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Title: A Review of the Frogs of the Hyla bistincta Group
Author: Duellman, William E., 1930-
Language: English
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                  UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS
                      MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

                Volume 15, No. 9, pp. 469-491, 4 figs.
                            March 2, 1964


                        A Review of the Frogs
                     Of the Hyla bistincta Group

                                  BY

                         WILLIAM E. DUELLMAN


                         UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
                               LAWRENCE
                                 1964



     UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS, MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

         Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Henry S. Fitch,
                        Theodore H. Eaton, Jr.


                  Volume 15, No. 9, 469-491, 4 figs.
                       Published March 2, 1964


                         UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
                           Lawrence, Kansas


                     PRINTED BY THE STATE PRINTER
                            TOPEKA, KANSAS
                                 1964

                               29-8590



                        A Review of the Frogs
                     Of the Hyla bistincta Group

                                  BY

                         WILLIAM E. DUELLMAN



CONTENTS


                                                                PAGE
  INTRODUCTION                                                   471
    Acknowledgments                                              471
  THE HYLA BISTINCTA GROUP                                       472
    Analysis of Characters                                       473
    Key to the Species of the Hyla Bistincta Group               474
  ACCOUNTS OF THE SPECIES                                        475
    _Hyla bistincta_ Cope                                        475
    _Hyla charadricola_ new species                              478
    _Hyla robertsorum_ Taylor                                    481
    _Hyla pachyderma_ Taylor                                     485
    _Hyla crassa_ (Brocchi)                                      486
  RELATIONSHIPS                                                  489
  LITERATURE CITED                                               491



INTRODUCTION


In the mountainous regions of Middle America there are several groups
of hylid frogs that inhabit mountain streams. Some of these groups,
such as _Plectrohyla_ and _Ptychohyla_, have been elevated to generic
rank, whereas others are retained in the large and complex genus
_Hyla_. In the mountains of México five species of hylids that seem to
compose a phyletic unit are herein referred to as the _Hyla bistincta_
group. Since 1955 I have been accumulating specimens of, and data on,
this group with the result that all specimens known to me, including
the types of all named taxa, have been studied. Detailed observations
have been made on the ecology and life histories of three of the
species; the other two species are known to me only from preserved
specimens.


Acknowledgments

For permission to examine specimens in their care I am indebted to
Charles M. Bogert, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH); Doris
M. Cochran, United States National Museum (USNM); Jean Guibé, Museum
National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN); Robert F. Inger, Chicago
Natural History Museum (CNHM); Hobart M. Smith, University of Illinois
Museum of Natural History (UIMNH); Charles F. Walker, University of
Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ). (Abbreviations of institutions
given above in parentheses are used throughout; the Museum of Natural
History, University of Kansas is abbreviated KU.)

For their willing assistance in the field I am grateful to Ann S.
Duellman, Dale L. Hoyt, and John Wellman. Permits for collecting in
México were generously issued by the late Ing. Luis Macías Arellano,
Departamento de la Fauna Silvestre, Dirección General de Caza. The
drawings in figures 1 and 3 were executed by Gail Selfridge. This
research has been supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF
G-9827).



THE HYLA BISTINCTA GROUP


The five species comprising the _Hyla bistincta_ group are
moderate-sized hylids having rather blunt heads and robust bodies.
The fingers are long and have little webbing (Fig. 1). The skin of
the dorsum is thick and glandular, but not tuberculate. An anal
sheath is present. The skull is rather broad, flat, and solidly
roofed. The ethmoid is broad, curved downward laterally, and solidly
sutured to the frontoparietal. The nasals are broad, sutured for their
entire width with the ethmoid, and broadly in contact medially. The
premaxillaries are in contact medially; each has a long, flat nasal
process. The quadratojugal is absent, and the maxillary tapers to a
point posteriorly. There is no squamosal-maxillary connection.
The maxillary and premaxillary teeth are rather long, bifid, and
moderately spatulate. Some teeth on the premaxillary and anterior
part of the maxillary are hooked. The vomerine teeth are spatulate
and bifid. A broad, flat, ossified prepollex is present but does
not project as a spine. The known tadpoles have ventral mouths,
2/3 tooth-rows, two or more rows of labial papillae, and long tails
with low fins.

    [Illustration: FIG. 1. Palmar view of right hand of:
    _a._--_Hyla robertsorum_ (KU 57661),
    _b._--_Hyla charadricola_ (KU 58414). × 3.]

As thus defined the _Hyla bistincta_ group can be distinguished from
all other groups of Middle American frogs by the combination of
absence of the quadratojugal, non-projecting prepollex, long fingers
with little webbing, and stream-inhabiting tadpoles having 2/3 tooth
rows and two or more rows of labial papillae.

Possibly _Hyla arborescandens_ and _Hyla hazelae_ belong in this
group. Because these species are somewhat different from the included
species and because their tadpoles are as yet unknown, I have
refrained from including these two species in the _Hyla bistincta_
group. Taylor (1948:261) assigned _Hyla proboscidea_ (= _H.
dalquesti_) and (1949:272) _Hyla cyclomaculata_ to this group, but
because these two species have a quadratojugal and notably different
tadpoles, they are excluded from the group.

Frogs of the genus _Plectrohyla_ closely resemble species in the _Hyla
bistincta_ group but differ principally in having a projecting
prepollex. In the highlands of Costa Rica a group of species, of which
_Hyla moesta_ is best known, resembles species in the _Hyla bistincta_
group. At present insufficient information is available on the Costa
Rican species to determine their affinities.


Analysis of Characters

The characters used in the systematic study of the frogs in this group
are those usually employed in anuran systematics. Of the various
measurements and proportions, the snout-vent length and the relative
size of the tympanum to the eye apparently are of more taxonomic
importance than the others (Table 1). In all of the species the
tympanum is at least partially covered by a heavy, dermal
supratympanic fold, and in some specimens of _H. pachyderma_ the
tympanum is completely obscured. In two species (_H. bistincta_ and
_H. charadricola_) the snout is square, whereas in the other species
it is round.

The fingers are long and slender in _H. crassa_, _pachyderma_, and
_robertsorum_ and somewhat shorter with more webbing in _H. bistincta_
and _charadricola_. Breeding males of _Hyla pachyderma_ have
moderately large nuptial spines; the other species have small spines,
except _H. charadricola_ in which spines apparently are absent. A
well-defined thoracic fold is present in _H. pachyderma_, and a weak
fold is present in _H. robertsorum_; the other species lack folds. In
all species there is an anal sheath; this sheath is longest in _H.
bistincta_, in which the anal opening is directed ventrally at the
level of the lower edge of the thighs.

    TABLE 1.--COMPARISON OF CERTAIN MEASUREMENTS AND PROPORTIONS
    IN THE SPECIES OF THE HYLA BISTINCTA GROUP. (DATA FROM ADULT
    MALES; MEANS ARE GIVEN IN PARENTHESES BELOW THE RANGES.)

    A: Snout-vent length
    B: Tibia length / Snout-vent length
    C: Head width / Snout-vent length
    D: Tympanum / Eye

  ====================================================================
     SPECIES     |  N |    [A]    |    [B]    |    [C]    |    [D]
  ---------------+----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
  _H. bistincta_ | 38 | 43.0-53.8 | 0.47-0.52 | 0.32-0.37 | 0.35-0.48
                 |    |  (46.3)   |   (0.49)  |   (0.34)  |   (0.42)
                 |    |           |           |           |
  _H.            | 10 | 35.3-44.4 | 0.50-0.54 | 0.31-0.33 | 0.30-0.37
  charadricola_  |    |  (40.4)   |   (0.52)  |   (0.32)  |   (0.34)
                 |    |           |           |           |
  _H.            | 26 | 39.9-47.9 | 0.48-0.51 | 0.30-0.36 | 0.36-0.47
  robertsorum_   |    |  (43.1)   |   (0.49)  |   (0.32)  |   (0.41)
                 |    |           |           |           |
  _H. pachyderma_|  1 |   39.9    |    0.53   |    0.32   |     ...
                 |    |           |           |           |
  _H. crassa_    |  1 |   53.7    |    0.50   |    0.33   |    0.28
  ---------------+----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------

Frogs in this group are rather drab in appearance. The dorsal color
varies from dull green to various shades of brown. The most distinct
aspect of the coloration is the different color patterns on the flanks
and posterior surfaces of the thighs. The flanks in all species are
marked with spots or reticulations.

_Hyla bistincta_ differs from other members of the group in having
vocal slits and a distensible vocal sac. Only this species has been
reported to call (Shannon, 1951:473). Insofar as is known, the other
species are mute. Examination of skeletal preparations of _H.
bistincta_, _charadricola_, and _robertsorum_ and X-rays of the other
species shows no notable specific differences in the osteology. Since
the tadpoles of only _H. bistincta_ (Duellman, 1961:47) and _H.
robertsorum_ (Rabb and Mosimann, 1955) are known, larval characters
are of limited use in intra-group systematics.


Key to the Species of the _Hyla bistincta_ Group

    1. Snout, in dorsal profile, short and bluntly rounded;
    canthus rounded, sometimes indistinct, vocal slits absent      2

    Snout, in dorsal profile, longer, squared; canthus distinct,
    vocal slits present or absent                                  4

    2. Feet webbed to base of discs; dorsum dull olive green;
    flanks having cream-colored spots            _H. crassa_, p. 486

    Feet not webbed to base of discs; dorsum brown                 3

    3. Tarsal fold strong; thoracic fold heavy; webbing on feet
    extending to middle of penultimate phalanx of fourth toe;
    distinct white stripe above anus; cluster of largo spines on
    thumb in breeding males,                 _H. pachyderma_, p. 485

    Tarsal fold weak and short; thoracic fold absent or barely
    indicated; webbing of feet extending to base of penultimate
    phalanx of fourth toe; no distinct white stripe above anus;
    nuptial tuberosities in breeding males consisting of small
    spines                                  _H. robertsorum_, p. 481

    4. Tarsal fold strong; anal flap elongate; anus opening at
    lower edge of femur; dorsum tan or brown; flanks mottled with
    cream and brown; venter immaculate creamy white; no anal
    stripe; vocal slits present,              _H. bistincta_, p. 475

    Tarsal fold faint and short; anal flap not elongate; anus
    opening at middle of femur; dorsum olive-green with black
    reticulations; flanks greenish gray with brown or black
    spots; a row of white flecks above and below anus, vocal
    slits absent                           _H. charadricola_, p. 478



ACCOUNTS OF THE SPECIES


In the following accounts complete synonymies are given for each
species. In each account one specimen is described in detail; after
this description the variation is discussed. In the list of specimens
examined, localities are arranged alphabetically within the states,
which also are given in alphabetical order. Localities given in
italics are not shown on the accompanying maps (Figs. 2 and 4) due
to crowding of symbols.


#Hyla bistincta# Cope

    _Hyla bistincta_ Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, 17:87,
    August, 1877 [Holotype.--USNM 32261 from "most probably
    Veracruz," México; Francis Sumichrast collector]. Brocchi,
    Étude des batraciens de l'Amérique Centrale, p. 43, 1881.
    Boulenger, Catalogue Batrachia Salientia, 2nd Ed., p. 401,
    February 1, 1882. Sumichrast, La Naturaleza, 6:81, 1882.
    Cope, Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus., 32:14, 1887; Bull. U. S. Natl.
    Mus., 34:351, 1889. Günther, Biologia Centrali-Americana,
    Reptilia and Batrachia, pp. 265-6, June, 1901. Díaz de León,
    Indice de los batracios que se encuentran en la República
    Mexicana, p. 17, June, 1904. Nieden, Das Tierreich, Amphibia,
    Anura I, p. 247, June, 1923. Kellogg, Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus.,
    160:163-164, March 31, 1932. Taylor, Proc. Biol. Soc.
    Washington, 50:50-53, April 21, 1937; Univ. Kansas Sci.
    Bull., 26:389, November 27, 1940. Taylor and Smith, Proc. U.
    S. Natl. Mus., 194:87, June 7, 1948. Taylor, Univ. Kansas
    Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1:261, August 16, 1948; Copeia, no.
    4:272-273, December 15, 1949. Smith and Taylor, Univ. Kansas
    Sci. Bull., 33:346, March 20, 1950 [Type locality restricted
    to Acultzingo, Veracruz, México]. Rabb and Mosimann, Occas.
    Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 563:6-9, March 29, 1955.
    Duellman, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 15:47-49,
    December 20, 1961.

    _Hyla bistincta labeculata_ Shannon, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus.,
    101:470-473, figs. 92a, 93d, May 17, 1951 [Holotype.--USNM
    123689 from San Lucas Camotlán, Oaxaca, México; Walter S.
    Miller collector]. Smith and Williams, Herpetologica, 19:23,
    April 11, 1963.

    _Hyla bistincta bistincta_, Shannon, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus.,
    101:472, May 17, 1951. Shannon and Werler, Herpetologica,
    11:85, July 15, 1955. Smith and Williams, Herpetologica,
    19:23, April 11, 1963.

_Diagnosis._--Maximum snout-vent length in males 54 mm.; snout in
dorsal profile truncate; tarsal fold strong; inner metatarsal tubercle
large, high, and elongate; outer metatarsal tubercle absent; webbing
on foot extending to middle of antepenultimate phalanx of fourth toe;
nuptial spines on thumb small; thoracic fold absent; anal opening at
level of lower edge of femur; dorsum brown or tan; belly cream-color;
flanks creamy yellow with brown reticulations or spots; anal stripe
absent; vocal slits present.

_Description._--The following description is based on KU 68078 from
Uruapan, Michoacán, México. Adult male having a snout-vent length of
43.2 mm.; tibia length, 22.1 mm., 51.1 per cent of snout-vent length;
foot length (measured from proximal edge of inner metatarsal tubercle
to tip of longest toe), 20.8 mm.; greatest width of head, 15.4 mm.,
35.6 per cent of snout-vent length; head length, 13.9 mm., 32.1 per
cent of snout-vent length; diameter of eye, 5.1 mm.; diameter of
tympanum, 2.4 mm., 47.1 per cent of diameter of eye. Snout in lateral
profile bluntly rounded, in dorsal profile truncate; canthus
pronounced, rounded, not angular; loreal region slightly concave; lips
thick, round, not flaring; nostrils slightly protuberant; internarial
distance, 3.4 mm.; interorbital distance, 4.5 mm., somewhat broader
than width of eyelid, 3.5 mm. A heavy dermal fold from posterior
corner of eye above tympanum and curved downward to insertion of
forearm; tympanum round, its diameter slightly more than its distance
from eye. Forearm not robust; row of small pustules on ventral surface
of forearm; fold on wrist; prepollex moderately enlarged, covered with
small, horny, nuptial spines continuous on edge of digit; row of
spines on inner surface of second finger; subarticular tubercles
large, round, none bifid; supernumerary tubercles rather large, round;
palmar tubercles rather small, flat, elliptical; fingers long,
moderately slender; length of fingers from shortest to longest,
1-2-4-3; discs moderately large, that on third finger slightly larger
than tympanum; rudimentary web between first and second and between
second and third fingers; web between third and fourth fingers
extending about one-fourth length of fourth finger. Heels overlap by
about one-third length of shank when hind limbs adpressed; tibiotarsal
articulation extends to anterior edge of eye; tarsal fold strong,
extending to heel; inner metatarsal tubercle large, high, and
elongate; outer metatarsal tubercle absent; subarticular tubercles
moderately large, round; supernumerary tubercles small, in single rows
on proximal segments of digits; toes moderately short; length of toes
from shortest to longest, 1-2-3-5-4, third and fifth toes about equal
in length; toes about two-thirds webbed; web extending to middle of
antepenultimate phalanx of fourth toe, to discs of first, second, and
fifth toes, and to base of penultimate phalanx of third toe; discs
rather small, about two-thirds size of those on fingers. Anal opening
at level of lower edge of thighs; anal sheath elongate, deeply creased
medially; transverse dermal fold above anus. Skin of dorsal surfaces
of head, body, and limbs faintly areolate; skin of chin, belly, and
ventral surfaces of thighs granular, that of ventral surfaces of
limbs, except thighs, areolate; thoracic fold absent. Tongue nearly
round, slightly longer than wide, shallowly notched behind and barely
free posteriorly. Vomerine teeth 4-4, situated on rounded vomerine
ridges between rather small ovoid inner nares; vocal slits present,
situated along posterior edge of each ramus.

Color (in alcohol) pale brown on dorsal surfaces of head, body, and
limbs; flanks and anterior surfaces of thighs creamy white with dark
brown reticulations; posterior surfaces of thighs tan with creamy
white spots; belly cream-color; anal stripe absent.

Color (in life) pale tan on dorsal surfaces; flanks and anterior
surfaces of thighs pale creamy yellow with purplish brown
reticulations; posterior surfaces of thighs tan with yellow spots;
ventral surfaces yellow; iris pale copper-color.

_Variation._--There is little variation in structure. The total number
of vomerine teeth varies from 6 to 14. In some individuals the
supratympanic fold covers the upper part of the tympanum, but at least
the lower part of the tympanum is always visible. The extent of the
webbing between the toes varies from three-fourths to two-thirds
complete. Usually the web extends to some point on the antepenultimate
phalanx of the fourth toe, but in some specimens the web extends to
the base of the penultimate phalanx.

In the large series of specimens from Uruapan, Michoacán, the
coloration of the flanks and anterior surfaces of the thighs varies
from nearly uniform creamy yellow with only fine dark reticulations to
bold reticulations enclosing yellow spots. Some specimens from Oaxaca
and Veracruz have slightly different markings on the flanks; in these
the dark pigment is in the form of irregular spots or dashes, instead
of reticulations.

There is considerable variation in color in the living frogs. The
dorsum varies from greenish tan and pale yellowish tan to reddish
brown, and some individuals are dark chocolate brown.

_Remarks._--Shannon (1951:470) named _Hyla bistincta labeculata_ on
the basis of a single male from San Lucas Camotlán, Oaxaca; he
diagnosed the subspecies as differing from _Hyla bistincta bistincta_
by having "the gray reticulation of the sides entirely broken up into
elongate black blotches; tarsal fold moderately elevated." The
condition of the tarsal fold is characteristic of the species. The
dispersion of dark pigment on the flanks is variable. The type of
_Hyla bistincta labeculata_ (USNM 123689) is extreme in the
development of dark dashes on the flanks, but this condition is
approached in several specimes from Oaxaca and Veracruz. For example,
in some specimens from Cumbres de Acultzingo, Veracruz, the mottling
on the flanks is bold; in others the flanks are reticulated. The
specimen from San Vicente, Oaxaca, has black dashes on the flanks
(Smith and Williams, 1963:23), whereas a specimen from Cerro San
Felipe, Oaxaca, has no pattern on the flanks. In general, specimens
from western México have reticulate mottling on the flanks as compared
with the marbling on the flanks in specimens from eastern México. On
the basis of available data, the recognition of subspecies in _Hyla
bistincta_ is unwarranted.

The tadpoles of this species described by Duellman (1961:47) are like
those of _Hyla robertsorum_ in having 2/3 tooth-rows, peglike
serrations on the beaks, and long, rounded tails. At Uruapan tadpoles
were found in a rocky stream on April 24, 1956, and metamorphosing
young were found there on August 2, 1956. A completely metamorphosed
juvenile has a snout-vent length of 24.8 mm.

_Hyla bistincta_ is found only along streams, where individuals can be
seen clinging to vines and other vegetation closely over-hanging
fast-moving parts of the stream.

_Distribution._--_Hyla bistincta_ occurs at elevations from 1400 to
2600 meters in the mountains of the Sierra Madre Occidental in western
Jalisco southward through the Cordillera Volcánica in Michoacán,
México, and Morelos, the Sierra de Coalcomán in Michoacán, and the
Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero and Oaxaca, and thence northward in
the Sierra Madre Oriental to central Veracruz (Fig. 2).

Specimens examined.--GUERRERO: Omiltemi, UIMNH 38023-5. JALISCO: 25
km. SE Autlán, UMMZ 102076. MEXICO: 19 km. W Villa Victoria, UIMNH
28162, USNM 114513. MORELOS: Cuernavaca, USNM 121523; _3 km. N
Cuernavaca_, UIMNH 28168-70. MICHOACAN: Cerro San Andrés, UMMZ 102075;
Dos Aguas, UMMZ 119193; _12.5 km. ENE Dos Aguas_, UMMZ 119194; _Los
Conejos_, UMMZ 94238-40; Uruapan, KU 68077-8, 69093 (skeleton), UIMNH
20457, 28167, UMMZ 85452-3, 112838, 112839 (16), 115231 (tadpoles),
115232, 115233 (12), 121515, S-1699 (skeleton), S-1826 (skeleton),
USNM 114514-5, 114517-24. OAXACA: Cerro San Felipe, UIMNH 28163; Pluma
Hidalgo, AMNH 13447; San Lucas Camotlán, USNM 123689; San Vincente,
UIMNH 51346 (Smith and Williams, 1963:23). VERACRUZ: no specific
locality, USNM 32261; Cumbres de Acultzingo, CNHM 105482-3, UIMNH
28164-6, 49133-4, USNM 114525.

    [Illustration: FIG. 2. Map showing locality records for
    _Hyla bistincta_ and _Hyla charadricola_.]


#Hyla charadricola# new species

_Holotype._--University of Kansas Museum of Natural History No. 58414
from the Río Totolapa, 14.4 kilometers by road west of Huachinango,
Puebla, México, 2280 meters; obtained by John Wellman on June 8, 1960.

_Paratypes._--KU 58415-58423, same data as holotype, and UIMNH 50966,
obtained at the type locality by William E. Duellman on February 11,
1961.

_Diagnosis._--Maximum snout-vent length in males, 45 mm.; snout in
dorsal profile truncate; tarsal fold short and weak; inner metatarsal
tubercle moderately large, elliptical, and flat; outer metatarsal
tubercle minute, round, and indistinct; webbing extending to base of
terminal phalanx of fourth toe; nuptial spines on thumb absent;
thoracic fold absent; anal opening at level of middle of thigh; dorsum
olive-green with black reticulations; venter cream color with brown
flecks on chin; flanks pale grayish green with brown spots; anal
stripe absent; row of white flecks above and a row below anus; vocal
slits absent.

_Description of Holotype._--Adult male having a snout-vent lenth of
44.4 mm.; tibia length, 22.2 mm., 50 per cent of snout-vent length;
foot length (measured from proximal edge of inner metatarsal tubercle
to tip of longest toe), 20.4 mm.; greatest width of head, 14.0 mm.,
31.5 per cent of snout-vent length; head length, 13.6 mm., 30.6 per
cent of snout-vent length; diameter of eye, 5.0 mm.; diameter of
tympanum, 1.6 mm., 32.0 per cent of diameter of eye. Snout in lateral
profile bluntly rounded, in dorsal profile truncate (Fig. 3); canthus
pronounced, rounded, not angular; loreal region slightly concave; lips
thick, rounded, not flaring; nostrils slightly protuberant;
internarial distance, 3.7 mm.; interorbital distance, 4.1 mm.,
somewhat broader than width of eyelid, 3.3 mm. A heavy dermal fold
from posterior corner of eye above tympanum and then to insertion of
forearm; tympanum round, its diameter three-fourths its distance from
eye. Forearm rather slender; a short axillary membrane; no fold on
wrist; no nuptial excrescence or spines on enlarged prepollex;
subarticular tubercles moderately small, round; none bifid; few
supernumerary tubercles on proximal segments of digits; large, flat
palmar tubercle present; fingers long and slender; length of fingers
from shortest to longest, 1-2-4-3; discs moderately large, that on
third finger about equal to diameter of tympanum; rudimentary web
between first and second fingers; web between third and fourth fingers
extending to about one-fifth length of fourth finger (Fig. 1). Heels
overlap by about one-third length of tibia when hind limbs adpressed;
tibiotarsal articulation extends to middle of eye; tarsal fold weak,
extending from moderately large, flat, elliptical inner metatarsal
tubercle to middle of tarsus; outer metatarsal tubercle minute, round,
indistinct; subarticular tubercles round; single row of small, round
supernumerary tubercles on proximal segments of each digit; toes
moderately short and slender; length of toes from shortest to longest,
1-2-3-5-4, third and fifth about equal in length; toes about
three-fourths webbed; web extending to base of terminal phalanx of
fourth toe; discs small, about two-thirds size of those on fingers.
Anal opening directed posteroventrally at middle of thighs; two
transverse dermal folds above anus; short, thin anal sheath present;
many small tubercles lateral and ventral to anal opening. Skin of
dorsum, chin, and ventral surfaces of limbs smooth; belly moderately
granular; posterior surfaces of thighs heavily granular; no thoracic
fold. Tongue nearly round, shallowly notched behind, free posteriorly
for about one-fourth its length; vomerine teeth, 3-4, long, situated
on posteroventral edges of narrow transverse vomerine ridges between
moderately large, round inner nares; no vocal slits.

Color (in alcohol) purplish brown on dorsal surfaces of head, body,
and limbs; fine darker reticulations on dorsum; flanks pale tan with
dark brown spots; posterior surfaces of thighs tan; chin creamy white
with brown spots; belly dusty white; undersides of thighs and shanks
yellow; webbing grayish brown; undersides of first two fingers dusty
white, of third and fourth fingers and of feet brown; anal stripe
absent; small white flecks above and below anal opening.

Color (in life) dark green on dorsal surfaces of head, body, and
limbs; darker green reticulations on back; flanks dusty white with
dark olive-gray mottling; dark olive-gray stripe from nostril through
eye and then to insertion of forelimb; upper lips pale green; inguinal
region, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs dark yellowish
orange; ventral surfaces of tarsi and shanks, and webbing of feet
dusty yellow; belly white; iris silvery gold.

    [Illustration: FIG. 3. Holotype of _Hyla charadricola_
    (KU 58414). × 1.5.]

_Variation._--Adult males have snout-vent lengths from 35.3 to 44.4
mm., and adult females from 43.4 to 50.9 mm. No notable variation in
structure is displayed in the type series. In some individuals the
dark reticulation on the dorsum is faint. Juveniles in life had dorsal
colorations varying from rich brown with darker reticulations to pale
green or gray with dark green reticulations. Some adults when
collected were pale green with faint or no dorsal reticulations; later
these individuals darkened. In all specimens the anal stripe is
absent, and the flanks are heavily spotted.

_Comparisons.--Hyla charadricola_ differs from all other members of
the _Hyla bistincta_ group in the following combination of characters:
truncate snout, green dorsum, and absence of a thoracic fold. From
other hylids that occur in the same area, _Hyla charadricola_ differs
from _Hyla miotympanum_ and _H. arborescandens_, both of which are
green dorsally, by having a truncate snout and longer fingers with
less webbing. _Hyla eximia_, though green, has brown dorsal spots,
shorter fingers, and a round snout. _Hyla robertsorum_ differs in
having a round snout and brown dorsum, and _Hyla taeniopus_ is much
larger, has transverse bands on the limbs, and has extensive webbing
between fingers.

_Remarks._--At the type locality, a shallow rocky stream in pine
forest, _Hyla charadricola_ was found beneath rocks at the edge of
fast moving sections of the stream and beneath rocks in shallow
riffles in the stream. Most of the frogs were in water. At night
they were found sitting on rocks in the stream. _Hyla miotympanum_,
which is abundant at the type locality, lives in bushes and beneath
rocks along the stream but usually is not found in the riffles inhabited
by _Hyla charadricola_. At Lago de Tejocotal _Hyla charadricola_
was found beneath rocks near the shore of the lake and by a
stream in the pine forest. Individuals were found on low vegetation
over-hanging a small stream in pine-oak forest four kilometers southwest
of Tianguistengo.

Five recently metamorphosed young (KU 58424-9) found at the
type locality on June 8, 1960, have snout-vent lengths of 22.4 to
24.0 (average 23.2) mm. The young are colored like the adults,
except that in life the dorsum is a brighter green and the flanks are
more yellow than tan and have less dark spotting than in adults.

_Distribution.--Hyla charadricola_ inhabits streams in pine and
pine-oak forests at elevations of 2000 to 2300 meters in northern
Puebla and eastern Hidalgo (Fig. 2).

Specimens examined.--HIDALGO: Lago de Tejocotal, 11 km. E
Acaxochitlán, KU 58438, UMMZ 104032, 118165; 4 km. SW Tianguistengo,
KU 53811-2. PUEBLA: _11.7 km. W Huachinango_, UMMZ 121567 (5); Río
Totolapa, 14.4 km. W Huachinango, KU 53813-5, 55624, 58414-37, 59813
(skeleton), 59886 (skeleton), MCZ 34964-5, UIMNH 50966, UMMZ 118166
(5), S-2242 (skeleton).


#Hyla robertsorum# Taylor

    _Hyla robertsorum_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
    26:393-396, figs. 5-6, November 27, 1940 [Holotype.--CNHM
    100124 (formerly EHT-HMS 16264) from El Chico Parque
    Nacional, Hidalgo, México; Mr. and Mrs. Radclyffe Roberts and
    Edward H. Taylor collectors]; Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
    28:310, November 15, 1942. Taylor and Smith, Proc. U. S.
    Natl. Mus., 95:589, June 30, 1945. Smith and Taylor, Bull. U.
    S. Natl. Mus., 194:87, June 17, 1948; Univ. Kansas Sci.
    Bull., 33:333, March 20, 1950. Rabb and Mosimann, Occas.
    Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 563:1-9, March 29, 1955.
    Duellman, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 15:48, December
    20, 1961.

_Diagnosis._--Maximum snout-vent length in males, 48 mm.; snout in
dorsal profile rounded; tarsal fold short and weak; inner metatarsal
tubercle moderate in size and elliptical; outer metatarsal tubercle
small, round, and indistinct; webbing extending to base of penultimate
phalanx of fourth toe; nuptial spines on thumb small; weak thoracic
fold present; anal opening above level of middle of thighs; dorsum
dark brown with dark reticulations; venter brown with cream-colored
flecks; flanks brown with creamy white spots; anal stripe absent;
small white spots in anal region; vocal slits absent.

_Description._--The following description is based on KU 57651 from El
Chico Parque Nacional, Hidalgo. Adult male having a snout-vent length
of 45.1 mm.; tibia length, 22.1 mm., 49.0 per cent of snout-vent
length; foot length (measured from proximal edge of inner metatarsal
tubercle to tip of longest toe), 21.5 mm.; greatest width of head,
13.7 mm., 30.4 per cent of snout-vent length; head length, 12.6 mm.,
27.9 per cent of snout-vent length; diameter of eye, 4.0 mm.; diameter
of tympanum, 1.8 mm., 45 per cent of diameter of eye. Snout short, in
lateral profile blunt, in dorsal profile round; canthus rounded;
loreal region slightly concave; lips thick, round, and not flaring;
nostrils slightly protuberant; internarial distance, 3.6 mm.;
interorbital distance, 4.0 mm., slightly broader than width of eyelid,
3.5 mm. A moderately heavy dermal fold from posterior corner of eye
above tympanum and curving downward towards insertion of forearm;
tympanum nearly round, covered by dermal fold above, its diameter
slightly less than its distance from eye. Forearm moderately robust;
distinct fold on wrist; prepollex much enlarged with patch of small
nuptial spines continuous on side of digit; similar line of nuptial
spines on inner edge of second finger; subarticular tubercles round,
moderate in size, none bifid; supernumerary tubercles small and
present only proximally; fingers long and slender; length of fingers
from shortest to longest, 1-2-4-3; discs moderately large, that on
third finger about size of tympanum; no web between first and second
fingers; rudimentary web between other fingers. Legs robust; heels
over-lap by about one-fourth length of shank when hind limbs
adpressed; tibiotarsal articulation extending to posterior corner of
eye; tarsal fold weak, extending to about middle of tarsus; inner
metatarsal tubercle moderately large, flat, and elliptical; outer
metatarsal tubercle small, round, and indistinct; subarticular
tubercles round; supernumerary tubercles small, in single row on
proximal segments of each digit; toes moderately long and slender;
length of toes from shortest to longest, 1-2-5-3-4, the fifth nearly
as long as third; toes nearly fully webbed; web extending to base of
penultimate phalanx of fourth toe and to discs on other toes; discs
small, about two-thirds size of those on fingers. Anal opening above
middle of thighs; anal sheath short, deeply creased medially; heavy
transverse dermal fold above anus; no large anal tubercles. Skin of
all dorsal surfaces, chin, and ventral surfaces of limbs, except
proximal parts of thighs, smooth; belly and proximal parts of thighs
areolate; thoracic fold present, weak. Tongue elliptical, slightly
longer than wide, not notched behind, and free posteriorly for about
one-fourth of its length; vomerine teeth 3-3, situated on small,
widely separated, transverse ridges between rather small elliptical
inner nares; no vocal slits.

Color (in alcohol) dark brown with irregular darker reticulations on
dorsal surfaces of head, body, and limbs; flanks brown with small
creamy white spots; posterior surfaces of thighs dark brown; chin
creamy tan; belly grayish brown with cream-colored flecks; ventral
surfaces of limbs pale brown; webbing on feet gray; small white spots
in anal region.

Color (in life) chocolate brown with darker brown reticulations and
irregular blotches above; flanks brown with yellow spots; belly gray
to grayish brown with faint cream-colored spots; iris a deep bronze
color.

_Variation._--In males the total number of vomerine teeth varies from
4 to 7. In many specimens the vomerine ridges are larger and more
closely approximated medially than in the specimen described above.
Females attain snout-vent lengths of 51 mm., have as many as 9
vomerine teeth, and have a proportionately larger tympanum than males.
Some of the largest specimens of both sexes have indistinct
cream-colored pustules scattered on the ventral surface of the
forearm. Some individuals have nearly uniform grayish brown ventral
surfaces; in others the chin, as well as the abdomen, is brown with
cream-colored spots. The dorsal surfaces of some specimens are nearly
uniform dark brown with no reticulations. In others the dorsum is
paler brown with distinct darker mottling; in some of these there is
little mottling laterally, so that there is the effect of an
irregular, pale brown, dorsolateral stripe.

_Tadpoles._--The tadpoles of this species were described by Rabb and
Mosimann (1955). Tadpoles obtained from streams at 3.3 kilometers
north and at 8.5 kilometers southeast of Zacualtipán, Hidalgo, are
like those described by Rabb and Mosimann in having 2/3 tooth rows,
peglike serrations on the beaks, and long rounded tails. The largest
tadpole (KU 60078) has small hind legs, a body length of 22 mm., and a
total length of 61 mm.

_Remarks._--Taylor (1940:393) found frogs of this species in plants
along small spring-fed rivulets in an open meadow at El Chico
Parque Nacional. Also, he noted that active frogs dove into the
streams and took refuge in the mud on the bottom. Rabb and
Mosimann (1955:1) found this species along banks of tiny streams
in open meadows and noted that the frogs sought refuge in the
water. At El Chico Parque Nacional on June 8, 1960, I found _Hyla
robertsorum_ under rocks along small rivulets by day; at night, when
the temperature was 14° C., frogs were sitting on rocks and in
junipers overhanging a small stream. At the same locality on June
23 and 24, 1962, frogs of this species were found on rainy nights,
when the temperature varied from 10 to 12° C. At this time the
frogs were sitting on the grassy banks of rivulets in the meadow.
During the day _Hyla robertsorum_ was found on the earthen banks
of the rivulets in places where dense growths of grass overhung
the streams. On December 23, 1959, one specimen of _Hyla robertsorum_
was found beneath a rock in a small stream in pine forest at
3.3 kilometers north of Zacualtipán.

Rabb and Mosimann (1955:1) obtained tadpoles of _Hyla robertsorum_
from quiet pools of a stream at El Chico Parque Nacional. I
found tadpoles in pools in rocky streams in pine forest at 3.3 kilometers
north and at 8.5 kilometers southeast of Zacualtipán. Four
completely metamorphosed juveniles obtained on June 8, 1960, at
El Chico Parque Nacional have snout-vent lengths of 30.6 to
32.0 mm. Gravid females were found at the same locality on June
8, 1960, and June 23, 1962.

    [Illustration: FIG. 4. Map showing locality records for
    _Hyla crassa_, _Hyla pachyderma_, and _Hyla robertsorum_.]

_Distribution.--Hyla robertsorum_ inhabits streams in the pine and fir
forests in the higher parts (2250 to 3050 meters) of the Sierra Madre
Oriental in extreme northern Puebla and eastern Hidalgo (Fig. 4).

Specimens examined.--HIDALGO: 16 km. W Agua Blanca, UMMZ 106432 (6);
El Chico Parque Nacional, CNHM 75786, 100124, KU 57650-71, 59824-5
(skeletons), 59914-5 (skeletons), 71269-95, 71757 (skeleton), UIMNH
10349-64, 27022-35, 39434-49, UMMZ 92462, 106401 (5), 106443
(tadpoles), USNM 114762-85, 134268; 3.3 km. N Zacualtipán, KU 53810,
60078 (tadpoles); 8.5 km. SE Zacualtipán, KU 60079 (tadpoles). PUEBLA:
Honey, UMMZ 95245.


#Hyla pachyderma# Taylor

    _Hyla pachyderma_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
    28:308-310, pl. 27, figs. 1-4, November 12, 1942
    [Holotype.--USNM 115029 from Pan de Olla, Veracruz, south of
    Tezuitlán, Puebla, México; Hobart M. Smith collector]. Taylor
    and Smith, Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., 95:588, June 30, 1945.
    Smith and Taylor, Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus., 194:86, June 17,
    1948; Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull, 33:350, March 20, 1950. Rabb
    and Mosimann, Occ. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 563:7-8,
    March 29, 1955.

_Diagnosis._--Maximum snout-vent length in males 40 mm.; snout in
dorsal profile round; tarsal fold strong; inner metatarsal tubercle
round and moderate in size; outer metatarsal tubercle small and
indistinct; webbing on foot extending to middle of penultimate phalanx
of fourth toe; nuptial spines on thumb large; thoracic fold present;
anal opening at level of middle of thighs; dorsum dull grayish brown
with scattered indistinct dark flecks; venter cream-color mottled with
brown on throat and chest; flanks grayish brown with cream-colored
reticulations; anal stripe distinct, creamy white, sometimes extending
outward on thighs; white spots or line below anus; vocal slits absent.

_Description._--The following description is based on USNM 115028 from
Pan de Olla, Veracruz. Adult male having a snout-vent length of 39.9
mm.; tibia length, 21.0 mm., 52.6 per cent of snout-vent length; foot
length (measured from proximal edge of inner metatarsal tubercle to
tip of longest toe), 20.5 mm.; greatest width of head, 12.8 mm., 32.1
per cent of snout-vent length; head length, 12.3 mm., 30.8 per cent of
snout-vent length. Snout short, in lateral profile bluntly rounded, in
dorsal profile rounded; canthus rounded; loreal region slightly
concave; lips thick, round, and not flaring; nostrils slightly
protuberant; internarial distance, 2.7 mm.; interorbital distance, 3.7
mm., somewhat broader than eyelid, 2.9 mm. A heavy dermal fold from
posterior corner of eye above tympanic region and then to insertion of
forearm; tympanum completely concealed. Forearm moderately robust;
distinct fold on wrist; prepollex enlarged bearing cluster of
moderate-sized, horny, nuptial spines continuous on edge of digit; row
of spines present on second finger; subarticular tubercles round,
small proximally and slightly larger distally; supernumerary tubercles
small and indistinct; three palmar tubercles, median and outer partly
fused; fingers long, moderately slender; discs moderately large;
length of fingers from shortest to longest, 1-2-4-3; second and fourth
fingers subequal in length; webbing between fingers rudimentary. Heels
overlap by about one-fourth length of shank when hind limbs adpressed;
tibiotarsal articulation extends to anterior edge of eye; tarsal fold
thick, low, extending nearly to heel; inner metatarsal tubercle
moderately large and round; outer metatarsal tubercle small and
indistinct; subarticular tubercles small and round; supernumerary
tubercles small, present on proximal segments of digits; toes
moderately long and slender; length of toes from shortest to longest,
1-2-3-5-4; third and fifth toes subequal in length; toes about
three-fourths webbed; web extending to middle of penultimate phalanx
of fourth toe; discs rather small, about two-thirds size of those on
fingers. Anal opening directed posteroventrally at level of middle of
thighs; anal flap slightly elongate; thick, transverse dermal fold
above anus. Skin of dorsum and ventral surfaces of limbs, except
thighs, smooth; skin of chin, belly, and ventral surfaces of thighs
granular; thoracic fold present. Tongue nearly round, slightly notched
behind, and barely free posteriorly; vomerine teeth 3-3, situated on
posteroventral edges of small, transverse vomerine ridges between
rather large triangular inner nares; no vocal slits.

Color (in alcohol) of dorsal surfaces of head, body, and limbs dull
grayish brown with indistinct scattered darker flecks; flanks grayish
brown with cream-colored reticulations; posterior surfaces of thighs
tan; chin cream-color, mottled with brown; belly creamy yellow; anal
stripe cream-color.

_Variation._--In addition to the specimen described above three others
are known. One is a juvenile having a snout-vent length of 29.5 mm.,
and two are females having snout-vent lengths of 46.9 and 41.6 mm.
Variation in structure and coloration between the four specimens is
slight. In the females the tympani are partly visible and are about
one-third the diameter of the eye; the chest is mottled with brown;
the anal stripe extends laterally in the form of a row of
cream-colored dashes and spots onto the posterodorsal surfaces of the
thighs.

_Remarks._--On the basis of the four specimens available for study,
_Hyla pachyderma_ seems to be closely related to _Hyla crassa_ and
_Hyla robertsorum_. In the _Hyla bistincta_ group, _Hyla pachyderma_
is unique in having enlarged nuptial spines.

Taylor and Smith (1945:588) stated that the frogs were found on
bushes and weeds beside a small, bounding stream near Pan de Olla.
I have searched unsuccessfully for this species in the area around
Pan de Olla and Tezuitlán.

_Distribution._--This species is known only from a stream at an
elevation of about 1600 meters on the Atlantic slopes of the Sierra
Madre Oriental in central Veracruz (Fig. 4).

Specimens examined.--VERACRUZ: Pan de Olla, south of Tezuitlán,
Puebla, USNM 115026-9.


#Hyla crassa# (Brocchi)

    _Cauphias crassus_ Brocchi, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, ser. 7,
    1:130, 1877 [Holotype.--MNHN 6331 from "Mexico;" Adolphe
    Boucard collector].

    _Cauphias crassum_ Brocchi, Études des batraciens de
    l'Amérique Centrale, p. 64, pl. 12, fig. 4, 1882. Díaz de
    León, Indice de los batracios que se encuentran en la
    República Mexicana, p. 21, June, 1904. Kellogg, Bull. U. S.
    Nat. Mus., 160:118-120, March 31, 1932. Taylor, Univ. Kansas
    Sci. Bull., 26:392, November 15, 1940. Rabb and Mosimann,
    Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 563:7, March 29,
    1955.

    _Hyla crassa_, Boulenger, Catalogue Batrachia Salientia,
    2nd. Ed., p. 396, February 1, 1882. Günther, Biologia
    Centrali-Americana, Reptilia and Batrachia, p. 281,
    September, 1901. Nieden, Das Tierreich, Amphibia, Anura 1,
    p. 248, June, 1923. Smith and Taylor, Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus.,
    194:86, June 17, 1948. Taylor, Amer. Mus. Novitates, 1437:20,
    December 7, 1949.

    _Hypsiboas crassus_, Cope, Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus., 32:14,
    1887.

    _Hyla robustofemora_ Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
    26:389-393, figs. 3-4, November 27, 1940 [Holotype.--UIMNH
    25050 (formerly EHT-HMS 16314) from Cerro San Felipe, 15
    kilometers northeast of Oaxaca, Oaxaca, México; Edward H.
    Taylor collector]; Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 28:310, November
    15, 1942. Smith and Taylor, Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus., 194:86,
    June 17, 1948. Taylor, Amer. Mus. Novitates, 1437:20,
    December 7, 1949. Smith and Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
    33:339, March 20, 1950. Rabb and Mosimann, Occas. Papers Mus.
    Zool. Univ. Michigan, 563:7, March 29, 1955.

    _Plectrohyla crassa_, Hartweg, Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ.
    Michigan, 437:1, June 30, 1941. Stuart, Occas. Papers Mus.
    Zool. Univ. Michigan, 455:6, January 5, 1942.

_Diagnosis._--Maximum snout-vent length in males 54 mm.; snout in
dorsal profile round; tarsal fold strong; inner metatarsal tubercle
small and elliptical; outer metatarsal tubercle small, flat, and
indistinct; foot fully webbed; nuptial spines on thumb small; thoracic
fold absent; anal opening at level of middle of femur; dorsum dull
olive-green; belly creamy yellow; chin gray with yellow flecks; flanks
dull olive-green with scattered cream-colored spots; and stripe faint,
cream-color; vocal slits absent.

_Description._--The following description is based on UIMNH 25050 from
Cerro San Felipe, Oaxaca. Adult male having a snout-vent length of
53.7 mm.; tibia length, 26.9 mm., 50.1 per cent of snout-vent length;
foot length (measured from proximal edge of inner metatarsal tubercle
to tip of longest toe), 25.4 mm.; greatest width of head, 17.6 mm.,
32.8 per cent of snout-vent length; head length, 16.0 mm., 29.8 per
cent of snout-vent length; diameter of eye, 5.4 mm.; diameter of
tympanum, 1.5 mm., 27.8 per cent of diameter of eye. Snout short, in
lateral profile bluntly rounded, in dorsal profile broadly round;
canthus absent; loreal region nearly flat; lips thick and not flaring;
nostrils barely protuberant; internarial distance, 3.8 mm.;
interorbital distance, 4.7 mm., somewhat broader than width of eyelid,
3.8 mm. Heavy dermal fold from posterior corner of eye above tympanum
and then to insertion of forearm; tympanum concealed above, its
diameter about equal to its distance from eye. Forearm thick; distinct
fold on wrist; prepollex enlarged bearing patch of small nuptial
spines continuous on side of digit; similar patch on second finger;
subarticular tubercles small and round, none bifid; few supernumerary
tubercles on proximal segments of digits; large, flat palmar tubercle;
fingers long and slender; length of fingers from shortest to longest,
1-2-4-3; discs moderately large; rudimentary web between second and
third fingers and between third and fourth. Legs thick; heels overlap
by about one-fourth length of shank when hindlimbs adpressed;
tibiotarsal articulation extends to posterior corner of eye; tarsal
fold thick, extending to heel; inner metatarsal tubercle small and
elliptical; outer metatarsal tubercle small, flat, and indistinct;
subarticular tubercles small and round; single row of supernumerary
tubercles on proximal segments of each digit; toes moderately short
and slender; length of toes from shortest to longest, 1-2-3-5-4; toes
fully webbed; flap of skin on inner surface of first toe; discs about
same size as those on fingers. Anal opening directed posteroventrally
at middle of thighs; anal sheath moderately elongate; small tubercles
below anal opening. Skin of dorsum rather smooth, somewhat granular
on dorsal surfaces of limbs; skin of chin and belly moderately
granular; that of posterior surfaces of thighs smooth; no thoracic
fold. Tongue nearly round, shallowly notched posteriorly, and free for
about one-fourth its length; vomerine teeth 5-5, situated on rounded
ridges between small inner nares; no vocal slits.

Color (in alcohol) dull olive-green on dorsal surfaces of head, body,
and limbs; flanks dull olive-green with scattered cream-colored spots;
posterior surfaces of thighs grayish brown with faint creamy mottling;
chin gray with cream-colored spots; belly creamy yellow, suffused with
gray posteriorly; undersides of feet and webbing gray; anal stripe
faint, pale cream-color.

_Variation._--The only other known specimen (MNHN 6331) is a female
having a snout-vent length of 53.7 mm. and resembling the specimen
described above in most details of morphology. In MNHN 6331 the
tympanum is completely concealed, and the 8-7 vomerine teeth are
arranged in two irregular rows. The female has more cream-colored
mottling on the flanks and posterior surfaces of the thighs and more
distinct mottling on the throat than the male described above.

_Remarks._--The systematic status of _Cauphias crassus_ Brocchi has
been in doubt since the time of the original description. Brocchi
(1877:130) stated: "Les dernieres phalanges sont obtuses, tronqués a
leur extrémité antérieure." Brocchi placed the species in his genus
_Cauphias_ (type species, _C. guatemalensis_), which he considered to
be related to _Hylodes_ ( = _Eleutherodactylus_ in the sense used by
Brocchi); he thereby placed _Cauphias_ in his Hylodidae ( =
Leptodactylidae, in part). This idea of relationships was perpetuated
by Barbour (1927:96), who reported on the second known specimen of
_Cauphias guatemalensis_ and stated: "When I dissected the sternum I
was at once struck by its similarity to Noble's figures of
transitional types between arciferal and firmisternal forms. The
_Cauphias_ sternum recalls some of his figures for _Sminthillus_ and
_Eleutherodactylus_. This genus is probably most closely related to
the latter and has probably become highly modified to meet some
peculiar environmental condition or on account of some specialized
habits as yet unknown." Kellogg (1932:118) placed _Cauphias_ in the
Leptodactylidae and stated that the terminal phalanges are T-shaped.
Hartweg (1941:1) considered _Plectrohyla_ to be the correct generic
name for _Cauphias guatemalensis_; he thereby relegated _Cauphias_ to
the synonomy of _Plectrohyla_. Hartweg (1941:9) further showed that
the terminal phalanges of _Plectrohyla guatemalensis_ were not
T-shaped and that intercalary cartilages were present. Thus, he
correctly concluded that _Plectrohyla guatemalensis_ (and _P. crassa_
by implication) was a member of the family Hylidae. Stuart (1942:6)
followed Hartweg's allocations and further suggested that _Plectrohyla
crassa_ might be the same species as _Hyla robustofemora_ Taylor. In
his description of _H. robustofemora_ Taylor (1940:392), who had not
examined the type of _Cauphias crassus_, stated that were it not for
the statements of Brocchi and Kellogg that _C. crassus_ has T-shaped
terminal phalanges, "I might suspect I had before me a specimen of
_Cauphias_ closely related to _crassum_."

I have compared the type of _Cauphias crassus_ with that of _Hyla
robustofemora_. With the exception of the minor differences mentioned
in the preceding section on variation, the specimens are alike,
leaving little doubt that they represent the same species. The
statements of Brocchi and Kellogg to the contrary, the type of
_Cauphias crassus_ possesses intercalary cartilages between the
penultimate and terminal phalanges; the latter are not T-shaped, but
as in the type of _Hyla robustofemora_, resemble those typical of
_Hyla_. On the basis of the morphological characters, as pointed out
for _Hyla robustofemora_ by Taylor (1940:392), _Hyla crassa_ is a
member of the _Hyla bistincta_ group.

_Distribution._--This species is definitely known only from a small
stream at an elevation of 2300 meters in the mountains of central
Oaxaca (Fig. 4).

Specimens examined.--OAXACA: Cerro San Felipe, UIMNH 25050. "Mexico,"
MNHN 6331.



RELATIONSHIPS


The evolutionary trend in the members of the _Hyla bistincta_ group
is towards aquatic habits. _Hyla bistincta_, the least specialized
species in the group, has relatively short fingers, webbing between
the fingers, a truncate, high snout, and relatively large subarticular
and supernumerary tubercles. _Hyla charadricola_ resembles _bistincta_
in having relatively short fingers, a slight amount of webbing, and a
truncate snout. Apparently these two species are more closely related
to one another than either is to the other species in the group. _Hyla
robertsorum_, _pachyderma_, and _crassa_ are the most aquatic members
of the group. These species are closely related, possibly conspecific.
All have round, sloping snouts, robust forearms, long, unwebbed
fingers, and large webbed feet. Both _H. pachyderma_ and _H. crassa_
seem to be advanced beyond _H. robertsorum_. If small nuptial spines,
moderately webbed feet, and absence of a well-defined thoracic fold
are considered to be less advanced than large nuptial spines and a
strong thoracic fold, as in _H. pachyderma_, or fully webbed feet, as
in _H. crassa_, then _H. robertsorum_ must be considered to be less
advanced than _H. pachyderma_ or _H. crassa_.

Members of the _Hyla bistincta_ group inhabit mountain streams. The
frogs can be found along these streams throughout the year. Since in
most stream-breeding hylids there is no migration to breeding sites,
the breeding call does not function to attract females to the breeding
site. Apparently voices are lacking in all members of the _Hyla
bistincta_ group, except in _Hyla bistincta_. The presence of vocal
slits and the ability to call further indicate that _Hyla bistincta_
is the primitive member of this group.

Members of the _Hyla bistincta_ group and the species of _Plectrohyla_
closely resemble each other in osteology and body form of the adults
and in structure of the tadpoles. This resemblance suggests a close
relationship between the two groups. _Plectrohyla_ apparently evolved
from an ancestral stock resembling the extant _Hyla bistincta_.
Probably this stock gave rise independently to _Plectrohyla_ and
to the _Hyla robertsorum-pachyderma-crassa_ complex. In the former
the voice was retained, and a projecting prepollex spine developed,
whereas in the latter the voice was lost, and the prepollex spine
did not project. _Plectrohyla_ lives in mountain streams in the
Chiapan-Guatemalan highlands; the _Hyla robertsorum-pachyderma-crassa_
complex inhabits similar environments in the Sierra Madre Oriental in
México. _Hyla charadricola_ also lives in the Sierra Madre Oriental,
whereas _Hyla bistincta_ is widespread in the mountains of México
southeastward to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.



LITERATURE CITED


BARBOUR, T.

  1927. _Cauphias_ rediscovered. Copeia, no. 165:96-98,
        December 23.

BROCCHI, P.

  1877. Note sur quelques batraciens hylaeformes recueillis au
        Mexique et au Guatemala. Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, ser.
        7, 1 (3):122-132.

DUELLMAN, W. E.

  1961. The amphibians and reptiles of Michoacán, México. Univ.
        Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 15:1-148, pls. 1-6, December
        20.

HARTWEG, N.

  1941. Notes on the genus _Plectrohyla_, with descriptions of
        new species. Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan,
        437:1-10, pl. 1, June 30.

KELLOGG, R.

  1932. Mexican tailless amphibians in the United States National
        Museum. Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus., 160:iv + 224 pp., pl. 1,
        March 31.

RABB, G. B. and MOSIMANN, J. E.

  1955. The tadpole of _Hyla robertsorum_, with comments on the
        affinities of the species. Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ.
        Michigan, 563:1-9, March 29.

SHANNON, F. A.

  1951. Notes on a herpetological collection from Oaxaca and
        other localities in Mexico. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus.,
        101:465-484, May 17.

STUART, L. C.

  1942. Descriptions of two new species of _Plectrohyla_ Brocchi,
        with comments on several forms of tadpoles. Occas. Papers
        Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 455:1-14, January 5.

TAYLOR, E. H.

  1940. New species of Mexican Anura. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.,
        41:385-405, November 27.

  1948. A new hylid frog from eastern Mexico. Univ. Kansas
        Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1:259-262, August 16.

  1949. A new hylid frog from central Veracruz. Copeia, 1949
        (4):272-274, pl. 1, December 15.

TAYLOR, E. H. and SMITH, H. M.

  1945. Summary of the collections of amphibians made in México
        under the Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship.
        Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., 95:521-613, pls. 18-32, June 30.

  _Transmitted June 24, 1963._


                               29-8590





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