Æsculapius was established
at Rome, A. U. C. 462, that is, B. C. 288. But the most remarkable
coincidence is that the worship of this god continued with scarcely any
diminished splendor, for several hundred years after the establishment
of Christianity.[260:6]

Hermes or Mercury, the Lord's Messenger, was a wonder-worker. The staff
or rod which Hermes received from Phoibos (Apollo), and which connects
this myth with the special emblem of Vishnu (the Hindoo Saviour), was
regarded as denoting his heraldic office. It was, however, always
endowed with magic properties, and had the power even of raising the
dead.[261:1]

Herodotus, the Grecian historian, relates a wonderful miracle which
happened among the _Spartans_, many centuries before the time assigned
for the birth of Christ Jesus. The story is as follows:

     A Spartan couple of great wealth and influence, had a daughter
     born to them who was a cripple from birth. Her nurse,
     perceiving that she was misshapen, and knowing her to be the
     daughter of opulent persons, and deformed, and seeing,
     moreover, that her parents considered her form a great
     misfortune, considering these several circumstances, devised
     the following plan. She carried her every day to the temple of
     the Goddess _Helen_, and standing before her image, prayed to
     the goddess to free the child from its deformity. One day, as
     the nurse was going out of the temple, a woman appeared to
     her, and having appeared, asked what she was carrying in her
     arms; and she answered that she was carrying an infant;
     whereupon she bid her show it to her, but the nurse refused,
     for she had been forbidden by the parents to show the child to
     any one. The woman, however--who was none other than the
     Goddess herself--urged her by all means to show it to her, and
     the nurse, seeing that the woman was so very anxious to see
     the child, at length showed it; upon which she, stroking the
     head of the child with her hands, said that she would surpass
     all the women in Sparta in beauty. From that day her
     appearance began to change, her deformed limbs became
     symmetrical, and when she reached the age for marriage she was
     the most beautiful woman in all Sparta.[261:2]

_Apollonius_ of Tyana, in Cappadocia, who was born in the latter part of
the reign of Augustus, about four years before the time assigned for the
birth of Jesus, and who was therefore contemporary with him, was
celebrated for the wonderful miracles he performed. Oracles in various
places declared that he was endowed with a portion of Apollo's power to
cure diseases, and foretell events; and those who were affected were
commanded to apply to him. The priests of Iona made over the diseased to
his care, and his cures were considered so remarkable, that divine
honors were decreed to him.[261:3]

He at one time went to Ephesus, but as the inhabitants did not hearken
to his preaching, he left there and went to Smyrna, where he was well
received by the inhabitants. While there, ambassadors came from
Ephesus, begging him to return to that city, where a terrible plague was
raging, _as he had prophesied_. He went immediately, and as soon as he
arrived, he said to the Ephesians: "Be not dejected, I will this day put
a stop to the disease." According to his words, the pestilence was
stayed, and the people erected a statue to him, in token of their
gratitude.[262:1]

In the city of Athens, there was one of the dissipated young citizens,
who laughed and cried by turns, and talked and sang to himself, without
apparent cause. His friends supposed these habits were the effects of
early intemperance, but Apollonius, who happened to meet the young man,
told him he was possessed of a _demon_; and, as soon as he fixed his
eyes upon him, the demon broke out into all those horrid, violent
expressions used by people on the rack, and then swore he would depart
out of the youth, and never enter another.[262:2] The young man had not
been aware that he was possessed by a devil, but from that moment, his
wild, disturbed looks changed, he became very temperate, and assumed the
garb of a Pythagorean philosopher.

Apollonius went to Rome, and arrived there after the emperor Nero had
passed very severe laws against _magicians_. He was met on the way by a
person who advised him to turn back and not enter the city, saying that
all who wore the philosopher's garb were in danger of being arrested as
magicians. He heeded not these words of warning, but proceeded on his
way, and entered the city. It was not long before he became an object of
suspicion, was closely watched, and finally arrested, but when his
accusers appeared before the tribunal and unrolled the parchment on
which the charges against him had been written, they found that all the
characters had disappeared. Apollonius made such an impression on the
magistrates by the bold tone he assumed, that he was allowed to go where
he pleased.[262:3]

Many miracles were performed by him while in Rome, among others may be
mentioned his restoring a _dead maiden to life_.

She belonged to a family of rank, and was just about to be married, when
she died suddenly. Apollonius met the funeral procession that was
conveying her body to the tomb. He asked them to set down the bier,
saying to her betrothed: "I will dry up the tears you are shedding for
this maiden." They supposed he was going to pronounce a funeral oration,
but he merely _took her hand_, bent over her, and uttered a few words in
a low tone. She opened her eyes, and began to speak, and was carried
back alive and well to her father's house.[263:1]

Passing through Tarsus, in his travels, a young man was pointed out to
him who had been bitten thirty days before by a mad dog, and who was
then running on all fours, barking and howling. Apollonius took his case
in hand, and it was not long before the young man was restored to his
right mind.[263:2]

Domitian, Emperor of Rome, caused Apollonius to be arrested, during one
of his visits to that city, on charge of allowing himself to be
worshiped (the people having given him _divine honors_), speaking
against the reigning powers, and pretending that his words were inspired
by the gods. He was taken, loaded with irons, and cast into prison. "I
have bound you," said the emperor, "and you will not escape me."

Apollonius was one day visited in his prison by his steadfast disciple,
Damus, who asked him when he thought he should recover his liberty,
whereupon he answered: "This instant, if it depended upon myself," and
drawing his legs out of the shackles, he added: "Keep up your spirits,
you see the freedom I enjoy." He was brought to trial not long after,
and so defended himself, that the emperor was induced to acquit him, but
forbade him to leave Rome. Apollonius then addressed the emperor, and
ended by saying: "You cannot kill me, because I am not mortal;" and as
soon as he had said these words, _he vanished from the tribunal_.[263:3]
Damus (the disciple who had visited him in prison) had previously been
sent away from Rome, with the promise of his master that he would soon
rejoin him. Apollonius vanished from the presence of the emperor (at
Rome) at noon. _On the evening of the same day, he suddenly appeared
before Damus and some other friends who were at Puteoli, more than a
hundred miles from Rome._ They started, being doubtful whether or not it
was his spirit, but he stretched out his hand, saying: "Take it, and if
I escape from you regard me as an apparition."[263:4]

When Apollonius had told his disciples that he had made his defense in
Rome, only a few hours before, they marveled how he could have performed
the journey so rapidly. He, in reply, said that they must ascribe it to
a god.[264:1]

The Empress Julia, wife of Alexander Severus, was so much interested in
the history of Apollonius, that she requested Flavius Philostratus, an
Athenian author of reputation, to write an account of him. The early
Christian Fathers, alluding to this life of Apollonius, do not deny the
miracles it recounts, but attribute to them the aid of evil
spirits.[264:2]

Justin Martyr was one of the believers in the miracles performed by
Apollonius, and by others through him, for he says:

     "How is it that the talismans of Apollonius have power in
     certain members of creation? for they prevent, _as we see_,
     the fury of the waves, and the violence of the winds, and the
     attacks of wild beasts, and whilst _our_ Lord's miracles _are
     preserved by tradition alone, those of Apollonius are most
     numerous, and actually manifested in present facts, so as to
     lead astray all beholders_."[264:3]

So much for Apollonius. We will now speak of another miracle performer,
_Simon Magus_.

Simon the Samaritan, generally called Simon _Magus_, produced marked
effects on the times succeeding him; being the progenitor of a large
class of sects, which long troubled the Christian churches.

In the time of Jesus and Simon Magus it was almost universally believed
that men could foretell events, cure diseases, and obtain control over
the forces of nature, by the aid of spirits, if they knew how to invoke
them. It was Simon's proficiency in this occult science which gained him
the surname of _Magus_, or _Magician_.

The writer of the eighth chapter of "_The Acts of the Apostles_" informs
us that when Philip went into Samaria, "to preach Christ unto them," he
found there "a certain man called Simon, which beforetime in the same
city used sorcery, and bewitched the people of Samaria, giving out that
himself was some great one. To whom they all gave heed, from the least
to the greatest, saying: This man is the great power of God."[264:4]

Simon traveled about preaching, and made many proselytes. He professed
to be "_The Wisdom of God_," "_The Word of God_," "_The Paraclete_, or
_Comforter_," "_The Image of the Eternal Father, Manifested in the
Flesh_," and his followers claimed that he was "_The First Born of the
Supreme_."[265:1] All of these are titles, which, in after years, were
applied to Christ Jesus. His followers had a gospel called "_The Four
Corners of the World_," which reminds us of the reason given by Irenæus,
for there being _four_ Gospels among the Christians. He says:

     "It is impossible that there could be more or less than
     _four_. For there are _four_ climates, and _four_ cardinal
     winds; but the _Gospel_ is the pillar and foundation of the
     Church, and its breath of life. The Church, therefore, was to
     have _four pillars_, blowing immortality from every quarter,
     and giving life to men."[265:2]

Simon also composed some works, of which but slight fragments remain,
Christian authority having evidently destroyed them. That he made a
lively impression on his contemporaries is indicated by the subsequent
extension of his doctrines, under varied forms, by the wonderful stories
which the Christian Fathers relate of him, and by the strong dislike
they manifested toward him.

Eusebius, the ecclesiastical historian, says of him:

     "The malicious power of _Satan_, enemy to all honesty, and foe
     to all human salvation, brought forth at that time this
     monster Simon, a father and worker of all such mischiefs, _as
     a great adversary unto the mighty and holy Apostles_.

     "Coming into the city of Rome, he was so aided by that power
     which prevaileth in this world, that in short time he brought
     his purpose to such a pass, that his picture was there placed
     with others, and he honored as a god."[265:3]

Justin Martyr says of him:

     "After the ascension of _our_ Savior into heaven, the DEVIL
     brought forth certain men which called themselves gods, who
     not only suffered no vexation of you (Romans), but attained
     unto honor amongst you, by name one _Simon_, a Samaritan, born
     in the village of Gitton, who (under Claudius Cæsar) by the
     art of _devils_, through whom he dealt, wrought devilish
     enchantments, was esteemed and counted in your regal city of
     Rome for a _god_, and honored by you as a _god_, with a
     picture between two bridges upon the river Tibris, having this
     Roman inscription: '_Simoni deo Sancto_' (To Simon the Holy
     God). And in manner all the Samaritans, and certain also of
     other nations, do worship him, acknowledging him for their
     chief god."[265:4]

According to accounts given by several other Christian Fathers, he could
make his appearance wherever he pleased to be at any moment; could poise
himself on the air; make inanimate things move without visible
assistance; produce trees from the earth suddenly; cause a stick to reap
without hands; change himself into the likeness of any other person, or
even into the forms of animals; fling himself from high precipices
unhurt, walk through the streets accompanied by spirits of the dead; and
many other such like performances.[266:1]

Simon went to Rome, where he gave himself out to be an "Incarnate Spirit
of God."[266:2] He became a favorite with the Emperor Claudius, and
afterwards with Nero. His Christian opponents, as we have seen in the
cases cited above, did not deny the miracles attributed to him, but said
they were done through the agency of evil spirits, which was a common
opinion among the Fathers. They claimed that every _magician_ had an
attendant evil spirit, who came when summoned, obeyed his commands, and
taught him ceremonies and forms of words, by which he was able to do
supernatural things. In this way they were accustomed to account for all
the miracles performed by Gentiles and heretics.[266:3]

_Menander_--who was called the "Wonder-Worker"--was another great
performer of miracles. Eusebius, speaking of him, says that he was
skilled in magical art, and performed _devilish_ operations; and that
"as yet there be divers which can testify the same of him."[266:4]

Dr. Conyers Middleton, speaking on this subject, says:

     "It was universally received and believed through all ages of
     the primitive church, that there was a number of magicians,
     necromancers, or conjurors, both among the _Gentiles_, and the
     _heretical Christians_, who had each their peculiar _demon_ or
     evil spirit, for their associates, perpetually attending on
     their persons and obsequious to their commands, by whose help
     they could perform miracles, foretell future events, call up
     the souls of the dead, exhibit them to open view, and infuse
     into people whatever dreams or visions they saw fit, all which
     is constantly affirmed by the primitive writers and
     apologists, and commonly applied by them to prove the
     immortality of the soul."[266:5]

After quoting from Justin Martyr, who says that these _magicians_ could
convince any one "that the souls of men exist still after death," he
continues by saying:

     "Lactantius, speaking of certain philosophers who held that
     the soul perished with the body, says: 'they durst not have
     declared such an opinion, in the presence of _any magician_,
     for if they had done it, he would have confuted them upon the
     spot, by sensible experiments; _by calling up souls from the
     dead, and rendering them visible to human eyes, and making
     them speak and foretell future events_."[267:1]

The Christian Father Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch, who was contemporary
with Irenæus (A. D. 177-202), went so far as to declare that it was evil
spirits who inspired the old poets and prophets of Greece and Rome. He
says:

     "The truth of this is manifestly shown; because those who are
     possessed by devils, even at this day, are sometimes exorcised
     by us in the name of God; and the seducing spirits confess
     themselves to be the same demons who before inspired the
     Gentile poets."[267:2]

Even in the second century after Christianity, foreign conjurors were
professing to exhibit miracles among the Greeks. Lucian gives an account
of one of these "foreign barbarians"--as he calls them[267:3]--and says:

     "I believed and was overcome in spite of my resistance, for
     what was I to do when I saw him carried through the air in
     daylight, and walking on the water,[267:4] and passing
     leisurely and slowly through the fire?"[267:5]

He further tells us that this "foreign barbarian" was able to raise the
dead to life.[267:6]

Athenagoras, a Christian Father who flourished during the latter part of
the second century, says on this subject:

     "We (Christians) do not deny that in several places, cities,
     and countries, there are some extraordinary works performed in
     the name of _idols_," _i. e._, heathen gods.[267:7]

Miracles were not uncommon things among the Jews before and during the
time of Christ Jesus. Casting out devils was an every-day
occurrence,[267:8] and miracles frequently happened to confirm the
sayings of Rabbis. One cried out, when his opinion was disputed, "May
this tree prove that I am right!" and forthwith the tree was torn up by
the roots, and hurled a hundred ells off. But his opponents declared
that a tree could prove nothing. "May this stream, then, witness for
me!" cried Eliezar, and at once it flowed the opposite way.[268:1]

Josephus, the Jewish historian, tells us that _King Solomon_ was expert
in casting out devils who had taken possession of the body of mortals.
This gift was also possessed by many Jews throughout different ages. He
(Josephus) relates that he saw one of his own countrymen (Eleazar)
casting out devils, in the presence of a vast multitude.[268:2]

Dr. Conyers Middleton says:

     "It is remarkable that all the Christian Fathers, who lay so
     great a stress on the particular gift of _casting out devils_,
     allow the same power both to the Jews and the Gentiles, _as
     well before as after our Saviour's coming_."[268:3]

_Vespasian_, who was born about ten years after the time assigned for
the birth of Christ Jesus, performed wonderful miracles, for the good of
mankind. Tacitus, the Roman historian, informs us that he cured a _blind
man_ in Alexandria, by means of his spittle, and a _lame man_ by the
mere touch of his foot.

The words of Tacitus are as follows:

     "Vespasian passed some months at Alexandria, having resolved
     to defer his voyage to Italy till the return of summer, when
     the winds, blowing in a regular direction, afford a safe and
     pleasant navigation. During his residence in that city, a
     number of incidents, out of the ordinary course of nature,
     seemed to mark him as the peculiar favorite of the gods. A man
     of mean condition, born at Alexandria, had lost his sight by a
     defluxion on his eyes. He presented himself before Vespasian,
     and, falling prostrate on the ground, implored the emperor to
     administer a cure for his blindness. He came, he said, by the
     admonition of Serapis, the god whom the superstition of the
     Egyptians holds in the highest veneration. The request was,
     that the emperor, with his spittle, would condescend to
     moisten the poor man's face and the balls of his eyes.[268:4]
     Another, who had lost the use of his hand, inspired by the
     same god, begged that he would tread on the part affected.
     . . . In the presence of a prodigious multitude, all erect
     with expectation, he advanced with an air of serenity, and
     hazarded the experiment. The paralytic hand recovered its
     functions, and the blind man saw the light of the sun.[268:5]
     By living witnesses, who were actually on the spot, both
     events are confirmed at this hour, when deceit and flattery
     can hope for no reward."[268:6]

The striking resemblance between the account of these miracles, and
those attributed to Jesus in the Gospels "_according to_" Matthew and
Mark, would lead us to think that one had been copied from the other,
but when we find that Tacitus wrote his history A. D. 98,[269:1] and
that the "_Matthew_" and Mark narrators' works were not known until
_after_ that time,[269:2] the evidence certainly is that Tacitus was
_not_ the plagiarist, but that this charge must fall on the shoulders of
the Christian writers, whoever they may have been.

To come down to earlier times, even the religion of the Mahometans is a
religion of miracles and wonders. Mahomet, like Jesus of Nazareth, did
not claim to perform miracles, but the votaries of Mahomet are more
assured than himself of his miraculous gifts; and their confidence and
credulity increase as they are farther removed from the time and place
of his spiritual exploits. They believe or affirm that trees went forth
to meet him; that he was saluted by stones; that water gushed from his
fingers; that he fed the hungry, cured the sick, and raised the dead;
that a beam groaned to him; that a camel complained to him; that a
shoulder of mutton informed him of its being poisoned; and that both
animate and inanimate nature were equally subject to the apostle of God.
His dream of a nocturnal journey is seriously described as a real and
corporeal transaction. A mysterious animal, the Borak, conveyed him from
the temple of Mecca to that of Jerusalem; with his companion Gabriel he
successively ascended the seven heavens, and received and repaid the
salutations of the patriarchs, the prophets, and the angels in their
respective mansions. Beyond the seventh heaven, Mahomet alone was
permitted to proceed; he passed the veil of unity, approached within two
bow-shots of the throne, and felt a cold that pierced him to the heart,
when his shoulder was touched by the hand of God. After a familiar,
though important conversation, he descended to Jerusalem, remounted the
Borak, returned to Mecca, and performed in the tenth part of a night the
journey of many thousand years. His resistless word split asunder the
orb of the moon, and the obedient planet stooped from her station in the
sky.[269:3]

These and many other wonders, similar in character to the story of Jesus
sending the demons into the swine, are related of Mahomet by his
followers.

It is very certain that the same circumstances which are claimed to have
taken place with respect to the Christian religion, are also claimed to
have taken place in the religions of Crishna, Buddha, Zoroaster,
Æsculapius, Bacchus, Apollonius, Simon Magus, &c. Histories of these
persons, with miracles, relics, circumstances of locality, suitable to
them, were as common, as well authenticated (if not better), and as much
believed by the devotees as were those relating to Jesus.

All the Christian theologians which the world has yet produced have not
been able to procure any evidence of the miracles recorded in the
_Gospels_, half so strong as can be procured in evidence of miracles
performed by heathens and heathen gods, both before and after the time
of Jesus; and, as they cannot do this, let them give us a reason why we
should reject the one and receive the other. And if they cannot do this,
let them candidly confess that we must either admit them all, or reject
them all, for they all stand on the same footing.

In the early times of the Roman republic, in the war with the Latins,
the gods Castor and Pollux are said to have appeared on white horses in
the Roman army, which by their assistance gained a complete victory: in
memory of which, the General Posthumius vowed and built a temple to
these deities; and for a proof of the fact, there was shown, we find, in
Cicero's time (106 to 43 B. C.), the marks of the horses' hoofs on a
rock at Regillum, where they first appeared.[270:1]

Now this miracle, with those which have already been mentioned, and many
others of the same kind which could be mentioned, has as authentic an
attestation, if not more so, as any of the Gospel miracles. It has, for
instance: The decree of a senate to confirm it; visible marks on the
spot where it was transacted; and all this supported by the best authors
of antiquity, amongst whom Dionysius, of Halicarnassus, who says that
there was subsisting in his time at Rome many evident proofs of its
reality, besides a yearly festival, with a solemn sacrifice and
procession, in memory of it.[270:2]

With all these evidences in favor of this miracle having really
happened, it seems to us so ridiculous, that we wonder how there could
ever have been any so simple as to believe it, yet we should believe
that Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead, after he had been in the tomb
four days, our only authority being that _anonymous_ book known as the
"Gospel according to St. John," which was not known until after A. D.
173. Albert Barnes, in his "Lectures on the Evidences of Christianity,"
speaking of the authenticity of the Gospel miracles, makes the following
damaging confession:

     "An important question is, whether there is any stronger
     evidence in favor of miracles, than there is in favor of
     witchcraft, or sorcery, or the re-appearance of the dead, of
     ghosts, of apparitions? Is not the evidence in favor of these
     as strong as any that can be adduced in favor of miracles?
     Have not these things been matters of universal belief? In
     what respect is the evidence in favor of the miracles of the
     Bible stronger than that which can be adduced in favor of
     witchcraft and sorcery? Does it differ in nature and degrees;
     and if it differs, is it not in favor of witchcraft and
     sorcery? Has not the evidence in favor of the latter been
     derived from as competent and reliable witnesses? Has it not
     been brought to us from those who saw the facts alleged? Has
     it not been subjected to a close scrutiny in the courts of
     justice, to cross-examination, to tortures? Has it not
     convinced those of highest legal attainments; those accustomed
     to sift testimony; those who understood the true principles of
     evidence? Has not the evidence in favor of witchcraft and
     sorcery had, what the evidence in favor of miracles has not
     had, the advantage of strict judicial investigation? and been
     subjected to trial, where evidence should be, before courts of
     law? Have not the most eminent judges in the most civilized
     and enlightened courts of Europe and America admitted the
     force of such evidence, and on the ground of it committed
     great numbers of innocent persons to the gallows and to the
     stake? _I confess that of all the questions ever asked on the
     subject of miracles, this is the most perplexing and the most
     difficult to answer._ It is rather to be wondered at that it
     has not been pressed with more zeal by those who deny the
     reality of miracles, and that they have placed their
     objections so extensively on other grounds."

It was a common adage among the Greeks, "_Miracles for fools_," and the
same proverb obtained among the shrewder Romans, in the saying: "_The
common people like to be deceived--deceived let them be._"

St. Chrysostom declares that "miracles are proper only to excite
sluggish and vulgar minds, _men of sense have no occasion for them_;"
and that "they frequently carry some untoward suspicion along with
them;" and Saint Chrysostom, Jerome, Euthemius, and Theophylact, prove
by several instances, that _real miracles_ had been performed by those
who were not Catholic, but heretic, Christians.[271:1]

Celsus (an Epicurean philosopher, towards the close of the second
century), the first writer who entered the lists against the claims of
the Christians, in speaking of the miracles which were claimed to have
been performed by Jesus, says:

     "His miracles, _granted to be true_, were nothing more than
     the common works of those _enchanters_, who, for a few
     _oboli_, will perform greater deeds in the midst of the Forum,
     calling up the souls of heroes, exhibiting sumptuous banquets,
     and tables covered with food, which have no reality. Such
     things do not prove these jugglers to be sons of God; nor do
     Christ's miracles."[271:2]

Celsus, in common with most of the Grecians, looked upon Christianity
as a _blind faith_, that shunned the light of reason. In speaking of the
Christians, he says:

     "They are forever repeating: 'Do not examine. _Only believe_,
     and thy _faith_ will make thee blessed. _Wisdom_ is a bad
     thing in life; _foolishness_ is to be preferred.'"[272:1]

He jeers at the fact that _ignorant men_ were allowed to preach, and
says that "weavers, tailors, fullers, and the most illiterate and rustic
fellows," set up to teach strange paradoxes. "They openly declared that
none but the ignorant (were) fit disciples for the God they worshiped,"
and that one of their rules was, "let no man that is learned come among
us."[272:2]

The _miracles_ claimed to have been performed by the Christians, he
attributed to _magic_,[272:3] and considered--as we have seen
above--their miracle performers to be on the same level with all Gentile
magicians. He says that the "wonder-workers" among the Christians
"rambled about to play tricks at fairs and markets," that they never
appeared in the circles of the wiser and better sort, but always took
care to intrude themselves among the ignorant and uncultured.[272:4]

     "The magicians in Egypt (says he), cast out evil spirits, cure
     diseases by a breath, call up the spirits of the dead, make
     inanimate things move as if they were alive, and so influence
     some uncultured men, that they produce in them whatever sights
     and sounds they please. But because they do such things shall
     we consider them the sons of God? Or shall we call such things
     the tricks of pitiable and wicked men?"[272:5]

He believed that Jesus was like all these other wonder-workers, that is,
simply a _necromancer_, and that he learned his magical arts in
Egypt.[272:6] All philosophers, during the time of the Early Fathers,
answered the claims that Jesus performed miracles, in the same manner.
"They even ventured to call him a _magician_ and a deceiver of the
people," says Justin Martyr,[272:7] and St. Augustine asserted that it
was generally believed that Jesus had been initiated in _magical art_ in
Egypt, and that he had written books concerning magic, one of which was
called "_Magia Jesu Christi_."[272:8] In the Clementine Recognitions,
the charge is brought against Jesus that he did not perform his miracles
as a Jewish prophet, but as a magician, an initiate of the heathen
temples.[272:9]

The casting out of devils was the most frequent and among the most
striking and the oftenest appealed to of the miracles of Jesus; yet, in
the conversation between himself and the Pharisees (Matt. xii. 24-27),
he speaks of it as one that was constantly and habitually performed by
their own _exorcists_; and, so far from insinuating any difference
between the two cases, _expressly puts them on a level_.

One of the best proofs, and most unquestionable, that Jesus was accused
of being a _magician_, or that some of the early Christians believed him
to have been such, may be found in the representations of him performing
miracles. On a _sarcophagus_ to be found in the _Museo Gregoriano_,
which is paneled with bas-reliefs, is to be seen a representation of
Jesus raising Lazarus from the grave. He is represented as a young man,
beardless, and equipped with a _wand_ in the received guise of a
_necromancer_, whilst the corpse of Lazarus is swathed in bandages
exactly as an Egyptian mummy.[273:1] On other Christian monuments
representing the miracles of Jesus, he is pictured in the same manner.
For instance, when he is represented as turning the water into wine, and
multiplying the bread in the wilderness, he is a necromancer with a
_wand_ in his hand.[273:2]

_Horus_, the Egyptian Saviour, is represented on the ancient monuments
of Egypt, _with a wand in his hand raising the dead to life_, "just as
we see Christ doing the same thing," says J. P. Lundy, "in the same way,
to Lazarus, in our Christian monuments."[273:3]

Dr. Conyers Middleton, speaking of the primitive Christians, says:

     "In the performance of their miracles, they were always
     charged with fraud and imposture, by their adversaries. Lucian
     (who flourished during the second century), tells us that
     whenever any crafty juggler, expert in his trade, and who knew
     how to make a right use of things, went over to the
     Christians, he was sure to grow rich immediately, by making a
     prey of their simplicity. And Celsus represents all the
     Christian wonder-workers as mere vagabonds and common cheats,
     who rambled about to play their tricks at fairs and markets;
     not in the circles of the wiser and the better sort, for among
     such they never ventured to appear, but wherever they observed
     a set of raw young fellows, slaves or fools, there they took
     care to intrude themselves, and to display all their
     arts."[273:4]

The same charge was constantly urged against them by Julian, Porphyry
and others. Similar sentiments were entertained by Polybius, the Pagan
philosopher, who considered all miracles as fables, invented to preserve
in the unlearned a due sense of respect for the deity.[273:5]

Edward Gibbon, speaking of the miracles of the Christians, writes in
his familiar style as follows:

     "How shall we excuse the supine inattention of the Pagan and
     philosophic world, to those evidences which were represented
     by the hand of Omnipotence, not to their reason, but to their
     senses? During the age of Christ, of his apostles, and of
     their first disciples, the doctrine which they preached was
     confirmed by innumerable prodigies. The lame walked, the blind
     saw, the sick were healed, the dead were raised, demons were
     expelled, and the laws of nature were frequently suspended for
     the benefit of the church. But the sages of Greece and Rome
     turned aside from the awful spectacle, and, pursuing the
     ordinary occupations of life and study, appeared unconscious
     of any alterations in the moral or physical government of the
     world."[274:1]

The learned Dr. Middleton, whom we have quoted on a preceding page,
after a searching inquiry into the miraculous powers of the Christians,
says:

     "From these short hints and characters of the primitive
     wonder-workers, as given both by friends and enemies, we may
     fairly conclude, that the celebrated gifts of these ages were
     generally engrossed and exercised by the primitive Christians,
     chiefly of the laity, who used to travel about from city to
     city, to assist the ordinary pastors of the church, and
     preachers of the Gospel, in the conversion of Pagans, by the
     extraordinary gifts with which they were supposed to be indued
     by the spirit of God, and the miraculous works which they
     pretended to perform. . . .

     "We have just reason to suspect that there was some original
     fraud in the case; and that the strolling wonder-workers, by a
     dexterity of jugglery which art, not heaven, had taught them,
     imposed upon the credulity of the pious Fathers, whose strong
     prejudices and ardent zeal for the interest of Christianity
     would dispose them to embrace, without examination, whatever
     seemed to promote so good a cause. That this was really the
     case in some instances, is certain and notorious, and that it
     was so in all, will appear still more probable, when we have
     considered the particular characters of the several Fathers,
     on whose testimony the credit of these wonderful narratives
     depends."[274:2]

Again he says:

     "The pretended miracles of the primitive church were all mere
     fictions, which the pious and zealous Fathers, partly from a
     weak credulity, and partly from reasons of policy, believing
     some perhaps to be true, and knowing all of them to be useful,
     were induced to espouse and propagate, for the support of a
     righteous cause."[274:3]

Origen, a Christian Father of the third century, uses the following
words in his answer to Celsus:

     "A vast number of persons who have left those horrid
     debaucheries in which they formerly wallowed, and have
     professed to embrace the Christian religion, shall receive a
     bright and massive crown when this frail and short life is
     ended, _though they don't stand to examine the grounds on
     which their faith is_ built, nor defer their conversion till
     they have a fair opportunity and capacity to apply themselves
     to rational and learned studies. And since our adversaries are
     continually making such a stir about our _taking things on
     trust_, I answer, that we, who see plainly and have found the
     vast advantage that the common people do manifestly and
     frequently reap thereby (who make up by far the greater
     number), I say, we (the Christian clergy), who are so well
     advised of these things, _do professedly teach men to believe
     without examination_."[275:1]

Origen flourished and wrote A. D. 225-235, which shows that at that
early day there was no rational evidence for Christianity, but it was
professedly taught, and men were supposed to believe "_these things_"
(_i. e._ the Christian legends) _without severe examination_.

The primitive Christians were perpetually reproached for their gross
credulity, by all their enemies. Celsus, as we have already seen,
declares that they cared neither to receive nor give any reason for
their faith, and that it was a usual saying with them: "Do not examine,
but believe only, and thy faith will save thee;" and Julian affirms
that, "the sum of all their wisdom was comprised in the single precept,
'_believe_.'"

Arnobius, speaking of this, says:

     "The Gentiles make it their constant business to laugh at our
     faith, and to lash our credulity with their facetious jokes."

The Christian Fathers defended themselves against these charges by
declaring that they did nothing more than the heathens themselves had
always done; and reminds them that they too had found the same method
useful with the uneducated or common people, who were not at leisure to
examine things, and whom they taught therefore, to believe without
reason.[275:2]

This "believing without reason" is illustrated in the following words of
Tertullian, a Christian Father of the second century, who reasons on the
evidence of Christianity as follows:

     "I find no other means to prove myself to be impudent with
     success, and happily a fool, than by my contempt of shame; as,
     for instance--I maintain that the son of God was born: why am
     I not ashamed of maintaining such a thing? Why! but because it
     is a shameful thing. I maintain that the son of God died:
     well, _that_ is wholly credible because it is monstrously
     absurd. I maintain that after having been buried, he rose
     again: and _that_ I take to be absolutely true, because it was
     manifestly impossible."[275:3]

According to the very books which record the miracles of Jesus, he never
claimed to perform such deeds, and Paul declares that the great reason
why Israel did not believe Jesus to be the Messiah was that "the Jews
required a sign."[276:1] He meant: "Signs and wonders are the only
proofs they will admit that any one is sent by God and is preaching the
truth. If they cannot have this palpable, external proof, they withhold
their faith."

A writer of the second century (John, in ch. iv. 18) makes Jesus aim at
his fellow-countrymen and contemporaries, the reproach: "Unless you see
signs and wonders, you do not believe." In connection with Paul's
declaration, given above, these words might be paraphrased: "The reason
why the Jews never believed in Jesus was that they never saw him do
signs and wonders."

Listen to the reply he (Jesus) made when told that if he wanted people
to believe in him he must first prove his claim by a miracle: "A wicked
and adulterous generation asks for a _sign_, and no sign shall be given
it except the sign of the prophet Jonas."[276:2] Of course, this answer
did not in the least degree satisfy the questioners; so they presently
came to him again with a more direct request: "If the kingdom of God is,
as you say, close at hand, show us at least some _one_ of the signs in
heaven which are to precede the Messianic age." What could appear more
reasonable than such a request? Every one knew that the end of the
present age was to be heralded by fearful signs in heaven. The light of
the sun was to be put out, the moon turned to blood, the stars robbed of
their brightness, and many other fearful signs were to be shown![276:3]
If any _one_ of these could be produced, they would be content; but if
not, they must decline to surrender themselves to an idle joy which must
end in a bitter disappointment; and surely Jesus himself could hardly
expect them to believe in him on his bare word.

_Historians_ have recorded miracles said to have been performed by other
persons, but not a word is said by _them_ about the miracles claimed to
have been performed by Jesus.

Justus of Tiberias, who was born about five years after the time
assigned for the crucifixion of Jesus, wrote a _Jewish History_. Now, if
the miracles attributed to Christ Jesus, and his death and resurrection,
had taken place in the manner described by the Gospel narrators, he
could not have failed to allude to them. But Photius, Patriarch of
Constantinople, tells us that it contained "_no mention of the coming of
Christ, nor of the events concerning him, nor of the prodigies he
wrought_." As Theodore Parker has remarked: "The miracle is of a most
_fluctuating_ character. The miracle-worker of to-day is a
matter-of-fact juggler to-morrow. Science each year adds new wonders to
our store. The master of a locomotive steam-engine would have been
thought greater than Jupiter Tonans, or the Elohim, thirty centuries
ago."

In the words of Dr. Oort: "Our increased knowledge of nature has
gradually undermined the belief in the possibility of miracles, and the
time is not far distant when in the mind of every man, of any culture,
all accounts of miracles will be banished together to their proper
region--_that of legend_."

What had been said to have been done in _India_ was said by the "_half
Jew_"[277:1] writers of the Gospels to have been done in Palestine. The
change of names and places, with the mixing up of various sketches of
_Egyptian_, _Phenician_, _Greek_ and _Roman_ mythology, was all that was
necessary. They had an abundance of material, and with it they built. A
long-continued habit of imposing upon others would in time subdue the
minds of the impostors themselves, and cause them to become at length
the dupes of their own deception.


FOOTNOTES:

[252:1] Dr. Conyers Middleton: Free Enquiry, p. 177.

[252:2] Indian Antiquities, vol. iii. p. 46.

[253:1] Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 237.

[253:2] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 331.

[253:3] Ibid. p. 319.

[254:1] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 320. Vishnu Parana, bk. v. ch. xx.

[254:2] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 68.

[254:3] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 269.

[254:4] See Hardy's Buddhist Legends, and Eastern Monachism. Beal's
Romantic Hist. Buddha. Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, and Huc's Travels, &c.

[254:5] Hardy: Buddhist Legends, pp. xxi. xxii.

[254:6] The Science of Religion, p. 27.

[255:1] Beal: Hist. Buddha, pp. 246, 247.

[255:2] Dhammapada, pp. 47, 50 and 90. Bigandet, pp. 186 and 192.
Bournouf: Intro. p. 156. In Lillie's Buddhism, pp. 139, 140.

[256:1] Hardy: Manual of Buddhism.

[256:2] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 229.

[256:3] See Tylor: Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 135, and Hardy:
Buddhist Legends, pp. 98, 126, 137.

[256:4] See Tylor: Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 135.

[256:5] Thornton: Hist. China, vol. i. p. 341.

[256:6] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 240, and Inman's
Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 460.

[256:7] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 34.

[256:8] See Lundy: Monumental Christianity, pp. 303-405.

[256:9] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief.

[257:1] Quoted by Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 397.

[257:2] See Prichard's Mythology, p. 347.

[257:3] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 404.

[257:4] See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, 258, and Anacalypsis,
vol. ii. p. 102. Compare John, ii. 7.

A _Grecian_ festival called THYIA was observed by the Eleans _in honor
of Bacchus_. The priests conveyed three empty vessels into a chapel, in
the presence of a large assembly, after which the doors were shut and
_sealed_. "On the morrow the company returned, and after every man had
looked upon his own seal, and seen that it was unbroken, the doors being
opened, the vessels were found full of wine." The god himself is said to
have appeared in person and filled the vessels. (Bell's Pantheon.)

[257:5] Cox: Aryan Mytho., vol. ii. p. 295.

[257:6] Bulfinch: The Age of Fable, p. 225. "And they laid their hands
on the apostles, and put them in the common prison; but the angel of the
Lord by night opened the prison doors, and brought them forth." (Acts,
v. 18, 19.)

[258:1] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 28.

[258:2] Eusebius: Life of Constantine, lib. 3, ch. liv.

"_Æsculapius_, the son of Apollo, was endowed by his father with such
skill in the healing art that he even restored the dead to life."
(Bulfinch: The Age of Fable, p. 246.)

[258:3] Murray: Manual of Mythology, pp. 179, 180.

[258:4] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 304.

[258:5] Marinus: Quoted in Taylor's Diegesis, p. 151.

[258:6] Pausanias was one of the most eminent Greek geographers and
historians.

[259:1] "And when Jesus departed thence, _two blind men_ followed him,
crying and saying: thou son of David, have mercy on us. . . . And Jesus
said unto them: Believe ye that I am able to do this? They said unto
him, Yea, Lord. Then touched he their eyes, saying: According to your
faith be it unto you, and their eyes were opened." (Matt. ix. 27-30.)

[259:2] Middleton's Works, vol. i. pp. 63, 64.

[259:3] Ibid. p. 48.

[259:4] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 62.

[259:5] See Middleton's Letters from Rome, p. 76.

[260:1] See Middleton's Letters from Rome, p. 76.

[260:2]

     "Nunc Dea, nunc succurre mihi, nam posse mederi
      Picta docet temptes multa tabella tuis."

(Horace: Tibull. lib. 1, Eleg. iii. In Ibid.)

[260:3] Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Æsculapius."

[260:4] Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 180.

[260:5] Apol. 1, ch. xxii.

[260:6] Deane: Serp. Wor. p. 204. See also, Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p.
29.

"There were numerous oracles of Æsculapius, but the most celebrated one
was at Epidaurus. Here the sick sought responses and the recovery of
their health by sleeping in the temple. . . . The worship of Æsculapius
was introduced into Rome in a time of great sickness, and an embassy
sent to the temple Epidaurus to entreat the aid of the god." (Bulfinch:
The Age of Fable, p. 397.)

[261:1] Aryan Mytho. vol. ii. p. 238.

[261:2] Herodotus: bk. vi. ch. 61.

[261:3] See Philostratus: Vie d'Apo.

Gibbon, the historian, says of him: "Apollonius of Tyana, born about the
same time as Jesus Christ. His life (that of the former) is related in
so fabulous a manner by his disciples, that we are at a loss to discover
whether he was a sage, an impostor, or a fanatic." (Gibbon's Rome, vol.
i. p. 353, _note_.) What this learned historian says of Apollonius
applies to Jesus of Nazareth. _His_ disciples have related his life in
so fabulous a manner, that some consider him to have been an impostor,
others a fanatic, others a sage, and others a GOD.

[262:1] See Philostratus, p. 146.

[262:2] Ibid. p. 158.

[262:3] See Ibid. p. 182.

[263:1] Compare Matt. ix. 18-25. "There came a certain ruler and
worshiped him, saying: 'My daughter is even now dead, but come and lay
thy hand upon her, and she shall live.' And Jesus arose and followed
him, and so did his disciples. . . . And when Jesus came into the
ruler's house, and saw the minstrels and the people making a noise, he
said unto them: 'Give peace, for the maid is not dead, but sleepeth.'
And they laughed him to scorn. But when the people were put forth, he
went in, _and took her by the hand_, and the maid arose."

[263:2] See Philostratus, pp. 285-286.

[263:3] "He could render himself invisible, evoke departed spirits,
utter predictions, and discover the thoughts of other men." (Hardy:
Eastern Monachism, p. 380.)

[263:4] "And as they thus spoke, Jesus himself stood in the midst of
them, and said unto them: 'Peace be unto you.' But they were terrified
and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. And he said
unto them: 'Why are ye troubled? and why do thoughts arise in your
hearts? Behold my hands and my feet, that it is myself; handle me and
see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have." (Luke,
xxiv. 36-39.)

[264:1] See Philostratus, p. 342.

[264:2] Ibid. p. 5.

[264:3] Justin Martyr's "_Quæst._" xxiv. Quoted in King's Gnostics, p.
242.

[264:4] Acts, viii. 9, 10.

[265:1] See Mosheim, vol. i. pp. 137, 140.

[265:2] Irenæus: Against Heresies, bk. iii. ch. xi. The _authorship_ of
the fourth gospel, attributed to John, has been traced to this same
_Irenæus_. He is the _first_ person who speaks of it; and adding this
fact to the statement that "it is impossible that there could be more or
less than _four_," certainly makes it appear very suspicious. We shall
allude to this again.

[265:3] Eusebius: Eccl. Hist. lib. 2, ch. xiv.

[265:4] Apol. 1, ch. xxiv.

[266:1] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. ii. pp. 241, 242.

[266:2] According to Hieronymus (a Christian Father, born A. D. 348),
Simon Magus applied to himself these words: "I am the Word (or Logos) of
God; I am the Beautiful, I the Advocate, I the Omnipotent; I am all
things that belong to God." (See "Son of the Man," p. 67.)

[266:3] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. ii. p. 316, and Middleton's Free
Inquiry, p. 62.

[266:4] Eusebius: Ecc. Hist., lib. 3, ch. xiv.

[266:5] Middleton's Works, vol. i. p. 54.

[267:1] Middleton's Works, vol. i. p. 54.

[267:2] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. ii. p. 312, and Middleton's Works, vol.
i. p. 10.

[267:3] "The Egyptians call all men '_barbarians_' who do not speak the
same language as themselves." (Herodotus, book ii. ch. 158.)

"By '_barbarians_' the Greeks meant all who were not sprung from
themselves--all foreigners." (Henry Cary, translator of _Herodotus_.)

The Chinese call the English, and all foreigners from western countries,
"_western barbarians_;" the Japanese were called by them the "_eastern
barbarians_." (See Thornton's History of China, vol. i.)

The Jews considered all who did not belong to their race to be
_heathens_ and _barbarians_.

The Christians consider those who are not followers of Christ Jesus to
be _heathens_ and _barbarians_.

The Mohammedans consider all others to be _dogs_, _infidels_, and
_barbarians_.

[267:4] "And in the fourth watch of the night, Jesus went unto them,
walking on the sea." (Matt. xiv. 25.)

[267:5] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. ii. p. 236. We have it on the authority
of _Strabo_ that Roman priests walked barefoot over burning coals,
without receiving the slightest injury. This was done in the presence of
crowds of people. _Pliny_ also relates the same story.

[267:6] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. ii. p. 236.

[267:7] Athenagoras, Apolog. p. 25. Quoted in Middleton's Works, vol. i.
p. 62.

[267:8] Geikie: Life of Christ, vol. ii. p. 619.

[268:1] Geikie: Life of Christ, vol. i. p. 75.

[268:2] Jewish Antiquities, bk. viii. ch. ii.

[268:3] Middleton's Works, vol. i. p. 68.

[268:4] "And he cometh to Bethsaida, and they bring a _blind man_ unto
him, and besought him to touch him. And he took the blind man by the
hand . . . _and when he had spit on his eyes_, . . . he looked up and
said: 'I see men and trees,' . . . and he was restored." (Mark, viii.
22-25.)

[268:5] "And behold there was a man _which had his hand withered_. . . .
Then said he unto the man, 'Stretch forth thine hand;' and he stretched
it forth, and it was restored whole, like as the other." (Matt. xii.
10-13.)

[268:6] Tacitus: Hist., lib. iv. ch. lxxxi.

[269:1] See Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Tacitus."

[269:2] See The Bible of To-Day, pp. 273, 278.

[269:3] See Gibbon's Rome, vol. i. pp. 539-541.

[270:1] Middleton's Letters from Rome, p. 102. See also, Bell's
Pantheon, vol. i. p. 16.

[270:2] Dionysius of Halicarnassus, one of the most accurate historians
of antiquity, says: "In the war with the Latins, Castor and Pollux
appeared visibly on white horses, and fought on the side of the Romans,
who by their assistance gained a complete victory. As a perpetual
memorial of it, a temple was erected and a yearly festival instituted in
honor of these deities." (Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 323, and
Middleton's Letters from Rome, p. 103.)

[271:1] See Prefatory Discourse to vol. iii. Middleton's Works, p. 54.

[271:2] See Origen: Contra Celsus, bk. 1, ch. lxviii.

[272:1] See Origen: Contra Celsus, bk. 1, ch. ix.

[272:2] Ibid. bk. iii. ch. xliv.

[272:3] Ibid.

[272:4] Ibid. bk. 1, ch. lxviii.

[272:5] Ibid.

[272:6] Ibid.

[272:7] Dial. Cum. Typho. ch. lxix.

[272:8] See Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. p. 148.

[272:9] See Baring-Gould's Lost and Hostile Gospels. A knowledge of
magic had spread from Central Asia into Syria, by means of the return of
the Jews from Babylon, and had afterwards extended widely, through the
mixing of nations produced by Alexander's conquests.

[273:1] See King's Gnostics, p. 145. Monumental Christianity, pp. 100
and 402, and Jameson's Hist. of Our Lord in Art, vol. i. p. 16.

[273:2] See Monumental Christianity, p. 402, and Hist. of Our Lord, vol.
i. p. 16.

[273:3] Monumental Christianity, pp. 403-405.

[273:4] Middleton's Works, vol. i. p. 19.

[273:5] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 59.

[274:1] Gibbon's Rome, vol. i. p. 588. An eminent heathen challenged his
Christian friend Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch, a champion of the
Gospel, to show him but one person who had been raised from the dead, on
the condition of turning Christian himself upon it. _The Christian
bishop was unable to give him that satisfaction._ (See Gibbon's Rome,
vol. i. p. 541, and Middleton's Works, vol. i. p. 60.)

[274:2] Middleton's Works, vol. i. pp. 20, 21.

[274:3] Ibid. p. 62. The Christian Fathers are noted for their frauds.
Their writings are full of falsehoods and deceit.

[275:1] Contra Celsus, bk. 1, ch. ix. x.

[275:2] See Middleton's Works, pp. 62, 63, 64.

[275:3] On The Flesh of Christ, ch. v.

[276:1] I. Corinthians, i. 22, 23.

[276:2] Matt. xii. 29.

[276:3] See for example, Joel, ii. 10, 31; iii. 15; Matt. xxiv. 29, 30;
Acts, ii. 19, 20; Revelations, vi. 12, 13; xvi. 18, _et seq._

[277:1] The writers of the Gospels were "I know not what sort of _half_
Jews, not even agreeing with themselves." (Bishop Faustus.)



CHAPTER XXVIII.

CHRIST CRISHNA AND CHRIST JESUS COMPARED.


Believing and affirming, that the _mythological portion_ of the history
of Jesus of Nazareth, contained in the books forming the Canon of the
New Testament, is nothing more or less than a copy of the mythological
histories of the Hindoo Saviour _Crishna_, and the Buddhist Saviour
_Buddha_,[278:1] with a mixture of mythology borrowed from the Persians
and other nations, we shall in this and the chapter following, compare
the histories of these _Christs_, side by side with that of Christ
Jesus, the Christian Saviour.

In comparing the history of Crishna with that of Jesus, we have the
following remarkable parallels:

1. "Crishna was born of a chaste virgin, called Devaki, who was selected
by the Lord for this purpose on account of her purity."[278:2]

     1. Jesus was born of a chaste virgin, called Mary, who was
     selected by the Lord for this purpose, on account of her
     purity.[278:3]

2. A chorus of Devatas celebrated with song the praise of Devaki,
exclaiming: "In the delivery of this favored woman all nature shall have
cause to exult."[278:4]

     2. The angel of the Lord saluted Mary, and said: "Hail Mary!
     the Lord is with you, you are blessed above all women, . . .
     for thou hast found favor with the Lord."[278:5]

3. The birth of Crishna was announced in the heavens by _his
star_.[278:6]

     3. The birth of Jesus was announced in the heavens by _his
     star_.[278:7]

4. On the morn of Crishna's birth, "the quarters of the horizon were
irradiate with joy, as if moonlight was diffused over the whole earth;"
"the spirits and nymphs of heaven danced and sang," and "the clouds
emitted low pleasing sounds."[279:1]

     4. When Jesus was born, the angels of heaven sang with joy,
     and from the clouds there came pleasing sounds.[279:2]

5. Crishna, though royally descended, was actually born in a state the
most abject and humiliating, having been brought into the world in a
_cave_.[279:3]

     5. "The birth of Jesus, the King of Israel, took place under
     circumstances of extreme indigence; and the place of his
     nativity, according to the united voice of the ancients, and
     of oriental travelers, was in a _cave_."[279:4]

6. "The moment Crishna was born, the whole cave was splendidly
illuminated, and the countenances of his father and his mother emitted
rays of glory."[279:5]

     6. The moment Jesus was born, "there was a great light in the
     cave, so that the eyes of Joseph and the midwife could not
     bear it.[279:6]"

7. "Soon after Crishna's mother was delivered of him, and while she was
weeping over him _and lamenting his unhappy destiny_, the compassionate
infant assumed the power of speech, and soothed and comforted his
afflicted parent."[279:7]

     7. "Jesus spake even when he was in his cradle, and said to
     his mother: 'Mary, I am Jesus, the Son of God, that _Word_
     which thou didst bring forth according to the declaration of
     the Angel Gabriel unto thee, and my Father hath sent me for
     the salvation of the world.'"[279:8]

8. The divine child--Crishna--was recognized, and adored by cowherds,
who prostrated themselves before the heaven-born child.[279:9]

     8. The divine child--Jesus--was recognized, and adored by
     shepherds, who prostrated themselves before the heaven-born
     child.[279:10]

9. Crishna was received with divine honors, and presented with gifts of
sandal-wood and perfumes.[279:11]

     9. Jesus was received with divine honors, and presented with
     gifts of frankincense and myrrh.[279:12]

10. "Soon after the birth of Crishna, the holy Indian prophet Nared,
hearing of the fame of the infant Crishna, pays him a visit at Gokul,
examines the _stars_, and declares him to be of celestial
descent."[279:13]

     10. "Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, behold,
     there came wise men from the East, saying: Where is he that is
     born King of the Jews, for we have seen his _star_ in the East
     and have come to worship him."[279:14]

11. Crishna was born at a time when Nanda--his foster-father--was away
from home, having come to the city to pay his tax or yearly tribute, to
the king.[279:15]

     11. Jesus was born at a time when Joseph--his
     foster-father--was away from home, having come to the city to
     pay his tax or tribute to the governor.[279:16]

12. Crishna, although born in a state the most abject and humiliating,
was of royal descent.[280:1]

     12. Jesus, although born in a state the most abject and
     humiliating, was of royal descent.[280:2]

13. Crishna's father was warned by a "heavenly voice," to "fly with the
child to Gacool, across the river Jumna," as the reigning monarch sought
his life.[280:3]

     13. Jesus' father was warned "in a dream" to "take the young
     child and his mother, and flee into Egypt," as the reigning
     monarch sought his life.[280:4]

14. The ruler of the country in which Crishna was born, having been
informed of the birth of the divine child, sought to destroy him. For
this purpose, he ordered "the massacre in all his states, of all the
children of the male sex, born during the night of the birth of
Crishna."[280:5]

     14. The ruler of the country in which Jesus was born, having
     been informed of the birth of the divine child, sought to
     destroy him. For this purpose, he ordered "all the children
     that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof," to be
     slain.[280:6]

15. "Mathura (pronounced Mattra), was the city in which Crishna was
born, where his most extraordinary miracles were performed, and which
continues at this day the place where his name and _Avatar_ are held in
the most sacred veneration of any province in Hindostan."[280:7]

     15. Matarea, near Hermopolis, in Egypt, is said to have been
     the place where Jesus resided during his absence from the land
     of Judea. At this place he is reported to have wrought many
     miracles.[280:8]

16. Crishna was preceded by _Rama_, who was born a short time before
him, and whose life was sought by Kansa, the ruling monarch, at the time
he attempted to destroy the infant Crishna.[280:9]

     16. Jesus was preceded by _John_ the "divine herald," who was
     born a short time before him, and whose life was sought by
     Herod, the ruling monarch, at the time he attempted to destroy
     the infant Jesus.[280:10]

17. Crishna, being brought up among shepherds, wanted the advantage of a
preceptor to teach him the sciences. Afterwards, when he went to
Mathura, a tutor, profoundly learned, was obtained for him; but, in a
very short time, he became such a scholar as utterly to astonish and
perplex his master with a variety of the most intricate questions in
Sanscrit science.[280:11]

     17. Jesus was sent to Zaccheus the schoolmaster, who wrote out
     an alphabet for him, and bade him say _Aleph_. "Then the Lord
     Jesus said to him, Tell me first the meaning of the letter
     Aleph, and then I will pronounce Beth, and when the master
     threatened to whip him, the Lord Jesus explained to _him_ the
     meaning of the letters Aleph and Beth; also which where the
     straight figures of the letters, which the oblique, and what
     letters had double figures; which had points, and which had
     none; why one letter went before another; and many other
     things he began to tell him and explain, of which the master
     himself had never heard, nor read in any book."[281:1]

18. "At a certain time, Crishna, taking a walk with the other cowherds,
they chose him their _King_, and every one had his place assigned him
under the new King."[281:2]

     18. "In the month Adar, Jesus gathered together the boys, and
     ranked them as though he had been a KING. . . . And if any one
     happened to pass by, they took him by force, and said, Come
     hither, and worship the King."[281:3]

19. Some of Crishna's play-fellows were stung by a serpent, and he,
filled with compassion at their untimely fate, "and casting upon them an
eye of divine mercy, they immediately rose," and were restored.[281:4]

     19. When Jesus was at play, a boy was stung by a serpent, "and
     he (Jesus) touched the boy with his hand," and he was restored
     to his former health.[281:5]

20. Crishna's companions, with some calves, were stolen, and hid in a
cave, whereupon Crishna, "by his power, created other calves and boys,
in all things, perfect resemblances of the others."[281:6]

     20. Jesus' companions, who had hid themselves in a furnace,
     were turned into kids, whereupon Jesus said: "Come hither, O
     boys, that we may go and play; and immediately the kids were
     changed into the shape of boys."[281:7]

21. "One of the first miracles performed by Crishna, when mature, was
the curing of a leper."[281:8]

     21. One of the first miracles performed by Jesus, when mature,
     was the curing of a leper.[281:9]

22. A poor cripple, or lame woman, came, with "a vessel filled with
spices, sweet-scented oils, sandal-wood, saffron, civet, and other
perfumes, and made a certain sign on his (Crishna's) forehead, _casting
the rest upon his head_."[281:10]

     22. "Now, when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the
     leper, there came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of
     very precious ointment, _and poured it on his head_, as he sat
     at meat."[281:11]

23. Crishna was crucified, and he is represented with arms extended,
hanging on a cross.[281:12]

     23. Jesus was crucified, and he is represented with arms
     extended, hanging on a cross.

24. At the time of the death of Crishna, there came calamities and bad
omens of every kind. A black circle surrounded the moon, and the sun was
darkened at noon-day; the sky rained fire and ashes; flames burned dusky
and livid; demons committed depredations on earth; at sunrise and
sunset, thousands of figures were seen skirmishing in the air; spirits
were to be seen on all sides.[282:1]

     24. At the time of the death of Jesus, there came calamities
     of many kinds. The veil of the temple was rent in twain from
     the top to the bottom, the sun was darkened from the sixth to
     the ninth hour, and the graves were opened, and many bodies of
     the saints which slept arose and came out of their
     graves.[282:2]

25. Crishna was pierced with an arrow.[282:3]

     25. Jesus was pierced with a spear.[282:4]

26. Crishna said to the hunter who shot him: "Go, hunter, through my
favor, to heaven, the abode of the gods."[282:5]

     26. Jesus said to one of the malefactors who was crucified
     with him: "Verily I say unto thee, this day shalt thou be with
     me in paradise."[282:6]

27. Crishna descended into hell.[282:7]

     27. Jesus descended into hell.[282:8]

28. Crishna, after being put to death, rose again from the dead.[282:9]

     28. Jesus, after being put to death, rose again from the
     dead.[282:10]

29. Crishna ascended bodily into heaven, and many persons witnessed his
ascent.[282:11]

     29. Jesus ascended bodily into heaven, and many persons
     witnessed his ascent.[282:12]

30. Crishna is to come again on earth in the latter days. He will appear
among mortals as an armed warrior, riding a white horse. At his approach
the sun and moon will be darkened, the earth will tremble, and the stars
fall from the firmament.[282:13]

     30. Jesus is to come again on earth in the latter days. He
     will appear among mortals as an armed warrior, riding a white
     horse. At his approach, the sun and moon will be darkened, the
     earth will tremble, and the stars fall from the
     firmament.[282:14]

31. Crishna is to be judge of the dead at the last day.[282:15]

     31. Jesus is to be judge of the dead at the last day.[282:16]

32. Crishna is the creator of all things visible and invisible; "all
this universe came into being through him, the eternal maker."[282:17]

     32. Jesus is the creator of all things visible and invisible;
     "all this universe came into being through him, the eternal
     maker."[282:18]

33. Crishna is Alpha and Omega, "the beginning, the middle, and the end
of all things."[282:19]

     33. Jesus is Alpha and Omega, the beginning, the middle, and
     the end of all things.[282:20]

34. Crishna, when on earth, was in constant strife against the evil
spirit.[282:21] He surmounts extraordinary dangers, strews his way with
miracles, raising the dead, healing the sick, restoring the maimed, the
deaf and the blind, everywhere supporting the weak against the strong,
the oppressed against the powerful. The people crowded his way, and
adored him as a _God_.[283:1]

     34. Jesus, when on earth, was in constant strife against the
     evil spirit.[282:22] He surmounts extraordinary dangers,
     strews his way with miracles, raising the dead, healing the
     sick, restoring the maimed, the deaf and the blind,
     everywhere supporting the weak against the strong, the
     oppressed against the powerful. The people crowded his way and
     adored him as a _God_.[283:2]

35. Crishna had a beloved disciple--_Arjuna_.[283:3]

     35. Jesus had a beloved disciple--_John_.[283:4]

36. Crishna was transfigured before his disciple Arjuna. "All in an
instant, with a thousand suns, blazing with dazzling luster, so beheld
he the glories of the universe collected in the one person of the God of
Gods."[283:5]

Arjuna bows his head at this vision, and folding his hands in reverence,
says:

"Now that I see thee as thou really art, I thrill with terror! Mercy!
Lord of Lords, once more display to me thy human form, thou habitation
of the universe."[283:6]

     36. "And after six days, Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John
     his brother, and bringeth them up into a high mountain apart,
     and was transfigured before them. And his face did shine as
     the sun, and his raiment was white as the light. . . While he
     yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and
     behold, a voice out of the cloud, which said: &c." "And when
     the disciples heard it, they fell on their faces, and were
     sore afraid."[283:7]

37. Crishna was "the meekest and best tempered of beings." "He preached
very nobly indeed, and sublimely." "He was pure and chaste in
reality,"[283:8] and, as a lesson of humility, "he even condescended to
wash the feet of the Brahmins."[283:9]

     37. Jesus was the meekest and best tempered of beings. He
     preached very nobly indeed, and sublimely. He was pure and
     chaste, and he even condescended to wash the feet of his
     disciples, to whom he taught a lesson of humility.[283:10]

38. "Crishna is the very Supreme Brahma, though it be a _mystery_ how
the Supreme should assume the form of a man."[283:11]

     38. Jesus is the very Supreme Jehovah, though it be a
     _mystery_ how the Supreme should assume the form of a man, for
     "Great is the mystery of Godliness."[283:12]

39. Crishna is the second person in the Hindoo Trinity.[283:13]

     39. Jesus is the second person in the Christian
     Trinity.[283:14]

40. Crishna said: "Let him if seeking God by deep abstraction, abandon
his possessions and his hopes, betake himself to some secluded spot, and
fix his heart and thoughts on God alone."[284:1]

     40. Jesus said: "But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy
     closet, and when then hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father,
     which is in secret."[284:2]

41. Crishna said: "Whate'er thou dost perform, whate'er thou eatest,
whate'er thou givest to the poor, whate'er thou offerest in sacrifice,
whate'er thou doest as an act of holy presence, do all as if to me, O
Arjuna. I am the great Sage, without beginning; I am the Ruler and the
All-sustainer."[284:3]

     41. Jesus said: "Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or
     whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God"[284:4] who is
     the great Sage, without beginning; the Ruler and the
     All-sustainer.

42. Crishna said: "I am the cause of the whole universe; through me it
is created and dissolved; on me all things within it hang and suspend,
like pearls upon a string."[284:5]

     42. "Of him, and through him, and unto him, are all things."
     "All things were made by him; and without him was not anything
     made that was made."[284:6]

43. Crishna said: "I am the light in the Sun and Moon, far, far beyond
the darkness. I am the brilliancy in flame, the radiance in all that's
radiant, and the light of lights."[284:7]

     43. "Then spoke Jesus again unto them, saying: I am the light
     of the world; he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness,
     but shall have the light of life."[284:8]

44. Crishna said: "I am the sustainer of the world, its friend and Lord.
I am its way and refuge."[284:9]

     44. "Jesus said unto them, I am the way, the truth, and the
     life. No man cometh unto the Father, but by me."[284:10]

45. Crishna said: "I am the Goodness of the good; I am Beginning,
Middle, End, Eternal Time, the Birth, the Death of all."[284:11]

     45. "I am the first and the last; and have the keys of hell
     and of death."[284:12]

46. Crishna said: "Then be not sorrowful, from all thy sins I will
deliver thee. Think thou on me, have faith in me, adore and worship me,
and join thyself in meditation to me; thus shalt thou come to me, O
Arjuna; thus shalt thou rise to my supreme abode, where neither sun nor
moon hath need to shine, for know that all the lustre they possess is
mine."[284:13]

     46. Jesus said: "Be of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven
     thee."[284:14] "My son, give me thine heart."[284:15] "The
     city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in
     it; for the glory of God did lighten it."[284:16]

Many other remarkable passages might be adduced from the Bhagavad-gita,
the following of which may be noted:[284:17]

     "He who has brought his members under subjection, but sits
     with foolish minds thinking in his heart of sensual things, is
     called a hypocrite." (Compare Matt. v. 28.)

     "Many are my births that are past; many are thine too, O
     Arjuna. I know them all, but thou knowest them not." (Comp.
     John, viii. 14.)

     "For the establishment of righteousness am I born from time to
     time." (Comp. John, xviii. 37; I. John, iii. 3.)

     "I am dearer to the wise than all possessions, and he is
     dearer to me." (Comp. Luke, xiv. 33; John, xiv. 21.)

     "The ignorant, the unbeliever, and he of a doubting mind
     perish utterly." (Comp. Mark, xvi. 16.)

     "Deluded men despise me when I take human form." (Comp. John,
     i. 10.)

Crishna had the titles of "Saviour," "Redeemer," "Preserver,"
"Comforter," "Mediator," &c. He was called "The Resurrection and the
Life," "The Lord of Lords," "The Great God," "The Holy One," "The Good
Shepherd," &c. All of which are titles applied to Christ Jesus.

Justice, humanity, good faith, compassion, disinterestedness, in fact,
all the virtues, are said[285:1] to have been taught by Crishna, both by
precept and example.

The Christian missionary Georgius, who found the worship of the
crucified God in India, consoles himself by saying: "That which P.
Cassianus Maceratentis had told me before, I find to have been observed
more fully in French by the Living De Guignes, a most learned man; _i.
e._, that _Crishna_ is the very name corrupted of Christ the
Saviour."[285:2] Many others have since made a similar statement, but
unfortunately for them, the name _Crishna_ has nothing whatever to do
with "Christ the Saviour." It is a purely Sanscrit word, and means "_the
dark god_" or "_the black god_."[285:3] The word _Christ_ (which is not
a name, but a title), as we have already seen, is a Greek word, and
means "the Anointed," or "the Messiah." The fact is, the history of
Christ Crishna is older than that of Christ Jesus.

Statues of Crishna are to be found in the very oldest cave temples
throughout India, and it has been satisfactorily proved, on the
authority of a passage of _Arrian_, that the _worship_ of Crishna was
practiced in the time of Alexander the Great at what still remains one
of the most famous temples of India, the temple of Mathura, on the Jumna
river,[285:4] which shows that he was considered a _god_ at that
time.[286:1] We have already seen that, according to Prof. Monier
Williams, he was _deified_ about the fourth century B. C.

Rev. J. P. Lundy says:

     "If we may believe so good an authority as Edward Moor (author
     of Moor's "Hindu Pantheon," and "Oriental Fragments"), both
     the name of Crishna, and the general outline of his history,
     were long anterior to the birth of our Saviour, _as very
     certain things_, and probably extended to the time of Homer,
     nearly nine hundred years before Christ, or more than a
     hundred years before Isaiah lived and prophesied."[286:2]

In the Sanscrit Dictionary, compiled more than two thousand years ago,
we have the whole story of Crishna, the incarnate deity, born of a
virgin, and miraculously escaping in his infancy from Kansa, the
reigning monarch of the country.[286:3]

The Rev. J. B. S. Carwithen, known as one of the "Brampton Lecturers,"
says:

     "Both the name of Crishna and the general outline of his story
     are long anterior to the birth of our Saviour; and this we
     know, _not on the presumed antiquity of the Hindoo records
     alone_. Both Arrian and Strabo assert that the god Crishna was
     anciently worshiped at Mathura, on the river Jumna, where he
     is worshiped at this day. But the emblems and attributes
     essential to this deity are also transplanted into the
     mythology of the West."[286:4]

On the walls of the most ancient Hindoo temples, are sculptured
representations of the flight of Vasudeva and the infant Saviour
Crishna, from King Kansa, who sought to destroy him. The story of the
slaughtered infants is also the subject of an immense sculpture in the
cave temple of Elephanta. A person with a drawn sword is represented
surrounded by slaughtered infant boys, while men and women are
supplicating for their children. The date of this sculpture is lost in
the most remote antiquity.[286:5]

The _flat roof_ of this cavern-temple, and that of Ellora, and every
other circumstance connected with them, prove that their origin must be
referred to a very remote epoch. The _ancient_ temples can easily be
distinguished from the more modern ones--such as those of Solsette--by
the shape of the roof. The ancient are flat, while the more modern are
arched.[286:6]

The _Bhagavad gita_, which contains so many sentiments akin to
Christianity, and which was not written until about the first or second
century,[287:1] has led many _Christian_ scholars to believe, and
attempt to prove, that they have been borrowed from the New Testament,
but unfortunately for them, their premises are untenable. Prof. Monier
Williams, _the_ accepted authority on Hindooism, and a thorough
Christian, writing for the "Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge,"
knowing that he could not very well overlook this subject in speaking of
the _Bhagavad-gita_, says:

     "To any one who has followed me in tracing the outline of this
     remarkable philosophical dialogue, and has noted the numerous
     parallels it offers to passages in _our_ Sacred Scriptures, it
     may seem strange that I hesitate to concur to any theory which
     explains these coincidences by supposing that the author had
     access to the New Testament, or that he derived some of his
     ideas from the first propagaters of Christianity. Surely it
     will be conceded that the probability of contact and
     interaction between Gentile systems and the Christian religion
     of the first two centuries of our era must have been greater
     in Italy than in India. Yet, if we take the writings and
     sayings of those great Roman philosophers, Seneca, Epictetus,
     and Marcus Aurelius, we shall find them full of resemblances
     to passages in our Scriptures, while their appears to be no
     ground whatever for supposing that these eminent Pagan writers
     and thinkers derived any of their ideas from either Jewish or
     Christian sources. In fact, the Rev. F. W. Farrar, in his
     interesting and valuable work 'Seekers after God,' has clearly
     shown that 'to say that Pagan morality kindled its faded taper
     at the Gospel light, whether furtively or unconsciously, that
     it dissembled the obligation and made a boast of the splendor,
     as if it were originally her own, is to make an assertion
     wholly untenable.' He points out that the attempts of the
     Christian Fathers to make out Pythagoras a debtor to Hebraic
     wisdom, Plato an 'Atticizing Moses,' Aristotle a picker-up of
     ethics from a Jew, Seneca a correspondent of St. Paul, were
     due 'in some cases to ignorance, in some to a want of perfect
     honesty in controversial dealing.'[287:2]

     "_His arguments would be even more conclusive if applied to
     the Bhagavad-gita_, the author of which was probably
     contemporaneous with Seneca.[287:3] It must, indeed, be
     admitted that the flames of true light which emerge from the
     mists of pantheism in the writings of Indian philosophers,
     must spring from the same source of light as the Gospel
     itself; but it may reasonably be questioned whether there
     could have been any actual contact of the Hindoo systems with
     Christianity without a more satisfactory result in the
     modification of pantheistic and anti-Christian ideas."[288:1]

Again he says:

     "It should not be forgotten that although the nations of
     Europe have changed their religions during the past eighteen
     centuries, _the Hindu has not done so, except very partially_.
     Islam converted a certain number by force of arms in the
     eighth and following centuries, and Christian truth is at last
     slowly creeping onwards and winning its way by its own
     inherent energy in the nineteenth; _but the religious creeds,
     rites, customs, and habits of thought of the Hindus generally,
     have altered little since the days of Manu, five hundred years
     B. C._"[288:2]

These words are conclusive; comments, therefore, are unnecessary.

Geo. W. Cox, in his "Aryan Mythology," speaking on this subject says:

     "It is true that these myths have been crystallized around the
     name of Crishna in ages subsequent to the period during which
     the earliest _vedic_ literature came into existence; _but the
     myths themselves are found in this older literature associated
     with other gods_, and not always only in germ. _There is no
     more room for inferring foreign influence in the growth of any
     of these myths than, as Bunsen rightly insists, there is room
     for tracing Christian influence in the earlier epical
     literature of the Teutonic tribes._ Practically the myths of
     Crishna seems to have been fully developed in the days of
     Megasthenes (fourth century B. C.) who identifies him with the
     Greek Hercules."[288:3]

It should be remembered, in connection with this, that Dr. Parkhurst and
others have considered _Hercules_ a type of Christ Jesus.

In the ancient epics Crishna is made to say:

     "I am Vishnu, Brahma, Indra, and the source as well as the
     destruction of things, the creator and the annihilator of the
     whole aggregate of existences. While all men live in
     unrighteousness, I, the unfailing, build up the bulwark of
     righteousness, as the ages pass away."[288:4]

These words are almost identical with what we find in the
_Bhagavad-gita_. In the _Maha-bharata_, Vishnu is associated or
identified with Crishna, just as he is in the _Bhagavad-gita_ and
_Vishnu Purana_, showing, in the words of Prof. Williams, that: the
_Puranas_, although of a comparatively modern date, are nevertheless
composed of matter to be found in the two great epic poems the
_Ramayana_ and the _Maha-bharata_.[288:5]


FOOTNOTES:

[278:1] It is also very evident that the history of Crishna--or that
part of it at least which has a _religious aspect_--is taken from that
of Buddha. Crishna, in the ancient epic poems, is simply a great hero,
and it is not until about the fourth century B. C., that he is _deified_
and declared to be an incarnation of Vishnu, or Vishnu himself in human
form. (See Monier Williams' Hinduism, pp. 102, 103.)

"If it be urged that the attribution to Crishna of qualities or powers
belonging to the other deities is a mere device by which his devotees
sought to supersede the more ancient gods, _the answer must be that
nothing is done in his case which has not been done in the case of
almost every other member of the great company of the gods_, and that
the systematic adoption of this method is itself conclusive proof of the
looseness and flexibility of the materials of which the cumbrous
mythology of the Hindu epic poems is composed." (Cox: Aryan Mythology,
vol. ii. p. 130.) These words apply very forcibly to the history of
Christ Jesus. He being attributed with qualities and powers belonging to
the deities of the heathen is a mere device by which _his_ devotees
sought to supersede the more ancient gods.

[278:2] See ch. xii.

[278:3] See The Gospel of Mary, _Apoc._, ch. vii.

[278:4] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 329.

[278:5] Mary, _Apoc._, vii. Luke, i. 28-30.

[278:6] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. pp. 317 and 336.

[278:7] Matt. ii. 2.

[279:1] Vishnu Purana, p. 502.

[279:2] Luke, ii. 13.

[279:3] See ch. xvi.

[279:4] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 311. See also, chap. xvi.

[279:5] See ch. xvi.

[279:6] Protevangelion, _Apoc._, chs. xii. and xiii.

[279:7] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. 311.

[279:8] Infancy, _Apoc._, ch. i. 2, 3.

[279:9] See ch. xv.

[279:10] Luke, ii. 8-10.

[279:11] See Oriental Religions, p. 500, and Inman's Ancient Faiths,
vol. ii. p. 353.

[279:12] Matt. ii. 2.

[279:13] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 317.

[279:14] Matt., ii. 1, 2.

[279:15] Vishnu Purana, bk. v. ch. iii.

[279:16] Luke, ii. 1-17.

[280:1] Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 259. Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p.
310.

[280:2] See the Genealogies in Matt. and Luke.

[280:3] See ch. xviii.

[280:4] Matt. ii. 13.

[280:5] See ch. xviii.

[280:6] Matt. ii. 16.

[280:7] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 317. Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p.
259.

[280:8] Introduc. to Infancy, Apoc. Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p.
130. Savary: Travels in Egypt, vol. i. p. 126, in Hist. Hindostan, vol.
ii. p. 318.

[280:9] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 316.

[280:10] "Elizabeth, hearing that her son John was about to be searched
for (by Herod), took him and went up into the mountains, and looked
around for a place to hide him. . . . But Herod made search after John,
and sent servants to Zacharias," &c. (Protevangelion, Apoc. ch. xvi.)

[280:11] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 321.

[281:1] Infancy, Apoc., ch. xx. 1-8.

[281:2] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 321.

[281:3] Infancy, Apoc., ch. xviii. 1-3.

[281:4] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 343.

[281:5] Infancy, Apoc., ch. xviii.

[281:6] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 340. Aryan Mytho., vol. ii. p. 136.

[281:7] Infancy, Apoc., ch. xvii.

[281:8] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 319, and ch. xxvii. this work.

[281:9] Matthew, viii. 2.

[281:10] Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 320.

[281:11] Matt. xxvi. 6-7.

[281:12] See ch. xx.

[282:1] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 71.

[282:2] Matt. xxii. Luke, xxviii.

[282:3] See ch. xx.

[282:4] John, xix. 34.

[282:5] See Vishnu Purana, p. 612.

[282:6] Luke, xxiii. 43.

[282:7] See ch. xxii.

[282:8] See Ibid.

[282:9] See ch. xxiii.

[282:10] Matt. xxviii.

[282:11] See ch. xxiii.

[282:12] See Acts, i. 9-11.

[282:13] See ch. xxiv.

[282:14] See passages quoted in ch. xxiv.

[282:15] See Oriental Religions, p. 504.

[282:16] Matt. xxiv. 31. Rom. xiv. 10.

[282:17] See ch. xxvi.

[282:18] John, i. 3. I. Cor. viii. 6. Eph. iii. 9.

[282:19] See Geeta, lec. x. p. 85.

[282:20] Rev. i. 8, 11; xxii. 13; xxi. 6.

[282:21] He is described as a superhuman organ of light, to whom the
superhuman organ of darkness, the evil serpent, was opposed. He is
represented "bruising the head of the serpent," and standing upon him.
(See illustrations in vol. i. Asiatic Researches; vol. ii. Higgins'
Anacalypsis; Calmet's Fragments, and other works illustrating Hindoo
Mythology.)

[282:22] Jesus, "the Sun of Righteousness," is also described as a
superhuman organ of light, opposed by Satan, "the old serpent." He is
claimed to have been the seed of the woman who should "bruise the head
of the serpent." (Genesis, iii. 15.)

[283:1] See ch. xxvii.

[283:2] According to the New Testament.

[283:3] See Bhagavat Geeta.

[283:4] John, xiii. 23.

[283:5] Williams' Hinduism, p. 215.

[283:6] Ibid. p. 216.

[283:7] Matt. xvii. 1-6.

[283:8] "He was pure and chaste in _reality_," although represented as
sporting amorously, when a youth, with cowherdesses. According to the
pure Vaishnava faith, however, Crishna's love for the Gopis, and
especially for his favorite Rādhā, is to be explained allegorically, as
symbolizing the longing of the human soul for the Supreme. (Prof. Monier
Williams: Hinduism, p. 144.) Just as the amorous "_Song of Solomon_" is
said to be _allegorical_, and to mean "Christ's love for his church."

[283:9] See Indian Antiquities, iii. 46, and Asiatic Researches, vol. i.
p. 273.

[283:10] John, xiii.

[283:11] Vishnu Purana, p. 492, _note_ 3.

[283:12] I. Timothy, iii. 16.

[283:13] Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva. _Crishna is Vishnu in human form._ "A
more personal, and, so to speak, _human_ god than Siva was needed for
the mass of the people--a god who could satisfy the yearnings of the
human heart for religion of faith (_bhakti_)--a god who could sympathize
with, and condescend to human wants and necessities. Such a god was
found in the second member of the Tri-mūrti. It was as _Vishnu_ that the
Supreme Being was supposed to exhibit his sympathy with human trials,
and his love for the human race.

"If _Siva_ is the great god of the Hindu Pantheon, to whom adoration is
due from all indiscriminately, _Vishnu_ is certainly its most popular
deity. He is the god selected by far the greater number of individuals
as their Saviour, protector and friend, who rescues them from the power
of evil, interests himself in their welfare, and finally admits them to
his heaven. But it is not so much _Vishnu_ in his own person as _Vishnu_
in his _incarnations_, that effects all this for his votaries." (Prof.
Monier Williams: Hinduism, p. 100.)

[283:14] Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Jesus is the Son in human form.

[284:1] Williams' Hinduism, p. 211.

[284:2] Matt. vi. 6.

[284:3] Williams' Hinduism, p. 212.

[284:4] I. Cor. x. 31.

[284:5] Williams' Hinduism, p. 213.

[284:6] John, i. 3.

[284:7] Williams' Hinduism, p. 213.

[284:8] John, viii. 12.

[284:9] Williams' Hinduism, p. 213.

[284:10] John, xiv. 6.

[284:11] Williams' Hinduism, p. 213.

[284:12] Rev. i. 17, 18.

[284:13] Williams' Hinduism, p. 214.

[284:14] Matt. ix. 2.

[284:15] Prov. xxiii. 26.

[284:16] Rev. xxi. 23.

[284:17] Quoted from Williams' Hinduism, pp. 217-219.

[285:1] It is said in the Hindoo sacred books that Crishna was a
religious teacher, but, as we have previously remarked, this is a later
addition to his legendary history. In the ancient epic poems he is
simply a great hero and warrior. The portion pertaining to his religious
career, is evidently a copy of the history of Buddha.

[285:2] "Est Crishna (quod ut mihi pridem indicaverat P. Cassianus
Maceratentis, sic nunc uberius in Galliis observatum intelligo avivo
litteratissimo De Guignes) nomen ipsum corruptum Christi Servatoris."

[285:3] See Williams' Hinduism, and Maurice: Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii.
p. 269.

[285:4] See Celtic Druids, pp. 256, 257.

[286:1] "Alexander the Great made his expedition to the banks of the
Indus about 327 B. C., and to this invasion is due the first trustworthy
information obtained by Europeans concerning the north-westerly portion
of India and the region of the five rivers, down which the Grecian
troops were conducted in ships by Nearchus. Megasthenes, who was the
ambassador of Seleukos Nikator (Alexander's successor, and ruler over
the whole region between the Euphrates and India, B. C. 312), at the
court of Candra-gupa (Sandrokottus), in Pataliputra (Patna), during a
long sojourn in that city collected further information, of which
Strabo, Pliny, _Arrian_, and others availed themselves." (Williams'
Hinduism, p. 4.)

[286:2] Monumental Christianity, p. 151. See also, Asiatic Researches,
i. 273.

[286:3] See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. pp. 259-273.

[286:4] Quoted in Monumental Christianity, pp. 151, 152.

[286:5] See chapter xviii.

[286:6] See Prichard's Egyptian Mythology, p. 112.

[287:1] In speaking of the antiquity of the _Bhagavad-gita_, Prof.
Monier Williams says: "The author was probably a Brahman and nominally a
Vishnava, but really a philosopher whose mind was cast in a broad and
comprehensive mould. He is supposed to have lived in India during the
first and second century of our era. Some consider that he lived as late
as the third century, and some place him even later, _but with these I
cannot agree_." (Indian Wisdom, p. 137.)

[287:2] In order that the resemblances to Christian Scripture in the
writings of Roman philosophers may be compared, Prof. Williams refers
the reader to "Seekers after God," by the Rev. F. W. Farrar, and Dr.
Ramage's "Beautiful Thoughts." The same sentiments are to be found in
_Mann_, which, says Prof. Williams, "few will place later than the fifth
century B. C." The _Mahabhrata_, written many centuries B. C., contains
numerous parallels to New Testament sayings. (See our chapter on
"Paganism in Christianity.")

[287:3] Seneca, the celebrated Roman philosopher, was born at Cordoba,
in Spain, a few years B. C. When a child, he was brought by his father
to Rome, where he was initiated in the study of eloquence.

[288:1] Indian Wisdom, pp. 153, 154. Similar sentiments are expressed in
his Hinduism, pp. 218-220.

[288:2] Indian Wisdom, p. iv.

[288:3] Cox: Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. pp. 137, 138.

[288:4] Ibid. p. 131.

[288:5] Williams' Hinduism, pp. 119-110. It was from these sources that
the doctrine of _incarnation_ was first evolved by the Brahman. They
were written many centuries B. C. (See Ibid.)



CHAPTER XXIX.

CHRIST BUDDHA AND CHRIST JESUS COMPARED.

     "The more I learn to know Buddha the more I admire him, and
     the sooner all mankind shall have been made acquainted with
     his doctrines the better it will be, for he is certainly one
     of the heroes of humanity."
                                                 _Fausböll._


The _mythological_ portions of the histories of Buddha and Jesus are,
without doubt, nearer in resemblance than that of any two characters of
antiquity. The _cause_ of this we shall speak of in our chapter on "Why
Christianity Prospered," and shall content ourselves for the present by
comparing the following analogies:

1. Buddha was born of the Virgin Mary,[289:1] who conceived him without
carnal intercourse.[289:2]

     1. Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, who conceived him
     without carnal intercourse.[289:3]

2. The incarnation of Buddha is recorded to have been brought about by
the descent of the divine power called the "_Holy_ Ghost," upon the
Virgin Maya.[289:4]

     2. The incarnation of Jesus is recorded to have been brought
     about by the descent of the divine power called the "Holy
     Ghost," upon the Virgin Mary.[289:3]

3. When Buddha descended from the regions of the souls,[290:1] and
entered the body of the Virgin Maya, her womb assumed the appearance of
clear transparent crystal, in which Buddha appeared, beautiful as a
flower.[290:2]

     3. When Jesus descended from his heavenly seat, and entered
     the body of the Virgin Mary, her womb assumed the appearance
     of clear transparent crystal, in which Jesus appeared
     beautiful as a flower.[290:3]

4. The birth of Buddha was announced in the heavens by an _asterim_
which was seen rising on the horizon. It is called the "Messianic
Star."[290:4]

     4. The birth of Jesus was announced in the heavens by "his
     star," which was seen rising on the horizon.[290:5] It might
     properly be called the "Messianic Star."

5. "The son of the Virgin Maya, on whom, according to the tradition, the
'Holy Ghost' had descended, was said to have been born on Christmas
day."[290:6]

     5. The Son of the Virgin Mary, on whom, according to the
     tradition, the 'Holy Ghost' had descended, was said to have
     been born on Christmas day.[290:7]

6. Demonstrations of celestial delight were manifest at the birth of
Buddha. The _Devas_[290:8] in heaven and earth sang praises to the
"Blessed One," and said: "To day, _Bodhisatwa_ is born on earth, to give
joy and peace to men and Devas, to shed light in the dark places, and to
give sight to the blind."[290:9]

     6. Demonstrations of celestial delight were manifest at the
     birth of Jesus. The angels in heaven and earth sang praises to
     the "Blessed One," saying: "Glory to God in the highest, and
     on earth peace, good will toward men."[290:10]

7. "Buddha was visited by wise men who recognized in this marvelous
infant all the characters of the divinity, and he had scarcely seen the
day before he was hailed God of Gods."[290:11]

     7. Jesus was visited by wise men who recognized in this
     marvelous infant all the characters of the divinity, and he
     had scarcely seen the day before he was hailed God of
     Gods.[290:12]

8. The infant Buddha was presented with "costly jewels and precious
substances."[290:13]

     8. The infant Jesus was presented with gifts of gold,
     frankincense, and myrrh.[290:14]

9. When Buddha was an infant, just born, he spoke to his mother, and
said: "I am the greatest among men."[290:15]

     9. When Jesus was an infant in his cradle, he spoke to his
     mother, and said: "I am Jesus, the Son of God."[290:16]

10. Buddha was a "dangerous child." His life was threatened by King
Bimbasara, who was advised to destroy the child, as he was liable to
overthrow him.[291:1]

     10. Jesus was a "dangerous child." His life was threatened by
     King Herod,[291:2] who attempted to destroy the child, as he
     was liable to overthrow him.[291:3]

11. When sent to school, the young Buddha surprised his masters. Without
having ever studied, he completely worsted all his competitors, not only
in writing, but in arithmetic, mathematics, metaphysics, astrology,
geometry, &c.[291:4]

     11. When sent to school, Jesus surprised his master Zaccheus,
     who, turning to Joseph, said: "Thou hast brought a boy to me
     to be taught, who is more learned than any master."[291:5]

12. "When _twelve_ years old the child Buddha is presented in the
temple. He explains and asks learned questions; he excels all those who
enter into competition with him."[291:6]

     12. "And when he was _twelve_ years old, they brought him to
     (the temple at) Jerusalem . . . . While in the temple among
     the doctors and elders, and learned men of Israel, he proposed
     several questions of learning, and also gave them
     answers."[291:7]

13. Buddha entered a temple, on which occasion forthwith all the statues
rose and threw themselves at his feet, in act of worship.[291:8]

     13. "And as Jesus was going in by the ensigns, who carried the
     standards, the tops of them bowed down and worshiped
     Jesus."[291:9]

14. "The ancestry of Gotama Buddha is traced from his father,

_Sodhōdana_, through various individuals and races, all of royal
dignity, to _Maha Sammata_, the first monarch of the world. Several of
the names and some of the events are met with in the Puranas of the
Brahmans, but it is not possible to reconcile one order of statement
with the other; and it would appear that the Buddhist historians have
introduced races, and invented names, that they may invest their
venerated Sage with all the honors of heraldry, in addition to the
attributes of divinity."[292:1]

     14. The ancestry of Jesus is traced from his father, Joseph,
     through various individuals, nearly all of whom were of royal
     dignity, to Adam, the first monarch of the world. Several of
     the names, and some of the events, are met with in the sacred
     Scriptures of the Hebrews, but it is not possible to reconcile
     one order of statement with the other; and it would appear
     that the Christian historians have invented and introduced
     names, that they may invest their venerated Sage with all the
     honors of heraldry, in addition to the attributes of
     divinity.[292:2]

15. When Buddha was about to go forth "to adopt a religious life,"
_Mara_[292:3] appeared before him, to tempt him.[292:4]

     15. When Jesus was about "beginning to preach," the _devil_
     appeared before him, to tempt him.[292:5]

16. _Mara_ said unto Buddha: "Go not forth to adopt a religious life,
and in seven days thou shalt become an emperor of the world."[292:6]

     16. The _devil_ said to Jesus: If thou wilt fall down and
     worship me, I will give thee all the kingdoms of the
     world.[292:7]

17. Buddha would not heed the words of the Evil One, and said to him:
"Get thee away from me."[292:8]

     17. Jesus would not heed the words of the Evil One, and said
     to him: "Get thee behind me, Satan."[292:9]

18. After _Mara_ had left Buddha, "the skies rained flowers, and
delicious odors pervaded the air."[292:10]

     18. After the _devil_ had left Jesus, "angels came and
     ministered unto him."[292:11]

19. Buddha fasted for a long period.[292:12]

     19. Jesus fasted forty days and nights.[292:13]

20. Buddha, the Saviour, was baptized, and at this recorded water
baptism the Spirit of God was present; that is, not only the highest
God, but also the "Holy Ghost," through whom the incarnation of Gautama
Buddha is recorded to have been brought about by the descent of that
Divine power upon the Virgin Maya.[292:14]

     20. Jesus was baptized by John in the river Jordan, at which
     time the Spirit of God was present; that is, not only the
     highest God, but also the "Holy Ghost," through whom the
     incarnation of Jesus is recorded to have been brought about,
     by the descent of that Divine power upon the Virgin
     Mary.[292:15]

21. "On one occasion toward the end of his life on earth, Gautama Buddha
is reported to have been _transfigured_. When _on a mountain_ in Ceylon,
suddenly a flame of light descended upon him and encircled the crown of
his head with a circle of light. The mount is called _Pandava_, or
yellow-white color. It is said that 'the glory of his person shone forth
with double power,' that his body was 'glorious as a bright golden
image,' that he 'shone as the brightness of the sun and moon,' that
bystanders expressed their opinion, that he could not be 'an every-day
person,' or 'a mortal man,' and that his body was divided into
_three_[293:1] parts, from each of which a ray of light issued
forth."[293:2]

     21. On one occasion during his career on earth, Jesus is
     reported to have been transfigured: "Jesus taketh Peter,
     James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into a _high
     mountain_ apart. And was transfigured before them: and his
     face did shine as the sun, and his raiment as white as the
     light."[292:16]

22. "Buddha performed great miracles for the good of mankind, and the
legends concerning him are full of the greatest prodigies and
wonders."[293:3]

     22. Jesus performed great miracles for the good of the
     mankind, and the legends concerning him are full of the
     greatest prodigies and wonders.[293:4]

23. By prayers in the name of Buddha, his followers expect to receive
the rewards of paradise.[293:5]

     23. By prayers in the name of Jesus, his followers expect to
     receive the rewards of paradise.

24. When Buddha died and was buried, "the coverings of the body unrolled
themselves, and the lid of his coffin was opened by supernatural
powers."[293:6]

     24. When Jesus died and was buried, the coverings of the body
     were unrolled from off him, and his tomb was opened by
     supernatural powers.[293:7]

25. Buddha ascended bodily to the celestial regions, when his mission on
earth was fulfilled.[293:8]

     25. Jesus ascended bodily to the celestial regions, when his
     mission on earth was fulfilled.[293:9]

26. Buddha is to come upon the earth again in the latter days, his
mission being to restore the world to order and happiness.[293:10]

     26. Jesus is to come upon the earth again in the latter days,
     his mission being to restore the world to order and
     happiness.[293:11]

27. Buddha is to be judge of the dead.[293:12]

     27. Jesus is to be judge of the dead.[293:13]

28. Buddha is Alpha and Omega, without beginning or end, "the Supreme
Being, the Eternal One."[293:14]

     28. Jesus is Alpha and Omega, without beginning or
     end,[293:15] "the Supreme Being, the Eternal One."[293:16]

29. Buddha is represented as saying: "Let all the sins that were
committed in this world fall on me, that the world may be
delivered."[293:17]

     29. Jesus is represented as the Saviour of mankind, and all
     the sins that are committed in this world may fall on him,
     that the world may be delivered.[293:18]

30. Buddha said: "Hide your good deeds, and confess before the world the
sins you have committed."[293:19]

     30. Jesus taught men to hide their good deeds,[293:20] and
     confess before the world the sins they had committed.[293:21]

31. "Buddha was described as a superhuman organ of light, to whom a
superhuman organ of darkness, Mara or Naga, the Evil Serpent, was
opposed."[294:1]

     31. Jesus was described as a superhuman organ of light--"the
     _Sun_ of Righteousness"[294:2]--opposed by "the old Serpent,"
     the Satan, hinderer, or adversary.[294:3]

32. Buddha came, not to destroy, but to fulfill, the law. He delighted
in "representing himself as a _mere link_ in a long chain of enlightened
teachers."[294:4]

     32. Jesus said: "Think not that I am come to destroy the law,
     or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to
     fulfill."[294:5]

33. "One day Ananda, the disciple of Buddha, after a long walk in the
country, meets with Mâtangî, a woman of the low caste of the Kândâlas,
near a well, and asks her for some water. She tells him what she is, and
that she must not come near him. But he replies, 'My sister, I ask not
for thy caste or thy family, I ask only for a draught of water.' She
afterwards became a disciple of Buddha."[294:6]

     33. One day Jesus, after a long walk, cometh to the city of
     Samaria, and being wearied with his journey, sat on a well.
     While there, a woman of Samaria came to draw water, and Jesus
     said unto her: "give me to drink." "Then said the woman unto
     him: How is it that thou, being a Jew, asketh drink of me,
     which am a woman of Samaria? For the Jews have no dealings
     with the Samaritans."[294:7]

34. "According to Buddha, the motive of all our actions should be _pity_
or _love_ for our neighbor."[294:8]

     34. "Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to
     them that hate you."[294:9]

35. During the early part of his career as a teacher, "Buddha went to
the city of Benares, and there delivered a discourse, by which Kondanya,
and afterwards _four_ others, were induced to become his disciples. From
that period, whenever he preached, multitudes of men and women embraced
his doctrines."[294:10]

     35. During the early part of his career as a teacher, Jesus
     went to the city of Capernaum, and there delivered a
     discourse. It was at this time that _four_ fishermen were
     induced to become his disciples.[294:11] From that period,
     whenever he preached, multitudes of men and women embraced his
     doctrines.[294:12]

36. Those who became disciples of Buddha were told that they must
"renounce the world," give up all their riches, and avow
poverty.[294:13]

     36. Those who became disciples of Jesus were told that they
     must renounce the world, give up all their riches, and avow
     poverty.[294:14]

37. It is recorded in the "Sacred Canon" of the Buddhists that the
multitudes "_required a sign_" from Buddha "that they might
believe."[295:1]

     37. It is recorded in the "Sacred Canon" of the Christians
     that the multitudes required a sign from Jesus that they might
     believe.[295:2]

38. When Buddha's time on earth was about coming to a close, he,
"foreseeing the things that would happen in future times," said to his
disciple Ananda: "Ananda, when I am gone, you must not think there is no
Buddha; the _discourses_ I have delivered, and the _precepts_ I have
enjoined, _must be my successors_, or representatives, and be to you as
Buddha."[295:3]

     38. When Jesus' time on earth was about coming to a close, he
     told of the things that would happen in future times,[295:4]
     and said unto his disciples: "Go ye therefore, and teach all
     nations, teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have
     commanded you; and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end
     of the world."[295:5]

39. In the Buddhist _Somadeva_, is to be found the following: "To give
away our riches is considered the most difficult virtue in the world; he
who gives away his riches is like a man who gives away his life: for our
very life seems to cling to our riches. But Buddha, when his mind was
moved by pity, _gave his life_ like grass, for the sake of others; why
should we think of miserable riches! By this exalted virtue, Buddha,
when he was freed from all desires, and had obtained divine knowledge,
attained unto Buddhahood. Therefore let a wise man, after he has turned
away his desires from all pleasures, do good to all beings, even unto
sacrificing his own life, that thus he may attain to true
knowledge."[295:6]

     39. "And behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what
     good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? . . .
     Jesus said unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that
     thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure
     in heaven: and come and follow me."[295:7] "Lay not up for
     yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth
     corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal: But lay up
     for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor
     rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor
     steal."[295:8]

40. Buddha's aim was to establish a "Religious Kingdom," a "_Kingdom of
Heaven_."[296:1]

     40. "From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say,
     Repent: for the _Kingdom of Heaven_ is at hand."[296:2]

41. Buddha said: "I now desire to turn the wheel of the excellent
law.[296:3] For this purpose am I going to the city of Benares,[296:4]
to give light to those enshrouded in darkness, and to open the gate of
Immortality to man."[296:5]

     41. Jesus, after his temptation by the devil, began to
     establish the dominion of his religion, and he went for this
     purpose to the city of Capernaum. "The people which sat in
     darkness saw great light, and to them which sat in the region
     and shadow of death, light is sprung up."[296:6]

42. Buddha said: "Though the heavens were to fall to earth, and the
great world be swallowed up and pass away: Though Mount Sumera were to
crack to pieces, and the great ocean be dried up, yet, Ananda, be
assured, the words of Buddha are true."[296:7]

     42. "The law was given by Moses, but grace and _truth_ came by
     Jesus Christ."[296:8]

     "_Verily_ I say unto you . . . heaven and earth shall pass
     away, _but my words shall not pass away_."[296:9]

43. Buddha said: "There is no passion more violent than voluptuousness.
Happily there is but one such passion. If there were two, not a man in
the whole universe could follow the truth." "Beware of fixing your eyes
upon women. If you find yourself in their company, let it be as though
you were not present. If you speak with them, guard well your
hearts."[296:10]

     43. Jesus said: "Ye have heard that it was said by them of old
     time. Thou shalt not commit adultery: But I say unto you, that
     whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed
     adultery with her already in his heart."[296:11]

44. Buddha said: "A wise man should avoid married life as if it were a
burning pit of live coals. One who is not able to live in a state of
celibacy should not commit adultery."[297:1]

     44. "It is good for a man not to touch a woman," "but if they
     cannot contain let them marry, for it is better to marry than
     to burn." "To avoid fornication, let every man have his own
     wife and let every woman have her own husband."[297:2]

45. "Buddhism is convinced that if a man reaps sorrow, disappointment,
pain, he himself, and no other, must at some time have sown folly,
error, sin; and if not in this life then in some former birth."[297:3]

     45. "And as Jesus passed by, he saw a man which was _blind
     from his birth_. And his disciples asked him, saying, Master,
     who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he was born
     blind."[297:4]

46. Buddha knew the thoughts of others: "By directing his mind to the
thoughts of others, he can know the thoughts of all beings."[297:5]

     46. Jesus knew the thoughts of others. By directing his mind
     to the thoughts of others, he knew the thoughts of all
     beings.[297:6]

47. In the _Somadeva_ a story is related of a Buddhist ascetic whose eye
offended him, he therefore plucked it out, and cast it away.[297:7]

     47. It is related in the New Testament that Jesus said: "If
     thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from
     thee."[297:8]

48. When Buddha was about to become an ascetic, and when riding on the
horse "Kantako," his path was strewn with flowers, thrown there by
Devas.[297:9]

     48. When Jesus was entering Jerusalem, riding on an ass, his
     path was strewn with palm branches, thrown there by the
     multitude.[297:10]

Never were devotees of any creed or faith as fast bound in its thraldom
as are the disciples of Gautama Buddha. For nearly two thousand four
hundred years it has been the established religion of Burmah, Siam,
Laos, Pega, Cambodia, Thibet, Japan, Tartary, Ceylon and Loo-Choo, and
many neighboring islands, beside about two-thirds of China and a large
portion of Siberia; and at the present day no inconsiderable number of
the simple peasantry of Swedish Lapland are found among its firm
adherents.[297:11]

Well authenticated records establish indisputably the facts, that
together with a noble physique, superior mental endowments, and high
moral excellence, there were found in Buddha a purity of life, sanctity
of character, and simple integrity of purpose, that commended themselves
to all brought under his influence. Even at this distant day, one cannot
listen with tearless eyes to the touching details of his pure, earnest
life, and patient endurance under contradiction, often fierce
persecution for those he sought to benefit. Altogether he seems to have
been one of those remarkable examples, of genius and virtue occasionally
met with, unaccountably superior to the age and nation that produced
them.

There is no reason to believe that he ever arrogated to himself any
higher authority than that of a teacher of religion, but, _as in modern
factions_, there were readily found among his followers those who
carried his peculiar tenets much further than their founder. These, not
content with lauding during his life-time the noble deeds of their
teacher, exalted him, within a quarter of a century after his death, to
a place among their deities--worshiping as a God one they had known only
as a simple-hearted, earnest, truth-seeking philanthropist.[298:1]

This worship was at first but the natural upgushing of the veneration
and love Gautama had inspired during his noble life, and his sorrowing
disciples, mourning over the desolation his death had occasioned, turned
for consolation to the theory that he still lived.

Those who had known him in life cherished his name as the very synonym
of all that was generous and good, and it required but a step to exalt
him to divine honors; and so it was that Gautama Buddha became a God,
and continues to be worshiped as such.

For more than forty years Gautama thus dwelt among his followers,
instructing them daily in the sacred law, and laying down many rules
for their guidance when he should be no longer with them.[299:1]

He lived in a style the most simple and unostentatious, bore
uncomplainingly the weariness and privations incident to the many long
journeys made for the propagation of the new faith; and performed
countless deeds of love and mercy.

"When the time came for him to be perfected, he directed his followers
no longer to remain together, but to go out in companies, and proclaim
the doctrines he had taught them, found schools and monasteries, build
temples, and perform acts of charity, that they might 'obtain merit,'
and gain access to the blessed shade of Nigban, which he told them he
was about to enter, and where they believe he has now reposed more than
two thousand years."

To the pious Buddhist it seems irreverent to speak of Gautama by his
mere ordinary and human name, and he makes use therefore, of one of
those numerous epithets which are used only of the Buddha, "the
Enlightened One." Such are _Sakya-sinha_, "the Lion of the Tribe of
Sakya;" _Sakya-muni_, "the Sakya Sage;" _Sugata_, "the Happy One;"
_Sattha_, "the Teacher;" _Jina_, "the Conqueror;" _Bhagavad_, "the
Blessed One;" _Loka-natha_, "the Lord of the World;" _Sarvajna_, "the
Omniscient One;" _Dharma-raja_, "the King of Righteousness;" he is also
called "the Author of Happiness," "the Possessor of All," "the Supreme
Being," "the Eternal One," "the Dispeller of Pain and Trouble," "the
Guardian of the Universe," "the Emblem of Mercy," "the Saviour of the
World," "the Great Physician," "the God among Gods," "the Anointed" or
"the Christ," "the Messiah," "the Only-Begotten," "the Heaven-Descended
Mortal," "the Way of Life, and of Immortality," &c.[299:2]

At no time did Buddha receive his knowledge from a human source, that
is, from flesh and blood. His source was the power of his divine wisdom,
the spiritual power of Maya, which he already possessed before his
incarnation. It was by this divine power, which is also called the "Holy
Ghost," that he became the Saviour, the Kung-teng, the Anointed or
Messiah, to whom prophecies had pointed. Buddha was regarded as the
supernatural light of the world; and this world to which he came was his
own, his possession, for he is styled: "The Lord of the World."[300:1]

"Gautama Buddha taught that all men are brothers;[300:2] that charity
ought to be extended to all, even to enemies; that men ought to love
truth and hate the lie; that good works ought not be done openly, but
rather in secret; that the dangers of riches are to be avoided; that
man's highest aim ought to be purity in thought, word and deed, since
the higher beings are pure, whose nature is akin to that of man."[300:3]

"Sakya-Muni healed the sick, performed miracles and taught his doctrines
to the poor. He selected his first disciples among laymen, and even two
women, the mother and wife of his first convert, the sick Yasa, became
his followers. He subjected himself to the religious obligations imposed
by the recognized authorities, avoided strife, and illustrated his
doctrines by his life."[300:4]

It is said that eighty thousand followers of Buddha went forth from
Hindostan, as missionaries to other lands; and the traditions of various
countries are full of legends concerning their benevolence, holiness,
and miraculous power. His religion has never been propagated by the
sword. It has been effected entirely by the influence of peaceable and
persevering devotees.[300:5] The era of the Siamese is the death of
Buddha. In Ceylon, they date from the introduction of his religion into
their island. It is supposed to be more extensively adopted than any
religion that ever existed. Its votaries are computed at four hundred
millions; more than one-third of the whole human race.[300:6]

There is much contradiction among writers concerning the _date_ of the
Buddhist religion. This confusion arises from the fact that there are
several Buddhas,[301:1] objects of worship; because the word is not a
name, but a title, signifying an extraordinary degree of holiness. Those
who have examined the subject most deeply have generally agreed that
Buddha Sakai, from whom the religion takes its name, must have been a
real, historical personage, who appeared many centuries before the time
assigned for the birth of Christ Jesus.[301:2] There are many things to
confirm this supposition. In some portions of India, his religion
appears to have flourished for a long time side by side with that of the
Brahmans. This is shown by the existence of many ancient temples, some
of them cut in subterranean rock, with an immensity of labor, which it
must have required a long period to accomplish. In those old temples,
his statues represent him with hair knotted all over his head, which was
a very ancient custom with the anchorites of Hindostan, before the
practice of shaving the head was introduced among their devotees.[301:3]
His religion is also mentioned in one of the very ancient epic poems of
India. The severity of the persecution indicates that their numbers and
influence had became formidable to the Brahmans, who had everything to
fear from a sect which abolished hereditary priesthood, and allowed the
holy of all castes to become teachers.[301:4]

It may be observed that in speaking of the pre-existence of Buddha in
heaven--his birth of a virgin--the songs of the angels at his birth--his
recognition as a divine child--his disputation with the doctors--his
temptation in the wilderness--his transfiguration on the Mount--his life
of preaching and working miracles--and finally, his ascension into
heaven, we referred to Prof. Samuel Beal's "History of Buddha," as one
of our authorities. This work is simply a translation of the
"_Fo-pen-hing_," made by Professor Beal from a Chinese copy, in the
"Indian Office Library."

Now, in regard to the antiquity of this work, we will quote the words
of the translator in speaking on this subject.

First, he says:

     "_We know_ that the _Fo-pen-hing_ was translated into Chinese
     from _Sanscrit_ (the ancient language of _Hindostan_) so early
     as the eleventh year of the reign of Wing-ping (Ming-ti), of
     the Han dynasty, _i. e._, 69 or 70 A. D. _We may, therefore,
     safely suppose that the original work was in circulation in
     India for some time previous to this date._"[302:1]

Again, he says:

     "There can be no doubt that the present work (_i. e._ the
     Fo-pen-hing, or Hist. of Buddha) contains as a woof (so to
     speak) some of the earliest verses (Gâthas) in which the
     History of Buddha was sung, _long before the work itself was
     penned_.

     "These Gâthas were evidently composed in different Prakrit
     forms (during a period of disintegration) _before the more
     modern type of Sanscrit_ was fixed by the rules of Panini, and
     the popular epics of the Mâhabharata and the Ramâyana."[302:2]

Again, in speaking of the points of resemblance in the history of Buddha
and Jesus, he says:

     "These points of agreement with the Gospel narrative naturally
     arouse curiosity _and require explanation_. If we could prove
     that they (the legends related of Buddha) were unknown in the
     East for some centuries _after_ Christ, the explanation would
     be easy. _But all the evidence we have goes to prove the
     contrary._

     "It would be a natural inference that many of the events in
     the legend of Buddha were borrowed from the Apocryphal
     Gospels, if we were quite certain that these Apocryphal
     Gospels had not borrowed from it. How then may we explain the
     matter? It would be better at once to say that in our present
     state of knowledge there is no complete explanation to
     offer."[302:3]

There certainly is no "complete explanation" to be offered by one who
attempts to uphold the historical accuracy of the New Testament. The
"Devil" and "Type" theories having vanished, like all theories built on
sand, nothing now remains for the honest man to do but acknowledge the
truth, which is, _that the history of Jesus of Nazareth as related in
the books of the New Testament, is simply a copy of that of Buddha, with
a mixture of mythology borrowed from other nations_. Ernest de Bunsen
almost acknowledges this when he says:

     "With the remarkable exception of the death of Jesus on the
     cross, and of the doctrine of atonement by vicarious
     suffering, which is absolutely excluded by Buddhism, the _most
     ancient_ of the Buddhistic records known to us contain
     statements about the life and the doctrines of Gautama Buddha
     which correspond in a remarkable manner, _and impossibly by
     mere chance_, with the traditions recorded in the Gospels
     about the life and doctrines of Jesus Christ. It is still more
     strange that these Buddhistic legends about Gautama _as the
     Angel-Messiah_ refer to a doctrine which we find only in the
     Epistles of Paul and in the fourth Gospel. This can be
     explained by the assumption of a common source of revelation;
     but then the serious question must be considered, why the
     doctrine of the Angel-Messiah, supposing it to have been
     revealed, and which we find in the East and in the West, is
     not contained in any of the Scriptures of the Old Testament
     which can possibly have been written before the Babylonian
     Captivity, nor in the first three Gospels. _Can the systematic
     keeping-back of essential truth be attributed to God or to
     man?_"[303:1]

Beside the work referred to above as being translated by Prof. Beal,
there is another copy originally composed in verse. This was translated
by the learned Fonceau, who gives it an antiquity of _two thousand
years_, "although the original treatise must be attributed to an earlier
date."[303:2]

In regard to the teachings of Buddha, which correspond so strikingly
with those of Jesus, Prof. Rhys Davids, says:

     "With regard to Gautama's teaching we have more reliable
     authority than we have with regard to his life. It is true
     that none of the books of the Three Pitakas can at present be
     satisfactorily traced back before the Council of Asoka, held
     at Patna, about 250 B. C., that is to say, at least one
     hundred and thirty years after the death of the teacher; but
     they undoubtedly contain a great deal of much older
     matter."[303:3]

Prof. Max Müller says:

     "Between the language of Buddha and his disciples, and the
     language of Christ and his apostles, there are strange
     coincidences. Even some of the Buddhist legends and parables
     sound as if taken from the New Testament; _though we know that
     many of them existed before the beginning of the Christian
     Era_."[303:4]

Just as many of the myths related of the Hindoo Saviour Crishna were
_previously current_ regarding some of the Vedic gods, so likewise, many
of the myths _previously current_ regarding the god _Sumana_, worshiped
both on Adam's peak, and at the cave of Dambulla, _were added to the
Buddha myth_.[303:5] Much of the legend which was transferred to the
Buddha, had previously existed, and had clustered around the idea of a
_Chakrawarti_.[303:6] Thus we see that the legend of _Christ_ Buddha, as
with the legend of _Christ_ Jesus, _existed before his time_.[303:7]

We have established the fact then--_and no man can produce better
authorities_--that Buddha and Buddhism, which correspond in such a
remarkable manner with Jesus and Christianity, were long anterior to the
Christian era. Now, as Ernest de Bunsen says, this remarkable similarity
in the histories of the founders and their religion, could not possibly
happen by chance.

Whenever two religious or legendary histories of mythological personages
resemble each other so completely as do the histories and teachings of
Buddha and Jesus, the older must be the parent, and the younger the
child. We must therefore conclude that, since the history of Buddha and
Buddhism is very much older than that of Jesus and Christianity, the
Christians are incontestably _either sectarians or plagiarists of the
religion of the Buddhists_.


FOOTNOTES:

[289:1] Maya, and Mary, as we have already seen, are one and the same
name.

[289:2] See chap. xii. Buddha is considered to be an incarnation of
Vishnu, although he preached against the doctrines of the Brahmans. The
adoption of Buddha as an incarnation of Vishnu was really owning to the
desire of the Brahmans to effect a compromise with Buddhism. (See
Williams' Hinduism, pp. 82 and 108.)

"Buddha was brought forth not from the matrix, but from the right side,
of a virgin." (De Guignes: Hist. des Huns, tom. i. p. 224.)

"Some of the (Christian) heretics maintained that Christ was born from
the side of his mother." (Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 157.)

"In the eyes of the Buddhists, this personage is sometimes a man and
sometimes a god, or rather both one and the other, a divine incarnation,
a man-god; who came into the world to enlighten men, to redeem them, and
to indicate to them the way of safety. This idea of redemption by a
divine incarnation is so general and popular among the Buddhists, that
during our travels in Upper Asia, we everywhere found it expressed in a
neat formula. If we addressed to a Mongol or Thibetan the question, 'Who
is Buddha?' he would immediately reply, 'The Saviour of Men.'" (M.
L'Abbé Huc: Travels, vol. i. p. 326.)

"The miraculous birth of Buddha, his life and instructions, contain a
great number of the moral and dogmatic truths professed in
Christianity." (Ibid. p. 327.)

"He in mercy left paradise, and came down to earth because he was filled
with compassion for the sins and misery of mankind. He sought to lead
them into better paths, and took their sufferings upon himself, that he
might expiate their crimes, and mitigate the punishment they must
otherwise inevitably undergo." (L. Maria Child.)

[289:3] Matt. ch. i.

[289:4] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, pp. 10, 25 and 44. Also, ch. xiii.
this work.

[290:1] "As a spirit in the fourth heaven he resolves to give up all
that glory in order to be born in the world for the purpose of rescuing
all men from their misery and every future consequence of it: he vows to
deliver all men who are left as it were without a _Saviour_." (Bunsen:
The Angel-Messiah, p. 20.)

[290:2] See King's Gnostics, p. 168, and Hardy's Manual of Buddhism, p.
144.

[290:3] See chap. xii. _note_ 2, page 117.

"On a painted glass of the sixteenth century, found in the church of
Jouy, a little village in France, the Virgin is represented standing,
her hands clasped in prayer, and the naked body of the child in the same
attitude appears upon her stomach, apparently supposed to be seen
through the garments and body of the mother. M. Drydon saw at Lyons a
Salutation painted on shutters, in which the two infants (Jesus and
John) likewise depicted on their mothers' stomachs, were also saluting
each other. This precisely corresponds to Buddhist accounts of the
Boddhisattvas ante-natal proceedings." (Viscount Amberly: Analysis of
Relig. Belief, p. 224, _note_.)

[290:4] See chap. xiii.

[290:5] Matt. ii. 1, 2.

[290:6] Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, p. x.

[290:7] We show, in our chapter on "The Birth-Day of Christ Jesus," that
this was not the case. This day was adopted by his followers long after
his death.

[290:8] "_Devas_," _i. e._, angels.

[290:9] See chap. xiv.

[290:10] Luke, ii. 13, 14.

[290:11] See chap. xv.

[290:12] Matt. ii. 1-11.

[290:13] See chap. xi.

[290:14] Matt. ii. 11.

[290:15] See Hardy's Manual of Buddhism, pp. 145, 146.

[290:16] Gospel of Infancy, _Apoc._, i. 3. No sooner was _Apollo_ born
than he spoke to his virgin-mother, declaring that he should teach to
men the councils of his heavenly father Zeus. (See Cox: Aryan Mythology,
vol. ii. p. 22.) _Hermes_ spoke to his mother as soon as he was born,
and, according to Jewish tradition, so did _Moses_. (See Hardy's Manual
of Buddhism, p. 145.)

[291:1] See Beal: Hist. Buddha, pp. 103, 104.

[291:2] See Matt. ii. 1.

[291:3] That is, provided he was the expected Messiah, who was to be a
mighty prince and warrior, and who was to rule his people Israel.

[291:4] See Hardy's Manual of Buddhism; Bunsen's Angel-Messiah; Beal's
Hist. Buddha, and other works on Buddhism.

This was a common myth. For instance: A Brahman called _Dashthaka_, a
"_heaven descended mortal_," after his birth, _without any human
instruction whatever_, was able thoroughly to explain the four _Vedas_,
the collective body of the sacred writings of the Hindoos, which were
considered as directly revealed by Brahma. (See Beal's Hist. Buddha, p.
48.)

_Confucius_, the miraculous-born Chinese sage, was a wonderful child. At
the age of seven he went to a public school, the superior of which was a
person of eminent wisdom and piety. The faculty with which Confucius
imbibed the lessons of his master, the ascendency which he acquired
amongst his fellow pupils, and the superiority of his genius and
capacity, raised universal admiration. He appeared to acquire knowledge
_intuitively_, and his mother found it superfluous to teach him what
"heaven had already engraven upon his heart." (See Thornton's Hist.
China, vol. i. p. 153.)

[291:5] See Infancy, _Apoc._, xx. 11, and Luke, ii. 46, 47.

[291:6] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 37, and Beal: Hist. Buddha, pp.
67-69.

[291:7] See Infancy, _Apoc._, xxi. 1, 2, and Luke, ii. 41-48.

[291:8] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 37, and Beal: Hist. Bud. 67-69.

[291:9] Nicodemus, _Apoc._, ch. i. 20.

[292:1] R. Spence Hardy, in Manual of Buddhism.

[292:2] See chap. xvii.

[292:3] "_Mara_" is the "Author of Evil," the "King of Death," the "God
of the World of Pleasure," &c., _i. e._, the _Devil_. (See Beal: Hist.
Buddha, p. 36.)

[292:4] See ch. xix.

[292:5] Matt. iv. 1-18.

[292:6] See ch. xix.

[292:7] Matt. iv. 8-19.

[292:8] See ch. xix.

[292:9] Luke, iv. 8.

[292:10] See ch. xix.

[292:11] Matt. iv. 11.

[292:12] See ch. xix.

[292:13] Matt. iv. 2.

[292:14] Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, p. 45.

[292:15] Matt. iii. 13-17.

[292:16] Matt. xvii. 1, 2.

[293:1] This has evidently an allusion to the Trinity. Buddha, as an
incarnation of Vishnu, would be one god and yet three, three gods and
yet one. (See the chapter on the _Trinity_.)

[293:2] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 45, and Beal: Hist. Buddha, p.
177.

_Iamblichus_, the great _Neo-Platonic mystic_, was at one time
_transfigured_. According to the report of his servants, _while in
prayer to the gods_, his body and clothes were changed to a beautiful
gold color, but after he ceased from prayer, his body became as before.
He then returned to the society of his followers. (Primitive Culture, i.
136, 137.)

[293:3] See ch. xxvii.

[293:4] See that recorded in Matt. viii. 28-34.

[293:5] See ch. xxiii.

[293:6] Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 49.

[293:7] See Matt. xxviii. John, xx.

[293:8] See chap. xxiii.

[293:9] See Acts, i. 9-12.

[293:10] See ch. xxiv.

[293:11] See Ibid.

[293:12] See ch. xxv.

[293:13] Matt. xvi. 27; John, v. 22.

[293:14] "Buddha, the Angel-Messiah, was regarded as the divinely chosen
and incarnate messenger, the vicar of God, and God himself on earth."
(Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, p. 33. See also, our chap. xxvi.)

[293:15] Rev. i. 8; xxii. 13.

[293:16] John, i. 1. Titus, ii. 13. Romans, ix. 5. Acts, vii. 59, 60.

[293:17] Müller: Hist. Sanscrit Literature, p. 80.

[293:18] This is according to Christian dogma:

     "Jesus paid it all,
        All to him is due,
      Nothing, either great or small,
        Remains for me to do."

[293:19] Müller: Science of Religion, p. 28.

[293:20] "Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of
them: otherwise ye have no reward of your father which is in heaven."
(Matt. vi. 1.)

[293:21] "Confess your faults one to another, and pray one for another,
that ye may be healed." (James, v. 16.)

[294:1] Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, pp. x. and 39.

[294:2] "That was the true light, which lighteth every man that cometh
into the world." (John, i. 9.)

[294:3] Matt. iv. 1; Mark, i. 13; Luke, iv. 2.

[294:4] Müller: Science of Religion, p. 140.

[294:5] Matt. v. 17.

[294:6] Müller: Science of Religion, p. 243. See also, Bunsen's
Angel-Messiah, pp. 47, 48, and Amberly's Analysis, p. 285.

[294:7] John, iv. 1-11.

Just as the Samaritan woman wondered that Jesus, a Jew, should ask drink
of _her_, one of a nation with whom the Jews had no dealings, so this
young Matangi warned Ananda of her caste, which rendered it unlawful for
her to approach a monk. And as Jesus continued, nevertheless, to
converse with the woman, so Ananda did not shrink from this outcast
damsel. And as the disciples "marvelled" that Jesus should have
conversed with this member of a despised race, so the respectable
Brahmans and householders who adhered to Brahmanism were scandalized to
learn that the young Matangi had been admitted to the order of
mendicants.

[294:8] Müller: Religion of Science, p. 249.

[294:9] Matt. v. 44.

[294:10] Hardy: Eastern Monachism, p. 6.

[294:11] See Matt. iv. 13-25.

[294:12] "And there followed him great multitudes of people." (Matt. iv.
25.)

[294:13] Hardy: Eastern Monachism, pp. 6 and 62 _et seq._

While at Rajageiha Buddha called together his followers and addressed
them at some length on the means requisite for Buddhist salvation. This
sermon was summed up in the celebrated verse:

     "To cease from all sin,
      To get virtue,
      To cleanse one's own heart--
      This is the religion of the Buddhas."

                             --(Rhys David's Buddha, p. 62.)



[294:14] See Matt. viii. 19, 20; xvi. 25-28.

[295:1] Müller: Science of Religion, p. 27.

[295:2] Hardy: Eastern Monachism, p. 230.

"Gautama Buddha is said to have announced to his disciples that the time
of his departure had come: 'Arise, let us go hence, my time is come.'
Turned toward the East and with folded arms he prayed to the highest
spirit who inhabits the region of purest light, to Maha-Brahma, to the
king in heaven, to Devaraja, who from his throne looked down on Gautama,
and appeared to him in a self-chosen personality." (Bunsen: The
Angel-Messiah. Compare with Matt. xxvi. 36-47.)

[295:3] "Then certain of the scribes and Pharisees answered, saying,
Master, we would see a sign from thee." (Matt. xii. 38.)

[295:4] See Matt. xxiv; Mark, viii. 31; Luke, ix. 18.

[295:5] Mark, xxviii. 18-20.

Buddha at one time said to his disciples: "Go ye now, and preach the
most excellent law, expounding every point thereof, and unfolding it
with care and attention in all its bearings and particulars. Explain the
beginning, the middle, and the end of the law, to all men without
exception; let everything respecting it be made publicly known and
brought to the broad daylight." (Rhys David's Buddhism, p. 55, 56.)

When Buddha, just before his death, took his last formal farewell of his
assembled followers, he said unto them: "Oh mendicants, thoroughly
learn, and practice, and perfect, and spread abroad the law thought out
and revealed by me, in order that this religion of mine may last long,
and be perpetuated for the good and happiness of the great multitudes,
out of pity for the world, to the advantage and prosperity of gods and
men." (Ibid. p. 172.)

[295:6] Müller: Science of Religion, p. 244.

[295:7] Matt. xix. 16-21.

[295:8] Matt. vi. 19, 20.

[296:1] Beal: Hist. Buddha, p. x, _note_.

[296:2] Matt. iv. 17.

[296:3] _i. e._, to establish the dominion of religion. (See Beal: p.
244, _note_.)

[296:4] The Jerusalem, the Rome, or the Mecca of India.

This celebrated city of Benares, which has a population of 200,000, out
of which at least 25,000 are Brahmans, was probably one of the first to
acquire a fame for sanctity, and it has always maintained its reputation
as the most sacred spot in all India. Here, in this fortress of
Hindooism, Brahmanism displays itself in all its plentitude and power.
Here the degrading effect of idolatry is visibly demonstrated as it is
nowhere else except in the extreme south of India. Here, temples, idols,
and symbols, sacred wells, springs, and pools, are multiplied beyond all
calculation. Here every particle of ground is believed to be hallowed,
and the very air holy. The number of temples is at least two thousand,
not counting innumerable smaller shrines. In the principal temple of
Siva, called Visvesvara, are collected in one spot several thousand
idols and symbols, the whole number scattered throughout the city,
being, it is thought, at least half a million.

Benares, indeed, must always be regarded as the Hindoo's Jerusalem. The
desire of a pious man's life is to accomplish at least one pilgrimage to
what he regards as a portion of heaven let down upon earth; and if he
can die within the holy circuit of the Pancakosi stretching with a
radius of ten miles around the city--nay, if any human being die there,
be he Asiatic or European--no previously incurred guilt, however
heinous, can prevent his attainment of celestial bliss.

[296:5] Beal: Hist. Buddha, p. 245.

[296:6] Matt. iv. 13-17.

[296:7] Beal: Hist. Buddha, p. 11.

[296:8] John, i. 17.

[296:9] Luke, xxi. 32, 33.

[296:10] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 228.

[296:11] Matt. v. 27, 28.

On one occasion Buddha preached a sermon on the five senses and the
heart (which he regarded as a sixth organ of sense), which pertained to
guarding against the passion of lust. Rhys Davids, who, in speaking of
this sermon, says: "One may pause and wonder at finding such a sermon
preached so early in the history of the world--more than 400 years
before the rise of Christianity--and among a people who have long been
thought peculiarly idolatrous and sensual." (Buddhism, p. 60.)

[297:1] Rhys Davids' Buddhism, p. 138.

[297:2] I. Corinth. vii. 1-7.

[297:3] Rhys Davids' Buddhism, p. 103.

[297:4] John, ix. 1, 2.

This is the doctrine of transmigration clearly taught. If this man was
born blind, as punishment for some sin committed by him, this sin must
have been committed in _some former birth_.

[297:5] Hardy: Buddhist Legends, p. 181.

[297:6] See the story of his conversation with the woman of Samaria.
(John, iv. 1.) And with the woman who was cured of the "bloody issue."
(Matt. ix. 20.)

[297:7] Müller: Science of Religion, p. 245.

[297:8] Matt. v. 29.

[297:9] Hardy: Buddhist Legends, p. 134.

[297:10] Matt. xxi. 1-9.

_Bacchus_ rode in a triumphal procession, on approaching the city of
_Thebes_. "Pantheus, the king, who had no respect for the new worship
(instituted by Bacchus) forbade its rites to be performed. But when it
was known that Bacchus was advancing, men and women, but chiefly the
latter, young and old, poured forth to meet him and to join his
triumphal march. . . . It was in vain Pantheus remonstrated, commanded
and threatened. 'Go,' said he to his attendants, 'seize this vagabond
leader of the rout and bring him to me. I will soon make him confess his
false claim of heavenly parentage and renounce his counterfeit
worship.'" (Bulfinch: Age of Fable, p. 222. Compare with Matt. xxvi.;
Luke, xxii.; John xviii.)

[297:11] "There are few names among the men of the West that stand forth
as saliently as Gotama Buddha, in the annals of the East. In little more
than two centuries from his decease the system he established had spread
throughout the whole of India, overcoming opposition the most
formidable, and binding together the most discordant elements; and at
the present moment Buddhism is the prevailing religion, under various
modifications, of Tibet, Nepal, Siam, Burma, Japan, and South Ceylon;
and in China it has a position of at least equal prominence with its two
great rivals, Confucianism and Taouism. A long time its influence
extended throughout nearly three-fourths of Asia; from the steppes of
Tartary to the palm groves of Ceylon, and from the vale of Cashmere to
the isles of Japan." (R. Spence Hardy: Buddhist Leg. p. xi.)

[298:1] "Gautama was _very early_ regarded as omniscient, and absolutely
sinless. His perfect wisdom is declared by the ancient epithet of
_Samma-sambuddha_, 'the Completely Enlightened One;' found at the
commencement of every Pali text; and at the present day, in Ceylon, the
usual way in which Gautama is styled is _Sarwajnan-wahanse_,' the
Venerable Omniscient One.' From his perfect wisdom, according to
Buddhist belief, _his sinlessness would follow as a matter of course_.
He was the first and the greatest of the Arahats. _As a consequence of
this doctrine_ the belief soon sprang up that he could not have been,
that he was not, born as ordinary men are; that he had no earthly
father; that he descended of his own accord into his mother's womb from
his throne in heaven; and that he gave unmistakable signs, immediately
after his birth of his high character and of his future greatness."
(Rhys Davids' Buddhism, p. 162.)

[299:1] Gautama Buddha left behind him no written works, but the
Buddhists believe that he composed works which his immediate disciples
learned by heart in his life-time, and which were handed down by memory
in their original state until they were committed to writing. This is
not impossible: it is known that the _Vedas_ were handed down in this
manner for many hundreds of years, and none would now dispute the
enormous powers of memory to which Indian priests and monks attained,
when written books were not invented, or only used as helps to memory.
Even though they are well acquainted with writing, the monks in Ceylon
do not use books in their religions services, but, repeat, for instance,
the whole of the _Patimokkha_ on Uposatha (Sabbath) days by heart. (See
Rhys Davids' Buddhism, pp. 9, 10.)

[299:2] Compare this with the names, titles, and characters given to
Jesus. He is called the "Deliverer," (Acts, vii. 35); the "First
Begotten" (Rev. i. 5); "God blessed forever" (Rom. ix. 5); the "Holy
One" (Luke, iv. 34; Acts, iii. 14); the "King Everlasting" (Luke, i.
33); "King of Kings" (Rev. xvii. 14); "Lamb of God" (John, i. 29, 36);
"Lord of Glory" (I. Cor. ii. 8); "Lord of Lords" (Rev. xvii. 14); "Lion
of the tribe of Judah" (Rev. v. 5); "Maker and Preserver of all things"
(John, i. 3, 10; I. Cor. viii. 6; Col. i. 16); "Prince of Peace" (Isai.
ix. 6); "Redeemer," "Saviour," "Mediator," "Word," &c., &c.

[300:1] Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, p. 41.

[300:2] "He joined to his gifts as a thinker a prophetic ardor and
missionary zeal which prompted him to popularize his doctrine, and to
preach to all without exception, men and women, high and low, ignorant
and learned alike." (Rhys Davids' Buddhism, p. 53.)

[300:3] Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, p. 45.

[300:4] Ibid. p. 46.

[300:5] "The success of Buddhism was in great part due to the reverence
the Buddha inspired by his own personal character. He practiced honestly
what he preached enthusiastically. He was sincere, energetic, earnest,
self-sacrificing, and devout. Adherents gathered in thousands around the
person of the consistent preacher, and the Buddha himself became the
real centre of Buddhism." (Williams' Hinduism, p. 102.)

[300:6] "It may be said to be the prevailing religion of the world. Its
adherents are estimated at _four hundred millions_, more than a third of
the human race." (Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Buddhism." See also,
Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 251.)

[301:1] It should be understood that the Buddha of this chapter, and in
fact, the Buddha of _this_ work, is _Gautama_ Buddha, the Sakya Prince.
According to Buddhist belief there have been many different Buddhas on
earth. _The names_ of _twenty-four_ of the Buddhas who appeared previous
to Gautama have been handed down to us. The _Buddhavansa_ or "History of
the Buddhas," gives the lives of all the previous Buddhas before
commencing the account of Gautama himself. (See Rhys Davids' Buddhism,
pp. 179, 180.)

[301:2] "The date usually fixed for Buddha's death is 543 B. C. Whether
this precise year for one of the greatest epochs in the religious
history of the human race can be accepted is doubtful, but it is
tolerably certain that Buddhism arose in Behar and Eastern Hindustan
about five centuries B. C.; and that it spread with great rapidity, _not
by force of arms, or coercion of any kind_, like Muhammedanism, but by
the sheer persuasiveness of its doctrine." (Monier Williams' Hinduism,
p. 72.)

[301:3] "Of the high antiquity of Buddhism there is much collateral as
well as direct evidence--evidence that neither internecine nor foreign
strife, not even religious persecution, has been able to destroy. . . .
Witness the gigantic images in the caves of Elephanta, near Bombay and
those of Lingi Sara, in the interior of Java, all of which are known to
have been in existence at least four centuries prior to our Lord's
advent." (The Mammoth Religion.)

[301:4] Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 250.

[302:1] Beal: Hist. Buddha, p. vi.

[302:2] Ibid. pp. x. and xi.

[302:3] Ibid. pp. vii., ix. and _note_.

[303:1] Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 50.

[303:2] Quoted by Prof. Beal: Hist. Buddha, p. viii.

[303:3] Rhys Davids' Buddhism, p. 86.

[303:4] Science of Religion, p. 243.

[303:5] Rhys Davids' Buddhism.

[303:6] Ibid. p. 184.

"It is surprising," says Rhys Davids, "that, like Romans worshiping
Augustus, or Greeks adding the glow of the sun-myth to the glory of
Alexander, the Indians should have formed an ideal of their Chakravarti,
and transferred to this new ideal many of the dimly sacred and half
understood traits of the Vedic heroes? Is it surprising that the
Buddhists should have found it edifying to recognize in _their_ hero the
Chakravarti of Righteousness, and that the story of the Buddha should be
tinged with the coloring of these Chakravarti myths?" (Ibid. Buddhism,
p. 220.)

[303:7] In Chapter xxxix., we shall explain the _origin_ of these myths.



CHAPTER XXX.

THE EUCHARIST OR LORD'S SUPPER.


We are informed by the _Matthew_ narrator that when Jesus was eating his
last supper with the disciples,

     "He took bread and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to
     the disciples, and said, Take, eat, _this is my body_. And he
     took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying,
     drink ye all of it, _for this is my blood_ of the New
     Testament, which is shed for many for the remission of
     sins."[305:1]

According to Christian belief, Jesus _instituted_ this
"_Sacrament_"[305:2]--as it is called--and it was observed by the
primitive Christians, as he had enjoined them; but we shall find that
this breaking of bread, and drinking of wine,--_supposed to be the body
and blood of a god_[305:3]--is simply another piece of Paganism imbibed
by the Christians.

The _Eucharist_ was instituted many hundreds of years before the time
assigned for the birth of Christ Jesus. Cicero, the greatest orator of
Rome, and one of the most illustrious of her statesmen, born in the year
106 B. C., mentions it in his works, and wonders at the strangeness of
the rite. "How can a man be so stupid," says he, "as to imagine that
which he eats to be a God?" There had been an esoteric meaning attached
to it from the first establishment of the _mysteries_ among the Pagans,
and the Eucharistia is one of the oldest rites of antiquity.

The adherents of the Grand Lama in Thibet and Tartary offer to their god
a sacrament of _bread and wine_.[305:4]

P. Andrada La Crozius, a French missionary, and one of the first
Christians who went to Nepaul and Thibet, says in his "History of
India:"

     "Their Grand Lama celebrates a species of sacrifice with
     _bread_ and _wine_, in which, after taking a small quantity
     himself, he distributes the rest among the Lamas present at
     this ceremony."[306:1]

In certain rites both in the _Indian_ and the _Parsee_ religions, the
devotees drink the juice of the Soma, or _Haoma_ plant. They consider it
a _god_ as well as a plant, just as the wine of the Christian sacrament
is considered both the juice of the grape, and the blood of the
Redeemer.[306:2] Says Mr. Baring-Gould:

     "Among the ancient Hindoos, _Soma_ was a chief deity; he is
     called 'the Giver of Life and of health,' the 'Protector,' he
     who is 'the Guide to Immortality.' He became incarnate among
     men, was taken by them and slain, and brayed in a mortar. But
     he rose in flame to heaven, to be the 'Benefactor of the
     World,' and the 'Mediator between God and Man.' Through
     communion with him in his sacrifice, man, (who partook of this
     god), has an assurance of immortality, for by that _sacrament_
     he obtains union with his divinity."[306:3]

The ancient _Egyptians_--as we have seen--annually celebrated the
_Resurrection_ of their God and Saviour _Osiris_, at which time they
commemorated his death by the _Eucharist_, eating the sacred cake, or
wafer, _after it had been consecrated by the priest, and become
veritable flesh of his flesh_.[306:4] The bread, after sacerdotal rites,
became mystically the body of _Osiris_, and, in such a manner, _they ate
their god_.[306:5] Bread and wine were brought to the temples by the
worshipers, as offerings.[306:6]

The _Therapeutes_ or _Essenes_, whom we believe to be of Buddhist
origin, and who lived in large numbers in Egypt, also had the ceremony
of the sacrament among them.[306:7] Most of them, however, being
temperate, substituted water for wine, while others drank a mixture of
water and wine.

Pythagoras, the celebrated Grecian philosopher, who was born about the
year 570 B. C., performed this ceremony of the _sacrament_.[306:8] He is
supposed to have visited Egypt, and there availed himself of all such
mysterious lore as the priests could be induced to impart. He and his
followers practiced asceticism, and peculiarities of diet and clothing,
similar to the Essenes, which has led some scholars to believe that he
instituted the order, but this is evidently not the case.

The Kenite "King of Righteousness," _Melchizedek_, "a priest of the Most
High God," brought out BREAD _and_ WINE as a _sign_ or _symbol_ of
worship; as _the mystic elements of Divine presence_. In the visible
symbol of _bread and wine_ they worshiped _the invisible presence of the
Creator of heaven and earth_.[307:1]

To account for this, Christian divines have been much puzzled. The Rev.
Dr. Milner says, in speaking of this passage:

     "It was in offering up a sacrifice of bread and wine, instead
     of slaughtered animals, that Melchizedek's sacrifice differed
     from the generality of those in the old law, and that he
     _prefigured_ the sacrifice which Christ was to _institute_ in
     the new law from the same elements. No other sense than this
     can be elicited from the Scripture as to this matter; and
     accordingly the holy fathers unanimously adhere to this
     meaning."[307:2]

This style of reasoning is in accord with the TYPE theory concerning the
Virgin-born, Crucified and Resurrected Saviours, but it is not
altogether satisfactory. If it had been said that the religion of
Melchizedek, and the religion of the Persians, were the _same_, there
would be no difficulty in explaining the passage.

Not only were bread and wine brought forth by Melchizedek when he
blessed Abraham, but it was offered to God and eaten before him by
Jethro and the elders of Israel, and some, at least, of the _mourning_
Israelites broke bread and drank "the cup of consolation," in
remembrance of the departed, "to comfort them for the dead."[307:3]

It is in the ancient religion of Persia--the religion of Mithra, the
Mediator, the Redeemer and Saviour--that we find the nearest resemblance
to the sacrament of the Christians, and from which it was evidently
borrowed. Those who were initiated into the mysteries of Mithra, or
became _members_, took the sacrament of bread and wine.[307:4]

M. Renan, speaking of _Mithraicism_, says:

     "It had its mysterious meetings: its chapels, which bore a
     strong resemblance to little churches. It forged a very
     lasting bond of brotherhood between its initiates: it had a
     _Eucharist_, a Supper so like the Christian Mysteries, that
     good Justin Martyr, the Apologist, can find only one
     explanation of the apparent identity, namely, that Satan, in
     order to deceive the human race, determined to imitate the
     Christian ceremonies, and so stole them."[307:5]

The words of St. Justin, wherein he alludes to this ceremony, are as
follows:

     "The apostles, in the commentaries written by themselves,
     which we call Gospels, have delivered down to us how that
     Jesus thus commanded them: He having taken bread, _after he
     had given thanks_,[308:1] said, Do this in commemoration of
     me; this is my body. And having taken a cup, and returned
     thanks, he said: This is my blood, and delivered it to them
     alone. Which thing indeed the evil spirits have taught to be
     done out of mimicry in the Mysteries and Initiatory rites of
     Mithra.

     "For you either know, or can know, that bread and a cup of
     water (or wine) are given out, with certain incantations, in
     the consecration of the person who is being initiated in the
     Mysteries of Mithra."[308:2]

This food they called the Eucharist, of which no one was allowed to
partake but the persons who believed that the things they taught were
true, and who had been washed with the washing that is for the remission
of sin.[308:3] Tertullian, who flourished from 193 to 220 A. D., also
speaks of the Mithraic devotees celebrating the Eucharist.[308:4]

The Eucharist of the Lord and Saviour, as the Magi called Mithra, the
second person in their Trinity, or their Eucharistic sacrifice, was
always made exactly and in every respect the same as that of the
orthodox Christians, for both sometimes used water instead of wine, or a
mixture of the two.[308:5]

The Christian Fathers often liken their rites to those of the Therapeuts
(Essenes) and worshipers of Mithra. Here is Justin Martyr's account of
Christian initiation:

     "But we, after we have thus washed him who has been convinced
     and assented to our teachings, bring him to the place where
     those who are called _brethren_ are assembled, in order that
     we may offer hearty prayers in common for ourselves and the
     _illuminated_ person. Having ended our prayers, we salute one
     another with a kiss. There is then brought to the president of
     the brethren _bread and a cup of wine mixed with water_. When
     the president has given thanks, and all the people have
     expressed their assent, those that are called by us _deacons_
     give to each of those present to partake of the bread and wine
     mixed with water."[308:6]

In the service of Edward the Sixth of England, water is directed to be
mixed with the wine.[309:1] This is a union of the two; not a half
measure, but a double one. If it be correct to take it with wine, then
they were right; if with water, they still were right; as they took
both, they could not be wrong.

The _bread_, used in these Pagan Mysteries, was carried in _baskets_,
which practice was also adopted by the Christians. St. Jerome, speaking
of it, says:

     "Nothing can be richer than one who carries _the body of
     Christ_ (viz.: _the bread_) in a basket made of twigs."[309:2]

The Persian Magi introduced the worship of Mithra into Rome, and his
mysteries were solemnized in a _cave_. In the process of initiation
there, candidates were also administered the sacrament of _bread and
wine_, and were marked on the forehead with the sign of the
cross.[309:3]

The ancient _Greeks_ also had their "_Mysteries_," wherein they
celebrated the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. The Rev. Robert Taylor,
speaking of this, says:

     "The _Eleusinian_ Mysteries, or, Sacrament of the Lord's
     Supper, was the most august of all the Pagan ceremonies
     celebrated, more especially by the Athenians, every fifth
     year,[309:4] in honor of _Ceres_, the goddess of corn, who, in
     allegorical language, _had given us her flesh to eat_; as
     _Bacchus_, the god of wine, in like sense, _had given us his
     blood to drink_. . . .

     "From these ceremonies is derived the very name attached to
     our _Christian_ sacrament of the Lord's Supper,--'_those holy
     Mysteries_;'--and not one or two, but absolutely all and every
     one of the observances used in our Christian solemnity. Very
     many of our forms of expression in that solemnity are
     precisely the same as those that appertained to the Pagan
     rite."[309:5]

Prodicus (a Greek sophist of the 5th century B. C.) says that, the
ancients worshiped _bread_ as Demeter (_Ceres_) and _wine_ as Dionysos
(_Bacchus_);[309:6] therefore, when they ate the bread, and drank the
wine, after it had been consecrated, they were doing as the Romanists
claim to do at the present day, _i. e._, _eating the flesh and drinking
the blood of their god_.[309:7]

Mosheim, the celebrated ecclesiastical historian, acknowledges that:

     "The profound respect that was paid to the Greek and Roman
     _Mysteries_, and the extraordinary sanctity that was
     attributed to them, induced the Christians of the second
     century, to give _their_ religion a _mystic_ air, in order to
     put it upon an equal footing in point of dignity, with that of
     the Pagans. For this purpose they gave the name of _Mysteries_
     to the institutions of the Gospels, and decorated particularly
     the 'Holy Sacrament' with that title; they used the very terms
     employed in the _Heathen Mysteries_, and adopted some of the
     rites and ceremonies of which those renowned mysteries
     consisted. This imitation began in the eastern provinces; but,
     after the time of Adrian, who first introduced the mysteries
     among the Latins, it was followed by the Christians who dwelt
     in the western part of the empire. A great part, therefore, of
     the service of the Church in this--the second--century, had a
     certain air of the Heathen Mysteries, and resembled them
     considerably in many particulars."[310:1]


_Eleusinian Mysteries_ and _Christian Sacraments Compared_.

1. "But as the benefit of Initiation was great, such as were convicted
of witchcraft, murder, even though unintentional, or any other heinous
crimes, were debarred from those mysteries."[310:2]

     1. "For as the benefit is great, if, with a true penitent
     heart and lively faith, we receive that holy sacrament, &c.,
     if any be an open and notorious evil-liver, or hath done wrong
     to his neighbor, &c., that he presume not to come to the
     Lord's table."[310:3]

2. "At their entrance, purifying themselves, by washing their hands in
_holy water_, they were at the same time admonished to present
themselves with pure minds, without which the external cleanness of the
body would by no means be accepted."[310:4]

     2. See the fonts of _holy water_ at the entrance of every
     Catholic chapel in Christendom for the same purpose.

     "Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of
     faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience,
     and our bodies washed with pure water."[310:5]

3. "The priests who officiated in these sacred solemnities, were called
Hierophants, or '_revealers of holy things_.'"[310:6]

     3. The priests who officiate at these Christian solemnities
     are supposed to be 'revealers of holy things.'

4. The Pagan Priest dismissed their congregation with these words:

          "_The Lord be with you._"[310:7]

     4. The Christian priests dismiss their congregation with these
     words:

          "_The Lord be with you._"

These Eleusinian Mysteries were accompanied with various rites,
expressive of the purity and self-denial of the worshiper, and were
therefore considered to be an expiation of past sins, and to place the
initiated under the special protection of the awful and potent goddess
who presided over them.[310:8]

These _mysteries_ were, as we have said, also celebrated in honor of
_Bacchus_ as well as _Ceres_. A consecrated cup of wine was handed
around after supper, called the "Cup of the Agathodaemon"--the Good
Divinity.[311:1] Throughout the whole ceremony, the name of the _Lord_
was many times repeated, and his brightness or glory not only exhibited
to the eye by the rays which surrounded his name (or his monogram, I. H.
S.), but was made the peculiar theme or subject of their triumphant
exultation.[311:2]

The mystical wine and bread were used during the Mysteries of _Adonis_,
the Lord and Saviour.[311:3] In fact, the communion of bread and wine
was used in the worship of nearly every important deity.[311:4]

The rites of _Bacchus_ were celebrated in the British Islands in heathen
times,[311:5] and so were those of _Mithra_, which were spread over Gaul
and Great Britain.[311:6] We therefore find that the ancient _Druids_
offered the sacrament of bread and wine, during which ceremony they were
dressed in white robes,[311:7] just as the Egyptian priests of Isis were
in the habit of dressing, and as the priests of many Christian sects
dress at the present day.

Among some negro tribes in Africa there is a belief that "on eating and
drinking consecrated food they eat and drink the god himself."[311:8]

The ancient _Mexicans_ celebrated the mysterious sacrament of the
Eucharist, called the "most holy supper," during which they ate the
flesh of their god. The bread used at their Eucharist was made of _corn_
meal, which they mixed with _blood_, instead of wine. This was
_consecrated_ by the priest, and given to the people, who ate it with
humility and penitence, _as the flesh of their god_.[311:9]

Lord Kingsborough, in his "_Mexican Antiquities_," speaks of the ancient
Mexicans as performing this sacrament; when they made a cake, which they
called _Tzoalia_. The high priest blessed it in his manner, after which
he broke it into pieces, and put it into certain very clean vessels. He
then took a thorn of _maguery_, which resembles a thick needle, with
which he took up with the utmost reverence single morsels, _which he put
into the mouth of each individual, after the manner of a
communion_.[311:10]

The writer of the "Explanation of Plates of the _Codex
Vaticanus_,"--which are copies of Mexican _hieroglyphics_--says:

     "I am disposed to believe that these poor people have had the
     knowledge of our mode of communion, or of the annunciation of
     the gospel; or perhaps the _devil_, most envious of the honor
     of God, may have led them into this superstition, in order
     that by this ceremony he might be adored and served as Christ
     our Lord."[312:1]

The Rev. Father Acosta says:

     "That which is most admirable in the hatred and presumption of
     Satan is, that he hath not only counterfeited in idolatry and
     sacrifice, but also in certain ceremonies, _our Sacraments_,
     which Jesus Christ our Lord hath instituted and the holy
     Church doth use, having especially pretended to imitate in
     some sort the _Sacrament of the Communion_, which is the most
     high and divine of all others."

He then relates how the _Mexicans_ and _Peruvians_, in certain
ceremonies, ate the flesh of their god, and called certain morsels of
paste, "the flesh and bones of _Vitzilipuzlti_."

     "After putting themselves in order about these morsels and
     pieces of paste, they used certain ceremonies with singing, by
     means whereof they (the pieces of paste) were blessed and
     consecrated for the flesh and bones of this idol."[312:2]

These facts show that the _Eucharist_ is another piece of Paganism
adopted by the Christians. The story of Jesus and his disciples being at
supper, where the Master did break bread, may be true, but the statement
that he said, "Do this in remembrance of me,"--"this is my body," and
"this is my blood," was undoubtedly invented to give authority to the
_mystic_ ceremony, which had been borrowed from Paganism.

Why should they do this in remembrance of Jesus? Provided he took this
supper with his disciples--which the _John_ narrator denies[312:3]--he
did not do anything on that occasion new or unusual among Jews. To
pronounce the benediction, break the bread, and distribute pieces
thereof to the persons at table, was, and is now, a common usage of the
Hebrews. Jesus could not have commanded born Jews to do in remembrance
of him what they already practiced, and what every religious Jew does to
this day. The whole story is evidently a myth, as a perusal of it with
the eye of a critic clearly demonstrates.

The _Mark_ narrator informs us that Jesus sent two of his disciples to
the city, and told them this:

     "Go ye into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a
     pitcher of water; follow him. And wheresoever he shall go in,
     say ye to the _goodman_ of the house, The Master saith, Where
     is the guest-chamber, where I shall eat the passover with my
     disciples? And he will show you a large upper room _furnished
     and prepared_: there make ready for us. And his disciples went
     forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto
     them: and they made ready the passover."[313:1]

The story of the passover or the last supper, seems to be introduced in
this unusual manner to make it manifest that a divine power is
interested in, and conducting the whole affair, parallels of which we
find in the story of Elieser and Rebecca, where Rebecca is to identify
herself in a manner pre-arranged by Elieser with God;[313:2] and also in
the story of Elijah and the widow of Zarephath, where by God's
directions a journey is made, and the widow is found.[313:3]

It suggests itself to our mind that this style of connecting a
supernatural interest with human affairs was not entirely original with
the Mark narrator. In this connection it is interesting to note that a
man in Jerusalem should have had an unoccupied and _properly_ furnished
room just at _that_ time, when two millions of pilgrims sojourned in and
around the city. The man, it appears, was not distinguished either for
wealth or piety, for his _name_ is not mentioned; he was not present at
the supper, and no further reference is made to him. It appears rather
that the Mark narrator imagined an ordinary man who had a furnished room
to let for such purposes, and would imply that Jesus knew it
_prophetically_. He had only to pass in his mind from Elijah to his
disciple Elisha, for whom the great woman of Shunem had so richly
furnished an upper chamber, to find a like instance.[313:4] _Why should
not somebody have furnished also an upper chamber for the Messiah?_

The Matthew narrator's account is free from these embellishments, and
simply runs thus: Jesus said to some of his disciples--the number is not
given--

     "Go into the city to such a man, and say unto him, The Master
     saith, My time is at hand; I will keep the passover at thy
     house with my disciples. And the disciples did as Jesus had
     appointed them; and _they_ made ready the passover."[313:5]

In this account, no pitcher, no water, no prophecy is mentioned.[313:6]

It was many centuries before the genuine heathen doctrine of
_Transubstantiation_--a change of the elements of the Eucharist into
the _real_ body and blood of Christ Jesus--became a tenet of the
Christian faith. This greatest of mysteries was developed gradually. As
early as the second century, however, the seeds were planted, when we
find Ignatius, Justin Martyr, and Irenæus advancing the opinion, that
the mere bread and wine became, in the Eucharist, _something
higher_--the earthly, something heavenly--without, however, ceasing to
be bread and wine. Though these views were opposed by some eminent
individual Christian teachers, yet both among the people and in the
ritual of the Church, the miraculous or supernatural view of the Lord's
Supper gained ground. After the third century the office of presenting
the bread and wine came to be confined to the _ministers_ or _priests_.
This practice arose from, and in turn strengthened, the notion which was
gaining ground, that in this act of presentation by the priest, a
sacrifice, similar to that once offered up in the death of Christ Jesus,
though bloodless, was ever anew presented to God. This still deepened
the feeling of _mysterious_ significance and importance with which the
rite of the Lord's Supper was viewed, and led to that gradually
increasing splendor of celebration which took the form of the _Mass_. As
in Christ Jesus two distinct natures, the divine and the human, were
wonderfully combined, so in the Eucharist there was a corresponding
union of the earthly and the heavenly.

For a long time there was no formal declaration of the mind of the
Church on the _real presence_ of Christ Jesus in the Eucharist. At
length a _discussion_ on the point was raised, and the most
distinguished men of the time took part in it. One party maintained that
"the bread and wine are, in the act of consecration, transformed by the
omnipotence of God into the _very body_ of Christ which was once born of
Mary, nailed to the cross, and raised from the dead." According to this
conception, nothing remains of the bread and wine but the outward form,
the taste and the smell; while the other party would only allow that
there is _some change_ in the bread and wine themselves, but granted
that an actual transformation of their power and efficacy takes place.

The greater accordance of the first view with the credulity of the age,
its love for the wonderful and magical, the interest of the priesthood
to add lustre, in accordance with the heathens, to a rite which enhanced
their own office, resulted in the doctrine of Transubstantiation being
declared an article of faith of the Christian Church.

Transubstantiation, the invisible change of the bread and wine into the
body and blood of Christ, is a tenet that may defy the powers of
argument and pleasantry; but instead of consulting the evidence of their
senses, of their sight, their feeling, and their taste, the first
Protestants were entangled in their own scruples, and awed by the
reputed words of Jesus in the institution of the sacrament. Luther
maintained a _corporeal_, and Calvin a _real_ presence of Christ in the
Eucharist; and the opinion of Zuinglius, that it is no more than a
spiritual communion, a simple memorial, has slowly prevailed in the
reformed churches.[315:1]

Under Edward VI. the reformation was more bold and perfect, but in the
fundamental articles of the Church of England, a strong and explicit
declaration against the real presence was _obliterated_ in the original
copy, to please the people, or the Lutherans, or Queen Elizabeth. At the
present day, the Greek and Roman Catholics alone hold to the original
doctrine of the _real presence_.

Of all the religious observances among heathens, Jews, or Turks, none
has been the cause of more hatred, persecution, outrage, and bloodshed,
than the Eucharist. Christians persecuted one another like relentless
foes, and thousands of Jews were slaughtered on account of the Eucharist
and the Host.


FOOTNOTES:

[305:1] Matt. xxvi. 26. See also, Mark, xiv. 22.

[305:2] At the heading of the chapters named in the above note may be
seen the words: "Jesus keepeth the Passover (and) _instituteth_ the
Lord's Supper."

[305:3] According to the Roman Christians, the Eucharist is the natural
body and blood of Christ Jesus _verè et realiter_, but the Protestant
sophistically explains away these two plain words _verily_ and _indeed_,
and by the grossest abuse of language, makes them to mean _spiritually
by grace and efficacy_. "In the sacrament of the altar," says the
Protestant divine, "is the _natural_ body and blood of Christ _verè et
realiter_, verily and indeed, if you take these terms for _spiritually
by grace and efficacy_; but if you mean _really and indeed_, so that
thereby you would include a lively and movable body under the form of
bread and wine, then in that sense it is _not_ Christ's body in the
sacrament really and indeed."

[305:4] See Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 203, and Anacalypsis, i.
232.

[306:1] "Leur grand Lama célèbre une espèce de sacrifice avec du pain et
du vin dont il prend une petite quantité, et distribue le reste aux
Lamas presens à cette cérémonie." (Quoted in Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p.
118.)

[306:2] Viscount Amberly's Analysis, p. 46.

[306:3] Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 401.

[306:4] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 163.

[306:5] See Ibid. p. 417.

[306:6] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 179.

[306:7] See Bunsen's Keys of St. Peter, p. 199; Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p.
60, and Lillie's Buddhism, p. 136.

[306:8] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 60.

[307:1] See Bunsen's Keys of St. Peter, p. 55, and Genesis, xiv. 18, 19.

[307:2] St. Jerome says: "Melchizédek in typo Christi panem et vinum
obtulit: et mysterium Christianum in Salvatoris sanguine et corpore
dedicavit."

[307:3] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 227.

[307:4] See King's Gnostics and their Remains, p. xxv., and Higgins'
Anacalypsis, vol. ii. pp. 58, 59.

[307:5] Renan's Hibbert Lectures, p. 35.

[308:1] In the words of Mr. King: "This expression shows that the notion
of blessing or consecrating the elements was _as yet_ unknown to the
Christians."

[308:2] Apol. 1. ch. lxvi.

[308:3] Ibid.

[308:4] De Præscriptione Hæreticorum, ch. xl. Tertullian explains this
conformity between Christianity and Paganism, by asserting that the
devil copied the Christian mysteries.

[308:5] "De Tinctione, de oblatione panis, et de imagine resurrectionis,
videatur doctiss, de la Cerda ad ea Tertulliani loca ubi de hiscerebus
agitur. Gentiles citra Christum, talia celébradant Mithriaca quæ
videbantur cum doctrinâ _eucharistæ_ et _resurrectionis_ et aliis
ritibus Christianis convenire, quæ fecerunt ex industria ad imitationem
Christianismi: unde Tertulliani et Patres aiunt eos talia fecisse, duce
diabolo, quo vult esse simia Christi, &c. Volunt itaque eos res suas ita
compârasse, ut _Mithræ mysteria essent eucharistiæ Christianæ imago_.
Sic Just. Martyr (p. 98), et Tertullianus et Chrysostomus. In suis etiam
sacris habebant Mithriaci lavacra (quasi regenerationis) in quibus
tingit et ipse (sc. sacerdos) quosdam utique credentes et fideles suos,
et expiatoria delictorum de lavacro repromittit et sic adhuc initiat
Mithræ." (Hyde: De Relig. Vet. Persian, p. 113.)

[308:6] Justin: 1st Apol., ch. lvi.

[309:1] Dr. Grabes' Notes on Irenæus, lib. v. c. 2, in Anac., vol. i. p.
60.

[309:2] Quoted in Monumental Christianity, p. 370.

[309:3] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 369.

"The Divine Presence called his angel of mercy and said unto him: 'Go
through the midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set
the mark of Tau (Τ, the headless cross) upon the foreheads of the men
that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that are done in the
midst thereof.'" Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, p. 305.

[309:4] They were celebrated every fifth year at _Eleusis_, a town of
Attica, from whence their name.

[309:5] Taylor's Diegesis, p. 212.

[309:6] Müller: Origin of Religion, p. 181.

[309:7] "In the _Bacchic_ Mysteries a consecrated cup (of wine) was
handed around after supper, called the cup of the _Agathodaemon_."
(Cousin: Lec. on Modn. Phil. Quoted in Isis Unveiled, ii. 513. See also,
Dunlap's Spirit Hist., p. 217.)

[310:1] Eccl. Hist. cent. ii. pt. 2, sec. v.

[310:2] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 282.

[310:3] Episcopal Communion Service.

[310:4] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 282.

[310:5] Hebrews, x. 22.

[310:6] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 213.

[310:7] See Ibid.

[310:8] Kenrick's Egypt, vol. i. p. 471.

[311:1] See Dunlap's Spirit Hist., p. 217, and Isis Unveiled, vol. ii.
p. 513.

[311:2] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 214.

[311:3] See Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. p. 139.

[311:4] See Ibid. p. 513.

[311:5] See Myths of the British Druids, p. 89.

[311:6] See Dupuis: Origin of Relig. Belief, p. 238.

[311:7] See Myths of the British Druids, p. 280, and Prog. Relig. Ideas,
vol. i. p. 376.

[311:8] Herbert Spencer: Principles of Sociology, vol. i. p. 299.

[311:9] See Monumental Christianity, pp. 390 and 393.

[311:10] Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 220.

[312:1] Quoted In Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 221.

[312:2] Acosta: Hist. Indies, vol. ii. chs. xiii. and xiv.

[312:3] According to the "_John_" narrator, Jesus ate no Paschal meal,
but was captured the evening before Passover, and was crucified before
the feast opened. According to the _Synoptics_, Jesus partook of the
Paschal supper, was captured the first night of the feast, and executed
on the first day thereof, which was on a Friday. If the _John_
narrator's account is true, that of the _Synoptics_ is not, or _vice
versa_.

[313:1] Mark, xiv. 13-16.

[313:2] Gen. xxiv.

[313:3] I. Kings, xvii. 8.

[313:4] II. Kings, iv. 8.

[313:5] Matt. xxvi. 18, 19.

[313:6] For further observations on this subject, see Dr. Isaac M.
Wise's "Martyrdom of Jesus of Nazareth," a valuable little work,
published at the office of the American Israelite, Cincinnati, Ohio.

[315:1] See Gibbon's Rome, vol. v. pp. 399, 400. Calvin, after quoting
_Matt._ xxvi. 26, 27, says: "There is no doubt that as soon as these
words are added to the bread and the wine, the bread and the wine become
the _true_ body and the _true_ blood of Christ, so that the substance of
bread and wine is transmuted into the _true_ body and blood of Christ.
He who denies this calls the omnipotence of Christ in question, and
charges Christ himself with foolishness." (Calvin's Tracts, p. 214.
Translated by Henry Beveridge, Edinburgh, 1851.) In other parts of his
writings, Calvin seems to contradict this statement, and speaks of the
bread and wine in the Eucharist as being _symbolical_. Gibbon evidently
refers to the passage quoted above.



CHAPTER XXXI.

BAPTISM.


Baptism, or purification from sin by water, is supposed by many to be an
exclusive _Christian_ ceremony. The idea is that circumcision was given
up, but _baptism took its place_ as a compulsory form indispensable to
salvation, and was declared to have been instituted by Jesus himself or
by his predecessor John.[316:1] That Jesus was baptized by John may be
true, or it may not, but that he never directly enjoined his followers
to call the _heathen_ to a share in the privileges of the _Golden Age_
is gospel doctrine;[316:2] and this saying:

     "Go out into _all the world_ to preach the gospel to every
     creature. And whoever believes and is baptized shall be saved,
     but whoever believes not shall be damned,"

must therefore be of comparatively late origin, dating from a period at
which the mission to the heathen was not only fully recognized, but even
declared to have originated with the followers of Jesus.[316:3] When the
early Christians received members among them they were _not_ initiated
by baptism, but with prayer and laying on of hands. This, says
_Eusebius_, was the "_ancient custom_," which was followed until the
time of Stephen. During his bishopric controversies arose as to whether
members should be received "after the ancient Christian custom" or by
baptism,[316:4] after the heathen custom. Rev. J. P. Lundy, who has made
ancient religions a special study, and who, being a thorough Christian
writer, endeavors to get over the difficulty by saying that:

     "John the Baptist simply _adopted_ and practiced the
     _universal custom_ of sacred bathing _for the remission of
     sins_. Christ sanctioned it; the church inherited it from his
     example."[316:5]

When we say that baptism is a _heathen_ rite adopted by the Christians,
we come near the truth. Mr. Lundy is a strong advocate of the _type_
theory--of which we shall speak anon--therefore the above mode of
reasoning is not to be wondered at.

The facts in the case are that baptism by immersion, or sprinkling in
infancy, _for the remission of sin_, was a common rite, to be found in
countries the most widely separated on the face of the earth, and the
most unconnected in religious genealogy.[317:1]

If we turn to India we shall find that in the vast domain of the
Buddhist faith the birth of children is regularly the occasion of a
ceremony, at which the priest is present. In Mongolia and Thibet this
ceremony assumes the special form of _baptism_. Candles burn and incense
is offered on the domestic altar, the priest reads the prescribed
prayers, _dips the child three times in water, and imposes on it a
name_.[317:2]

_Brahmanism_, from the very earliest times, had its initiatory rites,
similar to what we shall find among the ancient Persians, Egyptians,
Greeks and Romans. Mr. Mackenzie, in his "Royal Masonic Cyclopædia,"
(_sub voce_ "Mysteries of Hindustan,") gives a capital digest of these
mysteries from the "Indische Alterthum-Skunde" of Lassen. After an
invocation to the SUN, an oath was demanded of the aspirant, to the
effect of implicit obedience to superiors, purity of body, and
inviolable secrecy. _Water was then sprinkled over him_, suitable
addresses were made to him, &c. This was supposed to constitute the
_regeneration_ of the candidate, and he was now invested with the white
robe and the tiara. A peculiar cross was marked on his forehead, and the
Tau cross on his breast. Finally, he was given the sacred word, A. U.
M.[317:3]

The Brahmans had also a mode of baptism similar to the Christian sect of
Baptists, the ceremony being performed in a river.

The officiating Brahman priest, who was called Gooroo, or
Pastor,[318:1] rubbed mud on the candidate, _and then plunged him three
times into the water_. During the process the priest said:

     "O Supreme Lord, this man is impure, like the mud of this
     stream; but as water cleanses him from this dirt, _do thou
     free him from his sin_."[318:2]

Rivers, as sources of fertility and purification, were at an early date
invested with a sacred character. Every great river was supposed to be
permeated with the divine essence, and its waters held to cleanse from
all moral guilt and contamination. And as the Ganges was the most
majestic, so it soon became the holiest and most revered of all rivers.
No sin too heinous to be removed, no character too black to be washed
clean by its waters. Hence the countless temples, with flights of steps,
lining its banks; hence the array of priests, called "Sons of the
Ganges," sitting on the edge of its streams, ready to aid the ablutions
of conscience-stricken bathers, and stamp them as white-washed when they
emerge from its waters. Hence also the constant traffic carried on in
transporting Ganges water in small bottles to all parts of the
country.[318:3]

The ceremony of baptism was a practice of the followers of _Zoroaster_,
both for infants and adults.

M. Beausobre tells us that:

     "The ancient _Persians_ carried their infants to the temple a
     few days after they were born, and presented them to the
     priest before the sun, and before the fire, which was his
     symbol. _Then the priest took the child and baptized it for
     the purification of the soul._ Sometimes he plunged it into a
     great vase full of water: it was in the same ceremony that the
     father gave a name to the child."[318:4]

The learned Dr. Hyde also tells us that infants were brought to the
temples and baptized by the priests, sometimes by sprinkling and
sometimes by immersion, plunging the child into a large vase filled with
water. This was to them a regeneration, or a purification of their
souls. A name was at the same time imposed upon the child, as indicated
by the parents.[318:5]

The rite of baptism was also administered to adults in the _Mithraic_
mysteries during initiation. The foreheads of the initiated being marked
at the same time with the "_sacred sign_," which was none other than the
sign of the CROSS.[319:1] The Christian Father Tertullian, who believed
it to be the work of the devil, says:

     "He BAPTIZES his believers and followers; he promises the
     remission of sins at the _sacred fount_, and thus initiates
     them into the religion of _Mithra_; he _marks on the forehead_
     his own soldiers," &c.[319:2]

"He marks on the forehead," _i. e._, he marks _the sign of the cross_ on
their foreheads, just as priests of Christ Jesus do at the present day
to those who are initiated into the Christian mysteries.

Again, he says:

     "The nations who are strangers to all spiritual powers (the
     heathens), ascribe to their idols (gods) the power of
     impregnating the waters with the same efficacy as in Christian
     baptism." For, "in certain sacred rites of theirs, the mode of
     initiation is by baptism," and "whoever had defiled himself
     with murder, expiation was sought in purifying water."[319:3]

He also says that:

     "The devil signed his soldiers in the forehead, in imitation
     of the Christians."[319:4]

And St. Augustin says:

     "The _cross_ and _baptism_ were never parted."[319:5]

The ancient _Egyptians_ performed their rite of baptism, and those who
were initiated into the mysteries of Isis were baptized.[319:6]

Apuleius of Madura, in Africa, who was initiated into these mysteries,
shows that baptism was used; that the ceremony was performed by the
attending priest, and that purification and forgiveness of sin was the
result.[319:7]

The custom of baptism in Egypt is known by the hieroglyphic term of
"_water of purification_." The water so used in immersion absolutely
cleansed the soul, _and the person was said to be regenerated_.[320:1]

They also believed in baptism _after death_, for it was held that the
dead were washed from their sins by Osiris, the beneficent saviour, in
the land of shades, and the departed are often represented (on the
sarcophagi) kneeling before Osiris, who pours over them water from a
pitcher.[320:2]

The ancient _Etruscans_ performed the rite of baptism. In _Tab._ clxxii.
Gorius gives two pictures of ancient Etruscan baptism by water. In the
first, the youth is held in the arms of one priest, and another is
pouring water upon his head. In the second, the young person is going
through the same ceremony, kneeling on a kind of altar. At the time of
its baptism the child was named, blessed and marked on the forehead with
_the sign of the cross_.[320:3]

Baptism, or the application of water, was a rite well known to the Jews
before the time of Christ Jesus, and was practiced by them when they
admitted proselytes to their religion from heathenism. When children
were baptized they received the sign of the cross, were anointed, and
fed with milk and honey.[320:4] "It was not customary, however, among
them, to baptize those who were converted to the Jewish religion, _until
after the Babylonish captivity_."[320:5] This clearly shows that they
learned the rite from their heathen oppressors.

Baptism was practiced by the ascetics of Buddhist origin, known as the
_Essenes_.[320:6] John the Baptist was, evidently, nothing more than a
member of this order, with which the deserts of Syria and the Thebais of
Egypt abounded.

The idea that man is restrained from perfect union with God by his
imperfection, uncleanness and sin, was implicitly believed by the
ancient _Greeks_ and _Romans_. In Thessaly was yearly celebrated a great
festival of cleansing. A work bearing the name of "_Museus_" was a
complete ritual of purifications. The usual mode of purification was
dipping in water (immersion), or it was performed by aspersion. These
sacraments were held to have virtue independent of the dispositions of
the candidates, an opinion which called forth the sneer of Diogenes, the
Grecian historian, when he saw some one undergoing baptism by aspersion.

     "Poor wretch! do you not see that since these sprinklings
     cannot repair your grammatical errors, they cannot repair
     either, the faults of your life."[321:1]

And the belief that water could wash out the stains of original sin, led
the poet _Ovid_ (43 B. C.) to say:

     "Ah, easy fools, to think that a whole flood
      Of water e'er can purge the stain of blood."

These ancient Pagans had especial gods and goddesses who presided over
the birth of children. The goddess _Nundina_ took her name from the
ninth day, _on which all male children were sprinkled with holy
water_,[321:2] as females were on the eighth, at the same time receiving
their name, of which _addition_ to the ceremonial of Christian baptism
we find no mention in the Christian Scriptures. When all the forms of
the Pagan nundination were duly complied with, the priest gave a
certificate to the parents of the regenerated infant; it was, therefore,
duly recognized as a legitimate member of the family and of society, and
the day was spent in feasting and hilarity.[321:3]

Adults were also baptized; and those who were initiated in the sacred
rites of the _Bacchic_ mysteries were regenerated and admitted by
baptism, just as they were admitted into the mysteries of Mithra.[321:4]
Justin Martyr, like his brother Tertullian, claimed that this ablution
was invented by demons, in imitation of the _true_ baptism, that their
votaries might also have their pretended purification by water.[321:5]

Infant Baptism was practiced among the ancient inhabitants of northern
Europe--the Danes, Swedes, Norwegians and Icelanders--long before the
first dawn of Christianity had reached those parts. Water was poured on
the head of the new-born child, and a name was given it at the same
time. Baptism is expressly mentioned in the _Hava-mal_ and _Rigs-mal_,
and alluded to in other epic poems.[322:1]

The ancient _Livonians_ (inhabitants of the three modern Baltic
provinces of Courland, Livonia, and Esthonia), observed the same
ceremony; which also prevailed among the ancient _Germans_. This is
expressly stated in a letter which the famous Pope Gregory III. sent to
their apostle Boniface, directing him how to act in respect to
it.[322:2]

The same ceremony was performed by the ancient Druids of Britain.[322:3]

Among the _New Zealanders_ young children were baptized. After the
ceremony of baptism had taken place, prayers were offered to make the
child sacred, and clean from all impurities.[322:4]

The ancient _Mexicans_ baptized their children shortly after birth.
After the relatives had assembled in the court of the parents' house,
the midwife placed the child's head to the east, and prayed for a
blessing from the _Saviour_ Quetzalcoatle, and the goddess of the water.
The breast of the child was then touched with the fingers dipped in
water, and the following prayer said:

     "May it (the water) destroy and separate from thee all the
     evil that was beginning in thee before the beginning of the
     world."

After this the child's body was washed with water, and all things that
might injure him were requested to depart from him, "that now he may
live again and be born again."[322:5]

Mr. Prescott alludes to it as follows, in his "Conquest of
Mexico:"[322:6]

     "The lips and bosom of the infant were sprinkled with water,
     and the Lord was implored to permit the holy drops to wash
     away that sin that was given to it before the foundation of
     the world, so that the child might be born anew." "This
     interesting rite, usually solemnized with great formality, in
     the presence of assembled friends and relations, is detailed
     with minuteness by Sahagun and by Zuazo, both of them
     eyewitnesses."

Rev. J. P. Lundy says:

     "Now, as baptism of some kind has been the _universal custom_
     of all religious nations and peoples for purification and
     regeneration, it is not to be wondered at that it had found
     its way from high Asia, the centre of the Old World's religion
     and civilization, into the American continent. . . .

     "American priests were found in Mexico, beyond Darien,
     baptizing boys and girls a year old in the temples at the
     cross, pouring the water upon them from a small
     pitcher."[323:1]

The water which they used was called the "WATER OF REGENERATION."[323:2]

The Rev. Father Acosta alludes to this baptism by saying:

     "The Indians had an infinite number of other ceremonies and
     customs which resembled to the ancient law of Moses, and some
     to those which the Moores use, and some approaching near to
     the Law of the Gospel, as the baths or _Opacuna_, as they
     called them; _they did wash themselves in water to cleanse
     themselves from sin_."[323:3]

After speaking of "_confession which the Indians used_," he says:

     "When the Inca had been confessed, he made a certain bath to
     cleanse himself, in a running river, saying these words: '_I
     have told my sins to the Sun_ (his god); _receive them, O thou
     River, and carry them to the Sea, where they may never appear
     more._'"[323:4]

He tells us that the Mexicans also had a baptism for infants, which they
performed with great ceremony.[323:5]

Baptism was also practiced in Yucatan. They administered it to children
three years old; and called it REGENERATION.[323:6]

The ancient Peruvians also baptized their children.[323:7]

History, then, records the fact that all the principal nations of
antiquity administered the rite of baptism to their children, and to
adults who were initiated into the sacred mysteries. The words
"_regenerationem et impunitatem perjuriorum suorum_"--used by the
heathen in this ceremony--prove that the doctrines as well as the
outward forms were the same. The giving of a name to the child, the
marking of him with the _cross_ as a sign of his being a soldier of
Christ, followed at fifteen years of age by his admission into the
mysteries of the ceremony of _confirmation_, also prove that the two
institutions are identical. But the most striking feature of all is the
_regeneration_--and consequent forgiveness of sins--the being "_born
again_." This shows that the Christian baptism in _doctrine_ as well as
in _outward ceremony_, was precisely that of the heathen. We have seen
that it was supposed to destroy all the evil in him, and all things that
might injure him were requested to depart from him. So likewise among
the Christians; the priest, looking upon the child, and baptizing him,
was formerly accustomed to say:

     "I command thee, unclean spirit, in the name of the Father,
     of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, that thou come out and
     depart from this infant, whom our Lord Jesus Christ has
     vouchsafed to call to this holy baptism, to be made member of
     his body and of his holy congregation. And presume not
     hereafter to exercise any tyranny towards this infant, whom
     Christ hath bought with his precious blood, and by this holy
     baptism called to be of his flock."

The ancients also baptized with _fire_ as well as water. This is what is
alluded to many times in the gospels; for instance, Matt. (iii. 11)
makes John say, "I, indeed, baptize you with water; he shall baptize you
with the Holy Ghost and with FIRE."

The baptism by _fire_ was in use by the Romans; it was performed by
jumping _three times_ through the flames of a sacred fire. This is still
practiced in India. Even at the present day, in some parts of Scotland,
it is a custom at the baptism of children to swing them in their clothes
over a fire _three times_, saying, "_Now, fire, burn this child, or
never._" Here is evidently a relic of the heathen _baptism by fire_.

Christian baptism was not originally intended to be administered to
unconscious infants, but to persons in full possession of their
faculties, and responsible for their actions. Moreover, it was
performed, as is well known, not merely by sprinkling the forehead, but
by causing the candidate to descend naked into the water, the priest
joining him there, and pouring the water over his head. The catechumen
could not receive baptism until after he understood something of the
nature of the faith he was embracing, and was prepared to assume its
obligations. A rite more totally unfitted for administration to
_infants_ could hardly have been found. Yet such was the need that was
felt for a solemn recognition by religion of the entrance of a child
into the world, that this rite, in course of time, completely lost its
original nature, and, as with the heathen, _infancy_ took the place of
maturity: sprinkling of immersion. But while the age and manner of
baptism were altered, the ritual remained under the influence of the
primitive idea with which it had been instituted. The obligations were
no longer confined to the persons baptized, hence they must be
undertaken for them. Thus was the Christian Church landed in the
absurdity--unparalleled, we believe, in any other natal ceremony--of
requiring the most solemn promises to be made, not by those who were
thereafter to fulfill them, _but by others in their name_; these others
having no power to enforce their fulfillment, and neither those actually
assuming the engagement, nor those on whose behalf it was assumed, being
morally responsible in case it should be broken. Yet this strange
incongruity was forced upon the church by an imperious want of human
nature itself, and the insignificant sects who have adopted the baptism
of adults only, have failed, in their zeal for historical consistency,
to recognize a sentiment whose roots lie far deeper than the
chronological foundation of Christian rites, and stretch far wider than
the geographical boundaries of the Christian faith.

The intention of all these forms of baptism is identical. Water, as the
natural means of physical cleansing, is the universal symbol of
spiritual purification. Hence immersion, or washing, or sprinkling,
implies the deliverance of the infant from the stain of original
sin.[325:1] The _Pagan_ and _Christian_ rituals, as we have seen, are
perfectly clear on this head. In both, the avowed intention is to wash
away the sinful nature common to humanity; in both, the infant is
declared to be born again by the agency of water. Among the early
Christians, as with the Pagans, the sacrament of baptism was supposed to
contain a full and absolute expiation of sin; and the soul was instantly
restored to its original purity, and entitled to the promise of eternal
salvation. Among the proselytes of Christianity, there were many who
judged it imprudent to precipitate a salutary rite, which could not be
repeated; to throw away an inestimable privilege, which could never be
recovered. By the delay of their baptism, they could venture freely to
indulge their passions in the enjoyments of this world, while they still
retained in their own hands the means of a sure and easy absolution. St.
Constantine was one of these.


FOOTNOTES:

[316:1] The Rev. Dr. Geikie makes the assertion that: "With the call to
repent, John united a significant rite for all who were willing to own
their sins, and promise amendment of life. It was the _new_ and striking
requirement of baptism, _which John had been sent by divine appointment
to_ INTRODUCE." (Life of Christ, vol. i. p. 394.)

[316:2] See Galatians, ii. 7-9. Acts, x. and xi.

[316:3] See The Bible for Learners, vol. iii. pp. 658 and 472.

[316:4] See Eusebius: Eccl. Hist., lib. 7, ch. ii.

[316:5] Monumental Christianity, p. 385.

[317:1] "Among all nations, and from the very earliest period, WATER has
been used as a species of religious sacrament. . . . Water was the agent
by means of which everything was _regenerated or born again_. Hence, in
all nations, we find the Dove, or Divine Love, operating by means of its
agent, water, and all nations using the ceremony of plunging, or, as we
call it, baptizing, for the remission of sins, to introduce the
candidate to a regeneration, to a new birth unto righteousness."
(Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 529.)

"Baptism is a very ancient rite pertaining to _heathen_ religions,
whether of Asia, Africa, Europe or America." (Bonwick: Egyptian Belief,
p. 416.)

"Baptism, or purification by water, was a ceremony common to all
religions of antiquity. It consists in being made clean from some
supposed pollution or defilement." (Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 201.)

"L'usage de ce _Baptéme_ par immersion, qui subsista dans l'Occident
jusqu' au 8{e} ciècle, se maintient encore dans l'Eglise Greque: c'est
celui que Jean le _Précurseur_ administra, dans le Jourdain, à Jesus
Christ même. Il fut pratiqué chez les Juifs, chez les Grecs, _et chez
presque tous les peuples_, bien des siècles _avant_ l'existence de la
religion Chrétienne." (D'Ancarville: Res., vol. i. p. 292.)

[317:2] See Amberly's Analysis, p. 61. Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 42.
Higgins' Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 69, and Lillie's Buddhism, pp. 55 and
184.

[317:3] Lillie's Buddhism, p. 134.

[318:1] Life and Religion of the Hindus, p. 94.

[318:2] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 125.

"Every orthodox Hindu is perfectly persuaded that the dirtiest water, if
taken from a _sacred stream_ and applied to his body, either externally
or internally, _will purify his soul_." (Prof. Monier Williams:
Hinduism, p. 157.) The Egyptians bathed in the water of the Nile; the
Chaldeans and Persians in the Euphrates, and the Hindus, at we have
seen, in the Ganges, all of which were considered as "sacred waters" by
the different nations. The Jews looked upon the Jordan in the same
manner.

Herodotus, speaking of the Persians' manners, says:

"They (the Persians) neither make water, nor spit, nor wash their hands
in a river, nor defile the stream with urine, nor do they allow any one
else to do so, but they pay extreme veneration to all rivers." (Hist.
lib. i. ch. 138.)

[318:3] Williams' Hinduism, p. 176.

[318:4] Hist. Manichee, lib. ix. ch. vi. sect. xvi. in Anac., vol. ii.
p. 65. See also, Dupuis: Orig. Relig. Belief, p. 249, and Baring-Gould:
Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 392.

[318:5] "Pro infantibus non utuntur circumcisione, sed tantum baptismo
seu lotione ad animæ purificationem internam. Infantem ad sacerdotem in
ecclesiam adductum sistunt coram sole et igne, quâ factâ ceremoniâ,
eundem sanctiorem existimant. D. Lord dicit quod aquam ad hoc afferunt
in cortice arboris Holm: ea autem arbor revers est Haum Magorum, cujus
mentionem aliâ occasione supra fecimus. Alias, aliquando fit immergendo
in magnum vas aquæ, ut dicit Tavernier. Post talem lotionem seu
baptismum, sacerdos imponit nomen à parentibus inditum." (Hyde de Rel.
Vet. Pers., p. 414.) After this Hyde goes on to say, that when he comes
to be fifteen years of age he is confirmed by receiving the girdle, and
the sudra or cassock.

[319:1] See Knight: Anct. Art and Mytho., p. xxv. Higgins: _Anac._, vol.
i pp. 218 and 222. Dunlap: Mysteries of Adoni, p. 189. King: The
Gnostics and their Remains, p. 51.

[319:2] De Præscrip. ch. xi.

[319:3] Ibid.

[319:4] "Mithra signat illic in frontibus milites suos."

[319:5] "Semper enim cruci baptismus jungitur." (Aug. Temp. Ser. ci.)

[319:6] See Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 69, and Monumental Christianity, p.
385.

[319:7] "Sacerdos, stipatum me religiosa cohorte, deducit ad proximas
balucas; et prius sueto lavraco traditum, prœfatus deûm veniam,
purissimē circumrorans abluit." (Apuleius: Milesi, ii. citat. a
Higgins: Anac., vol. ii. p. 69.)

[320:1] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 416. Dunlap: Mysteries Adoni, p.
139.

[320:2] Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 392.

[320:3] See Higgins: Anac., vol. ii. pp. 67-69.

[320:4] Barnes: Notes, vol. i. p. 38. Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p.
65.

[320:5] Barnes: Notes, vol. i. p. 41.

[320:6] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 121, Gainsburgh's Essenes, and
Higgins' Anacalypsis, vol. ii. pp. 66, 67.

[321:1] Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 391.

[321:2] "_Holy Water_"--water wherein the person is baptized, in the
name of the Father, and the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. (Church of
England Catechism.)

[321:3] See Taylor's Diegesis, pp. 333, 334, and Higgins' Anacalypsis,
ii. p. 65.

[321:4] See Taylor's Diegesis, pp. 80 and 232, and Baring-Gould's Orig.
Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 391.

"De-là-vint, que pour devenir capable d'entendre les secrets de la
création, révélés dans ces mêmes mystères, il fallut se faire
_régénérer_ par _l'initiation_. Cette cérémonie, par laquelle, _on
apprenoit les vrais principes de la vie_, s'opéroit par le moyen de
_l'eau_ qui voit été celui de la _régénération_ du monde. On conduisoit
sur les bords de l'Ilissus le candidat qui devoit être initié; apres
l'avoir purifié avec le sel et l'eau de la mer, on repandoit de l'orge
sur lui, on le couronnoit de fleurs, et _l'Hydranos_ ou le _Baptisseur_
le plongeoit dans le fleuve." (D'Ancarville: Res., vol. i. p. 292.
Anac., ii. p. 65.)

[321:5] Taylor's Diegesis, p. 232.

[322:1] See Mallet's Northern Antiquities, pp. 306, 313, 320, 366.
Baring-Gould's Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. pp. 392, 393, and Dupuis, p.
242.

[322:2] Mallet: Northern Antiquities, p. 206.

[322:3] Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 393. Higgins:
Anac., vol. ii. p. 67, and Davies: Myths of the British Druids.

[322:4] Sir George Grey: Polynesian Mytho., p. 32, in Baring-Gould:
Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 392.

[322:5] See Viscount Amberly's Analysis Relig. Belief, p. 59.

[322:6] Vol. i. p. 64.

[323:1] Monumental Christianity, pp. 389, 390.

[323:2] Kingsborough: Mex. Antiq., vol. vi. p. 114.

[323:3] Hist. Indies, vol. ii. p. 369.

[323:4] Ibid. p. 361.

[323:5] Ibid. p. 369.

[323:6] Monumental Christianity, p. 390.

[323:7] Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 416.

[325:1] That man is born in _original sin_ seems to have been the belief
of all nations of antiquity, especially the Hindus. This sense of
original corruption is expressed in the following prayer, used by them:

"I am sinful, I commit sin, my nature is sinful, _I am conceived in
sin_. Save me, O thou lotus-eyed Heri, the remover of Sin." (Williams'
Hinduism, p. 214.)



CHAPTER XXXII.

THE WORSHIP OF THE VIRGIN MOTHER.


The worship of the "Virgin," the "Queen of Heaven," the "Great Goddess,"
the "Mother of God," &c., which has become one of the grand features of
the Christian religion--the Council of Ephesus (A. D. 431) having
declared Mary "Mother of God," her assumption being declared in 813, and
her Immaculate Conception by the Pope and Council in 1851[326:1]--was
almost universal, for ages before the birth of Jesus, and "the _pure
virginity_ of the celestial mother was a tenet of faith for two thousand
years before the virgin now adored was born."[326:2]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 16]

In _India_, they have worshiped, for ages, _Devi_, _Maha-Devi_--"The One
Great Goddess"[326:3]--and have temples erected in honor of her.[326:4]
Gonzales states that among the Indians he found a temple "_Parituræ
Virginis_"--of the Virgin about to bring forth.[326:5]

_Maya_, the mother of Buddha, and _Devaki_ the mother of Crishna, were
worshiped as _virgins_,[326:6] and represented with the infant Saviours
in their arms, just as the virgin of the Christians is represented at
the present day. Maya was so pure that it was impossible for God, man,
or Asura to view her with carnal desire. Fig. No. 16 is a
representation of the Virgin Devaki, with, the infant Saviour Crishna,
taken from Moor's "Hindu Pantheon."[327:1] "No person could bear to gaze
upon Devaki, because of the light that invested her." "The gods,
invisible to mortals, celebrated her praise continually from the time
that _Vishnu_ was contained in her person."[327:2]

"Crishna and his mother are almost always represented _black_,"[327:3]
and the word "_Crishna_" means "_the black_."

The _Chinese_, who have had several _avatars_, or virgin-born gods,
among them, have also worshiped a Virgin Mother from time immemorial.
Sir Charles Francis Davis, in his "History of China," tells us that the
Chinese at Canton worshiped an idol, to which they gave the name of "The
Virgin."[327:4]

The Rev. Joseph B. Gross, in his "Heathen Religion," tells us that:

     "Upon the altars of the Chinese temples were placed, behind a
     screen, an image of _Shin-moo_, or the '_Holy Mother_,'
     _sitting with a child in her arms_, in an alcove, with rays of
     glory around her head, and tapers constantly burning before
     her."[327:5]

Shin-moo is called the "Mother Goddess," and the "Virgin." Her child,
who was exposed in his infancy, was brought up by poor fishermen. He
became a great man, and performed wonderful miracles. In wealthy houses
the sacred image of the "Mother Goddess" is carefully kept in a recess
behind an altar, veiled with a silken screen.[327:6]

The Rev. Mr. Gutzlaff, in his "Travels," speaking of the Chinese people,
says:

     "Though otherwise very reasonable men, they have always showed
     themselves bigoted heathens. . . . They have everywhere built
     splendid temples, chiefly in honor of _Ma-tsoo-po_, the
     '_Queen of Heaven_.'"[327:7]

_Isis_, mother of the Egyptian Saviour, Horus, was worshiped as a
virgin. Nothing is more common on the religious monuments of Egypt than
the infant Horus seated in the lap of his virgin mother. She is styled
"Our Lady," the "Queen of Heaven," "Star of the Sea," "Governess,"
"Mother of God," "Intercessor," "Immaculate Virgin," &c.;[328:1] all of
which epithets were in after years applied to the Virgin Mother
worshiped by the Christians.[328:2]

"The most common representation of Horus is being nursed on the knee of
Isis, or suckled at her breast."[328:3] In _Monumental Christianity_
(Fig. 92), is to be seen a representation of "Isis and Horus." The
infant Saviour is sitting on his mother's knee, while she gazes into his
face. A cross is on the back of the seat. The author, Rev. J. P. Lundy,
says, in speaking of it:

     "Is this Egyptian mother, too, meditating her son's conflict,
     suffering, and triumph, as she holds him before her and gazes
     into his face? And is this CROSS meant to convey the idea of
     life through suffering, and conflict with Typho or Evil?"

In some statues and _basso-relievos_, when Isis appears alone, she is
entirely veiled from head to foot, in common with nearly every other
goddess, as a symbol of a mother's chastity. No mortal man hath ever
lifted her veil.

Isis was also represented standing on the _crescent_ moon, with _twelve
stars_ surrounding her head.[328:4] In almost every Roman Catholic
Church on the continent of Europe may be seen pictures and statues of
_Mary_, the "Queen of Heaven," standing on the crescent moon, and her
head surrounded with _twelve_ stars.

Dr. Inman, in his "Pagan and Christian Symbolism," gives a figure of the
Virgin Mary, with her infant, standing on the _crescent moon_. In
speaking of this figure, he says:

     "In it the Virgin is seen as the 'Queen of Heaven,' nursing
     her infant, and identified with the crescent moon. . . . Than
     this, nothing could more completely identify the Christian
     mother and child, with Isis and Horus."[328:5]

This _crescent moon_ is the symbol of Isis and Juno, and is the _Yoni_
of the Hindoos.[328:6]

The priests of Isis yearly dedicated to her a new ship (emblematic of
the YONI), laden with the first fruits of spring. Strange as it may
seem, the carrying in procession of ships, in which the Virgin Mary
takes the place of the heathen goddesses, has not yet wholly gone out of
use.[328:7]

Isis is also represented, with the infant Saviour in her arms, enclosed
in a framework of the flowers of the Egyptian bean, or _lotus_.[328:8]
The Virgin _Mary_ is very often represented in this manner, as those who
have studied mediæval art, well know.

Dr. Inman, describing a painting of the Virgin Mary, which is to be
seen in the South Kensington Museum, and which is enclosed in a
framework of flowers, says:

     "It represents the Virgin and Child precisely as she used to
     be represented in Egypt, in India, in Assyria, Babylonia,
     Phœnicia, and Etruria."[329:1]

The lotus and poppy were sacred among all Eastern nations, and were
consecrated to the various virgins worshiped by them. These virgins are
represented holding this plant in their hands, just as the Virgin,
adored by the Christians, is represented at the present day.[329:2] Mr.
Squire, speaking of this plant, says:

     "It is well known that the '_Nymphe_'--lotus or water-lily--is
     held sacred throughout the East, and the various sects of that
     quarter of the globe represented their deities either
     decorated with its flowers, holding it as a sceptre, or seated
     on a lotus throne or pedestal. _Lacshmi_, the beautiful Hindoo
     goddess, is associated with the lotus. The Egyptian _Isis_ is
     often called the 'Lotus-_crowned_,' in the ancient
     invocations. The Mexican goddess _Corieotl_, is often
     represented with a water-plant resembling the lotus in her
     hand."[329:3]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 17]

In Egyptian and Hindoo mythology, the offspring of the virgin is made to
bruise the head of the serpent, but the Romanists have given this office
to the mother. Mary is often seen represented standing on the serpent.
Fig. 17 alludes to this, and to her _immaculate conception_, which, as
we have seen, was declared by the Pope and council in 1851. The notion
of the divinity of Mary was broached by some at the Council of Nice, and
they were thence named Marianites.

The Christian Father Epiphanius accounts for the fact of the Egyptians
worshiping a virgin and child, by declaring that the prophecy--"Behold,
a virgin shall conceive and bring forth a son"--must have been revealed
to them.[329:4]

In an ancient Christian work, called the "Chronicle of Alexandria,"
occurs the following:

     "Watch how Egypt has constructed the childbirth of a virgin,
     and the birth of her son, _who was exposed in a crib to the
     adoration of the people_."[330:1]

We have another Egyptian Virgin Mother in Neith or Nout, mother of
"Osiris the Saviour." She was known as the "Great Mother," and yet
"Immaculate Virgin."[330:2] M. Beauregard speaks of

     "The Immaculate Conception of the Virgin (Mary), who can
     henceforth, as well as the Egyptian Minerva, the mysterious
     Neith, boast of having come from herself, and of having given
     birth to god."[330:3]

What is known in Christian countries as "Candlemas day," or the
Purification of the Virgin Mary, is of Egyptian origin. The feast of
Candlemas was kept by the ancient Egyptians in honor of the goddess
Neith, and on the very day that is marked on our Christian almanacs as
"Candlemas day."[330:4]

The ancient _Chaldees_ believed in a celestial virgin, who had purity of
body, loveliness of person, and tenderness of affection; and who was one
to whom the erring sinner could appeal with more chance of success than
to a stern father. She was portrayed as a mother, although a virgin,
with a child in her arms.[330:5]

The ancient Babylonians and Assyrians worshiped a goddess mother, and
son, who was represented in pictures and in images as an infant in his
mother's arms (see Fig. No. 18). Her name was _Mylitta_, the divine son
was _Tammuz_, the Saviour, whom we have seen rose from the dead. He was
invested with all his father's attributes and glory, and identified with
him. He was worshiped as _mediator_.[330:6]

There was a temple at Paphos, in Cyprus, dedicated to the Virgin
Mylitta, and was the most celebrated one in Grecian times.[330:7]

The ancient _Etruscans_ worshiped a Virgin Mother and Son, who was
represented in pictures and images in the arms of his mother. This was
the goddess _Nutria_, to be seen in Fig. No. 19. On the arm of the
mother is an inscription in Etruscan letters. This goddess was also
worshiped in Italy. Long before the Christian era temples and statues
were erected in memory of her. "To the Great Goddess Nutria," is an
inscription which has been found among the ruins of a temple dedicated
to her. No doubt the Roman Church would have claimed her for a Madonna,
but most unluckily for them, she has the name "_Nutria_," in Etruscan
letters on her arm, after the Etruscan practice.

The Egyptian _Isis_ was also worshiped in Italy, many centuries before
the Christian era, and all images of her, with the infant Horus in her
arms, have been adopted, as we shall presently see, by the Christians,
even though they represent her and her child as _black_ as an Ethiopian,
in the same manner as we have seen that Devaki and Crishna were
represented.

[Illustration: Fig. No. 18]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 19]

The children of Israel, who, as we have seen in a previous chapter, were
idolaters of the worst kind--worshiping the sun, moon and stars, and
offering human sacrifices to their god, Moloch--were also worshipers of
a Virgin Mother, whom they styled the "Queen of Heaven."

Jeremiah, who appeared in Jerusalem about the year 625 B. C., and who
was one of the prophets and reformers, rebukes the Israelites for their
idolatry and worship of the "Queen of Heaven," whereupon they answer him
as follows:

     "As for the word that thou hast spoken unto us, in the name of
     the Lord, we will not hearken unto thee. But we will certainly
     do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of our own mouth, to burn
     incense unto the _Queen of Heaven_, and to pour out drink
     offerings unto her, _as we have done, we, and our fathers, our
     kings, and our princes, in the city of Judah, and in the
     streets of Jerusalem_: for then we had plenty of victuals, and
     were well, and saw no evil.

     "But since we left off to burn incense to the _Queen of
     Heaven_, and to pour out drink offerings unto her, we have
     wanted all things, and have been consumed by the sword and by
     the famine. And when we burned incense to the _Queen of
     Heaven_, and poured out drink offerings unto her, did we make
     her _cakes_ to worship her, and pour out drink offerings unto
     her, without our men?"[332:1]

The "_cakes_" which were offered to the "Queen of Heaven" by the
Israelites were marked with a _cross_, or other symbol of sun
worship.[332:2] The ancient Egyptians also put a cross on their "sacred
cakes."[332:3] Some of the early Christians offered "sacred cakes" to
the Virgin Mary centuries after.[332:4]

The ancient Persians worshiped the Virgin and Child. On the monuments of
Mithra, the Saviour, the Mediating and Redeeming God of the Persians,
the Virgin Mother of this god is to be seen suckling her infant.[332:5]

The ancient Greeks and Romans worshiped the Virgin Mother and Child for
centuries before the Christian era. One of these was _Myrrha_,[332:6]
the mother of _Bacchus_, the Saviour, who was represented with the
infant in her arms. She had the title of "Queen of Heaven."[332:7] At
many a _Christian_ shrine the infant Saviour Bacchus may be seen
reposing in the arms of his deified mother. The names are changed--the
ideas remain as before.[332:8]

The Rev. Dr. Stuckley writes:

     "Diodorus says Bacchus was born of Jupiter, the Supreme God,
     and Ceres (Myrrha). Both Ceres and Proserpine were called
     _Virgo_ (Virgin). The story of this woman being deserted by a
     man, and espoused by a god, has somewhat so exceedingly like
     that passage, Matt. i. 19, 20, of the blessed Virgin's
     history, that we should wonder at it, _did we not see the
     parallelism infinite between the sacred and the profane
     history before us_.

     "There are many similitudes between the Virgin (Mary) and the
     mother of Bacchus (also called Mary--see note 6 below)--in all
     the old fables. Mary, or Miriam, St. Jerome interprets Myrrha
     Maris. Orpheus calls the mother of Bacchus a _Sea Goddess_
     (and the mother of Jesus is called '_Mary, Star of the
     Sea_.'")[332:9]

Thus we see that the reverend and learned Dr. Stuckley has clearly made
out that the story of Mary, the "Queen of Heaven," the "Star of the
Sea," the mother of the Lord, with her translation to heaven, &c., was
an _old story_ long before Jesus of Nazareth was born. After this
Stuckley observes that the _Pagan_ "Queen of Heaven" has upon her head a
crown of twelve stars. This, as we have observed above, is the case of
the _Christian_ "Queen of Heaven" in almost every Romish church on the
continent of Europe.

The goddess _Cybele_ was another. She was equally called the "Queen of
Heaven" and the "Mother of God." As devotees now collect alms in the
name of the Virgin Mary, so did they in ancient times in the name of
Cybele. The _Galli_ now used in the churches of Italy, were anciently
used in the worship of Cybele (called _Galliambus_, and sang by her
priests). "Our Lady Day," or the day of the Blessed Virgin of the Roman
Church, was heretofore dedicated to Cybele.[333:1]

_Minerva_, who was distinguished by the title of "Virgin Queen,"[333:2]
was extensively worshiped in ancient Greece. Among the innumerable
temples of Greece, the most beautiful was the _Parthenon_, meaning, the
_Temple of the Virgin Goddess_. It was a magnificent Doric edifice,
dedicated to Minerva, the presiding deity of Athens.

_Juno_ was called the "Virgin Queen of Heaven."[333:3] She was
represented, like _Isis_ and _Mary_, standing on the crescent
moon,[333:4] and was considered the special protectress of women, from
the cradle to the grave, just as Mary is considered at the present day.

_Diana_, who had the title of "Mother," was nevertheless famed for her
virginal purity.[333:5] She was represented, like _Isis_ and _Mary_,
with stars surrounding her head.[333:6]

The ancient _Muscovites_ worshiped a sacred group, composed of a woman
with a _male child_ in her lap, and another _standing by her_. They had
likewise another idol, called _the golden heifer_, which, says Mr.
Knight, "seems to have been the animal _symbol_ of the same
personage."[333:7] Here we have the Virgin and infant Saviour, with the
companion (John the Baptist), and "The _Lamb_ that taketh away the sins
of the world," among the ancient _Muscovites_ before the time of Christ
Jesus. This goddess had also the title of "Queen of Heaven."[334:1]

The ancient _Germans_ worshiped a virgin goddess under the the name of
_Hertha_, or Ostara, who was fecundated by the active spirit, _i. e._,
the "Holy Spirit."[334:2] She was represented in images as a woman with
a child in her arms. This image was common in their consecrated forests,
and was held peculiarly sacred.[334:3] The Christian celebration called
_Easter_ derived its _name_ from this goddess.

The ancient _Scandinavians_ worshiped a virgin goddess called Disa. Mr.
R. Payne Knight tells us that:

     "This goddess is delineated on the sacred drums of the
     Laplanders, _accompanied by a child_, similar to the _Horus_
     of the Egyptians, who so often appears in the lap of Isis on
     the religious monuments of that people."[334:4]

The ancient _Scandinavians_ also worshiped the goddess Frigga. She was
mother of "Baldur the Good," his father being Odin, the supreme god of
the northern nations. It was she who was addressed, as Mary is at the
present day, in order to obtain happy marriages and easy childbirths.
The Eddas style her the most favorable of the goddesses.[334:5]

In _Gaul_, the ancient Druids worshiped the _Virgo-Paritura_ as the
"Mother of God," and a festival was annually celebrated in honor of this
virgin.[334:6]

In the year 1747 a monument was found at Oxford, England, of pagan
origin, on which is exhibited a female nursing an infant.[334:7] Thus we
see that the Virgin and Child were worshiped, in pagan times, from China
to Britain, and, if we turn to the New World, we shall find the same
thing there; for, in the words of Dr. Inman, "even in Mexico the 'Mother
and Child' were worshiped."[334:8]

This mother, who had the title of "Virgin," and "Queen of
Heaven,"[334:9] was Chimalman, or Sochiquetzal, and the infant was
Quetzalcoatle, the crucified Saviour. Lord Kingsborough says:

     "She who represented 'Our Lady' (among the ancient Mexicans)
     had her hair tied up in the manner in which the Indian women
     tie and fasten their hair, and in the knot behind was
     inserted a small _cross_, by which it was intended to show
     that she was the Most Holy."[335:1]

The Mexicans had pictures of this "Heavenly Goddess" on long pieces of
leather, which they rolled up.[335:2]

The annunciation to the Virgin Chimalman, that she should become the
mother of the Saviour Quetzalcoatle, was the subject of a Mexican
hieroglyphic, and is remarkable in more than one respect. She appears to
be receiving a bunch of flowers from the embassador or angel,[335:3]
which brings to mind the _lotus_, the sacred plant of the East, which is
placed in the hands of the Pagan and Christian virgins.

The 25th of March, which was celebrated throughout the ancient Grecian
and Roman world, in honor of "the Mother of the Gods," was appointed to
the honor of the Christian "Mother of God," and is now celebrated in
Catholic countries, and called "Lady day."[335:4] The festival of the
conception of the "Blessed Virgin Mary" is also held on the very day
that the festival of the miraculous conception of the "Blessed Virgin
Juno" was held among the pagans,[335:5] which, says the author of the
"Perennial Calendar," "is a remarkable coincidence."[335:6] It is not
such a very "remarkable coincidence" after all, when we find that, even
as early as the time of St. Gregory, Bishop of Neo-Cæsarea, who
flourished about A. D. 240-250, Pagan festivals were changed into
Christian holidays. This saint was commended by his namesake of Nyssa
for changing the Pagan festivals into Christian holidays, the better to
draw the heathens to the religion of Christ.[335:7]

The month of _May_, which was dedicated to the heathen Virgin Mothers,
is also the month of Mary, the Christian Virgin.

Now that we have seen that the worship of the Virgin and Child was
universal for ages before the Christian era, we shall say a few words on
the subject of pictures and images of the Madonna--so called.

The most ancient pictures and statues in Italy and other parts of
Europe, of what are supposed to be representations of the Virgin _Mary_
and the infant Jesus, are _black_. The infant god, in the arms of his
black mother, his eyes and drapery white, is himself perfectly
black.[335:8]

Godfrey Higgins, on whose authority we have stated the above, informs us
that, at the time of his writing--1825-1835--images and paintings of
this kind were to be seen at the cathedral of Moulins; the famous chapel
of "the Virgin" at Loretto; the church of the Annunciation, the church
of St. Lazaro, and the church of St. Stephens, at _Genoa_; St. Francis,
at _Pisa_; the church at _Brixen_, in the Tyrol; the church at _Padua_;
the church of St. Theodore, at _Munich_--in the two last of which the
white of the eyes and teeth, and the studied redness of the lips, are
very observable.[336:1]

"The _Bambino_[336:2] at _Rome_ is black," says Dr. Inman, "and so are
the Virgin and Child at Loretto."[336:3] Many more are to be seen in
Rome, and in innumerable other places; in fact, says Mr. Higgins,

     "There is scarcely an old church in Italy where some remains
     of the worship of the _black Virgin_, and _black child_, are
     not met with;" and that "pictures in great numbers are to be
     met with, where the white of the eyes, and of the teeth, and
     the lips a little tinged with red, like the black figures in
     the museum of the Indian company."[336:4]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 20]

Fig. No. 20 is a copy of the image of the Virgin of Loretto. Dr. Conyers
Middleton, speaking of it, says:

     "The mention of Loretto puts me in mind of the surprise that I
     was in at the first sight of the Holy Image, for its face is
     as black as a negro's. But I soon recollected, that this very
     circumstance of its complexion made it but resemble the more
     exactly the _old idols of Paganism_."[336:5]

The reason assigned by the Christian priests for the images being black,
is that they are made so by smoke and incense, but, we may ask, if they
became black by smoke, why is it that the _white_ drapery, _white_
teeth, and the _white_ of the eyes have not changed in color? Why are
the lips of a bright red color? Why, we may also ask, are the black
images crowned and adorned with jewels, just as the images of the Hindoo
and Egyptian virgins are represented?

When we find that the Virgin Devaki, and the Virgin Isis were
represented just as these so-called _ancient Christian_ idols represent
Mary, we are led to the conclusion that they are Pagan idols adopted by
the Christians.

We may say, in the words of Mr. Lundy, "what jewels are doing on the
neck of this poor and lowly maid, it is not easy to say."[337:1] The
_crown_ is also foreign to early representations of the Madonna and
Child, but not so to Devaki and Crishna,[337:2] and Isis and Horus. The
_coronation_ of the Virgin Mary is unknown to primitive Christian art,
but is common in Pagan art.[337:3] "It may be well," says Mr. Lundy, "to
compare some of the oldest _Hindoo_ representations of the subject with
the Romish, and see how complete the resemblance is;"[337:4] and Dr.
Inman says that, "the head-dress, as put on the head of the Virgin Mary,
is of Grecian, Egyptian, and Indian origin."[337:5]

The whole secret of the fact of these early representations of the
Virgin Mary and Jesus--so-called--being _black_, crowned, and covered
with jewels, is that they are of pre-Christian origin; they are _Isis_
and _Horus_, and perhaps, in some cases, Devaki and Crishna, baptized
anew.

The Egyptian "Queen of Heaven" was worshiped in Europe for centuries
before and after the Christian Era.[337:6] Temples and statues were also
erected in honor of Isis, one of which was at Bologna, in Italy.

Mr. King tells us that the Emperor Hadrian zealously strove to reanimate
the forms of that old religion, whose spirit had long since passed away,
and it was under his patronage that the creed of the Pharaohs blazed up
for a moment with a bright but fictitious lustre.[337:7] To this period
belongs a beautiful sard, in Mr. King's collection, representing
Serapis[337:8] and Isis, with the legend: "Immaculate is Our Lady
Isis."[337:9]

Mr. King further tells us that:

     "The '_Black Virgins_' so highly reverenced in certain French
     cathedrals during the long night of the middle ages, proved,
     when at last examined critically, basalt figures of
     Isis."[337:10]

And Mr. Bonwick says:

     "We may be surprised that, as Europe has _Black_ Madonnas,
     Egypt had _Black_ images and pictures of Isis. At the same
     time it is a little odd that the Virgin Mary copies most
     honored should not only be _Black_, but have a decided _Isis
     cast_ of feature."[338:1]

The shrine now known as that of the "Virgin in Amadon," in France, was
formerly an old Black _Venus_.[338:2]

     "To this we may add," (says Dr. Inman), "that at the Abbey of
     Einsiedelen, on Lake Zurich, the object of adoration is an old
     _black doll_, dressed in gold brocade, and glittering with
     jewels. She is called, apparently, the Virgin of the Swiss
     Mountains. My friend, Mr. Newton, also tells me that he saw,
     over a church door at Ivrea, in Italy, twenty-nine miles from
     Turin, the fresco of a _Black_ Virgin and child, the former
     bearing a _triple crown_."[338:3]

This _triple crown_ is to be seen on the heads of Pagan gods and
goddesses, especially those of the Hindoos.

Dr. Barlow says:

     "The doctrine of the Mother of God was of Egyptian origin. It
     was brought in along with the worship of the Madonna by Cyril
     (Bishop of Alexandria, and the Cyril of Hypatia) and the monks
     of Alexandria, in the fifth century. The earliest
     representations of the Madonna have quite a Greco-Egyptian
     character, and there can be little doubt that Isis nursing
     Horus was the origin of them all."[338:4]

And Arthur Murphy tells us that:

     "The superstition and religious ceremonies of the _Egyptians_
     were diffused over Asia, Greece, _and the rest of Europe_.
     Brotier says, that inscriptions of Isis and Serapis (Horus?)
     have been frequently found in _Germany_. . . . The missionaries
     who went in the eighth and ninth centuries to propagate the
     Christian religion in those parts, _saw many images and
     statues of these gods_."[338:5]

These "many images and statues of these gods" were evidently baptized
anew, given other names, and allowed to remain where they were.

In many parts of Italy are to be seen pictures of the Virgin with her
infant in her arms, inscribed with the words: "Deo Soli." This betrays
their Pagan origin.


FOOTNOTES:

[326:1] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 115, and Monumental
Christianity, pp. 206 and 226.

[326:2] Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 159.

[326:3] See Williams' Hinduism.

[326:4] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 540.

[326:5] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 185.

[326:6] _St. Jerome_ says: "It is handed down as a tradition among the
Gymnosophists of India, that _Buddha_, the founder of their system was
brought forth by a virgin from her side." (_Contra Jovian_, bk. i.
Quoted in Rhys Davids' Buddhism, p. 183.)

[327:1] Plate 59.

[327:2] Monumental Christianity, p. 218.

Of the Virgin _Mary_ we read: "Her face was shining as snow, and its
brightness could hardly be borne. Her conversation was with the angels,
&c." (Nativity of Mary, _Apoc._)

[327:3] See Ancient Faiths, i. 401.

[327:4] Davis' China, vol. ii. p. 95.

[327:5] The Heathen Relig., p. 60.

[327:6] Barrows: Travels in China, p. 467.

[327:7] Gutzlaff's Voyages, p. 154.

[328:1] Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 141.

[328:2] See The Lily of Israel, p. 14.

[328:3] Kenrick's Egypt, vol. i. p. 425.

[328:4] See Draper's Science and Religion, pp. 47, 48, and Higgins'
Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 804.

[328:5] Pagan and Christian Symbolism, p. 50.

[328:6] See Monumental Christianity, p. 307, and Dr. Inman's Ancient
Faiths.

[328:7] See Cox's Aryan Mytho., vol. ii. p. 119, _note_.

[328:8] See Pagan and Christian Symbolism, pp. 13, 14.

[329:1] Pagan and Christian Symbolism, pp. 4, 5.

[329:2] See Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, pp. 45, 104, 105.

"We see, in pictures, that the Virgin and Child are associated in modern
times with the split apricot, the pomegranate, rimmon, and the Vine,
just as was the ancient Venus." (Dr. Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p.
528.)

[329:3] Serpent Symbol, p. 39.

[329:4] Taylor's Diegesis, p. 185.

[330:1] Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 143.

[330:2] Ibid. p. 115.

[330:3] Quoted in Ibid. p. 115.

[330:4] Ibid., and Kenrick's Egypt.

[330:5] Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 59.

[330:6] See Monumental Christianity, p. 211, and Ancient Faiths, vol.
ii. p. 350.

[330:7] Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 213.

[332:1] Jeremiah, xliv. 16-22.

[332:2] See Colenso's Lectures, p. 297, and Bonwick's Egyptian Belief,
p. 148.

[332:3] See the Pentateuch Examined, vol. vi. p. 115, App., and
Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 148.

[332:4] See King's Gnostics, p. 91, and Monumental Christianity, p. 224.

[332:5] See Dupuis: Origin of Relig. Belief, p. 237.

[332:6] It would seem more than chance that so many of the virgin
mothers and goddesses of antiquity should have the same name. The mother
of _Bacchus_ was Myrrha: the mother of Mercury or Hermes was Myrrha or
Maia (See Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship, p. 186, and Inman's
Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 233); the mother of the Siamese
Saviour--Sommona Cadom--was called Maya Maria, _i. e._, "the Great
Mary;" the mother of Adonis was Myrrha (See Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 314,
and Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 253); the mother of Buddha was
Maya; now, all these names, whether Myrrha, Maia or Maria, are the same
as _Mary_, the name of the mother of the Christian Saviour. (See Inman's
Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. pp. 353 and 780. Also, Dunlap's Mysteries of
Adoni, p. 124.) The month of _May_ was sacred to these goddesses, so
likewise is it sacred to the Virgin Mary at the present day. _She_ was
also called Myrrha and Maria, as well as Mary. (See Anacalypsis, vol. i.
p. 304, and Son of the Man, p. 26.)

[332:7] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. pp. 303, 304.

[332:8] Prof. Wilder, in "Evolution," June, '77. Isis Unveiled, vol. ii.

[332:9] Stuckley: Pal. Sac. No. 1, p. 34, in Anacalypsis, i. p. 304.

[333:1] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 305.

[333:2] See Bell's Pantheon, and Knight: Ancient Art and Mytho., p. 175.

[333:3] See Roman Antiquities, p. 73. Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 82, and
Bell's Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 160.

[333:4] See Monumental Christianity, p. 308--Fig. 144.

[333:5] See Knight: Anct. Art and Mytho., pp. 175, 176.

[333:6] See Montfaucon, vol. i. plate xcii.

[333:7] Knight's Anct. Art and Mytho., p. 147.

[334:1] Anacalypsis, vol. ii. pp. 109, 110.

[334:2] See Knight's Anct. Art and Mytho., p. 21.

[334:3] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 374, and Mallet: Northern
Antiquities.

[334:4] Knight: Anct. Art and Mytho., p. 147.

[334:5] See Mallet's Northern Antiquities.

[334:6] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. pp. 108, 109, 259. Dupuis:
Orig. Relig. Belief, p. 257. Celtic Druids, p. 163, and Taylor's
Diegesis, p. 184.

[334:7] See Celtic Druids, p. 163, and Dupuis, p. 237.

[334:8] Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 100.

[334:9] See Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 33, and Mexican Antiquities, vol.
vi. p. 176.

[335:1] Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 176.

[335:2] Ibid.

[335:3] Ibid.

[335:4] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 304.

[335:5] Ibid. vol. ii. p. 82.

[335:6] Quoted in Ibid.

[335:7] See Middleton's Letters from Rome, p. 236.

[335:8] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 138.

[336:1] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 138.

[336:2] _Bambino_--a term in art, descriptive of the swaddled figure of
the infant Saviour.

[336:3] Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 401.

[336:4] Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 138.

[336:5] Letters from Rome, p. 84.

[337:1] Monumental Christianity, p. 208.

[337:2] See Ibid. p. 229, and Moore's Hindu Pantheon, Inman's Christian
and Pagan Symbolism, Higgins' Anacalypsis, vol. ii., where the figures
of Crishna and Devaki may be seen, crowned, laden with jewels, and a ray
of glory surrounding their heads.

[337:3] Monumental Christianity, p. 227.

[337:4] Ibid.

[337:5] Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 767.

[337:6] In King's Gnostics and their Remains, p. 109, the author gives a
description of a procession, given during the second century by
Apuleius, in honor of _Isis_, the "Immaculate Lady."

[337:7] King's Gnostics, p. 71.

[337:8] "Serapis does not appear to be one of the native gods, or
monsters, who sprung from the fruitful soil of Egypt. The first of the
Ptolemies had been commanded, by a dream, to import the mysterious
stranger from the coast of Pontus, where he had been long adored by the
inhabitants of Sinope; but his attributes and his reign were so
imperfectly understood, that it became a subject of dispute, whether he
represented the bright orb of day, or the gloomy monarch of the
subterraneous regions." (Gibbon's Rome, vol. iii. p. 143.)

[337:9] Ibid.

[337:10] King's Gnostics, p. 71, _note_.

[338:1] Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 141. "_Black_ is the color of the
Egyptian Isis." (The Rosecrucians, p. 154.)

[338:2] Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 159. In Montfaucon, vol. i. plate
xcv., may be seen a representation of a _Black_ Venus.

[338:3] Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 264.

[338:4] Quoted in Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 142.

[338:5] Notes 3 and 4 to Tacitus' Manners of the Germans.



CHAPTER XXXIII.

CHRISTIAN SYMBOLS.


A thorough investigation of this subject would require a volume,
therefore, as we can devote but a chapter to it, it must necessarily be
treated somewhat slightingly.

The first of the Christian Symbols which we shall notice is the CROSS.

Overwhelming historical facts show that the cross was used, _as a
religious emblem_, many centuries before the Christian era, by every
nation in the world. Bishop Colenso, speaking on this subject, says:--

     "From the dawn of organized Paganism in the Eastern world, to
     the final establishment of Christianity in the West, the cross
     was undoubtedly one of the commonest and most sacred of
     symbolical monuments. Apart from any distinctions of social or
     intellectual superiority, of caste, color, nationality, or
     location in either hemisphere, it appears to have been the
     aboriginal possession of every people in antiquity.

     "Diversified forms of the symbol are delineated more or less
     artistically, according to the progress achieved in
     civilization at the period, on the ruined walls of temples and
     palaces, on natural rocks and sepulchral galleries, on the
     hoariest monoliths and the rudest statuary; on coins, medals,
     and vases of every description; and in not a few instances,
     are preserved in the architectural proportions of subterranean
     as well as superterranean structures of tumuli, as well as
     fanes.

     "Populations of essentially different culture, tastes, and
     pursuits--the highly-civilized and the semi-civilized, the
     settled and the nomadic--vied with each other in their
     superstitious _adoration_ of it, and in their efforts to
     extend the knowledge of its exceptional import and virtue
     amongst their latest posterities.

     "Of the several varieties of the cross still in vogue, as
     national and ecclesiastical emblems, and distinguished by the
     familiar appellations of St. George, St. Andrew, the Maltese,
     the Greek, the Latin, &c., &c., _there is not one amongst
     them, the existence of which may not be traced to the remotest
     antiquity. They were the common property of the Eastern
     nations._

     "That each known variety has been derived from a common
     source, and is emblematical of one and the same truth may be
     inferred from the fact of forms identically the same, whether
     simple or complex, cropping out in contrary directions, in the
     Western as well as the Eastern hemisphere."[339:1]

The cross has been adored in _India_ from time immemorial, and was a
symbol of mysterious significance in Brahmanical iconography. It was the
symbol of the Hindoo god Agni, the "Light of the World."[340:1]

In the Cave of Elephanta, over the head of the figure represented as
destroying the infants, whence the story of Herod and the infants of
Bethlehem (which was unknown to all the Jewish, Roman, and Grecian
historians) took its origin, may be seen the Mitre, the Crosier, and the
Cross.[340:2]

It is placed by Müller in the hand of Siva, Brahma, Vishnu, Crishna,
Tvashtri and Jama. To it the worshipers of Vishnu attribute as many
virtues as does the devout Catholic to the Christian cross.[340:3] Fra
Paolino tells us it was used by the ancient kings of India as a
sceptre.[340:4]

Two of the principal pagodas of India--Benares and Mathura--were erected
in the forms of vast crosses.[340:5] The pagoda at Mathura was sacred to
the memory of the Virgin-born and crucified Saviour Crishna.[340:6]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 21]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 22]

The cross has been an object of profound veneration among the Buddhists
from the earliest times. One is the sacred Swastica (Fig. No. 21). It is
seen in the old Buddhist Zodiacs, and is one of the symbols in the Asoka
inscriptions. It is the sectarian mark of the Jains, and the distinctive
badge of the sect of Xaca Japonicus. The Vaishnavas of India have also
the same sacred sign.[340:7] And, according to Arthur Lillie,[340:8]
"_the only Christian cross in the catacombs is this Buddhist Swastica_."

The cross is adored by the followers of the Lama of Thibet.[340:9] Fig.
No. 22 is a representation of the most familiar form of Buddhist cross.
The close resemblance between the ancient religion of Thibet and that
of the Christians has been noticed by many European travellers and
missionaries, among whom may be mentioned Pere Grebillon, Pere Grueber,
Horace de la Paon, D'Orville, and M. L'Abbé Huc. The Buddhists, and
indeed all the sects of India, marked their followers on the head with
the sign of the cross.[341:1] This was undoubtedly practiced by almost
all heathen nations, as we have seen in the chapter on the _Eucharist_
that the initiates into the Heathen mysteries were marked in that
manner.

The ancient _Egyptians_ adored the cross with the profoundest
veneration. This sacred symbol is to be found on many of their ancient
monuments, some of which may be seen at the present day in the British
Museum.[341:2] In the museum of the London University, a cross upon a
Calvary is to be seen upon the breast of one of the Egyptian
mummies.[341:3] Many of the Egyptian images hold a cross in their hand.
There is one now extant of the Egyptian Saviour Horus holding a cross in
his hand,[341:4] and he is represented as an infant sitting on his
mother's knee, with a cross on the back of the seat they occupy.[341:5]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 23]

The commonest of all the Egyptian crosses, the CRUX ANSATA (Fig. No. 23)
was adopted by the Christians. Thus, beside one of the Christian
inscriptions at Phile (a celebrated island lying in the midst of the
Nile) is seen both a _Maltese cross_ and a _crux ansata_.[341:6] In a
painting covering the end of a church in the cemetery of El Khargeh, in
the Great Oasis, are three of these crosses round the principal subject,
which seems to have been a figure of a saint.[341:7] In an inscription
in a Christian church to the east of the Nile, in the desert, these
crosses are also to be seen. Beside, or in the hand of, the Egyptian
gods, this symbol is generally to be seen. When the Saviour Osiris is
represented holding out the _crux ansata_ to a mortal, it signifies that
the person to whom he presents it has put off mortality, and entered on
the life to come.[341:8]

The Greek cross, and the cross of St. Anthony, are also found on
Egyptian monuments. A figure of a Shari (Fig. No. 24), from Sir Gardner
Wilkinson's book, has a necklace round his throat, from which depends a
pectoral cross. A third Egyptian cross is that represented in Fig. No.
25, which is apparently intended for a Latin cross rising out of a
heart, like the mediæval emblem of "_Cor in Cruce, Crux in Corde_:" it
is the hieroglyph of goodness.[342:1]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 24]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 25]

It is related by the ecclesiastical historians Socrates and Sozomon,
that when the temple of Serapis, at Alexandria, in Egypt, was demolished
by one of the Christian emperors, beneath the foundation was discovered
a cross. The words of Socrates are as follows:

     "In the temple of Serapis, now overthrown and rifled
     throughout, there were found engraven in the stones certain
     letters . . . resembling the form of the cross. The which when
     both Christians and Ethnics beheld, every one applied to his
     proper religion. The Christians affirmed that the cross was a
     sign or token of the passion of Christ, and the proper
     cognizance of their profession. _The Ethnics avouched that
     therein was contained something in common, belonging as well
     to Serapis as to Christ._"[342:2]

It should be remembered, in connection with this, that the Emperor
Hadrian saw no difference between the worshipers of Serapis and the
worshipers of Christ Jesus. In a letter to the Consul Servanus he says:

     "There are there (in Egypt) _Christians_ who worship
     _Serapis_, and devoted to Serapis are those who call
     themselves '_Bishops of Christ_.'"[342:3]

The ancient Egyptians were in the habit of putting a cross on their
sacred cakes, just as the Christians of the present day do on Good
Friday.[342:4] The plan of the chamber of some Egyptian sepulchres has
the form of a cross,[342:5] and the cross was worn by Egyptian ladies as
an ornament, in precisely the same manner as Christian ladies wear it at
the present day.[342:6]

The ancient Babylonians honored the cross as a religious symbol. It is
to be found on their oldest monuments. Anu, a deity who stood at the
head of the Babylonian mythology, had a cross for his sign or
symbol.[343:1] It is also the symbol of the Babylonian god Bal.[343:2] A
cross hangs on the breast of Tiglath Pileser, in the colossal tablet
from Nimroud, now in the British Museum. Another king, from the ruins of
Ninevah, wears a Maltese cross on his bosom. And another, from the hall
of Nisroch, carries an emblematic necklace, to which a Maltese cross is
attached.[343:3] The most common of crosses, the _crux ansata_ (Fig. No.
21) was also a sacred symbol among the Babylonians. It occurs repeatedly
on their cylinders, bricks and gems.[343:4]

The ensigns and standards carried by the Persians during their wars with
Alexander the Great (B. C. 335), were made in the form of a cross--as we
shall presently see was the style of the ancient _Roman_ standards--and
representations of these cross-standards have been handed down to the
present day.

Sir Robert Ker Porter, in his very valuable work entitled: "Travels in
Georgia, Persia, Armenia, and Ancient Babylonia,"[343:5] shows the
representation of a _bas-relief_, of very ancient antiquity, which he
found at Nashi-Roustam, or the Mountain of Sepulchres. It represents a
combat between two horsemen--Baharam-Gour, one of the old Persian kings,
and a Tartar prince. Baharam-Gour is in the act of charging his opponent
with a spear, and behind him, scarcely visible, appears an almost
effaced form, which must have been his standard-bearer, as the _ensign_
is very plainly to be seen. _This ensign is a cross._ There is another
representation of the same subject to be seen in a _bas-relief_, which
shows the standard-bearer and his _cross_ ensign very plainly.[343:6]
This _bas-relief_ belongs to a period when the Arsacedian kings governed
Persia,[343:7] which was within a century after the time of Alexander,
and consequently more than two centuries B. C.

Sir Robert also found at this place, sculptures cut in the solid rock,
which are in the form of crosses. These belong to the early race of
Persian monarchs, whose dynasty terminated under the sword of Alexander
the Great.[343:8] At the foot of Mount Nakshi-Rajab, he also found
_bas-reliefs_, among which were two figures carrying a cross-standard.
Fig. No. 26 is a representation of this.[343:9] It is coeval with the
sculptures found at Nashi-Roustam,[343:10] and therefore belongs to a
period before the time of Alexander's invasion.

The cross is represented frequently and prominently on the coins of
Asia Minor. Several have a ram or lamb on one side, and a cross on the
other.[344:1] On some of the early coins of the Phenicians, the cross is
found attached to a chaplet of beads placed in a circle, so as to form a
complete rosary, such as the Lamas of Thibet and China, the Hindoos, and
the Roman Catholics, now tell over while they pray.[344:2] On a
Phenician medal, found in the ruins of Citium, in Cyprus, and printed in
Dr. Clark's "Travels" (vol. ii. c. xi.), are engraved a cross, a rosary,
and a lamb.[344:3] This is the "Lamb of God who taketh away the sins of
the world."

[Illustration: Fig. No. 26]

The ancient Etruscans revered the cross as a religious emblem. This
sacred sign, accompanied with the heart, is to be seen on their
monuments. Fig. No. 27, taken from the work of Gorrio (Tab. xxxv.),
shows an ancient tomb with angels and the cross thereon. It would answer
perfectly for a Christian cemetery.

[Illustration: Fig. No. 27]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 28]

The cross was adored by the ancient Greeks and Romans for centuries
before the Augustan era. An ancient inscription in Thessaly is
accompanied by a Calvary cross (Fig. No. 28); and Greek crosses of equal
arms adorn the tomb of Midas (one of the ancient kings), in
Phrygia.[344:4]

The adoration of the cross by the Romans is spoken of by the Christian
Father Minucius Felix, when denying the charge of idolatry which was
made against his sect.

     "As for the adoration of cross," (says he to the Romans),
     "which you object against us, I must tell you that we neither
     adore crosses nor desire them. You it is, ye Pagans, who
     worship wooden gods, who are the most likely people to adore
     wooden crosses, as being part of the same substance with your
     deities. For what else are your ensigns, flags, and standards,
     but crosses, gilt and beautiful. Your victorious trophies not
     only represent a cross, but a cross with a man upon
     it."[345:1]

The principal silver coin among the Romans, called the _denarius_, had
on one side a personification of Rome as a warrior with a helmet, and on
the reverse, a chariot drawn by four horses. The driver had a
cross-standard in one hand. This is a representation of a denarius of
the earliest kind, which was first coined 296 B. C.[345:2] The cross was
used on the roll of the Roman soldiery as the sign of _life_.[345:3]

But, long before the Romans, long before the Etruscans, there lived in
the plains of Northern Italy a people to whom the cross was a religious
symbol, the sign beneath which they laid their dead to rest; a people of
whom history tells nothing, knowing not their name; but of whom
antiquarian research has learned this, that they lived in ignorance of
the arts of civilization, that they dwelt in villages built on platforms
over lakes, and that they trusted to the cross to guard, and may be to
revive, their loved ones whom they committed to the dust.

The examination of the tombs of Golasecca proves, in a most convincing,
positive, and precise manner that which the terramares of Emilia had
only indicated, but which had been confirmed by the cemetery of
Villanova, that above a thousand years B. C., the cross was already a
religious emblem of frequent employment.[345:4]

     "It is more than a coincidence," (says the Rev. S.
     Baring-Gould), "that Osiris by the cross should give life
     eternal to the spirits of the just; that with the cross Thor
     should smite the head of the great Serpent, and bring to life
     those who were slain; that beneath the cross the Muysca
     mothers should lay their babes, trusting to that sign to
     secure them from the power of evil spirits; that with that
     symbol to protect them, the ancient people of Northern Italy
     should lay them down in the dust."[345:5]

The cross was also found among the ruins of Pompeii.[345:6]

It was a sacred emblem among the ancient Scandinavians.

     "It occurs" (says Mr. R. Payne Knight), "on many Runic
     monuments found in Sweden and Denmark, which are of an age
     long anterior to the approach of Christianity to those
     countries, and, probably, to its appearance in the
     world."[346:1]

Their god Thor, son of the Supreme god Odin, and the goddess Freyga, had
the hammer for his symbol. It was with this hammer that Thor crushed the
head of the great Mitgard serpent, that he destroyed the giants, that he
restored the dead goats to life, which drew his car, that he consecrated
the pyre of Baldur. _This hammer was a cross._[346:2]

The cross of Thor is still used in Iceland as a magical sign in
connection with storms of wind and rain.

King Olaf, Longfellow tells us, when keeping Christmas at Drontheim:

     "O'er his drinking-horn, the sign
     He made of the Cross Divine,
     And he drank, and mutter'd his prayers;
     But the Berserks evermore
     Made the sign of the hammer of Thor
                             Over theirs."

Actually, they both made the same symbol.

This we are told by Snorro Sturleson, in the Heimskringla (Saga iv. c.
18), when he describes the sacrifice at Lade, at which King Hakon,
Athelstan's foster-son, was present:

     "Now when the first full goblet was filled, Earl Sigurd spoke
     some words over it, and blessed it in Odin's name, and drank
     to the king out of the horn; and the king then took it, and
     made the sign of the cross over it. Then said Kaare of
     Greyting, 'What does the king mean by doing so? will he not
     sacrifice?' But Earl Sigurd replied, 'The King is doing what
     all of you do who trust in your power and strength; for he is
     blessing the full goblet in the name of Thor, by making the
     sign of his hammer over it before he drinks it."[346:3]

The cross was also a _sacred_ emblem among the _Laplanders_. "In solemn
sacrifices, all the Lapland idols were marked with it from the blood of
the victims."[346:4]

It was adored by the ancient _Druids_ of Britain, and is to be seen on
the so-called "fire towers" of Ireland and Scotland. The "consecrated
trees" of the Druids had a _cross beam_ attached to them, making the
figure of a cross. On several of the most curious and most ancient
monuments of Britain, the cross is to be seen, evidently cut thereon by
the Druids. Many large stones throughout Ireland have these Druid
crosses cut in them.[346:5]

Cleland observes, in his "Attempt to Revive Celtic Literature," that
the Druids taught the doctrine of an overruling providence, and the
immortality of the soul: that they had also their Lent, their Purgatory,
their Paradise, their Hell, their Sanctuaries, and the similitude of the
May-pole _in form to the cross_.[347:1]

"In the Island of I-com-kill, at the monastery of the Culdees, at the
time of the Reformation, there were three hundred and sixty
crosses."[347:2] The Caaba at Mecca was surrounded by three hundred and
sixty crosses.[347:3] This number has nothing whatever to do with
Christianity, but is to be found everywhere among the ancients. It
represents the number of days of the ancient year.[347:4]

When the Spanish missionaries first set foot upon the soil of _America_,
in the fifteenth century, they were amazed to find that the _cross_ was
as devoutly worshiped by the red Indians as by themselves. The hallowed
symbol challenged their attention on every hand, and in almost every
variety of form. And, what is still more remarkable, the cross was not
only associated with other objects corresponding in every particular
with those delineated on Babylonian monuments; but it was also
distinguished by the Catholic appellations, "the tree of subsistence,"
"the wood of health," "the emblem of life," &c.[347:5]

When the Spanish missionaries found that the cross was no new object of
veneration to the red men, they were in doubt whether to ascribe the
fact to the pious labors of St. Thomas, whom they thought might have
found his way to America, or the sacrilegious subtlety of Satan. It was
the central object in the great temple of Cozamel, and is still
preserved on the _bas-reliefs_ of the ruined city of Palenque. From time
immemorial it had received the prayers and sacrifices of the Aztecs and
Toltecs, and was suspended as an august emblem from the walls of temples
in Popogan and Cundinamarca.[347:6]

The ruined city of Palenque is in the depths of the forests of Central
America. It was not inhabited at the time of the conquest of Mexico by
the Spaniards. They discovered the temples and palaces of Chiapa, but of
Palenque they knew nothing. According to tradition it was founded by
Votan in the ninth century before the Christian era. The principal
building in this ruined city is the palace. A noble tower rises above
the courtyard in the centre. In this building are several small temples
or chapels, with altars standing. At the back of one of these altars is
a slab of gypsum, on which are sculptured two figures, one on each side
of a cross (Fig. No. 29). The cross is surrounded with rich
feather-work, and ornamental chains.[348:1] "The style of scripture,"
says Mr. Baring-Gould, "and the accompanying hieroglyphic inscriptions,
leave no room for doubting it to be a heathen representation."[348:2]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 29]

The same cross is represented on old pre-Mexican MSS., as in the Dresden
Codex, and that in the possession of Herr Fejervary, at the end of which
is a colossal cross, in the midst of which is represented a bleeding
deity, and figures stand round a _Tau_ cross, upon which is perched the
sacred bird.[348:3]

The cross was also used in the north of Mexico. It occurs among the
Mixtecas and in Queredaro. Siguenza speaks of an Indian cross which was
found in the cave of Mixteca Baja. Among the ruins on the island of
Zaputero, in Lake Nicaragua, were also found old crosses reverenced by
the Indians. White marble crosses were found on the island of St. Ulloa,
on its discovery. In the state of Oaxaca, the Spaniards found that
wooden crosses were erected as sacred symbols, so also in Aguatoleo, and
among the Zapatecas. The cross was venerated as far as Florida on one
side, and Cibola on the other. In South America, the same sign was
considered symbolical and sacred. It was revered in Paraguay. In Peru
the Incas honored a cross made out of a single piece of jasper; it was
an emblem belonging to a former civilization.[348:4]

Among the Muyscas at Cumana the cross was regarded with devotion, and
was believed to be endowed with power to drive away evil spirits;
consequently new-born children were placed under the sign.[348:5]

The Toltecs said that their national deity Quetzalcoatle--whom we have
found to be a virgin-born and crucified Saviour--had introduced the
sign and ritual of the cross, and it was called the "Tree of Nutriment,"
or "Tree of Life."[349:1]

Malcom, in his "Antiquities of Britain," says

     "Gomara tells that St. Andrew's cross, which is the same with
     that of Burgundy, was in great veneration among the Cumas, in
     South America, and that they fortified themselves with the
     cross against the incursions of evil spirits, and were in use
     to put them upon new-born infants; which thing very justly
     deserves admiration."[349:2]

Felix Cabrara, in his "Description of the Ancient City of Mexico," says:

     "The adoration of the cross has been more general in the
     world, than that of any other emblem. It is to be found in the
     ruins of the fine city of Mexico, near Palenque, where there
     are many examples of it among the hieroglyphics on the
     buildings."[349:3]

In "Chambers's Encyclopædia" we find the following:

     "It appears that the sign of the _cross_ was in use _as an
     emblem having certain religious and mystic meanings attached
     to it, long before the Christian era_; and the Spanish
     conquerors were astonished to find it _an object of religious
     veneration_ among the nations of Central and South
     America."[349:4]

Lord Kingsborough, in his "Antiquities of Mexico," speaks of crosses
being found in Mexico, Peru, and Yucatan.[349:5] He also informs us that
the _banner_ of Montezuma was a cross, and that the historical paintings
of the "Codex Vaticanus" represent him carrying a cross as his
banner.[349:6]

A very fine and highly polished marble cross which was taken from the
Incas, was placed in the Roman Catholic cathedral at Cuzco.[349:7]

Few cases have been more powerful in producing mistakes in ancient
history, than the idea, hastily taken by Christians in all ages, that
every monument of antiquity marked with a cross, or with any of those
symbols which they conceived to be monograms of their god, was of
Christian origin. The early Christians did not adopt it as one of their
symbols; it was not until Christianity began to be paganized that it
became a Christian monogram, and even then it was not the cross as we
know it to-day. "It is not until the middle of the _fifth_ century that
the pure form of the cross emerges to light."[349:8] The cross of
Constantine was nothing more than the [Symbol: PX], the monogram of
Osiris, and afterwards of Christ.[349:9] This is seen from the fact
that the "_Labarum_," or sacred banner of Constantine--on which was
placed the sign by which he was to conquer--was inscribed with this
sacred monogram. Fig. No. 30 is a representation of the Labarum, taken
from Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. The author of "The History of Our
Lord in Art" says:

     "It would be difficult to prove that the cross of Constantine
     was of the simple construction as now understood. As regards
     the Labarum, the coins of the time, in which it is expressly
     set forth, proves that the so-called cross upon it was nothing
     else than the same ever-recurring monogram of Christ."[350:1]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 30]

Now, this so-called monogram of Christ, like everything else called
Christian, is of Pagan origin. It was the monogram of the Egyptian
Saviour, Osiris, and also of Jupiter Ammon.[350:2] As M. Basnage remarks
in his _Hist. de Juif_:[350:3]

     "Nothing can be more opposite to Jesus Christ, than the Oracle
     of _Jupiter Ammon_. And yet the _same cipher_ served the false
     god as well as the true one; for we see a medal of Ptolemy,
     King of Cyrene, having an eagle carrying a thunderbolt, _with
     the monogram of Christ to signify the Oracle of Jupiter
     Ammon_."

Rev. J. P. Lundy says:

     "Even the P.X., which I had thought to be exclusively
     Christian, are to be found in combination thus: [Symbol: PX]
     (just as the early Christians used it), on coins of the
     Ptolemies, and on those of Herod the Great, struck forty years
     before our era, together with this other form, so often seen
     on the early Christian monuments, viz.: [Symbol: P with
     horizontal cross-bar]."[350:4]

This monogram is also to be found on the coins of Decius, a Pagan Roman
emperor, who ruled during the commencement of the third century.[350:5]

Another form of the same monogram is [Symbol: X over H] and X H. The
monogram of the _Sun_ was [Symbol: Y with superimposed circle]. P. H.
All these are now called monograms of Christ, and are to be met with in
great numbers in almost every church in Italy.[351:1] The monogram of
Mercury was a cross.[351:2] The monogram of the Egyptian Taut was formed
by three crosses.[351:3] The monogram of Saturn was a cross and a ram's
horn; it was also a monogram of Jupiter.[351:4] The monogram of Venus
was a cross and a circle.[351:5] The monogram of the Phenician Astarte,
and the Babylonian Bal, was also a cross and a circle.[351:6] It was
also that of Freya, Holda, and Aphrodite.[351:7] Its true significance
was the Linga and Yoni.

The cross, which was so universally adored, in its different forms among
heathen nations, was intended as an emblem or symbol of the _Sun_, of
_eternal life_, the _generative powers_, &c.[351:8]

As with the cross, and the X. P., so likewise with many other so-called
Christian symbols--they are borrowed from Paganism. Among these may be
mentioned the mystical three letters I. H. S., to this day retained in
some of our Protestant, as well as Roman Catholic churches, and falsely
supposed to stand for "_Jesu Hominium Salvator_," or "In Hoc Signo." It
is none other than the identical monogram of the heathen god
_Bacchus_,[351:9] and was to be seen on the coins of the Maharajah of
_Cashmere_.[351:10] Dr. Inman says:

     "For a long period I. H. S., I. E. E. S., was a monogram of
     Bacchus; letters now adopted by Romanists. _Hesus_ was an old
     divinity of Gaul, possibly left by the Phenicians. We have the
     same I. H. S. in _Jazabel_, and reproduced in our _Isabel_.
     The idea connected with the word is '_Phallic
     Vigor_.'"[351:11]

The TRIANGLE, which is to be seen at the present day in Christian
churches as an emblem of the "Ever-blessed Trinity," is also of Pagan
origin, and was used by them for the same purpose.

Among the numerous symbols, the Triangle is conspicuous in _India_.
Hindoos attached a mystic signification to its _three_ sides, and
generally placed it in their temples. It was often composed of lotus
plants, with an eye in the center.[351:12] It was sometimes represented
in connection with the mystical word AUM[351:13] (Fig. No. 31), and
sometimes surrounded with rays of glory.[351:14]

This symbol was engraved upon the tablet of the ring which the religious
chief, called the _Brahm-âtma_ wore, as one of the signs of his
dignity, and it was used by the Buddhists as emblematic of the
Trinity.[352:1]

The ancient _Egyptians_ signified their divine _Triad_ by a single
_Triangle_.[352:2]

Mr. Bonwick says:

     "The _Triangle_ was a religious form from the first. It is to
     be recognized in the Obelisk and Pyramid (of Egypt). To this
     day, in some Christian churches, the priest's blessing is
     given as it was in Egypt, by the sign of a triangle; viz.: two
     fingers and a thumb. An Egyptian god is seen with a triangle
     over his shoulders. This figure, in ancient Egyptian theology,
     was the type of the Holy Trinity--three in one."[352:3]

And Dr. Inman says:

     "The Triangle is a sacred symbol in our modern churches, and
     it was the sign used in ancient temples before the initiated,
     to indicate the Trinity--three persons 'co-eternal together,
     and co-equal.'"[352:4]

The Triangle is found on ancient Greek monuments.[352:5] An ancient seal
(engraved in the Mémoires de l'Académie royale des Inscriptions et
Belles Lettres), supposed to be of Phenician origin, "has as subject a
standing figure between two stars, beneath which are handled crosses.
Above the head of the deity is the TRIANGLE, or symbol of the
Trinity."[352:6]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 31]

One of the most conspicuous among the symbols intended to represent the
Trinity, to be seen in Christian churches, is the compound leaf of the
_trefoil_. Modern story had attributed to St. Patrick the idea of
demonstrating a trinity in unity, by showing the _shamrock_ to his
hearers; but, says Dr. Inman, "like many other things attributed to the
moderns, the idea belongs to the ancients."[352:7]

The _Trefoil_ adorned the head of _Osiris_, the Egyptian Saviour, and is
to be found among the Pagan symbols or representations of the
_three-in-one_ mystery.[353:1] Fig. No. 32 is a representation of the
_Trefoil_ used by the ancient Hindoos as emblematic of their celestial
Triad--Brahma, Vishnu and Siva--and afterwards adopted by the
Christians.[353:2] The leaf of the _Vila_, or _Bel-tree_, is typical of
Siva's attributes, because _triple_ in form.[353:3]

The _Trefoil_ was a sacred plant among the ancient Druids of Britain. It
was to them an emblem of the mysterious _three in one_.[353:4] It is to
be seen on their _coins_.[353:5]

The _Tripod_ was very generally employed among the ancients as an emblem
of the _Trinity_, and is found composed in an endless variety of ways.
On the coins of Menecratia, in Phrygia, it is represented between two
asterisks, with a serpent wreathed around a battle-axe, inserted into
it, as an accessory symbol, signifying preservation and destruction. In
the ceremonial of worship, the number _three_ was employed with mystic
solemnity.[353:6]

[Illustration: Fig. No. 32]

The three lines, or three human legs, springing from a central disk or
circle, which has been called a _Trinacria_, and supposed to allude to
the island of Sicily, is simply an ancient emblem of the _Trinity_. "It
is of _Asiatic_ origin; its earliest appearance being upon the very
ancient coins of Aspendus in Pamphylia; sometimes alone in the square
incuse, and sometimes upon the body of an eagle or the back of a
lion."[353:7]

We have already seen, in the chapter on the _crucifixion_, that the
earliest emblems of the Christian Saviour were the "Good Shepherd" and
the "Lamb." Among these may also be mentioned the _Fish_. "The only
satisfactory explanation why Jesus should be represented as a _Fish_,"
says Mr. King, in his Gnostics and their Remains,[353:8] "seems to be
the circumstance that in the quaint jargon of the Talmud the Messiah is
often designated 'Dag,' or 'The Fish;'" and Mr. Lundy, in his
"Monumental Christianity," says:

     "Next to the sacred monogram (the [Symbol: PX]) the _Fish_
     takes its place in importance as a sign of Christ in his
     special office of _Saviour_." "In the Talmud the Messiah is
     called 'Dag' or 'Fish.'" "Where did the Jews learn to apply
     'Dag' to their Messiah? And why did the primitive Christians
     adopt it as a sign of Christ?" "I cannot disguise facts. Truth
     demands no concealment or apology. _Paganism_ has its types
     and prophecies of Christ as well as Judaism. What then is the
     Dag-on of the old Babylonians? The _fish_-god or being that
     taught them all their civilization."[354:1]

As Mr. Lundy says, "truth demands no concealment or apology," therefore,
when the truth is exposed, we find that _Vishnu_, the Hindoo Messiah,
Preserver, Mediator and _Saviour_, was represented as a "dag," or fish.
The _Fish_ takes its place in importance as a sign of _Vishnu_ in his
special office of _Saviour_.

[Illustration: Fig. No. 33]

Prof. Monier Williams says:

     "It is as _Vishnu_ that the Supreme Being, according to the
     Hindoos, exhibited his sympathy with human trials, his love
     for the human race. Nine principal occasions have already
     occurred in which the god has thus interposed for the
     salvation of his creatures. The first was _Matsaya_, the
     _Fish_. In this Vishnu became a fish to save the seventh Manu,
     the progenitor of the human race, from the universal
     deluge."[354:2]

We have already seen, in Chap. IX., the identity of the Hindoo _Matsaya_
and the Babylonian Dagon.

The fish was sacred among the Babylonians, Assyrians and Phenicians, as
it is among the Romanists of to-day. It was sacred also to _Venus_, and
the Romanists still eat it on the very day of the week which was called
"_Dies veneris_," Venus' day; fish day.[354:3] It was an emblem of
_fecundity_. The most ancient symbol of the productive power was a fish,
and it is accordingly found to be the universal symbol upon many of the
earliest coins.[354:4] Pythagoras and his followers did not eat fish.
They were ascetics, and the eating of fish was supposed to tend to
carnal desires. This ancient superstition is entertained by many even at
the present day.

The fish was the earliest symbol of Christ Jesus. Fig. No. 33 is a
design from the catacombs.[354:5] This cross-fish is not unlike the
sacred monogram.

That the Christian Saviour should be called a fish may at first appear
strange, but when the mythos is properly understood (as we shall
endeavor to make it in Chap. XXXIX.), it will not appear so. The Rev.
Dr. Geikie, in his "Life and Words of Christ," says that a fish stood
for his _name_, from the significance of the Greek letters in the word
that expresses the idea, and for this reason he was called a fish. But,
we may ask, why was Buddha not only called Fo, or Po, but _Dag-Po_,
which was literally the Fish Po, or Fish Buddha? The fish did not stand
for his name. The idea that Jesus was called a fish because the Messiah
is designated "Dag" in the Talmud, is also an unsatisfactory
explanation.

Julius Africanus (an early Christian writer) says:

     "Christ is the great Fish taken by the fish-hook of God, and
     whose flesh nourishes the whole world."[